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Sample records for nova lmc large

  1. Nova LMC 1990 no. 1: The first extragalactic neon nova

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonneborn, George; Shore, Steven N.; Starrfield, Sumner G.

    1990-01-01

    International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) observations of nova LMC (Large Magellanic Cloud) 1990 No. 1, the first neon (or ONeMg) nova observed outside the Galaxy are presented. The observations were obtained from 17 Jan. to Mar. 1990, with especially dense coverage during the first 25 days of the outburst. (The neon nova categorization is based on the detection of forbidden Ne 3-4 lines in optical spectra; the ultraviolet neon lines were not detected.) During the first 30 days of the outburst, the radiative losses were dominated by the N 5 delta 1240 and C 4 delta 1550 lines. The maximum ejection velocity was approximately 8000 km/s, based on the blue absorption edge of the C 4 P-Cygni profile. Early in the outburst of Nova LMC 1990 No. 1 the UV luminosity alone was approximately 3 times 10 to the 38th power erg/sec, implying that the bolometric luminosity was well in excess of the Eddington luminosity for a one solar mass object.

  2. FUSE Observations of Galactic and LMC Novae in Outburst

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huschildt, P. H.

    2001-01-01

    This document is a collection of five abstracts from papers written on the 'FUSE Observations of Galactic and LMC Novae in Outburst'. The titles are the following: (1) Analyzing FUSE Observations of Galactic and LMC Novae; (2) Detailed NLTE Model Atmospheres for Novae during Outburst: Modeling Optical and Ultraviolet Observations for Nova LMC 1988; (3) Numerical Solution of the Expanding Stellar Atmosphere Problem; (4) A Non-LTE Line-Blanketed Expanding Atmosphere Model for A-supergiant Alpha Cygni; and (5) Non-LTE Model Atmosphere Analysis of the Early Ultraviolet Spectra of Nova Andromedae 1986. A list of journal publications is also included.

  3. On the narrow emission line components of the LMC novae 2004 (YY Doradus) and 2009a

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, Elena; Munari, Ulisse

    2014-09-01

    We present early decline spectra of the two Large Magellanic Cloud novae: LMC 2004 (YY Dor) and LMC 2009a and discuss their spectral an line profile evolution with special emphasis on the existence and appearance of a sharp component. We show that the narrow component that characterizes the emission lines in the maximum spectra of nova LMC 2004 originates in the ejecta. The He ii 4686 Å narrow emission which appears at the onset of the nebular phase in both novae is somewhat controversial. Our observations suggest that the corresponding line forming region is physically separated from the rest of the ejecta (the broad line region) and environmentally different. However, the lack of late time observations covering the super-soft source (SSS) phase, the post-SSS phase and the quiescence state does not allow to securely establish any non-ejecta origin/contribution as, instead, in the case of U Sco and KT Eri.

  4. Pan-chromatic Observations of the Recurrent Nova LMC 2009a (LMC 1971b)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bode, M. F.; Darnley, M. J.; Beardmore, A. P.; Osborne, J. P.; Page, K. L.; Walter, F. M.; Krautter, J.; Melandri, A.; Ness, J.-U.; O'Brien, T. J.; Orio, M.; Schwarz, G. J.; Shara, M. M.; Starrfield, S.

    2016-02-01

    Nova LMC 2009a is confirmed as a recurrent nova (RN) from positional coincidence with nova LMC 1971b. The observational data set is one of the most comprehensive for any Galactic or extragalactic RN: optical and near-IR photometry from outburst until over 6 years later; optical spectra for the first 6 months, and Swift satellite ultraviolet (UV) and X-ray observations from 9 days to almost 1 year post-outburst. We find MV = -8.4 ± 0.8r ± 0.7s and expansion velocities between 1000 and 4000 km s-1. Coronal line emission before day 9 indicates shocks in the ejecta. Strengthening of He iiλ4686 preceded the emergence of the super-soft source (SSS) in X-rays at ˜63-70 days, which was initially very variable. Periodic modulations, P = 1.2 days, most probably orbital in nature, were evident in the UV and optical from day 43. Subsequently, the SSS shows an oscillation with the same period but with a delay of 0.28P. The progenitor system has been identified; the secondary is most likely a sub-giant feeding a luminous accretion disk. Properties of the SSS infer a white dwarf (WD) mass 1.1 M⊙ ≲ MWD ≲ 1.3 M⊙. If the accretion occurs at a constant rate, {\\dot{M}}{{acc}}≃ {3.6}-2.5+4.7× {10}-7 {M}⊙ yr-1 is needed, consistent with nova models for an inter-eruption interval of 38 years, low outburst amplitude, progenitor position in the color-magnitude diagram, and spectral energy distribution at quiescence. We note striking similarities between LMC 2009a and the Galactic nova KT Eri, suggesting that KT Eri is a candidate RN.

  5. Distribution of novae and supernova remnants in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    SciTech Connect

    Van den Bergh, S.

    1988-12-01

    Novae in the LMC appear to be distributred like an old disk population. The fact that no concentration of novae is seen within the Bar of the Large Cloud suggests that this feature is of relatively recent origin. Supernova remnants are seen to exhibit concentrations in the 30 Dor region, in the Bar of the Large Cloud, and in Constellation III. This distribution supports the idea that most of the supernova remnants in the LMC had young massive progenitors. 11 references.

  6. PHOTOMETRIC AND SPECTROSCOPIC PROPERTIES OF NOVAE IN THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD

    SciTech Connect

    Shafter, A. W.

    2013-05-15

    The photometric and spectroscopic properties of the 43 known LMC nova candidates are summarized and reviewed. Of these, photometric data sufficient to establish decline rates are available for 29 novae, while spectroscopic data sufficient to establish the spectroscopic classes are available for 18 systems. Half of the 18 novae belong to the Fe II class, with the remaining nine belonging to either the He/N or the Fe IIb classes. As seen in previous nova studies of M31 and M33, the He/N and Fe IIb novae have on average faster photometric developments than do their Fe II counterparts. Overall, the available photometry confirms earlier studies, and shows conclusively that LMC novae have faster rates of decline than do novae in the Galaxy and M31. It appears that the increased fraction of faster, He/N and Fe IIb novae observed in the LMC compared with M31 is almost certainly the result of differences in the underlying stellar population between the two galaxies. We propose that the younger population seen in the LMC compared with M31's bulge (where most of the novae are found), produces progenitor binaries with higher average white dwarf masses. The higher mean white dwarf mass not only produces a larger fraction of fast, He/N novae compared with M31, but also results in a relatively large recurrent nova population.

  7. Dense molecular clumps associated with the Large Magellanic Cloud supergiant shells LMC 4 and LMC 5

    SciTech Connect

    Fujii, Kosuke; Mizuno, Norikazu; Minamidani, Tetsuhiro; Onishi, Toshikazu; Muraoka, Kazuyuki; Kawamura, Akiko; Muller, Erik; Tatematsu, Ken'ichi; Hasegawa, Tetsuo; Miura, Rie E.; Ezawa, Hajime; Dawson, Joanne; Tosaki, Tomoka; Sakai, Takeshi; Tsukagoshi, Takashi; Tanaka, Kunihiko; Fukui, Yasuo

    2014-12-01

    We investigate the effects of supergiant shells (SGSs) and their interaction on dense molecular clumps by observing the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) star-forming regions N48 and N49, which are located between two SGSs, LMC 4 and LMC 5. {sup 12}CO (J = 3-2, 1-0) and {sup 13}CO(J = 1-0) observations with the ASTE and Mopra telescopes have been carried out toward these regions. A clumpy distribution of dense molecular clumps is revealed with 7 pc spatial resolution. Large velocity gradient analysis shows that the molecular hydrogen densities (n(H{sub 2})) of the clumps are distributed from low to high density (10{sup 3}-10{sup 5} cm{sup –3}) and their kinetic temperatures (T {sub kin}) are typically high (greater than 50 K). These clumps seem to be in the early stages of star formation, as also indicated from the distribution of Hα, young stellar object candidates, and IR emission. We found that the N48 region is located in the high column density H I envelope at the interface of the two SGSs and the star formation is relatively evolved, whereas the N49 region is associated with LMC 5 alone and the star formation is quiet. The clumps in the N48 region typically show high n(H{sub 2}) and T {sub kin}, which are as dense and warm as the clumps in LMC massive cluster-forming areas (30 Dor, N159). These results suggest that the large-scale structure of the SGSs, especially the interaction of two SGSs, works efficiently on the formation of dense molecular clumps and stars.

  8. Dense Molecular Clumps Associated with the Large Magellanic Cloud Supergiant Shells LMC 4 and LMC 5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, Kosuke; Minamidani, Tetsuhiro; Mizuno, Norikazu; Onishi, Toshikazu; Kawamura, Akiko; Muller, Erik; Dawson, Joanne; Tatematsu, Ken'ichi; Hasegawa, Tetsuo; Tosaki, Tomoka; Miura, Rie E.; Muraoka, Kazuyuki; Sakai, Takeshi; Tsukagoshi, Takashi; Tanaka, Kunihiko; Ezawa, Hajime; Fukui, Yasuo

    2014-12-01

    We investigate the effects of supergiant shells (SGSs) and their interaction on dense molecular clumps by observing the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) star-forming regions N48 and N49, which are located between two SGSs, LMC 4 and LMC 5. 12CO (J = 3-2, 1-0) and 13CO(J = 1-0) observations with the ASTE and Mopra telescopes have been carried out toward these regions. A clumpy distribution of dense molecular clumps is revealed with 7 pc spatial resolution. Large velocity gradient analysis shows that the molecular hydrogen densities (n(H2)) of the clumps are distributed from low to high density (103-105 cm-3) and their kinetic temperatures (T kin) are typically high (greater than 50 K). These clumps seem to be in the early stages of star formation, as also indicated from the distribution of Hα, young stellar object candidates, and IR emission. We found that the N48 region is located in the high column density H I envelope at the interface of the two SGSs and the star formation is relatively evolved, whereas the N49 region is associated with LMC 5 alone and the star formation is quiet. The clumps in the N48 region typically show high n(H2) and T kin, which are as dense and warm as the clumps in LMC massive cluster-forming areas (30 Dor, N159). These results suggest that the large-scale structure of the SGSs, especially the interaction of two SGSs, works efficiently on the formation of dense molecular clumps and stars.

  9. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Photometry of nova LMC 2012 (Schwarz+, 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarz, G. J.; Shore, S. N.; Page, K. L.; Osborne, J. P.; Beardmore, A. P.; Walter, F. M.; Bode, M. F.; Drake, J. J.; Ness, J.-U.; Starrfield, S.; van Rossum, D. R.; Woodward, C. E.

    2015-03-01

    Nova LMC 2012 was discovered on March 26.397 UT (MJD56012.897) at a visual magnitude of 10.7 (Seach et al., 2012CBET.3071....1S). After discovery, LMC 2012 was observed by a number of different facilities at a variety of wavelengths. The discovery date is taken as day zero and the shorthand "Dn," where "n" is the number of days after day zero, is used here. Swift is a revolutionary facility for studying novae (see Schwarz et al. 2011, cat. J/ApJS/197/31, for details). Its three instruments cover the γ-ray (BAT), X-ray (XRT), plus UV and optical (UVOT) bandpasses. Swift obtained 74 uvm2 band (λeff=2246Å, FWHM=498Å) observations of LMC 2012 with the UVOT instrument from D1.2 until D671. There were also 12 uvw2 band (λeff=1928Å, FWHM=657Å) and nine uvw1 band (λeff=2600Å, FWHM=693Å) observations which were only obtained early on D1.2 and later during the observations after D300. The UVOT photometry is provided in Table2. LMC 2012 was extensively observed photometrically between D0.6 and D635 with the Small & Moderate Aperture Research Telescope System (SMARTS) at Cerro Tololo (see Walter et al., 2012PASP..124.1057W, for details). We obtained 250 photometric observations in BVRI/JHK from SMARTS. The optical photometry is supplemented with 54 early time CCD BVRI observations from the American Association of Variable Star Observers (AAVSO). The optical and near-infrared photometry is also given in Table2. (2 data files).

  10. Photometric evolution of the 2016 outburst of recurrent Nova LMC 1968: the first three weeks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munari, U.; Walter, F. M.; Hambsch, F.-J.; Frigo, A.

    2016-03-01

    Optical (BVRI) photometry of the first three weeks of the 2016 outburst of the recurrent Nova LMC 1968 is presented and discussed. The 2016 I-band light curve is an exact replica, even in the most minute details, of that for the 2010 eruption. The maximum is inferred to have occurred on 2016 Jan 21.2 at I=11.5 mag, corresponding to an absolute magnitude =-7.15. A 1 day long plateau is present in all bands about six days past optical maximum, simultaneous with the emergence of super-soft X-ray emission in Swift observations, signalling the widespread ionization of the ejecta. The nova entered a much longer plateau about 9 days past maximum, governed by the brightness of the white dwarf, now directly visible and still nuclearly burning on its surface. A recurrence period of 955 days would fit both the OGLE inter-season gaps and the observed intervals between previous outburts.

  11. A XMM-Newton Observation of Nova LMC 1995, a Bright Supersoft X-ray Source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orio, Marina; Hartmann, Wouter; Still, Martin; Greiner, Jochen

    2003-01-01

    Nova LMC 1995, previously detected during 1995-1998 with ROSAT, was observed again as a luminous supersoft X-ray source with XMM-Newton in December of 2000. This nova offers the possibility to observe the spectrum of a hot white dwarf, burning hydrogen in a shell and not obscured by a wind or by nebular emission like in other supersoft X-ray sources. Notwithstanding uncertainties in the calibration of the EPIC instruments at energy E<0.5 keV, using atmospheric models in Non Local Thermonuclear Equilibrium we derived an effective temperature in the range 400,000-450,000 K, a bolometric luminosity Lbolabout equal to 2.3 times 10 sup37 erg s sup-l, and we verified that the abundance of carbon is not significantly enhanced in the X-rays emitting shell. The RGS grating spectra do not show emission lines (originated in a nebula or a wind) observed for some other supersoft X-ray sources. The crowded atmospheric absorption lines of the white dwarf cannot be not resolved. There is no hard component (expected from a wind, a surrounding nebula or an accretion disk), with no counts above the background at E>0.6 keV, and an upper limit Fx,hard = 10 sup-14 erg s sup-l cm sup-2 to the X-ray flux above this energy. The background corrected count rate measured by the EPIC instruments was variable on time scales of minutes and hours, but without the flares or sudden obscuration observed for other novae. The power spectrum shows a peak at 5.25 hours, possibly due to a modulation with the orbital period. We also briefly discuss the scenarios in which this nova may become a type Ia supernova progenitor.

  12. The galatic and LMC extreme line supergiants compared: IUE observations of the Henize-Carlson and Zoo star samples of massive supergiants. [Large Magellanic cloud (LMC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shore, S. N.; Sanduleak, N.; Brown, D. N.; Sonneborn, G.; Bopp, B. W.; Robinson, C. R.

    1988-01-01

    The Henize-Carlson sample of galactic massive supergiants, and a comparison between the Galactic and LMC samples are discussed. Several of the stars, notably He3-395 and S 127/LMC, have very similar shell characteristics. There appears to be little difference, other than luminosity, between the LMC and Galactic samples. One star, He3-1482, was detected with the Very Large Array at 6 cm. The UV data is combined with IRAS and optical information.

  13. Ultraviolet light curves of galactic and extra-galactic classical CNO novae: PW Vul, OS, and LMC 1988 no. 1 and no. 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Austin, S.; Starrfield, Sumner G.; Saizar, P.; Shore, Steven N.; Sonneborn, George

    1990-01-01

    In order to determine the comparative energy budgets of novae in outburst, the ultraviolet light curves for a number of novae are determined. The low dispersion IUE (International Ultraviolet Explorer) spectra of PW Vul 1984, OS And 1986, LMC 1988 number 1 and number 2 and obtained values for the integrated energy emitted in the wavelength interval from 1200 to 3400 A, not including the geocoronal Lyman-alpha emission line are re-examined. The light curves show that the brightness of the nova declines much more slowly in the ultraviolet than the optical, that the maximum brightness of the nova occurs much later in the ultraviolet than in the optical, and the peak luminosity is super Eddington for LMC 1988 number 2.

  14. The strange evolution of the Large Magellanic Cloud Cepheid OGLE-LMC-CEP1812

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neilson, Hilding R.; Izzard, Robert G.; Langer, Norbert; Ignace, Richard

    2015-09-01

    Classical Cepheids are key probes of both stellar astrophysics and cosmology as standard candles and pulsating variable stars. It is important to understand Cepheids in unprecedented detail in preparation for upcoming Gaia, James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) and extremely-large telescope observations. Cepheid eclipsing binary stars are ideal tools for achieving this goal, however there are currently only three known systems. One of those systems, OGLE-LMC-CEP1812, raises new questions about the evolution of classical Cepheids because of an apparent age discrepancy between the Cepheid and its red giant companion. We show that the Cepheid component is actually the product of a stellar merger of two main sequence stars that has since evolved across the Hertzsprung gap of the HR diagram. This post-merger product appears younger than the companion, hence the apparent age discrepancy is resolved. We discuss this idea and consequences for understanding Cepheid evolution.

  15. Expanded Very Large Array Nova Project Observations of the Classical NovaV1723 Aquilae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krauss, Miriam I.; Chomiuk, Laura; Rupen, Michael; Roy, Nirupam; Mioduszewski, Amy J.; Sokoloski, J. L.; Nelson, Thomas; Mukai, Koji; Bode, M. F.; Eyres, S. P. S.; OBrien, T. J.

    2011-01-01

    We present radio light curves and spectra of the classical nova VI723 Aql obtained with the Expanded Very Large Array (EVLA). This is the first paper to showcase results from the EVLA Nova Project, which comprises a team of observers and theorists utilizing the greatly enhanced sensitivity and frequency coverage of EVLA radio observations, along with observations at other wavelengths, to reach a deeper understanding of the energetics, morphology, and temporal characteristics of nova explosions. Our observations of VI723 Aql span 1-37 GHz in frequency, and we report on data from 14 to 175 days following the time of the nova explosion. The broad frequency coverage and frequent monitoring show that the radio behavior of VI723 Aql does not follow the classic Hubble-flow model of homologous spherically expanding thermal ejecta. The spectra are always at least partially optically thin, and the flux rises on faster timescales than can be reproduced with linear expansion. Therefore, any description of the underlying physical processes must go beyond this simple picture. The unusual spectral properties and light curve evolution might be explained by multiple emitting regions or shocked material. Indeed, X-ray observations from Swift reveal that shocks are likely present.

  16. Large- and small-scale structure of the intermediate- and high-velocity clouds towards the LMC and SMC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smoker, J. V.; Fox, A. J.; Keenan, F. P.

    2015-08-01

    We employ Ca II K and Na I D interstellar absorption-line spectroscopy of early-type stars in the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds (LMC, SMC) to investigate the large- and small-scale structure in foreground intermediate- and high-velocity clouds (I/HVCs). Data include FLAMES-GIRAFFE Ca II K observations of 403 stars in four open clusters, plus FEROS or UVES spectra of 156 stars in the LMC and SMC. The FLAMES observations are amongst the most extensive probes to date of Ca II structures on ˜20 arcsec scales in Magellanic I/HVCs. From the FLAMES data within a 0.5° field of view, the Ca II K equivalent width in the I/HVC components towards three clusters varies by factors of ≥10. There are no detections of molecular gas in absorption at intermediate or high velocities, although molecular absorption is present at LMC and Galactic velocities towards some sightlines. The FEROS/UVES data show Ca II K I/HVC absorption in ˜60 per cent of sightlines. The range in the Ca II/Na I ratio in I/HVCs is from -0.45 to +1.5 dex, similar to previous measurements for I/HVCs. In 10 sightlines we find Ca II/O I ratios in I/HVC gas ranging from 0.2 to 1.5 dex below the solar value, indicating either dust or ionization effects. In nine sightlines I/HVC gas is detected in both H I and Ca II at similar velocities, implying that the two elements form part of the same structure.

  17. The Orbital and Physical Parameters, and the Distance of the Eclipsing Binary System OGLE-LMC-ECL-25658 in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elgueta, S. S.; Graczyk, D.; Gieren, W.; Pietrzyński, G.; Thompson, I. B.; Konorski, P.; Pilecki, B.; Villanova, S.; Udalski, A.; Soszyński, I.; Suchomska, K.; Karczmarek, P.; Górski, M.; Wielgórski, P.

    2016-08-01

    We present an analysis of a new detached eclipsing binary, OGLE-LMC-ECL-25658, in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). The system consists of two late G-type giant stars on an eccentric orbit with an orbital period of ˜200 days. The system shows total eclipses and the components have similar temperatures, making it ideal for a precise distance determination. Using multi-color photometric and high resolution spectroscopic data, we have performed an analysis of light and radial velocity curves simultaneously using the Wilson-Devinney code. We derived orbital and physical parameters of the binary with a high precision of \\lt 1%. The masses and surface metallicities of the components are virtually the same and equal to 2.23+/- 0.02 {M}⊙ and [{Fe}/{{H}}]\\=\\-0.63+/- 0.10 dex. However, their radii and rates of rotation show a distinct trace of differential stellar evolution. The distance to the system was calculated using an infrared calibration between V-band surface brightness and (V-K) color, leading to a distance modulus of (m-M)\\=\\18.452+/- 0.023 (statistical) ± 0.046 (systematic). Because OGLE-LMC-ECL-25658 is located relatively far from the LMC barycenter, we applied a geometrical correction for its position in the LMC disk using the van der Marel et al. model of the LMC. The resulting barycenter distance to the galaxy is {d}{{LMC}}\\=\\50.30+/- 0.53 (stat.) kpc, and is in perfect agreement with the earlier result of Pietrzyński et al.

  18. The Orbital and Physical Parameters, and the Distance of the Eclipsing Binary System OGLE-LMC-ECL-25658 in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elgueta, S. S.; Graczyk, D.; Gieren, W.; Pietrzyński, G.; Thompson, I. B.; Konorski, P.; Pilecki, B.; Villanova, S.; Udalski, A.; Soszyński, I.; Suchomska, K.; Karczmarek, P.; Górski, M.; Wielgórski, P.

    2016-08-01

    We present an analysis of a new detached eclipsing binary, OGLE-LMC-ECL-25658, in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). The system consists of two late G-type giant stars on an eccentric orbit with an orbital period of ˜200 days. The system shows total eclipses and the components have similar temperatures, making it ideal for a precise distance determination. Using multi-color photometric and high resolution spectroscopic data, we have performed an analysis of light and radial velocity curves simultaneously using the Wilson–Devinney code. We derived orbital and physical parameters of the binary with a high precision of \\lt 1%. The masses and surface metallicities of the components are virtually the same and equal to 2.23+/- 0.02 {M}ȯ and [{Fe}/{{H}}]\\=\\-0.63+/- 0.10 dex. However, their radii and rates of rotation show a distinct trace of differential stellar evolution. The distance to the system was calculated using an infrared calibration between V-band surface brightness and (V–K) color, leading to a distance modulus of (m-M)\\=\\18.452+/- 0.023 (statistical) ± 0.046 (systematic). Because OGLE-LMC-ECL-25658 is located relatively far from the LMC barycenter, we applied a geometrical correction for its position in the LMC disk using the van der Marel et al. model of the LMC. The resulting barycenter distance to the galaxy is {d}{{LMC}}\\=\\50.30+/- 0.53 (stat.) kpc, and is in perfect agreement with the earlier result of Pietrzyński et al.

  19. THE ECLIPSING BINARY CEPHEID OGLE-LMC-CEP-0227 IN THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD: PULSATION MODELING OF LIGHT AND RADIAL VELOCITY CURVES

    SciTech Connect

    Marconi, M.; Molinaro, R.; Bono, G. E-mail: molinaro@oacn.inaf.it; and others

    2013-05-01

    We performed a new and accurate fit of light and radial velocity curves of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) Cepheid-OGLE-LMC-CEP-0227-belonging to a detached double-lined eclipsing binary system. We computed several sets of nonlinear, convective models covering a broad range in stellar mass, effective temperature, and chemical composition. The comparison between theory and observations indicates that current theoretical framework accounts for luminosity-V and I band-and radial velocity variations over the entire pulsation cycle. Predicted pulsation mass-M = 4.14 {+-} 0.06 M{sub Sun }-and mean effective temperature-T{sub e} = 6100 {+-} 50 K-do agree with observed estimates with an accuracy better than 1{sigma}. The same outcome applies, on average, to the luminosity amplitudes and to the mean radius. We find that the best-fit solution requires a chemical composition that is more metal-poor than typical LMC Cepheids (Z = 0.004 versus 0.008) and slightly helium enhanced (Y = 0.27 versus 0.25), but the sensitivity to He abundance is quite limited. Finally, the best-fit model reddening-E(V - I) = 0.171 {+-} 0.015 mag-and the true distance modulus corrected for the barycenter of the LMC-{mu}{sub 0,LMC} = 18.50 {+-} 0.02 {+-} 0.10 (syst) mag-agree quite well with similar estimates in the recent literature.

  20. NOVA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WGBH-TV, Boston, MA.

    News clippings, reviews, and feature articles about the Public Broadcasting System science-adventure series "Nova" are collected here. Included are comments from the New York Times, Washington Post, Christian Science Monitor, and TV Guide. Commentaries are primarily favorable and include synopses of various episodes. (DGC)

  1. Pan-chromatic observations of the remarkable nova Large Magellanic Cloud 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Schwarz, Greg J.; Shore, Steven N.; Page, Kim L.; Osborne, Julian P.; Beardmore, Andrew P.; Walter, Frederick M.; Bode, Michael F.; Drake, Jeremy J.; Ness, Jan-Uwe; Starrfield, Sumner; Rossum, Daniel R. Van; Woodward, Charles E.

    2015-03-01

    We present the results of an intensive multiwavelength campaign on nova LMC 2012. This nova evolved very rapidly in all observed wavelengths. The time to fall two magnitudes in the V band was only 2 days. In X-rays the super soft phase began 13 ± 5 days after discovery and ended around day 50 after discovery. During the super soft phase, the Swift/XRT and Chandra spectra were consistent with the underlying white dwarf (WD) being very hot, ∼1 MK, and luminous, ∼10{sup 38} erg s{sup −1}. The UV, optical, and near-IR photometry showed a periodic variation after the initial and rapid fading had ended. Timing analysis revealed a consistent 19.24 ± 0.03 hr period in all UV, optical, and near-IR bands with amplitudes of ∼0.3 mag which we associate with the orbital period of the central binary. No periods were detected in the corresponding X-ray data sets. A moderately high inclination system, i = 60 ± 10{sup ∘}, was inferred from the early optical emission lines. The HST/STIS UV spectra were highly unusual with only the N v (1240 Å) line present and superposed on a blue continuum. The lack of emission lines and the observed UV and optical continua from four epochs can be fit with a low mass ejection event, ∼10{sup −6} M{sub ⊙}, from a hot and massive WD near the Chandrasekhar limit. The WD, in turn, significantly illuminated its subgiant companion which provided the bulk of the observed UV/optical continuum emission at the later dates. The inferred extreme WD characteristics and low mass ejection event favor nova LMC 2012 being a recurrent nova of the U Sco subclass.

  2. Pan-Chromatic Observations of the Remarkable Nova Large Magellanic Cloud 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarz, Greg J.; Shore, Steven N.; Page, Kim L.; Osborne, Julian P.; Beardmore, Andrew P.; Walter, Frederick M.; Bode, Michael F.; Drake, Jeremy J.; Ness, Jan-Uwe; Starrfield, Sumner; Van Rossum, Daniel R.; Woodward, Charles E.

    2015-03-01

    We present the results of an intensive multiwavelength campaign on nova LMC 2012. This nova evolved very rapidly in all observed wavelengths. The time to fall two magnitudes in the V band was only 2 days. In X-rays the super soft phase began 13 ± 5 days after discovery and ended around day 50 after discovery. During the super soft phase, the Swift/XRT and Chandra spectra were consistent with the underlying white dwarf (WD) being very hot, ˜1 MK, and luminous, ˜1038 erg s-1. The UV, optical, and near-IR photometry showed a periodic variation after the initial and rapid fading had ended. Timing analysis revealed a consistent 19.24 ± 0.03 hr period in all UV, optical, and near-IR bands with amplitudes of ˜0.3 mag which we associate with the orbital period of the central binary. No periods were detected in the corresponding X-ray data sets. A moderately high inclination system, i = 60 ± 10{\\circ{}}, was inferred from the early optical emission lines. The HST/STIS UV spectra were highly unusual with only the N v (1240 Å) line present and superposed on a blue continuum. The lack of emission lines and the observed UV and optical continua from four epochs can be fit with a low mass ejection event, ˜10-6 {{M}⊙ }, from a hot and massive WD near the Chandrasekhar limit. The WD, in turn, significantly illuminated its subgiant companion which provided the bulk of the observed UV/optical continuum emission at the later dates. The inferred extreme WD characteristics and low mass ejection event favor nova LMC 2012 being a recurrent nova of the U Sco subclass. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Incorporated, under NASA contract NAS5-26555.

  3. The Incidence of Dwarf Novae in Large Area Transient Searches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rau, A.; Schwarz, R.; Kulkarni, S. R.; Ofek, E. O.; Kasliwal, M. M.; Brinkworth, C.; Cenko, S. B.; Lipkin, Y.; Soderberg, A. M.

    2007-07-01

    Understanding and quantifying the contribution of known classes of transient and variable sources is an important lesson to be learned from the manifold of precursor programs of the near-future large synoptic sky survey programs such as SkyMapper, Pan-STARRS, and LSST. With this goal in mind, we undertook photometric and spectroscopic follow-up observations of four recently reported unidentified transients. For two sources, WFI J132813.7-214237 and WFI J161953.3+031909, we show that unfortunate coincidences led to their previous designation as transients. While the former is now interpreted as the spatial coincidence of a solar system object with a faint background star, the latter is merely a cataclysmic variable unfortunately caught in and out of eclipse. The third candidate, ROTSE3 J160213.1-021311.7, is identified as an SU UMa type dwarf nova with quiescent brightness of R~22.7 and an outburst amplitude of ~5 mag. The fourth event, SDSS-SN 15207, similarly shows evidence for a dwarf nova origin. Our main conclusion is that cataclysmic variables in their various avatars will contribute moderately to the population of transient objects.

  4. Dense Molecular Clumps Associated with the LMC Supergiant Shell LMC 4 & LMC 5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, K.; Minamidani, T.; Mizuno, N.; Onishi, T.; Kawamura, A.; Muller, E.; Dawson, J.; Fukui, Y.

    2015-12-01

    The 12CO(J=3-2/1-0) and 13CO(J=3-2/1-0) observations with ASTE and Mopra telescopes have been carried out toward the giant molecular clouds (GMCs) in the N48/N49 regions in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), which are located at the boundary of two kpc-scale Supergiant Shell (SGS) LMC 4 & LMC 5. The star formation is relatively evolved in the N48 region, which is just located at the boundary of SGSs, than in the N49 region. The clumps in the N48 show higher n(H2) and Tkin than those in the N49, but their densities are not so high as the LMC cluster forming clumps. The collision of two SGSs actually enhances the star formation but further evolution seem to be necessary for subsequent cluster formation.

  5. Large growth, planar Rayleigh-Taylor experiments on Nova

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remington, B. A.; Haan, S. W.; Glendinning, S. G.; Kilkenny, J. D.; Munro, D. H.; Wallace, R. J.

    1992-04-01

    A set of indirect-drive experiments to study large growth Rayleigh-Taylor instability using shaped laser pulses at the Nova laser facility has been conducted. Planar foils of fluorosilicone were accelerated by x-ray ablation. The foil trajectory was measured using edge-on radiography. In separate experiments using face-on radiography, contrast in optical depth was measured as a function of time, from which the evolution of 50 μm wavelength initially sinusoidal surface perturbations was deduced. Holding other parameters fixed, the amplitude of the initial perturbation was varied by up to a factor of 30 in separate shots. The foils with the smallest initial perturbation exhibited growth factors of 75 in contrast. Foils with large initial amplitude perturbation gave growth factors of 6 or less, and displayed the ``bubble-and-spike'' shape characteristic of the nonlinear Rayleigh-Taylor instability. Comparisons of two-dimensional computer simulations with both the measured foil trajectory and the perturbation growth show good agreement, provided that a suitable opacity model is chosen. In the linear regime the observed growth rates are 60%-75% of classical, the reduction attributed primarily to ablative stabilization. The observed onset of harmonic generation, signaling the transition into the nonlinear regime, is well predicted by third-order theory.

  6. Large growth, planar Rayleigh--Taylor experiments on Nova

    SciTech Connect

    Remington, B.A.; Haan, S.W.; Glendinning, S.G.; Kilkenny, J.D.; Munro, D.H.; Wallace, R.J. )

    1992-04-01

    A set of indirect-drive experiments to study large growth Rayleigh--Taylor instability using shaped laser pulses at the Nova laser facility has been conducted. Planar foils of fluorosilicone were accelerated by x-ray ablation. The foil trajectory was measured using edge-on radiography. In separate experiments using face-on radiography, contrast in optical depth was measured as a function of time, from which the evolution of 50 {mu}m wavelength initially sinusoidal surface perturbations was deduced. Holding other parameters fixed, the amplitude of the initial perturbation was varied by up to a factor of 30 in separate shots. The foils with the smallest initial perturbation exhibited growth factors of 75 in contrast. Foils with large initial amplitude perturbation gave growth factors of 6 or less, and displayed the bubble-and-spike'' shape characteristic of the nonlinear Rayleigh--Taylor instability. Comparisons of two-dimensional computer simulations with both the measured foil trajectory and the perturbation growth show good agreement, provided that a suitable opacity model is chosen. In the linear regime the observed growth rates are 60%--75% of classical, the reduction attributed primarily to ablative stabilization. The observed onset of harmonic generation, signaling the transition into the nonlinear regime, is well predicted by third-order theory.

  7. The MACHO Project LMC Variable Star Inventory. VII. The Discovery of RV Tauri Stars and New Type II Cepheids in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    SciTech Connect

    Alcock, C. |; Allsman, R.A.; Alves, D.R. |; Axelrod, T.S.; Becker, A. |; Bennett, D.P. ||; Cook, K.H. |; Freeman, K.C.; Griest, K. |; Lawson, W.A.; Lehner, M.J.

    1998-05-01

    We report the discovery of RV Tauri stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). In light- and color-curve behavior, the RV Tauri stars appear to be a direct extension of the type II Cepheids to longer periods. A single period-luminosity-color relationship is seen to describe both the type II Cepheids and the RV Tauri stars in the LMC. We derive the relation {ital V}{sub 0} = 17.89({plus_minus}0.20){minus}2.95({plus_minus}0.12) log {ital P} + 5.49({plus_minus}0.35){l_angle}({ital V} {minus} {ital R}){sub 0}{r_angle}, which is valid for type II Cepheids and RV Tauri stars in the period range 0.9 {lt} log {ital P} {lt} 1.75. Assuming a distance modulus to the LMC of 18.5, the relation in terms of the absolute luminosities becomes {ital M}{sub {ital V}} = {minus}0.61({plus_minus}0.20){minus}2.95({plus_minus}0.12) log {ital P} + 5.49({plus_minus}0.35){l_angle}({ital V} {minus} {ital R}){sub 0}{r_angle}. {copyright} {ital {copyright} 1998.} {ital The American Astronomical Society}

  8. The MACHO Project Large Magellanic Cloud Variable Star Inventory. XIII. Fourier Parameters for the First Overtone RR Lyrae Variables and the LMC Distance

    SciTech Connect

    Alcock, C; Alves, D; Axelrod, T; Becker, A; Bennett, D; Clement, C; Cook, K; Drake, A; Freeman, K; Geha, M; Griest, K; Lehner, M; Marshall, S; Minniti, D; Muzzin, A; Nelson, C; Peterson, B; Popowski, P; Pratt, M; Quinn, P; Rodgers, A; Rowe, J; Sutherland, W; Vandehei, T; Welch, D

    2003-12-31

    -like stars derived from Baade-Wesselink analyses, main sequence fitting, Fourier parameters and the trigonometric parallax of RR Lyrae, they derive an LMC distance modulus {mu} = 18.43 {+-} 0.06 (statistical) {+-} (systematic) mag. The large systematic error arises from the difficulties of correcting for interstellar extinction and for crowding.

  9. Studies of Novae in the 20th Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starrfield, Sumner

    2002-11-01

    A nova outburst is not only the third most violent explosion that can occur in a galaxy, it is the largest hydrogen bomb in the Universe. The last meeting devoted purely to studies of novae was held in Madrid in 1989. At that time IUE spectra of novae were just beginning to be analyzed in detail, the EXOSAT x-ray results had just been published, and ROSAT had yet to be launched. Since that time, the IUE studies of novae in the LMC (known distance and small reddening) showed that all fast novae exceed the Eddington luminosity at maximum which was not predicted by numerical hydrodynamic simulations. A number of novae have now been observed in x-rays with ROSAT, BEPPOSAX, ASCA, CHANDRA, and XMM (plus others). The x-ray studies determined the turn off times for several classical novae, showed that at maximum x-ray light they resemble the Super Soft Sources, and found rapid variations in the x-ray light curves of two novae. There have been abundance analyses of V838 Her (oxygen poor, sulfur rich), LMC 1991, and other classical and recurrent novae. Infrared studies have resulted in a number of puzzling results such as the same nova producing both carbon (first) and silicate (later) dust at different times during its outburst. There have been advances in theoretical modeling and most studies now include large nuclear reaction networks combined with the hydrodynamic calculations. One perplexing problem produced by the simulations is that they predict that much less mass is ejected in the outburst than is observed, and the problem has worsened as the input physics has improved. Nevertheless we have made significant progress in the past 100 years and I will present some of the more important developments that have occurred over the past century. I will end with a list of questions to be answered.

  10. Lesson Learned from (some) Recurrent Novae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, E.; Walter, F. M.

    2014-12-01

    In this talk we present early decline and nebular spectra of the recurrent novae YY Dor and nova LMC 2009. These and a few other recurrent novae of the same type, share similar spectral characteristics and evolution. We will discuss those common features critically suggesting same white dwarf progenitor and post outburst phases for all of them.

  11. ASCA Observations of LMC SNRS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, John P.

    1999-01-01

    We present our first results from a study of the supernova remnants (SNRs) in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) using data from ASCA. The three remnants we have analyzed to date, 0509-67.5, 0519-69.0, and N103B, are among the smallest, and presumably also the youngest, in the Cloud. The X-ray spectra of these SNRs show strong K(alpha) emission lines of silicon, sulfur, argon, and calcium with no evidence for corresponding lines of oxygen, neon, or magnesium. The dominant feature in the spectra is a broad blend of emission lines around 1 keV which we attribute to L-shell emission lines of iron. Model calculations (Nomoto, Thielemann, & Yokoi 1984) show that the major products of nucleosynthesis in Type Ia supernovae (SNs) are the elements from silicon to iron, as observed here. The calculated nucleosynthetic yields from Type Ib and II SNs are shown to be qualitatively inconsistent with the data. We conclude that the SNs which produced these remnants were of Type Ia. This finding also confirms earlier suggestions that the class of Balmer-dominated remnants arise from Type Ia SN explosions. Based an these early results from the LMC SNR sample, we find that roughly one-half of the SNRs produced in the LMC within the last approximately 1500 yr came from Type Ia SNs.

  12. Large growth Rayleigh-Taylor experiments on Nova

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remington, B. A.; Haan, S. W.; Glendinning, S. G.; Kilkenny, J. D.; Munro, D. H.; Wallace, R. J.

    1991-01-01

    Large growth Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) experiments have been conducted by pulse-shaped radiative acceleration of fluorosilicone foils with 50 micron wavelength initial surface perturbations. Foils with very small amplitude initial perturbations grow exponentially for much longer, and show growth factors of up to 60. From comparisons with 2-dimensional computer simulations, we estimate that the growth rate is approximately 60 percent of classical, the reduction attributed to ablative and gradient scale length stabilization.

  13. Large growth Rayleigh-Taylor experiments on Nova

    SciTech Connect

    Remington, B.A.; Haan, S.W.; Glendinning, S.G.; Kilkenny, J.D.; Munro, D.H.; Wallace, R.J.

    1991-01-22

    Large growth Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) experiments have been conducted by pulse-shaped radiative acceleration of fluorosilicone foils with 50 {mu}m wavelength initial surface perturbations. Foils with very small amplitude initial perturbations grow exponentially for much longer, and show growth factors of up to 60. From comparisons with 2-dimensional computer simulations, we estimate that the growth rate is approximately 60% of classical, the reduction attributed to ablative and gradient scale length stabilization.

  14. Properties of LMC planetary nebulae and parent populations in the MACHO database

    SciTech Connect

    Alves, D.R. |; Alcock, C.; Cook, K.H.

    1996-10-01

    The MACHO microlensing experiment's time-sampled photometry database contains blue and red lightcurves for nearly 9 million stars in the central bar region of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). We have identified known LMC Planetary Nebulae (PN) in the database and find one, Jacoby 5, to be variable. We additionally present data on the ``parent populations`` of LMC PN, and discuss the star formation history of the LMC bar. 14 refs., 1 fig.

  15. A Photometric Classification of the SAGE LMC Point Source Catalog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marengo, Massimo; Antoniou, V.; SAGE Collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The Spitzer SAGE Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) photometric catalog lists over 7.2 million sources detected with the Spitzer space telescope. This catalog has been cross-correlated with the near-IR 2MASS and IRSF surveys, as well as with optical photometry from the MCPS database. This combined catalog is an invaluable tool for the study of LMC stellar populations, and to understand the life cycle of gas and dust in the LMC. To fully leverage the broad wavelength coverage of this database, we have developed a novel technique for the photometric classification of the SAGE LMC point source catalog, based on a weighted k-Nearest Neighbor method. This technique allows the classification of most LMC sources based on templates that have been identified spectroscopically, without a-priori assumptions about their spectral characteristics. We present here the details of our classification method, and the main results of our work.

  16. A new 33-s period in the SSS X-ray light curve of the nova LMC 2009a and confirmation of the 35 s modulation in KT Eri

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ness, J.-U.; Kuulkers, E.; Henze, M.; Schwarz, G.; Osborne, J. P.; Beardmore, A. P.; Dobrotka, A.; Piro, A. L.; Starrfield, S.

    2014-05-01

    In addition to four known systems with super soft source (SSS) X-ray emission ( We have searched for similar oscillations in all XMM-Newton and Chandra observations of all objects containing SSS emission, that is persistent SSS and novae during their SSS phase. ...

  17. The MACHO Project LMC Variable Star Inventory. VIII. The Recent Star Formation History of the Large Magellanic Cloud from the Cepheid Period Distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Alcock, C.; Allsman, R.A.; Alves, D.R.; Axelrod, T.S.; Becker, A.C.; Bennett, D.P.; Bersier, D.F.; Cook, K.H.; Freeman, K.C.; Griest, K.; Guern, J.A.; Lehner, M.; Marshall, S.L.; Minniti, D. |; Peterson, B.A.; Pratt, M.R.; Quinn, P.J.; Rodgers, A.W.; Stubbs, C.W.; and others

    1999-02-01

    We present an analysis of the period distribution of about 1800 Cepheids in the LMC, based on data obtained by the MACHO microlensing experiment and on a previous catalog by C. H. Payne Gaposchkin. Using stellar evolution and pulsation models, we construct theoretical period-frequency distributions that are compared with the observations. These models reveal that a significant burst of star formation has occurred recently in the LMC ({approximately}1.15thinsp{times}thinsp10{sup 8} yr). We also show that during the last {approximately}10{sup 8} yr, the main center of star formation has been propagating from southeast to northwest along the bar. We find that the evolutionary masses of Cepheids are still smaller than pulsation masses by {approximately}7{percent} and that the red edge of the Cepheid instability strip could be slightly bluer than indicated by theory. There are approximately 600 Cepheids with periods below {approximately}2.5 days that cannot be explained by evolution theory. We suggest that they are anomalous Cepheids and that a number of these stars are double-mode Cepheids. {copyright} {ital {copyright} 1999.} {ital The American Astronomical Society}

  18. RXTE Observations of LMC X-1 and LMC X-3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilms, J.; Nowak, M. A.; Dove, J. B.; Pottschmidt, K.; Heindl, W. A.; Begelman, M. C.; Staubert, R.

    1999-01-01

    Of all known persistent stellar-mass black hole candidates, only LMC X-1 and LMC X-3 consistently show spectra that are dominated by a soft, thermal component. We present results from long (170 ksec) Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) observations of LMC X-1 and LMC X-3 made in 1996 December. The spectra can be described by a multicolor disk blackbody plus an additional high-energy power-law. Even though the spectra are very soft (Gamma approximately 2.5), RXTE detected a significant signal from LMC X-3 up to energies of 50 keV, the hardest energy at which the object was ever detected. Focusing on LMC X-3 , we present results from the first year of an ongoing monitoring campaign with RXTE which started in 1997 January. We show that the appearance of the object changes considerably over its approximately 200 d long cycle. This variability can either be explained by periodic changes in the mass transfer rate or by a precessing accretion disk analogous to Her X-1.

  19. RXTE Observations of LMC X-1 and LMC X-3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilms, J.; Nowak, M. A.; Dove, J. B.; Pottschmidt, K.; Heindl, W. A.; Begelman, M. C.; Staubert, R.

    1998-01-01

    Of all known persistent stellar-mass black hole candidates, only LMC X-1 and LMC X-3 consistently show spectra that are dominated by a soft, thermal component. We present results from long (170 ksec) Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) observations of LMC X-1 and LMC X-3 made in 1996 December. The spectra can be described by a multicolor disk blackbody plus an additional high-energy power-law. Even though the spectra are very soft (Gamma approximately 2.5), RXTE detected a significant signal from LMC X-3 up to energies of 50 keV, the hardest energy at which the object was ever detected. Focusing on LMC X-3, we present results from the first year of an ongoing monitoring campaign with RXTE which started in 1997 January. We show that the appearance of the object changes considerably over its approximately 200d long cycle. This variability can either be explained by periodic changes in the mass transfer rate or by a precessing accretion disk analogous to Her X-1.

  20. Large-scale stimulated rotational Raman scattering experiments using the LLNL Nova laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, J. R.

    1986-10-01

    The LLNL Nova laser is a ten-beam neodymium-glass laser system which can generate up to 15 kJ per beam in a few nanoseconds. Stimulated rotational Raman scattering (SRRS) in air limits the power delivered to one of the two target chambers of the laser if the beams are allowed to propagate in air over the entire distance. We have therefore conducted experiments using Nova to study the growth and properties of SRRS in air to assess its importance for Nova, future fusion lasers. Our early experimental results were published last November (Opt. Lett., 10, 565 (1985)). These show that the growth of SRRS from amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) in a high Fresnel number geometry is in agreement with predictions from calculated gains, and that the near-field distribution of the Raman-shifted radiation is a divergent beam with a fine speckle structure.

  1. THE ARAUCARIA PROJECT: A STUDY OF THE CLASSICAL CEPHEID IN THE ECLIPSING BINARY SYSTEM OGLE LMC562.05.9009 IN THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD

    SciTech Connect

    Gieren, Wolfgang; Pilecki, Bogumił; Pietrzyński, Grzegorz; Graczyk, Dariusz; Górski, Marek; Taormina, Mónica; Gallenne, Alexandre E-mail: pilecki@astrouw.edu.pl; and others

    2015-12-10

    We present a detailed study of the classical Cepheid in the double-lined, highly eccentric eclipsing binary system OGLE-LMC562.05.9009. The Cepheid is a fundamental mode pulsator with a period of 2.988 days. The orbital period of the system is 1550 days. Using spectroscopic data from three 4–8-m telescopes and photometry spanning 22 years, we were able to derive the dynamical masses and radii of both stars with exquisite accuracy. Both stars in the system are very similar in mass, radius, and color, but the companion is a stable, non-pulsating star. The Cepheid is slightly more massive and bigger (M{sub 1} = 3.70 ± 0.03 M{sub ⊙}, R{sub 1} = 28.6 ± 0.2 R{sub ⊙}) than its companion (M{sub 2} = 3.60 ± 0.03 M{sub ⊙}, R{sub 2} = 26.6 ± 0.2 R{sub ⊙}). Within the observational uncertainties both stars have the same effective temperature of 6030 ± 150 K. Evolutionary tracks place both stars inside the classical Cepheid instability strip, but it is likely that future improved temperature estimates will move the stable giant companion just beyond the red edge of the instability strip. Within current observational and theoretical uncertainties, both stars fit on a 205 Myr isochrone arguing for their common age. From our model, we determine a value of the projection factor of p = 1.37 ± 0.07 for the Cepheid in the OGLE-LMC562.05.9009 system. This is the second Cepheid for which we could measure its p-factor with high precision directly from the analysis of an eclipsing binary system, which represents an important contribution toward a better calibration of Baade-Wesselink methods of distance determination for Cepheids.

  2. The Araucaria Project: A Study of the Classical Cepheid in the Eclipsing Binary System OGLE LMC562.05.9009 in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gieren, Wolfgang; Pilecki, Bogumił; Pietrzyński, Grzegorz; Graczyk, Dariusz; Udalski, Andrzej; Soszyński, Igor; Thompson, Ian B.; Prada Moroni, Pier Giorgio; Smolec, Radosław; Konorski, Piotr; Górski, Marek; Karczmarek, Paulina; Suchomska, Ksenia; Taormina, Mónica; Gallenne, Alexandre; Storm, Jesper; Bono, Giuseppe; Catelan, Márcio; Szymański, Michał; Kozłowski, Szymon; Pietrukowicz, Paweł; Wyrzykowski, Łukasz; Poleski, Radosław; Skowron, Jan; Minniti, Dante; Ulaczyk, K.; Mróz, P.; Pawlak, M.; Nardetto, Nicolas

    2015-12-01

    We present a detailed study of the classical Cepheid in the double-lined, highly eccentric eclipsing binary system OGLE-LMC562.05.9009. The Cepheid is a fundamental mode pulsator with a period of 2.988 days. The orbital period of the system is 1550 days. Using spectroscopic data from three 4-8-m telescopes and photometry spanning 22 years, we were able to derive the dynamical masses and radii of both stars with exquisite accuracy. Both stars in the system are very similar in mass, radius, and color, but the companion is a stable, non-pulsating star. The Cepheid is slightly more massive and bigger (M1 = 3.70 ± 0.03 M⊙, R1 = 28.6 ± 0.2 R⊙) than its companion (M2 = 3.60 ± 0.03 M⊙, R2 = 26.6 ± 0.2 R⊙). Within the observational uncertainties both stars have the same effective temperature of 6030 ± 150 K. Evolutionary tracks place both stars inside the classical Cepheid instability strip, but it is likely that future improved temperature estimates will move the stable giant companion just beyond the red edge of the instability strip. Within current observational and theoretical uncertainties, both stars fit on a 205 Myr isochrone arguing for their common age. From our model, we determine a value of the projection factor of p = 1.37 ± 0.07 for the Cepheid in the OGLE-LMC562.05.9009 system. This is the second Cepheid for which we could measure its p-factor with high precision directly from the analysis of an eclipsing binary system, which represents an important contribution toward a better calibration of Baade-Wesselink methods of distance determination for Cepheids. This research is based on observations obtained with the ESO VLT, 3.6 m and NTT telescopes for Programmes 092.D-0295(A), 091.D-0393(A), 089.D-0330(A), 088.D-0447(A), 086.D-0103(A) and 085.D-0398(A)), and with the Magellan Clay and Warsaw telescopes at Las Campanas Observatory.

  3. Novae as distance indicators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ford, Holland C.; Ciardullo, Robin

    1988-01-01

    Nova shells are characteristically prolate with equatorial bands and polar caps. Failure to account for the geometry can lead to large errors in expansion parallaxes for individual novae. When simple prescriptions are used for deriving expansion parallaxes from an ensemble of randomly oriented prolate spheroids, the average distance will be too small by factors of 10 to 15 percent. The absolute magnitudes of the novae will be underestimated and the resulting distance scale will be too small by the same factors. If observations of partially resolved nova shells select for large inclinations, the systematic error in the resulting distance scale could easily be 20 to 30 percent. Extinction by dust in the bulge of M31 may broaden and shift the intrinsic distribution of maximum nova magnitudes versus decay rates. We investigated this possibility by projecting Arp's and Rosino's novae onto a composite B - 6200A color map of M31's bulge. Thirty two of the 86 novae projected onto a smooth background with no underlying structure due to the presence of a dust cloud along the line of sight. The distribution of maximum magnitudes versus fade rates for these unreddened novae is indistinguishable from the distribution for the entire set of novae. It is concluded that novae suffer very little extinction from the filamentary and patchy distribution of dust seen in the bulge of M31. Time average B and H alpha nova luminosity functions are potentially powerful new ways to use novae as standard candles. Modern CCD observations and the photographic light curves of M31 novae found during the last 60 years were analyzed to show that these functions are power laws. Consequently, unless the eruption times for novae are known, the data cannot be used to obtain distances.

  4. A large-scale functional screen identifies Nova1 and Ncoa3 as regulators of neuronal miRNA function

    PubMed Central

    Störchel, Peter H; Thümmler, Juliane; Siegel, Gabriele; Aksoy-Aksel, Ayla; Zampa, Federico; Sumer, Simon; Schratt, Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important regulators of neuronal development, network connectivity, and synaptic plasticity. While many neuronal miRNAs were previously shown to modulate neuronal morphogenesis, little is known regarding the regulation of miRNA function. In a large-scale functional screen, we identified two novel regulators of neuronal miRNA function, Nova1 and Ncoa3. Both proteins are expressed in the nucleus and the cytoplasm of developing hippocampal neurons. We found that Nova1 and Ncoa3 stimulate miRNA function by different mechanisms that converge on Argonaute (Ago) proteins, core components of the miRNA-induced silencing complex (miRISC). While Nova1 physically interacts with Ago proteins, Ncoa3 selectively promotes the expression of Ago2 at the transcriptional level. We further show that Ncoa3 regulates dendritic complexity and dendritic spine maturation of hippocampal neurons in a miRNA-dependent fashion. Importantly, both the loss of miRNA activity and increased dendrite complexity upon Ncoa3 knockdown were rescued by Ago2 overexpression. Together, we uncovered two novel factors that control neuronal miRISC function at the level of Ago proteins, with possible implications for the regulation of synapse development and plasticity. PMID:26105073

  5. Mass Loss from Evolved Stars in LMC Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Points, Sean; Olsen, K.; Blum, R.; Whitney, B.; Meade, M.; Babler, B.; Indebetouw, R.; Hora, J.; Gordon, K.; Engelbracht, C.; For, B.; Block, M.; Misselt, K.; Meixner, M.; Vijh, U.; Leitherer, C.; Srinivasan, S.

    2006-12-01

    We present preliminary results of our investigation into the mass-loss from evolved stars in rich, well-studied clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) using data obtained with the Spitzer Space Telescope SAGE (Surveying the Agents of a Galaxy's Evolution) survey. We have obtained the 8 and 24 micron magnitudes of point sources toward 30 clusters in the LMC with a range of ages from 10^6 to 10^10 years, a spread in metallicity ([Fe/H]) from -2.0 to 0.0, and masses from 10^3 to 10^5 solar masses. Using the 8 and 24 micron fluxes as proxies for stellar mass loss, we calculate the normalized mass loss rates for the clusters in our sample. We use these data to explore the relationships between mass-loss, age, and metallicity, with the aim of developing a cluster mass-loss history for the LMC. Our further goal is to use these results in conjunction with knowledge of the star formation history of the LMC to investigate the LMC's chemical enrichment history.

  6. Fabrication and testing of gas filled targets for large scale plasma experiments on Nova

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, G.F.; Spragge, M.; Wallace, R.J.; Rivers, C.J. |

    1995-03-06

    An experimental campaign on the Nova laser was started in July 1993 to study one st of target conditions for the point design of the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The targets were specified to investigate the current NIF target conditions--a plasma of {approximately}3 keV electron temperature and an electron density of {approximately}1.0 E + 21 cm{sup {minus}3}. A gas cell target design was chosen to confine as gas of {approximately}0.01 cm{sup 3} in volume at {approximately} 1 atmosphere. This paper will describe the major steps and processes necessary in the fabrication, testing and delivery of these targets for shots on the Nova Laser at LLNL.

  7. Fabrication and testing of gas-filled targets for large-scale plasma experiments on nova

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, G.F.; Rivers, C.J.; Spragge, M.R.; Wallace, R.J.

    1996-06-01

    The proposed next-generation ICF facility, the National Ignition Facility (NIF) is designed to produce energy gain from x-ray heated {open_quotes}indirect-drive{close_quotes} fuel capsules. For indirect-drive targets, laser light heats the inside of the Au hohlraum wall and produces x rays which in turn heat and implode the capsule to produce fusion conditions in the fuel. Unlike Nova targets, in NIF-scale targets laser light will propagate through several millimeters of gas, producing a plasma, before impinging upon the Au hohlraum wall. The purpose of the gas-produced plasma is to provide sufficient pressure to keep the radiating Au surface from expanding excessively into the hohlraum cavity. Excessive expansion of the Au wall interacts with the laser pulse and degrades the drive symmetry of the capsule implosion. The authors have begun an experimental campaign on the Nova laser to study the effect of hohlraum gas on both laser-plasma interaction and implosion symmetry. In their current NIF target design, the calculated plasma electron temperature is T{sub e} {approx} 3 keV and the electron density is N{sub e} {approx} 10{sup 21}cm{sup {minus}3}.

  8. Chemical abundances in LMC stellar populations. II. The bar sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van der Swaelmen, M.; Hill, V.; Primas, F.; Cole, A. A.

    2013-12-01

    Aims: This paper compares the chemical evolution of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) to that of the Milky Way (MW) and investigates the relation between the bar and the inner disc of the LMC in the context of the formation of the bar. Methods: We obtained high-resolution and mid signal-to-noise ratio spectra with FLAMES/GIRAFFE at ESO/VLT and performed a detailed chemical analysis of 106 and 58 LMC field red giant stars (mostly older than 1 Gyr), located in the bar and the disc of the LMC respectively. To validate our stellar parameter determinations and abundance measurement procedures, we performed thorough tests using the well-known mildly metal-poor Milky-Way thick disc giant Arcturus (HD 124897, α Boo). We measured elemental abundances for O, Mg, Si, Ca, Ti (α-elements), Na (light odd element), Sc, V, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu (iron-peak elements), Y, Zr, Ba, La, and Eu (s- and r-elements). Results: We find that the α-element ratios [Mg/Fe] and [O/Fe] are lower in the LMC than in the MW while the LMC has similar [Si/Fe], [Ca/Fe], and [Ti/Fe] to the MW. As for the heavy elements, [Ba,La/Eu] exhibit a strong increase with increasing metallicity starting from [Fe/H] ≈ -0.8 dex, and the LMC has lower [Y + Zr/Ba + La] ratios than the MW. Cu is almost constant over all metallicities and about 0.5 dex lower in the LMC than in the MW. The LMC bar and inner disc exhibit differences in their [α/ Fe] (slightly larger scatter for the bar in the metallicity range [-1, -0.5]), their Eu (the bar trend is above the disc trend for [Fe/H] ≥ -0.5 dex), their Y and Zr, their Na and their V (offset between the bar and the disc distributions). Conclusions: Our results show that the chemical history of the LMC experienced a strong contribution from type Ia supernovae as well as a strong s-process enrichment from metal-poor AGB winds. Massive stars made a smaller contribution to the chemical enrichment compared to the MW. The observed differences between the bar and the disc speak in

  9. The First Nova Explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    José, Jordi; García-Berro, Enrique; Hernanz, Margarita; Gil-Pons, Pilar

    2007-06-01

    Classical novae are stellar explosions with an energy release that is only overcome by supernovae and γ-ray bursts. Theoretical and observational evidence suggests that these cataclysmic events are major sources of the Galactic 15N, 17O, and 13C, and contribute to the abundances of 7Li, and 26Al, with a likely nucleosynthetic endpoint around Ca. However, there are reasons to believe that these nuclear signatures have changed during the overall Galactic history. In this Letter, the first that addresses the nature of nova explosions in the most primitive, low-metallicity binaries, we show that primordial novae eject more massive envelopes and display a larger nuclear activity than classical novae, leading to a new type of explosion, halfway between a supernova and a nova. The ejected shells from the most violent, massive primordial novae yield large excesses of Ti and a likely nucleosynthetic endpoint around Cu-Zn, signatures never before associated with a nova-like explosion. We conclude that the chemical abundance pattern of the nova ejecta is strongly modified at low metallicities and suggest that primordial novae are a possible birthplace of a rare variety of presolar grains whose origin remains uncertain.

  10. The LMC geometry and outer stellar populations from early DES data

    SciTech Connect

    Balbinot, Eduardo; Plazas, A.; Santiago, B. X.; Girardi, L.; Pieres, A.; da Costa, L. N.; Maia, M. A. G.; Gruendl, R. A.; Walker, A. R.; Yanny, B.; Drlica-Wagner, A.; Benoit-Levy, A.; Abbott, T. M. C.; Allam, S. S.; Annis, J.; Bernstein, J. P.; Bernstein, R. A.; Bertin, E.; Brooks, D.; Buckley-Geer, E.; Rosell, A. Carnero; Cunha, C. E.; Depoy, D. L.; Desai, S.; Diehl, H. T.; Doel, P.; Estrada, J.; Evrard, A. E.; Fausti Neto, A.; Finley, D. A.; Flaugher, B.; Frieman, J. A.; Gruen, D.; Honscheid, K.; James, D.; Kuehn, K.; Kuropatkin, N.; Lahav, O.; March, M.; Marshall, J. L.; Miller, C.; Miquel, R.; Ogando, R.; Peoples, J.; Scarpine, V.; Schubnell, M.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Smith, R. C.; Soares-Santos, M.; Suchyta, E.; Swanson, M. E. C.; Tarle, G.; Tucker, D. L.; Wechsler, R.; Zuntz, J.

    2015-03-20

    The Dark Energy Camera has captured a large set of images as part of Science Verification (SV) for the Dark Energy Survey. The SV footprint covers a large portion of the outer Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), providing photometry 1.5 magnitudes fainter than the main sequence turn-off of the oldest LMC stellar population. We derive geometrical and structural parameters for various stellar populations in the LMC disc. For the distribution of all LMC stars, we find an inclination of i = –38.14°±0.08° (near side in the North) and a position angle for the line of nodes of θ₀ = 129.51°±0.17°. We find that stars younger than ~4 Gyr are more centrally concentrated than older stars. Fitting a projected exponential disc shows that the scale radius of the old populations is R>4Gyr = 1.41 ± 0.01 kpc, while the younger population has R<4Gyr = 0.72 ± 0.01 kpc. However, the spatial distribution of the younger population deviates significantly from the projected exponential disc model. The distribution of old stars suggests a large truncation radius of Rt = 13.5 ± 0.8 kpc. If this truncation is dominated by the tidal field of the Galaxy, we find that the LMC is ≃24+9–6 times less massive than the encircled Galactic mass. By measuring the Red Clump peak magnitude and comparing with the best-fit LMC disc model, we find that the LMC disc is warped and thicker in the outer regions north of the LMC centre. As a result, our findings may either be interpreted as a warped and flared disc in the LMC outskirts, or as evidence of a spheroidal halo component.

  11. The LMC geometry and outer stellar populations from early DES data

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Balbinot, Eduardo; Plazas, A.; Santiago, B. X.; Girardi, L.; Pieres, A.; da Costa, L. N.; Maia, M. A. G.; Gruendl, R. A.; Walker, A. R.; Yanny, B.; et al

    2015-03-20

    The Dark Energy Camera has captured a large set of images as part of Science Verification (SV) for the Dark Energy Survey. The SV footprint covers a large portion of the outer Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), providing photometry 1.5 magnitudes fainter than the main sequence turn-off of the oldest LMC stellar population. We derive geometrical and structural parameters for various stellar populations in the LMC disc. For the distribution of all LMC stars, we find an inclination of i = –38.14°±0.08° (near side in the North) and a position angle for the line of nodes of θ₀ = 129.51°±0.17°. Wemore » find that stars younger than ~4 Gyr are more centrally concentrated than older stars. Fitting a projected exponential disc shows that the scale radius of the old populations is R>4Gyr = 1.41 ± 0.01 kpc, while the younger population has R<4Gyr = 0.72 ± 0.01 kpc. However, the spatial distribution of the younger population deviates significantly from the projected exponential disc model. The distribution of old stars suggests a large truncation radius of Rt = 13.5 ± 0.8 kpc. If this truncation is dominated by the tidal field of the Galaxy, we find that the LMC is ≃24+9–6 times less massive than the encircled Galactic mass. By measuring the Red Clump peak magnitude and comparing with the best-fit LMC disc model, we find that the LMC disc is warped and thicker in the outer regions north of the LMC centre. As a result, our findings may either be interpreted as a warped and flared disc in the LMC outskirts, or as evidence of a spheroidal halo component.« less

  12. Recurrent novae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hack, Margherita; Selvelli, Pierluigi

    1993-01-01

    Recurrent novae seem to be a rather inhomogeneous group: T CrB is a binary with a M III companion; U Sco probably has a late dwarf as companion. Three are fast novae; two are slow novae. Some of them appear to have normal chemical composition; others may present He and CNO excess. Some present a mass-loss that is lower by two orders of magnitude than classical novae. However, our sample is too small for saying whether there are several classes of recurrent novae, which may be related to the various classes of classical novae, or whether the low mass-loss is a general property of the class or just a peculiarity of one member of the larger class of classical novae and recurrent novae.

  13. The Mid-IR Extinction Law in the LMC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Jian; Xue, Mengyao; Jiang, B. W.

    2013-03-01

    The mid-infrared (MIR) extinction law in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) at four IRAC bands is derived using the data of the Spitzer/SAGE Program. The derived mean extinctions are A [3.6]/A Ks = 0.68±0.03, A [4.5]/A Ks = 0.97±0.03, A [5.8]/A Ks = 0.54±0.04, and A [8.0]/A Ks = 0.58±0.07. The results show that: (1) The extinctions at [3.6], [5.8] and [8.0] of the LMC consist a flat curve, similar to that of the Milky Way (MW) predicted by the interstellar grain model at Rv = 5.5; (2) The extinction at [4.5] is clearly higher than the other three bands, which may be caused by the additional absorption of the 4.27μm CO2 ice and/or the 4.67μm CO ice in the LMC molecular clouds; (3) As far as individual sightlines are concerned, the MIR interstellar extinction law A λ/A Ks in the LMC varies with sightlines as the MW does.

  14. Novae in globular clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, Mariko; Hachisu, Izumi; Henze, Martin

    2013-12-10

    We present the first light-curve analysis of Population II novae that appeared in M31 globular clusters. Our light-curve models, based on the optically thick wind theory, reproduce well both the X-ray turn-on and turnoff times with the white dwarf (WD) mass of about 1.2 M {sub ☉} for M31N 2007-06b in Bol 111 and about 1.37 M {sub ☉} for M31N 2010-10f in Bol 126. The transient supersoft X-ray source CXO J004345 in Bol 194 is highly likely a nova remnant of 1.2-1.3 M {sub ☉} WD. These WD masses are quite consistent with the temperatures deduced from X-ray spectra. We also present the dependence of nova light curves on the metallicity in the range from [Fe/H] = 0.4 to –2.7. Whereas strong optically thick winds are accelerated in Galactic disk novae owing to a large Fe opacity peak, only weak winds occur in Population II novae with low Fe abundance. Thus, nova light curves are systematically slow in low Fe environment. For an extremely low Fe abundance normal nova outbursts may not occur unless the WD is very massive. We encourage V or y filter observation rather than R as well as high cadence X-ray monitorings to open quantitative studies of extragalactic novae.

  15. Are there two disk star cluster systems in the LMC?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kontizas, Mary; Kontizas, Evangelos

    1991-01-01

    The surface distribution of star clusters in the LMC has revealed the existence of two elliptical systems superimposed. A small surface density outer ellipse outlining the large system and a higher density elliptical inner system. The major axis of the two subsystems form an angle of 60 deg. The central subsystem contains all youngest populous globular star clusters from both the stellar and dynamical point of view. The large outer system seems to contain all old globular clusters, showing a dumpy distribution and outlining two arms at the northeast and southwest. The small LMC clusters were found to have masses less than 1000 solar masses and are distributed all over the large elliptical system.

  16. Satellites of LMC-mass dwarfs: close friendships ruined by Milky Way mass haloes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deason, A. J.; Wetzel, A. R.; Garrison-Kimmel, S.; Belokurov, V.

    2015-11-01

    Motivated by the recent discovery of several dwarfs near the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), we study the accretion of massive satellites onto Milky Way (MW)/M31-like haloes using the ELVIS suite of N-body simulations. We identify 25 surviving LMC-mass subhaloes, and investigate the lower-mass satellites that were associated with these subhaloes before they fell into the MW/M31 haloes. Typically, 7 per cent of the overall z = 0 satellite population of MW/M31 haloes were in a surviving LMC-group before falling into the MW/M31 halo. This fraction can vary between 1 and 25 per cent, being higher for groups with higher mass and/or more recent infall times. Groups of satellites disperse rapidly in phase space after infall, and their distances and velocities relative to the group centre become statistically similar to the overall satellite population after 4-8 Gyr. We quantify the likelihood that satellites were associated with an LMC-mass group as a function of both distance and velocity relative to the LMC at z = 0. The close proximity in distance of the nine Dark Energy Survey candidate dwarf galaxies to the LMC suggest that ˜2-4 are likely associated with the LMC. Furthermore, if several of these dwarfs are genuine members, then the LMC-group probably fell into the MW very recently, ≲2 Gyr ago. If the connection with the LMC is established with follow-up velocity measurements, these `satellites of satellites' represent prime candidates to study the effects of group pre-processing on lower mass dwarfs.

  17. Ultraviolet colors of old LMC clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowley, A. P.; Hartwick, F. D. A.

    1992-01-01

    New ultraviolet spectra for five red LMC globular clusters have been obtained with IUE. These have been supplemented with archival spectra for eleven old LMC clusters. These data strengthen and extend the UV-color versus age relation for clusters older than about 10 exp 9 yr, but do not offer much precision in age determination, presumably because the ultraviolet colors of the oldest clusters depend strongly on the horizontal-branch morphology. Comparison of LMC data with UV colors for the brightest M31 clusters suggests their ages might be only a few gigayears.

  18. Large aperture kinoform phase plates in fused silica for spatial beam smoothing on Nova and the Beamlet Lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Rushford, M.C.; Dixit, S.N.; Thomas, I.M.; Martin, A.M.; Perry, M.D.

    1997-03-01

    It is now widely recognized that spatial beam smoothing (homogenization) is essential in coupling the laser energy to the inertial confinement fusion (ICF) targets. For the indirect drive approach to ICF, it is desirable to distribute the laser energy into a uniformly speckled profile that has a flat-top super-Gaussian envelope (8th power or higher) and contains greater than 95% of the energy inside the super-Gaussian profile. Spatial smoothing is easily achieved by introducing a binary random phase plate (RPP) in the beam. This produces a homogenized far-field pattern which consists of an overall envelope function determined by the RPP element superimposed with a fine scale speckle pattern arising due to the interference among the various RPP elements. Although easy to fabricate and currently in routine use in many fusion laboratories, the binary RPPs do not meet the ICF requirements stated above since the far-field intensity profile is restricted to essentially an Airy function containing only 84% (an upper limit) of the energy inside the central spot. Approaches using lenslet arrays (refractive or diffractive) have limited use since they operate in the quasi-far-field and have a short depth of focus. The limitations of the RPPs can be overcome by relaxing the binary phase constraint. We have recently presented 5 continuously varying phase screens for tailoring the focal plane irradiance profiles. Called kinoform phase plates (KPPs), these phase screens offer complete flexibility in tailoring the focal plane envelope and, at the same time, increasing the energy efficiency inside the focal spot. In this paper we discuss the design and fabrication of such kinoform phase plates in fused silica for spatial beam smoothing on the Nova and the Beamlet lasers. Since the phase plates are used at the end of the laser chain, KPPs on Nova and Beamlet have to be fabricated on large aperture optics (65-cm diameter and 40-cm square substrates respectively). The following

  19. LMC X-2: Hunting the Z

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smale, A. P.; Kuulkers, E.

    2001-12-01

    We have performed three observations of LMC X-2 with RXTE in 1997 Dec, 2001 Feb, and most recently 2001 Aug-Sep, with further pointings scheduled for late 2001. Based on our results to date (see e.g. Smale & Kuulkers 2000, ApJ, 528, 702) we have developed the working hypothesis that LMC X-2 is a Z-source, spending most of its time in the Flaring Branch with occasional excursions onto the Normal Branch -- behavior reminiscent of the Z-source GX349+2. If confirmed, this would make LMC X-2 the eighth Z-source known and the first outside our Galaxy. We will present a summary of our LMC X-2 campaign, including light curves and color-color diagrams illustrating the two branches and the results of timing and spectral fitting analyses, and discuss our future strategy for resolving the nature of this bright low-mass X-ray binary.

  20. Dwarf novae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ladous, Constanze

    1993-01-01

    Dwarf novae are defined on grounds of their semi-regular brightness variations of some two to five magnitudes on time scales of typically 10 to 100 days. Historically several different classification schemes have been used. Today, dwarf novae are divided into three sub-classes: the U Geminorum stars, the SU Ursae Majoris stars, and the Z Camelopardalis stars. Outbursts of dwarf novae occur at semi-periodic intervals of time, typically every 10 to 100 days; amplitudes range from typically 2 to 5 mag. Within certain limits values are characteristic for each object. Relations between the outburst amplitude, or the total energy released during outburst, and the recurrence time have been found, as well as relations between the orbital period and the outburst decay time, the absolute magnitude during outburst maximum, and the widths of long and short outbursts, respectively. Some dwarf novae are known to have suspended their normal outburst activity altogether for a while. They later resumed it without having undergone any observable changes. The optical colors of dwarf novae all are quite similar during outburst, considerably bluer than during the quiescent state. During the outburst cycle, characteristic loops in the two color diagram are performed. At a time resolution on the order of minutes, strictly periodic photometric changes due to orbital motion become visible in the light curves of dwarf novae. These are characteristic for each system. Remarkably little is known about orbital variations during the course of an outburst. On time-scales of minutes and seconds, further more or less periodic types of variability are seen in dwarf novae. Appreciable flux is emitted by dwarf novae at all wavelengths from the X-rays to the longest IR wavelengths, and in some cases even in the radio. Most dwarf novae exhibit strong emission line spectra in the optical and UV during quiescence, although some have only very weak emissions in the optical and/or weak absorptions at UV

  1. LMC X-2: Hunting the Z

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smale, Alan

    Data from an RXTE observation of LMC X-2 in 1997 Dec revealed that the shapes of the color-color and hardness-intensity diagrams, the presence of VLFN and HFN in the power spectra, and the high intrinsic Lx are more typical of a flaring Z-source than an atoll source (Smale and Kuulkers, 2000, ApJ, 528, 702). This would make LMC X-2 the 8th Z- source known, and the first detected beyond our Galaxy. A followup RXTE observation in 2001 Feb appears to show a combination of Flaring and Normal branches. We propose a Cycle 7 campaign to sample LMC X-2 for 20 weeks at 15 ksec/wk, to attempt to map out the (probable) Z, and further study the timing and spectral variability of the source.

  2. Physical properties of star clusters in the outer LMC as observed by the Dark Energy Survey

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Pieres, A.; et al.

    2016-05-26

    The Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) harbors a rich and diverse system of star clusters, whose ages, chemical abundances, and positions provide information about the LMC history of star formation. We use Science Verification imaging data from the Dark Energy Survey to increase the census of known star clusters in the outer LMC and to derive physical parameters for a large sample of such objects using a spatially and photometrically homogeneous data set. Our sample contains 255 visually identified cluster candidates, of which 109 were not listed in any previous catalog. We quantify the crowding effect for the stellar sample producedmore » by the DES Data Management pipeline and conclude that the stellar completeness is < 10% inside typical LMC cluster cores. We therefore develop a pipeline to sample and measure stellar magnitudes and positions around the cluster candidates using DAOPHOT. We also implement a maximum-likelihood method to fit individual density profiles and colour-magnitude diagrams. For 117 (from a total of 255) of the cluster candidates (28 uncatalogued clusters), we obtain reliable ages, metallicities, distance moduli and structural parameters, confirming their nature as physical systems. The distribution of cluster metallicities shows a radial dependence, with no clusters more metal-rich than [Fe/H] ~ -0.7 beyond 8 kpc from the LMC center. The age distribution has two peaks at ~ 1.2 Gyr and ~ 2.7 Gyr.« less

  3. Physical properties of star clusters in the outer LMC as observed by the DES

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Pieres, A.; Santiago, B.; Balbinot, E.; Luque, E.; Queiroz, A.; da Costa, L. N.; Maia, M. A. G.; Drlica-Wagner, A.; Roodman, A.; Abbott, T. M. C.; et al

    2016-05-26

    The Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) harbors a rich and diverse system of star clusters, whose ages, chemical abundances, and positions provide information about the LMC history of star formation. We use Science Verification imaging data from the Dark Energy Survey to increase the census of known star clusters in the outer LMC and to derive physical parameters for a large sample of such objects using a spatially and photometrically homogeneous data set. Our sample contains 255 visually identified cluster candidates, of which 109 were not listed in any previous catalog. We quantify the crowding effect for the stellar sample producedmore » by the DES Data Management pipeline and conclude that the stellar completeness is < 10% inside typical LMC cluster cores. We therefore develop a pipeline to sample and measure stellar magnitudes and positions around the cluster candidates using DAOPHOT. We also implement a maximum-likelihood method to fit individual density profiles and colour-magnitude diagrams. For 117 (from a total of 255) of the cluster candidates (28 uncatalogued clusters), we obtain reliable ages, metallicities, distance moduli and structural parameters, confirming their nature as physical systems. The distribution of cluster metallicities shows a radial dependence, with no clusters more metal-rich than [Fe/H] ~ -0.7 beyond 8 kpc from the LMC center. Furthermore, the age distribution has two peaks at ≃ 1.2 Gyr and ≃ 2.7 Gyr.« less

  4. Physical properties of star clusters in the outer LMC as observed by the DES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pieres, A.; Santiago, B.; Balbinot, E.; Luque, E.; Queiroz, A.; da Costa, L. N.; Maia, M. A. G.; Drlica-Wagner, A.; Roodman, A.; Abbott, T. M. C.; Allam, S.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bertin, E.; Brooks, D.; Buckley-Geer, E.; Burke, D. L.; Rosell, A. Carnero; Kind, M. Carrasco; Carretero, J.; Cunha, C. E.; Desai, S.; Diehl, H. T.; Eifler, T. F.; Finley, D. A.; Flaugher, B.; Fosalba, P.; Frieman, J.; Gerdes, D. W.; Gruen, D.; Gruendl, R. A.; Gutierrez, G.; Honscheid, K.; James, D. J.; Kuehn, K.; Kuropatkin, N.; Lahav, O.; Li, T. S.; Marshall, J. L.; Martini, P.; Miller, C. J.; Miquel, R.; Nichol, R. C.; Nord, B.; Ogando, R.; Plazas, A. A.; Romer, A. K.; Sanchez, E.; Scarpine, V.; Schubnell, M.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Smith, R. C.; Soares-Santos, M.; Sobreira, F.; Suchyta, E.; Swanson, M. E. C.; Tarle, G.; Thaler, J.; Thomas, D.; Tucker, D. L.; Walker, A. R.

    2016-09-01

    The Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) harbours a rich and diverse system of star clusters, whose ages, chemical abundances and positions provide information about the LMC history of star formation. We use Science Verification imaging data from the Dark Energy Survey (DES) to increase the census of known star clusters in the outer LMC and to derive physical parameters for a large sample of such objects using a spatially and photometrically homogeneous data set. Our sample contains 255 visually identified cluster candidates, of which 109 were not listed in any previous catalogue. We quantify the crowding effect for the stellar sample produced by the DES Data Management pipeline and conclude that the stellar completeness is <10 per cent inside typical LMC cluster cores. We therefore reanalysed the DES co-add images around each candidate cluster and remeasured positions and magnitudes for their stars. We also implement a maximum-likelihood method to fit individual density profiles and colour-magnitude diagrams. For 117 (from a total of 255) of the cluster candidates (28 uncatalogued clusters), we obtain reliable ages, metallicities, distance moduli and structural parameters, confirming their nature as physical systems. The distribution of cluster metallicities shows a radial dependence, with no clusters more metal rich than [Fe/H] ≃ -0.7 beyond 8 kpc from the LMC centre. The age distribution has two peaks at ≃1.2 and ≃2.7 Gyr.

  5. Early phases of LMC star clusters?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kontizas, Evangelos; Michalitsianos, Andrew; Kontizas, Mary

    1991-01-01

    On the basis of optical and IUE observations we have investigated the possibility that some of the very young stellar systems of the LMC, such as SL360, may be regarded as globular clusters at the very early phases of their dynamical evolution after the gas cloud expulsion.

  6. Star Clusters in the Magellanic Clouds-1: Parameterisation and Classification of 1072 Clusters in the LMC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nayak, P. K.; Subramaniam, A.; Choudhury, S.; Indu, G.; Sagar, Ram

    2016-08-01

    We have introduced a semi-automated quantitative method to estimate the age and reddening of 1072 star clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) using the Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment (OGLE) III survey data. This study brings out 308 newly parameterised clusters. In a first of its kind, the LMC clusters are classified into groups based on richness/mass as very poor, poor, moderate and rich clusters, similar to the classification scheme of open clusters in the Galaxy. A major cluster formation episode is found to happen at 125±25 Myr in the inner LMC. The bar region of the LMC appears prominently in the age range 60 - 250 Myr and is found to have a relatively higher concentration of poor and moderate clusters. The eastern and the western ends of the bar are found to form clusters initially, which later propagates to the central part. We demonstrate that there is a significant difference in the distribution of clusters as a function of mass, using a movie based on the propagation (in space and time) of cluster formation in various groups. The importance of including the low mass clusters in the cluster formation history is demonstrated. The catalog with parameters, classification, and cleaned and isochrone fitted CMDs of 1072 clusters, which are available as online material, can be further used to understand the hierarchical formation of clusters in selected regions of the LMC.

  7. Large amplitude super-soft X-ray intensity variations and a 54 sec QPO in Nova Del 2013 (V339 Del)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beardmore, A. P.; Osborne, J. P.; Page, K. L.

    2013-11-01

    In ATEL #5505 we reported the rise of the super-soft X-ray source in Nova Del 2013 (V339 Del) seen by the Swift XRT. Since the last observation reported there, at 1.5 c/s on day 70.8 after outburst, the soft X-ray count rate has risen to a peak count rate of ~100 c/s on day 87.9 (10 Nov). All count rates are from grade 0 events only. The rising count rate was interspersed by a few large dips, one of which reached down to <1% of the count rate one day earlier.

  8. Nova Scotia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timmons, Vianne; Power, Anne

    2003-01-01

    This article profiles the educational system of Nova Scotia and discusses initiatives for students who are at-risk. It describes programs and services for students who are at-risk, relevant educational legislation, areas of strength, challenges that need to be overcome, and areas of action. (Contains references.) (CR)

  9. Classifications of Venusian Novae (astra)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aittola, M.; Raitala, J.

    There is rather large population of structures, which are characterized by prominent radial features on Venusian surface. This special group of volcano-tectonic structures with a stellate fracture pattern radiating around a central summit or fracture is called "nova" or "astrum/astra" (e.g. Schubert et al., 1991; Head et al., 1992). We studied the distribution and the characteristics of 74 novae to declare if there is suitable ways to categorize them and to find out how this categorizing could explain the differences in nova characteristics. The nova locations establish that these structures are not distributed sporadically, but display both latitudinal and longitudinal concentrations. Furthermore, it is evident that the geological environments represent the major differences between individual novae with majority of them being in connection to some larger volcano-tectonic unit, in general. The differences in geological surroundings can be used as the base to characterize novae by dividing them to different categories: a) novae locate either within or close to a rather large deformation zone, b) novae locate on plains, c) novae locate close to tessera terrain and d) novae situate within volcanic areas either close to volcanoes or within the area with a high density of coronae. The analysis of this characterization establishes that the geological environments are the main cause for divergent nova characteristics, i.e. differences in morphology, volcanism and topography that on the other hand are possible ways to classify novae. Especially morphological classification (Type I - novae with features radiating from the same point, Type II - radial structures radiating from a fissure or other linear structure, Type III - lava flows or fields covering radiant point area, Type IV - semi-radial structures which do not radiate from a well-defined radiant point, fissure or area) shows correlations between geological environments and the type of the nova. References: Schubert

  10. Dwarf nova oscillations and quasi-periodic oscillations in cataclysmic variables - VIII. VW Hyi in outburst observed with the Southern African Large Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woudt, P. A.; Warner, B.; O'Donoghue, D.; Buckley, D. A. H.; Still, M.; Romero-Colemero, E.; Väisänen, P.

    2010-01-01

    We analyse four light curves obtained at high time resolution (~0.1s) with the 11-m Southern African Large Telescope, at the ends of two normal outbursts and one superoutburst of the dwarf nova VW Hyi. All of these contain at least some Dwarf Nova Oscillations (DNOs), which, when at their highest amplitudes, are seen in unprecedented detail. In addition to the expected DNOs with periods >20 s, we find a previously unknown modulation at 13.39s, but none at shorter periods. The various DNOs and their interaction with the longer period quasi-periodic oscillations are interpreted in terms of the model of magnetically controlled flow from an accretion disc proposed earlier in this series of papers. Our observations include rare DNOs very late in outburst; we find that the fundamental period does not increase beyond ~90 s, which is the same value that the independent `longer period DNOs' converge on. Based on observations made with the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT). E-mail: Patrick.Woudt@uct.ac.za

  11. The impact of IUE on studies of the nova outburst: 1986--1990

    SciTech Connect

    Starrfield, S. . Dept. of Physics Los Alamos National Lab., NM )

    1990-01-01

    In this review I will concentrate on the improvements in our understanding of the nova outburst that have occurred since the IUE meetings in London in 1986 and Goddard in 1988 and those results that have occurred as a direct result of studies with the IUE satellite. These involve the four outbursts that have occurred in the LMC, the numerous recurrent novae outbursts, and a number of archival studies. As a direct result of IUE studies done since 1986, we can now state that fast novae become super-Eddington at maximum, that many novae decline at the same rate, and that neon novae may be more numerous than thought previously. In addition, we have found that there are differences in the outburst characteristics between novae with giant secondaries and those with compact secondaries. 18 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Testing LMC Microlensing Scenarios: The Discrimination Power of the SuperMACHO Microlensing Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Rest, A; Stubbs, C; Becker, A C; Miknaitis, G A; Miceli, A; Covarrubias, R; Hawley, S L; Smith, C; Suntzeff, N B; Olsen, K; Prieto, J; Hiriart, R; Welch, D L; Cook, K; Nikolaev, S; Proctor, G; Clocchiatti, A; Minniti, D; Garg, A; Challis, P; Keller, S C; Scmidt, B P

    2004-05-27

    Characterizing the nature and spatial distribution of the lensing objects that produce the observed microlensing optical depth toward the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) remains an open problem. They present an appraisal of the ability of the SuperMACHO Project, a next-generation microlensing survey pointed toward the LMC, to discriminate between various proposed lensing populations. they consider two scenarios: lensing by a uniform foreground screen of objects and self-lensing of LMC stars. The optical depth for ''screen-lensing'' is essentially constant across the face of the LMC; whereas, the optical depth for self-lensing shows a strong spatial dependence. they have carried out extensive simulations, based upon actual data obtained during the first year of the project, to assess the SuperMACHO survey's ability to discriminate between these two scenarios. In the simulations they predict the expected number of observed microlensing events for each of their fields by adding artificial stars to the images and estimating the spatial and temporal efficiency of detecting microlensing events using Monte-Carlo methods. They find that the event rate itself shows significant sensitivity to the choice of the LMC luminosity function shape and other parameters, limiting the conclusions which can be drawn from the absolute rate. By instead determining the differential event rate across the LMC, they can decrease the impact of these systematic uncertainties rendering the conclusions more robust. With this approach the SuperMACHO Project should be able to distinguish between the two categories of lens populations and provide important constraints on the nature of the lensing objects.

  13. Is the Short Distance Scale a Result of a Problem with the LMC Photometric Zero Point?

    SciTech Connect

    Popowski, P

    2004-03-29

    I present a promising route to harmonize distance measurements based on clump giants and RR Lyrae stars. This is achieved by comparing the brightness of these distance indicators in three environments: the solar neighborhood, Galactic bulge and Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). As a result of harmonizing the distance scales in the solar neighborhood and Baade's Window, I derive the new absolute magnitude of RR Lyrae stars, M{sub v}(RR) at [Fe/H] = -1.6 (0.59 {+-} 0.05, 0.70 {+-} 0.05). Being somewhat brighter than the statistical parallax solution, but fainter than typical results of the main sequence fitting to Hipparcos data, these values of M{sub V}(RR) favor intermediate or old ages of globular clusters. Harmonizing the distance scales in the LMC and Baade's Window, I show that the most likely distance modulus to the LMC, {mu}{sub LMC} is in the range 18.24 - 18.44. The Hubble constant of about 70 km/s/Mpc reported by the HST Key Project is based on the assumption that the distance modulus to the LMC equals 18.50. The results presented here indicate that the Hubble Constant may be up to 12% higher. This in turn would call for a younger Universe and could result in some tension between the age of the Universe and the ages of globular clusters. I argue that the remaining uncertainty in the distance to the LMC is now a question of one, single photometric reference point rather than discrepancies between different standard candles.

  14. Non-Gaussian Error Distributions of LMC Distance Moduli Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crandall, Sara; Ratra, Bharat

    2015-12-01

    We construct error distributions for a compilation of 232 Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) distance moduli values from de Grijs et al. that give an LMC distance modulus of (m - M)0 = 18.49 ± 0.13 mag (median and 1σ symmetrized error). Central estimates found from weighted mean and median statistics are used to construct the error distributions. The weighted mean error distribution is non-Gaussian—flatter and broader than Gaussian—with more (less) probability in the tails (center) than is predicted by a Gaussian distribution; this could be the consequence of unaccounted-for systematic uncertainties. The median statistics error distribution, which does not make use of the individual measurement errors, is also non-Gaussian—more peaked than Gaussian—with less (more) probability in the tails (center) than is predicted by a Gaussian distribution; this could be the consequence of publication bias and/or the non-independence of the measurements. We also construct the error distributions of 247 SMC distance moduli values from de Grijs & Bono. We find a central estimate of {(m-M)}0=18.94+/- 0.14 mag (median and 1σ symmetrized error), and similar probabilities for the error distributions.

  15. The optically bright post-AGB population of the LMC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Aarle, Els; van Winckel, Hans; Evans, Tom Lloyd; Wood, Peter R.

    2009-03-01

    The detected variety in chemistry and circumstellar shell morphology of the limited sample of Galactic post-AGB stars is so large, that there is no consensus yet on how individual objects are linked by evolutionary channels. The evaluation is complicated by the fact that the distances and hence luminosities of these objects are poorly known. In this contribution we report on our project to overcome this problem by focusing on a significant sample of post-AGB stars with known distances: those in the LMC. Via cross-correlation of the infrared SAGE-SPITZER catalogue with optical catalogues we selected a sample of 322 LMC post-AGB candidates based on their position in the various colour-colour diagrams. We determined the fundamental properties of 82 of them, using low resolution optical spectra that we obtained at Siding Spring and SAAO. We selected a subsample to be studied at high spectral resolution in order to obtain accurate abundances of a wide range of species. This will allow us to connect the theoretical predictions with the obtained surface chemistry at a given luminosity and metallicity. By this, we want to constrain important structure parameters of the evolutionary models. Preliminary results of the selection process are presented.

  16. Magnetic novae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zemko, Polina; Orio, Marina

    2016-07-01

    We present the results of optical and X-ray observations of two quiescent novae, V2491 Cyg and V4743 Sgr. Our observations suggest the intriguing possibility of localization of hydrogen burning in magnetic novae, in which accretion is streamed to the polar caps. V2491 Cyg was observed with Suzaku more than 2 years after the outburst and V4743 Sgr was observed with XMM Newton 2 and 3.5 years after maximum. In the framework of a monitoring program of novae previously observed as super soft X-ray sources we also obtained optical spectra of V4743 Sgr with the SALT telescope 11.5 years after the eruption and of V2491 Cyg with the 6m Big Azimutal Telescope 4 and 7 years post-outburst. In order to confirm the possible white dwarf spin period of V2491 Cyg measured in the Suzaku observations we obtained photometric data using the 90cm WIYN telescope at Kitt Peak and the 1.2 m telescope in Crimea. We found that V4743 Sgr is an intermediate polar (IP) and V2491 Cyg is a strong IP candidate. Both novae show modulation of their X-ray light curves and have X-ray spectra typical of IPs. The Suzaku and XMM Newton exposures revealed that the spectra of both novae have a very soft blackbody-like component with a temperature close to that of the hydrogen burning white dwarfs in their SSS phases, but with flux by at least two orders of magnitude lower, implying a possible shrinking of emitting regions in the thin atmosphere that is heated by nuclear burning underneath it. In quiescent IPs, independently of the burning, an ultrasoft X-ray flux component originates at times in the polar regions irradiated by the accretion column, but the soft component of V4743 Sgr disappeared in 2006, indicating that the origin may be different from accretion. We suggest it may have been due to an atmospheric temperature gradient on the white dwarf surface, or to continuing localized thermonuclear burning at the bottom of the envelope, before complete turn-off. The optical spectra of V2491 Cyg and V

  17. NUCLEAR THERMOMETERS FOR CLASSICAL NOVAE

    SciTech Connect

    Downen, Lori N.; Iliadis, Christian; Jose, Jordi; Starrfield, Sumner

    2013-01-10

    Classical novae are stellar explosions occurring in binary systems, consisting of a white dwarf and a main-sequence companion. Thermonuclear runaways on the surface of massive white dwarfs, consisting of oxygen and neon, are believed to reach peak temperatures of several hundred million kelvin. These temperatures are strongly correlated with the underlying white dwarf mass. The observational counterparts of such models are likely associated with outbursts that show strong spectral lines of neon in their shells (neon novae). The goals of this work are to investigate how useful elemental abundances are for constraining the peak temperatures achieved during these outbursts and determine how robust 'nova thermometers' are with respect to uncertain nuclear physics input. We present updated observed abundances in neon novae and perform a series of hydrodynamic simulations for several white dwarf masses. We find that the most useful thermometers, N/O, N/Al, O/S, S/Al, O/Na, Na/Al, O/P, and P/Al, are those with the steepest monotonic dependence on peak temperature. The sensitivity of these thermometers to thermonuclear reaction rate variations is explored using post-processing nucleosynthesis simulations. The ratios N/O, N/Al, O/Na, and Na/Al are robust, meaning they are minimally affected by uncertain rates. However, their dependence on peak temperature is relatively weak. The ratios O/S, S/Al, O/P, and P/Al reveal strong dependences on temperature and the poorly known {sup 30}P(p, {gamma}){sup 31}S rate. We compare our model predictions to neon nova observations and obtain the following estimates for the underlying white dwarf masses: 1.34-1.35 M {sub Sun} (V838 Her), 1.18-1.21 M {sub Sun} (V382 Vel), {<=}1.3 M {sub Sun} (V693 CrA), {<=}1.2 M {sub Sun} (LMC 1990 no. 1), and {<=}1.2 M {sub Sun} (QU Vul).

  18. OGLE Atlas of Classical Novae. II. Magellanic Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mróz, P.; Udalski, A.; Poleski, R.; Soszyński, I.; Szymański, M. K.; Pietrzyński, G.; Wyrzykowski, Ł.; Ulaczyk, K.; Kozłowski, S.; Pietrukowicz, P.; Skowron, J.

    2016-01-01

    The population of classical novae in the Magellanic Clouds was poorly known because of a lack of systematic studies. There were some suggestions that nova rates per unit mass in the Magellanic Clouds were higher than in any other galaxy. Here, we present an analysis of data collected over 16 years by the OGLE survey with the aim of characterizing the nova population in the Clouds. We found 20 eruptions of novae, half of which are new discoveries. We robustly measure nova rates of 2.4 ± 0.8 yr-1 (LMC) and 0.9 ± 0.4 yr-1 (SMC) and confirm that the K-band luminosity-specific nova rates in both Clouds are 2-3 times higher than in other galaxies. This can be explained by the star formation history in the Magellanic Clouds, specifically the re-ignition of the star formation rate a few Gyr ago. We also present the discovery of the intriguing system OGLE-MBR133.25.1160, which mimics recurrent nova eruptions.

  19. Nova reaction rates and experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bishop, S.; Herlitzius, C.; Fiehl, J.

    2011-04-01

    Oxygen-neon novae form a subset of classical novae events known to freshly synthesize nuclei up to mass number A≲40. Because several gamma-ray emitters lie in this mass range, these novae are also interesting candidates for gamma-ray astronomy. The properties of excited states within those nuclei in this mass region play a critical role in determining the resonant (p,γ) reaction rates, themselves, largely unknown for the unstable nuclei. We describe herein a new Doppler shift lifetime facility at the Maier-Leibnitz tandem laboratory, Technische Universität München, with which we will map out important resonant (p,γ) nova reaction rates.

  20. Mass Loss from Evolved Stars in the LMC: A Spitzer SAGE View

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blum, Robert D.; Volk, K.; Srinivasan, S.; Markwick-Kemper, F.; Meixner, M.; Points, S.; Olsen, K.; Gordon, K.; Engelbracht, C.; For, B.; Block, M.; Misselt, K.; Whitney, B.; Meade, M.; Babler, B.; Indebetouw, R.; Hora, J.; Vijh, U.; Leitherer, C.; Mould, J.; SAGE Team

    2006-12-01

    I will present preliminary results for Evolved Star properties and their mass--loss contribution to the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) as viewed from color--magnitude diagrams (CMDs) obtained with the Spitzer space telescope SAGE (Surveying the Agents of a Galaxy's Evolution) survey. These data represent the deepest, widest mid--infrared CMDs of their kind ever produced in the LMC. Combined with the 2MASS survey, the diagrams are used to delineate the evolved stellar populations in the LMC from which we can deduce the relative contributions to the complete mass--loss budget. I will show initial fits to the spectral energy distributions of the LMC stars using dust radiative transfer models and assumptions about the evolved star envelopes guided by existing observations of luminous stars. Owing to the high angular resolution and sensitivity of Spitzer, we can identify essentially all the important mass--loss sources in the galaxy. Indeed, there is strong evidence from the 24 micron channel of Spitzer that previously unexplored, lower luminosity oxygen--rich AGB stars contribute significantly to the mass loss budget. This work has been funded by generous grants from the NASA SST program.

  1. SPECTRAL IDENTIFICATION OF AN ANCIENT SUPERNOVA USING LIGHT ECHOES IN THE LMC

    SciTech Connect

    Rest, A; Matheson, T; Blondin, S; Bergmann, M; Welch, D L; Suntzeff, N B; Smith, R C; Olsen, K; Prieto, J L; Garg, A; Challis, P; Stubbs, C; Hicken, M; Modjaz, M; Wood-Vasey, W M; Zenteno, A; Damke, G; Newman, A; Huber, M; Cook, K H; Nikolaev, S; Becker, A C; Miceli, A; Covarrubias, R; Morelli, L; Pignata, G; Clocchiatti, A; Minniti, D; Foley, R J

    2008-02-07

    We report the successful identification of the type of the supernova responsible for the supernova remnant SNR 0509-675 in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) using Gemini spectra of surrounding light echoes. The ability to classify outbursts associated with centuries-old remnants provides a new window into several aspects of supernova research and is likely to be successful in providing new constraints on additional LMC supernovae as well as their historical counterparts in the Milky Way Galaxy (MWG). The combined spectrum of echo light from SNR 0509-675 shows broad emission and absorption lines consistent with a supernova (SN) spectrum. We create a spectral library consisting of 26 SNe Ia and 6 SN Ib/c that are time-integrated, dust-scattered by LMC dust, and reddened by the LMC and MWG. We fit these SN templates to the observed light echo spectrum using {chi}{sup 2} minimization as well as correlation techniques, and we find that overluminous 91T-like SNe Ia with {Delta}m{sub 15} < 0.9 match the observed spectrum best.

  2. The MCELS Data Reduction Pipeline and Its Application to PNe Searches in the LMC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paredes, L.; Points, S. D.; Smith, R. C.; Rest, A.; Damke, G.; Zenteno, A.; MCELS Team

    2015-05-01

    The Magellanic Cloud Emission-Line Survey (MCELS) obtained observations toward the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds (LMC and SMC, respectively) over six years using the UM/CTIO Curtis Schmidt 0.61m telescope to produce deep images in [O III], H-alpha, and [S II] emission-lines, in addition to adjacent green and red continuum filters. This survey covered the central 8°x8° of the LMC and the central 3.5°x4.5° of the SMC and encompasses most of the gaseous extent of each galaxy with an angular resolution of 5 arcsec or better, allowing us to identify and study interstellar structures on ˜1-1000 pc physical scales. We have modified the SuperMACHO/Essence-w pipeline, developed for Blanco 4m Mosaic II data, to reduce MCELS data in a uniform manner. In addition to basic reductions (e.g., bias-subtraction, flat-fielding, etc), this pipeline uses spatially-varying convolution kernels to match the PSFs of the narrow-band and broad-band images and produce continuum-subtracted images for the narrow-band filters. We use flux measurements of previously identified planetary nebulae (PNe) in the LMC, e.g. Reid & Parker (2010), and photometry obtained by our pipeline to create color-magnitude and color-color diagrams in the MCELS filters to search for new PNe candidates in the LMC.

  3. Model Atmospheres for Novae in Outburst: Summary of Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hauschildt, Peter H.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a final report and summary of research on Model Atmospheres for Novae in Outburst. Some of the topics include: 1) Detailed NLTE (non-local thermodynamic equilibrium) Model Atmospheres for Novae during Outburst: II. Modeling optical and ultraviolet observations of Nova LMC 1988 #1; 2) A Non-LTE Line-Blanketed Stellar Atmosphere Model of the Early B Giant epsilon CMa; 3) Spectroscopy of Low Metallicity Stellar atmospheres; 4) Infrared Colors at the Stellar/Substellar Boundary; 5) On the abundance of Lithium in T CrB; 6) Numerical Solution of the Expanding Stellar Atmosphere Problem; and 7) The NextGen Model Atmosphere grid for 3000 less than or equal to T (sub eff) less than or equal to 10000K.

  4. The evolution of rotating very massive stars with LMC composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köhler, K.; Langer, N.; de Koter, A.; de Mink, S. E.; Crowther, P. A.; Evans, C. J.; Gräfener, G.; Sana, H.; Sanyal, D.; Schneider, F. R. N.; Vink, J. S.

    2015-01-01

    Context. With growing evidence for the existence of very massive stars at subsolar metallicity, there is an increased need for corresponding stellar evolution models. Aims: We present a dense model grid with a tailored input chemical composition appropriate for the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). Methods: We use a one-dimensional hydrodynamic stellar evolution code, which accounts for rotation, transport of angular momentum by magnetic fields, and stellar wind mass loss to compute our detailed models. We calculate stellar evolution models with initial masses from 70 to 500 M⊙ and with initial surface rotational velocities from 0 to 550 km s-1, covering the core-hydrogen burning phase of evolution. Results: We find our rapid rotators to be strongly influenced by rotationally induced mixing of helium, with quasi-chemically homogeneous evolution occurring for the fastest rotating models. Above 160 M⊙, homogeneous evolution is also established through mass loss, producing pure helium stars at core hydrogen exhaustion independent of the initial rotation rate. Surface nitrogen enrichment is also found for slower rotators, even for stars that lose only a small fraction of their initial mass. For models above ~150 M⊙ at zero age, and for models in the whole considered mass range later on, we find a considerable envelope inflation due to the proximity of these models to their Eddington limit. This leads to a maximum ZAMS surface temperature of ~56 000 K, at ~180 M⊙, and to an evolution of stars in the mass range 50 M⊙...100 M⊙ to the regime of luminous blue variables in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram with high internal Eddington factors. Inflation also leads to decreasing surface temperatures during the chemically homogeneous evolution of stars above ~180 M⊙. Conclusions: The cool surface temperatures due to the envelope inflation in our models lead to an enhanced mass loss, which prevents stars at LMC metallicity from evolving into pair-instability supernovae

  5. Discovery of a New Wolf-Rayet Star Using SAGE-LMC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gvaramadze, V. V.; Chené, A.-N.; Kniazev, A. Y.; Schnurr, O.

    2012-12-01

    We report the first-ever discovery of an extragalactic Wolf-Rayet (WR) star with Spitzer. A new WR star in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) was revealed via detection of its circumstellar shell using 24 μm images obtained in the framework of the Spitzer Survey of the Large Magellanic Cloud (SAGE-LMC). Subsequent spectroscopic observations with the Gemini South resolved the central star in two components, one of which is a WN3b+abs star, while the second one is a B0 V star. We consider the lopsided brightness distribution over the circumstellar shell as an indication that the WR star is a runaway and use this interpretation to identify a possible parent cluster of the star.

  6. Classical novae and recurrent novae: General properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hack, Margherita; Selvelli, Pierluigi; Duerbeck, Hilmar W.

    1993-01-01

    We describe the observable characteristics of classical novae and recurrent novae obtained by different techniques (photometry, spectroscopy, and imaging) in all the available spectral ranges. We consider the three stages in the life of a nova: quiescence (pre- and post-outburst), outburst, final decline and nebular phase. We describe the photometric properties during the quiescent phase. We describe the photometric properties during outburst, the classification according the rate of decline (magnitudes per day), which permits us to define very fast, fast, intermediate, slow, and very slow novae and the correlation between luminosity and speed class. We report the scanty data on the spectra of the few known prenovae and those on the spectra of old novae and those of dwarf novae and nova-like, which, however, are almost undistinguishable. We describe the typical spectra appearing from the beginning of the outburst, just before maximum, up to the nebular phase and the correlation between spectral type at maximum, expansional velocity, and speed class of the nova. We report the existing infrared observations, which permit us to explain some of the characteristics of the outburst light curve, and give evidence of the formation of a dust shell in slow and intermediate novae (with the important exception of the very slow nova HR Del 1967) and its absence or quasi-absence in fast novae. The ultraviolet and X-ray observations are described. The X ray observations of novae, mainly from the two satellites EINSTEIN and EXOSAT, are reported. Observations of the final decline and of the envelopes appearing several months after outburst are also reported.

  7. Ultraviolet colors as age indicators for LMC clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Meurer, G.R.; Freeman, K.C.; Cacciari, C. Osservatorio Astronomico, Bologna )

    1990-04-01

    Empirical correlations are found between log ages and the intrinsic ultraviolet colors for 27 LMC clusters. The problems and limitations of using these correlations as age indicators for LMC clusters and other stellar populations are discussed. The correlations are used to estimate the ages of two LMC clusters of unknown age (NGC 1968 and NGC 1974) and the nuclei of two nearby blue compact dwarf galaxies (NGC 1705 and NGC 5253). For the latter two objects optical- and ultraviolet-based age estimates are in good agreement. 46 refs.

  8. Typical examples of classical novae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hack, Margherita; Selvelli, Pierluigi; Bianchini, Antonio; Duerbeck, Hilmar W.

    1993-01-01

    Because of the very complicated individualistic behavior of each nova, we think it necessary to review the observations of a few well-observed individuals. We have selected a few objects of different speed classes, which have been extensively observed. They are: V1500 Cygni 1975, a very fast nova; V603 Aql 1918, fast nova; CP Pup 1942, fast nova; GK Per 1901, fast nova; V 1668 Cyg 1979, moderately fast nova; FH Ser 1970, slow nova; DQ Her 1934, slow nova; T Aur 1891, slow nova; RR Pic 1925, slow nova; and HR Del 1967, very slow nova.

  9. Fermi Sees a Nova

    NASA Video Gallery

    Watch V407 Cyg go nova! A nova is a sudden, short-lived brightening of an otherwise inconspicuous star. The outburst occurs when a white dwarf in a binary system erupts in an enormous thermonuclear...

  10. A spectroscopic study of LMC X-4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petro, L. D.; Hiltner, W. A.

    1982-01-01

    The orbital radial velocity semi-amplitude of the binary star system LMC X-4 primary was determined to be 37.9 + or - 2.4 km/s from measurements of the hydrogen absorption lines. The semi-amplitude of the He I and He II absorption lines are consistent with this, namely 44.9 + or - 5.0 and 37.3 + or - 5.3 km/s. The phase and shape of the radial velocity curves of the three ions are consistent with a circular orbit and an ephemeris based upon X-ray measurements of the neutron star, with the exception that the He II absorption line radial velocity curve has detectable shape distortion. Measurements of the He II LAMBOA 4686 emission line velocity are consistent with a phase shifted sine wave of semi-amplitude 535 km/s, a square wave of semi-amplitude 407 km/s, or high order harmonic fits. The spectral type was found to be 08.5 IV-V during X-ray eclipse. Variations to types as early as 07 occur, but not as a function or orbital phase. Absorption line peculiarities were noted on 6 of 58 spectra.

  11. NOVA 201 ultrasonic thickness gage (NOVA Gage)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garecht, Diane

    1990-01-01

    The measurement integrity of the NOVA 201 digital ultrasonic thickness gage (NOVA gage) was demonstrated by comparing the NOVA gage measurements to the thickness gage measurements, and determining the bias and uncertainty of the NOVA gage when measuring redesigned solid rocket motor (RSRM) hardware per engineering test plans (ETP). The NOVA gage was tested by three different operators on steel and aluminum RSRM hardware for wall thickness. The results show that the measurement bias is not consistent. The uncertainty of the bias is caused by the heterogeneous material properties of the RSRM components that influence the time of flight of ultrasonic waves. The measurement uncertainty inherent to the design and operation of the NOVA gage is less in comparison to the uncertainty of the bias. The total measurement uncertainty cannot be substantially reduced by taking more than one measurement. There is no correlation between bias and the surface finish range of this test unless 3-in-One oil is used as a couplant, in which case there appears to be a slight trend. There is no correlation between uncertainty and the surface finish range. The measurement uncertainty of the NOVA gage can be reduced using 3-in-One oil as a couplant.

  12. SMASH 1: A Very Faint Globular Cluster Disrupting in the Outer Reaches of the LMC?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Nicolas F.; Jungbluth, Valentin; Nidever, David L.; Bell, Eric F.; Besla, Gurtina; Blum, Robert D.; Cioni, Maria-Rosa L.; Conn, Blair C.; Kaleida, Catherine C.; Gallart, Carme; Jin, Shoko; Majewski, Steven R.; Martinez-Delgado, David; Monachesi, Antonela; Muñoz, Ricardo R.; Noël, Noelia E. D.; Olsen, Knut; Stringfellow, Guy S.; van der Marel, Roeland P.; Vivas, A. Katherina; Walker, Alistair R.; Zaritsky, Dennis

    2016-10-01

    We present the discovery of a very faint stellar system, SMASH 1, that is potentially a satellite of the Large Magellanic Cloud. Found within the Survey of the Magellanic Stellar History (SMASH), SMASH 1 is a compact ({r}h={9.1}-3.4+5.9 {pc}) and very low luminosity ({M}V=-1.0+/- 0.9, {L}V={10}2.3+/- 0.4 {L}ȯ ) stellar system that is revealed by its sparsely populated main sequence and a handful of red giant branch candidate member stars. The photometric properties of these stars are compatible with a metal-poor ([{Fe}/{{H}}]=-2.2) and old (13 Gyr) isochrone located at a distance modulus of ∼18.8, i.e., a distance of ∼ 57 {kpc}. Situated at 11.°3 from the LMC in projection, its three-dimensional distance from the Cloud is ∼ 13 {kpc}, consistent with a connection to the LMC, whose tidal radius is at least 16 {kpc}. Although the nature of SMASH 1 remains uncertain, its compactness favors it being a stellar cluster and hence dark-matter free. If this is the case, its dynamical tidal radius is only ≲ 19 {pc} at this distance from the LMC, and smaller than the system’s extent on the sky. Its low luminosity and apparent high ellipticity (ε ={0.62}-0.21+0.17) with its major axis pointing toward the LMC may well be the tell-tale sign of its imminent tidal demise.

  13. A new ejecta shell surrounding a Wolf-Rayet star in the LMC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garnett, Donald R.; Chu, You-Hua

    1994-01-01

    We have obtained CCD spectra of newly discovered shell-like nebulae around the WN4 star Breysacher 13 and the WN1 star Breysacher 2 in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). The shell around Br 13 shows definite signs of enrichment in both nitrogen and helium, having much stronger (N II) and He I emission lines than are seen in typical LMC H II regions. From the measured electron temperature of about 17,000 K in the shell, we derive He/H and N/O abundance ratios which are factors of 2 and more than 10 higher, respectively, than the average LMC interstellar values. The derived oxygen abundance in the Br 13 shell is down by a factor of 8 compared to the local LMC interstellar medium (ISM); however, the derived electron temperature is affected by the presence of an incomplete shock arising from the interaction of the stellar wind with photoionized material. This uncertainty does not affect the basic conclusion that the Br 13 shell is enriched by processed material from the Wolf-Rayet star. In contrast, the shell around Br 2 shows no clear evidence of enrichment. The nebular spectrum is characterized by extremely strong (O III) and He II emission and very weak (N II). We derive normal He, O, and N abundances from our spectrum. This object therefore appears to be simply a wind-blown structure associated with a relatively dense cloud near the Wolf-Rayet star, although the very high-ionization state of the gas is unusual for a nebula associated with a Wolf-Rayet star.

  14. Testing slim-disk models on the thermal spectra of LMC X-3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straub, O.; Bursa, M.; Sądowski, A.; Steiner, J. F.; Abramowicz, M. A.; Kluźniak, W.; McClintock, J. E.; Narayan, R.; Remillard, R. A.

    2011-09-01

    Slim-disk models describe advective accretion flows at high luminosities, while reducing to the standard thin disk form in the low luminosity limit. We have developed a new spectral model, slimbb, within the framework of XSPEC, which describes fully relativistic slim-disk accretion and includes photon ray-tracing that starts from the disk photosphere, rather than the equatorial plane. We demonstrate the features of this model by applying it to RXTE spectra of the persistent black-hole X-ray binary LMC X-3. LMC X-3 has the virtues of exhibiting large intensity variations while maintaining itself in soft spectral states which are well described using accretion-disk models, making it an ideal candidate to test the aptness of slimbb. Our results demonstrate consistency between the low-luminosity (thin-disk) and high luminosity (slim-disk) regimes. The results also illustrate that advection alone does not solve the problem of the origin of the surprisingly soft high-luminosity spectra in LMC X-3. We show that X-ray continuum-fitting in the high accretion rate regime can powerfully test black-hole accretion disk models.

  15. Investigating the low-mass slope and possible turnover in the LMC IMF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gennaro, Mario

    2014-10-01

    We propose to derive the Initial Mass Function (IMF) of the field population of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) down to 0.2 solar masses, probing the mass regime where the characteristic IMF turnover is observed in our Galaxy. The power of the HST, using the WFC3 IR channel, is necessary to obtain photometric mass estimates for the faint, cool, dwarf stars with masses below the expected IMF turnover point. Only by probing the IMF down to such masses, it will be possible to clearly distinguish between a bottom-heavy or bottom-light IMF in the LMC. Recent studies, using the deepest available observations for the Small Magellanic Cloud, cannot find clear evidence of a turnover in the IMF for this galaxy, suggesting a bottom-heavy IMF in contrast to the Milky Way. A similar study of the LMC is needed to confirm a possible dependence of the low-mass IMF with galactic environment. Studies of giant ellipticals have recently challenged the picture of a universal IMF, and suggest an enviromental dependence of the IMF, with the most massive galaxies having a larger fraction of low mass stars and no IMF turnover. A study of possible IMF variations from resolved stellar populations in nearby galaxies is of great importance in sheding light on this issue. Our simple approach, using direct evidence from basic star counts, is much less prone to systematic errors with respect to studies of more distant objects which have to rely on the observations of integrated properties.

  16. Evidence for Tidal Heating in the Dynamics of LMC Carbon Stars and Red Supergiants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsen, Knut A.; Massey, P.

    2006-12-01

    We present an analysis of the kinematics of the HI gas, carbon stars, and red supergiants of the Large Magellanic Cloud. After correcting the line-of-sight velocities for the recent accurate measurement of the LMC's space motion, we find that each kinematic tracer clearly defines a flat rotation curve with similar shape but different amplitude for each tracer: 61 km s-1 for the carbon stars, 80 km s-1 for the HI gas, and 107 km s-1 for the red supergiants. We suggest that noncircular motions of the stars and gas in the LMC can at least in part explain the different rotation amplitudes. A significant fraction, 7-15%, of the total sample of carbon stars appears to be associated with previously identified tidal HI streamers. In addition, although the local velocity dispersion of the red supergiants is small, 8 km s-1, their velocity dispersion about the carbon star rotation solution is 17 km s-1, equal to the velocity dispersion of the carbon stars themselves. We thus appear to be witnessing the tidal heating of the LMC's stellar populations.

  17. The MACHO Project: Preliminary Results from 4 years of LMC observations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, K.; Alcock, C.; Alves, D.; Minniti, D.; Marshall, S.; Vandehei, T.; Griest, K.; Allsman, R.; Axelrod, T.; Freeman, K.; Peterson, B.; Rodgers, A.; Pratt, M.; Becker, A.; Stubbs, C.; Tomaney, A.; Lehner, M.; Bennett, D.; Nelson, C.; Quinn, P.; Sutherland, W.; Welch, D.

    1997-12-01

    The MACHO Project is a search for dark matter in the form of massive compact halo objects (MACHOs). Photometric monitoring of tens of millions of stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC), and Galactic bulge is used to search for gravitational microlensing events caused by these otherwise invisible objects. An analysis of 4 years of LMC data on 12.5 million stars is currently underway. We present preliminary results of this analysis which reveal about 15 candidate microlensing events. We also present our microlensing detection efficiency calculation pipeline. The accurate determination of our detection efficiency is key in estimating the MACHO contribution to the dark matter halo. The efficiency pipeline uses data from the MACHO Project's ground based survey and from HST observations of MACHO fields to determine the true color and luminosity distribution of LMC source stars. Artificial microlensing events are then inserted into the underlying source distribution, image sequences are created from a wide sample of real image conditions and detection efficiencies are determined using our standard reduction pipeline. The full calculation of our efficiencies requires the creation, reduction and analysis of 322 Gbytes of artificial image data and is currently underway. The MACHO Project dedicates this work to one of its key founders, Alex Rodgers.

  18. Multidimensional Modeling of Nova Outbursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    José, J.

    2014-12-01

    Classical novae repeatedly eject ˜10-4-10-5 M⊙ enriched in nuclear-processed material relative to solar abundances, recurring on intervals of decades to tens of millennia. They are probably the main sources of Galactic 15N, 17O and 13C. The origin of the large enhancements and inhomogeneous distribution of these species observed in high-resolution spectra of ejected nova shells has, however, remained unexplained for almost 50 years. Several mechanisms, including mixing by diffusion, shear or resonant gravity waves, have been proposed in the framework of one-dimensional or two-dimensional simulations, but none has proven successful because convective mixing can only be modeled accurately in three-dimensions. This review focuses on multidimensional modeling of nova explosions, with emphasis on mixing at the core-envelope interface. Examples of buoyant fingering driving vortices from the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability, leading to enrichment of the accreted envelope with material from the outer white dwarf core, will be described. This mixing mechanism naturally accounts for large-scale chemical inhomogeneities. Preliminary simulations of the interaction between the nova ejecta and the secondary star will also be outlined.

  19. The VMC survey. IV. The LMC star formation history and disk geometry from four VMC tiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubele, S.; Kerber, L.; Girardi, L.; Cioni, M.-R.; Marigo, P.; Zaggia, S.; Bekki, K.; de Grijs, R.; Emerson, J.; Groenewegen, M. A. T.; Gullieuszik, M.; Ivanov, V.; Miszalski, B.; Oliveira, J. M.; Tatton, B.; van Loon, J. Th.

    2012-01-01

    We derive the star formation history (SFH) for several regions of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), using deep near-infrared data from the VISTA near-infrared YJKs survey of the Magellanic system (VMC). The regions include three almost-complete 1.4 deg2 tiles located ~3.5° away from the LMC centre in distinct directions. They are split into 21.0' × 21.5' (0.12 deg2) subregions, and each of these is analysed independently. To this dataset, we add two 11.3' × 11.3' (0.036 deg2) subregions selected based on their small and uniform extinction inside the 30 Doradus tile. The SFH is derived from the simultaneous reconstruction of two different colour-magnitude diagrams (CMDs), using the minimization code StarFISH together with a database of "partial models" representing the CMDs of LMC populations of various ages and metallicities, plus a partial model for the CMD of the Milky Way foreground. The distance modulus and extinction AV is varied within intervals ~0.2 and ~0.5 mag wide, respectively, within which we identify the best-fitting star formation rate SFR(t) as a function of lookback time t, age-metallicity relation (AMR), and AV. Our results demonstrate that VMC data, due to the combination of depth and little sensitivity to differential reddening, allow the derivation of the space-resolved SFH of the LMC with unprecedented quality compared to previous wide-area surveys. In particular, the data clearly reveal the presence of peaks in the SFR(t) at ages log (t/yr) ≃ 9.3 and 9.7, which appear in most of the subregions. The most recent SFR(t) is found to vary greatly from subregion to subregion, with the general trend of being more intense in the innermost LMC, except for the tile next to the N11 complex. In the bar region, the SFR(t) seems remarkably constant over the time interval from log (t/yr) ≃ 8.4 to 9.7. The AMRs, instead, turn out to be remarkably similar across the LMC. Thanks to the accuracy in determining the distance modulus for every subregion

  20. LMC X-2: the First Extragalactic Z-Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smale, Alan

    Data from a 100ks RXTE observation of LMC X-2 in 1997 Dec reveal that the shapes of the color-color and hardness-intensity diagrams, the presence of VLFN and HFN in the power spectra, and the high intrinsic L_x are more typical of a flaring Z-source than an atoll source (Smale and Kuulkers, 2000, ApJ, 528, 702). This would make LMC X-2 the 8th Z- source known, and the first detected beyond our Galaxy. We also found a strong 8.16-hr modulation which appears to confirm a candidate P_orb from optical photometry, though we cannot rule out a chance alignment of flares. One follow-up pointing is planned for Cycle 5; we propose further observations in 2001 to study the time variability of LMC X-2, flesh out its probable Z, and confirm/reject the 8-hr periodicity.

  1. LMC X-2: the First Extragalactic Z-Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smale, Alan

    Using data from a 100ks RXTE observation of LMC X-2 in 1997 Dec, we found that the shapes of the color-color and hardness-intensity diagrams, the presence of VLFN and HFN in the power spectra, and the high intrinsic L_x are more typical of a Z-source in its flaring branch than of an atoll source (Smale and Kuulkers, 1999). This would make LMC X-2 the 8th Z-source known, and the first detected beyond our Galaxy. We also detected a strong 8.16-hr modulation which appears to confirm a candidate orbital period from optical photometry, though we cannot rule out a chance alignment of intrinsic flares. We propose a set of follow- up observations to (a) further study the high time variability of LMC X-2 and try to flesh out the branches of the Z, and (b) confirm/reject the 8-hr periodicity.

  2. The UBV Color Evolution of Classical Novae. II. Color-Magnitude Diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hachisu, Izumi; Kato, Mariko

    2016-04-01

    We have examined the outburst tracks of 40 novae in the color-magnitude diagram (intrinsic B - V color versus absolute V magnitude). After reaching the optical maximum, each nova generally evolves toward blue from the upper right to the lower left and then turns back toward the right. The 40 tracks are categorized into one of six templates: very fast nova V1500 Cyg fast novae V1668 Cyg, V1974 Cyg, and LV Vul moderately fast nova FH Ser and very slow nova PU Vul. These templates are located from the left (blue) to the right (red) in this order, depending on the envelope mass and nova speed class. A bluer nova has a less massive envelope and faster nova speed class. In novae with multiple peaks, the track of the first decay is more red than that of the second (or third) decay, because a large part of the envelope mass had already been ejected during the first peak. Thus, our newly obtained tracks in the color-magnitude diagram provide useful information to understand the physics of classical novae. We also found that the absolute magnitude at the beginning of the nebular phase is almost similar among various novae. We are able to determine the absolute magnitude (or distance modulus) by fitting the track of a target nova to the same classification of a nova with a known distance. This method for determining nova distance has been applied to some recurrent novae, and their distances have been recalculated.

  3. The variable stars of the young LMC cluster NGC 2164

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welch, Douglas L.; Mateo, Mario; Olszewski, Edward W.; Fischer, Philippe; Takamiya, Marianne

    1993-01-01

    The present search of the LMC cluster NGC 2164 for variable stars has uncovered one new member classical Cepheid variable with 3.772-day period; attention is also given to photometry for a previously unknown field overtone Cepheid variable with 3.4626-day period, and the 10.6878-day period HV 12078, which may be a member of the young NGC 2156 cluster. The clear separation of fundamental and overtone pulsators in the period-luminosity-color relation of known LMC cluster Cepheids establishes that the NGC 2164 member is a true overtone.

  4. The mass of the black hole in LMC X-3

    SciTech Connect

    Orosz, Jerome A.; Steiner, James F.; McClintock, Jeffrey E.; Buxton, Michelle M.; Bailyn, Charles D.; Steeghs, Danny; Guberman, Alec; Torres, Manuel A. P. E-mail: jsteiner@cfa.harvard.edu E-mail: michelle.buxton@yale.edu E-mail: D.T.H.Steeghs@warwick.ac.uk E-mail: M.Torres@sron.nl

    2014-10-20

    We analyze a large set of new and archival photometric and spectroscopic observations of LMC X-3 to arrive at a self-consistent dynamical model for the system. Using echelle spectra obtained with the Magellan Inamori Kyocera Echelle instrument on the 6.5 m Magellan Clay telescope and the UVES instrument on the second 8.2 m Very Large Telescope, we find a velocity semiamplitude for the secondary star of K {sub 2} = 241.1 ± 6.2 km s{sup –1}, where the uncertainty includes an estimate of the systematic error caused by X-ray heating. Using the spectra, we also find a projected rotational velocity of V {sub rot}sin i = 118.5 ± 6.6 km s{sup –1}. From an analysis of archival B and V light curves as well as new B and V light curves from the SMARTS 1.3 m telescope, we find an inclination of i = 69.°84 ± 0.°37 for models that do not include X-ray heating and an inclination of i = 69.°24 ± 0.°72 for models that incorporate X-ray heating. Adopting the latter inclination measurement, we find masses of 3.63 ± 0.57 M {sub ☉} and 6.98 ± 0.56 M {sub ☉} for the companion star and the black hole, respectively. We briefly compare our results with earlier work and discuss some of their implications.

  5. Nova-like variables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ladous, Constanze

    1993-01-01

    On grounds of different observable characteristics five classes of nova-like objects are distinguished: the UX Ursae Majoris stars, the antidwarf novae, the DQ Herculis stars, the AM Herculis stars, and the AM Canum Venaticorum stars. Some objects have not been classified specifically. Nova-like stars share most observable features with dwarf novae, except for the outburst behavior. The understanding is that dwarf novae, UX Ursae Majoris stars, and anti-dwarf novae are basically the same sort of objects. The difference between them is that in UX Ursae Majoris stars the mass transfer through the accretion disc always is high so the disc is stationary all the time; in anti-dwarf novae for some reason the mass transfer occasionally drops considerably for some time, and in dwarf novae it is low enough for the disc to undergo semiperiodic changes between high and low accretion events. DQ Herculis stars are believed to possess weakly magnetic white dwarfs which disrupt the inner disc at some distance from the central star; the rotation of the white dwarf can be seen as an additional photometric period. In AM Herculis stars, a strongly magnetic white dwarf entirely prevents the formation of an accretion disk and at the same time locks the rotation of the white dwarf to the binary orbit. Finally, AM Canum Venaticorum stars are believed to be cataclysmic variables that consist of two white dwarf components.

  6. NOVA, A BRIEF .....

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WHITING, RICHARD; AND OTHERS

    NOVA IS AN EXPERIMENTAL, 6-YEAR JUNIOR-SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL. ASPECTS OF THE PROGRAM INCLUDE THE TRIMESTER SYSTEM, THE CONTINUOUS PROGRESS CURRICULUM, TEAM TEACHING, A CLASS SCHEDULE OF FOUR 70-MINUTE PERIODS PER WEEK, THE USE OF DATA-PROCESSING EQUIPMENT, AND MODERN INSTRUCTIONAL AIDS. NOVA IS ORGANIZED CAMPUS-STYLE WITH INDIVIDUAL BUILDINGS DEVOTED…

  7. Old Novae and the SW Sextantis Phenomenon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidtobreick, L.; Tappert, C.

    2014-12-01

    From a large observing campaign, we found that nearly all non- or weakly magnetic cataclysmic variables (CVs) in the orbital period range between 2.8 and 4 hours are of SW Sex type and as such experience very high mass transfer rates. The exceptions seem to be some old novae that have periods around 3.5 h. Their spectra do not show the typical SW Sex characteristics but rather resemble those of dwarf novae with low mass transfer rates. The presence of old novae in this period range of SW Sex stars that do not follow the trend but show instead rather low mass transfer rates is interpreted as evidence for an effect of the nova eruption on the mass transfer rate of the underlying CV similar to the hibernation scenario.

  8. Nucleosynthesis in classical novae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    José, Jordi; Hernanz, Margarita; Iliadis, Christian

    2006-10-01

    Classical novae are dramatic stellar explosions with an energy release that is only overcome by supernovae and gamma-ray bursts. These unique cataclysmic events constitute a crucible where different scientific disciplines merge, including astrophysics, nuclear and atomic physics, cosmochemistry, high-energy physics or computer science. In this review, we focus on the nucleosynthesis accompanying nova outbursts. Theoretical predictions are compared with the elemental abundances inferred from observations of the nova ejecta as well as with the isotopic abundance ratios measured in meteorites. Special emphasis is given to the interplay between nova outbursts and the Galactic abundance pattern and on the synthesis of radioactive nuclei for which γ-ray signals are expected. Finally, we analyze the key role played by nuclear physics in our understanding of the nova phenomenon by means of recent experiments and a thorough account of the impact of nuclear uncertainties.

  9. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Eclipsing binaries in LMC (Muraveva+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muraveva, T.; Clementini, G.; Maceroni, C.; Evans, C. J.; Moretti, M. I.; Cioni, M.-R. L.; Marquette, J. B.; Ripepi, V.; de Grijs, R.; Groenewegen, M. A. T.; Piatti, A. E.; van Loon, J. T.

    2015-03-01

    The EROS-2 microlensing survey has monitored about 88deg2 LMC discovering a large number of CCs, RR Lyrae stars, binaries and long period variables (LPVs), both in the centre and in the outer regions of the galaxy. The survey was carried out with the Marly 1-m telescope at ESO, La Silla, from 1996 July to 2003 February. Observations were performed in two wide passbands, the so-called REROS band centred close to the IC standard band, and the BEROS band intermediate between the standard V and R bands. (6 data files).

  10. Models for various aspects of dwarf novae and nova-like stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ladous, Constanze

    1993-01-01

    The first attempts to explain the nature of dwarf novae were based on the assumption of single-star phenomena, in which emission lines were assumed to be caused by circumstellar gas shells. The outburst behavior was tentatively ascribed to the kind of (also not understood) mechanism leading to nova outbursts. The realization that some, and possibly all, dwarf novae and nova-like stars (and novae) are binaries eventually led to models which bore more and more similarities to the modern interpretation on the basis of the Roche model. Not all cataclysmic variables are known binaries. In fact, with respect to the entire number of known objects, the proven binaries are still the minority, but all the brightest variables are in fact known to binaries. Not a single system is known which exhibits the usual characteristics of a cataclysmic variable and at the same time can be declared with certainty to be a single star. Two systems are known, the dwarf nova EY Cyg and the recurrent nova V1017 Sgr, in which, in spite of intensive search, no radial velocity variations have been found; but they still exhibit composite spectra consisting of a bright continuum, an emission spectrum, and a cool absorption spectrum. If the Roche model is correct, it is to be expected that a small percentage of objects is viewed pole-on, so orbital motions do not make themselves felt as Doppler shifts of spectral lines. So even these two systems support the hypothesis that all cataclysmic variables (with the possible exception of symbiotic stars) are binaries. In cataclysmic variables, it seems that the brightness changes observed in dwarf novae and nova-like stars in the optical and the UV are due directly to changes in the accretion disks. The study and understanding of accretion disks in these systems can bear potentially valuable consequences for many other fields in astronomy. The observed spectra of dwarf novae and nova-like stars comprise a fairly large range: pure emission spectra, pure

  11. Models for various aspects of dwarf novae and nova-like stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Dous, Constanze

    1993-09-01

    The first attempts to explain the nature of dwarf novae were based on the assumption of single-star phenomena, in which emission lines were assumed to be caused by circumstellar gas shells. The outburst behavior was tentatively ascribed to the kind of (also not understood) mechanism leading to nova outbursts. The realization that some, and possibly all, dwarf novae and nova-like stars (and novae) are binaries eventually led to models which bore more and more similarities to the modern interpretation on the basis of the Roche model. Not all cataclysmic variables are known binaries. In fact, with respect to the entire number of known objects, the proven binaries are still the minority, but all the brightest variables are in fact known to binaries. Not a single system is known which exhibits the usual characteristics of a cataclysmic variable and at the same time can be declared with certainty to be a single star. Two systems are known, the dwarf nova EY Cyg and the recurrent nova V1017 Sgr, in which, in spite of intensive search, no radial velocity variations have been found; but they still exhibit composite spectra consisting of a bright continuum, an emission spectrum, and a cool absorption spectrum. If the Roche model is correct, it is to be expected that a small percentage of objects is viewed pole-on, so orbital motions do not make themselves felt as Doppler shifts of spectral lines. So even these two systems support the hypothesis that all cataclysmic variables (with the possible exception of symbiotic stars) are binaries. In cataclysmic variables, it seems that the brightness changes observed in dwarf novae and nova-like stars in the optical and the UV are due directly to changes in the accretion disks. The study and understanding of accretion disks in these systems can bear potentially valuable consequences for many other fields in astronomy. The observed spectra of dwarf novae and nova-like stars comprise a fairly large range: pure emission spectra, pure

  12. The Complete Z-diagram of LMC X-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor); Smale, A. P.; Homan, J.; Kuulkers, E.

    2003-01-01

    We present results from four Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) observations of the bright low mass X-ray binary LMC X-2. During these observations, which span a year and include over 160 hrs of data, the source exhibits clear evolution through three branches on its hardness-intensity and color-color diagrams, consistent with the flaring, normal, and horizontal branches (FB, NB, HB) of a Z-source, and remarkably similar to Z-tracks derived for GX 17+2, Sco X-1 and GX 349+2. LMC X-2 was observed in the FB, NB, and HB for roughly 30%, 40%, and 30% respectively of the total time covered. The source traces out the full extent of the Z in approximately 1 day, and the Z-track shows evidence for secular shifts on a timescale in excess of a few days. Although the count rate of LMC X-2 is low compared with the other known 2-sources due to its greater distance, the power density spectra selected by branch show very-low-frequency noise characteristics at least consistent with those from other Z-sources. We thus confirm the identification of LMC X-2 as a Z-source, the first identified outside our Galaxy.

  13. Ages of LMC star clusters using ASAD2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asa'd, Randa S.; Vazdekis, Alexandre; Zeinelabdin, Sami

    2016-04-01

    We use ASAD2, the new version of ASAD (Analyzer of Spectra for Age Determination), to obtain the age and reddening of 27 Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) clusters from full fitting of integrated spectra using different statistical methods [χ2 and Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS) test] and a set of stellar population models including GALAXEV and MILES. We show that our results are in good agreement with the colour-magnitude diagram (CMD) ages for both models, and that metallicity does not affect the age determination for the full spectrum fitting method regardless of the model used for ages with log (age/year) < 9. We discuss the results obtained by the two statistical results for both GALAXEV and MILES versus three factors: age, signal-to-noise ratio and resolution (full width at half maximum). The predicted reddening values when using the χ2 minimization method are within the range found in the literature for resolved clusters (i.e. <0.35); however the KS test can predict E(B - V) higher values. The sharp spectrum transition originated at ages around the supergiants contribution, at either side of the AGB peak around log (age/year) 9.0 and log (age/year) 7.8 are limiting our ability to provide values in agreement with the CMD estimates and as a result the reddening determination is not accurate. We provide the detailed results of four clusters spanning a wide range of ages. ASAD2 is a user-friendly program available for download on the Web and can be immediately used at http://randaasad.wordpress.com/asad-package/.

  14. Multiwavelength diagnostics for newly discovered PNe in the outer LMC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, W.; Parker, Q. A.

    2014-04-01

    We have extended our PNe survey to the outer ~64deg^2 of the LMC using maps from the Magellanic Cloud Emission Line Survey (MCELS) and the UKST H-alpha and red surveys. Although the MCELS survey has poorer ~5 arcsecond resolution than the UKST survey, it has the advantage of additional narrow-band filters at H-alpha, [OIII] and [SII], providing improved diagnostic capabilities. The UKST survey has a similar angular resolution (~2 arcsec from 0.67 arcsec pixels) to our original median stacked map of the central 25deg^2 of the central LMC, but lacks the depth advantages provided by median stacking. Using these data to uncover new emission line candidates we have so far spectroscopically confirmed an extra 63 LMC PNe which we present here. We have also independently recovered and spectroscopically confirmed 107 of the 109 (98%) PNe that were previously known to exist in the outer LMC. The majority of our newly discovered and previously known PNe were confirmed using the AAOmega, multi-object fibre spectroscopy system on the 3.9-m Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT) and the 6dF multi-object spectrograph on the UK Schmidt Telescope (UKST). These newly identified PNe were cross-checked using extant multi-wavelength imaging surveys in the near and mid-infrared in particular and against the latest emission-line ratio diagnostic plots for improved confidence in PNe identification. These new identifications raise the number of known PNe in the LMC to 715, approaching the number of 900 predicted by stellar evolutionary theory. We present accurate positions, diagnostic plots based on de-reddened emission lines, multi-wavelength SEDs and mid-infrared plots based on SAGE spitzer data.

  15. LMC X--2: The First Extragalactic Z-Source?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smale, Alan P.; Kuulkers, Erik

    1999-04-01

    We present RXTE observations of LMC X--2 obtained during a five-day interval in 1997 December, during which the source was radiating at a mean intensity ~ 1.2LEdd and strongly variable on timescales of seconds to hours. The shapes of the X-ray color-color and hardness-intensity diagrams during the observations, the presence of VLFN and possible HFN in the power spectra, and the high intrinsic X-ray luminosity of LMC X--2 (which historically spans 0.4--2.0LEdd for reasonable estimates of the neutron star mass) are more characteristic of a Z-source in its flaring branch than of an atoll-source. On this basis, we provisionally reclassify LMC X--2 as a Z-source, the eighth such source known and the first to be detected beyond our Galaxy. Using periodogram and Fourier analysis of the X-ray lightcurve we detect an apparently-significant X-ray modulation with a period of 8.160+/-0.011 hrs and a semi-amplitude increasing from 14% in the 1.8--4.0 keV range to 40% at 8.7--19.7 keV. This X-ray modulation appears to confirm a candidate orbital periodicity determined from optical photometry ten years prior to our campaign, but we cannot rule out a chance alignment of intrinsic X-ray flares. Current RXTE ASM light curves, and archival EXOSAT observations, show no sign of such a pronounced periodicity. The X-ray spectrum of LMC X--2 can be well fit using variations of simple Comptonization models. Fits to intensity( =~ phase)-resolved spectra show strong correlations between the power law slope (in one parameterization) or the depth to optical scattering (in another) and intensity. We discuss the implications for the inclination, geometry, and emitting regions of the LMC X--2 system.

  16. The awakening of a classical nova from hibernation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mróz, Przemek; Udalski, Andrzej; Pietrukowicz, Paweł; Szymański, Michał K.; Soszyński, Igor; Wyrzykowski, Łukasz; Poleski, Radosław; Kozłowski, Szymon; Skowron, Jan; Ulaczyk, Krzysztof; Skowron, Dorota; Pawlak, Michał

    2016-09-01

    Cataclysmic variable stars—novae, dwarf novae, and nova-likes—are close binary systems consisting of a white dwarf star (the primary) that is accreting matter from a low-mass companion star (the secondary). From time to time such systems undergo large-amplitude brightenings. The most spectacular eruptions, with a ten-thousandfold increase in brightness, occur in classical novae and are caused by a thermonuclear runaway on the surface of the white dwarf. Such eruptions are thought to recur on timescales of ten thousand to a million years. In between, the system’s properties depend primarily on the mass-transfer rate: if it is lower than a billionth of a solar mass per year, the accretion becomes unstable and the matter is dumped onto the white dwarf during quasi-periodic dwarf nova outbursts. The hibernation hypothesis predicts that nova eruptions strongly affect the mass-transfer rate in the binary, keeping it high for centuries after the event. Subsequently, the mass-transfer rate should significantly decrease for a thousand to a million years, starting the hibernation phase. After that the nova awakes again—with accretion returning to the pre-eruption level and leading to a new nova explosion. The hibernation model predicts cyclical evolution of cataclysmic variables through phases of high and low mass-transfer. The theory gained some support from the discovery of ancient nova shells around the dwarf novae Z Camelopardalis and AT Cancri, but direct evidence for considerable mass-transfer changes prior, during and after nova eruptions has not hitherto been found. Here we report long-term observations of the classical nova V1213 Cen (Nova Centauri 2009) covering its pre- and post-eruption phases and precisely documenting its evolution. Within the six years before the explosion, the system revealed dwarf nova outbursts indicative of a low mass-transfer rate. The post-nova is two orders of magnitude brighter than the pre-nova at minimum light with no trace of

  17. The EPOCH Project. I. Periodic variable stars in the EROS-2 LMC database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dae-Won; Protopapas, Pavlos; Bailer-Jones, Coryn A. L.; Byun, Yong-Ik; Chang, Seo-Won; Marquette, Jean-Baptiste; Shin, Min-Su

    2014-06-01

    The EPOCH (EROS-2 periodic variable star classification using machine learning) project aims to detect periodic variable stars in the EROS-2 light curve database. In this paper, we present the first result of the classification of periodic variable stars in the EROS-2 LMC database. To classify these variables, we first built a training set by compiling known variables in the Large Magellanic Cloud area from the OGLE and MACHO surveys. We crossmatched these variables with the EROS-2 sources and extracted 22 variability features from 28 392 light curves of the corresponding EROS-2 sources. We then used the random forest method to classify the EROS-2 sources in the training set. We designed the model to separate not only δ Scuti stars, RR Lyraes, Cepheids, eclipsing binaries, and long-period variables, the superclasses, but also their subclasses, such as RRab, RRc, RRd, and RRe for RR Lyraes, and similarly for the other variable types. The model trained using only the superclasses shows 99% recall and precision, while the model trained on all subclasses shows 87% recall and precision. We applied the trained model to the entire EROS-2 LMC database, which contains about 29 million sources, and found 117 234 periodic variable candidates. Out of these 117 234 periodic variables, 55 285 have not been discovered by either OGLE or MACHO variability studies. This set comprises 1906 δ Scuti stars, 6607 RR Lyraes, 638 Cepheids, 178 Type II Cepheids, 34 562 eclipsing binaries, and 11 394 long-period variables. catalog of these EROS-2 LMC periodic variable stars is available at http://stardb.yonsei.ac.kr and at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/566/A43

  18. Nova Discovery Efficiency 1890-2014; Only 43%±6% of the Brightest Nova Are Discovered

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefer, Bradley E.

    2014-06-01

    Galactic nova discovery has always been the domain of the best amateur astronomers, with the only substantial exception being the use of the Harvard plates from 1890-1947. (Modern CCD surveys have not produced any significant nova discoveries.) From 1890-1946, novae were discovered by gentlemen who deeply knew the stars in the sky and who checked for new stars on every clear night. This all changed when war surplus binoculars became commonly available, so the various organizations (e.g., AAVSO, BAA) instructed their hunters to use binoculars to regularly search small areas of the Milky Way. In the 1970s the hunters largely switched to blinking photographs, while they switched to CCD images in the 1990s, all exclusively in Milky Way regions. Currently, most hunters use 'go-to' scopes to look deeply only in the Milky Way, use weekly or monthly cadences, never go outside to look up at the light-polluted skies, and do not have the stars memorized at all. This situation is good for catching many faint novae, but is inefficient for catching the more isotropic and systematically-fast bright novae.I have made an exhaustive analysis of all known novae to isolate the effects on the relative discovery efficiency as a function of decade, the elongation from the Sun, the Moon's phase, the declination, the peak magnitude, and the duration of the peak. For example, the relative efficiency for novae south of declination -33° is 0.5 before 1953, 0.2 from 1953-1990, and 0.8 after 1990. My analysis gives the overall discovery efficiency to be 43%±6%, 30%, 22%, 12%, and 6% for novae peaking brighter than 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 mag. Thus, the majority of first magnitude novae are being missed. The bright novae are lost because they are too close to the Sun, in the far south, and/or very fast. This is illustrated by the discovery rate for Vpeak<2 novae being once every five years before 1946, yet only one such nova (V1500 Cyg) has been seen in the last 68 years. A critical consequence of

  19. Light echoes - Novae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaefer, Bradley E.

    1988-01-01

    The sudden brilliance of a nova eruption will be reflected on surrounding dust grains to create a phantom nebula. Previous searches for these light echoes have used relatively short exposures with photograhic detectors. This paper reports on a search around eight recent novae with long exposures using a CCD camera. Despite an increase of sensitivity by over an order of magnitude, no light echoes were detected. It is found that the average grain density must be less than about 10 to the -9th per cu cm for distances from 0.1 pc to 1000 pc from the novae. The light echo around Nova Persei 1901 was caused by reflection off clouds with grain densities of several times 10 to the -9th per cu cm which are at distances between 0.1 pc and 10 pc. Echoes from dust in a circumstellar shell or ejected during a previous eruption will be effectively unobservable.

  20. Investigating formation of isolated intermediate/massive YSOs in the LMC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harada, Ryohei; Onishi, Toshikazu; Hughes, Annie; Meixner, Margaret; Sewilo, Marta; Indebetouw, Remy; Nayak, Omnarayani; Tokuda, Kazuki; Morioka, Yuuki; Fukui, Yasuo; Kawamura, Akiko; Wong, Tony; Bernard, Jean-Philippe

    2015-08-01

    High-mass stars usually form in giant molecular clouds (GMCs) as part of a young stellar cluster, but some isolated O/B stars are observed. What are the initial conditions that lead to the formation of these objects? The aim of this study is to measure the distribution and basic physical properties of the neutral gas associated with isolated intermediate- and high-mass young stellar objects (YSOs) in the Large Magellanic Cloud.As part of the SAGE Spitzer Legacy program for the LMC, we have identified and confirmed the YSOs using Spitzer IRAC photometry and IRS spectroscopy. By examining the spatial coincidence between the YSOs and 12CO(1-0) emission detected by the NANTEN mapping survey, we identified more than one hundred intermediate/massive YSOs in the LMC that appear to be isolated, i.e. not associated with CO emission. Deeper follow-up CO observations by our team with the higher resolution Mopra Telescope (beam=30") detected CO emission at the YSO position for ~80% of the isolated LMC YSOs. The CO emission associated with the YSOs was sometimes spatially extended, but in some cases, the CO emission was only detected exactly coincident with the YSO position. The molecular clouds associated with these YSOs must therefore have sizes smaller than 8 pc and masses less than a few thousand solar masses.We obtained ALMA observations of some of the targets during Cycle 2. We targeted a small but representative (in terms of their association with neutral gas tracers) sample of the isolated high-mass YSOs that we have been studying in the LMC. All of our 14 targets are separated by more than 200pc from known CO clouds or the edges of HI supershells to exclude potential "runaway" sources. Our preliminary analysis of the ALMA data shows that a compact 13CO(1-0) cloud whose mass is a few thousand solar masses or smaller is associated with most of the YSOs.

  1. The first study of the light-travel time effect in massive LMC eclipsing binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zasche, P.; Wolf, M.; Vraštil, J.; Pilarčík, L.; Juryšek, J.

    2016-05-01

    Aims: New CCD observations for semidetached and detached eclipsing binaries from the Large Magellanic Cloud were carried out using the Danish 1.54-m telescope located at the La Silla Observatory in Chile. The selected systems were monitored for their times of minima, which were required to be able to study the period changes taking place in them. In addition, many new times of minima were derived from the photometric surveys OGLE-II, OGLE-III, and MACHO. Methods: The O-C diagrams of minima timings were analysed using the hypothesis of the light-travel time effect, i.e. assuming the orbital motion around a common barycenter with the distant component. Moreover, the light curves of these systems were also analysed using the program PHOEBE, which provided the physical parameters of the stars. Results: For the first time, in this study we derived the relatively short periods of modulation in these systems, which relates to third bodies. The orbital periods resulted from 3.6 to 11.3 yr and the eccentricities were found to be up to 0.64. This is the first time that this kind of analysis for the set of extragalactic sources has been performed. The Wolf-Rayet system OGLE-LMC-ECL-08823 is the most mysterious one, owing to the resultant high mass function. Another system, OGLE-LMC-ECL-19996, was found to contain a third body with a very high mass (M3,min = 26M⊙). One system (OGLE-LMC-ECL-09971) is suspicious because of its eccentricity, and another one (OGLE-LMC-ECL-20162) shows some light curve variability, with a possible flare-like or microlensing-like event. Conclusions: All of these results came only from the photometric observations of the systems and can be considered as a good starting point for future dedicated observations. Based on data collected with the Danish 1.54-m telescope at the ESO La Silla Observatory.Full Table 4 is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc

  2. Radial distribution of metallicity in the LMC cluster systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kontizas, M.; Kontizas, E.; Michalitsianos, A. G.

    1993-01-01

    New determinations of the deprojected distances to the galaxy center for 94 star clusters and their metal abundances are used to investigate the variation of metallicity across the two LMC star cluster systems (Kontizas et al. 1990). A systematic radial trend of metallicity is observed in the extended outer cluster system, the outermost clusters being significantly metal poorer than the more central ones, with the exception of six clusters (which might lie out of the plane of the cluster system) out of 77. A radial metallicity gradient has been found, qualitatively comparable to that of the Milky Way for its system of the old disk clusters. If the six clusters are taken into consideration then the outer cluster system is well mixed up to 8 kpc. The spatial distribution of metallicities for the inner LMC cluster system, consisting of very young globulars does not show a systematic radial trend; they are all metal rich.

  3. The Anomalous Low State of LMC X-3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smale, A. P.; Boyd, P. T.; Markwardt, C. B.

    2009-01-01

    Archival RXTE ASM and PCA observations of the black hole binary LMC X-3 reveal a dramatic and extended low state lasting from December 8, 2003 until March 18, 2004, unprecedented both in its Low luminosity (Lx(2-10keV)=4.2x 1035 ergs s-1, approximately 4 times fainter than ever before seen from LMC X-3 in its low/hard state, and representing 0.15% of its X-ray luminosity during the high/soft state); and Long duration (approximately equal to 100 days, as compared with 5-20 days for 'normal' low/hard state excursions). During this anomalous low state no significant variability is observed on timescales of days-weeks, and the spectrum is well described by a simple power law with index 1.7 plus or minus 0.2. We examine the variability characteristics of LMC X-3 before and after this event using conventional and topological methods, and show that with the exception of the anomalous low state itself the long-term behavior of the source in topological phase space can be completely described in terms of a well-understood nonlinear dynamics system known as the Duffing oscillator, implying that the accretion disk in LMC X-3 is a driven, dissipative system with two solutions competing for control of its time evolution. This work shows that dynamical information and constraints revealed by topological analysis methods can provide a valuable addition to traditional studies of accretion disk behavior.

  4. NovaNET User Manual for C-Router Instructors. Second Edition Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortner, Monica B.; Davis, Dennis M.

    The NovaNET computer system is a mainframe system with a large network of users sharing the same computer. This manual is intended to teach instructors how to use the NovaNET system to deliver instruction to their students. The manual is divided into four main sections, each of which teaches a group of skills needed by NovaNET instructors. The…

  5. The spatial evolution of stellar structures in the LMC/SMC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastian, Nate; Gieles, Mark; Ercolano, Barbara; Gutermuth, Robert

    2009-03-01

    We present an analysis of the spatial distribution of various stellar populations within the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds. We use optically selected stellar samples with mean ages between ~9 and ~1000 Myr, and existing stellar cluster catalogues to investigate how stellar structures form and evolve within the LMC/SMC. We use two statistical techniques to study the evolution of structure within these galaxies, the Q-parameter and the two-point correlation function (TPCF). In both galaxies we find the stars are born with a high degree of substructure (i.e. are highly fractal) and that the stellar distribution approaches that of the “background” population on timescales similar to the crossing times of the galaxy (~ 80 Myr & ~ 150 Myr for the SMC/LMC respectively). By comparing our observations to simple models of structural evolution we find that “popping star clusters” do not significantly influence structural evolution in these galaxies. Instead we argue that general galactic dynamics are the main drivers, and that substructure will be erased in approximately the crossing time, regardless of spatial scale, from small clusters to whole galaxies. This can explain why many young Galactic clusters have high degrees of substructure, while others are smooth and centrally concentrated. We conclude with a general discussion on cluster “infant mortality”, in an attempt to clarify the time/spatial scales involved.

  6. Long Period Variables in the LMC: Results from MACHO and 2Mass

    SciTech Connect

    Fraser, O J; Cook, K H; Keller, S C; Hawley, S L

    2004-07-19

    We use the eight year light curve database from the MACHO (MAssive Compact Halo Objects) project together with infrared colors and magnitudes from 2MASS (the Two Micron All Sky Survey) to identify a sample of 22,000 long period variables in the Large Magellanic Cloud (referred to hereafter as LMC LPVs). A period luminosity diagram of these stars reveals six well defined sequences, in substantial agreement with previous analyses of samples from OGLE (Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment). In our analysis we identify analogues to galactic LPVs in the LMC LPV sample. We find that carbon dominated AGB stars populate only two of the sequences, one of which includes the Mira variables. The high luminosity end of the same two sequences are also the location of the only stars with J K{sub s} > 2, indicating that they are enshrouded in dust. The unknown mechanism that produces the variability of the last sequence--those stars with long secondary periods--produces different morphology in the period luminosity diagram than what is seen in the first four sequences, which are thought to be caused by pulsation. In particular, the last sequence extends to lower luminosity RGB stars and the luminosity function does not peak among the AGB stars. We point out several features which will constrain new models of the period luminosity sequences.

  7. The Nature and Cause of Spectral Variability in LMC X-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruhlen, L.; Smith, D. M.; Scank, J. H.

    2011-01-01

    We present the results of a long-term observation campaign of the extragalactic wind-accreting black-hole X-ray binary LMC X-1, using the Proportional Counter Array on the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer (RXTE). The observations show that LMC X-1's accretion disk exhibits an anomalous temperature-luminosity relation. We use deep archival RXTE observations to show that large movements across the temperature-luminosity space occupied by the system can take place on time scales as short as half an hour. These changes cannot be adequately explained by perturbations that propagate from the outer disk on a viscous timescale. We propose instead that the apparent disk variations reflect rapid fluctuations within the Compton up-scattering coronal material, which occults the inner parts of the disk. The expected relationship between the observed disk luminosity and apparent disk temperature derived from the variable occultation model is quantitatively shown to be in good agreement with the observations. Two other observations support this picture: an inverse correlation between the flux in the power-law spectral component and the fitted inner disk temperature, and a near-constant total photon flux, suggesting that the inner disk is not ejected when a lower temperature is observed.

  8. APSIDAL MOTION AND A LIGHT CURVE SOLUTION FOR 13 LMC ECCENTRIC ECLIPSING BINARIES

    SciTech Connect

    Zasche, P.; Wolf, M.; Vraštil, J.; Pilarcik, L.

    2015-12-15

    New CCD observations for 13 eccentric eclipsing binaries from the Large Magellanic Cloud were carried out using the Danish 1.54 m telescope located at the La Silla Observatory in Chile. These systems were observed for their times of minimum and 56 new minima were obtained. These are needed for accurate determination of the apsidal motion. Besides that, in total 436 times of minimum were derived from the photometric databases OGLE and MACHO. The O – C diagrams of minimum timings for these B-type binaries were analyzed and the parameters of the apsidal motion were computed. The light curves of these systems were fitted using the program PHOEBE, giving the light curve parameters. We derived for the first time relatively short periods of the apsidal motion ranging from 21 to 107 years. The system OGLE-LMC-ECL-07902 was also analyzed using the spectra and radial velocities, resulting in masses of 6.8 and 4.4 M{sub ⊙} for the eclipsing components. For one system (OGLE-LMC-ECL-20112), the third-body hypothesis was also used to describe the residuals after subtraction of the apsidal motion, resulting in a period of about 22 years. For several systems an additional third light was also detected, which makes these systems suspect for triplicity.

  9. THE DWARF NOVA OUTBURSTS OF NOVA HER 1960 (=V446 HER)

    SciTech Connect

    Honeycutt, R. K.; Robertson, J. W.; Kafka, S. E-mail: jrobertson@atu.edu

    2011-04-15

    V446 Her is the best example of an old nova which has developed dwarf nova (DN) eruptions in the post-nova state. We report on observed properties of the long-term light curve of V446 Her, using photometry over 19 years. Yearly averages of the outburst (OB) magnitudes show a decline of {approx}0.013 mag yr{sup -1}, consistent with the decline of other post-novae that do not have DN OBs. Previous suggestions of bimodal distributions of the amplitudes and widths of the OBs are confirmed. The OBs occur at a mean spacing of 18 days but the range of spacings is large (13-30 days). From simulations of DN OBs, it has been predicted that the OB spacing in V446 Her will increase as M-dot from the red dwarf companion slowly falls following the nova; however, the large intrinsic scatter in the spacings serves to hide any evidence of this effect. We do find a systematic change in the OB pattern in which the brighter, wider type of OBs disappeared after late 2003, and this phenomenon is suggested to be due to falling M-dot following the nova.

  10. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Chemical evolution in the LMC with a new model (Acharyya+, 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acharyya, K.; Herbst, E.

    2016-02-01

    Using a new network and a new model, we have studied chemical complexity in cold portions of dense clouds of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). We varied the hydrogen number density between 1x105 and 5x105/cm3 and, for each density, we ran models for AV=3, 5, and 10. Then, for each density and visual extinction we varied the grain temperature between 10 and 50K in small intervals, while keeping the gas temperature constant at 20K. We used a gas-to-dust mass ratio based on a variety of observations and analyses, and scaled the elemental abundances of the LMC so that they are representative of so-called "low" metallic abundances. We found that although the LMC is metal-poor, it still shows a rich chemistry; almost all the major observed species in the gas phase of our Galaxy should be detectable using present-day observational facilities. We compared our model results with observed gas-phase abundances in some cold and dense sources, and found reasonably good agreement for most species. We also found that some observed results, especially for methanol, are better matched if these regions currently possess lower temperatures, or possessed them in the past. Finally, we discussed our simulated abundances for H2O ice with respect to total hydrogen, and CO2, CO, CH3OH, and NH3 ices with respect to water ice, and compared our values with those for two observed ices --CO2 and CO-- detected in front of young stellar objects in the LMC. (1 data file).

  11. Spitzer Sage/lmc Observations Of Extreme Carbon Stars As A Probe Of Carbon-rich Stardust Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parmley, Nicholas; Speck, A. K.; Mulia, A. J.; SAGE-Spec Team

    2012-01-01

    Intermediate mass stars eventually evolve into asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars and are major contributors of new mateiral to the interstellar medium (ISM) and the next generation of stars. The Spitzer legacy program Surveying the Agents of Galaxy Evolution (SAGE) performed an infrared survey of the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds(LMC and SMC, respectively). SAGE's goal is to follow the life cycle of matter that drives galactic evolution. SAGE-Spec is the spectroscopic follow up project in which we study the dust production in more detail. Here we present a study of extreme carbon stars in the LMC. These stars have intermediate mass and are losing copious amounts of material to the ISM. These carbon stars have such high mass-loss rates that the dust shells they form completely obscure their starlight. The SAGE program has discovered that these extreme carbon stars are more common than expected compared to the number found in our own galaxy and for the sub-solar metallicity of the LMC. This dataset allows us to investigate the variations in properties of the dust around are fairly homogeneous sample of stars. We show that the emissivity of the dust around extreme carbon stars varies markedly and is rarely consistent with the commonly-assumed emissivity power-law value of 1.2.

  12. Quark-Nova

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouyed, R.; Dey, J.; Dey, M.

    2002-07-01

    We explore the scenario where the core of a neutron star (having experienced a transition to an up and down quark phase) shrinks into the equilibrated quark object after reaching strange quark matter saturation density (where a composition of up, down and strange quarks is the favored state of matter). The overlaying (envelope) material free-falls following the core contraction releasing upto 1053 ergs in energy as radiation, partly as a result of the conversion of envelope material to quarks. This phenomena, we named Quark-Nova, leads to a wide variety of ejectae ranging form the Newtonian, ``dirty" to the ultra-relativistic fireball. The mass range of the corresponding compact remnant (the quark star) ranges from less than 0.3 Msun up to a solar mass. We discuss the connection between Quark-Novae and Gamma ray bursts and suggest the recently studied GRB011211 event as a plausible Quark-Nova candidate.

  13. Terra Nova breaks new ground for alliances

    SciTech Connect

    Ghiselin, D.

    1996-08-01

    This paper reviews the development of alliances to help develop the Terra Nova oil and gas field in the offshore Atlantic areas of Canada. Largely attributed to BP, the strategic alliance concept got its start in the North Sea and on the North Slope of Alaska. BP saw it as the best way to take advantage of economy-of-scale, mitigate risk, and achieve outsourcing goals while retaining their core competencies. This paper reviews the methods of developing the alliances, the developing of a development plan for the Terra Nova field, and how the alliance plans to maximize the profittability of the operation for all involved.

  14. Observations of Novae From ROAD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hambsch, F.-J.

    2014-12-01

    The author discusses observations of galactic novae and some extragalactic supernovae from his remote observatory ROAD (Remote Observatory Atacama Desert) he commenced in August 2011 with Nova Lupi 2011 (PR Lup). The observed novae are mainly chosen according to AAVSO Alert Notices and AAVSO Special Notices as published on their website. Examples of dense observations of different novae are presented. The focus goes to the different behaviors of their light curves. It also demonstrates the capability of the remote observatory ROAD.

  15. Observations of Novae from ROAD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hambsch, Franz-Josef

    2014-05-01

    The author discusses observations of galactic novae and some extragalactic supernovae from his remote observatory ROAD (Remote Observatory Atacama Desert) he commenced in August 2011 with Nova Lupi 2011 (PR Lup). The observed novae are mainly chosen according to alert notices and special notices of the AAVSO as published on their website. Examples of dense observations of different novae are presented. The focus goes to the different behaviors of their light curves. It also demonstrates the capability of the remote observatory ROAD.

  16. Precision Nova operations

    SciTech Connect

    Ehrlich, R.B.; Miller, J.L.; Saunders, R.L.; Thompson, C.E.; Weiland, T.L.; Laumann, C.W.

    1995-09-01

    To improve the symmetry of x-ray drive on indirectly driven ICF capsules, we have increased the accuracy of operating procedures and diagnostics on the Nova laser. Precision Nova operations includes routine precision power balance to within 10% rms in the ``foot`` and 5% nns in the peak of shaped pulses, beam synchronization to within 10 ps rms, and pointing of the beams onto targets to within 35 {mu}m rms. We have also added a ``fail-safe chirp`` system to avoid Stimulated Brillouin Scattering (SBS) in optical components during high energy shots.

  17. Terra Nova Bay Polynya, Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    In Terra Nova Bay, off the Scott Coast of Victoria Land, Antarctica, a large pocket of open water persists throughout most of the Southern Hemisphere winter, even while most of the rest of the Antarctic coastline is firmly embraced by the frozen Southern Ocean. This pocket of open water--a polynya--results from exceptionally strong winds that blow downslope from the Trans-Antarctic Mountains. These fierce katabatic winds drive the sea ice eastward. Since the dominant ice drift pattern in the area is northward, the Drygalski Ice Tongue prevents the bay from being re-populated with sea ice. This image of the Terra Nova Bay polynya was captured by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Aqua satellite on October 16, 2007. Sea ice sits over the Ross Sea like a cracked and crumbling windshield. Blue-tinged glaciers flow down from the Trans-Antarctic Mountains. Although glaciers can appear blue because of melt water, they can also get that tint when the wind scours and polishes the ice surface. Given the strength of the katabatic winds along this part of the Antarctic coast, it is likely that the blue color of these glaciers is a result of their having been swept clean of snow. The large image has a spatial resolution (level of detail) of 250 meters per pixel.

  18. SCIENCE AT NOVA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broward County Schools, Fort Lauderdale, FL.

    THE SCIENCE PROGRAM AT NOVA HIGH SCHOOL IS STRUCTURED TO MEET THE NEEDS OF A SCIENTIFIC SOCIETY. THE JUNIOR HIGH PROGRAM EMPHASIZES THE ACCUMLATION, TABULATION, AND ANALYSIS OF DATA. THE SENIOR HIGH PROGRAM MAKES USE OF THESE PROCESSES IN THE INVESTIGATION OF VARIOUS SUBJECT AREAS. THE UNITS COMPOSING THE HIGH SCHOOL CURRICULUM ARE DESCRIBED. UNIT…

  19. Self-lensing Models of the Large Magellanic Cloud

    SciTech Connect

    Gyuk, G.; Dalal, N.; Griest, K.

    2000-05-20

    All of the proposed explanations for the microlensing events observed toward the LMC have difficulties. One of these proposed explanations, LMC self-lensing, which invokes ordinary LMC stars as the long sought-after lenses, has recently gained considerable popularity as a possible solution to the microlensing conundrum. In this paper, we carefully examine the full range of LMC self-lensing models, including for the first time the contribution of the LMC bar in both sources and lenses. In particular, we review the pertinent observations made of the LMC and show how these observations place limits on such self-lensing models. We find that, given current observational constraints, no purely LMC disk models are capable of producing optical depths as large as that reported in the MACHO collaboration 2 year analysis. We also introduce a new quantitative measure of the central concentration of the microlensing events and show that it discriminates well between disk/bar self-lensing and halo microlensing. Besides pure disk/bar, we also consider alternative geometries and present a framework which encompasses the previous studies of LMC self-lensing. We discuss which model parameters need to be pushed in order for such models to succeed. For example, like previous workers, we find that an LMC halo geometry may be able to explain the observed events. However, since all known LMC tracer stellar populations exhibit disklike kinematics, such models will have difficulty being reconciled with observations. For SMC self-lensing, we find predicted optical depths differing from previous results, but more than sufficient to explain all observed SMC microlensing. In contrast, for the LMC we find a self-lensing optical depth contribution between 0.47x10{sup -8} and 7.84x10{sup -8}, with 2.44x10{sup -8} being the value for the set of LMC parameters most consistent with current observations. (c) 2000 The American Astronomical Society.

  20. The Lowest Metallicity Stars in the LMC: Clues from MaGICC Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brook, Chris B.; Miranda, Maider S.; Gibson, Brad. K.; Pilkington, Kate; Stinson, Greg S.

    2013-07-01

    Using a cosmological hydrodynamical simulation of a galaxy of similar mass to the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), we examine the predicted characteristics of its lowest metallicity populations. In particular, we emphasise the spatial distributions of first (Pop III) and second (polluted by only immediate Pop III ancestors) generation stars. We find that primordial composition stars form not only in the central galaxy's progenitor, but also in locally collapsed subhaloes during the early phases of galaxy formation. The lowest metallicity stars in these subhaloes end up in a relatively extended distribution around the host, with these accreted stars possessing present-day galactocentric distances as great as ~40 kpc. By contrast, the earliest stars formed within the central galaxy remain in the inner region, where the vast majority of star formation occurs, for the entirety of the simulation. Consequently, the fraction of stars that are from the earliest generation increases strongly with radius.

  1. Engineering the Petawatt Laser into Nova

    SciTech Connect

    Tietbohl, G.L.; Bell, P.M.; Hamilton, R.M.

    1997-12-23

    The engineering process of integrating the Petawatt (10{sup 15} watts) laser system into the existing 30 kJ (UV) Nova laser at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is described in detail. The nanosecond-long, chirped Petawatt laser pulse is initially generated in a separate master oscillator room and then injected into one of Nova`s 10 beamlines. There, the pulse is further amplified and enlarged to {approximately}{phi}60 cm, temporally compressed under vacuum to <500 fs using large diameter diffraction gratings, and then finally focused onto targets using a parabolic mirror. The major Petawatt components are physically large which created many significant engineering challenges in design, installation and implementation. These include the diffraction gratings and mirrors, vacuum compressor chamber, target chamber, and parabolic focusing mirror. Other Petawatt system components were also technically challenging and include: an injection beamline, transport spatial filters, laser diagnostics, alignment components, motor controls, interlocks, timing and synchronization systems, support structures, and vacuum systems. The entire Petawatt laser system was designed, fabricated, installed, and activated while the Nova laser continued its normal two-shift operation. This process required careful engineering and detailed planning to prevent experimental downtime and to complete the project on schedule.

  2. STIS and FUSE Observations of the LMC Star HD 269676

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauroesch, J. T.; Meyer, D. M.; Sembach, K. R.; Howk, J. C.; Welty, D. E.

    2000-12-01

    We present Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) and Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) observations of the interstellar absorption along the sight line toward the bright LMC star HD 269676 (Sk -71 45, R113), which is located approximately 2 degrees South of 30 Doradus. Absorption due to multiple interstellar features is detected in the LMC as well as the Galactic disk and halo -- including numerous lines of species arising primarily in neutral gas (such as C I, O I, Ar I, Si II, P II, S II, Fe II, and Ni II as well as H2), as well as lines which sample highly ionized gas (such as C IV, O VI and Si IV). By combining these STIS E140M (1150--1730 Angstroms) and FUSE (900--1187 Angstrom) spectra with high resolution ground-based (AAT and ESO) observations of Na I and archival IUE observations of this star, we explore the physical conditions in the multiple interstellar clouds along this line-of-sight.

  3. Geometry of the LMC Disk: Results from MACHO and 2MASS

    SciTech Connect

    Nikolaev, S; Drake, A; Keller, S; Cook, K; Dalal, N; Griest, K; Welch, D; Kanbur, S

    2003-11-04

    We have cross-correlated MACHO LMC Cepheids with 2MASS Second Incremental Release Catalog. The resulting database is considerably larger than the set of OGLE Cepheids in the LMC bar, and has significantly better areal coverage, allowing more accurate determination of LMC geometry. Random-phase correction is applied to 2MASS J, H, and Ks magnitudes, using the knowledge of V-band light curve and the ephemeris of 2MASS observations, to produce mean magnitudes. The improvement of phase-corrected PL relations over random-phase PL relations is clearly demonstrated. Reddening is estimated for each star individually, further improving the accuracy of the method. The orientation parameters of the LMC are derived by a Maximum Likelihood approach which solves for viewing angles and PL coefficients simultaneously, providing an unbiased estimation. The results of the analysis are used to place limits on warping of the LMC disk. Implications for the microlensing optical depth are also discussed.

  4. The physics of black hole x ray novae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, J. C.; Kim, S.-W.; Moscoso, M. D.; Mineshige, S.

    1994-01-01

    X-ray transients that are established or plausible black hole candidates have been discovered at a rate of about one per year in the galaxy for the last five years. There are now well over a dozen black hole candidates, most being in the category of X-ray novae with low-mass companions. There may be hundreds of such transient systems in the galaxy yet to be discovered. Classic black hole candidates like Cygnus X-1 with massive companions are in the minority, and their census in the galaxy and magellanic clouds is likely to be complete. The black hole X-ray novae (BHXN) do not represent only the most common environment in which to discover black holes. Their time dependence gives a major new probe with which to study the physics of accretion into black holes. The BHXN show both a soft X-ray flux from an optically thick disk and a hard power law tail that is reminiscent of AGN spectra. The result may be new insight into the classical systems like Cyg X-1 and LMC X-1 that show similar power law tails, but also to accretion into supermassive black holes and AGN.

  5. Polyaniline nanofiber/large mesoporous carbon composites as electrode materials for supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Huan; Xu, Bin; Jia, Mengqiu; Zhang, Mei; Cao, Bin; Zhao, Xiaonan; Wang, Yu

    2015-03-01

    A composite of polyaniline nanofiber/large mesoporous carbon (PANI-F/LMC) hybrid was prepared by an in situ chemical oxidative polymerization of aniline monomer with nano-CaCO3 templated LMC as host matrix for supercapacitors. The morphology, composition and electronic structure of the composites (PANI-F/LMC) together with pure PANI nanofibers and the LMC were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), FT-IR, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). It is found that the PANI nanofibers were incorporated into the large mesochannels of LMC with interpenetrating framework formed. Such unique structure endows the PANI-F/LMC composite with a high capacitance of 473 F g-1 at a current load of 0.1 A g-1 with good rate performance and cycling stability, suggesting its potential application in the electrode material for supercapacitors.

  6. Nova Scorpii 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Templeton, Matthew R.

    2008-09-01

    Nova Sco 2008 was discovered by K. Nishiyama, Kurume, Fukuoka-ken, Japan, and F. Kabashima, Miyaki-cho, Saga-ken, Japan; Y. Sakurai, Mito, Ibaraki-ken, Japan; and Guoyou Sun, Qufu, Shandong, China, and Xing Gao, Urumqi, Xinjiang, China, on 2008 September 02.4594 UTC at magnitude 9.5 (unfiltered). This is a classical nova, as determined by low-resolution spectra by M. Fujii, Ibara, Okayama, Japan, and by H. Naito, Nishi-Harima Astron. Obs., on Sept 3.49 and Sept 5.47 UT, respectively. This object has been given the formal variable star designation V1309 Sco. Discovery information is from IAU Circular 8972, Daniel W.E. Green, editor. Observations should be submitted to the AAVSO International Database as V1309 SCO.

  7. VizieR Online Data Catalog: YSOs in 9 LMC star forming regions (Carlson+, 2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, L. R.; Sewilo, M.; Meixner, M.; Romita, K. A.; Lawton, B.

    2012-04-01

    We introduce a new set of selection criteria for the identification of infrared bright young stellar object (YSO) candidates and apply them to nine HII regions in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), focusing particularly on lower mass candidates missed by most surveys. Data are from the Spitzer Space Telescope legacy program SAGE (Surveying the Agents of Galaxy Evolution; Meixner et al. 2006, Cat. J/AJ/132/2268, see also II/305), combined with optical photometry from the Magellanic Clouds Photometric Survey (MCPS; Zaritsky et al. 1997AJ....114.1002Z) and near-infrared photometry from the InfraRed Survey Facility (IRSF; Kato et al. 2007, Cat. II/288). We choose regions of diverse physical size, star formation rates (SFRs), and ages. We also cover a wide range of locations and surrounding environments in the LMC. These active star-forming regions are LHA 120-N 11, N 44, N 51, N 105, N 113, N 120, N 144, N 160, and N 206. Some have been well-studied (e.g., N11, N44, N160) in the past, while others (e.g., N51, N144) have received little attention. We identify 1045 YSO candidates, including 918 never before identified and 127 matching previous candidate lists. We characterize the evolutionary stage and physical properties of each candidate using the spectral energy distribution (SED) fitter of Robitaille et al. (2007ApJS..169..328R) and estimate mass functions and SFRs for each region. (4 data files).

  8. The NOvA simulation chain

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Aurisano, A.; Backhouse, C.; Hatcher, R.; Mayer, N.; Musser, J.; Patterson, R.; Schroeter, R.; Sousa, A.

    2015-12-23

    The NOvA experiment is a two-detector, long-baseline neutrino experiment operating in the recently upgraded NuMI muon neutrino beam. Simulating neutrino interactions and backgrounds requires many steps including: the simulation of the neutrino beam flux using FLUKA and the FLUGG interface, cosmic ray generation using CRY, neutrino interaction modeling using GENIE, and a simulation of the energy deposited in the detector using GEANT4. To shorten generation time, the modeling of detector-specific aspects, such as photon transport, detector and electronics noise, and readout electronics, employs custom, parameterized simulation applications. We will describe the NOvA simulation chain, and present details on the techniquesmore » used in modeling photon transport near the ends of cells, and in developing a novel data-driven noise simulation. Due to the high intensity of the NuMI beam, the Near Detector samples a high rate of muons originating in the surrounding rock. In addition, due to its location on the surface at Ash River, MN, the Far Detector collects a large rate ((˜) 140 kHz) of cosmic muons. Furthermore, we will discuss the methods used in NOvA for overlaying rock muons and cosmic ray muons with simulated neutrino interactions and show how realistically the final simulation reproduces the preliminary NOvA data.« less

  9. Integration of the Super Nova early warning system with the NOvA Trigger

    SciTech Connect

    Habig, Alec; Zirnstein, Jan

    2015-01-01

    The NOvA experiment, with a baseline of 810km, samples Fermilab’s upgraded NuMI beam with a Near Detector on-site and a Far Detector (FD) at Ash River, MN, to observe oscillations of muon neutrinos. The 344,064 liquid scintillator-filled cells of the 14 kton FD provide high granularity of a large detector mass and enable us to also study non-accelerator based neutrinos with our Data Driven Trigger framework. This paper will focus on the real time integration of the SNEWS with the NOvA Trigger where we have set up an XML-RPC based messaging system to inject the SNEWS signal directly into our trigger. In conclusion, this presents a departure from the E-Mail based notification mechanism used by SNEWS in the past and allows NOvA more control over propagation and transmission timing.

  10. Integration of the Super Nova early warning system with the NOvA Trigger

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Habig, Alec; Zirnstein, Jan

    2015-01-01

    The NOvA experiment, with a baseline of 810km, samples Fermilab’s upgraded NuMI beam with a Near Detector on-site and a Far Detector (FD) at Ash River, MN, to observe oscillations of muon neutrinos. The 344,064 liquid scintillator-filled cells of the 14 kton FD provide high granularity of a large detector mass and enable us to also study non-accelerator based neutrinos with our Data Driven Trigger framework. This paper will focus on the real time integration of the SNEWS with the NOvA Trigger where we have set up an XML-RPC based messaging system to inject the SNEWS signal directly into ourmore » trigger. In conclusion, this presents a departure from the E-Mail based notification mechanism used by SNEWS in the past and allows NOvA more control over propagation and transmission timing.« less

  11. Integration of the Super Nova Early Warning System with the NOvA Trigger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habig, Alec; Zirnstein, Jan

    2015-12-01

    The NOvA experiment, with a baseline of 810km, samples Fermilab's upgraded NuMI beam with a Near Detector on-site and a Far Detector (FD) at Ash River, MN, to observe oscillations of muon neutrinos. The 344,064 liquid scintillator-filled cells of the 14kton FD provide high granularity of a large detector mass and enable us to also study non-accelerator based neutrinos with our Data Driven Trigger framework. This paper will focus on the real time integration of the SNEWS with the NOvA Trigger where we have set up an XML-RPC based messaging system to inject the SNEWS signal directly into our trigger. This presents a departure from the E-Mail based notification mechanism used by SNEWS in the past and allows NOvA more control over propagation and transmission timing.

  12. Nova laser alignment control system

    SciTech Connect

    Van Arsdall, P.J.; Holloway, F.W.; McGuigan, D.L.; Shelton, R.T.

    1984-03-29

    Alignment of the Nova laser requires control of hundreds of optical components in the ten beam paths. Extensive application of computer technology makes daily alignment practical. The control system is designed in a manner which provides both centralized and local manual operator controls integrated with automatic closed loop alignment. Menudriven operator consoles using high resolution color graphics displays overlaid with transport touch panels allow laser personnel to interact efficiently with the computer system. Automatic alignment is accomplished by using image analysis techniques to determine beam references points from video images acquired along the laser chain. A major goal of the design is to contribute substantially to rapid experimental turnaround and consistent alignment results. This paper describes the computer-based control structure and the software methods developed for aligning this large laser system.

  13. THE BEHAVIOR OF NOVAE LIGHT CURVES BEFORE ERUPTION

    SciTech Connect

    Collazzi, Andrew C.; Schaefer, Bradley E.; Xiao Limin; Pagnotta, Ashley; Kroll, Peter; Loechel, Klaus; Henden, Arne A.

    2009-12-15

    In 1975, E. R. Robinson conducted the hallmark study of the behavior of classical nova light curves before eruption, and this work has now become part of the standard knowledge of novae. He made three points: 5 out of 11 novae showed pre-eruption rises in the years before eruption, one nova (V446 Her) showed drastic changes in the variability across eruptions, and all but one of the novae (excepting BT Mon) have the same quiescent magnitudes before and after the outburst. This work has not been tested since it came out. We have now tested these results by going back to the original archival photographic plates and measuring large numbers of pre-eruption magnitudes for many novae using comparison stars on a modern magnitude scale. We find in particular that four out of five claimed pre-eruption rises are due to simple mistakes in the old literature, that V446 Her has the same amplitude of variations across its 1960 eruption, and that BT Mon has essentially unchanged brightness across its 1939 eruption. Out of 22 nova eruptions, we find two confirmed cases of significant pre-eruption rises (for V533 Her and V1500 Cyg), while T CrB has a deep pre-eruption dip. These events are a challenge to theorists. We find no significant cases of changes in variability across 27 nova eruptions beyond what is expected due to the usual fluctuations seen in novae away from eruptions. For 30 classical novae plus 19 eruptions from 6 recurrent novae, we find that the average change in magnitude from before the eruption to long after the eruption is 0.0 mag. However, we do find five novae (V723 Cas, V1500 Cyg, V1974 Cyg, V4633 Sgr, and RW UMi) that have significantly large changes, in that the post-eruption quiescent brightness level is over ten times brighter than the pre-eruption level. These large post-eruption brightenings are another challenge to theorists.

  14. Modelling nova populations in galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hai-Liang; Woods, T. E.; Yungelson, L. R.; Gilfanov, M.; Han, Zhanwen

    2016-05-01

    Theoretical modelling of the evolution of classical and recurrent novae plays an important role in studies of binary evolution, nucleosynthesis and accretion physics. However, from a theoretical perspective the observed statistical properties of novae remain poorly understood. In this paper, we have produced model populations of novae using a hybrid binary population synthesis approach for differing star formation histories (SFHs): a starburst case (elliptical-like galaxies), a constant star formation rate case (spiral-like galaxies) and a composite case (in line with the inferred SFH for M31). We found that the nova rate at 10 Gyr in an elliptical-like galaxy is ˜10-20 times smaller than a spiral-like galaxy with the same mass. The majority of novae in elliptical-like galaxies at the present epoch are characterized by low-mass white dwarfs (WDs), long decay times, relatively faint absolute magnitudes and long recurrence periods. In contrast, the majority of novae in spiral-like galaxies at 10 Gyr have massive WDs, short decay times, are relatively bright and have short recurrence periods. The mass-loss time distribution for novae in our M31-like galaxy is in agreement with observational data for Andromeda. However, it is possible that we underestimate the number of bright novae in our model. This may arise in part due to the present uncertainties in the appropriate bolometric correction for novae.

  15. Working Together to Understand Novae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokoloski, J.

    2013-06-01

    (Abstract only) In ancient times, people occasionally looked up to find a "nova," or new star, in the sky. With at least thirty-five per year in our galaxy, novae are the most common major stellar explosions. Although researchers now understand what causes a white dwarf to suddenly brighten into a nova, many puzzles remain, such as why novae appear to eject orders of magnitude more material than predicted by theory, and how a uniform eruption on a spherical white dwarf can expel matter in the form of jets, clumps, and rings. Coordinated observations at radio, optical, and X-ray wavelengths can answer these questions. I will describe how the AAVSO's new nova forum (http://www.aavso.org/forums/variable-stars/nova-project) is designed to enhance communication between amateur astronomers and professional astronomers who are using X-ray and newly upgraded radio telescopes to observe novae. Participants in the nova forum will have the opportunity to learn about novae, share their own expertise, and be a part of the process of scientific discovery.

  16. Non-detection of nova shells around asynchronous polars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagnotta, Ashley; Zurek, David

    2016-05-01

    Asynchronous polars (APs) are accreting white dwarfs (WDs) that have different WD and orbital angular velocities, unlike the rest of the known polars, which rotate synchronously (i.e. their WD and orbital angular velocities are the same). Past nova eruptions are the predicted cause of the asynchronicity, in part due to the fact that one of the APs, V1500 Cyg, was observed to undergo a nova eruption in 1975. We used the Southern African Large Telescope 10 m class telescope and the MDM 2.4 m Hiltner telescope to search for nova shells around three of the remaining four APs (V1432 Aql, BY Cam, and CD Ind) as well as one Intermediate Polar with a high asynchronicity (EX Hya). We found no evidence of nova shells in any of our images. We therefore cannot say that any of the systems besides V1500 Cyg had nova eruptions, but because not all post-nova systems have detectable shells, we also cannot exclude the possibility of a nova eruption occurring in any of these systems and knocking the rotation out of sync.

  17. Getting to know classical novae with Swift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osborne, Julian P.

    2015-09-01

    Novae have been reported as transients for more than two thousand years. Their bright optical outbursts are the result of explosive nuclear burning of gas accreted from a binary companion onto a white dwarf. Novae containing a white dwarf close to the Chandrasekhar mass limit and accreting at a high rate are potentially the unknown progenitors of the type Ia supernovae used to measure the acceleration of the Universe. Swift X-ray observations have radically transformed our view of novae by providing dense monitoring throughout the outburst, revealing new phenomena in the super-soft X-rays from the still-burning white dwarf such as early extreme variability and half- to one-minute timescale quasi-periodic oscillations. The distinct evolution of this emission from the harder X-ray emission due to ejecta shocks has been clearly delineated. Soft X-ray observations allow the mass of the white dwarf, the mass burned and the mass ejected to be estimated. In combination with observations at other wavelengths, including the high spectral resolution observations of the large X-ray observatories, high resolution optical and radio imaging, radio monitoring, optical spectroscopy, and the detection of GeV gamma-ray emission from recent novae, models of the explosion have been tested and developed. I review nine novae for which Swift has made a significant impact; these have shown the signature of the components in the interacting binary system in addition to the white dwarf: the re-formed accretion disk, the companion star and its stellar wind.

  18. HET Spectroscopy of Extragalactic Novae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shafter, Allen W.; Coelho, E. A.; Misselt, K. A.; Bode, M. F.; Darnley, M. J.

    2006-12-01

    We are currently involved in a multifaceted campaign to study extragalactic novae in the optical and IR using a variety of instruments: The Mount Laguna 1m, the Steward 2.3m, and the Liverpool 2m telescopes for optical imaging, the Hobbey-Eberly Telescope (HET) for optical spectroscopy, and the Spitzer Space Telescope for IR photometry and spectroscopy. Here, we report the initial results from our program of spectroscopic observations obtained with the LRS on the HET. Thus far, we have obtained spectra of three novae: Nova M31-2006#9 (ATEL 887), Nova M32-2006#1 (CBET 591), and Nova M33-2006#1 (CBET 655), which were taken on 24-Sep-2006 UT, 30-Sep-2006 UT, and 02-Oct-2006 UT, approximately 6, 65, and 4 days post discovery, for the three novae respectively. The spectra of Nova M31-2006#9 and Nova M33-2006#1 revealed prominent Balmer (FWHM 1600 km/s) and Fe II emission lines typical of the "Fe II" class in the classification system of Williams (1992 AJ, 104, 725). The spectrum of Nova M32-2006#1, which was obtained much longer after eruption, showed strong H-alpha (FWHM 1300 km/s), along with weaker H-beta, Fe II, and [N II] 5755, indicating that this nova is also a member of the Fe II class, and that it had entered the nebular phase at the time of our observations. In addition to these three novae, we also attempted to obtain a spectrum of Nova M31-2006#7 (CBET 615) on 23-Sep-2006 UT, approximately three weeks after discovery. However, by the time of our observations, the nova had faded to invisibility. An 1800s integration at the reported position reveled no trace of the nova. It is likely that this optical transient was an unusually fast nova, possibly of the "He/N" class. This work is being supported in part by NSF grant AST-0607682.

  19. Nova power systems: status and operating experience

    SciTech Connect

    Whitham, K.; Merritt, B.T.; Gritton, D.G.; Smart, A.J.; Holloway, R.W.; Oicles, J.A.

    1983-11-28

    This paper describes the pulse power systems that are used in these lasers; the status and the operating experiences. The pulsed power system for the Nova Laser is comprised of several distinct technology areas. The large capacitor banks for driving flashlamps that excite the laser glass is one area, the fast pulsers that drive pockels cell shutters is another area, and the contol system for the pulsed power is a third. This paper discusses the capacitor banks and control systems.

  20. Following Up the First Light Curves of the Dustiest, Most Extreme Asymptotic Giant Branch Stars in the LMC and SMC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sargent, Benjamin; Meixner, Margaret; Riebel, David; Vijh, Uma; Hora, Joe; Boyer, Martha; Cook, Kem; Groenewegen, Martin; Whitelock, Patricia; Ita, Yoshifusa; Feast, Michael; Kemper, Ciska; Marengo, Massimo; Otsuka, Masaaki; Srinivasan, Sundar

    2013-10-01

    Asymptotic giant branch (AGB) variable stars are, together with supernovae, the main sources of enrichment of the interstellar medium (ISM) in processed material, particularly carbon, nitrogen and heavy s-process elements. The dustiest, extreme AGB stars contribute the largest enrichment per star. We propose to measure the first light curves for 8 and 5 of the dustiest, most extreme AGB variable stars in the bar regions of Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) and Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC), respectively, using the warm Spitzer mission's IRAC 3.6 and 4.5 micron imaging for monthly imaging measurements. Though we know they are variable based on dual-epoch observations from the Spitzer Surveying the Agents of Galaxy Evolution (SAGE) surveys of the LMC and SMC, the periods of these extreme AGB stars have NOT been measured before because they are too faint in the optical and near-infrared to have been captured in the ground based synoptic surveys such as MACHO, OGLE and IRSF. Only Spitzer will be able to measure the light curve of this key phase of the AGB: the dustiest and indeed final stage of the AGB. Without this information, our developing picture of AGB evolution is decidedly incomplete. The observations we propose will test the validity of AGB evolution models, and, thus, their predictions of the return of mass and nucleosynthetic products to the ISM. A value-added component to this study is that we will obtain variability information on other AGB stars that lie within the fields of view of our observations. This proposal follows up on the Cycle 9 proposal pid 90219 to observe the other extreme AGB stars from the Gruendl et al 2008 study, which together dominate the total mass return to the LMC. In addition, we ask to obtain further epochs of observation of the 5 SMC sources from our 90219 proposal to define the periods if the periods are 1000 days or more.

  1. Multiwavelength Modeling of Nova Atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hauschildt, P. H.; Starrfield, S.

    1997-01-01

    We have analyzed the early optically thick ultraviolet spectra of Nova OS And 1986 using a grid of spherically symmetric, non-LTE, line-blanketed, expanding model atmospheres and synthetic spectra with the following set of parameters: 5,000 less than or equal to T(sub model) less than or equal to 60,000K, solar abundances, (rho)(alpha) r(sup -3), v(sub max) = 2000 km/s, L = 6 x 10(exp 4) solar luminosity, and a statistical or microturbulent velocity of 50 km/s. We used the synthetic spectra to estimate the model parameters corresponding to the observed IUE spectra. The fits to the observations were then iteratively improved by changing the parameters of the model atmospheres, in particular T(sub model) and the abundances, to arrive at the best fits to the optically thick pseudo-continuum and the features found in the IUE spectra. The IUE spectra show two different optically thick subphases. The earliest spectra, taken a few days after maximum optical light, show a pseudo-continuum created by overlapping absorption lines. The later observations, taken approximately 3 weeks after maximum light, show the simultaneous presence of allowed, semi-forbidden, and forbidden lines in the observed spectra. Analysis of these phases indicate that OS And 86 had solar metallicities except for Mg which showed evidence of being underabundant by as much as a factor of 10. We determine a distance of 5.1 kpc to OS And 86 and derive a peak bolometric luminosity of approximately 5 x 10(exp 4) solar luminosity. The computed nova parameters provide insights into the physics of the early outburst and explain the spectra seen by IUE. Lastly, we find evidence in the later observations for large non-LTE effects of Fe II which, when included, lead to much better agreement with the observations.

  2. NOVA Fall 2002 Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ransick, Kristina; Rosene, Dale; Sammons, James; Turck, Mary

    This NOVA teacher's guide presents activities, information, and teaching ideas from the Public Broadcasting System's (PBS) NOVA television program series. Episodes include: (1) "Mysterious Life of Caves" which investigates the role microbes play in the creation of some limestone caves; (2) "Lost Roman Treasure" which follows archaeologists working…

  3. Nova Delphini 2013: Backyard Analysis of a Classical Nova

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, Piper

    2014-01-01

    On August 14, 2013, Nova Delphini was discovered by Koichi Itagaki. This nova erupted to a maximum brightness of magnitude 4.4 by August 16, 2013. The extraordinary brightness of this event has allowed many amateur astronomers to have the chance to study it. More than 750 amateur astronomers have contributed to the AAVSO photometry database of Nova Delphini.1 The amount and quality of spectroscopic data gathered is unprecedented as well, as over 700 individual spectra have been collected so far in the ARAS database.2 A nova is a class of variable star that undergoes a cataclysmic eruption, which can be observed through a sudden increase in brightness that declines over a series of months or years. At the center of a nova is an accreting white dwarf star which is collecting hydrogen from its surroundings. The accreting mass causes a nuclear reaction on the surface of the white dwarf and as the pressure increases the reaction becomes super-critical and a thermonuclear runaway is ignited causing the brightness increase as well as triggering the ejection of a shell of material form the star. The stages of a classical nova outburst are outlined along with techniques available to amateur astronomers for study of these phenomena. The author’s equipment and software setup are detailed. Results obtained using a low resolution grating, Schmidt-cassegrain telescope and CCD camera that were acquired while Nova Delphini was in the “fireball stage” 3 and subsequent “iron curtain phase”3 are compared and discussed. Results obtained using a high resolution spectroscope, Schmidt-cassegrain telescope and CCD camera that were acquired during the “lifting of the iron curtain phase”3 are also presented. References 1. Turner, Rebecca. “AAVSO - Nova Del 2013” 20 Aug 2013 Web. 8 Sep 2013 nova-del-2013> 2. Tessier, Francois. “ARAS Spectral Database - Nova-Del-2013” 22 Sep 2013 Web. 22 Sep 2013 Novae/Nova

  4. A comparison of LMC and SDL complexity measures on binomial distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piqueira, José Roberto C.

    2016-02-01

    The concept of complexity has been widely discussed in the last forty years, with a lot of thinking contributions coming from all areas of the human knowledge, including Philosophy, Linguistics, History, Biology, Physics, Chemistry and many others, with mathematicians trying to give a rigorous view of it. In this sense, thermodynamics meets information theory and, by using the entropy definition, López-Ruiz, Mancini and Calbet proposed a definition for complexity that is referred as LMC measure. Shiner, Davison and Landsberg, by slightly changing the LMC definition, proposed the SDL measure and the both, LMC and SDL, are satisfactory to measure complexity for a lot of problems. Here, SDL and LMC measures are applied to the case of a binomial probability distribution, trying to clarify how the length of the data set implies complexity and how the success probability of the repeated trials determines how complex the whole set is.

  5. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Massive LMC eclipsing binaries minima timings (Zasche+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zasche, P.; Wolf, M.; Vrastil, J.; Pilarcik, L.; Jurysek, J.

    2016-04-01

    For the first time, in this study we derived the relatively short periods of modulation in these systems, which relates to third bodies. The orbital periods resulted from 3.6 to 11.3yr and the eccentricities were found to be up to 0.64. This is the first time that this kind of analysis for the set of extragalactic sources has been performed. The Wolf-Rayet system OGLE-LMC-ECL-08823 is the most mysterious one, owing to the resultant high mass function. Another system, OGLE-LMC-ECL-19996, was found to contain a third body with a very high mass (M3,min=26Mȯ). One system (OGLE-LMC-ECL-09971) is suspicious because of its eccentricity, and another one (OGLE-LMC-ECL-20162) shows some light curve variability, with a possible flare-like or microlensing-like event. (2 data files).

  6. International ultraviolet explorer spectroscopy of hot stars in the LMC and SMC - The SMC extinction law, stellar flux distributions, and details of the stellar winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutchings, J. B.

    1982-04-01

    IUE high- and low-dispersion spectral observations of hot stars in the Small Magellanic Cloud and Large Magellanic Cloud are presented. The extinction curve for the SMC derived from the data is much steeper in the UV than those of the LMC or the Galaxy. Based on stellar continuum data, stellar temperatures in the Magellanic Clouds are found to be normal and consistent with their spectral types, and the H-R diagram shows most stars to be evolved. Strong, sharp-sided absorption lines found in the UV spectra are found to vary with stellar spectral type, and are identified with stellar winds, which are much weaker in the Magellanic Clouds than in the Galaxy. These wind data may have implications for stellar mass loss rates and resultant stellar masses in the SMC and LMC.

  7. RECURRENT NOVAE IN M31

    SciTech Connect

    Shafter, A. W.; Henze, M.; Rector, T. A.; Schweizer, F.; Hornoch, K.; Orio, M.; Pietsch, W.; Darnley, M. J.; Williams, S. C.; Bode, M. F.; Bryan, J.

    2015-02-01

    The reported positions of 964 suspected nova eruptions in M31 recorded through the end of calendar year 2013 have been compared in order to identify recurrent nova (RN) candidates. To pass the initial screen and qualify as a RN candidate, two or more eruptions were required to be coincident within 0.′1, although this criterion was relaxed to 0.′15 for novae discovered on early photographic patrols. A total of 118 eruptions from 51 potential RN systems satisfied the screening criterion. To determine what fraction of these novae are indeed recurrent, the original plates and published images of the relevant eruptions have been carefully compared. This procedure has resulted in the elimination of 27 of the 51 progenitor candidates (61 eruptions) from further consideration as RNe, with another 8 systems (17 eruptions) deemed unlikely to be recurrent. Of the remaining 16 systems, 12 candidates (32 eruptions) were judged to be RNe, with an additional 4 systems (8 eruptions) being possibly recurrent. It is estimated that ∼4% of the nova eruptions seen in M31 over the past century are associated with RNe. A Monte Carlo analysis shows that the discovery efficiency for RNe may be as low as 10% that for novae in general, suggesting that as many as one in three nova eruptions observed in M31 arise from progenitor systems having recurrence times ≲100 yr. For plausible system parameters, it appears unlikely that RNe can provide a significant channel for the production of Type Ia supernovae.

  8. The population of X-ray supernova remnants in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maggi, P.; Haberl, F.; Kavanagh, P. J.; Sasaki, M.; Bozzetto, L. M.; Filipović, M. D.; Vasilopoulos, G.; Pietsch, W.; Points, S. D.; Chu, Y.-H.; Dickel, J.; Ehle, M.; Williams, R.; Greiner, J.

    2016-01-01

    Aims: We present a comprehensive X-ray study of the population of supernova remnants (SNRs) in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). Using primarily XMM-Newton observations, we conduct a systematic spectral analysis of LMC SNRs to gain new insight into their evolution and the interplay with their host galaxy. Methods: We combined all the archival XMM-Newton observations of the LMC with those of our Very Large Programme LMC survey. We produced X-ray images and spectra of 51 SNRs, out of a list of 59 objects compiled from the literature and augmented with newly found objects. Using a careful modelling of the background, we consistently analysed all the X-ray spectra and measure temperatures, luminosities, and chemical compositions. The locations of SNRs are compared to the distributions of stars, cold gas, and warm gas in the LMC, and we investigated the connection between the SNRs and their local environment, characterised by various star formation histories. We tentatively typed all LMC SNRs, in order to constrain the ratio of core-collapse to type Ia SN rates in the LMC. We also compared the column densities derived from X-ray spectra to H i maps, thus probing the three-dimensional structure of the LMC. Results: This work provides the first homogeneous catalogue of the X-ray spectral properties of SNRs in the LMC. It offers a complete census of LMC remnants whose X-ray emission exhibits Fe K lines (13% of the sample), or reveals the contribution from hot supernova ejecta (39%), which both give clues to the progenitor types. The abundances of O, Ne, Mg, Si, and Fe in the hot phase of the LMC interstellar medium are found to be between 0.2 and 0.5 times the solar values with a lower abundance ratio [α/Fe] than in the Milky Way. The current ratio of core-collapse to type Ia SN rates in the LMC is constrained to NCC/NIa=1.35(-0.24+0.11), which is lower than in local SN surveys and galaxy clusters. Our comparison of the X-ray luminosity functions of SNRs in Local Group

  9. Post-flare Formation of the Accretion Stream and a dip in Pulse Profiles of LMC X-4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beri, Aru; Paul, Biswajit

    2016-07-01

    We will present results from a pulse profile evolution study of an accreting X-ray pulsar LMC X-4 during and after the large X-ray flares using data from two observatories XMM-Newton and RXTE. During the flares, the pulse profiles was found to have a significant phase offset and also some intensity dependence of the pulse amplitude. Moreover, a phase shift of nearly 180 between the pulse profiles from the persistent emission (just before and after the flares) was found. Investigating the pulse profiles for a long duration after the flares we estimated the time required for the modified accretion column to return to its normal structure and formation of accretion stream that causes dip in the pulse profile of LMC X-4. We will also discuss the results from a pulse phase resolved spectroscopy in narrow phase bins using data from EPIC-PN which confirmed a pulsating nature of the soft spectral component having a pulse shape and phase different form the rest.

  10. Olivier Chesneau's Work on Novae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millour, F.; Lagadec, E.

    2015-12-01

    Olivier Chesneau founded a brand new field of observational astrophysics with his attempts to resolve the novae expanding fireball from the very first days of the explosion. With the images he could get, he showed that novae do indeed explode in an aspherical way, leading to a change of paradigm for the physics of these yet-poorly understood catastrophic systems. He also set the stage for a new way of estimating novae distances, by directly measuring the sky-size of the fireball and comparing it with spectroscopic scales, taking into account the tremendous effects of the fireball geometry.

  11. Evolution of Nova-Dependent Splicing Regulation in the Brain

    PubMed Central

    Živin, Marko; Darnell, Robert B

    2007-01-01

    A large number of alternative exons are spliced with tissue-specific patterns, but little is known about how such patterns have evolved. Here, we study the conservation of the neuron-specific splicing factors Nova1 and Nova2 and of the alternatively spliced exons they regulate in mouse brain. Whereas Nova RNA binding domains are 94% identical across vertebrate species, Nova-dependent splicing silencer and enhancer elements (YCAY clusters) show much greater divergence, as less than 50% of mouse YCAY clusters are conserved at orthologous positions in the zebrafish genome. To study the relation between the evolution of tissue-specific splicing and YCAY clusters, we compared the brain-specific splicing of Nova-regulated exons in zebrafish, chicken, and mouse. The presence of YCAY clusters in lower vertebrates invariably predicted conservation of brain-specific splicing across species, whereas their absence in lower vertebrates correlated with a loss of alternative splicing. We hypothesize that evolution of Nova-regulated splicing in higher vertebrates proceeds mainly through changes in cis-acting elements, that tissue-specific splicing might in some cases evolve in a single step corresponding to evolution of a YCAY cluster, and that the conservation level of YCAY clusters relates to the functions encoded by the regulated RNAs. PMID:17937501

  12. Synthesis of C-rich dust in CO nova outbursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    José, Jordi; Halabi, Ghina M.; El Eid, Mounib F.

    2016-09-01

    Context. Classical novae are thermonuclear explosions that take place in the envelopes of accreting white dwarfs in stellar binary systems. The material transferred onto the white dwarf piles up under degenerate conditions, driving a thermonuclear runaway. In these outbursts, about 10-7-10-3 M⊙, enriched in CNO and sometimes other intermediate-mass elements (e.g., Ne, Na, Mg, or Al for ONe novae) are ejected into the interstellar medium. The large concentrations of metals spectroscopically inferred in the nova ejecta reveal that the solar-like material transferred from the secondary mixes with the outermost layers of the underlying white dwarf. Aims: Most theoretical models of nova outbursts reported to date yield, on average, outflows characterized by O > C, from which, in principle, only oxidized condensates (e.g., O-rich grains) would be expected. Methods: To specifically address whether CO novae can actually produce C-rich dust, six different hydrodynamic nova models have been evolved, from accretion to the expansion and ejection stages, with different choices for the composition of the substrate with which the solar-like accreted material mixes. Updated chemical profiles inside the H-exhausted core have been used, based on stellar evolution calculations for a progenitor of 8 M⊙ through H- and He-burning phases. Results: We show that these profiles lead to C-rich ejecta after the nova outburst. This extends the possible contribution of novae to the inventory of presolar grains identified in meteorites, particularly in a number of carbonaceous phases (i.e., nanodiamonds, silicon carbides, and graphites).

  13. Dynamics of the young binary LMC cluster NGC 1850

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischer, Philippe; Welch, Douglas L.; Mateo, Mario

    1993-01-01

    BV CCD images and echelle spectra of 52 supergiants are used to examine the age and internal dynamics of the young binary LMC cluster NGC 1850. A color-magnitude diagram was constructed and found to contain three distinct populations of stars. Using star-subtracted, median filtered BV images, attempts were made to determine ellipticity parameters, BV luminosity profiles were constructed to project radii greater than 40. A power law model was applied to test for the presence of a tidal cutoff in the luminosity profile. Of the 52 stars with echelle spectra, a subset of 36 were used to study the cluster dynamics. A rotational signal in the radial velocities has been detected at the 93-percent confidence level, implying a rotation axis at a position angle of 100 +/- 40 deg. Values for the slope of the mass function were determined using mass luminosity relationships and different forms for the IMF. The current cluster age is similar to its central relaxation time.

  14. HET Spectra of Three Recent Extragalactic Novae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shafter, A. W.; Coelho, E. A.; Misselt, K. A.; Bode, M. F.; Darnley, M. J.; Quimby, R.

    2006-10-01

    We report optical spectroscopic observations (4280Å - 7280Å) obtained with the HET of three extragalactic novae: Nova M31 2006 No. 9 (ATEL #887), Nova M32 2006 No. 1 (CBET #591), and Nova M33 2006 No. 1 (CBET #655). The spectra were obtained on 24 Sep 2006 UT, 30 Sep 2006 UT, and 02 Oct 2006 UT, corresponding to approximately 6, 65, and 4 days post discovery, for the three novae respectively.

  15. A dark energy camera search for missing supergiants in the LMC after the advanced LIGO gravitational-wave event GW150914

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Annis, J.

    2016-05-27

    The collapse of a stellar core is expected to produce gravitational waves (GWs), neutrinos, and in most cases a luminous supernova. Sometimes, however, the optical event could be significantly less luminous than a supernova and a direct collapse to a black hole, where the star just disappears, is possible. The GW event GW150914 was detected by the LIGO Virgo Collaboration via a burst analysis that gave localization contours enclosing the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). Shortly thereafter, we used DECam to observe 102 deg2 of the localization area, including 38 deg2 on the LMC for a missing supergiant search. We constructmore » a complete catalog of LMC luminous red supergiants, the best candidates to undergo invisible core collapse, and collected catalogs of other candidates: less luminous red supergiants, yellow supergiants, blue supergiants, luminous blue variable stars, and Wolf–Rayet stars. Of the objects in the imaging region, all are recovered in the images. The timescale for stellar disappearance is set by the free-fall time, which is a function of the stellar radius. Our observations at 4 and 13 days after the event result in a search sensitive to objects of up to about 200 solar radii. We conclude that it is unlikely that GW150914 was caused by the core collapse of a relatively compact supergiant in the LMC, consistent with the LIGO Collaboration analyses of the gravitational waveform as best interpreted as a high mass binary black hole merger. Lastly, we discuss how to generalize this search for future very nearby core-collapse candidates.« less

  16. A Dark Energy Camera Search for Missing Supergiants in the LMC after the Advanced LIGO Gravitational-wave Event GW150914

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Annis, J.; Soares-Santos, M.; Berger, E.; Brout, D.; Chen, H.; Chornock, R.; Cowperthwaite, P. S.; Diehl, H. T.; Doctor, Z.; Drlica-Wagner, A.; Drout, M. R.; Farr, B.; Finley, D. A.; Flaugher, B.; Foley, R. J.; Frieman, J.; Gruendl, R. A.; Herner, K.; Holz, D.; Kessler, R.; Lin, H.; Marriner, J.; Neilsen, E.; Rest, A.; Sako, M.; Smith, M.; Smith, N.; Sobreira, F.; Walker, A. R.; Yanny, B.; Abbott, T. M. C.; Abdalla, F. B.; Allam, S.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernstein, R. A.; Bertin, E.; Buckley-Geer, E.; Burke, D. L.; Capozzi, D.; Carnero Rosell, A.; Carrasco Kind, M.; Carretero, J.; Castander, F. J.; Cenko, S. B.; Crocce, M.; Cunha, C. E.; D’Andrea, C. B.; da Costa, L. N.; Desai, S.; Dietrich, J. P.; Eifler, T. F.; Evrard, A. E.; Fernandez, E.; Fischer, J.; Fong, W.; Fosalba, P.; Fox, D. B.; Fryer, C. L.; Garcia-Bellido, J.; Gaztanaga, E.; Gerdes, D. W.; Goldstein, D. A.; Gruen, D.; Gutierrez, G.; Honscheid, K.; James, D. J.; Karliner, I.; Kasen, D.; Kent, S.; Kuehn, K.; Kuropatkin, N.; Lahav, O.; Li, T. S.; Lima, M.; Maia, M. A. G.; Martini, P.; Metzger, B. D.; Miller, C. J.; Miquel, R.; Mohr, J. J.; Nichol, R. C.; Nord, B.; Ogando, R.; Peoples, J.; Petravic, D.; Plazas, A. A.; Quataert, E.; Romer, A. K.; Roodman, A.; Rykoff, E. S.; Sanchez, E.; Santiago, B.; Scarpine, V.; Schindler, R.; Schubnell, M.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Sheldon, E.; Smith, R. C.; Stebbins, A.; Swanson, M. E. C.; Tarle, G.; Thaler, J.; Thomas, R. C.; Tucker, D. L.; Vikram, V.; Wechsler, R. H.; Weller, J.; Wester, W.; The DES Collaboration

    2016-06-01

    The collapse of a stellar core is expected to produce gravitational waves (GWs), neutrinos, and in most cases a luminous supernova. Sometimes, however, the optical event could be significantly less luminous than a supernova and a direct collapse to a black hole, where the star just disappears, is possible. The GW event GW150914 was detected by the LIGO Virgo Collaboration via a burst analysis that gave localization contours enclosing the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). Shortly thereafter, we used DECam to observe 102 deg2 of the localization area, including 38 deg2 on the LMC for a missing supergiant search. We construct a complete catalog of LMC luminous red supergiants, the best candidates to undergo invisible core collapse, and collected catalogs of other candidates: less luminous red supergiants, yellow supergiants, blue supergiants, luminous blue variable stars, and Wolf–Rayet stars. Of the objects in the imaging region, all are recovered in the images. The timescale for stellar disappearance is set by the free-fall time, which is a function of the stellar radius. Our observations at 4 and 13 days after the event result in a search sensitive to objects of up to about 200 solar radii. We conclude that it is unlikely that GW150914 was caused by the core collapse of a relatively compact supergiant in the LMC, consistent with the LIGO Collaboration analyses of the gravitational waveform as best interpreted as a high mass binary black hole merger. We discuss how to generalize this search for future very nearby core-collapse candidates.

  17. Introduction to the Nova technical contract

    SciTech Connect

    Lindl, J.D.; Kilkenny, J.D.

    1996-06-01

    The 1990 National Academy of Sciences (NAS) final report recommended proceeding with the construction of a 1-to 2-MJ Nd-doped glass laser designed to achieve ignition in the laboratory (a laser originally called the Nova Upgrade, but now called the National Ignition Facility, or NIF, and envisioned as a national user facility). As a prerequisite, the report recommended completion of a series of target physics objectives on the Nova laser in use at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Meeting these objectives, which were called the Nova Technical Contract (NTC), would demonstrate (the Academy committee believed) that the physics of ignition targets was understood well enough that the laser requirements could be accurately specified. Completion of the NTC objectives was given the highest priority (it was Recommendation 1.1) in the NAS report. The NAS committee also recommended a concentrated effort on advanced target design for ignition. As recommended in the report, completion of these objectives has been the joint responsibility of LLNL and the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Most of the articles in this issue of the ICF Quarterly were written jointly by scientists from both institutions. The original NTC objectives have been largely met. This Introduction summarizes those objectives and their motivation in the context of the requirements for ignition.

  18. The Mass Loss Return From Evolved Stars to the LMC: Empirical Relations For Excess Emission at 8 and 24 μm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasan, Sundar; Meixner, M.; Vijh, U.; Leitherer, C.; Volk, K.; Markwick-Kemper, F.; Blum, R. D.; Mould, J. R.; Olsen, K. A.; Points, S.; Whitney, B. A.; Meade, M.; Babler, B.; Indebetouw, R.; Hora, J. L.; Gordon, K.; Engelbracht, C.; For, B.; Block, M.; Misselt, K.

    2006-12-01

    We will present empirical relations for excess emission from evolved stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) using data from the Spitzer Space Telescope SAGE (Surveying the Agents of a Galaxy's Evolution) survey. Combined with the 2MASS survey and the optical Magellanic Cloud Photometric Survey (MCPS) catalog, these data enable multiband analysis of evolved stars, and can help probe the life cycle of dust in the LMC. Outflows from evolved asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars and supergiants are the main producers of dust in a galaxy, and the aim of this work is to investigate the mass loss return by AGBs and supergiants to the interstellar medium of the LMC. The spectral energy distributions (SEDs) are compared with plane-parallel (for Carbon-rich AGBs) and spherical (for Oxygen-rich AGBs) atmosphere models to obtain the excess flux in the 8 and 24 micron bands, which is plotted against the total integrated flux. We will show that this excess emission increases with total integrated flux, and the 24 micron flux for heavily obscured AGBs is entirely due to excess emission from dust. The SAGE Project is supported by NASA/Spitzer grant 1275598 and NASA NAG5-12595.

  19. Argonne's Vilas Pol on NOVA!

    SciTech Connect

    2011-01-01

    Can innovations in materials science help clean up our world? Argonne's material scientist Vilas Pol guest starred on NOVA's "Making Stuff: Cleaner," where David Pogue explored the rapidly-developing science and business of clean energy.

  20. Argonne's Vilas Pol on NOVA!

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Can innovations in materials science help clean up our world? Argonne's material scientist Vilas Pol guest starred on NOVA's "Making Stuff: Cleaner," where David Pogue explored the rapidly-developing science and business of clean energy.

  1. Circumstellar dust in symbiotic novae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurkic, Tomislav; Kotnik-Karuza, Dubravka

    2015-08-01

    Physical properties of the circumstellar dust and associated physical mechanisms play an important role in understanding evolution of symbiotic binaries. We present a model of inner dust regions around the cool Mira component of the two symbiotic novae, RR Tel and HM Sge, based on the long-term near-IR photometry, infrared ISO spectra and mid-IR interferometry. Pulsation properties and long-term variabilities were found from the near-IR light curves. The dust properties were determined using the DUSTY code which solves the radiative transfer. No changes in pulsational parameters were found, but a long-term variations with periods of 20-25 years have been detected which cannot be attributed to orbital motion.Circumstellar silicate dust shell with inner dust shell temperatures between 900 K and 1300 K and of moderate optical depth can explain all the observations. RR Tel showed the presence of an optically thin CS dust envelope and an optically thick dust region outside the line of sight, which was further supported by the detailed modelling using the 2D LELUYA code. Obscuration events in RR Tel were explained by an increase in optical depth caused by the newly condensed dust leading to the formation of a compact dust shell. HM Sge showed permanent obscuration and a presence of a compact dust shell with a variable optical depth. Scattering of the near-IR colours can be understood by a change in sublimation temperature caused by the Mira variability. Presence of large dust grains (up to 4 µm) suggests an increased grain growth in conditions of increased mass loss. The mass loss rates of up to 17·10-6 MSun/yr were significantly higher than in intermediate-period single Miras and in agreement with longer-period O-rich AGB stars.Despite the nova outburst, HM Sge remained enshrouded in dust with no significant dust destruction. The existence of unperturbed dust shell suggests a small influence of the hot component and strong dust shielding from the UV flux. By the use

  2. The MACHO Project HST Follow-Up: The Large Magellanic Cloud Microlensing Source Stars

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, C.A.; Drake, A.J.; Cook, K.H.; Bennett, D.P.; Popowski, P.; Dalal, N.; Nikolaev, S.; Alcock, C.; Axelrod, T.S.; Becker, A.C. Freeman, K.C.; Geha, M.; Griest, K.; Keller, S.C.; Lehner, M.J.; Marshall, S.L.; Minniti, D.; Pratt, M.R.; Quinn, P.J.; Stubbs, C.W.; Sutherland, W.; /Oxford U. /Oran, Sci. Tech. U. /Garching, Max Planck Inst. /McMaster U.

    2009-06-25

    We present Hubble Space Telescope (HST) WFPC2 photometry of 13 microlensed source stars from the 5.7 year Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) survey conducted by the MACHO Project. The microlensing source stars are identified by deriving accurate centroids in the ground-based MACHO images using difference image analysis (DIA) and then transforming the DIA coordinates to the HST frame. None of these sources is coincident with a background galaxy, which rules out the possibility that the MACHO LMC microlensing sample is contaminated with misidentified supernovae or AGN in galaxies behind the LMC. This supports the conclusion that the MACHO LMC microlensing sample has only a small amount of contamination due to non-microlensing forms of variability. We compare the WFPC2 source star magnitudes with the lensed flux predictions derived from microlensing fits to the light curve data. In most cases the source star brightness is accurately predicted. Finally, we develop a statistic which constrains the location of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) microlensing source stars with respect to the distributions of stars and dust in the LMC and compare this to the predictions of various models of LMC microlensing. This test excludes at {approx}> 90% confidence level models where more than 80% of the source stars lie behind the LMC. Exotic models that attempt to explain the excess LMC microlensing optical depth seen by MACHO with a population of background sources are disfavored or excluded by this test. Models in which most of the lenses reside in a halo or spheroid distribution associated with either the Milky Way or the LMC are consistent which these data, but LMC halo or spheroid models are favored by the combined MACHO and EROS microlensing results.

  3. Modeling transiting circumstellar disks: characterizing the newly discovered eclipsing disk system OGLE LMC-ECL-11893

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, Erin L.; Mamajek, Eric E.; Pecaut, Mark J.; Quillen, Alice C.; Moolekamp, Fred; Bell, Cameron P. M.

    2014-12-10

    We investigate the nature of the unusual eclipsing star OGLE LMC-ECL-11893 (OGLE J05172127-6900558) in the Large Magellanic Cloud recently reported by Dong et al. The eclipse period for this star is 468 days, and the eclipses exhibit a minimum of ∼1.4 mag, preceded by a plateau of ∼0.8 mag. Spectra and optical/IR photometry are consistent with the eclipsed star being a lightly reddened B9III star of inferred age ∼150 Myr and mass ∼4 M {sub ☉}. The disk appears to have an outer radius of ∼0.2 AU with predicted temperatures of ∼1100-1400 K. We model the eclipses as being due to either a transiting geometrically thin dust disk or gaseous accretion disk around a secondary object; the debris disk produces a better fit. We speculate on the origin of such a dense circumstellar dust disk structure orbiting a relatively old low-mass companion, and on the similarities of this system to the previously discovered EE Cep.

  4. VizieR Online Data Catalog: EPOCH Project. EROS-2 LMC periodic variables (Kim+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, D.-W.; Protopapas, P.; Bailer-Jones, C. A. L.; Byun, Y.-I.; Chang, S.-W.; Marquette, J.-B.; Shin, M.-S.

    2014-03-01

    The EPOCH (EROS-2 periodic variable star classification using machine learning) project aims to detect periodic variable stars in the EROS-2 light curve database. In order to classify these variables, we first build a training set by compiling known variables in the Large Magellanic Could area from the OGLE and MACHO surveys. We crossmatch these variables with the EROS-2 sources and extract 22 variability features from 28,392 light curves of the corresponding EROS-2 sources. We then use Random Forests to classify the EROS-2 sources in the training set. We design the model to separate not only Delta Scuti stars, RR Lyraes, Cepheids, eclipsing binaries and long-period variables, the "superclasses", but also their subclasses, such as RRab, RRc, RRd and RRe for RR Lyraes, and similarly for the other variable types. We apply the trained model to the entire EROS-2 LMC database containing about 29 million sources and find 117,234 periodic variable candidates. Out of these 117,234 periodic variables, 55,285 have not been discovered by either OGLE or MACHO variability studies. This set comprises 1906 Delta Scuti stars, 6,607 RR Lyraes, 638 Cepheids, 178 Type II Cepheids, 34,562 eclipsing binaries and 11,394 long-period variables. (1 data file).

  5. Spitzer observations of adolescent novae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Aneurin; Gehrz, Robert; Helton, Andrew; Krautter, Joachim; Lyke, James; Polomsky, Elisha; Rushton, Mark; Salama, Alberto; Shore, Steven; Starrfield, Sumner; Truran, James; Wagner, R. Mark; Woodward, Charles

    2006-05-01

    Classical novae (CNe) offer the best opportunity to observe many astrophysical processes (such as dust formation and processing, shaping of nebulae, gas cooling by IR fine structure lines) in `fast forward'. The CN eruption arises following a thermonuclear runaway on the surface of a white dwarf in a semi-detached binary system, following which some 10^-4 Msun of material, enriched in metals, is explosively ejected at ~1000km/s. Following the eruption, CNe vary rapidly, on a timescale ~months, and this necessitates continuous monitoring. Several novae were observed in GO1 as targets-of-opportunity (ToO). We propose to use the Spitzer IRS to observe a sample of novae, including GO1 ToO and several recent (<20years) CNe, to provide us with a well-populated CN parameter space. We aim to determine (i) the ejecta masses, (ii) abundances in the ejected material, (iii) evolution and processing of the CN dust.

  6. Transient classification and novae ejecta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Robert

    2016-07-01

    A third parameter, in addition to luminosity and rate of brightness decline, derived from the spectra of transients is suggested as a means of more accurately classifying objects in outburst. Principal component analysis of the spectra of transients is suggested as the best way to determine the third parameter. A model is suggested for novae ejecta that is based on the ballistic ejection of an ensemble of clouds having a wide range of sizes. Short term brightness fluctuations of novae, the formation of dust, and the production of X-ray emission follow naturally from such a picture of the evolving clouds.

  7. The Properties of Long Period Variables in the LMC from MACHO

    SciTech Connect

    Fraser, O J; Hawley, S L; Cook, K H

    2008-05-06

    We present a new analysis of the long period variables in the Large Magellanic Cloud from the MACHO Variable Star Catalog. Three-quarters of our sample of evolved, variable stars have periodic light curves. We characterize the stars in our sample using the multiple periods found in their frequency spectra. Additionally, we use single-epoch 2MASS measurements to construct the average infrared light curves for different groups of these stars. Comparison with evolutionary models shows that stars on the RGB or the Early AGB often show non-periodic variability, but begin to pulsate with periods on the two shortest period-luminosity sequences (1 & 2) when they brighten to K{sub s} {approx} 13. The stars on the Thermally Pulsing AGB are more likely to pulsate with longer periods that lie on the next two P-L sequences (3 & 4), including the sequence associated with the Miras in the LMC. The Petersen diagram and its variants show that multi-periodic stars on each pair of these sequences (3 & 4, and 1 & 2), typically pulsate with periods associated only with that pair. The periods in these multi-periodic stars become longer and stronger as the star evolves. We further constrain the mechanism behind the long secondary periods (LSPs) seen in half of our sample, and find that there is a close match between the luminosity functions of the LSP stars and all of the stars in our sample, and that these star's pulsation amplitudes are relatively wavelength independent. Although this is characteristic of stellar multiplicity, the large number of these variables is problematic for that explanation.

  8. V4743 Sgr, a magnetic nova?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zemko, P.; Orio, M.; Mukai, K.; Bianchini, A.; Ciroi, S.; Cracco, V.

    2016-08-01

    Two XMM-Newton observations of Nova V4743 Sgr (Nova Sgr 2002) were performed shortly after it returned to quiescence, 2 and 3.5 yr after the explosion. The X-ray light curves revealed a modulation with a frequency of ≃0.75 mHz, indicating that V4743 Sgr is most probably an intermediate polar (IP). The X-ray spectra have characteristics in common with known IPs, with a hard thermal plasma component that can be fitted only assuming a partially covering absorber. In 2004, the X-ray spectrum had also a supersoft blackbody-like component, whose temperature was close to that of the white dwarf (WD) in the supersoft X-ray phase following the outburst, but with flux by at least two orders of magnitude lower. In quiescent IPs, a soft X-ray flux component originates at times in the polar regions irradiated by an accretion column, but the supersoft component of V4743 Sgr disappeared in 2006, indicating a possible origin different from accretion. We suggest that it may have been due to an atmospheric temperature gradient on the WD surface, or to continuing localized thermonuclear burning at the bottom of the envelope, before complete turn-off. An optical spectrum obtained with Southern African Large Telescope (SALT) 11.5 yr after the outburst showed a prominent He II λ4686 line and the Bowen blend, which reveal a very hot region, but with peak temperature shifted to the ultraviolet range. V4743 Sgr is the third post-outburst nova and IP candidate showing a low-luminosity supersoft component in the X-ray flux a few years after the outburst.

  9. The First Light Curves of the Dustiest, Most Extreme Asymptotic Giant Branch Stars in the LMC and SMC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sargent, Benjamin; Meixner, Margaret; Riebel, David; Vijh, Uma; Boyer, Martha; Cook, Kem; Groenewegen, Martin; Whitelock, Patricia; Ita, Yoshifusa; Hora, Joseph; Feast, Michael; Kemper, Ciska; Marengo, Massimo; Matsuura, Mikako; Otsuka, Masaaki; Srinivasan, Sundar

    2012-12-01

    Asymptotic giant branch (AGB) variable stars are, together with supernovae, the main sources of enrichment of the interstellar medium (ISM) in processed material, particularly carbon, nitrogen and heavy s-process elements. The dustiest, extreme AGB stars contribute the largest enrichment per star. We propose to measure the first light curves for 25 and 5 of the dustiest, most extreme AGB variable stars in the bar regions of Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) and Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC), respectively, using the warm Spitzer mission's IRAC 3.6 and 4.5 micron imaging for monthly imaging measurements. Though we know they are variable based on dual-epoch observations from the Spitzer Surveying the Agents of Galaxy Evolution (SAGE) surveys of the LMC and SMC, the periods of these extreme AGB stars have NOT been measured before because they are too faint in the optical and near-infrared to have been captured in the ground based synoptic surveys such as MACHO, OGLE and IRSF. Only Spitzer will be able to measure the light curve of this key phase of the AGB: the dustiest and indeed final stage of the AGB. Without this information, our developing picture of AGB evolution is decidedly incomplete. The observations we propose will test the validity of AGB evolution models, and, thus, their predictions of the return of mass and nucleosynthetic products to the ISM. A value-added component to this study is that we will obtain variability information on other AGB stars that lie within the fields of view of our observations.

  10. The search for classical CP stars in the LMC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maitzen, H. M.; Paunzen, E.; Pintado, O. I.

    Observational evidence has shown that on the average 5% of the main sequence objects in the range B2-F0 are magnetic peculiar stars with maximum frequency among the late B-type stars of about 10%. Subsequently, these stars revealed other peculiar features, e.g. the existence of a strong global magnetic field with a predominant dipole component located at random with respect to the stellar rotation axis and the center of the star. The origin of the magnetic fields is still a matter of debate: Those who favor the survival of frozen-in fossil fields originating from the medium out of which the stars were formed are in opposition to those following the idea that a dynamo mechanism is acting in the interior of these stars. A plausible diagnostic tool for the investigation of the formation of magnetic peculiar stars from an observational point of view is their statistical identification in a variety of galactic as well as extragalactic environments, implying both different metallicities and different interstellar magnetic field strengths. Star formation in the LMC has been proceeding in a different way as compared to our Galaxy. The lower metallicity has seemingly favoured the formation of it young populous (globuler-like) stellar clusters not present in our own Galaxy. As a tool for the detection of distant magnetic peculiar stars we have used CCD filter photometry in the Δ a system of Maitzen (1976, A&A 51, 223). This system samples the broad band flux depression around 520 nm, characteristic of magnetic peculiar stars (in the notation of Preston they form the CP2 group with an admixture of magnetic helium weak stars - CP4). This is done through measurements in three filters: g1 at 500 nm and y at 550 nm, both representing the continuum at the edges of the feature, and g2 located at the center of the feature at 521 nm. δ a is the magnitude difference of g2 relative to the mean of g1 and y. It is normalized to zero for a non-peculiar star. It has been often

  11. The Video Nova Authoring System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Sheila

    1986-01-01

    The Video Nova Authoring System (VNAS) was developed by computer programmers and instructional designers to provide noncomputer programmers with a tool to design interactive videodisc programs. VNAS allows the instructor complete design freedom, and although menu-driven, doesn't rely on preset lesson plans. Illustrations and sources for evaluation…

  12. Nova Eri 2009 (prediscovery images)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Bill; Postigo, A. De Ugarte; Castro-Tirado, A. J.; Gorosabel, J.; Jelinek, M.; Cunniffe, R.; Guziy, S.; Kubanek, P.; Yock, P.; Bond, I.; Christie, G.

    2010-01-01

    Using the CASANDRA-3 all-sky camera (Castro-Tirado et al. 2008, Proceedings of the SPIE, Volume 7019, pp. 70191V-70191V-9) at the BOOTES-3 robotic observatory located in Blenheim, New Zealand we have observed the pre-discovery images of Nova Eri 2009 determining the following magnitudes. The reference star used was HD 30076, m = 5.87.

  13. NOVA Fall 1998 Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colombo, Luann

    This teacher's guide is designed to accompany the PBS television program "NOVA." Six science activities correspond to: (1) "Lost at Sea: The Search for Longitude,, which researches and charts the shortest course to circumnavigate the globe; (2) "Chasing El Nino," which formulates a question and designs an experiment to evaluate the accuracy of…

  14. VizieR Online Data Catalog: LMC star clusters catalog (Palma+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palma, T.; Gramajo, L. V.; Claria, J. J.; Lares, M.; Geisler, D.; Ahumada, A. V.

    2016-04-01

    We have compiled a catalogue including a total of 277 LMC SCs studied in the Washington system. All the photometric observations of these SCs were carried out at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO, Chile), using the Wahington C and T1 filters (Canterna 1976) and the Kron-Cousins R filter. (1 data file).

  15. The LF of TP-AGB stars in the LMC/SMC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruzual, Gustavo; Charlot, Stephane; GonzalezLopezlira, Rosa; Srinivasan, Sundar; Boyer, Martha L.

    2013-01-01

    We show that Monte Carlo simulations of the TP-AGB stellar population in the LMC and SMC galaxies using the CB. models produce LF and color distributions that are in closer agreement with observations than those obtained with the BC03 and CB07 models. This is a progress report of work that will be published elsewhere.

  16. Dust Seds And Processing Near Sites Of High Mass Star Formation In The LMC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hony, Sacha; Galliano, F.; Madden, S. M.; SAGE Consortium

    2010-01-01

    We present a study into the properties of the dust and complex molecules in and around selected HII regions in the Large Magellanic Cloud. The analysis is based on the Spitzer program SAGE (Surveying the Agents of a Galaxy's Evolution). Because of the lower metallicity environment, dust shielding is reduced and the effects of the ultraviolet radiation carry further than in the Milky way. Because of this these HII regions may better represent star forming regions in the more distant universe. We present the near- to far-IR spectral energy distributions (SEDs) as a function of radial distance to the center of the several clusters. The regions span a wide range in luminosities. We have developed a self consistent spherical clumpy dust radiative transfer model to interpret the observed trends. The model treats the detailed dust optical properties and transient grain heating as well as IR absorption and reprocession. This allows us to interpret the observed variations in SED in terms of the clumpiness, varying incident radiation-field and changing abundances of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), transiently heated very small grains (VSG) to submicron-sized grains in thermal equilibrium, i.e. in terms of the varying grain-size distribution. We find that the LMC massive star forming sites are typified by a several parsec sized void and clumpiness and PAH abundance which increases with distance from the central illuminating source. The inner void may be the result of massive star winds. The observed flat mid-IR SEDs require a grain-size distribution skewed to a higher fraction of smaller grains compared to the Milky Way dust.

  17. An observational case against nova hibernation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naylor, T.; Charles, P. A.; Mukai, K.; Evans, A.

    1992-01-01

    We use WHT spectroscopy and imaging to show that nova Vul 1670 (= CK Vul) has been incorrectly identified, and thus its luminosity cannot be used as evidence that novae fade into a 'hibernation' phase within 300 yr of their outbursts. INT spectroscopy is used to correct the magnitude of nova Sge 1783 (= WY Sge) for inclination, this result also implying that novae do not fade significantly. We therefore suggest that, while novae decline in the first 60 yr after outburst, thereafter their luminosity remains constant, and they never undergo a 'hibernation' phase. We show that this idea is consistent with the space density of novae and novalike variables, the outburst interval of SS Cyg and the current luminosities of old novae.

  18. AT Cnc: A SECOND DWARF NOVA WITH A CLASSICAL NOVA SHELL

    SciTech Connect

    Shara, Michael M.; Mizusawa, Trisha; Zurek, David; Wehinger, Peter; Martin, Christopher D.; Neill, James D.; Forster, Karl; Seibert, Mark

    2012-10-20

    We are systematically surveying all known and suspected Z Cam-type dwarf novae for classical nova shells. This survey is motivated by the discovery of the largest known classical nova shell, which surrounds the archetypal dwarf nova Z Camelopardalis. The Z Cam shell demonstrates that at least some dwarf novae must have undergone classical nova eruptions in the past, and that at least some classical novae become dwarf novae long after their nova thermonuclear outbursts, in accord with the hibernation scenario of cataclysmic binaries. Here we report the detection of a fragmented 'shell', 3 arcmin in diameter, surrounding the dwarf nova AT Cancri. This second discovery demonstrates that nova shells surrounding Z Cam-type dwarf novae cannot be very rare. The shell geometry is suggestive of bipolar, conical ejection seen nearly pole-on. A spectrum of the brightest AT Cnc shell knot is similar to that of the ejecta of the classical nova GK Per, and of Z Cam, dominated by [N II] emission. Galaxy Evolution Explorer FUV imagery reveals a similar-sized, FUV-emitting shell. We determine a distance of 460 pc to AT Cnc, and an upper limit to its ejecta mass of {approx}5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -5} M {sub Sun }, typical of classical novae.

  19. A milestone toward understanding PDR properties in the extreme environment of LMC-30 Doradus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chevance, M.; Madden, S. C.; Lebouteiller, V.; Godard, B.; Cormier, D.; Galliano, F.; Hony, S.; Indebetouw, R.; Le Bourlot, J.; Lee, M.-Y.; Le Petit, F.; Pellegrini, E.; Roueff, E.; Wu, R.

    2016-05-01

    Context. More complete knowledge of galaxy evolution requires understanding the process of star formation and the interaction between the interstellar radiation field and interstellar medium (ISM) in galactic environments traversing a wide range of physical parameter space. We focus on the impact of massive star formation on the surrounding low metallicity ISM in 30 Doradus in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). A low metal abundance, which can characterizes some galaxies of the early Universe, results in less ultraviolet (UV) shielding for the formation of the molecular gas necessary for star formation to proceed. The half-solar metallicity gas in this region is strongly irradiated by the super star cluster R136, making it an ideal laboratory to study the structure of the ISM in an extreme environment. Aims: Our goal is to construct a comprehensive, self-consistent picture of the density, radiation field, and ISM structure in the most active star-forming region in the LMC, 30 Doradus. Our spatially resolved study investigates the gas heating and cooling mechanisms, particularly in the photodissociation regions (PDR) where the chemistry and thermal balance are regulated by far-UV photons (6 eV < hν < 13.6 eV). Methods: We present Herschel observations of far-infrared (FIR) fine-structure lines obtained with PACS and SPIRE/FTS. We combined atomic fine-structure lines from Herschel and Spitzer observations with ground-based CO data to provide diagnostics on the properties and structure of the gas by modeling it with the Meudon PDR code. For each tracer we estimate the possible contamination from the ionized gas to isolate the PDR component. We derive the spatial distribution of the radiation field, the pressure, the size, and the filling factor of the photodissociated gas and molecular clouds. Results: We find a range of pressure of ~105-1.7 × 106 cm-3 K and a range of incident radiation field GUV~102-2.5 × 104 through PDR modeling. Assuming a plane

  20. SALT observations of southern post-novae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomov, T.; Swierczynski, E.; Mikolajewski, M.; Ilkiewicz, K.

    2015-04-01

    Aims: We report on recent optical observations of the stellar and the nebular remnants of 22 southern post-novae. Methods: In this study, for each of our targets, we obtained and analysed long-slit spectra in the spectral range 3500-6600 Å and in Hα+[N ii] narrow-band images. Results: The changes in the emission lines' equivalent widths with the time since the outburst agree with earlier published results of other authors. We estimated an average value α = 2.37 for the exponent of the power law fitted to the post-novae continua. Our observations clearly show the two-component structure of the V842 Cen expanding nebulae, owing to the different velocities of the ejected matter. We discovered an expanding shell around V382 Vel with an outer diameter of about 12″. Based on observations made with the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT).The spectra as FITS files are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/576/A119

  1. Identifying and quantifying recurrent novae masquerading as classical novae

    SciTech Connect

    Pagnotta, Ashley; Schaefer, Bradley E.

    2014-06-20

    Recurrent novae (RNe) are cataclysmic variables with two or more nova eruptions within a century. Classical novae (CNe) are similar systems with only one such eruption. Many of the so-called CNe are actually RNe for which only one eruption has been discovered. Since RNe are candidate Type Ia supernova progenitors, it is important to know whether there are enough in our Galaxy to provide the supernova rate, and therefore to know how many RNe are masquerading as CNe. To quantify this, we collected all available information on the light curves and spectra of a Galactic, time-limited sample of 237 CNe and the 10 known RNe, as well as exhaustive discovery efficiency records. We recognize RNe as having (1) outburst amplitude smaller than 14.5 – 4.5 × log (t {sub 3}), (2) orbital period >0.6 days, (3) infrared colors of J – H > 0.7 mag and H – K > 0.1 mag, (4) FWHM of Hα > 2000 km s{sup –1}, (5) high excitation lines, such as Fe X or He II near peak, (6) eruption light curves with a plateau, and (7) white dwarf mass greater than 1.2 M {sub ☉}. Using these criteria, we identify V1721 Aql, DE Cir, CP Cru, KT Eri, V838 Her, V2672 Oph, V4160 Sgr, V4643 Sgr, V4739 Sgr, and V477 Sct as strong RN candidates. We evaluate the RN fraction among the known CNe using three methods to get 24% ± 4%, 12% ± 3%, and 35% ± 3%. With roughly a quarter of the 394 known Galactic novae actually being RNe, there should be approximately a hundred such systems masquerading as CNe.

  2. Multi-frequency observations of SNR J0453-6829 in the LMC. A composite supernova remnant with a pulsar wind nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haberl, F.; Filipović, M. D.; Bozzetto, L. M.; Crawford, E. J.; Points, S. D.; Pietsch, W.; De Horta, A. Y.; Tothill, N.; Payne, J. L.; Sasaki, M.

    2012-07-01

    Context. The Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) is rich in supernova remnants (SNRs), which can be investigated in detail with radio, optical, and X-ray observations. SNR J0453-6829 is an X-ray and radio-bright remnant in the LMC, within which previous studies revealed the presence of a pulsar wind nebula (PWN), making it one of the most interesting SNRs in the Local Group of galaxies. Aims: We study the emission of SNR J0453-6829 to improve our understanding of its morphology, spectrum, and thus the emission mechanisms in the shell and the PWN of the remnant. Methods: We obtained new radio data with the Australia Telescope Compact Array and analysed archival XMM-Newton observations of SNR J0453-6829. We studied the morphology of SNR J0453-6829 from radio, optical, and X-ray images and investigated the energy spectra in the different parts of the remnant. Results: Our radio results confirm that this LMC SNR hosts a typical PWN. The prominent central core of the PWN exhibits a radio spectral index αCore of -0.04 ± 0.04, while in the rest of the SNR shell the spectral slope is somewhat steeper with αShell = -0.43 ± 0.01. We detect regions with a mean polarisation of P ≅ (12 ± 4)% at 6 cm and (9 ± 2)% at 3 cm. The full remnant is of roughly circular shape with dimensions of (31 ± 1) pc × (29 ± 1) pc. The spectral analysis of the XMM-Newton EPIC and RGS spectra allowed us to derive physical parameters for the SNR. Somewhat depending on the spectral model, we obtain for the remnant a shock temperature of around 0.2 keV and estimate the dynamical age to 12 000-15 000 years. Using a Sedov model we further derive an electron density in the X-ray emitting material of 1.56 cm-3, typical for LMC remnants, a large swept-up mass of 830 M⊙, and an explosion energy of 7.6 × 1050 erg. These parameters indicate a well evolved SNR with an X-ray spectrum dominated by emission from the swept-up material.

  3. Possible Nova in M31

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietsch, W.; Burwitz, V.; Rodriguez, J.; Garcia, A.

    2006-05-01

    We report the discovery of a possible nova in M31 on an rgb and an unfiltered CCD image (2006, April 26.273, 15.9 mag; 28.263, 16.1 mag) obtained with the Bradford Robotic Telescope Galaxy at the Tenerife Observatory (365mm, f/11 Schmidt-Cassegrain telescope with a 0.67 focal reducer with a FLI MaxCam ME2 1k x 1k CCD camera with 13Mu sq. pixels). The position obtained for the nova candidate is RA = 00h 43m 13.38s, Dec = +41° 16' 58.9" with an accuracy of 0.3".

  4. The NOvA experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Ray, Ronald E.

    2008-01-01

    The NOvA Project will construct a 15 kt Far Detector 835 km from Fermilab at Ash River Minnesota, a 220 ton Near Detector on the Fermilab site and upgrade the existing NuMI beamline from 400 kW to 700 kW. The detector technology is liquid scintillator captured in reflective rigid PVC cells. The light is captured using WLS fibre and routed to avalanche photo diodes. NO?A is designed to observe the appearance of electron neutrinos, determine the value of sin{sup 2}(2{theta}{sub 13}) and begin the study of CP violation in the neutrino sector. NO?A is the only currently approved experiment with the ability to determine the neutrino mass ordering. The NOvA physics program and projected sensitivities are described in this report.

  5. Nucleosynthesis and the nova outburst

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starrfield, S.; Truran, J.W.; Wiescher, M.; Sparks, W.M.

    1995-01-01

    A nova outburst is the consequence of the accretion of hydrogen rich material onto a white dwarf and it can be considered as the largest hydrogen bomb in the Universe. The fuel is supplied by a secondary star in a close binary system while the strong degeneracy of the massive white dwarf acts to contain the gas during the early stages of the explosion. The containment allows the temperature in the nuclear burning region to exceed 10(sup 8)K under all circumstances. As a result a major fraction of CNO nuclei in the envelope are transformed into (beta)(sup +)-unstable nuclei. We discuss the effects of these nuclei on the evolution. Recent observational studies have shown that there are two compositional classes of novae; one which occurs on carbon-oxygen white dwarfs, and a second class that occurs on oxygen-neon-magnesium white dwarfs. In this review we will concentrate on the latter explosions since they produce the most interesting nucleosynthesis. We report both on the results of new observational determinations of nova abundances and, in addition, new hydrodynamic calculations that examine the consequences of the accretion process on 1.0M(sub (circle dot)), 1.25M(sub (circle dot)), and 1.35M(sub (circle dot)) white dwarfs. Our results show that novae can produce (sup 22)Na, (sup 26)Al, and other intermediate mass nuclei in interesting amounts. We will present the results of new calculations, done with updated nuclear reaction rates and opacities, which exhibit quantitative differences with respect to published work.

  6. Nucleosynthesis and the nova outburst

    SciTech Connect

    Starrfield, S.; Truran, J.W.; Wiescher, M.; Sparks, W.M.

    1995-12-31

    A nova outburst is the consequence of the accretion of hydrogen rich material onto a white dwarf and it can be considered as the largest hydrogen bomb in the Universe. The fuel is supplied by a secondary star in a close binary system while the strong degeneracy of the massive white dwarf acts to contain the gas during the early stages of the explosion. The containment allows the temperature in the nuclear burning region to exceed 10{sup 8}K under all circumstances. As a result a major fraction of CNO nuclei in the envelope are transformed into {beta}{sup +}-unstable nuclei. We discuss the effects of these nuclei on the evolution. Recent observational studies have shown that there are two compositional classes of novae; one which occurs on carbon-oxygen white dwarfs, and a second class that occurs on oxygen-neon-magnesium white dwarfs. In this review we will concentrate on the latter explosions since they produce the most interesting nucleosynthesis. We report both on the results of new observational determinations of nova abundances and, in addition, new hydrodynamic calculations that examine the consequences of the accretion process on 1.0M{sub {circle_dot}}, 1.25M{sub {circle_dot}}, and 1.35M{sub {circle_dot}} white dwarfs. Our results show that novae can produce {sup 22}Na, {sup 26}Al, and other intermediate mass nuclei in interesting amounts. We will present the results of new calculations, done with updated nuclear reaction rates and opacities, which exhibit quantitative differences with respect to published work.

  7. NOVA making stuff: Season 2

    SciTech Connect

    Leombruni, Lisa; Paulsen, Christine Andrews

    2014-12-12

    Over the course of four weeks in fall 2013, 11.7 million Americans tuned in to PBS to follow host David Pogue as he led them in search of engineering and scientific breakthroughs poised to change our world. Levitating trains, quantum computers, robotic bees, and bomb-detecting plants—these were just a few of the cutting-edge innovations brought into the living rooms of families across the country in NOVA’s four-part series, Making Stuff: Faster, Wilder, Colder, and Safer. Each of the four one-hour programs gave viewers a behind-the-scenes look at novel technologies poised to change our world—showing them how basic research and scientific discovery can hold the keys to transforming how we live. Making Stuff Season 2 (MS2) combined true entertainment with educational value, creating a popular and engaging series that brought accessible science into the homes of millions. NOVA’s goal to engage the public with such technological innovation and basic research extended beyond the broadcast series, including a variety of online, educational, and promotional activities: original online science reporting, web-only short-form videos, a new online quiz-game, social media engagement and promotion, an educational outreach “toolkit” for science educators to create their own “makerspaces,” an online community of practice, a series of nationwide Innovation Cafés, educator professional development, a suite of teacher resources, an “Idealab,” participation in national conferences, and specialized station relation and marketing. A summative evaluation of the MS2 project indicates that overall, these activities helped make a significant impact on the viewers, users, and participants that NOVA reached. The final evaluation conducted by Concord Evaluation Group (CEG) confidently concluded that the broadcast, website, and outreach activities were successful at achieving the project’s intended impacts. CEG reported that the MS2 series and website content were

  8. New studies of nuclear decay {gamma}-rays from novae

    SciTech Connect

    Starrfield, S.; Truran, J.W.; Wiescher, M.C.

    1997-11-01

    The cause of the nova outburst is a thermonuclear runaway (TNR) in hydrogen rich material transferred by a companion onto a white dwarf. Studies of this phenomenon have shown that the TNR produces large concentrations of the short lived positron unstable isotopes of the CNO nuclei which are transported to the surface by convection so that early in the outburst we expect significant numbers of radioactive decays to occur at the surface. The resulting {gamma}-ray emission may be detectable from nearby novae early in their outbursts. The TNR is also expected to produce substantial amounts of {sup 7}Be and {sup 22}Na. Their decays also yield potentially detectable levels of {gamma}-ray emission for relatively nearby novae. We are also interested in the role played by novae in the production of the {approximately}2M{circle_dot} of {sup 26}Al found in the galaxy. In order to improve our predictions of this phenomenon, we have performed a new set of calculations of TNR`s on ONeMg and CO white dwarfs with an updated nuclear reaction network and opacities.

  9. Large Magellanic Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    The larger of two nearby companions of the Milky Way Galaxy that can be seen with the naked eye in the southern hemisphere sky and which are named after the Portuguese navigator, Ferdinand Magellan, who observed them in 1519 during his circumnavigation of the world. Located in the constellation of Dorado, at a distance of about 170 000 light-years, the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) has an overall ...

  10. Fermi Observations of the Large Magellanic Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knödlseder, J.

    2010-05-01

    We report on observations of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) with the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope. The LMC is clearly detected with the Large Area Telescope (LAT) and for the first time the emission is spatially well resolved in gamma-rays. Our observations reveal that the bulk of the gamma-ray emission arises from the 30 Doradus region. We discuss this result in light of the massive star populations that are hosted in this area and address implications for cosmic ray physics. We conclude by exploring the scientific potential of the ongoing Fermi observations on the study of high-energy phenomena in massive stars.

  11. Measurement of Reactions on 30P for Nova Nucleosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Z.; Guidry, M. W.; Hix, W. R.; Smith, M. S.

    2003-05-01

    Replace these paragraphs with your abstract. We encourage you to include a sentence acknowledging your funding agency. In a recent study the 30P(p,gamma)31S rate played a crucial role in the synthesis of heavier nuclear species, from Si to Ca, in nova outbursts on ONe White Dwarfs [1]. The adopted rate of this reaction, based on a Hauser-Feshbach calculation [2], has a large uncertainty and could be as much as a factor of 100 too high or too low [3]. In their study, Jose et al.[1] varied the 30P(p,gamma)31S reaction rate within this uncertainty and found that, when rate is reduced by a factor of 100, the synthesis of elements above Si is lowered by a factor 10 with respect to the values found with the nominal rate. This has important consequences for nova nucleosynthesis, as overproduction of isotopes in the Si to Ca mass region has been observed in the ejecta from some nova explosions (e.g.,[4,5]). While generally valid at higher temperatures, Hauser-Feshbach calculations of the rates at nova temperatures can have large uncertainties. At these temperatures, the rate is more likely dominated by a few individual nuclear resonances. At present there are about 10 31S resonances known above the 30P + p threshold that may contribute to the 30P(p,gamma)31S reaction rate at nova temperatures. The excitation energies of these levels are known but spins and parities (for all but two) are not. We plan to measure the 30P(p,p)30P and 30P(p,gamma)31S reactions at HRIBF to better determine this reaction rate. A detailed description of the experiments will be given. We are also conducting a new nova nucleosynthesis simulation over multiple spatial zones of the exploding envelope to investigate the influence of the 30P(p,gamma)31S reaction rate on nova nucleosynthesis. The results of these calculations will be discussed. 1. Jose , J., Coc, A., Hernanz, M., Astrophys. J., 560, 897(2001). 2. Thielemann, F.-K et al., 1987, Advances in Nuclear Astrophysics, ed. E. Vangioni-Flam ( Gif

  12. Searching for nova shells around cataclysmic variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahman, D. I.; Dhillon, V. S.; Knigge, C.; Marsh, T. R.

    2015-08-01

    We present the results of a search for nova shells around 101 cataclysmic variables (CVs), using H α images taken with the 4.2-m William Herschel Telescope (WHT) and the 2.5-m Isaac Newton Telescope Photometric H α Survey of the Northern Galactic Plane (IPHAS). Both telescopes are located on La Palma. We concentrated our WHT search on nova-like variables, whilst our IPHAS search covered all CVs in the IPHAS footprint. We found one shell out of the 24 nova-like variables we examined. The newly discovered shell is around V1315 Aql and has a radius of ˜2.5 arcmin, indicative of a nova eruption approximately 120 yr ago. This result is consistent with the idea that the high mass-transfer rate exhibited by nova-like variables is due to enhanced irradiation of the secondary by the hot white dwarf following a recent nova eruption. The implications of our observations for the lifetime of the nova-like variable phase are discussed. We also examined four asynchronous polars, but found no new shells around any of them, so we are unable to confirm that a recent nova eruption is the cause of the asynchronicity in the white dwarf spin. We find tentative evidence of a faint shell around the dwarf nova V1363 Cyg. In addition, we find evidence for a light echo around the nova V2275 Cyg, which erupted in 2001, indicative of an earlier nova eruption ˜300 yr ago, making V2275 Cyg a possible recurrent nova.

  13. NOVAE EJECTA AS DISCRETE ADIABATICALLY EXPANDING GLOBULES

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Robert

    2013-09-15

    Available data for novae show that the X-ray and visible spectral regions correlate with each other as they evolve. Large differences in ionization exist simultaneously in the two wavelength regimes, and a straightforward model is proposed that explains the characteristics observed in both spectral regimes. Its key features are (1) ejected blobs of very high density gas from the white dwarf (WD) that expand to create within each clump a wide range of emitting density, ionization, and velocity, and (2) a more homogeneous circumbinary envelope of gas that is produced by secondary star mass loss. The relative mass loss rates from the two stars determine whether the He/N or the Fe II visible spectrum predominates during decline, when hard X-rays are detected, and when the WD can be detected as a super soft X-ray source.

  14. Novae Ejecta as Discrete Adiabatically Expanding Globules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Robert

    2013-09-01

    Available data for novae show that the X-ray and visible spectral regions correlate with each other as they evolve. Large differences in ionization exist simultaneously in the two wavelength regimes, and a straightforward model is proposed that explains the characteristics observed in both spectral regimes. Its key features are (1) ejected blobs of very high density gas from the white dwarf (WD) that expand to create within each clump a wide range of emitting density, ionization, and velocity, and (2) a more homogeneous circumbinary envelope of gas that is produced by secondary star mass loss. The relative mass loss rates from the two stars determine whether the He/N or the Fe II visible spectrum predominates during decline, when hard X-rays are detected, and when the WD can be detected as a super soft X-ray source.

  15. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Ages and masses of LMC clusters (de Grijs+, 2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Grijs, R.; Goodwin, S. P.; Anders, P.

    2014-10-01

    We specifically focused on the catalogue of Glatt, Grebel & Koch (2010, Cat. J/A+A/571/A50), who compiled data of 1193 populous LMC clusters with ages of up to 1 Gyr based on the most up-to-date and comprehensive LMC object catalogue of Bica et al. (2008, Cat. J/MNRAS/389/678). Glatt et al. (2010, Cat. J/A+A/571/A50) used the optical broad-band photometry from the Magellanic Clouds Photometric Survey (MCPS; Zaritsky et al., 2004, Cat. J/AJ/128/1606) to construct colour-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) and subsequently determined ages for their entire sample based on isochrone fits. (1 data file).

  16. Superhumps in a Rarely Outbursting SU UMa-Type Dwarf Nova, HO Delphini

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Taichi; Nogami, Daisaku; Moilanen, Marko; Yamaoka, Hitoshi

    2003-10-01

    We observed the 1994, 1996, and 2001 outbursts of HO Del. From the detection of secure superhumps, HO Del is confirmed to be an SU UMa-type dwarf nova with a superhump period of 0.06453(6)d. Based on recent observations and past records, the outbursts of HO Del are found to be relatively rare, with the shortest intervals of superoutbursts being ˜ 740d. Among SU UMa-type dwarf novae with similar outburst intervals, the outburst amplitude (˜ 5.0mag) is unusually small. HO Del showed a rather rapid decay of the superhump amplitudes, and no regrowth of the amplitudes during the later stage, in contrast to the commonly observed behavior in SU UMa-type dwarf novae with long outburst intervals. We positively identified HO Del with a ROSAT X-ray source, and obtained a relatively large X-ray luminosity of 1031.1±0.2erg s-1. We also performed a literature survey of SU UMa-type dwarf novae and presented a new set of basic statistics. The SU UMa-type dwarf novae with a brightening trend or with a regrowth of superhumps near the termination of a superoutburst are found to be rather tightly confined in a small region on the (superhump period-supercycle length) plane. These features may provide a better observational distinction for the previously claimed subgroup of dwarf novae (Tremendous Outburst Amplitude Dwarf Novae).

  17. V5852 Sgr: an unusual nova possibly associated with the Sagittarius stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aydi, E.; Mróz, P.; Whitelock, P. A.; Mohamed, S.; Wyrzykowski, Ł.; Udalski, A.; Vaisanen, P.; Nagayama, T.; Dominik, M.; Scholz, A.; Onozato, H.; Williams, R. E.; Hodgkin, S. T.; Nishiyama, S.; Yamagishi, M.; Smith, A. M. S.; Ryu, T.; Iwamatsu, A.; Kawamata, I.

    2016-09-01

    We report spectroscopic and photometric follow-up of the peculiar nova V5852 Sgr (discovered as OGLE-2015-NOVA-01), which exhibits a combination of features from different nova classes. The photometry shows a flat-topped light curve with quasi-periodic oscillations, then a smooth decline followed by two fainter recoveries in brightness. Spectroscopy with the Southern African Large Telescope shows first a classical nova with an Fe II or Fe II b spectral type. In the latter spectrum, broad emissions from helium, nitrogen and oxygen are prominent, and the iron has faded which could be an indication to the start of the nebular phase. The line widths suggest ejection velocities around 1000 km s-1. The nova is in the direction of the Galactic bulge and is heavily reddened by an uncertain amount. The V magnitude 16 days after maximum enables a distance to be estimated and this suggests that the nova may be in the extreme trailing stream of the Sagittarius dwarf spheroidal galaxy. If so it is the first nova to be detected from that, or from any dwarf spheroidal galaxy. Given the uncertainty of the method and the unusual light curve we cannot rule out the possibility that it is in the bulge or even the Galactic disk behind the bulge.

  18. Fourier Analysis of First-Overtone RR Lyrae Variables in the LMC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clement, C. M.; Muzzin, A. V.; Rowe, J. F.; MACHO Collaboration

    2002-05-01

    Simon's (1989, ApJ, 343, L17) Fourier decomposition technique has been applied to the V magnitudes of the first-overtone RR Lyrae (RR1) variables in 16 LMC fields observed by the MACHO collaboration. The Fourier coefficients R21 and φ 31 derived for these stars have been compared with the coefficients of RR1 variables in the galactic globular clusters Omega Centauri, M2, M3, M5, M68, M107 (NGC 6171) and NGC 6441. Our analysis indicates that the majority of the LMC RR1 variables have coefficients similar to those in the Oosterhoff type I (OoI) clusters M3 and M5 and to the OoI variables in Omega Centauri. In a study of hydrodynamic pulsation models of first overtone RR Lyrae variables, Simon & Clement (1993, ApJ, 410, 526) found that the Fourier phase parameter φ 31 depends essentially on mass and luminosity. From this, we conclude that the masses and luminosities of most of the RR1 variables in the LMC are comparable to those of the OoI RR1 variables in Omega Centauri, M3 and M5, a fact that should be considered when RR Lyrae variables are used for determining the distance to the LMC. The MACHO collaboration includes C. Alcock, R. A. Allsman, D. R. Alves, T. S. Axelrod, A. C. Becker, D. P. Bennet, K. H. Cook, A. J. Drake, K. C. Freeman, M. Geha, K. Griest, M. J. Lehner, S. L. Marshall, D. Minniti, C. A. Nelson, B. A. Peterson, P. Popowski, M. R. Pratt, P. J. Quinn, C. W. Stubbs, W. Sutherland, T. Vandehel and D. L. Welch. This research has been supported in part by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada.

  19. Ultraviolet interstellar extinction in the large Magellanic Cloud using observations with the International Ultraviolet Explorer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koornneef, J.; Code, A. D.

    1981-01-01

    Ten early-type supergiants in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) have been observed with the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE). The spectra (1150-3200 A) are shown, and their photometric properties are discussed. It is confirmed that the LMC interstellar extinction law for these stars deviates significantly from the average galactic law in the sense that the 2200 A feature is deficient in strength and that, in the far-ultraviolet (wavelength less than 2000 A), the observed LMC extinction law is significantly above the galactic curve.

  20. Strategies of design, development and activation of the Nova control system

    SciTech Connect

    Holloway, F.W.

    1983-06-30

    Nova and Novette are large complex experimental laser facilities which require extensive and sophisticated control systems for their successful operation. Often, in major controls projects, certain invisible aspects of the project, such as overall strategy, management, resources and historical constraints, have a more profound effect upon success than any specific hardware/software design. The design and performance of the Nova/Novette laser control system will be presented with special emphasis upon these often controversial aspects.

  1. VERITAS Observations of the Nova in V407 Cygni

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aliu, E.; Archambault, S.; Arlen, T.; Aune, T.; Beilicke, M.; Benbow, W.; Bouvier, A.; Bradbury, S. M.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Byrum, K.; Cannon, A.; Cesarini, A.; Ciupik, L.; Collins-Hughes, E.; Connolly, M. P.; Cui, W.; Decerprit, G.; Dickherber, R.; Duke, C.; Dumm, J.; Dwarkadas, V. V.; Errando, M.; Falcone, A.; Feng, Q.; Finley, J. P.; Finnegan, G.; Fortson, L.; Furniss, A.; Galante, N.; Gall, D.; Godambe, S.; Griffin, S.; Grube, J.; Gyuk, G.; Hanna, D.; Holder, J.; Huan, H.; Hughes, G.; Humensky, T. B.; Kaaret, P.; Karlsson, N.; Kertzman, M.; Khassen, Y.; Kieda, D.; Krawczynski, H.; Krennrich, F.; Lang, M. J.; Lee, K.; Maier, G.; Majumdar, P.; McArthur, S.; McCann, A.; Millis, J.; Moriarty, P.; Mukherjee, R.; Nuñez, P. D.; Ong, R. A.; Orr, M.; Otte, A. N.; Pandel, D.; Park, N.; Perkins, J. S.; Pohl, M.; Prokoph, H.; Quinn, J.; Ragan, K.; Reyes, L. C.; Reynolds, P. T.; Roache, E.; Rose, H. J.; Ruppel, J.; Saxon, D. B.; Schroedter, M.; Sembroski, G. H.; Skole, C.; Smith, A. W.; Staszak, D.; Telezhinsky, I.; Tešić, G.; Theiling, M.; Thibadeau, S.; Tsurusaki, K.; Tyler, J.; Varlotta, A.; Vincent, S.; Vivier, M.; Wakely, S. P.; Ward, J. E.; Weekes, T. C.; Weinstein, A.; Weisgarber, T.; Welsing, R.; Williams, D. A.; Zitzer, B.

    2012-07-01

    We report on very high energy (E > 100 GeV) gamma-ray observations of V407 Cygni, a symbiotic binary that underwent a nova outburst producing 0.1-10 GeV gamma rays during 2010 March 10-26. Observations were made with the Very Energetic Radiation Imaging Telescope Array System during 2010 March 19-26 at relatively large zenith angles due to the position of V407 Cyg. An improved reconstruction technique for large zenith angle observations is presented and used to analyze the data. We do not detect V407 Cygni and place a differential upper limit on the flux at 1.6 TeV of 2.3 × 10-12 erg cm-2 s-1 (at the 95% confidence level). When considered jointly with data from Fermi-LAT, this result places limits on the acceleration of very high energy particles in the nova.

  2. VERITAS OBSERVATIONS OF THE NOVA IN V407 CYGNI

    SciTech Connect

    Aliu, E.; Archambault, S.; Arlen, T.; Aune, T.; Bouvier, A.; Beilicke, M.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Dickherber, R.; Benbow, W.; Bradbury, S. M.; Byrum, K.; Cannon, A.; Collins-Hughes, E.; Cesarini, A.; Connolly, M. P.; Ciupik, L.; Cui, W.; Decerprit, G.; Duke, C. E-mail: kazuma-tsurusaki@uiowa.edu; and others

    2012-07-20

    We report on very high energy (E > 100 GeV) gamma-ray observations of V407 Cygni, a symbiotic binary that underwent a nova outburst producing 0.1-10 GeV gamma rays during 2010 March 10-26. Observations were made with the Very Energetic Radiation Imaging Telescope Array System during 2010 March 19-26 at relatively large zenith angles due to the position of V407 Cyg. An improved reconstruction technique for large zenith angle observations is presented and used to analyze the data. We do not detect V407 Cygni and place a differential upper limit on the flux at 1.6 TeV of 2.3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -12} erg cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} (at the 95% confidence level). When considered jointly with data from Fermi-LAT, this result places limits on the acceleration of very high energy particles in the nova.

  3. The diffuse source at the center of LMC SNR 0509–67.5 is a background galaxy at z = 0.031

    SciTech Connect

    Pagnotta, Ashley; Walker, Emma S.; Schaefer, Bradley E.

    2014-06-20

    Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) are well-known for their use in the measurement of cosmological distances, but our continuing lack of concrete knowledge about their progenitor stars is both a matter of debate and a source of systematic error. In our attempts to answer this question, we presented unambiguous evidence that LMC SNR 0509–67.5, the remnant of an SN Ia that exploded in the Large Magellanic Cloud 400 ± 50 yr ago, did not have any point sources (stars) near the site of the original supernova explosion, from which we concluded that this particular supernova must have had a progenitor system consisting of two white dwarfs. There is, however, evidence of nebulosity near the center of the remnant, which could have been left over detritus from the less massive WD, or could have been a background galaxy unrelated to the supernova explosion. We obtained long-slit spectra of the central nebulous region using GMOS on Gemini South to determine which of these two possibilities is correct. The spectra show Hα emission at a redshift of z = 0.031, which implies that the nebulosity in the center of LMC SNR 0509–67.5 is a background galaxy, unrelated to the supernova.

  4. Identification of Recurrent Novae in M31

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shafter, Allen W.; Rector, T. A.; Schweizer, F.; Bryan, J.

    2014-01-01

    Over roughly the past century a total of more than 900 optical transient events have been recorded in M31, the vast majority of which are believed to represent eruptions of classical novae. The impressive dataset of nova positions put together by Pietsch (http://www.mpe.mpg.de m31novae/opt/m31/) provides the opportunity to search for multiple nova outbursts from the same progenitor system, and thus to characterize the population of recurrent novae (RNe) in M31. In order to identify RNe candidates, we have searched for spatial near coincidences among the 945 recorded novae given in the Pietsch catalog through the end of August 2013. Given that the positions of many of the early novae are quite uncertain, we have set our initial screen to include nova pairs with nominal separations less than or equal to 6 arcsec. We have identified a total of 102 novae that pass this coarse screen. Of these, 78 novae form 39 pairs, 15 form five triples, four novae are part of a quad, and five novae form a quint. As demonstrated by Shafter, Rice and Daub (2009, presented at the "Wild Stars in the Old West II" conference, mintaka.sdsu.edu/faculty/shafter/extragalactic_novae/RNePoster4.pdf), the majority of the 102 novae surviving our initial screen are expected to be associated with chance positional near coincidences (especially near the nucleus), and are not RNe. To decide which candidates are indeed RNe, we have undertaken a study to locate the original discovery plates, CCD images or published finding charts, and to perform the necessary astrometry to identify which of our candidate RNe are chance positional coincidences, and which are RNe. For each candidate, we estimate the probability that the object is a chance positional coincidence as in Shafter et al. (2009). To date, we have been successful in identifying finding charts or original images for most of the candidates, and have found a total of 23 nova outbursts in M31 associated with 10 systems that are almost certainly RNe.

  5. A timing constraint on the (total) mass of the Large Magellanic Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peñarrubia, Jorge; Gómez, Facundo A.; Besla, Gurtina; Erkal, Denis; Ma, Yin-Zhe

    2016-02-01

    This paper explores the effect of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) on the mass estimates obtained from the timing argument. We show that accounting for the presence of the LMC systematically lowers the Local Group mass (MLG) derived from the relative motion of the Milky Way-Andromeda pair. Motivated by this result, we apply a Bayesian technique devised by Peñarrubia et al. to simultaneously fit (i) distances and velocities of galaxies within 3 Mpc and (ii) the relative motion between the Milky Way and Andromeda derived from HST observations, with the LMC mass (MLMC) as a free parameter. Our analysis returns a Local Group mass M_LG=2.64^{+0.42}_{-0.38}× 10^{12} M_{⊙} at a 68 per cent confidence level. The masses of the Milky Way, M_MW=1.04_{-0.23}^{+0.26}× 10^{12} M_{⊙}, and Andromeda, M_{M31}=1.33_{-0.33}^{+0.39}× 10^{12} M_{⊙}, are consistent with previous estimates that neglect the impact of the LMC on the observed Hubble flow. We find a (total) LMC mass M_LMC=0.25_{-0.08}^{+0.09}× 10^{12} M_{⊙}, which is indicative of an extended dark matter halo and supports the scenario where this galaxy is just past its first pericentric approach. Consequently, these results suggest that the LMC may induce significant perturbations on the Galactic potential.

  6. Distribution of OVI in the Milky Way and the Large Magellanic Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathak, Amit; Murthy, Jayant; Sarma, Rathin; Sarma, Jayanta

    2016-07-01

    We present a survey of interstellar OVI absorption in the Milky Way (MW) and the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) toward 70 lines of sight based on observations of the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) space telescope. Equivalent widths and column densities are reported corresponding to MW and LMC velocities. Patchiness in the distribution of the OVI is confirmed in the MW and the LMC. The Doppler parameter for the MW and the LMC is calculated which suggests that non-thermal broadening mechanisms contribute significantly and indicates the presence of turbulence, unidentified multiple velocity components and collision in the broad O VI profiles. The variation in the OVI column densities reported here are at the smallest scale ever measured for the MW and the LMC. Significant variations in the OVI column densities at very small scales are detected. Apart from confirming the patchiness of the OVI bearing clouds, the small scale variation seen in the OVI column density point to complex cloud-like or sheet-like distribution of varying sizes. We present detection of OVI absorption in five superbubbles of the LMC for the first time and the LMC superbubbles show an excess OVI absorption of about 40 percent compared to non-superbubble lines of sight.

  7. Very high-energy γ-ray observations of novae and dwarf novae with the MAGIC telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahnen, M. L.; Ansoldi, S.; Antonelli, L. A.; Antoranz, P.; Babic, A.; Banerjee, B.; Bangale, P.; Barres de Almeida, U.; Barrio, J. A.; Becerra González, J.; Bednarek, W.; Bernardini, E.; Biasuzzi, B.; Biland, A.; Blanch, O.; Bonnefoy, S.; Bonnoli, G.; Borracci, F.; Bretz, T.; Carmona, E.; Carosi, A.; Chatterjee, A.; Clavero, R.; Colin, P.; Colombo, E.; Contreras, J. L.; Cortina, J.; Covino, S.; Da Vela, P.; Dazzi, F.; De Angelis, A.; De Caneva, G.; De Lotto, B.; de Oña Wilhelmi, E.; Delgado Mendez, C.; Di Pierro, F.; Dominis Prester, D.; Dorner, D.; Doro, M.; Einecke, S.; Eisenacher Glawion, D.; Elsaesser, D.; Fernández-Barral, A.; Fidalgo, D.; Fonseca, M. V.; Font, L.; Frantzen, K.; Fruck, C.; Galindo, D.; García López, R. J.; Garczarczyk, M.; Garrido Terrats, D.; Gaug, M.; Giammaria, P.; Godinović, N.; González Muñoz, A.; Guberman, D.; Hanabata, Y.; Hayashida, M.; Herrera, J.; Hose, J.; Hrupec, D.; Hughes, G.; Idec, W.; Kellermann, H.; Kodani, K.; Konno, Y.; Kubo, H.; Kushida, J.; La Barbera, A.; Lelas, D.; Lewandowska, N.; Lindfors, E.; Lombardi, S.; Longo, F.; López, M.; López-Coto, R.; López-Oramas, A.; Lorenz, E.; Majumdar, P.; Makariev, M.; Mallot, K.; Maneva, G.; Manganaro, M.; Mannheim, K.; Maraschi, L.; Marcote, B.; Mariotti, M.; Martínez, M.; Mazin, D.; Menzel, U.; Miranda, J. M.; Mirzoyan, R.; Moralejo, A.; Nakajima, D.; Neustroev, V.; Niedzwiecki, A.; Nievas Rosillo, M.; Nilsson, K.; Nishijima, K.; Noda, K.; Orito, R.; Overkemping, A.; Paiano, S.; Palacio, J.; Palatiello, M.; Paneque, D.; Paoletti, R.; Paredes, J. M.; Paredes-Fortuny, X.; Persic, M.; Poutanen, J.; Prada Moroni, P. G.; Prandini, E.; Puljak, I.; Reinthal, R.; Rhode, W.; Ribó, M.; Rico, J.; Rodriguez Garcia, J.; Saito, T.; Saito, K.; Satalecka, K.; Scapin, V.; Schultz, C.; Schweizer, T.; Sillanpää, A.; Sitarek, J.; Snidaric, I.; Sobczynska, D.; Stamerra, A.; Steinbring, T.; Strzys, M.; Takalo, L.; Takami, H.; Tavecchio, F.; Temnikov, P.; Terzić, T.; Tescaro, D.; Teshima, M.; Thaele, J.; Torres, D. F.; Toyama, T.; Treves, A.; Verguilov, V.; Vovk, I.; Will, M.; Zanin, R.; Desiante, R.; Hays, E.

    2015-10-01

    Context. In the last five years the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) instrument detected GeV γ-ray emission from five novae. The GeV emission can be interpreted in terms of an inverse Compton process of electrons accelerated in a shock. In this case it is expected that protons in the same conditions can be accelerated to much higher energies. Consequently they may produce a second component in the γ-ray spectrum at TeV energies. Aims: We aim to explore the very high-energy domain to search for γ-ray emission above 50 GeV and to shed light on the acceleration process of leptons and hadrons in nova explosions. Methods: We have performed observations, with the MAGIC telescopes of the classical nova V339 Del shortly after the 2013 outburst; optical and subsequent GeV γ-ray detections triggered the MAGIC observations. We also briefly report on VHE observations of the symbiotic nova YY Her and the dwarf nova ASASSN-13ax. We complement the TeV MAGIC observations with the analysis of contemporaneous Fermi-LAT data of the sources. The TeV and GeV observations are compared in order to evaluate the acceleration parameters for leptons and hadrons. Results: No significant TeV emission was found from the studied sources. We computed upper limits on the spectrum and night-by-night flux. The combined GeV and TeV observations of V339 Del limit the ratio of proton to electron luminosities to Lp ≲ 0.15 Le. Appendix A is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  8. Nova pulse power design and operational experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitham, K.; Larson, D.; Merritt, B.; Christie, D.

    1987-01-01

    Nova is a 100 TW Nd++ solid state laser designed for experiments with laser fusion at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The pulsed power for Nova includes a 58 MJ capacitor bank driving 5336 flashlamps with millisecond pulses and subnanosecond high voltages for electro optics. This paper summarizes the pulsed power designs and the operational experience to date.

  9. On the Progenitors of Local Group Novae. II. The Red Giant Nova Rate of M31

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, S. C.; Darnley, M. J.; Bode, M. F.; Shafter, A. W.

    2016-02-01

    In our preceding paper, Liverpool Telescope data of M31 novae in eruption were used to facilitate a search for their progenitor systems within archival Hubble Space Telescope data, with the aim of detecting systems with red giant secondaries (RG-novae) or luminous accretion disks. From an input catalog of 38 spectroscopically confirmed novae with archival quiescent observations, likely progenitors were recovered for 11 systems. Here we present the results of the subsequent statistical analysis of the original survey, including possible biases associated with the survey and the M31 nova population in general. As part of this analysis, we examine the distribution of optical decline times (t2) of M31 novae, how the likely bulge and disk nova distributions compare, and how the M31 t2 distribution compares to that of the Milky Way. Using a detailed Monte Carlo simulation, we determine that {30}-10+13% of all M31 nova eruptions can be attributed to RG-nova systems, and at the 99% confidence level, \\gt 10% of all M31 novae are RG-novae. This is the first estimate of a RG-nova rate of an entire galaxy. Our results also imply that RG-novae in M31 are more likely to be associated with the M31 disk population than the bulge; indeed, the results are consistent with all RG-novae residing in the disk. If this result is confirmed in other galaxies, it suggests that any Type Ia supernovae that originate from RG-nova systems are more likely to be associated with younger populations and may be rare in old stellar populations, such as early-type galaxies.

  10. Observations and Analysis of the GK Persei Nova Shell and its "Jet-like" Feature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, E.; Redman, M. P.; Boumis, P.; Akras, S.

    2015-12-01

    GK Persei (1901, the "Firework Nebula") is an old but bright nova remnant that offers a chance to probe the physics and kinematics of nova shells. The kinematics in new and archival longslit optical echelle spectra were analysed using the SHAPE software. New imaging from the Aristarchos telescope continues to track the proper motion, extinction and structural evolution of the knots, which have been observed intermittently over several decades. We present for the first time, kinematical constraints on a large faint "jet" feature, that was previously detected beyond the shell boundary. These observational constraints allow for the generation of models for individual knots, interactions within knot complexes, and the "jet" feature. Put together, and taking into account dwarf-nova accelerated winds emanating from the central source, these data and models give a deeper insight into the GK Per nova remnant as a whole.

  11. Nova shell observation of V2275 Cyg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esenoglu, Hasan H.; Balman, Solen; Saygac, A. Talat

    2016-07-01

    We present a recent search for nova shell of V2275 Cyg after its eruption of 9 years, using narrow bands of H-alpha, OIII and H-alpha-continuum images taken with RTT150 telescope at TUG. They were taken in November 2nd, 2010 with exposures of 600sec. There is uncertain in the literature whether the nova shell is visible in H-alpha. In this work the nova disappears on frame of OIII (wavelengt of 500.7nm with band width of 5nm) when it is faint apparent on the frames of both H-alpha and H-alpha continuum. We will calculate a new angular diameter of the nova shell by using the nebular expantion method if the data allow to measure seeing values of the nova and neighbor stars.

  12. BVRJK observations of Northern Hemisphere old novae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szkody, Paula

    1994-01-01

    BVR photometry has been accomplished for 65 objects in the Duerbeck atlas along with J photometry of 52 and K of 30 objects. The (B - V), (V - R), and (V - J) colors are compiled with those available in the literature to assess the color change of novae as a function of time since outburst. Using available reddening values results in a list of 42 (B - V), 28 (V - R), and 38 (V - J) dereddened colors for novae that are from 1 to 319 years past outburst. The results indicate all the colors cluster about zero, with no obvious transition to red values as would be expected for novae undergoing a hibernation scenario. This indicates the accretion disk is sustained for at least 200 years after outburst. It is also apparent that red novae with giant secondaries and/or unusual properties readily stand out from the normal novae in color.

  13. Nova-driven winds in globular clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, E. H.; Durisen, R. H.

    1978-01-01

    Recent sensitive searches for H-alpha emission from ionized intracluster gas in globular clusters have set upper limits that conflict with theoretical predictions. It is suggested that nova outbursts heat the gas, producing winds that resolve this discrepancy. The incidence of novae in globular clusters, the conversion of kinetic energy of the nova shell to thermal energy of the intracluster gas, and the characteristics of the resultant winds are discussed. Calculated emission from the nova-driven models does not conflict with any observations to date. Some suggestions are made concerning the most promising approaches for future detection of intracluster gas on the basis of these models. The possible relationship of nova-driven winds to globular cluster X-ray sources is also considered.

  14. A Dipole on the Sky: Predictions for Hypervelocity Stars from the Large Magellanic Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boubert, Douglas; Evans, N. Wyn

    2016-07-01

    We predict the distribution of hypervelocity stars (HVSs) ejected from the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), under the assumption that the dwarf galaxy hosts a central massive black hole (MBH). For the majority of stars ejected from the LMC, the orbital velocity of the LMC has contributed a significant fraction of their galactic rest-frame velocity, leading to a dipole density distribution on the sky. We quantify the dipole using spherical harmonic analysis and contrast with the monopole expected for HVSs ejected from the Galactic center (GC). There is a tendril in the density distribution that leads the LMC, which is coincident with the well-known and unexplained clustering of HVSs in the constellations of Leo and Sextans. Our model is falsifiable since it predicts that Gaia will reveal a large density of HVSs in the southern hemisphere.

  15. Eclipsing binary stars in the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds from the MACHO project: The Sample

    SciTech Connect

    Faccioli, L; Alcock, C; Cook, K; Prochter, G; Protopapas, P; Syphers, D

    2007-03-29

    We present a new sample of 4634 eclipsing binary stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), expanding on a previous sample of 611 objects and a new sample of 1509 eclipsing binary stars in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC), that were identified in the light curve database of the MACHO project. We perform a cross correlation with the OGLE-II LMC sample, finding 1236 matches. A cross correlation with the OGLE-II SMC sample finds 698 matches. We then compare the LMC subsamples corresponding to center and the periphery of the LMC and find only minor differences between the two populations. These samples are sufficiently large and complete that statistical studies of the binary star populations are possible.

  16. Fermi-LAT Gamma-Ray Detections of Classical Novae V1369 Centauri 2013 and V5668 Sagittarii 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheung, C. C.; Jean, P.; Shore, S. N.; Stawarz, Ł.; Corbet, R. H. D.; Knödlseder, J.; Starrfield, S.; Wood, D. L.; Desiante, R.; Longo, F.; Pivato, G.; Wood, K. S.

    2016-08-01

    We report the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) detections of high-energy (>100 MeV) γ-ray emission from two recent optically bright classical novae, V1369 Centauri 2013 and V5668 Sagittarii 2015. At early times, Fermi target-of-opportunity observations prompted by their optical discoveries provided enhanced LAT exposure that enabled the detections of γ-ray onsets beginning ˜2 days after their first optical peaks. Significant γ-ray emission was found extending to 39-55 days after their initial LAT detections, with systematically fainter and longer-duration emission compared to previous γ-ray-detected classical novae. These novae were distinguished by multiple bright optical peaks that encompassed the time spans of the observed γ-rays. The γ-ray light curves and spectra of the two novae are presented along with representative hadronic and leptonic models, and comparisons with other novae detected by the LAT are discussed.

  17. Fermi-LAT Gamma-Ray Detections of Classical Novae V1369 Centauri 2013 and V5668 Sagittarii 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheung, C. C.; Jean, P.; Shore, S. N.; Stawarz, Ł.; Corbet, R. H. D.; Knödlseder, J.; Starrfield, S.; Wood, D. L.; Desiante, R.; Longo, F.; Pivato, G.; Wood, K. S.

    2016-08-01

    We report the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) detections of high-energy (>100 MeV) γ-ray emission from two recent optically bright classical novae, V1369 Centauri 2013 and V5668 Sagittarii 2015. At early times, Fermi target-of-opportunity observations prompted by their optical discoveries provided enhanced LAT exposure that enabled the detections of γ-ray onsets beginning ˜2 days after their first optical peaks. Significant γ-ray emission was found extending to 39–55 days after their initial LAT detections, with systematically fainter and longer-duration emission compared to previous γ-ray-detected classical novae. These novae were distinguished by multiple bright optical peaks that encompassed the time spans of the observed γ-rays. The γ-ray light curves and spectra of the two novae are presented along with representative hadronic and leptonic models, and comparisons with other novae detected by the LAT are discussed.

  18. Ultraviolet absorption by interstellar gas near the LMC star HD 36402 in the interstellar bubble N51D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Boer, K. S.; Nash, A. G.

    1982-01-01

    Four interstellar absorption components associated with the immediate surroundings of the star are found in UV, high-dispersion IUE spectra of the LMC star HD 36402 in the N51D nebulosity. The 305 km/sec absorption is found to originate in low-density, 10,000 K gas, and the density and velocity structures agree with that derived from visual emission lines. From a fit of the observed Lyman-alpha profile, it is found that there is an N(H) of about 10 to the 20.2/sq cm in front of HD 36402, while the large N(H) of approximately 10 to the 21.3/sq cm from 21-cm data indicates most of the neutral gas to be behind N51D. An additional component shows N V, C IV and Si IV features which are stronger than is consistent with a wind-blown interstellar bubble, implying that there is additional absorption outside the bubble. Solar abundance ratios for the metals are suggested by the overall pattern of absorption line strength.

  19. Modal testing and analysis of NOVA laser structures

    SciTech Connect

    Burdick, R.B.; Weaver, H.J.; Pastrnak, J.W.

    1984-09-01

    NOVA, currently the world's most powerful laser system, is an ongoing project at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in California. The project seeks to develop a feasible method of achieving controlled fusion reaction, initiated by multiple laser beams targeted on a tiny fuel pellet. The NOVA system consists of several large steel framed structures, the largest of which is the Target Chamber Tower. In conjunction with design engineers, the tower was first modelled and analyzed by sophisticated finite element techniques. A modal test was then conducted on the tower structure to evaluate its vibrational characteristics and seismic integrity as well as for general comparison to the finite element results. This paper will discuss the procedure used in the experimental modal analysis and the results obtained from that test.

  20. Nova laser system at ultra high fluence levels

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, J.T.

    1985-01-01

    The Nova experimental facility consists of a ten arm laser system and five experimental stations and was completed in December 1984. Two of these stations are used for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments and the other three are dedicated to doing large aperture (30 to 74 cm) laser experiments. The laser system is deployed in a master oscillator-power amplifier architecture and uses Nd: phosphate glass for the active medium. The fundamental wavelength of the system is 1.05 microns. Frequency converters constructed from potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) crystals are located at the end of each of the ten arms and are used to produce high power frequency doubled (0.53 microns) and tripled (0.35 microns) beams for either ICF or laser experiments. Thus, the Nova laser system can produce high power beams with wavelengths ranging from the infrared to the ultraviolet.

  1. Evolution of the post-nova GQ MUS (Nova MUSCAE 1983). II. Stellar atmospheres, coronal lines, and turnoff.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morisset, C.; Pequignot, D.

    1996-09-01

    Photoionization models for the shell ejected by Nova Muscae 1983 are obtained for the period 1984-1992, considering post-nova atmosphere continua computed by MacDonald & Vennes (1991). A fit to their grid of models is proposed in an appendix. All features of the model shell obtained by Morisset & Pequignot assuming a blackbody primary source are preserved. However the effective temperature T_*_ derived for the source is about 15% lower. Reliable collision strengths for coronal lines are needed before the late evolution of the post-nova can be accurately determined. An extensive exploration of possible photoionization-model solutions indicates that (1) a suitable effective collision strength {OMEGA}_X_ for [Fe X] 637.5nm at 2x10^4^K is 3 to 5 times the pioneering result of Blaha (1969) and less than one half recent elaborate values, which are therefore strongly suspected to be overestimated, (2) the collision strength for [S VIII] 991.1 is moderately larger than according to Blaha, (3) the decline of the bolometric luminosity L_*_ amounts to a factor ~2 at the time of soft X-ray detection by ROSAT (day 3330), which may therefore nearly coincide with nuclear burning turnoff and maximum T_*_, and (4) depending on the collision strength {OMEGA}_XI_ for [Fe XI] 789.2nm, the maximum T_*_ is either of the order of 5x10^5^K ({OMEGA}_XI_ close to Blaha's result) or smaller than 4x10^5^K (large {OMEGA}_XI_). A way out of the conflict between theoretical and astrophysical determinations of {OMEGA}_X_ may be managed in the framework of present models if {OMEGA}_XI_ happens to be very large. Source parameters derived from nova shell models are relatively insensitive to details of stellar atmosphere models and may help to enhance the value of soft X-ray observations. Properties of GQ Mus disclosed by photoionization model analysis are shown to constitute a challenge to current understanding of novae and post-novae.

  2. Automated Searches for Extragalactic Novae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darnley, M. J.

    2005-06-01

    Classical novae (CNe) are interacting binary systems in which the white dwarf undergoes unpredictable explosive outbursts. The energy of a nova outburst is only surpassed by that of gamma-ray bursts, supernovae and a small number of luminous blue variables. However, the outbursts of CNe are far more common than any of these other stars. Due to their brightness and occurrence in both Population I and Population II systems, novae are potentially important as extragalactic distance indicators and tools in the exploration of binary star evolution in galaxies. The POINT-AGAPE survey is an optical search for gravitational micro-lensing events towards the Andromeda galaxy (M31). As well as micro-lensing, the survey is sensitive to many different classes of variable stars and transients, including CNe. In this work we describe the automated detection and selection pipeline used to identify M31 CNe and we present the resulting catalogue of 20 strong CN candidates observed over three seasons. The CNe we discover are observed both in the M31 bulge region as well as over a wide area of the M31 disc. Nine of the CNe are caught during the final rise phase (which is often missed in Galactic novae) and all are well sampled in at least two colours. The excellent light-curve coverage has allowed us to detect and classify CNe over a wide range of speed classes, from very fast to very slow. Among the light curves is, for example, a moderately fast CN exhibiting entry into a deep transition minimum, followed by its final decline. We have also observed in detail a very slow CN which faded by only 0.01 mag day^{-1} over a 150 day period. The CN catalogue constitutes a uniquely well-sampled and objectively-selected data set with which to study the statistical properties of CNe in M31. As a by-product, we have detected other interesting variable objects, including one of the longest period and most luminous Mira variables. An analysis of the MMRD relationship in M31 was performed using the

  3. The NOvA Technical Design Report

    SciTech Connect

    Ayres, D.S.; Drake, G.R.; Goodman, M.C.; Grudzinski, J.J.; Guarino, V.J.; Talaga, R.L.; Zhao, A.; Stamoulis, P.; Stiliaris, E.; Tzanakos, G.; Zois, M.; /Athens U. /Caltech /UCLA /Fermilab /College de France /Harvard U. /Indiana U. /Lebedev Inst. /Michigan State U. /Minnesota U., Duluth /Minnesota U.

    2007-10-08

    Technical Design Report (TDR) describes the preliminary design of the NOvA accelerator upgrades, NOvA detectors, detector halls and detector sites. Compared to the March 2006 and November 2006 NOvA Conceptual Design Reports (CDR), critical value engineering studies have been completed and the alternatives still active in the CDR have been narrowed to achieve a preliminary technical design ready for a Critical Decision 2 review. Many aspects of NOvA described this TDR are complete to a level far beyond a preliminary design. In particular, the access road to the NOvA Far Detector site in Minnesota has an advanced technical design at a level appropriate for a Critical Decision 3a review. Several components of the accelerator upgrade and new neutrino detectors also have advanced technical designs appropriate for a Critical Decision 3a review. Chapter 1 is an Executive Summary with a short description of the NOvA project. Chapter 2 describes how the Fermilab NuMI beam will provide a narrow band beam of neutrinos for NOvA. Chapter 3 gives an updated overview of the scientific basis for the NOvA experiment, focusing on the primary goal to extend the search for {nu}{sub {mu}} {yields} {nu}{sub e} oscillations and measure the sin{sup 2}(2{theta}{sub 13}) parameter. This parameter has not been measured in any previous experiment and NOvA would extend the search by about an order of magnitude beyond the current limit. A secondary goal is to measure the dominant mode oscillation parameters, sin{sup 2}(2{theta}{sub 23}) and {Delta}m{sub 32}{sup 2} to a more precise level than previous experiments. Additional physics goals for NOvA are also discussed. Chapter 4 describes the Scientific Design Criteria which the Fermilab accelerator complex, NOvA detectors and NOvA detector sites must satisfy to meet the physics goals discussed in Chapter 3. Chapter 5 is an overview of the NOvA project. The changes in the design relative to the NOvA CDR are discussed. Chapter 6 summarizes the NOvA

  4. Survey of O VI absorption in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathak, A.; Pradhan, A. C.; Sujatha, N. V.; Murthy, J.

    2011-04-01

    We present a survey of interstellar O VI absorption in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) towards 70 lines of sight based on Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) observations. The survey covers O VI absorption in a large number of objects in different environmental conditions of the LMC. Overall, a high abundance of O VI is present in active and inactive regions of the LMC with mean log N(O VI) = 14.23 atoms cm-2. There is no correlation observed between O VI absorption and emissions from the hot gas (X-ray surface brightness) or the warm gas (Hα surface brightness). O VI absorption in the LMC is patchy and the properties are similar to that of the Milky Way (MW). In comparison to the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC), O VI is lower in abundance even though SMC has a lower metallicity compared to the LMC and the MW. We present observations in 10 superbubbles of the LMC of which we detect O VI absorption in five superbubbles for the first time and the superbubbles show an excess O VI absorption of about 40 per cent compared to non-superbubble lines of sight. We have also studied the properties of O VI absorption in the 30 Doradus region. Even though O VI does not show any correlation with X-ray emission for the LMC, a good correlation between log N(O VI) and X-ray surface brightness for 30 Doradus region is present. We also find that O VI abundance decreases with increasing distance from the star cluster R136.

  5. Photometric evolution, orbital modulation and progenitor of Nova Mon 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munari, U.; Dallaporta, S.; Castellani, F.; Valisa, P.; Frigo, A.; Chomiuk, L.; Ribeiro, V. A. R. M.

    2013-10-01

    We present and discuss accurate and densely mapped BVRCIC light curves of the neon Nova Mon 2012, supplemented by the evolution in Stromgren b and y bands and in the integrated flux of relevant emission lines. Our monitoring started with the optical discovery of the nova (50 days past the first detection in gamma-rays by Fermi-LAT) and extend to day +270, well past the end of the super-soft phase in X-rays. The nova was discovered during the nebular decline, well past t3 and the transition to optically thin ejecta. It displayed very smoothly evolving light curves. A bifurcation between y and V light curves took place at the start of the super-soft X-ray source (SSS) phase, and a knee developed towards the end of the SSS phase. The apparent magnitude of the nova at the unobserved optical maximum is constrained to +3 ≤ V ≤ 4.5. The appearance, grow in amplitude and then demise of a 0.29585 (±0.00002) days orbital modulation of the optical brightness was followed along the nova evolution. The observed modulation, identical in phase and period with the analogue seen in the X-ray and satellite ultraviolet, has a near-sinusoidal shape and a weak secondary minimum at phase 0.5. We favour an interpretation in terms of super-imposed ellipsoidal distortion of the Roche lobe filling companion and irradiation of its side facing the WD. Similar light curves are typical of symbiotic stars where a Roche lobe filling giant is irradiated by a very hot WD. Given the high orbital inclination, mutual occultation between the donor star and the accretion disc could contribute to the observed modulation. The optical+infrared spectral energy distribution of Nova Mon 2012 during the quiescence preceding outburst is nicely fitted by an early K-type main-sequence star (˜K3V) at 1.5 kpc distance, reddened by E(B - V) = 0.38, with a WD companion and an accretion disc contributing to the observed blue excess and moderate Hα emission. A typical early K-type main-sequence star with a mass

  6. The Spectrum of LMC Pulsar B0540-69; Carryover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bless, Robert

    1994-01-01

    PSR B0540-69, a 50 ms pulsar located in the Large Magellanic Cloud, is the most distant pulsar known. B0540-69 is one of the few pulsars for which a second time derivative of rotational frequency has been measured. High Speed Photometer observations in a UV + visible passband (1600 - 7000 angstroms) showed a pulse profile identical to that in the X-ray region, with the same pulsed fraction (van Citters et al 1994). The rotational frequency observed by HSP, when compared with previous measurements, gave a value of 2.28 (0.02) for the braking index. B0540-69 is similar to the Crab pulsar in its rotational perior and associated synchrotron-emitting nebula (a "plerion"), but its pulse profile and braking index are strikingly different. We propose her to obtain an objective prism spectrum of B0540-69 to compare its spectral energy distribution in the UV and blue with that of the Crab pulsar and to determine the fractional part of our UV plus visible pulse profile due to UV photons. Our objective prism spectrum with the FOS Blue detector will measure the relative energy distribution between ~1850 and ~5000 angstroms.

  7. Circumstellar Dust in Symbiotic Novae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurkic, T.; Kotnik-Karuza, D.

    2015-12-01

    We present a model of inner dust regions around the cool Mira component of the two symbiotic novae, RR Tel and HM Sge, based on the near-IR photometry, ISO spectra and mid-IR interferometry. The dust properties were determined using the DUSTY code. A compact circumstellar silicate dust shell with inner dust shell temperatures between 900 K and 1300 K and of moderate optical depth can explain all the observations. RR Tel shows the presence of an equatorially enhanced dust density during minimum obscuration. Obscuration events are explained by an increase in optical depth caused by the newly condensed dust. The mass loss rates are significantly higher than in intermediate-period single Miras but in agreement with longer-period O-rich AGB stars.

  8. The Radio Light Curve of the Gamma-Ray Nova in V407 CYG: Thermal Emission from the Ionized Symbiotic Envelope, Devoured from Within by the Nova Blast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chomiuk, Laura; Krauss, Miriam I.; Rupen, Michael P.; Nelson, Thomas; Roy, Nirupam; Sokoloski, Jennifer L.; Mukai, Koji; Munari, Ulisse; Mioduszewski, Amy; Weston, Jeninfer; O'Brien, Tim J.; Eyres, Steward P. S.; Bode, Michael F.

    2012-01-01

    We present multi-frequency radio observations of the 2010 nova event in the symbiotic binary V407 Cygni, obtained with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) and spanning 1.45 GHz and 17.770 days following discovery. This nova.the first ever detected in gamma rays.shows a radio light curve dominated by the wind of the Mira giant companion, rather than the nova ejecta themselves. The radio luminosity grewas the wind became increasingly ionized by the nova outburst, and faded as the wind was violently heated from within by the nova shock. This study marks the first time that this physical mechanism has been shown to dominate the radio light curve of an astrophysical transient. We do not observe a thermal signature from the nova ejecta or synchrotron emission from the shock, due to the fact that these components were hidden behind the absorbing screen of the Mira wind. We estimate a mass-loss rate for the Mira wind of .Mw approximately equals 10(exp -6) Solar mass yr(exp -1). We also present the only radio detection of V407 Cyg before the 2010 nova, gleaned from unpublished 1993 archival VLA data, which shows that the radio luminosity of the Mira wind varies by a factor of 20 even in quiescence. Although V407 Cyg likely hosts a massive accreting white dwarf, making it a candidate progenitor system for a Type Ia supernova, the dense and radially continuous circumbinary material surrounding V407 Cyg is inconsistent with observational constraints on the environments of most Type Ia supernovae.

  9. Anomalous Low States and Long Term Variability in the Black Hole Binary LMC X-3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smale, Alan P.; Boyd, Patricia T.

    2012-01-01

    Rossi X-my Timing Explorer observations of the black hole binary LMC X-3 reveal an extended very low X-ray state lasting from 2003 December 13 until 2004 March 18, unprecedented both in terms of its low luminosity (>15 times fainter than ever before seen in this source) and long duration (approx 3 times longer than a typical low/hard state excursion). During this event little to no source variability is observed on timescales of approx hours-weeks, and the X-ray spectrum implies an upper limit of 1.2 x 10(exp 35) erg/s, Five years later another extended low state occurs, lasting from 2008 December 11 until 2009 June 17. This event lasts nearly twice as long as the first, and while significant variability is observed, the source remains reliably in the low/hard spectral state for the approx 188 day duration. These episodes share some characteristics with the "anomalous low states" in the neutron star binary Her X-I. The average period and amplitude of the Variability of LMC X-3 have different values between these episodes. We characterize the long-term variability of LMC X-3 before and after the two events using conventional and nonlinear time series analysis methods, and show that, as is the case in Her X-I, the characteristic amplitude of the variability is related to its characteristic timescale. Furthermore, the relation is in the same direction in both systems. This suggests that a similar mechanism gives rise to the long-term variability, which in the case of Her X-I is reliably modeled with a tilted, warped precessing accretion disk.

  10. ANOMALOUS LOW STATES AND LONG-TERM VARIABILITY IN THE BLACK HOLE BINARY LMC X-3

    SciTech Connect

    Smale, Alan P.; Boyd, Patricia T. E-mail: padi.boyd@nasa.gov

    2012-09-10

    Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer observations of the black hole binary LMC X-3 reveal an extended very low X-ray state lasting from 2003 December 13 until 2004 March 18, unprecedented both in terms of its low luminosity (>15 times fainter than ever before seen in this source) and long duration ({approx}3 times longer than a typical low/hard state excursion). During this event little to no source variability is observed on timescales of {approx}hours-weeks, and the X-ray spectrum implies an upper limit of 1.2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 35} erg s{sup -1}. Five years later another extended low state occurs, lasting from 2008 December 11 until 2009 June 17. This event lasts nearly twice as long as the first, and while significant variability is observed, the source remains reliably in the low/hard spectral state for the {approx}188 day duration. These episodes share some characteristics with the 'anomalous low states' in the neutron star binary Her X-1. The average period and amplitude of the variability of LMC X-3 have different values between these episodes. We characterize the long-term variability of LMC X-3 before and after the two events using conventional and nonlinear time series analysis methods, and show that, as is the case in Her X-1, the characteristic amplitude of the variability is related to its characteristic timescale. Furthermore, the relation is in the same direction in both systems. This suggests that a similar mechanism gives rise to the long-term variability, which in the case of Her X-1 is reliably modeled with a tilted, warped precessing accretion disk.

  11. X-Ray Nova Light Curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrader, Chris; Titarchuk, Lev

    2002-04-01

    We describe recent work in which we revisit the database of historical X-Ray nova (XRN) light curves compiled by Chen, Shrader & Livio (1997, ApJ 491, 312), augmented by subsequent events recorded by RXTE, in an attempt to gain a better understanding of the outburst phenomenon. Previously, we demonstrated that, given the occurrence of an instability in the mass transfer rate from the secondary, a model based on viscous diffusion of matter through the disk (Wood et al, 2001, astro-ph/0108189) we could reproduce a large number of fast-rise exponential decay (FRED) type XRN light curves. We augment this effort by considering deviations from the FRED form, such as plateaus and power-law decay forms are also considered within this framework. More complex structures are, in a number of instances, successfully modeled as a superposition of mass- injection, diffusive propagation events. In addition, for a large number of cases, we perform a joint analysis of optical light curve data. In particular, we will attempt to characterize empirical characteristics such as possible tie lags, and relative decay time scales, and then interpret such effects withing the context of diffusive propagation in the disk.

  12. Interacting massive binaries, HR-diagram of the LMC and SN1987A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rathnasree, N.

    1993-05-01

    The observational constraints on massive star models for the LMC arise essentially from (1) the distribution of stars in the HR-diagram of the LMC, (2) the observations of SN 1987A and its progenitor and (3) from the determinations of surface abundances of certain blue supergiants in the LMC which are seen to be helium and nitrogen enriched. The standard physical inputs used in single star evolutionary models do not give good agreement with these observational constraints. The study of interacting binary stars, taking into account the effect of the transfer of CNO processed and helium enriched material to the secondaries in these systems, reveals that the presence of a substantial fraction of such stars in the BSG region in the HR-diagram of the LMC gives good agreement with the observational constraints discussed above. Mass transfer to the secondary while it is still within its main-sequence could give an evolutionary model at 20 M_⊙ which stays in the blue through out its lifetime and yet could show helium enrichment and CNO processing in its circumstellar material and the envelope of the star consistent with the observations of SN1987A. However, a more consistent model for the progenitor is obtained if the component masses are nearly equal and the secondary star accretes matter from the primary after it evolves to the Hayashi track. The presence of highly helium and nitrogen enriched BSG stars at high temperatures is shown to arise as a natural consequence of interacting binary star evolution, a feature in general difficult to reconcile with all the existing evolutionary models. It is predicted that these stars should be abundant at high temperatures close to the main-sequence while lower temperature regions should be populated by stars with moderate helium and nitrogen enrichment. This research was partially supported by 8(th) Five year plan project 8P-45 at TIFR, India. Supercomputing time on the CRAY XMP and YMP at the University of Illinois is

  13. HETG Observations of the Extragalactic Z-source LMC X-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canizares, Claude

    2013-09-01

    LMC X-2 is the only Z-source known outside our own Galaxy. We also seek to detect and resolve broad line emission and investigate line flux and shift variability possibly in correlation with its Z-pattern. Its location outside the Galactic Halo also allow to study differences in ISM and local IGM absortions. We also seek to detect and resolve broad line emission. As previously done for Cyg X-2 we also investigate line flux and shift variability possibly in correlation with its Z-pattern.

  14. An XMM Archival Study of the LMC SNR N132D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plucinsky, Paul

    We propose to study the X-ray brightest supernova remnant (SNR) in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) N132D to determine the abundances of the high Z products of nucleosynthesis (Si, S, Ca, Ar,etc.) relative to Fe and compare those values to current models of nucleosynthetic yields. We will also characterize the evolutionary parameters of the SNR (age, initial explosion energy, average initial ambient density) to place this remnant in context with studies of other remnants at different evolutionary stages. We intend to take advantage of the unique opportunity presented by the existing ~900 ks of observations acquired by XMM-Newton over the past 10 years. N132D has been routinely observed as a calibration target but the full scientific potential of these data have yet to be realized. These archival data represent the equivalent of a ``Large Program'' which would be difficult or impossible to acquire under a Guest Observer program. N132D has been extensively studied at other wavelengths and has been classified as an 'O-rich' remnant based on the optical spectra. The abundances derived from the optical suggest the progenitor was a massive star, perhaps as massive as 35 or more solar masses. The detection of only C, O, Ne, Mg, and Si in the ejecta suggest the progenitor may have been a WO Wolf Rayet star with an O rich mantle which did not mix with the deeper layers. The spectra of the bright optical knots do not show any emission from elements with higher Z than Si, yet the nucleosynthesis models predict significant quantities of these higher Z elements. Our preliminary analysis of the deep XMM-Newton data clearly show emission lines from S, Ar, Ca, and Fe, with indications of other possible lines between Ca and Fe. It is clear that the X-ray emitting and optically-emitting gas are probing different regions of the ejecta. Only with a complete characterization of all of the ejecta can a meaningful comparison to nucleosynthesis models be made and conclusions drawn about

  15. A survey of the Large Magellanic Cloud in the (C II) 158 micron line

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mochizuki, Kenji; Nakagawa, Takao; Doi, Yasuo; Yui, Yukari Y.; Okuda, Haruyuki; Shibai, Hiroshi; Yui, Masao; Nishimura, Tetsuo; Low, Frank J.

    1994-01-01

    We have mapped the Large Magellanic Cloud (the LMC) in the (C II) 158 microns fine-structure line with the Balloon-borne Infrared Carbon Explorer (BICE) system. The (C II) line emission was detected over most of the LMC. The mean (C II)/CO (J = 1-0) line intensity ratio was 23,000 18 times larger than the typical value observed in the Galactic plane (1300). This result implies that each clump of the molecular clouds in the LMC has a larger C(+) envelope relative to its CO core than those in our Galaxy. Lower dust abundance due to its lower metallicity allows UV photons, which convert CO molecules into C(+) ions, to penetrate deeper into the clumps in the LMC than in our Galaxy.

  16. A Survey for Millisecond Pulsars and Fast Transients in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crawford, Fronefield; Lorimer, D.; Ridley, J.; Madden, J.

    2013-01-01

    We report on a new survey for radio pulsars in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) using the Parkes 64-m telescope. The survey uses the 1400 MHz multibeam receiver and the Berkeley Parkes Swinburne Recorder (BPSR) high-resolution backend. This survey has unprecedented sensitivity to millisecond pulsars and short-duration transients in the LMC. The goals of the survey include discovering new source populations (including the first extragalactic millisecond pulsar), probing the high-end of the pulsar luminosity function, and investigating how star formation differences between the LMC and the Milky Way affect the LMC pulsar population. To date about 20% of the survey area has been observed, and those data have been searched for single pulses and partially searched for accelerated pulsars over a wide range of trial dispersions. We have discovered three new pulsars in the survey so far, and we have several new millisecond pulsar candidates and transient sources that await confirmation.

  17. Recent progress in understanding the eruptions of classical novae

    SciTech Connect

    Shara, M.M.

    1989-01-01

    The physical processes generating nova eruptions are reviewed, along with the effects on nova eruptions of binary-system parameters such as the chemical composition or mass of the white dwarf and the mass accretion rate. Also considered are the possible metamorphosis from dwarf to classical novae and back again, X-ray and gamma-ray emission from novae, and the characteristics and distributions of novae in globular clusters and extragalactic systems. Limitations of the thermonuclear runaway model are discussed. 159 references.

  18. Statistical analysis of properties of dwarf novae outbursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otulakowska-Hypka, Magdalena; Olech, Arkadiusz; Patterson, Joseph

    2016-08-01

    We present a statistical study of all measurable photometric features of a large sample of dwarf novae during their outbursts and superoutbursts. We used all accessible photometric data for all our objects to make the study as complete and up to date as possible. Our aim was to check correlations between these photometric features in order to constrain theoretical models which try to explain the nature of dwarf novae outbursts. We managed to confirm a few of the known correlations, that is the Stolz and Schoembs relation, the Bailey relation for long outbursts above the period gap, the relations between the cycle and supercycle lengths, amplitudes of normal and superoutbursts, amplitude and duration of superoutbursts, outburst duration and orbital period, outburst duration and mass ratio for short and normal outbursts, as well as the relation between the rise and decline rates of superoutbursts. However, we question the existence of the Kukarkin-Parenago relation but we found an analogous relation for superoutbursts. We also failed to find one presumed relation between outburst duration and mass ratio for superoutbursts. This study should help to direct theoretical work dedicated to dwarf novae.

  19. Intial performance from the NOvA surface prototype detector

    SciTech Connect

    Muether, M.; /Fermilab

    2011-09-01

    NOvA, the NuMI Off-Axis {nu}{sub e} Appearance experiment, will study {nu}{sub {mu}} {yields} {nu}{sub e} oscillations characterized by the mixing angle {Theta}{sub 13}. Provided {Theta}{sub 13} is large enough, NOvA may ultimately determine the ordering of the neutrino masses and measure CP violation in neutrino oscillations. A complementary pair of detectors will be constructed {approx}14 mrad off beam axis to optimize the energy profile of the neutrinos. This system consists of a surface based 14 kTon liquid scintillator tracking volume located 810 km from the main injector source (NuMI) in Ash River, Minnesota and a smaller underground 222 Ton near detector at the Fermilab. The first neutrino signals at the Ash River Site are expected prior to the 2012 accelerator shutdown. In the meantime, a near detector surface prototype has been completed and neutrinos from two Fermilab sources have been observed using the same highly segmented PVC and liquid scintillator detector system that will be deployed in the full scale experiment. Design and initial performance characteristics of this prototype system are being fed back into the design for the full NOvA program.

  20. A theoretical study of problems in classical nova evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Shankar, A.

    1990-01-01

    Three distinct issues in classical nova evolution are addressed with the aid of one- and two-dimensional numerical hydrodynamics. The effects of convection on nova outbursts are examined within the confines of the mixing length theory. It is found that increasing the efficiency of convection enhances the violence of the thermonuclear runaway (TNR). This also relates to the question of the feasibility of obtaining nova outbursts on magnetic white dwarfs among the AM Her systems. The effects of a strong magnetic field on the TNR are explored. The field interferes with the development of convection during the TNR, which results in lower ejection velocities. However, for field strengths typical of cataclysmic variables, the violence of strong outbursts is affected only moderately. The conditions necessary for the production of strong TNR's in the hibernation model of cataclysmic binary evolution are also examined. The feasibility of obtaining strong nova outbursts is investigated when the accretion rate during hibernation is decreased. It is found that a reduction (by a factor of 100) for periods of longer than a couple thousand years, is sufficient to ensure violent outbursts, even in the presence of large pre-outburst accretion rates. The effects of a common envelope phase (CEP) on the outburst are discussed. The motion of the secondary through an expanding common envelope is resisted by frictional drag. This dissipates both energy and angular momentum from the orbit inducing hydrodynamic motion. Significant departures are found to occur in the manner in which mass is lost when the effects of drag are taken into account. Specifically, a CEP is found to accelerate and enhance mass loss. Ejection is found to be concentrated in the orbital plane, with velocities of a few thousand km/sec.

  1. Shocks in nova outflows - II. Synchrotron radio emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlasov, Andrey; Vurm, Indrek; Metzger, Brian D.

    2016-11-01

    The discovery of GeV gamma-rays from classical novae indicates that shocks and relativistic particle acceleration are energetically key in these events. Further evidence for shocks comes from thermal keV X-ray emission and an early peak in the radio light curve on a time-scale of months with a brightness temperature which is too high to result from freely expanding photoionized gas. Paper I developed a one-dimensional model for the thermal emission from nova shocks. This work concluded that the shock-powered radio peak cannot be thermal if line cooling operates in the post-shock gas at the rate determined by collisional ionization equilibrium. Here we extend this calculation to include non-thermal synchrotron emission. Applying our model to three classical novae, we constrain the amplification of the magnetic field ɛB and the efficiency ɛe of accelerating relativistic electrons of characteristic Lorentz factor γ ˜ 100. If the shocks are radiative (low velocity vsh ≲ 1000 km s-1) and cover a large solid angle of the nova outflow, as likely characterize those producing gamma-rays, then values of ɛe ˜ 0.01-0.1 are required to achieve the peak radio brightness for ɛB = 10-2. Such high efficiencies exclude secondary pairs from pion decay as the source of the radio-emitting particles, instead favouring the direct acceleration of electrons at the shock. If the radio-emitting shocks are instead adiabatic (high velocity), as likely characterize those responsible for the thermal X-rays, then much higher brightness temperatures are possible, allowing the radio-emitting shocks to cover a smaller outflow solid angle.

  2. Shocks in nova outflows. II. Synchrotron radio emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlasov, Andrey; Vurm, Indrek; Metzger, Brian D.

    2016-08-01

    The discovery of GeV gamma-rays from classical novae indicates that shocks and relativistic particle acceleration are energetically key in these events. Further evidence for shocks comes from thermal keV X-ray emission and an early peak in the radio light curve on a timescale of months with a brightness temperature which is too high to result from freely expanding photo-ionized gas. Paper I developed a one dimensional model for the thermal emission from nova shocks. This work concluded that the shock-powered radio peak cannot be thermal if line cooling operates in the post-shock gas at the rate determined by collisional ionization equilibrium. Here we extend this calculation to include non-thermal synchrotron emission. Applying our model to three classical novae, we constrain the amplification of the magnetic field ɛB and the efficiency ɛe of accelerating relativistic electrons of characteristic Lorentz factor γ ˜ 100. If the shocks are radiative (low velocity v_sh ≲ 1000 km s-1) and cover a large solid angle of the nova outflow, as likely characterize those producing gamma-rays, then values of ɛe ˜ 0.01 - 0.1 are required to achieve the peak radio brightness for ɛB = 10-2. Such high efficiencies exclude secondary pairs from pion decay as the source of the radio-emitting particles, instead favoring the direct acceleration of electrons at the shock. If the radio-emitting shocks are instead adiabatic (high velocity), as likely characterize those responsible for the thermal X-rays, then much higher brightness temperatures are possible, allowing the radio-emitting shocks to cover a smaller outflow solid angle.

  3. CCD observations of old nova fields

    SciTech Connect

    Downes, R.A.; Szkody, P.; Washington Uni., Seattle )

    1989-06-01

    The discovery of CK Vulpeculae (Nova 1670) has prompted a major review of ideas concerning the long-term development of novae. Unfortunately, there are very few recovered novae old enough to provide confirmation (or rejection) of the new hibernation scenario. CCD images of seven old nova fields, and R band photometry for four fields, have been obtained in an attempt to recover these objects in quiescence. A strong candidate for U Leonis, and a possible counterpart for T Bootis, are found. For three other fields, weak candidates have been found. Finding charts and colors are presented for the seven fields observed. The R light curves of U Leo, indicating an orbital period of 192.5 or 385.0 min, are shown. 14 refs.

  4. CCD observations of old nova fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Downes, Ronald A.; Szkody, Paula

    1989-01-01

    The discovery of CK Vulpeculae (Nova 1670) has prompted a major review of ideas concerning the long-term development of novae. Unfortunately, there are very few recovered novae old enough to provide confirmation (or rejection) of the new 'hibernation' scenario. CCD images of seven old nova fields, and R band photometry for four fields, have been obtained in an attempt to recover these objects in quiescence. A strong candidate for U Leonis, and a possible counterpart for T Bootis, are found. For three other fields, weak candidates have been found. Finding charts and colors are presented for the seven fields observed. The R light curves of U Leo, indicating an orbital period of 192.5 or 385.0 min, are shown.

  5. Pulse shaping on the Nova laser system

    SciTech Connect

    Lawson, J.K.; Speck, D.R.; Bibeau, C.; Weiland, T.L.

    1989-02-06

    Inertial confinement fusion requires temporally shaped pulses to achieve high gain efficiency. Recently, we demonstrated the ability to produce complex temporal pulse shapes at high power at 0.35 microns on the Nova laser system. 2 refs., 2 figs.

  6. CNO nucleosynthesis and the nova outburst

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starrfield, S.; Truran, J.; Sparks, W.

    1977-01-01

    Predictions for CNO nucleosynthesis by the classical nova outburst are presented. Properties of the nova phenomenon pertinent to the production of CNO isotopes are discussed, the effect of beta(+) unstable nuclei on outburst evolution is examined, and the need for enhanced CNO nuclei in the envelope is described. Possible mechanisms for producing such enhancement are considered, and recent observations of enhanced CNO nuclei in nova ejecta are reviewed. Results of model evolutionary calculations are outlined which show that a thermonuclear runaway in the hydrogen envelope of a carbon-oxygen white dwarf can reproduce the gross features of the classical nova outburst, that the behavior of the outburst depends at least on the hydrogen-envelope mass and the degree of CNO enhancement, and that all degrees of isotopic enhancement result in an outburst that may be compared with observed events. Two enhancement mechanisms are identified, both of which involve mixing in the envelope.

  7. Copernicus observations of Nova Cygni 1975

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenkins, E. B.; Snow, T. P.; Upson, W. L.; Anderson, R.; Starrfield, S. G.; Gallagher, J. S.; Friedjung, M.; Linsky, J. L.; Henry, R. C.; Moos, H. W.

    1977-01-01

    Near-ultraviolet radiation from Nova Cygni 1975 was detected by the Copernicus satellite on five occasions from 1975 September 1 to 1975 September 9. The nova was not seen in the UV after this date. The principal result was the observation of a broad emission feature from the Mg II doublet at 2800 A. The absence of strong UV radiation at shorter wavelengths suggests that these lines are produced by collisional excitation in the outer layers of an expanding shell with electron temperature of approximately 4000 K. The absence of observed emission lines from highly ionized species indicates that the amount of material with log T between 4.4 and 5.7 is less than 0.001 times that which produces the Mg II emission. The continuum flux in the near-UV decreased as the nova evolved, showing that the total luminosity decreased as the nova faded in the visible.

  8. High-energy observations of novae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osborne, J.

    2014-07-01

    I will review the lessons learned from the last few years of high-energy observations of classical and recurrent novae. Some observations have reinforced previous ideas (such as ejecta dispersion revealing the hot white dwarf, and ejecta shocks), while others have revealed new behaviours still in the process of being understood. XMM-Newton, Chandra, Swift and Fermi have led the way, MAXI and Suzaku have also contributed. Novae in our own Galaxy can be studied in great detail, and M31 provides a wonderful nova-rich laboratory. The mass of the white dwarf appears to dominate many aspects of nova outbursts, the density of a companion star wind is another significant variable. Even so, there remain very high energy gamma-rays, short period QPOs, and an early soft X-ray phase of huge variability with no obvious correlates or very convincing models.

  9. Rate of nova production in the Galaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Liller, W.; Mayer, B.

    1987-07-01

    The ongoing PROBLICOM program in the Southern Hemisphere now makes it possible to derive a reliable value for the overall production rate of Galactic novae. The results, 73 + or - 24/y, indicates that the Galaxy outproduces M 31 by a factor of two or three. It is estimated that the rate of supernova ejecta is one and a half orders of magnitude greater than that of novae in the Galaxy. 15 references.

  10. Recent star formation history of the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Indu, G.; Subramaniam, Annapurni

    Recent interactions between the Large and the Small Magellanic Clouds (LMC and SMC) and the Milky Way can be understood by studying their recent star formation history. We traced the age of the last star-formation event (LSFE) in the inner Large and Small Magellanic Cloud (L&SMC) using the photometric data in V and I passbands from the Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment (OGLE-III) and the Magellanic Cloud Photometric Survey (MCPS). The spatial distribution of the age of the LSFE shows that the star-formation has shrunk to within the central regions in the last 100 Myr in both the galaxies. We detect peaks of star-formation at 0 - 10 Myr and 90 - 100 Myr in the LMC, and 0 - 10 Myr and 50 - 60 Myr in the SMC. We propose that the HI gas in the LMC has been pulled to the north of the LMC in the last 200 Myr because of the gravitational attraction of our Galaxy at the time of perigalactic passage. The shifted HI gas was preferentially compressed in the north during the time interval 200 - 40 Myr and in the north-east in the last 40 Myr, owing to the motion of the LMC in the Galactic halo. The recent star-formation in the SMC is due to the combined gravitational effect of the LMC and the perigalactic passage.

  11. Period-colour and amplitude-colour relations in classical Cepheid variables - III. The Large Magellanic Cloud Cepheid models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanbur, Shashi M.; Ngeow, Chow-Choong

    2006-06-01

    Period-colour (PC) and amplitude-colour (AC) relations are studied for the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) Cepheids under the theoretical framework of the hydrogen ionization front (HIF)-photosphere interaction. LMC models are constructed with pulsation codes that include turbulent convection, and the properties of these models are studied at maximum, mean and minimum light. As with Galactic models, at maximum light the photosphere is located next to the HIF for the LMC models. However, very different behaviour is found at minimum light. The long-period (P > 10 d) LMC models imply that the photosphere is disengaged from the HIF at minimum light, similar to the Galactic models, but there are some indications that the photosphere is located near the HIF for the short-period (P < 10 d) LMC models. We also use the updated LMC data to derive empirical PC and AC relations at these phases. Our numerical models are broadly consistent with our theory and the observed data, though we discuss some caveats in the paper. We apply the idea of the HIF-photosphere interaction to explain recent suggestions that the LMC period-luminosity (PL) and PC relations are non-linear with a break at a period close to 10 d. Our empirical LMC PC and PL relations are also found to be non-linear with the F-test. Our explanation relies on the properties of the Saha ionization equation, the HIF-photosphere interaction and the way this interaction changes with the phase of pulsation and metallicity to produce the observed changes in the LMC PC and PL relations.

  12. Determination of the mass of the neutron star in SMC X-1, LMC X-4, and Cen X-3 with VLT/UVES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Meer, A.; Kaper, L.; van Kerkwijk, M. H.; Heemskerk, M. H. M.; van den Heuvel, E. P. J.

    2007-10-01

    We present the results of a spectroscopic monitoring campaign of the OB-star companions to the eclipsing X-ray pulsars SMC X-1, LMC X-4 and Cen X-3. High-resolution optical spectra obtained with UVES on the ESO Very Large Telescope are used to determine the radial-velocity orbit of the OB (super)giants with high precision. The excellent quality of the spectra provides the opportunity to measure the radial-velocity curve based on individual lines, and to study the effect of possible distortions of the line profiles due to e.g. X-ray heating on the derived radial-velocity amplitude. Several spectral lines show intrinsic variations with orbital phase. The magnitude of these variations depends on line strength, and thus provides a criterion to select lines that do not suffer from distortions. The undistorted lines show a larger radial-velocity amplitude than the distorted lines, consistent with model predictions. Application of our line-selection criteria results in a mean radial-velocity amplitude K_opt of 20.2 ± 1.1, 35.1 ± 1.5, and 27.5 ± 2.3 km s-1 (1 σ errors), for the OB companion to SMC X-1, LMC X-4 and Cen X-3, respectively. Adding information on the projected rotational velocity of the OB companion (derived from our spectra), the duration of X-ray eclipse and orbital parameters of the X-ray pulsar (obtained from literature), we arrive at a neutron star mass of 1.06^+0.11-0.10, 1.25^+0.11-0.10 and 1.34^+0.16-0.14 M⊙ for SMC X-1, LMC X-4 and Cen X-3, respectively. The mass of SMC X-1 is near the minimum mass (~1 M⊙) expected for a neutron star produced in a supernova. We discuss the implications of the measured mass distribution on the neutron-star formation mechanism, in relation to the evolutionary history of the massive binaries. Based on observations obtained at the European Southern Observatory at Paranal, Chile (ESO program 68.D-0568). Tables 2, 5 and Figs. 2, 3 are only available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org Fits data to Table 3 are

  13. Spectroscopic Signatures of the Superorbital Period in the Neutron Star Binary LMC X-4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neilsen, Joseph; Lee, Julia C.; Nowak, Michael A.; Dennerl, Konrad; Vrtilek, Saeqa Dil

    2009-05-01

    We present the first high-resolution X-ray study of emission line variability with superorbital phase in the neutron star binary LMC X-4. Our analysis provides new evidence from X-ray spectroscopy confirming accretion disk precession as the origin of the superorbital period. The spectra, obtained with the Chandra High-Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer and the XMM-Newton Reflection Grating Spectrometer, contain a number of emission features, including lines from hydrogen-like and helium-like species of N, O, Ne, and Fe, a narrow O VII radiative recombination continua (RRCs), and fluorescent emission from cold Fe. We use the narrow RRC and the Heα triplets to constrain the temperature and density of the (photoionized) gas. By comparing spectra from different superorbital phases, we attempt to isolate the contributions to line emission from the accretion disk and the stellar wind. There is also evidence for highly ionized iron redshifted and blueshifted by ~25,000 km s-1. We argue that this emission originates in the inner accretion disk and show that the emission line properties in LMC X-4 are natural consequences of accretion disk precession.

  14. Mask-LMC: lithographic simulation and defect detection from high-resolution mask images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, George; Wiley, James N.; Wang, Jen-Shiang; Howell, Rafael C.; Bai, Shufeng; Chen, Yi-Fan; Chen, Frank; Cao, Yu; Takigawa, Tadahiro; Kurosawa, Terunobu; Tsuchiya, Hideo; Usuda, Kinya; Tokita, Masakazu; Ozaki, Fumio; Kikuiri, Nobutaka; Tsuji, Yoshitake

    2009-04-01

    We report the development of Mask-LMC for defect printability evaluation from sub-200nm wavelength mask inspection images. Both transmitted and reflected images are utilized, and both die-to-die and die-to-database inspection modes are supported. The first step of the process is to recover the patterns on the mask from high resolution T and R images by de-convolving inspection optical effects. This step uses a mask reconstruction model, which is based on rigorous Hopkins-modeling of the inspection optics, and is pre-determined before the full mask inspection. After mask reconstruction, wafer scanner optics and wafer resist simulations are performed on the reconstructed mask, with a wafer lithography model. This step leverages Brion's industry-proven, hardware-accelerated LMC (Lithography Manufacturability Check) technology1. Existing litho process models that are in use for Brion's OPC+ and verification products may be used for this simulation. In the final step, special detectors are used to compare simulation results on the reference and defect dice. We have developed detectors for contact CD, contact area, line and space CD, and edge placement errors. The detection result has been validated with AIMSTM.

  15. Planetary Nebulae in the MW, LMC, SMC: Results from FUSE and HST data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herald, J. E.; Bianchi, L.

    2003-01-01

    We use FUSE and HST data to study Planetary Nebulae (PN) systems in the Milky Way, LMC and SMC. Theoretically, metallicity affects several aspects of the post-AGB evolution, including mass-loss and the yield of processed material, which are important factors in the chemical evolution of galaxies. Therefore, it is very important to study PNe in different environments. In Bianchi's FUSE programs, we observed CSPN in the Milky Way (Cycle 1), LMC (Cycle 2) and SMC (Cyde 3), representing a range of metallicities from solar to 1/10th solar. The far-UV range reveals the spectrum of the central star (CSPN), uniquely enabling a direct estimate of the ionizing source parameters. Combined with archive HST data, these spectra provide a measurement of T(sub eff), log g, L(sub bol), abundances, wind velocity and mass-loss rate for these post-AGB stars. Additionally, these spectra provide a measurement of the circumstellar H2 and HI, which added to the mass of the central star and of the ionized shell allows us to test theoretical initial-final mass relations, and to put together a complete picture of the star's evolution.

  16. Imaging and Spectroscopy of Ancient Supernovae Light Echoes in the LMC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welch, Douglas L.; Rest, A.; Smith, R. C.; Olsen, K.; Zenteno, A.; Aguilera, C.; Damke, G.; Suntzeff, N. B.; Matheson, T.; Bergmann, M.; Stubbs, C.; Garg, A.; Challis, P.; Becker, A. C.; Miceli, A.; Covarrubias, R.; Miknaitis, G. A.; Prieto, J.; Huber, M.; Nikolaev, S.; Cook, K. H.; Minniti, D.; Clocchiatti, A.; Morelli, L.; Newman, A.

    2006-12-01

    The SuperMACHO Project reported the discovery of three centuries-old light echo systems associated with already-known supernova remnants in the Dec 22 2005 issue of Nature. Our poster paper presents the results of Gemini South and CTIO 4m imaging and Gemini South spectroscopy of the light echo systems associated with the remnants 0519-69.0, 0509-67.5, and N103B (including 2006B spectroscopy if available). Each of these three remnants associated with light echo systems is believed to be the result of a SN Ia explosion. We also report the discovery of a fourth light echo system apparently unassociated with the above remnants. Supernova light scattered off of LMC ISM dust at a variety of azimuths provides an observational constraint on the anisotropy of each outburst.We estimate the range of "perspective differences" available for the three systems based on existing data. The prospects for future LMC supernova light echo discoveries will also be discussed.

  17. VizieR Online Data Catalog: New planetary nebulae in LMC (Reid+, 2006)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, W. A.; Parker, Q. A.

    2006-05-01

    Over the last few years, we have specially constructed additional deep, homogeneous, narrow-band H and matching broad-band 'SR' (Short Red) maps of the entire central 25deg2 of the LMC. These unique maps were obtained from co-adding 12 well-matched UKST 2-h Hα exposures and six 15-min equivalent SR-band exposures on the same field using high-resolution Tech-Pan film. The 'SuperCOSMOS' plate-measuring machine at the Royal Observatory Edinburgh (Hambly et al., 2001MNRAS.326.1279) has scanned, co-added and pixel-matched these exposures, creating 10-m (0.67-arcsec) pixel data which goes 1.35 and 1mag deeper than individual exposures, achieving the full canonical Poissonian depth gain, e.g. Bland-Hawthorn, Shopbell & Malin (1993AJ....106.2154B). This gives a depth ~21.5 for the SR images and Requiv~22 for Hα (4.5x10-17erg/cm2/s/{AA}) which is at least 1-mag deeper than the best wide-field narrow-band LMC images currently available. (2 data files).

  18. Mid-infrared Integrated-light Photometry Of LMC Star Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pessev, Peter; Goudfrooij, P.; Puzia, T.; Chandar, R.

    2008-03-01

    Massive star clusters (Galactic Globular Clusters and Populous Clusters in the Magellanic Clouds) are the best available approximation of Simple Stellar Populations (SSPs). Since the stellar populations in these nearby objects are studied in details, they provide fundamental age/metallicity templates for interpretation of the galaxy properties, testing and calibration of the SSP Models. Magellanic Cloud clusters are particularly important since they populate a region of the age/metallicity parameter space that is not easily accessible in our Galaxy. We present the first Mid-IR integrated-light measurements for six LMC clusters based on our Spitzer IRAC imaging program. Since we are targeting a specific group of intermediate-age clusters, our imaging goes deeper compared to SAGE-LMC survey data. We present a literature compilation of clusters' properties along with multi-wavelength integrated light photometry database spanning from the optical (Johnson U band) to the Mid-IR (IRAC Channel 4). This data provides an important empirical baseline for the interpretation of galaxy colors in the Mid-IR (especially high-z objects whose integrated-light is dominated by TP-AGB stars emission). It is also a valuable tool to check the SSP model predictions in the intermediate-age regime and provides calibration data for the next generation of SSP models.

  19. RZ Leonis Minoris bridging between ER Ursae Majoris-type dwarf nova and nova-like system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Taichi; Ishioka, Ryoko; Isogai, Keisuke; Kimura, Mariko; Imada, Akira; Miller, Ian; Masumoto, Kazunari; Nishino, Hirochika; Kojiguchi, Naoto; Kawabata, Miho; Sakai, Daisuke; Sugiura, Yuki; Furukawa, Hisami; Yamamura, Kenta; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Matsumoto, Katsura; Wang, Shiang-Yu; Chou, Yi; Ngeow, Chow-Choong; Chen, Wen-Ping; Panwar, Neelam; Lin, Chi-Sheng; Hsiao, Hsiang-Yao; Guo, Jhen-Kuei; Lin, Chien-Cheng; Omarov, Chingis; Kusakin, Anatoly; Krugov, Maxim; Starkey, Donn R.; Pavlenko, Elena P.; Antonyuk, Kirill A.; Sosnjvskij, Aleksei A.; Antonyuk, Oksana I.; Pit, Nikolai V.; Baklanov, Alex V.; Babina, Julia V.; Itoh, Hiroshi; Padovan, Stefano; Akazawa, Hidehiko; Kafka, Stella; de Miguel, Enrique; Pickard, Roger D.; Kiyota, Seiichiro; Shugarov, Sergey Yu.; Chochol, Drahomir; Krushevska, Viktoriia; Sekeráš, Matej; Pikalova, Olga; Sabo, Richard; Dubovsky, Pavol A.; Kudzej, Igor; Ulowetz, Joseph; Dvorak, Shawn; Stone, Geoff; Tordai, Tamás; Dubois, Franky; Logie, Ludwig; Rau, Steve; Vanaverbeke, Siegfried; Vanmunster, Tonny; Oksanen, Arto; Maeda, Yutaka; Kasai, Kiyoshi; Katysheva, Natalia; Morelle, Etienne; Neustroev, Vitaly V.; Sjoberg, George

    2016-10-01

    We observed RZ LMi, which is renowned for its extremely short (˜19 d) supercycle and is a member of a small, unusual class of cataclysmic variables called ER UMa-type dwarf novae, in 2013 and 2016. In 2016, the supercycles of this object substantially lengthened in comparison to the previous measurements to 35, 32, and 60 d for three consecutive superoutbursts. We consider that the object virtually experienced a transition to the nova-like state (permanent superhumper). This observed behavior reproduced the prediction of the thermal-tidal instability model extremely well. We detected a precursor in the 2016 superoutburst and detected growing (stage A) superhumps with a mean period of 0.0602(1) d in 2016 and in 2013. Combined with the period of superhumps immediately after the superoutburst, the mass ratio is not as small as in WZ Sge-type dwarf novae, having orbital periods similar to RZ LMi. By using least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (Lasso) two-dimensional power spectra, we detected possible negative superhumps with a period of 0.05710(1) d. We estimated an orbital period of 0.05792 d, which suggests a mass ratio of 0.105(5). This relatively large mass ratio is even above that of ordinary SU UMa-type dwarf novae, and it is also possible that the exceptionally high mass-transfer rate in RZ LMi may be a result of a stripped secondary with an evolved core in a system evolving toward an AM CVn-type object.

  20. Studies of novae at GMRT frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kantharia, N. G.

    2012-09-01

    The Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT) which operates at wavelengths longer than 20 cm (frequencies ≤ 1.4 GHz) has been used to search for radio emission from Galactic novae systems since 2002. Of the 11 Galactic novae observed with GMRT, radio continuum emission has been detected in two of the systems whereas atomic gas associated with two systems has been imaged and studied in the 21 cm signal of H I. The two novae studied in the radio continuum with the GMRT are the remnant of GK Persei, a classical nova which had an outburst in 1901 and RS Ophiuchi, a recurrent nova following its last outburst in 2006. Combining the GMRT data on the classical nova GK Persei with VLA data at earlier epochs resulted in concluding that the nova remnant was undergoing a secular decrease in its flux density and in its adiabatic phase of evolution tep{2005A&A...435..167A}. RS Ophiuchi was observed at 1280, 610, 325 and 240 MHz with the GMRT days after its outburst and detected at all the observed frequencies. The near-simultaneous monitoring of its flux density at the low GMRT frequencies, resulted in the study of its spectral index which was indicative of synchrotron emission at all epochs tep{2007ApJ...667L.171K}. A supernova model resulted in a reasonable fit to the observed light curves; in particular the late appearance of emission at the lower GMRT frequencies due to the foreground clumpy, ionized, thermal circumbinary material. Comparison of these results with the previous outburst indicated that the densities of this clumpy medium had reduced making it optically thin to GMRT frequencies in 2006 tep{2007ApJ...667L.171K}. It is important to complement the higher radio frequency studies with observations at GMRT frequencies since these study different regions and physics of the nova system. Studies at GMRT frequencies can result in insights on the shock physics, distribution and density of the circumbinary material or planetary nebula, magnetic field generation and the

  1. Planar Rayleigh-Taylor experiments on Nova

    SciTech Connect

    Remington, B.A.; Haan, S.W.; Glendinning, S.G.; Kilkenny, J.D.; Wallace, R.J.

    1991-07-02

    We have performed experiments at the Nova Laser Facility to study surface perturbation growth on planar foils accelerated radiatively by a shaped x-ray drive. The experiments are designed to address in two dimensions the extent to which single-mode perturbations grow and multiple-mode perturbations couple to one another. Using a 22x magnification x-ray microscope in combination with a large are backlighter as our primary detector system, we have accelerated planar fluorosilicone (FS) foils and plastic foils doped with bromine (CH(Br)). Using face-on radiography, we have measured the growth of single-mode sinusoidal surface perturbations in an amplitude-scaling series with FS foils and in a wavelength-scaling series with CH(Br) foils. We have also measured the growth of a perturbation consisting of the superposition of two modes. Measurements in side-on geometry give the foil trajectory. Comparisons with 2-D computer simulations show generally good agreements, though results depend on the choice of opacity model. 21 refs., 9 figs.

  2. Shortest recurrence periods of novae

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, Mariko; Saio, Hideyuki; Hachisu, Izumi; Nomoto, Ken'ichi

    2014-10-01

    Stimulated by the recent discovery of the 1 yr recurrence period nova M31N 2008-12a, we examined the shortest recurrence periods of hydrogen shell flashes on mass-accreting white dwarfs (WDs). We discuss the mechanism that yields a finite minimum recurrence period for a given WD mass. Calculating the unstable flashes for various WD masses and mass accretion rates, we identified a shortest recurrence period of about two months for a non-rotating 1.38 M {sub ☉} WD with a mass accretion rate of 3.6 × 10{sup –7} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}. A 1 yr recurrence period is realized for very massive (≳ 1.3 M {sub ☉}) WDs with very high accretion rates (≳ 1.5 × 10{sup –7} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}). We revised our stability limit of hydrogen shell burning, which will be useful for binary evolution calculations toward Type Ia supernovae.

  3. BK Lyncis: the oldest old nova and a Bellwether for cataclysmic variable evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patterson, Joseph; Uthas, Helena; Kemp, Jonathan; de Miguel, Enrique; Krajci, Thomas; Foote, Jerry; Hambsch, Franz-Josef; Campbell, Tut; Roberts, George; Cejudo, David; Dvorak, Shawn; Vanmunster, Tonny; Koff, Robert; Skillman, David; Harvey, David; Martin, Brian; Rock, John; Boyd, David; Oksanen, Arto; Morelle, Etienne; Ulowetz, Joseph; Kroes, Anthony; Sabo, Richard; Jensen, Lasse

    2013-09-01

    We summarize the results of a 20-yr campaign to study the light curves of BK Lyn, a nova-like star strangely located below the 2 to 3 h orbital-period gap in the family of cataclysmic variables (CVs). Two apparent superhumps dominate the nightly light curves, with periods 4.6 per cent longer, and 3.0 per cent shorter, than the orbital period. The first appears to be associated with the star's brighter states (V ˜ 14), while the second appears to be present throughout and becomes very dominant in the low state (V ˜ 15.7). It is plausible that these arise, respectively, from a prograde apsidal precession and a retrograde nodal precession of the star's accretion disc. Starting in the year 2005, the star's light curve became indistinguishable from that of a dwarf nova - in particular, that of the ER UMa subclass. No such clear transition has ever been observed in a CV before. Reviewing all the star's oddities, we speculate: (a) BK Lyn is the remnant of the probable nova on 101 December 30, and (b) it has been fading ever since, but it has taken ˜2000 yr for the accretion rate to drop sufficiently to permit dwarf-nova eruptions. If such behaviour is common, it can explain other puzzles of CV evolution. One: why the ER UMa class even exists (because all members can be remnants of recent novae). Two: why ER UMa stars and short-period nova-likes are rare (because their lifetimes, which are essentially cooling times, are short). Three: why short-period novae all decline to luminosity states far above their true quiescence (because they are just getting started in their post-nova cooling). Four: why the orbital periods, accretion rates and white dwarf temperatures of short-period CVs are somewhat too large to arise purely from the effects of gravitational radiation (because the unexpectedly long interval of enhanced post-nova brightness boosts the mean mass-transfer rate). And maybe even five: why very old, post-period-bounce CVs are hard to find (because the higher mass

  4. Infrared studies of Nova Scorpii 2014: an outburst in a symbiotic system sans an accompanying blast wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Vishal; Banerjee, D. P. K.; Ashok, N. M.; Venkataraman, V.; Walter, F. M.

    2015-10-01

    Near-IR (NIR) spectroscopy is presented for Nova Scorpii 2014. It is shown that the outburst occurred in a symbiotic binary system - an extremely rare configuration for a classical nova outburst to occur in but appropriate for the eruption of a recurrent nova of the T CrB class. We estimate the spectral class of secondary as M5III ± (two sub-classes). The maximum magnitude versus rate of decline relations give an unacceptably large value of 37.5 kpc for the distance. The spectra are typical of the He/N class of novae with strong He I and H lines. The profiles are broad and flat topped with full width at zero intensities approaching 9000-10 000 km s-1 and also have a sharp narrow component superposed which is attributable to emission from the giant's wind. Hot shocked gas, accompanied by X-rays and γ-rays, is expected to form when the high-velocity ejecta from the nova ploughs into the surrounding giant wind. Although X-ray emission was observed no γ-ray emission was reported. It is also puzzling that no signature of a decelerating shock is seen in the NIR, seen in similar systems like RS Oph, V745 Sco and V407 Cyg, as rapid narrowing of the line profiles. The small outburst amplitude and the giant secondary strongly suggest that Nova Sco 2014 could be a recurrent nova.

  5. The So-called ``Bar'' in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, HongSheng; Evans, N. Wyn

    2000-12-01

    We propose that the off-centered ``bar'' in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) is an unvirialized structure slightly misaligned with, and offset from, the plane of the LMC disk. The small displacement and misalignment are consequences of recent tidal interactions with the Small Magellanic Cloud and the Galaxy. This proposal, although radical, is consistent with the kinematics of the LMC and the near-infrared star count maps from the Deep Near-Infrared Survey and the 2 Micron All-Sky Survey and, in particular, with the reported 25°-50° inclination range of the LMC and the east-west gradient of distance moduli of standard candles. Contributions to LMC microlensing come mainly from the mutual lensing of stars in the disk and the ``bar.'' The predicted microlensing optical depth is at levels comparable to observation, even without including contributions from MACHOs. Observational tests are suggested to discriminate between our misaligned offset ``bar'' model and the conventional picture of an off-centered planar bar.

  6. Spectral analysis of LMC X-2 with XMM/Newton: unveiling the emission process in the extragalactic Z-source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavagetto, G.; Iaria, R.; D'Aı, A.; di Salvo, T.; Robba, N. R.

    2008-01-01

    Aims:We present the results of the analysis of an archival observation of LMC X-2 performed with XMM/Newton. The spectra taken by high-precision instruments have never been analyzed before. Methods: We find an X-ray position for the source that is inconsistent with the one obtained by ROSAT, but in agreement with the Einstein position and that of the optical counterpart. The correlated spectral and timing behaviour of the source suggests that the source is probably in the normal branch of its X-ray color-color diagram. The spectrum of the source can be fitted with a blackbody with a temperature 1.5 keV plus a disc blackbody at 0.8 keV. Photoelectric absorption from neutral matter has an equivalent hydrogen column of 4 × 1020 cm-2. An emission line, which we identify as the O VIII Lyman-α line, is detected, while no feature due to iron is detected in the spectrum. Results: We argue that the emission of this source can be straightforwardly interpreted as the sum of the emission from a boundary layer between the NS and the disc and a blackbody component coming from the disc itself. Other canonical models that are used to fit Z-sources do not give a satisfactory fit to the data. The detection of the O VIII emission line (and the lack of detection of lines in the iron region) can be due to the fact that the source lies in the Large Magellanic Cloud.

  7. Super-soft X-ray emission on day 6.4 from nova LMC N1968-12a strongly suggests a very high mass white dwarf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Page, K. L.; Osborne, J. P.; Darnley, M. J.; Henze, M.; Kuin, N. P. M.; Schwarz, G. J.; Shore, S. N.; Starrfield, S.; Williams, S. C.

    2016-01-01

    Swift observations of the 2016 outburst of LMCN 1968-12a (ATel #8578, #8586, #8587) have been continuing daily. The early XRT spectrum, covering 2016 Jan 23 - 25 (days 2.07-4.26 after outburst), can be modelled by a single temperature optically thin emission component of kT & gt; 0.9 keV and NH = (8.3 +21.7/-7.8)x1021 cm-2, with a mean 0.3-10 keV observed flux of (5.1 +8.2/-2.3)x10-13 erg cm-2 s-1. After this time, an increase in soft emission (counts below ~1 keV) was seen, although at first this appeared to be related to a decrease in the absorbing column; no corresponding increase in X-ray count rate was found, remaining around 0.016 count s-1. On 2016 Jan 27 (day 6.4), the X-ray count rate rose to 0.05 count s-1 with the emission being dominated by counts below 1 keV. We identify this as the start of the super-soft source (SSS) phase.

  8. VizieR Online Data Catalog: gi photometry of 14 LMC star clusters (Piatti+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piatti, A. E.; Keller, S. C.; Mackey, A. D.; da Costa, G. S.

    2015-04-01

    We obtained images of 14 candidate LMC intermediate-age clusters with the Gemini South telescope and the GMOS-S instrument through g and i filters. In imaging mode, GMOS-S has a field of view of approximately 5.5-arcminx5.5-arcmin at a scale of 0.146arcsec per (2x2 binned) pixel. The detector is a 3x1 mosaic of 2Kx4K EEV CCDs. Observations were executed in queue mode (under programmes GS-2011A-Q-43, GS-2012A-Q-15, and GS-2013A-Q-17) which enabled the data to be obtained in excellent seeing (0.35-0.78-arcsec FWHM) and under photometric conditions. (15 data files).

  9. Variability And Mass-loss From Agb Stars In The Lmc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riebel, David; Meixner, M.; Srinivasan, S.; Fraser, O.; Babler, B.; Block, M.; Bracker, S.; Engelbracht, S.; Gordon, K.; Hora, J.; Indebetouw, R.; Leitherer, C.; Meade, M.; Misselt, K.; Whitney, B.; Sewilo, M.; Vijh, U.

    2009-01-01

    Mass loss from evolved stars on the Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) is an important factor in both stellar and galactic evolution; the total amount of mass lost determines the star's eventual fate as a compact object and plays a significant role in the chemical enrichment of the interstellar medium. We combine excess infrared emission derived by Srinivasan et al. (2008) from the Spitzer SAGE survey of the LMC (Meixner, et al. 2006) with variability parameters derived from the MACHO survey (Fraser, et al. 2008, in press) to examine the effects of stellar variability on mass loss from evolved stars on the AGB. We find that stellar populations differing in chemical composition show different relationships between mass loss and the period and amplitude of variation, while general trends of increasing mass loss with increasing variability are visible in all populations.

  10. Interstallar gas in the direction of the Large Magellanic Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maslen, D.; Willis, A. J.; Wilson, R.; Nandy, K.; Blades, J. C.

    1982-06-01

    All the IUE spectra of HD 38282 were co-added and combined with high resolution optical observations of CaII in order to investigate the distribution of material along the line of sight to the star. Abundances relative to neutral hydrogen imply a zinc underabundance, and an overall metal underabundance of 0.5 dex in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). Reddening in the LMC along this line of sight is 0.1. With an estimated error of 0.2 dex in the HI column density, a lower limit on the LMC component of 2 times 10 to the 21st power atoms/sq cm in the line to HD 38282 is estimated. This yields a lower limit for N(HI)/E(B-V) which is larger by a factor of four than the average galactic value, but is comparable with the value towards the central star of 30 Dor.

  11. Nuclear ashes and outflow in the eruptive star Nova Vul 1670

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamiński, Tomasz; Menten, Karl M.; Tylenda, Romuald; Hajduk, Marcin; Patel, Nimesh A.; Kraus, Alexander

    2015-04-01

    CK Vulpeculae was observed in outburst in 1670-1672 (ref. 1), but no counterpart was seen until 1982, when a bipolar nebula was found at its location. Historically, CK Vul has been considered to be a nova (Nova Vul 1670), but its similarity to `red transients', which are more luminous than classical novae and thought to be the results of stellar collisions, has re-opened the question of CK Vul's status. Red transients cool to resemble late M-type stars, surrounded by circumstellar material rich in molecules and dust. No stellar source has been seen in CK Vul, though a radio continuum source was identified at the expansion centre of the nebula. Here we report that CK Vul is surrounded by chemically rich molecular gas in the form of an outflow, as well as dust. The gas has peculiar isotopic ratios, revealing that CK Vul's composition was strongly enhanced by the nuclear ashes of hydrogen burning. The chemical composition cannot be reconciled with a nova or indeed any other known explosion. In addition, the mass of the surrounding gas is too large for a nova, though the conversion from observations of CO to a total mass is uncertain. We conclude that CK Vul is best explained as the remnant of a merger of two stars.

  12. THE SHAPE OF LONG OUTBURSTS IN U GEM TYPE DWARF NOVAE FROM AAVSO DATA

    SciTech Connect

    Cannizzo, John K.

    2012-10-01

    We search the American Association of Variable Star Observers (AAVSO) archives of the two best-studied dwarf novae in an attempt to find light curves for long outbursts that are extremely well characterized. The systems are U Gem and SS Cyg. Our goal is to search for embedded precursors such as those that have been found recently in the high-fidelity Kepler data for superoutbursts (SOs) of some members of the SU UMa subclass of dwarf novae. For the vast majority of AAVSO data, the combination of low data cadence and large errors associated with individual measurements precludes one from making any strong statement about the shape of the long outbursts. However, for a small number of outbursts, extensive long-term monitoring with digital photometry yields high-fidelity light curves. We report the discovery of embedded precursors in two of three candidate long outbursts. This is the first time that such embedded precursors have been found in dwarf novae above the period gap in other than kepler data, and reinforces van Paradijs' finding that long outbursts in dwarf novae above the period gap and SOs in systems below the period gap constitute a unified class. The thermal-tidal instability to account for SOs in the SU UMa stars predicts embedded precursors only for short orbital period dwarf novae, therefore the presence of embedded precursors in long orbital period systems-U Gem and SS Cyg-argues for a more general mechanism to explain long outbursts.

  13. Nuclear ashes and outflow in the eruptive star Nova Vul 1670.

    PubMed

    Kamiński, Tomasz; Menten, Karl M; Tylenda, Romuald; Hajduk, Marcin; Patel, Nimesh A; Kraus, Alexander

    2015-04-16

    CK Vulpeculae was observed in outburst in 1670-1672 (ref. 1), but no counterpart was seen until 1982, when a bipolar nebula was found at its location. Historically, CK Vul has been considered to be a nova (Nova Vul 1670), but its similarity to 'red transients', which are more luminous than classical novae and thought to be the results of stellar collisions, has re-opened the question of CK Vul's status. Red transients cool to resemble late M-type stars, surrounded by circumstellar material rich in molecules and dust. No stellar source has been seen in CK Vul, though a radio continuum source was identified at the expansion centre of the nebula. Here we report that CK Vul is surrounded by chemically rich molecular gas in the form of an outflow, as well as dust. The gas has peculiar isotopic ratios, revealing that CK Vul's composition was strongly enhanced by the nuclear ashes of hydrogen burning. The chemical composition cannot be reconciled with a nova or indeed any other known explosion. In addition, the mass of the surrounding gas is too large for a nova, though the conversion from observations of CO to a total mass is uncertain. We conclude that CK Vul is best explained as the remnant of a merger of two stars.

  14. Nuclear ashes and outflow in the eruptive star Nova Vul 1670.

    PubMed

    Kamiński, Tomasz; Menten, Karl M; Tylenda, Romuald; Hajduk, Marcin; Patel, Nimesh A; Kraus, Alexander

    2015-04-16

    CK Vulpeculae was observed in outburst in 1670-1672 (ref. 1), but no counterpart was seen until 1982, when a bipolar nebula was found at its location. Historically, CK Vul has been considered to be a nova (Nova Vul 1670), but its similarity to 'red transients', which are more luminous than classical novae and thought to be the results of stellar collisions, has re-opened the question of CK Vul's status. Red transients cool to resemble late M-type stars, surrounded by circumstellar material rich in molecules and dust. No stellar source has been seen in CK Vul, though a radio continuum source was identified at the expansion centre of the nebula. Here we report that CK Vul is surrounded by chemically rich molecular gas in the form of an outflow, as well as dust. The gas has peculiar isotopic ratios, revealing that CK Vul's composition was strongly enhanced by the nuclear ashes of hydrogen burning. The chemical composition cannot be reconciled with a nova or indeed any other known explosion. In addition, the mass of the surrounding gas is too large for a nova, though the conversion from observations of CO to a total mass is uncertain. We conclude that CK Vul is best explained as the remnant of a merger of two stars. PMID:25799986

  15. PRESOLAR GRAINS FROM NOVAE: EVIDENCE FROM NEON AND HELIUM ISOTOPES IN COMET DUST COLLECTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Pepin, Robert O.; Palma, Russell L.; Gehrz, Robert D.; Starrfield, Sumner

    2011-12-01

    Presolar grains in meteorites and interplanetary dust particles carry non-solar isotopic signatures pointing to origins in supernovae, giant stars, and possibly other stellar sources. There have been suggestions that some of these grains condensed in the ejecta of classical nova outbursts, but the evidence is ambiguous. We report neon and helium compositions in particles captured on stratospheric collectors flown to sample materials from comets 26P/Grigg-Skjellerup and 55P/Tempel-Tuttle that point to condensation of their gas carriers in the ejecta of a neon (ONe) nova. The absence of detectable {sup 3}He in these particles indicates space exposure to solar wind irradiation of a few decades at most, consistent with origins in cometary dust streams. Measured {sup 4}He/{sup 20}Ne, {sup 20}Ne/{sup 22}Ne, {sup 21}Ne/{sup 22}Ne, and {sup 20}Ne/{sup 21}Ne isotope ratios, and a low upper limit on {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He, are in accord with calculations of nucleosynthesis in neon nova outbursts. Of these, the uniquely low {sup 4}He/{sup 20}Ne and high {sup 20}Ne/{sup 22}Ne ratios are the most diagnostic, reflecting the large predicted {sup 20}Ne abundances in the ejecta of such novae. The correspondence of measured Ne and He compositions in cometary matter with theoretical predictions is evidence for the presence of presolar grains from novae in the early solar system.

  16. "Huruhata's Variable" Revealed: The WZ Sge-Type Dwarf Nova EG CANCRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Katsura; Nogami, Daisaku; Kato, Taichi; Baba, Hajime

    1998-08-01

    Time-resolved CCD photometric observations of a dwarf nova EG Cnc were carried out during an outburst which occurred after a 19-year quiescent interval, since 1977 November. Our observations between 1996 December 2 and 14 revealed this outburst to be a definite superoutburst, eventually enabling a definite classification of this object as an SU UMa-type dwarf nova. This outburst was characterized by its long duration of more than two weeks and a large amplitude of at least 6.7 mag. The object showed two distinct types of superhumps: double-peaked modulations attributable to ``early superhumps'' with a period of 0.0582+/-0.00025 d in the earlier stage of the current outburst, followed by fully grown typical superhumps with a period of 0.0603+/-0.00006 d. We regard the period of 0.0582 d as being the orbital period of the object with a 3.7% superhump excess ratio. These characteristics suggest a strong resemblance to an extreme rare class of dwarf novae including WZ Sge, HV Vir, and AL Com with some other similarities between EG Cnc and the WZ Sge-type dwarf novae. The existence of double-peaked ``early superhumps'' in the early stage of superoutbursts may be a new defining criterion for the WZ Sge-type dwarf novae.

  17. NOVA laser facility for inertial confinement fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, W.W.

    1983-11-30

    The NOVA laser consists of ten beams, capable of concentrating 100 to 150 kJ of energy (in 3 ns) and 100 to 150 TW of power (in 100 ps) on experimental targets by 1985. NOVA will also be capable of frequency converting the fundamental laser wavelength (1.05 ..mu..m) to its second (0.525 ..mu..m) or third (0.35 ..mu..m) harmonic. This additional capability (80 to 120 kJ at 0.525 ..mu..m, 40 to 70 kJ at 0.35 ..mu..m) was approved by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in April 1982. These shorter wavelengths are much more favorable for ICF target physics. Current construction status of the NOVA facility, intended for completion in the autumn of 1984, will be presented.

  18. The distances of the Galactic Novae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozdonmez, Aykut; Guver, Tolga; Cabrera-Lavers, Antonio; Ak, Tansel

    2016-07-01

    Using location of the RC stars on the CMDs obtained from the UKIDSS, VISTA and 2MASS photometry, we have derived the reddening-distance relations towards each Galactic nova for which at least one independent reddening measurement exists. We were able to determine the distances of 72 Galactic novae and set lower limits on the distances of 45 systems. The reddening curves of the systems are presented. These curves can be also used to estimate reddening or the distance of any source, whose location is close to the position of the nova in our sample. The distance measurement method in our study can be easily applicable to any source, especially for ones that concentrated along the Galactic plane.

  19. The distances of the Galactic novae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özdönmez, Aykut; Güver, Tolga; Cabrera-Lavers, Antonio; Ak, Tansel

    2016-09-01

    Utilizing the unique location of red clump giants on colour-magnitude diagrams obtained from various near-infrared surveys, we derived specific reddening-distance relations towards 119 Galactic novae for which independent reddening measurements are available. Using the derived distance-extinction relation and the independent measurements of reddening we calculated the most likely distances for each system. We present the details of our distance measurement technique and the results of this analysis, which yielded the distances of 73 Galactic novae and allowed us to set lower limits on the distances of 46 systems. We also present the reddening-distance relations derived for each nova, which may be useful to analyse the different Galactic components present in the line of sight.

  20. AN EXTENDED GRID OF NOVA MODELS. III. VERY LUMINOUS, RED NOVAE

    SciTech Connect

    Shara, Michael M.; Zurek, David; Yaron, Ofer; Prialnik, Dina; Kovetz, Attay

    2010-12-10

    Extremely luminous, red eruptive variables like RV in M31 are being suggested as exemplars of a new class of astrophysical objects. Our greatly extended series of nova simulations shows that classical nova models can produce very red, luminous eruptions. In a poorly studied corner of three-dimensional nova parameter space (very cold, low-mass white dwarfs, accreting at very low rates) we find bona fide classical novae that are very luminous and red because they eject very slowly moving, massive envelopes. A crucial prediction of these nova models-in contrast to the predictions of merging star ('mergeburst') models-is that a hot remnant, the underlying white dwarf, will emerge after the massive ejected envelope has expanded enough to become optically thin. This blue remnant must fade on a timescale of decades-much faster than a 'mergeburst', which must fade on timescales of millennia or longer. Furthermore, the cooling nova white dwarf and its expanding ejecta must become redder in the years after eruption, while a contracting mergeburst must become hotter and bluer. We predict that red novae will always brighten to L {approx} 1000 L{sub sun} for about one year before rising to the maximum luminosity at L {approx} 10{sup 6}-10{sup 7} L{sub sun}. The maximum luminosity attainable by a nova is likely to be L {approx} 10{sup 7} L{sub sun}, corresponding to M {approx} -12. In an accompanying paper, we describe a fading, luminous blue candidate for the remnant of M31-RV; it is observed with the Hubble Space Telescope to be compatible only with the nova model.

  1. Echinoids, epizootics and ecological stability in the rocky subtidal off Nova Scotia, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheibling, R. E.

    1984-03-01

    Mass mortalities of Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis, attributed to disease, have occurred along the Atlantic coast of Nova Scotia from 1980 to 1982. An amoeboid protist has been tentatively identified as the pathogenic agent. Temperature appears to play an important role in triggering epizootics and determining the extent of mortality. Epizootics have occurred in the autumn of each year during months of record high temperatures. The virtual elimination of echinoids over a large area of coast has enabled regeneration of kelp beds. Disease may play a key role in determining the structure and stability of benthic communities off Nova Scotia and elsewhere by controlling echinoid abundance.

  2. Fermi-LAT Gamma-ray Observations of Nova Lupus 2016 (ASASSN-16kt)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheung, C. C.; Jean, P.; Shore, S. N.; Fermi Large Area Telescope Collaboration

    2016-10-01

    The Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope performed a ~6-day Target of Opportunity (ToO) observation of Nova Lupus 2016 (ATel #9538, #9539, CBET #4322) that commenced on September 28. Considering earlier all-sky survey Large Area Telescope (LAT) observations as well, preliminary analysis indicates gamma-ray emission at ~2 sigma was detected around 1 to 2 days after the optical peak on September 25th (pre-validated AAVSO visual lightcurve; ATel #9550, CBET #4322) when the optical spectra show opaque ejecta, similar to previous gamma-ray detected novae (Fermi-LAT collaboration, 2014 Science 345, 554; Cheung et al. 2016 ApJ 826, 142).

  3. NUCLEAR MIXING METERS FOR CLASSICAL NOVAE

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, Keegan J.; Iliadis, Christian; Downen, Lori; Champagne, Art; José, Jordi

    2013-11-10

    Classical novae are caused by mass transfer episodes from a main-sequence star onto a white dwarf via Roche lobe overflow. This material possesses angular momentum and forms an accretion disk around the white dwarf. Ultimately, a fraction of this material spirals in and piles up on the white dwarf surface under electron-degenerate conditions. The subsequently occurring thermonuclear runaway reaches hundreds of megakelvin and explosively ejects matter into the interstellar medium. The exact peak temperature strongly depends on the underlying white dwarf mass, the accreted mass and metallicity, and the initial white dwarf luminosity. Observations of elemental abundance enrichments in these classical nova events imply that the ejected matter consists not only of processed solar material from the main-sequence partner but also of material from the outer layers of the underlying white dwarf. This indicates that white dwarf and accreted matter mix prior to the thermonuclear runaway. The processes by which this mixing occurs require further investigation to be understood. In this work, we analyze elemental abundances ejected from hydrodynamic nova models in search of elemental abundance ratios that are useful indicators of the total amount of mixing. We identify the abundance ratios ΣCNO/H, Ne/H, Mg/H, Al/H, and Si/H as useful mixing meters in ONe novae. The impact of thermonuclear reaction rate uncertainties on the mixing meters is investigated using Monte Carlo post-processing network calculations with temperature-density evolutions of all mass zones computed by the hydrodynamic models. We find that the current uncertainties in the {sup 30}P(p, γ){sup 31}S rate influence the Si/H abundance ratio, but overall the mixing meters found here are robust against nuclear physics uncertainties. A comparison of our results with observations of ONe novae provides strong constraints for classical nova models.

  4. Assurance management program for the 30 Nova laser fusion project

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, A.J.

    1983-11-30

    The Nova assurance management program was developed using the quality assurance (QA) approach first implemented at LLNL in early 1978. The LLNL QA program is described as an introduction to the Nova assurance management program. The Nova system is described pictorially through the Nova configuration, subsystems and major components, interjecting the QA techniques which are being pragmatically used to assure the successful completion of the project.

  5. Experimental measurements of hydrodynamic instabilities on NOVA of relevance to astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Budil, K S; Cherfils, C; Drake, R P; Farley, D; Glendinning, S G; Kalantar, D H; Kane, J; Marinak, M M; Remington, B A; Richard, A; Ryutov, D; Stone, J; Wallace, R J; Weber, S V

    1998-09-11

    Large lasers such as Nova allow the possibility of achieving regimes of high energy densities in plasmas of millimeter spatial scales and nanosecond time scales. In those plasmas where thermal conductivity and viscosity do not play a significant role, the hydrodynamic evolution is suitable for benchmarking hydrodynamics modeling in astrophysical codes. Several experiments on Nova examine hydrodynamically unstable interfaces. A typical Nova experiment uses a gold millimeter-scale hohlraum to convert the laser energy to a 200 eV blackbody source lasting about a nanosecond. The x-rays ablate a planar target, generating a series of shocks and accelerating the target. The evolving area1 density is diagnosed by time-resolved radiography, using a second x-ray source. Data from several experiments are presented and diagnostic techniques are discussed.

  6. New optical nova candidate in M 31

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burwitz, V.; Pietsch, W.; Henze, M.; Rodriguez, J.; Haswell, C. A.; Holmes, S.; Kolb, U.; Lucas, R.

    2010-06-01

    We report the discovery of a possible nova in M 31 on a 5x120s stacked unfiltered CCD image obtained with the 0.35-m f/11 OU/OAM PIRATE Schmidt-Cassegrain telescope (+ SBIG STL-1001E CCD camera) at Costitx, Mallorca, Spain on 2010 June 26.084 UT with a corresponding R magnitude of 17.8. The position for the nova candidate is RA = 00h44m04.48s, Dec = +41d28'34.2" (J2000, accuracy of 0.3"), which is 902" east and 746" north of the core of M 31.

  7. PAH emission from Nova Cen 1986

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyland, A. R. Harry; Mcgregor, P. J.

    1989-01-01

    The discovery of broad emission features between 3.2 and 3.6 microns were reported in the spectrum of Nova Cen 1986 (V842 Cen) some 300 days following outburst and remaining prominent for several months. The general characteristics of these features are similar to those attributed to polycyclic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules in other dusty sources, although the relative strengths are different, and these observations provide the first clear evidence for molecular constituents other than graphite particles in the ejecta of novae.

  8. Mix experiments with the NOVA laser

    SciTech Connect

    Rupert, V.C.; Kilkenny, J.D.; Skokowski, P.G.

    1988-10-01

    The NOVA mix experiments are designed to study mix between two dissimilar materials subjected to strong (M/approximately/50) shocks and variable accelerations in a direction normal to their common boundary. The main purpose of the experiments is to provide a data base with which predictive models can be compared and normalized. Together with shock tube experiments, which explore a different regime, the current NOVA tests investigate the shock induced source terms in our model and the evolution of both Rayleigh-Taylor stable and unstable interfaces. 3 refs., 9 figs.

  9. Near Infrared Photometry of Nova Del 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cass, C. A.; Carlon, L. R.; Corgan, T. D.; Dykhoff, A. D.; Gehrz, D. R.; Shenoy, P. D.

    2013-08-01

    Subjects: Infra-Red, Nova We report RIJHKLM photometry of Nova Del 2013 taken on August 28.13 UT using an As:Si bolometer mounted on the 0.76-m infrared telescope of the University of Minnesota's O'Brien Observatory (Marine on St. Croix, Minnesota, USA). Vega (alpha Lyrae) was used as the standard star. On this date we find: R = 5.6 +/- 0.1, I = 5.2 +/- 0.1, J = 4.5 +/- 0.1, H = 4.7 +/- 0.1, K = 4.7 +/- 0.1, L = 3.3 +/- 0.2, M = +1.8 +/- 0.3.

  10. Producing National Ignition Facility (NIF)-quality beams on the Nova and Beamlet lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Widmayer, C.C.; Auerbach, J.M.; Ehrlich, R.B.

    1996-08-01

    The Nova and Beamlet lasers were used to simulate the beam propagation conditions that will be encountered during the National Ignition Facility operation. Perturbation theory predicts that there is a 5mm scale length propagation mode that experiences large nonlinear power growth. This mode was observed in the tests. Further tests have confirmed that this mode can be suppressed with improved spatial filtering.

  11. AKARI Infrared Camera Survey of the Large Magellanic Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimonishi, Takashi; Kato, Daisuke; Ita, Yoshifusa; Onaka, Takashi

    2015-08-01

    The Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) is one of the closest external galaxies to the Milky Way and has been playing a central role in various fields of modern astronomy and astrophysics. We conducted an unbiased near- to mid-infrared imaging and spectroscopic survey of the LMC with the infrared satellite AKARI. An area of about 10 square degrees of the LMC was observed by five imaging bands (each centered at 3.2, 7, 11, 15, and 24 micron) and the low-resolution slitless prism spectroscopy mode (2--5 micron, R~20) equipped with the Infrared Camera on board AKARI. Based on the data obtained in the survey, we constructed the photometric and spectroscopic catalogues of point sources in the LMC. The photometric catalogue includes about 650,000, 90,000, 49,000, 17,000, 7,000 sources at 3.2, 7, 11, 15, and 24 micron, respectively (Ita et al. 2008, PASJ, 60, 435; Kato et al. 2012, AJ, 144, 179), while the spectroscopic catalogue includes 1,757 sources (Shimonishi et al. 2013, AJ, 145, 32). Both catalogs are publicly released and available through a website (AKARI Observers Page, http://www.ir.isas.ac.jp/AKARI/Observation/). The catalog includes various infrared sources such as young stellar objects, asymptotic giant branch stars, giants/supergiants, and many other cool or dust-enshrouded stars. A large number of near-infrared spectral data, coupled with complementary broadband photometric data, allow us to investigate infrared spectral features of sources by comparison with their spectral energy distributions. Combined use of the present AKARI LMC catalogues with other infrared catalogues such as SAGE and HERITAGE possesses scientific potential that can be applied to various astronomical studies. In this presentation, we report the details of the AKARI photometric and spectroscopic catalogues of the LMC.

  12. SN 2010U: A LUMINOUS NOVA IN NGC 4214

    SciTech Connect

    Humphreys, Roberta M.; Helton, L. Andrew; Prieto, Jose L.; Rosenfield, Philip; Williams, Benjamin; Murphy, Jeremiah; Dalcanton, Julianne; Gilbert, Karoline; Kochanek, Christopher S.; Stanek, K. Z.; Khan, Rubab; Szczygiel, Dorota; Mogren, Karen; Fesen, Robert A.; Milisavljevic, Dan

    2010-07-20

    The luminosity, light curve, post-maximum spectrum, and lack of a progenitor on deep pre-outburst images suggest that SN 2010U was a luminous, fast nova. Its outburst magnitude is consistent with that for a fast nova using the maximum magnitude-rate of decline relationship for classical novae.

  13. The benefit of amateur observations for research in dwarf novae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    La Dous, Constanze

    1992-01-01

    Contributions of amateur astronomers to research on dwarf novae, which are based on carefully monitoring the outburst behavior of these objects, are reviewed. These contributions range from scheduling of observations to the observational basis for research on the dwarf nova outburst mechanism. It is suggested, that, with better equipment, observations of orbital light variations in dwarf novae might be performed by amateur astronomers.

  14. LABORATORY ANALYSIS OF PRESOLAR SILICATE STARDUST FROM A NOVA

    SciTech Connect

    Leitner, J.; Kodolanyi, J.; Hoppe, P.; Floss, C.

    2012-08-01

    We report the major element as well as the oxygen, magnesium, and silicon isotope composition of a unique presolar silicate grain found in the fine-grained fraction of the Antarctic CR2 chondrite Graves Nunataks 95229. The grain is characterized by an extremely high {sup 17}O/{sup 16}O ratio (6.3 {+-} 0.2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3}) relative to solar values, whereas its {sup 18}O/{sup 16}O ratio is solar within measurement uncertainty. It also shows enrichments in {sup 25,26}Mg and a significant excess in {sup 30}Si relative to solar system compositions, with {delta}{sup 25}Mg = 79 {+-} 21 per mille , {delta}{sup 26}Mg = 70 {+-} 20 per mille , and {delta}{sup 30}Si = 379 {+-} 92 per mille . This isotopic composition is consistent with an origin in the ejecta of a {approx}1.3-1.4 M{sub Sun} ONe nova with large contributions of material from a main-sequence companion star of roughly solar metallicity. However, many details of the stellar source remain undetermined, owing to the uncertainties of current nova nucleosynthesis models. Auger electron spectroscopic analyses identify O, Mg, Si, and Fe as the grain's major constituents. Its (Mg+Fe)/Si atomic ratios are lower than that of olivine and correspond on average to Fe-Mg-pyroxene. A complex texture and heterogeneous major element distribution within the grain attest to condensation under non-equilibrium conditions, which is consistent with the proposed nova origin.

  15. Nova outburst luminosities, postnova magnitude behaviour, and long term evolution of nova shell luminosities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duerbeck, Hilmar W.

    2002-11-01

    A luminosity calibration of galactic novae indicates that all novae at brightness maximum radiate over-Eddington, and that speed- and light curve classes are intimately related. In later stages, the Balmer and [O III] line fluxes decline in similar ways for novae of all speed classes, except in slow ones where Balmer emission diminishes faster, and [O III] persists for decades. The brightness of the central source declines during the first century after outburst; decline rates for novae with orbital periods above 0.2 days are in good agreement with theoretical predictions, but there are indications that the luminosity will remain constant afterwards. Postnovae with shorter periods appear to decline more rapidly, and they often erupt from low-luminosity stages.

  16. Novae. Fermi establishes classical novae as a distinct class of gamma-ray sources.

    PubMed

    2014-08-01

    A classical nova results from runaway thermonuclear explosions on the surface of a white dwarf that accretes matter from a low-mass main-sequence stellar companion. In 2012 and 2013, three novae were detected in γ rays and stood in contrast to the first γ-ray-detected nova V407 Cygni 2010, which belongs to a rare class of symbiotic binary systems. Despite likely differences in the compositions and masses of their white dwarf progenitors, the three classical novae are similarly characterized as soft-spectrum transient γ-ray sources detected over 2- to 3-week durations. The γ-ray detections point to unexpected high-energy particle acceleration processes linked to the mass ejection from thermonuclear explosions in an unanticipated class of Galactic γ-ray sources. PMID:25082700

  17. NOVA[R] Spring 2002 Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Peter; Ransick, Kristi; Rosene, Dale; Sammons, James

    The guide presents lesson plans from "NOVA" which targets middle school and junior high school students and meet the National Science Education Standards. Lessons include: (1) "Neanderthals on Trial"; (2) "Fireworks"; (3) "Secrets, Lies and Atomic Spies"; (4) "Bioterror"; (5) "The Missing Link"; (6) "Shackleton's Voyage of Endurance"; and (7)…

  18. Stress and the Nova Scotia Teacher.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fergusson, Norman H.

    This study obtained information about the factors which cause stress for 406 teachers in Nova Scotia and determined possible differences by sub-groups. Noteworthy differences were found by size of school, gender, experience, type of school, administrator/non-administrator, and a few by license category. Results indicated that one teacher in four…

  19. The NOvA DAQ Monitor System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baird, Michael; Grover, Deepika; Kasahara, Susan; Messier, Mark

    2015-12-01

    The NOvA (NuMI Off-Axis ve Appearance) experiment is a long-baseline neutrino experiment designed to search for vµ (v̅µ) to ve (v̅e) oscillations using Fermilab's NuMI main injector neutrino beam. The experiment consists of two detectors; both positioned 14 mrad off the beam axis: a 220 ton Near Detector constructed in an underground cavern at Fermilab and a 14 kton Far Detector constructed in Ash River, MN, 810 km from the beam source. The health and performance of the NOvA Data Acquisition (DAQ) system is monitored with a DAQ Monitor system based on the Ganglia distributed monitoring system, an open source third-party product which provides much of the NOvA DAQ monitoring needs “out-of-the-box”. This paper will discuss the use of the Ganglia system for this purpose, including augmentations we have made to the Ganglia base for the specific needs of our system. This paper will also discuss two other systems used to monitor the quality of the data collected by the NOvA detectors: an Online Monitoring system and Event Display, both of which leverage tools from the offline framework to provide close to real time diagnostic tools of detector performance.

  20. NOvA: Exploring Neutrino Mysteries

    ScienceCinema

    Vahle, Tricia; Messier, Mark

    2016-07-12

    Neutrinos are a mystery to physicists. They exist in three different flavors and mass states and may be able to give hints about the origins of the matter-dominated universe. A new long-baseline experiment led by Fermilab called NOvA may provide some answers.

  1. Creating healthy futures. 2000 NOVA Award winners.

    PubMed

    Larson, L

    2000-05-01

    Winners of this year's NOVA awards, sponsored by the American Hospital Association and H&HN magazine, all share a broad definition of health. These five stars of community benefit also understand that a community and a health care organization share responsibility for what creates health, and that collaborative efforts are the only way to sustain innovative programs. PMID:11785219

  2. Nova pulse power system description and status

    SciTech Connect

    Holloway, R.W.; Whitham, K.; Merritt, B.T.; Gritton, D.G.; Oicles, J.A.

    1981-06-01

    The Nova laser system is designed to produce critical data in the nation's inertial confinement fusion effort. It is the world's largest peak power laser and presents various unique pulse power problems. In this paper, pulse power systems for this laser are described, the evolutionary points from prior systems are pointed out, and the current status of the hardware is given.

  3. NOvA: Exploring Neutrino Mysteries

    SciTech Connect

    Vahle, Tricia; Messier, Mark

    2012-09-06

    Neutrinos are a mystery to physicists. They exist in three different flavors and mass states and may be able to give hints about the origins of the matter-dominated universe. A new long-baseline experiment led by Fermilab called NOvA may provide some answers.

  4. Nova Scotia. Reference Series No. 32.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of External Affairs, Ottawa (Ontario).

    This booklet, one of a series featuring the Canadian provinces, presents a brief overview of Nova Scotia and is suitable for teacher reference or student reading. Separate sections discuss the geography and climate, history, economic development, fishing, agriculture, forestry, mining, manufacturing, energy, education, arts and culture, and…

  5. Status of the NOvA experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Plunkett, Robert; /Fermilab

    2007-12-01

    The NOvA experiment, using the existing NuMI beamline, is planned for construction at Ash River, Minnesota. The experiment will provide a measurement of, or strong limit on the neutrino mixing angle {theta}{sub 13}, and for sufficiently strong mixing, establish the hierarchy of the neutrino masses.

  6. The expanding fireball of Nova Delphini 2013.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, G H; ten Brummelaar, T; Gies, D R; Farrington, C D; Kloppenborg, B; Chesneau, O; Monnier, J D; Ridgway, S T; Scott, N; Tallon-Bosc, I; McAlister, H A; Boyajian, T; Maestro, V; Mourard, D; Meilland, A; Nardetto, N; Stee, P; Sturmann, J; Vargas, N; Baron, F; Ireland, M; Baines, E K; Che, X; Jones, J; Richardson, N D; Roettenbacher, R M; Sturmann, L; Turner, N H; Tuthill, P; van Belle, G; von Braun, K; Zavala, R T; Banerjee, D P K; Ashok, N M; Joshi, V; Becker, J; Muirhead, P S

    2014-11-13

    A classical nova occurs when material accreting onto the surface of a white dwarf in a close binary system ignites in a thermonuclear runaway. Complex structures observed in the ejecta at late stages could result from interactions with the companion during the common-envelope phase. Alternatively, the explosion could be intrinsically bipolar, resulting from a localized ignition on the surface of the white dwarf or as a consequence of rotational distortion. Studying the structure of novae during the earliest phases is challenging because of the high spatial resolution needed to measure their small sizes. Here we report near-infrared interferometric measurements of the angular size of Nova Delphini 2013, starting one day after the explosion and continuing with extensive time coverage during the first 43 days. Changes in the apparent expansion rate can be explained by an explosion model consisting of an optically thick core surrounded by a diffuse envelope. The optical depth of the ejected material changes as it expands. We detect an ellipticity in the light distribution, suggesting a prolate or bipolar structure that develops as early as the second day. Combining the angular expansion rate with radial velocity measurements, we derive a geometric distance to the nova of 4.54 ± 0.59 kiloparsecs from the Sun. PMID:25363778

  7. Numerical modelling of the classical nova outburst

    SciTech Connect

    Kutter, G.S.; Sparks, W.M.

    1987-01-01

    We describe a mechanism that promises to explain how nova outbursts take place on white dwarf of 1 Msub solar or less and for accretion rates of 4 x 10/sup -10/ Msub solar yr/sup -1/ or greater. 7 refs.

  8. NOVA[R] Fall 2001 Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WGBH-TV, Boston, MA.

    This teacher guide includes activity information for the program NOVA, Fall 2001. Background for each activity is provided along with its correlation to the national science standards. Activities include: (1) "Search for a Safe Cigarette"; (2) "18 Ways To Make a Baby"; (3) "Secrets of Mind"; (4) "Neanderthals on Trial"; (5) "Life's Greatest…

  9. Models of classical and recurrent novae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedjung, Michael; Duerbeck, Hilmar W.

    1993-01-01

    The behavior of novae may be divided roughly into two separate stages: quiescence and outburst. However, at closer inspection, both stages cannot be separated. It should be attempted to explain features in both stages with a similar model. Various simple models to explain the observed light and spectral observations during post optical maximum activity are conceivable. In instantaneous ejection models, all or nearly all material is ejected in a time that is short compared with the duration of post optical maximum activity. Instantaneous ejection type 1 models are those where the ejected material is in a fairly thin shell, the thickness of which remains small. In the instantaneous ejection type 2 model ('Hubble Flow'), a thick envelope is ejected instantaneously. This envelope remains thick as different parts have different velocities. Continued ejection models emphasize the importance of winds from the nova after optical maximum. Ejection is supposed to occur from one of the components of the central binary, and one can imagine a general swelling of one of the components, so that something resembling a normal, almost stationary, stellar photosphere is observed after optical maximum. The observed characteristics of recurrent novae in general are rather different from those of classical novae, thus, models for these stars need not be the same.

  10. NOVA[R] Spring 2001 Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WGBH-TV, Boston, MA.

    This teacher's guide is designed to accompany the PBS television program "NOVA" and features six activities. "Sultan's Lost Treasure" presents the attempts of an archaeologist and his team to salvage an ancient ship wreck. "Vanished!" investigates what happened to the Stardust airliner in 1947 which disappeared during a flight. "Lost King of the…

  11. Nova Sct 2009 (V496 Sct)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Templeton, Matthew R.

    2009-11-01

    As initially announced in CBET 2008 (Daniel W. E. Green, ed.) and AAVSO Special Notice #176 (M. Templeton), and expanded on in IAU Circular No. 9093 (Green, ed.), Nova Scutum 2009 (V496 Sct) was discovered by H. Nishimura (Miyawaki, Kakegawa, Japan) on 2009 November 8.370 UT at unfiltered CCD magnitude of 8.8, using 120-mm camera lens, derived by S. Nakano (Sumoto, Japan) from Nishimura's discovery images. RA: 18:43:45.57 , Dec: -7:36:42.0 (equinox 2000.0) from E. Guido and G. Sostero. Spectroscopy by F. Teyssier (Rouen, France); D. Balam (NRCC) and G. Sarty (U. Sask.); and U. Munari et al. (INA-Padova & the Asiago Novae and Symbiotic Stars Collaboration) confirm the object as a nova, with emission lines showing P Cygni profiles. Munari et al. show the presence of FeII, indicating a nova of the Fe II-type. Observations should be reported to the AAVSO International Database as V496 SCO.

  12. Supernova hydrodynamicas experiments using the Nova laser

    SciTech Connect

    Remington, B.A.; Glendinning, S.G.; Estabrook, K.

    1997-07-01

    We are developing experiments using the Nova laser to investigate (1) compressible nonlinear hydrodynamic mixing relevant to the first few hours of the supernova (SN) explosion and (2) ejecta-ambient plasma interactions relevant to the early SN remnant phase. The experiments and astrophysical implications are discussed.

  13. Near Infrared Photometry of Nova Del 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cass, A. C.; Carlon, R. L.; Corgan, D. T.; Dykhoff, D. A.; Gehrz, R. D.; Shenoy, D. P.

    2013-09-01

    We continued to follow Nova Del 2013 during the period from 31.15 August 2013 UT through 25.18 September 2013 UT using an As:Si bolometer mounted on the 0.76-m infrared telescope of the University of Minnesota's O'Brien Observatory (Marine on St. Croix, Minnesota, USA). Vega (alpha Lyrae) is used as the standard star.

  14. NEVEC: the NOVA ESO VLTI Expertise Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Poole, Rudolf S.; Miley, George; Jaffe, Walter; Glindemann, Andreas; Bakker, Eric J.; Waters, Rens; Roettgering, Huub J. A.; Cotton, Bill; Percheron, Isabelle; Meisner, Jeffrey A.; de Jong, Jeroen; D'Arcio, Luigi; Heijligers, Bjoern

    2003-02-01

    The start of NEVEC was initiated by the opportunity in the Netherlands to reinstate instrumental efforts in astronomy through a funding program for 'Top Research Schools,’ which brought about the creation of NOVA. The fact that considerable experience exists in Radio Astronomical imaging through interferometry (the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope started in 1970), and the relatively small size at the time of ESO's VLTI Team made it opportune to aim for a win-win situation through collaboration. So presently an MOU between ESO and NOVA is in force, which stipulates that 10 out of the 18 man-years funded by NOVA for NEVEC until 2005 [new personnel, in university setting (Leiden) but on project money] shall be used on tasks that are mutually agreed between NOVA and ESO. The tasks presently are found in the domain of observing modes, calibration and modeling, as well as contributing to the commissioning of new instruments and thinking about future instruments. Another task, outside these 10 FTE, has been the data handling and analysis software for MIDI, and again contributing to its commissioning. Delivery of the first operational version in Heidelberg has just taken place (summer 2002) contributing to the successful Preliminary Acceptance in Europe for MIDI on September 10, 2002. The actual state of 'products and deliveries' and the future outlook are reviewed.

  15. Explosive lithium production in the classical nova V339 Del (Nova Delphini 2013).

    PubMed

    Tajitsu, Akito; Sadakane, Kozo; Naito, Hiroyuki; Arai, Akira; Aoki, Wako

    2015-02-19

    The origin of lithium (Li) and its production process have long been uncertain. Li could be produced by Big Bang nucleosynthesis, interactions of energetic cosmic rays with interstellar matter, evolved low-mass stars, novae, and supernova explosions. Chemical evolution models and observed stellar Li abundances suggest that at least half the Li may have been produced in red giants, asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars, and novae. No direct evidence, however, for the supply of Li from evolved stellar objects to the Galactic medium has hitherto been found. Here we report the detection of highly blue-shifted resonance lines of the singly ionized radioactive isotope of beryllium, (7)Be, in the near-ultraviolet spectra of the classical nova V339 Del (Nova Delphini 2013) 38 to 48 days after the explosion. (7)Be decays to form (7)Li within a short time (half-life of 53.22 days). The (7)Be was created during the nova explosion via the alpha-capture reaction (3)He(α,γ)(7)Be (ref. 5). This result supports the theoretical prediction that a significant amount of (7)Li is produced in classical nova explosions. PMID:25693569

  16. Explosive lithium production in the classical nova V339 Del (Nova Delphini 2013).

    PubMed

    Tajitsu, Akito; Sadakane, Kozo; Naito, Hiroyuki; Arai, Akira; Aoki, Wako

    2015-02-19

    The origin of lithium (Li) and its production process have long been uncertain. Li could be produced by Big Bang nucleosynthesis, interactions of energetic cosmic rays with interstellar matter, evolved low-mass stars, novae, and supernova explosions. Chemical evolution models and observed stellar Li abundances suggest that at least half the Li may have been produced in red giants, asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars, and novae. No direct evidence, however, for the supply of Li from evolved stellar objects to the Galactic medium has hitherto been found. Here we report the detection of highly blue-shifted resonance lines of the singly ionized radioactive isotope of beryllium, (7)Be, in the near-ultraviolet spectra of the classical nova V339 Del (Nova Delphini 2013) 38 to 48 days after the explosion. (7)Be decays to form (7)Li within a short time (half-life of 53.22 days). The (7)Be was created during the nova explosion via the alpha-capture reaction (3)He(α,γ)(7)Be (ref. 5). This result supports the theoretical prediction that a significant amount of (7)Li is produced in classical nova explosions.

  17. Search for gamma-ray emission from dark matter annihilation in the large magellanic cloud with the fermi large area telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Buckley, Matthew R.; Charles, Eric; Gaskins, Jennifer M.; Brooks, Alyson M.; Drlica-Wagner, Alex; Martin, Pierrick; Zhao, Geng

    2015-05-05

    At a distance of 50 kpc and with a dark matter mass of ~1010 M, the large magellanic cloud (LMC) is a natural target for indirect dark matter searches. We use five years of data from the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) and updated models of the gamma-ray emission from standard astrophysical components to search for a dark matter annihilation signal from the LMC. We perform a rotation curve analysis to determine the dark matter distribution, setting a robust minimum on the amount of dark matter in the LMC, which we use to set conservative bounds on the annihilation cross section. The LMC emission is generally very well described by the standard astrophysical sources, with at most a 1–2σ excess identified near the kinematic center of the LMC once systematic uncertainties are taken into account. As a result, we place competitive bounds on the dark matter annihilation cross section as a function of dark matter particle mass and annihilation channel.

  18. Search for gamma-ray emission from dark matter annihilation in the large magellanic cloud with the fermi large area telescope

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Buckley, Matthew R.; Charles, Eric; Gaskins, Jennifer M.; Brooks, Alyson M.; Drlica-Wagner, Alex; Martin, Pierrick; Zhao, Geng

    2015-05-05

    At a distance of 50 kpc and with a dark matter mass of ~1010 M⊙, the large magellanic cloud (LMC) is a natural target for indirect dark matter searches. We use five years of data from the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) and updated models of the gamma-ray emission from standard astrophysical components to search for a dark matter annihilation signal from the LMC. We perform a rotation curve analysis to determine the dark matter distribution, setting a robust minimum on the amount of dark matter in the LMC, which we use to set conservative bounds on the annihilation cross section.more » The LMC emission is generally very well described by the standard astrophysical sources, with at most a 1–2σ excess identified near the kinematic center of the LMC once systematic uncertainties are taken into account. As a result, we place competitive bounds on the dark matter annihilation cross section as a function of dark matter particle mass and annihilation channel.« less

  19. The dust distribution inside the Large Magellanic Cloud.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oestreicher, M. O.; Schmidt-Kaler, T.

    1996-06-01

    The distribution of the interstellar dust inside the LMC has been investigated on the basis of UBV photometry and spectral classifications of 1507 luminous O-A type stars. The mean internal reddening has been found to be rather high with E_B-V_=0.16mag . The frequency distribution of the reddenings is strongly asymmetric, so that it is useless to give an error of the mean. Reddenings up to 0.8mag have been observed. A strong selection effect is caused by the restricted visibility of strongly reddened stars. The intrinsically faint stars (V_0_>13.3mag ) of our sample show no or low reddening E_B-V_<0.2mag. Stars of intermediate brightness (12.3mag0.3 with those of molecular clouds detected by Cohen et al. (1988) shows few coincidences. Contrary to the dark cloud catalogues of Hodge (1972) and van den Bergh (1974) we detect highly reddened stars almost everywhere in the LMC. The frequency distribution of the reddenings can be fitted by a two cloud model. The mean reddenings caused by small and large dark clouds are 0.04+/-0.01mag and 0.40+/-0.10mag , respectively. In the LMC, dust cloud properties are quite similar to those in the Galaxy. The number of small clouds on line of sight in comparison to that of large clouds is, however, higher than in the Milky Way. For the LMC we observe a number ratio of 45+/-10 which may be compared with the galactic value of 9+/-1. Finally we have determined a map of the internal reddening in the LMC. It shows overall agreement with that of Isserstedt & Kohl (1984), but gives higher absolute values, dominated by 30

  20. A POPULATION OF ACCRETED SMALL MAGELLANIC CLOUD STARS IN THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, Knut A. G.; Blum, Robert D.; Zaritsky, Dennis; Boyer, Martha L.; Gordon, Karl D. E-mail: rblum@noao.edu E-mail: mboyer@stsci.edu

    2011-08-10

    We present an analysis of the stellar kinematics of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) based on {approx}5900 new and existing velocities of massive red supergiants, oxygen-rich and carbon-rich asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars, and other giants. After correcting the line-of-sight velocities for the LMC's space motion and accounting for asymmetric drift in the AGB population, we derive a rotation curve that is consistent with all of the tracers used, as well as that of published H I data. The amplitude of the rotation curve is v{sub 0} = 87 {+-} 5 km s{sup -1} beyond a radius R{sub 0} = 2.4 {+-} 0.1 kpc and has a position angle of the kinematic line of nodes of {theta} = 142 deg. {+-} 5 deg. By examining the outliers from our fits, we identify a population of 376 stars, or {approx}>5% of our sample, that have line-of-sight velocities that apparently oppose the sense of rotation of the LMC disk. We find that these kinematically distinct stars are either counter-rotating in a plane closely aligned with the LMC disk, or rotating in the same sense as the LMC disk, but in a plane that is inclined by 54 deg. {+-} 2 deg. to the LMC. Their kinematics clearly link them to two known H I arms, which have previously been interpreted as being pulled out from the LMC. We measure metallicities from the Ca triplet lines of {approx}1000 LMC field stars and 30 stars in the kinematically distinct population. For the LMC field, we find a median [Fe/H] = -0.56 {+-} 0.02 with dispersion of 0.5 dex, while for the kinematically distinct stars the median [Fe/H] is -1.25 {+-} 0.13 with a dispersion of 0.7 dex. The metallicity differences provide strong evidence that the kinematically distinct population originated in the Small Magellanic Cloud. This interpretation has the consequence that the H I arms kinematically associated with the stars are likely falling into the LMC, instead of being pulled out.

  1. Dust input from AGB stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhukovska, S.; Henning, T.

    2013-07-01

    Aims: The dust-forming population of AGB stars and their input to the interstellar dust budget of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) are studied with evolutionary dust models with the main goals (1) to investigate how the amount and composition of dust from AGB stars vary over the galactic history; (2) to characterise the mass and metallicity distribution of the present population of AGB stars; (3) to quantify the contribution of AGB stars of different mass and metallicity to the present stardust population in the interstellar medium (ISM). Methods: We used models of the stardust lifecycle in the ISM developed and tested for the solar neighbourhood. The first global spatially resolved reconstruction of the star formation history of the LMC from the Magellanic Clouds Photometric Survey was employed to calculate the stellar populations in the LMC. Results: The dust input from AGB stars is dominated by carbon grains from stars with masses ≲4 M⊙ almost during the entire history of the LMC. The production of silicate, silicon carbide, and iron dust is delayed until the ISM is enriched to about half the present metallicity in the LMC. For the first time, theoretically calculated dust production rates of AGB stars are compared with those derived from infrared observations of AGB stars for the entire galaxy. We find good agreement within scatter of various observational estimates. We show that the majority of silicate and iron grains in the present stardust population originate from a small population of intermediate-mass stars consisting of only ≲4% of the total number of stars, whereas in the solar neighbourhood they originate from low-mass stars. With models of the lifecycle of stardust grains in the ISM we confirm the strong discrepancy between dust input from stars and the existing interstellar dust mass in the LMC reported previously.

  2. Large Magellanic Cloud Microlensing Optical Depth with Imperfect Event Selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, David P.

    2005-11-01

    I present a new analysis of the MACHO Project 5.7 yr Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) microlensing data set that incorporates the effects of contamination of the microlensing event sample by variable stars. Photometric monitoring of MACHO LMC microlensing event candidates by the EROS and OGLE groups has revealed that one of these events is likely to be a variable star, while additional data have confirmed that many of the other events are very likely to be microlensing. These additional data on the nature of the MACHO microlensing candidates are incorporated into a simple likelihood analysis to derive a probability distribution for the number of MACHO microlens candidates that are true microlensing events. This analysis shows that 10-12 of the 13 events that passed the MACHO selection criteria are likely to be microlensing events, with the other 1-3 being variable stars. This likelihood analysis is also used to show that the main conclusions of the MACHO LMC analysis are unchanged by the variable star contamination. The microlensing optical depth toward the LMC is τ=(1.0+/-0.3)×10-7. If this is due to microlensing by known stellar populations plus an additional population of lens objects in the Galactic halo, then the new halo population would account for 16% of the mass of a standard Galactic halo. The MACHO detection exceeds the expected background of two events expected from ordinary stars in standard models of the Milky Way and LMC at the 99.98% confidence level. The background prediction is increased to three events if maximal disk models are assumed for both the Milky Way and LMC, but this model fails to account for the full signal seen by MACHO at the 99.8% confidence level.

  3. Nova eruption in V407 Cyg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Templeton, Matthew R.

    2010-03-01

    According to CBET 2199, 2204, and 2205 (D.W.E. Green, ed. of all three), the suspected symbiotic star V407 Cyg has been observed in an anomalously bright outburst, and subsequent spectroscopic observations by multiple observers show clear signs of a classical nova. Observations of this anomalous event are requested immediately, and observers are asked to continue observing this object until it returns to its previous quiescent level. V407 Cyg was independently discovered in bright outburst by four sets of observers: K. Nishiyama (Fukuoka, Japan) and F. Kabashima (Saga, Japan) at magnitude 7.4 unfiltered on 2010 March 10.797 UT; K. Tsumagoi (Agatsuma-gun, Gunma-ken, Japan) at magnitude ~7 on 2010 March 11.789 UT; K. Sakaniwa (Higashichikumagun, Nagano, Japan) at magnitude 7.4 on 2010 March 11.8 UT; A. Tago (Tsuyama, Okayama-ken, Japan) at ~7th magnitude on 2010 March 11.815 UT. Spectroscopy by Munari et al. on 2010 March 13.09 UT indicates a peculiar composite spectrum with evidence for a classical nova in progress, namely broad emission lines with FWHM of 2300 km/s. Such high velocities cannot occur in symbiotic stars, and so the current eruption appears to be a nova outburst in progress. Low resolution spectra also showing signs of a nova eruption were obtained by several observers. In summary, the evidence points to a classical nova eruption of a symbiotic star. The system is further complicated by the fact that the donor star in the system is likely a variable of Mira type. All observations of this complex and interesting system, including visual estimates, CCD time series, and multicolor photometry are strongly encouraged. Finder charts with sequence may be created using the AAVSO Variable Star Plotter (http://www.aavso.org/vsp). Observations should be submitted to the AAVSO International Database. See full Alert Notice for more details and observations.

  4. The NOvA software testing framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamsett, M.; C Group

    2015-12-01

    The NOvA experiment at Fermilab is a long-baseline neutrino experiment designed to study vε appearance in a vμ beam. NOvA has already produced more than one million Monte Carlo and detector generated files amounting to more than 1 PB in size. This data is divided between a number of parallel streams such as far and near detector beam spills, cosmic ray backgrounds, a number of data-driven triggers and over 20 different Monte Carlo configurations. Each of these data streams must be processed through the appropriate steps of the rapidly evolving, multi-tiered, interdependent NOvA software framework. In total there are greater than 12 individual software tiers, each of which performs a different function and can be configured differently depending on the input stream. In order to regularly test and validate that all of these software stages are working correctly NOvA has designed a powerful, modular testing framework that enables detailed validation and benchmarking to be performed in a fast, efficient and accessible way with minimal expert knowledge. The core of this system is a novel series of python modules which wrap, monitor and handle the underlying C++ software framework and then report the results to a slick front-end web-based interface. This interface utilises modern, cross-platform, visualisation libraries to render the test results in a meaningful way. They are fast and flexible, allowing for the easy addition of new tests and datasets. In total upwards of 14 individual streams are regularly tested amounting to over 70 individual software processes, producing over 25 GB of output files. The rigour enforced through this flexible testing framework enables NOvA to rapidly verify configurations, results and software and thus ensure that data is available for physics analysis in a timely and robust manner.

  5. Short-period X-ray oscillations in super-soft novae and persistent super-soft sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ness, J.-U.; Beardmore, A. P.; Osborne, J. P.; Kuulkers, E.; Henze, M.; Piro, A. L.; Drake, J. J.; Dobrotka, A.; Schwarz, G.; Starrfield, S.; Kretschmar, P.; Hirsch, M.; Wilms, J.

    2015-06-01

    Context. Transient short-period (<100 s) oscillations have been found in the X-ray light curves of three novae during their super-soft source (SSS) phase and in one persistent SSS. Aims: We pursue an observational approach to determine possible driving mechanisms and relations to fundamental system parameters such as the white dwarf mass. Methods: We performed a systematic search for short-period oscillations in all available XMM-Newton and Chandra X-ray light curves of persistent SSS and novae during their SSS phase. To study time evolution, we divided each light curve into short time-segments and computed power spectra. We then constructed a dynamic power spectrum from which we identified transient periodic signals even when only present for a short time. We base our confidence levels on simulations of false-alarm probability for the chosen oversampling rate of 16, corrected for multiple testing based on the number of time segments. From all time segments of each system, we computed fractions of time when periodic signals were detected. Results: In addition to the previously known systems with short-period oscillations, RS Oph (35 s), KT Eri (35 s), V339 Del (54 s), and Cal 83 (67 s), we found one additional system, LMC 2009a (33 s), and also confirm the 35 s period from Chandra data of KT Eri. The oscillation amplitudes are of about <15% of the respective count rates and vary without any clear dependence on the X-ray count rate. The fractions of the time when the respective periods were detected at 2σ significance (duty cycle) are 11.3%, 38.8%, 16.9%, 49.2%, and 18.7% for LMC 2009a, RS Oph, KT Eri, V339 Del, and Cal 83, respectively. The respective highest duty cycles found in a single observation are 38.1%, 74.5%, 61.4%, 67.8%, and 61.8%. Conclusions: Since fast rotation periods of the white dwarfs as origin of these transient oscillations are speculative, we concentrate on pulsation mechanisms. We present initial considerations predicting the oscillation

  6. OGLE-LMC-ECL-11893: The discovery of a long-period eclipsing binary with a circumstellar disk

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, Subo; Katz, Boaz; Prieto, Jose L.; Udalski, Andrzej; Kozlowski, Szymon; Street, R. A.; Tsapras, Y.; Bramich, D. M.; Hundertmark, M.; Horne, K.; Dominik, M.; Jaimes, R. Figuera; Snodgrass, C.

    2014-06-10

    We report the serendipitous discovery of a disk-eclipse system OGLE-LMC-ECL-11893. The eclipse occurs with a period of 468 days, a duration of about 15 days, and a deep (up to Δm{sub I} ≈ 1.5), peculiar, and asymmetric profile. A possible origin of such an eclipse profile involves a circumstellar disk. The presence of the disk is confirmed by the H-α line profile from the follow-up spectroscopic observations, and the star is identified as Be/Ae type. Unlike the previously known disk-eclipse candidates, the eclipses of OGLE-LMC-ECL-11893 retain the same shape throughout the span of ∼17 yr (13 orbital periods), indicating no measurable orbital precession of the disk.

  7. Non-thermal radio emission from colliding flows in classical nova V1723 Aql

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weston, Jennifer H. S.; Sokoloski, J. L.; Metzger, Brian D.; Zheng, Yong; Chomiuk, Laura; Krauss, Miriam I.; Linford, Justin D.; Nelson, Thomas; Mioduszewski, Amy J.; Rupen, Michael P.; Finzell, Tom; Mukai, Koji

    2016-03-01

    The importance of shocks in nova explosions has been highlighted by Fermi's discovery of γ-ray-producing novae. Over three years of multiband Very Large Array radio observations of the 2010 nova V1723 Aql show that shocks between fast and slow flows within the ejecta led to the acceleration of particles and the production of synchrotron radiation. Soon after the start of the eruption, shocks in the ejecta produced an unexpected radio flare, resulting in a multipeaked radio light curve. The emission eventually became consistent with an expanding thermal remnant with mass 2 × 10-4 M⊙ and temperature 104 K. However, during the first two months, the ≳106 K brightness temperature at low frequencies was too high to be due to thermal emission from the small amount of X-ray-producing shock-heated gas. Radio imaging showed structures with velocities of 400 km s-1 (d/6 kpc) in the plane of the sky, perpendicular to a more elongated 1500 km s-1 (d/6 kpc) flow. The morpho-kinematic structure of the ejecta from V1723 Aql appears similar to nova V959 Mon, where collisions between a slow torus and a faster flow collimated the fast flow and gave rise to γ-ray-producing shocks. Optical spectroscopy and X-ray observations of V1723 Aql during the radio flare are consistent with this picture. Our observations support the idea that shocks in novae occur when a fast flow collides with a slow collimating torus. Such shocks could be responsible for hard X-ray emission, γ-ray production, and double-peaked radio light curves from some classical novae.

  8. Heat Transfer Model of Directional Solidification by LMC Process for Superalloy Casting Based on Finite Element Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Liu; Liao, Dunming; Lu, Yuzhang; Chen, Tao

    2016-09-01

    With the rapid development of the aviation industry, the turbine blade, a critical component of the aeronautical engine, has come to be widely produced by liquid-metal cooling (LMC) process. A temperature- and time-dependent heat transfer coefficient was used to represent the heat convection between the shell and the cooling liquid, and an improved Monte Carlo ray-tracing approach was adopted to handle the boundary of radiation heat transfer. Unstructured mesh was used to fit the irregular shell boundary, and the heat transfer model of directional solidification by LMC process based on finite element method (FEM) was established. The concept of local matrix was here proposed to guarantee computational efficiency. The pouring experiments of directional solidification by LMC process were carried out, then simulation and experimental results were compared here. The accuracy of the heat transfer model was validated by the cooling curves and grain morphology, and the maximum relative error between simulation and experimental cooling curve was 2 pct. The withdrawal rate showed an important influence on the shape of solidification interface, and stray grain is liable to be generated on the bottom of platform at an excessive withdrawal rate.

  9. The electrification of Nova Scotia, 1884--1973: Technological modernization as a response to regional disparity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Lionel Bradley

    This dissertation investigates local attempts to use technology as a force for regional rehabilitation in the economically-depressed Maritime region of Canada. At the time of Confederation in 1867, the Maritime province of Nova Scotia was prosperous, progressive, and cultured. By the end of the 1910s, the province had entered a long period of economic and social decline. Recent historiography has shown that, far from passively accepting their fate, Nova Scotians and other Maritimers, actively resisted marginalization with political, cultural, or social action. The thesis expands upon that literature by exploring technology-based strategies of provincial rehabilitation using Thomas P. Hughes's systems perspective and David E. Nye's semiotic approach. In doing so, it applies methods from the social constructivist school of the history of technology to the larger concerns of Maritime Canadian historiography. In large part, the North American culture of technology determined the ways in which Nova Scotians applied technological solutions to provincial concerns. Technology has long been central to the Western idea of progress. As the "high technology" of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, electricity reinforced that view: its ephemeral nature and silent efficiency led people to endow it with transformative, even mystical, powers. As a result, Nova Scotians, adopted a program of electrical modernization in the late 1910s as a remedy for regional disparity. The Nova Scotia government's first step was the creation of an Ontario-style hydroelectric commission designed to bring order to the province's fragmented and inefficient electrical network. Over the next few decades, the Nova Scotia Power Commission implemented rural electrification, home modernization, and regional system-building models that had already proven successful in Ontario and the United States. The system-building philosophies behind these programs were adapted to local conditions and

  10. The kinematical properties of superbubbles and H II regions of the Large Magellanic Cloud derived from the 3D Hα Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambrocio-Cruz, P.; Le Coarer, E.; Rosado, M.; Russeil, D.; Amram, P.; Laval, A.; Epinat, B.; Ramírez, M.; Odonne, M.; Goldes, G.

    2016-04-01

    We report the results of a kinematical Hα survey of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) presented in the form of a kinematical and photometric catalogue of 210 H II regions. The observations have been obtained with a scanning Fabry-Perot interferometer that produced data cubes corresponding to 66 different pointings over this galaxy, each with a field of view of 38 arcmin, covering almost the whole extent of the LMC. We find a bimodal distribution of the Hα luminosity of LMC H II regions. We also derive the local star formation and star formation rate (SFR) per unit area of the nebulae, concluding that star formation in the LMC has proceeded until the present time at an average rate of roughly 0.11 M⊙ yr-1. Also, we do not find any correlation between the SFR or ΣSFR with ΔV (full width at half-maximum for a single Gaussian profile and the difference in velocities for multiple-components velocity profiles), the diameter, the distance to the kinematical centre of the LMC and age of the nebulae. Over most of the LMC ΔV appears to be of the order of 30 km s-1. However, in a few regions the ΔV of the velocity profiles is as large as 50-100 kms-1, corresponding to identified supernova remnants and superbubbles undergoing expansion motions.

  11. Indications for common origin and gravitational interaction in three binary LMC clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kontizas, E.; Kontizas, M.; Michalitsianos, A.

    1993-01-01

    Three close pair clusters of the LMC, NGC 2006/SL 538, NGC 2011 a/b, and NGC 2042 a/b, have been studied in order to establish their binarity. The stellar content in the outer region of each cluster has been investigated by means of low resolution objective UK Schmidt prism spectra, the cores of the clusters have been examined using low resolution integrated IUE spectra, whereas their density profiles and their observed dynamical parameters have been derived by means of star counts. The integrated spectra of their cores and the stellar content of their outer cluster regions have shown a common origin and a very young age (less than 2 x 10 exp 7 yr) for each member of the pairs, whereas their dynamical study has shown that they are gravitationally interacting. Comparing the age of their stellar content with their dynamical and relaxation times, it has been found that these clusters are physically associated and had no time to relax by stellar encounters, no time to merge, and no time to be destroyed by dynamical friction.

  12. Determining the Physical Parameters of Massive Stars in the SMC and LMC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neugent, Kathryn; Massey, P.; Hillier, D. J.

    2010-01-01

    There are currently two main programs used to model the optical spectra of O stars: FASTWIND (Puls et al. 2005) and CMFGEN (Hillier et al. 2003). Both do an adequate job of matching the observed spectra but the modeling has never been done on the same spectra and the results compared. By modeling six stars in the SMC and LMC using CMFGEN that had previously been modeled by Massey et al. (2004, 2005, 2009) using FASTWIND, we were able to make direct comparisons between the results of the two modeling programs. The agreement we have found are usually within the uncertainties of our determination, and both FASTWIND and CMFGEN generally did an exemplary job at fitting the spectra. No systematics have been found in the effective temperatures, although in some individual cases the differences are larger than we expect, as much as 6%. There may be a small (0.1-0.15 dex) systematic difference in the derived surface gravities, with the CMFGEN values larger, and we are investigating possible causes. Additional tests are ongoing and will be described. This work was partially supported by NASA through grant AR-11270 from the Space Telescope Science Institute, and by the National Science Foundation REU grant AST-0453611.

  13. A DETERMINATION OF THE SPIN OF THE BLACK HOLE PRIMARY IN LMC X-1

    SciTech Connect

    Gou Lijun; McClintock, Jeffrey E.; Liu Jifeng; Narayan, Ramesh; Steiner, James F.; Remillard, Ronald A.; Orosz, Jerome A.; Davis, Shane W.; Ebisawa, Ken

    2009-08-20

    The first extragalactic X-ray binary, LMC X-1, was discovered in 1969. In the 1980s, its compact primary was established as the fourth dynamical black hole candidate. Recently, we published accurate values for the mass of the black hole and the orbital inclination angle of the binary system. Building on these results, we have analyzed 53 X-ray spectra obtained by RXTE and, using a selected sample of 18 of these spectra, we have determined the dimensionless spin parameter of the black hole to be a{sub *} = 0.92{sup +0.05}{sub -0.07}. This result takes into account all sources of observational and model-parameter uncertainties. The standard deviation around the mean value of a{sub *} for these 18 X-ray spectra, which were obtained over a span of several years, is only {delta}a{sub *} = 0.02. When we consider our complete sample of 53 RXTE spectra, we find a somewhat higher value of the spin parameter and a larger standard deviation. Finally, we show that our results based on RXTE data are confirmed by our analyses of selected X-ray spectra obtained by the XMM-Newton, BeppoSAX, and Ginga missions.

  14. Discovery of an eclipsing dwarf nova in the ancient nova shell Te 11

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miszalski, Brent; Woudt, P. A.; Littlefair, S. P.; Warner, B.; Boffin, H. M. J.; Corradi, R. L. M.; Jones, D.; Motsoaledi, M.; Rodríguez-Gil, P.; Sabin, L.; Santander-García, M.

    2016-02-01

    We report on the discovery of an eclipsing dwarf nova (DN) inside the peculiar, bilobed nebula Te 11. Modelling of high-speed photometry of the eclipse finds the accreting white dwarf to have a mass 1.18 M⊙ and temperature 13 kK. The donor spectral type of M2.5 results in a distance of 330 pc, colocated with Barnard's loop at the edge of the Orion-Eridanus superbubble. The perplexing morphology and observed bow shock of the slowly expanding nebula may be explained by strong interactions with the dense interstellar medium in this region. We match the DN to the historic nova of 483 CE in Orion and postulate that the nebula is the remnant of this eruption. This connection supports the millennia time-scale of the post-nova transition from high to low mass-transfer rates. Te 11 constitutes an important benchmark system for CV and nova studies as the only eclipsing binary out of just three DNe with nova shells.

  15. Tycho Brahe and the Nova of 1572

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gingerich, O.

    2005-12-01

    The brilliant Nova of 1572 marked the beginning of the end of Aristotelian cosmology and provided the defining moment when the young Tycho Brahe became a professional astronomer. He received more than a ton of gold from the Danish king to build his Uraniborg Observatory. His instruments, the finest produced in the pre-telescopic age, enabled him to establish that both the nova and the Comet of 1577 lay beyond the moon, contrary to Aristotle's teaching. His major attempt to establish the distance to Mars (in order to distinguish between the Ptolemaic and Copernican cosmologies) failed, but left in its wake a magnificently accurate set of data that enabled Kepler to make the greatest advance in celestial mechanics since Copernicus himself.

  16. A Renaissance in Studies of Novae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starrfield, Sumner

    2010-03-01

    Classical and Recurrent Novae (CNe and RNe) outbursts are the most common of the explosions in a galaxy. They have been observed as close as a kpc and as far as M87. In a nova, material is accreted from a Roche-lobe filling star and accumulates on a white dwarf until an explosion occurs. Accreted material is mixed with white dwarf core material at some time during the evolution of the explosion. The mixture is processed through hot hydrogen burning before being ejected into space and analyzing the ejecta allows us to determine the core composition of the white dwarf. CNe are one component in the cycle of Galactic chemical evolution where the ejected metal-enriched gas is a source of nuclei for the ISM. IR observations show that some CNe form multiple types of grains in their ejecta which may have been identified in meteoritic material. Simulations predict, and observations confirm, that there is a phase of X-ray emission from the post-explosion hot white dwarf emitted by the accreted plus core layers that were not initially ejected. The hot photosphere is revealed as the ejection phase ends. We will report on the recent renaissance in studies of RNe and CNe with Swift, Chandra, XMM, RXTE, HST, and Spitzer, as well as recent advances in the theory of the outburst. These new results question some long held beliefs about novae and provided evidence for a possible connection between novae, the Super Soft Binary X-ray sources, and SN Ia. I acknowledge partial support from Chandra, Swift, Spitzer, NASA Theory and the NSF.

  17. Seismic upgrade of the Nova capacitor bank

    SciTech Connect

    Tietbohl, G.L.; Patel, C.S.

    1993-04-05

    The main capacitor bank for the Nova laser system at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory was found to be seismically unsafe after the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake. A method of strengthening the bank was developed, which satisfied the current seismic design criteria and minimized the downtime of the laser system during installation. Before implementation, the design was analyzed by finite element methods and the building was checked for load capacity. The bank is now upgraded to current seismic standards.

  18. 1729-19 Nova Ophiuchi 1994

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattei, Janet A.

    1994-06-01

    Akihiko Tago and Minoru Yamamoto discover an apparent nova in Ophiuchus at mag. 7.0. Position RA 17h 32m 47.56" DEC -19° 17' 41.8". TV Crv is in outburst with current magnitude estimates approximating 13.0. An error was made reporting a bright outburst of UV Per in Alert Notice 186 and should be ignored. The star continues to be bright, however, with estimates approximating 12.5.

  19. THE STAR CLUSTERS OF THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD: STRUCTURAL PARAMETERS

    SciTech Connect

    Werchan, Felicia; Zaritsky, Dennis E-mail: dzaritsky@as.arizona.edu

    2011-08-15

    We present and analyze the radial luminosity profiles of a sample of 1066 stellar clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). By design, this study closely follows the compilation by Hill and Zaritsky of the structural parameters of stellar clusters in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC). Both King and Elson-Fall-Freeman model profiles are fit to V-band surface brightness profiles measured from the Magellanic Cloud Photometric Survey images. We tabulate the concentration, central surface brightness, tidal radii, 90% enclosed luminosity radii (r{sub 90}), and local background luminosity density. Over two-thirds of the clusters in the sample are adequately fit by one or both of these models. One notable and systematic exception, as in the SMC, is those clusters that lack a central brightness concentration, the 'ring' clusters. While the bulk properties of the clusters are similar between the LMC and SMC populations, we find that the LMC lacks clusters that are as large, either in terms of core radii or r{sub 90}, as the largest in the SMC, perhaps a signature of larger tidal stresses in the LMC.

  20. HI clouds in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S.

    We present HI and Halpha surveys of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) with the Australia Telescope Compact Array, the Parkes multibeam receiver, and the 16 inch optical telescope at the Siding Spring Observatory (SSO). Using a Fourier-plane technique, we have merged both ATCA and Parkes observations, providing an accurate set of images of the LMC sensitive to structure on scales of 9 pc upward. The spatial dynamic range (2.8 orders of magnitude), velocity resolution (1.649 km/sec per channel) allow for studies of phenomena ranging from the galaxy-wide interaction of the LMC with its close neighbors to the small-scale injection of energy from supernovae and stellar associations into the ISM of the LMC. On the large scale, the HI disk appears to be remarkably symmetric and to have a well-organized and orderly, if somewhat complex, rotational field. The bulk of the HI resides in a disk of 7.3 kpc in diameter. The mass of disk component of the LMC is 2.5 x10^9 M[sun ]and the mass within a radius of 4 kpc is about 3.5 x 10^9 M[sun ]. The structure of the neutral atomic ISM in the LMC is dominated by HI filaments combined with numerous shell, holes, and HI clouds. 23 HI supergiant shells and 103 giant shells are catalogued. Supergiant shells are defined as those regions whose extent is much larger than the HI scale height. The size distribution of HI shells follows a crude power law, N(log R) =AR^-1.5 . The HI clouds have been identified by defining a cloud to be an object composed of all pixels in right ascension, declination, and velocity that are connected and that lie above the threshold brightness temperature. The size spectrum of HI clouds is similar to the typical size spectrum of holes and shells in the HI distribution. The relationship between the size and the velocity dispersion of HI cloud is found to have the power law relationship so called as Larson's scaling law. A slope of the power law varies from 1.2 to 1.6. The virial masses of HI clouds range from 10

  1. Dwarf Nova Outbursts with Magnetorotational Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coleman, M. S. B.; Kotko, I.; Blaes, O.; Lasota, J.-P.; Hirose, S.

    2016-08-01

    The phenomenological Disc Instability Model has been successful in reproducing the observed light curves of dwarf nova outbursts by invoking an enhanced Shakura-Sunyaev α parameter ˜0.1 - 0.2 in outburst compared to a low value ˜0.01 in quiescence. Recent thermodynamically consistent simulations of magnetorotational (MRI) turbulence with appropriate opacities and equation of state for dwarf nova accretion discs have found that thermal convection enhances α in discs in outburst, but only near the hydrogen ionization transition. At higher temperatures, convection no longer exists and α returns to the low value comparable to that in quiescence. In order to check whether this enhancement near the hydrogen ionization transition is sufficient to reproduce observed light curves, we incorporate this MRI-based variation in α into the Disc Instability Model, as well as simulation-based models of turbulent dissipation and convective transport. These MRI-based models can successfully reproduce observed outburst and quiescence durations, as well as outburst amplitudes, albeit with different parameters from the standard Disc Instability Models. The MRI-based model lightcurves exhibit reflares in the decay from outburst, which are not generally observed in dwarf novae. However, we highlight the problematic aspects of the quiescence physics in the Disc Instability Model and MRI simulations that are responsible for this behavior.

  2. Dwarf nova outbursts with magnetorotational turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coleman, M. S. B.; Kotko, I.; Blaes, O.; Lasota, J.-P.; Hirose, S.

    2016-11-01

    The phenomenological disc instability model has been successful in reproducing the observed light curves of dwarf nova outbursts by invoking an enhanced Shakura-Sunyaev α parameter ˜0.1-0.2 in outburst compared to a low value ˜0.01 in quiescence. Recent thermodynamically consistent simulations of magnetorotational instability (MRI) turbulence with appropriate opacities and equation of state for dwarf nova accretion discs have found that thermal convection enhances α in discs in outburst, but only near the hydrogen ionization transition. At higher temperatures, convection no longer exists and α returns to the low value comparable to that in quiescence. In order to check whether this enhancement near the hydrogen ionization transition is sufficient to reproduce observed light curves, we incorporate this MRI-based variation in α into the disc instability model, as well as simulation-based models of turbulent dissipation and convective transport. These MRI-based models can successfully reproduce observed outburst and quiescence durations, as well as outburst amplitudes, albeit with different parameters from the standard disc instability models. The MRI-based model light curves exhibit reflares in the decay from outburst, which are not generally observed in dwarf novae. However, we highlight the problematic aspects of the quiescence physics in the disc instability model and MRI simulations that are responsible for this behaviour.

  3. Nova in Sagittarius (V5586 Sgr = Nova Sgr 2010 No. 2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waagen, Elizabeth O.

    2010-04-01

    The discovery is announced of Nova Sgr 2010 No. 2 = V5586 Sgr by Koichi Nishiyama (Kurume, Japan) and Fujio Kabashima (Miyaki, Japan) on 2010 Apr. 23.782 UT at unfiltered CCD magnitude 11.2. Spectra by L. A. Helton et al. on Apr. 25.4 UT confirm that V5586 Sgr is a post-maximum classical nova subjected to an exceptionally high degree of extinction. The red spectrum is similar to that of Nova Pup 1991 (V351 Pup; Williams et al. 1994, Ap.J. Suppl. 90, 297). Initially announced in CBET 2261 (Daniel W. E. Green, ed.), with additional information in CBET 2264 (Daniel W. E. Green, ed.). Finder charts with sequence may be created using the AAVSO Variable Star Plotter (http://www.aavso.org/vsp). Observations should be submitted to the AAVSO International Database. See full Alert Notice for more details and observations.

  4. Isospin Mixing Reveals 30P (p ,γ ) 31S Resonance Influencing Nova Nucleosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, M. B.; Wrede, C.; Brown, B. A.; Liddick, S. N.; Pérez-Loureiro, D.; Bardayan, D. W.; Chen, A. A.; Chipps, K. A.; Fry, C.; Glassman, B. E.; Langer, C.; Larson, N. R.; McNeice, E. I.; Meisel, Z.; Ong, W.; O'Malley, P. D.; Pain, S. D.; Prokop, C. J.; Schatz, H.; Schwartz, S. B.; Suchyta, S.; Thompson, P.; Walters, M.; Xu, X.

    2016-03-01

    The thermonuclear 30P (p ,γ ) 31S reaction rate is critical for modeling the final elemental and isotopic abundances of ONe nova nucleosynthesis, which affect the calibration of proposed nova thermometers and the identification of presolar nova grains, respectively. Unfortunately, the rate of this reaction is essentially unconstrained experimentally, because the strengths of key 31 proton capture resonance states are not known, largely due to uncertainties in their spins and parities. Using the β decay of 31Cl, we have observed the β -delayed γ decay of a 31S state at Ex=6390.2 (7 ) keV , with a 39P (p ,γ )31S resonance energy of Er=259.3 (8 ) keV , in the middle of the 30P (p ,γ )31S Gamow window for peak nova temperatures. This state exhibits isospin mixing with the nearby isobaric analog state at Ex=6279.0 (6 ) keV , giving it an unambiguous spin and parity of 3 /2+ and making it an important l =0 resonance for proton capture on 30P 30.

  5. Isospin mixing reveals 30P(p, γ)31S resonance influencing nova nucleosynthesis

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Bennett, M. B.; Wrede, C.; Brown, B. A.; Liddick, S. N.; Perez-Loureiro, D.; Bardayan, D. W.; Chen, A. A.; Chipps, K. A.; Fry, C.; Glassman, B. E.; et al

    2016-03-08

    Here, the thermonuclear 30P(p, γ)31S reaction rate is critical for modeling the final elemental and isotopic abundances of ONe nova nucleosynthesis, which affect the calibration of proposed nova thermometers and the identification of presolar nova grains, respectively. Unfortunately, the rate of this reaction is essentially unconstrained experimentally, because the strengths of key 31S proton capture resonance states are not known, largely due to uncertainties in their spins and parities. Using the β decay of 31Cl, we have observed the β-delayed γ decay of a 31S state at Ex = 6390.2(7) keV, with a 30P(p, γ)31S resonance energy of Er =more » 259.3(8) keV, in the middle of the 30P(p, γ)31S Gamow window for peak nova temperatures. This state exhibits isospin mixing with the nearby isobaric analog state at Ex = 6279.0(6) keV, giving it an unambiguous spin and parity of 3/2+ and making it an important l = 0 resonance for proton capture on 30P.« less

  6. Isospin Mixing Reveals ^{30}P(p,γ)^{31}S Resonance Influencing Nova Nucleosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Bennett, M B; Wrede, C; Brown, B A; Liddick, S N; Pérez-Loureiro, D; Bardayan, D W; Chen, A A; Chipps, K A; Fry, C; Glassman, B E; Langer, C; Larson, N R; McNeice, E I; Meisel, Z; Ong, W; O'Malley, P D; Pain, S D; Prokop, C J; Schatz, H; Schwartz, S B; Suchyta, S; Thompson, P; Walters, M; Xu, X

    2016-03-11

    The thermonuclear ^{30}P(p,γ)^{31}S reaction rate is critical for modeling the final elemental and isotopic abundances of ONe nova nucleosynthesis, which affect the calibration of proposed nova thermometers and the identification of presolar nova grains, respectively. Unfortunately, the rate of this reaction is essentially unconstrained experimentally, because the strengths of key ^{31}S proton capture resonance states are not known, largely due to uncertainties in their spins and parities. Using the β decay of ^{31}Cl, we have observed the β-delayed γ decay of a ^{31}S state at E_{x}=6390.2(7)  keV, with a ^{30}P(p,γ)^{31}S resonance energy of E_{r}=259.3(8)  keV, in the middle of the ^{30}P(p,γ)^{31}S Gamow window for peak nova temperatures. This state exhibits isospin mixing with the nearby isobaric analog state at E_{x}=6279.0(6)  keV, giving it an unambiguous spin and parity of 3/2^{+} and making it an important l=0 resonance for proton capture on ^{30}P. PMID:27015475

  7. The Shape of Long Outbursts in U Gem Type Dwarf Novae from AAVSO Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cannizzo, John K.

    2012-01-01

    We search the American Association of Variable Star Observers (AAVSO) archives of the two best studied dwarf novae in an attempt to find light curves for long out bursts that are extremely well-characterized. The systems are U Gem and S8 Cyg. Our goal is to search for embedded precursors such as those that have been found recently in the high fidelity Kepler data for superoutbursts of some members of the 8U UMa subclass of dwarf novae. For the vast majority of AAV80 data, the combination of low data cadence and large errors associated with individual measurements precludes one from making any strong statement about the shape of the long outbursts. However, for a small number of outbursts, extensive long term monitoring with digital photometry yields high fidelity light curves. We report the finding of embedded precursors in two of three candidate long outbursts. This reinforces van Paradijs' finding that long outbursts in dwarf novae above the period gap and superoutbursts in systems below the period gap constitute a unified class. The thermal-tidal instability to account for superoutbursts in the SU UMa stars predicts embedded precursors only for short orbital period dwarf novae, therefore the presence of embedded precursors in long orbital period systems - U Gem and SS Cyg - argues for a more general mechanism to explain long outbursts.

  8. VLT/ISAAC infrared spectroscopy of embedded high-mass YSOs in the Large Magellanic Cloud: Methanol and the 3.47 μm band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimonishi, T.; Dartois, E.; Onaka, T.; Boulanger, F.

    2016-01-01

    Aims: This study aims to elucidate a possible link between chemical properties of ices in star-forming regions and environmental characteristics (particularly metallicity) of the host galaxy. The Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) is an excellent target to study properties of interstellar and circumstellar medium in a different galactic environment thanks to its proximity and low metallicity. Methods: We performed near-infrared, L-band spectroscopic observations toward embedded high-mass young stellar objects (YSOs) in the LMC with the Infrared Spectrometer And Array Camera (ISAAC) at the Very Large Telescope. The 3.2-3.7 μm spectral region, which is accessible from ground-based telescopes, is important for ice studies, since various C-H stretching vibrations of carbon bearing species fall in this region. Results: We obtained medium-resolution (R ~ 500) spectra in the 3-4 μm range for nine high-mass YSOs in the LMC. Additionally, we analyzed archival ISAAC data of two LMC YSOs. We detected absorption bands due to solid H2O and CH3OH as well as the 3.47 μm absorption band. The properties of these bands are investigated based on comparisons with Galactic embedded sources. The 3.53 μm CH3OH ice absorption band for the LMC YSOs is found to be absent or very weak compared to that seen toward Galactic sources. The absorption band is weakly detected for two out of eleven objects. We estimate the abundance of the CH3OH ice, which suggests that solid CH3OH is less abundant for high-mass YSOs in the LMC than those in our Galaxy. The 3.47 μm absorption band is detected toward six out of eleven LMC YSOs. We found that the 3.47 μm band and the H2O ice band correlate similarly between the LMC and Galactic samples, but the LMC sources seem to require a slightly higher H2O ice threshold for the appearance of the 3.47 μm band. For the LMC sources with relatively large H2O ice optical depths, we found that the strength ratio of the 3.47 μm band relative to the water ice band is

  9. NovaNet Student Outcomes, 2001-2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harlow, Kristin; Baenen, Nancy

    NovaNet is an individualized, computer-based instruction program that is used in the Wake County Public School System (WCPSS), North Carolina, for high school course credit, remediation, and enrichment. NovaNet was first used in WCPSS in 1996, and in 1999 WCPSS received a 3-year federal grant to expand the use of NovaNET to all high schools. In…

  10. Hohlraum drive and implosion experiments on Nova. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Kilkenny, J.D.; Suter, L.J.; Cable, M.D.

    1994-09-08

    Experiments on Nova have demonstrated hohlraum radiation temperatures up to 300 eV and in lower temperature experiments reproducible time integrated symmetry to 1--2%. Detailed 2-D LASNEX simulations satisfactorily reproduce Nova`s drive and symmetry scaling data bases. Hohlraums has been used for implosion experiments achieving convergence ratios (initial capsule radius/final fuel radius) up to 24 with high density glass surrounding a hot gas fill.

  11. Optical and EUV light curves of dwarf nova outbursts

    SciTech Connect

    Mauche, C W; Mattei, J A; Bateson, F M

    2000-11-15

    We combine AAVSO and VSS/RASNZ optical and Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer EUV light curves of dwarf novae in outburst to place constraints on the nature of dwarf nova outbursts. From the observed optical-EUV time delays of {approx} 0.75-1.5 days, we show that the propagation velocity of the dwarf nova instability heating wave is {approx} 3 km s{sup -1}.

  12. The UBV Color Evolution of Classical Novae. I. Nova-giant Sequence in the Color-Color Diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hachisu, Izumi; Kato, Mariko

    2014-04-01

    We identified a general course of classical nova outbursts in the B - V versus U - B color-color diagram. It is reported that novae show spectra similar to those of A-F supergiants near optical light maximum. However, they do not follow the supergiant sequence in the color-color diagram, neither the blackbody nor the main-sequence sequence. Instead, we found that novae evolve along a new sequence in the pre-maximum and near-maximum phases, which we call "the nova-giant sequence." This sequence is parallel to but Δ(U - B) ≈ -0.2 mag bluer than the supergiant sequence. This is because the mass of a nova envelope is much (~10-4 times) less than that of a normal supergiant. After optical maximum, its color quickly evolves back blueward along the same nova-giant sequence and reaches the point of free-free emission (B - V = -0.03, U - B = -0.97), which coincides with the intersection of the blackbody sequence and the nova-giant sequence, and remains there for a while. Then the color evolves leftward (blueward in B - V but almost constant in U - B), owing mainly to the development of strong emission lines. This is the general course of nova outbursts in the color-color diagram, which was deduced from eight well-observed novae in various speed classes. For a nova with unknown extinction, we can determine a reliable value of the color excess by matching the observed track of the target nova with this general course. This is a new and convenient method for obtaining the color excesses of classical novae. Using this method, we redetermined the color excesses of 20 well-observed novae. The obtained color excesses are in reasonable agreement with the previous results, which in turn support the idea of our general track of nova outbursts. Additionally, we estimated the absolute V magnitudes of about 30 novae using a method for time-stretching nova light curves to analyze the distance-reddening relations of the novae.

  13. The UBV color evolution of classical novae. I. Nova-giant sequence in the color-color diagram

    SciTech Connect

    Hachisu, Izumi; Kato, Mariko E-mail: mariko@educ.cc.keio.ac.jp

    2014-04-20

    We identified a general course of classical nova outbursts in the B – V versus U – B color-color diagram. It is reported that novae show spectra similar to those of A-F supergiants near optical light maximum. However, they do not follow the supergiant sequence in the color-color diagram, neither the blackbody nor the main-sequence sequence. Instead, we found that novae evolve along a new sequence in the pre-maximum and near-maximum phases, which we call 'the nova-giant sequence'. This sequence is parallel to but Δ(U – B) ≈ –0.2 mag bluer than the supergiant sequence. This is because the mass of a nova envelope is much (∼10{sup –4} times) less than that of a normal supergiant. After optical maximum, its color quickly evolves back blueward along the same nova-giant sequence and reaches the point of free-free emission (B – V = –0.03, U – B = –0.97), which coincides with the intersection of the blackbody sequence and the nova-giant sequence, and remains there for a while. Then the color evolves leftward (blueward in B – V but almost constant in U – B), owing mainly to the development of strong emission lines. This is the general course of nova outbursts in the color-color diagram, which was deduced from eight well-observed novae in various speed classes. For a nova with unknown extinction, we can determine a reliable value of the color excess by matching the observed track of the target nova with this general course. This is a new and convenient method for obtaining the color excesses of classical novae. Using this method, we redetermined the color excesses of 20 well-observed novae. The obtained color excesses are in reasonable agreement with the previous results, which in turn support the idea of our general track of nova outbursts. Additionally, we estimated the absolute V magnitudes of about 30 novae using a method for time-stretching nova light curves to analyze the distance-reddening relations of the novae.

  14. NOVA-NREL Optimal Vehicle Acquisition Analysis (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Blakley, H.

    2011-03-01

    Federal fleet managers face unique challenges in accomplishing their mission - meeting agency transportation needs while complying with Federal goals and mandates. Included in these challenges are a variety of statutory requirements, executive orders, and internal goals and objectives that typically focus on petroleum consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reductions, alternative fuel vehicle (AFV) acquisitions, and alternative fuel use increases. Given the large number of mandates affecting Federal fleets and the challenges faced by all fleet managers in executing day-to-day operations, a primary challenge for agencies and other organizations is ensuring that they are as efficient as possible in using constrained fleet budgets. An NREL Optimal Vehicle Acquisition (NOVA) analysis makes use of a mathematical model with a variety of fleet-related data to create an optimal vehicle acquisition strategy for a given goal, such as petroleum or GHG reduction. The analysis can helps fleets develop a vehicle acquisition strategy that maximizes petroleum and greenhouse gas reductions.

  15. Target plane imaging system for the Nova laser

    SciTech Connect

    Swift, C.D.; Bliss, E.S.; Jones, W.A.; Reeves, R.J.; Seppala, L.G.; Shelton, R.T.; VanArsdall, P.J.

    1985-12-12

    The Nova laser, in operation since December 1984, is capable of irradiating targets with light at 1.05 ..mu..m, 0.53 ..mu..m, and 0.35 ..mu..m. Correct alignment of these harmonic beams uses a system called a target plane imager (TPI). It is a large microscope (four meters long, weighing one thousand kilograms) that relays images from the target chamber center to a video optics module located on the outside of the chamber. Several modes of operation are possible including: near-field viewing and far-field viewing at three magnifications and three wavelengths. In addition, the entire instrument can be scanned in X,Y,Z to examine various planes near chamber center. Performance of this system and its computer controls will be described.

  16. Quiescent accretion disks in black hole X-ray novae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orosz, Jerome A.; Bailyn, Charles D.; Remillard, Ronald A.; Mcclintock, Jeffrey E.; Foltz, Craig B.

    1994-01-01

    We present detailed time-resolved spectroscopy of the Balmer emission lines from two black hole binary systems in quiescence, A0620-00 and Nova Muscae 1991. We find extraordinary similarities between the two systems. There are 30-40 km/s velocity variations of the emission lines over the orbital period, the phases of which are not aligned with the expected phase of the motion of the compact primary. Detailed modeling of both systems is complicated by variable hot spot components, regions of optical thickness, and intermittent excess emission in the blue line wings of the H-alpha lines. Both sources also display low velocities at the outer edge of the accretion disk, implying a large primary Roche lobe and extreme mass ratios. These complications suggest that although simple optically thin, Keplerian alpha-disk models provide a useful parameterization of emission lines from these systems, the straightforward physical models they imply should be treated with great caution.

  17. Investigation of the Nebular Remnants of Novae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, Valério A. R. M.

    2011-01-01

    Classical and recurrent nova outbursts occur on the surface of a white dwarf in a close binary system. It is widely established that the outburst is due to a thermonuclear runaway. Their study provides a real-time laboratory for the understanding of a wide range of astrophysical phenomena. These include for example, mass transfer in close binary systems, nuclear powered outbursts, dust formation, mass loss from red giants, and many others. Recurrent novae have also been suggested as the progenitors of Type Ia Supernovae. This thesis concentrates on investigating the nebular remnants of novae by studying both resolved imaging (where available) and spectroscopic evolution and combining this with detailed modelling. Such studies have wider implications for example in our understanding of the shaping of proto-Planetary Nebulae. Here, using a morpho-kinematical code, the true 3D geometry, from which information such as the remnant's inclination angle and expansion velocity can be derived, of the recurrent nova RS Ophiuchi and classical novae V2491 Cygni, V2672 Ophiuchi and KT Eridani are established and related to other characteristics of each system. Each of the classical novae have also been suggested as a recurrent nova candidate. Furthermore, several enhancements to the modelling code were implemented prompted by the work described in this thesis. The RS Oph work entailed detailed modelling of Hubble Space Telescope resolved imaging combined with ground-based spectroscopic observations. Here it was shown that the bipolar morphology of RS Oph consisted of two distinct components with an outer dumbbell and an inner hour glass overdensity, which were required to reproduce both the observed images and spectra. This morphology was suggested to arise due to the interaction between the pre-existing anisotropic red-giant wind and the ejecta. The observed asymmetry in the ACS/HRC image was shown to be due to the finite width and offset from the [OIII] line's rest wavelength

  18. A polarization study of dwarf novae and nova-like objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szkody, P.; Michalsky, J. J.; Stokes, G. M.

    1982-02-01

    Linear polarization measurements for four dwarf novae (SS Cyg, RX And, U Gem, and AH Her) and six nova-like variables (AE Aqr, V426 Oph, UX UMa, CI Cyg, EZ Peg, and TT Ari) are obtained to study variability associated with the outburst cycle. No polarization changes are apparent for SS Cyg or RX And throughout their outburst cycles, but an appreciable difference is noted for AE Aqr. RX And reveals evidence for variability on orbital time scales. All four systems studied at various wavelengths show an unusual wavelength dependence of the polarization.

  19. Directional solidification of large cross-section nickel-base superalloy castings via liquid-metal cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliott, Andrew J.

    The drive for higher efficiency in very large industrial gas turbines (IGTs) used in power generation applications has led to the need for directional solidification of large cross-section components, such as turbine blades, used in the hot gas path sections of the IGTs. The Bridgman directional solidification technique, which is currently used to produce these components, has been optimized for much smaller aero-engine components. The scale-up of this technique to produce large parts has resulted in numerous problems, and consequently low casting yield, which can all be related to the limited cooling capability of the Bridgman process. In this dissertation, a higher cooling efficiency process, liquid-metal cooling (LMC) using Sn as the cooling medium, has been evaluated for improved capability to cast large cross-section components. A series of castings were made for direct comparison using both the conventional Bridgman and the high thermal gradient LMC processes. Casting conditions were selected to simulate the state of the art for the Bridgman method and to assess the limits of casting with the less familiar LMC method. The experiments were evaluated through thermocouple analyses of casting conditions and post-casting analyses of grain defects, microstructural features, and mechanical behavior. Additionally, a finite element model of the solidification process was developed to further elucidate casting conditions. The casting parameters and elements of the LMC process that had the greatest influence on casting conditions were determined. Results indicated that the LMC process is capable of significantly enhancing cooling efficiency during directional solidification of large cross-section components. The enhanced cooling allowed much faster solidification withdrawal rates and resulted in substantially refined cast microstructure. The LMC process eliminated freckle-type defects in all cases and considerably reduced other casting defects under optimal conditions

  20. Large Magellanic Cloud self-lensing for OGLE-II microlensing observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calchi Novati, S.; Mancini, L.; Scarpetta, G.; Wyrzykowski, Ł.

    2009-12-01

    In the framework of microlensing searches towards the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), we discuss the results presented by the Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment (OGLE) collaboration for their OGLE-II campaign (Wyrzykowski et al). We evaluate the optical depth, the duration and the expected rate of events for the different possible lens populations: both luminous, dominated by the LMC self-lensing, and `dark', the would be compact halo objects (massive compact halo objects) belonging to either the Galactic or the LMC halo. The OGLE-II observational results, two microlensing candidate events located in the LMC bar region with duration of 24.2 and 57.2 days, compare well with the expected signal from the luminous lens populations: nexp = 1.5, with typical duration, for LMC self-lensing, of about 50 days. Because of the small statistics at disposal, however, the conclusions that can be drawn as for the halo mass fraction, f, in the form of compact halo objects are not too severe. By means of a likelihood analysis we find an upper limit for f, at 95 per cent confidence level, of about 15 per cent in the mass range (10-2-10-1)Msolar and 26 per cent for 0.5Msolar.

  1. Distribution of hot stars and hydrogen in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    SciTech Connect

    Page, T.; Carruthers, G.R.

    1981-01-01

    Imagery of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), in the wavelength ranges 1050 to 1600 A and 1250 to 1600 A, was obtained by the S201 far ultraviolet camera during the Apollo 16 mission. These images were reduced to absolute far-UV intensity distributions over the area of the LMC, with 3 to 5 arc min angular resolution. Comparison of these far-UV measurements in the LMC with H sub alpha and 21 cm surveys reveals that interstellar hydrogen in the LMC is often concentrated in 100 pc clouds within 500 pc clouds. Furthermore, at least 25 associations of O-B stars in the LMC are outside the interstellar hydrogen clouds four of them appear to be on the far side. Far-UV and mid-UV spectra were obtained of stars in 12 of these associations, using the International Ultraviolet Explorer. Equivalent widths of L alpha and six other lines, and relative intensities of the continuum at seven wavelength from 1300 A to 2900 A, were measured. These spectra are also discussed.

  2. Distribution of hot stars and hydrogen in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Page, T.; Carruthers, G. R.

    1981-01-01

    Imagery of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), in the wavelength ranges 1050 to 1600 A and 1250 to 1600 A, was obtained by the S201 far ultraviolet camera during the Apollo 16 mission. These images were reduced to absolute far-UV intensity distributions over the area of the LMC, with 3 to 5 arc min angular resolution. Comparison of these far-UV measurements in the LMC with H sub alpha and 21 cm surveys reveals that interstellar hydrogen in the LMC is often concentrated in 100 pc clouds within 500 pc clouds. Furthermore, at least 25 associations of O-B stars in the LMC are outside the interstellar hydrogen clouds; four of them appear to be on the far side. Far-UV and mid-UV spectra were obtained of stars in 12 of these associations, using the International Ultraviolet Explorer. Equivalent widths of L alpha and six other lines, and relative intensities of the continuum at seven wavelength from 1300 A to 2900 A, were measured. These spectra are also discussed.

  3. A Chandra Study of the Interstellar Metallicity in the Large Magellanic Cloud Using Supernova Remnants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schenck, Andrew; Park, Sangwook; Post, Seth

    2016-06-01

    We report on the results from our measurements of the interstellar medium (ISM) abundances for the elements O, Ne, Mg, Si, and Fe in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). We used the archival Chandra data for sixteen supernova remnants (SNRs) in the LMC (0453-68.5, DEM L71, N23, 0519-69.0, N49B, N132D, N49, N206, 0534-69.9, DEM L238, N63A, Honeycomb, N157B, 0540-69.3, DEM L316B, and 0548-70.4). Our results represent LMC abundance measurements based on the modern Chandra data. We place tight constraints on our measured elemental abundances and find lower abundances than previous measurements by Hughes et al. (by a factor of approximately two on average except for Si) who utilized similar methods based on a smaller sample of ASCA data of SNRs in the LMC. We discuss the origins of the discrepancy between our Chandra and the previous ASCA measurements. We also discuss our results in comparison with the LMC abundance measurements in the literature.

  4. Recent progress in understanding the eruptions of classical novae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shara, Michael M.

    1988-01-01

    Dramatic progress has occurred in the last two decades in understanding the physical processes and events leading up to, and transpiring during the eruption of a classical nova. The mechanism whereby a white dwarf accreting hydrogen-rich matter from a low-mass main-sequence companion produces a nova eruption has been understood since 1970. The mass-transferring binary stellar configuration leads inexorably to thermonuclear runaways detected at distances of megaparsecs. Summarized here are the efforts of many researchers in understanding the physical processes which generate nova eruptions; the effects upon nova eruptions of different binary-system parameters (e.g., chemical composition or mass of the white dwarf, different mass accretion rates); the possible metamorphosis from dwarf to classical novae and back again; and observational diagnostics of novae, including x ray and gamma ray emission, and the characteristics and distributions of novae in globular clusters and in extragalactic systems. While the thermonuclear-runaway model remains the successful cornerstone of nova simulation, it is now clear that a wide variety of physical processes, and three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations, will be needed to explain the rich spectrum of behavior observed in erupting novae.

  5. Recent progress in understanding the eruptions of classical novae

    SciTech Connect

    Shara, M.M.

    1988-10-01

    Dramatic progress has occurred in the last two decades in understanding the physical processes and events leading up to, and transpiring during the eruption of a classical nova. The mechanism whereby a white dwarf accreting hydrogen-rich matter from a low-mass main-sequence companion produces a nova eruption has been understood since 1970. The mass-transferring binary stellar configuration leads inexorably to thermonuclear runaways detected at distances of megaparsecs. Summarized here are the efforts of many researchers in understanding the physical processes which generate nova eruptions; the effects upon nova eruptions of different binary-system parameters (e.g., chemical composition or mass of the white dwarf, different mass accretion rates); the possible metamorphosis from dwarf to classical novae and back again; and observational diagnostics of novae, including x ray and gamma ray emission, and the characteristics and distributions of novae in globular clusters and in extragalactic systems. While the thermonuclear-runaway model remains the successful cornerstone of nova simulation, it is now clear that a wide variety of physical processes, and three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations, will be needed to explain the rich spectrum of behavior observed in erupting novae.

  6. Time-Resolved FUSE Spectroscopy of the LMC WC + O Binaries Br 22 and Br 32

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boisvert, Philippe; Marchenko, Sergey V.; St-Louis, Nicole; Moffat, Anthony F. J.

    2008-08-01

    Using the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer satellite, we obtained series of spectra for two of the three known WC + O binaries in the LMC, Br 22, and Br 32 (HD 36521). Compared to Br 22, we detect a higher ratio of C IV to He II lines in Br 32, which could indicate a more advanced evolutionary stage for the latter. The orbit of the O star in Br 32 has been determined from its P V absorption lines. We find that continuum fluxes in both systems are substantially diluted by a third-light source. The maximum extension of the black absorption troughs in P Cygni profiles provides the terminal velocities of the WC winds: 3775 +/- 125 km s-1 for Br 22 and 4400 +/- 150 km s-1 for Br 32. From the phase-dependent displacements of the blue absorption edges of prominent emission lines we estimate the half-opening angles of the wind-wind collision zones and their Coriolis deflections. In both binaries we fitted, via iterative procedure, the phase-dependent changes in the O VI λ1032-1037 and C III λ1175 profiles as a function of the wind, stellar, and orbital parameters. This allowed us to isolate the excess emission produced in the wind-wind collision zone and reproduce profile changes caused by atmospheric eclipses. A strong extra emission component is observed in Br 22 (P = 14.9 days), while it is negligible in Br 32 (P = 1.9 days). Based on observations made with the NASA-CNES-CSA Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE). FUSE is operated for NASA by The Johns Hopkins University under NASA contract NAS5-32985.

  7. The Distance to the Large Magellanic Cloud

    SciTech Connect

    Popowski, P

    2000-01-31

    The author demonstrates that the two unexpected results in the local Universe: anomalous intrinsic (V--I){sub 0} colors of RR Lyrae stars and clump giants in the Galactic center, and very short distances to Magellanic Clouds inferred from clump giants, can be at least partially resolved with a modified coefficient of selective extinction A{sub V}/E(V--I). With this modification, the author found a new clump-giant distance modulus to the Large Magellanic Cloud, {mu}{sub LMC} = 18.27 {+-} 0.07, which is 0.09 larger than the Udalski (1998b) result. When distance estimates from the red clump, RR Lyrae stars and the eclipsing binary HV2274 are combined, one obtains {mu}{sub LMC} = 18.31 {+-} 0.04 (internal).

  8. Spectroscopy and photometry of X Ser (Nova Ser 1903) during its current DN stunted outburst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munari, U.; Dallaporta, S.

    2016-09-01

    The old nova X Ser (Nova Ser 1903) is known to display stunted dwarf-nova outbursts (Honeycutt et al. 1998, AJ 115, 2527), for which multiband photometry - and spectroscopy in particular - seem acutely rare.

  9. Near-infrared studies during maximum and early decline of Nova Cephei 2014 and Nova Scorpii 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, Mudit K.; Ashok, N. M.; Banerjee, D. P. K.; Sand, D.

    2015-12-01

    We present multiepoch near-infrared photospectroscopic observations of Nova Cephei 2014 and Nova Scorpii 2015, discovered in outburst on 2014 March 8.79 UT and 2015 February 11.84 UT, respectively. Nova Cep 2014 shows the conventional NIR characteristics of a Fe II class nova characterized by strong C I, H I and O I lines, whereas Nova Sco 2015 is shown to belong to the He/N class with strong He I, H I and O I emission lines. The highlight of the results consists in demonstrating that Nova Sco 2015 is a symbiotic system containing a giant secondary. Leaving aside the T CrB class of recurrent novae, all of which have giant donors, Nova Sco 2015 is shown to be only the third classical nova to be found with a giant secondary. The evidence for the symbiotic nature is threefold; first is the presence of a strong decelerative shock accompanying the passage of the nova's ejecta through the giant's wind, second is the H α excess seen from the system and third is the spectral energy distribution of the secondary in quiescence typical of a cool late-type giant. The evolution of the strength and shape of the emission line profiles shows that the ejecta velocity follows a power-law decay with time (t-1.13±0.17). A Case B recombination analysis of the H I Brackett lines shows that these lines are affected by optical depth effects for both the novae. Using this analysis, we make estimates for both the novae of the emission measure n_e^2L, the electron density ne and the mass of the ejecta.

  10. ON THE INTERPRETATION OF RECENT PROPER MOTION DATA FOR THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD

    SciTech Connect

    Bekki, Kenji

    2011-03-20

    Recent observational studies using the Hubble Space Telescope have derived the center-of-mass proper motion (CMPM) of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). Although these studies carefully treated both rotation and perspective effects in deriving the proper motion (PM) for each of the sampled fields, they did not consider the effects of local random motion in the derivation. This means that the average PM of the fields (i.e., the observed CMPM) could significantly deviate from the true CMPM, because the effect of local random motion cannot be close to zero in making the average PM for the small number of fields ({approx}10). We discuss how significantly the observationally derived CMPM can deviate from the true CMPM by applying the same method as used in the observations for a dynamical model of the LMC with a known true CMPM. We find that the deviation can be as large as {approx}50 km s{sup -1} ({approx}0.21 mas yr{sup -1}), if the LMC has a thick disk and a maximum circular velocity of {approx}120 km s{sup -1}. We also find that the deviation depends both on the total number of sampled fields and on the structure and kinematics of the LMC. We therefore suggest that there is a possibility that the observed CMPM of the LMC deviates from the true one to some extent. We also show that a simple mean of PM for a large number of LMC fields ({approx}1000) can be much closer to the true CMPM.

  11. Beacons in the Dark: Using Novae and Supernovae to Detect Dwarf Galaxies in the Local Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conroy, Charlie; Bullock, James S.

    2015-05-01

    We propose that luminous transients, including novae and supernovae (SNe), can be used to detect the faintest galaxies in the universe. Beyond a few megaparsecs, dwarf galaxies with stellar masses ≲ {{10}6} {{M}⊙ } will likely be too faint and/or too low in surface brightness to be directly detected in upcoming large area ground-based photometric surveys. However, single-epoch Large Synoptic Survey Telescope photometry will be able to detect novae to distances of ˜30 Mpc and SNe to gigaparsec-scale distances. Depending on the form of the stellar mass-halo mass relation and the underlying star formation histories of low-mass dwarfs, the expected nova rates will be a few to ˜100 yr-1 and the expected SN rates (including both type Ia and core-collapse) will be ˜ {{10}2}-{{10}4} within the observable (4π sr) volume. The transient rate associated with intrahalo stars will be comparably large, but these transients will be located close to bright galaxies, in contrast to the dwarfs, which should trace the underlying large-scale structure of the cosmic web. Aggressive follow-up of hostless transients has the potential to uncover the predicted enormous population of low-mass field dwarf galaxies.

  12. Serendipitous discovery of a dwarf Nova in the Kepler field near the G dwarf KIC 5438845

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Alexander; Ayres, Thomas R.; Neff, James E.; Wells, Mark A.; Kowalski, Adam; Berdyugina, Svetlana; Harper, Graham M.; Korhonen, Heidi; Piskunov, Nikolai; Saar, Steven; Walkowicz, Lucianne

    2015-02-01

    The Kepler satellite provides a unique window into stellar temporal variability by observing a wide variety of stars with multi-year, near-continuous, high precision, optical photometric time series. While most Kepler targets are faint stars with poorly known physical properties, many unexpected discoveries should result from a long photometric survey of such a large area of sky. During our Kepler Guest Observer programs that monitored late-type stars for starspot and flaring variability, we discovered a previously unknown dwarf nova that lies within a few arcseconds of the mid-G dwarf star KIC 5438845. This dwarf nova underwent nine outbursts over a 4 year time span. The two largest outbursts lasted ∼17–18 days and show strong modulations with a 110.8 minute period and a declining amplitude during the outburst decay phase. These properties are characteristic of an SU UMa-type cataclysmic variable. By analogy with other dwarf nova light curves, we associate the 110.8 minute (1.847 hr) period with the superhump period, close to but slightly longer than the orbital period of the binary. No precursor outbursts are seen before the super-outbursts and the overall super-outburst morphology corresponds to Osaki and Meyer “Case B” outbursts, which are initiated when the outer edge of the disk reaches the tidal truncation radius. “Case B” outbursts are rare within the Kepler light curves of dwarf novae. The dwarf nova is undergoing relatively slow mass transfer, as evidenced by the long intervals between outbursts, but the mass transfer rate appears to be steady, because the smaller “normal” outbursts show a strong correlation between the integrated outburst energy and the elapsed time since the previous outburst. At super-outburst maximum the system was at V ∼ 18, but in quiescence it is fainter than V ∼ 22, which will make any detailed quiescent follow-up of this system difficult.

  13. Serendipitous Discovery of a Dwarf Nova in the Kepler Field Near the G Dwarf KIC 5438845

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Alexander; Neff, James E.; Ayres, Thomas R.; Kowalski, Adam; Hawley, Suzanne; Berdyugina, Svetlana; Harper, Graham M.; Korhonen, Heidi; Piskunov, Nikolai; Saar, Steven; Walkowicz, Lucianne; Wells, Mark A.

    2015-02-01

    The Kepler satellite provides a unique window into stellar temporal variability by observing a wide variety of stars with multi-year, near-continuous, high precision, optical photometric time series. While most Kepler targets are faint stars with poorly known physical properties, many unexpected discoveries should result from a long photometric survey of such a large area of sky. During our Kepler Guest Observer programs that monitored late-type stars for starspot and flaring variability, we discovered a previously unknown dwarf nova that lies within a few arcseconds of the mid-G dwarf star KIC 5438845. This dwarf nova underwent nine outbursts over a 4 year time span. The two largest outbursts lasted ˜17-18 days and show strong modulations with a 110.8 minute period and a declining amplitude during the outburst decay phase. These properties are characteristic of an SU UMa-type cataclysmic variable. By analogy with other dwarf nova light curves, we associate the 110.8 minute (1.847 hr) period with the superhump period, close to but slightly longer than the orbital period of the binary. No precursor outbursts are seen before the super-outbursts and the overall super-outburst morphology corresponds to Osaki & Meyer “Case B” outbursts, which are initiated when the outer edge of the disk reaches the tidal truncation radius. “Case B” outbursts are rare within the Kepler light curves of dwarf novae. The dwarf nova is undergoing relatively slow mass transfer, as evidenced by the long intervals between outbursts, but the mass transfer rate appears to be steady, because the smaller “normal” outbursts show a strong correlation between the integrated outburst energy and the elapsed time since the previous outburst. At super-outburst maximum the system was at V ˜ 18, but in quiescence it is fainter than V ˜ 22, which will make any detailed quiescent follow-up of this system difficult.

  14. A new dust budget in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Chunhua; Lü, Guoliang; Wang, Zhaojun

    2015-08-01

    The origin of dust in a galaxy is poorly understood. Recently, surveys of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) have provided astrophysical laboratories for dust studies. Using a method of population synthesis, we investigate the contributions of dust produced by asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars, common envelope (CE) ejecta and Type II supernovae (SNe II) to the total dust budget in the LMC. Based on our models, the dust production rates (DPRs) of AGB stars in the LMC are between about 2.5 × 10-5 and 4.0 × 10-6 M⊙ yr-1. The uncertainty mainly results from different models for the dust yields of AGB stars. The DPRs of CE ejecta are about 6.3 × 10-6 (the initial binary fraction is 50 per cent). These results are within the large scatter of several observational estimates. AGB stars mainly produce carbon grains, which is consistent with observations. Most of the dust grains manufactured by CE ejecta are silicate and iron grains. The contributions of SNe II are very uncertain. Compared with SNe II without reverse shock, the DPRs of AGB stars and CE ejecta are negligible. However, if only 2 per cent of dust grains produced by SNe II can survive after reverse shock, the contributions of SNe II are very small. The total dust masses produced by AGB stars in the LMC are between 2.8 × 104 and 3.2 × 105 M⊙, and those produced by CE ejecta are about 6.3 × 104. They are much lower than the values estimated by observations. Therefore, there should be other dust sources in the LMC.

  15. Post Main Sequence Orbital Circularization of Binary Stars in the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds.

    SciTech Connect

    Faccioli, L; Alcock, C; Cook, K

    2007-11-20

    We present results from a study of the orbits of eclipsing binary stars (EBs) in the Magellanic Clouds. The samples comprise 4510 EBs found in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) by the MACHO project, 2474 LMC EBs found by the OGLE-II project (of which 1182 are also in the MACHO sample), 1380 in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) found by the MACHO project, and 1317 SMC EBs found by the OGLE-II project (of which 677 are also in the MACHO sample); we also consider the EROS sample of 79 EBs in the bar of the LMC. Statistics of the phase differences between primary and secondary minima allow us to infer the statistics of orbital eccentricities within these samples. We confirm the well-known absence of eccentric orbit in close binary stars. We also find evidence for rapid circularization in longer period systems when one member evolves beyond the main sequence, as also found by previous studies.

  16. Detection of Rotational CO Emission From the Red-supergiants in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuura, M.; Sargent, B.; Swinyard, B.; Yates, J. A.; Royer, P.; Barlow, M. J.; Boyer, M. L.; Decin, L.; Khouri, T.; Meixner, M.; van Loon, J. Th.; Woods, P. M.

    2015-12-01

    It is yet well understood how mass-loss rates from evolved stars depend on metallicities. With a half of the solar metallicity and the distance of only 50 kpc, the evolved stars of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) are an ideal target for studying mass loss at low metallicity. We have obtained spectra of red-supergiants in the LMC, using the Hershel Space Observatory, detecting CO thermal lines fro J=6-5 up to 15-14 lines. Modelling CO lines with non-LTE Radiative transfer code suggests that CO lines intensities can be well explained with high gas-to-dust ratio, with no obvious reduction in mass-loss rate at the LMC. We conclude that the luminosities of the stars are dominant factors on mass-loss rates, rather than the metallicity.

  17. Discovery of a Probable Nova in M81 and Photometry of Three M81 Novae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hornoch, K.; Errmann, R.; Carlisle, Ch.; Vaduvescu, O.

    2015-02-01

    We report the discovery of a probable nova in M81 on a co-added 1600-s narrow-band H-alpha CCD image taken with the 2.5-m Isaac Newton Telescope (INT) + WFC at La Palma under ~1.6" seeing on 2015 Jan.

  18. Absorption of the x ray background by the large magellanic cloud

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, Thomas T.

    1991-01-01

    Soft x ray flux of extragalactic origin should be partially absorbed during passage through the Large Magellanic Cloud. Past attempts to measure this absorption have been frustrated by the LMC's intrinsic x ray emission. New calibration techniques were developed to enable precise (within 5 pct.) measurement of the flux and spectrum of diffuse x rays detected by the Einstein Observatory IPC. These techniques were used to measure the absorption of extragalactic flux by neutral gas in the LMC, and to determine that at least 50 pct. of the observed flux in the 0.16 to 2 keV band is of extragalactic origin.

  19. Discovery of Two Novae in M81

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hornoch, K.; Vaduvescu, O.; Zurita, C.; Patrick, L.; Ledo, H.; Karjalainen, R.

    2012-05-01

    We report the discovery of two novae in M81 on a co-added 1600-s narrow-band H-alpha CCD image taken with the 2.5-m Isaac Newton Telescope (INT) + WFC at La Palma under ~0.8" seeing on May 22.901 UT. The new objects are well visible on the co-added image (see the finding chart linked below) as well as on individual 400-s frames, but are not present on numerous narrow-band H-alpha archival images from the INT down to limiting magnitude as faint as H-alpha = 22.3.

  20. Supernova hydrodynamics experiments using the Nova laser

    SciTech Connect

    Remington, B.A.; Glendinning, S.G.; Estabrook, K.; Wallace, R.J.; Rubenchik, A.; Kane, J.; Arnett, D.; Drake, R.P.; McCray, R.

    1997-04-01

    We are developing experiments using the Nova laser to investigate two areas of physics relevant to core-collapse supernovae (SN): (1) compressible nonlinear hydrodynamic mixing and (2) radiative shock hydrodynamics. In the former, we are examining the differences between the 2D and 3D evolution of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability, an issue critical to the observables emerging from SN in the first year after exploding. In the latter, we are investigating the evolution of a colliding plasma system relevant to the ejecta-stellar wind interactions of the early stages of SN remnant formation. The experiments and astrophysical implications are discussed.

  1. Review of the classical nova outburst

    SciTech Connect

    Starrfield, S.; Sparks, W.M.

    1986-06-01

    Observational studies have not only identified a new class of novae but theoretical simulations of this class have been found to be in excellent agreement with the observations. This new class consists of outbursts occurring on ONeMg white dwarfs in close binar systems in contrast to the other outbursts which are occurring on CO white dwarfs. We also review the effects of the ..beta../sup +/-unstable nuclei and show how their presence has a major effect on the evolution. 77 refs.

  2. New disk nova candidate in M 31

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henze, M.; Pietsch, W.; Burwitz, V.; Rodriguez, J.; Bochinski, J.; Busuttil, R.; Haswell, C. A.; Holmes, S.; Kolb, U.

    2012-02-01

    We report the discovery of a possible nova in the south-western disk of M 31 on a 5x120s dithered stacked CCD image obtained with the Open University PIRATE Planewave CDK17 0.43m Dall-Kirkham f/6.7 telescope at the Observatorio Astronomico de Mallorca (Costitx, Spain), using an SBIG STX 16803 CCD Camera (with a Kodak 4k x 4k chip with 9 microns sq. pixels) and Baader clear filter, on 2012 Feb 15.803 UT with a R magnitude of 17.5 (accuracy of 0.2 mag).

  3. New nova candidate in M81

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henze, M.; Sala, G.; Jose, J.; Figueira, J.; Hernanz, M.

    2016-06-01

    We report the discovery of a new nova candidate in the M81 galaxy on 16x200s stacked R filter CCD images, obtained with the 80 cm Ritchey-Chretien F/9.6 Joan Oro telescope at Observatori Astronomic del Montsec, owned by the Catalan Government and operated by the Institut d'Estudis Espacials de Catalunya, Spain, using a Finger Lakes PL4240-1-BI CCD Camera (with a Class 1 Basic Broadband coated 2k x 2k chip with 13.5 microns sq. pixels).

  4. Meteorological impact of realistic Terra Nova Bay polynyas.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morelli, Sandra

    2010-05-01

    The energy exchange between the ocean and the atmosphere in the Antarctic marginal sea ice zone is influenced by the extent of sea-ice cover. In areas of open water, a direct contact is established and intense energy exchanges occur, due to the large difference of temperature between the water and the air above it. This implies that the polynyas are areas where the ocean exchanges energy with the atmosphere and as a result they have an effect on the polar meteorology/climate. The work presented here concerns real polynya events in the region of Terra Nova Bay (TNB), Antarctica, where a recurring coastal polynya occurs nearby the Italian Antarctic Base. The aim is the study of the impact of polynyas on the atmosphere by three-dimensional numerical simulations. The ETA model (Mesinger et al., 2006) was used and ECMWF and NCEP data provided the initial and boundary conditions. The model had already been successfully used in the Antarctic area (Casini and Morelli, 2007) A polynya of realistic size (as observed by satellite image) was included in the initial conditions for the simulations and a study of the air circulation during the events is found in Morelli et al. (2007), Morelli and Casini (2008), Morelli et al. (2009). The Eta Model reproduced the evolution of upper and mod-level conditions in good agreement with AVHRR observations (Morelli, 2008, Morelli and Parmiggiani, 2009). Also, the simulated 10 m wind was well correlated with the observed extension of the polynya. In order to isolate the effect of the presence of the open water area on the structure of the atmospheric boundary layer and on the atmospheric circulation, further simulations were performed without the presence of the polynya, i.e. with its extent covered with sea ice. The numerical simulations show that the polynyas act to increase the speed of the air above them and generate strong heat fluxes that warm the air. The effects are found over and downwind the sea ice free area. Results from the Eta

  5. Holocene transgressive stratigraphy and sediment dispersal, eastern shore, Nova Scotia

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, R.K.; Boyd, R.

    1985-02-01

    Coastal sedimentation along Nova Scotia's eastern shore is dominated by a rising sea level, restricted drumlin sediment supply, and inherited glacial topography. Evolution of barrier systems follows a 500-1000 year cyclic sequence of: (1) generation from marine erosion of glacial deposits, (2) transgression resulting from ongoing sea level rise and depletion of original sediment sources, and (3) landward removal following an estuarine retreat path to new sites of reconstruction. The dominant sediment transfer mechanism operating during this transgressive cycle is landward dispersal by tidal inlet, overwash, and eolian process. Vibrocore, surface sampling, marine geophysics, and underwater photography were used to investigate the potential for eastern shore coastal deposits to be incorporated into the shelf stratigraphic record. High-resolution seismic profiles from the inner continental shelf reveal a lower acoustic unit interpreted as Wisconsin glacial deposits. Overlying the lower unit is a discontinuous upper unit 1-2 m thick, which occupies topographic depressions and is composed of sand, silty sand, and a coarse gravel lag. Side-scan sonar and underwater photographs show large gravel ripples covering the upper acoustic unit in water up to 30 m deep. The upper acoustic unit is interpreted as the remnants of reworked coastal barriers, drumlins, and till. Transgressive sedimentation on the eastern shore of Nova Scotia, therefore, conforms to the concept of shoreface retreat. Coastal sediments here are poorly preserved, except in linear shelf valleys, because of a high-energy wavy climate and prior landward transfer into tidal deltas, washovers, and associated back-barriers deposits.

  6. UBVRI Polarimetry of Nova Sgr 2015#2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muneer, S.; Anupama, G. C.; Raveendran, A. V.; Muniyandi, A.; Baskar, R.

    2015-03-01

    We report here the first polarimetric observations of Nova Sgr 2015#2 (PNV J18365700-2855420). The linear polarization observations of the nova in UBVRI spectral bands were obtained during 16-22 March 2015 with a two beam, multichannel polarimeter attached to the 1-m Carl-Zeiss telescope at the Vainu Bappu Observatory, Kavalur, India.

  7. Results of Statewide TerraNova Testing, Fall 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    La Marca, Paul M.

    This summary provides key findings about state, district, and school level performance on the TerraNova examinations (CTB/McGraw Hill) in Nevada in 1998-1999. The TerraNova tests are used to assess students in grades 4, 8, and 10 as stipulated by Nevada law. Within this summary, a description of performance as measured by national percentile…

  8. TAGGING THE CHEMICAL EVOLUTION HISTORY OF THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD DISK

    SciTech Connect

    Lapenna, Emilio; Mucciarelli, Alessio; Ferraro, Francesco R.; Origlia, Livia E-mail: alessio.mucciarelli2@unibo.it E-mail: livia.origlia@oabo.inaf.it

    2012-12-10

    We have used high-resolution spectra obtained with the multifiber facility FLAMES at the Very Large Telescope of the European Southern Observatory to derive kinematic properties and chemical abundances of Fe, O, Mg, and Si for 89 stars in the disk of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). The derived metallicity and [{alpha}/Fe], obtained as the average of O, Mg, and Si abundances, allow us to draw a preliminary scheme of the star formation history of this region of the LMC. The derived metallicity distribution shows two main components: one component (comprising {approx}84% of the sample) peaks at [Fe/H] = -0.48 dex and it shows an [{alpha}/Fe] ratio slightly under solar ([{alpha}/Fe] {approx} -0.1 dex). This population probably originated in the main star formation event that occurred 3-4 Gyr ago (possibly triggered by tidal capture of the Small Magellanic Cloud). The other component (comprising {approx}16% of the sample) peaks at [Fe/H] {approx} -0 dex and it shows an [{alpha}/Fe] {approx}0.2 dex. This population was probably generated during the long quiescent epoch of star formation between the first episode and the most recent bursts. Indeed, in our sample we do not find stars with chemical properties similar to the old LMC globular clusters nor to the iron-rich and {alpha}-poor stars recently found in the LMC globular cluster NGC 1718 and also predicted to be in the LMC field, thus suggesting that both of these components are small (<1%) in the LMC disk population.

  9. Double-Shell Capsule Implosions at NOVA and OMEGA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watt, R. G.; Barnes, Cris W.; Chrien, Robert E.; Delamater, Norman D.; Duke, Joseph R.; Elliott, Norman E.; Gobby, Peter L.; Gomez, Veronica M.; Moore, Joyce E.; Pollak, Gregory D.; Varnum, William S.; Colvin, Jeffrey D.; Lerche, Richard A.; Phillips, Thomas W.

    1998-11-01

    Recent calculations indicate that double shell targets may provide an alternative, non-cryogenic path to ignition on NIF. Experiments have been conducted at the NOVA and OMEGA lasers to study indirectly driven double shell implosions. Double shell implosions in cylindrical hohlraums on NOVA show yields in the range of 1-2% of clean 1D calculations. NOVA implosions may be dominated by the inherent m = 5 beam pattern on either end of the cylindrical hohraum, and have significant time dependent drive asymmetry. Implosions at the OMEGA facility were done in the tethrahedral holhraum geometry which provides improved time dependent symmetry. Primary diagnostics in these implosions are the neutron diagnostics available at both facilities. NOVA shots used DD, while the OMEGA shots used both DD and DT to maximize the available information from the implosions. Individual implosion data and comparison to simulations will be shown for NOVA and OMEGA double shell implosions.

  10. Quark Nova Signatures in Super-luminous Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostka, M.; Koning, N.; Leahy, D.; Ouyed, R.; Steffen, W.

    2014-10-01

    Recent observational surveys have uncovered the existence of super-luminous supernovae (SLSNe). In this work we study the light curves of eight SLSNe in the context of dual-shock quark novae. We find that progenitor stars in the range of 25 - 35 M⊙ provide ample energy to power each light curve. An examination into the effects of varying the physical properties of a dual-shock quark nova on light curve composition is undertaken. We conclude that the wide variety of SLSN light curve morphologies can be explained predominantly by variations in the length of time between supernova and quark nova. Our analysis shows that a singular H alpha spectral profile found in three SLSNe can be naturally described in the dual-shock quark nova scenario. Predictions of spectral signatures unique to the dual-shock quark nova are presented.

  11. Quark nova model for fast radio bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shand, Zachary; Ouyed, Amir; Koning, Nico; Ouyed, Rachid

    2016-05-01

    Fast radio bursts (FRBs) are puzzling, millisecond, energetic radio transients with no discernible source; observations show no counterparts in other frequency bands. The birth of a quark star from a parent neutron star experiencing a quark nova - previously thought undetectable when born in isolation - provides a natural explanation for the emission characteristics of FRBs. The generation of unstable r-process elements in the quark nova ejecta provides millisecond exponential injection of electrons into the surrounding strong magnetic field at the parent neutron star's light cylinder via β-decay. This radio synchrotron emission has a total duration of hundreds of milliseconds and matches the observed spectrum while reducing the inferred dispersion measure by approximately 200 cm‑3 pc. The model allows indirect measurement of neutron star magnetic fields and periods in addition to providing astronomical measurements of β-decay chains of unstable neutron rich nuclei. Using this model, we can calculate expected FRB average energies (˜ 1041 erg) and spectral shapes, and provide a theoretical framework for determining distances.

  12. Quark nova model for fast radio bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shand, Zachary; Ouyed, Amir; Koning, Nico; Ouyed, Rachid

    2016-05-01

    Fast radio bursts (FRBs) are puzzling, millisecond, energetic radio transients with no discernible source; observations show no counterparts in other frequency bands. The birth of a quark star from a parent neutron star experiencing a quark nova - previously thought undetectable when born in isolation - provides a natural explanation for the emission characteristics of FRBs. The generation of unstable r-process elements in the quark nova ejecta provides millisecond exponential injection of electrons into the surrounding strong magnetic field at the parent neutron star's light cylinder via β-decay. This radio synchrotron emission has a total duration of hundreds of milliseconds and matches the observed spectrum while reducing the inferred dispersion measure by approximately 200 cm‑3 pc. The model allows indirect measurement of neutron star magnetic fields and periods in addition to providing astronomical measurements of β-decay chains of unstable neutron rich nuclei. Using this model, we can calculate expected FRB average energies (∼ 1041 erg) and spectral shapes, and provide a theoretical framework for determining distances.

  13. Developing beam phasing on the Nova laser

    SciTech Connect

    Ehrlich, R.B.; Amendt, P.A.; Dixit, S.N.; Hammel, B.A.; Kalantar, D.H.; Pennington, D.M.; Weiland, T.L.

    1997-03-10

    We are presently adding the capability to irradiate indirectly-driven Nova targets with two rings of illumination inside each end of the hohlraum for studies of time-dependent second Legendre (P2) and time- integrated fourth Legendre (P4) flux asymmetry control. The rings will be formed with specially designed kinoform phase plates (KPPs), which will direct each half of each beam into two separate rings that are nearly uniform azimuthally. The timing and temporal pulse shape of the outer rings will be controlled independently from those of the inner rings, allowing for phasing of the pulse shapes to control time dependent asymmetry. Modifications to the incident beam diagnostics (IBDS) will enable us to verify that acceptable levels of power balance among the contributing segments of each ring have been achieved on each shot. Current techniques for precision beam pointing and timing are expected to be sufficiently accurate for these experiments. We present a design for an affordable retrofit to achieve beam phasing on Nova, results of a simplified demonstration, and calculations highlighting the anticipated benefits.

  14. Spitzer IRS Observations of ``Mature'' Novae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helton, L. Andrew; Woodward, C. E.; Evans, A.; Gehrz, R. D.; Lynch, D. L.; Rudy, R.; Schwarz, G. J.; Vanlandingham, K.; Spitzer Nova Team

    2009-01-01

    Many facets of astrophysics are captured in classical nova (CN) eruptions, making them unique laboratories in which we may observe several poorly understood astrophysical processes including mass transfer, thermonuclear runaway, optically thick winds, common envelope evolution, molecule and grain formation, coronal line emission, and gas cooling by fine structure lines. Many of these phenomena evolve in real time. Therefore, a better understanding of CNe has far-reaching applications and underpins several related and important areas of astrophysics. Here we present preliminary results of our Cycle 5 Spitzer IRS study of ``mature'' novae (several 100s of days post-outburst), complemented by extensive multi-wavelength data from other facilities. We present data on V2361 Cyg, V2467 Cyg and V378 Ser. In particular, V2361 Cyg displays a strong dust continuum with possible Aromatic Emission Features (AEF) superimposed, the first dusty CN observed to do so since 1993 and the first to be observed spectroscopically in the far IR. This object presents us with an outstanding opportunity to investigate how the dust is processed by the UV radiation from the stellar remnant. Support for this work was provided in part by NASA through Spitzer contracts issued by JPL/Caltech to the University of Minnesota.

  15. V390 Nor = Nova Normae 2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waagen, Elizabeth O.

    2007-06-01

    Nova Normae 2007 was discovered photographically by William Liller on June 15.086 UT at magnitude 9.4. Precise position measured by G. Bolt from his unfiltered CCD image of June 16.7 UT: 16:32:11.51 -45:09:13.4 (2000.0). Giorgio Di Scala reported to the AAVSO that a low-resolution spectrum indicates a nova a week or so after outburst, with strong H-alpha emission. E. Kazarovets, Sternberg Astronomical Institute, reports that N Nor 07 has been assigned the name V390 Nor. Discovery originally announced in IAU Central Bureau Electronic Telegram 982 (Daniel W. E. Green) and AAVSO Special Notice #49 (Arne Henden). Information in this Alert Notice was received at AAVSO from William Liller, Giorgio Di Scala, or via IAU Circular No. 8850, ed. Daniel W. E. Green. A chart for V390 Nor is available via the Variable Star Plotter (VSP). Go to: http://www.aavso.org/observing/charts/vsp/ and enter the name V390 NOR.

  16. Population of post-nova supersoft X-ray sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soraisam, Monika D.; Gilfanov, Marat; Wolf, William M.; Bildsten, Lars

    2016-01-01

    Novae undergo a supersoft X-ray phase of varying duration after the optical outburst. Such transient post-nova supersoft X-ray sources (SSSs) are the majority of the observed SSSs in M31. In this paper, we use the post-nova evolutionary models of Wolf et al. to compute the expected population of post-nova SSSs in M31. We predict that depending on the assumptions about the white dwarf (WD) mass distribution in novae, at any instant there are about 250-600 post-nova SSSs in M31 with (unabsorbed) 0.2-1.0 keV luminosity Lx ≥ 1036 erg s-1. Their combined unabsorbed luminosity is of the order of ˜1039 erg s-1. Their luminosity distribution shows significant steepening around log (Lx) ˜ 37.7-38 and becomes zero at Lx ≈ 2 × 1038 erg s-1, the maximum Lx achieved in the post-nova evolutionary tracks. Their effective temperature distribution has a roughly power-law shape with differential slope of ≈4-6 up to the maximum temperature of Teff ≈ 1.5 × 106 K. We compare our predictions with the results of the XMM-Newton monitoring of the central field of M31 between 2006 and 2009. The predicted number of post-nova SSSs exceeds the observed number by a factor of ≈2-5, depending on the assumed WD mass distribution in novae. This is good agreement, considering the number and magnitude of uncertainties involved in calculations of the post-nova evolutionary models and their X-ray output. Furthermore, only a moderate circumstellar absorption, with hydrogen column density of the order of ˜1021 cm-2, will remove the discrepancy.

  17. Observations and simulations of nova Vul 1984 no. 2: A nova with ejecta rich in oxygen, neon, and magnesium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starrfield, S.; Sonneborn, G.; Stryker, L. L.; Sparks, Warren M.; Truran, James W.; Ferland, Gary; Wagner, R. M.; Gallagher, J. S.; Wade, R.; Williams, R. E.

    1988-01-01

    Nova Vul 1984 no. 2 was observed with IUE from Dec. 1984 through Nov. 1987. The spectra are characterized by strong lines from Mg, Ne, C, Si, O, N, and other elements. Data obtained in the ultraviolet, infrared, and optical show that this nova is ejecting material rich in oxygen, neon, and magnesium.

  18. Detailed Properties of Populous Clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grocholski, Aaron J.; Sarajedini, A.; Cole, A. A.; Geisler, D.; Olsen, K. A.; Tiede, G. P.; Smith, V. V.; Mancone, C. L.

    2006-12-01

    We present results from a program aimed at better understanding the ages, velocities, metallicities and distances of populous clusters in the LMC. In an effort to update previous [Fe/H] determinations, we have used the FORS2 instrument on the VLT to obtain near infrared spectra for more than 200 stars in 28 LMC clusters. The absorption lines of the Ca II Triplet were then used to calculate velocities and abundances for a sample of clusters spanning a large range of ages ( 1-13 Gyr) and metallicities (-0.3 ≥ [Fe/H] ≥ -2.0). To calculate cluster ages, we have compiled deep optical photometry for 15 LMC clusters using a combination of published photometry, VLT/FORS2 images and archival HST/WFPC2 images. These data, in conjunction with our derived metallicities, have allowed us to determine accurate cluster ages via main sequence fitting with theoretical isochrones. Finally, we have used the K-band luminosity of core helium burning red clump (RC) stars to determine distances for 17 LMC clusters. Using ISPI on the CTIO 4m, we obtained near infrared (JK) photometry down to K 18.5, which allowed us to measure the apparent K-band RC magnitude of each cluster. In addition, age and abundance can be used to predict the absolute K-band RC magnitude of a given cluster; thus, we have combined the apparent and absolute magnitudes with cluster reddenings and calculated the distance to each individual cluster. These distances are used to probe the structure of the LMC as traced by its cluster population. This work is supported by NSF CAREER grant AST-0094048 to Ata Sarajedini.

  19. THE NOVA SHELL AND EVOLUTION OF THE RECURRENT NOVA T PYXIDIS

    SciTech Connect

    Schaefer, Bradley E.; Pagnotta, Ashley; Shara, Michael M.

    2010-01-01

    T Pyxidis (T Pyx) is the prototypical recurrent nova (RN), with five eruptions from 1890 to 1967 and a mysterious nova shell. We report new observations of the nova shell with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) in the year 2007, which provides a long time baseline to compare with HST images from 1994 and 1995. We find that the knots in the nova shell are expanding with velocities ranging from roughly 500 km s{sup -1} to 715 km s{sup -1}, assuming a distance of 3500 pc. The fractional expansion of the knots is constant, which implies no significant deceleration of the knots, which must have been ejected by an eruption close to the year 1866. We see knots that have turned on after 1995; this shows that the knots are powered by shocks from the collision of the '1866' ejecta with fast ejecta from later RN eruptions. We derive that the '1866' ejecta has a total mass of approx10{sup -4.5} M {sub sun}, which with the low ejection velocity shows that the '1866' event was an ordinary nova eruption, not an RN eruption. This also implies that the accretion rate before the ordinary nova event must have been low (around the 4 x 10{sup -11} M{sub sun} yr{sup -1} expected for gravitational radiation alone), and that the matter accumulated on the surface of the white dwarf for approx750,000 years. The current accretion rate (>10{sup -8} M{sub sun} yr{sup -1}) is approx1000x higher than expected for a system below the period gap, with the plausible reason being that the '1866' event started a continuing supersoft source that drives the accretion. The accretion rate has been declining since before the 1890 eruption, with the current rate being only 3% of its earlier value. The decline in the observed accretion rate shows that the supersoft source is not self-sustaining; we calculate that the accretion in T Pyx will effectively stop in upcoming decades. With this, T Pyx will enter a state of hibernation lasting for an estimated 2,600,000 years before gravitational radiation brings the

  20. A Fermi/LAT Trigger of Grating Observations of One Bright Nova in Outburst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starrfield, Sumner

    2013-09-01

    A new and perplexing result in 2012 was the discovery by the Fermi/LAT that two Classical Novae (Mon 2012 and Sco 2012) were emitting gamma-rays at E > 100 MeV. The cause of this VHE emission is currently not understood but X-ray grating observations early in the outburst should shed light on the cause. We propose to obtain 2 grating spectra with Chandra of one bright CN in outburst. Our target will be determined based on a detection by the Fermi/Large Area Telescope (LAT), a confirmation by ground-based spectroscopy that it is a CN, and a Swift/XRT determination that it is sufficiently bright for an HETG+ACIS-S grating observation. A second spectrum will be obtained with the LETG+HRC-S when the nova has transitioned into the Super Soft Source phase.

  1. Light-curve Analysis of Neon Novae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hachisu, Izumi; Kato, Mariko

    2016-01-01

    We analyzed light curves of five neon novae, QU Vul, V351 Pup, V382 Vel, V693 CrA, and V1974 Cyg, and determined their white dwarf (WD) masses and distance moduli on the basis of theoretical light curves composed of free-free and photospheric emission. For QU Vul, we obtained a distance of d ˜ 2.4 kpc, reddening of E(B - V) ˜ 0.55, and WD mass of MWD = 0.82-0.96 {M}⊙ . This suggests that an oxygen-neon WD lost a mass of more than ˜ 0.1 {M}⊙ since its birth. For V351 Pup, we obtained d˜ 5.5 {{kpc}}, E(B-V)˜ 0.45, and {M}{{WD}}=0.98-1.1 {M}⊙ . For V382 Vel, we obtained d˜ 1.6 {{kpc}}, E(B-V)˜ 0.15, and {M}{{WD}}=1.13-1.28 {M}⊙ . For V693 CrA, we obtained d˜ 7.1 {{kpc}}, E(B-V)˜ 0.05, and {M}{{WD}}=1.15-1.25 {M}⊙ . For V1974 Cyg, we obtained d˜ 1.8 {{kpc}}, E(B-V)˜ 0.30, and {M}{{WD}}=0.95-1.1 {M}⊙ . For comparison, we added the carbon-oxygen nova V1668 Cyg to our analysis and obtained d˜ 5.4 {{kpc}}, E(B-V)˜ 0.30, and {M}{{WD}}=0.98-1.1 {M}⊙ . In QU Vul, photospheric emission contributes 0.4-0.8 mag at most to the optical light curve compared with free-free emission only. In V351 Pup and V1974 Cyg, photospheric emission contributes very little (0.2-0.4 mag at most) to the optical light curve. In V382 Vel and V693 CrA, free-free emission dominates the continuum spectra, and photospheric emission does not contribute to the optical magnitudes. We also discuss the maximum magnitude versus rate of decline relation for these novae based on the universal decline law.

  2. CLIP Identifies Nova-Regulated RNA Networks in the Brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ule, Jernej; Jensen, Kirk B.; Ruggiu, Matteo; Mele, Aldo; Ule, Aljaž; Darnell, Robert B.

    2003-11-01

    Nova proteins are neuron-specific antigens targeted in paraneoplastic opsoclonus myoclonus ataxia (POMA), an autoimmune neurologic disease characterized by abnormal motor inhibition. Nova proteins regulate neuronal pre-messenger RNA splicing by directly binding to RNA. To identify Nova RNA targets, we developed a method to purify protein-RNA complexes from mouse brain with the use of ultraviolet cross-linking and immunoprecipitation (CLIP). Thirty-four transcripts were identified multiple times by Nova CLIP. Three-quarters of these encode proteins that function at the neuronal synapse, and one-third are involved in neuronal inhibition. Splicing targets confirmed in Nova-/- mice include c-Jun N-terminal kinase 2, neogenin, and gephyrin; the latter encodes a protein that clusters inhibitory γ-aminobutyric acid and glycine receptors, two previously identified Nova splicing targets. Thus, CLIP reveals that Nova coordinately regulates a biologically coherent set of RNAs encoding multiple components of the inhibitory synapse, an observation that may relate to the cause of abnormal motor inhibition in POMA.

  3. Non-Detection of Nova Shells Around Asynchronous Polars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagnotta, Ashley; Zurek, David

    2016-01-01

    Asynchronous polars (APs) are accreting white dwarfs (WDs) that have different WD and orbital angular velocities, unlike the rest of the known polars, which rotate synchronously (i.e., their WD and orbital angular velocities are the same). Past nova eruptions are the predicted cause of the asynchronicity, in part due to the fact that one of the APs, V1500 Cyg, was observed to undergo a nova eruption in 1975. We used the SALT 10m-class telescope and the MDM 2.4m Hiltner telescope to search for nova shells around three of the remaining four APs (V1432 Aql, BY Cam, and CD Ind) as well as one Intermediate Polar with a high asynchronicity (EX Hya). We found no evidence of nova shells in any of our images. We therefore cannot say that any of the systems besides V1500 Cyg had nova eruptions, but because not all post-nova systems have detectable shells, we also cannot exclude the possibility of a nova eruption occurring in any of these systems and knocking the rotation out of sync.

  4. Nova Delphini 2013 = PNV J20233073+2046041

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waagen, Elizabeth O.

    2013-08-01

    Announces the discovery of Nova Delphini 2013 = PNV J20233073+2046041 = V339 Del by Koichi Itagaki (Teppo-cho, Yamagata, Japan) on 2013 Aug. 14.584 UT at unfiltered CCD magnitude mag 6.8. Spectra by numerous professional and amateur astronomers show strong H-alpha and H-beta emission and P Cygni profile emission lines, all pointing to a pre-maximum classical nova. For details on spectra, see CBET 3628 and the IAU Circular to be announced shortly. Postings to the AAVSO Spectroscopy Forum (http://www.aavso.org/forums/variable-star-observing/spectroscopy) also contain information on spectra, as well as observing and reporting instructions for spectroscopists. Charts for Nova Del 2013 may be created using the AAVSO Variable Star Plotter (VSP) at http://www.aavso.org/vsp. We have created a binocular sequence for this nova that can be plotted using the Binocular Chart option on VSP. Over 750 observations have been submitted to the AAVSO International Database since the nova's discovery two days ago; the most recent observations show Nova Del 2013 has brightened to visual magnitude 4.4. Observations should be submitted to the AAVSO International Database. Announced on IAU CBAT CBET 3628 (Daniel W. E. Green, ed.). Nova Del 2013 was designated PNV J20233073+2046041 when it was posted on the CBAT TOCP webpage. See full Alert Notice for more details, observations, and links to images.

  5. Laying the foundation for a digital Nova Scotia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bond, J.

    2016-04-01

    In 2013, the Province of Nova Scotia began an effort to modernize its coordinate referencing infrastructure known as the Nova Scotia Coordinate Referencing System (NSCRS). At that time, 8, active GPS stations were installed in southwest Nova Scotia to evaluate the technology's ability to address the Province's coordinate referencing needs. The success of the test phase helped build a business case to implement the technology across the entire Province. It is anticipated that by the end of 2015, 40 active GPS stations will be in place across Nova Scotia. This infrastructure, known as the Nova Scotia Active Control Stations (NSACS) network, will allow for instantaneous, centimetre level positioning across the Province. Originally designed to address the needs of the surveying community, the technology has also proven to have applications in mapping, machine automation, agriculture, navigation, emergency response, earthquake detection and other areas. In the foreseeable future, all spatial data sets captured in Nova Scotia will be either directly or indirectly derived from the NSACS network. The technology will promote high accuracy and homogenous spatial data sets across the Province. The technology behind the NSACS and the development of the system are described. Examples of how the technology is contributing to a digital Nova Scotia are presented. Future applications of the technology are also considered.

  6. Nova is an old hand at big deals in Alberta

    SciTech Connect

    Sutherland, J.

    1980-09-10

    Nova, an Alberta Corporation, formerly Alberta Gas Trunk Line Co. Ltd., and Shell Canada Resources Ltd. will build a 600 million lb/yr styrene plant near Edmonton, Alberta. For feedstock, 5000 bbl/day of benzene will come from a $350 million, 100,000 bbl/day refinery that will be built by Shell at Edmonton. Husky Oil Ltd., which is controlled by Nova, will take a 40% equity in the refinery. According to Nova, which has a monopoly on gas transmission in Alberta, continued collaboration with Shell could lead to the spending of an additional $2 billion in the next few years. Dow Chemical of Canada Ltd. and Nova will put together an ethane extraction system in Alberta which will feed their jointly owned 1.2 billion lb/yr ethylene plant near Red Deer, Alberta. Dow uses the entire output of the ethylene plant at its recently completed Fort Saskatchewan, Alberta, complex. Alberta Gas Ethylene Co. Ltd., a Nova subsidiary, has begun work on a second 1.2 billion lb/yr ethylene unit scheduled for completion in early 1984, and will soon start work on a third ethylene unit at Red Deer. According to J. Sutherland (Nova, Alberta Corp.), Nova is rapidly expanding its ethylene capacity because, for at least a certain period of time, world-scale plants using Alberta natural gas will be very competitive.

  7. An X-ray source associated with a Vista Variables Survey nova candidate nova

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orio, M.; Mukai, K.; Valle, M. Della

    2016-02-01

    We report that one of the ten Galactic transients proposed to be novae, discovered in the Vista-Variables-Via Lactea (VVV) Survey disk area by Saito et al. (ATel 8602), VVV-NOV-13, is spatially coincident with a faint, hard X-ray source observed in 2011 June 16 and 17 for 19700 s in a survey of the NORMA spiral arm with the Chandra ACIS-I camera (P.I.

  8. 15 CFR 904.101 - Notice of violation and assessment (NOVA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... (NOVA). 904.101 Section 904.101 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign... REGULATIONS CIVIL PROCEDURES Civil Penalties § 904.101 Notice of violation and assessment (NOVA). (a) A NOVA will be issued by NOAA and served upon the respondent(s). The NOVA will contain: (1) A...

  9. 15 CFR 904.101 - Notice of violation and assessment (NOVA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... (NOVA). 904.101 Section 904.101 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign... REGULATIONS CIVIL PROCEDURES Civil Penalties § 904.101 Notice of violation and assessment (NOVA). (a) A NOVA will be issued by NOAA and served upon the respondent(s). The NOVA will contain: (1) A...

  10. 15 CFR 904.101 - Notice of violation and assessment (NOVA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... (NOVA). 904.101 Section 904.101 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign... REGULATIONS CIVIL PROCEDURES Civil Penalties § 904.101 Notice of violation and assessment (NOVA). (a) A NOVA will be issued by NOAA and served upon the respondent(s). The NOVA will contain: (1) A...

  11. 15 CFR 904.101 - Notice of violation and assessment (NOVA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... (NOVA). 904.101 Section 904.101 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign... REGULATIONS CIVIL PROCEDURES Civil Penalties § 904.101 Notice of violation and assessment (NOVA). (a) A NOVA will be issued by NOAA and served upon the respondent(s). The NOVA will contain: (1) A...

  12. 15 CFR 904.101 - Notice of violation and assessment (NOVA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... (NOVA). 904.101 Section 904.101 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign... REGULATIONS CIVIL PROCEDURES Civil Penalties § 904.101 Notice of violation and assessment (NOVA). (a) A NOVA will be issued by NOAA and served upon the respondent(s). The NOVA will contain: (1) A...

  13. Origins of Absorption Systems of Classical Nova V2659 Cyg (Nova Cyg 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arai, A.; Kawakita, H.; Shinnaka, Y.; Tajitsu, A.

    2016-10-01

    We report on high-dispersion spectroscopy results of a classical nova V2659 Cyg (Nova Cyg 2014) that are taken 33.05 days after the V-band maximum. The spectrum shows two distinct blueshifted absorption systems originating from H i, Fe ii, Ca ii, etc. The radial velocities of the absorption systems are ‑620 km s‑1, and ‑1100 to ‑1500 km s‑1. The higher velocity component corresponds to the P-Cygni absorption features frequently observed in low-resolution spectra. Much larger numbers of absorption lines are identified at the lower velocity. These mainly originate from neutral or singly ionized Fe-peak elements (Fe i, Ti ii, Cr ii, etc.). Based on the results of our spectroscopic observations, we discuss the structure of the ejecta of V2659 Cyg. We conclude that the low- and high-velocity components are likely to be produced by the outflow wind and the ballistic nova ejecta, respectively.

  14. Distributed computer control system in the Nova Laser Fusion Test Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-09-01

    The EE Technical Review has two purposes - to inform readers of various activities within the Electronics Engineering Department and to promote the exchange of ideas. The articles, by design, are brief summaries of EE work. The articles included in this report are as follows: Overview - Nova Control System; Centralized Computer-Based Controls for the Nova Laser Facility; Nova Pulse-Power Control System; Nova Laser Alignment Control System; Nova Beam Diagnostic System; Nova Target-Diagnostics Control System; and Nova Shot Scheduler. The 7 papers are individually abstracted.

  15. TIDAL NOVAE IN COMPACT BINARY WHITE DWARFS

    SciTech Connect

    Fuller, Jim; Lai Dong

    2012-09-01

    Compact binary white dwarfs (WDs) undergoing orbital decay due to gravitational radiation can experience significant tidal heating prior to merger. In these WDs, the dominant tidal effect involves the excitation of outgoing gravity waves in the inner stellar envelope and the dissipation of these waves in the outer envelope. As the binary orbit decays, the WDs are synchronized from outside in (with the envelope synchronized first, followed by the core). We examine the deposition of tidal heat in the envelope of a carbon-oxygen WD and study how such tidal heating affects the structure and evolution of the WD. We show that significant tidal heating can occur in the star's degenerate hydrogen layer. This layer heats up faster than it cools, triggering runaway nuclear fusion. Such 'tidal novae' may occur in all WD binaries containing a CO WD, at orbital periods between 5 minutes and 20 minutes, and precede the final merger by 10{sup 5}-10{sup 6} years.

  16. Classical Rayleigh Taylor experiments on Nova

    SciTech Connect

    Budil, K.S.; Remington, B.A.; Peyser, T.A.

    1995-07-01

    The evolution of the Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability in a compressible medium was investigated both at an accelerating embedded interface and at the ablation front in a new series of experiments on Nova. The x-ray drive generated in a hohlraum ablatively accelerated a planar target consisting of a doped plastic pusher which was in some cases backed by a higher density titanium payload. Both target types were diagnosed by face-on and side-on radiography. Experiments have been done with a variety of wavelengths and initial amplitudes. In the case where the perturbed RT-unstable embedded interface is isolated from the ablation front, short wavelength perturbations are observed to grow strongly. When the perturbation is at the ablation front, the short wavelengths are observed to be severely stabilized.

  17. Microstructures of Rare Silicate Stardust from Nova and Supernovae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, A. N.; Keller, L. P.; Rahman, Z.; Messenger, S

    2011-01-01

    Most silicate stardust analyzed in the laboratory and observed around stellar environments derives from O-rich red giant and AGB stars [1,2]. Supernova (SN) silicates and oxides are comparatively rare, and fewer than 10 grains from no-va or binary star systems have been identified to date. Very little is known about dust formation in these stellar environments. Mineralogical studies of only three O-rich SN [3-5] and no nova grains have been performed. Here we report the microstructure and chemical makeup of two SN silicates and one nova grain.

  18. The analysis of spectra of novae taken near maximum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stryker, L. L.; Hestand, J.; Starrfield, S.; Wehrse, R.; Hauschildt, P.; Spies, W.; Baschek, B.; Shaviv, G.

    1988-01-01

    A project to analyze ultraviolet spectra of novae obtained at or near maximum optical light is presented. These spectra are characterized by a relatively cool continuum with superimposed permitted emission lines from ions such as Fe II, Mg II, and Si II. Spectra obtained late in the outburst show only emission lines from highly ionized species and in many cases these are forbidden lines. The ultraviolet data will be used with calculations of spherical, expanding, stellar atmospheres for novae to determine elemental abundances by spectral line synthesis. This method is extremely sensitive to the abundances and completely independent of the nebular analyses usually used to obtain novae abundances.

  19. The Nova Outburst: Thermonuclear Runaways on Degenerated Dwarfs

    SciTech Connect

    Starrfield, S.; Truran, J.W.; Sparks, W.M.

    1999-07-08

    Observational and theoretical studies of the outbursts of classical novae have provided critical insights into a broad range of astrophysical phenomena. Thermonuclear runaways (TNRs) in accreted hydrogen-rich envelopes on the white dwarf (WD) components of close binary systems constitute not only the outburst mechanism for a classical nova explosion, but also the recurrent novae and a fraction of the symbiotic novae explosions. Studies of the general characteristics of these explosions, both in our own galaxy and in neighboring galaxies of varying metallicity, can teach us about binary stellar evolution, while studies of the evolution of nova binary systems can constrain models for the (as yet unidentified) progenitors of Type Ia supernovae. Further, the empirical relation between the peak luminosity of a nova and the rate of decline, which presents a challenge to theoretical models, allows novae to be utilized as standard candles for distance determinations out to the Virgo Cluster. E xtensive studies of novae with IUE and the resulting abundance determinations have revealed the existence of oxygen-neon white dwarfs in some systems. The high levels of enrichment of novae ejecta in elements ranging from carbon to sulfur confirm that there is significant dredge-up of matter from the core of the underlying white dwarf and enable novae to contribute to the chemical enrichment of the interstellar medium. Observations of the epoch of dust formation in the expanding shells of novae allow important constraints to be placed on the dust formation process and confirm that graphite, SiC, and SiO{sub 2} grains are formed by the outburst. It is possible that grains from novae were injected into the pre-solar nebula and can be identified with some of the pre-solar grains or ''stardust'' found in meteorites. Finally, g-ray observations during the first several years of their outburst, using the next generation of satellite observatories, could confirm

  20. Liquid Scintillator Production for the NOvA Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Mufson, S.; Baugh, B.; Bower, C.; Coan, T.; Cooper, J.; Corwin, L.; Karty, J.; Mason, P.; Messier, M. D.; Pla-Dalmau, A.; Proudfoot, M.

    2015-04-15

    The NOvA collaboration blended and delivered 8.8 kt (2.72M gal) of liquid scintillator as the active detector medium to its near and far detectors. The composition of this scintillator was specifically developed to satisfy NOvA's performance requirements. A rigorous set of quality control procedures was put in place to verify that the incoming components and the blended scintillator met these requirements. The scintillator was blended commercially in Hammond, IN. The scintillator was shipped to the NOvA detectors using dedicated stainless steel tanker trailers cleaned to food grade.

  1. Eclipse Mapping Experiments in Dwarf Novae Outbursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borges, B. W.; Baptista, R.

    2006-06-01

    In this work, we report the eclipse mapping analysis of CCD photometric data of two short period dwarf novae - V4140 Sgr (Borges & Baptista 2005) and HT Cas (Borges, Baptista & Catalán, in preparation) - during observed outburst events. The analysis of the observations of V4140 Sgr, done between 1991 and 2001, reveals that the object was in the decline from an outburst in 1992 and again in outburst in 2001. A distance of d = 170+/-30 pc is obtained from a method similar to that used to constrain the distance to open clusters. From this distance, disc radial brightness temperature distributions are determined, and the disc temperatures remain below the critical effective temperature T_{crit} at all disc radii during the outburst. The distributions in quiescence and in outburst are significantly different from those of other dwarf novae of similar orbital period. These results cannot be explained within the framework of the disc instability model and the small amplitude outbursts of V4140 Sgr can be due bursts of enhanced mass transfer rate from the secondary star. Our HT Cas data consist of V and R CCD photometric observations done in 2005 November with the 0.95-m James Gregory Telescope (JGT) and cover a outburst cycle. We used the entropy associated to the eclipse maps to obtain the semi-opening disc angle α evolution throught the outburst. The obtained angles are systematically lower than those obtained by Ioannou et al. (1999) and we can conclude that the outburst radial profiles must be flatter than the the T ∝ r^{-3/4} law of steady state dics, against the expectations of the disc instability model. Our intensity radial distributions presents the same ``outside-in'' outburst behavior as obtained by the referred author.

  2. Documentation for the machine-readable version of a deep objective-prism survey for large Magellanic cloud members

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warren, W. H., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    This catalog contains 1273 proven or probable Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) members, as found on deep objective-prism plates taken with the Curtis Schmidt telescope at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory in Chile. The stars are generally brighter than about photographic magnitude 14. Approximate spectral types were determined by examination of the 580 A/mm objective-prism spectra; approximate 1975 positions were obtained by measuring relative to the 1975 coordinate grids on the Uppsala-Mount Stromlo Atlas of the LMC (Gascoigne and Westerlund 1961), and approximate photographic magnitudes were determined by averaging image density measures from the plates and image-diameter measures on the 'B' charts. The machine-readable version of the LMC survey catalog is described to enable users to read and process the tape file without problems or guesswork.

  3. The ARAUCARIA project. OGLE-LMC-CEP-1718: An exotic eclipsing binary system composed of two classical overtone cepheids in a 413 day orbit

    SciTech Connect

    Gieren, Wolfgang; Pilecki, Bogumił; Pietrzyński, Grzegorz; Graczyk, Dariusz; Gallenne, Alexandre E-mail: pietrzyn@astrouw.edu.pl E-mail: dgallenne@astro-udec.cl; and others

    2014-05-10

    We have obtained extensive high-quality spectroscopic observations of the OGLE-LMC-CEP-1718 eclipsing binary system in the Large Magellanic Cloud that Soszyński et al. had identified as a candidate system for containing two classical Cepheids in orbit. Our spectroscopic data clearly demonstrate binary motion of the Cepheids in a 413 day eccentric orbit, rendering this eclipsing binary system the first ever known to consist of 2 classical Cepheid variables. After disentangling the four different radial velocity variations in the system, we present the orbital solution and the individual pulsational radial velocity curves of the Cepheids. We show that both Cepheids are extremely likely to be first overtone pulsators and determine their respective dynamical masses, which turn out to be equal to within 1.5%. Since the secondary eclipse is not observed in the orbital light curve, we cannot derive the individual radii of the Cepheids, but the sum of their radii derived from the photometry is consistent with overtone pulsation for both variables. The existence of two equal-mass Cepheids in a binary system having different pulsation periods (1.96 and 2.48 days, respectively) may pose an interesting challenge to stellar evolution and pulsation theories, and a more detailed study of this system using additional data sets should yield deeper insight about the physics of stellar evolution of Cepheid variables. Future analysis of the system using additional near-infrared photometry might also lead to a better understanding of the systematic uncertainties in current Baade-Wesselink techniques of distance determinations to Cepheid variables.

  4. Comparison of a third Anomalous Low State with a Normal Low State in LMC X-3 with MAXI, Swift, and XMM-Newton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torpin, Trevor; Boyd, Patricia T.; Smale, Alan P.; Valencic, Lynne A.

    2016-04-01

    LMC X-3 is a bright, unusual black hole X-ray binary with high-amplitude, non-periodic long-term variability on the order of hundreds of days, much longer than its 1.7-day orbital period. This long-term variability is believed to be caused by a mass accretion rate change because of an observed lag of the X-rays behind the UV. We have also found LMC X-3 to undergo anomalous low states (ALSs) in which its flux drops dramatically by a factor of about 1000 and stays low for at least 80 days or more. This was last observed in late 2011 into early 2012. LMC X-3 has a rich dataset including observations from JAXA’s MAXI, NASA’s RXTE and Swift, and as well as ESA’s XMM-Newton. MAXI has continuously monitored the system since 2009 and has excellent coverage of the most recent ALS. Swift XRT and UVOT observations have good coverage of LMC X-3’s egress into the ALS as well as complete coverage of an additional normal low state. Using these observations we study the behavior of the system as it enters and exits these states in order to quantify the differences in LMC X-3’s characteristics during an ALS versus normal low state. The ALS has a minimum flux upper limit of ~0.06 mCrab as measured by Swift, while the minimum flux of the normal low state is ~8 mCrab --- more than 130 times brighter. There are also 4 XMM-Newton observations that track LMC X-3’s entrance into the ALS, with the final observation occurring squarely within the ALS. These data reveal a greater than 7500x drop in flux over that time frame. We model these spectra to measure LMC X-3’s spectral evolution into the ALS, and also report what is currently the best measurement we have of the source flux while in an ALS (~0.001 mCrab, which corresponds to less than 2x10-5 Ledd).

  5. A 10 kpc stellar substructure at the edge of the Large Magellanic Cloud: perturbed outer disc or evidence for tidal stripping?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackey, A. D.; Koposov, S. E.; Erkal, D.; Belokurov, V.; Da Costa, G. S.; Gómez, F. A.

    2016-06-01

    We report the discovery of a substantial stellar overdensity in the periphery of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), found using public imaging from the first year of the Dark Energy Survey. The structure appears to emanate from the edge of the outer LMC disc at a radius ≈13.5° due north of its centre, and stretches more than 10 kpc towards the east. It is roughly 1.5 kpc wide and has an integrated V-band luminosity of at least MV = -7.4. The stellar populations in the feature are indistinguishable from those in the outer LMC disc. We attempt to quantify the geometry of the outer disc using simple planar models, and find that only a disc with mild intrinsic ellipticity can simultaneously explain the observed stellar density on the sky and the azimuthal line-of-sight distance profile. We also see possible non-planar behaviour in the outer disc that may reflect a warp and/or flare, as well as deviations that resemble a ring-like structure between {˜ }9° and 12° from the LMC centre. Based on all these observations, we conclude that our remote, stream-like feature is likely comprised of material that has been stripped from the outskirts of the LMC disc, although we cannot rule out that it represents a transient overdensity in the disc itself. We conduct a simple N-body simulation to show that either type of structure could plausibly arise due to the tidal force of the Milky Way; however, we also recognize that a recent close interaction between the LMC and the Small Magellanic Cloud may be the source of the stripping or perturbation. Finally, we observe evidence for extremely diffuse LMC populations extending to radii of ˜18.5 kpc in the disc plane ({≈ } 20° on the sky), corroborating previous spectroscopic detections at comparable distances.

  6. And Yet it Moves: The Dangers of Artificially Fixing the Milky Way Center of Mass in the Presence of a Massive Large Magellanic Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez, Facundo A.; Besla, Gurtina; Carpintero, Daniel D.; Villalobos, Álvaro; O'Shea, Brian W.; Bell, Eric F.

    2015-04-01

    Motivated by recent studies suggesting that the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) could be significantly more massive than previously thought, we explore whether the approximation of an inertial Galactocentric reference frame is still valid in the presence of such a massive LMC. We find that previous estimates of the LMC’s orbital period and apocentric distance derived assuming a fixed Milky Way (MW) are significantly shortened for models where the MW is allowed to move freely in response to the gravitational pull of the LMC. Holding other parameters fixed, the fraction of models favoring first infall is reduced. Due to this interaction, the MW center of mass within the inner 50 kpc can be significantly displaced in phase-space in a very short period of time that ranges from 0.3 to 0.5 Gyr by as much as 30 kpc and 75 km s-1. Furthermore, we show that the gravitational pull of the LMC and response of the MW are likely to significantly affect the orbit and phase space distribution of tidal debris from the Sagittarius dwarf galaxy (Sgr). Such effects are larger than previous estimates based on the torque of the LMC alone. As a result, Sgr deposits debris in regions of the sky that are not aligned with the present-day Sgr orbital plane. In addition, we find that properly accounting for the movement of the MW around its common center of mass with the LMC significantly modifies the angular distance between apocenters and tilts its orbital pole, alleviating tensions between previous models and observations. While these models are preliminary in nature, they highlight the central importance of accounting for the mutual gravitational interaction between the MW and LMC when modeling the kinematics of objects in the MW and Local Group.

  7. Down-the-barrel and Transverse Observations of the Large Magellanic Cloud: Evidence for a Symmetric Galactic Wind on the Near and Far Sides of the Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barger, K. A.; Lehner, N.; Howk, J. C.

    2016-02-01

    We compare the properties of gas flows on both the near and far side of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) disk using Hubble Space Telescope UV absorption-line observations toward an active galactic nucleus behind (transverse) and a star within (down-the-barrel) the LMC disk at an impact parameter of 3.2 {kpc}. We find that even in this relatively quiescent region gas flows away from the disk at speeds up to ˜ 100 {km} {{{s}}}-1 in broad and symmetrical absorption in the low and high ions. The symmetric absorption profiles combined with previous surveys showing little evidence that the ejected gas returns to the LMC and provide compelling evidence that the LMC drives a global, large-scale outflow across its disk, which is the likely result of a recent burst of star formation in the LMC. We find that the outflowing gas is multiphase, ionized by both photoionization (Si ii and Si iii) and collisional ionization (Si iv and C iv). We estimate a total mass and outflow rate to be ≳ {10}7 {M}⊙ and ≳ \\quad 0.4 {M}⊙ {{yr}}-1. Since the velocity of this large-scale outflow does not reach the LMC escape velocity, the gas removal is likely aided by either ram-pressure stripping with the Milky Way (MW) halo or tidal interactions with the surrounding galaxies, implying that the environment of LMC-like or dwarf galaxies plays an important role in their ultimate gas starvation. Finally we reassess the mass and plausible origins of the high-velocity complex toward the LMC given its newly determined distance that places it in the lower MW halo and sky-coverage that shows it extends well beyond the LMC disk. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc. under NASA contract No. NAS5-26555.

  8. NOvA detector technology with intial performance from the surface prototype

    SciTech Connect

    Muether, M.; /Fermilab

    2011-09-01

    NOvA, the NuMI Off-Axis {nu}{sub e} Appearance experiment, will study {nu}{sub {mu}} {yields} {nu}{sub e} oscillations characterized by the mixing angle {Theta}{sub 13}. Provided {Theta}{sub 13} is large enough, NOvA may ultimately determine the ordering of the neutrino masses and measure CP violation in neutrino oscillations. A complementary pair of detectors will be constructed {approx}14 mrad off beam axis to optimize the energy profile of the neutrinos. This system consists of a surface based 14 kTon liquid scintillator tracking volume located 810 km from the main injector source (NuMI) in Ash River, Minnesota and a smaller underground 222 Ton near detector at the Fermilab. The first neutrino signals at the Ash River Site are expected prior to the 2012 accelerator shutdown. In the meantime, a near detector surface prototype has been completed and neutrinos from two Fermilab sources have been observed using the same highly segmented PVC and liquid scintillator detector system that will be deployed in the full scale experiment. Design and initial performance characteristics of this prototype system are being fed back into the design for the full NOvA program.

  9. Superhumps and Reflares in the WZ Sge-Type Dwarf Nova EG CNC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, T.; Nogami, D.; Baba, H.; Masuda, S.; Matsumoto, K.

    EG Cnc is a dwarf nova discovered by Huruhata (1983). No outbursts had been confirmed until 1996 since its last in 1977. The long interval between outbursts and the large (~8 mag) outburst amplitude have strongly suggested that this star belongs to the rare class of WZ Sge-type dwarf novae consisting of only three secure members. Upon VSNET alert on the detection of its second historical outburst by P. Schmeer on 1996 Dec. 30, we undertook extensive CCD photometry using the Osaka Kyoiku University 51 cm telescope and the Ouda 60 cm telescope. Our observation has revealed the existence of two distinct types of superhumps just as were observed in other WZ Sge-type members, WZ Sge and AL Com. The object further showed, for the first time in the history of dwarf novae, repeated ``mini-outbursts" or reflares after its main superoutburst. We discuss from this new observational finding on the relationship between the repeated reflares in EG Cnc and the double superoutburst in AL Com, with a possible implication on the mechanism of similar ``mini-outbursts" observed in the black hole-candidate X-ray transient GRO J0422+32.

  10. The Early Spectral Evolution of the Classical Nova ASASSN-15th in M33

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, R. Mark; Neric, Marko; Darnley, Matt J.; Williams, Steven; Starrfield, Sumner; Woodward, Charles E.; Prieto, Jose Luis

    2016-06-01

    During the course of the All Sky Automated Survey for SuperNovae (ASAS-SN) a new transient source designated ASASSN-15th was identified on images of the nearby galaxy M33 obtained with the 14 cm Brutus telescope in Haleakala, Hawaii on 2015 Dec 1.4 UT at V ~ 16.5 mag. Given the location of the transient in M33 and its apparent V magnitude at discovery, the implied absolute visual magnitude was about -8.5 mag suggesting that the transient was a new classical nova outburst in M33. Optical spectroscopy obtained by us on 2015 Dec 2.3 showed broad emission lines of Balmer, Fe II, and Na I D with P Cygni-type line profiles superposed on a blue continuum. The spectrum was consistent with a Fe II-type classical nova in M33 discovered early in the outburst. Subsequent spectra obtained by us on 2015 Dec 10.9 UT showed significant evolution since our first spectrum in that the deep P Cygni-type line profiles seen earlier were now extremely shallow or had almost completely disappeared with the emission component growing in strength. Additional emission lines from O I, Si II, and possibly He I were also present. We obtained optical spectroscopy of ASASSN-15th on 17 epochs between 2015 Dec 1 and 2016 Feb 11 UT with the 2.4 m Hiltner telescope (+OSMOS) of the MDM Observatory, the 2 m fully robotic Liverpool Telescope (+SPRAT), and the 2 x 8.4 m Large Binocular Telescope (+MODS). We will present our spectroscopy and discuss the early evolution of ASASSN-15th in the context of Galactic Fe II-class novae.

  11. Data handling with SAM and art at the NOvA experiment

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Aurisano, A.; Backhouse, C.; Davies, G. S.; Illingworth, R.; Mayer, N.; Mengel, M.; Norman, A.; Rocco, D.; Zirnstein, J.

    2015-12-23

    During operations, NOvA produces between 5,000 and 7,000 raw files per day with peaks in excess of 12,000. These files must be processed in several stages to produce fully calibrated and reconstructed analysis files. In addition, many simulated neutrino interactions must be produced and processed through the same stages as data. To accommodate the large volume of data and Monte Carlo, production must be possible both on the Fermilab grid and on off-site farms, such as the ones accessible through the Open Science Grid. To handle the challenge of cataloging these files and to facilitate their off-line processing, we havemore » adopted the SAM system developed at Fermilab. SAM indexes files according to metadata, keeps track of each file's physical locations, provides dataset management facilities, and facilitates data transfer to off-site grids. To integrate SAM with Fermilab's art software framework and the NOvA production workflow, we have developed methods to embed metadata into our configuration files, art files, and standalone ROOT files. A module in the art framework propagates the embedded information from configuration files into art files, and from input art files to output art files, allowing us to maintain a complete processing history within our files. Embedding metadata in configuration files also allows configuration files indexed in SAM to be used as inputs to Monte Carlo production jobs. Further, SAM keeps track of the input files used to create each output file. Parentage information enables the construction of self-draining datasets which have become the primary production paradigm used at NOvA. In this study we will present an overview of SAM at NOvA and how it has transformed the file production framework used by the experiment.« less

  12. VizieR Online Data Catalog: LMC post-AGB, post-RGB star and YSOs (Kamath+, 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamath, D.; Wood, P. R.; van Winckel, H.

    2015-06-01

    To obtain an initial sample selection for our spectroscopic survey, we adopted the sample selected by van Aarle et al. (2011A&A...530A..90V, Cat. J/A+A/530/A90), who identified optically visible post-AGB star candidates in the LMC based on photometry. We obtained low-resolution spectra of stars selected from the initial sample of objects. The spectra were taken using the AAOmega double-beam multi-fibre spectrograph mounted on the 3.9m Anglo Australian Telescope (AAT) at Siding Spring Observatory (SSO). AAOmega allows for the simultaneous observation of 392 targets (including science objects, sky-positions, and fiducial guide stars) over a 2 degree field using the 2dF fibre positioner. (11 data files).

  13. Summary of Stimulated Raman Scattering Experiments in the Nova Air-Path and Projected Nova and Nova II System Performance Limits

    SciTech Connect

    Henesian, M; Swift, C D; Murray, J R

    2007-07-17

    The authors present the results of high intensity beam propagation experiments conducted with the Nova laser system to investigate the occurrence of stimulated rotational Raman scattering (SRRS) from atmospheric nitrogen in the beam path. Enclosed is a preprint entitled ''Stimulated Rotational Raman Scattering in Nitrogen in Long Air Paths'' that they have published in the November issue of Optics Letters. The physics issues associated with SRRS are discussed at length in the preprint. The small signal steady-state SRRS gain coefficient that they determined from threshold measurements is in excellent agreement with recent direct SRRS gain measurements by Bischel, et al., at SRI, and is in good agreement with early gain estimates from Averbakh, et al., in the Soviet Union. Consequently, they have a high degree of confidence in the gain coefficient. In addition, threshold SRRS experiments on the long air-path Nova II system are in substantial agreement with the earlier Nova experiments. Nova and Nova II system performance limitations were not critically addressed in the publication so they shall discuss these issues in this paper.

  14. WHT, DIPOL-2 polarimetry of Nova Sgr 2015b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, Eamonn; Berdyugin, Andrei; Redman, Matt

    2015-09-01

    We report polarimetry data from three nights observing of Nova Sgr 2015b (also PNV J18365700-2855420 or V5668 Sgr) with the William Herschel Telescope in the BVR passbands using the DIPOL-2 instrument.

  15. Life after eruption - I. Spectroscopic observations of 10 nova candidates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tappert, C.; Ederoclite, A.; Mennickent, R. E.; Schmidtobreick, L.; Vogt, N.

    2012-07-01

    We have started a project to investigate the connection of post-novae with the population of cataclysmic variables (CVs). Our first steps in this concern improving the sample of known post-novae and their properties. Here we present the recovery and/or confirmation of the old novae MT Cen, V812 Cen, V655 CrA, IL Nor, V2109 Oph, V909 Sgr, V2572 Sgr and V728 Sco. Principal photometric and spectroscopic properties of these systems are discussed. We find that V909 Sgr is a probable magnetic CV, and that V728 Sco is a high-inclination system. We furthermore suggest that the two candidate novae V734 Sco and V1310 Sgr have been misclassified and instead are Mira variables. Based on observations with ESO telescopes, proposal numbers 083.D-0158, 086.D-0428 and 087.D-0323.

  16. Ultraviolet spectroscopy of the recurrent nova U Scorpii during outburst

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, R. E.; Sparks, W. M.; Gallagher, J. S.; Ney, E. P.; Starrfield, S. G.; Truran, J. W.

    1981-01-01

    Observations of the recurrent nova U Sco during the 1979 outburst are presented, and the spectral evolution is found to differ from that of other recurrent novas. Spectra are dominated by emission lines, and the strong forbidden-line emission characteristic is conspicuously absent. A method to determine masses of nova shells is outlined, and an analysis of the emission lines shows an enrichment in N relative to C and O, and that the nova ejecta are rich in He relative to H. Optical spectra of U Sco obtained following its return to quiescence show predominantly He II emission lines, which suggests an enrichment of the preoutburst gas in He, and thus the presence of a highly evolved companion.

  17. Ocean and Coastal Acidification off New England and Nova Scotia

    EPA Science Inventory

    New England coastal and adjacent Nova Scotia shelf waters have a reduced buffering capacity because of significant freshwater input, making the region’s waters potentially more vulnerable to coastal acidification. Nutrient loading and heavy precipitation events further acid...

  18. A Comprehensive Review of Nova-Like Variable Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sion, Edward

    2016-07-01

    A comprehensive review of nova-like variable stars of the VY Sculptoris and UX Ursa Majoris subtypes is presented. All that has been learned, up to the present time, from observations in the X-ray, far ultraviolet, optical and infrared bandpasses will be discussed. Spectroscopic analyses of high optical brightness states and low optical brightness states of nova-like variables will be summarized. The application of standard and non-standard accretion disk models as well as boundary layer structure will be discussed. The results of searches for nova shells, the evolutionary state of nova-likes as well as new spectroscopic results on BZ Cam (the bow shock CV) and BB Dor will also be included. This work is supported by NASA ADP grants NNX13AF12G and NNX13AF11G to Villanova University.

  19. Extensions developed for NOVA/Husky cloud point equation

    SciTech Connect

    Seglin, L. )

    1988-10-24

    Extensions have been developed for the NOVA/Husky cloud point equation that improve the determination of constants for the equation, and optimize the use of available distillate fractions for producing diesel fuels with acceptable cloud points.

  20. Modeling the optical-X-ray accretion lag in LMC X-3: Insights into black-hole accretion physics

    SciTech Connect

    Steiner, James F.; McClintock, Jeffrey E.; Orosz, Jerome A.; Buxton, Michelle M.; Bailyn, Charles D.; Remillard, Ronald A.; Kara, Erin

    2014-03-10

    The X-ray persistence and characteristically soft spectrum of the black hole X-ray binary LMC X-3 make this source a touchstone for penetrating studies of accretion physics. We analyze a rich, ten-year collection of optical/infrared (OIR) time-series data in conjunction with all available contemporaneous X-ray data collected by the All-Sky Monitor and Proportional Counter Array detectors aboard the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer. A cross-correlation analysis reveals an X-ray lag of ≈2 weeks. Motivated by this result, we develop a model that reproduces the complex OIR light curves of LMC X-3. The model is comprised of three components of emission: stellar light, accretion luminosity from the outer disk inferred from the time-lagged X-ray emission, and light from the X-ray-heated star and outer disk. Using the model, we filter a strong noise component out of the ellipsoidal light curves and derive an improved orbital period for the system. Concerning accretion physics, we find that the local viscous timescale in the disk increases with the local mass accretion rate; this in turn implies that the viscosity parameter α decreases with increasing luminosity. Finally, we find that X-ray heating is a strong function of X-ray luminosity below ≈50% of the Eddington limit, while above this limit X-ray heating is heavily suppressed. We ascribe this behavior to the strong dependence of the flaring in the disk upon X-ray luminosity, concluding that for luminosities above ≈50% of Eddington, the star lies fully in the shadow of the disk.

  1. X-ray and Ultraviolet Spectral Evolution of LMC X-3 During Normal and Anomalous Low States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torpin, Trevor; Boyd, P. T.; Smale, A. P.

    2014-01-01

    The bright black-hole X-ray binary LMC X-3 is a lower-mass high-mass X-ray binary with a 1.7 day orbital period. Both the X-ray source and its bright optical/UV companion show non-periodic high amplitude variability on timescales much longer than this (100-300 days). Previous observations do not present a clean picture of whether Roche-lobe overflow or wind accretion is the dominant mechanism driving this dramatic long-term variability. RXTE monitoring has recently revealed that LMC X-3 undergoes surprising anomalous low states (ALSs), during which the X-ray source is virtually indistinguishable from background, and stays low for three to six months at a time (Smale & Boyd 2012). The cause of these ALSs is not known. NASA's Swift telescope is uniquely capable of shedding light on this mystery by providing simultaneous X-ray, UV, and optical observations of the source during its normal long-term variability. Swift has obtained simultaneous multiwavelength data at a variety of X-ray fluxes while the system was displaying its normal variability state, as well as dense monitoring during an ALS and during a recent normal low state. Comparison of X-ray spectral modeling with the UV variability offers the best chance to disentangle the various sources of UV radiation in the system. We present the results of spectral fitting of the Swift XRT and, when available, XMM/Newton spectra which probe the accretion state of the black hole. We compare these with the UV flux arising from the stellar surface and outer accretion disk, searching for correlations and lags that could reveal whether a substantial fraction of the UV flux is due to reprocessing of X-rays within the system, or arises from another mechanism.

  2. AAS Nova and Astrobites: Making current astronomy research accessible

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna; Astrobites Team

    2016-10-01

    AAS Nova and Astrobites are two resources available for astronomers, astronomy students, and astronomy enthusiasts to keep up with some of the most recent research published across the field of astronomy. Both supported by the AAS, these two daily astrophysical literature blogs provide accessible summaries of recent publications on the arXiv and in AAS journals. We present the goals, content, and readership of AAS Nova and Astrobites, and discuss how they might be used as tools in the undergraduate classroom.

  3. Searches for the progenitor of Nova ASASSN-16ig

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, R. K.; Minniti, D.; Catelan, M.; Angeloni, R.; Gutierrez, L. A.

    2016-08-01

    Stanek et al. (ATel #9343) recently reported the discovery of a likely classical nova about 4.2 degrees away from the Galactic center. Nova ASASSN-16ig is located at coordinates RA,DEC(J2000)= 18:01:07.735,-26:31:42.01, corresponding to l,b=3.813,-1.741, within the area covered by the VVV Survey (vvvsurvey.org; Minniti et al. 2010, New Astronomy, 15, 433).

  4. Spectroscopic confirmation of the dwarf nova nature of GR Orionis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arai, Akira; Nogami, Daisaku

    2013-02-01

    We spectroscopically observed GR Ori with the 2.0-m Nayuta Telescope at Nishi-Harima Astronomical Observatory on 2013 February 13. This observation was carried out with the low resolution mode (R~1,000) of the optical spectrograph MALLS which covers the wavelength of 4,000-6,800 A. GR Ori was discovered as a possible nova in 1916 (Thiele 1916, Astron. Nachr., 202, 213), but has long been suspected to be a dwarf nova (e.g.

  5. Optical observations of KT Eri = Nova Eridani 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ragan, E.; Brozek, T.; Suchomska, K.; Skalbania, A.; Konorski, P.; Galan, C.; Swierczynski, E.; Tomov, T.; Mikolajewski, M.; Wychudzki, P.

    2009-12-01

    We report on optical observations of Nova Eri 2009 obtained at the Nicolaus Copernicus University Observatory (Torun, Poland) and the Olsztyn Planetarium and Astronomical Observatory. Using a 60 cm Cassegrain telescope (Torun) and a 25 cm Schmidt-Cassegrain telescope (Olsztyn) we estimated the V brightness of the Nova to ~8.30+/-0.04 mag and ~8.59+/-0.01 mag on Nov. 27.00 UT and Nov. 27.91 UT.

  6. Novae as a Class of Transient X-ray Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukai, K.; Orio, M.; Valle, M. Della

    2007-01-01

    Motivated by the recently discovered class of faint (10(exp 34)-10(exp 35) ergs/s) X-ray transients in the Galactic Center region, we investigate the 2-10 keV properties of classical and recurrent novae. Existing data are consistent with the idea that all classical novae are transient X-ray sources with durations of months to years and peak luminosities in the 10(exp 34)-10(exp 35)ergs/s range. This makes classical novae a viable candidate class for the faint Galactic Center transients. We estimate the rate of classical novae within a 15 arcmin radius region centered on the Galactic Center (roughly the field of view of XMM-Newton observations centered on Sgr A*) to be approx.0.1 per year. Therefore, it is plausible that some of the Galactic Center transients that have been announced to date are unrecognized classical novae. The continuing monitoring of the Galactic Center region carried out by Chandra and XMM-Newton may therefore provide a new method to detect classical novae in this crowded and obscured region, an

  7. Atypical dust species in the ejecta of classical novae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helton, L. A.; Evans, A.; Woodward, C. E.; Gehrz, R. D.

    2011-03-01

    A classical nova outburst arises from a thermonuclear runaway in the hydrogen-rich material accreted onto the surface of a white dwarf in a binary system. These explosions can produce copious amounts of heavy element enriched material that are ejected violently into the surrounding interstellar medium. In some novae, conditions in the ejecta are suitable for the formation of dust of various compositions, including silicates, amorphous carbon, silicon carbide, and hydrocarbons. Multiple dust grain types are sometimes produced in the same system. CO formation in novae may not reach saturation, thus invalidating the usual paradigm in which the C:O ratio determines the dust species. A few novae, such as V705 Cas and DZ Cru, have exhibited emission features near 6, 8, and 11 μmthat are similar to "Unidentified Infrared" (UIR) features, but with significant differences in position and band structure. Here, we present Spitzer IRS spectra of two recent dusty novae, V2361 Cyg and V2362 Cyg, that harbor similar peculiar emission structures superimposed on features arising from carbonaceous grains. In other astronomical objects, such as star forming regions and young stellar objects, emission peaks at 6.2, 7.7, and 11.3 μmhave been associated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) complexes. We suggest that hydrogenated amorphous carbon (HAC) may be the source of these features in novae based upon the spectral behavior of the emission features and the conditions under which the dust formed.

  8. Infrared spectroscopy in the C-H stretching region towards embedded high-mass young stellar objects in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimonishi, Takashi; Dartois, Emmanuel; Onaka, Takashi; Boulanger, François

    2015-08-01

    Since cosmic metallicity is believed to be increasing in time with the evolution of our universe, interstellar chemistry in low metallicity environments is crucial to understand chemical processes in the past universe. The Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) is an excellent target to study such low metallicity interstellar chemistry thanks to its metal-poor environment and proximity. We here report the results of infrared spectroscopic observations of embedded high-mass young stellar objects (YSOs) in the LMC with the Very Large Telescope. We obtained medium resolution spectra in the 3-4 micron range for nine LMC YSOs and detected absorption bands due to solid H2O and CH3OH as well as the 3.47 micron absorption band. The properties of these bands are investigated based on comparisons with Galactic embedded sources. We found that the 3.53 micron CH3OH ice absorption band for the LMC high-mass YSOs is absent or very weak compared to that seen toward Galactic counterparts. We estimate the column densities and abundance of the CH3OH ice using the obtained spectra, which suggests that solid CH3OH is less abundant in the LMC than in our Galaxy. We propose that grain surface reactions at relatively high dust temperature (warm ice chemistry) are responsible for the observed characteristics of ice chemical compositions in the LMC; i.e., the low abundance of solid CH3OH presented in this work as well as the high abundance of solid CO2 reported in previous observations. The 3.47 micron absorption band, which is generally seen in embedded sources, is detected toward five out of nine LMC YSOs. In contrast to the CH3OH ice band, strength ratios of the 3.47 micron band and water ice band are found to be similar between LMC and Galactic samples. Although the carrier of the 3.47 micron band is still under debate, our result suggests that the low metallicity and different interstellar environment of the LMC have little effect on the formation of the band carrier. In this presentation, we

  9. Nova-like cataclysmic variables in the infrared

    SciTech Connect

    Hoard, D. W.; Long, Knox S.; Howell, Steve B.; Wachter, Stefanie; Brinkworth, Carolyn S.; Knigge, Christian; Drew, J. E.; Szkody, Paula; Kafka, S.; Belle, Kunegunda; Ciardi, David R.; Froning, Cynthia S.; Van Belle, Gerard T.; Pretorius, M. L.

    2014-05-01

    Nova-like (NL) cataclysmic variables have persistently high mass transfer rates and prominent steady state accretion disks. We present an analysis of infrared observations of 12 NLs obtained from the Two Micron All Sky Survey, the Spitzer Space Telescope, and the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer All Sky Survey. The presence of an infrared excess at λ ≳ 3-5 μm over the expectation of a theoretical steady state accretion disk is ubiquitous in our sample. The strength of the infrared excess is not correlated with orbital period, but shows a statistically significant correlation (but shallow trend) with system inclination that might be partially (but not completely) linked to the increasing view of the cooler outer accretion disk and disk rim at higher inclinations. We discuss the possible origin of the infrared excess in terms of emission from bremsstrahlung or circumbinary dust, with either mechanism facilitated by the mass outflows (e.g., disk wind/corona, accretion stream overflow, and so on) present in NLs. Our comparison of the relative advantages and disadvantages of either mechanism for explaining the observations suggests that the situation is rather ambiguous, largely circumstantial, and in need of stricter observational constraints.

  10. Overview of the SuperNova/Acceleration probe (SNAP)

    SciTech Connect

    galdering@lbl.gov

    2002-07-29

    The SuperNova/Acceleration Probe (SNAP) is a space-based experiment to measure the expansion history of the Universe and study both its dark energy and the dark matter. The experiment is motivated by the startling discovery that the expansion of the Universe is accelerating. A 0.7 square-degree imager comprised of 36 large format fully-depleted n-type CCD's sharing a focal plane with 36 HgCdTe detectors forms the heart of SNAP, allowing discovery and lightcurve measurements simultaneously for many supernovae. The imager and a high-efficiency low-resolution integral field spectrograph are coupled to a 2-m three mirror anastigmat wide-field telescope, which will be placed in a high-earth orbit. The SNAP mission can obtain high-signal-to-noise calibrated light-curves and spectra for over 2000 Type Ia supernovae at redshifts between z = 0.1 and 1.7. The resulting data set can not only determine the amount of dark energy with high precision, but test the nature of the dark energy by examining its equation of state. In particular, dark energy due to a cosmological constant can be differentiated from alternatives such as ''quintessence'', by measuring the dark energy's equation of state to an accuracy of {+-} 0.05, and by studying its time dependence.

  11. Nova-like Cataclysmic Variables in the Infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoard, D. W.; Long, Knox S.; Howell, Steve B.; Wachter, Stefanie; Brinkworth, Carolyn S.; Knigge, Christian; Drew, J. E.; Szkody, Paula; Kafka, S.; Belle, Kunegunda; Ciardi, David R.; Froning, Cynthia S.; van Belle, Gerard T.; Pretorius, M. L.

    2014-05-01

    Nova-like (NL) cataclysmic variables have persistently high mass transfer rates and prominent steady state accretion disks. We present an analysis of infrared observations of 12 NLs obtained from the Two Micron All Sky Survey, the Spitzer Space Telescope, and the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer All Sky Survey. The presence of an infrared excess at λ >~ 3-5 μm over the expectation of a theoretical steady state accretion disk is ubiquitous in our sample. The strength of the infrared excess is not correlated with orbital period, but shows a statistically significant correlation (but shallow trend) with system inclination that might be partially (but not completely) linked to the increasing view of the cooler outer accretion disk and disk rim at higher inclinations. We discuss the possible origin of the infrared excess in terms of emission from bremsstrahlung or circumbinary dust, with either mechanism facilitated by the mass outflows (e.g., disk wind/corona, accretion stream overflow, and so on) present in NLs. Our comparison of the relative advantages and disadvantages of either mechanism for explaining the observations suggests that the situation is rather ambiguous, largely circumstantial, and in need of stricter observational constraints.

  12. Uranium series isotopes in the Avon Valley, Nova Scotia.

    PubMed

    Kronfeld, J; Godfrey-Smith, D I; Johannessen, D; Zentilli, M

    2004-01-01

    An U-series isotopic study was carried out in the waters of the Avon Valley, Nova Scotia. The fresh and acidic recharge waters flow rapidly through the watershed composed of a granitic highland and a sedimentary, largely carbonate, lowland plain, before draining to the sea. There is no significant anthropogenic pollution; but, naturally elevated U levels can be encountered within the bedrock. Nonetheless, the U concentrations of the surface and groundwater are low (generally within the range of several hundredths to several tenths of a microg l(-1)), except in the proximity to weathering of U mineralization. The dissolved U in the surface waters appears to be stabilized by organic rather than inorganic complexes. Both the groundwaters and surface waters have similar (234)U/(238)U activity ratios that rarely deviate from secular equilibrium by more than 20% throughout the watershed. The magnitude of the (234)U/(238)U activity ratio is not determined by lithology but rather by the weathering mechanism, the high rate of flushing, and the leaching of local U mineralization. Dissolved Ra is consistently absent. The dissolved Rn concentrations, though variable, are measurable even in surface waters. This may be due to a continual degassing from the U-enriched bedrock or release from local sites of U mineralization underlying the surface water sources.

  13. ARAS Optical Spectroscopy of Classical Nova ASASSN-16ig (Nova Sgr 2016 no. 2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garde, Olivier; Charbonnel, Stephane; Du, Pascal Le

    2016-08-01

    We obtained a series of optical of the classical nova ASASSN-16ig in Sagittarius (N Sgr 2016 no. 2) (see ATels #9375, #9343, #9352, #9359, CBET 4295, 4299) with a LISA spectrograph plus ATIK414EX CCD using a C14 at Obs. Hautes Provence on Aug. 13.83 UT and 14.49 UT with total exposures of about 6000 sec each at a resolution of around 700 covering the interval 4000 - 7550 A with sufficient S/N ratio ( > 10). The spectra on both days are show the early optically thick "Fe curtain" stage of the ejecta expansion with the usual low ionization spectrum.

  14. Another neon nova - Early infrared photometry and spectroscopy of Nova Cygni 1992

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayward, T. L.; Gehrz, R. D.; Miles, J. W.; Houck, J. R.

    1992-01-01

    Infrared photometry and spectrophotometry of Nova Cygni 1992 taken within 54 days of its eruption show a strong 12.8-micron Ne II forbidden emission line as well as hydrogen recombination lines. Spectra with lambda/Delta lambda of about 2000 resolve the Ne II forbidden and 12.37-micron Hu-alpha lines with about 2200 km/s (FWHM). The Ne II forbidden line shows multiple velocity components. The amount of forbidden Ne II required to produce the observed emission feature exceeds the solar abundance of neon by at least a factor of 4.

  15. NOVA2-mediated RNA regulation is required for axonal pathfinding during development

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Yuhki; Miranda-Rottmann, Soledad; Ruggiu, Matteo; Park, Christopher Y; Fak, John J; Zhong, Ru; Duncan, Jeremy S; Fabella, Brian A; Junge, Harald J; Chen, Zhe; Araya, Roberto; Fritzsch, Bernd; Hudspeth, A J; Darnell, Robert B

    2016-01-01

    The neuron specific RNA-binding proteins NOVA1 and NOVA2 are highly homologous alternative splicing regulators. NOVA proteins regulate at least 700 alternative splicing events in vivo, yet relatively little is known about the biologic consequences of NOVA action and in particular about functional differences between NOVA1 and NOVA2. Transcriptome-wide searches for isoform-specific functions, using NOVA1 and NOVA2 specific HITS-CLIP and RNA-seq data from mouse cortex lacking either NOVA isoform, reveals that NOVA2 uniquely regulates alternative splicing events of a series of axon guidance related genes during cortical development. Corresponding axonal pathfinding defects were specific to NOVA2 deficiency: Nova2-/- but not Nova1-/- mice had agenesis of the corpus callosum, and axonal outgrowth defects specific to ventral motoneuron axons and efferent innervation of the cochlea. Thus we have discovered that NOVA2 uniquely regulates alternative splicing of a coordinate set of transcripts encoding key components in cortical, brainstem and spinal axon guidance/outgrowth pathways during neural differentiation, with severe functional consequences in vivo. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.14371.001 PMID:27223325

  16. PHASE-RESOLVED INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY AND PHOTOMETRY OF V1500 CYGNI, AND A SEARCH FOR SIMILAR OLD CLASSICAL NOVAE

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, Thomas E.; Campbell, Randy D.; Lyke, James E. E-mail: jlyke@keck.hawaii.edu

    2013-08-01

    We present phase-resolved near-infrared photometry and spectroscopy of the classical nova (CN) V1500 Cyg to explore whether cyclotron emission is present in this system. While the spectroscopy do not indicate the presence of discrete cyclotron harmonic emission, the light curves suggest that a sizable fraction of its near-infrared fluxes are due to this component. The light curves of V1500 Cyg appear to remain dominated by emission from the heated face of the secondary star in this system. We have used infrared spectroscopy and photometry to search for other potential magnetic systems among old CNe. We have found that the infrared light curves of V1974 Cyg superficially resemble those of V1500 Cyg, suggesting a highly irradiated companion. The old novae V446 Her and QV Vul have light curves with large amplitude variations like those seen in polars, suggesting they might have magnetic primaries. We extract photometry for 79 old novae from the Two Micron All Sky Survey Point Source Catalog and use those data to derive the mean, un-reddened infrared colors of quiescent novae. We also extract WISE data for these objects and find that 45 of them were detected. Surprisingly, a number of these systems were detected in the WISE 22 {mu}m band. While two of those objects produced significant dust shells (V705 Cas and V445 Pup), the others did not. It appears that line emission from their ionized ejected shells is the most likely explanation for those detections.

  17. The 2011 outburst of recurrent nova T PYX: Radio observations reveal the ejecta mass and hint at complex mass loss

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, Thomas; Chomiuk, Laura; Roy, Nirupam; Krauss, Miriam I.; Mioduszewski, Amy J.; Rupen, Michael P.; Sokoloski, J. L.; Weston, Jennifer; Mukai, Koji

    2014-04-10

    Despite being the prototype of its class, T Pyx is arguably the most unusual and poorly understood recurrent nova. Here, we use radio observations from the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array to trace the evolution of the ejecta over the course of the 2011 outburst of T Pyx. The radio emission is broadly consistent with thermal emission from the nova ejecta. However, the radio flux began rising surprisingly late in the outburst, indicating that the bulk of the radio-emitting material was either very cold, or expanding very slowly, for the first ∼50 days of the outburst. Considering a plausible range of volume filling factors and geometries for the ejecta, we find that the high peak flux densities of the radio emission require a massive ejection of (1-30) × 10{sup –5} M {sub ☉}. This ejecta mass is much higher than the values normally associated with recurrent novae, and is more consistent with a nova on a white dwarf well below the Chandrasekhar limit.

  18. A pre-outburst signal in the long-term optical light curve of the recurrent nova RS Ophiuchi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamakis, S.; Eyres, S. P. S.; Sarkar, A.; Walsh, R. W.

    2011-07-01

    Recurrent novae are binary stars in which a white dwarf accretes matter from a less evolved companion, either a red giant or a main-sequence star. They have dramatic optical brightenings of around 5-6 mag in V in less than a day, several times a century. These occur at variable and unpredictable intervals, and are followed by an optical decline over several weeks and activity from the X-ray to the radio. The unpredictability of recurrent novae and related stellar types can hamper systematic study of their outbursts. Here we analyse the long-term light curve of RS Ophiuchi, a recurrent nova with six confirmed outbursts, most recently in 2006 February. We confirm the previously suspected 1945 outburst, largely obscured in a seasonal gap. We also find a signal via wavelet analysis that can be used to predict an incipient outburst up to a few hundred days before hand. This has never before been possible. In addition, this may suggest that the preferred thermonuclear runaway mechanism for the outbursts will have to be modified, as no pre-outburst signal is anticipated in that case. If our result indeed points to gaps in our understanding of how outbursts are driven, we will need to study such objects carefully to determine if the white dwarf is growing in mass, an essential factor if these systems are to become Type Ia supernovae. Determining the likelihood of recurrent novae being an important source population will have implications for stellar and galaxy evolution.

  19. GALACTO-FORENSIC OF LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD'S ORBITAL HISTORY AS A PROBE FOR THE DARK MATTER POTENTIAL IN THE OUTSKIRTS OF THE GALAXY

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Xiaojia; Lin, Douglas N. C.; Burkert, Andreas; Oser, Ludwig

    2012-11-10

    The three-dimensional observed velocities of the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds (LMC and SMC) provide an opportunity to probe the Galactic potential in the outskirt of the Galactic halo. Based on a canonical NFW model of the Galactic potential, Besla et al. reconstructed LMC and SMC's orbits and suggested that they are currently on their first perigalacticon passage about the Galaxy. Motivated by several recent revisions of the Sun's motion around the Galactic center, we re-examine the LMC's orbital history and show that it depends sensitively on the dark matter's mass distribution beyond its present Galactic distance. We utilize results of numerical simulations to consider a range of possible structural and evolutionary models for the Galactic potentials. We find that within the theoretical and observational uncertainties, it is possible for the LMC to have had multiple perigalacticon passages on the Hubble timescale, especially if the Galactic circular velocity at the location of the Sun is greater than {approx}228 km s{sup -1}. Based on these models, a more accurate determination of the LMC's motion may be used to determine the dark matter distribution in the outskirt of the Galactic halo.

  20. Recent results from the Nova experiments program

    SciTech Connect

    Kauffman, R.L.; Cable, M.D.; Campbell, E.M.; Glendinning, S.G.; Hatcher, C.W.; Hatchett, S.P.; Kania, D.R.; Kilkenny, J.D.; Kornblum, H.N.; Kyrazis, D.T.

    1988-10-01

    I review recent experimental results using the Nova laser. The experiments primarily address the physics of indirect-drive ICF. These experiments include investigating high-Z plasmas and radiation production, hydrodynamic stability, and high convergence implosions. The high-Z plasma experiments used a variety of targets to study the complex dynamics and ionization physics of high-Z plasmas. In long pulse irradiations of Au disks with 0.35-..mu..m light, x-ray conversion efficiencies greater than 70% have been demonstrated. In collaboration with AWE, we have quantitatively measured material mix at an unstable accelerated interface. In other experiments, we have observed growth of modulations due to Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities in accelerated samples. Radiation-driven implosions experiments have demonstrated radial convergences of 30 fold with good agreement with one-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations. Presently these experiments are limited to about 20 kJ of 0.35-..mu..m light due to damage in the amplifier glass. We are presently installing new amplifier glass which will allow routine operation at 120 kJ of 1..omega.. light in a 2.5-ns pulse. In addition, we are significantly increasing our ability to measure and control the laser pulse shape. With these improvements, we will be able to perform high-power pulse-shaped experiments needed for high density implosions. 2 refs., 4 figs.

  1. A nebula around Nova BT Monocerotis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marsh, T. R.; Oke, J. B.; Wade, R. A.

    1983-01-01

    H-alpha observations of Nova BT Mon obtained on December 15, 1981 using an 800x800-pixel CCD detector on the double spectrograph of the 5-m Hale telescope at Palomar Observatory are reported. The reciprocal dispersion at H-alpha was 6.04 A/pixel and the angular scale along the 1.0-arcsec-wide east-west slit was 0.58 arcsec/pixel; resolution of the combined, processed image is about 12 A. A ring-shaped nebular emission with a center displaced slightly from the stellar image and an expansion distance to BT Mon of about 1800 pc was detected. The velocity diameter is found to be about 1500 km/sec along the ridge line and 2100 km/sec along the 10-unit contour. The mass of the visible nebula is estimated as 0.00003 solar mass, similar to the BT Mon ejection mass determined by Schaefer and Patterson (1983).

  2. Supernova experiments on the Nova Laser

    SciTech Connect

    Kane, J.; Arnett, D.; Remington, B.A.; Glendinning, S.G.; Wallace, R.; Rubenchik, A.; Fryxell, B.A.

    1997-12-02

    Supernova (SN) 1987A focused attention on the critical role of hydrodynamic instabilities in the evolution of supernovae. To test the modeling of these instabilities, we are developing laboratory experiments of hydrodynamic mixing under conditions relevant to supernovae. Initial results were reported in [l]. The Nova laser is used to generate a 10-15 Mbar shock at the interface of a two-layer planar target, which triggers perturbation growth, due to the Richtmyer-Meshkov and Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities as the interface decelerates. This resembles the hydrodynamics of the He-H interface of a Type II supernova at intermediate times, up to a few x10{sup 3} s. The experiment is modeled using the hydrodynamics codes HYADES and CALE, and the supernova code PROMETHEUS. Results of the experiments and simulations are presented. New analysis of the bubble velocity is presented, as well as a study of 2D vs. 3D difference in growth at the He-H interface of SN 1987A.

  3. Supernova Experiments on the Nova Laser

    SciTech Connect

    Kane, J.; Arnett, D.; Remington, B. A.; Glendinning, S. G.; Bazan, G.; Drake, R. P.; Fryxell, B. A.

    2000-04-01

    Supernova (SN) 1987A focused attention on the critical role of hydrodynamic instabilities in the evolution of supernovae. To test the modeling of these instabilities, we are developing laboratory experiments of hydrodynamic mixing under conditions relevant to supernovae. Initial results were reported by Kane et al. in a recent paper. The Nova laser is used to generate a 10-15 Mbar shock at the interface of a two-layer planar target, which triggers perturbation growth, due to the Richtmeyer-Meshkov instability, and to the Rayleigh-Taylor instability as the interface decelerates. This resembles the hydrodynamics of the He-H interface of a Type II supernova at intermediate times, up to a few times 10{sup 3} s. The experiment is modeled using the hydrodynamics codes HYADES and CALE, and the supernova code PROMETHEUS. Results of the experiments and simulations are presented. We also present new analysis of the bubble velocity, a study of two-dimensional versus three-dimensional difference in growth at the He-H interface of SN 1987A, and designs for two-dimensional versus three-dimensional hydro experiments. (c) 2000 The American Astronomical Society.

  4. The Evolution of Massive Young Stellar Objects in the Large Magellanic Cloud. II. Thermal Processing of Circumstellar Ices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seale, Jonathan P.; Looney, Leslie W.; Chen, C.-H. Rosie; Chu, You-Hua; Gruendl, Robert A.

    2011-01-01

    We present Spitzer Space Telescope spectroscopy of the CO2 ice absorption feature at 15.2 μm toward 41 high-mass young stellar objects in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). As the shape of the CO2 absorption profile is a measure of both the composition and thermal history of the ice, we have performed a decomposition of the spectral profiles to determine the nature of the CO2 ice. We fit the absorption profiles to laboratory analogues of ice spectra with two different methods: (1) a five-component fit with polar and apolar ices and (2) a two-component fit with a polar and an annealed H2O:CH3OH:CO2 ice mixture. Many of the LMC sources have a pronounced double peak in their CO2 feature profiles analogous to that seen from pure CO2 or annealed CO2 laboratory ice mixtures; these represent the first direct detections of the characteristic double peak in an extragalactic environment. Fits to annealed laboratory ices suggest that the ices around massive LMC young stellar objects (YSOs) have been warmed and thermally processed. We find that a majority of the CO2 is embedded in a polar ice matrix; however, the observations suggest that a lower fraction of CO2 is locked in polar ices in the LMC compared to the Milky Way, which is in agreement with the proposed lower LMC abundance of water ice. In addition, we find that the ices are best fit with laboratory ice mixtures composed of less than 50% methanol, and most absorption spectra can be fit by ices with no methanol. Finally, we corroborate mounting evidence of an enhanced CO2 ice abundance in the LMC relative to the Milky Way, and determine a CO2/H2O ratio of 0.33 ± 0.01 by combining the column densities of these observations with those in the literature.

  5. Thermal stability and nova cycles in permanent superhump systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Retter, A.; Naylor, T.

    2000-12-01

    Archival data on permanent superhump systems are compiled to test the thermal stability of their accretion discs. We find that their discs are almost certainly thermally stable as expected. This result confirms Osaki's suggestion that permanent superhump systems form a new subclass of cataclysmic variables (CVs), with relatively short orbital periods and high mass-transfer rates. We note that if the high accretion rates estimated in permanent superhump systems represent their mean secular values, then their mass-transfer rates cannot be explained by gravitational radiation, therefore, either magnetic braking should be extrapolated to systems below the period gap or they must have mass-transfer cycles. Alternatively, a new mechanism that removes angular momentum from CVs below the gap should be invoked. We suggest applying the nova cycle scenarios offered for systems above the period gap to the short orbital period CVs. Permanent superhumps have been observed in the two non-magnetic ex-novae with binary periods below the gap. Their post-nova magnitudes are brighter than their pre-outburst values. In one case (V1974 Cyg) it has been demonstrated that the pre-nova should have been a regular SU UMa system. Thus, it is the first nova whose accretion disc was observed to change its thermal stability. If the superhumps in this system indicate persistent high mass-transfer rates rather than a temporary change induced by irradiation from the hot post-nova white dwarf, it is the first direct evidence for mass-transfer cycles in CVs. The proposed cycles are driven by the nova eruption.

  6. Outburst of the recurrent nova V745 Sco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waagen, Elizabeth O.

    2014-02-01

    The outburst of the recurrent nova V745 Sco (Nova Sco 1937) by Rod Stubbings (Tetoora Road, VIC, Australia) at visual magnitude 9.0 on 2014 February 6.694 UT is reported. This recurrent nova is fading quickly. Follow-up observations of all types (visual, CCD, DSLR) are strongly encouraged, as is spectroscopy; fast time-series of this nova may be useful to detect possible flaring activity as was observed during the outburst of U Scorpii in 2010. Coincident time-series by multiple observers would be most useful for such a study, with a V-filter being preferred. Observations reported to the AAVSO International Database show V745 Sco at visual mag. 10.2 on 2014 Feb. 07.85833 UT (A. Pearce, Nedlands, W. Australia). Finder charts with sequence may be created using the AAVSO Variable Star Plotter (http://www.aavso.org/vsp). Observations should be submitted to the AAVSO International Database. Previous outbursts occurred in 1937 and 1989. The 1937 outburst was detected in 1958 (in decline at magnitude 11.0 on 1937 May 11.1 UT; outburst had occurred within the previous 19 days) by Lukas Plaut on plates taken by Hendrik van Gent at the Leiden Observatory; the object was announced as Nova Sco 1937 and later assigned the GCVS name V745 Sco. The 1989 outburst was detected on 1989 August 1.55 UT by Mati Morel (MMAT, Thornton, NSW, Australia) at visual magnitude 10.4 and in decline. Dr. Bradley Schaefer (Louisiana State University) reports (2010ApJS..187..275S) in his comprehensive analysis of the 10 known galactic recurrent novae (including V745 Sco) that the median interval between recurrent novae outbursts is 24 years. The interval since the 1989 outburst of V745 Sco is 24.10 years. See the Alert Notice for additional visual and multicolor photometry and for more details.

  7. Gamma-ray novae as probes of relativistic particle acceleration at non-relativistic shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metzger, B. D.; Finzell, T.; Vurm, I.; Hascoët, R.; Beloborodov, A. M.; Chomiuk, L.

    2015-07-01

    The Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) discovery that classical novae produce ≳100 MeV gamma-rays establishes that shocks and relativistic particle acceleration are key features of these events. These shocks are likely to be radiative due to the high densities of the nova ejecta at early times coincident with the gamma-ray emission. Thermal X-rays radiated behind the shock are absorbed by neutral gas and reprocessed into optical emission, similar to Type IIn (interacting) supernovae. Gamma-rays are produced by collisions between relativistic protons with the nova ejecta (hadronic scenario) or inverse Compton/bremsstrahlung emission from relativistic electrons (leptonic scenario), where in both scenarios the efficiency for converting relativistic particle energy into LAT gamma-rays is at most a few tens of per cent. The measured ratio of gamma-ray and optical luminosities, Lγ/Lopt, thus sets a lower limit on the fraction of the shock power used to accelerate relativistic particles, ɛnth. The measured value of Lγ/Lopt for two classical novae, V1324 Sco and V339 Del, constrains ɛnth ≳ 10-2 and ≳10-3, respectively. Leptonic models for the gamma-ray emission are disfavoured given the low electron acceleration efficiency, ɛnth ˜ 10-4-10-3, inferred from observations of Galactic cosmic rays and particle-in-cell numerical simulations. A fraction fsh ≳ 100(ɛnth/0.01)-1 and ≳10(ɛnth/0.01)-1 per cent of the optical luminosity is powered by shocks in V1324 Sco and V339 Del, respectively. Such high fractions challenge standard models that instead attribute all nova optical emission to the direct outwards transport of thermal energy released near the white dwarf surface. We predict hard ˜10-100 keV X-ray emission coincident with the LAT emission, which should be detectable by NuSTAR or ASTRO-H, even at times when softer ≲10 keV emission is absorbed by neutral gas ahead of the shocks.

  8. A Refined QSO Selection Method Using Diagnostics Tests: 663 QSO Candidates in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dae-Won; Protopapas, Pavlos; Trichas, Markos; Rowan-Robinson, Michael; Khardon, Roni; Alcock, Charles; Byun, Yong-Ik

    2012-03-01

    We present 663 QSO candidates in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) selected using multiple diagnostics. We started with a set of 2566 QSO candidates selected using the methodology presented in our previous work based on time variability of the MACHO LMC light curves. We then obtained additional information for the candidates by crossmatching them with the Spitzer SAGE, the Two Micron All Sky Survey, the Chandra, the XMM, and an LMC UBVI catalog. Using this information, we specified six diagnostic features based on mid-IR colors, photometric redshifts using spectral energy distribution template fitting, and X-ray luminosities in order to further discriminate high-confidence QSO candidates in the absence of spectra information. We then trained a one-class Support Vector Machine model using the diagnostics features of the confirmed 58 MACHO QSOs. We applied the trained model to the original candidates and finally selected 663 high-confidence QSO candidates. Furthermore, we crossmatched these 663 QSO candidates with the newly confirmed 151 QSOs and 275 non-QSOs in the LMC fields. On the basis of the counterpart analysis, we found that the false positive rate is less than 1%.

  9. A REFINED QSO SELECTION METHOD USING DIAGNOSTICS TESTS: 663 QSO CANDIDATES IN THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Dae-Won; Protopapas, Pavlos; Trichas, Markos; Alcock, Charles; Rowan-Robinson, Michael; Khardon, Roni; Byun, Yong-Ik

    2012-03-10

    We present 663 QSO candidates in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) selected using multiple diagnostics. We started with a set of 2566 QSO candidates selected using the methodology presented in our previous work based on time variability of the MACHO LMC light curves. We then obtained additional information for the candidates by crossmatching them with the Spitzer SAGE, the Two Micron All Sky Survey, the Chandra, the XMM, and an LMC UBVI catalog. Using this information, we specified six diagnostic features based on mid-IR colors, photometric redshifts using spectral energy distribution template fitting, and X-ray luminosities in order to further discriminate high-confidence QSO candidates in the absence of spectra information. We then trained a one-class Support Vector Machine model using the diagnostics features of the confirmed 58 MACHO QSOs. We applied the trained model to the original candidates and finally selected 663 high-confidence QSO candidates. Furthermore, we crossmatched these 663 QSO candidates with the newly confirmed 151 QSOs and 275 non-QSOs in the LMC fields. On the basis of the counterpart analysis, we found that the false positive rate is less than 1%.

  10. Radio Emission Toward Regions of Massive Star Formation in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johanson, Adam K.

    2015-01-01

    Four regions of massive star formation in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) were observed for water and methanol maser emission and radio continuum emission. A total of 42 radio detections were made including 27 new radio sources, four water masers, and eight compact H II regions. The lobes of a radio galaxy were resolved for the first time, and the host galaxy identified. Seven sources were associated with known massive young stellar objects (YSOs). A multi-wavelength analysis using both the infrared and radio spectrum was used to characterize the sources. Mid-infrared color-magnitude selection criteria for ultracompact H II (UCHII) regions in the LMC are presented, yielding 136 UCHII region candidates throughout that galaxy. New maser detections identified two previously unknown massive YSOs. No methanol masers were detected, consistent with previous studies and supporting the hypothesis that the LMC may be deficient in these molecules. These discoveries contribute to the history of star formation in the LMC, which will lead to a better understanding of star formation in the Milky Way and throughout the universe.

  11. An eclipsing-binary distance to the Large Magellanic Cloud accurate to two per cent.

    PubMed

    Pietrzyński, G; Graczyk, D; Gieren, W; Thompson, I B; Pilecki, B; Udalski, A; Soszyński, I; Kozłowski, S; Konorski, P; Suchomska, K; Bono, G; Moroni, P G Prada; Villanova, S; Nardetto, N; Bresolin, F; Kudritzki, R P; Storm, J; Gallenne, A; Smolec, R; Minniti, D; Kubiak, M; Szymański, M K; Poleski, R; Wyrzykowski, L; Ulaczyk, K; Pietrukowicz, P; Górski, M; Karczmarek, P

    2013-03-01

    In the era of precision cosmology, it is essential to determine the Hubble constant to an accuracy of three per cent or better. At present, its uncertainty is dominated by the uncertainty in the distance to the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), which, being our second-closest galaxy, serves as the best anchor point for the cosmic distance scale. Observations of eclipsing binaries offer a unique opportunity to measure stellar parameters and distances precisely and accurately. The eclipsing-binary method was previously applied to the LMC, but the accuracy of the distance results was lessened by the need to model the bright, early-type systems used in those studies. Here we report determinations of the distances to eight long-period, late-type eclipsing systems in the LMC, composed of cool, giant stars. For these systems, we can accurately measure both the linear and the angular sizes of their components and avoid the most important problems related to the hot, early-type systems. The LMC distance that we derive from these systems (49.97 ± 0.19 (statistical) ± 1.11 (systematic) kiloparsecs) is accurate to 2.2 per cent and provides a firm base for a 3-per-cent determination of the Hubble constant, with prospects for improvement to 2 per cent in the future. PMID:23467166

  12. Discovery of a loose star cluster in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piatti, Andrés E.

    2016-06-01

    We present results for an up-to-date uncatalogued star cluster projected towards the Eastern side of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) outer disc. The new object was discovered from a search of loose star cluster in the Magellanic Clouds' (MCs) outskirts using kernel density estimators on Washington CT1 deep images. Contrarily to what would be commonly expected, the star cluster resulted to be a young object (log(t yr-1) = 8.45) with a slightly subsolar metal content (Z = 0.013) and a total mass of 650 M⊙. Its core, half-mass and tidal radii also are within the frequent values of LMC star clusters. However, the new star cluster is placed at the Small Magellanic Cloud distance and at 11.3 kpc from the LMC centre. We speculate with the possibility that it was born in the inner body of the LMC and soon after expelled into the intergalactic space during the recent Milky Way/MCs interaction. Nevertheless, radial velocity and chemical abundance measurements are needed to further understand its origin, as well as extensive search for loose star clusters in order to constrain the effectiveness of star cluster scattering during galaxy interactions.

  13. Distribution of hot stars and hydrogen in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    SciTech Connect

    Page, T.; Carruthers, G.R.

    1981-09-15

    Imagery of the Large Magellanic Cloud, in the wavelengh ranges 1050--1600 and 1250--1600 A, was obtained by the S201 far ultraviolet camera during the Apollo 16 mission in 1972 April. These images have been reduced to absolute far-UV intensity distributions over the area of the LMC, with 3'-5' angular resolution. Comparison of our far-UV measurements in the LMC with H..cap alpha.. and 21 cm surveys reveals that interstellar hydrogen in the LMC is often concentrated in 100 pc clouds within the 500 pc clouds detected by McGee and Milton. Furthermore, at least 25 associations of O and B stars in the LMC are outside the interstellar hydrogen clouds; four of them appear to be on the far side. Far-UV and mid-UV spectra were obtained of stars in 12 of these associations, using the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE). Equivalent widths of L..cap alpha.. and six other lines, and relative intensities of the continuum at seven wavelengths from 1300 to 2900 A, have been measured and are discussed.

  14. Embedded Clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud Using the VISTA Magellanic Clouds Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romita, Krista; Lada, Elizabeth; Cioni, Maria-Rosa

    2016-04-01

    We present initial results of the first large-scale survey of embedded star clusters in molecular clouds in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) using near-infrared imaging from the Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy Magellanic Clouds Survey. We explored a ∼1.65 deg2 area of the LMC, which contains the well-known star-forming region 30 Doradus as well as ∼14% of the galaxy’s CO clouds, and identified 67 embedded cluster candidates, 45 of which are newly discovered as clusters. We have determined the sizes, luminosities, and masses for these embedded clusters, examined the star formation rates (SFRs) of their corresponding molecular clouds, and made a comparison between the LMC and the Milky Way. Our preliminary results indicate that embedded clusters in the LMC are generally larger, more luminous, and more massive than those in the local Milky Way. We also find that the surface densities of both embedded clusters and molecular clouds is ∼3 times higher than in our local environment, the embedded cluster mass surface density is ∼40 times higher, the SFR is ∼20 times higher, and the star formation efficiency is ∼10 times higher. Despite these differences, the SFRs of the LMC molecular clouds are consistent with the SFR scaling law presented in Lada et al. This consistency indicates that while the conditions of embedded cluster formation may vary between environments, the overall process within molecular clouds may be universal. Based on observations made with VISTA at the Paranal Observatory under program ID 179.B-2003.

  15. Magellanic Cloud Structure from Near-Infrared Surveys. II. Star Count Maps and the Intrinsic Elongation of the Large Magellanic Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Marel, Roeland P.

    2001-10-01

    I construct a near-IR star count map of the LMC and demonstrate, using the viewing angles derived in Paper I, that the LMC is intrinsically elongated. I argue that this is due to the tidal force from the Milky Way. The near-IR data from the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) and the Deep Near-Infrared Southern Sky Survey (DENIS) are ideally suited for studies of LMC structure because of the large statistics and insensitivity to dust absorption. The survey data are used to create a star count map of red giant branch and asymptotic giant branch stars. The resulting LMC image shows the well-known bar but is otherwise quite smooth. Ellipse fitting is used for quantitative analysis. The radial number density profile is approximately exponential, with a scale length rd~1.3-1.5 kpc. However, there is an excess density at large radii that may be due to the tidal effect of the Milky Way. The position angle and ellipticity profile both show large radial variations but converge to P.A.maj=189.3d+/-1.4d and ɛ=0.199+/-0.008 for r>~5deg. At large radii, the image is influenced by viewing perspective (i.e., one side of the inclined LMC plane being closer to us than the other). This causes a drift of the center of the star count contours toward the near side of the plane. The observed drift is consistent with the position angle Θ=122.5d+/-8.3d of the list of nodes inferred in Paper I. The fact that Θ differs from P.A.maj indicates that the LMC disk is not circular. Deprojection shows that the LMC has an intrinsic ellipticity ɛ''=0.31 in its outer parts, considerably larger than typical for disk galaxies. The outer contours have a more or less common center, which lies ~0.4 kpc from the center of the bar. Neither agrees with the kinematic center of the H I gas disk. The LMC is elongated in the general direction of the Galactic center and is elongated perpendicular to the Magellanic Stream and the velocity vector of the LMC center of mass. This suggests that the elongation of the

  16. Na-22 decay gamma rays from classical novae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Truran, James W.

    1993-01-01

    NASA Grant NAG 5-1565 has provided support for a program of theoretical research in nuclear astrophysics and related areas, focusing upon the possibility of detecting gamma rays from nearby novae. Particular attention has been given to the evaluation of the theoretical expectations for gamma ray emission from four possible sources: (1) the positron decays of the unstable CNO and fluorine isotopes that are transported to the surface regions of the envelope in the earliest stages of the outbursts; (2) Be-7 decay gamma rays, (3) Na-22 decay gamma rays released in the later stages of the outbursts; and (4) Al-26 decay gamma rays from novae and their possible contribution to Galactic emission. The critical questions of (1) the frequency of occurrence of ONeMg-enriched novae; (2) the expected Galactic distribution of the novae that produce 26Al; and (3) the nature of the observed soft X-ray emission from classical novae, have also been addressed. Considerable progress in research has been achieved on many of these fronts. Brief summaries of the results of several research projects are presented.

  17. Evaluating local food programs: the case of Select Nova Scotia.

    PubMed

    Knight, Andrew J

    2013-02-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of the buy local food program Select Nova Scotia; a government program with the goal to increase awareness and consumption of Nova Scotia produced and processed agri-food products by Nova Scotians and visitors. The evaluation methodology was based on prior evaluation resources and local food consumer research. Data were gathered through a web panel survey; 877 respondents completed the survey in June 2010. The results suggest that the program is reaching a wider audience than just those predisposed to local food initiatives. In addition, awareness of Select Nova was related to perceptions of local benefits and barriers, as well as purchase motivation and behavior. Respondents who were aware of Select Nova Scotia rated societal benefits as more important and viewed location and price as less of a barrier; they were also more likely to be highly motivated to purchase local foods. This study also informs results found in previous consumer research studies and identifies marketing opportunities to enhance the effectiveness of local food programs. The results suggest that societal benefits might be used as a way to differentiate products with similar attributes.

  18. A Cosmic Zoo in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-06-01

    Astronomers often turn their telescopes to the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), one of the closest galaxies to our own Milky Way, in their quest to understand the Universe. In this spectacular new image from the Wide Field Imager (WFI) at ESO's La Silla Observatory in Chile, a celestial menagerie of different objects and phenomena in part of the LMC is on display, ranging from vast globular clusters to the remains left by brilliant supernovae explosions. This fascinating observation provides data for a wide variety of research projects unravelling the life and death of stars and the evolution of galaxies. The Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) is only about 160 000 light-years from our own Milky Way - very close on a cosmic scale. This proximity makes it a very important target as it can be studied in far more detail than more distant systems. The LMC lies in the constellation of Dorado (the Swordfish), deep in the southern sky and well placed for observations from ESO's observatories in Chile. It is one of the galaxies forming the Local Group surrounding the Milky Way [1]. Though enormous on a human scale, the LMC is less than one tenth the mass of our home galaxy and spans just 14 000 light-years compared to about 100 000 light-years for the Milky Way. Astronomers refer to it as an irregular dwarf galaxy [2]. Its irregularity, combined with its prominent central bar of stars suggests to astronomers that tidal interactions with the Milky Way and fellow Local Group galaxy, the Small Magellanic Cloud, could have distorted its shape from a classic barred spiral into its modern, more chaotic form. This image is a mosaic of four pictures from the Wide Field Imager on the MPG/ESO 2.2-metre telescope at the La Silla Observatory in Chile. The image covers a region of sky more than four times as large as the full Moon. The huge field of view of this camera makes it possible to see a very wide range of objects in the LMC in a single picture, although only a small part of the entire

  19. A Decade of Progress in Understanding the Eruptions of Classical Novae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shara, M. M.

    2014-12-01

    During the 11 years since the 2002 Sitges Nova conference, over 700 refereed papers dealing with classical novae have been published. Rather than spend 2.3 seconds reviewing each one, I've tried to focus on the main themes that have captured the interests of most researchers. I've also used, as examples, the most influential and cited papers in each subfield, though a decade from now some of my choices may seem dated, provincial, or flat-out wrong. The key topics that I address include theory and simulations of nova explosions; the recurrent novae; observations of ejecta; symbiotic novae; connections between novae and type Ia supernovae; connections between classical and dwarf novae; extragalactic novae; the maximum magnitude - rate of decline relationship; and a set of challenges and unanswered questions that I hope we will have made much progress on by the time we reassemble around 2024.

  20. Nova outbursts in the case of mild hibernation

    SciTech Connect

    Livio, M.; Shankar, A.; Truran, J.W.

    1988-02-01

    The necessary conditions for the production of strong thermonuclear runaways in the hibernation scenario are identified and explored. It is found that a reduction in the accretion rate by a factor of about 100, for a period longer than a few thousand years, is generally sufficient to ensure nova-type outbursts, even in the presence of rather high preoutburst accretion rates. Nova outbursts can be obtained under mild hibernation conditions on 1 solar mass white dwarfs as well as on very massive ones. A reduction in the accretion rate by a factor of 10 only is insufficient to produce a nova outburst, if the preoutburst accretion rate is as high as 10 to the -8th solar mass/yr. 28 references.