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Sample records for npp partial site

  1. Chernobyl NPP: Completion of LRW Treatment Plant and LRW Management on Site - 12568

    SciTech Connect

    Fedorov, Denis; Adamovich, Dmitry; Klimenko, I.; Taranenko, L.

    2012-07-01

    Since a beginning of ChNPP operation, and after a tragedy in 1986, a few thousands m3 of LRW have been collected in a storage tanks. In 2004 ChNPP started the new project on creation of LRW treatment plant (LRWTP) financed from EBRD fund. But it was stopped in 2008 because of financial and contract problems. In 2010 SIA RADON jointly with Ukrainian partners has won a tender on completion of LRWTP, in particular I and C system. The purpose of LRTP is to process liquid rad-wastes from SSE 'Chernobyl NPP' site and those liquids stored in the LRWS and SLRWS tanks as well as the would-be wastes after ChNPP Power Units 1, 2 and 3 decommissioning. The LRTP design lifetime - 20 years. Currently, the LRTP is getting ready to perform the following activities: 1. retrieval of waste from tanks stored at ChNPP LWS using waste retrieval system with existing equipment involved; 2. transfer of retrieved waste into LRTP reception tanks with partial use of existing transfer pipelines; 3. laboratory chemical and radiochemical analysis of reception tanks contest to define the full spectrum of characteristics before processing, to acknowledge the necessity of preliminary processing and to select end product recipe; 4. preliminary processing of the waste to meet the requirements for further stages of the process; 5. shrinkage (concentrating) of preliminary processed waste; 6. solidification of preliminary processed waste with concrete to make a solid-state (end product) and load of concrete compound into 200-l drums; 7. curing of end product drums in LRTP curing hall; 8. radiologic monitoring of end product drums and their loading into special overpacks; 9. overpack radiological monitoring; 10. send for disposal (ICSRM Lot 3); The current technical decisions allow to control and return to ChNPP of process media and supporting systems outputs until they satisfy the following quality norms: salt content: < 100 g/l; pH: 1 - 11; anionic surface-active agent: < 25 mg/l; oil dissipated in the

  2. Comparison of Candidate Sites for installation of Landfill facility at Ignalina NPP Site Using Fuzzy Logic Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Poskas, P.; Kilda, R.; Poskas, G.

    2008-07-01

    There is only one nuclear power plant in Lithuania - Ignalina NPP (Nuclear Power Plant). Two similar units with installed capacity of 1500 MW (each) were commissioned in 1983 and 1987 respectively. But the first Unit of Ignalina NPP was finally shutdown December 31, 2004, and second Unit is planned to be shutdown before 2010. Operational radioactive waste of different activities is generated at Ignalina NPP. After closure of INPP a waste from decommissioning should be managed also. According to Lithuanian regulatory requirements (1) the waste depending on the activity must be managed in different ways. In compliance with this Regulation very low-level radioactive waste (VLLW) could be disposed of in a Landfill facility. In such case very simple engineered barriers are required. A cap on the top of the repository is necessary from long-term safety point of view. Experience has shown that the effective and safe isolation of waste depends on the performance of the overall disposal system, which is formed by three major components: the site, the disposal facility and the waste form. The basic objective of the siting process is to select a suitable site for disposal and demonstrate that this site has characteristics which provide adequate isolation of radionuclides from the biosphere for desired periods of time. The methodology and results on evaluation and comparison of two candidate sites intended for construction of Landfill facility at Ignalina NPP site are presented in the paper. Criteria for comparison are based on the IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) recommendations (2). Modeling of the radionuclide releases has been performed using ISAM (Improving of Safety Assessment Methodologies for Near Surface Disposal facilities) methodology (3). For generalization of the information and elaboration of the recommendations Fuzzy Logic approach was used (4). (authors)

  3. Towards the Seismic Hazard Reassessment of Paks NPP (Hungary) Site: Seismicity and Sensitivity Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toth, Laszlo; Monus, Peter; Gyori, Erzsebet; Grenerczy, Gyula; Janos Katona, Tamas; Kiszely, Marta

    2015-04-01

    In context of extension of Paks Nuclear Power Plant by new units, a comprehensive site seismic hazard evaluation program has been developed that is already approved by the Hungarian Authorities. This includes a 3D seismic survey, drilling of several deep boreholes, extensive geological mapping, and geophysical investigations at the site and its vicinity, as well as on near regional, and regional scale. Furthermore, all relevant techniques of modern space geodesy (GPS, PSInSAR) will be also utilized to construct a new seismotectonic model. The implementation of the project is still in progress. In the presentation, some important elements of the new seismic hazard assessment are highlighted, and some results obtained in the preliminary phase of the program are presented and discussed. The first and most important component of the program is the compilation of the seismological database that is developed on different time scale zooming on different event recurrence rates such as paleo-earthquakes (10-1/a). In 1995, Paks NPP installed and started to operate a sensitive microseismic monitoring network capable for locating earthquakes as small as magnitude 2.0 within about 100 km of the NPP site. During the two decades of operation, the microseismic monitoring network located some 2,000 earthquakes within the region of latitude 45.5 - 49 N and longitude 16 - 23 E. Out of the total number of events, 130 earthquakes were reported as 'felt events'. The largest earthquake was an event of ML 4.8, causing significant damage in the epicenter area. The results of microseismic monitoring provide valuable data for seismotectonic modelling and results in more accurate earthquake recurrence equations. The first modern PSHA of Paks NPP site was carried out in 1995. Complex site characterization project was implemented and hazard curves had been evaluated for 10-3 - 10-5 annual frequency. As a follow-up, PSHA results have been reviewed and updated in the frame of periodic safety

  4. Regression tree modeling of forest NPP using site conditions and climate variables across eastern USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Y.

    2013-12-01

    As evidence of global warming continue to increase, being able to predict forest response to climate changes, such as expected rise of temperature and precipitation, will be vital for maintaining the sustainability and productivity of forests. To map forest species redistribution by climate change scenario has been successful, however, most species redistribution maps lack mechanistic understanding to explain why trees grow under the novel conditions of chaining climate. Distributional map is only capable of predicting under the equilibrium assumption that the communities would exist following a prolonged period under the new climate. In this context, forest NPP as a surrogate for growth rate, the most important facet that determines stand dynamics, can lead to valid prediction on the transition stage to new vegetation-climate equilibrium as it represents changes in structure of forest reflecting site conditions and climate factors. The objective of this study is to develop forest growth map using regression tree analysis by extracting large-scale non-linear structures from both field-based FIA and remotely sensed MODIS data set. The major issue addressed in this approach is non-linear spatial patterns of forest attributes. Forest inventory data showed complex spatial patterns that reflect environmental states and processes that originate at different spatial scales. At broad scales, non-linear spatial trends in forest attributes and mixture of continuous and discrete types of environmental variables make traditional statistical (multivariate regression) and geostatistical (kriging) models inefficient. It calls into question some traditional underlying assumptions of spatial trends that uncritically accepted in forest data. To solve the controversy surrounding the suitability of forest data, regression tree analysis are performed using Software See5 and Cubist. Four publicly available data sets were obtained: First, field-based Forest Inventory and Analysis (USDA

  5. A new earthquake catalogue for seismic hazard assessment of the NPP (Nuclear Power Plant) Jaslovske Bohunice, Slovakia, site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kysel, Robert; Kristek, Jozef; Moczo, Peter; Csicsay, Kristian; Cipciar, Andrej; Srbecky, Miroslav

    2014-05-01

    According to the IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) Safety Guide No. SSG-9, an earthquake catalogue should comprise all information on pre-historical, historical and seismometrically recorded earthquakes in the region which should cover geographic area not smaller than a circle with radius of 300 km around the site. Jaslovske Bohunice is an important economic site. Several nuclear facilities are located in Jaslovske Bohunice - either in operation (NPP V2, national radioactive waste repository) or in decommissioning (NPP A1, NPP V1). Moreover, a new reactor unit is being planned for the site. Jaslovske Bohunice site is not far from the Dobra Voda seismic source zone which has been the most active seismic zone at territory of Slovakia since the beginning of 20th century. Relatively small distances to Austria, Hungary, Czech Republic and Slovak capital Bratislava make the site a prominent priority in terms of seismic hazard assessment. We compiled a new earthquake catalogue for the NPP Jaslovske Bohunice region following the recommendations of the IAEA Safety Guide. The region includes parts of the territories of Slovakia, Hungary, Austria, the Czech Republic and Poland, and it partly extends up to Germany, Slovenia, Croatia and Serbia. The catalogue is based on data from six national earthquake catalogues, two regional earthquake catalogues (ACORN, CENEC) and a catalogue from the local NPP network. The primarily compiled catalogue for the time period 350 - 2011 consists of 9 142 events. We then homogenized and declustered the catalogue. Eventually we checked the catalogue for time completeness. For homogenization, we divided the catalogue into preseismometric (350 - 1900) and seismometric (1901-2011) periods. For earthquakes characterized by the epicentral intensity and local magnitude we adopted relations proposed for homogenization of the CENEC catalogue (Grünthal et al. 2009). Instead of assuming the equivalency between local magnitudes reported by the

  6. Partial site release at a power reactor facility.

    PubMed

    Darman, Joseph; Whitney, Michael; Dubiel, Richard

    2004-01-01

    U.S. NRC licensed facilities undergoing decommissioning may wish to remove portions of their site from the jurisdiction of their license, prior to final license termination. The method of partial site release, relevant to radiological conditions, described herein employs NUREG-1505 methodology for demonstrating indistinguishability from background. The partial site release process was also informed by NRC Regulatory Issue Summary 2000-19 "Partial Release of Reactor Site for Unrestricted Use Before NRC Approval of the License Termination Plan." However, the focus of this discussion is the radiological aspects of partial site release, relevant to the implementation of NUREG-1505 methodology for demonstrating indistinguishability from background, based on the 137Cs concentrations at the site and a suitable background reference area. This type of approach was found acceptable by the NRC, and the partial site release was granted. PMID:14695009

  7. NPP Launch

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System Preparatory Project (NPP) spacecraft was launched aboard a Delta II rocket at 5:48 a.m. EDT today, on a mission to measure ...

  8. BOREAS TE-6 NPP For The Tower Flux, Carbon Evaluation, and Auxiliary Sites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Curd, Shelaine (Editor); Gower, Stith T.; Vogel, Jason G.

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS TE-6 team collected several data sets to examine the influence of vegetation, climate, and their interactions on the major carbon fluxes for boreal forest species. This data set contains estimates of the biomass produced by the plant species at the TF, CEV, and AUX sites in the SSA and NSA for a given year. Temporally, the data cover the years of 1985 to 1995. The plant biomass production (i.e., aboveground, belowground, understory, litterfall), spatial coverage, and temporal nature of measurements varied between the TF, CEV, and AUX sites as deemed necessary by BOREAS principal investigators. The data are stored in tabular ASCII files. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distrobuted Activity Archive Center (DAAC).

  9. Study of atmospheric stagnation, recirculation and ventilation potential at Narora Atomic Power Station NPP site.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Deepak; Kumar, Avinash; Kumar, Vimal; Kumar, Jaivender; Ravi, P M

    2013-04-01

    The atmosphere is an important pathway to be considered in assessment of the environmental impact of radioactivity releases from nuclear facilities. The estimation of concentration of released effluents in air and possible ground contamination needs an understanding of relevant atmospheric dispersion. This paper describes the meteorological characteristics of Narora Atomic Power Station (NAPS) Nuclear Power Project site by using the integral parameters developed by Allwine and Whiteman (Atmospheric Environment 28(4):713-721, 1994). Meteorological data measured during the period 2006-2010 were analysed. The integral quantities related to the occurrence of stagnation, recirculation and ventilation characteristics were studied for the NAPS site to assess the dilution potential of the atmosphere. Wind run and recirculation factors were calculated for a 24-h transport time using 5 years of hourly surface measurements of wind speed and direction. The occurrence of stagnation, recirculation and ventilation characteristics during 2006-2010 at the NAPS site is observed to be 33.8, 19.5 and 34.7 % of the time, respectively. The presence of strong winds with predominant wind direction NW and WNW during winter and summer seasons leads to higher ventilation (48.1 and 44.3 %) and recirculation (32.6 % of the summer season). The presence of more dispersed light winds during pre-winter season with predominant wind directions W and WNW results in more stagnation (59.7 % of the pre-winter season). Thus, this study will serve as an essential meteorological tool to understand the transport mechanism of atmospheric radioactive effluent release from any nuclear industry during the pre-operational as well as operational phase.

  10. Resuspension of deposited radioactive material from the Fukushima Daiichi NPP site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinhauser, Georg; Niisoe, Tamon; Harada, Kouji H.; Shozugawa, Katsumi; Schneider, Stephanie; Synal, Hans-Arno; Walther, Clemens; Christl, Marcus; Nanba, Kenji; Ishikawa, Hirohiko; Koizumi, Akio

    2016-04-01

    Releases of radionuclides from the Fukushima nuclear accident are typically associated with the atmospheric discharges in the early phase of the accident in spring 2011. Analysis of weekly air filters, however, has revealed sporadic releases of radionuclides long after the Fukushima Daiichi reactors were stabilized. One major discharge was observed in August 2013 in monitoring stations in the Minamisoma area north of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (FDNPP). During this event, an air monitoring station in this previously scarcely contaminated area suddenly reported 137Cs activity levels that were 30-fold above the background. Together with atmospheric dispersion and deposition simulation, radionuclide analysis in soil indicated that debris removal operations conducted on the FDNPP site on August 19, 2013 are likely to be responsible for this late release of radionuclides. One soil sample in the center of the simulated plume exhibited a high 90Sr contamination (78 ± 8 Bq kg-1) as well as a high 90Sr/137Cs ratio (0.04); both phenomena have usually been observed only in very close vicinity around the FDNPP. We estimate that through the resuspension of highly contaminated particles in the course of these earthmoving operations, gross 137Cs activity of ca. 2.8 × 1011 Bq has been released.

  11. NPP Prelaunch Webcast

    NASA Video Gallery

    The NPP Pre-Launch Webcast looks at NASA’s upcoming NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP) mission. NPP represents a critical first step in building the next-generation of Earth-observing satellites. T...

  12. Measurement of long-lived radionuclides in surface soil around F1NPP accident site by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyake, Yasuto; Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki; Sasa, Kimikazu; Takahashi, Tsutomu

    2015-10-01

    In March 2011, vast amounts of radionuclides were released into the environment due to the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (F1NPP) accident. However, very little work has been done concerning accident-derived long-lived nuclides such as 129I (T1/2 = 1.57 × 107 year) and 36Cl (T1/2 = 3.01 × 105 year). 129I and 131I are both produced by 235U fission in nuclear reactors. Being isotopes of iodine, these nuclides are expected to behave similarly in the environment. This makes 129I useful for retrospective reconstruction of 131I distribution during the initial stages of the accident. On the other hand, 36Cl is generated during reactor operation via neutron capture reaction of 35Cl, an impurity in the coolant or reactor component. Resulting 36Cl/Cl ratio within the reactor is thus much higher compared to that in environment. Similar to 129I, 36Cl is expected to have leaked out during the accident and it is important to evaluate its effects. In this study, 129I concentrations were determined in several surface soil samples collected around F1NPP. Average 129I/131I ratio was estimated to be 26.1 ± 5.8 as of March 11, 2011, consistent with calculations using ORIGEN2 code and other published data. 36Cl/Cl ratios in some of the soil samples were likewise measured and ranged from 1.1 × 10-12 to 2.6 × 10-11. These are higher compared to ratios measured around F1NPP before the accident. A positive correlation between 36Cl and 129I concentration was observed.

  13. Base-flow measurements at partial-record sites on small streams in South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barker, Carroll

    1986-01-01

    This report contains site descriptions and base-flow data collected at 362 partial-record sites in South Carolina. These data include site name, site description, latitude, longitude, drainage area, instantaneous streamflow, and date of the streamflow measurement. The base-flow data can be used as an aid to estimate low flow characteristics at ungaged locations on streams in South Carolina. Partial record data collection sites were established in all physiographic provinces except the lower Coastal Plain. Data collection sites were not established in the lower Coastal Plain because of the widespread occurrence of zero during drought periods in all but the larger streams. (USGS)

  14. Challenges for Lithuania: Ignalina NPP Early Closure

    SciTech Connect

    Teskeviciene, Birute

    2008-01-15

    As a condition of accession into the European Union (EU), Lithuania is committed to the closure and decommissioning of Ignalina NPP comprising two RBMK-1500 reactor units (Fig. 1). It was agreed in a special protocol to the Accession Treaty that, in return for adequate EU financial assistance, Unit 1 would be closed before 2005 and Unit 2 by the end of 2009. The first unit was duly shut down on December 31, 2004. Lithuania, which has borders with Russia (Kaliningrad territory), Poland, Latvia and Belarus, spent fifty years as part of the Soviet Union and was deeply integrated into its economy and electrical infrastructure. At the break-up of the USSR, Lithuania inherited electricity generating capacity designed to supply the north-west region including ownership of Ignalina NPP located in the north-east of the country. Ignalina NPP Unit 1 was commissioned in 1983, Unit 2 in 1987; the planned lifespan of each unit was 30 years. Construction of a third unit was started but never completed. Since Lithuania became independent in 1990, Ignalina NPP has typically contributed more than 70% of national power supply. The town of Visaginas (population approx. 30,000) was purpose built to serve the plant and staff were brought in from throughout the USSR. With 3200 direct employees, Ignalina NPP remains by far the largest employer. Although there are pockets of Russian-language speakers in communities throughout Lithuania, Visaginas is the only example on a whole-town scale. Thus closure of Ignalina NPP within the restricted timescale required by the EU Accession Treaty commitment set an exceptional challenge to Lithuania. However, since the preparatory phase of decommissioning started in 2000, notable progress has been made, experience gained and lessons learnt. At present Unit 1 remains partially fueled in a state of care and maintenance. Partly burnt fuel is being transferred from Unit 1 to Unit 2 for further irradiation in order to minimize the commitment of new fuel

  15. 77 FR 46111 - Public Land Order No. 7792; Partial Revocation, Power Site Reserve No. 109; Montana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-02

    ... withdrawn for protection of water power values by Power Site Reserve No. 109. This order also opens the land... Bureau of land management Public Land Order No. 7792; Partial Revocation, Power Site Reserve No. 109... withdrawal created by the Executive Order dated July 2, 1910, which established Power Site Reserve No....

  16. 77 FR 58867 - Public Land Order No. 7977; Partial Revocation, Power Site Reserve No. 78; Colorado

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-24

    ... Forest System land withdrawn for protection of water power values designated as Power Site Reserve No. 78... Bureau of Land Management Public Land Order No. 7977; Partial Revocation, Power Site Reserve No. 78... July 2, 1910, which established Power Site Reserve No. 78, is no longer needed for the purpose...

  17. 89. PARTIAL VIEW OF THE IC&C CO. SITE SHOWING THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    89. PARTIAL VIEW OF THE IC&C CO. SITE SHOWING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE AERIAL TIPPLE, BATHHOUSE, CARPENTER SHOP AND TANK BUILDING, LOOKING SOUTH - Independent Coal & Coke Company, Kenilworth, Carbon County, UT

  18. NPP Beauty Pass Animation

    NASA Video Gallery

    An animator's conception shows the NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP) satellite orbiting the earth and interpreting weather data through it's myriad sensors. The Satellite is part of a bridge mission...

  19. NPP: The Five Instruments

    NASA Video Gallery

    The NPP satellite has 5 instruments on board: VIIRS, CERES, CrIS, ATMS, and OMPS. Each one will deliver a specific set of data helping weather prediction and climate studies. This video is a quick ...

  20. 10 CFR 52.83 - Finality of referenced NRC approvals; partial initial decision on site suitability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... decision on site suitability. 52.83 Section 52.83 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Combined Licenses § 52.83 Finality of referenced NRC....145, and 52.171. (b) While a partial decision on site suitability is in effect under 10 CFR...

  1. 10 CFR 52.83 - Finality of referenced NRC approvals; partial initial decision on site suitability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... decision on site suitability. 52.83 Section 52.83 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Combined Licenses § 52.83 Finality of referenced NRC....145, and 52.171. (b) While a partial decision on site suitability is in effect under 10 CFR...

  2. 10 CFR 52.83 - Finality of referenced NRC approvals; partial initial decision on site suitability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... decision on site suitability. 52.83 Section 52.83 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Combined Licenses § 52.83 Finality of referenced NRC....145, and 52.171. (b) While a partial decision on site suitability is in effect under 10 CFR...

  3. 10 CFR 52.83 - Finality of referenced NRC approvals; partial initial decision on site suitability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... decision on site suitability. 52.83 Section 52.83 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Combined Licenses § 52.83 Finality of referenced NRC....145, and 52.171. (b) While a partial decision on site suitability is in effect under 10 CFR...

  4. 10 CFR 52.83 - Finality of referenced NRC approvals; partial initial decision on site suitability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... decision on site suitability. 52.83 Section 52.83 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Combined Licenses § 52.83 Finality of referenced NRC....145, and 52.171. (b) While a partial decision on site suitability is in effect under 10 CFR...

  5. NPP and the Earth System

    NASA Video Gallery

    NPP is a continuation of the existing Earth-observing satellites and it builds on the legacy of multi decades of critical data. NPP will continue to deliver data to all users on Earth who will use ...

  6. The Pontic-Shield: Partial Extraction Therapy for Ridge Preservation and Pontic Site Development.

    PubMed

    Gluckman, Howard; Du Toit, Jonathan; Salama, Maurice

    2016-01-01

    Augmentive ridge preservation techniques aim to manage the postextraction ridge. The partial extraction of teeth may better preserve the ridge form by maintaining the bundle bone-periodontal ligament apparatus. Root submergence has been demonstrated to retain the periodontal tissues and preserve the ridge beneath dentures or fixed prostheses. The socket-shield technique entails preparing a tooth root section simultaneous to immediate implant placement and has demonstrated histologic and clinical results contributory to esthetic implant treatment. A retrospective 10-patient case series treating 14 partial extraction sites demonstrates how a modification of the socket-shield technique can successfully develop pontic sites and preserve the ridge.

  7. 77 FR 58868 - Public Land Order No. 7798; Partial Modification of Power Site Classification No. 126; Washington

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-24

    ... determined that a portion of the land classified under Power Site Classification No. 126 for water power... Bureau of Land Management Public Land Order No. 7798; Partial Modification of Power Site Classification...: This order partially modifies a withdrawal which established Power Site Classification No. 126,...

  8. N site ordering effect on partially ordered Fe{sub 16}N{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Ji Nian; Wang Jianping

    2011-02-28

    Partially ordered Fe{sub 16}N{sub 2} thin films have been fabricated on Fe (001)-buffered GaAs (001) single-crystal substrates by a facing target sputtering process. The saturation magnetization has been systematically investigated as a function of N site ordering in partially ordered Fe{sub 16}N{sub 2} thin films, which is found to be increased monotonically with the increase in the N site ordering parameter, reaching up to 2.68 T at high ordering case. A model discussion is provided based on the partial localization of 3d electron states in this material system, which successfully rationalizes the formation of the giant saturation magnetization in chemically ordered Fe{sub 16}N{sub 2}. We further demonstrate that the average magnetic moment of partially ordered Fe{sub 16}N{sub 2} sensitively depends on the special arrangement of Fe{sub 6}N clusters, which is the key to realize high magnetic moment in this material system.

  9. Patterns of Failure After MammoSite Brachytherapy Partial Breast Irradiation: A Detailed Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Sea Dickler, Adam; Kirk, Michael; Shah, Anand; Jokich, Peter; Solmos, Gene; Strauss, Jonathan; Dowlatshahi, Kambiz; Nguyen, Cam; Griem, Katherine

    2007-09-01

    Purpose: To report the results of a detailed analysis of treatment failures after MammoSite breast brachytherapy for partial breast irradiation from our single-institution experience. Methods and Materials: Between October 14, 2002 and October 23, 2006, 78 patients with early-stage breast cancer were treated with breast-conserving surgery and accelerated partial breast irradiation using the MammoSite brachytherapy applicator. We identified five treatment failures in the 70 patients with >6 months' follow-up. Pathologic data, breast imaging, and radiation treatment plans were reviewed. For in-breast failures more than 2 cm away from the original surgical bed, the doses delivered to the areas of recurrence by partial breast irradiation were calculated. Results: At a median follow-up time of 26.1 months, five treatment failures were identified. There were three in-breast failures more than 2 cm away from the original surgical bed, one failure directly adjacent to the original surgical bed, and one failure in the axilla with synchronous distant metastases. The crude failure rate was 7.1% (5 of 70), and the crude local failure rate was 5.7% (4 of 70). Estimated progression-free survival at 48 months was 89.8% (standard error 4.5%). Conclusions: Our case series of 70 patients with >6 months' follow-up and a median follow-up of 26 months is the largest single-institution report to date with detailed failure analysis associated with MammoSite brachytherapy. Our failure data emphasize the importance of patient selection when offering partial breast irradiation.

  10. Unbiased isotope equilibrium factors from partial isotope exchange experiments in 3-exchange site systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrinier, Pierre; Javoy, Marc

    2016-09-01

    Two methods are available in order to evaluate the equilibrium isotope fractionation factors between exchange sites or phases from partial isotope exchange experiments. The first one developed by Northrop and Clayton (1966) is designed for isotope exchanges between two exchange sites (hereafter, the N&C method), the second one from Zheng et al. (1994) is a refinement of the first one to account for a third isotope exchanging site (hereafter, the Z method). In this paper, we use a simple model of isotope kinetic exchange for a 3-exchange site system (such as hydroxysilicates where oxygen occurs as OH and non-OH groups like in muscovite, chlorite, serpentine, or water or calcite) to explore the behavior of the N&C and Z methods. We show that these two methods lead to significant biases that cannot be detected with the usual graphical tests proposed by the authors. Our model shows that biases originate because isotopes are fractionated between all these exchanging sites. Actually, we point out that the variable mobility (or exchangeability) of isotopes in and between the exchange sites only controls the amplitude of the bias, but is not essential to the production of this bias as previously suggested. Setting a priori two of the three exchange sites at isotopic equilibrium remove the bias and thus is required for future partial exchange experiments to produce accurate and unbiased extrapolated equilibrium fractionation factors. Our modeling applied to published partial oxygen isotope exchange experiments for 3-exchange site systems (the muscovite-calcite (Chacko et al., 1996), the chlorite-water (Cole and Ripley, 1998) and the serpentine-water (Saccocia et al., 2009)) shows that the extrapolated equilibrium fractionation factors (reported as 1000 ln(α)) using either the N&C or the Z methods lead to bias that may reach several δ per mil in a few cases. These problematic cases, may be because experiments were conducted at low temperature and did not reach high

  11. NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP) Science Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, James J.

    2011-01-01

    NPP Instruments are: (1) well understood thanks to instrument comprehensive test, characterization and calibration programs. (2) Government team ready for October 25 launch followed by instrument activation and Intensive Calibration/Validation (ICV). NPP Data Products preliminary work includes: (1) JPSS Center for Satellite Applications and Research (STAR) team ready to support NPP ICV and operational data products. (2) NASA NPP science team ready to support NPP ICV and EOS data continuity.

  12. Non-site-specific allosteric effect of oxygen on human hemoglobin under high oxygen partial pressure

    PubMed Central

    Takayanagi, Masayoshi; Kurisaki, Ikuo; Nagaoka, Masataka

    2014-01-01

    Protein allostery is essential for vital activities. Allosteric regulation of human hemoglobin (HbA) with two quaternary states T and R has been a paradigm of allosteric structural regulation of proteins. It is widely accepted that oxygen molecules (O2) act as a “site-specific” homotropic effector, or the successive O2 binding to the heme brings about the quaternary regulation. However, here we show that the site-specific allosteric effect is not necessarily only a unique mechanism of O2 allostery. Our simulation results revealed that the solution environment of high O2 partial pressure enhances the quaternary change from T to R without binding to the heme, suggesting an additional “non-site-specific” allosteric effect of O2. The latter effect should play a complementary role in the quaternary change by affecting the intersubunit contacts. This analysis must become a milestone in comprehensive understanding of the allosteric regulation of HbA from the molecular point of view. PMID:24710521

  13. Partial Extraction Therapies (PET) Part 1: Maintaining Alveolar Ridge Contour at Pontic and Immediate Implant Sites.

    PubMed

    Gluckman, Howard; Salama, Maurice; Du Toit, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Buccopalatal collapse of the postextraction ridge is a significant challenge in restorative and implant dentistry. A variety of ridge preservation techniques using tissue and augmentative materials have been proposed in the literature. A slightly different approach is to use the tooth itself. Root submergence has been reported in the literature for more than 4 decades, and it has been demonstrated that the submerged tooth root retains the periodontal tissues and preserves the bone in pontic sites or below dentures to retain the ridge. The socket-shield technique entails preparing a tooth root section simultaneous to immediate implant placement and has demonstrated histologic and clinical results that are highly promising to esthetic implant treatment. The pontic shield technique preserves the alveolar ridge at sites intended for pontic development where the root submergence technique is not possible. The aforementioned techniques collectively may be termed partial extraction therapies (PET), a term newly introduced into the literature and clinical environment. This article is a review of these ridge preservation therapies, providing a classification and a guide to their application.

  14. Partial Extraction Therapies (PET) Part 1: Maintaining Alveolar Ridge Contour at Pontic and Immediate Implant Sites.

    PubMed

    Gluckman, Howard; Salama, Maurice; Du Toit, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Buccopalatal collapse of the postextraction ridge is a significant challenge in restorative and implant dentistry. A variety of ridge preservation techniques using tissue and augmentative materials have been proposed in the literature. A slightly different approach is to use the tooth itself. Root submergence has been reported in the literature for more than 4 decades, and it has been demonstrated that the submerged tooth root retains the periodontal tissues and preserves the bone in pontic sites or below dentures to retain the ridge. The socket-shield technique entails preparing a tooth root section simultaneous to immediate implant placement and has demonstrated histologic and clinical results that are highly promising to esthetic implant treatment. The pontic shield technique preserves the alveolar ridge at sites intended for pontic development where the root submergence technique is not possible. The aforementioned techniques collectively may be termed partial extraction therapies (PET), a term newly introduced into the literature and clinical environment. This article is a review of these ridge preservation therapies, providing a classification and a guide to their application. PMID:27560672

  15. Protein products obtained by site-preferred partial crosslinking in protein crystals and "liberated" by redissolution.

    PubMed

    Buch, Michal; Wine, Yariv; Dror, Yael; Rosenheck, Sonia; Lebendiker, Mario; Giordano, Rita; Leal, Ricardo M F; Popov, Alexander N; Freeman, Amihay; Frolow, Felix

    2014-07-01

    The use of protein crystals as a source of nanoscale biotemplates has attracted growing interest in recent years owing to their inherent internal order. As these crystals are vulnerable to environmental changes, potential applications require their stabilization by chemical crosslinking. We have previously shown that such intermolecular chemical crosslinking reactions occurring within protein crystals are not random events, but start at preferred crosslinking sites imposed by the alignment of protein molecules and their packing within the crystalline lattice. Here we propose a new working hypothesis and demonstrate its feasibility in enabling us to extricate homogeneous populations of single protein molecules that display chemical point mutations or of dimers that show homogeneous chemical crosslinking, and that have the potential for isolation of higher structures. Characterization of the crosslinking mechanism and its end products opens the way to the potential retrieval of such specific modified/intermolecular crosslinked products simply by effecting partial crosslinking at identified preferred sites, followed by time-controlled arrest of the crosslinking reaction and dissolution of the crystals by medium exchange complemented by chromatographic purification.

  16. NPP: Why Another Earth-Observing Satellite?

    NASA Video Gallery

    NPP will soon be NASA's newest Earth-observing satellite. To showcase how NPP will be used for both understanding the health of our planet now -- as well as how things might change in the future --...

  17. GOES-R Advanced Baseline Imager: spectral response functions and radiometric biases with the NPP Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite evaluated for desert calibration sites.

    PubMed

    Pearlman, Aaron; Pogorzala, David; Cao, Changyong

    2013-11-01

    The Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI), which will be launched in late 2015 on the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite R-series satellite, will be evaluated in terms of its data quality postlaunch through comparisons with other satellite sensors such as the recently launched Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) aboard the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership satellite. The ABI has completed much of its prelaunch characterization and its developers have generated and released its channel spectral response functions (response versus wavelength). Using these responses and constraining a radiative transfer model with ground reflectance, aerosol, and water vapor measurements, we simulate observed top of atmosphere (TOA) reflectances for analogous visible and near infrared channels of the VIIRS and ABI sensors at the Sonoran Desert and White Sands National Monument sites and calculate the radiometric biases and their uncertainties. We also calculate sensor TOA reflectances using aircraft hyperspectral data from the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer to validate the uncertainties in several of the ABI and VIIRS channels and discuss the potential for validating the others. Once on-orbit, calibration scientists can use these biases to ensure ABI data quality and consistency to support the numerical weather prediction community and other data users. They can also use the results for ABI or VIIRS anomaly detection and resolution.

  18. 10 CFR 2.629 - Finality of partial decision on site suitability issues in a combined license proceeding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... the Director of the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation, as appropriate, shall determine whether the... a combined license proceeding. 2.629 Section 2.629 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION RULES OF... Work Authorizations Early Partial Decisions on Site Suitability-Combined License Under 10 Cfr Part...

  19. 10 CFR 2.629 - Finality of partial decision on site suitability issues in a combined license proceeding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...), the Director of the Office of New Reactors or the Director of the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation... a combined license proceeding. 2.629 Section 2.629 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION AGENCY RULES... Decisions on Site Suitability-Combined License Under 10 Cfr Part 52 § 2.629 Finality of partial decision...

  20. 10 CFR 2.629 - Finality of partial decision on site suitability issues in a combined license proceeding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...), the Director of the Office of New Reactors or the Director of the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation... a combined license proceeding. 2.629 Section 2.629 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION AGENCY RULES... Decisions on Site Suitability-Combined License Under 10 Cfr Part 52 § 2.629 Finality of partial decision...

  1. 10 CFR 2.629 - Finality of partial decision on site suitability issues in a combined license proceeding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... the Director of the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation, as appropriate, shall determine whether the... a combined license proceeding. 2.629 Section 2.629 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION RULES OF... Work Authorizations Early Partial Decisions on Site Suitability-Combined License Under 10 Cfr Part...

  2. 10 CFR 2.629 - Finality of partial decision on site suitability issues in a combined license proceeding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... the Director of the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation, as appropriate, shall determine whether the... a combined license proceeding. 2.629 Section 2.629 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION RULES OF... Work Authorizations Early Partial Decisions on Site Suitability-Combined License Under 10 Cfr Part...

  3. Crystal structure of Halobacterium salinarum halorhodopsin with a partially depopulated primary chloride-binding site.

    PubMed

    Schreiner, Madeleine; Schlesinger, Ramona; Heberle, Joachim; Niemann, Hartmut H

    2016-09-01

    The transmembrane pump halorhodopsin in halophilic archaea translocates chloride ions from the extracellular to the cytoplasmic side upon illumination. In the ground state a tightly bound chloride ion occupies the primary chloride-binding site (CBS I) close to the protonated Schiff base that links the retinal chromophore to the protein. The light-triggered trans-cis isomerization of retinal causes structural changes in the protein associated with movement of the chloride ion. In reverse, chemical depletion of CBS I in Natronomonas pharaonis halorhodopsin (NpHR) through deprotonation of the Schiff base results in conformational changes of the protein: a state thought to mimic late stages of the photocycle. Here, crystals of Halobacterium salinarum halorhodopsin (HsHR) were soaked at high pH to provoke deprotonation of the Schiff base and loss of chloride. The crystals changed colour from purple to yellow and the occupancy of CBS I was reduced from 1 to about 0.5. In contrast to NpHR, this chloride depletion did not cause substantial conformational changes in the protein. Nevertheless, two observations indicate that chloride depletion could eventually result in structural changes similar to those found in NpHR. Firstly, the partially chloride-depleted form of HsHR has increased normalized B factors in the region of helix C that is close to CBS I and changes its conformation in NpHR. Secondly, prolonged soaking of HsHR crystals at high pH resulted in loss of diffraction. In conclusion, the conformation of the chloride-free protein may not be compatible with this crystal form of HsHR despite a packing arrangement that hardly restrains helices E and F that presumably move during ion transport. PMID:27599860

  4. Updated techniques for estimating monthly streamflow-duration characteristics at ungaged and partial-record sites in central Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hess, Glen W.

    2002-01-01

    Techniques for estimating monthly streamflow-duration characteristics at ungaged and partial-record sites in central Nevada have been updated. These techniques were developed using streamflow records at six continuous-record sites, basin physical and climatic characteristics, and concurrent streamflow measurements at four partial-record sites. Two methods, the basin-characteristic method and the concurrent-measurement method, were developed to provide estimating techniques for selected streamflow characteristics at ungaged and partial-record sites in central Nevada. In the first method, logarithmic-regression analyses were used to relate monthly mean streamflows (from all months and by month) from continuous-record gaging sites of various percent exceedence levels or monthly mean streamflows (by month) to selected basin physical and climatic variables at ungaged sites. Analyses indicate that the total drainage area and percent of drainage area at altitudes greater than 10,000 feet are the most significant variables. For the equations developed from all months of monthly mean streamflow, the coefficient of determination averaged 0.84 and the standard error of estimate of the relations for the ungaged sites averaged 72 percent. For the equations derived from monthly means by month, the coefficient of determination averaged 0.72 and the standard error of estimate of the relations averaged 78 percent. If standard errors are compared, the relations developed in this study appear generally to be less accurate than those developed in a previous study. However, the new relations are based on additional data and the slight increase in error may be due to the wider range of streamflow for a longer period of record, 1995-2000. In the second method, streamflow measurements at partial-record sites were correlated with concurrent streamflows at nearby gaged sites by the use of linear-regression techniques. Statistical measures of results using the second method typically

  5. Airborne concentrations of trivalent and hexavalent chromium from contaminated soils at unpaved and partially paved commercial/industrial sites

    SciTech Connect

    Falerios, M.; Schild, K. ); Sheehan, P.; Paustenbach, D.J. )

    1992-01-01

    This method described was used to quantify airborne Cr(VI) levels at both indoor and outdoor locations at 21 sites in Hudson County, New Jersey which have soils containing chromite ore processing residue. Of the 21 sites evaluated, nine were unpaved or partially paved industrial/commercial sites or roadways with a moderate to high level of heavy truck traffic. Most of the remainder were commercial facilities with partially paved or unpaved parking lots and only light vehicle traffic. In addition, 15 residential sites in the area which do not have contaminated soil were sampled to characterized background levels of Cr(VI). The overall arithmetic mean values for indoor and outdoor Cr(VI) in total suspended particulates at the 12 industrial sites were 3.0 ng/m{sup 3} and 9.9ng/m{sup 3}, respectively. The indoor Cr(VI) concentrations measured at the 15 residential sites ranged from 0.38 to 3.3 ng/m{sup 3}. Airborne Cr(VI) levels outdoors at sites with chromite ore residue appear to be primarily influenced by the level of local vehicle traffic. Measured outdoor concentrations at sites with light vehicle traffic were generally low, within the range of levels measured indoors at the residential sites, and not strongly influenced by Cr(VI) concentrations in surface soils. At sites with a high rate of vehicle traffic, outdoor Cr(VI) concentrations exceeded background levels only on days when surface soils were dry. The average concentrations measured at these sites were more than 5,000-times lower than the current occupational exposure limit for Cr(VI) (TLV = 0.05 mg/m{sup 3}).

  6. The Chernobyl NPP decommissioning: Current status and alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Mikolaitchouk, H.; Steinberg, N.

    1996-08-01

    After the Chernobyl accident of April 26, 1986, many contradictory decisions were taken concerning the Chernobyl nuclear power plant (NPP) future. The principal source of contradictions was a deadline for a final shutdown of the Chernobyl NPP units. Alterations in a political and socioeconomic environment resulted in the latest decision of the Ukrainian Authorities about 2000 as a deadline for a beginning of the Chernobyl NPP decommissioning. The date seems a sound compromise among the parties concerned. However, in order to meet the data a lot of work should be done. First of all, a decommissioning strategy has to be established. The problem is complicated due to both site-specific aspects and an absence of proven solutions for the RBMK-type reactor decommissioning. In the paper the problem of decommissioning option selection is considered taking into account an influence of the following factors: relevant legislative and regulatory requirements; resources required to carry out decommissioning (man-power, equipment, technologies, waste management infrastructure, etc.); radiological and physical status of the plant, including structural integrity and predictable age and weather effects; impact of planned activities at the destroyed unit 4 and within the 30-km exclusion zone of the Chernobyl NPP; planed use of the site; socio-economic considerations.

  7. Investigating the Role of Loop C Hydrophilic Residue ‘T244’ in the Binding Site of ρ1 GABAC Receptors via Site Mutation and Partial Agonism

    PubMed Central

    Naffaa, Moawiah M.; Absalom, Nathan; Solomon, V. Raja; Chebib, Mary; Hibbs, David E.; Hanrahan, Jane R.

    2016-01-01

    The loop C hydrophilic residue, threonine 244 lines the orthosteric binding site of ρ1 GABAC receptors was studied by point mutation into serine, alanine and cysteine, and tested with GABA, some representative partial agonists and antagonists. Thr244 has a hydroxyl group essential for GABA activity that is constrained by the threonine methyl group, orienting it toward the binding site. Significant decreases in activation effects of the studied ligands at ρ1 T244S mutant receptors, suggests a critical role for this residue. Results of aliphatic and heteroaromatic partial agonists demonstrate different pharmacological effects at ρ1 T244S mutant receptors when co-applied with GABA EC50 responses. ρ1 T244A and ρ1 T244C mutant receptors have minimal sensitivity to GABA at high mM concentrations, whereas, the ρ1 WT partial agonists, β-alanine and MTSEA demonstrate more efficacy and potency, respectively, than GABA at these mutant receptors. This study explores the role of Thr244 in the binding of agonists as an initial step during channel gating by moving loop C towards the ligand. PMID:27244450

  8. Site Fidelity and Individual Variation in Winter Location in Partially Migratory European Shags

    PubMed Central

    Grist, Hannah; Daunt, Francis; Wanless, Sarah; Nelson, Emily J.; Harris, Mike P.; Newell, Mark; Burthe, Sarah; Reid, Jane M.

    2014-01-01

    In partially migratory populations, individuals from a single breeding area experience a range of environments during the non-breeding season. If individuals show high within- and among- year fidelity to specific locations, any annual environmental effect on individual life histories could be reinforced, causing substantial demographic heterogeneity. Quantifying within- and among- individual variation and repeatability in non-breeding season location is therefore key to predicting broad-scale environmental impacts on the dynamics of partially migratory populations. We used field resightings of colour-ringed adult European shags known to have bred on the Isle of May, Scotland, to quantify individual variation and repeatability in winter location within and among three consecutive winters. In total, 3797 resightings of 882 individuals were recorded over 622 km of coastline, including the Isle of May. These individuals comprised over 50% of the known breeding population, and encompassed representative distributions of ages and sexes. The distances from the Isle of May at which individuals were resighted during winter varied substantially, up to 486 km and 136 km north and south respectively and including the breeding colony on the Isle of May. However, resighting distances were highly repeatable within individuals; within- and among-winter repeatabilities were >0.72 and >0.59 respectively across the full September-March observation period, and >0.95 and >0.79 respectively across more restricted mid-winter periods. Repeatability did not differ significantly between males and females or among different age classes, either within or among winters. These data demonstrate that the focal shag population is partially migratory, and moreover that individuals show highly repeatable variation in winter location and hence migration strategy across consecutive winters. Such high among-individual variation and within-individual repeatability, both within and among winters, could

  9. Bifunctional TaqII restriction endonuclease: redefining the prototype DNA recognition site and establishing the Fidelity Index for partial cleaving

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The TaqII enzyme is a member of the Thermus sp. enzyme family that we propounded previously within Type IIS restriction endonucleases, containing related thermophilic bifunctional endonucleases-methyltransferases from various Thermus sp.: TaqII, Tth111II, TthHB27I, TspGWI, TspDTI and TsoI. These enzymes show significant nucleotide and amino acid sequence similarities, a rare phenomenon among restriction endonucleases, along with similarities in biochemical properties, molecular size, DNA recognition sequences and cleavage sites. They also feature some characteristics of Types I and III. Results Barker et al. reported the Type IIS/IIC restriction endonuclease TaqII as recognizing two distinct cognate site variants (5'-GACCGA-3' and 5'-CACCCA-3') while cleaving 11/9 nucleotides downstream. We used four independent methods, namely, shotgun cloning and sequencing, restriction pattern analysis, digestion of particular custom substrates and GeneScan analysis, to demonstrate that the recombinant enzyme recognizes only 5'-GACCGA-3' sites and cleaves 11/9 nucleotides downstream. We did not observe any 5'-CACCCA-3' cleavage under a variety of conditions and site arrangements tested. We also characterized the enzyme biochemically and established new digestion conditions optimal for practical enzyme applications. Finally, we developed and propose a new version of the Fidelity Index - the Fidelity Index for Partial Cleavage (FI-PC). Conclusions The DNA recognition sequence of the bifunctional prototype TaqII endonuclease-methyltransferase from Thermus aquaticus has been redefined as recognizing only 5'-GACCGA-3' cognate sites. The reaction conditions (pH and salt concentrations) were designed either to minimize (pH = 8.0 and 10 mM ammonium sulphate) or to enhance star activity (pH = 6.0 and no salt). Redefinition of the recognition site and reaction conditions makes this prototype endonuclease a useful tool for DNA manipulation; as yet, this enzyme has no practical

  10. Does climate directly influence NPP globally?

    PubMed

    Chu, Chengjin; Bartlett, Megan; Wang, Youshi; He, Fangliang; Weiner, Jacob; Chave, Jérôme; Sack, Lawren

    2016-01-01

    The need for rigorous analyses of climate impacts has never been more crucial. Current textbooks state that climate directly influences ecosystem annual net primary productivity (NPP), emphasizing the urgent need to monitor the impacts of climate change. A recent paper challenged this consensus, arguing, based on an analysis of NPP for 1247 woody plant communities across global climate gradients, that temperature and precipitation have negligible direct effects on NPP and only perhaps have indirect effects by constraining total stand biomass (Mtot ) and stand age (a). The authors of that study concluded that the length of the growing season (lgs ) might have a minor influence on NPP, an effect they considered not to be directly related to climate. In this article, we describe flaws that affected that study's conclusions and present novel analyses to disentangle the effects of stand variables and climate in determining NPP. We re-analyzed the same database to partition the direct and indirect effects of climate on NPP, using three approaches: maximum-likelihood model selection, independent-effects analysis, and structural equation modeling. These new analyses showed that about half of the global variation in NPP could be explained by Mtot combined with climate variables and supported strong and direct influences of climate independently of Mtot , both for NPP and for net biomass change averaged across the known lifetime of the stands (ABC = average biomass change). We show that lgs is an important climate variable, intrinsically correlated with, and contributing to mean annual temperature and precipitation (Tann and Pann ), all important climatic drivers of NPP. Our analyses provide guidance for statistical and mechanistic analyses of climate drivers of ecosystem processes for predictive modeling and provide novel evidence supporting the strong, direct role of climate in determining vegetation productivity at the global scale. PMID:26442433

  11. Does climate directly influence NPP globally?

    PubMed

    Chu, Chengjin; Bartlett, Megan; Wang, Youshi; He, Fangliang; Weiner, Jacob; Chave, Jérôme; Sack, Lawren

    2016-01-01

    The need for rigorous analyses of climate impacts has never been more crucial. Current textbooks state that climate directly influences ecosystem annual net primary productivity (NPP), emphasizing the urgent need to monitor the impacts of climate change. A recent paper challenged this consensus, arguing, based on an analysis of NPP for 1247 woody plant communities across global climate gradients, that temperature and precipitation have negligible direct effects on NPP and only perhaps have indirect effects by constraining total stand biomass (Mtot ) and stand age (a). The authors of that study concluded that the length of the growing season (lgs ) might have a minor influence on NPP, an effect they considered not to be directly related to climate. In this article, we describe flaws that affected that study's conclusions and present novel analyses to disentangle the effects of stand variables and climate in determining NPP. We re-analyzed the same database to partition the direct and indirect effects of climate on NPP, using three approaches: maximum-likelihood model selection, independent-effects analysis, and structural equation modeling. These new analyses showed that about half of the global variation in NPP could be explained by Mtot combined with climate variables and supported strong and direct influences of climate independently of Mtot , both for NPP and for net biomass change averaged across the known lifetime of the stands (ABC = average biomass change). We show that lgs is an important climate variable, intrinsically correlated with, and contributing to mean annual temperature and precipitation (Tann and Pann ), all important climatic drivers of NPP. Our analyses provide guidance for statistical and mechanistic analyses of climate drivers of ecosystem processes for predictive modeling and provide novel evidence supporting the strong, direct role of climate in determining vegetation productivity at the global scale.

  12. Persistent seroma after intraoperative placement of MammoSite for accelerated partial breast irradiation: Incidence, pathologic anatomy, and contributing factors

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, Suzanne B.; Kaufman, Seth A.; Price, Lori Lyn; Cardarelli, Gene; Dipetrillo, Thomas A.; Wazer, David E. . E-mail: dwazer@tufts-nemc.org

    2006-06-01

    Purpose: To investigate the incidence of, and possible factors associated with, seroma formation after intraoperative placement of the MammoSite catheter for accelerated partial breast irradiation. Methods and Materials: This study evaluated 38 patients who had undergone intraoperative MammoSite catheter placement at lumpectomy or reexcision followed by accelerated partial breast irradiation with 34 Gy in 10 fractions. Data were collected regarding dosimetric parameters, including the volume of tissue enclosed by the 100%, 150%, and 200% isodose shells, dose homogeneity index, and maximal dose at the surface of the applicator. Clinical and treatment-related factors were analyzed, including patient age, patient weight, history of diabetes and smoking, use of reexcision, interval between surgery and radiotherapy, total duration of catheter placement, total excised specimen volume, and presence or absence of postprocedural infection. Seroma was verified by clinical examination, mammography, and/or ultrasonography. Persistent seroma was defined as seroma that was clinically detectable >6 months after radiotherapy completion. Results: After a median follow-up of 17 months, the overall rate of any detectable seroma was 76.3%. Persistent seroma (>6 months) occurred in 26 (68.4%) of 38 patients, of whom 46% experienced at least modest discomfort at some point during follow-up. Of these symptomatic patients, 3 required biopsy or complete cavity excision, revealing squamous metaplasia, foreign body giant cell reaction, fibroblasts, and active collagen deposition. Of the analyzed dosimetric, clinical, and treatment-related variables, only body weight correlated positively with the risk of seroma formation (p = 0.04). Postprocedural infection correlated significantly (p = 0.05) with a reduced risk of seroma formation. Seroma was associated with a suboptimal cosmetic outcome, because excellent scores were achieved in 61.5% of women with seroma compared with 83% without seroma

  13. Dosimetric effects of air pocket sizes in MammoSite treatment as accelerated partial breast irradiation for early breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Huang, Y Jessica; Blough, Melissa

    2009-12-23

    MammoSite Brachytherapy System had been used as one of the Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation (APBI) techniques since 2002. The clinical results from several clinical institutions had shown comparable treatment efficacy, cosmesis, and toxicity, to other APBI techniques. During MammoSite treatment, air cavities had been one of the primary issues causing treatment cancellation or delay. With the tolerance of the air volume less than 10% of the total Planning Target Volume (PTV) been set, there is still no data available to show the actual dose delivered to the breast tissue with the existence of the air pocket. In this paper, Monte Carlo N-Particle version 5 (MCNP5) was used to model a hypothesis MammoSite phantom with different sizes of air pockets, and compared to the calculation results from the treatment planning system (TPS) without heterogeneous corrections. It was found that without heterogeneous corrections, the difference between the TPS and MCNP5 calculations in the air cavity surface doses and PTV point doses can be up to 2.02% and 3.61%, respectively, with the balloon and air pocket size combinations calculated in this paper. Based on the distance from the point of interest to the balloon surface, an approximate dose can be calculated using the linear relationship found in this study. These equations provide a quick and simple way to predict the actual dose delivered to the breast soft tissue located within the PTV. With the equation applied to the dose from the TPS, the dose error caused by the air pocket during MammoSite treatment can be reduced to the minimum.

  14. Suomi NPP Ground System Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, K. D.; Bergeron, C.

    2013-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are jointly acquiring the next-generation civilian weather and environmental satellite system: the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS). JPSS will replace the afternoon orbit component and ground processing system of the current Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) managed by NOAA. The JPSS satellites will carry a suite of sensors designed to collect meteorological, oceanographic, climatological and geophysical observations of the Earth. The first satellite in the JPSS constellation, known as the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (Suomi NPP) satellite, was launched on 28 October 2011, and is currently undergoing product calibration and validation activities. As products reach a beta level of maturity, they are made available to the community through NOAA's Comprehensive Large Array-data Stewardship System (CLASS). CGS's data processing capability processes the satellite data from the Joint Polar Satellite System satellites to provide environmental data products (including Sensor Data Records (SDRs) and Environmental Data Records (EDRs)) to NOAA and Department of Defense (DoD) processing centers operated by the United States government. CGS is currently processing and delivering SDRs and EDRs for Suomi NPP and will continue through the lifetime of the Joint Polar Satellite System programs. Following the launch and sensor activation phase of the Suomi NPP mission, full volume data traffic is now flowing from the satellite through CGS's C3, data processing, and data delivery systems. Ground system performance is critical for this operational system. As part of early system checkout, Raytheon measured all aspects of data acquisition, routing, processing, and delivery to ensure operational performance requirements are met, and will continue to be met throughout the mission. Raytheon developed a tool to measure, categorize, and

  15. Calculating Regional MODIS NPP for Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, Adam; Neumann, Mathias; Zhao, Maosheng; Hasenauer, Hubert

    2015-04-01

    The MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) is a sensor on the Terra satellite that monitors many facets of the earth's terrestrial biosphere. One such product is the MODIS net primary production (NPP) dataset distributed by NASA and the Numerical Terradynamic Simulation Group (NTSG) at University of Montana, USA. This NPP data set is commonly used on a 1x1km resolution and includes an estimate every 8 days for the entire globe. This data set is accurate at the scale for which it was designed, namely the global scale. However, researchers have continuously used this dataset to study ecosystems on a more regional and landscape level. MODIS NPP however has many flaws when studying only a subset of the data because the input datasets and the datasets used for calibration and validation were global and intended to be accurate only at that scale. When studying European landscapes using the global MODIS NPP dataset one finds artificial delineations caused by using global climate data, incorrect land cover classifications, and unreasonably high or low values of NPP. To solve these problems for people studying Europe we have created new European specific input datasets and used European forest inventory data and crops statistics to recalibrate and validate a new and improved MODIS NPP dataset made specifically for Europe. This new dataset is more accurate and precise across Europe when compared to terrestrial data then its global predecessor.

  16. NPP VIIRS Geometric Performance Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Guoqing; Wolfe, Robert E.; Nishihama, Masahiro

    2011-01-01

    Visible Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument on-board the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS) Preparatory Project (NPP) satellite is scheduled for launch in October, 2011. It is to provide satellite measured radiance/reflectance data for both weather and climate applications. Along with radiometric calibration, geometric characterization and calibration of Sensor Data Records (SDRs) are crucial to the VIIRS Environmental Data Record (EDR) algorithms and products which are used in numerical weather prediction (NWP). The instrument geometric performance includes: 1) sensor (detector) spatial response, parameterized by the dynamic field of view (DFOV) in the scan direction and instantaneous FOV (IFOV) in the track direction, modulation transfer function (MTF) for the 17 moderate resolution bands (M-bands), and horizontal spatial resolution (HSR) for the five imagery bands (I-bands); 2) matrices of band-to-band co-registration (BBR) from the corresponding detectors in all band pairs; and 3) pointing knowledge and stability characteristics that includes scan plane tilt, scan rate and scan start position variations, and thermally induced variations in pointing with respect to orbital position. They have been calibrated and characterized through ground testing under ambient and thermal vacuum conditions, numerical modeling and analysis. This paper summarizes the results, which are in general compliance with specifications, along with anomaly investigations, and describes paths forward for characterizing on-orbit BBR and spatial response, and for improving instrument on-orbit performance in pointing and geolocation.

  17. Changing NPP consumption patterns in the Holocene: from Megafauna "liberated" NPP to "ecological bankruptcy"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doughty, C.

    2015-12-01

    There have been vast changes in how net primary production (NPP) is consumed by humans and animals during the Holocene beginning with a potential increase in availability following the Pleistocene megafauna extinctions. This was followed by the development of agriculture which began to gradually restrict availability of NPP for wild animals. Finally, humans entered the industrial era using non-plant based energies to power societies. Here I ask the following questions about these three energy transitions: 1. How much NPP energy may have become available following the megafauna extinctions? 2. When did humans, through agriculture and domestic animals, consume more NPP than wild mammals in each country? 3. When did humans and wild mammals use more energy than was available in total NPP in each country? To answer this last question I calculate NPP consumed by wild animals, crops, livestock, and energy use (all converted to units of MJ) and compare this with the total potential NPP (also in MJ) for each country. We develop the term "ecological bankruptcy" to refer to the level of consumption where not all energy needs can be met by the country's NPP. Currently, 82 countries and a net population of 5.4 billion are in the state of ecologically bankruptcy, crossing this threshold at various times over the past 40 years. By contrast, only 52 countries with a net population of 1.2 billion remain ecologically solvent. Overall, the Holocene has seen remarkable changes in consumption patterns of NPP, passing through three distinct phases. Humans began in a world where there was 1.6-4.1% unclaimed NPP to consume. From 1700-1850, humans began to consume more than wild animals (globally averaged). At present, >82% of people live in countries where not even all available plant matter could satisfy our energy demands.

  18. A new partial temporal bone of a juvenile hominin from the site of Kromdraai B (South Africa).

    PubMed

    Braga, José; Thackeray, John Francis; Dumoncel, Jean; Descouens, Didier; Bruxelles, Laurent; Loubes, Jean-Michel; Kahn, Jean-Luc; Stampanoni, Marco; Bam, Lunga; Hoffman, Jakobus; de Beer, Frikkie; Spoor, Fred

    2013-10-01

    The site of Kromdraai B (KB) (Gauteng, South Africa) has yielded a minimum number of nine hominins including the type specimen of Paranthropus robustus (TM 1517), the only partial skeleton of this species known to date. Four of these individuals are juveniles, one is a subadult and four are young adults. They all occur with a macrofaunal assemblage spread across the succession of at least two time periods that occurred in South Africa approximately two million years ago. Here we report on an additional, newly discovered petrous temporal bone of a juvenile hominin, KB 6067. Following the description of KB 6067, we assess its affinities with Australopithecus africanus, P. robustus and early Homo. We discuss its developmental age and consider its association with other juvenile hominin specimens found at Kromdraai B. KB 6067 probably did not reach five years of age and in bony labyrinth morphology it is close to P. robustus, but also to StW 53, a specimen with uncertain affinities. However, its cochlear and oval window size are closer to some hominin specimens from Sterkfontein Member 4 and if KB 6067 is indeed P. robustus this may represent a condition that is evolutionarily less derived than that shown by TM 1517 and other conspecifics sampled so far. The ongoing fieldwork at KB, as well as the petrography and geochemistry of its deposits, will help to determine when the various KB breccias accumulated, and how time may be an important factor underlying the variation seen among KB 6067 and the rest of the fossil hominin sample from this site. PMID:24012253

  19. Key Features of the Deployed NPP/NPOESS Ground System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heckmann, G.; Grant, K. D.; Mulligan, J. E.

    2010-12-01

    operations for NPP. C3S transitioned to operations at the NOAA Satellite Operations Facility (NSOF) in Suitland Maryland in August 2007 and IDPS transitioned in July 2009. Both segments were involved with several compatibility tests with the NPP Satellite at the Ball Aerospace Technology Corporation (BATC) factory. The compatibility tests involved the spacecraft bus, the four sensors (VIIRS, ATMS, CrIS and OMPS), and both ground segments flowing data between the NSOF and BATC factory and flowing data from the polar ground station (Svalbard) over high-speed links back to the NSOF and the two IDP locations (NESDIS & AFWA). This presentation will describe the NPP/NPOESS ground architecture features & enhancements for the NPOESS era. These will include C3S-provided space-to-ground connectivity, reliable and secure data delivery and insight & oversight of the total operation. For NPOESS the ground architecture is extended to provide additional ground receptor sites to reduce data product delivery times to users and delivery of additional sensor data products from sensors similar to NPP and more NPOESS sensors. This architecture is also extended from two Centrals (NESDIS & AFWA) to two additional Centrals (FNMOC & NAVO). IDPS acts as a buffer minimizing changes in how users request and receive data products.

  20. Multicenter Experience with Nonischemic Multiport Laparoscopic and Laparoendoscopic Single-Site Partial Nephrectomy Utilizing Bipolar Radiofrequency Ablation Coagulator

    PubMed Central

    Bazzi, Wassim M.; Allaf, Mohamad E.; Berkowitz, Jared; Atalah, Hany N.; Parekattil, Sijo; Derweesh, Ithaar H.

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To investigate feasibility of multiport and laparoendoscopic single-site (LESS) nonischemic laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (NI-LPN) utilizing bipolar radiofrequency coagulator. Methods. Multicenter retrospective review of 60 patients (46 multiport/14 LESS) undergoing NI-LPN between 4/2006 and 9/2009. Multiport and LESS NI-LPN utilized Habib 4X bipolar radiofrequency coagulator to form a hemostatic zone followed by nonischemic tumor excision and renorrhaphy. Demographics, tumor/perioperative characteristics, and outcomes were analyzed. Results. 59/60 (98.3%) successfully underwent NI-LPN. Mean tumor size was 2.35 cm. Mean operative time was 160.0 minutes. Mean estimated blood loss was 131.4 mL. Preoperative/postoperative creatinine (mg/dL) was 1.02/1.07 (P = .471). All had negative margins. 12 (20%) patients developed complications. 3 (5%) developed urine leaks. No differences between multiport and LESS-PN were noted as regards demographics, tumor size, outcomes, and complications. Conclusion. Initial experience demonstrates that nonischemic multiport and LESS-PN is safe and efficacious, with excellent short-term preservation of renal function. Long-term data are needed to confirm oncological efficacy. PMID:21747654

  1. [Specific Features of Scots Pine Seeds Formation in the Remote Period after the Chernobyl NPP Accident].

    PubMed

    Geras'kin, S A; Vasiliev, D V; Kuzmenkov, A G

    2015-01-01

    The results of long-term (2007-2011) observations on the quality of seed progeny in Scots pine populations inhabiting the sites within the Bryansk region contaminated as a result of the Chernobyl NPP accident are presented. Formed under the chronic exposure seeds are characterized by a high interannual variability, which is largely determined by weather conditions. PMID:26863784

  2. [Specific Features of Scots Pine Seeds Formation in the Remote Period after the Chernobyl NPP Accident].

    PubMed

    Geras'kin, S A; Vasiliev, D V; Kuzmenkov, A G

    2015-01-01

    The results of long-term (2007-2011) observations on the quality of seed progeny in Scots pine populations inhabiting the sites within the Bryansk region contaminated as a result of the Chernobyl NPP accident are presented. Formed under the chronic exposure seeds are characterized by a high interannual variability, which is largely determined by weather conditions.

  3. Local network deployed around the Kozloduy NPP - a useful tool for seismological monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solakov, Dimcho; Simeonova, Stela; Dimitrova, Liliya; Slavcheva, Krasimira; Raykova, Plamena; Popova, Maria; Georgiev, Ivan

    2015-04-01

    Radiation risks may transcend national borders, and international cooperation serves to promote and enhance safety globally by exchanging experience and by improving capabilities to control hazards, to prevent accidents, to respond to emergencies and to mitigate any harmful consequences. International safety standards provide support for states in meeting their obligations under general principles of international law, such as those relating to environmental protection. Seismic safety is a key element of NPP safe operation. Safety and security measures have in common the aim of protecting human life and health and the environment. The Kozloduy NPP site is located in the stable part of the Moesian platform (area of about 50000 km2). From seismological point of view the Moesian platform is the most quite area on the territory of Bulgaria. There are neither historical nor instrumental earthquakes with M>4.5 occurred within the platform. The near region (area with radial extent of 30 km) of the NPP site is characterized with very low seismic activity. The strongest recorded quake is the 1987 earthquake МS=3.6, localized 22 km northwest of the Kozloduy NPP site on the territory of Romania. In line with international practice, the geological, geophysical and seismological characteristics of the region around the site have been investigated for the purpose of evaluating the seismic hazards at the NPP site. A local network (LSN) of sensitive seismographs having a recording capability for micro-earthquakes have been installed around Kozloduy NPP and operated since 1997. The operation and data processing, data interpretation, and reporting of the local micro-earthquake network are linked to the national seismic network (NOTSSI). A real-time data transfer from stations to National Data Center (in Sofia) was implemented using the VPN and MAN networks of the Bulgarian Telecommunication. Real-time and interactive data processing are performed by the Seismic Network Data

  4. NPP After Launch: Characterizing ATMS Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambrigtsen, Bjorn

    2011-01-01

    The NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP) mission is scheduled to launch in the fall of 2011. Although several teams from the government and the instrument contractor will be assessing and characterizing the performance of the Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS) and the Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS) sounding suite, the NASA NPP Science Team will be paying particular attention to the aspects of these sensors that affect their utility for atmospheric and climate research. In this talk we discuss relevant aspects of ATMS and our post launch analysis approach.

  5. Analysis of low flows and selected methods for estimating low-flow characteristics at partial-record and ungaged stream sites in western Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Curran, Christopher A.; Eng, Ken; Konrad, Christopher P.

    2012-01-01

    Regional low-flow regression models for estimating Q7,10 at ungaged stream sites are developed from the records of daily discharge at 65 continuous gaging stations (including 22 discontinued gaging stations) for the purpose of evaluating explanatory variables. By incorporating the base-flow recession time constant τ as an explanatory variable in the regression model, the root-mean square error for estimating Q7,10 at ungaged sites can be lowered to 72 percent (for known values of τ), which is 42 percent less than if only basin area and mean annual precipitation are used as explanatory variables. If partial-record sites are included in the regression data set, τ must be estimated from pairs of discharge measurements made during continuous periods of declining low flows. Eight measurement pairs are optimal for estimating τ at partial-record sites, and result in a lowering of the root-mean square error by 25 percent. A low-flow survey strategy that includes paired measurements at partial-record sites requires additional effort and planning beyond a standard strategy, but could be used to enhance regional estimates of τ and potentially reduce the error of regional regression models for estimating low-flow characteristics at ungaged sites.

  6. Report on Partial Findings of an Ongoing Research: Social Networking Sites (SNS) as a Platform to Support Teaching and Learning in Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bt. Ubaidullah, Nor Hasbiah; Samsuddin, Khairulanuar; Bt. Fabil, Norsikin; Bt. Mahadi, Norhayati

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the partial findings of a survey that was carried out in the analysis phase of an ongoing research for the development of a prototype of a Social Networking Site (SNS) to support teaching and learning in secondary schools. For the initial phase of the study, a quantitative research method was used based on a survey involving 383…

  7. Assessment of Hard-to-Detect Radionuclide Levels in Decommissioning Waste From the Bohunice NPP-A1, Slovakia, for Clearance and Disposal Purposes

    SciTech Connect

    Slavik, O.; Moravek, J.; Stubna, M.

    2002-02-26

    For assessments of hard-to-detect radionuclides (HD-RN) contents in various type of radwastes at the NPP-A1, available empirical data referenced to 137Cs (actinides, 90Sr, 99Tc, 63Ni, 14C) and the theoretical assessment for the remaining HD-RN using calculated RN inventory and a simple model with effective relative (137Cs) spent fuel release fractions was applied. The analytical data of extended radiochemical analysis for the existing available operational radwaste forms have been reviewed for this purpose. 137Cs, 90Sr and 241Am were set up as release markers for partial spent fuel release groups of HD-RNs within which the total fractions of HD-RN released to the operational radwastes were assumed to be constant. It was shown by the assessment carried out that 137Cs and HD-RNs 129I, 99Tc, and partly 79Se and 14C are the main contributors to the disposal dose limit for the radioactive concentrate at NPP A-1. In the case of the radioactive sludge from the operational radwaste system the role of predominant dose contributors belongs to actinides 239,240Pu and 241Am. In the case of clearance of radioactive material from the NPP-A1 site, only the reference radionuclide, 137Cs was predicted to be the most dominant dose contributor. In all of these cases the estimated contributions of other hard-to-detect radionuclides to respective disposal or release dose limit are lower by 2 and more orders of magnitude. As a lesson learned, the most attention is proposed to focus on the control and measurement of the critical HD-RNs indicated by the assessment. For the control of less important HD-RNs, the developed release coefficient method is sufficient to be applied.

  8. Site Redistribution, Partial Frozen-in Defect Chemistry, and Electrical Properties of Ba1-x(Zr,Pr)O3-δ.

    PubMed

    Antunes, Isabel; Mikhalev, Sergey; Mather, Glenn Christopher; Kharton, Vladislav Vadimovich; Figueiras, Fábio Gabriel; Alves, Adriana; Rodrigues, Joana; Correia, Maria Rosário; Frade, Jorge Ribeiro; Fagg, Duncan Paul

    2016-09-01

    Changes in nominal composition of the perovskite (ABO3) solid solution Ba1-x(Zr,Pr)O3-δ and adjusted firing conditions at very high temperatures were used to induce structural changes involving site redistribution and frozen-in point defects, as revealed by Raman and photoluminescence spectroscopies. Complementary magnetic measurements allowed quantification of the reduced content of Pr. Weak dependence of oxygen stoichiometry with temperature was obtained by coulometric titration at temperatures below 1000 °C, consistent with a somewhat complex partial frozen-in defect chemistry. Electrical conductivity measurements combined with transport number and Seebeck coefficient measurements showed prevailing electronic transport and also indicated trends expected for partial frozen-in conditions. Nominal Ba deficiency and controlled firing at very high temperatures allows adjustment of structure and partial frozen-in defect chemistry, opening the way to engineer relevant properties for high-temperature electrochemical applications. PMID:27509311

  9. NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP) Environmental Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, K. D.; Hughes, R.; Andreas, N. S.

    2010-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Department of Defense (DoD), and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are jointly acquiring the next-generation weather and environmental satellite system; the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS). NPOESS replaces the current Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) managed by NOAA and the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) managed by the DoD. The NPOESS satellites carry a suite of sensors that collect meteorological, oceanographic, climatological, and solar-geophysical observations of the earth, atmosphere, and space. The ground data processing segment for NPOESS is the Interface Data Processing Segment (IDPS), developed by Raytheon Intelligence and Information Systems. The IDPS processes NPOESS satellite data to provide environmental data products (aka, Environmental Data Records or EDRs) to NOAA and DoD processing centers operated by the United States government. The IDPS will process EDRs beginning with the NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP) and continuing through the lifetime of the NPOESS system. Northrop Grumman Aerospace Systems Algorithms and Data Products (A&DP) organization is responsible for the algorithms that produce the EDRs, including their quality aspects. Given a launch date for the NPP spacecraft on the near horizon and the need for users to become familiar with NPP environmental products, this paper will provide an overview of all the products generated by the IDPS and provided to NOAA’s Comprehensive Large Array-data Stewardship System (CLASS) for public distribution. It will discuss each of the 25 NPP EDRs in detail, including a description of the EDR, its size, coverage, measurement range, and expected uses.

  10. Acidosis is a key regulator of osteoblast ecto-nucleotidase pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 1 (NPP1) expression and activity.

    PubMed

    Orriss, Isabel R; Key, Michelle L; Hajjawi, Mark O R; Millán, José L; Arnett, Timothy R

    2015-12-01

    Previous work has shown that acidosis prevents bone nodule formation by osteoblasts in vitro by inhibiting mineralisation of the collagenous matrix. The ratio of phosphate (Pi ) to pyrophosphate (PPi ) in the bone microenvironment is a fundamental regulator of bone mineralisation. Both Pi and PPi , a potent inhibitor of mineralisation, are generated from extracellular nucleotides by the actions of ecto-nucleotidases. This study investigated the expression and activity of ecto-nucleotidases by osteoblasts under normal and acid conditions. We found that osteoblasts express mRNA for a number of ecto-nucleotidases including NTPdase 1-6 (ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase) and NPP1-3 (ecto-nucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase). The rank order of mRNA expression in differentiating rat osteoblasts (day 7) was Enpp1 > NTPdase 4 > NTPdase 6 > NTPdase 5 >  alkaline phosphatase > ecto-5-nucleotidase > Enpp3 > NTPdase 1 > NTPdase 3 > Enpp2 > NTPdase 2. Acidosis (pH 6.9) upregulated NPP1 mRNA (2.8-fold) and protein expression at all stages of osteoblast differentiation compared to physiological pH (pH 7.4); expression of other ecto-nucleotidases was unaffected. Furthermore, total NPP activity was increased up to 53% in osteoblasts cultured in acid conditions (P < 0.001). Release of ATP, one of the key substrates for NPP1, from osteoblasts, was unaffected by acidosis. Further studies showed that mineralised bone formation by osteoblasts cultured from NPP1 knockout mice was increased compared with wildtypes (2.5-fold, P < 0.001) and was partially resistant to the inhibitory effect of acidosis. These results indicate that increased NPP1 expression and activity might contribute to the decreased mineralisation observed when osteoblasts are exposed to acid conditions.

  11. Application of the SASSI soil structure interaction method to CANDU 6 NPP seismic analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ricciuti, R.A.; Elgohary, M.; Usmani, S.A.

    1996-12-01

    The standard CANDU 6 NPP has been conservatively qualified for a Design Basis Earthquake (DBE) peak horizontal ground acceleration of 0.2 g. Currently there are potential opportunities for siting the CANDU 6 at higher seismicity sites. In order to be able to extend the use of a standardized design for sites with higher seismicity than the standard plant, various design options, including the use of the SASSI Soil Structure Interaction (SSI) analysis method, are being evaluated. This paper presents the results of a study to assess the potential benefits from utilization of the SASSI computer program and the use of more realistic damping ratios for the structures.

  12. Partial chemical characterization of cyclopyrrolones ((/sup 3/H) suriclone) and benzodiazepines ((/sup 3/H)flunitrazepam) binding site: Differences

    SciTech Connect

    Zundel, J.L.; Blanchard, J.C.; Julou, L.

    1985-06-10

    Rat hippocampus membranes were treated with several protein modifying reagents (iodoacetamide, N-ethylmaleimide, tetranitromethane and N-acetylimidazole). The effects of these treatments on the binding sites of cyclopyrrolones ((/sup 3/H) suriclone), a new chemical family of minor tranquilizers, and benzodiazepines ((/sup 3/H) flunitrazepam) were investigated. Here the authors show that both ligands are similarly sensitive to cysteine alkylation: (/sup 3/H) suriclone and (/sup 3/H) flunitrazepam binding are reduced by iodoacetamide and slightly increased by N-ethylmaleimide. On the contrary they are clearly differentiated by tyrosine modification: (/sup 3/H) suriclone binding is not changed whereas (/sup 3/H) flunitrazepam binding is increased by tetranitromethane and decreased by N-acetylimidazole. The present findings and published evidence suggest cyclopyrrolones and benzodiazepines bind to distinct sites or to different allosteric forms of the benzodiazepine receptor. 28 references, 6 figures.

  13. Near Real Time Processing Chain for Suomi NPP Satellite Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monsorno, Roberto; Cuozzo, Giovanni; Costa, Armin; Mateescu, Gabriel; Ventura, Bartolomeo; Zebisch, Marc

    2014-05-01

    Since 2009, the EURAC satellite receiving station, located at Corno del Renon, in a free obstacle site at 2260 m a.s.l., has been acquiring data from Aqua and Terra NASA satellites equipped with Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensors. The experience gained with this local ground segmenthas given the opportunity of adapting and modifying the processing chain for MODIS data to the Suomi NPP, the natural successor to Terra and Aqua satellites. The processing chain, initially implemented by mean of a proprietary system supplied by Seaspace and Advanced Computer System, was further developed by EURAC's Institute for Applied Remote Sensing engineers. Several algorithms have been developed using MODIS and Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) data to produce Snow Cover, Particulate Matter estimation and Meteo maps. These products are implemented on a common processor structure based on the use of configuration files and a generic processor. Data and products have then automatically delivered to the customers such as the Autonomous Province of Bolzano-Civil Protection office. For the processing phase we defined two goals: i) the adaptation and implementation of the products already available for MODIS (and possibly new ones) to VIIRS, that is one of the sensors onboard Suomi NPP; ii) the use of an open source processing chain in order to process NPP data in Near Real Time, exploiting the knowledge we acquired on parallel computing. In order to achieve the second goal, the S-NPP data received and ingested are sent as input to RT-STPS (Real-time Software Telemetry Processing System) software developed by the NASA Direct Readout Laboratory 1 (DRL) that gives as output RDR files (Raw Data Record) for VIIRS, ATMS (Advanced Technology Micorwave Sounder) and CrIS (Cross-track Infrared Sounder)sensors. RDR are then transferred to a server equipped with CSPP2 (Community Satellite Processing Package) software developed by the University of

  14. Processes, mechanisms, parameters, and modeling approaches for partially saturated flow in soil and rock media; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J.S.Y.; Narasimhan, T.N.

    1993-06-01

    This report discusses conceptual models and mathematical equations, analyzes distributions and correlations among hydrological parameters of soils and tuff, introduces new path integration approaches, and outlines scaling procedures to model potential-driven fluid flow in heterogeneous media. To properly model the transition from fracture-dominated flow under saturated conditions to matrix-dominated flow under partially saturated conditions, characteristic curves and permeability functions for fractures and matrix need to be improved and validated. Couplings from two-phase flow, heat transfer, solute transport, and rock deformation to liquid flow are also important. For stochastic modeling of alternating units of welded and nonwelded tuff or formations bounded by fault zones, correlations and constraints on average values of saturated permeability and air entry scaling factor between different units need to be imposed to avoid unlikely combinations of parameters and predictions. Large-scale simulations require efficient and verifiable numerical algorithms. New path integration approaches based on postulates of minimum work and mass conservation to solve flow geometry and potential distribution simultaneously are introduced. This verifiable integral approach, together with fractal scaling procedures to generate statistical realizations with parameter distribution, correlation, and scaling taken into account, can be used to quantify uncertainties and generate the cumulative distribution function for groundwater travel times.

  15. Radioactive Waste Packaging of Conditioned Waste at Kozloduy NPP Site

    SciTech Connect

    Genchev, G.; Dimov, D.; Russev, K.

    2006-07-01

    An important part of Safety Management of conditioned low and intermediate level Radioactive Waste (RAW) is their packaging and containers for transport, storage and final disposal. A reinforced concrete container (RCC) has been developed to take cemented super compacted dry waste and cement solidified liquid waste at Kozloduy Nuclear Power Plant (KNPP). The container is to be used as a packaging of transportation, storage and final disposal of RAW conditioned by cementation KNPP specialists constructed and performed tests on the container. These tests were possible thanks to a review of European Community States experience, USA experience and IAEA documents. The container was tested by a team of specialists from KNPP, project specialists, fabricator of the containers and from Bulgarian Regulatory Body under IAEA Safety Standards, Safety Series, TECDOC, TRS and Bulgarian Standards. An expert from IAEA was a member of the testing group for RCC examinations. (authors)

  16. N-16 monitors: Almaraz NPP experience

    SciTech Connect

    Adrada, J.

    1997-02-01

    Almaraz Nuclear Power Plant has installed N-16 monitors - one per steam generator - to control the leakage rate through the steam generator tubes after the application of leak before break (LBB) criteria for the top tube sheet (TTS). After several years of operation with the N-16 monitors, Almaraz NPP experience may be summarized as follows: N-16 monitors are very useful to follow the steam generator leak rate trend and to detect an incipient tube rupture; but they do not provide an exact absolute leak rate value, mainly when there are small leaks. The evolution of the measured N-16 leak rates varies along the fuel cycle, with the same trend for the 3 steam generators. This behaviour is associated with the primary water chemistry evolution along the cycle.

  17. Contribution of Partial Charge Interactions and Base Stacking to the Efficiency of Primer Extension at and beyond Abasic Sites in DNA

    SciTech Connect

    Xia, Shuangluo; Vashishtha, Ashwani; Bulkley, David; Eom, Soo Hyun; Wang, Jimin; Konigsberg, William H.

    2012-08-31

    During DNA synthesis, base stacking and Watson-Crick (WC) hydrogen bonding increase the stability of nascent base pairs when they are in a ternary complex. To evaluate the contribution of base stacking to the incorporation efficiency of dNTPs when a DNA polymerase encounters an abasic site, we varied the penultimate base pairs (PBs) adjacent to the abasic site using all 16 possible combinations. We then determined pre-steady-state kinetic parameters with an RB69 DNA polymerase variant and solved nine structures of the corresponding ternary complexes. The efficiency of incorporation for incoming dNTPs opposite an abasic site varied between 2- and 210-fold depending on the identity of the PB. We propose that the A rule can be extended to encompass the fact that DNA polymerase can bypass dA/abasic sites more efficiently than other dN/abasic sites. Crystal structures of the ternary complexes show that the surface of the incoming base was stacked against the PB's interface and that the kinetic parameters for dNMP incorporation were consistent with specific features of base stacking, such as surface area and partial charge-charge interactions between the incoming base and the PB. Without a templating nucleotide residue, an incoming dNTP has no base with which it can hydrogen bond and cannot be desolvated, so that these surrounding water molecules become ordered and remain on the PB's surface in the ternary complex. When these water molecules are on top of a hydrophobic patch on the PB, they destabilize the ternary complex, and the incorporation efficiency of incoming dNTPs is reduced.

  18. Design of aquifer remediation systems: (2) estimating site-specific performance and benefits of partial source removal.

    PubMed

    Wood, A Lynn; Enfield, Carl G; Espinoza, Felipe P; Annable, Michael; Brooks, Michael C; Rao, P S C; Sabatini, David; Knox, Robert

    2005-12-01

    A Lagrangian stochastic model is proposed as a tool that can be utilized in forecasting remedial performance and estimating the benefits (in terms of flux and mass reduction) derived from a source zone remedial effort. The stochastic functional relationships that describe the hydraulic "structure" and non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) "architecture" have been described in a companion paper (Enfield, C.G., Wood, A.L., Espinoza, F.P., Brooks, M.C., Annable, M., Rao, P.S.C., this issue. Design of aquifer remediation systems: (1) describing hydraulic structure and NAPL architecture using tracers. J. Contam. Hydrol.). The previously defined functions were used along with the properties of the remedial fluids to describe remedial performance. There are two objectives for this paper. First, is to show that a simple analytic element model can be used to give a reasonable estimate of system performance. This is accomplished by comparing forecast performance to observed performance. The second objective is to display the model output in terms of change in mass flux and mass removal as a function of pore volumes of remedial fluid injected. The modelling results suggest that short term benefits are obtained and related to mass reduction at the sites where the model was tested.

  19. Tetrahydroaminoacridine, a cholinesterase inhibitor, and D-cycloserine, a partial NMDA receptor-associated glycine site agonist, enhances acquisition of spatial navigation.

    PubMed

    Riekkinen, P; Ikonen, S; Riekkinen, M

    1998-05-11

    The present study examines the efficacy of single and combined treatments with an antiocholinesterase, tetrahydroaminoacridine (THA, i.p.), and a glycine-B site partial agonist, D-cycloserine (DCS, i.p.) to alleviate water maze (WM) spatial navigation defect induced by medial septal (MS) lesion. THA 3 and DCS at 3 or 10 mg/kg improved acquisition of the WM test, but only DCS improved spatial bias. These drugs had no effect on consolidation. A combination of THA 3 and DCS 10 mg/kg enhanced WM acquisition more effectively than either of the treatments on their own. This suggests that combined modulation of acetylcholine and NMDA mechanisms may have greater therapeutic effect to stimulate cognitive dysfunctions.

  20. Assessing Forest NPP: BIOME-BGC Predictions versus BEF Derived Estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasenauer, H.; Pietsch, S. A.; Petritsch, R.

    2007-05-01

    Forest productivity has always been a major issue within sustainable forest management. While in the past terrestrial forest inventory data have been the major source for assessing forest productivity, recent developments in ecosystem modeling offer an alternative approach using ecosystem models such as Biome-BGC to estimate Net Primary Production (NPP). In this study we compare two terrestrial driven approaches for assessing NPP: (i) estimates from a species specific adaptation of the biogeochemical ecosystem model BIOME-BGC calibrated for Alpine conditions; and (ii) NPP estimates derived from inventory data using biomass expansion factors (BEF). The forest inventory data come from 624 sample plots across Austria and consist of repeated individual tree observations and include growth as well as soil and humus information. These locations are covered with spruce, beech, oak, pine and larch stands, thus addressing the main Austrian forest types. 144 locations were previously used in a validating effort to produce species-specific parameter estimates of the ecosystem model. The remaining 480 sites are from the Austrian National Forest Soil Survey carried out at the Federal Research and Training Centre for Forests, Natural Hazards and Landscape (BFW). By using diameter at breast height (dbh) and height (h) volume and subsequently biomass of individual trees were calculated, aggregated for the whole forest stand and compared with the model output. Regression analyses were performed for both volume and biomass estimates.

  1. Principles on Radiological Characterization of the Unit 1 at Ignalina NPP for Decommissioning Purposes

    SciTech Connect

    Poskas, P.; Zujus, R.; Drumstas, G.; Poskas, R.; Simonis, V.

    2008-07-01

    There is only one nuclear power plant in Lithuania - Ignalina NPP (INPP). The INPP operated two similar units with installed capacity of 1500 MW(each). They were commissioned in 12/1983 and 08/1987, and the original design lifetime was projected out to 2010 and 2015 respectively. But the first Unit of Ignalina NPP was shutdown December 31, 2004, and second Unit will be closed down before 2010 taking into consideration substantial long-term financial assistance from the EU, G7 and other states as well as international institutions. Implementation of dismantling activities requires detailed knowledge of the radiological situation at the Unit 1. General Programme of Radiological Survey for Ignalina NPP Unit 1 based on NUREG-1575 was prepared in 2005- 2006 by Consortium led by Lithuanian Energy Institute and approved by Regulatory Bodies. It includes such main steps as historical site assessment, scoping, characterization, remedial actions/decontamination support surveys and final status surveys. General Programme of Radiological Survey defines content and principles of the surveys, and preliminary survey considerations, including identification of the contaminants, establishment of the free release levels, principles on areas classification depending on contamination potential, identification of the final survey units, criteria for selection survey instrumentation, techniques and methods etc. So, in the paper information on these principles and the content of the different stages in General Programme of Radiological Survey is presented. (authors)

  2. Fire Risk Analysis for Armenian NPP Confinement

    SciTech Connect

    Poghosyan, Shahen; Malkhasyan, Albert; Bznuni, Surik; Amirjanyan, Armen

    2006-07-01

    Major fire occurred at Armenian NPP (ANPP) in October 1982 showed that fire-induced initiating events (IE) can have dominant contribution in overall risk of core damage. Probabilistic Safety Assessment study for fire-induced initiating events for ANPP was initiated in 2002. Analysis was performed for compartments fires in which could result in failure of components which are necessary for reactor cold shutdown. Analysis shows that main risk from fire at ANPP is conditioned by fire in cable tunnels 61-64. Meanwhile fire in confinement compartments don't have significant contribution to overall risk of core damage. The exception is so called 'confinement valves compartment' (room no.A-013/2) fire (more than 7.5% of CDF) in which fire could result in the loss of coolant accident with unavailability of primary makeup system, which directly leads to core damage. Detailed analysis of this problem that is common for typical WWER-440/230 reactors with no hermetic MCPs and recommendations for solution are presented in this paper. (authors)

  3. MetEd Resources for Embracing Advances with S-NPP and JPSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abshire, W. E.; Dills, P. N.; Weingroff, M.

    2014-12-01

    The COMET® Program (www.comet.ucar.edu), a part of the UCAR Community Programs (UCP) at UCAR, receives funding from NOAA NESDIS as well as EUMETSAT and the Meteorological Service of Canada to support education and training in satellite meteorology. For many years COMET's satellite education programs have focused on developing self-paced online educational materials that highlight the capabilities and applications of current and next-generation operational geostationary and polar-orbiting satellites and their relevance to operational forecasters and other user communities. By partnering with experts from the Naval Research Laboratory, NOAA-NESDIS and its Cooperative Institutes, Meteorological Service of Canada, EUMETSAT, and other user communities, COMET stimulates greater use of current and future satellite observations and products. This presentation provides a tour of COMET's satellite training and education offerings that are directly applicable to data and products from the S-NPP and JPSS satellite series. A recommended set of lessons for users who wish to learn more will be highlighted, including excerpts from the newest materials on the Suomi NPP VIIRS imager and its applications, as well as advances in nighttime visible observation with the VIIRS Day-Night Band. We'll show how the lessons introduce users to the advances these systems bring to forecasting, numerical weather prediction, and environmental monitoring. Over 90 satellite-focused, self-paced, online materials are freely available on the of the MetEd Web site (http://www.meted.ucar.edu) via the "Education & Training", "Satellite" topic area. Quite a few polar-orbiting-related lessons are available in both English, Spanish, and French. Additionally, S-NPP and JPSS relevant information can also be found on the the Environmental Satellite Resource Center (ESRC) Web site (www.meted.ucar.edu/esrc) that is maintained by COMET. The ESRC is a searchable, database-driven Web site that provides access to

  4. Radioactive Waste Storage Facility at the Armenian NPP - 12462

    SciTech Connect

    Grigoryan, G.; Amirjanyan, A.; Gondakyan, Y.; Stepanyan, A.

    2012-07-01

    We present a detailed contaminant transfer dynamics model for radionuclide in geosphere and biosphere medium. The model describes the transport of radionuclides using full equation for the processes of advection, diffusion, decay and sorption. The overall objective is to establish, from a post-closure radiological safety point of view, whether it is practical to convert an existing radioactive waste storage facility at Armenian NPP, to a waste disposal facility. The calculation includes: - Data sources for: the operational waste-source term; options for refurbishment and completion of the waste storage facility as a waste disposal facility; the site and its environs; - Development of an assessment context for the safety assessment, and identification of waste treatment options; - A description of the conceptual and mathematical models, and results calculated for the base case scenario relating to the release of contaminants via the groundwater pathway and also precipitation especially important for this site. The results of the calculations showed that the peak individual dose is < 7 E-8 Sv/y arising principally from I-129 after 700 years post closure. Other significant radionuclides, in terms of their contribution to the total dose are I-129, Tc-99 and in little C-14 (U- 234 and Po-210 are not relevant). The study does not explore all issues that might be expected to be presented in a safety case for a near surface disposal facility it mainly focuses on post- closure dose impacts. Most emphasis has been placed on the development of scenarios and conceptual models rather than the presentation and analyses of results and confidence building (only deterministic results are presented). The calculations suggest that, from a perspective the conversion of the waste-storage facility is feasible such that all the predicted doses are well below internationally recognized targets, as well as provisional Armenian regulatory objectives. This conclusion applies to the disposal

  5. Suomi Npp and Jpss Pre-Launch Test Data Collection and Archive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denning, M.; Ullman, R.; Guenther, B.; Kilcoyne, H.; Chandler, C.; Adameck, J.

    2012-12-01

    During the development of each Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (Suomi NPP) instrument, significant testing was performed, both in ambient and simulated orbital (thermal-vacuum) conditions, at the instrument factory, and again after integration with the spacecraft. The NPOESS Integrated Program Office (IPO), and later the NASA Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) Program Office, defined two primary objectives with respect to capturing instrument and spacecraft test data during these test events. The first objective was to disseminate test data and auxiliary documentation to an often distributed network of scientists to permit timely production of independent assessments of instrument performance, calibration, data quality, and test progress. The second goal was to preserve the data and documentation in a catalogued government archive for the life of the mission, to aid in the resolution of anomalies and to facilitate the comparison of on-orbit instrument operating characteristics to those observed prior to launch. In order to meet these objectives, Suomi NPP pre-launch test data collection, distribution, processing, and archive methods included adaptable support infrastructures to quickly and completely transfer test data and documentation from the instrument and spacecraft factories to sensor scientist teams on-site at the factory and around the country. These methods were unique, effective, and low in cost. These efforts supporting pre-launch instrument calibration permitted timely data quality assessments and technical feedback from contributing organizations within the government, academia, and industry, and were critical in supporting timely sensor development. Second, in parallel to data distribution to the sensor science teams, pre-launch test data were transferred and ingested into the central Suomi NPP calibration and validation (cal/val) system, known as the Government Resource for Algorithm Verification, Independent Testing, and Evaluation

  6. Increased sodium channel immunofluorescence at myelinated and demyelinated sites following an inflammatory and partial axotomy lesion of the rat infraorbital nerve.

    PubMed

    Henry, Michael A; Freking, Angelique R; Johnson, Lonnie R; Levinson, S Rock

    2006-09-01

    The localization of sodium channels (NaChs) change following nerve lesions and this change may contribute to the development of increased pain states. Here we examine the change in distribution of NaChs within the rat infraorbital nerve (ION) two weeks after a combined inflammatory/partial axotomy lesion that results in behavior showing increased sensitivity to mechanical stimuli. Sections from experimental and normal control IONs were double-stained for indirect immunofluorescence using an antibody that identifies all NaCh isoforms and caspr-antibody to identify nodes of Ranvier, and a confocal microscope z-series of optically sectioned images were then obtained. ImageJ (NIH) software was used to quantify the area of pixels showing maximum NaCh intensity within both caspr and non-caspr associated accumulations. Analysis showed that the lesioned IONs had many more split nodes, heminodes and caspr-negative "naked" accumulations, a significantly increased area of NaCh staining within typical nodes and "naked" accumulations, as well as an increased density and size of significant accumulations when compared to normal IONs. This study demonstrates a dramatic redistribution and increased immunofluorescence of NaChs especially at myelinated and demyelinated sites in fibers located just proximal to the lesion. The remodeling of NaChs seen in this study may represent an important event associated with the development of increased nerve excitability after lesions. PMID:16828970

  7. Differential neuroprotective effects of the NMDA receptor-associated glycine site partial agonists 1-aminocyclopropanecarboxylic acid (ACPC) and D-cycloserine in lithium-pilocarpine status epilepticus.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Steven L; Purvis, Rebecca S; Griffith, James W

    2004-09-01

    The status epilepticus (SE) induced in rats by lithium-pilocarpine (Li-pilo) shares many common features with soman-induced SE including a glutamatergic phase that is inhibited by NMDA antagonists. The present study determined whether 1-aminocyclopropanecarboxylic acid (ACPC) or D-cycloserine (DCS), both partial agonists of the strychnine-insensitive glycine site on the NMDA receptor ionophore complex, exerted anticonvulsant or neuroprotectant activity in Li-pilo SE. ACPC or DCS were administered either immediately following pilocarpine (exposure treatment) or 5 min after the onset of SE as determined by ECoG activity. SE was allowed to proceed for 3 h before termination with propofol. The rats were sacrificed 24 h following pilocarpine administration. Neither drug had an effect on the latency to seizure onset or the duration of seizure activity. ACPC administered 5 min after SE onset produced significant neuroprotection in cortical regions, amygdala and CA1 of the hippocampus. In contrast, when administered as exposure treatment ACPC enhanced the neural damage in the thalamus and CA3 of the hippocampus suggesting the neuropathology in those regions is mediated by a different subset of NMDA receptors. DCS had no neuroprotectant activity in Li-pilo SE but exacerbated neuronal damage in the thalamus. Neither drug affected the cholinergic convulsions but both had differential effects on neural damage. This suggests that the SE-induced seizure activity and subsequent neuronal damage involve independent mechanisms.

  8. GLYX-13, an NMDA receptor glycine site functional partial agonist enhances cognition and produces antidepressant effects without the psychotomimetic side effects of NMDA receptor antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Moskal, Joseph R; Burch, Ronald; Burgdorf, Jeffrey S; Kroes, Roger A; Stanton, Patric K; Disterhoft, John F; Leander, J David

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor-ionophore complex plays a key role in learning and memory and has efficacy in animals and humans with affective disorders. GLYX-13 is an N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) glycine-site functional partial agonist and cognitive enhancer that also shows rapid antidepressant activity without psychotomimetic side effects. Areas covered The authors review the mechanism of action of GLYX-13 that was investigated in preclinical studies and evaluated in clinical studies. Specifically, the authors review its pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, and drug safety that were demonstrated in clinical studies. Expert opinion NMDAR full antagonists can produce rapid antidepressant effects in treatment-resistant subjects; however, they are often accompanied by psychotomimetic effects that make chronic use outside of a clinical trial inpatient setting problematic. GLYX-13 appears to exert its antidepressant effects in the frontal cortex via NMDAR-triggered synaptic plasticity. Understanding the mechanistic underpinning of GLYX-13’s antidepressant action should provide both novel insights into the role of the glutamatergic system in depression and identify new targets for therapeutic development. PMID:24251380

  9. Modeling and statistical analysis of feedback between NPP (MODIS NPP) and temperature for forest area Yenisei River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukoba, Nikolay; Ivanova, Yulia; Saltykov, Mikhail

    Assimilation of carbon by green plants or net primary production (NPP) is one of the most important processes. It provide qualitative and quantitative estimates of the events occurring in the biosphere. Carbon assimilated by plants is used by them to increase their biomass and is a main process of food chains on Earth. NPP is highly variable in time and space. It may depend on physical factors such as temperature, humidity and concentration of nutrients in the soil, etc. And also depends on the types of vegetation (woody, herbaceous, coniferous, and deciduous, etc.). In this regard, it is very important to understand what kind of climate factor is a limiting factor of NPP in the given time and place. For this aim a statistical analysis of the feedback between NPP (MODIS NPP) and the temperature of the forest zone Yenisey River has been performed. We used the time series of NPP for studied territory between 2000 and 2012. The time series of temperature were calculated using the data from the satellite measurements (MODISTERRA) and the global network of weather stations. The considered territory is situated in the Yenisey River basin with diverse natural landscapes - from forest-tundra in the North to alpine meadows in the West Sayan Mountains in the South. This territory extends along the Yenisey River from north to south for about 2000 km. Plains and mountainous areas have been investigated separately. Mountain forests are located in the West Sayan and altitudinal zonation varies from 500 to 2000 m a.s.l. In order to investigate the causal relationships between temperature and NPP we applied the method of Convergent Cross-Mapping (CCM) (Sugihara et al., Science. 2012. V. 338. P. 496-500). This method in some case allows to determine what is a reason and what is consequence, that cannot be definded by simple correlation. It has been shown that the best results are obtained for the 8 -day composite satellite data during the growing season (MOD17A2, MOD11A2). By means

  10. Validation of MCNP NPP Activation Simulations for Decommissioning Studies by Analysis of NPP Neutron Activation Foil Measurement Campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volmert, Ben; Pantelias, Manuel; Mutnuru, R. K.; Neukaeter, Erwin; Bitterli, Beat

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, an overview of the Swiss Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) activation methodology is presented and the work towards its validation by in-situ NPP foil irradiation campaigns is outlined. Nuclear Research and consultancy Group (NRG) in The Netherlands has been given the task of performing the corresponding neutron metrology. For this purpose, small Aluminium boxes containing a set of circular-shaped neutron activation foils have been prepared. After being irradiated for one complete reactor cycle, the sets have been successfully retrieved, followed by gamma-spectrometric measurements of the individual foils at NRG. Along with the individual activities of the foils, the reaction rates and thermal, intermediate and fast neutron fluence rates at the foil locations have been determined. These determinations include appropriate corrections for gamma self-absorption and neutron self-shielding as well as corresponding measurement uncertainties. The comparison of the NPP Monte Carlo calculations with the results of the foil measurements is done by using an individual generic MCNP model functioning as an interface and allowing the simulation of individual foil activation by predetermined neutron spectra. To summarize, the comparison between calculation and measurement serve as a sound validation of the Swiss NPP activation methodology by demonstrating a satisfying agreement between measurement and calculation. Finally, the validation offers a chance for further improvements of the existing NPP models by ensuing calibration and/or modelling optimizations for key components and structures.

  11. NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP) Environmental Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, K. D.; Smith, D. C.

    2011-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are jointly acquiring the next-generation civilian weather and environmental satellite system: the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS). The Joint Polar Satellite System will contribute the afternoon orbit component and ground processing system of the restructured National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS). As such, the Joint Polar Satellite System replaces the current Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) managed by NOAA and the ground processing component of both POES and the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) replacement, known as the Defense Weather Satellite System (DWSS), managed by the Department of Defense (DoD). The Joint Polar Satellite System satellite will carry a suite of sensors designed to collect meteorological, oceanographic, climatological, and solar-geophysical observations of the earth, atmosphere, and space. The ground processing system for the Joint Polar Satellite System is known as the Common Ground System (JPSS CGS), and consists of a Command, Control, and Communications Segment (C3S) and the Interface Data Processing Segment (IDPS). Both are developed by Raytheon Intelligence and Information Systems (IIS). The Interface Data Processing Segment will process Joint Polar Satellite System and Defense Weather Satellite System satellite data to provide environmental data products (aka, Environmental Data Records or EDRs) to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and Department of Defense processing centers operated by the United States government. The Interface Data Processing Segment will process Environmental Data Records beginning with the NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP) and continue through the lifetime of the Joint Polar Satellite System and Defense Weather Satellite System programs. Under the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental

  12. Suomi NPP VIIRS Ocean Color Data Product Early Mission Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turpie, Kevin R.; Robinson, Wayne D.; Franz, Bryan A.; Eplee, Robert E., Jr.; Meister, Gerhard; Fireman, Gwyn F.; Patt, Frederick S.; Barnes, Robert A.; McClain, Charles R.

    2013-01-01

    Following the launch of the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) aboard the Suomi National Polarorbiting Partnership (NPP) spacecraft, the NASA NPP VIIRS Ocean Science Team (VOST) began an evaluation of ocean color data products to determine whether they could continue the existing NASA ocean color climate data record (CDR). The VOST developed an independent evaluation product based on NASA algorithms with a reprocessing capability. Here we present a preliminary assessment of both the operational ocean color data products and the NASA evaluation data products regarding their applicability to NASA science objectives.

  13. Outcomes in Women Treated With MammoSite Brachytherapy or Whole Breast Irradiation Stratified by ASTRO Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation Consensus Statement Groups

    SciTech Connect

    Zauls, A. Jason; Watkins, John M.; Wahlquist, Amy E.; Brackett, N. Craig; Aguero, Eric G.; Baker, Megan K.; Jenrette, Joseph M.; Garrett-Mayer, Elizabeth; Harper, Jennifer L.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The American Society for Radiation Oncology published a Consensus Statement for accelerated partial breast irradiation identifying three groups: Suitable, Cautionary, and Unsuitable. The objective of this study was to compare oncologic outcomes in women treated with MammoSite brachytherapy (MB) vs. whole breast irradiation (WBI) after stratification into Statement groups. Methods: Eligible women had invasive carcinoma or ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) {<=}3 cm, and {<=}3 lymph nodes positive. Women were stratified by radiation modality and Statement groups. Survival analysis methods including Kaplan-Meier estimation, Cox regression, and competing risks analysis were used to assess overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS), time to local failure (TTLF), and tumor bed failure (TBF). Results: A total of 459 (183 MB and 276 WBI) patients were treated from 2002 to 2009. After a median follow-up of 45 months, we found no statistical differences by stratification group or radiation modality with regard to OS and DFS. At 4 years TTLF or TBF were not statistically different between the cohorts. Univariate analysis in the MB cohort revealed that nodal positivity (pN1 vs. pN0) was related to TTLF (hazard ratio 6.39, p = 0.02). There was a suggestion that DCIS histology had an increased risk of failure when compared with invasive ductal carcinoma (hazard ratio 3.57, p = 0.06). Conclusions: MB and WBI patients stratified by Statement groups seem to combine women who will have similar outcomes regardless of radiation modality. Although outcomes were similar, we remain guarded in overinterpretation of these preliminary results until further analysis and long-term follow-up data become available. Caution should be used in treating women with DCIS or pN1 disease with MB.

  14. Neurofilament-tubulin binding site peptide NFL-TBS.40-63 increases the differentiation of oligodendrocytes in vitro and partially prevents them from lysophosphatidyl choline toxiciy.

    PubMed

    Fressinaud, Catherine; Eyer, Joël

    2014-02-01

    During multiple sclerosis (MS), the main axon cystoskeleton proteins, neurofilaments (NF), are altered, and their release into the cerebrospinal fluid correlates with disease severity. The role of NF in the extraaxonal location is unknown. Therefore, we tested whether synthetic peptides corresponding to the tubulin-binding site (TBS) sequence identified on light NF chain (NFL-TBS.40-63) and keratin (KER-TBS.1-24), which could be released during MS, modulate remyelination in vitro. Biotinylated NFL-TBS.40-63, NFL-Scramble2, and KER-TBS.1-54 (1-100 μM, 24 hr) were added to rat oligodendrocyte (OL) and astrocyte (AS) cultures, grown in chemically defined medium. Proliferation and differentiation were characterized by using specific antibodies (A2B5, CNP, MBP, GFAP) and compared with untreated cultures. Lysophosphatidyl choline (LPC; 2 × 10(-5) M) was used to induce OL death and to test the effects of TBS peptides under these conditions. NFL-TBS.40-63 significantly increased OL differentiation and maturation, with more CNP(+) and MBP(+) cells characterized by numerous ramified processes, along with myelin balls. When OL were challenged with LPC, concomitant treatment with NFL-TBS.40-63 rescued more than 50% of OL compared with cultures treated with LPC only. Proliferation of OL progenitors was not affected, nor were AS proliferation and differentiation. NFL-TBS.40-63 peptide induces specific effects in vitro, increasing OL differentiation and maturation without altering AS fate. In addition, it partially protects OL from demyelinating injury. Thus release of NFL-TBS.40-63 caused by axonal damage in vivo could improve repair through increased OL differentiation, which is a prerequisite for remyelination.

  15. GLYX-13, a NMDA receptor glycine-site functional partial agonist, induces antidepressant-like effects without ketamine-like side effects.

    PubMed

    Burgdorf, Jeffrey; Zhang, Xiao-lei; Nicholson, Katherine L; Balster, Robert L; Leander, J David; Stanton, Patric K; Gross, Amanda L; Kroes, Roger A; Moskal, Joseph R

    2013-04-01

    Recent human clinical studies with the NMDA receptor (NMDAR) antagonist ketamine have revealed profound and long-lasting antidepressant effects with rapid onset in several clinical trials, but antidepressant effects were preceded by dissociative side effects. Here we show that GLYX-13, a novel NMDAR glycine-site functional partial agonist, produces an antidepressant-like effect in the Porsolt, novelty induced hypophagia, and learned helplessness tests in rats without exhibiting substance abuse-related, gating, and sedative side effects of ketamine in the drug discrimination, conditioned place preference, pre-pulse inhibition and open-field tests. Like ketamine, the GLYX-13-induced antidepressant-like effects required AMPA/kainate receptor activation, as evidenced by the ability of NBQX to abolish the antidepressant-like effect. Both GLYX-13 and ketamine persistently (24 h) enhanced the induction of long-term potentiation of synaptic transmission and the magnitude of NMDAR-NR2B conductance at rat Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapses in vitro. Cell surface biotinylation studies showed that both GLYX-13 and ketamine led to increases in both NR2B and GluR1 protein levels, as measured by Western analysis, whereas no changes were seen in mRNA expression (microarray and qRT-PCR). GLYX-13, unlike ketamine, produced its antidepressant-like effect when injected directly into the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC). These results suggest that GLYX-13 produces an antidepressant-like effect without the side effects seen with ketamine at least in part by directly modulating NR2B-containing NMDARs in the MPFC. Furthermore, the enhancement of 'metaplasticity' by both GLYX-13 and ketamine may help explain the long-lasting antidepressant effects of these NMDAR modulators. GLYX-13 is currently in a Phase II clinical development program for treatment-resistant depression. PMID:23303054

  16. COMET Program Training Offerings to Support S-NPP and JPSS Utilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abshire, W. E.; Dills, P. N.; Weingroff, M.

    2015-12-01

    Are you up to speed on how to exploit new S-NPP capabilities and products? If not, don't worry, because UCAR's COMET program has self-paced online educational materials that highlight the capabilities and applications of current and next-generation operational polar-orbiting and geostationary satellites. The COMET® Program (www.comet.ucar.edu) has long received funding from NOAA NESDIS as well as EUMETSAT and the Meteorological Service of Canada to support education and training in satellite meteorology. By partnering with experts from NOAA-NESDIS and its Cooperative Institutes, Meteorological Service of Canada, EUMETSAT, the Naval Research Laboratory and others, COMET's self-paced training stimulates greater use of current and future satellite observations and products. Right now, over 70 satellite-focused, self-paced, online materials are freely available in English via the MetEd Web site at http://meted.ucar.edu/topics/satellite. Additionally, quite a few lessons are also available in Spanish and French making training more easily accessible to an international audience. This presentation will focus on COMET's latest satellite training and education offerings that are directly applicable to data and products from the S-NPP and JPSS satellite series. A recommended set of lessons for users who wish to learn more will be highlighted, including excerpts from the newest materials on the Suomi NPP VIIRS imager and its applications, as well as advances in nighttime visible observation with the VIIRS Day-Night Band. We'll show how the lessons introduce users to the advances these systems bring to forecasting, numerical weather prediction, and environmental monitoring. Finally, new relevant training initiatives will also be presented.

  17. Nuclear Power Plant Module, NPP-1: Nuclear Power Cost Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitelaw, Robert L.

    The purpose of the Nuclear Power Plant Modules, NPP-1, is to determine the total cost of electricity from a nuclear power plant in terms of all the components contributing to cost. The plan of analysis is in five parts: (1) general formulation of the cost equation; (2) capital cost and fixed charges thereon; (3) operational cost for labor,…

  18. Software to Compare NPP HDF5 Data Files

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiegand, Chiu P.; LeMoigne-Stewart, Jacqueline; Ruley, LaMont T.

    2013-01-01

    This software was developed for the NPOESS (National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System) Preparatory Project (NPP) Science Data Segment. The purpose of this software is to compare HDF5 (Hierarchical Data Format) files specific to NPP and report whether the HDF5 files are identical. If the HDF5 files are different, users have the option of printing out the list of differences in the HDF5 data files. The user provides paths to two directories containing a list of HDF5 files to compare. The tool would select matching HDF5 file names from the two directories and run the comparison on each file. The user can also select from three levels of detail. Level 0 is the basic level, which simply states whether the files match or not. Level 1 is the intermediate level, which lists the differences between the files. Level 2 lists all the details regarding the comparison, such as which objects were compared, and how and where they are different. The HDF5 tool is written specifically for the NPP project. As such, it ignores certain attributes (such as creation_date, creation_ time, etc.) in the HDF5 files. This is because even though two HDF5 files could represent exactly the same granule, if they are created at different times, the creation date and time would be different. This tool is smart enough to ignore differences that are not relevant to NPP users.

  19. Extended (5-year) Outcomes of Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation Using MammoSite Balloon Brachytherapy: Patterns of Failure, Patient Selection, and Dosimetric Correlates for Late Toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Vargo, John A.; Verma, Vivek; Kim, Hayeon; Kalash, Ronny; Heron, Dwight E.; Johnson, Ronald; Beriwal, Sushil

    2014-02-01

    Purpose: Accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) with balloon and catheter-based brachytherapy has gained increasing popularity in recent years and is the subject of ongoing phase III trials. Initial data suggest promising local control and cosmetic results in appropriately selected patients. Long-term data continue to evolve but are limited outside of the context of the American Society of Breast Surgeons Registry Trial. Methods and Materials: A retrospective review of 157 patients completing APBI after breast-conserving surgery and axillary staging via high-dose-rate {sup 192}Ir brachytherapy from June 2002 to December 2007 was made. APBI was delivered with a single-lumen MammoSite balloon-based applicator to a median dose of 34 Gy in 10 fractions over a 5-day period. Tumor coverage and critical organ dosimetry were retrospectively collected on the basis of computed tomography completed for conformance and symmetry. Results: At a median follow-up time of 5.5 years (range, 0-10.0 years), the 5-year and 7-year actuarial incidences of ipsilateral breast control were 98%/98%, of nodal control 99%/98%, and of distant control 99%/99%, respectively. The crude rate of ipsilateral breast recurrence was 2.5% (n=4); of nodal failure, 1.9% (n=3); and of distant failure, 0.6% (n=1). The 5-year and 7-year actuarial overall survival rates were 89%/86%, with breast cancer–specific survival of 100%/99%, respectively. Good to excellent cosmetic outcomes were achieved in 93.4% of patients. Telangiectasia developed in 27% of patients, with 1-year, 3-year, and 5-year actuarial incidence of 7%/24%/33%; skin dose >100% significantly predicted for the development of telangiectasia (50% vs 14%, P<.0001). Conclusions: Long-term single-institution outcomes suggest excellent tumor control, breast cosmesis, and minimal late toxicity. Skin toxicity is a function of skin dose, which may be ameliorated with dosimetric optimization afforded by newer multicatheter brachytherapy

  20. Mapping and analysing cropland use intensity from a NPP perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niedertscheider, Maria; Kastner, Thomas; Fetzel, Tamara; Haberl, Helmut; Kroisleitner, Christine; Plutzar, Christoph; Erb, Karl-Heinz

    2016-01-01

    Meeting expected surges in global biomass demand while protecting pristine ecosystems likely requires intensification of current croplands. Yet many uncertainties relate to the potentials for cropland intensification, mainly because conceptualizing and measuring land use intensity is intricate, particularly at the global scale. We present a spatially explicit analysis of global cropland use intensity, following an ecological energy flow perspective. We analyze (a) changes of net primary production (NPP) from the potential system (i.e. assuming undisturbed vegetation) to croplands around 2000 and relate these changes to (b) inputs of (N) fertilizer and irrigation and (c) to biomass outputs, allowing for a three dimensional focus on intensification. Globally the actual NPP of croplands, expressed as per cent of their potential NPP (NPPact%), amounts to 77%. A mix of socio-economic and natural factors explains the high spatial variation which ranges from 22.6% to 416.0% within the inner 95 percentiles. NPPact% is well below NPPpot in many developing, (Sub-) Tropical regions, while it massively surpasses NPPpot on irrigated drylands and in many industrialized temperate regions. The interrelations of NPP losses (i.e. the difference between NPPact and NPPpot), agricultural inputs and biomass harvest differ substantially between biogeographical regions. Maintaining NPPpot was particularly N-intensive in forest biomes, as compared to cropland in natural grassland biomes. However, much higher levels of biomass harvest occur in forest biomes. We show that fertilization loads correlate with NPPact% linearly, but the relation gets increasingly blurred beyond a level of 125 kgN ha-1. Thus, large potentials exist to improve N-efficiency at the global scale, as only 10% of global croplands are above this level. Reallocating surplus N could substantially reduce NPP losses by up to 80% below current levels and at the same time increase biomass harvest by almost 30%. However, we

  1. LLUVIA-II: A program for two-dimensional, transient flow through partially saturated porous media; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    SciTech Connect

    Eaton, R.R.; Hopkins, P.L.

    1992-08-01

    LLUVIA-II is a program designed for the efficient solution of two- dimensional transient flow of liquid water through partially saturated, porous media. The code solves Richards equation using the method-of-lines procedure. This document describes the solution procedure employed, input data structure, output, and code verification.

  2. Synthetic Constraint of Ecosystem C Models Using Radiocarbon and Net Primary Production (NPP) in New Zealand Grazing Land

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baisden, W. T.

    2011-12-01

    Time-series radiocarbon measurements have substantial ability to constrain the size and residence time of the soil C pools commonly represented in ecosystem models. Radiocarbon remains unique in the ability to constrain the large stabilized C pool with decadal residence times. Radiocarbon also contributes usefully to constraining the size and turnover rate of the passive pool, but typically struggles to constrain pools with residence times less than a few years. Overall, the number of pools and associated turnover rates that can be constrained depends upon the number of time-series samples available, the appropriateness of chemical or physical fractions to isolate unequivocal pools, and the utility of additional C flux data to provide additional constraints. In New Zealand pasture soils, we demonstrate the ability to constrain decadal turnover times with in a few years for the stabilized pool and reasonably constrain the passive fraction. Good constraint is obtained with two time-series samples spaced 10 or more years apart after 1970. Three or more time-series samples further improve the level of constraint. Work within this context shows that a two-pool model does explain soil radiocarbon data for the most detailed profiles available (11 time-series samples), and identifies clear and consistent differences in rates of C turnover and passive fraction in Andisols vs Non-Andisols. Furthermore, samples from multiple horizons can commonly be combined, yielding consistent residence times and passive fraction estimates that are stable with, or increase with, depth in different sites. Radiocarbon generally fails to quantify rapid C turnover, however. Given that the strength of radiocarbon is estimating the size and turnover of the stabilized (decadal) and passive (millennial) pools, the magnitude of fast cycling pool(s) can be estimated by subtracting the radiocarbon-based estimates of turnover within stabilized and passive pools from total estimates of NPP. In grazing

  3. Radioecological Investigations of the Area around the Belene NPP

    SciTech Connect

    Hristov, Hr.; Balabanov, N.; Marinova, S.; Zaprianova, P.; Nedeva, P.; Blagoeva, E.; Philipov, M.; Gustova, M.; Maslov, O.

    2010-01-21

    The report presents the results from research of contents of U and Th in soil samples from the region of the Belene Nuclear Power Plant (NPP). The report presents the investigations for sorption of U in the system soil-water from region. The report presents similarly the results for the natural radiation background--about 0,14 muSv/h, for the investigated region.

  4. Preparation for Early Termination of Ignalina NPP Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Poskas, P.; Poskas, R.

    2003-02-26

    Seimas (Parliament of Lithuania) approved updated National Energy strategy where it is indicated that first Unit will be shutdown before the year 2005 and second Unit in 2009 if funding for decommissioning is available from EU and other donors. In accordance to Ignalina NPP Unit 1 Closure Law the Government of Lithuania approved the Ignalina NPP Unit 1 Decommissioning Program until year 2005. For enforcement of this program, the plan of measures for implementation of the program was prepared and approved by the Minister of Economy. The plan consists of two parts, namely technical- environmental and social-economic. Technical-environmental measures are mostly oriented to the safe management of spent nuclear fuel and operational radioactive waste stored at the plant and preparation of licensing documents for Unit 1 decommissioning. Social-economic measures are oriented to mitigate negative social and economic impact on Lithuania, inhabitants of the region, and, particularly, o n the staff of Ignalina NPP by means of creating favorable conditions for a balanced social and economic development of the region. In this paper analysis of planned activities, licensing requirements for decommissioning, progress in preparation of the Final Decommissioning Plan is discussed.

  5. Epilepsy (partial)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction About 3% of people will be diagnosed with epilepsy during their lifetime, but about 70% of people with epilepsy eventually go into remission. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of starting antiepileptic drug treatment following a single seizure? What are the effects of drug monotherapy in people with partial epilepsy? What are the effects of additional drug treatments in people with drug-resistant partial epilepsy? What is the risk of relapse in people in remission when withdrawing antiepileptic drugs? What are the effects of behavioural and psychological treatments for people with epilepsy? What are the effects of surgery in people with drug-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to July 2009 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 83 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: antiepileptic drugs after a single seizure; monotherapy for partial epilepsy using carbamazepine, gabapentin, lamotrigine, levetiracetam, phenobarbital, phenytoin, sodium valproate, or topiramate; addition of second-line drugs for drug-resistant partial epilepsy (allopurinol, eslicarbazepine, gabapentin, lacosamide, lamotrigine, levetiracetam, losigamone, oxcarbazepine, retigabine, tiagabine, topiramate, vigabatrin, or zonisamide); antiepileptic drug withdrawal for people with partial or

  6. A Radiological Survey Approach to Use Prior to Decommissioning: Results from a Technology Scanning and Assessment Project Focused on the Chornobyl NPP

    SciTech Connect

    Milchikov, A.; Hund, G.; Davidko, M.

    1999-10-20

    The primary objectives of this project are to learn how to plan and execute the Technology Scanning and Assessment (TSA) approach by conducting a project and to be able to provide the approach as a capability to the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) and potentially elsewhere. A secondary objective is to learn specifics about decommissioning and in particular about radiological surveying to be performed prior to decommissioning to help ChNPP decision makers. TSA is a multi-faceted capability that monitors and analyzes scientific, technical, regulatory, and business factors and trends for decision makers and company leaders. It is a management tool where information is systematically gathered, analyzed, and used in business planning and decision making. It helps managers by organizing the flow of critical information and provides managers with information they can act upon. The focus of this TSA project is on radiological surveying with the target being ChNPP's Unit 1. This reactor was stopped on November 30, 1996. At this time, Ukraine failed to have a regulatory basis to provide guidelines for nuclear site decommissioning. This situation has not changed as of today. A number of documents have been prepared to become a basis for a combined study of the ChNPP Unit 1 from the engineering and radiological perspectives. The results of such a study are expected to be used when a detailed decommissioning plan is created.

  7. Integrating the Clearance in NPP Residual Material Management

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia-Bermejo, R.; Lamela, B.

    2008-01-15

    Previous Experiences in decommissioning projects are being used to optimize the residual material management in NPP, metallic scrap usually. The approach is based in the availability of a materials Clearance MARSSIM-based methodology developed and licensed in Spain. A typical project includes the integration of segregation, decontamination, clearance, quality control and quality assurance activities. The design is based in the clearance methodology features translating them into standard operational procedures. In terms of ecological taxes and final disposal costs, significant amounts of money could be saved with this type of approaches. The last clearance project managed a total amount of 405 tons scrap metal and a similar amount of other residual materials occupying a volume of 1500 m{sup 3}. After less than a year of field works 251 tons were finally recycled in a non-licensed smelting facility. The balance was disposed as LILW. In the planning phase the estimated cost savings were 4.5 Meuro. However, today a VLLW option is available in European countries so, the estimated cost savings are reduced to 1.2 Meuro. In conclusion: the application of materials clearance in NPP decommissioning lessons learnt to the NPP residual material management is an interesting management option. This practice is currently going on in Spanish NPP and, in a preliminary view, is consistent with the new MARSAME Draft. An interesting parameter is the cost of 1 m3 of recyclable scrap. The above estimates are very project specific because in the segregation process other residual materials were involved. If the effect of this other materials is removed the estimated Unit Cost were in this project around 1700 euro/m{sup 3}, this figure is clearly below the above VLLW disposal cost of 2600 euro. In a future project it appears feasible to descend to 839 euro/m{sup 3} and if it became routine values and is used in big Decommissioning projects, around 600 euro/m{sup 3} or below possibly could

  8. Comparing global models of terrestrial net primary productivity (NPP): Global pattern and differentiation by major biomes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kicklighter, D.W.; Bondeau, A.; Schloss, A.L.; Kaduk, J.; McGuire, A.D.

    1999-01-01

    Annual and seasonal net primary productivity estimates (NPP) of 15 global models across latitudinal zones and biomes are compared. The models simulated NPP for contemporary climate using common, spatially explicit data sets for climate, soil texture, and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). Differences among NPP estimates varied over space and time. The largest differences occur during the summer months in boreal forests (50??to 60??N) and during the dry seasons of tropical evergreen forests. Differences in NPP estimates are related to model assumptions about vegetation structure, model parameterizations, and input data sets.

  9. Commissioning and Operation of a Robotic Arm for Waste Retrieval at Trawsfynydd NPP, North Wales - 12091

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Alan L.; Cabrera, David L.

    2012-07-01

    Trawsfynydd is one of the UK's first generation Magnox nuclear power plants. It started operation in 1965 and ceased generation in 1991. Before the site can enter the 'care and maintenance' phase a number of wet and dry waste stores around the site must be emptied and their contents made safe. Wet wastes include sludges and resins produced during the operating life of the NPP. The sludges and resins are stored in a number of different tanks that vary significantly in terms of size, shape, internal features and access. A dexterous long reach manipulator arm has been designed and built to facilitate tank clearance. Commissioning of the arm was carried out in parallel with Factory Acceptance Testing (FAT) at the manufacturer's site in Colorado, USA. In addition to basic functional testing this work included a full range of task based testing to ensure that the arm, tools, control system and support equipment were thoroughly exercised in representative conditions. Trawsfynydd is one of the lead sites in the UK's program for nuclear plant decommissioning. As such the lessons learned, both in terms of technology and process, will be applicable across the remainder of the fleet. (authors)

  10. The Effect of Amnion-Derived Cellular Cytokine Solution on the Epithelialization of Partial-Thickness Donor Site Wounds in Normal and Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Swine

    PubMed Central

    Bergmann, Juri; Hackl, Florian; Koyama, Taro; Aflaki, Pejman; Smith, Charlotte A.; Robson, Martin C.; Eriksson, Elof

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine whether amnion-derived cellular cytokine solution (ACCS) could improve the quality of epithelialization and accelerate closure of dermatome-created partial-thickness wounds in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic pigs. Methods: Dermatome-created partial-thickness wounds were sealed with wound chambers in healthy and diabetic pigs and were injected with ACCS. Wound fluid was exchanged daily for total protein concentration, and biopsies were taken on days 6, 8, 10, and 12. Epithelialization, thickness of epidermis, number of epidermal cell layers, and rete ridges were evaluated. Results: The macroscopic appearance of the wounds and speed of healing was similar in all groups at each time point. All wounds were healed by day 6. The epidermis was thicker in the ACCS-treated diabetic wounds than in the controls (140.6 μm vs 82.7 μm on day 12 in diabetic pigs). There were more cell layers (13 vs 7.7) in ACCS-treated diabetic pigs on day 12. The number of rete ridges per 2.5 mm was greater on day 12 in the ACCS-treated diabetic wounds (13 vs 8). There was also a significant increase in the number of rete ridges in ACCS-treated nondiabetic pigs but no difference in epidermal thickness or number of cell layers. Conclusion: In diabetic pigs, we found a significantly thicker epidermis and more cell layers and rete ridges in the ACCS-treated wounds. Healthy pigs showed more rete ridges but no difference in thickness of epidermis or number of cell layers on day 12. PMID:19936023

  11. NPP/NPOESS Tools for Rapid Algorithm Updates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Route, G.; Grant, K. D.; Hughes, R.

    2010-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Department of Defense (DoD), and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are jointly acquiring the next-generation weather and environmental satellite system; the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS). NPOESS replaces the current Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) managed by NOAA and the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) managed by the DoD. The NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP) and NPOESS satellites will carry a suite of sensors that collect meteorological, oceanographic, climatological, and solar-geophysical observations of the earth, atmosphere, and space. The ground data processing segment for NPOESS is the Interface Data Processing Segment (IDPS), developed by Raytheon Intelligence and Information Systems. The IDPS processes both NPP and NPOESS satellite data to provide environmental data products to NOAA and DoD processing centers operated by the United States government. The Northrop Grumman Aerospace Systems (NGAS) Algorithms and Data Products (A&DP) organization is responsible for the algorithms that produce the Environmental Data Records (EDRs), including their quality aspects. As the Calibration and Validation (Cal/Val) activities move forward following both the NPP launch and subsequent NPOESS launches, rapid algorithm updates may be required. Raytheon and Northrop Grumman have developed tools and processes to enable changes to be evaluated, tested, and moved into the operational baseline in a rapid and efficient manner. This presentation will provide an overview of the tools available to the Cal/Val teams to ensure rapid and accurate assessment of algorithm changes, along with the processes in place to ensure baseline integrity.

  12. Suomi NPP VIIRS spectral characterization: understanding multiple RSR releases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moeller, Chris; McIntire, Jeff; Schwarting, Tom; Moyer, Dave; Costa, Juliette

    2012-09-01

    The Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) satellite was successfully launched on October 28, 2011, beginning the on-orbit era of the Visible Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS). In support of atlaunch readiness, VIIRS underwent a rigorous pre-launch test program to characterize its spatial, radiometric, and spectral performance. Spectral measurements, the subject of this paper, were collected during instrument level testing at Raytheon Corp. (summer 2009), and then again in a special spectral test for VisNIR bands during spacecraft level testing at Ball Aerospace and Technologies Corp. (spring 2010). These spectral performance measurements were analyzed by industry (Northrop Grumman, NG) and by the Relative Spectral Response (RSR) subgroup of the Government team, (NASA, Aerospace Corp., MIT/Lincoln Lab, Univ. Wisconsin) leading to releases of the S-NPP VIIRS RSR characterization by both NG and the Government team. The NG RSR analysis was planned to populate the Look-Up-Tables (LUTs) that support the various VIIRS operational products, while the Government team analysis was initially intended as a verification of the NG RSR product as well as an early release RSR characterization for the science community's pre-launch application. While the Government team deemed the NG December 2010 RSR release as acceptable for the "at-launch" RSR characterization during the pre-launch phase, the Government team has now (post-launch checkout phase) recommended for using the NG October 2011 RSR release as an update for the LUTs used in VIIRS SDR and EDR operational processing. Meanwhile the Government team RSR releases remain available to the community for their investigative interests, and may evolve if new understanding of VIIRS spectral performance is revealed in the S-NPP post-launch era.

  13. Operational diagnostics of thermal state and efficiency of steam turbines of TPP and NPP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozhko, V. V.; Kovalenko, A. N.; Lyapunov, V. M.; Khomenok, L. A.

    2016-05-01

    Various ways for solving complex problems of the strength and operating life of steam turbines of TPP and NPP are studied. Diagnostic characters and technical possibilities for their control during the steam turbine operation are determined. It is shown that the effect of various factors on the reliability, maneuverability, and service life of power installations of TPP and NPP is generally determined by the thermal state of steam-electric generating sets. Leading foreign and domestic manufacturers give major attention to the organization of the control of the thermal state of facilities and the development of systems for accounting ("counter") the service life depletion. Zones of high-temperature sites of shafts and disks with maximum parameters of operating environment are determined. A model for on-line computation of thermal stresses with the diagnostic evaluation of the service life depletion (fatigue accumulation) and forecasting of optimum heating conditions for thermostressed turbine units is briefly stated. An example of a program for diagnostics of the quality of the facility operation is given. The program provides the operative control of thermal stresses and the service life depletion in main units of the turbine under various operation conditions, operates in the real-time mode, calculates and represents currents values of thermal stresses in turbine units, and forms and transmits into the industrial control signals on the occurrence of restrictions with respect to thermal stresses and prohibition of an increase or decrease in the vapor temperature and the load in the case of approaching pressures to maximum permissible ones. In the case of stationary operation conditions, the program computed the current efficiency in high (HPC) and mean (MPC) pressure cylinders.

  14. Characterization of neutron field in a NPP workplace.

    PubMed

    Breznik, B; Pochat, J L; Muller, H; Asselineau, B; Pavlin, M

    2007-01-01

    At the Krsko Nuclear Power Plant (NPP), albedo dosimeters are used for personal neutron dosimetry. Spectrometric measurements allow determination of reference dosimetric values of realistic neutron fields to be used for calibration of albedo dosimeters. The Laboratory for Neutron Metrology and Dosimetry from the Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN) was in charge of characterising neutron fields in the plant at two representative points with high neutron and gamma dose rate. Calibration of the dosimeters in the workplace used to be performed only by a spherical survey meter. Based on the reference dosimetric values, the Plant Dosimetry Laboratory has verified the response of albedo dosimeters.

  15. Characterization of neutron field in a NPP workplace.

    PubMed

    Breznik, B; Pochat, J L; Muller, H; Asselineau, B; Pavlin, M

    2007-01-01

    At the Krsko Nuclear Power Plant (NPP), albedo dosimeters are used for personal neutron dosimetry. Spectrometric measurements allow determination of reference dosimetric values of realistic neutron fields to be used for calibration of albedo dosimeters. The Laboratory for Neutron Metrology and Dosimetry from the Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN) was in charge of characterising neutron fields in the plant at two representative points with high neutron and gamma dose rate. Calibration of the dosimeters in the workplace used to be performed only by a spherical survey meter. Based on the reference dosimetric values, the Plant Dosimetry Laboratory has verified the response of albedo dosimeters. PMID:17416593

  16. Status of steam generator tubing integrity at Jaslovske Bohunice NPP

    SciTech Connect

    Cepcek, S.

    1997-02-01

    Steam generator represents one of the most important component of nuclear power plants. Especially, loss of tubing integrity of steam generators can lead to the primary coolant leak to secondary circuit and in worse cases to the unit shut down or to the PTS events occurrence. Therefore, to ensure the steam generator tubing integrity and the current knowledge about tube degradation propagation and development is of the highest importance. In this paper the present status of steam generator tubing integrity in operated NPP in Slovak Republic is presented.

  17. Possible satellite oceanography on coastal waters during the NPP stage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, J.; Asanuma, I.; Zhao, C.; Huang, B.

    2007-09-01

    Ocean color monitoring on the coastal water is still under study because of an incomplete atmospheric correction over the turbid water like over the coastal water along the China main land. Currently available sensors for science as MODIS on Terra or Aqua will terminate their service in the near future and the NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP) will be the next satellite to support the satellite oceanography on the coastal water. The Tokyo University of Information Sciences (TUIS) has updated the MODIS receiving system to capture and ingest the Visible/Infrared Imager/Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) data from NPP, which will be launched in 2008. Data processing software from the Direct Readout Laboratory (DRL), such as the Real-time Software Telemetry Processing (RT-STPS), Simulcast, and DB algorithms, will be core programs in our system. VIIRS has seven bands in VIS&NIR, which are for ocean color research. The spatial resolution is 0.742×0.259 meters at nadir. While the MODIS spatial resolution of the nine ocean color bands is 1000m. The higher spatial resolution MODIS data (250 meters) is used to illustrate the advantage of the higher spatial resolution remote sensing data, such as data from VIIRS. In this study, we propose to combine the higher spatial resolution data with the traditional products of chlorophyll-a and sea surface temperature in the low resolution so as to extract further information on the coastal ocean.

  18. Estimation of Explosion Energy Yield at Chernobyl NPP Accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pakhomov, Sergey A.; Dubasov, Yuri V.

    2010-05-01

    The value of the 133Xe/133mXe isometric activity ratio for the stationary regime of reactor work is about 35, and that for an instant fission (explosion) is about 11, which allowed estimation of the nuclear component of the instant (explosion) energy release during the NPP accident. Atmospheric xenon samples were taken at the trajectory of accident product transfers (in the Cherepovetz area); these samples were measured by a gamma spectrometer, and the 133Xe/133mXe ratio was determined as an average value of 22.4. For estimations a mathematic model was elaborated considering both the value of instant released energy and the schedule of reactor power change before the accident, as well as different fractionation conditions on the isobaric chain. Comparison of estimated results with the experimental data showed the value of the instant specific energy release in the Chernobyl NPP accident to be 2·105-2·106 J/Wt or 6·1014-6·1015 J (100-1,000 kt). This result is matched up to a total reactor power of 3,200 MWt. However this estimate is not comparable with the actual explosion scale estimated as 10t TNT. This suggests a local character of the instant nuclear energy release and makes it possible to estimate the mass of fuel involved in this explosion process to be from 0.01 to 0.1% of total quantity.

  19. FEASIBILITY AND EXPEDIENCE TO VITRIFY NPP OPERATIONAL WASTE

    SciTech Connect

    LIFANOV, F.A.; OJOVAN, M.I.; STEFANOVSKY, S.V.; BURCL, R.

    2003-02-27

    Operational radioactive waste is generated during routine operation of NPP. Process waste is mainly generated by treatment of water from reactor or ancillaries including spent fuel storage pools and some decontamination operations. Typical process wastes of pressurized water reactors (PWR or WWER) are borated water concentrates, whereas typical process wastes of boiling and RBMK type reactors are water concentrates with no boron content. NPP operational wastes are classified as low and intermediate level waste (LILW). NPP operational waste must be solidified in order to ensure safe conditions of storage and disposal. Currently the most promising solidification method for this waste is the vitrification technology. Vitrification of NPP operational waste is a relative new option being developed for last years. Nevertheless there is already accumulated operational experience on vitrifying low and intermediate level waste in Russian Federation at Moscow SIA ''Radon'' vitrification plant. This plant uses the most advanced type induction high frequency melters that facilitate the melting process and significantly reduce the generation of secondary waste and henceforth the overall cost. The plant was put into operation by the end of 1999. It has three operating cold crucible melters with the overall capacity up to 75 kg/h. The vitrification technology comprises a few stages, starting with evaporation of excess water from liquid radioactive waste, followed by batch preparation, glass melting, and ending with vitrified waste blocks and some relative small amounts of secondary waste. First of all since the original waste contain as main component water, this water is removed from waste through evaporation. Then the remaining salt concentrate is mixed with necessary technological additives, thus a glass-forming batch is formed. The batch is fed into melters where the glass melting occurs. From here there are two streams: one is the glass melt containing the most part of

  20. Adapting SAFT-γ perturbation theory to site-based molecular dynamics simulation. III. Molecules with partial charges at bulk phases, confined geometries and interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Ghobadi, Ahmadreza F.; Elliott, J. Richard

    2014-09-07

    In Paper I [A. F. Ghobadi and J. R. Elliott, J. Chem. Phys. 139(23), 234104 (2013)], we showed that how a third-order Weeks–Chandler–Anderson (WCA) Thermodynamic Perturbation Theory and molecular simulation can be integrated to characterize the repulsive and dispersive contributions to the Helmholtz free energy for realistic molecular conformations. To this end, we focused on n-alkanes to develop a theory for fused and soft chains. In Paper II [A. F. Ghobadi and J. R. Elliott, J. Chem. Phys. 141(2), 024708 (2014)], we adapted the classical Density Functional Theory and studied the microstructure of the realistic molecular fluids in confined geometries and vapor-liquid interfaces. We demonstrated that a detailed consistency between molecular simulation and theory can be achieved for both bulk and inhomogeneous phases. In this paper, we extend the methodology to molecules with partial charges such as carbon dioxide, water, 1-alkanols, nitriles, and ethers. We show that the electrostatic interactions can be captured via an effective association potential in the framework of Statistical Associating Fluid Theory (SAFT). Implementation of the resulting association contribution in assessing the properties of these molecules at confined geometries and interfaces presents satisfactory agreement with molecular simulation and experimental data. For example, the predicted surface tension deviates less than 4% comparing to full potential simulations. Also, the theory, referred to as SAFT-γ WCA, is able to reproduce the specific orientation of hydrophilic head and hydrophobic tail of 1-alkanols at the vapor-liquid interface of water.

  1. Radiometric performance assessment of Suomi NPP VIIRS SWIR Band (2.25 μm)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uprety, Sirish; Cao, Changyong

    2015-09-01

    Suomi NPP VIIRS SWIR band M11 (2.25 μm) has larger radiometric uncertainty compared to the rest of the reflective solar bands. This is due to a number of reasons including prelaunch calibration uncertainties. One of the most commonly used technique to verify the radiometric stability and accuracy of VIIRS is by intercomparing it with other well calibrated radiometers such as MODIS. However one of the limitations of using MODIS is that VIIRS band M11 RSR doesn't overlap with MODIS bands at all. Thus the accuracy of intercomparison relies completely on how well the spectral differences are analyzed over the given target. Since desert sites have higher reflectance and more flat spectra, this study uses desert sites to analyze M11 radiometric performance. In order to better match the RSR between instruments, we have chosen Landsat 8 OLI SWIR band 2 (2.20 μm) to perform intercomparison. This is mainly because OLI SWIR band 2 fully covers the VIIRS band M11 even though OLI has much wider RSR compared to VIIRS. The study suggests that there exists large radiometric inconsistency between VIIRS M11 and OLI, on the order of 5%. The impact due to spectral differences is estimated and accounted for using EO-1 Hyperion observations and MODTRAN.

  2. Comparison of Forest and Tundra Ecosystems Npp with Remote Sensing and Ground Observation Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanova, Yuliya; Ovchinnikova, Nataly; Kryazhimskiy, Fedor; Maklakov, Kirill

    2012-07-01

    In this study we compared two models for NPP estimate: an estimate based on satellite data and an estimate based on biomass calculation for tundra in the Yamal Peninsula and for forest ecosystems at the West Sayan Mountains. Ground NPP estimates were done for the same study areas which made it possible to identify the most significant parameters, specific to each model, that affect the estimates. The main difficulty in NPP-related studies is that current NPP values in an ecosystem cannot be determined exactly. Estimates, however, are feasible, and they can be made using a variety of methods. Thus, it seems important to see the ways in which these methods are different from each other and to find out how close the resulting values are. If these are dissimilar, the parameters used to make NPP estimates should be compared in order to identify the stage that can give rise to defects and errors, and to under- and overestimates. In this study we estimated NPP using the following two approaches: NPP calculation based on ground-truth measurements, such as calculation of plant phytomass on the studied area based on morphometric measurements (height, stem diameter, crown volume, etc.) and variations in this phytomass over a certain time period. NPP calculation based on satellite remote sensing data, using the data of satellite spectral channels and the data on underlying terrain. In this study we used MODIS/TERRA 8-day composite images, namely MOD09A1 and MOD11A2, with the spatial resolution 500 m and 1 km, respectively, obtained from EOS Data Gateway. Different models evaluate NPP using different physical values, with dissimilar temporal and spatial distributions. The NPP values evaluated by two models differ inherently. We used both of the models: GLO-PEM end MODIS-NPP. The study area is situated in the south of the Krasnoyarskii Krai, at the West Sayan Mountains, where the Institute of Forest SB RAS has been conducting observations since 1960. In this area altitudinal

  3. Single Residue Mutation in Active Site of Serine Acetyltransferase Isoform 3 from Entamoeba histolytica Assists in Partial Regaining of Feedback Inhibition by Cysteine

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sudhir; Mazumder, Mohit; Dharavath, Sudhaker; Gourinath, S.

    2013-01-01

    The cysteine biosynthetic pathway is essential for survival of the protist pathogen Entamoeba histolytica, and functions by producing cysteine for countering oxidative attack during infection in human hosts. Serine acetyltransferase (SAT) and O-acetylserine sulfhydrylase (OASS) are involved in cysteine biosynthesis and are present in three isoforms each. While EhSAT1 and EhSAT2 are feedback inhibited by end product cysteine, EhSAT3 is nearly insensitive to such inhibition. The active site residues of EhSAT1 and of EhSAT3 are identical except for position 208, which is a histidine residue in EhSAT1 and a serine residue in EhSAT3. A combination of comparative modeling, multiple molecular dynamics simulations and free energy calculation studies showed a difference in binding energies of native EhSAT3 and of a S208H-EhSAT3 mutant for cysteine. Mutants have also been generated in vitro, replacing serine with histidine at position 208 in EhSAT3 and replacing histidine 208 with serine in EhSAT1. These mutants showed decreased affinity for substrate serine, as indicated by Km, compared to the native enzymes. Inhibition kinetics in the presence of physiological concentrations of serine show that IC50 of EhSAT1 increases by about 18 folds from 9.59 µM for native to 169.88 µM for H208S-EhSAT1 mutant. Similar measurements with EhSAT3 confirm it to be insensitive to cysteine inhibition while its mutant (S208H-EhSAT3) shows a gain of cysteine inhibition by 36% and the IC50 of 3.5 mM. Histidine 208 appears to be one of the important residues that distinguish the serine substrate from the cysteine inhibitor. PMID:23437075

  4. Degradation and Failure Characteristics of NPP Containment Protective Coating Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sindelar, R.L.

    2001-02-22

    A research program to investigate the performance and potential for debris formation of Service Level I coating systems used in nuclear power plant containment is being performed at the Savannah River Technology Center. The research activities are aligned to address phenomena important to cause coating disbondment as identified by the Industry Coatings Expert Panel. The period of interest for performance covers the time from application of the coating through 40 years of service, followed by a medium-to-large break loss-of-coolant accident scenario, which is a design basis accident (DBA) scenario. The interactive program elements are described in this report and the application of these elements to evaluate the performance of the specific coating system of Phenoline 305 epoxy-phenolic topcoat over Carbozinc 11 primer on a steel substrate. This system is one of the predominant coating systems present on steel substrates in NPP containment.

  5. NPP VIIRS Early On-Orbit Geometric Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfe, Robert E.; Lin, Guoqing; Nishihama, Masahiro; Tewari, Krishna; Montano, Enrique

    2012-01-01

    The NASA/NOAA Visible Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument on-board the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP) satellite was launched in October, 2011. The instrument geometric performance includes sensor spatial response, band-to-band co-registration (BBR), and geolocation accuracy and precision. The geometric performance is an important aspect of sensor data record (SDR) calibration and validation. In this paper we will discuss geometric performance parameter characterization using the first seven-month of VIIRS' earth and lunar data, and compare with the at-launch performance using ground testing data and analysis of numerical modeling results as the first step in on-orbit geometric calibration and validation.

  6. Partial identification of carbohydrate-binding sites of a Galalpha1,3Galbeta1,4GlcNAc-specific lectin from the mushroom Marasmius oreades by site-directed mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    Tateno, Hiroaki; Goldstein, Irwin J

    2004-07-01

    The Galalpha1,3Galbeta1,4GlcNAc-specific lectin from the mushroom Marasmius oreades (MOA) contains a ricin B chain-like (QXW)(3) domain at its N-terminus that is composed of three identical subdomains (alpha, beta, and gamma) and a C-terminal domain of unknown function. Here, we investigate the structure-function relationship of MOA to define the number and location of its carbohydrate-binding sites. Based on the sequence alignment of MOA to the ricin B-chain lactose-binding sites, we systematically constructed mutants by site-directed mutagenesis. We have used precipitation and hemagglutination assay for the primary analyses, and surface plasmon resonance for the kinetic analysis. Among amino acid residues at the putative carbohydrate-binding sites, Gln(46) in the alpha subdomain and Trp(138) in the gamma subdomain have been identified to be important amino acid residues directly or indirectly involved in carbohydrate recognition. By surface plasmon resonance, Q46A and W138A were 2.4- and 4.3-fold less active than that of the wild-type MOA (K(a) = 2 x 10(7)), respectively. A double-site mutant (Q46A/W138A) had activity similar to W138A. The C-terminal deletion mutant MOADeltaC showed hemagglutination and precipitation activity, although its binding constant was 12.5-fold less active (K(a) = 1.6 x 10(6)) than that of the wild-type MOA. A C-terminal deletion mutant with mutations at both Gln(46) and Trp(138) (MOADeltaC-Q46A/W138A) was 12,500-fold less active (K(a) = 1.6 x 10(3)) than that of the wild-type MOA. On the basis of this observation, we conclude that both alpha and gamma subdomains are most probably involved in carbohydrate binding, but the beta subdomain appears to be inactive.

  7. Irradiation Embrittlement Monitoring Programs of RPV's in the Slovak Republic NPP's

    SciTech Connect

    Kupca, Ludovik

    2006-07-01

    Four types of surveillance programs were (are) realized in Slovak NPP's: 'Standard Surveillance Specimen Program' (SSSP) was finished in Jaslovske Bohunice V-2 Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) Units 3 and 4, 'Extended Surveillance Specimen Program' (ESSP), was prepared for Jaslovske Bohunice NPP V-2 with aim to validate the SSSP results, For the Mochovce NPP Unit 1 and 2 was prepared completely new surveillance program 'Modern Surveillance Specimen Program' (MSSP), based on the philosophy that the results of MSSP must be available during all NPP service life, For the Bohunice V-1 NPP was finished 'New Surveillance Specimen Program' (NSSP) coordinated by IAEA, which gave arguments for prolongation of service life these units for minimum 20 years, New Advanced Surveillance Specimen Program (ASSP) for Bohunice V-2 NPP (units 3 and 4) and Mochovce NPP (units 1, 2) is approved now. ASSP is dealing with the irradiation embrittlement of heat affected zone (HAZ) and RPV's austenitic cladding, which were not evaluated till this time in surveillance programs. SSSP started in 1979 and was finished in 1990. ESSP program started in 1995 and will be finished in 2007, was prepared with aim of: increasing of neutron fluence measurement accuracy, substantial improvement the irradiation temperature measurement, fixed orientation of samples to the centre of the reactor core, minimum differences of neutron dose for all the Charpy-V notch and COD specimens, the dose rate effect evaluation. In the year 1996 was started the new surveillance specimen program for the Mochovce RPV's unit-1 and 2, based on the fundamental postulate - to provide the irradiation embrittlement monitoring till the end of units operation. The 'New Surveillance Specimen Program' (NSSP) prepared in the year 1999 for the Bohunice V-1 NPP was finished in the year 2004. Main goal of this program was to evaluate the weld material properties degradation due to the irradiation and recovery efficiency by annealing too. The

  8. Use of artificial intelligence methods for systems of environmental monitoring in NPP region

    SciTech Connect

    Barbashev, S.V.; Verkhovetsky, N.A.; Maslov, O.V.

    1993-12-31

    Conception of complex ecological environmental monitoring in NPP region, including control function , is presented. The outlook for the design of an expert system to be utilized in the monitoring is described.

  9. Joint probability safety assessment for NPP defense infrastructure against extreme external natural hazards

    SciTech Connect

    Guilin, L.; Defu, L.; Huajun, L.; Fengqing, W.; Tao, Z.

    2012-07-01

    With the increasing tendency of natural hazards, the typhoon, hurricane and tropical Cyclone induced surge, wave, precipitation, flood and wind as extreme external loads menacing Nuclear Power Plants (NPP) in coastal and inland provinces of China. For all of planned, designed And constructed NPP the National Nuclear Safety Administration of China and IAEA recommended Probable Maximum Hurricane /Typhoon/(PMH/T), Probable Maximum Storm Surge (PMSS), Probable Maximum Flood (PMF), Design Basis Flood (DBF) as safety regulations for NPP defense infrastructures. This paper discusses the joint probability analysis of simultaneous occurrence typhoon induced extreme external hazards and compare with IAEA 2006-2009 recommended safety regulation design criteria for some NPP defense infrastructures along China coast. (authors)

  10. The kinetics of aerosol particle formation and removal in NPP severe accidents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zatevakhin, Mikhail A.; Arefiev, Valentin K.; Semashko, Sergey E.; Dolganov, Rostislav A.

    2016-06-01

    Severe Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) accidents are accompanied by release of a massive amount of energy, radioactive products and hydrogen into the atmosphere of the NPP containment. A valid estimation of consequences of such accidents can only be carried out through the use of the integrated codes comprising a description of the basic processes which determine the consequences. A brief description of a coupled aerosol and thermal-hydraulic code to be used for the calculation of the aerosol kinetics within the NPP containment in case of a severe accident is given. The code comprises a KIN aerosol unit integrated into the KUPOL-M thermal-hydraulic code. Some features of aerosol behavior in severe NPP accidents are briefly described.

  11. Assessment of NPP VIIRS Ocean Color Data Products: Hope and Risk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turpie, Kevin R.; Meister, Gerhard; Eplee, Gene; Barnes, Robert A.; Franz, Bryan; Patt, Frederick S.; Robinson, Wayne d.; McClain, Charles R.

    2010-01-01

    For several years, the NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) NPP VIIRS Ocean Science Team (VOST) provided substantial scientific input to the NPP project regarding the use of Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) to create science quality ocean color data products. This work has culminated into an assessment of the NPP project and the VIIRS instrument's capability to produce science quality Ocean Color data products. The VOST concluded that many characteristics were similar to earlier instruments, including SeaWiFS or MODIS Aqua. Though instrument performance and calibration risks do exist, it was concluded that programmatic and algorithm issues dominate concerns. Keywords: NPP, VIIRS, Ocean Color, satellite remote sensing, climate data record.

  12. Assessing forest productivity (NPP/GPP) estimates from remote sensing, flux measurement and field observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marjanovic, Hrvoje; Anic, Mislav; Zorana Ostrogovic Sever, Masa; Kern, Anikó

    2015-04-01

    Monitoring forest productivity and understanding effects of key environmental drivers becomes essential for forest management. This is a challenging task, particularly due to great costs related to it. In our work we compared the available annual productivity (GPP and NPP) assessments from the MODIS sensor with assessments from: a) eddy covariance and soil respiration measurements; and b) bi-weekly field measurements of increment of 640 trees in 24 plots set in a 100m x 100m grid. The research is conducted in lowland forest dominated by pedunculate oak. The comparison was made on a five year dataset of measurements, spanning from 2008 to 2012. The research provides the first evaluation on the quality of MODIS GPP and NPP estimates for Central-European lowland forests. Results indicate that GPP/NPP from MODIS MOD17 dataset (version 55, Numerical Terradynamic Simulation Group, University of Montana) are in good agreement with the NPP/GPP estimates from field measurements.

  13. Five-Year Analysis of Treatment Efficacy and Cosmesis by the American Society of Breast Surgeons MammoSite Breast Brachytherapy Registry Trial in Patients Treated With Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Vicini, Frank; Beitsch, Peter; Quiet, Coral; Gittleman, Mark; Zannis, Vic; Fine, Ricky; Whitworth, Pat; Kuerer, Henry; Haffty, Bruce; Lyden, Maureen

    2011-03-01

    Purpose: To present 5-year data on treatment efficacy, cosmetic results, and toxicities for patients enrolled on the American Society of Breast Surgeons MammoSite breast brachytherapy registry trial. Methods and Materials: A total of 1440 patients (1449 cases) with early-stage breast cancer receiving breast-conserving therapy were treated with the MammoSite device to deliver accelerated partial-breast irradiation (APBI) (34 Gy in 3.4-Gy fractions). Of 1449 cases, 1255 (87%) had invasive breast cancer (IBC) (median size, 10 mm) and 194 (13%) had ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) (median size, 8 mm). Median follow-up was 54 months. Results: Thirty-seven cases (2.6%) developed an ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence (IBTR), for a 5-year actuarial rate of 3.80% (3.86% for IBC and 3.39% for DCIS). Negative estrogen receptor status (p = 0.0011) was the only clinical, pathologic, or treatment-related variable associated with IBTR for patients with IBC and young age (<50 years; p = 0.0096) and positive margin status (p = 0.0126) in those with DCIS. The percentage of breasts with good/excellent cosmetic results at 60 months (n = 371) was 90.6%. Symptomatic breast seromas were reported in 13.0% of cases, and 2.3% developed fat necrosis. A subset analysis of the first 400 consecutive cases enrolled was performed (352 with IBC, 48 DCIS). With a median follow-up of 60.5 months, the 5-year actuarial rate of IBTR was 3.04%. Conclusion: Treatment efficacy, cosmesis, and toxicity 5 years after treatment with APBI using the MammoSite device are good and similar to those reported with other forms of APBI with similar follow-up.

  14. Consistency of CERES Radiances and Fluxes from Aqua and Suomi-NPP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Su, Wenying; Liang, Lusheng; Miller, Walter; Loeb, Norman

    2015-01-01

    The Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instruments on board Terra, Aqua, and Suomi-NPP have been providing data products critical to advancing our understanding of the effects of clouds and aerosols on radiative energy within the Earth-atmosphere system. The CERES instrument consists of a threechannel broadband scanning radiometer. The scanning radiometer measures radiances in shortwave (SW, 0.3-5 micron), window (WN, 8-12 micron), and total (0.3-200 micron) channels. The longwave (LW) component is derived as the difference between total and SW channels. These measured radiances at a given sun-Earthsatellite geometry are converted to outgoing reflected solar and emitted thermal TOA radiative fluxes by using CERES scene-type dependent angular distribution models (ADMs). The CERES instruments must remain radiometrically stable and correctly inter-calibrated to accurately capture changes in Earth"s radiation budget from interannual to decadal timescales. This presentation will focus on comparisons between collocated radiance measurements from CERES instruments on Aqua and on Suomi-NPP. As we do not have a set of ADMs that is constructed specifically for the CERES instrument on Suomi-NPP, CERES Aqua ADMs are used to invert fluxes from radiance measurements on Suomi-NPP. But the CERES Aqua footprint size is smaller than the CERES Suomi-NPP footprint size and the scene identifications provided by MODIS and VIIRS can also be different from each other. Will using Aqua ADMs for Suomi-NPP flux inversion increase the flux uncertainty? We will examine the deseasonalized flux anomaly time series using Aqua data alone and using combined Aqua and Suomi-NPP data. We will also present a simulation study to assess the Suomi-NPP flux uncertainty from using Aqua ADMs for the flux inversion.

  15. Restoration of water environment contaminated by radioactive cesium released from Fukushima Daiichi NPP

    SciTech Connect

    Takeshita, K.; Takahashi, H.; Jinbo, Y.; Ishido, A.

    2013-07-01

    In the Fukushima Daiichi NPP Accident, large amounts of volatile radioactive nuclides, such as {sup 131}I, {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs, were released to the atmosphere and huge areas surrounding the nuclear site were contaminated by the radioactive fallout. In this study, a combined process with a hydrothermal process and a coagulation settling process was proposed for the separation of radioactive Cs from contaminated soil and sewage sludge. The coagulation settling operation uses Prussian Blue (Ferric ferrocyanide) and an inorganic coagulant. The recovery of Cs from sewage sludge sampled at Fukushima city (100.000 Bq/kg) and soil at a nearby village (55.000 Bq/kg), was tested. About 96% of Cs in the sewage sludge was removed successfully by combining simple hydrothermal decomposition and coagulation settling. However, Cs in the soil was not removed sufficiently by the combined process (Cs removal is only 56%). The hydrothermal decomposition with blasting was carried out. The Cs removal from the soil was increased to 85%. When these operations were repeated twice, the Cs recovery was over 90%. The combined process with hydrothermal blasting and coagulation settling is applicable to the removal of Cs from highly contaminated soil.

  16. Modelling of the shielding capabilities of the existing solid radioactive waste storages at Ignalina NPP.

    PubMed

    Smaizys, Arturas; Poskas, Povilas; Ragaisis, Valdas

    2005-01-01

    There is only one nuclear power plant in Lithuania--Ignalina NPP (INPP). The INPP operates two similar units with design electrical power of 1500 MW. The units were commissioned in 1983 and 1987 respectively. From the beginning of the INPP operation all generated solid radioactive waste was collected and stored at the Soviet type solid radwaste facility located at INPP site. The INPP solid radwaste storage facility consists of four buildings, namely building No. 155, No. 155/1, No. 157 and No. 157/1. The buildings of the INPP solid radwaste storage facility are reinforced concrete structures above ground. State Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (VATESI) has specified that particular safety analysis must be performed for existing radioactive waste storage facilities of the INPP. As part of the safety analysis, shielding capabilities of the walls and roofs of these buildings were analysed. This paper presents radiation shielding analysis of the buildings No. 157 and No. 157/1 that are still in operation. The buildings No. 155 and No. 155/1 are already filled up with the waste and no additional waste loading is expected. PMID:16604672

  17. Fruit development, not GPP, drives seasonal variation in NPP in a tropical palm plantation.

    PubMed

    Navarro, M N V; Jourdan, C; Sileye, T; Braconnier, S; Mialet-Serra, I; Saint-Andre, L; Dauzat, J; Nouvellon, Y; Epron, D; Bonnefond, J M; Berbigier, P; Rouziere, A; Bouillet, J P; Roupsard, O

    2008-11-01

    We monitored seasonal variations in net primary production (NPP), estimated by allometric equations from organ dimensions, gross primary production (GPP), estimated by the eddy covariance method, autotrophic respiration (R(a)), estimated by a model, and fruit production in a coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) plantation located in the sub-tropical South Pacific archipelago of Vanuatu. Net primary production of the vegetative compartments of the trees accumulated steadily throughout the year. Fruits accounted for 46% of tree NPP and showed large seasonal variations. On an annual basis, the sum of estimated NPP (16.1 Mg C ha(-1) year(-1)) and R(a) (24.0 Mg C ha(-1) year(-1)) for the ecosystem (coconut trees and herbaceous understory) closely matched GPP (39.0 Mg C ha(-1) year(-1)), suggesting adequate cross-validation of annual C budget methods. However, seasonal variations in NPP + R(a) were smaller than the seasonal variations in GPP, and maximum tree NPP occurred 6 months after the midsummer peak in GPP and solar radiation. We propose that this discrepancy reflects seasonal variation in the allocation of dry mass to carbon reserves and new plant tissue, thus affecting the allometric relationships used for estimating NPP. PMID:18765371

  18. Operational Applications from the Suomi Npp and Jpss Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldberg, M.; Furgerson, J.; Sjoberg, W.; Weng, F.; Csiszar, I. A.; Kilcoyne, H.; Gleason, J. F.

    2012-12-01

    The Joint Polar Satellite System is NOAA's new operational satellite program and includes the SUOMI National Polar Partnership (NPP) as a bridge between NOAA's operational Polar Orbiting Environmental Satellite (POES) series, which began in 1978, and the first JPSS operational satellite scheduled for launch in 2017. JPSS provides critical data for key NOAA product and services, which the Nation depends on. These products and services include: Weather forecasting - data from the JPSS Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS) and the Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS) are needed to forecast weather events out to 7 days. Nearly 85% of all data used in weather forecasting are from polar orbiting satellites. Environmental monitoring - data from the JPSS Visible Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) are used to monitor the environment including the health of coastal ecosystems, drought conditions, fire, smoke, dust, snow and ice, and the state of oceans, including sea surface temperature and ocean color. Climate monitoring - data from JPSS instruments, including OMPS, CERES and TSIS will provide continuity to climate data records established using NOAA POES and NASA Earth Observing System (EOS) satellite observations. These data records provide a unified and coherent long-term observation of the environment; the records and products are critical to climate modelers, scientists, and decision makers concerned with advancing climate change understanding, prediction, mitigation and adaptation strategies, and policies. Data collection - JPSS satellites continue the POES data collection instruments that relay in situ data and observations from remote transmitters. These instruments relay data from remote, unmanned stations including wind, temperature and salinity readings from ocean buoys, which allow for the monitoring of the ocean. These instruments are also used to track wildlife. Search and rescue - JPSS will continue the search and rescue instruments on POES that

  19. Initial Assessment of NPP/VIIRS Aerosol Environmental Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laszlo, I.; Kondragunta, S.; Remer, L. A.

    2012-12-01

    The aerosol environment data records (EDR) derived from the measurements of the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) onboard the recently launched Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP) satellite are the aerosol optical thickness (AOT), aerosol particle size parameter (APSP, characterized in terms of the Angstrom Exponent, AE), and suspended matter (SM). These EDRs go through various evaluations to assess their level of maturity, which are defined by a set of criteria. This presentation provides an overview of the work and results the NPP/JPSS Calibration/Validation Team has performed for the first of the maturity levels, Beta. For this level, the VIIRS AOT and APSP products have been compared with aerosol products derived from MODIS observations onboard the NASA Earth Observing System (EOS) satellite (Aqua), and with AERONET products and observations. SM has been compared with CALIPSO products. All comparisons have been applied to a uniform time sample (2 May 2012 to 2 June 2012). Qualitative and quantitative analysis of the VIIRS aerosol EDRs indicate that AOT both over land and ocean, and APSP over ocean have reached Beta maturity. However, neither APSP over land, nor SM qualifies for Beta level at this time. Qualitatively, one standard deviation of VIIRS AOT EDR products fall within ±0.09 ±10% of collocated MODIS retrievals over land and ±0.02 ±10% over ocean. The same VIIRS product falls within ±0.13 ±15% of collocated AERONET over land and ±0.04 ±5% over ocean. In all cases, the VIIRS AOT over land product is biased high (0.07 to 0.15) against comparable products in a global sense. The VIIRS Angstrom Exponent EDR product over ocean shows correlation when compared with MODIS, but is biased high. Preliminary AERONET analysis at coastal stations shows APSP falling within approximately ±0.40 of AERONET. Preliminary AERONET analysis at coastal stations shows APSP falling within approximately ±0.40 of AERONET. VIIRS Angstrom Exponent

  20. Update global budget of 134Cs and 137Cs derived from Fukushima NPP1 accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoyama, Michio; Tsumune, Daisuke; Tsubono, Takaki; Misuimi, Kazuhiro; Inomata, Yayoi; Kumamoto, Yuichiro; Hamajima, Yasunori

    2014-05-01

    134Cs and 137Cs, hereafter radiocaesium, were released from the Fukushima NPP1 accident on March 2011 and to evaluate total amount of released radiocaesium is essential to assess impacts of released radiocaesium to iur environment. We however still have wide range of reports about total amount of released radiocaesium after the accident till today. Released radiocasium were injected in the North Pacific Ocean by two major pathways, direct discharge from the accident site and atmospheric pathway to the ocean while there was only atmospheric deposition on land. We summarize estimations of budget of radiocasium based on both observations and model studies for land deposition, deposition on the North Pacific Ocean and inventory in the North Pacific Ocean, an inventory of sediment close to the site. The major portion of released radiocaesium can be believed to be deposited mainly in the western North Pacific Ocean because deposition density at west coast of US continent was only at an order of 100 Bq m-2 while that at close to accident site was MBq m-2. An inventory in the North Pacific Ocean by some of the authors was 15-18 PBq on April-May 2011 by model-observation comparison and that in the mode water in the western North Pacific Ocean based on the observations on January- February 2012 was 6 PBq. The second portion might be on main land Japan and it is rather easy to evaluate total amount of deposited radiocaesium because there are good observation both by direct sampling of soil and aerial survey. A result of integration for land deposition was about 2.5 PBq. The third portion is in the sediment and an inventory in the sediment by observation showed 42 TBq at close to the site while the total inventory of 137Cs in sediments off the Fukushima coast is thus estimated to be the order of 0.1 PBq by a model study by some of the authors. Estimations of direct discharge from the site also still varied much from 3 PBq to 27 PBq. Two larger estimations did the backward

  1. Assessment of CO2 fluxes and forest productivity (NPP/GPP) estimates from eddy covariance measurement and field observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anić, Mislav; Marjanović, Hrvoje; Zorana Ostrogović Sever, Maša; Barcza, Zoltán; Večenaj, Željko

    2016-04-01

    Eddy covariance (EC) measurements were carried out at the Jastrebarsko site, Croatia, in lowland forest dominated by pedunculate oak. For validation of CO2 fluxes measured with EC method bi-weekly field measurements of increment of 640 trees in 24 plots set in a 100m x 100m grid, height increment and litterfall have been used. In our work we compared annual productivity (GPP and NPP) assessments from EC measurements with field measurements. The comparison was made on a seven year dataset of measurements, spanning from 2008 to 2014. Also, flux dependence on groundwater level has been investigated. Results are showing that forest productivity estimates with EC method are in good agreement with the estimates from field measurements in the dry years. Agreement is slightly lower for years with high precipitation.

  2. Initial results of NPP VIIRS SST processing at NAVOCEANO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKenzie, Bruce; May, Doug; Cayula, Jean-Francois; Willis, Keith

    2012-06-01

    The Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP) satellite was placed in orbit October 28, 2011, and began providing advanced imaging and radiometric data from the Visible Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) in December 2011. The Naval Oceanographic Office (NAVOCEANO) is processing the VIIRS data as part of the generation of sea surface temperature (SST) retrievals for ingest by Navy meteorological and oceanographic analyses and models. This new sensor has an increased number of channels, higher resolution, and larger volume than previous operational polar-orbiting environmental satellites. In order to prepare for processing this new data, a proxy datastream was generated by the Government Resource for Algorithm Verification, Independent Testing, and Evaluation (GRAVITE) from Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data and provided in near real-time. This allowed for NAVOCEANO to write software to ingest, process, and deliver SST products before the actual data began flowing. A discussion of these preparatory activities and the initial results of processing VIIRS SSTs will be presented, including global drifting buoy matchup statistics.

  3. Suomi NPP VIIRS Striping Analysis using Radiative Transfer Model Calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z.; Cao, C.

    2015-12-01

    Modern satellite radiometers such as VIIRS have many detectors with slightly different relative spectral response (RSR). These differences can introduce artifacts such as striping in the imagery. In recent studies we have analyzed the striping pattern related to the detector level RSR difference in VIIRS Thermal Emissive Bands (TEB) M15 and M16, which includes line-by-line radiative transfer model (LBLRTM) detector level response study and onboard detector stability evaluation using the solar diffuser. Now we extend these analysis to the Reflective Solar Bands (RSB) using MODTRAN atmospheric radiative transfer model (RTM) for detector level radiance simulation. Previous studies analyzed the striping pattern in the images of VIIRS ocean color and reflectance in RSB, further studies about the root cause for striping are still needed. In this study, we will use the MODTRAN model at spectral resolution of 1 cm^-1 under different atmospheric conditions for VIIRS RSB, for example band M1 centered at 410nm which is used for Ocean Color product retrieval. The impact of detector level RSR difference, atmospheric dependency, and solar geometry on the striping in VIIRS SDR imagery will be investigated. The cumulative histogram method used successfully for the TEB striping analysis will be used to quantify the striping. These analysis help S-NPP and J1 to better understand the root cause for VIIRS image artifacts and reduce the uncertainties in geophysical retrievals to meet the user needs.

  4. Early orbit operations performance of the Suomi NPP OMPS instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowalewski, Matthew; Pan, Chunhui; Janz, Scott

    2012-09-01

    The Ozone Mapping Profiler Suite (OMPS) was launched aboard the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (Suomi NPP) spacecraft on October 28, 2011. OMPS is meant to continue NOAA/NASA's long-term ozone data record and bridge the gap to the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) missions later this decade. We present results from the OMPS Nadir and Limb sensors' early orbit checkout (EOC) operations with comparisons to pre-launch thermal vacuum tests. Characterization measurements of detector performance show that offset, gain, and read noise trends remain within 0.2% of the pre-launch values with significant margin below sensor requirements. Nadir Total Column detector dark generation rate trends show a slow growth in both halves of the focal plane as compared to initial on-orbit measurements. Nadir solar calibration measurements remain within 2% of the initial in-flight observation and indicate no spatially dependent change to within 1%. Limb Profiler solar calibration trending indicate a potential goniometry correction error as high as 5%. Spectral registration changes based on solar observations are determined to be less than one pixel for the Nadir Total Column and Limb sensors but approximately one pixel for Nadir Profiler. Preliminary comparisons to Thullier reference solar spectral irradiances show wavelength dependent differences greater than 5%.

  5. Derived Land Surface Emissivity From Suomi NPP CrIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, Daniel K.; Larar, Allen M.; Liu, Xu

    2012-01-01

    Presented here is the land surface IR spectral emissivity retrieved from the Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS) measurements. The CrIS is aboard the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP) satellite launched on October 28, 2011. We describe the retrieval algorithm, demonstrate the surface emissivity retrieved with CrIS measurements, and inter-comparison with the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) emissivity. We also demonstrate that surface emissivity from satellite measurements can be used in assistance of monitoring global surface climate change, as a long-term measurement of IASI and CrIS will be provided by the series of EUMETSAT MetOp and US Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) satellites. Monthly mean surface properties are produced using last 5-year IASI measurements. A temporal variation indicates seasonal diversity and El Nino/La Nina effects not only shown on the water but also on the land. Surface spectral emissivity and skin temperature from current and future operational satellites can be utilized as a means of long-term monitoring of the Earth's environment. CrIS spectral emissivity are retrieved and compared with IASI. The difference is small and could be within expected retrieval error; however it is under investigation.

  6. Towards remote sensing of Arctic ice roads and associated human activities using SUOMI NPP night light images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, M.; Smith, L. C.; Stephenson, S. R.

    2014-12-01

    Ice roads are often the only cost-effective means of transporting goods and supplies to communities, mines, and other sites in remote parts of the Arctic. Yet, there is no global dataset for Arctic ice roads. However, remotely sensed images from the SUOMI NPP day/night band (DNB) of the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) may allow for the construction of such a dataset. The DNB's high sensitivity to low-level light suggests that while it is not feasible to view ice roads at night per se, other prominent features associated with ice roads can serve as proxies. Using a time series of images taken in winter 2012, 2013, and 2014, SUOMI NPP images are compared with Landsat 8 images and an existing map of the Tibbitt to Contwoyto ice road in the Northwest Territories and Nunavut, Canada. First results reveal that while the ice road's exact path cannot be discerned, key points of human activity along the way can be made out. This bodes well for future applications of DNB imagery to detect ice roads in places like the Russian Federation, for which there is a dearth of publicly available maps. Knowing the location of ice roads is important for two reasons. First, these data can signal sites of natural resource extraction in places for which information is not widely disseminated, such as in the Russian Far East. Second, new geospatial datasets for ice roads can be combined with models assessing impacts of climate change on circumpolar land accessibility (Stephenson et al. 2011) in order to understand where the structural integrity of ice roads may be at risk. As warming temperatures threaten to shorten the season for ice roads, communities and mines alike will need to prepare for changes to their transportation infrastructure, made out of the changing landscape itself.

  7. Mutations Conferring Resistance to SCH6, a Novel Hepatitis C Virus NS3/4A Protease Inhibitor: Reduced DNA Replication Fitness and Partial Rescue by Second-Site Mutations

    SciTech Connect

    Yi, MinKyung; Tong, Xiao; Skelton, Angela; Chase, Robert; Chen, Tong; Prongay, Andrew; Bogen, Stephane L.; Saksena, Anil K.; Njoroge, F. George; Veselenak, Ronald L.; Pyles, Richard B.; Bourne, Nigel; Malcolm, Bruce A.; Lemon, Stanley M.

    2008-06-30

    Drug resistance is a major issue in the development and use of specific antiviral therapies. Here we report the isolation and characterization of hepatitis C virus RNA replicons resistant to a novel ketoamide inhibitor of the NS3/4A protease, SCH6 (originally SCH446211). Resistant replicon RNAs were generated by G418 selection in the presence of SCH6 in a dose-dependent fashion, with the emergence of resistance reduced at higher SCH6 concentrations. Sequencing demonstrated remarkable consistency in the mutations conferring SCH6 resistance in genotype 1b replicons derived from two different strains of hepatitis C virus, A156T/A156V and R109K. R109K, a novel mutation not reported previously to cause resistance to NS3/4A inhibitors, conferred moderate resistance only to SCH6. Structural analysis indicated that this reflects unique interactions of SCH6 with P{prime}-side residues in the protease active site. In contrast, A156T conferred high level resistance to SCH6 and a related ketoamide, SCH503034, as well as BILN 2061 and VX-950. Unlike R109K, which had minimal impact on NS3/4A enzymatic function, A156T significantly reduced NS3/4A catalytic efficiency, polyprotein processing, and replicon fitness. However, three separate second-site mutations, P89L, Q86R, and G162R, were capable of partially reversing A156T-associated defects in polyprotein processing and/or replicon fitness, without significantly reducing resistance to the protease inhibitor.

  8. Modeling of temporal and spatial coherency of net primary production (MODIS NPP) in the mountain forests of South Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanova, Yulia; Soukhovolsky, Vlad

    Net primary production (NPP) of mountain forest is very variable and depends on a variety of external modifying factors such as intensity and spectrum of solar radiation, climatic conditions in the area. Less studied are features of long-term NPP dynamics associated with self-regulation processes of tree growth in a forest. Mountain forests are a convenient object for analysis and modeling of long-term NPP changes that do not depend on climatic factors, since in mountain forests climatic conditions are uniquely determined by altitude Temporal and spatial coherence of mean annual NPP time series (Yrs. 2000 - 2012) was studied according to data from satellite observations of MODIS/TERRA. Mean annual NPP estimates' series were examined for different altitudinal zones in the Sayan Mountains (South of Central Siberia). Altitudes ranged from 600 to 1.800 meters above sea level. This area is lengthful vertically and has well-marked mountain-belt vegetation complexes, where mixed forests, fir and pine coniferous forests, alpine meadows and alpine tundra successively come one after another. Spatial and temporal coherence of NPP time series for different habitats is analyzed. The analysis showed that variations in annual NPP values of the fir (Abies sibirica) at different altitudes (450-1700 m) are synchronized. These variations in NPP values are described by the AR(2) model. Such behavior of studied NPP time series suggests a lag in growth of woody plants. In this case, the current NPP is influenced by the NPP values of the two previous years. At higher altitudes, where the density of the trees decreases and herbaceous plants become dominant, the range and synchronization of NPP variations decrease.

  9. Estimating cropland NPP using national crop inventory and MODIS derived crop specific parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandaru, V.; West, T. O.; Ricciuto, D. M.

    2011-12-01

    Estimates of cropland net primary production (NPP) are needed as input for estimates of carbon flux and carbon stock changes. Cropland NPP is currently estimated using terrestrial ecosystem models, satellite remote sensing, or inventory data. All three of these methods have benefits and problems. Terrestrial ecosystem models are often better suited for prognostic estimates rather than diagnostic estimates. Satellite-based NPP estimates often underestimate productivity on intensely managed croplands and are also limited to a few broad crop categories. Inventory-based estimates are consistent with nationally collected data on crop yields, but they lack sub-county spatial resolution. Integrating these methods will allow for spatial resolution consistent with current land cover and land use, while also maintaining total biomass quantities recorded in national inventory data. The main objective of this study was to improve cropland NPP estimates by using a modification of the CASA NPP model with individual crop biophysical parameters partly derived from inventory data and MODIS 8day 250m EVI product. The study was conducted for corn and soybean crops in Iowa and Illinois for years 2006 and 2007. We used EVI as a linear function for fPAR, and used crop land cover data (56m spatial resolution) to extract individual crop EVI pixels. First, we separated mixed pixels of both corn and soybean that occur when MODIS 250m pixel contains more than one crop. Second, we substituted mixed EVI pixels with nearest pure pixel values of the same crop within 1km radius. To get more accurate photosynthetic active radiation (PAR), we applied the Mountain Climate Simulator (MTCLIM) algorithm with the use of temperature and precipitation data from the North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS-2) to generate shortwave radiation data. Finally, county specific light use efficiency (LUE) values of each crop for years 2006 to 2007 were determined by application of mean county inventory

  10. Nitrogen Limitation is Reducing the Enhancement of NPP by Elevated CO2 in a Deciduous Forest

    SciTech Connect

    Norby, Richard J; Warren, Jeffrey; Iversen, Colleen M; Medlyn, Belinda; McMurtrie, Ross; Hoffman, Forrest M

    2008-01-01

    Accurate model representation of the long-term response of forested ecosystems to elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations (eCO2) is important for predictions of future concentrations of CO2. For biogeochemical models that predict the response of net primary productivity (NPP) to eCO2, free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experiments provide the only source of data for comparison. A synthesis of forest FACE experiments reported a 23% increase in NPP in eCO2, and this result has been used as a model benchmark. Here, we provide new evidence from a FACE experiment in a deciduous forest in Tennessee that N limitation has significantly reduced the stimulation of NPP by eCO2, consistent with predictions from ecosystem and global models that incorporate N feedbacks. The Liquidambar styraciflua stand has been exposed to current ambient atmospheric CO2 or air enriched with CO2 to 550 ppm since 1998. Results from the first 6 years of the experiment indicated that NPP was significantly enhanced by eCO2 and that this was a consistent and sustained response. Now, with 10 years of data, our analysis must be revised. The response of NPP to eCO2 has declined from 24% in 2001-2003 to 9% in 2007. The diminishing response to eCO2 since 2004 coincides with declining NPP in ambient CO2 plots. Productivity of this forest stand is limited by N availability, and the steady decline in forest NPP is closely related to changes in the N economy, as evidenced by declining foliar N concentrations. There is a strong linear relationship between foliar [N] and NPP, and the steeper slope in eCO2 indicates that the NPP response to eCO2 should diminish as foliar N declines. Increased fine-root production and root proliferation deeper in the soil have sustained N uptake, but not to an extent sufficient to benefit aboveground production. The mechanistic basis of the N effect on NPP resides in the photosynthetic machinery. The linear relationships between Jmax and Vcmax with foliar [N] did not change from 1998

  11. Impact of climate aggregation over different scales on regional NPP modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhnert, Matthias

    2016-04-01

    Model input data aggregation methods and data aggregation across spatial scales affect various model outputs, e.g. Net Primary Productivity (NPP). The scale at which data is collected is of great importance. In ecosystem modelling studies we often see soil and climate data collected at coarse scale being used in models to predict ecosystem responses e.g. NPP in dependency of these parameters at finer scale. Outputs of these models are impacted by the way the data is aggregated or dis-aggregated to the spatial scale. Up to know there are very few studies which quantified the impact of scaling on the simulation results. In this study, we quantify the impact of climate data aggregation using five different resolutions, to simulate NPP by 11 different crop and biogeochemical models for the same study area. The aggregation effect is investigated for wheat and maize cropping systems in the state of North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. The simulation results are analysed for NPP averaged over growing seasons of a 30 year period at different spatial resolutions as well as for annual NPP during growing season. While there is only a minor impact of input data aggregation on NPP on 30 year averages, the annual data show differences in NPP up to 9.4 % and 13.6 % between the different resolutions for wheat and maize, respectively. The scale effect differ between the models and shows higher impacts for extreme years. This is tested by selecting years with extreme dry conditions based on a drought index, which showed stronger scale effects of up to 12.8 % and 15.5 % for wheat and maize, respectively.

  12. Paleoseismology of the Hluboká Fault in the near-region of the NPP Temelin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tschegg, Dana; Popotnig, Ankelika; Porpaczy, Clemens; Lomax, Johanna; Decker, Kurt

    2015-04-01

    Temelin is located in the Bohemian Massif, a Variscan basement unit characterized by very low historical/instrumental seismicity. Previous seismic hazard assessments for the site revealed very low hazard (PGA<0.1g) for a non-exceedance probability of 10-4 per year. The assessments are based on historical/instrumental earthquake data of the Bohemian Massif that cover the time period since about 1800 and 1903, respectively. In this study we assess the late Variscan Hluboká fault in the vicinity of the site, which was repeatedly re-activated in Mesozoic, Miocene and Pliocene times. The fault is part of the several tens of kilometres long NW-striking Jáchymov (Joachimsthal) Fault zone. It is located about 10 to 20 km south of the NPP. Geological, geophysical, and structural data characterize the fault as a dextral strike-slip fault system. Reflection seismic shows an up to a few hundred meters wide zone with steeply dipping faults that are supposed to merge into a common master fault at depth. The fault is characterized by fault bends defining a restraining and a releasing segment. The latter coincides with a pronounced morphological scarp. Recent uplift of the footwall of the fault at this releasing bend is indicated by previously published geodetic data (P. Vyskočil, 1973) and geomorphological data comparing the tectonic morphology of the fault scarp near Hluboká nad Vltavou with slopes, which are not fault controlled. All analysed geomorphological indices characterize the Hluboká scarp as a unique morphological feature, which results from Quaternary uplift of the footwall of the Hluboká Fault with respect to its hanging wall. The assessment of the youngest tectonic history of the fault further uses correlations of Quaternary terraces of the Vltava River across the fault. We established a new Late Pleistocene stratigraphy of fluvial terraces using field and borehole data combined with OSL/IRSL age dating. The results show terrace staircases in the hanging wall

  13. Modification of the Decontamination Facility at the Kruemmel NPP - 13451

    SciTech Connect

    Klute, Stefan; Kupke, Peter

    2013-07-01

    In February 2009, Siempelkamp Nukleartechnik GmbH was awarded the contract for the design, manufacture, delivery and construction of a new Decontamination Facility in the controlled area for Kruemmel NPP. The new decontamination equipment has been installed according to the state of art of Kruemmel NPP. The existing space required the following modification, retrofitting and reconstruction works: - Demounting of the existing installation: to create space for the new facility it was necessary to dismantle the old facility. The concrete walls and ceilings were cut into sizes of no more than 400 kg for ease of handling. This enabled decontamination so largest possible amount could be released for recycling. All steel parts were cut into sizes fitting for iron-barred boxes, respecting the requirement to render the parts decontaminable and releasable. - Reconstructing a decontamination facility: Reconstruction of a decontamination box with separate air lock as access area for the decontamination of components and assemblies was conducted using pressurized air with abrasives (glass beads or steel shots). The walls were equipped with sound protection, the inner walls were welded gap-free to prevent the emergence of interstices and were equipped with changeable wear and tear curtains. Abrasive processing unit positioned underneath the dry blasting box adjacent to the two discharge hoppers. A switch has been installed for the separation of the glass beads and the steel shot. The glass beads are directed into a 200 l drum for the disposal. The steel shot was cleaned using a separator. The cleaned steel shot was routed via transportation devices to the storage container, making it available for further blasting operations. A decontamination box with separate air lock as access area for the decontamination of components and assemblies using high pressure water technology was provided by new construction. Water pressures between 160 bar and 800 bar can be selected. The inner

  14. An Overview of Suomi NPP VIIRS Calibration Maneuvers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, James J.; Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Barnes, Robert A.; Patt, Frederick S.; Sun, Junqiang; Chiang, Kwofu

    2012-01-01

    The first Visible Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument was successfully launched on-board the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (SNPP) spacecraft on October 28, 2011. Suomi NPP VIIRS observations are made in 22 spectral bands, from the visible (VIS) to the long-wave infrared (LWIR), and are used to produce 22 Environmental Data Records (EDRs) with a broad range of scientific applications. The quality of these VIIRS EDRs strongly depends on the quality of its calibrated and geo-located Sensor Date Records (SDRs). Built with a strong heritage to the NASA's EOS MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument, the VIIRS is calibrated on-orbit using a similar set of on-board calibrators (OBC), including a solar diffuser (SD) and solar diffuser stability monitor (SDSM) system for the reflective solar bands (RSB) and a blackbody (BB) for the thermal emissive bands (TEB). On-orbit maneuvers of the SNPP spacecraft provide additional calibration and characterization data from the VIIRS instrument which cannot be obtained pre-launch and are required to produce the highest quality SDRs. These include multi-orbit yaw maneuvers for the characterization of SD and SDSM screen transmission, quasi-monthly roll maneuvers to acquire lunar observations to track sensor degradation in the visible through shortwave infrared, and a driven pitch-over maneuver to acquire multiple scans of deep space to determine TEB response versus scan angle (RVS). This paper pro-vides an overview of these three SNPP calibration maneuvers. Discussions are focused on their potential calibration and science benefits, pre-launch planning activities, and on-orbit scheduling and implementation strategies. Results from calibration maneuvers performed during the Intensive Calibration and Validation (ICV) period for the VIIRS sensor are illustrated. Also presented in this paper are lessons learned regarding the implementation of calibration spacecraft maneuvers on follow

  15. Radiation exposure to marine biota around the Fukushima Daiichi NPP.

    PubMed

    Keum, Dong-Kwon; Kim, Byeong-Ho; Lim, Kwang-Muk; Choi, Yong-Ho

    2014-05-01

    The dose rates for six marine organisms, pelagic fish, benthic fish, mollusks, crustaceans, macroalgae, and polychaete worms, representative in marine ecosystems, have been predicted by the equilibrium model with the measured seawater activity concentrations at three locations around the Fukushima Daiich nuclear power plant after the accident on March 11, 2011. Model prediction showed that total dose rates for the biota in the costal sea reached 4.8E4 μGy/d for pelagic fish, 3.6E6 μGy/d for crustaceans, 3.8E6 μGy/d for benthic fish, 5.2E6 μGy/d for macroalgae, 6.6E6 μGy/d for mollusks, and 8.0E6 μGy/d for polychaete worms. The predicted total dose rates remained above the UNSCEAR's (United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effect of Atomic Radiation) benchmark level (1.0E4 μGy/d for an individual aquatic organism), for only the initial short period, which seems to be insufficiently long to bring about any detrimental effect on the marine biota at the population level. Furthermore, the total dose rates for benthic fish and crustaceans approximated using the measured activity concentration of the biota and bottom sediment was well below the benchmark level. From these results, it may be concluded that the impact of the ionizing radiation on the marine biota around the Fukushima NPP as a consequence of the accident would be insignificant. PMID:24374805

  16. Hydrogeological influences on radionuclide migration from the major radioactive waste burial sites at Chernobyl (A review)

    SciTech Connect

    Dgepo, S.P.; Skalsky, A.S.; Bugai, D.A.; Marchuk, V.V.; Waters, R.D.

    1994-03-01

    This paper summarizes the recent hydrogeological investigations of several research organizations on waste confinement at the major radioactive waste (RW) burial sites immediately adjacent to the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (Ch. NPP). Hydrogeological conditions and radiologic ground-water contamination levels are described. Ongoing ground-water monitoring practices are evaluated. The chemical and physical characteristics of the radionuclides within the burial sites are considered. Ground water and radionuclide transport modeling studies related to problems of the RW disposal sites are also reviewed. Current concerns on future impacts of the RW burial sites on the hydrological environment and water resources of the Ch.NPP area are discussed.

  17. Landsliding in partially saturated materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godt, Jonathan W.; Baum, Rex L.; Lu, Ning

    2009-01-01

    Rainfall-induced landslides are pervasive in hillslope environments around the world and among the most costly and deadly natural hazards. However, capturing their occurrence with scientific instrumentation in a natural setting is extremely rare. The prevailing thinking on landslide initiation, particularly for those landslides that occur under intense precipitation, is that the failure surface is saturated and has positive pore-water pressures acting on it. Most analytic methods used for landslide hazard assessment are based on the above perception and assume that the failure surface is located beneath a water table. By monitoring the pore water and soil suction response to rainfall, we observed shallow landslide occurrence under partially saturated conditions for the first time in a natural setting. We show that the partially saturated shallow landslide at this site is predictable using measured soil suction and water content and a novel unified effective stress concept for partially saturated earth materials.

  18. Landsliding in partially saturated materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Godt, J.W.; Baum, R.L.; Lu, N.

    2009-01-01

    [1] Rainfall-induced landslides are pervasive in hillslope environments around the world and among the most costly and deadly natural hazards. However, capturing their occurrence with scientific instrumentation in a natural setting is extremely rare. The prevailing thinking on landslide initiation, particularly for those landslides that occur under intense precipitation, is that the failure surface is saturated and has positive pore-water pressures acting on it. Most analytic methods used for landslide hazard assessment are based on the above perception and assume that the failure surface is located beneath a water table. By monitoring the pore water and soil suction response to rainfall, we observed shallow landslide occurrence under partially saturated conditions for the first time in a natural setting. We show that the partially saturated shallow landslide at this site is predictable using measured soil suction and water content and a novel unified effective stress concept for partially saturated earth materials. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

  19. Global space-based inter-calibration system reflective solar calibration reference: from Aqua MODIS to S-NPP VIIRS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Angal, Amit; Butler, James; Cao, Changyong; Doelling, David; Wu, Aisheng; Wu, Xiangqian

    2016-05-01

    The MODIS has successfully operated on-board the NASA's EOS Terra and Aqua spacecraft for more than 16 and 14 years, respectively. MODIS instrument was designed with stringent calibration requirements and comprehensive on-board calibration capability. In the reflective solar spectral region, Aqua MODIS has performed better than Terra MODIS and, therefore, has been chosen by the Global Space-based Inter- Calibration System (GSICS) operational community as the calibration reference sensor in cross-sensor calibration and calibration inter-comparisons. For the same reason, it has also been used by a number of earth-observing sensors as their calibration reference. Considering that Aqua MODIS has already operated for nearly 14 years, it is essential to transfer its calibration to a follow-on reference sensor with a similar calibration capability and stable performance. The VIIRS is a follow-on instrument to MODIS and has many similar design features as MODIS, including their on-board calibrators (OBC). As a result, VIIRS is an ideal candidate to replace MODIS to serve as the future GSICS reference sensor. Since launch, the S-NPP VIIRS has already operated for more than 4 years and its overall performance has been extensively characterized and demonstrated to meet its overall design requirements. This paper provides an overview of Aqua MODIS and S-NPP VIIRS reflective solar bands (RSB) calibration methodologies and strategies, traceability, and their on-orbit performance. It describes and illustrates different methods and approaches that can be used to facilitate the calibration reference transfer, including the use of desert and Antarctic sites, deep convective clouds (DCC), and the lunar observations.

  20. Partial (focal) seizure

    MedlinePlus

    ... Jacksonian seizure; Seizure - partial (focal); Temporal lobe seizure; Epilepsy - partial seizures ... Abou-Khalil BW, Gallagher MJ, Macdonald RL. Epilepsies. In: Daroff ... Practice . 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 101. ...

  1. Partial tooth gear bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vranish, John M. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A partial gear bearing including an upper half, comprising peak partial teeth, and a lower, or bottom, half, comprising valley partial teeth. The upper half also has an integrated roller section between each of the peak partial teeth with a radius equal to the gear pitch radius of the radially outwardly extending peak partial teeth. Conversely, the lower half has an integrated roller section between each of the valley half teeth with a radius also equal to the gear pitch radius of the peak partial teeth. The valley partial teeth extend radially inwardly from its roller section. The peak and valley partial teeth are exactly out of phase with each other, as are the roller sections of the upper and lower halves. Essentially, the end roller bearing of the typical gear bearing has been integrated into the normal gear tooth pattern.

  2. Counter-regulatory phosphatases TNAP and NPP1 temporally regulate tooth root cementogenesis.

    PubMed

    Zweifler, Laura E; Patel, Mudita K; Nociti, Francisco H; Wimer, Helen F; Millán, Jose L; Somerman, Martha J; Foster, Brian L

    2015-03-23

    Cementum is critical for anchoring the insertion of periodontal ligament fibers to the tooth root. Several aspects of cementogenesis remain unclear, including differences between acellular cementum and cellular cementum, and between cementum and bone. Biomineralization is regulated by the ratio of inorganic phosphate (Pi) to mineral inhibitor pyrophosphate (PPi), where local Pi and PPi concentrations are controlled by phosphatases including tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP) and ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 1 (NPP1). The focus of this study was to define the roles of these phosphatases in cementogenesis. TNAP was associated with earliest cementoblasts near forming acellular and cellular cementum. With loss of TNAP in the Alpl null mouse, acellular cementum was inhibited, while cellular cementum production increased, albeit as hypomineralized cementoid. In contrast, NPP1 was detected in cementoblasts after acellular cementum formation, and at low levels around cellular cementum. Loss of NPP1 in the Enpp1 null mouse increased acellular cementum, with little effect on cellular cementum. Developmental patterns were recapitulated in a mouse model for acellular cementum regeneration, with early TNAP expression and later NPP1 expression. In vitro, cementoblasts expressed Alpl gene/protein early, whereas Enpp1 gene/protein expression was significantly induced only under mineralization conditions. These patterns were confirmed in human teeth, including widespread TNAP, and NPP1 restricted to cementoblasts lining acellular cementum. These studies suggest that early TNAP expression creates a low PPi environment promoting acellular cementum initiation, while later NPP1 expression increases PPi, restricting acellular cementum apposition. Alterations in PPi have little effect on cellular cementum formation, though matrix mineralization is affected.

  3. NPP1, a Phytophthora-associated trigger of plant defense in parsley and Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Fellbrich, Guido; Romanski, Annette; Varet, Anne; Blume, Beatrix; Brunner, Frédéric; Engelhardt, Stefan; Felix, Georg; Kemmerling, Birgit; Krzymowska, Magdalena; Nürnberger, Thorsten

    2002-11-01

    Activation of non-cultivar-specific plant defense against attempted microbial infection is mediated through the recognition of pathogen-derived elicitors. Previously, we have identified a peptide fragment (Pep-13) within a 42-kDa cell wall transglutaminase from various Phytophthora species that triggers a multifacetted defense response in parsley cells. Many of these oomycete species have now been shown to possess another cell wall protein (24 kDa), that evoked the same pattern of responses in parsley as Pep-13. Unlike Pep-13, necrosis-inducing Phytophthora protein 1 (NPP1) purified from P. parasitica also induced hypersensitive cell death-like lesions in parsley. NPP1 structural homologs were found in oomycetes, fungi, and bacteria, but not in plants. Structure-activity relationship studies revealed the intact protein as well as two cysteine residues to be essential for elicitor activity. NPP1-mediated activation of pathogen defense in parsley does not employ the Pep-13 receptor. However, early induced cellular responses implicated in elicitor signal transmission (increased levels of cytoplasmic calcium, production of reactive oxygen species, MAP kinase activation) were stimulated by either elicitor, suggesting the existence of converging signaling pathways in parsley. Infiltration of NPP1 into leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana Col-0 plants resulted in transcript accumulation of pathogenesis-related (PR) genes, production of ROS and ethylene, callose apposition, and HR-like cell death. NPP1-mediated induction of the PR1 gene is salicylic acid-dependent, and, unlike the P. syringae pv. tomato DC3000(avrRpm1)-induced PR1 gene expression, requires both functional NDR1 and PAD4. In summary, Arabidopsis plants infiltrated with NPP1 constitute an experimental system that is amenable to forward genetic approaches aiming at the dissection of signaling pathways implicated in the activation of non-cultivar-specific plant defense.

  4. Counter-regulatory phosphatases TNAP and NPP1 temporally regulate tooth root cementogenesis.

    PubMed

    Zweifler, Laura E; Patel, Mudita K; Nociti, Francisco H; Wimer, Helen F; Millán, Jose L; Somerman, Martha J; Foster, Brian L

    2015-03-01

    Cementum is critical for anchoring the insertion of periodontal ligament fibers to the tooth root. Several aspects of cementogenesis remain unclear, including differences between acellular cementum and cellular cementum, and between cementum and bone. Biomineralization is regulated by the ratio of inorganic phosphate (Pi) to mineral inhibitor pyrophosphate (PPi), where local Pi and PPi concentrations are controlled by phosphatases including tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP) and ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 1 (NPP1). The focus of this study was to define the roles of these phosphatases in cementogenesis. TNAP was associated with earliest cementoblasts near forming acellular and cellular cementum. With loss of TNAP in the Alpl null mouse, acellular cementum was inhibited, while cellular cementum production increased, albeit as hypomineralized cementoid. In contrast, NPP1 was detected in cementoblasts after acellular cementum formation, and at low levels around cellular cementum. Loss of NPP1 in the Enpp1 null mouse increased acellular cementum, with little effect on cellular cementum. Developmental patterns were recapitulated in a mouse model for acellular cementum regeneration, with early TNAP expression and later NPP1 expression. In vitro, cementoblasts expressed Alpl gene/protein early, whereas Enpp1 gene/protein expression was significantly induced only under mineralization conditions. These patterns were confirmed in human teeth, including widespread TNAP, and NPP1 restricted to cementoblasts lining acellular cementum. These studies suggest that early TNAP expression creates a low PPi environment promoting acellular cementum initiation, while later NPP1 expression increases PPi, restricting acellular cementum apposition. Alterations in PPi have little effect on cellular cementum formation, though matrix mineralization is affected. PMID:25504209

  5. Counter-regulatory phosphatases TNAP and NPP1 temporally regulate tooth root cementogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Zweifler, Laura E; Patel, Mudita K; Nociti, Francisco H; Wimer, Helen F; Millán, Jose L; Somerman, Martha J; Foster, Brian L

    2015-01-01

    Cementum is critical for anchoring the insertion of periodontal ligament fibers to the tooth root. Several aspects of cementogenesis remain unclear, including differences between acellular cementum and cellular cementum, and between cementum and bone. Biomineralization is regulated by the ratio of inorganic phosphate (Pi) to mineral inhibitor pyrophosphate (PPi), where local Pi and PPi concentrations are controlled by phosphatases including tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP) and ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 1 (NPP1). The focus of this study was to define the roles of these phosphatases in cementogenesis. TNAP was associated with earliest cementoblasts near forming acellular and cellular cementum. With loss of TNAP in the Alpl null mouse, acellular cementum was inhibited, while cellular cementum production increased, albeit as hypomineralized cementoid. In contrast, NPP1 was detected in cementoblasts after acellular cementum formation, and at low levels around cellular cementum. Loss of NPP1 in the Enpp1 null mouse increased acellular cementum, with little effect on cellular cementum. Developmental patterns were recapitulated in a mouse model for acellular cementum regeneration, with early TNAP expression and later NPP1 expression. In vitro, cementoblasts expressed Alpl gene/protein early, whereas Enpp1 gene/protein expression was significantly induced only under mineralization conditions. These patterns were confirmed in human teeth, including widespread TNAP, and NPP1 restricted to cementoblasts lining acellular cementum. These studies suggest that early TNAP expression creates a low PPi environment promoting acellular cementum initiation, while later NPP1 expression increases PPi, restricting acellular cementum apposition. Alterations in PPi have little effect on cellular cementum formation, though matrix mineralization is affected. PMID:25504209

  6. Current Status of Suomi NPP VIIRS Aerosol Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondragunta, S.; Laszlo, I.; Liu, H.; Zhang, H.; Huang, J.; Remer, L. A.; Ciren, P.; Huang, H.

    2013-12-01

    The Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP) Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument was launched on October 28, 2011. It provides Aerosol Optical Thickness (AOT) at two different spatial resolutions: a pixel level (~750 m at nadir) product called the Intermediate Product (IP) and an aggregated (~6 km at nadir) product called the Environmental Data Record (EDR). The VIIRS AOT is expected to provide continuity to the 10-km Aqua and Terra MODIS (Moderate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) AOT products that the air quality and public health community has been using. The VIIRS aerosol product suite also includes less mature products such as Suspended Matter (SM) and Aerosol Particle Size Parameter (APSP). An extensive validation of VIIRS best quality aerosol products with ground based L1.5 AERONET data shows that the AOT EDR product has an accuracy/precision of -0.01/0.11 and 0.01/0.08 over land and ocean respectively. Globally, VIIRS mean AOT EDR (0.20) is similar to Aqua MODIS (0.16) with some important regional and seasonal differences. Analysis of SM shows that the algorithm predominantly picks smoke both over land and ocean which is not in agreement with retrievals from Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) and Cloud Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Space Observations (CALIPSO). Similarly, the Angstrom Exponent (AE) retrieval used as a proxy for particle size has no skill over land and only a marginal skill over ocean when compared to AERONET; although a bias of ~0.2 for over ocean retrievals meets specification (0.3), the correlation is low and the standard deviation is ~0.6 and does not meet specification (0.3). This evaluation places the VIIRS AOT product at the provisional maturity level (product is validated, may contain some errors, and ready for operational evaluation). However, several algorithm updates which include a better approach to retrieve surface reflectance are forthcoming. Current status of the aerosol

  7. Ageing management of french NPP civil work structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallitre, E.; Dauffer, D.

    2011-04-01

    This paper presents EDF practice about concrete structure ageing management, from the mechanisms analysis to the formal procedure which allows the French company to increase 900 MWe NPP lifetime until 40 years; it will also introduce its action plan for 60 years lifetime extension. This practice is based on a methodology which identifies every ageing mechanism; both plants feedback and state of the art are screened and conclusions are drawn up into an "ageing analysis data sheet". That leads at first to a collection of 57 data sheets which give the mechanism identification, the components that are concerned and an analysis grid which is designed to assess the safety risk. This analysis screens the reference documents describing the mechanism, the design lifetime hypotheses, the associated regulation or codification, the feedback experiences, the accessibility, the maintenance actions, the repair possibility and so one. This analysis has to lead to a conclusion about the risk taking into account monitoring and maintenance. If the data sheet conclusion is not clear enough, then a more detailed report is launched. The technical document which is needed, is a formal detailed report which summarizes every theoretical knowledge and monitoring data: its objective is to propose a solution for ageing management: this solution can include more inspections or specific research development, or additional maintenance. After a first stage on the 900 MWe units, only two generic ageing management detailed reports have been needed for the civil engineering part: one about reactor building containment, and one about other structures which focuses on concrete inflating reactions. The second stage consists on deriving this generic analysis (ageing mechanism and detailed reports) to every plant where a complete ageing report is required (one report for all equipments and structures of the plant, but specific for each reactor). This ageing management is a continuous process because the

  8. Artificial radionuclides in Russia due to the Fukushima NPP accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polianskaia, Olga; Vakulovsky, Sergey; Kim, Vera; Yahryushin, Valery; Volokitin, Andrey

    2013-04-01

    Radioactive emission into the atmosphere from the damaged reactors of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (NPP) started on March 12th, 2011. The network of Federal Hydrometeorology and Environmental Monitoring Service (Rosgydromet) carries out supervision over a radiation situation on the territory of Russia. In Russia, the first radionuclides from Fukushima were detected on March 20th in the Far East by network. From March 20th to April 30th I-131 (particulate form), Cs-137 and Cs-134 were detected in samples of atmospheric aerosols at the 30 stations of networks and the same ones were detected in fallout at the 25 stations of networks. The first detection of I-131 in the European territory of Russia (ETR) occurred on March 23rd; and in the South and the North of Siberia - on March 26th. The volumetric activities of I-131 in the ETR sharply increased from March 28th to 30th. Along with the increasing content of I-131 cesium isotopes appeared in the air. The maximum values of radionuclides volume activity were observed between April 3rd and 4th: for I-131 - 4,0 mBq/m3, for Cs-137 - 1,15 mBq/m3, for Cs-134 - 1,04 mBq/m3. Observed in the Far East, the maximum values for I-131 were 2-4 times lower than in the ETR. The maximum values for I-131 in the Asian territory of Russia (ATR) were 2 - 8 times lower, than in the ETR. The Cs-137/Cs-134 ratio in samples of atmospheric aerosols was about 1. The ratio I-131/Cs-137 in air changed in a wide range. From March 23rd to April 5th the ratio fluctuated within 11 to 34, from April 5th to 20th of the ratio decreased and varied within 1,5 to 7,7, further it became less than 1. The value of cesium isotopes in second quarter of 2011 in fallout was lower than 2 Bq/m2. The addition to the density of soil contamination by Cs-137 by 2 to 3 orders of magnitude less than the decrease of the density of contamination with this isotope of the global origin due to radioactive decay. Based on the obtained experimental data we can

  9. Improvement of Radwaste Management System at Bilibinskaya NPP in the Far North Conditions - 13456

    SciTech Connect

    Fedorov, Denis; Adamovich, Dmitry; Savkin, Alexander

    2013-07-01

    Since 2009 Bilibinskaya NPP is getting started to prepare to the decommissioning in the Far North conditions. Bilibinskaya NPP is located in the Far North of Russian Federation in Chukotka region. Since 1974 it operates 4 units EGP-6 with the capacity of 48 MW each. According to the contract, SIA Radon has performed the following works: - LLRW disposal safety analysis, - The technology of spent ion-exchanger and salt residue solidification is proposed, - Expected radwaste (till 2027) management economical analysis, - Technical proposals for LLRW and IRW management. (authors)

  10. Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessment for a NPP in the Upper Rhine Graben, France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clément, Christophe; Chartier, Thomas; Jomard, Hervé; Baize, Stéphane; Scotti, Oona; Cushing, Edward

    2015-04-01

    The southern part of the Upper Rhine Graben (URG) straddling the border between eastern France and western Germany, presents a relatively important seismic activity for an intraplate area. A magnitude 5 or greater shakes the URG every 25 years and in 1356 a magnitude greater than 6.5 struck the city of Basel. Several potentially active faults have been identified in the area and documented in the French Active Fault Database (web site in construction). These faults are located along the Graben boundaries and also inside the Graben itself, beneath heavily populated areas and critical facilities (including the Fessenheim Nuclear Power Plant). These faults are prone to produce earthquakes with magnitude 6 and above. Published regional models and preliminary geomorphological investigations provided provisional assessment of slip rates for the individual faults (0.1-0.001 mm/a) resulting in recurrence time of 10 000 years or greater for magnitude 6+ earthquakes. Using a fault model, ground motion response spectra are calculated for annual frequencies of exceedance (AFE) ranging from 10-4 to 10-8 per year, typical for design basis and probabilistic safety analyses of NPPs. A logic tree is implemented to evaluate uncertainties in seismic hazard assessment. The choice of ground motion prediction equations (GMPEs) and range of slip rate uncertainty are the main sources of seismic hazard variability at the NPP site. In fact, the hazard for AFE lower than 10-4 is mostly controlled by the potentially active nearby Rhine River fault. Compared with areal source zone models, a fault model localizes the hazard around the active faults and changes the shape of the Uniform Hazard Spectrum at the site. Seismic hazard deaggregations are performed to identify the earthquake scenarios (including magnitude, distance and the number of standard deviations from the median ground motion as predicted by GMPEs) that contribute to the exceedance of spectral acceleration for the different AFE

  11. The assessment of ionising radiation impact on the cooling pond freshwater ecosystem non-human biota from the Ignalina NPP operation beginning to shut down and initial decommissioning.

    PubMed

    Mazeika, J; Marciulioniene, D; Nedveckaite, T; Jefanova, O

    2016-01-01

    The radiological doses to non-human biota of freshwater ecosystem in the Ignalina NPP cooling pond - Lake Druksiai were evaluated for several cases including the plant's operation period and initial decommissioning activities, using the ERICA 1.2 code with IAEA SRS-19 models integrated approach and tool. Among the Lake Druksiai freshwater ecosystem reference organisms investigated the highest exposure dose rate was determined for bottom fauna - benthic organisms (mollusc-bivalves, crustaceans, mollusc-gastropods, insect larvae), and among the other reference organisms - for vascular plants. The mean and maximum total dose rate values due to anthropogenic radionuclide ionising radiation impact in all investigated cases were lower than the ERICA screening dose rate value of 10 μGy/h. The main exposure of reference organisms as a result of Ignalina NPP former effluent to Lake Druksiai is due to ionizing radiation of radionuclides (60)Co and (137)Cs, of predicted releases to Lake Druksiai during initial decommissioning period - due to radionuclides (60)Co, (134)Cs and (137)Cs, and as a result of predicted releases to Lake Druksiai from low- and intermediate-level short-lived radioactive waste disposal site in 30-100 year period - due to radionuclides (99)Tc and (3)H. The risk quotient expected values in all investigated cases were <1, and therefore the risk to non-human biota can be considered negligible with the exception of a conservative risk quotient for insect larvae. Radiological protection of non-human biota in Lake Druksiai, the Ignalina NPP cooling pond, is both feasible and acceptable. PMID:26397747

  12. Post-Launch Calibration Support for VIIRS Onboard NASA NPP Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xiong, Xiaoxion; Chiang, Kwo-Fu; McIntire, Jeffrey; Schwaller, Matthew; Butler, James

    2011-01-01

    The NPP Instrument Calibration Support Element (NICSE) is one of the elements within the NASA NPP Science Data Segment (SDS). The primary responsibility of NICSE is to independently monitor and evaluate on-orbit radiometric and geometric performance of the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument and to validate its Sensor Data Record (SDR) [1]. The NICSE interacts and works closely with other SDS Product Evaluation and Analysis Tools Elements (PEATE) and the NPP Science Team (ST) and supports their on-orbit data product calibration and validation efforts. The NICSE also works closely with the NPP Instrument Calibration Support Team (NICST) during sensor pre-launch testing in ambient and thermal vacuum environment [2]. This paper provides an overview of NICSE VIIRS sensor post-launch calibration support with a focus on the use of sensor on-board calibrators (OBC) for the radiometric calibration and characterization. It presents the current status of NICSE post-launch radiometric calibration tool development effort based on its design requirements

  13. Evaluation of Radiation Impacts of Spent Nuclear Fuel Storage (SNFS-2) of Chernobyl NPP - 13495

    SciTech Connect

    Paskevych, Sergiy; Batiy, Valiriy; Sizov, Andriy; Schmieman, Eric

    2013-07-01

    Radiation effects are estimated for the operation of a new dry storage facility for spent nuclear fuel (SNFS-2) of Chernobyl NPP RBMK reactors. It is shown that radiation exposure during normal operation, design and beyond design basis accidents are minor and meet the criteria for safe use of radiation and nuclear facilities in Ukraine. (authors)

  14. Simulation of Hydrogen Distribution in Ignalina NPP ALS Compartments During BDBA

    SciTech Connect

    Babilas, Egidijus; Urbonavicius, Egidijus; Rimkevicius, Sigitas

    2006-07-01

    Accident Localisation System (ALS) of Ignalina NPP is a 'pressure suppression' type confinement, which protects the population, employees and environment from the radiation hazards. According to the Safety Analysis Report for Ignalina NPP {approx}110 m{sup 3} of hydrogen is released to ALS compartments during the Maximum Design Basis Accident. However in case of beyond design basis accident, when the oxidation of zirconium starts, the amount of generated hydrogen could be significantly higher. If the volume concentration of hydrogen in the compartment reaches 4%, there is a possibility for a combustible mixture to appear. To prevent the possible hydrogen accumulation in the ALS of the Ignalina NPP during an accident the H{sub 2} control system is installed. The results of the performed analysis derived the places of the possible H{sub 2} accumulation in the ALS compartments during the transient processes and assessed the mixture combustibility in these places for a beyond design basis accident scenario. Such analysis of H{sub 2} distribution in the ALS of Ignalina NPP in case of BDBA was not performed before. (authors)

  15. NPP financial and regulatory risks-Importance of a balanced and comprehensive nuclear law for a newcomer country considering nuclear power programme

    SciTech Connect

    Manan, J. A. N. Abd Mostafa, N. A.; Salim, M. F.

    2015-04-29

    The nature of Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) projects are: long duration (10-15 years for new build), high capital investment, reasonable risks and highly regulated industries to meet national and international requirement on Safety, Security, Safeguards (3S) and Liabilities. It requires long term planning and commitment from siting to final disposal of waste/spent fuel. Potential financial and regulatory risks are common in massive NPP projects and will be magnified in the case of using unproven technology. If the risks are not properly managed, it can lead to high project and operation costs, and, fail to fulfil its objectives to provide compatible electricity prices and. energy security. To ensure successful, the government and investors need to ensure that the NPP project is bankable with low cost of project and funding, have fair treatment and proper risk mitigation, and able to complete on time with no cost overrun. One of the requirements as prerequisite for the development of NPP as stipulated by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is the establishment of a Legal and Regulatory Framework. The main objective of nuclear law is to ensure that the activities and projects carried-out in the country are legal and compliant to national and international requirements. The law should also be able to provide fair treatment of risks on its activities that is acceptable to investors. The challenge for a newcomer country is to develop a balanced and comprehensive national nuclear law that meet these objectives while taking into consideration various stakeholders’ interest without compromising on safety, security, safeguard, liability requirements and other international obligations. This paper highlights the nature of NPP projects, its potential and associated financial and regulatory risks, and its major concerns and challenges. It proposes possible risks treatment and mitigation through the formulation of a balanced and comprehensive legislation by clear

  16. NPP financial and regulatory risks-Importance of a balanced and comprehensive nuclear law for a newcomer country considering nuclear power programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manan, J. A. N. Abd; Mostafa, N. A.; Salim, M. F.

    2015-04-01

    The nature of Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) projects are: long duration (10-15 years for new build), high capital investment, reasonable risks and highly regulated industries to meet national & international requirement on Safety, Security, Safeguards (3S) and Liabilities. It requires long term planning and commitment from siting to final disposal of waste/spent fuel. Potential financial and regulatory risks are common in massive NPP projects and will be magnified in the case of using unproven technology. If the risks are not properly managed, it can lead to high project and operation costs, and, fail to fulfil its objectives to provide compatible electricity prices and. energy security. To ensure successful, the government and investors need to ensure that the NPP project is bankable with low cost of project and funding, have fair treatment and proper risk mitigation, and able to complete on time with no cost overrun. One of the requirements as prerequisite for the development of NPP as stipulated by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is the establishment of a Legal and Regulatory Framework. The main objective of nuclear law is to ensure that the activities and projects carried-out in the country are legal and compliant to national and international requirements. The law should also be able to provide fair treatment of risks on its activities that is acceptable to investors. The challenge for a newcomer country is to develop a balanced and comprehensive national nuclear law that meet these objectives while taking into consideration various stakeholders' interest without compromising on safety, security, safeguard, liability requirements and other international obligations. This paper highlights the nature of NPP projects, its potential and associated financial and regulatory risks, and its major concerns and challenges. It proposes possible risks treatment and mitigation through the formulation of a balanced and comprehensive legislation by clear

  17. Decontamination of the Shaft no.1 and cleaning container of 2. block NPP Paks

    SciTech Connect

    Bolcha, Jan; Mala, Zuzana; Tilky, Peter

    2007-07-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: Meanwhile cleaning fuel assemblies on Paks NPP Unit 2. in 2003 year, the fuel assemblies were damaged, followed by contamination of cleaning container and operating shaft No. 1., in which was the container. As a part of the task - to restore operation NPP Paks, Unit 2, VUJE and.. realized decontamination of the wall of shaft prior to withdrawal of the defected fuel, decontamination of cleaning tank and in consequence decontamination of full shaft No. 1. Solution rest at finished conceptual decontamination proposal, fabrication of special purpose furnished, necessary documentation according to national legislative exigency. Real facilities on decontamination were examined on the stand and on shaft No. 1 in real conditions. This paper describes access method decontaminating procedure, applied facilities assigned on decontamination and present achievement results from decontamination shaft No. 1 realized in August 2006 and February 2007, respectively. Decontamination procedures were chosen on the base of experiments realized in laboratories VUJE and in Paks NPP. Laboratory experiments were realized on the sample of tube used for measurement of neutron flow, from NPP Paks, located in the shaft No.1 in time of event (INES-3). In NPP Paks were realized experiments on cover of cleaning container, which was in time of event situated on cleaning container. To compare decontaminated factors, the chemical and electrochemical procedures for decontamination were tested, and most effective practices were selected. Equipment ROS-740 can be used for the top part of the shaft decontamination. It allows high-pressure admission, rinse and chemical decontamination. Manipulator MAOS-170 is assigned for high-pressure admission of central part of the shaft. (authors)

  18. Thiazolo[3,2-a]benzimidazol-3(2H)-one derivatives: Structure-activity relationships of selective nucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase1 (NPP1) inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang-Yong; Perotti, Arianna; De Jonghe, Steven; Herdewijn, Piet; Hanck, Theodor; Müller, Christa E

    2016-07-15

    Ecto-nucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase1 (NPP1) is the most important member of the NPP family, which consists of seven closely related proteins (NPP1-NPP7). This glycoprotein is a membrane-associated or secreted enzyme, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of a wide range of phosphodiester bonds, e.g., in nucleoside triphosphates, dinucleotides and nucleotide sugars. NPP1 plays a crucial role in various physiological functions including bone mineralization, soft-tissue calcification, and insulin receptor signaling. Recently, an upregulated expression of NPP1 has been observed in astrocytic brain cancers. Therefore, NPP1 has been proposed as a novel drug target for the treatment of glioblastoma. Despite their therapeutic potential, only few NPP1 inhibitors have been reported to date, which are in most cases non- or only moderately selective. The best investigated NPP1 inhibitors so far are nucleotide derivatives and analogs, however they are not orally bioavailable due to their high polarity. We identified thiazolo[3,2-a]benzimidazol-3(2H)-one derivatives as a new class of NPP1 inhibitors with drug-like properties. Among the 25 derivatives investigated in the present study, 2-[(5-iodo-2-furanyl)methylene]thiazolo[3,2-a]benzimidazol-3(2H)-one (17) was found to be the most potent NPP1 inhibitor with a Ki value of 467nM versus ATP as a substrate and an un-competitive mechanism of inhibition. Compound 17 did not inhibit other human ecto-nucleotidases, including NTPDase1 (CD39), NTPDases2-3, NPP2, NPP3, tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP), and ecto-5'-nucleotidase (eN, CD73), and is thus highly selective for NPP1. PMID:27265686

  19. Update of the tectonic model for the Pannonian basin: a contribution to the seismic hazard reassessment of the Paks NPP (Hungary)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horváth, Ferenc; Tóth, Tamás; Wórum, Géza; Koroknai, Balázs; Kádi, Zoltán; Kovács, Gábor; Balázs, Attila; Visnovitz, Ferenc

    2015-04-01

    The planned construction of two new units at the site of the Paks NPP requires a comprehensive site investigation including complete reassessment of the seismic hazard according to the Hungarian as well as international standards. Following the regulations of the Specific Safety Guide no. 9 (IAEA 2010), the approved Hungarian Geological Investigation Program (HGIP) includes integrated geological-geophysical studies at different scales. The regional study aims at to elaborate a new synthesis of all published data for the whole Pannonian basin. This task is nearly completed and the main outcomes have already been published (Horváth et al. 2015). The near regional study is in progress and addresses the construction of a new tectonic model for the circular area with 50 km radius around the NPP using a wealth of unpublished oil company seismic and borehole data. The site vicinity study has also been started with a core activity of 300 km² 3D seismic data acquisition, processing and interpretation assisted by a series of additional geophysical surveys, new drillings and geological mapping. This lecture will present a few important results of the near regional study, which sheds new light on the intricate tectonic evolution of the Mid-Hungarian Fault Zone (MHFZ), which is a strongly deformed belt between the Alcapa and Tisza-Dacia megatectonic units. The nuclear power plant is located at the margin of the Tisza unit near to the southern edge of the MHFZ. Reassessment of seismic hazard at the site of the NPP requires better understanding of the Miocene to Recent tectonic evolution of this region in the central part of the Pannonian basin. Early to Middle Miocene was a period of rifting with formation of 1 to 3 km deep half-grabens filled with terrestrial to marine deposits and large amount of rift-related volcanic material. Graben fill became strongly deformed as a consequence of juxtaposition of the two megatectonic units leading to strong compression and development of

  20. Vicarious Validation of Suomi-NPP/VIIRS Day /Night Band using DOME-C and Greenland under moon-light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, S.; Shao, X.; Cao, C.

    2014-12-01

    The Day/Night Band (DNB) of the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) onboard Suomi-NPP represents a major advancement in night time imaging capabilities. DNB covers almost 7 orders of magnitude in its dynamic range from full sunlight to quarter moon. To achieve this large dynamic range, it uses four charge-coupled device (CCD) arrays in three gain stages. The low gain stage (LGS) gain is calibrated using the solar diffuser. In operations, the medium and high gain stage values are determined by multiplying the gain ratios between the medium gain stage (MGS), and LGS, and high gain stage (HGS) and LGS, respectively. This work focuses on independently verifying the radiometric accuracy and stability of DNB HGS using DNB observation of ground vicarious sites under lunar illumination at night. Dome C in Antarctic and Greenland in northern hemisphere are chosen as the vicarious sites. Nadir observations of these high latitude regions by VIIRS are selected during perpetual night season, i.e. from April to August for Dome C and from Nov. to Jan. for Greenland over the year 2012 to 2013. Additional selection criteria such as lunar phase being more than half moon and no influence of straylight effects are also applied in data selection. Lunar spectral irradiance model, as a function of Sun-Earth-Moon distances and lunar phase, is used to determine the top-of atmosphere (TOA) reflectance at the vicarious site. The vicariously-derived long-term reflectance from DNB observations agrees with the reflectance derived from Hyperion observations. The vicarious trending of DNB radiometric performance using DOME-C and Greenland under moon light shows that the DNB HGS radiometric variability (relative accuracy to lunar irradiance model and Hyperion observation) is within 10%. Residue variability and future work are also discussed.

  1. Twisted partially pure spinors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrera, Rafael; Tellez, Ivan

    2016-08-01

    Motivated by the relationship between orthogonal complex structures and pure spinors, we define twisted partially pure spinors in order to characterize spinorially subspaces of Euclidean space endowed with a complex structure.

  2. Radioactive Spent Ion-Exchange Resins Conditioning by the Hot Supercompaction Process at Tihange NPP - Early Experience - 12200

    SciTech Connect

    Braet, Johan; Charpentier, David; Centner, Baudouin; Vanderperre, Serge

    2012-07-01

    costs. Tractebel Engineering has managed the construction of a new application of this process in Belgium at Tihange NPP. Several developments were required to adapt the reference process and equipment to PWR spent ion-exchange bead resins and Belgian radioactive waste acceptance criteria. The chosen method of conditioning (draining, drying and compaction of the spent resins followed by grouting of the pellets in a 400 litres drum) immobilizes the spent resins under the form of a solid, compact, stable, and non dispersible block free of interstitial water. The various series of inactive tests which were conducted at Tihange NPP, helped among others to determine the best design of the compactable drum and lid and to set the value of critical parameters such as vapour temperature at the end of drying, speed, force and duration of compaction. In an environment of very limited space for interim storage and in the absence of an operational final repository site, or in the case of high final disposal costs, the process exhibits the following key advantages: - Achieving a Volume Reduction Factor (VRF) close to 1 (overpack included) for the interim storage instead of increased volumes observed with other currently available processes; - Achieving a water free end product; - Creating a flexible waste product for interim storage (pellet), which can be retrieved and routed into alternative types of package later, if not initially grouted; - Using well proven standard technologies like drying and compaction; - Flexible use of the system components for the supercompaction of other operational solid waste streams when not conducting resins conditioning campaigns. (authors)

  3. Regulation of allergic inflammation by the ectoenzyme E-NPP3 (CD203c) on basophils and mast cells.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Shih Han; Takeda, Kiyoshi

    2016-09-01

    Adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) is released from dying or damaged cells, as well as from activated cells. Once secreted, extracellular ATP induces several immune responses via P2X and P2Y receptors. Basophils and mast cells release ATP upon FcεRI-crosslinking, and ATP activates basophils and mast cells in an autocrine manner. Nucleotide-converting ectoenzymes, such as E-NTPD1, E-NTPD7, and E-NPP3, inhibit ATP-dependent immune responses by hydrolyzing ATP, thereby contributing to immune response regulation. E-NPP3 is a well-known activation marker for human basophils. E-NPP3's physiologic function has recently been disclosed in mice. E-NPP3 is rapidly induced on basophils and mast cells after FcεRI-crosslinking and hydrolyzes extracellular ATP on cell surfaces to prevent ATP-dependent excess activation of basophils and mast cells. In the absence of E-NPP3, basophils and mast cells are overactivated and mice suffer from severe chronic allergic inflammation. Thus, the ATP-hydrolyzing ectoenzymes E-NPP3 has a nonnegligible role in the regulation of basophil- and mast cell-mediated allergic responses.

  4. SEISMIC RESPONSE PREDICTION OF NUPEC'S FIELD MODEL TESTS OF NPP STRUCTURES WITH ADJACENT BUILDING EFFECT.

    SciTech Connect

    XU,J.COSTANTINO,C.HOFMAYER,C.ALI,S.

    2004-03-04

    As part of a verification test program for seismic analysis computer codes for Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) structures, the Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation (NUPEC) of Japan has conducted a series of field model tests to address the dynamic cross interaction (DCI) effect on the seismic response of NPP structures built in close proximity to each other. The program provided field data to study the methodologies commonly associated with seismic analyses considering the DCI effect. As part of a collaborative program between the United States and Japan on seismic issues related to NPP applications, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission sponsored a program at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) to perform independent seismic analyses which applied common analysis procedures to predict the building response to recorded earthquake events for the test models with DCI effect. In this study, two large-scale DCI test model configurations were analyzed: (1) twin reactor buildings in close proximity and (2) adjacent reactor and turbine buildings. This paper describes the NUPEC DCI test models, the BNL analysis using the SASSI 2000 program, and comparisons between the BNL analysis results and recorded field responses. To account for large variability in the soil properties, the conventional approach of computing seismic responses with the mean, mean plus and minus one-standard deviation soil profiles is adopted in the BNL analysis and the three sets of analysis results were used in the comparisons with the test data. A discussion is also provided in the paper to address (1) the capability of the analysis methods to capture the DCI effect, and (2) the conservatism of the practice for considering soil variability in seismic response analysis for adjacent NPP structures.

  5. Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) System Architecture: Suomi-NPP to the Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furgerson, J.; Layns, A.; Feeley, J. H.; Griffin, A.; Trumbower, G.

    2014-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is acquiring the next-generation weather and environmental satellite system, named the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS). NOAA has overall responsibility for the system including funding and requirements while the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) serves as the acquisition and development agent. The Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) satellite was launched on 28 October, 2011, and is a pathfinder for JPSS and provides continuity for the NASA Earth Observation System and the NOAA Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite (POES) system. S-NPP and the follow-on JPSS satellites will operate in the 1330 LTAN orbit. JPSS-1 is scheduled to launch in early 2017. NASA is developing the Common Ground System which will process JPSS data and has the flexibility to process data from other satellites. This poster will provide a top level status update of the program, as well as an overview of the JPSS system architecture. The space segment carries a suite of sensors that collect meteorological, oceanographic, and climatological observations of the earth and atmosphere. The system design allows centralized mission management and delivers high quality environmental products to military, civil and scientific users through a Command, Control, and Communication Segment (C3S). The data processing for S-NPP/JPSS is accomplished through an Interface Data Processing Segment (IDPS)/Field Terminal Segment (FTS) that processes S-NPP/JPSS satellite data to provide environmental data products to U.S. and international partners as well as remote terminal users throughout the world.

  6. Managing the equipment service life in rendering engineering support to NPP operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryasnyy, S. I.

    2015-05-01

    Apart from subjecting metal to nondestructive testing and determining its actual state, which are the traditional methods used for managing the service life of NPP equipment during its operation, other approaches closely linked with rendering engineering support to NPP operation have emerged in recent decades, which, however, have been covered in publications to a lesser extent. Service life management matters occupy the central place in the structure of engineering support measures. Application of the concept of repairing NPP equipment based on assessing its technical state and the risk of its failure makes it possible to achieve significantly smaller costs for maintenance and repairs and produce a larger amount of electricity due to shorter planned outages. Decreasing the occurrence probability of a process-related abnormality through its prediction is a further development of techniques for monitoring the technical state of equipment and systems. The proposed and implemented procedure for predicting the occurrence of process-related deviations from normal NPP operation opens the possibility to record in the online mode the trends in changes of process parameters that are likely to lead to malfunctions in equipment operation and to reduce the probability of power unit unloading when an abnormal technical state of equipment occurs and develops by recording changes in the state at an early stage and taking timely corrective measures. The article presents the structure of interconnections between the objectives and conditions of adjustment and commissioning tests, in which the management of equipment service life (saving and optimizing the service life) occupies the central place. Special attention is paid to differences in resource saving and optimization measures.

  7. Land, Cryosphere, and Nighttime Environmental Products from Suomi NPP VIIRS: Overview and Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roman, Miguel O.; Justice, Chris; Csiszar, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument was launched in October 2011 as part of the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP: http://npp.gsfc.nasa.gov/). VIIRS was designed to improve upon the capabilities of the operational Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) and provide observation continuity with NASA's Earth Observing System's (EOS) Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). Since the VIIRS first-light images were received in November 2011, NASA and NOAA funded scientists have been working to evaluate the instrument performance and derived products to meet the needs of the NOAA operational users and the NASA science community. NOAA's focus has been on refining a suite of operational products known as Environmental Data Records (EDRs), which were developed according to project specifications under the former National Polar-orbiting Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS). The NASA S-NPP Science Team has focused on evaluating the EDRs for science use, developing and testing additional products to meet science data needs and providing MODIS data product continuity. This paper will present to-date findings of the NASA Science Team's evaluation of the VIIRS Land and Cryosphere EDRs, specifically Surface Reflectance, Land Surface Temperature, Surface Albedo, Vegetation Indices, Surface Type, Active Fires, Snow Cover, Ice Surface Temperature, and Sea Ice Characterization (http://viirsland.gsfc.nasa.gov/index.html). The paper will also discuss new capabilities being developed at NASA's Land Product Evaluation and Test Element (http://landweb.nascom.nasa.gov/NPP_QA/); including downstream data and products derived from the VIIRS Day/Night Band (DNB).

  8. Characterization and Performance of the Suomi-NPP VIIRS Solar Diffuser Stability Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fulbright, Jon P.; Ning, Lei; Kwofu, Chiang; Xiaoxiong, Xiong

    2012-01-01

    We describe the on-orbit characterization and performance of the Solar Diffuser Stability Monitor (SDSM) on-board Suomi-NPP/VIIRS. This description includes the observing procedure of each SDSM event, the algorithms used to generate the Solar Diffuser degradation corrective factors, and the results for the mission to date. We will also compare the performance of the VIIRS SDSM and SD to the similar components operating on the MODIS instrument on the EOS Terra and Aqua satellites

  9. An overview of the ENEA activities in the field of coupled codes NPP simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Parisi, C.; Negrenti, E.; Sepielli, M.; Del Nevo, A.

    2012-07-01

    In the framework of the nuclear research activities in the fields of safety, training and education, ENEA (the Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and the Sustainable Development) is in charge of defining and pursuing all the necessary steps for the development of a NPP engineering simulator at the 'Casaccia' Research Center near Rome. A summary of the activities in the field of the nuclear power plants simulation by coupled codes is here presented with the long term strategy for the engineering simulator development. Specifically, results from the participation in international benchmarking activities like the OECD/NEA 'Kalinin-3' benchmark and the 'AER-DYN-002' benchmark, together with simulations of relevant events like the Fukushima accident, are here reported. The ultimate goal of such activities performed using state-of-the-art technology is the re-establishment of top level competencies in the NPP simulation field in order to facilitate the development of Enhanced Engineering Simulators and to upgrade competencies for supporting national energy strategy decisions, the nuclear national safety authority, and the R and D activities on NPP designs. (authors)

  10. A Rapid Cloud Mask Algorithm for Suomi NPP VIIRS Imagery EDRs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piper, M.; Bahr, T.

    2015-04-01

    Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP) is the first of a new generation of NASA's Earth-observing research satellites. The Suomi NPP Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) collects visible and infrared views of Earth's dynamic surface processes. This NPP mission produces a series of Environmental Data Records (EDRs). As accurate information on cloud occurrence is of utmost importance for a wide range of remote-sensing applications and analyses, we developed a cloud mask algorithm, adapted from the Landsat 7 Automatic Cloud Cover Assessment, for use with the VIIRS Imagery EDRs. The algorithm consists of a sequence of pixel-based tests that use thresholds on VIIRS top-of-atmosphere reflectances and brightness temperatures. Our cloud mask algorithm provides a simpler, though less informative and robust, alternative to the VIIRS Cloud Mask (VCM) Intermediate Product, with the advantage in that it can be applied to a higher spatial resolution VIIRS Imagery EDR. The algorithm is compared with the VCM in three case studies.

  11. Pharmacokinetics of hederacoside C, an active ingredient in AG NPP709, in rats.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ju Myung; Yoon, Ji Na; Jung, Ji Won; Choi, Hye Duck; Shin, Young June; Han, Chang Kyun; Lee, Hye Suk; Kang, Hee Eun

    2013-11-01

    1. Hederacoside C (HDC) is one of the active ingredients in Hedera helix leaf extract (Ivy Ex.) and AG NPP709, a new botanical drug to treat acute respiratory infection and chronic inflammatory bronchitis. However, information regarding its pharmacokinetic properties remains limited. 2. Here, we report the pharmacokinetics of HDC in rats after intravenous administration of HDC (3, 12.5, and 25 mg/kg) and after oral administration of HDC, Ivy Ex., and AG NPP709 (equivalent to 12.5, 25, and 50 mg/kg HDC). 3. Linear pharmacokinetics of HDC were identified upon its intravenous administration at doses of 3-25 mg/kg. Intravenous administration of HDC results in relatively slow clearance (1.46-2.08 mL/min/kg) and a small volume of distribution at steady state (138-222 mL/kg), while oral administration results in a low absolute oral bioavailability (F) of 0.118-0.250%. The extremely low F of HDC may be due to poor absorption of HDC from the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and/or its decomposition therein. 4. The oral pharmacokinetics of HDC did not differ significantly among pure HDC, Ivy Ex., and AG NPP709. PMID:23607546

  12. Conformity Between LR0 Mock-Ups and Vvers Npp Rpv Neutron Flux Attenuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belousov, Sergey; Ilieva, Krassimira; Kirilova, Desislava

    2009-08-01

    The conformity of the mock-up results and those for reactor pressure vessel (RPV) of nuclear power plants (NPP) has been evaluated in order to qualify if the mock-ups data could be used for benchmark's purpose only, or/and for simulating of the NPP irradiation conditions. Neutron transport through the vessel has been calculated by the three-dimensional discrete ordinate code TORT with problem oriented multigroup energy neutron cross-section library BGL. Neutron flux/fluence and spectrum shape represented by normalized group neutron fluxes in the multigroup energy structure, for neutrons with energy above 0.5 MeV, have been used for conformity analysis. It has been demonstrated that the relative difference of the attenuation factor as well as the group neutron fluxes did not exceed 10% at all considered positions for VVER-440. For VVER-1000, it has been obtained the same consistency, except for the location behind the RPV. The neutron flux attenuation behind the RPV is 18% higher than the mock-up attenuation. It has been shown that this difference arises from the dissimilarity of the biological shielding. The obtained results have demonstrated that the VVERs' mock-ups are appropriate for simulating the NPP irradiation conditions. The mock-up results for VVER-1000 have to be applied more carefully i.e. taking into account the existing peculiarity of the biological shielding and RPV attenuation azimuthal dependence.

  13. NPP VIIRS and Aqua MODIS RSB Comparison Using Observations from Simultaneous Nadir Overpasses (SNO)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xiong, X.; Wu, A.

    2012-01-01

    Suomi NPP (National Polar-orbiting Partnership) satellite (http://npp.gsfc.nasa.gov/viirs.html) began to daily collect global data following its successful launch on October 28, 2011. The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) is a key NPP sensor. Similar to the design of the OLS, SeaWiFS and MODIS instruments, VIIRS has on-board calibration components including a solar diffuser (SD) and a solar diffuser stability monitor (SDSM) for the reflective solar bands (RSB), a V-groove blackbody for the thermal emissive bands (TEB), and a space view (SV) port for background subtraction. Immediately after the VIIRS nadir door s opening on November 21, 2011, anomalously large degradation in the SD response was identified in the near-IR wavelength region, which was unexpected as decreases in the SD reflectance usually occur gradually in the blue (0.4 m) wavelength region based on past experience. In this study, we use a well-calibrated Aqua MODIS as reference to track and evaluate VIIRS RSB stability and performance. Reflectances observed by both sensors from simultaneous nadir overpasses (SNO) are used to determine VIIRS to MODIS reflectance ratios for their spectral matching bands. Results of this study provide an immediate post-launch assessment, independent validation of the anomalous degradation observed in SD measurements at near-IR wavelengths and initial analysis of calibration stability and consistency.

  14. Monitoring system with automatic sampling units in the surroundings Paks NPP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svingor, É.; Molnár, M.; Palcsu, L.; Veres, M.; Pintér, T.; Köves, L.

    2006-01-01

    Continuous monitoring of the uncontrolled tritium emission from Paks Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) has been carried out since starting the NPP operation. In order to control the release of fission and corrosion products as well as 14C automatic samplers were designed and installed into 20 observation wells in the vicinity of the reactor units. The automatic samplers contain two columns filled with anion and cation exchanger resins and are equipped with filters for trapping the chelating agents. The samplers are placed two meters below the groundwater level. Water pumps fed by accumulator ensure the water flowing through the ion-exchange columns. After a two-month working period the trapped ions are eluted from the resins. The activity of the gamma-emitters, 14C, 90Sr and transuranium elements are measured in the dried elute, the tritium is measured in the collected water phase. The experiences of a five-year monitoring work in the surroundings of Paks NPP are given here.

  15. Assessment of core damage frequency owing to possible fires at NPP with RBMK type reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Vinnikov, B.

    2012-07-01

    According to Scientific and Technical Cooperation between the USA and Russia in the field of nuclear engineering the Idaho National Laboratory has transferred to the possession of the National Research Center ' Kurchatov Inst. ' the SAPHIRE software without any fee. With the help of the software Kurchatov Inst. developed a Pilot Living PSA- Model of Leningrad NPP Unit 1. Computations of core damage frequencies were carried out for additional Initiating Events. In the submitted paper such additional Initiating Events are fires in various compartments of the NPP. During the computations of each fire, structure of the PSA - Model was not changed, but Fault Trees for the appropriate systems, which are removed from service during the fire, were changed. It follows from the computations, that for ten fires Core Damaged Frequencies (CDF) are not changed. Other six fires will cause additional core damage. On the basis of the calculated results it is possible to determine a degree of importance of these fires and to establish sequence of performance of fire-prevention measures in various places of the NPP. (authors)

  16. Targeting the active site of the placental isozyme of alkaline phosphatase by phage-displayed scFv antibodies selected by a specific uncompetitive inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Saini, Deepti; Kala, Mrinalini; Jain, Vishal; Sinha, Subrata

    2005-01-01

    Background The isozymes of alkaline phosphatase, the tissue non-specific, intestinal and placental, have similar properties and a high degree of identity. The placental isozyme (PLAP) is an oncofetal antigen expressed in several malignancies including choriocarcinoma, seminoma and ovarian carcinoma. We had earlier attempted to isolate PLAP-specific scFv from a synthetic human immunoglobulin library but were unable to do so, presumably because of the similarity between the isozymes. In this work, we have employed a PLAP-specific uncompetitive inhibitor, L-Phe-Gly-Gly, to select isozyme specific scFvs. An uncompetitive inhibitor binds to the enzyme in the presence of substrate and stabilizes the enzyme-substrate complex. Several uncompetitive inhibitors have varying degrees of isozyme specificity for human alkaline phosphatase isozymes. A specific uncompetitive inhibitor would be able to unmask conformational differences between the otherwise very similar molecules. Also, such inhibitors would be directed to regions at/close to the active site of the enzyme. In this work, the library was first incubated with PLAP and the bound clones then eluted by incubation with L-Phe-Gly-Gly along with the substrate, para-nitro phenyl phosphate (pNPP). The scFvs were then studied with regard to the biochemical modulation of their binding, isozyme specificity and effect on enzyme activity. Results Of 13 clones studied initially, the binding of 9 was inhibited by L-Phe-Gly-Gly (with pNPP) and 2 clones were inhibited by pNPP alone. Two clones had absolute and 2 clones had partial specificity to PLAP. Two clones were cross-reactive with only one other isozyme. Three scFv clones, having an accessible His6-tag, were purified and studied for their modulation of enzyme activity. All the three scFvs inhibited PLAP activity with the kinetics of competitive inhibition. Cell ELISA could demonstrate binding of the specific scFvs to the cell surface expressed PLAP. Conclusion The results

  17. Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) Common Ground System (CGS) Performance for Suomi NPP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Idol, J.; Grant, K. D.; Waas, W.; Austin, J.

    2012-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are jointly acquiring the next-generation civilian weather and environmental satellite system: the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS). JPSS will contribute the afternoon orbit component and ground processing system of the restructured National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS). As such, the Joint Polar Satellite System replaces the current Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) managed by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and the ground processing component of both Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites and the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) replacement, previously known as the Defense Weather Satellite System (DWSS), managed by the Department of Defense (DoD). The JPSS satellites will carry a suite of sensors designed to collect meteorological, oceanographic, climatological, and solar-geophysical observations of the earth, atmosphere, and space. The ground processing system for JPSS is known as the JPSS Common Ground System (JPSS CGS), and consists of a Command, Control, and Communications Segment (C3S) and an Interface Data Processing Segment (IDPS). Both segments are developed by Raytheon Intelligence and Information Systems (IIS). The C3S currently flies the Suomi National Polar Partnership (Suomi NPP) satellite and transfers mission data from Suomi NPP and between the ground facilities. The IDPS processes Suomi NPP satellite data to provide Environmental Data Records (EDRs) to NOAA and DoD processing centers operated by the United States government. When the JPSS-1 satellite is launched in early 2017, the responsibilities of the C3S and the IDPS will be expanded to support both Suomi NPP and JPSS-1. The Suomi NPP launched on October 28, 2011. Launch was followed by a phase of sensor activation, and full volume data traffic is now flowing from the

  18. Variance Components: Partialled vs. Common.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, Ervin W.

    1985-01-01

    A new approach to partialling components is used. Like conventional partialling, this approach orthogonalizes variables by partitioning the scores or observations. Unlike conventional partialling, it yields a common component and two unique components. (Author/GDC)

  19. Methanol partial oxidation reformer

    DOEpatents

    Ahmed, S.; Kumar, R.; Krumpelt, M.

    1999-08-17

    A partial oxidation reformer is described comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell. 7 figs.

  20. Methanol partial oxidation reformer

    DOEpatents

    Ahmed, Shabbir; Kumar, Romesh; Krumpelt, Michael

    1999-01-01

    A partial oxidation reformer comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell.

  1. Methanol partial oxidation reformer

    DOEpatents

    Ahmed, Shabbir; Kumar, Romesh; Krumpelt, Michael

    2001-01-01

    A partial oxidation reformer comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell.

  2. Methanol partial oxidation reformer

    DOEpatents

    Ahmed, S.; Kumar, R.; Krumpelt, M.

    1999-08-24

    A partial oxidation reformer is described comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell. 7 figs.

  3. Oxygen partial pressure sensor

    DOEpatents

    Dees, D.W.

    1994-09-06

    A method for detecting oxygen partial pressure and an oxygen partial pressure sensor are provided. The method for measuring oxygen partial pressure includes contacting oxygen to a solid oxide electrolyte and measuring the subsequent change in electrical conductivity of the solid oxide electrolyte. A solid oxide electrolyte is utilized that contacts both a porous electrode and a nonporous electrode. The electrical conductivity of the solid oxide electrolyte is affected when oxygen from an exhaust stream permeates through the porous electrode to establish an equilibrium of oxygen anions in the electrolyte, thereby displacing electrons throughout the electrolyte to form an electron gradient. By adapting the two electrodes to sense a voltage potential between them, the change in electrolyte conductivity due to oxygen presence can be measured. 1 fig.

  4. Oxygen partial pressure sensor

    DOEpatents

    Dees, Dennis W.

    1994-01-01

    A method for detecting oxygen partial pressure and an oxygen partial pressure sensor are provided. The method for measuring oxygen partial pressure includes contacting oxygen to a solid oxide electrolyte and measuring the subsequent change in electrical conductivity of the solid oxide electrolyte. A solid oxide electrolyte is utilized that contacts both a porous electrode and a nonporous electrode. The electrical conductivity of the solid oxide electrolyte is affected when oxygen from an exhaust stream permeates through the porous electrode to establish an equilibrium of oxygen anions in the electrolyte, thereby displacing electrons throughout the electrolyte to form an electron gradient. By adapting the two electrodes to sense a voltage potential between them, the change in electrolyte conductivity due to oxygen presence can be measured.

  5. Methods for producing partially digested restriction DNA fragments and for producing a partially modified PCR product

    DOEpatents

    Wong, Kwong-Kwok

    2000-01-01

    The present invention is an improved method of making a partially modified PCR product from a DNA fragment with a polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In a standard PCR process, the DNA fragment is combined with starting deoxynucleoside triphosphates, a primer, a buffer and a DNA polymerase in a PCR mixture. The PCR mixture is then reacted in the PCR producing copies of the DNA fragment. The improvement of the present invention is adding an amount of a modifier at any step prior to completion of the PCR process thereby randomly and partially modifying the copies of the DNA fragment as a partially modified PCR product. The partially modified PCR product may then be digested with an enzyme that cuts the partially modified PCR product at unmodified sites thereby producing an array of DNA restriction fragments.

  6. Dynamics of partial control.

    PubMed

    Sabuco, Juan; Sanjuán, Miguel A F; Yorke, James A

    2012-12-01

    Safe sets are a basic ingredient in the strategy of partial control of chaotic systems. Recently we have found an algorithm, the sculpting algorithm, which allows us to construct them, when they exist. Here we define another type of set, an asymptotic safe set, to which trajectories are attracted asymptotically when the partial control strategy is applied. We apply all these ideas to a specific example of a Duffing oscillator showing the geometry of these sets in phase space. The software for creating all the figures appearing in this paper is available as supplementary material. PMID:23278093

  7. Partial hue-matching.

    PubMed

    Logvinenko, Alexander D; Beattie, Lesley L

    2011-01-01

    It is widely believed that color can be decomposed into a small number of component colors. Particularly, each hue can be described as a combination of a restricted set of component hues. Methods, such as color naming and hue scaling, aim at describing color in terms of the relative amount of the component hues. However, there is no consensus on the nomenclature of component hues. Moreover, the very notion of hue (not to mention component hue) is usually defined verbally rather than perceptually. In this paper, we make an attempt to operationalize such a fundamental attribute of color as hue without the use of verbal terms. Specifically, we put forth a new method--partial hue-matching--that is based on judgments of whether two colors have some hue in common. It allows a set of component hues to be established objectively, without resorting to verbal definitions. Specifically, the largest sets of color stimuli, all of which partially match each other (referred to as chromaticity classes), can be derived from the observer's partial hue-matches. A chromaticity class proves to consist of all color stimuli that contain a particular component hue. Thus, the chromaticity classes fully define the set of component hues. Using samples of Munsell papers, a few experiments on partial hue-matching were carried out with twelve inexperienced normal trichromatic observers. The results reinforce the classical notion of four component hues (yellow, blue, red, and green). Black and white (but not gray) were also found to be component colors. PMID:21742961

  8. Partial knee replacement

    MedlinePlus

    ... You will need to understand what surgery and recovery will be like. Partial knee arthroplasty may be a good choice if you have arthritis in only one side or part of the knee and: You are older, thin, and not very active. You do not ...

  9. Phase I/II Study Evaluating Early Tolerance in Breast Cancer Patients Undergoing Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation Treated With the MammoSite Balloon Breast Brachytherapy Catheter Using a 2-Day Dose Schedule

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, Michelle; Martinez, Alvaro; Mitchell, Christina; Chen, Peter Y.; Ghilezan, Mihai; Benitez, Pamela; Brown, Eric; Vicini, Frank

    2010-06-01

    Purpose: Initial Phase I/II results using balloon brachytherapy to deliver accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) in 2 days in patients with early-stage breast cancer are presented. Materials and Methods: Between March 2004 and August 2007, 45 patients received adjuvant radiation therapy after lumpectomy with balloon brachytherapy in a Phase I/II trial delivering 2800 cGy in four fractions of 700 cGy. Toxicities were evaluated using the National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria for Adverse Events v3.0 scale and cosmesis was documented at >=6 months. Results: The median age was 66 years (range, 48-83) and median skin spacing was 12 mm (range, 8-24). The median follow-up was 11.4 months (5.4-48 months) with 21 patients (47%) followed >=1 year, 11 (24%) >=2 years, and 7 (16%) >=3 years. At <6 months (n = 45), Grade II toxicity rates were 9% radiation dermatitis, 13% breast pain, 2% edema, and 2% hyperpigmentation. Grade III breast pain was reported in 13% (n = 6). At >=6 months (n = 43), Grade II toxicity rates were: 2% radiation dermatitis, 2% induration, and 2% hypopigmentation. Grade III breast pain was reported in 2%. Infection was 13% (n = 6) at <6 months and 5% (n = 2) at >=6 months. Persistent seroma >=6 months was 30% (n = 13). Fat necrosis developed in 4 cases (2 symptomatic). Rib fractures were seen in 4% (n = 2). Cosmesis was good/excellent in 96% of cases. Conclusions: Treatment with balloon brachytherapy using a 2-day dose schedule resulted acceptable rates of Grade II/III chronic toxicity rates and similar cosmetic results observed with a standard 5-day accelerated partial breast irradiation schedule.

  10. New Generation Dresden NPP Demineralizer Vault Cleanup Project

    SciTech Connect

    Denton, M.S.; CET, Ph.D.; Forrester, K.; Azar, M.

    2008-07-01

    shipment. With the use of the SAFE{sup TM} Solution, the project was completed during the months of June and July and required only 2 HICs at the 85% fill level. These dewatered HICs were then clear for DOT transport and were shipped to the Clive, Utah Energy Solutions Site for final disposal. During the past year, additional refinements to the patented SAFE{sup TM} Solution have included the SAFER{sup TM} System (Scalant and Foulant Electronic Removal) for the removal by EC of silica, calcium and magnesium. This has proven to be an effective enabler for RO, NF and UF as a pretreatment system. Advantages here include smaller, more efficiently designed systems and allowed lower removal efficiencies with the removal of the limiting factor of scalants. The SAFEST{sup TM} System (SAFE Synergistic Technology) further enables RO systems by utilizing the brine RO reject to supply conductivity to the EC process, while, not only removing scalants, but minimizing brine normally going to further processing such as spent condensate resins or thermal treatment. Similarly, the SAFE{sup TM} System has been applied in the form of a BAC-UP{sup TM} System (Boric Acid Clean- Up) as an alternative to more complex RO or boric acid recycle systems. Lastly, wastewaters have been treated from different DOE sites and fuel reprocessing plants for the removal of totally soluble, TDS, species (e.g., Cs, Sr, Tc, Am, Pu, etc.). For these applications, an ion-specific seed (an element of the SMART{sup TM} System) was coupled with the soluble species prior to EC and subsequent filtration and dewatering, for the effective removal of the high-level complex and the segregation of low level and high level waste steams (LLW and HLW). This will become of paramount importance as Class B and C disposal sites are closed in the near future and maximizing Class A waste for disposal and minimizing > Class C waste volumes for storage become the prevailing goals. (authors)

  11. Comparing the impacts of the 2003 and 2005 fire seasons and the 2004 drought on NPP in the Iberian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastos, Ana; Gouveia, Célia M.; Russo, Ana; Trigo, Ricardo M.

    2014-05-01

    Mediterranean ecosystems have evolved together with relatively frequent disturbances such as wildfires and long dry periods. However, in recent decades fire regimes have been changing due to widespread socio-economic factors (e.g. rural abandonment) as well as in response to climatic trends. In particular, drought have become more frequent and intense, a pattern that is expected to increase in future decades. Despite Mediterranean ecosystems being adapted to fire and drought occurrence, changes in the characteristics of disturbances may affect the ability of ecosystems to recover to their previous state. The years 2003, 2004 and 2005 were particularly severe for ecosystems in the Iberia Peninsula, as a devastating fire season (2003, ~574.000ha burnt) was followed by a very intense drought (2004/2005) that affected 2/3 of Iberian vegetation for more than 9 months. In 2005, a very destructive fire season was again registered, with ~727.000ha burnt. These disturbances have been shown to have a severe impact on vegetation phenology, as assessed by remote sensing imagery. One of the more relevant societal impacts of these disturbances is the decrease in net primary production (NPP) of vegetation, both for practical issues such as food production, fiber and fuel and for carbon balance assessments. This work focuses on 2003 and 2005 fire seasons in the Iberia Peninsula and in the 2004/05 drought. Burnt scars in all fire seasons were identified by cluster analysis; the area affected by the drought event of 2004/2005 was selected as the region where vegetative stress was observed for 9 or more months. Remote sensing allows large scale studies of the evolution of vegetation dynamics at relatively fine spatial resolution. We rely on satellite NDVI data from SPOT/VEGETATION (1km) to identify burnt scars and drought-stricken regions. To quantify the impacts in terms of carbon uptake by vegetation, the MOD17A2 (annual NPP) and MOD17A3 (monthly net photosynthesis, PsN) datasets

  12. Climate change impacts on net primary production (NPP) and export production (EP) regulated by increasing stratification and phytoplankton community structure in CMIP5 models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, W.; Randerson, J.; Moore, J. K.

    2015-08-01

    We examine climate change impacts on net primary production (NPP) and export production (sinking particulate flux; EP) with simulations from nine Earth System Models (ESMs) performed in the framework of the fifth Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project (CMIP5). Global NPP and EP are reduced considerably by the end of the century for the intense warming scenario of Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 8.5. Relative to the 1990s, global NPP in the 2090s is reduced by 2.3-16 % and EP by 7-18 %. The models with the largest increases in stratification (and largest relative reductions in NPP and EP) also show the largest positive biases in stratification for the contemporary period, suggesting some potential overestimation of climate impacts on NPP and EP. All of the CMIP5 models show an increase in stratification in response to surface ocean warming and freshening that is accompanied by decreases in NPP, EP, and surface macronutrient concentrations. There is considerable variability across models in the absolute magnitude of these fluxes, surface nutrient concentrations, and their perturbations by climate change, indicating large model uncertainties. The negative response of NPP and EP to stratification increases reflects a bottom-up control, as nutrient flux to the euphotic zone declines. Models with dynamic phytoplankton community structure show larger declines in EP than in NPP. This is driven by phytoplankton community composition shifts, with a reduced percentage of NPP by large phytoplankton under RCP 8.5, as smaller phytoplankton are favored under the increasing nutrient stress. Thus, projections of the NPP response to climate change in the CMIP5 models are critically dependent on the simulated phytoplankton community structure, the efficiency of the biological pump, and the resulting (highly variable) levels of regenerated production. Community composition is represented relatively simply in the CMIP5 models, and should be expanded to better capture the

  13. Patterns of NPP, GPP, respiration, and NEP during boreal forest succession

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goulden, M.L.; Mcmillan, A.M.S.; Winston, G.C.; Rocha, A.V.; Manies, K.L.; Harden, J.W.; Bond-Lamberty, B. P.

    2011-01-01

    We combined year-round eddy covariance with biometry and biomass harvests along a chronosequence of boreal forest stands that were 1, 6, 15, 23, 40, 74, and 154 years old to understand how ecosystem production and carbon stocks change during recovery from stand-replacing crown fire. Live biomass (Clive) was low in the 1 and 6 year old stands, and increased following a logistic pattern to high levels in the 74 and 154year old stands. Carbon stocks in the forest floor (Cforest floor) and coarse woody debris (CCWD) were comparatively high in the 1year old stand, reduced in the 6 through 40year old stands, and highest in the 74 and 154year old stands. Total net primary production (TNPP) was reduced in the 1 and 6year old stands, highest in the 23 through 74year old stands and somewhat reduced in the 154year old stand. The NPP decline at the 154year old stand was related to increased autotrophic respiration rather than decreased gross primary production (GPP). Net ecosystem production (NEP), calculated by integrated eddy covariance, indicated the 1 and 6 year old stands were losing carbon, the 15year old stand was gaining a small amount of carbon, the 23 and 74year old stands were gaining considerable carbon, and the 40 and 154year old stands were gaining modest amounts of carbon. The recovery from fire was rapid; a linear fit through the NEP observations at the 6 and 15year old stands indicated the transition from carbon source to sink occurred within 11-12 years. The NEP decline at the 154year old stand appears related to increased losses from Clive by tree mortality and possibly from Cforest floor by decomposition. Our findings support the idea that NPP, carbon production efficiency (NPP/GPP), NEP, and carbon storage efficiency (NEP/TNPP) all decrease in old boreal stands. ?? 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Kinetic behaviour of calf intestinal alkaline phosphatase with pNPP.

    PubMed

    Chaudhuri, Gouri; Chatterjee, Saswata; Venu-Babu, P; Ramasamy, K; Thilagaraj, W Richard

    2013-02-01

    The hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl phosphate (pNPP) by calf intestinal alkaline phosphatase (CIAP) was investigated with respect to kinetic parameters such as V(max), K(m) and K(cat) under varying pH, buffers, substrate concentration, temperature and period of incubation. Highest activity was obtained with Tris-HCl at pH 11, while in the case of glycine-NaOH buffer the peak activity was recorded at pH 9.5. The enzyme showed the following kinetic characteristics with pNPP in 50 mM Tris-HCl at pH 11 and 100 mM glycine-NaOH at pH 9.5 at an incubation temperature of 37 degrees C: V(max), 3.12 and 1.6 micromoles min(-1) unit(-1); K(m), 7.6 x 10(-4) M and 4 x 10(-4) M; and K(cat), 82.98 s(-1) and 42.55 s(-1), respectively. CIAP displayed a high temperature optimum of 45 degrees C at pH 11. The kinetic behaviour of the enzyme under different parameters suggested that the enzyme might undergo subtle conformational changes in response to the buffers displaying unique characteristics. Bioprecipitation of Cu2+ from 50 ppm of CuCl2 solution was studied where 64.3% of precipitation was obtained. P(i) generated from CIAP-mediated hydrolysis of pNPP was found to bind with copper and precipitated as copper-phosphate. Thus, CIAP could be used as a test candidate in bioremediation of heavy metals from industrial wastes through generation of metal-phosphate complexes.

  15. Lunar BRDF Correction of Suomi-NPP VIIRS Day/Night Band Time Series Product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z.; Roman, M. O.; Kalb, V.; Stokes, E.; Miller, S. D.

    2015-12-01

    Since the first-light images from the Suomi-NPP VIIRS low-light visible Day/Night Band (DNB) sensor were received in November 2011, the NASA Suomi-NPP Land Science Investigator Processing System (SIPS) has focused on evaluating this new capability for quantitative science applications, as well as developing and testing refined algorithms to meet operational and Land science research needs. While many promising DNB applications have been developed since the Suomi-NPP launch, most studies to-date have been limited by the traditional qualitative image display and spatial-temporal aggregated statistical analysis methods inherent in current heritage algorithms. This has resulted in strong interest for a new generation of science-quality products that can be used to monitor both the magnitude and signature of nighttime phenomena and anthropogenic sources of light emissions. In one particular case study, Román and Stokes (2015) demonstrated that tracking daily dynamic DNB radiances can provide valuable information about the character of the human activities and behaviors that influence energy, consumption, and vulnerability. Here we develop and evaluate a new suite of DNB science-quality algorithms that can exclude a primary source of background noise: i.e., the Lunar BRDF (Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function) effect. Every day, the operational NASA Land SIPS DNB algorithm makes use of 16 days worth of DNB-derived surface reflectances (SR) (based on the heritage MODIS SR algorithm) and a semiempirical kernel-driven bidirectional reflectance model to determine a global set of parameters describing the BRDF of the land surface. The nighttime period of interest is heavily weighted as a function of observation coverage. These gridded parameters, combined with Miller and Turner's [2009] top-of-atmosphere spectral irradiance model, are then used to determine the DNB's lunar radiance contribution at any point in time and under specific illumination conditions.

  16. Partially integrated exhaust manifold

    SciTech Connect

    Hayman, Alan W; Baker, Rodney E

    2015-01-20

    A partially integrated manifold assembly is disclosed which improves performance, reduces cost and provides efficient packaging of engine components. The partially integrated manifold assembly includes a first leg extending from a first port and terminating at a mounting flange for an exhaust gas control valve. Multiple additional legs (depending on the total number of cylinders) are integrally formed with the cylinder head assembly and extend from the ports of the associated cylinder and terminate at an exit port flange. These additional legs are longer than the first leg such that the exit port flange is spaced apart from the mounting flange. This configuration provides increased packaging space adjacent the first leg for any valving that may be required to control the direction and destination of exhaust flow in recirculation to an EGR valve or downstream to a catalytic converter.

  17. Partially coherent ultrafast spectrography

    PubMed Central

    Bourassin-Bouchet, C.; Couprie, M.-E.

    2015-01-01

    Modern ultrafast metrology relies on the postulate that the pulse to be measured is fully coherent, that is, that it can be completely described by its spectrum and spectral phase. However, synthesizing fully coherent pulses is not always possible in practice, especially in the domain of emerging ultrashort X-ray sources where temporal metrology is strongly needed. Here we demonstrate how frequency-resolved optical gating (FROG), the first and one of the most widespread techniques for pulse characterization, can be adapted to measure partially coherent pulses even down to the attosecond timescale. No modification of experimental apparatuses is required; only the processing of the measurement changes. To do so, we take our inspiration from other branches of physics where partial coherence is routinely dealt with, such as quantum optics and coherent diffractive imaging. This will have important and immediate applications, such as enabling the measurement of X-ray free-electron laser pulses despite timing jitter. PMID:25744080

  18. Laparoscopic partial splenic resection.

    PubMed

    Uranüs, S; Pfeifer, J; Schauer, C; Kronberger, L; Rabl, H; Ranftl, G; Hauser, H; Bahadori, K

    1995-04-01

    Twenty domestic pigs with an average weight of 30 kg were subjected to laparoscopic partial splenic resection with the aim of determining the feasibility, reliability, and safety of this procedure. Unlike the human spleen, the pig spleen is perpendicular to the body's long axis, and it is long and slender. The parenchyma was severed through the middle third, where the organ is thickest. An 18-mm trocar with a 60-mm Endopath linear cutter was used for the resection. The tissue was removed with a 33-mm trocar. The operation was successfully concluded in all animals. No capsule tears occurred as a result of applying the stapler. Optimal hemostasis was achieved on the resected edges in all animals. Although these findings cannot be extended to human surgery without reservations, we suggest that diagnostic partial resection and minor cyst resections are ideal initial indications for this minimally invasive approach.

  19. Partially coherent ultrafast spectrography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourassin-Bouchet, C.; Couprie, M.-E.

    2015-03-01

    Modern ultrafast metrology relies on the postulate that the pulse to be measured is fully coherent, that is, that it can be completely described by its spectrum and spectral phase. However, synthesizing fully coherent pulses is not always possible in practice, especially in the domain of emerging ultrashort X-ray sources where temporal metrology is strongly needed. Here we demonstrate how frequency-resolved optical gating (FROG), the first and one of the most widespread techniques for pulse characterization, can be adapted to measure partially coherent pulses even down to the attosecond timescale. No modification of experimental apparatuses is required; only the processing of the measurement changes. To do so, we take our inspiration from other branches of physics where partial coherence is routinely dealt with, such as quantum optics and coherent diffractive imaging. This will have important and immediate applications, such as enabling the measurement of X-ray free-electron laser pulses despite timing jitter.

  20. Methodology and measures for preventing unacceptable flow-accelerated corrosion thinning of pipelines and equipment of NPP power generating units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomarov, G. V.; Shipkov, A. A.; Lovchev, V. N.; Gutsev, D. F.

    2016-10-01

    Problems of metal flow-accelerated corrosion (FAC) in the pipelines and equipment of the condensate- feeding and wet-steam paths of NPP power-generating units (PGU) are examined. Goals, objectives, and main principles of the methodology for the implementation of an integrated program of AO Concern Rosenergoatom for the prevention of unacceptable FAC thinning and for increasing operational flow-accelerated corrosion resistance of NPP EaP are worded (further the Program). A role is determined and potentialities are shown for the use of Russian software packages in the evaluation and prediction of FAC rate upon solving practical problems for the timely detection of unacceptable FAC thinning in the elements of pipelines and equipment (EaP) of the secondary circuit of NPP PGU. Information is given concerning the structure, properties, and functions of the software systems for plant personnel support in the monitoring and planning of the inservice inspection of FAC thinning elements of pipelines and equipment of the secondary circuit of NPP PGUs, which are created and implemented at some Russian NPPs equipped with VVER-1000, VVER-440, and BN-600 reactors. It is noted that one of the most important practical results of software packages for supporting NPP personnel concerning the issue of flow-accelerated corrosion consists in revealing elements under a hazard of intense local FAC thinning. Examples are given for successful practice at some Russian NPP concerning the use of software systems for supporting the personnel in early detection of secondary-circuit pipeline elements with FAC thinning close to an unacceptable level. Intermediate results of working on the Program are presented and new tasks set in 2012 as a part of the updated program are denoted. The prospects of the developed methods and tools in the scope of the Program measures at the stages of design and construction of NPP PGU are discussed. The main directions of the work on solving the problems of flow

  1. NPP VIIRS Day-Night Band Stray Light Characterization and Correction Using Calibration View Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, C.; Lee, S.

    2015-12-01

    The NPP VIIRS Day-Night Band (DNB) nighttime imagery quality is affected by stray light contamination. In this study, we examined the relationship between the observed stray light and the signals in VIIRS's calibrators to investigate the potential stray light source and sneak paths. The stray light contamination is found to be highly correlated with calibrator signal characteristics and the stray light origin and paths could vary at satellite's orbital location and time. For the observed high latitude stray light regions, the calibration view data showed signal profiles that are similar to the estimated earth scene stray light profiles. In the twilight region, calibration view signal profiles can be used to extend stray light estimates to improve upon the current extrapolation method. The calibration view data can also be used to identify the additional stray light occurred during southern hemisphere spring time and the occasional low latitude stray light contamination. Based on the calibration view data, the expected earth scene dark signals can be approximated by extending signals from un-contaminated regions to estimate the additional stray light. Applying this updated stray light correction method, the DNB images showed expected earth scene features over the additional southern hemisphere stray light region, although some residual effects remained. Our analysis indicates that the DNB calibration view data can be used to improve DNB stray light characterization and correction. As stray light affects significant portion of nighttime scenes, further refinement in characterization and correction is important to ensure VIIRS DNB imagery quality in NPP and future missions.

  2. Overview of Suomi NPP VIIRS performance in the last 2.5 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Changyong; Blonski, Slawomir; Wang, Wenhui; Shao, Xi; Choi, Tayoung; Bai, Yan; Xiong, Xiaoxiong

    2014-11-01

    Since the successful launch of the Suomi NPP on October 28, 2011, the VIIRS instrument has performed well in general. This paper provides an overview of the evolution of the VIIRS instrument performance, major events experienced in the nearly three years since launch, and the ground processing system changes to account for various effects and discrepancies. The mirror degradation in the near-infrared bands due to prelaunch mirror contamination has been gradually leveling off, although the degradation in the solar diffuser continues. In the ground processing, many changes have been implemented in the operational code. This includes the stray-light correction for the Day/Night band, the automatic calibration for the reflective solar band, and corrections for several errors in the code, and resolving various discrepancies in the calibration equations and coefficients. The scientific community is generally satisfied with the quality of the VIIRS SDR data. However, there are remaining issues to be resolved through further research and development. These issues include meeting the more stringent requirement and desire for ocean color applications, better understanding of the polarization effects especially off-nadir, understanding and resolving inconsistencies between solar and lunar calibration. The Suomi NPP VIIRS SDR has been used for generating a variety of products with great success by worldwide users. Together with the follow-on instruments J1 and J2, VIIRS will be the primary data source for moderate resolution satellite observations in the next decades.

  3. Reactor Dosimetry Aspects of the Service Life Extension of the Hungarian Paks NPP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zsolnay, Eva M.; Czifrus, Szabolcs; Fehér, Sándor; Hordósy, Gábor; Keresztúri, András; Kresz, Norbert; Oszvald, Ferenc

    2016-02-01

    The service life of the Hungarian Paks Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) will be extended from the originally planned 30 years to 50 years. To improve the reliability of the results obtained in frame of the old reactor pressure vessel (RPV) surveillance programme, new methods have been developed, and based on them, the old exposition data have been re-evaluated for all the four reactor units. At the same time, a new RPV surveillance programme has been developed and introduced, and long term irradiations have been performed to determine the radiation damage of the surveillance specimens due to the high fast neutron exposition. Neutron transport calculations have been performed with a validated neutron transport code system to determine the fast neutron exposition of the RPVs during the extended service life. The cavity dosimetry is in the introductory phase. This paper presents the new developments in the field of the RPV surveillance dosimetry and summarises the results obtained. According to the results the service life of the NPP can safely be extended for the planned 50 years.

  4. Effects of long-term nutrient additions on Arctic tundra, stream, and lake ecosystems: beyond NPP.

    PubMed

    Gough, Laura; Bettez, Neil D; Slavik, Karie A; Bowden, William B; Giblin, Anne E; Kling, George W; Laundre, James A; Shaver, Gaius R

    2016-11-01

    Primary producers form the base of food webs but also affect other ecosystem characteristics, such as habitat structure, light availability, and microclimate. Here, we examine changes caused by 5-30+ years of nutrient addition and resulting increases in net primary productivity (NPP) in tundra, streams, and lakes in northern Alaska. The Arctic provides an important opportunity to examine how ecosystems characterized by low diversity and low productivity respond to release from nutrient limitation. We review how responses of algae and plants affect light availability, perennial biotic structures available for consumers, oxygen levels, and temperature. Sometimes, responses were similar across all three ecosystems; e.g., increased NPP significantly reduced light to the substrate following fertilization. Perennial biotic structures increased in tundra and streams but not in lakes, and provided important new habitat niches for consumers as well as other producers. Oxygen and temperature responses also differed. Life history traits (e.g., longevity) of the primary producers along with the fate of detritus drove the responses and recovery. As global change persists and nutrients become more available in the Arctic and elsewhere, incorporating these factors as response variables will enable better prediction of ecosystem changes and feedbacks in this biome and others.

  5. Land and Cryosphere Products from Suomi NPP VIIRS: Overview and Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justice, Christopher O.; Roman, Miguel O.; Csiszar, Ivan; Vermote, Eric F.; Wolfe, Robert E.; Hook, Simon J.; Friedl, Mark; Wang, Zhuosen; Schaaf, Crystal B.; Miura, Tomoaki; Tschudi, Mark; Riggs, George; Hall, Dorothy K.; Lyapustin, Alexei I.; Devadiga, Sadashiva; Davidson, Carol; Masuoka, Edward

    2013-01-01

    The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument was launched in October 2011 as part of the Suomi National Polar-Orbiting Partnership (S-NPP). The VIIRS instrument was designed to improve upon the capabilities of the operational Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer and provide observation continuity with NASA's Earth Observing System's Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). Since the VIIRS first-light images were received in November 2011, NASA- and NOAA-funded scientists have been working to evaluate the instrument performance and generate land and cryosphere products to meet the needs of the NOAA operational users and the NASA science community. NOAA's focus has been on refining a suite of operational products known as Environmental Data Records (EDRs), which were developed according to project specifications under the National Polar-Orbiting Environmental Satellite System. The NASA S-NPP Science Team has focused on evaluating the EDRs for science use, developing and testing additional products to meet science data needs, and providing MODIS data product continuity. This paper presents to-date findings of the NASA Science Team's evaluation of the VIIRS land and cryosphere EDRs, specifically Surface Reflectance, Land Surface Temperature, Surface Albedo, Vegetation Indices, Surface Type, Active Fires, Snow Cover, Ice Surface Temperature, and Sea Ice Characterization. The study concludes that, for MODIS data product continuity and earth system science, an enhanced suite of land and cryosphere products and associated data system capabilities are needed beyond the EDRs currently available from the VIIRS.

  6. Melancholia and partial insanity.

    PubMed

    Jackson, S W

    1983-04-01

    In the medical literature of the eighteenth century melancholia came to be defined as partial insanity. Seventeenth-century English law introduced the term and influenced later forensic concerns about the concept. But the history of melancholia reveals a gradual development of such a concept of limited derangement associated with the delusions usually cited in accounts of this disease. In the early nineteenth century the relationship of melancholia and this concept weakened and was gradually abandoned, the content of the syndrome of melancholia was reduced, and out of this complex process emerged the notion of monomania.

  7. Esthetic removable partial dentures.

    PubMed

    Ancowitz, Stephen

    2004-01-01

    This article provides information regarding the many ways that removable partial dentures (RPDs) may be used to solve restorative problems in the esthetic zone without displaying metal components or conspicuous acrylic resin flanges. The esthetic zone is defined and described, as are methods for recording it. Six dental categories are presented that assist the dentist in choosing a variety of RPD design concepts that may be used to avoid metal display while still satisfying basic principles of RPDs. New materials that may be utilized for optimal esthetics are presented and techniques for contouring acrylic resin bases and tinting denture bases are described.

  8. Experts' Understanding of Partial Derivatives Using the Partial Derivative Machine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roundy, David; Weber, Eric; Dray, Tevian; Bajracharya, Rabindra R.; Dorko, Allison; Smith, Emily M.; Manogue, Corinne A.

    2015-01-01

    Partial derivatives are used in a variety of different ways within physics. Thermodynamics, in particular, uses partial derivatives in ways that students often find especially confusing. We are at the beginning of a study of the teaching of partial derivatives, with a goal of better aligning the teaching of multivariable calculus with the needs of…

  9. Climate change impacts on net primary production (NPP) and export production (EP) regulated by increasing stratification and phytoplankton community structure in the CMIP5 models

    DOE PAGES

    Fu, Weiwei; Randerson, James T.; Moore, J. Keith

    2016-09-16

    We examine climate change impacts on net primary production (NPP) and export production (sinking particulate flux; EP) with simulations from nine Earth system models (ESMs) performed in the framework of the fifth phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). Global NPP and EP are reduced by the end of the century for the intense warming scenario of Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 8.5. Relative to the 1990s, NPP in the 2090s is reduced by 2–16 % and EP by 7–18 %. The models with the largest increases in stratification (and largest relative declines in NPP and EP) also show the largest positivemore » biases in stratification for the contemporary period, suggesting overestimation of climate change impacts on NPP and EP. All of the CMIP5 models show an increase in stratification in response to surface–ocean warming and freshening, which is accompanied by decreases in surface nutrients, NPP and EP. There is considerable variability across the models in the magnitudes of NPP, EP, surface nutrient concentrations and their perturbations by climate change. The negative response of NPP and EP to increasing stratification reflects primarily a bottom-up control, as upward nutrient flux declines at the global scale. Models with dynamic phytoplankton community structure show larger declines in EP than in NPP. This pattern is driven by phytoplankton community composition shifts, with reductions in productivity by large phytoplankton as smaller phytoplankton (which export less efficiently) are favored under the increasing nutrient stress. Thus, the projections of the NPP response to climate change are critically dependent on the simulated phytoplankton community structure, the efficiency of the biological pump and the resulting levels of regenerated production, which vary widely across the models. Community structure is represented simply in the CMIP5 models, and should be expanded to better capture the spatial patterns and climate

  10. Climate change impacts on net primary production (NPP) and export production (EP) regulated by increasing stratification and phytoplankton community structure in the CMIP5 models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Weiwei; Randerson, James T.; Moore, J. Keith

    2016-09-01

    We examine climate change impacts on net primary production (NPP) and export production (sinking particulate flux; EP) with simulations from nine Earth system models (ESMs) performed in the framework of the fifth phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). Global NPP and EP are reduced by the end of the century for the intense warming scenario of Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 8.5. Relative to the 1990s, NPP in the 2090s is reduced by 2-16 % and EP by 7-18 %. The models with the largest increases in stratification (and largest relative declines in NPP and EP) also show the largest positive biases in stratification for the contemporary period, suggesting overestimation of climate change impacts on NPP and EP. All of the CMIP5 models show an increase in stratification in response to surface-ocean warming and freshening, which is accompanied by decreases in surface nutrients, NPP and EP. There is considerable variability across the models in the magnitudes of NPP, EP, surface nutrient concentrations and their perturbations by climate change. The negative response of NPP and EP to increasing stratification reflects primarily a bottom-up control, as upward nutrient flux declines at the global scale. Models with dynamic phytoplankton community structure show larger declines in EP than in NPP. This pattern is driven by phytoplankton community composition shifts, with reductions in productivity by large phytoplankton as smaller phytoplankton (which export less efficiently) are favored under the increasing nutrient stress. Thus, the projections of the NPP response to climate change are critically dependent on the simulated phytoplankton community structure, the efficiency of the biological pump and the resulting levels of regenerated production, which vary widely across the models. Community structure is represented simply in the CMIP5 models, and should be expanded to better capture the spatial patterns and climate-driven changes in export

  11. Is Titan Partially Differentiated?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitri, G.; Pappalardo, R. T.; Stevenson, D. J.

    2009-12-01

    The recent measurement of the gravity coefficients from the Radio Doppler data of the Cassini spacecraft has improved our knowledge of the interior structure of Titan (Rappaport et al. 2008 AGU, P21A-1343). The measured gravity field of Titan is dominated by near hydrostatic quadrupole components. We have used the measured gravitational coefficients, thermal models and the hydrostatic equilibrium theory to derive Titan's interior structure. The axial moment of inertia gives us an indication of the degree of the interior differentiation. The inferred axial moment of inertia, calculated using the quadrupole gravitational coefficients and the Radau-Darwin approximation, indicates that Titan is partially differentiated. If Titan is partially differentiated then the interior must avoid melting of the ice during its evolution. This suggests a relatively late formation of Titan to avoid the presence of short-lived radioisotopes (Al-26). This also suggests the onset of convection after accretion to efficiently remove the heat from the interior. The outer layer is likely composed mainly of water in solid phase. Thermal modeling indicates that water could be present also in liquid phase forming a subsurface ocean between an outer ice I shell and a high pressure ice layer. Acknowledgments: This work was conducted at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  12. Partial Triceps Disruption

    PubMed Central

    Foulk, David M.; Galloway, Marc T.

    2011-01-01

    Partial triceps tendon disruptions are a rare injury that can lead to debilitating outcomes if misdiagnosed or managed inappropriately. The clinician should have a high index of suspicion when the mechanism involves a fall onto an outstretched arm and there is resultant elbow extension weakness along with pain and swelling. The most common location of rupture is at the tendon-osseous junction. This case report illustrates a partial triceps tendon disruption with involvement of, primarily, the medial head and the superficial expansion. Physical examination displayed weakness with resisted elbow extension in a flexed position over 90°. Radiographs revealed a tiny fleck of bone proximal to the olecranon, but this drastically underestimated the extent of injury upon surgical exploration. Magnetic resonance imaging is essential to ascertain the percentage involvement of the tendon; it can be used for patient education and subsequently to determine treatment recommendations. Although excellent at finding associated pathology, it may misjudge the size of the tear. As such, physicians must consider associated comorbidities and patient characteristics when formulating treatment plans. PMID:23016005

  13. N-Glycomic and Microscopic Subcellular Localization Analyses of NPP1, 2 and 6 Strongly Indicate that trans-Golgi Compartments Participate in the Golgi to Plastid Traffic of Nucleotide Pyrophosphatase/Phosphodiesterases in Rice.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Kentaro; Takamatsu, Takeshi; Inomata, Takuya; Oikawa, Kazusato; Itoh, Kimiko; Hirose, Kazuko; Amano, Maho; Nishimura, Shin-Ichiro; Toyooka, Kiminori; Matsuoka, Ken; Pozueta-Romero, Javier; Mitsui, Toshiaki

    2016-08-01

    Nucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterases (NPPs) are widely distributed N-glycosylated enzymes that catalyze the hydrolytic breakdown of numerous nucleotides and nucleotide sugars. In many plant species, NPPs are encoded by a small multigene family, which in rice are referred to NPP1-NPP6 Although recent investigations showed that N-glycosylated NPP1 is transported from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-Golgi system to the chloroplast through the secretory pathway in rice cells, information on N-glycan composition and subcellular localization of other NPPs is still lacking. Computer-assisted analyses of the amino acid sequences deduced from different Oryza sativa NPP-encoding cDNAs predicted all NPPs to be secretory glycoproteins. Confocal fluorescence microscopy observation of cells expressing NPP2 and NPP6 fused with green fluorescent protein (GFP) revealed that NPP2 and NPP6 are plastidial proteins. Plastid targeting of NPP2-GFP and NPP6-GFP was prevented by brefeldin A and by the expression of ARF1(Q71L), a dominant negative mutant of ADP-ribosylation factor 1 that arrests the ER to Golgi traffic, indicating that NPP2 and NPP6 are transported from the ER-Golgi to the plastidial compartment. Confocal laser scanning microscopy and high-pressure frozen/freeze-substituted electron microscopy analyses of transgenic rice cells ectopically expressing the trans-Golgi marker sialyltransferase fused with GFP showed the occurrence of contact of Golgi-derived membrane vesicles with cargo and subsequent absorption into plastids. Sensitive and high-throughput glycoblotting/mass spectrometric analyses showed that complex-type and paucimannosidic-type glycans with fucose and xylose residues occupy approximately 80% of total glycans of NPP1, NPP2 and NPP6. The overall data strongly indicate that the trans-Golgi compartments participate in the Golgi to plastid trafficking and targeting mechanism of NPPs.

  14. N-Glycomic and Microscopic Subcellular Localization Analyses of NPP1, 2 and 6 Strongly Indicate that trans-Golgi Compartments Participate in the Golgi to Plastid Traffic of Nucleotide Pyrophosphatase/Phosphodiesterases in Rice

    PubMed Central

    Kaneko, Kentaro; Takamatsu, Takeshi; Inomata, Takuya; Oikawa, Kazusato; Itoh, Kimiko; Hirose, Kazuko; Amano, Maho; Nishimura, Shin-Ichiro; Toyooka, Kiminori; Matsuoka, Ken; Pozueta-Romero, Javier; Mitsui, Toshiaki

    2016-01-01

    Nucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterases (NPPs) are widely distributed N-glycosylated enzymes that catalyze the hydrolytic breakdown of numerous nucleotides and nucleotide sugars. In many plant species, NPPs are encoded by a small multigene family, which in rice are referred to NPP1–NPP6. Although recent investigations showed that N-glycosylated NPP1 is transported from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)–Golgi system to the chloroplast through the secretory pathway in rice cells, information on N-glycan composition and subcellular localization of other NPPs is still lacking. Computer-assisted analyses of the amino acid sequences deduced from different Oryza sativa NPP-encoding cDNAs predicted all NPPs to be secretory glycoproteins. Confocal fluorescence microscopy observation of cells expressing NPP2 and NPP6 fused with green fluorescent protein (GFP) revealed that NPP2 and NPP6 are plastidial proteins. Plastid targeting of NPP2–GFP and NPP6–GFP was prevented by brefeldin A and by the expression of ARF1(Q71L), a dominant negative mutant of ADP-ribosylation factor 1 that arrests the ER to Golgi traffic, indicating that NPP2 and NPP6 are transported from the ER–Golgi to the plastidial compartment. Confocal laser scanning microscopy and high-pressure frozen/freeze-substituted electron microscopy analyses of transgenic rice cells ectopically expressing the trans-Golgi marker sialyltransferase fused with GFP showed the occurrence of contact of Golgi-derived membrane vesicles with cargo and subsequent absorption into plastids. Sensitive and high-throughput glycoblotting/mass spectrometric analyses showed that complex-type and paucimannosidic-type glycans with fucose and xylose residues occupy approximately 80% of total glycans of NPP1, NPP2 and NPP6. The overall data strongly indicate that the trans-Golgi compartments participate in the Golgi to plastid trafficking and targeting mechanism of NPPs. PMID:27335351

  15. N-Glycomic and Microscopic Subcellular Localization Analyses of NPP1, 2 and 6 Strongly Indicate that trans-Golgi Compartments Participate in the Golgi to Plastid Traffic of Nucleotide Pyrophosphatase/Phosphodiesterases in Rice.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Kentaro; Takamatsu, Takeshi; Inomata, Takuya; Oikawa, Kazusato; Itoh, Kimiko; Hirose, Kazuko; Amano, Maho; Nishimura, Shin-Ichiro; Toyooka, Kiminori; Matsuoka, Ken; Pozueta-Romero, Javier; Mitsui, Toshiaki

    2016-08-01

    Nucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterases (NPPs) are widely distributed N-glycosylated enzymes that catalyze the hydrolytic breakdown of numerous nucleotides and nucleotide sugars. In many plant species, NPPs are encoded by a small multigene family, which in rice are referred to NPP1-NPP6 Although recent investigations showed that N-glycosylated NPP1 is transported from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-Golgi system to the chloroplast through the secretory pathway in rice cells, information on N-glycan composition and subcellular localization of other NPPs is still lacking. Computer-assisted analyses of the amino acid sequences deduced from different Oryza sativa NPP-encoding cDNAs predicted all NPPs to be secretory glycoproteins. Confocal fluorescence microscopy observation of cells expressing NPP2 and NPP6 fused with green fluorescent protein (GFP) revealed that NPP2 and NPP6 are plastidial proteins. Plastid targeting of NPP2-GFP and NPP6-GFP was prevented by brefeldin A and by the expression of ARF1(Q71L), a dominant negative mutant of ADP-ribosylation factor 1 that arrests the ER to Golgi traffic, indicating that NPP2 and NPP6 are transported from the ER-Golgi to the plastidial compartment. Confocal laser scanning microscopy and high-pressure frozen/freeze-substituted electron microscopy analyses of transgenic rice cells ectopically expressing the trans-Golgi marker sialyltransferase fused with GFP showed the occurrence of contact of Golgi-derived membrane vesicles with cargo and subsequent absorption into plastids. Sensitive and high-throughput glycoblotting/mass spectrometric analyses showed that complex-type and paucimannosidic-type glycans with fucose and xylose residues occupy approximately 80% of total glycans of NPP1, NPP2 and NPP6. The overall data strongly indicate that the trans-Golgi compartments participate in the Golgi to plastid trafficking and targeting mechanism of NPPs. PMID:27335351

  16. 76 FR 46330 - NUREG-1934, Nuclear Power Plant Fire Modeling Application Guide (NPP FIRE MAG); Second Draft...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-02

    ... 29, 2009, for a 60-day public comment period (74 FR 68872). Numerous comments were received, and they... COMMISSION NUREG-1934, Nuclear Power Plant Fire Modeling Application Guide (NPP FIRE MAG); Second Draft... for public comment a document entitled, NUREG-1934 (EPRI 1023259), ``Nuclear Power Plant Fire...

  17. Radiation Monitoring using an Unmanned Helicopter in the Evacuation Zone Set up by the Fukushima Daiichi NPP Accident.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torii, Tatsuo; Sanada, Yukihisa; Nishizawa, Yukiyasu; Kondo, Atsuya; Shoji, Yasunori; ikeda, Kazutaka

    2013-04-01

    By the nuclear accident of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) caused by the East Japan earthquake and the following tsunami occurred on March 11, 2011, a large amount of radioactive materials was released from the NPP. In recent years, technologies for an unmanned helicopter have been developed and applied to natural disasters. In expectation of the application of the unmanned helicopter to airborne radiation monitoring, we had developed a radiation monitoring system using an autonomous unmanned helicopter (AUH). Then, we measured the ambient dose-rate at the height of 1-m above the ground and the soil deposition of radioactive cesium (Cs-134, Cs-137) by using the AUH system in the evacuation zone of residents around the NPP. Here, we report on the measurement technique and the result. As a result measured around a river at 10-km away from the NPP, high contaminated areas compared with the circumstance are detected along the dry riverbed. It was seemed that it had flowed along the river from highly contaminated areas in the upper stream.

  18. Validation of Vegetation Index Time Series from Suomi NPP Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite Using Tower Radiation Flux Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miura, T.; Kato, A.; Wang, J.; Vargas, M.; Lindquist, M.

    2015-12-01

    Satellite vegetation index (VI) time series data serve as an important means to monitor and characterize seasonal changes of terrestrial vegetation and their interannual variability. It is, therefore, critical to ensure quality of such VI products and one method of validating VI product quality is cross-comparison with in situ flux tower measurements. In this study, we evaluated the quality of VI time series derived from Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) onboard the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP) spacecraft by cross-comparison with in situ radiation flux measurements at select flux tower sites over North America and Europe. VIIRS is a new polar-orbiting satellite sensor series, slated to replace National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer in the afternoon overpass and to continue the highly-calibrated data streams initiated with Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer of National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Earth Observing System. The selected sites covered a wide range of biomes, including croplands, grasslands, evergreen needle forest, woody savanna, and open shrublands. The two VIIRS indices of the Top-of-Atmosphere (TOA) Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and the atmospherically-corrected, Top-of-Canopy (TOC) Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) (daily, 375 m spatial resolution) were compared against the TOC NDVI and a two-band version of EVI (EVI2) calculated from tower radiation flux measurements, respectively. VIIRS and Tower VI time series showed comparable seasonal profiles across biomes with statistically significant correlations (> 0.60; p-value < 0.01). "Start-of-season (SOS)" phenological metric values extracted from VIIRS and Tower VI time series were also highly compatible (R2 > 0.95), with mean differences of 2.3 days and 5.0 days for the NDVI and the EVI, respectively. These results indicate that VIIRS VI time series can capture seasonal evolution of

  19. Partially segmented deformable mirror

    DOEpatents

    Bliss, E.S.; Smith, J.R.; Salmon, J.T.; Monjes, J.A.

    1991-05-21

    A partially segmented deformable mirror is formed with a mirror plate having a smooth and continuous front surface and a plurality of actuators to its back surface. The back surface is divided into triangular areas which are mutually separated by grooves. The grooves are deep enough to make the plate deformable and the actuators for displacing the mirror plate in the direction normal to its surface are inserted in the grooves at the vertices of the triangular areas. Each actuator includes a transducer supported by a receptacle with outer shells having outer surfaces. The vertices have inner walls which are approximately perpendicular to the mirror surface and make planar contacts with the outer surfaces of the outer shells. The adhesive which is used on these contact surfaces tends to contract when it dries but the outer shells can bend and serve to minimize the tendency of the mirror to warp. 5 figures.

  20. Partially segmented deformable mirror

    DOEpatents

    Bliss, Erlan S.; Smith, James R.; Salmon, J. Thaddeus; Monjes, Julio A.

    1991-01-01

    A partially segmented deformable mirror is formed with a mirror plate having a smooth and continuous front surface and a plurality of actuators to its back surface. The back surface is divided into triangular areas which are mutually separated by grooves. The grooves are deep enough to make the plate deformable and the actuators for displacing the mirror plate in the direction normal to its surface are inserted in the grooves at the vertices of the triangular areas. Each actuator includes a transducer supported by a receptacle with outer shells having outer surfaces. The vertices have inner walls which are approximately perpendicular to the mirror surface and make planar contacts with the outer surfaces of the outer shells. The adhesive which is used on these contact surfaces tends to contract when it dries but the outer shells can bend and serve to minimize the tendency of the mirror to warp.

  1. Partial oxidation catalyst

    DOEpatents

    Krumpelt, Michael; Ahmed, Shabbir; Kumar, Romesh; Doshi, Rajiv

    2000-01-01

    A two-part catalyst comprising a dehydrogenation portion and an oxide-ion conducting portion. The dehydrogenation portion is a group VIII metal and the oxide-ion conducting portion is selected from a ceramic oxide crystallizing in the fluorite or perovskite structure. There is also disclosed a method of forming a hydrogen rich gas from a source of hydrocarbon fuel in which the hydrocarbon fuel contacts a two-part catalyst comprising a dehydrogenation portion and an oxide-ion conducting portion at a temperature not less than about 400.degree. C. for a time sufficient to generate the hydrogen rich gas while maintaining CO content less than about 5 volume percent. There is also disclosed a method of forming partially oxidized hydrocarbons from ethanes in which ethane gas contacts a two-part catalyst comprising a dehydrogenation portion and an oxide-ion conducting portion for a time and at a temperature sufficient to form an oxide.

  2. Overview of Remote Handling Equipment Used for the NPP A1 Decommissioning - 12141

    SciTech Connect

    Kravarik, K.; Medved, J.; Pekar, A.; Stubna, M.; Michal, V.; Vargovcik, L.

    2012-07-01

    The first Czechoslovak NPP A1 was in operation from 1972 to 1977 and it was finally shutdown due to an accident (level 4 according to the INES). The presence of radioactive, toxic or hazardous materials limits personnel access to facilities and therefore it is necessary to use remote handling technologies for some most difficult characterization, retrieval, decontamination and dismantling tasks. The history of remote handling technologies utilization started in nineties when the spent nuclear fuel, including those fuel assemblies damaged during the accident, was prepared for the transport to Russia. Subsequent significant development of remote handling equipment continued during implementation of the NPP A1 decommissioning project - Stage I and ongoing Stage II. Company VUJE, Inc. is the general contractor for both mentioned stages of the decommissioning project. Various remote handling manipulators and robotics arms were developed and used. It includes remotely controlled vehicle manipulator MT-15 used for characterisation tasks in hostile and radioactive environment, special robust manipulator DENAR-41 used for the decontamination of underground storage tanks and multi-purposes robotics arms MT-80 and MT-80A developed for variety of decontamination and dismantling tasks. The heavy water evaporator facility dismantling is the current task performed remotely by robotics arm MT-80. The heavy water evaporator is located inside the main production building in the room No. 220 where loose surface contamination varies from 10 Bq/cm{sup 2} to 1x10{sup 3} Bq/cm{sup 2}, dose rate is up to 1.5 mGy/h and the feeding pipeline contained liquid RAW with high tritium content. Presented manipulators have been designed for broad range of decommissioning tasks. They are used for recognition, sampling, waste retrieval from large underground tanks, decontamination and dismantling of technological equipments. Each of the mentioned fields claims specific requirements on design of

  3. Key factors limiting the open circuit voltage of n(+)pp(+) indium phosphide solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goradia, Chandra; Thesling, William; Weinberg, Irving

    1991-01-01

    Solar cells made from gallium arsenide (GaAs), with a room temperature bandgap of E(sub g) = 1.43 eV have exhibited the best measured open circuit voltage (V sub OC) of 1.05 V at 1 AMO, 25 C. The material InP is in many ways similar to GaAs. A simple calculation comparing InP to GaAs then shows that solar cells made from InP, with E(sub g) = 1.35 at 300 K, should exhibit the best measured (V sub OC) of approximately 950 mV at 1 AMO, 300 K. However, to date, the best measured V(sub OC) for InP solar cells made by any fabrication method is 899 mV at AM1.5, 25 C which would translate to 912 mV at 1 AMO, 25 C. The V(sub OC) of an n(+)pp(+) InP solar cell is governed by several factors. Of these, some factors, such as the thickness and doping of the emitter and base regions, are easily controlled and can be adjusted to desired values dictated by a good performance optimizing model. Such factors were not considered. There are other factors which also govern V(sub OC), and their values are not so easily controlled. The primary ones among these are (1) the indirect or Hall-Shockley-Read lifetimes in the various regions of the cell, (2) the low-doping intrinsic carrier concentration n(sub i) of the InP material, (3) the heavy doping factors in the emitter and BSF regions, and (4) the front surface recombination velocity S(sub F). The influence of these latter factors on the V(sub OC) of the n(+)pp(+) InP solar cell and the results were used to produce a near-optimum design of the n(+)pp(+) InP solar cell.

  4. Key factors limiting the open circuit voltage of n(+)pp(+) indium phosphide solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goradia, Chandra; Thesling, William; Weinberg, Irving

    1990-01-01

    Solar cells made from gallium arsenide (Gaas), with a room temperature bandgap of E(sub g) = 1.43 eV have exhibited the best measured open circuit voltage (V sub oc) of 1.05 V at 1 AM0, 25 C. The material InP is in many ways similar to GaAs. A simple calculation comparing InP to GaAs then shows that solar cells made from InP, with E(sub g) = 1.35 at 300 K, should exhibit the best measured V sub oc of approximately 950 mV at 1 AM0, 300 K. However, to date, the best measured V sub oc for InP solar cells made by any fabrication method is 899 mV at AM1.5, 25 C which would translate to 912 mV at 1 AM0, 25 C. The V sub oc of an n(+)pp(+) InP solar cell is governed by several factors. Of these, some factors, such as the thickness and doping of the emitter and base regions, are easily controlled and can be adjusted to desired values dictated by a good performance optimizing model. Such factors were not considered. There are other factors which also govern V sub oc, and their values are not so easily controlled. The primary ones among these are (1) the indirect or Hall-Shockley-Read lifetimes in the various regions of the cell, (2) the low-doping intrinsic carrier concentration n(sub i) of the InP material, (3) the heavy doping factors in the emitter and BSF regions, and (4) the front surface recombination velocity S(sub F). The influence of these latter factors on the V sub oc of the n(+)pp(+) InP solar cell and the results were used to produce a near-optimum design of the n(+)pp(+) InP solar cell.

  5. A Cloud-Based Infrastructure for Near-Real-Time Processing and Dissemination of NPP Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, J. D.; Valente, E. G.; Chettri, S. S.

    2011-12-01

    We are building a scalable cloud-based infrastructure for generating and disseminating near-real-time data products from a variety of geospatial and meteorological data sources, including the new National Polar-Orbiting Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS) Preparatory Project (NPP). Our approach relies on linking Direct Broadcast and other data streams to a suite of scientific algorithms coordinated by NASA's International Polar-Orbiter Processing Package (IPOPP). The resulting data products are directly accessible to a wide variety of end-user applications, via industry-standard protocols such as OGC Web Services, Unidata Local Data Manager, or OPeNDAP, using open source software components. The processing chain employs on-demand computing resources from Amazon.com's Elastic Compute Cloud and NASA's Nebula cloud services. Our current prototype targets short-term weather forecasting, in collaboration with NASA's Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) program and the National Weather Service. Direct Broadcast is especially crucial for NPP, whose current ground segment is unlikely to deliver data quickly enough for short-term weather forecasters and other near-real-time users. Direct Broadcast also allows full local control over data handling, from the receiving antenna to end-user applications: this provides opportunities to streamline processes for data ingest, processing, and dissemination, and thus to make interpreted data products (Environmental Data Records) available to practitioners within minutes of data capture at the sensor. Cloud computing lets us grow and shrink computing resources to meet large and rapid fluctuations in data availability (twice daily for polar orbiters) - and similarly large fluctuations in demand from our target (near-real-time) users. This offers a compelling business case for cloud computing: the processing or dissemination systems can grow arbitrarily large to sustain near-real time data access despite surges in

  6. Development of an NDA system for high-level waste from the Chernobyl new safe confinement construction site

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Sang-yoon; Browne, Michael C; Rael, Carlos D; Carroll, Colin J; Sunshine, Alexander; Novikov, Alexander; Lebedev, Evgeny

    2010-01-01

    In early 2009, preliminary excavation work has begun in preparation for the construction of the New Safe Confinement (NSC) at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) in Ukraine. The NSC is the structure that will replace the present containment structure and will confine the radioactive remains of the ChNPP Unit-4 reactor for the next 100 years. It is expected that special nuclear material (SNM) that was ejected from the Unit-4 reactor during the accident in 1986 could be uncovered and would therefore need to be safeguarded. ChNPP requested the assistance of the United States Department of Energy/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) with developing a new non-destructive assay (NDA) system that is capable of assaying radioactive debris stored in 55-gallon drums. The design of the system has to be tailored to the unique circumstances and work processes at the NSC construction site and the ChNPP. This paper describes the Chernobyl Drum Assay System (CDAS), the solution devised by Los Alamos National Laboratory, Sonalysts Inc., and the ChNPP, under NNSA's International Safeguards and Engagement Program (INSEP). The neutron counter measures the spontaneous fission neutrons from the {sup 238}U, {sup 240}Pu, {sup 244}Cm in a waste drum and estimates the mass contents of the SNMs in the drum by using of isotopic compositions determined by fuel burnup. The preliminary evaluation on overall measurement uncertainty shows that the system meets design performance requirements imposed by the facility.

  7. Robot-assisted partial nephrectomy: Superiority over laparoscopic partial nephrectomy.

    PubMed

    Shiroki, Ryoichi; Fukami, Naohiko; Fukaya, Kosuke; Kusaka, Mamoru; Natsume, Takahiro; Ichihara, Takashi; Toyama, Hiroshi

    2016-02-01

    Nephron-sparing surgery has been proven to positively impact the postoperative quality of life for the treatment of small renal tumors, possibly leading to functional improvements. Laparoscopic partial nephrectomy is still one of the most demanding procedures in urological surgery. Laparoscopic partial nephrectomy sometimes results in extended warm ischemic time and severe complications, such as open conversion, postoperative hemorrhage and urine leakage. Robot-assisted partial nephrectomy exploits the advantages offered by the da Vinci Surgical System to laparoscopic partial nephrectomy, equipped with 3-D vision and a better degree in the freedom of surgical instruments. The introduction of the da Vinci Surgical System made nephron-sparing surgery, specifically robot-assisted partial nephrectomy, safe with promising results, leading to the shortening of warm ischemic time and a reduction in perioperative complications. Even for complex and challenging tumors, robotic assistance is expected to provide the benefit of minimally-invasive surgery with safe and satisfactory renal function. Warm ischemic time is the modifiable factor during robot-assisted partial nephrectomy to affect postoperative kidney function. We analyzed the predictive factors for extended warm ischemic time from our robot-assisted partial nephrectomy series. The surface area of the tumor attached to the kidney parenchyma was shown to significantly affect the extended warm ischemic time during robot-assisted partial nephrectomy. In cases with tumor-attached surface area more than 15 cm(2) , we should consider switching robot-assisted partial nephrectomy to open partial nephrectomy under cold ischemia if it is imperative. In Japan, a nationwide prospective study has been carried out to show the superiority of robot-assisted partial nephrectomy to laparoscopic partial nephrectomy in improving warm ischemic time and complications. By facilitating robotic technology, robot-assisted partial nephrectomy

  8. NIRS external dose estimation system for Fukushima residents after the Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akahane, Keiichi; Yonai, Shunsuke; Fukuda, Shigekazu; Miyahara, Nobuyuki; Yasuda, Hiroshi; Iwaoka, Kazuki; Matsumoto, Masaki; Fukumura, Akifumi; Akashi, Makoto

    2013-04-01

    The great east Japan earthquake and subsequent tsunamis caused Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) accident. National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) developed the external dose estimation system for Fukushima residents. The system is being used in the Fukushima health management survey. The doses can be obtained by superimposing the behavior data of the residents on the dose rate maps. For grasping the doses, 18 evacuation patterns of the residents were assumed by considering the actual evacuation information before using the survey data. The doses of the residents from the deliberate evacuation area were relatively higher than those from the area within 20 km radius. The estimated doses varied from around 1 to 6 mSv for the residents evacuated from the representative places in the deliberate evacuation area. The maximum dose in 18 evacuation patterns was estimated to be 19 mSv.

  9. NIRS external dose estimation system for Fukushima residents after the Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP accident.

    PubMed

    Akahane, Keiichi; Yonai, Shunsuke; Fukuda, Shigekazu; Miyahara, Nobuyuki; Yasuda, Hiroshi; Iwaoka, Kazuki; Matsumoto, Masaki; Fukumura, Akifumi; Akashi, Makoto

    2013-01-01

    The great east Japan earthquake and subsequent tsunamis caused Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) accident. National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) developed the external dose estimation system for Fukushima residents. The system is being used in the Fukushima health management survey. The doses can be obtained by superimposing the behavior data of the residents on the dose rate maps. For grasping the doses, 18 evacuation patterns of the residents were assumed by considering the actual evacuation information before using the survey data. The doses of the residents from the deliberate evacuation area were relatively higher than those from the area within 20 km radius. The estimated doses varied from around 1 to 6 mSv for the residents evacuated from the representative places in the deliberate evacuation area. The maximum dose in 18 evacuation patterns was estimated to be 19 mSv.

  10. Sea-surface temperature from Suomi-NPP VIIRS: algorithm development and uncertainty estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minnett, Peter J.; Evans, Robert H.; Podestá, Guillermo P.; Kilpatrick, Katherine A.

    2014-05-01

    The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) on the Suomi-NPP (National Polar-orbiting Partnership) satellite is the first of a new series of imaging radiometers on polar-orbiting earth-observation satellites. In addition to providing real-time data for weather and ocean forecasting, VIIRS is intended to continue the measurements of MODIS (MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer), including contributing to the Climate Data Record of Sea-Surface Temperature (SST). To achieve this objective requires a thorough assessment of the errors and uncertainties in the VIIRS SST retrievals. The results of comparisons with a range of independent measurements of SST indicate that the VIIRS SSTs have equal or better accuracies than those of the MODIS's on Terra and Aqua, and that the VIIRS SSTs are suitable to extend the satellite-derived Climate Data Records of SST into the future.

  11. Study of Degradation Processes in Dielectric Materials Used in Electronic Control Equipment Operated in ``Kozloduy'' NPP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naydenov, Nayden; Popov, Angel

    2007-04-01

    The electronic equipment for control of different systems of Units 5 and 6 is studied for presence of degradation processes occurring in result of continuous usage in conditions of controlled radiation background in compliance with ``Kozloduy'' NPP safety codes. Systems, operated in a continuous mode in the course of about 10 years were chosen - separate units containing different dielectric materials (varnish coating, circuit board bases, cable insulations, electro protective elements, etc.) were extrapolated. Series of test samples were prepared which were connected with flat or coaxial condensers and their characteristic parameters were measured: tgδ, ɛ, low voltage conductivity and leak currents at voltages that exceed the working ones several times. When comparing the obtained data with the reference ones, a conclusion is made about the effectiveness of electric ageing during operation in the course of time.

  12. Photovoltaic characteristics of n(+)pp(+) InP solar cells grown by OMVPE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tyagi, S.; Singh, K.; Bhimnathwala, H.; Ghandhi, S. K.; Borrego, J. M.

    1990-01-01

    The photovoltaic characteristics of n(+)/p/p(+) homojunction InP solar cells fabricated by organometallic vapor-phase epitaxy (OMVPE) are described. The cells are characterized by I-V, C-V and quantum efficiency measurements, and simulations are used to obtain various device and material parameters. The I-V characteristics show a high recombination rate in the depletion region; this is shown to be independent of the impurity used. It is shown that cadmium is easier to use as an acceptor for the p base and p(+) buffer and is therefore beneficial. The high quantum efficiency of 98 percent at long wavelengths measured in these cells indicates a very good collection efficiency in the base. The short-wavelength quantum efficiency is poor, indicating a high surface recombination.

  13. Assessing deposition levels of 55Fe, 60Co and 63Ni in the Ignalina NPP environment.

    PubMed

    Gudelis, A; Druteikiene, R; Luksiene, B; Gvozdaite, R; Nielsen, S P; Hou, X; Mazeika, J; Petrosius, R

    2010-06-01

    Two RBMK-1500 reactor units operated in Lithuania in the 1987-2004 period (one of them was stopped for decommissioning in 2004). This study presents a preliminary investigation of surface deposition density levels of (55)Fe and (63)Ni in moss samples collected in the close vicinity of the Ignalina NPP. Non-destructive analysis by the HPGe gamma-spectrometry was followed by radiochemical separation. Radiochemical analysis was based on anion-exchange and extraction chromatography. (55)Fe and (63)Ni activities were measured by liquid scintillation counting (LSC). The results indicate that the deposition values of (55)Fe are generally higher than those of (60)Co and (63)Ni. PMID:18818005

  14. Net primary productivity (NPP) of a biological soil crust (BSC) in northwestern Queensland, Australia.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Büdel, B.; Reichenberger, H.; Williams, W.

    2012-04-01

    In the tropical savanna of northwestern Queensland, BSCs are mainly composed of cyanobacteria, liverworts and more rarely, lichens. These BSCs cover up to 30% of the soil, thus stabilizing the soil surface against erosion. One of the major BSC types there is almost completely formed by the filamentous cyanobacterium Symplocastrum sp., with scattered occurrence of different species of the liverwort genus Riccia. Because of the local dominance of these crust type, we selected it for the determination of its NPP over a period of 18 months by setting up a semi-continuous and semi-automatic CO2 - gas exchange measuring device in the natural environment at Boodjamulla National Park. We found astonishingly high CO2-fixation rates of the Sympolcastrum sp. dominated crust type and also could show the crust was adapted to extremely high temperatures (47°C), at which time considerable positive net photosynthetic rates were still gained.

  15. Overview of Activities in the U.S. Related to Continued Service of NPP Concrete Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Naus, Dan J

    2011-01-01

    Safety-related nuclear power plant concrete structures are described and commentary on continued service assessments of these structures is provided. In-service inspection and testing requirements in the U.S. are summarized. The license renewal process in the U.S. is outlined and its current status noted. A summary of operating experience related to U.S. nuclear power plant concrete structures is presented. Several candidate areas are identified where additional research would be of benefit to aging management of NPP concrete structures. Finally current ORNL activities related to aging-management of concrete structures are outlined: development of operating experience database, application of structural reliability theory, and compilation of elevated temperature concrete material property data and information.

  16. Retrieving Atmospheric Temperature and Moisture Profiles from NPP CRIS/ATMS Sensors Using Crimss EDR Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, X.; Kizer, S.; Barnet, C.; Dvakarla, M.; Zhou, D. K.; Larar, A. M.

    2012-01-01

    The Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) is a U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) mission in collaboration with the U.S. National Aeronautical Space Administration (NASA) and international partners. The NPP Cross-track Infrared Microwave Sounding Suite (CrIMSS) consists of the infrared (IR) Crosstrack Infrared Sounder (CrIS) and the microwave (MW) Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS). The CrIS instrument is hyperspectral interferometer, which measures high spectral and spatial resolution upwelling infrared radiances. The ATMS is a 22-channel radiometer similar to Advanced Microwave Sounding Units (AMSU) A and B. It measures top of atmosphere MW upwelling radiation and provides capability of sounding below clouds. The CrIMSS Environmental Data Record (EDR) algorithm provides three EDRs, namely the atmospheric vertical temperature, moisture and pressure profiles (AVTP, AVMP and AVPP, respectively), with the lower tropospheric AVTP and the AVMP being JPSS Key Performance Parameters (KPPs). The operational CrIMSS EDR an algorithm was originally designed to run on large IBM computers with dedicated data management subsystem (DMS). We have ported the operational code to simple Linux systems by replacing DMS with appropriate interfaces. We also changed the interface of the operational code so that we can read data from both the CrIMSS science code and the operational code and be able to compare lookup tables, parameter files, and output results. The detail of the CrIMSS EDR algorithm is described in reference [1]. We will present results of testing the CrIMSS EDR operational algorithm using proxy data generated from the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) satellite data and from the NPP CrIS/ATMS data.

  17. Application of Mössbauer spectroscopy on corrosion products of NPP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dekan, J.; Lipka, J.; Slugeň, V.

    2013-04-01

    Steam generator (SG) is generally one of the most important components at all nuclear power plants (NPP) with close impact to safe and long-term operation. Material degradation and corrosion/erosion processes are serious risks for long-term reliable operation. Steam generators of four VVER-440 units at nuclear power plants V-1 and V-2 in Jaslovske Bohunice (Slovakia) were gradually changed by new original "Bohunice" design in period 1994-1998, in order to improve corrosion resistance of SGs. Corrosion processes before and after these design and material changes in Bohunice secondary circuit were studied using Mössbauer spectroscopy during last 25 years. Innovations in the feed water pipeline design as well as material composition improvements were evaluated positively. Mössbauer spectroscopy studies of phase composition of corrosion products were performed on real specimens scrapped from water pipelines or in form of filters deposits. Newest results in our long-term corrosion study confirm good operational experiences and suitable chemical regimes (reduction environment) which results mostly in creation of magnetite (on the level 70 % or higher) and small portions of hematite, goethite or hydrooxides. Regular observation of corrosion/erosion processes is essential for keeping NPP operation on high safety level. The output from performed material analyses influences the optimisation of operating chemical regimes and it can be used in optimisation of regimes at decontamination and passivation of pipelines or secondary circuit components. It can be concluded that a longer passivation time leads more to magnetite fraction in the corrosion products composition.

  18. The Role of Suomi NPP VIIRS Data in Land Science and Applications.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Justice, C. O.; Csiszar, I. A.; Roman, M. O.; Vermote, E.

    2014-12-01

    The current Suomi-NPP mission was designed as a bridging mission to the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) next-generation, operational satellites. The VIIRS instrument on-board Suomi-NPP provides continuity with NASA's Earth Observing System Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) observations and a much-needed replacement of the long-serving, operational NOAA Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) system, to meet the expanding needs of Earth Science and Applications of Societal Benefit. Post-launch evaluation has proven the instrument to be excellent for land observations and capable of providing measurement continuity with MODIS. This provides a critical contribution to the scientific study of global change. Several regions of the World are undergoing rapid land transformations, driven by economic development and population growth. In addition, changes in climate conditions are resulting in ecosystem responses and changes in land cover and land use. Long-term, systematic observations of the global land surface at coarse resolution enable detection, monitoring and characterization of such changes to the land surface. A suite of Land environmental data records (EDRs) from the VIIRS, are being developed by NOAA to meet operational data needs, primarily for the National Weather Service (e.g., Albedo, Land Surface Temperature, Fractional Vegetation Cover, Surface Type, Snow and Ice Monitoring). Scientists funded by NOAA and NASA, have been evaluating and validating these products. Based on these evaluations, NASA is embarking on a program to develop enhanced and additional products to provide continuity with MODIS to meet the needs of the global change science community. In addition, and as with MODIS, data from the VIIRS can be used as input to a number of practical applications of societal benefit and the associated decision support systems. For example, progress with VIIRS data is being made in the areas of fire and agricultural monitoring

  19. Failure Forewarning in NPP Equipment NERI2000-109 Final Project Report

    SciTech Connect

    Hively, LM

    2004-03-26

    The objective of this project is forewarning of machine failures in critical equipment at next-generation nuclear power plants (NPP). Test data were provided by two collaborating institutions: Duke Engineering and Services (first project year), and the Pennsylvania State University (Applied Research Laboratory) during the second and third project years. New nonlinear methods were developed and applied successfully to extract forewarning trends from process-indicative, time-serial data for timely, condition-based maintenance. Anticipation of failures in critical equipment at next-generation NPP will improve the scheduling of maintenance activities to minimize safety concerns, unscheduled non-productive downtime, and collateral damage due to unexpected failures. This approach provides significant economic benefit, and is expected to improve public acceptance of nuclear power. The approach is a multi-tiered, model-independent, and data-driven analysis that uses ORNL's novel nonlinear method to extract forewarning of machine failures from appropriate data. The first tier of the analysis provides a robust choice for the process-indicative data. The second tier rejects data of inadequate quality. The third tier removes signal artifacts that would otherwise confound the analysis, while retaining the relevant nonlinear dynamics. The fourth tier converts the artifact-filtered time-serial data into a geometric representation, that is then transformed to a discrete distribution function (DF). This method allows for noisy, finite-length datasets. The fifth tier obtains dissimilarity measures (DM) between the nominal-state DF and subsequent test-state DFs. Forewarning of a machine failure is indicated by several successive occurrences of the DM above a threshold, or by a statistically significant trend in the DM. This paradigm yields robust nonlinear signatures of degradation and its progression, allowing earlier and more accurate detection of the machine failure.

  20. Preliminary Assessment of Suomi-NPP VIIRS On-orbit Radiometric Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oudrari, Hassan; DeLuccia, Frank; McIntire, Jeff; Moyer, David; Chiang, Vincent; Xiong, Xiao-xiong; Butler, James

    2012-01-01

    The Visible-Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) is a key instrument on-board the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP) spacecraft that was launched on October 28th 2011. VIIRS was designed to provide moderate and imaging resolution of most of the globe twice daily. It is a wide-swath (3,040 km) cross-track scanning radiometer with spatial resolutions of 370.and 740 m at nadir for imaging and moderate bands, respectively. It has 22 spectral bands covering the spectrum between 0.412 11m and 12.01 11m, including 14 reflective solar bands (RSB), 7 thermal emissive bands (TEB), and 1 day-night band (ON B). VIIRS observations are used to generate 22 environmental data products (EORs). This paper will briefly describe NPP VIIRS calibration strategies performed by the independent government team, for the initial on-orbit Intensive Calibration and Validation (ICV) activities. In addition, this paper will provide an early assessment of the sensor on-orbit radiometric performance, such as the sensor signal to noise ratios (SNRs), dual gain transition verification, dynamic range and linearity, reflective bands calibration based on the solar diffuser (SO) and solar diffuser stability monitor (SOSM), and emissive bands calibration based on the on-board blackbody calibration (OBC). A comprehensive set of performance metrics generated during the pre-launch testing program will be compared to VIIRS on-orbit early performance, and a plan for future cal/val activities and performance enhancements will be presented.

  1. NPP VIIRS On-Orbit Calibration and Characterization Using the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, J.; Xiong, X.; Butler, J.

    2012-01-01

    The Visible Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) is one of five instruments on-board the Suomi National Polar orbiting Partnership (NPP) satellite that launched from Vandenberg Air Force Base, Calif., on Oct. 28, 2011. VIIRS has been scheduled to view the Moon approximately monthly with a spacecraft roll maneuver after its NADIR door open on November 21, 2011. To reduce the uncertainty of the radiometric calibration due to the view geometry, the lunar phase angles of the scheduled lunar observations were confined in the range from -56 deg to -55 deg in the first three scheduled lunar observations and then changed to the range from -51.5 deg to -50.5 deg, where the negative sign for the phase angles indicates that the VIIRS views a waxing moon. Unlike the MODIS lunar observations, most scheduled VIIRS lunar views occur on the day side of the Earth. For the safety of the instrument, the roll angles of the scheduled VIIRS lunar observations are required to be within [-14 deg, 0 deg] and the aforementioned change of the phase angle range was aimed to further minimize the roll angle required for each lunar observation while keeping the number of months in which the moon can be viewed by the VIIRS instrument each year unchanged. The lunar observations can be used to identify if there is crosstalk in VIIRS bands and to track on-orbit changes in VIIRS Reflective Solar Bands (RSB) detector gains. In this paper, we report our results using the lunar observations to examine the on-orbit crosstalk effects among NPP VIIRS bands, to track the VIIRS RSB gain changes in first few months on-orbit, and to compare the gain changes derived from lunar and SD/SDSM calibration.

  2. Land and cryosphere products from Suomi NPP VIIRS: Overview and status

    PubMed Central

    Justice, Christopher O; Román, Miguel O; Csiszar, Ivan; Vermote, Eric F; Wolfe, Robert E; Hook, Simon J; Friedl, Mark; Wang, Zhuosen; Schaaf, Crystal B; Miura, Tomoaki; Tschudi, Mark; Riggs, George; Hall, Dorothy K; Lyapustin, Alexei I; Devadiga, Sadashiva; Davidson, Carol; Masuoka, Edward J

    2013-01-01

    [1] The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument was launched in October 2011 as part of the Suomi National Polar-Orbiting Partnership (S-NPP). The VIIRS instrument was designed to improve upon the capabilities of the operational Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer and provide observation continuity with NASA’s Earth Observing System’s Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). Since the VIIRS first-light images were received in November 2011, NASA- and NOAA-funded scientists have been working to evaluate the instrument performance and generate land and cryosphere products to meet the needs of the NOAA operational users and the NASA science community. NOAA’s focus has been on refining a suite of operational products known as Environmental Data Records (EDRs), which were developed according to project specifications under the National Polar-Orbiting Environmental Satellite System. The NASA S-NPP Science Team has focused on evaluating the EDRs for science use, developing and testing additional products to meet science data needs, and providing MODIS data product continuity. This paper presents to-date findings of the NASA Science Team’s evaluation of the VIIRS land and cryosphere EDRs, specifically Surface Reflectance, Land Surface Temperature, Surface Albedo, Vegetation Indices, Surface Type, Active Fires, Snow Cover, Ice Surface Temperature, and Sea Ice Characterization. The study concludes that, for MODIS data product continuity and earth system science, an enhanced suite of land and cryosphere products and associated data system capabilities are needed beyond the EDRs currently available from the VIIRS. PMID:25821661

  3. NPP VIIRS on-orbit calibration and characterization using the moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, J.; Xiong, X.; Butler, J.

    2012-09-01

    The Visible Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) is one of five instruments on-board the Suomi National Polarorbiting Partnership (NPP) satellite that launched from Vandenberg Air Force Base, Calif., on Oct. 28, 2011. VIIRS has been scheduled to view the Moon approximately monthly with a spacecraft roll maneuver after its NADIR door open on November 21, 2012. To reduce the uncertainty of the radiometric calibration due to the view geometry, the lunar phase angles of the scheduled lunar observations were confined in the range from -56° to -55° in the first three scheduled lunar observations and then changed to the range from -51.5° to -50.5°, where the negative sign for the phase angles indicates that the VIIRS views a waxing moon. Unlike the MODIS lunar observations, most scheduled VIIRS lunar views occur on the day side of the Earth. For the safety of the instrument, the roll angles of the scheduled VIIRS lunar observations are required to be within [-14°, 0°] and the aforementioned change of the phase angle range was aimed to further minimize the roll angle required for each lunar observation while keeping the number of months in which the moon can be viewed by the VIIRS instrument each year unchanged. The lunar observations can be used to identify if there is crosstalk in VIIRS bands and to track on-orbit changes in VIIRS Reflective Solar Bands (RSB) detector gains. In this paper, we report our results using the lunar observations to examine the on-orbit crosstalk effects among NPP VIIRS bands, to track the VIIRS RSB gain changes in first few months on-orbit, and to compare the gain changes derived from lunar and SD/SDSM calibration.

  4. Patterns of NPP, GPP, Respiration and NEP During Boreal Forest Succession

    SciTech Connect

    Goulden, Michael L.; McMillan, Andrew; Winston, Greg; Rocha, Adrian; Manies, Kristen; Harden, Jennifer W.; Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin

    2010-12-15

    We deployed a mesonet of year-round eddy covariance towers in boreal forest stands that last burned in ~1850, ~1930, 1964, 1981, 1989, 1998, and 2003 to understand how CO2 exchange changes during secondary succession.The strategy of using multiple methods, including biometry and micrometeorology, worked well. In particular, the three independent measures of NEP during succession gave similar results. A stratified and tiered approach to deploying eddy covariance systems that combines many lightweight and portable towers with a few permanent ones is likely to maximize the science return for a fixed investment. The existing conceptual models did a good job of capturing the dominant patterns of NPP, GPP, Respiration and NEP during succession. The initial loss of carbon following disturbance was neither as protracted nor large as predicted. This muted response reflects both the rapid regrowth of vegetation following fire and the prevalence of standing coarse woody debris following the fire, which is thought to decay slowly. In general, the patterns of forest recovery from disturbance should be expected to vary as a function of climate, ecosystem type and disturbance type. The NPP decline at the older stands appears related to increased Rauto rather than decreased GPP. The increase in Rauto in the older stands does not appear to be caused by accelerated maintenance respiration with increased biomass, and more likely involves increased allocation to fine root turnover, root metabolism, alternative forms of respiration, mycorrhizal relationships, or root exudates, possibly associated with progressive nutrient limitation. Several studies have now described a similar pattern of NEP following boreal fire, with 10-to-15 years of modest carbon loss followed by 50-to-100 years of modest carbon gain. This trend has been sufficiently replicated and evaluated using independent techniques that it can be used to quantify the likely effects of changes in boreal fire frequency and

  5. Partially supervised speaker clustering.

    PubMed

    Tang, Hao; Chu, Stephen Mingyu; Hasegawa-Johnson, Mark; Huang, Thomas S

    2012-05-01

    Content-based multimedia indexing, retrieval, and processing as well as multimedia databases demand the structuring of the media content (image, audio, video, text, etc.), one significant goal being to associate the identity of the content to the individual segments of the signals. In this paper, we specifically address the problem of speaker clustering, the task of assigning every speech utterance in an audio stream to its speaker. We offer a complete treatment to the idea of partially supervised speaker clustering, which refers to the use of our prior knowledge of speakers in general to assist the unsupervised speaker clustering process. By means of an independent training data set, we encode the prior knowledge at the various stages of the speaker clustering pipeline via 1) learning a speaker-discriminative acoustic feature transformation, 2) learning a universal speaker prior model, and 3) learning a discriminative speaker subspace, or equivalently, a speaker-discriminative distance metric. We study the directional scattering property of the Gaussian mixture model (GMM) mean supervector representation of utterances in the high-dimensional space, and advocate exploiting this property by using the cosine distance metric instead of the euclidean distance metric for speaker clustering in the GMM mean supervector space. We propose to perform discriminant analysis based on the cosine distance metric, which leads to a novel distance metric learning algorithm—linear spherical discriminant analysis (LSDA). We show that the proposed LSDA formulation can be systematically solved within the elegant graph embedding general dimensionality reduction framework. Our speaker clustering experiments on the GALE database clearly indicate that 1) our speaker clustering methods based on the GMM mean supervector representation and vector-based distance metrics outperform traditional speaker clustering methods based on the “bag of acoustic features” representation and statistical

  6. Validation of S-NPP VIIRS Day-Night band and M bands performance using ground reference targets of Libya 4 and Dome C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xuexia; Wu, Aisheng; Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Lei, Ning; Wang, Zhipeng; Chiang, Kwofu

    2015-09-01

    This paper provides methodologies developed and implemented by the NASA VIIRS Calibration Support Team (VCST) to validate the S-NPP VIIRS Day-Night band (DNB) and M bands calibration performance. The Sensor Data Records produced by the Interface Data Processing Segment (IDPS) and NASA Land Product Evaluation and Algorithm Testing Element (PEATE) are acquired nearly nadir overpass for Libya 4 desert and Dome C snow surfaces. In the past 3.5 years, the modulated relative spectral responses (RSR) change with time and lead to 3.8% increase on the DNB sensed solar irradiance and 0.1% or less increases on the M4-M7 bands. After excluding data before April 5th, 2013, IDPS DNB radiance and reflectance data are consistent with Land PEATE data with 0.6% or less difference for Libya 4 site and 2% or less difference for Dome C site. These difference are caused by inconsistent LUTs and algorithms used in calibration. In Libya 4 site, the SCIAMACHY spectral and modulated RSR derived top of atmosphere (TOA) reflectance are compared with Land PEATE TOA reflectance and they indicate a decrease of 1.2% and 1.3%, respectively. The radiance of Land PEATE DNB are compared with the simulated radiance from aggregated M bands (M4, M5, and M7). These data trends match well with 2% or less difference for Libya 4 site and 4% or less difference for Dome C. This study demonstrate the consistent quality of DNB and M bands calibration for Land PEATE products during operational period and for IDPS products after April 5th, 2013.

  7. Validation of S-NPP VIIRS Day-Night Band and M Bands Performance Using Ground Reference Targets of Libya 4 and Dome C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Xuexia; Wu, Aisheng; Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Lei, Ning; Wang, Zhipeng; Chiang, Kwofu

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides methodologies developed and implemented by the NASA VIIRS Calibration Support Team (VCST) to validate the S-NPP VIIRS Day-Night band (DNB) and M bands calibration performance. The Sensor Data Records produced by the Interface Data Processing Segment (IDPS) and NASA Land Product Evaluation and Algorithm Testing Element (PEATE) are acquired nearly nadir overpass for Libya 4 desert and Dome C snow surfaces. In the past 3.5 years, the modulated relative spectral responses (RSR) change with time and lead to 3.8% increase on the DNB sensed solar irradiance and 0.1% or less increases on the M4-M7 bands. After excluding data before April 5th, 2013, IDPS DNB radiance and reflectance data are consistent with Land PEATE data with 0.6% or less difference for Libya 4 site and 2% or less difference for Dome C site. These difference are caused by inconsistent LUTs and algorithms used in calibration. In Libya 4 site, the SCIAMACHY spectral and modulated RSR derived top of atmosphere (TOA) reflectance are compared with Land PEATE TOA reflectance and they indicate a decrease of 1.2% and 1.3%, respectively. The radiance of Land PEATE DNB are compared with the simulated radiance from aggregated M bands (M4, M5, and M7). These data trends match well with 2% or less difference for Libya 4 site and 4% or less difference for Dome C. This study demonstrate the consistent quality of DNB and M bands calibration for Land PEATE products during operational period and for IDPS products after April 5th, 2013.

  8. Trigonometric Integrals via Partial Fractions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, H.; Fulford, M.

    2005-01-01

    Parametric differentiation is used to derive the partial fractions decompositions of certain rational functions. Those decompositions enable us to integrate some new combinations of trigonometric functions.

  9. Experts' understanding of partial derivatives using the partial derivative machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roundy, David; Weber, Eric; Dray, Tevian; Bajracharya, Rabindra R.; Dorko, Allison; Smith, Emily M.; Manogue, Corinne A.

    2015-12-01

    [This paper is part of the Focused Collection on Upper Division Physics Courses.] Partial derivatives are used in a variety of different ways within physics. Thermodynamics, in particular, uses partial derivatives in ways that students often find especially confusing. We are at the beginning of a study of the teaching of partial derivatives, with a goal of better aligning the teaching of multivariable calculus with the needs of students in STEM disciplines. In this paper, we report on an initial study of expert understanding of partial derivatives across three disciplines: physics, engineering, and mathematics. We report on the central research question of how disciplinary experts understand partial derivatives, and how their concept images of partial derivatives differ, with a focus on experimentally measured quantities. Using the partial derivative machine (PDM), we probed expert understanding of partial derivatives in an experimental context without a known functional form. In particular, we investigated which representations were cued by the experts' interactions with the PDM. Whereas the physicists and engineers were quick to use measurements to find a numeric approximation for a derivative, the mathematicians repeatedly returned to speculation as to the functional form; although they were comfortable drawing qualitative conclusions about the system from measurements, they were reluctant to approximate the derivative through measurement. On a theoretical front, we found ways in which existing frameworks for the concept of derivative could be expanded to include numerical approximation.

  10. Partial peritoneal alimentation in an infant.

    PubMed

    Merritt, R J; Atkinson, J B; Whalen, T V; Thomas, D W; Sinatra, F R; Roloson, G J

    1988-01-01

    We provided partial peritoneal alimentation to a 1.69-kg 11-month-old premature infant who had no available central venous access, depleted peripheral venous access, and gastrointestinal dysfunction. A cuffed silastic catheter was surgically inserted into the suprahepatic space. An alimentation solution was continuously infused into the peritoneum for 28 days to supplement peripheral venous and nasogastric alimentation and contributed 42 +/- 15% of total calories daily. Weight gain was achieved, but complications included hypoglycemia, hypophosphatemia, intravascular dehydration, catheter site leakage, ascites, and hydrocele. At autopsy 11 months later, lipid accumulation was present in the upper peritoneum and the hilar regions of the lungs secondary to preexisting lymphatic obstruction. Partial peritoneal alimentation may be feasible when other access routes are inadequate, but lymphatic obstruction is a contraindication to the peritoneal administration of lipid emulsions.

  11. NPP changes of Larix chinensis estimated by tree-ring data and its response to climate change in the northern and southern slopes of Mt. Taibai, central China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, O.; Xuemei, S.

    2015-12-01

    Larix chinensis is mainly distributed in timberline of Mt. Taibai in the Qinling Mountains, a critical geographic demarcation for climate and vegetation distribution in China. Combined with biomass equations and the annual diameter at breast height calculated from tree-ring widths and investigation data of sampling plots, annual biomass and net primary productivity (NPP) of L. chinensis in northern and southern slopes were estimated. Correlation and response analyses were used to illustrate the relationship between the climate and NPP. The results show that from 1949 to 2014, the biomass of L. chinensis in the pure forests increases from 54.03 to 94.43 t/ha in the northern slope and 28.32 to 55.80 t/ha in the southern slope. The NPP of L. chinensis in northern and southern slopes has varied concordantly over the past 65 years, with an average value of 0.62 and 0.42 t/(ha·a) respectively. The difference in NPPs between the northern and southern slope is decreasing for the slight decrease trend of NPP in northern slope. Temperature plays an important role in the growth of L. chinensis. Low temperature before the growing seasons (from pervious November to April) and warm conditions in the growing seasons (mainly from June to July) can increase the growth of L. chinensis. However, the relationships between NPP and temperature are different in the northern and southern slope. The NPP in southern slope is more positively correlated with the temperature in the growing seasons and there is no significant correlation relationship between the NPP and the temperature in previous winter (from pervious November to January), while the NPP in northern slope is more negatively correlated with the temperature before the growing seasons. These results will provide useful information for the future research of forest carbon cycling.

  12. The Management of the Radioactive Waste Generated by Cernavoda NPP, Romania, an Example of International Cooperation - 13449

    SciTech Connect

    Barariu, Gheorghe

    2013-07-01

    The design criteria and constraints for the development of the management strategy for radioactive waste generated from operating and decommissioning of CANDU Nuclear Units from Cernavoda NPP in Romania, present many specific aspects. The main characteristics of CANDU type waste are its high concentrations of tritium and radiocarbon. Also, the existing management strategy for radioactive waste at Cernavoda NPP provides no treatment or conditioning for radioactive waste disposal. These characteristics embodied a challenging effort, in order to select a proper strategy for radioactive waste management at present, when Romania is an EU member and a signatory country of the Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management. The helping of advanced countries in radioactive waste management, directly or into the frame of the international organizations, like IAEA, become solve the aforementioned challenges at adequate level. (authors)

  13. S-NPP CrIS Full Resolution Sensor Data Record Processing and Evaluations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Y.; Han, Y.; Wang, L.; Tremblay, D. A.; Jin, X.; Weng, F.

    2014-12-01

    The Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS) on Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership Satellite (S-NPP) is a Fourier transform spectrometer. It provides a total of 1305 channels in the normal mode for sounding the atmosphere. CrIS can also be operated in the full spectral resolution (FSR) mode, in which the MWIR and SWIR band interferograms are recorded with the same maximum path difference as the LWIR band and with spectral resolution of 0.625 cm-1 for all three bands (total 2211 channels). NOAA will operate CrIS in FSR mode in December 2014 and the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS). Up to date, the FSR mode has been commanded three times in-orbit (02/23/2012, 03/12/2013, and 08/27/2013). Based on CrIS Algorithm Development Library (ADL), CrIS full resolution Processing System (CRPS) has developed to generate the FSR Sensor Data Record (SDR). This code can also be run for normal mode and truncation mode SDRs with recompiling. Different calibration approaches are implemented in the code in order to study the ringing effect observed in CrIS normal mode SDR and to support to select the best calibration algorithm for J1. We develop the CrIS FSR SDR Validation System to quantify the CrIS radiometric and spectral accuracy, since they are crucial for improving its data assimilation in the numerical weather prediction, and for retrieving atmospheric trace gases. In this study, CrIS full resolution SDRs are generated from CRPS using the data collected from FSR mode of S-NPP, and the radiometric and spectral accuracy are assessed by using the Community Radiative Transfer Model (CRTM) and European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) forecast fields. The biases between observation and simulations are evaluated to estimate the FOV-2-FOV variability and bias under clear sky over ocean. Double difference method and Simultaneous Nadir Overpass (SNO) method are also used to assess the CrIS radiance consistency with well-validated IASI. Two basic frequency validation

  14. Comparison Between NPP-VIIRS Aerosol Data Products and the MODIS AQUA Deep Blue Collection 6 Dataset Over Land

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sayer, Andrew M.; Hsu, N. C.; Bettenhausen, C.; Lee, J.; Kondragunta, S.

    2013-01-01

    Aerosols are small particles suspended in the atmosphere and have a variety of natural and man-made sources. Knowledge of aerosol optical depth (AOD), which is a measure of the amount of aerosol in the atmosphere, and its change over time, is important for multiple reasons. These include climate change, air quality (pollution) monitoring, monitoring hazards such as dust storms and volcanic ash, monitoring smoke from biomass burning, determining potential energy yields from solar plants, determining visibility at sea, estimating fertilization of oceans and rainforests by transported mineral dust, understanding changes in weather brought upon by the interaction of aerosols and clouds, and more. The Suomi-NPP satellite was launched late in 2011. The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) aboard Suomi-NPP is being used, among other things, to determine AOD. This study compares the VIIRS dataset to ground-based measurements of AOD, along with a state-of-the-art satellite AOD dataset (the new version of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer Deep Blue algorithm) to assess its reliability. The Suomi-NPP satellite was launched late in 2011, carrying several instruments designed to continue the biogeophysical data records of current and previous satellite sensors. The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) aboard Suomi-NPP is being used, among other things, to determine aerosol optical depth (AOD), and related activities since launch have been focused towards validating and understanding this new dataset through comparisons with other satellite and ground-based products. The operational VIIRS AOD product is compared over land with AOD derived from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) observations using the Deep Blue (DB) algorithm from the forthcoming Collection 6 of MODIS data

  15. BNL PREDICTION OF NUPECS FIELD MODEL TESTS OF NPP STRUCTURES SUBJECT TO SMALL TO MODERATE MAGNITUDE EARTHQUAKES.

    SciTech Connect

    XU,J.; COSTANTINO,C.; HOFMAYER,C.; MURPHY,A.; KITADA,Y.

    2003-08-17

    As part of a verification test program for seismic analysis codes for NPP structures, the Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation (NUPEC) of Japan has conducted a series of field model test programs to ensure the adequacy of methodologies employed for seismic analyses of NPP structures. A collaborative program between the United States and Japan was developed to study seismic issues related to NPP applications. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and its contractor, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), are participating in this program to apply common analysis procedures to predict both free field and soil-structure interaction (SSI) responses to recorded earthquake events, including embedment and dynamic cross interaction (DCI) effects. This paper describes the BNL effort to predict seismic responses of the large-scale realistic model structures for reactor and turbine buildings at the NUPEC test facility in northern Japan. The NUPEC test program has collected a large amount of recorded earthquake response data (both free-field and in-structure) from these test model structures. The BNL free-field analyses were performed with the CARES program while the SSI analyses were preformed using the SASS12000 computer code. The BNL analysis includes both embedded and excavated conditions, as well as the DCI effect, The BNL analysis results and their comparisons to the NUPEC recorded responses are presented in the paper.

  16. Bioindication of the anthropogenic effects on micropopulations of Pinus sylvestris, L. in the vicinity of a plant for the storage and processing of radioactive waste and in the Chernobyl NPP zone.

    PubMed

    Geraskin, S A; Zimina, L M; Dikarev, V G; Dikareva, N S; Zimin, V L; Vasiliyev, D V; Oudalova, A A; Blinova, L D; Alexakhin, R M

    2003-01-01

    Results of a comparative analysis of the frequency and spectrum of cytogenetic anomalies are presented for reproductive (seeds) and vegetative (needles) samples taken from Scotch pine (Pinus sylvestris, L.) micropopulations growing at sites with differing levels of radioactive contamination in the Chernobyl NPP 30 km zone, and at the location of a facility for the processing and storage of radioactive wastes (the 'Radon' LWPE, near the town of Sosnovy Bor in the Leningrad Region). The data obtained indicate the presence of genotoxic contaminants in the environment of the tree micropopulations. Chemical toxins make the main contribution to the environmental contamination in the Sosnovy Bor area as compared with the influence of ionising radiation in the Chernobyl 30 km zone. The higher radioresistance of seeds of Scotch pine growing on the area of the 'Radon' LWPE and in the centre of Sosnovy Bor town was revealed with acute gamma-radiation.

  17. Partial confinement photonic crystal waveguides

    SciTech Connect

    Saini, S.; Hong, C.-Y.; Pfaff, N.; Kimerling, L. C.; Michel, J.

    2008-12-29

    One-dimensional photonic crystal waveguides with an incomplete photonic band gap are modeled and proposed for an integration application that exploits their property of partial angular confinement. Planar apodized photonic crystal structures are deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition and characterized by reflectivity as a function of angle and polarization, validating a partial confinement design for light at 850 nm wavelength. Partial confinement identifies an approach for tailoring waveguide properties by the exploitation of conformal film deposition over a substrate with angularly dependent topology. An application for an optoelectronic transceiver is demonstrated.

  18. VARIABILITY IN NET PRIMARY PRODUCTION AND CARBON STORAGE IN BIOMASS ACROSS OREGON FORESTS - AN ASSESSMENT INTEGRATING DATA FROM FOREST INVENTORIES, INTENSIVE SITES, AND REMOTE SENSING. (R828309)

    EPA Science Inventory

    We used a combination of data from USDA Forest Service inventories, intensive
    chronosequences, extensive sites, and satellite remote sensing, to estimate biomass
    and net primary production (NPP) for the forested region of western Oregon. The
    study area was divided int...

  19. On-orbit radiometric performance characterization of S-NPP VIIRS reflective solar bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uprety, Sirish; Blonski, Slawomir; Cao, Changyong

    2016-05-01

    It has been nearly four years that the S-NPP was launched. In an effort to improve the VIIRS calibration, VIIRS has undergone a number of major look up table updates during this period. RSB bands such as M1 through M3 suggested higher solar diffuser degradation rate. Similarly, for higher wavelengths, even though the solar diffuser degradation is much smaller and even negligible for SWIR bands, bands such as M7 suffer from major degradation due to RTA throughput degradation. Even though the solar diffuser and mirror degradation is well characterized, the data quality needs to be independently validated to ensure that data are well within the specification. We have used on-orbit calibration/validation techniques such as extended SNOs to estimate the bias of these bands and quantify the radiometric performance since launch. Assuming MODIS as a standard reference, intercomparison was performed to analyze the VIIRS radiometric performance. It was observed that some of the VIIRS bands such as M5 and M7 suggest bias on the order of 1.5% or more for most of the time period since early launch. VIIRS bias trends keep changing over time which can be mainly correlated to calibration updates and instrument anomalies. Results on VIIRS on-orbit calibration performance and its bias since early launch will be presented during meeting to help users better understand the data quality and its impacts on broader scientific research and applications.

  20. Modeling Suomi-NPP VIIRS Solar Diffuser Degradation due to Space Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, X.; Cao, C.

    2014-12-01

    The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) onboard Suomi-NPP uses a solar diffuser (SD) as on-board radiometric calibrator for the reflective solar band (RSB) calibration. Solar diffuser is made of Spectralon (one type of fluoropolymer) and was chosen because of its controlled reflectance in the VIS-NIR-SWIR region and its near-Lambertian reflectance profile. Spectralon is known to degrade in reflectance at the blue end of the spectrum due to exposure to space radiations such as solar UV radiation and energetic protons. These space radiations can modify the Spectralon surface through breaking C-C and C-F bonds and scissioning or cross linking the polymer, which causes the surface roughness and degrades its reflectance. VIIRS uses a SDSM (Solar Diffuser Stability Monitor) to monitor the change in the Solar Diffuser reflectance in the 0.4 - 0.94 um wavelength range and provide a correction to the calibration constants. The H factor derived from SDSM reveals that reflectance of 0.4 to 0.6um channels of VIIRS degrades faster than the reflectance of longer wavelength RSB channels. A model is developed to derive characteristic parameters such as mean SD surface roughness height and autocovariance length of SD surface roughness from the long term spectral degradation of SD reflectance as monitored by SDSM. These two parameters are trended to assess development of surface roughness of the SD over the operation period of VIIRS.

  1. Improvements to a Suomi NPP VIIRS I-Band Cloud Mask

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piper, M.

    2013-12-01

    A cloud mask algorithm (hereafter VIBCM, for VIIRS I-Band Cloud Mask), based on a Landsat 7 automatic cloud cover assessment, has been developed for use with Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP) Visible Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Imagery Environmental Data Records (EDRs). The VIBCM consists of a sequence of six pixel-based tests that use thresholds on combinations of VIIRS top-of-atmosphere reflectances and brightness temperatures. Each test returns a binary (clear or cloudy) result. For a pixel to be classified as cloudy, it must pass all tests. The VIBCM provides a simpler, though less informative and robust, alternative to the VIIRS Cloud Mask (VCM) Intermediate Product, with the advantage in that it can be applied to a VIIRS Imagery EDR to conveniently quantify the fractional cloud cover in the scene or in a spatial subset. A consistent failure of the VIBCM had been in separating snowy from cloudy pixels. This problem has been ameliorated through the use of the VIIRS Normalized Difference Snow Index algorithm in one of the tests. Several comparisons are shown between the improved VIBCM and the VCM, with preliminary results indicating a good match between the two A comparison of the VIIRS I-Band cloud mask algorithm with information from the VIIRS Cloud Mask Intermediate Product.

  2. Retrospective luminescence dosimetry: development of approaches to application in populated areas downwind of the Chernobyl NPP.

    PubMed

    Bailiff, I K; Stepanenko, V F; Göksu, H Y; Bøtter-Jensen, L; Correcher, V; Delgado, A; Jungner, H; Khamidova, L G; Kolizshenkov, T V; Meckbach, R; Petin, D V; Orlov, M Yu; Petrov, S A

    2005-09-01

    The cumulative absorbed dose in fired-clay bricks collected from ten buildings in the populated contaminated settlement (137Cs, 1,470 kBq m(-2)) of Stary Vishkov, located 175 km downwind of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) in the Bryansk administrative region of Russia, was determined using luminescence techniques by five laboratories. At each location, the cumulative dose, after subtraction of the natural background dose, was translated to absorbed dose in air using conversion factors derived from Monte Carlo simulations. The simulations employed source distributions inferred from contemporary soil contamination data and also took into account heterogeneity of fallout deposition. At four locations the cumulative dose at a reference location was calculated, enabling the luminescence determinations to be compared directly with values of cumulative absorbed dose in air obtained using deterministic models. A "local" conversion factor was also derived from the Monte Carlo simulations for locations where the disturbance of soil was significant. Values of the "local" cumulative dose in air calculated using this factor were compared with those predicted using the deterministic models at each sampled location, allowing location factors to be calculated. The methodology developed is generally applicable to populated areas contaminated by radioactive fallout in which brick buildings are found. The sensitivity of the luminescence techniques for bricks from this region of Russia was sufficient to evaluate cumulative absorbed dose in brick due to fallout of less than 20 mGy.

  3. An Operational Tool for Global Monitoring of Inundation Using NPP ATMS Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tesfagiorgis, K. B.

    2015-12-01

    The goal of this study is to introduce an operational microwave-based tool for the detection and monitoring of inundation across the globe using passive microwave observations from the Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS) sensor onboard SUOMI NPP. ATMS surface sensitive channels, namely, the 23 GHz and the 89 GHz are used in this study. The inundation detection approach is based on the analysis of the standardized anomalies of a soil wetness index that is determined from the gradient between 89 and 23 GHz brightness temperatures. The dimensionless index is sensitive to extreme wetness conditions. Appropriate threshold-based techniques were implemented in the developed tool to detect and eliminate rainy pixels as well as snow and ice covered pixels. An automated tool was developed to process, analyze the data, develop the inundation product, and disseminate the detected inundated area through a web-based interface. The outputs of the developed algorithm were verified against records from the Darthmouth Flood Observatory data archive. The agreement was acceptable with POD reaching 80 % globally for flood with durations longer than 5 days. The analysis of the flood records showed that the most frequent flood events have a duration of 3 days. The flood detection and mapping system was able to reports more short duration events that lasted 1 day or less than what is in the flood observatory records. The inundation global mapping tool was deployed operationally using real time readouts from NOAA-CREST satellite receiving station in New York, USA.

  4. Westinghouse Fuel Assemblies Performance after Operation in South-Ukraine NPP Mixed Core

    SciTech Connect

    Abdullayev, A. M.; Kulish, G. V.; Slyeptsov, O.; Slyeptsov, S.; Aleshin, Y.; Sparrow, S.; Lashevych, P.; Sokolov, D.; Latorre, Richard

    2013-09-14

    The evaluation of WWER-1000 Westinghouse fuel performance was done using the results of post–irradiation examinations of six LTAs and the WFA reload batches that have operated normally in mixed cores at South-Ukraine NPP, Unit-3 and Unit-2. The data on WFA/LTA elongation, FR growth and bow, WFA bow and twist, RCCA drag force and drag work, RCCA drop time, FR cladding integrity as well as the visual observation of fuel assemblies obtained during the 2006-2012 outages was utilized. The analysis of the measured data showed that assembly growth, FR bow, irradiation growth, and Zr-1%Nb grid and ZIRLO cladding corrosion lies within the design limits. The RCCA drop time measured for the LTA/WFA is about 1.9 s at BOC and practically does not change at EOC. The measured WFA bow and twist, and data of drag work on RCCA insertion showed that the WFA deformation in the mixed core is mostly controlled by the distortion of Russian FAs (TVSA) having the higher lateral stiffness. The visual inspection of WFAs carried out during the 2012 outages revealed some damage to the Zr-1%Nb grid outer strap for some WFAs during the loading sequence. The performed fundamental investigations allowed identifying the root cause of grid outer strap deformation and proposing the WFA design modifications for preventing damage to SG at a 225 kg handling trip limit.

  5. Dynamic Monitoring of Energy Services in Conflict Regions using Suomi-NPP VIIRS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stokes, E.; Roman, M. O.

    2015-12-01

    While remote sensing data has proven useful for understanding the environmental conditions surrounding conflict, it can also present a more nuanced, dynamic picture inside conflict zones. This study investigates the use of global nighttime environmental products as derived from the Suomi-NPP satellite's Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) to identify and track the location and timing of regional conflicts in the Middle East as reflected in changes to the region's energy infrastructure. The study focuses on a 43-month period (c. Jan 2012 - Aug 2015) over major urban centers in Iraq, Syria, Egypt, and Lebanon. The new daily dynamic products captured a series of striking downturns in energy service supply and demand that occurred in 2012 in the Syrian cities of Damascus (-50%) and Aleppo (-94%) corresponding to the onset of major military confrontations (The Battle of Aleppo on 7/15/2012 and The Damascus Bombing on 7/23/2012, respectively). Iraqi cities recently captured by the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) (e.g. Mosul, Tikrit, Tal Afor, Ramadi), also showed marked average decreases in energy service provision (-84% since 4/1/2014) compared to their unoccupied counterparts (e.g., Baghdad and Sulaimaniya at +6%). A seasonal trend decomposition analysis is used to disentangle climactic, social, and political factors affecting the VIIRS time-series, distinguishing between energy patterns associated with conflict and those associated with cultural festivals, load shedding, seasonal weather, and socioeconomic factors.

  6. On-orbit calibration and performance of S-NPP VIIRS DNB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, H.; Sun, C.; Chen, X.; Chiang, K.; Xiong, X.

    2016-05-01

    The S-NPP VIIRS instrument has successfully operated since its launch in October 2011. The VIIRS Day-Night Band (DNB) is a panchromatic channel covering wavelengths from 0.5 to 0.9 μm that is capable of observing Earth scenes during both day and nighttime orbits at a spatial resolution of 750 m. To cover the large dynamic range, the DNB operates at low, mid, or high gain stages, and it uses an onboard solar diffuser (SD) for its low gain stage calibration. The SD observations also provide a means to compute gain ratios of low-to-mid and mid-to-high gain stages. This paper describes the DNB on-orbit calibration methodologies used by the VIIRS Characterization Support Team (VCST) in supporting the NASA earth science community with consistent VIIRS sensor data records (SDRs) made available by the Land Science Investigator-led Processing Systems (SIPS). It provides an assessment and update of DNB on-orbit performance, including the SD degradation in the DNB spectral range, detector gain and gain ratio trending, stray light contamination and its correction. Also presented in this paper are performance validations based on earth scenes and lunar observations.

  7. Prediction of impacts of Temelín NPP on hydrosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanslík, E. J.

    1999-01-01

    Problems associated with possible impacts of Temelín Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) on the environment are being studied under supervision of the Czech Ministry of Environment. The objective of ongoing studies is to examine a reference level (conditions prior to the plant operation) in terms of concentrations of radioactive and non-radioactive polluting substances in the environment. Special attention paid to the hydrosphere is associated with requirements for protection of water quality in the Vltava River and its use to supply Prague capital, outdoor recreation, and other purposes. It is also important that the Vltava affects water quality in the Elbe as the main Czech-German transboundary river. Relevant attention is paid also to protection of groundwater resources in use for water supply purposes in wide environs of the plant. Possible impacts on hydrosphere are being predicted for standard operation of the plant and also for accidental conditions. The monitoring and research are intended to be continued during the pre-operational period and additional three years during the operation. The main interim results are presented in this paper.

  8. CERES FM-5 on the NPP Spacecraft: Continuing the Earth Radiation Budget Climate Data Record

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Priestly, Kory; Smith, G. Louis

    2009-01-01

    The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Flight Model-5 (FM-5) instrument will fly on the NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP) spacecraft, which has a launch-readiness date in June, 2010. This mission will continue the critical Earth Radiation Budget Climate Data Record (CDR) begun by the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) instruments in the mid 1980 s and continued by the CERES instruments currently flying on the EOS Terra and Aqua spacecraft. Ground calibrations have been completed for FM-5 and the instrument has been delivered for integration to the spacecraft Rigorous pre-launch ground calibration is performed on each CERES unit to achieve an accuracy goal of 1% for SW flux and 0.5% for outgoing LW flux. Any ground to flight or in-flight changes in radiometer response is monitored using a protocol employing both onboard and vicarious calibration sources and experiments. Recent studies of FM-1 through FM-4 data have shown that the SW response of space based broadband radiometers can change dramatically due to optical contamination. With these changes having most impact on optical response to blue-to UV radiance, where tungsten lamps are largely devoid of output, such changes are hard to monitor accurately using existing on-board sources. This paper outlines the lessons learned on the existing CERES sensors from 30+ years of flight experience and presents a radiometric protocol to be implemented on the FM-5 instrument to ensure that its performance exceeds the stated calibration and stability goals.

  9. OSI-SAF operational NPP/VIIRS sea surface temperature chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Borgne, Pierre; Legendre, Gérard; Marsouin, Anne; Péré, Sonia; Roquet, Hervé

    2013-06-01

    Data of the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) onboard Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP) have been acquired at Centre de Météorologie Spatiale (CMS) in Lannion (Brittany) in direct readout mode since April 2012. CMS is committed to produce sea surface temperature (SST) products from VIIRS data twice a day over an area covering North-East Atlantic and the Mediterranean Sea in the framework of the EUMETSAT Ocean and Sea Ice Satellite Application Facility (OSI-SAF). A cloud mask has been developed and cloud mask control techniques have been implemented. SST algorithms have been defined, as well as quality level attribution rules. Since mid October 2012 a VIIRS SST chain, similar to that used for processing METOP AVHRR has been run in a preoperational mode. The corresponding bias and standard deviation against drifting buoy measurements (mid October 2012 to mid March 2013) are -0.05 and 0.37 K for nighttime and -0.13 and 0.46 K for daytime, respectively. VIIRS derived SST production is expected operational by mid 2013. The OSI-SAF VIIRS derived SST products are compliant with the Group for High Resolution SST (GHRSST) GDS V2.0 format.

  10. Volcanic Ash and SO2 Monitoring Using Suomi NPP Direct Broadcast OMPS Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seftor, C. J.; Krotkov, N. A.; McPeters, R. D.; Li, J. Y.; Brentzel, K. W.; Habib, S.; Hassinen, S.; Heinrichs, T. A.; Schneider, D. J.

    2014-12-01

    NASA's Suomi NPP Ozone Science Team, in conjunction with Goddard Space Flight Center's (GSFC's) Direct Readout Laboratory, developed the capability of processing, in real-time, direct readout (DR) data from the Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite (OMPS) to perform SO2 and Aerosol Index (AI) retrievals. The ability to retrieve this information from real-time processing of DR data was originally developed for the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) onboard the Aura spacecraft and is used by Volcano Observatories and Volcanic Ash Advisory Centers (VAACs) charged with mapping ash clouds from volcanic eruptions and providing predictions/forecasts about where the ash will go. The resulting real-time SO2 and AI products help to mitigate the effects of eruptions such as the ones from Eyjafjallajokull in Iceland and Puyehue-Cordón Caulle in Chile, which cause massive disruptions to airline flight routes for weeks as airlines struggle to avoid ash clouds that could cause engine failure, deeply pitted windshields impossible to see through, and other catastrophic events. We will discuss the implementation of real-time processing of OMPS DR data by both the Geographic Information Network of Alaska (GINA) and the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), which provide real-time coverage over some of the most congested airspace and over many of the most active volcanoes in the world, and show examples of OMPS DR processing results from recent volcanic eruptions.

  11. Initial On-Orbit Radiometric Calibration of the Suomi NPP VIIRS Reflective Solar Bands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lei, Ning; Wang, Zhipeng; Fulbright, Jon; Lee, Shihyan; McIntire, Jeff; Chiang, Vincent; Xiong, Jack

    2012-01-01

    The on-orbit radiometric response calibration of the VISible/Near InfraRed (VISNIR) and the Short-Wave InfraRed (SWIR) bands of the Visible/Infrared Imager/Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) aboard the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP) satellite is carried out through a Solar Diffuser (SD). The transmittance of the SD screen and the SD's Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) are measured before launch and tabulated, allowing the VIIRS sensor aperture spectral radiance to be accurately determined. The radiometric response of a detector is described by a quadratic polynomial of the detector?s digital number (dn). The coefficients were determined before launch. Once on orbit, the coefficients are assumed to change by a common factor: the F-factor. The radiance scattered from the SD allows the determination of the F-factor. In this Proceeding, we describe the methodology and the associated algorithms in the determination of the F-factors and discuss the results.

  12. Cloud-based Web Services for Near-Real-Time Web access to NPP Satellite Imagery and other Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, J. D.; Valente, E. G.

    2010-12-01

    We are building a scalable, cloud computing-based infrastructure for Web access to near-real-time data products synthesized from the U.S. National Polar-Orbiting Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS) Preparatory Project (NPP) and other geospatial and meteorological data. Given recent and ongoing changes in the the NPP and NPOESS programs (now Joint Polar Satellite System), the need for timely delivery of NPP data is urgent. We propose an alternative to a traditional, centralized ground segment, using distributed Direct Broadcast facilities linked to industry-standard Web services by a streamlined processing chain running in a scalable cloud computing environment. Our processing chain, currently implemented on Amazon.com's Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2), retrieves raw data from NASA's Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and synthesizes data products such as Sea-Surface Temperature, Vegetation Indices, etc. The cloud computing approach lets us grow and shrink computing resources to meet large and rapid fluctuations (twice daily) in both end-user demand and data availability from polar-orbiting sensors. Early prototypes have delivered various data products to end-users with latencies between 6 and 32 minutes. We have begun to replicate machine instances in the cloud, so as to reduce latency and maintain near-real time data access regardless of increased data input rates or user demand -- all at quite moderate monthly costs. Our service-based approach (in which users invoke software processes on a Web-accessible server) facilitates access into datasets of arbitrary size and resolution, and allows users to request and receive tailored and composite (e.g., false-color multiband) products on demand. To facilitate broad impact and adoption of our technology, we have emphasized open, industry-standard software interfaces and open source software. Through our work, we envision the widespread establishment of similar, derived, or interoperable systems for

  13. Partial-Payload Support Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, R.; Freeman, M.

    1984-01-01

    Partial-payload support structure (PPSS) is modular, bridge like structure supporting experiments weighing up to 2 tons. PPSS handles such experiments more economically than standard Spacelab pallet system.

  14. Complex partial status and schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Ardila, A; Gómez, J

    1988-04-01

    Three cases of complex partial status which were diagnosed as psychotic episodes are presented. The scans of two of these cases show structural abnormalities in the left temporal lobe. It is proposed that there are similar neurophysiological mechanisms in primary schizophrenia and in the perceptual, affective and cognitive phenomena apparent is some complex and psychic partial seizures. The hippocampal-amygdaline system plays a central role in both cases.

  15. [Acrylic resin removable partial dentures].

    PubMed

    de Baat, C; Witter, D J; Creugers, N H J

    2011-01-01

    An acrylic resin removable partial denture is distinguished from other types of removable partial dentures by an all-acrylic resin base which is, in principle, solely supported by the edentulous regions of the tooth arch and in the maxilla also by the hard palate. When compared to the other types of removable partial dentures, the acrylic resin removable partial denture has 3 favourable aspects: the economic aspect, its aesthetic quality and the ease with which it can be extended and adjusted. Disadvantages are an increased risk of caries developing, gingivitis, periodontal disease, denture stomatitis, alveolar bone reduction, tooth migration, triggering of the gag reflex and damage to the acrylic resin base. Present-day indications are ofa temporary or palliative nature or are motivated by economic factors. Special varieties of the acrylic resin removable partial denture are the spoon denture, the flexible denture fabricated of non-rigid acrylic resin, and the two-piece sectional denture. Furthermore, acrylic resin removable partial dentures can be supplied with clasps or reinforced by fibers or metal wires.

  16. The Suomi National Polar-Orbiting Partnership (NPP) CalVal Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weng, F.

    2012-12-01

    The Suomi NPP (SNPP) satellite was launched successfully on October 28, 2011 and is a pathfinder for the future US Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) operational satellite series. The primary objectives of the SNPP mission provide a continuation of the group of Earth system observations initiated by the Earth Observing System Terra, Aqua, and Aura missions; and prepare the operational forecasting community with pre-operational risk reduction, demonstration, and validation for selected JPSS instruments and ground processing data systems. The SNPP satellite is now flying with the following five instruments: 1) Visible/Infrared Imager/Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) has multi-band imaging capabilities to support the acquisition of high-resolution atmospheric imagery and generation of a variety of applied products including visible and infrared imaging of hurricanes and detection of fires, smoke, and atmospheric aerosols. 2) Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS) is the the first in a series of advanced operational sounders that provide more accurate, detailed atmospheric temperature and moisture observations for weather and climate applications. 3) Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS) operates in conjunction with the CrIS to profile atmospheric temperature and moisture. Higher (spatial, temporal and spectral) resolution and more accurate sounding data from CrIS and ATMS support continuing advances in data assimilation systems and NWP models to improve short- to medium-range weather forecasts. 4) Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite (OMPS) measures the concentration of ozone in the atmosphere, providing information on how ozone concentration varies with altitude. Data from OMPS continue three decades of climate measurements of this important parameter used in global climate models. The OMPS measurements also fulfill the U.S. treaty obligation to monitor global ozone concentrations with no gaps in coverage. Cloud and Earth Radiant Energy System (CERES) seeks to develop and

  17. A Rapid Cloud Mask Algorithm for Suomi NPP VIIRS Imagery EDRs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piper, M.

    2012-12-01

    A cloud mask algorithm, based on a Landsat 7 automatic cloud cover assessment, has been developed for use with Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP) Visible Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Imagery Environmental Data Records (EDRs). The algorithm consists of a sequence of pixel-based tests that use thresholds on, or combinations of, VIIRS top-of-atmosphere reflectances and brightness temperatures. Each test returns a binary (clear or cloudy) result. For a pixel to be classified as cloudy, it must pass all tests. The similarity between the visible, near-infrared, mid-infrared and thermal bands of ETM+ and the VIIRS imager made the adaptation of the Landsat 7 algorithm to VIIRS possible. This cloud mask algorithm provides a simpler, though less informative and robust, alternative to the VIIRS Cloud Mask (VCM) Intermediate Product, with the advantage in that it can be applied to a VIIRS Imagery EDR to conveniently quantify the fractional cloud cover in the scene or in a spatial subset. Several comparisons are shown between the product of this algorithm and the VCM, with preliminary results indicating a good match between the two. A consistent failure of the current algorithm occurs in scenes containing snow: the original Landsat 7 algorithm uses ETM+ band 2 (0.53-0.61 μm), which isn't present in the VIIRS Imagery product, in computing a normalized snow difference index that helps separate snowy from cloudy pixels. Ongoing research will investigate directly implementing the VIIRS Normalized Difference Snow Index algorithm to identify snowy pixels.

  18. Modeling the transport of nitrogen in an NPP-2006 reactor circuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanov, O. E.; Galkin, I. Yu.; Sledkov, R. M.; Melekh, S. S.; Strebnev, N. A.

    2016-07-01

    Efficient radiation protection of the public and personnel requires detecting an accident-initiating event quickly. Specifically, if a heat-exchange tube in a steam generator is ruptured, the 16N radioactive nitrogen isotope, which contributes to a sharp increase in the steam activity before the turbine, may serve as the signaling component. This isotope is produced in the core coolant and is transported along the circulation circuit. The aim of the present study was to model the transport of 16N in the primary and the secondary circuits of a VVER-1000 reactor facility (RF) under nominal operation conditions. KORSAR/GP and RELAP5/Mod.3.2 codes were used to perform the calculations. Computational models incorporating the major components of the primary and the secondary circuits of an NPP-2006 RF were constructed. These computational models were subjected to cross-verification, and the calculation results were compared to the experimental data on the distribution of the void fraction over the steam generator height. The models were proven to be valid. It was found that the time of nitrogen transport from the core to the heat-exchange tube leak was no longer than 1 s under RF operation at a power level of 100% N nom with all primary circuit pumps activated. The time of nitrogen transport from the leak to the γ-radiation detection unit under the same operating conditions was no longer than 9 s, and the nitrogen concentration in steam was no less than 1.4% (by mass) of its concentration at the reactor outlet. These values were obtained using conservative approaches to estimating the leak flow and the transport time, but the radioactive decay of nitrogen was not taken into account. Further research concerned with the calculation of thermohydraulic processes should be focused on modeling the transport of nitrogen under RF operation with some primary circuit pumps deactivated.

  19. Calibration and validation of the Suomi NPP ice surface temperature environmental data record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y.; Key, J. R.; Tschudi, M. A.; Dworak, R.; Baldwin, D.

    2015-12-01

    Surface temperature is an important climate variable because it integrates changes in the surface energy budget that result from local processes and large-scale heat advection. The Arctic has been warming more than any other part of the earth ("polar amplification") and is projected to rise at a rate about twice the global mean over the next century. Continuous monitoring of the Arctic surface temperature is critical to understanding Arctic climate change. Ice surface temperature has been measured with optical and thermal infrared sensors like the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) for many years. With the ice surface temperature (IST) Environmental Data Record (EDR) available from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) onboard the SuomiNPP and future Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) satellites, we can continue to monitor and investigate Arctic climate change based on over 30 years of data.This work evaluates the quality of the VIIRS IST EDR for use in near real-time applications as well as for extending the IST climate data record. Validation is performed through comparisons with multiple in situ, aircraft, model, and satellite datasets, including NASA IceBridge KT-19 infrared ice surface temperature observations, observations from the Arctic drifting buoys, IST from collocated MODIS, and surface air temperature from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) reanalysis. Results show bias of 0.09 K ( -0.14, -3.60, and -3.67 K) and root mean squared error of 0.95 K (1.33, 3.8, and 7.07 K) for VIIRS IST EDR compared to KT-19 (MODIS, drifting buoy, and NCEP reanalysis).

  20. S-NPP VIIRS instrument telemetry and calibration data trend study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, ZiPing; De Luccia, Frank J.; Cardema, Jason C.; Moy, Gabriel

    2015-09-01

    The Suomi National Polar Orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) employs a large number of temperature and voltage sensors (telemetry points) to monitor instrument health and performance. We have collected data and built tools to study telemetry and calibration parameters trends. The telemetry points are organized into groups based on locations and functionalities. Examples of the groups are: telescope motor, focal plane array (FPA), scan cavity bulkhead, radiators, solar diffuser and Solar Diffuser Stability Monitor (SDSM). We have performed daily monitoring and long-term trending studies. Daily monitoring processes are automated with alarms built into the software to indicate if pre-defined limits are exceeded. Long-term trending studies focus on instrument performance and sensitivities of Sensor Data Record (SDR) products and calibration look-up tables (LUTs) to instrument temperature and voltage variations. VIIRS uses a DC Restore (DCR) process to periodically correct the analog offsets of each detector of each spectral band to ensure that the FPA output signals are always within the dynamic range of the Analog to Digital Converter (ADC). The offset values are updated based on observations of the On-Board Calibrator Blackbody source. We have performed a long-term trend study of DCR offsets and calibration parameters to explore connections of the DCR offsets with onboard calibrators. The study also shows how the instrument and calibration parameters respond to the VIIRS Petulant Mode, spacecraft (SC) anomalies and flight software (FSW) updates. We have also shown that trending studies of telemetry and calibration parameters may help to improve the instrument calibration processes and SDR Quality Flags.

  1. Joint Polar Satellite System's Operational and Research Applications from Suomi NPP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldberg, M.

    2014-12-01

    The Joint Polar Satellite System is NOAA's new operational satellite program and includes the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) as a bridge between NOAA's operational Polar Orbiting Environmental Satellite (POES) series, which began in 1978, and the first JPSS operational satellite scheduled for launch in 2017. JPSS provides critical data for key operational and research applications, and includes: 1) Weather forecasting - data from the JPSS Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS) and the Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS) are needed to forecast weather events out to 7 days. Nearly 85% of all data used in weather forecasting are from polar orbiting satellites. 2) Environmental monitoring - data from the JPSS Visible Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) are used to monitor the environment including the health of coastal ecosystems, drought conditions, fire, smoke, dust, snow and ice, and the state of oceans, including sea surface temperature and ocean color. 3) Climate monitoring - data from JPSS instruments, including OMPS and CERES will provide continuity to climate data records established using NOAA POES and NASA Earth Observing System (EOS) satellite observations. These data records provide a unified and coherent long-term observation of the environment; the records and products are critical to climate modelers, scientists, and decision makers concerned with advancing climate change understanding, prediction, mitigation and adaptation strategies, and policies. To bridge the gap between products and applications, the JPSS Program has established a proving ground program to optimize the use of JPSS data with other data sources to improve key products and services. A number of operational and research applications will be discussed, including the use of CrIS and ATMS for improved weather forecasting, the use of VIIRS for environmental monitoring of sea ice, smoke, fire, floods, droughts, coastal water quality (e.g. harmful algal blooms

  2. Reasonable partiality in professional relationships.

    PubMed

    Almond, Brenda

    2005-04-01

    First, two aspects of the partiality issue are identified: (1) Is it right/reasonable for professionals to favour their clients' interests over either those of other individuals or those of society in general? (2) Are special non-universalisable obligations attached to certain professional roles? Second, some comments are made on the notions of partiality and reasonableness. On partiality, the assumption that only two positions are possible--a detached universalism or a partialist egoism--is challenged and it is suggested that partiality, e.g. to family members, lies between these two positions, being neither a form of egoism, nor of impersonal detachment. On reasonableness, it is pointed out that 'reasonable' is an ambiguous concept, eliding the notions of the 'morally right' and the 'rational.' Third, a series of practical examples are taken from counselling, medicine, law, education and religious practice and some common principles are abstracted from the cases and discussed. These include truth-telling, confidentiality, conflicts of interest between clients and particular others and between clients and society. It is concluded that while partiality can be justified as a useful tool in standard cases, particular circumstances can affect the final verdict.

  3. Partial pressure analysis of plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Dylla, H.F.

    1984-11-01

    The application of partial pressure analysis for plasma diagnostic measurements is reviewed. A comparison is made between the techniques of plasma flux analysis and partial pressure analysis for mass spectrometry of plasmas. Emphasis is given to the application of quadrupole mass spectrometers (QMS). The interface problems associated with the coupling of a QMS to a plasma device are discussed including: differential-pumping requirements, electromagnetic interferences from the plasma environment, the detection of surface-active species, ion source interactions, and calibration procedures. Example measurements are presented from process monitoring of glow discharge plasmas which are useful for cleaning and conditioning vacuum vessels.

  4. Full and partial gauge fixing

    SciTech Connect

    Shirzad, A.

    2007-08-15

    Gauge fixing may be done in different ways. We show that using the chain structure to describe a constrained system enables us to use either a full gauge, in which all gauged degrees of freedom are determined, or a partial gauge, in which some first class constraints remain as subsidiary conditions to be imposed on the solutions of the equations of motion. We also show that the number of constants of motion depends on the level in a constraint chain in which the gauge fixing condition is imposed. The relativistic point particle, electromagnetism, and the Polyakov string are discussed as examples and full or partial gauges are distinguished.

  5. The Operational Use of Suomi National Polar-Orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) Satellite Information in Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, C. A.; Goldberg, M.

    2014-12-01

    The National Weather Service (NWS), Alaska Region (AR) provides warnings, forecasts and information for an area greater than 20% of the size of the continental United States. This region experiences an incredible diversity of weather phenomena, yet ironically is one of the more data-sparse areas in the world. Polar orbiting satellite-borne sensors offer one of the most cost effective means of gaining repetitive information over this data-sparse region to provide insight on Alaskan weather and the environment on scales ranging from synoptic to mesoscale in a systematic manner. Because of Alaska's high latitude location, polar orbiting satellites can provide coverage about every two hours at high resolution. The Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) Satellite, equipped with a new generation of satellite sensors to better monitor, detect, and track weather and the environment was launched October 2011. Through partnership through the with NESDIS JPSS, the University of Alaska - Geographical Information Network of Alaska (GINA), the NWS Alaska Region was able to gain timely access to the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) imagery from S-NPP. The imagery was quickly integrated into forecast operations across the spectrum of NWS Alaska areas of responsibility. The VIIRS has provided a number of new or improved capabilities for detecting low cloud/fog, snow cover, volcanic ash, fire hotspots/smoke, flooding due to river ice break up, and sea ice and ice-free passages. In addition the Alaska Region has successfully exploited the 750 m spatial resolution of the VIIRS/Near Constant Contrast (NCC) low-light visible measurements. Forecasters have also begun the integration of NOAA Unique Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS)/Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS) Processing System (NUCAPS) Soundings in AWIPS-II operations at WFO Fairbanks and Anchorage, the Alaska Aviation Weather Unit (AAWU) and the Alaska Region, Regional Operations Center (ROC

  6. Apparatus for generating partially coherent radiation

    DOEpatents

    Naulleau, Patrick P.

    2005-02-22

    Techniques for generating partially coherent radiation and particularly for converting effectively coherent radiation from a synchrotron to partially coherent EUV radiation suitable for projection lithography.

  7. Application of the leak-before-break concept to the primary circuit piping of the Leningrad NPP

    SciTech Connect

    Eperin, A.P.; Zakharzhevsky, Yu.O.; Arzhaev, A.I.

    1997-04-01

    A two-year Finnish-Russian cooperation program has been initiated in 1995 to demonstrate the applicability of the leak-before-break concept (LBB) to the primary circuit piping of the Leningrad NPP. The program includes J-R curve testing of authentic pipe materials at full operating temperature, screening and computational LBB analyses complying with the USNRC Standard Review Plan 3.6.3, and exchange of LBB-related information with emphasis on NDE. Domestic computer codes are mainly used, and all tests and analyses are independently carried out by each party. The results are believed to apply generally to RBMK type plants of the first generation.

  8. Analyzing the possibility of achieving more efficient cooling of water in the evaporative cooling towers of the Armenian NPP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrosyan, V. G.; Yeghoyan, E. A.

    2015-10-01

    The specific features of the service cooling water system used at the Armenian NPP and modifications made in the arrangement for supplying water to the water coolers in order to achieve more efficient cooling are presented. The mathematical model applied in carrying out the analyses is described, the use of which makes it possible to investigate the operation of parallel-connected cooling towers having different hydraulic and thermal loads. When the third standby cooling tower is put into operation (with the same flow rate of water supplied to the water coolers), the cooled water temperature is decreased by around 2-3°C in the range of atmospheric air temperatures 0-35°C. However, the introduced water distribution arrangement with a decreased spraying density has limitation on its use at negative outdoor air temperatures due to the hazard intense freezing of the fill in the cooling tower peripheral zone. The availability of standby cooling towers in the shutdown Armenian NPP power unit along with the planned full replacement of the cooling tower process equipment create good possibilities for achieving a deeper water cooling extent and better efficiency of the NPP. The present work was carried out with the aim of achieving maximally efficient use of existing possibilities and for elaborating the optimal cooling tower modernization version. Individual specific heat-andmass transfer processes in the chimney-type evaporative cooling towers are analyzed. An improved arrangement for distributing cooled water over the cooling tower spraying area (during its operation with a decreased flow rate) is proposed with the aim of cooling water to a deeper extent and preserving the possibility of using the cooling towers in winter. The main idea behind improving the existing arrangement is to exclude certain zones of the cooling tower featuring inefficient cooling from operation. The effectiveness of introducing the proposed design is proven by calculations (taking as an

  9. Partially Opened Oven on Phoenix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This view from the Robotic Arm Camera on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander shows partial opening of doors to one of the tiny ovens of the Thermal and Evolved-Gas Analyzer.

    Each oven has a pair of spring-loaded doors. Near the center of the image, the partial opening of a pair of doors reveals screen over the opening where a soil sample will be delivered. The door to the right is fully opened and the one to the left is partially deployed. The doors are 10 centimeters (4 inches) long. The opening is 4 centimeters (1.5 inches) wide.

    Tests on the Phoenix testbed at the University of Arizona, Tucson, indicate that a soil sample could be delivered into the oven through the partially opened doors. Engineers are also exploring possibilities for opening the doors more completely.This image was taken during Phoenix's eighth Martian day, or sol (June 2, 2008).

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  10. Assessing Partial Knowledge in Vocabulary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Richard M.

    1987-01-01

    Partial knowledge was assessed in a multiple choice vocabulary test. Test reliability and concurrent validity were compared using Rasch-based dichotomous and polychotomous scoring models. Results supported the polychtomous scoring model, and moderately supported J. O'Connor's theory of vocabulary acquisition. (Author/GDC)

  11. Covert Reinforcement: A Partial Replication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ripstra, Constance C.; And Others

    A partial replication of an investigation of the effect of covert reinforcement on a perceptual estimation task is described. The study was extended to include an extinction phase. There were five treatment groups: covert reinforcement, neutral scene reinforcement, noncontingent covert reinforcement, and two control groups. Each subject estimated…

  12. Partially molten magma ocean model

    SciTech Connect

    Shirley, D.N.

    1983-02-15

    The properties of the lunar crust and upper mantle can be explained if the outer 300-400 km of the moon was initially only partially molten rather than fully molten. The top of the partially molten region contained about 20% melt and decreased to 0% at 300-400 km depth. Nuclei of anorthositic crust formed over localized bodies of magma segregated from the partial melt, then grew peripherally until they coverd the moon. Throughout most of its growth period the anorthosite crust floated on a layer of magma a few km thick. The thickness of this layer is regulated by the opposing forces of loss of material by fractional crystallization and addition of magma from the partial melt below. Concentrations of Sr, Eu, and Sm in pristine ferroan anorthosites are found to be consistent with this model, as are trends for the ferroan anorthosites and Mg-rich suites on a diagram of An in plagioclase vs. mg in mafics. Clustering of Eu, Sr, and mg values found among pristine ferroan anorthosites are predicted by this model.

  13. Leadership in Partially Distributed Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plotnick, Linda

    2009-01-01

    Inter-organizational collaboration is becoming more common. When organizations collaborate they often do so in partially distributed teams (PDTs). A PDT is a hybrid team that has at least one collocated subteam and at least two subteams that are geographically distributed and communicate primarily through electronic media. While PDTs share many…

  14. Development, construction, and use of pneumometric tubes for measurement of steam flow in the steam lines of PVG-1000 at NPP

    SciTech Connect

    Gorbunov, Yu. S.; Ageev, A. G.; Vasil'eva, R. V.; Korol'kov, B. M.

    2007-05-15

    A system for the direct measurement of steam flow in steam lines after a steam generator, which utilizes a special design of pneumometric tubes and a computing unit that accounts for variation in steam pressure, has been developed to improve the quality of water-level regulation in the steam generators of VVER-1000 power-generating units in the stationary and transitional modes. The advantage of the pneumometric tubes consists in their structural simplicity, high erosion resistance, and absence of irrevocable losses during measurement of steam flow. A similar measurement system is used at foreign NPP. The measurement system in question has been placed in experimental service at the No. 3 unit of the Balakovo NPP, and has demonstrated its worthiness. This measurement system can also be used to determine steam flow in the steam lines of NPP units with VVER-1000 and VVER-440 reactors, and PBMK-1000 power-generating units.

  15. The partial-birth stratagem.

    PubMed

    1998-06-01

    In Wisconsin, physicians stopped performing abortions when a Federal District Court Judge refused to issue a temporary restraining order against the state's newly enacted "partial birth" abortion ban that was couched in such vague language it actually covered all abortions. While ostensibly attempting to ban late-term "intact dilation and extraction," the language of the law did not refer to that procedure or to late terms. Instead, it prohibited all abortions in which a physician "partially vaginally delivers a living child, causes the death of the partially delivered child with the intent to kill the child and then completes the delivery of the child." The law also defined "child" as "a human being from the time of fertilization" until birth. It is clear that this abortion ban is unconstitutional under Row v. Wade, and this unconstitutionality is compounded by the fact that the law allowed no exception to protect a woman's health, which is required by Roe for abortion bans after fetal viability. Wisconsin is only one of about 28 states that have enacted similar laws, and only two have restricted the ban to postviability abortions. Many of these laws have been struck down in court, and President Clinton has continued to veto the Federal partial-birth bill. The Wisconsin Judge acknowledged that opponents of the ban will likely prevail when the case is heard, but his action in denying the temporary injunction means that many women in Wisconsin will not receive timely medical care. The partial birth strategy is really only another anti-abortion strategy.

  16. Evaluation of NPP-VIIRS Nighttime Light Data for Mapping Global Fossil Fuel Combustion CO2 Emissions: A Comparison with DMSP-OLS Nighttime Light Data.

    PubMed

    Ou, Jinpei; Liu, Xiaoping; Li, Xia; Li, Meifang; Li, Wenkai

    2015-01-01

    Recently, the stable light products and radiance calibrated products from Defense Meteorological Satellite Program's (DMSP) Operational Linescan System (OLS) have been useful for mapping global fossil fuel carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions at fine spatial resolution. However, few studies on this subject were conducted with the new-generation nighttime light data from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) sensor on the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP) Satellite, which has a higher spatial resolution and a wider radiometric detection range than the traditional DMSP-OLS nighttime light data. Therefore, this study performed the first evaluation of the potential of NPP-VIIRS data in estimating the spatial distributions of global CO2 emissions (excluding power plant emissions). Through a disaggregating model, three global emission maps were then derived from population counts and three different types of nighttime lights data (NPP-VIIRS, the stable light data and radiance calibrated data of DMSP-OLS) for a comparative analysis. The results compared with the reference data of land cover in Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou show that the emission areas of map from NPP-VIIRS data have higher spatial consistency of the artificial surfaces and exhibit a more reasonable distribution of CO2 emission than those of other two maps from DMSP-OLS data. Besides, in contrast to two maps from DMSP-OLS data, the emission map from NPP-VIIRS data is closer to the Vulcan inventory and exhibits a better agreement with the actual statistical data of CO2 emissions at the level of sub-administrative units of the United States. This study demonstrates that the NPP-VIIRS data can be a powerful tool for studying the spatial distributions of CO2 emissions, as well as the socioeconomic indicators at multiple scales. PMID:26390037

  17. Accounting for land use in life cycle assessment: The value of NPP as a proxy indicator to assess land use impacts on ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Taelman, Sue Ellen; Schaubroeck, Thomas; De Meester, Steven; Boone, Lieselot; Dewulf, Jo

    2016-04-15

    Terrestrial land and its resources are finite, though, for economic and socio-cultural needs of humans, these natural resources are further exploited. It highlights the need to quantify the impact humans possibly have on the environment due to occupation and transformation of land. As a starting point of this paper (1(st) objective), the land use activities, which may be mainly socio-culturally or economically oriented, are identified in addition to the natural land-based processes and stocks and funds that can be altered due to land use. To quantify the possible impact anthropogenic land use can have on the natural environment, linked to a certain product or service, life cycle assessment (LCA) is a tool commonly used. During the last decades, many indicators are developed within the LCA framework in an attempt to evaluate certain environmental impacts of land use. A second objective of this study is to briefly review these indicators and to categorize them according to whether they assess a change in the asset of natural resources for production and consumption or a disturbance of certain ecosystem processes, i.e. ecosystem health. Based on these findings, two enhanced proxy indicators are proposed (3(rd) objective). Both indicators use net primary production (NPP) loss (potential NPP in the absence of humans minus remaining NPP after land use) as a relevant proxy to primarily assess the impact of land use on ecosystem health. As there are two approaches to account for the natural and productive value of the NPP remaining after land use, namely the Human Appropriation of NPP (HANPP) and hemeroby (or naturalness) concepts, two indicators are introduced and the advantages and limitations compared to state-of-the-art NPP-based land use indicators are discussed. Exergy-based spatially differentiated characterization factors (CFs) are calculated for several types of land use (e.g., pasture land, urban land).

  18. Evaluation of NPP-VIIRS Nighttime Light Data for Mapping Global Fossil Fuel Combustion CO2 Emissions: A Comparison with DMSP-OLS Nighttime Light Data

    PubMed Central

    Ou, Jinpei; Liu, Xiaoping; Li, Xia; Li, Meifang; Li, Wenkai

    2015-01-01

    Recently, the stable light products and radiance calibrated products from Defense Meteorological Satellite Program’s (DMSP) Operational Linescan System (OLS) have been useful for mapping global fossil fuel carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions at fine spatial resolution. However, few studies on this subject were conducted with the new-generation nighttime light data from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) sensor on the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP) Satellite, which has a higher spatial resolution and a wider radiometric detection range than the traditional DMSP-OLS nighttime light data. Therefore, this study performed the first evaluation of the potential of NPP-VIIRS data in estimating the spatial distributions of global CO2 emissions (excluding power plant emissions). Through a disaggregating model, three global emission maps were then derived from population counts and three different types of nighttime lights data (NPP-VIIRS, the stable light data and radiance calibrated data of DMSP-OLS) for a comparative analysis. The results compared with the reference data of land cover in Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou show that the emission areas of map from NPP-VIIRS data have higher spatial consistency of the artificial surfaces and exhibit a more reasonable distribution of CO2 emission than those of other two maps from DMSP-OLS data. Besides, in contrast to two maps from DMSP-OLS data, the emission map from NPP-VIIRS data is closer to the Vulcan inventory and exhibits a better agreement with the actual statistical data of CO2 emissions at the level of sub-administrative units of the United States. This study demonstrates that the NPP-VIIRS data can be a powerful tool for studying the spatial distributions of CO2 emissions, as well as the socioeconomic indicators at multiple scales. PMID:26390037

  19. Accounting for land use in life cycle assessment: The value of NPP as a proxy indicator to assess land use impacts on ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Taelman, Sue Ellen; Schaubroeck, Thomas; De Meester, Steven; Boone, Lieselot; Dewulf, Jo

    2016-04-15

    Terrestrial land and its resources are finite, though, for economic and socio-cultural needs of humans, these natural resources are further exploited. It highlights the need to quantify the impact humans possibly have on the environment due to occupation and transformation of land. As a starting point of this paper (1(st) objective), the land use activities, which may be mainly socio-culturally or economically oriented, are identified in addition to the natural land-based processes and stocks and funds that can be altered due to land use. To quantify the possible impact anthropogenic land use can have on the natural environment, linked to a certain product or service, life cycle assessment (LCA) is a tool commonly used. During the last decades, many indicators are developed within the LCA framework in an attempt to evaluate certain environmental impacts of land use. A second objective of this study is to briefly review these indicators and to categorize them according to whether they assess a change in the asset of natural resources for production and consumption or a disturbance of certain ecosystem processes, i.e. ecosystem health. Based on these findings, two enhanced proxy indicators are proposed (3(rd) objective). Both indicators use net primary production (NPP) loss (potential NPP in the absence of humans minus remaining NPP after land use) as a relevant proxy to primarily assess the impact of land use on ecosystem health. As there are two approaches to account for the natural and productive value of the NPP remaining after land use, namely the Human Appropriation of NPP (HANPP) and hemeroby (or naturalness) concepts, two indicators are introduced and the advantages and limitations compared to state-of-the-art NPP-based land use indicators are discussed. Exergy-based spatially differentiated characterization factors (CFs) are calculated for several types of land use (e.g., pasture land, urban land). PMID:26808405

  20. Trending of Suomi-NPP VIIRS radiometric performance with lunar band ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Xi; Choi, Taeyoung; Cao, Changyong; Blonski, Slawomir; Wang, Wenhui; Ban, Yan

    2014-11-01

    Radiometric stability of the lunar surface and its smooth reflectance spectrum makes the moon an ideal target for calibrating satellite-based hyper/multi-band visible imagers, as demonstrated in several lunar calibration studies of satellite radiometers. Most of the lunar calibrations rely on using lunar irradiance models to calibrate satellite radiometers, which require the lunar irradiance model to be highly accurate. In this paper, we use Lunar Band Ratio (LBR) to trend satellite radiometer performance so that the usage of lunar irradiance model is not required. The LBR method is applied to monitor long term radiometric performance of VIIRS (Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite) onboard Suomi-NPP. VIIRS observes moon at nearly the same lunar phase angle through Earth view during scheduled spacecraft maneuver. Total lunar digital number are calculated for each VIIRS reflective solar bands (RSBs) from lunar observations and one of the most stable bands of VIIRS such as M4 band is chosen as the reference band for calculating the band ratio. LBRs are compared with the degradation factors derived from VIIRS operational radiometric calibration of RSBs using onboard solar diffuser. The LBR analysis reveals that M6 and M7 degrade the fastest and agree well with the trending independently determined from onboard solar diffuser. For stable bands such as M3-M4 of VIIRS, the variation range of band ratios of M2/M4 and M3/M4 are all within 0.6%, indicating the LBR can be used to reveal the sub percent band to band stability. For M11 band of VIIRS, there have been large uncertainties in verifying its radiometric performance using vicarious ground targets. LBR of M11 provides an independent and useful radiometric stability monitoring tool for verifying the relative stability of M11 band. The LBR analysis also shows that band-to-band variability in the spectrally similar band pairs such as I2 vs. M7 and I3 vs. M10 of VIIRS are consistent within 0.2%. It is demonstrated

  1. Application of Suomi-NPP Green Vegetation Fraction and NUCAPS for Improving Regional Numerical Weather Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Case, Jonathan L.; Berndt, Emily B.; Srikishen, Jayanthi; Zavodsky, Bradley T.

    2014-01-01

    The NASA SPoRT Center is working to incorporate Suomi-NPP products into its research and transition activities to improve regional numerical weather prediction (NWP). Specifically, SPoRT seeks to utilize two data products from NOAA/NESDIS: (1) daily global VIIRS green vegetation fraction (GVF), and (2) NOAA Unique CrIS and ATMS Processing System (NUCAPS) temperature and moisture retrieved profiles. The goal of (1) is to improve the representation of vegetation in the Noah land surface model (LSM) over existing climatological GVF datasets in order to improve the land-atmosphere energy exchanges in NWP models and produce better temperature, moisture, and precipitation forecasts. The goal of (2) is to assimilate NUCAPS retrieved profiles into the Gridpoint Statistical Interpolation (GSI) data assimilation system to assess the impact on a summer pre-frontal convection case. Most regional NWP applications make use of a monthly GVF climatology for use in the Noah LSM within the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. The GVF partitions incoming energy into direct surface heating/evaporation over bare soil versus evapotranspiration processes over vegetated surfaces. Misrepresentations of the fractional coverage of vegetation during anomalous weather/climate regimes (e.g., early/late bloom or freeze; drought) can lead to poor NWP model results when land-atmosphere feedback is important. SPoRT has been producing a daily MODIS GVF product based on the University of Wisconsin Direct Broadcast swaths of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). While positive impacts have been demonstrated in the WRF model for some cases, the reflectances composing these NDVI do not correct for atmospheric aerosols nor satellite view angle, resulting in temporal noisiness at certain locations (especially heavy vegetation). The method behind the NESDIS VIIRS GVF is expected to alleviate the issues seen in the MODIS GVF real-time product, thereby offering a higher-quality dataset for

  2. Air Quality Monitoring and Forecasting Applications of Suomi NPP VIIRS Aerosol Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondragunta, Shobha

    The Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP) Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument was launched on October 28, 2011. It provides Aerosol Optical Thickness (AOT) at two different spatial resolutions: a pixel level (~750 m at nadir) product called the Intermediate Product (IP) and an aggregated (~6 km at nadir) product called the Environmental Data Record (EDR), and a Suspended Matter (SM) EDR that provides aerosol type (dust, smoke, sea salt, and volcanic ash) information. An extensive validation of VIIRS best quality aerosol products with ground based L1.5 Aerosol Robotic NETwork (AERONET) data shows that the AOT EDR product has an accuracy/precision of -0.01/0.11 and 0.01/0.08 over land and ocean respectively. Globally, VIIRS mean AOT EDR (0.20) is similar to Aqua MODIS (0.16) with some important regional and seasonal differences. The accuracy of the SM product, however, is found to be very low (20 percent) when compared to Cloud Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) and AERONET. Several algorithm updates which include a better approach to retrieve surface reflectance have been developed for AOT retrieval. For dust aerosol type retrieval, a new approach that takes advantage of spectral dependence of Rayleigh scattering, surface reflectance, dust absorption in the deep blue (412 nm), blue (440 nm), and mid-IR (2.2 um) has been developed that detects dust with an accuracy of ~80 percent. For smoke plume identification, a source apportionment algorithm that combines fire hot spots with AOT imagery has been developed that provides smoke plume extent with an accuracy of ~70 percent. The VIIRS aerosol products will provide continuity to the current operational use of aerosol products from Aqua and Terra MODIS. These include aerosol data assimilation in Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) global aerosol model, verification of National Weather Service (NWS) dust and smoke forecasts, exceptional events monitoring by different states

  3. Estimation of Net Primary Production (NPP) of Inner Mongolia in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, J.; Kwak, Y.; Yasuda, Y.

    2009-12-01

    1. Introduction In the latter part of 1970's, the need for more precise calculation of the fixed-quantity of global land vegetation was emphasized. This data is necessary for estimating carbon income and expenditure at a global level. Research at the Mauna Loa volcano has clearly shown that the density of CO2 in the atmosphere is increasing. This increase is caused mainly by changes in human activities and the respiration of plants and animals. At present, however, the value of CO2 income and expenditure as calculated for human activities does not agree with the value thought to be contained in the marine and terrestrial carbon sinks. Clearly the value of primary production needs to be measured more precisely on a global scale. The use of satellite data immediately enables application at a global level, leading to higher precision of estimation when analyzing ecosystem models. In this study, we analyzed and compared Hohhot and Naiman, two regions in Inner Mongolia. In situ observation data (biomass and reflection data for each type of vegetation) was collected from 1999 to 2002. The results of these ground observations were then compared to the results from wide area measurement of vegetation index utilizing Terra/MODIS data 2. Application to satellite data The MODIS Surface Reflectance product (MOD09), with resolution of 250m, was utilized from April to November of 2002. MOD09 did atmosphere correction and geometric correction. Bands 1 (RED : 620-670nm) and 2 (NIR : 841-876nm) from MOD09 were used to produce a NDVI image. In addition, to remove the influence of cloud cover, monthly vegetation index images for May to September were generated using the Temporal Window Operation method (TWO : Park et al.1999), with the mid day of each month designated as a representative day. 3. Conclusion In this study, we estimate Net Primary Production (NPP) for a semiarid region of northern China using satellite data. An area in which pasturage is prohibited was studied in 1999

  4. The Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA14 ABC Transporter NppA1A2BCD Is Required for Uptake of Peptidyl Nucleoside Antibiotics

    PubMed Central

    Braun, Yvonne; Dubiley, Svetlana; Lafon, Corinne; Köhler, Thilo; Page, Malcolm G. P.; Mourez, Michael; Severinov, Konstantin

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Analysis of the genome sequence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA14 revealed the presence of an operon encoding an ABC-type transporter (NppA1A2BCD) showing homology to the Yej transporter of Escherichia coli. The Yej transporter is involved in the uptake of the peptide-nucleotide antibiotic microcin C, a translation inhibitor that targets the enzyme aspartyl-tRNA synthetase. Furthermore, it was recently shown that the Opp transporter from P. aeruginosa PAO1, which is identical to Npp, is required for uptake of the uridyl peptide antibiotic pacidamycin, which targets the enzyme translocase I (MraY), which is involved in peptidoglycan synthesis. We used several approaches to further explore the substrate specificity of the Npp transporter. Assays of growth in defined minimal medium containing peptides of various lengths and amino acid compositions as sole nitrogen sources, as well as Biolog Phenotype MicroArrays, showed that the Npp transporter is not required for di-, tri-, and oligopeptide uptake. Overexpression of the npp operon increased susceptibility not just to pacidamycin but also to nickel chloride and the peptidyl nucleoside antibiotic blasticidin S. Furthermore, heterologous expression of the npp operon in a yej-deficient mutant of E. coli resulted in increased susceptibility to albomycin, a naturally occurring sideromycin with a peptidyl nucleoside antibiotic. Additionally, heterologous expression showed that microcin C is recognized by the P. aeruginosa Npp system. Overall, these results suggest that the NppA1A2BCD transporter is involved in the uptake of peptidyl nucleoside antibiotics by P. aeruginosa PA14. IMPORTANCE One of the world's most serious health problems is the rise of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. There is a desperate need to find novel antibiotic therapeutics that either act on new biological targets or are able to bypass known resistance mechanisms. Bacterial ABC transporters play an important role in nutrient uptake from the

  5. Two new cataract loci, Ccw and To3, and further mapping of the Npp and Opj cataracts in the mouse

    SciTech Connect

    Kerscher, S.; Glenister, P.H.; Lyon, M.F.; Favor, J.

    1996-08-15

    Many types of inherited early onset cataract are known in both human and mouse. Here we describe the mapping of two novel dominant cataract loci in the mouse genome. Cataract and curly whiskers, Ccw, maps to Chromosome 4, 3.1 {+-} 1.1 cM distal to the b (brown) locus. Total opacity 3, To3, maps to Chromosome 7, 7.1 {+-} 1.8 cM proximal top (pink-eyed dilution). The map positions of two other dominant cataract mutants have now been refined by three-point crosses. Nuclear and posterior polar cataract, Npp, maps to the central part of Chromosome 5,1.4 {+-} 0.5 cM distal to W{sup e} (dominant spotting-extreme, an allele at the Kit locus), and Opaque secondary fiber cell junctions, Opj, maps to the proximal region of Chromosome 16, 9.1 {+-} 1.5 cM distal to the marker md (mahoganoid). While there are no obvious candidate genes in the vicinity of the Ccw, Npp, and Opj mutations, To3 lies remarkably close to the recently mapped Lim2 locus, which encodes lens intrinsic membrane protein 2. also called MP19. 24 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  6. Comparison of Tropical Ozone from SHADOZ with Remote Sensing Retrievals from Suomi-npp Ozone Mapping Profile Suite (OMPS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witte, Jacquelyn C.; Thompson, Anne M.; Ziemke, Jerald R.; Wargan, Krzysztof

    2014-01-01

    The Ozone Mapping Profile Suite (OMPS) was launched October 28, 2011 on-board the Suomi NPP satellite (http://npp.gsfc.nasa.gov). OMPS is the next generation total column ozone mapping instrument for monitoring the global distribution of stratospheric ozone. OMPS includes a limb profiler to measure the vertical structure of stratosphere ozone down to the mid-troposphere. This study uses tropical ozonesonde profile measurements from the Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes (SHADOZ, http://croc.gsfc.nasa.gov/shadoz) archive to evaluate total column ozone retrievals from OMPS and concurrent measurements from the Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), the predecessor of OMPS with a data record going back to 2004. We include ten SHADOZ stations that contain data overlapping the OMPS time period (2012-2013). This study capitalizes on the ozone profile measurements from SHADOZ to evaluate OMPS limb profile retrievals. Finally, we use SHADOZ sondes and OMPS retrievals to examine the agreement with the GEOS-5 Ozone Assimilation System (GOAS). The GOAS uses data from the OMI and the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) to constrain the total column and stratospheric profiles of ozone. The most recent version of the assimilation system is well constrained to the total column compared with SHADOZ ozonesonde data.

  7. Remote monitoring of emission activity level from NPP using radiofrequencies 1420, 1665, 1667 MHz in real time.

    PubMed

    Kolotkov, Gennady; Penin, Sergei

    2013-01-01

    The Fukushima nuclear accident showed the importance of timely monitoring and detection of radioactive emissions released from enterprises of the nuclear fuel cycle. Nuclear power plants (NPP) working continuously are a stationary source of gas-aerosol emissions which presented in a ground surface layer persistently. Following radioactive emission, untypical effects can be observed, for example: the occurrences of areas with increased ionization, and increased concentration of some gases caused by photochemical reactions. The gases themselves and their characteristic radiation can be markers of radioactivity and can be monitored by a passive method. Hydrogen atom (H) and hydroxyl radical (OH) are formed in a radioactive plume by radiolysis of water molecules and other hydrogen-containing air components by the high energy electrons from beta-decay of radionuclides. The hydrogen atom and hydroxyl radical can spontaneously radiate at 1420 MHz and 1665-1667 MHz respectively. The passive method of remote monitoring of radiation levels using radio-frequencies of H and OH from radioactive emissions of NPP is described. The model data is indicative of the monitoring of radiation levels using these frequencies.

  8. The ectoenzyme E-NPP3 negatively regulates ATP-dependent chronic allergic responses by basophils and mast cells.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Shih Han; Kinoshita, Makoto; Kusu, Takashi; Kayama, Hisako; Okumura, Ryu; Ikeda, Kayo; Shimada, Yosuke; Takeda, Akira; Yoshikawa, Soichiro; Obata-Ninomiya, Kazushige; Kurashima, Yosuke; Sato, Shintaro; Umemoto, Eiji; Kiyono, Hiroshi; Karasuyama, Hajime; Takeda, Kiyoshi

    2015-02-17

    Crosslinking of the immunoglobulin receptor FcεRI activates basophils and mast cells to induce immediate and chronic allergic inflammation. However, it remains unclear how the chronic allergic inflammation is regulated. Here, we showed that ecto-nucleotide pyrophosphatase-phosphodiesterase 3 (E-NPP3), also known as CD203c, rapidly induced by FcεRI crosslinking, negatively regulated chronic allergic inflammation. Basophil and mast cell numbers increased in Enpp3(-/-) mice with augmented serum ATP concentrations. Enpp3(-/-) mice were highly sensitive to chronic allergic pathologies, which was reduced by ATP blockade. FcεRI crosslinking induced ATP secretion from basophils and mast cells, and ATP activated both cells. ATP clearance was impaired in Enpp3(-/-) cells. Enpp3(-/-)P2rx7(-/-) mice showed decreased responses to FcεRI crosslinking. Thus, ATP released by FcεRI crosslinking stimulates basophils and mast cells for further activation causing allergic inflammation. E-NPP3 decreases ATP concentration and suppresses basophil and mast cell activity. PMID:25692702

  9. Simulation of Loss of RHRS Sequences in the Almaraz NPP during Mid-loop Operation using TRACE Code

    SciTech Connect

    Queral, Cesar; Gonzalez, Isaac; Exposito, Antonio

    2006-07-01

    In the framework of different international and national projects sponsored by the Spanish nuclear regulatory body, Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear, and the energy industry of Spain, UNESA, one of the most important objectives is the maintenance and developing of Spanish NPP models for different codes, such as RELAP5 and TRACE. In this context, and due to the risk importance of the loss of RHRS at mid-loop conditions, our group has developed a mid-loop model of Almaraz NPP with the TRACE code. During this kind of transients the reflux condensation is one of the cooling mechanisms anticipated in the abnormal operational procedure of loss of RHRS at mid-loop level. In this sense, several simulations of loss of the RHRS are being performed attending to different plant states, such as primary closed or open (different path vents were considered), availability of steam generators, power levels, primary inventory and different secondary conditions. These parametric analyses allow us to check the capability of this cooling mechanism at different plant configurations and to apply them to the success criteria of the reflux condensation mechanism. (authors)

  10. The possibilities of applying a risk-oriented approach to the NPP reliability and safety enhancement problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komarov, Yu. A.

    2014-10-01

    An analysis and some generalizations of approaches to risk assessments are presented. Interconnection between different interpretations of the "risk" notion is shown, and the possibility of applying the fuzzy set theory to risk assessments is demonstrated. A generalized formulation of the risk assessment notion is proposed in applying risk-oriented approaches to the problem of enhancing reliability and safety in nuclear power engineering. The solution of problems using the developed risk-oriented approaches aimed at achieving more reliable and safe operation of NPPs is described. The results of studies aimed at determining the need (advisability) to modernize/replace NPP elements and systems are presented together with the results obtained from elaborating the methodical principles of introducing the repair concept based on the equipment technical state. The possibility of reducing the scope of tests and altering the NPP systems maintenance strategy is substantiated using the risk-oriented approach. A probabilistic model for estimating the validity of boric acid concentration measurements is developed.

  11. Cytogenetic indices in blood lymphocites of individuals from the staff working on new confinement buildining in Chornobyl NPP zone.

    PubMed

    Bezdrobna, L K; Tarasenko, L V; Tsyganok, T V; Melnyk, T V; Nosach, Yu O; Sushko, V O; Nechayv, S Yu; Shvayko, L I

    2014-09-01

    Objective. Сytogenetic indication of possible exposure of contracting staff individuals, performing work on dismantling the ventilation pipe of "Shelter" object of Chornobyl NPP (ShO). Materials and methods. Cytogenetic examination of 12 individuals among the employees of contractors performing work on dismantling the ventilation pipe of ShO was provided. For comparison individuals who had no contact with the radiation factors for the profession activity were examined. Routine analysis method of uniformly stained chromosomes of peripheral blood lymphocytes was used. 11 388 metaphase plates were analyzed. Results. In contracting staff mean group frequency of aberrant lymphocytes, chromosome (dicentrics, acentrics, abnormal monocentrics) and chromatide type aberrations is significantly higher than such frequency in the comparison group. Three staff persons had individual frequency of specific markers of exposure - dicentric chromosomes with accompanying fragments significantly higher than their mean population level and the average frequency in the comparison group. It indicates the probability of their excess radiation when working in Chornobyl NPP local zone. Cells with two chromosome exchanges and one multiaberrant cell were registered in staff with the absence of such in control persons. The calculated estimated radiation doses of two staff persons were 87-123 mGy and and one person 210-240 mGy of acute exposure respectively. Conclusion. Calculated by frequency of dicentric chromosomes tentative "biological" doses of three staff persons show a more significant radiation effect comparing to the data of physical dosimetry.

  12. Wettability of partially suspended graphene

    PubMed Central

    Ondarçuhu, Thierry; Thomas, Vincent; Nuñez, Marc; Dujardin, Erik; Rahman, Atikur; Black, Charles T.; Checco, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    The dependence of the wettability of graphene on the nature of the underlying substrate remains only partially understood. Here, we systematically investigate the role of liquid-substrate interactions on the wettability of graphene by varying the area fraction of suspended graphene from 0 to 95% by means of nanotextured substrates. We find that completely suspended graphene exhibits the highest water contact angle (85° ± 5°) compared to partially suspended or supported graphene, regardless of the hydrophobicity (hydrophilicity) of the substrate. Further, 80% of the long-range water-substrate interactions are screened by the graphene monolayer, the wettability of which is primarily determined by short-range graphene-liquid interactions. By its well-defined chemical and geometrical properties, supported graphene therefore provides a model system to elucidate the relative contribution of short and long range interactions to the macroscopic contact angle. PMID:27072195

  13. Partial stabilization-based guidance.

    PubMed

    Shafiei, M H; Binazadeh, T

    2012-01-01

    A novel nonlinear missile guidance law against maneuvering targets is designed based on the principles of partial stability. It is demonstrated that in a real approach which is adopted with actual situations, each state of the guidance system must have a special behavior and asymptotic stability or exponential stability of all states is not realistic. Thus, a new guidance law is developed based on the partial stability theorem in such a way that the behaviors of states in the closed-loop system are in conformity with a real guidance scenario that leads to collision. The performance of the proposed guidance law in terms of interception time and control effort is compared with the sliding mode guidance law by means of numerical simulations.

  14. Wettability of partially suspended graphene

    DOE PAGES

    Ondarçuhu, Thierry; Thomas, Vincent; Nuñez, Marc; Dujardin, Erik; Rahman, Atikur; Black, Charles T.; Checco, Antonio

    2016-04-13

    Dependence on the wettability of graphene on the nature of the underlying substrate remains only partially understood. We systematically investigate the role of liquid-substrate interactions on the wettability of graphene by varying the area fraction of suspended graphene from 0 to 95% by means of nanotextured substrates. We find that completely suspended graphene exhibits the highest water contact angle (85° ± 5°) compared to partially suspended or supported graphene, regardless of the hydrophobicity (hydrophilicity) of the substrate. Moreover, 80% of the long-range water-substrate interactions are screened by the graphene monolayer, the wettability of which is primarily determined by short-range graphene-liquidmore » interactions. By its well-defined chemical and geometrical properties, supported graphene therefore provides a model system to elucidate the relative contribution of short and long range interactions to the macroscopic contact angle.« less

  15. 31 CFR 100.11 - Exchange of bent and partial coins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... each category. Bent and partial coins shall be redeemed on the basis of their weight and denomination category rates (which is the weight equivalent of face value). If not presented separately by denomination... redeemed at the face value equivalent of copper one cent coins. (c) Redemption site. Bent and partial...

  16. Confirmatory Survey for the Partial Site Release at the ABB Inc. CE Winsor Site, Windsor, CT

    SciTech Connect

    W.C. Adams

    2008-06-27

    The objectives of the confirmatory surveys were to confirm that remedial actions had been effective in meeting established release criteria and that documentation accurately and adequately describes the final radiological conditions of the PSR Impacted Areas.

  17. Partial cambial mortality in high-elevation Pinus aristata (Pinaceae).

    PubMed

    Schauer, A J; Schoettle, A W; Boyce, R L

    2001-04-01

    Partial cambial mortality is a growth form that is characteristic of Pinus aristata trees. To better elucidate their cambial death pattern, tree size and aspect of cambial death data were gathered from three Pinus aristata forests in central Colorado, USA. Stripping frequency tended to be higher for larger diameter classes. Partial cambial mortality exhibits significant directionality within each stand. Furthermore, cambial death was measured to be most frequent on the wind-exposed side of stripped trees in two of the three study sites and appeared to be at the third. Data presented here support the hypothesis that wind plays a role in the occurrence of partial cambial mortality in Pinus aristata. The mechanisms by which wind causes cambial mortality remain unclear. PMID:11302850

  18. Flux-Based Site Management

    EPA Science Inventory

    Managing DNAPL contaminated sites continues to be among the most pressing environmental problems currently faced. In particular, the benefits of partial DNAPL mass depletion due to remedial activity are unclear. Recent work conducted by an inter-agency research team has been in...

  19. NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP) instrument characterization and calibration, and products validation: an integrated strategy in preparation for NPOESS new generation of environmental satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mango, Stephen A.; Murphy, Robert E.; Ouaidrari, Hassan; Menzel, W. Paul

    2003-04-01

    This paper presents the strategy designed by the government team, IPO and NASA, for the NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP) instrument characterization and calibration, and product validation, in preparation for the NPOESS operational system. NPP is a risk reduction mission for NPOESS, managed by the IPO and NASA. NPP will carry three (3) instruments, VIIRS, CrIS and ATMS, and an Instrument of Opportunity to be announced soon. Responsibilities will be shared between government and industry participants to ensure high performance at all system levels. This will include provision of the sensor pre-launch characterization and post-launch calibration procedures, definition of validation approaches for all NPP products, and identification of the resources and assets required to achieve these activities. This calibration and validation plan will benefit greatly from the validation efforts and infrastructure of several existing programs at the national and international scale. The synergy between the SSPR system integrator and the government team, IPO and NASA, will build the foundation for interactions that will lead to better sensors, better algorithms, and better ground data systems.

  20. NPP Saturation, Soil Acidification, and Phosphorus Limitation Caused by Nitrogen Enrichment-Meta Analysis of Manipulative Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, S.; Tian, D.; Li, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Increased reactive nitrogen (N) deposition is traditionally expected to increase net primary production (NPP), but continued retention of N deposition may saturate the ecosystem capacity to store N and cause some dark side effects on ecosystems, like soil acidification and the limitation of other nutrient. However, those dark side effects of nitrogen deposition have not been well quantified based on experimental evidences. We synthesized nitrogen deposition experiments in the world and conducted three meta-analysis studies. By compiling a dataset from 44 studies with at least three levels of N addition treatment, we found an universal saturation response of NPP to N addition gradient in terrestrial ecosystems. The N saturation threshold for NPP was at the N addition rates of 4-5 g m-2 yr-1 on average across all the ecosystems. However, ecosystem types and environmental factors largely impacted the saturation response patterns and the N thresholds. By synthesizing 106 studies that monitored soil pH and base cations under N enrichment, we quantified global soil acidification caused by N addition. On average, N addition significantly reduced soil pH by 0.26, but the magnitude varied with ecosystem types, N addition rate, N fertilization forms, and experimental durations. Environmental factors such as initial soil pH, soil carbon and nitrogen content, precipitation, and temperature all influenced the N responses of soil pH. Global soils are now at a buffering transition from base cations (Ca2+, Mg2+ and K+) to non-base cations (Mn2+ and Al3+). This calls our attention to care about the limitation of base cations and the toxic impact of non-base cations for terrestrial ecosystems with N deposition. By comparing the phosphorus limitation on biomass productions between the ambient and elevated N conditions, we found a stronger P limitation induced by N enrichment. Overall, the results indicate that the beneficial effect of N deposition on ecosystem productivity will

  1. Partial coalescence of soap bubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Daniel M.; Pucci, Giuseppe; Bush, John W. M.

    2015-11-01

    We present the results of an experimental investigation of the merger of a soap bubble with a planar soap film. When gently deposited onto a horizontal film, a bubble may interact with the underlying film in such a way as to decrease in size, leaving behind a smaller daughter bubble with approximately half the radius of its progenitor. The process repeats up to three times, with each partial coalescence event occurring over a time scale comparable to the inertial-capillary time. Our results are compared to the recent numerical simulations of Martin and Blanchette and to the coalescence cascade of droplets on a fluid bath.

  2. Studies, Transport and Treatment Concept for Boilers from Berkeley NPP, England - 13599

    SciTech Connect

    Wirendal, Bo; Saul, David; Robinson, Joe; Davidson, Gavin

    2013-07-01

    In November 2011 Studsvik was awarded a contract to transport five decommissioned boilers from the Berkeley Nuclear Licensed Site in the UK to the Studsvik Nuclear Site in Sweden for metal treatment and recycling. A key objective of the project was to remove the boilers from the site by 31 March 2012 and this was successfully achieved with all boilers off site by 22 March and delivered to Studsvik on 6 April. Four boilers have been processed and the fifth is planned for completion by end of December 2012.The project had many challenges including a very tight timescale and has been successfully delivered to cost and ahead of the baseline programme. This paper describes the project and the experience gained from treatment of the first four boilers. It is the first UK project to send large components overseas for recycling and provides new insight into the processing of Magnox gas-circuit components. (authors)

  3. Axial compression behavior and partial composite action of SC walls in safety-related nuclear facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Kai

    Steel-plate reinforced concrete (SC) composite walls typically consist of thick concrete walls with two exterior steel faceplates. The concrete core is sandwiched between the two steel faceplates, and the faceplates are attached to the concrete core using shear connectors, for example, ASTM A108 steel headed shear studs. The shear connectors and the concrete infill enhance the stability of the steel faceplates, and the faceplates serve as permanent formwork for concrete placement. SC composite walls were first introduced in the 1980's in Japan for nuclear power plant (NPP) structures. They are used in the new generation of nuclear power plants (GIII+) and being considered for small modular reactors (SMR) due to their structural efficiency, economy, safety, and construction speed. Steel faceplates can potentially undergo local buckling at certain locations of NPP structures where compressive forces are significant. The steel faceplates are usually thin (0.25 to 1.50 inches in Customary units, or 6.5 to 38 mm in SI units) to maintain economical and constructional efficiency, the geometric imperfections and locked-in stresses induced during construction make them more vulnerable to local buckling. Accidental thermal loading may also reduce the compressive strength and exacerbate the local buckling potential of SC composite walls. This dissertation presents the results from experimental and numerical investigations of the compressive behavior of SC composite walls at ambient and elevated temperatures. The results are used to establish a slenderness limit to prevent local buckling before yielding of the steel faceplates and to develop a design approach for calculating the compressive strength of SC composite walls with non-slender and slender steel faceplates at ambient and elevated temperatures. Composite action in SC walls is achieved by the embedment of shear connectors into the concrete core. The strength and stiffness of shear connectors govern the level of

  4. The influence of biotic and abiotic factors on (137)Cs accumulation in higher fungi after the accident at Chernobyl NPP.

    PubMed

    Zarubina, N

    2016-09-01

    Levels of soil contamination with (137)Cs, the belonging of fungi to a certain ecological group, the localization depth of the main part of mycelium in soil are the primary factors influencing the value of (137)Cs specific activity in higher fungi after the accident at Chernobyl NPP. It has been found that the value of (137)Cs specific activity in fungi of one species could vary by more than 10 times during a vegetation period. A correlation between the changes of (137)Cs content in fungi during the vegetation period and the amount of precipitates during various periods preceding the collection of samples has not been determined. An assumption has been proposed stating dependence between peculiarities of mycelium growth during the vegetation period and the changes of (137)Cs specific activity in fungi. PMID:26690320

  5. Performance of high resistivity n+pp+ silicon solar cells under 1 MeV electron irradiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinberg, I.; Goradia, C.; Swartz, C. K.; Hermann, A. M.

    1981-01-01

    High resistivity (1250 and 84 ohm-cm) n(+)pp(+) silicon solar cells were irradiated and their performance evaluated as a function of fluence. The greatest degradation in power occurred for the higher resistivity cell. The data were analyzed under open circuit conditions, and the components of V sub oc determined as a function of fluence. It was found that the voltage contributions from the front and back junctions decreased while the base component (V sub B) increased with fluence. The anomalous behavior of V sub B was attributed to an increase in the base minority carrier gradient with fluence. An argument that the increased power degradation in the 1250 ohm-cm cells was attributable to an increased voltage drop in the base is presented. Diffusion lengths calculated under high injection conditions were significantly greater than those determined under low injection. This was attributed to a saturation of recombination centers under high injection conditions.

  6. The influence of biotic and abiotic factors on (137)Cs accumulation in higher fungi after the accident at Chernobyl NPP.

    PubMed

    Zarubina, N

    2016-09-01

    Levels of soil contamination with (137)Cs, the belonging of fungi to a certain ecological group, the localization depth of the main part of mycelium in soil are the primary factors influencing the value of (137)Cs specific activity in higher fungi after the accident at Chernobyl NPP. It has been found that the value of (137)Cs specific activity in fungi of one species could vary by more than 10 times during a vegetation period. A correlation between the changes of (137)Cs content in fungi during the vegetation period and the amount of precipitates during various periods preceding the collection of samples has not been determined. An assumption has been proposed stating dependence between peculiarities of mycelium growth during the vegetation period and the changes of (137)Cs specific activity in fungi.

  7. Lunar Polar Landing Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamps, Oscar; Foing, Bernard H.; Flahaut, Jessica

    2016-07-01

    An important step for a scientific mission is to assess on where the mission should be conducted. This study on landing site selection focuses on a mission to the poles of the Moon where an in-situ mission should be conducted to answer the questions with respect to volatiles and ices. The European interest for a mission to the poles of the Moon is presented in the mission concept called Heracles. This mission would be a tele-operated, sample return mission where astronauts will controlling a rover from an Orion capsule in cislunar orbit. The primary selection of landing sites was based on the scientific interest of areas near the poles. The maximum temperature map from Diviner was used to select sites where CO^2¬ should always be stable. This means that the maximum temperature is lower than 54K which is the sublimation temperature for CO^2¬ in lunar atmospheric pressure. Around these areas 14 potential regions of interest were selected. Further selection was based on the epoch of the surface in these regions of interest. It was thought that it would be of high scientific value if sites are sampled which have another epoch than already sampled by one of the Apollo or Luna missions. Only 6 sites on both North as South Pole could contain stable CO^2 ¬and were older than (Pre-)Necterian. Before a landing site and rover traverse was planned these six sites were compared on their accessibility of the areas which could contain stable CO^2. It was assumed that slope lower than 20^o is doable to rove. Eventually Amundsen and Rozhdestvenskiy West were selected as regions of interest. Assumptions for selecting landing sites was that area should have a slope lower than 5^o, a diameter of 1km, in partial illuminated area, and should not be isolated but inside an area which is in previous steps marked as accessible area to rove. By using multiple tools in ArcGIS it is possible to present the area's which were marked as potential landing sites. The closest potential landing

  8. River Ice and Flood Detection Products Derived from Suomi NPP VIIRS Satellite Data to Support Hydrologic Forecast Operations in Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Breukelen, C. M.; Plumb, E. W.; Li, S.; Holloway, E.; Stevens, E.

    2015-12-01

    A lack of river ice data during spring break-up in Alaska creates many forecast challenges for National Weather Service (NWS) forecasters. Limited and infrequent ice conditions and flood observations are provided by river observers, community officials, and pilots. Although these observations are invaluable, there are extensive spatial and temporal data gaps across Alaska during spring break-up. The Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) satellite imagery has proved to be an extremely beneficial situational awareness and decision support tool for NWS forecast operations. In particular, the VIIRS satellite imagery became highly effective in identifying extensive flooding of many Alaskan rivers due to ice jams during the 2013 spring breakup season. A devastating ice jam flood in the Yukon River community of Galena prompted the development of river ice and flood detection products derived from the VIIRS satellite imagery with the support of the Joint Polar Satellite System/Proving Ground and Risk Reduction (JPSS/PGRR) Program. The two new products from S-NPP/VIIRS imagery provided critical decision making information to NWS forecasters responsible for issuing flood warnings for the region. Since 2013, the NWS continues to evaluate the use of these products in an operational forecast setting, and has expanded the evaluation period to include summertime flooding. There are limitations of these products due to cloud cover, sun zenith angles, product validation, and other issues unique to Alaska. The NWS will continue to provide feedback to the JPSS/PGRR Program in order to further refine and improve the algorithms used to create the river ice and flood detection products. This presentation will demonstrate how these products have been integrated into the NWS forecast process for several types of flood events in Alaska.

  9. Sensor-centric calibration and characterization of the VIIRS Ocean Color bands using Suomi NPP operational data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pratt, P.

    2012-12-01

    Ocean color bands on VIIRS span the visible spectrum and include two NIR bands. There are sixteen detectors per band and two HAM (Half-angle mirror) sides giving a total of thirty two independent systems. For each scan, thirty two hundred pixels are collected and each has a fixed specific optical path and a dynamic position relative to the earth geoid. For a given calibration target where scene variation is minimized, sensor characteristics can be observed. This gives insight into the performance and calibration of the instrument from a sensor-centric perspective. Calibration of the blue bands is especially challenging since there are few blue targets on land. An ocean region called the South Pacific Gyre (SPG) was chosen for its known stability and large area to serve as a calibration target for this investigation. Thousands of pixels from every granule that views the SPG are collected daily through an automated system and tabulated along with the detector, HAM and scan position. These are then collated and organized in a sensor-centric set of tables. The data are then analyzed by slicing by each variable and then plotted in a number of ways over time. Trends in the data show that the VIIRS sensor is largely behaving as expected according to heritage data and also reveals weaknesses where additional characterization of the sensor is possible. This work by Northrop Grumman NPP CalVal Team is supporting the VIIRS on-orbit calibration and validation teams for the sensor and ocean color as well as providing scientists interested in performing ground truth with results that show which detectors and scan angles are the most reliable over time. This novel approach offers a comprehensive sensor-centric on-orbit characterization of the VIIRS instrument on the NASA Suomi NPP mission.

  10. Partial coalescence of soap bubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pucci, G.; Harris, D. M.; Bush, J. W. M.

    2015-06-01

    We present the results of an experimental investigation of the merger of a soap bubble with a planar soap film. When gently deposited onto a horizontal film, a bubble may interact with the underlying film in such a way as to decrease in size, leaving behind a smaller daughter bubble with approximately half the radius of its progenitor. The process repeats up to three times, with each partial coalescence event occurring over a time scale comparable to the inertial-capillary time. Our results are compared to the recent numerical simulations of Martin and Blanchette ["Simulations of surfactant effects on the dynamics of coalescing drops and bubbles," Phys. Fluids 27, 012103 (2015)] and to the coalescence cascade of droplets on a fluid bath.

  11. Partial Return Yoke for MICE

    SciTech Connect

    Witte H.; Plate, S

    2013-05-03

    The international Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) is a large scale experiment which is presently assembled at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory in Didcot, UK. The purpose of MICE is to demonstrate the concept of ionization cooling experimentally. Ionization cooling is an important accelerator concept which will be essential for future HEP experiments such as a potential Muon Collider or a Neutrino Factory. The MICE experiment will house up to 18 superconducting solenoids, all of which produce a substantial amount of magnetic flux. Recently it was realized that this magnetic flux leads to a considerable stray magnetic field in the MICE hall. This is a concern as technical equipment in the MICE hall may may be compromised by this. In July 2012 a concept called partial return yoke was presented to the MICE community, which reduces the stray field in the MICE hall to a safe level. This report summarizes the general concept, engineering considerations and the expected shielding performance.

  12. Compatibility and Conjugacy on Partial Arrays

    PubMed Central

    Sasikala, K.

    2016-01-01

    Research in combinatorics on words goes back a century. Berstel and Boasson introduced the partial words in the context of gene comparison. Alignment of two genes can be viewed as a construction of two partial words that are said to be compatible. In this paper, we examine to which extent the fundamental properties of partial words such as compatbility and conjugacy remain true for partial arrays. This paper studies a relaxation of the compatibility relation called k-compability. It also studies k-conjugacy of partial arrays. PMID:27774111

  13. Study on the Application of Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Analysis for the Nuclear Power Plant Site in Korean Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhee, H. M.; Kim, M.; Sheen, D. H.; Choi, I. K.

    2014-12-01

    The necessity of study on the tsunami hazard assessment for Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) site was suggested since the event of Fukushima in 2011 had been occurred. It has being emphasized because all of the NPPs in Korean Peninsula are located in coastal region. The tsunami hazard is regarded as the annual exceedance probability for the wave heights. The methodology for analysis of tsunami hazard is based on the seismic hazard analysis. The seismic hazard analysis had been performed by using both deterministic and probabilistic method. Recently, the probabilistic method had been received more attention than the deterministic method because the uncertainties of hazard analysis could be considered by using the logic tree approach. In this study, the probabilistic tsunami hazard analysis for Uljin NPP site was performed by using the information of fault sources which was published by Atomic Energy Society of Japan (AESJ). The wave parameter is the most different parameter with seismic hazard. It could be estimated from the results of tsunami propagation analysis. The TSUNAMI_ver1.0 which was developed by Japan nuclear energy safety organization (JNES), was used for the tsunami simulation. The 80 cases tsunami simulations were performed and then the wave parameters were estimated. For reducing the sensitivity which was encouraged by location of sampling point, the wave parameters were estimated from group of sampling points.The probability density function on the tsunami height was computed by using the recurrence intervals and the wave parameters. And then the exceedance probability distribution was calculated from the probability density function. The tsunami hazards for the sampling groups were calculated. The fractile curves which were shown the uncertainties of input parameters were estimated from the hazards by using the round-robin algorithm. In general, tsunami hazard analysis is focused on the maximum wave heights. But the minimum wave height should be considered

  14. Organization of radio-ecological monitoring of the areas of the Russian Federation contaminated due to the accident at the Chernobyl NPP (on example of the Bryansk region)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linnik, Vitaly; Korobova, Elena; Vakulovsky, Sergey

    2013-04-01

    A severe accident at the Chernobyl NPP on April 26th, 1986 has led to radioactive contamination of many regions of the former USSR, now belonging to the Ukraine, the Republic of Belarus and the Russian Federation. Both natural and arable ecosystems have been subjected to fallout of radioactive isotopes. However both the distribution of radionuclides that define radioecological situation has depended not only on the initial contamination density but also on the landscape geochemical features of the areas controlling biogenic and abiogenic factors of radionuclide migration. To study and monitor peculiarities of migration of the most radioecologically significant radionuclides of Cs-137 and Sr-90 in different natural landscapes the Russian Scientific and Practical Experimental Center of the former State Chernobyl Committee has organized in 1992 a network of experimental plots in the most contaminated western part of the Bryansk region. It included 19 plots 100 m x 100 m in size which characterized 8 meadow and 11 forested catenas in the basin of the Iput' river. Cs-137 contamination level of the plots varied in 1992 from 740 kBq/m2 to 1850 kBq/m2. Although the study site has been located in the remote zone and the contamination was of condensation type the sampling performed at 11 plots registered some refractory radionuclides (144Ce, 154Eu, 238,239,240Pu and 90Sr) that proved the presence of fuel particles in fallout as far as 200 km from the damaged reactors. The sampling and monitoring scheme was organized to determine: the isotopic composition and contamination density of the plots; 2) estimation of radionuclide vertical and lateral migration; 3) evaluation of radionuclide inventories in different soil horizons; 4) calculation of radionuclide transfer in soil-plant system. Radiation measurements included field gamma-spectrometry using collimated gamma spectrometer "Corad" developed in the Kurchatov Institute and laboratory spectrometry the soil and plant samples

  15. Ammonia Measurements by the NASA Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) and the NPP Suomi Cross-Track Infrared Sounder (CrIS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cady-Pereira, K. E.; Shephard, M. W.; Henze, D. K.; Zhu, J.; Pinder, R. W.; Bash, J. O.; Walker, J. T.; Luo, M.

    2013-12-01

    Ammonia is highly reactive, with concurrent high spatial and temporal variability; it can play a key role in determining air quality through its part in the formation of PM2.5 particles. Deposition of NH3 also impacts water quality. With increased fertilizer use and rising temperatures ammonia concentrations are expected to increase significantly over India and China. Nevertheless in situ measurements are sparse, especially in areas beyond North America and Europe. The air quality community has a pressing need for global information on the diurnal and seasonal cycles as well as the distribution and strength of the ammonia sources. Measurements from satellites can provide this information. An advanced optimal estimation algorithm has been developed to retrieve NH3 from the TES instrument flying on the AURA satellite and ammonia is currently a standard TES operational product, available at http://avdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/index.php?site=635564035&id=10&go=list&path=/NH3. A similar retrieval is at the prototyping stage for the CrIS instrument. We will first provide a short summary of the characteristics of TES retrieved ammonia, discuss the distinct characteristics of point and satellite measurements and illustrate how information from the latter is related to the former. We will then present results from comparisons with in situ measurements. Specifically, we will compare TES NH3 with surface measurements in North Carolina and China, and examine the trend in NH3 over China; we will also compare TES NH3 with surface and aircraft measurements in the San Joaquin Valley in California, during both the CalNex and DISCOVER-AQ campaigns. We will present results from the application of inverse methods using TES ammonia to constrain model emissions, an area of research that has showcased the value provided by satellite data. Finally, we will demonstrate the potential of a sensor with TES characteristics on a geostationary platform to provide data with quality sufficient to evaluate

  16. Value siting

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrar, T.A.; Howes, J.A.

    1995-02-01

    Finding an appropriate site is becoming an increasing challenge in building new power projects. One of the first orders of business in project development is identifying a site that offers the maximum spread between the cost of fuel and net power price. The collection of sites that exhibit an adequate spread - presenting a first-order, acceptable economic expectation - must now be subjected to an ever increasing number of political, societal, technical, and economic exclusion screens. The barriers can include cooling water constraints, community resistance, visual incompatibility, archaeological concerns and endangered species preservation issues. Most power siting difficulties can be substantially mitigated by gaining access to developed, but under-used sites, whose current owners are bound by circumstances - political or financial - that prevent them from using such locations. There are two such categories of sites: Utilities that have sites on which depreciated power production assets rest; and, The federal government, with numerous sites throughout the country, particularly military bases subject to closure under the Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC) proceedings. It is in the interests of developers, as well as consumers, investors and taxpayers, ti undertake a thorough examination of these overlooked pearls of opportunities and develop their potential.

  17. Climate Change Response of Ocean Net Primary Production (NPP) and Export Production (EP) Regulated by Stratification Increases in The CMIP5 models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, W.; Randerson, J. T.; Moore, J. K.

    2014-12-01

    Ocean warming due to rising atmospheric CO2 has increasing impacts on ocean ecosystems by modifying the ecophysiology and distribution of marine organisms, and by altering ocean circulation and stratification. We explore ocean NPP and EP changes at the global scale with simulations performed in the framework of the fifth Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project (CMIP5). Global NPP and EP are reduced considerably by the end of the century for the representative concentration pathway (RCP) 8.5 scenario, although models differ in their significantly in their direct temperature impacts on production and remineralization. The Earth system models used here project similar NPP trends albeit the magnitudes vary substantially. In general, projected changes in the 2090s for NPP range between -2.3 to -16.2% while export production reach -7 to -18% relative to 1990s. This is accompanied by increased stratification by 17-30%. Results indicate that globally reduced NPP is closely related to increased ocean stratification (R2=0.78). This is especially the case for global export production, that seems to be mostly controlled by the increased stratification (R2=0.95). We also identify phytoplankton community impacts on these patterns, that vary across the models. The negative response of NPP to climate change may be through bottom-up control, leading to a reduced capacity of oceans to regulate climate through the biological carbon pump. There are large disagreements among the CMIP5 models in terms of simulated nutrient and oxygen concentrations for the 1990s, and their trends over time with climate change. In addition, potentially important marine biogeochemical feedbacks on the climate system were not well represented in the CMIP5 models, including important feedbacks with aerosol deposition and the marine iron cycle, and feedbacks involving the oxygen minimum zones and the marine nitrogen cycle. Thus, these substantial reductions in primary productivity and export production over

  18. Modeling the Impact of Hydraulic Redistribution on Carbon Cycles Using CLM4.5 at Eight AmeriFlux Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, C.; Wang, G.; Cardon, Z. G.

    2014-12-01

    Hydraulic redistribution (HR) has significant impacts on the terrestrial hydrological, biogeochemical, and ecological processes. Accurate modeling of HR and its impact on vegetation growth and ecosystem carbon dynamics is important for accurate simulation of regional and global carbon cycles. However, how HR influences plant, soil carbon and nitrogen dynamics remains poorly understood. In this study, we incorporate a simple HR scheme into the Community Land Model Version 4.5 (CLM4.5) including the biogeochemical model BGC. We use the modified CLM4.5-BGC model to investigate the impact of HR on the terrestrial carbon cycle at eight AmeriFlux sites where HR was detected from soil moisture measurements: a Douglas-fir site (US-Wrc) in Washington State with a Mediterranean climate, a savanna site (US-SRM) in Arizona with a semi-arid climate, and six sites along the Southern California Climate Gradient with a Mediterranean climate, with coverage of coastal sage (US-SCs), grassland (US-SCg), oak/pine forest (US-SCf), pinyon and juniper woodland (US-SCw), desert chaparral (US-SCc), and desert perennials and annuals (US-SCd). Monitored net ecosystem exchange of carbon (NEE) at the US-Wrc, US-SRM, and US-SCf sites, is used in model calibration and HR sensitivity analysis. Preliminary results from the model indicate that HR tends to increase net primary production (NPP) during dry periods and increase leaf area index (LAI) throughout the year at the US-Wrc site, while HR increased NPP and LAI during growing season and reduced NPP and LAI during dry periods at the US-SCs and US-SCg sites, with corresponding modifications to carbon storage in soil layers and in plant leaf, stem, and root carbon pools. The biogeochemical processes leading to these effects will be analyzed and presented.

  19. Intersexual partial diploids of phycomyces.

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, B J; Cerdá-Olmedo, E

    2001-01-01

    Sexual interaction between strains of opposite sex in many fungi of the order Mucorales modifies hyphal morphology and increases the carotene content. The progeny of crosses of Phycomyces blakesleeanus usually include a small proportion of anomalous segregants that show these signs of sexual stimulation without a partner. We have analyzed the genetic constitution of such segregants from crosses that involved a carF mutation for overaccumulation of beta-carotene and other markers. The new strains were diploids or partial diploids heterozygous for the sex markers. Diploidy was unknown in this fungus and in the Zygomycetes. Random chromosome losses during the vegetative growth of the diploid led to heterokaryosis in the coenocytic mycelia and eventually to sectors of various tints and mating behavior. The changes in the nuclear composition of the mycelia could be followed by selecting for individual nuclei. The results impose a reinterpretation of the sexual cycle of Phycomyces. Some of the intersexual strains that carried the carF mutation contained 25 mg beta-carotene per gram of dry mass and were sufficiently stable for practical use in carotene production. PMID:11404328

  20. GLSMs for partial flag manifolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donagi, Ron; Sharpe, Eric

    2008-12-01

    In this paper we outline some aspects of nonabelian gauged linear sigma models. First, we review how partial flag manifolds (generalizing Grassmannians) are described physically by nonabelian gauged linear sigma models, paying attention to realizations of tangent bundles and other aspects pertinent to (0, 2) models. Second, we review constructions of Calabi-Yau complete intersections within such flag manifolds, and properties of the gauged linear sigma models. We discuss a number of examples of nonabelian GLSMs in which the Kähler phases are not birational, and in which at least one phase is realized in some fashion other than as a complete intersection, extending previous work of Hori-Tong. We also review an example of an abelian GLSM exhibiting the same phenomenon. We tentatively identify the mathematical relationship between such non-birational phases, as examples of Kuznetsov's homological projective duality. Finally, we discuss linear sigma model moduli spaces in these gauged linear sigma models. We argue that the moduli spaces being realized physically by these GLSMs are precisely Quot and hyperquot schemes, as one would expect mathematically.

  1. The Influences of Drought and Land-Cover Conversion on Inter-Annual Variation of NPP in the Three-North Shelterbelt Program Zone of China Based on MODIS Data

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chaoyang; Zhang, Bing; Huete, Alfredo; Zhang, Xiaoyang; Sun, Rui; Lei, Liping; Huang, Wenjing; Liu, Liangyun; Liu, Xinjie; Li, Jun; Luo, Shezhou; Fang, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Terrestrial ecosystems greatly contribute to carbon (C) emission reduction targets through photosynthetic C uptake.Net primary production (NPP) represents the amount of atmospheric C fixed by plants and accumulated as biomass. The Three-North Shelterbelt Program (TNSP) zone accounts for more than 40% of China’s landmass. This zone has been the scene of several large-scale ecological restoration efforts since the late 1990s, and has witnessed significant changes in climate and human activities.Assessing the relative roles of different causal factors on NPP variability in TNSP zone is very important for establishing reasonable local policies to realize the emission reduction targets for central government. In this study, we examined the relative roles of drought and land cover conversion(LCC) on inter-annual changes of TNSP zone for 2001–2010. We applied integrated correlation and decomposition analyses to a Standardized Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) and MODIS land cover dataset. Our results show that the 10-year average NPP within this region was about 420 Tg C. We found that about 60% of total annual NPP over the study area was significantly correlated with SPEI (p<0.05). The LCC-NPP relationship, which is especially evident for forests in the south-central area, indicates that ecological programs have a positive impact on C sequestration in the TNSP zone. Decomposition analysis generally indicated that the contributions of LCC, drought, and other Natural or Anthropogenic activities (ONA) to changes in NPP generally had a consistent distribution pattern for consecutive years. Drought and ONA contributed about 74% and 23% to the total changes in NPP, respectively, and the remaining 3% was attributed to LCC. Our results highlight the importance of rainfall supply on NPP variability in the TNSP zone. PMID:27348303

  2. The Influences of Drought and Land-Cover Conversion on Inter-Annual Variation of NPP in the Three-North Shelterbelt Program Zone of China Based on MODIS Data.

    PubMed

    Peng, Dailiang; Wu, Chaoyang; Zhang, Bing; Huete, Alfredo; Zhang, Xiaoyang; Sun, Rui; Lei, Liping; Huang, Wenjing; Liu, Liangyun; Liu, Xinjie; Li, Jun; Luo, Shezhou; Fang, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Terrestrial ecosystems greatly contribute to carbon (C) emission reduction targets through photosynthetic C uptake.Net primary production (NPP) represents the amount of atmospheric C fixed by plants and accumulated as biomass. The Three-North Shelterbelt Program (TNSP) zone accounts for more than 40% of China's landmass. This zone has been the scene of several large-scale ecological restoration efforts since the late 1990s, and has witnessed significant changes in climate and human activities.Assessing the relative roles of different causal factors on NPP variability in TNSP zone is very important for establishing reasonable local policies to realize the emission reduction targets for central government. In this study, we examined the relative roles of drought and land cover conversion(LCC) on inter-annual changes of TNSP zone for 2001-2010. We applied integrated correlation and decomposition analyses to a Standardized Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) and MODIS land cover dataset. Our results show that the 10-year average NPP within this region was about 420 Tg C. We found that about 60% of total annual NPP over the study area was significantly correlated with SPEI (p<0.05). The LCC-NPP relationship, which is especially evident for forests in the south-central area, indicates that ecological programs have a positive impact on C sequestration in the TNSP zone. Decomposition analysis generally indicated that the contributions of LCC, drought, and other Natural or Anthropogenic activities (ONA) to changes in NPP generally had a consistent distribution pattern for consecutive years. Drought and ONA contributed about 74% and 23% to the total changes in NPP, respectively, and the remaining 3% was attributed to LCC. Our results highlight the importance of rainfall supply on NPP variability in the TNSP zone. PMID:27348303

  3. The Influences of Drought and Land-Cover Conversion on Inter-Annual Variation of NPP in the Three-North Shelterbelt Program Zone of China Based on MODIS Data.

    PubMed

    Peng, Dailiang; Wu, Chaoyang; Zhang, Bing; Huete, Alfredo; Zhang, Xiaoyang; Sun, Rui; Lei, Liping; Huang, Wenjing; Liu, Liangyun; Liu, Xinjie; Li, Jun; Luo, Shezhou; Fang, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Terrestrial ecosystems greatly contribute to carbon (C) emission reduction targets through photosynthetic C uptake.Net primary production (NPP) represents the amount of atmospheric C fixed by plants and accumulated as biomass. The Three-North Shelterbelt Program (TNSP) zone accounts for more than 40% of China's landmass. This zone has been the scene of several large-scale ecological restoration efforts since the late 1990s, and has witnessed significant changes in climate and human activities.Assessing the relative roles of different causal factors on NPP variability in TNSP zone is very important for establishing reasonable local policies to realize the emission reduction targets for central government. In this study, we examined the relative roles of drought and land cover conversion(LCC) on inter-annual changes of TNSP zone for 2001-2010. We applied integrated correlation and decomposition analyses to a Standardized Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) and MODIS land cover dataset. Our results show that the 10-year average NPP within this region was about 420 Tg C. We found that about 60% of total annual NPP over the study area was significantly correlated with SPEI (p<0.05). The LCC-NPP relationship, which is especially evident for forests in the south-central area, indicates that ecological programs have a positive impact on C sequestration in the TNSP zone. Decomposition analysis generally indicated that the contributions of LCC, drought, and other Natural or Anthropogenic activities (ONA) to changes in NPP generally had a consistent distribution pattern for consecutive years. Drought and ONA contributed about 74% and 23% to the total changes in NPP, respectively, and the remaining 3% was attributed to LCC. Our results highlight the importance of rainfall supply on NPP variability in the TNSP zone.

  4. Radioecologycal study of {sup 239/240}Pu in Bangka Island and Muria Peninsula: Determination of {sup 239/240}Pu in marine sediment and seawater as part of baseline data collecting for sitting of candidates of first Indonesia NPP

    SciTech Connect

    Suseno, Heny; Wisnubroto, Djarot S.

    2014-03-24

    Radioisotope Pu-239/240 are alpha emitting nuclides important indicators of radioactive contamination of the marine environment. Global fallout is the main source of plutonium in the marine environment. There are very limited study on {sup 239/240}Pu in Indonesia coastal environments. The data of this radioisotopes is needed for baseline data of nuclear power plant (NPP) site candidates both in Bangka Island and Muria Peninsula. Bottom sediments play an important role in radioecological studies of the marine environment because a large proportion of radioactive substances entering the sea is adsorbed over time onto suspended particulate matter and deposited in sediments. Plutonium is particle reactive and deposited in marine sediment. Radioisotope {sup 239/240}Pu was determinated by alpha spectrometry after radiochemical procedure that was performed in both water and marine sediment from Bangka Island and Muria Peninsula. The sediment baseline of concentration {sup 239/240}Pu in Bangka Island and Muria Peninsula were range from 0.013 to 0.021 Bq.kg{sup −1} and 0.018 to 0.024 Bq.kg{sup −1} respectively. The water baseline concentration this isotope were range from 2.73 to 4.05 mBq.m{sup −3} and 2.98 to 4.50 mBq.m{sup −3}.

  5. [Cytogenetic effects in Scots pine populations from the Briansk region contaminated by radioactive pollutants as a result of the Chernobyl NPP accident].

    PubMed

    Geras'kin, S A; Dikareva, N S; Udalova, A A; Spiridonov, S I; Dikarev, V G

    2008-01-01

    Aberrant cell frequency in root meristem of germinated seeds collected from four populations of Scots pine in the Bryansk Region that was radioactively contaminated as a result of the accident at the Chernobyl NPP in 1986 significantly exceeded the control level durring all three years of study (2003-2005). An analysis of cytogenetic disturbances occurrence in dependence on radiation situation characteristics such as 137Cs and 90Sr content in pine cones, 137Cs specific activity in soil, and calculated doses absorbed by pine tree generative organs shows an increase in biological effect with dose burden increasing. Findings obtained are in agreement with the results of our previous studies on cytogenetic effects induction in Scots pine populations experiencing chronic radiation (the 30-km zone of the ChNPP) and technogenic (a radioactive waste reprocessing facility) impact.

  6. 20% PARTIAL SIBERIAN SNAKE IN THE AGS.

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, H; Bai, M; Brown, K A; Glenn, W; Luccio, A U; Mackay, W W; Montag, C; Ptitsyn, V; Roser, T; Tsoupas, N; Zeno, K; Ranjbar, V; Spinka, H; Underwood, D

    2002-11-06

    An 11.4% partial Siberian snake was used to successfully accelerate polarized proton through a strong intrinsic depolarizing spin resonance in the AGS. No noticeable depolarization was observed. This opens up the possibility of using a 20% to 30% partial Siberian snake in the AGS to overcome all weak and strong depolarizing spin resonances. Some design and operation issues of the new partial Siberian snake are discussed.

  7. Quantum states with strong positive partial transpose

    SciTech Connect

    Chruscinski, Dariusz; Jurkowski, Jacek; Kossakowski, Andrzej

    2008-02-15

    We construct a large class of bipartite M x N quantum states which defines a proper subset of states with positive partial transposes (PPTs). Any state from this class has PPT but the positivity of its partial transposition is recognized with respect to canonical factorization of the original density operator. We propose to call elements from this class states with strong positive partial transposes (SPPTs). We conjecture that all SPPT states are separable.

  8. REVIEW OF PRACTICE FOR DEEPLY EMBEDDED/BURIED NPP STRUCTURES SUBJECT TO SEISMIC LOADINGS.

    SciTech Connect

    XU,J.HOFMAYER,C.MILLER,C.GRAVES,H.

    2004-03-24

    Motivated by many design considerations, several conceptual designs for advanced reactors have proposed that the entire reactor building and a significant portion of the steam generator building will be either partially or completely embedded below grade. For the analysis of seismic events, the soil-structure interaction (SSI) effect and passive earth pressure for these types of deeply embedded structures will have a significant influence on the predicted seismic response. Sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is carrying out a research program to assess the significance of these proposed design features for advanced reactors, and to evaluate the existing analytical methods to determine their applicability and adequacy in capturing the seismic behavior of the proposed designs. This paper summarizes a literature review performed by BNL to determine the state of knowledge and practice for seismic analyses of deeply embedded and/or buried (DEB) nuclear containment type structures. Included in the paper is BNL's review of the open literature of existing standards, tests, and practices that have been used in the design and analysis of DEB structures. The paper also provides BNL's evaluation of available codes and guidelines with respect to seismic design practice of DEB structures. Based on BNL's review, a discussion is provided to highlight the applicability of the existing technologies for seismic analyses of DEB structures and to identify gaps that may exist in knowledge and potential issues that may require better understanding and further research.

  9. EVALUATION OF SEISMIC INDUCED WALL PRESSURES FOR DEEPLY EMBEDDED NPP STRUCTURES.

    SciTech Connect

    XU, J.; MILLER, C.; COSTANTINO, C.; HOFMAYER, C.; GRAVES, H.

    2005-03-30

    The extent to which finite element models of partially buried nuclear power plant structures may be used to compute seismic induced wall pressures is investigated in this paper. Stresses in three dimensional finite elements modeling the soil adjacent to the structure are used and stresses in these elements are used to evaluate wall pressures. Depths of burial of the structure varying from 1/4 to 1 times the height of the structure are considered. The SASSI computer code is used to perform the analyses. The wall pressures for the shallower depths of burial are found to depend on the inertial interaction loads, while the pressures for the deeper embedded structures are found to depend on kinematic interaction loads. The input ground motion for the study has a ZPA equal to 0.3 g. The maximum wall pressures are examined to determine whether non linear effects (separation of the wall and soil or slippage of the soil relative to the wall) are important. Non-linear effects are found to occur for depths of burial less than one half of the height and are found to occur over one half of the buried depth.

  10. Radio-cesium accumulation during decomposition of leaf litter in a deciduous forest after the Fukushima NPP accident.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneko, Nobuhiro; Huang, Yao; Nakamori, Taizo; Tanaka, Yoichiro; Nonaka, Masanori

    2013-04-01

    Fukusima NPP accident contaminated vast area in eastern Japan with radio isotopes. Most of the area is covered by natural and plantation forest. The forest floor in deciduous forests, and canopy of evergreen forest were most contaminated by fall out. Radio-cesium is known to stay bioavailable in forest ecosystems for long time, and it is necessary to cut the cycling process to decontaminate the forest ecosystem. Ecological process to recycle radio-Cs in forest ecosystem should be studied to enhance decontamination of radio-Cs. Mushrooms show high concentration of Cs. Although mushroom biomass in a forest ecosystem is small, fungal mycelium in detritus and soil is large, thus fungi contain substantial amount of radio-Cs. It is well known that concentration of some nutrients, such as nitrogen and phosphorus, increase, whereas potassium decreases during the leaf litter decomposition. We observed radio-Cs concentration of leaf litter during decomposition on a forest floor where 134-Cs and 137-Cs of surface soil were 5,700, and 6,800 Bq/kg, respectively. We put 16 g (dry weight) of newly fallen mixed deciduous leaf litter (half of which was oak, Quercus serrata) into 25 cm x 25 cm litter bag (2 mm mesh size) in a deciduous forest about 50 km from Fukushima NPP. Fresh litter 137-Cs concentration was ca. 1,000 Bq/kg in December 2011. During the decomposition process on the forest floor, litter Cs increased exponentially and exceeded 10,000 Bq/kg after 6 months, indicating that Cs and K show contrasting dynamics during early decomposition phase. Increase in fungal biomass in the early stage of litter decomposition was observed. Therefore, this upward movement of Cs from humus and soil layer suggests fungal translocation of nutrients from outside of litter substrate. Retrieving the litter after 6 months can remove 18.0% of 134-Cs. Interaction between fungal species, grazing effect on fungi by fungivorous invertebrates will change the amount of translocation of radio-Cs from

  11. Consistent High-Quality Global SO2 and HCHO Datasets from EOS Aura/OMI and Suomi NPP/OMPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, C.; Joiner, J.; Krotkov, N. A.; Fioletov, V.; McLinden, C. A.; Zhang, Y.

    2015-12-01

    We report on recent effort and progress at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center in developing consistent SO2 and HCHO retrieval products from Aura/Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) and Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP)/Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite (OMPS) nadir mapper. Given the substantial differences between OMI and OMPS in several key aspects, such as spatial and spectral resolution and signal-to-noise ratio, a major challenge in ensuring data continuity between the two instruments is to properly account for different instrument characteristics as well as instruments' degradation over time. To this end, we have developed an innovative approach based on principal component analysis (PCA) of measured Earthshine radiances. We utilize a PCA technique to extract a series of spectral features (principal components or PCs) explaining the variance of measured reflectance spectra, associated with both physical processes (e.g., ozone absorption, rotational Raman scattering) and measurement details (e.g., wavelength shift). By fitting these PCs along with pre-computed Jacobians for our target species (SO2 or HCHO) to the measured radiance spectra, we can estimate the atmospheric loading of SO2 or HCHO while minimizing the impacts of interfering processes and measurement imperfection on retrievals. Since no explicit instrument-specific radiance data correction scheme is required, the PCA method is easily implemented with both OMI and OMPS and maximizes data continuity. The PCA algorithm currently runs operationally in the production of the new generation NASA standard OMI planetary boundary layer (PBL) SO2 data that have been shown to improve the detection limit of anthropogenic SO2 emission sources by a factor of two, as compared with the previous generation product. In this presentation, we will demonstrate that the PCA algorithm can produce SO2 and HCHO retrievals from OMPS that have comparable data quality with our OMI retrievals. We will also demonstrate

  12. Does ecosystem sensitivity to precipitation at the site-level conform to regional-scale predictions?.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, Kevin R; Blair, John M; Smith, Melinda D; Knapp, Alan K

    2016-03-01

    Central to understanding global C cycle dynamics is the functional relationship between precipitation and net primary production (NPP). At large spatial (regional) scales, the responsiveness of aboveground NPP (ANPP) to interannual variation in annual precipitation (AP; ANPPsens) is inversely related to site-level ANPP, coinciding with turnover of plant communities along precipitation gradients. Within ecosystems experiencing chronic alterations in water availability, plant community change will also occur with unknown consequences for ANPPsens. To examine the role plant community shifts may play in determining alterations in site-level ANPPPsens, we experimentally increased precipitation by approximately 35% for two decades in a native Central U.S. grassland. Consistent with regional models, ANPPsens decreased initially as water availability and ANPP increased. However, ANPPsens shifted back to ambient levels when mesic species increased in abundance in the plant community. Similarly, in grassland sites with distinct mesic and xeric plant communities and corresponding 50% differences in ANPP, ANPPsens did not differ over almost three decades. We conclude that responses in ANPPsens to chronic alterations in water availability within an ecosystem may not conform to regional AP-ANPP patterns, despite expected changes in ANPP and plant communities. The result is unanticipated functional resistance to climate change at the site scale. PMID:27197383

  13. Partially entangled states bridge in quantum teleportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Xiao-Fei; Yu, Xu-Tao; Shi, Li-Hui; Zhang, Zai-Chen

    2014-10-01

    The traditional method for information transfer in a quantum communication system using partially entangled state resource is quantum distillation or direct teleportation. In order to reduce the waiting time cost in hop-by-hop transmission and execute independently in each node, we propose a quantum bridging method with partially entangled states to teleport quantum states from source node to destination node. We also prove that the designed specific quantum bridging circuit is feasible for partially entangled states teleportation across multiple intermediate nodes. Compared to two traditional ways, our partially entanglement quantum bridging method uses simpler logic gates, has better security, and can be used in less quantum resource situation.

  14. NOAA/National Weather Service Operational Applications and Training of S-NPP Imagery and Products in Preparation for JPSS Mission Readiness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motta, B.; Miller, S. D.; Folmer, M. J.; Lindstrom, S.; Nietfeld, D.; Stevens, E.; Dankers, T.; Baker, M.; Meier, B.; Mostek, A. J.; Hillger, D.

    2014-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) National Weather Service (NWS), in collaboration with the NOAA National Environmental Satellite, Data and Information Service (NESDIS) and its Cooperative Institutes, have been prototyping various operational applications of Suomi-NPP satellite imagery and products. Some of these new satellite capabilities are NOAA and S-NPP mission unique and have resulted in new science applications for high impact events and related impact-based decision support services. From detection to monitoring to recovery-phase operations, S-NPP debuts new NOAA-unique capabilities for true color RGB imagery, Near Constant Contrast Day-Night Band Imagery, Flood/Ice Detection and Monitoring, Wildfire and Smoke Detection and Monitoring, Severe Weather Environmental and Storm Analysis, Dust Detection and Monitoring, and Global Infrared and Microwave Atmospheric Soundings. These newly demonstrated applications have been part of the research to operations transitions occurring in the NOAA Satellite Proving Ground (JPSS and GOES-R) and NOAA training developed as part of the Virtual Institute for Satellite Integration and Training (VISIT).

  15. Stabilization of Different Types of Transition States in a Single Enzyme Active Site: QM/MM Analysis of Enzymes in the Alkaline Phosphatase Superfamily

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Guanhua; Cui, Qiang

    2013-01-01

    The first step for the hydrolysis of a phosphate monoester (pNPP2−) in enzymes of the alkaline phosphatase (AP) superfamily, R166S AP and wild type NPP, is studied using QM/MM simulations based on an approximate density functional theory (SCC-DFTBPR) and a recently introduced QM/MM interaction Hamiltonian. The calculations suggest that similar loose transition states are involved in both enzymes, despite the fact that phosphate monoesters are the cognate substrates for AP but promiscuous substrates for NPP. The computed loose transition states are clearly different from the more synchronous ones previously calculated for diester reactions in the same AP enzymes. Therefore, our results explicitly support the proposal that AP enzymes are able to recognize and stabilize different types of transition states in a single active site. Analysis of the structural features of computed transition states indicates that the plastic nature of the bi-metallic site plays a minor role in accommodating multiple types of transition states, and that the high degree of solvent accessibility of the AP active site also contributes to its ability to stabilize diverse transition state structures without the need of causing large structural distortions of the bimetallic motif. The binding mode of the leaving group in the transition state highlights that vanadate may not always be an ideal transition state analog for loose phosphoryl transfer transition states. PMID:23786365

  16. [The insula in partial epilepsy].

    PubMed

    Isnard, J; Mauguière, F

    2005-01-01

    The role of the insular lobe in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) has often been suggested but never directly demonstrated. In this article, we review data from recent literature and from our stereo-electroencephalographic (SEEG) recordings in patients referred for temporal lobe epilepsy surgery (TLE). Our description of the clinical features of insular lobe seizures is based on data from video and SEEG ictal recordings and direct electric cortical stimulation in a population of 50 consecutive patients whose seizures, on the basis of scalp video EEG recordings, were suspected to originate from, or to rapidly propagate to, the peri-sylvian cortex. A total of 144 intra-insular electrodes have been implanted in this series of patients. In six patients a stereotyped sequence of ictal symptoms could be identified on the basis of electro-clinical correlations. The clinical presentation of insular lobe seizures was that of simple partial seizures occurring in full consciousness, beginning with a sensation of laryngeal constriction followed by paresthesiae that were often unpleasant affecting large cutaneous territories. These initial symptoms were eventually followed by dysarthric speech and/or elementary auditory hallucinations, and seizures often ended with focal dystonic postures. The insular origin of these symptoms was supported by the data from functional cortical mapping of the insula using direct cortical stimulations. We were able to reproduce several of the spontaneous ictal symptoms in the six patients with insular seizures. Moreover, from the whole set of insular stimulations that we performed it could be concluded that the insular cortex is involved in somatic, vegetative and visceral functions to which spontaneous ictal insular symptoms are related. The observation of the insular symptoms sequence at the onset of seizures in patients who are candidates for TLE surgery strongly suggests that the epileptic focus is located in the insular lobe. It entails the risk

  17. The VIIRS Cloud Mask: Progress in the first year of S-NPP toward a common cloud detection scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopp, Thomas J.; Thomas, William; Heidinger, Andrew K.; Botambekov, Denis; Frey, Richard A.; Hutchison, Keith D.; Iisager, Barbara D.; Brueske, Kurt; Reed, Bonnie

    2014-03-01

    The Visible Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Cloud Mask (VCM) determines, on a pixel-by-pixel basis, whether or not a given location contains cloud. The VCM serves as an intermediate product (IP) between the production of VIIRS sensor data records and 22 downstream Environmental Data Records that each depends upon the VCM output. As such, the validation of the VCM IP is critical to the success of the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) product suite. The methods used to validate the VCM and the current results are presented in this paper. Detailed analyses of golden granules along with tools providing deep insights into granule performance, and specific cloud detection tests reveal the details behind a given granule's performance. Matchup results with CALIPSO, in turn, indicate the large-scale performance of the VCM and whether or not it is meeting its specifications. Comparisons with other cloud masks indicate comparable performance for the determination of clear pixels. As of September 2013 the VCM is either meeting or within 2% of all of its documented requirements.

  18. Analysis of Alternatives for Dismantling of the Equipment in Building 117/1 at Ignalina NPP - 13278

    SciTech Connect

    Poskas, Povilas; Simonis, Audrius; Poskas, Gintautas

    2013-07-01

    Ignalina NPP was operating two RBMK-1500 reactors which are under decommissioning now. In this paper dismantling alternatives of the equipment in Building 117/1 are analyzed. After situation analysis and collection of the primary information related to components' physical and radiological characteristics, location and other data, two different alternatives for dismantling of the equipment are formulated - the first (A1), when major components (vessels and pipes of Emergency Core Cooling System - ECCS) are segmented/halved in situ using flame cutting (oxy-acetylene) and the second one (A2), when these components are segmented/halved at the workshop using CAMC (Contact Arc Metal Cutting) technique. To select the preferable alternative MCDA method - AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process) is applied. Hierarchical list of decision criteria, necessary for assessment of alternatives performance, are formulated. Quantitative decision criteria values for these alternatives are calculated using software DECRAD, which was developed by Lithuanian Energy Institute Nuclear engineering laboratory. While qualitative decision criteria are evaluated using expert judgment. Analysis results show that alternative A1 is better than alternative A2. (authors)

  19. [Long-term follow-up cytogenetic survey and biological dosimetry in persons evacuated from 30-km Chernobyl NPP zone].

    PubMed

    Maznik, N A

    2004-01-01

    The paper presents the results of the follow-up cytogenetic survey and biological dosimetry carried out in inhabitants of Pripiat' town and nearby villages, who were departured from the Chernobyl NPP 30-km exclusive zone during first days after the Chernobyl catastrophe. The unstable chromosome aberration level in inhabitants were significantly increased above control in terms up to 1 year after evacuation and declined gardually during next 14 years. In early period the cytogenetic damage frequency in evacuees showed no dependence on gender. The chromosome type aberration level appeared to be lower in young persons comparing with adults. The dicentrics plus centric rings yield had a positive correlation with duration of staying at Chernobyl zone. The average doses of protracted exposure were calculated from the dicentrics and centric rings yields; the dose estimations appeared to be 1.4 times higher in persons evacuated 3-11 days after the accident than that of in persons with shorter departure time. Uing the Bayesian analysis the probabilistic distribution of biological doses was constructed for the studied evacuees group. This distribution was characterized by a mean dose of 360 mGy, the modal doses of 200-450 mGy and 80% of probability density within the dose range 0-1000 mGy, that seems to be sufficient for considering the increased risk of late somatic radiation effects for this cohort. PMID:15571047

  20. Initial Stability Assessment of S-NPP VIIRS Reflective Solar Band Calibration Using Invariant Desert and Deep Convective Cloud Targets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhatt, Rajendra; Doelling, David R.; Wu, Aisheng; Xiong, Xiaoxiong (Jack); Scarino, Benjamin R.; Haney, Conor O.; Gopalan, Arun

    2014-01-01

    The latest CERES FM-5 instrument launched onboard the S-NPP spacecraft will use the VIIRS visible radiances from the NASA Land Product Evaluation and Analysis Tool Elements (PEATE) product for retrieving the cloud properties associated with its TOA flux measurement. In order for CERES to provide climate quality TOA flux datasets, the retrieved cloud properties must be consistent throughout the record, which is dependent on the calibration stability of the VIIRS imager. This paper assesses the NASA calibration stability of the VIIRS reflective solar bands using the Libya-4 desert and deep convective clouds (DCC). The invariant targets are first evaluated for temporal natural variability. It is found for visible (VIS) bands that DCC targets have half of the variability of Libya-4. For the shortwave infrared (SWIR) bands, the desert has less variability. The brief VIIRS record and target variability inhibits high confidence in identifying any trends that are less than 0.6yr for most VIS bands, and 2.5yr for SWIR bands. None of the observed invariant target reflective solar band trends exceeded these trend thresholds. Initial assessment results show that the VIIRS data have been consistently calibrated and that the VIIRS instrument stability is similar to or better than the MODIS instrument.

  1. Qualification of Integrated Tool Environments (QUITE) for the development of computer-based safety systems in NPP

    SciTech Connect

    Miedl, H. A.; Mortz, J.

    2006-07-01

    In nuclear power plants (NPP) analogue Instrumentation and Control (I and C) systems are increasingly replaced by computer-based I and C systems. Integrated Tool Environments (ITE) are used for the development of safety-related computer-based I and C systems. Most of these ITE were not conceived originally for the implementation of nuclear specific applications. The ITE may be proven and certified for industrial applications but qualification for the nuclear application has to be demonstrated, too. To conduct an efficient and objective qualification a framework is required. This paper presents the methodical foundations and a frame of activities to qualify ITE for the use in safety-related applications according to nuclear standards and state of the art. The assessment framework aims at a pre-qualification of ITE detached as far as possible from the safety functions implemented by them. The results of this pre-qualification shall assist and facilitate the safety analysis of the application software. (authors)

  2. Time changes in radiocesium concentration in aquatic systems affected by the Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onda, Yuichi; Taniguchi, Keisuke; Kato, Hiroaki; Yoshimura, Kazuya; Wakiyama, Yoshifumi; Iwagami, Sho; Tsujimura, Maki; Sakaguchi, Aya; Yamamoto, Masatoshi

    2015-04-01

    Due to Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, radioactive materials including Cs-134 and Cs-137 were widely distributed in surrounded area. The radiocesiums have been transported in river networks. The monitoring started at 6 sites from June 2011. Subsequently, additional 24 monitoring sites were installed between October 2012 and January 2013. Flow and turbidity (for calculation of suspended sediment concentration) were measured at each site, while suspended sediments and river water were collected every one or half month to measure Cs-134 and Cs-137 activity concentrations by gamma spectrometry. Also detailed field monitoring has been condcuted in Yamakiya-district, Kawamata town, Fukushima prefecture. These monitoring includes, 1) Radiocesium wash-off from the runoff-erosion plot under different land use, 2) 2. Measurement of radiocesium transfer in forest environment, in association with hydrological pathways such as throughfall and overlandflow on hillslope, 3) Monitoring on radiocesium concentration in soil water, ground water, and spring water, 4)Monitoring of dissolved and particulate radiocesium concentration in river water, and stream water from the forested catchment, and 5)Measurement of radiocesium content in drain water and suspended sediment from paddy field. Our monitoring result demonstrated that the Cs-137 concentration in eroded sediment from the runoff-erosion plot has been almost constant for the past 3 years, however the Cs-137 concentration of suspended sediment from the forested catchment showed slight decrease through time. On the other hand, the suspended sediment from paddy field and those in river water from large catchments exhibited rapid decrease in Cs-137 concentration with time. The decreasing trend of Cs-137 concentration were fitted by the two-component exponential model, differences in decreasing rate of the model were compared and discussed among various land uses and catchment scales. Such analysis can provide

  3. [Laparoscopic partial nephrectomy: technique and outcomes].

    PubMed

    Colombo, J R; Gill, I S

    2006-05-01

    The indication of laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (LPN) has evolved considerably, and the technique is approaching established status at our institution. Over the past 5 years, the senior author has performed more than 450 laparoscopic partial nephrectomies at the Cleveland Clinic. Herein we present our current technique, review contemporary data and oncological outcomes of LPN.

  4. 49 CFR 234.106 - Partial activation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GRADE CROSSING SAFETY, INCLUDING SIGNAL SYSTEMS, STATE ACTION PLANS, AND... Grade Crossings § 234.106 Partial activation. Upon receipt of a credible report of a partial activation... to warn highway users and railroad employees at the subject crossing in the same manner as...

  5. 49 CFR 234.106 - Partial activation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GRADE CROSSING SAFETY, INCLUDING SIGNAL SYSTEMS, STATE ACTION PLANS, AND... Grade Crossings § 234.106 Partial activation. Upon receipt of a credible report of a partial activation... to warn highway users and railroad employees at the subject crossing in the same manner as...

  6. 49 CFR 234.106 - Partial activation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GRADE CROSSING SAFETY, INCLUDING SIGNAL SYSTEMS, STATE ACTION PLANS, AND... Grade Crossings § 234.106 Partial activation. Upon receipt of a credible report of a partial activation... to warn highway users and railroad employees at the subject crossing in the same manner as...

  7. 47 CFR 5.69 - Partial grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Partial grants. 5.69 Section 5.69...) Applications and Licenses § 5.69 Partial grants. In cases in which the Commission grants an application in part... interference that may result to a station if designated application or applications are subsequently...

  8. Evaluating Models for Partially Clustered Designs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Scott A.; Bauer, Daniel J.; Stice, Eric; Rohde, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Partially clustered designs, where clustering occurs in some conditions and not others, are common in psychology, particularly in prevention and intervention trials. This article reports results from a simulation comparing 5 approaches to analyzing partially clustered data, including Type I errors, parameter bias, efficiency, and power. Results…

  9. Exploring Partial Order of European Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annoni, Paola; Bruggemann, Rainer

    2009-01-01

    Partial Order Theory has been recently more and more employed in applied science to overcome the intrinsic disadvantage hidden in aggregation, if a multiple attribute system is available. Despite its numerous positive features, there are many practical cases where the interpretation of the partial order can be rather troublesome. In these cases…

  10. Site Construction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Eric C.

    1996-01-01

    Presents a guide to planning and building a Web site, with an emphasis on setting up a Web server. Discussion includes hiring a consultant, contracts and payment, assembly of teams, training, development of a business plan, registration of domain name, purchase of hardware and software, local area networks, and types of Internet connection. (JKP)

  11. Partially Observed Mixtures of IRT Models: An Extension of the Generalized Partial-Credit Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Von Davier, Matthias; Yamamoto, Kentaro

    2004-01-01

    The generalized partial-credit model (GPCM) is used frequently in educational testing and in large-scale assessments for analyzing polytomous data. Special cases of the generalized partial-credit model are the partial-credit model--or Rasch model for ordinal data--and the two parameter logistic (2PL) model. This article extends the GPCM to the…

  12. Catalytic partial oxidation of pyrolysis oils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rennard, David Carl

    2009-12-01

    details the catalytic partial oxidation of glycerol without preheat: droplets of glycerol are sprayed directly onto the top of the catalyst bed, where they react autothermally with contact times on the order of tau ≈ 30 ms. The reactive flash volatilization of glycerol results in equilibrium syngas production over Rh-Ce catalysts. In addition, water can be added to the liquid glycerol, resulting in true autothermal reforming. This highly efficient process can increase H2 yields and alter the H2 to CO ratio, allowing for flexibility in syngas quality depending on the purpose. Chapter 5 details the results of a time on stream experiment, in which optimal syngas conditions are chosen. Although conversion is 100% for 450 hours, these experiments demonstrate the deactivation of the catalyst over time. Deactivation is exhibited by decreases in H2 and CO 2 production accompanied by a steady increase in CO and temperature. These results are explained as a loss of water-gas shift equilibration. SEM images suggest catalyst sintering may play a role; EDS indicates the presence of impurities on the catalyst. In addition, the instability of quartz in the reactor is demonstrated by etching, resulting in a hole in the reactor tube at the end of the experiment. These results suggest prevaporization may be desirable in this application, and that quartz is not a suitable material for the reactive flash volatilization of oxygenated fuels. In Chapter 6, pyrolysis oil samples from three sources - poplar, pine, and hardwoods - are explored in the context of catalytic partial oxidation. Lessons derived from the tests with model compounds are applied to reactor design, resulting in the reactive flash vaporization of bio oils. Syngas is successfully produced, though deactivation due to coke and ash deposition keeps H2 below equlibrium. Coke formation is observed on the reactor walls, but is avoided between the fuel injection site and catalyst by increasing the proximity of these in the reactor

  13. Partial nephrectomy: an option in calculus disease?

    PubMed

    Timoney, A G; Payne, S R; Walmsley, B H; Vinnicombe, J; Abercrombie, G F

    1988-12-01

    Thirty-seven patients treated by partial nephrectomy for calculus disease between 1971 and 1986 were reviewed retrospectively. Of the 25 patients available for analysis, 20% developed immediate surgical complications, 20% had residual post-operative stone and 33% developed true ipsilateral stone recurrence during the period of follow-up. Our results from partial nephrectomy for calculus disease are compared with the results of treatment by percutaneous nephrolithotomy and extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy. It was concluded that partial nephrectomy should be reserved for situations where stone disease is associated with anatomical abnormalities which cannot be treated by the newer modalities of stone management.

  14. Method for partially coating laser diode facets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dholakia, Anil R. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    Bars of integral laser diode devices cleaved from a wafer are placed with their p regions abutting and n regions abutting. A thin BeCu mask having alternate openings and strips of the same width as the end facets is used to mask the n region interfaces so that multiple bars can be partially coated over their exposed p regions with a reflective or partial reflective coating. The partial coating permits identification of the emitting facet from the fully coated back facet during a later device mounting procedure.

  15. Partially coherent contrast-transfer-function approximation.

    PubMed

    Nesterets, Yakov I; Gureyev, Timur E

    2016-04-01

    The contrast-transfer-function (CTF) approximation, widely used in various phase-contrast imaging techniques, is revisited. CTF validity conditions are extended to a wide class of strongly absorbing and refracting objects, as well as to nonuniform partially coherent incident illumination. Partially coherent free-space propagators, describing amplitude and phase in-line contrast, are introduced and their properties are investigated. The present results are relevant to the design of imaging experiments with partially coherent sources, as well as to the analysis and interpretation of the corresponding images. PMID:27140752

  16. Fluctuation theorem for partially masked nonequilibrium dynamics.

    PubMed

    Shiraishi, Naoto; Sagawa, Takahiro

    2015-01-01

    We establish a generalization of the fluctuation theorem for partially masked nonequilibrium dynamics. We introduce a partial entropy production with a subset of all possible transitions, and show that the partial entropy production satisfies the integral fluctuation theorem. Our result reveals the fundamental properties of a broad class of autonomous as well as nonautonomous nanomachines. In particular, our result gives a unified fluctuation theorem for both autonomous and nonautonomous Maxwell's demons, where mutual information plays a crucial role. Furthermore, we derive a fluctuation-dissipation theorem that relates nonequilibrium stationary current to two kinds of equilibrium fluctuations. PMID:25679593

  17. Fluctuation theorem for partially masked nonequilibrium dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiraishi, Naoto; Sagawa, Takahiro

    2015-01-01

    We establish a generalization of the fluctuation theorem for partially masked nonequilibrium dynamics. We introduce a partial entropy production with a subset of all possible transitions, and show that the partial entropy production satisfies the integral fluctuation theorem. Our result reveals the fundamental properties of a broad class of autonomous as well as nonautonomous nanomachines. In particular, our result gives a unified fluctuation theorem for both autonomous and nonautonomous Maxwell's demons, where mutual information plays a crucial role. Furthermore, we derive a fluctuation-dissipation theorem that relates nonequilibrium stationary current to two kinds of equilibrium fluctuations.

  18. Complex partial status epilepticus: a recurrent problem.

    PubMed Central

    Cockerell, O C; Walker, M C; Sander, J W; Shorvon, S D

    1994-01-01

    Twenty patients with complex partial status epilepticus were identified retrospectively from a specialist neurology hospital. Seventeen patients experienced recurrent episodes of complex partial status epilepticus, often occurring at regular intervals, usually over many years, and while being treated with effective anti-epileptic drugs. No unifying cause for the recurrences, and no common epilepsy aetiologies, were identified. In spite of the frequency of recurrence and length of history, none of the patients showed any marked evidence of cognitive or neurological deterioration. Complex partial status epilepticus is more common than is generally recognised, should be differentiated from other forms of non-convulsive status, and is often difficult to treat. PMID:8021671

  19. Manifest duality for partially massless higher spins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinterbichler, Kurt; Joyce, Austin

    2016-09-01

    In four dimensions, partially massless fields of all spins and depths possess a duality invariance akin to electric-magnetic duality. We construct metric-like gauge invariant curvature tensors for partially massless fields of all integer spins and depths, and show how the partially massless equations of motion can be recovered from first order field equations and Bianchi identities for these curvatures. This formulation displays duality in its manifestly local and covariant form, in which it acts to interchange the field equations and Bianchi identities.

  20. Circulant states with positive partial transpose

    SciTech Connect

    Chruscinski, Dariusz; Kossakowski, Andrzej

    2007-09-15

    We construct a large class of quantum dxd states which are positive under partial transposition (so called PPT states). The construction is based on certain direct sum decomposition of the total Hilbert space displaying characteristic circular structure - that is why we call them circulant states. It turns out that partial transposition maps any such decomposition into another one and hence both original density matrix and its partially transposed partner share similar cyclic properties. This class contains many well-known examples of PPT states from the literature and gives rise to a huge family of completely new states.

  1. Transport of engineered silver (Ag) nanoparticles through partially fractured sandstones.

    PubMed

    Neukum, Christoph; Braun, Anika; Azzam, Rafig

    2014-08-01

    Transport behavior and fate of engineered silver nanoparticles (AgNP) in the subsurface is of major interest concerning soil and groundwater protection in order to avoid groundwater contamination of vital resources. Sandstone aquifers are important groundwater resources which are frequently used for public water supply in many regions of the world. The objective of this study is to get a better understanding of AgNP transport behavior in partially fractured sandstones. We executed AgNP transport studies on partially fissured sandstone drilling cores in laboratory experiments. The AgNP concentration and AgNP size in the effluent were analyzed using flow field-flow fractionation mainly. We employed inverse mathematical models on the measured AgNP breakthrough curves to identify and quantify relevant transport processes. Physicochemical filtration, time-dependent blocking due to filling of favorable attachment sites and colloid-facilitated transport were identified as the major processes for AgNP mobility. Physicochemical filtration was found to depend on solute chemistry, mineralogy, pore size distribution and probably on physical and chemical heterogeneity. Compared to AgNP transport in undisturbed sandstone matrix reported in the literature, their mobility in partially fissured sandstone is enhanced probably due to larger void spaces and higher hydraulic conductivity.

  2. Evolving Synergy between UV and VIS instruments for Aerosol Remote Sensing- Implications for Suomi NPP and Future Instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhartia, P. K.; Torres, O.

    2014-12-01

    Satellite remote sensing of aerosols started in 1979 using data from the AVHRR series of instruments on NOAA polar orbiters. Though limited to the oceans only, AVHRR clearly showed the basic latitudinal, longitudinal, and seasonal patterns in global aerosol fields that have been confirmed by more advanced instruments. In the early 90s a surprising discovery was made that UV instruments, such as TOMS, designed primarily to measure atmospheric ozone, can enhance this information by tracking the aerosol absorption signal of smoke and dust plumes over both land and water, as well as over bright surfaces covered by low level clouds, snow and ice. While more recent VIS/IR mapping instruments, such as SeaWIFS, MISR, MODIS, and VIIRS have greatly enhanced aerosol remote sensing capability compared to AVHRR, similar improvements have been made in UV remote sensing of aerosols, particularly with the launch of OMI on Aura in 2004. More recently, several successful approaches have been developed to combine MODIS and OMI data to estimate aerosol single scattering albedo over cloud-free areas and aerosol optical thickness over cloudy areas. I will discuss how these advanced techniques could be applied to combine VIIRS and OMPS data from Suomi NPP and what improvements are planned for JPSS-1. These techniques could also be applied to process data from the EPIC instrument, scheduled to be launched on the DSCOVR satellite next year. It will be located 1.5 million km from the Earth along the Sun-Earth axis at the first Lagrange point. Several other UV/VIS instruments are planned to be launched in LEO and GEO orbits in this decade that can take advantage of this synergy.

  3. Suomi NPP CrIS measurements, sensor data record algorithm, calibration and validation activities, and record data quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Yong; Revercomb, Henry; Cromp, Mike; Gu, Degui; Johnson, David; Mooney, Daniel; Scott, Deron; Strow, Larrabee; Bingham, Gail; Borg, Lori; Chen, Yong; DeSlover, Daniel; Esplin, Mark; Hagan, Denise; Jin, Xin; Knuteson, Robert; Motteler, Howard; Predina, Joe; Suwinski, Lawrence; Taylor, Joe; Tobin, David; Tremblay, Denis; Wang, Chunming; Wang, Lihong; Wang, Likun; Zavyalov, Vladimir

    2013-11-01

    Cross-Track Infrared Sounder (CrIS) is a Fourier Transform Michelson interferometer instrument launched on board the Suomi National Polar-Orbiting Partnership (Suomi NPP) satellite on 28 October 2011. CrIS provides measurements of Earth view interferograms in three infrared spectral bands at 30 cross-track positions, each with a 3 × 3 array of field of views. The CrIS ground processing software transforms the measured interferograms into calibrated and geolocated spectra in the form of Sensor Data Records (SDRs) that cover spectral bands from 650 to 1095 cm-1, 1210 to 1750 cm-1, and 2155 to 2550 cm-1 with spectral resolutions of 0.625 cm-1, 1.25 cm-1, and 2.5 cm-1, respectively. During the time since launch a team of subject matter experts from government, academia, and industry has been engaged in postlaunch CrIS calibration and validation activities. The CrIS SDR product is defined by three validation stages: Beta, Provisional, and Validated. The product reached Beta and Provisional validation stages on 19 April 2012 and 31 January 2013, respectively. For Beta and Provisional SDR data, the estimated absolute spectral calibration uncertainty is less than 3 ppm in the long-wave and midwave bands, and the estimated 3 sigma radiometric uncertainty for all Earth scenes is less than 0.3 K in the long-wave band and less than 0.2 K in the midwave and short-wave bands. The geolocation uncertainty for near nadir pixels is less than 0.4 km in the cross-track and in-track directions.

  4. The Urban Social and Energy Use Data Embedded in Suomi-NPP VIIRS Nighttime Lights: Algorithm Overview and Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stokes, E. C.; Roman, M. O.; Seto, K. C.

    2014-12-01

    Although urban areas contribute between 67-75% of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, there is very little understanding of what drives anthropogenic emissions both locally and globally. Part of this gap in knowledge is due to a lack of reliable measurements across a range of urban scales. Where, when, and how much urban areas use energy is also a function of human activity patterns and social practices deeply embedded in culture. One apparent manifestation of energy use patterns in human settlements is in the celebration of holidays - when human activity patterns change, this affects short-term patterns in energy consumption. Using satellite-based retrievals of nighttime lighting (NTL) during three major holiday periods, (1) Christmas and New Year's, (2) the Holy Month of Ramadan, and (3) the Chinese Spring Festival, we demonstrate that cultural variations within and between urban areas contextualize and shape the magnitude and timing of energy use. We derived NTL signatures from the Suomi-NPP satellite's (VIIRS) Day/Night Band for two years and over 1200 cities. The high-quality NTL retrievals are based on the latest science reprocessing (Collection V1.1, c. 8/2014) produced by the Land Product Evaluation and Analysis Tool Element (Land PEATE) at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. After correcting for cloud and snow cover, as well as atmospheric-, terrain-, lunar BRDF-, fire-, and straylight effects, the high-resolution NTL time series were decomposed into seasonal, trend, and remainder signals—revealing strong, consistent patterns of activity changes during holiday periods. We demonstrate that patterns of holiday luminosity reveal changes in human activities important for understanding urban demographics and urban dynamics, and are strong examples of the socio-cultural and energy demand signatures embedded in satellite remote sensing imagery.

  5. Continuation of SAGE and MLS High-Resolution Ozone Profiles with the Suomi NPP OMPS Limb Profiler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramarova, N. A.; Bhartia, P. K.; Moy, L.; Chen, Z.; Frith, S. M.

    2015-12-01

    The Ozone Mapper and Profiler Suite (OMPS) Limb Profiler (LP) onboard the Suomi NPP satellite is design to measure ozone profiles with a high vertical resolution (~2 km) and dense spatial sampling (~1° latitude). The LP sensor represents a new generation of the US ozone profile instruments with the plan for a follow-up limb instrument onboard the Joint Polar Satellite System 2 (JPSS-2) in 2021. In this study we will examine the suitability of using LP profiles to continue the EOS climate ozone profile record from the SAGE and MLS datasets. First of all, we evaluate the accuracy in determining the LP tangent height by analyzing measured and calculated radiances. The accurate estimation of the tangent height is critical for limb observations. Several methods were explored to estimate the uncertainties in the LP tangent height registration, and the results will be briefly summarized in this presentation. Version 2 of LP data, released in May 2014, includes a static adjustment of ~1.5 km and a dynamic tangent height adjustment within each orbit. A recent analysis of Version 2 Level 1 radiances revealed a 100 m step in the tangent height that occurred on 26 April 2013, due to a switch to two star trackers in determining spacecraft position. In addition, a ~200 m shift in the tangent height along each orbit was detected. These uncertainties in tangent height registrations can affect the stability of the LP ozone record. Therefore, the second step in our study includes a validation of LP ozone profiles against correlative satellite ozone measurements (Aura MLS, ACE-FTS, OSIRIS, and SBUV) with the focus on time-dependent changes. We estimate relative drifts between OMPS LP and correlative ozone records to evaluate stability of the LP measurements. We also test the tangent height corrections found in the internal analysis of Version 2 measurements to determine their effect on the long-term stability of the LP ozone record.

  6. Performance of the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Flight Model 5 (FM5) instrument on NPP mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Susan; Priestley, Kory J.; Hess, Phillip C.; Wilson, Robert S.; Smith, Nathaniel P.; Timcoe, Mark G.; Shankar, Mohan; Walikainen, Dale R.

    2012-09-01

    Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instrument was designed to provide accurate measurements for the long-term monitoring of Earth's radiation energy budget. Flight Model 5, the sixth of the CERES instrument was launched aboard the NPP spacecraft on October 2011 and it has started the Earth-viewing measurements on January 26, 2012. The CERES instrument with the three scanning sensors measure radiances in 0.3 to 5.0 micron region with Shortwave sensor, 0.3 to <100 microns with Total sensor and 8 to 12 micron region with Window sensor. The pre-launch accuracy goal for the CERES instrument measurements is to have the emitted longwave radiances within 0.5% and the shortwave radiances within 1.0%. An accurate determination of the radiometric gains and spectral responsivity of CERES FM5 sensors was accomplished through rigorous calibrations using the primary sources. Post-launch evaluation of the sensor performance consists of sensor calibrations with the on-board sources and the solar diffuser called Mirror Attenuator Mosaic (MAM). The calibration results using onboard sources are also compared to pre-launch values which serve as a traceability standard to carry the ground determined sensor radiometric gains to orbit. Several validation studies utilising targets such as tropical ocean and deep convective clouds are performed as part of the Cal/Val protocol. The scan elevation offset in the sensor measurement will be determined from the spacecraft pitch manuveur activity viewing the deep space. This paper covers the early-orbit checkout activities and the overall performance of the CERES-FM5 instrument. The postlaunch calibration and the validation results from the instrument are presented.

  7. Pre-launch sensor characterization of the CERES Flight Model 5 (FM5) instrument on NPP mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Susan; Priestley, K. J.; Shankar, M.; Smith, N. P.; Timcoe, M. G.

    2011-10-01

    Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instrument was designed to measure broadband radiances in reflected shortwave and emitted outgoing longwave energy. The 3-sensor CERES instrument measure radiances in 0.3 to 5.0 micron region with Shortwave sensor, 0.3 to >100 microns with Total sensor and 8 to 12 micron region with Window sensor. Flight Model 5 (FM5), the sixth of the CERES instruments is scheduled to launch aboard the NPP spacecraft on October 2011. An accurate determination of the radiometric gains and spectral responsivity of CERES FM5 sensors was accomplished through rigorous calibrations at Northrop Grumman Aerospace Systems' (NGAS) Radiometric Calibration Facility (RCF). The longwave calibration of the total and window sensors are achieved using the Narrow Field-of-View Blackbody (NFBB) source which is tied to International Scale of 1990 (ITS '90). A Shortwave Reference Source (SWRS) along with the Transfer Active Cavity radiometer (TACR) which acts as the transfer standard of NFBB source, is used to determine the radiometric responsivity and spectral response estimates of the SW sensor and shortwave portion of the Total sensor. The spectral responsivity in longwave region is determined using a Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) system. CERES instrument also perform calibrations using on-board sources during pre-launch testing which serve as a traceability standard to carry the ground determined sensor radiometric gains to orbit. This paper covers the calibration philosophy and the results from ground calibration testing of FM5 sensors conducted in 2008. The sensor radiometric gain responses calculated using primary sources and performance of the sensors using on-board sources will be discussed.

  8. Time changes in radiocesium wash-off from various land uses after the Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onda, Yuichi; Kato, Hiroaki; Yoshimura, Kazuya; Tsujimura, Maki; Wakiyama, Yoshifumi; Taniguchi, Keisuke; Sakaguchi, Aya; Yamamoto, Masayoshi

    2014-05-01

    A number of studies have been conducted to monitor and model the time series change of radiocesium transfer through aquatic systems after significant fallout, especially from the Chernobyl disaster. However, no data is available for the temporal changes of radiocesium concentration in environmental materials such as soil and water after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident. Our research team has been monitoring the environmental consequences of radioactive contamination just after the Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident in Yamakiya-district, Kawamata town, Fukushima prefecture. Research items are listed below. 1. Radiocesium wash-off from the runoff-erosion plot under different land use. 2. Measurement of radiocesium transfer in forest environment, in association with hydrological pathways such as throughfall and overlandflow on hillslope. 3. Monitoring on radiocesium concentration in soil water, ground water, and spring water. 4. Monitoring of dissolved and particulate radiocesium concentration in river water, and stream water from the forested catchment. 5.Measurement of radiocesium content in drain water and suspended sediment from paddy field. Our monitoring result demonstrated that the Cs-137 concentration in eroded sediment from the runoff-erosion plot has been almost constant for the past 3 years, however the Cs-137 concentration of suspended sediment from the forested catchment showed slight decrease through time. On the other hand, the suspended sediment from paddy field and those in river water from large catchments exhibited rapid decrease in Cs-137 concentration with time. The decreasing trend of Cs-137 concentration were fitted by the two-component exponential model, differences in decreasing rate of the model were compared and discussed among various land uses and catchment scales. Such analysis can provide important insights into the future prediction of the radiocesium wash-off from catchments with different land uses.

  9. Demonstrating S-NPP VIIRS Products with the Naval Research Laboratory R&D Websites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuciauskas, A. P.; Hawkins, J.; Solbrig, J.; Bankert, R.; Richardson, K.; Surratt, M.; Miller, S. D.; Kent, J.

    2014-12-01

    The Naval Research Laboratory, Marine Meteorology Division in Monterey, CA (NRL-MRY) has been developing and providing the global community with VIIRS-derived state of the art image products on three operational websites: · NexSat: www.nrlmry.navy.mil/NEXSAT.html · VIIRS Page: www.nrlmry.navy.mil/VIIRS.html · Tropical Cyclone Page: www.nrlmry.navy.mil/TC.html These user-friendly websites are accessed by the global public with a daily average of 250,000 and 310,000 web hits for NexSat and Tropical Cyclone websites, respectively. Users consist of operational, research, scientific field campaigns, academia, and weather enthusiasts. The websites also contain ancillary products from 5 geostationary and 27 low earth orbiting sensors, ranging from visible through microwave channels. NRL-MRY also leverages the NRL global and regional numerical weather prediction (NWP) models for assessing cloud top measurements and synoptic overlays. With collaborations at CIMSS' Direct Readout site along with the AFWA IDPS-FNMOC and NOAA IDPS portals, a robust component to our websites are product latencies that typically satisfy operational time constraints necessary for planning purposes. Given these resources, NRL-MRY acquires ~2TBytes of data and produces 100,000 image products on a daily basis. In partnership with the COMET program, our product tutorials contain simple and graphically enhanced descriptions that accommodate users ranging from basic to advanced understanding of satellite meteorology. This presentation will provide an overview of our website functionality: animations, co-registered formats, and Google Earth viewing. Through imagery, we will also demonstrate the superiority of VIIRS against its heritage sensor counterparts. A focal aspect will be the demonstration of the VIIRS Day Night Band (DNB) in detecting nighttime features such as wildfires, volcanic ash, Arctic sea ice, and tropical cyclones. We also plan to illustrate how NexSat and VIIRS websites demonstrate

  10. Prolonged partial epilepsy: a case report

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, M.A.

    1980-11-01

    The case study of a patient with prolonged partial epilepsy is presented. There was a discrepancy between the extent of the abnormality seen on the radionuclide angiogram and that seen on the static brain scan.

  11. Partial ASL extensions for stochastic programming.

    SciTech Connect

    Gay, David

    2010-03-31

    partially completed extensions for stochastic programming to the AMPL/solver interface library (ASL).modeling and experimenting with stochastic recourse problems. This software is not primarily for military applications

  12. Clustering stocks using partial correlation coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Sean S.; Chang, Woojin

    2016-11-01

    A partial correlation analysis is performed on the Korean stock market (KOSPI). The difference between Pearson correlation and the partial correlation is analyzed and it is found that when conditioned on the market return, Pearson correlation coefficients are generally greater than those of the partial correlation, which implies that the market return tends to drive up the correlation between stock returns. A clustering analysis is then performed to study the market structure given by the partial correlation analysis and the members of the clusters are compared with the Global Industry Classification Standard (GICS). The initial hypothesis is that the firms in the same GICS sector are clustered together since they are in a similar business and environment. However, the result is inconsistent with the hypothesis and most clusters are a mix of multiple sectors suggesting that the traditional approach of using sectors to determine the proximity between stocks may not be sufficient enough to diversify a portfolio.

  13. Electrogenerative partial oxidation of organic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Stafford, G.R.

    1984-05-22

    This invention provides an electrochemical process for electrogenerative partial oxidation of methyl-substituted hydrocarbons such as ethane, propylene and toluene. Ethane is oxidized to products such as acetaldehyde and acetic acid, and propylene converts to acrolein and acrylic acid.

  14. Partial gravity habitat study: With application to lunar base design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Capps, Stephen; Lorandos, Jason; Akhidime, Eval; Bunch, Michael; Lund, Denise; Moore, Nathan; Murakawa, Kio; Bell, Larry; Trotti, Guillermo; Neubek, Deb

    1989-01-01

    Comprehensive design requirements associated with designing habitats for humans in a partial gravity environment were investigated and then applied to a lunar base design. Other potential sites for application include planetary surfaces such as Mars, variable gravity research facilities, or a rotating spacecraft. Design requirements for partial gravity environments include: (1) locomotion changes in less than normal Earth gravity; (2) facility design issues, such as interior configuration, module diameter and geometry; and (3) volumetric requirements based on the previous as well as psychological issues involved in prolonged isolation. For application to a Lunar Base, it was necessary to study the exterior architecture and configuration to insure optimum circulation patterns while providing dual egress. Radiation protection issues were addressed to provide a safe and healthy environment for the crew, and finally, the overall site was studied to locate all associated facilities in context with the habitat. Mission planning was not the purpose of this study; therefore, a Lockheed scenario was used as an outline for the Lunar Base application, which was then modified to meet the project needs.

  15. Partial nephrectomy in a patient with dwarfism.

    PubMed

    Farber, Nicholas J; Dubin, Justin; Parihar, Jaspreet; Han, Chris; Lasser, Michael S

    2016-08-01

    We describe the case of a 50-year-old male with achondroplastic dwarfism who presents with a renal mass in his left kidney concerning for renal cell carcinoma. The patient successfully underwent a robotic partial nephrectomy, which revealed a T1a renal cell carcinoma. The tumor was excised successfully without any intraoperative complications demonstrating that a robotic partial nephrectomy is technically both safe and effective in patients with achondroplastic dwarfism. PMID:27544562

  16. Coherent diffractive imaging and partial coherence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Garth J.; Quiney, Harry M.; Peele, Andrew G.; Nugent, Keith A.

    2007-03-01

    We formulate coherent diffractive imaging in the framework of partially spatially coherent diffraction. We find that the reconstruction can be critically dependent on the degree of coherence in the illuminating field and that even a small departure from full coherence may invalidate the conventional assumption that a mapping exists between an exit surface wave of finite support and a far field diffraction pattern. We demonstrate that the introduction of sufficient phase curvature in the illumination can overcome the adverse effects of partial coherence.

  17. Free fall - A partial unique motion environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graybiel, A.

    1980-01-01

    Conditions leading to the elicitation of motion sickness have been divided into two main categories: partial motion environments, in which head movements are required to elicit motion sickness, and complete motion environments, in which independent movements of the head are not required for the production of symptoms. It is postulated that, according to this categorization, free fall constitutes a partial motion environment. In support of this hypothesis evidence is reviewed from Skylab missions, experiments in parabolic flight, and ground-based studies.

  18. Gingival enlargement in partial hemifacial hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Jagtap, Rasika Ravindra; Deshpande, Gaurav Shekhar

    2014-01-01

    Hemifacial hypertrophy is a rare developmental disorder, characterized by unilateral enlargement of facial tissues. The hemifacial hyperplasia is classified as true hemifacial hypertrophy and partial hemifacial hypertrophy. It is unilateral enlargement of viscerocranial condition in which not all structures are enlarged. We present a rare case of gingival enlargement in partial hemifacial hyperplasia highlighting the clinical and radiological findings with the corrective treatment offered for gingival enlargement.

  19. Temporary Targeted Hemostasis to Facilitate Bloodless Partial Nephrectomy

    PubMed Central

    Harty, Niall J; Moinzadeh, Alireza; Flacke, Sebastian; Pettit, Jeffrey; Benn, James A.; Libertino, John A; Madras, Peter N

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Lumagel™, a non-toxic polymer may be administered intra-arterially under fluoroscopy to obtain a bloodless operative field during partial nephrectomy while maintaining normal circulation to uninvolved renal tissue. We extend previous robotic assisted techniques developed in the swine model to studies of laparoscopic and open partial nephrectomy conducted in pigs and calves, designed to encompass vessel diameters similar to those encountered in humans. Materials and Methods 10 Animals (7 pigs, 3 calves) underwent flow interruption to the kidney, 2 with cross-clamping of the main renal artery, the remaining with Lumagel. Other than the first pig and calf, all animals then underwent partial nephrectomy. Results and Conclusions Using Lumagel, targeted blood flow interruption was achieved while circulation to uninvolved renal tissue was maintained. Hemostasis lasted for 30 minutes or more. Surgical resection averaged 11 minutes (range 10–13) and 23.3 (range 9–40) in the open and laparoscopic groups, respectively. Estimated blood loss was negligible with the exception of two cases, one in which an error in angiographic assessment lead to an unoccluded vessel near the resection site and a second case where a guide wire was inadvertently passed through a vessel. Time to complete flow return as determined by direct visualization of the kidney and its corresponding angiogram averaged 7 and 2.5 minutes for Lumagel and arterial clamping, respectively. Lumagel provides reliable and reproducible intraluminal blood flow interruption and flow restoration in both main and segmental renal arteries. By providing blood free resection, techniques described may facilitate partial nephrectomy without global renal ischemia. PMID:22137714

  20. Combatting the "partial-birth abortion" myth.

    PubMed

    1998-11-01

    Despite the efforts of pro-choice activists in the US to point out the critical differences between so-called "partial-birth abortions" and late-term abortions, the public remains confused about the issue. Proposed federal legislation banning "partial-birth abortions" excludes any language defining late-term abortions (time period or fetal viability). Thus, such a ban would apply to any abortion at any stage of pregnancy. Only the states of Kansas and Utah have passed legislation that limit the ban to late-term abortions. The term "partial-birth abortion" also has no independent meaning: it is not a medical term nor does it refer to a medical procedure. The correct term, "intact dilation and extraction," is never mentioned in most proposed legislation, much of which is written in broad enough language to outlaw all abortions. Most states that passed bans on "partial-birth abortions," in fact, had previously banned late-term abortions. In Georgia, a court order revised a "partial-birth abortion" law by limiting it to post-viability dilation and extraction and insisting on exceptions to protect the pregnant women's life and health. The courts have severely limited or enjoined "partial-birth abortion" legislation in 19 of the 20 states where challenges were mounted. Because an educated public overwhelmingly rejects the bans, reproductive rights activists are attempting to educate the public despite the inability or unwillingness of the media to make the crucial distinction. PMID:12294330

  1. Combatting the "partial-birth abortion" myth.

    PubMed

    1998-11-01

    Despite the efforts of pro-choice activists in the US to point out the critical differences between so-called "partial-birth abortions" and late-term abortions, the public remains confused about the issue. Proposed federal legislation banning "partial-birth abortions" excludes any language defining late-term abortions (time period or fetal viability). Thus, such a ban would apply to any abortion at any stage of pregnancy. Only the states of Kansas and Utah have passed legislation that limit the ban to late-term abortions. The term "partial-birth abortion" also has no independent meaning: it is not a medical term nor does it refer to a medical procedure. The correct term, "intact dilation and extraction," is never mentioned in most proposed legislation, much of which is written in broad enough language to outlaw all abortions. Most states that passed bans on "partial-birth abortions," in fact, had previously banned late-term abortions. In Georgia, a court order revised a "partial-birth abortion" law by limiting it to post-viability dilation and extraction and insisting on exceptions to protect the pregnant women's life and health. The courts have severely limited or enjoined "partial-birth abortion" legislation in 19 of the 20 states where challenges were mounted. Because an educated public overwhelmingly rejects the bans, reproductive rights activists are attempting to educate the public despite the inability or unwillingness of the media to make the crucial distinction.

  2. Spreading paths in partially observed social networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onnela, Jukka-Pekka; Christakis, Nicholas A.

    2012-03-01

    Understanding how and how far information, behaviors, or pathogens spread in social networks is an important problem, having implications for both predicting the size of epidemics, as well as for planning effective interventions. There are, however, two main challenges for inferring spreading paths in real-world networks. One is the practical difficulty of observing a dynamic process on a network, and the other is the typical constraint of only partially observing a network. Using static, structurally realistic social networks as platforms for simulations, we juxtapose three distinct paths: (1) the stochastic path taken by a simulated spreading process from source to target; (2) the topologically shortest path in the fully observed network, and hence the single most likely stochastic path, between the two nodes; and (3) the topologically shortest path in a partially observed network. In a sampled network, how closely does the partially observed shortest path (3) emulate the unobserved spreading path (1)? Although partial observation inflates the length of the shortest path, the stochastic nature of the spreading process also frequently derails the dynamic path from the shortest path. We find that the partially observed shortest path does not necessarily give an inflated estimate of the length of the process path; in fact, partial observation may, counterintuitively, make the path seem shorter than it actually is.

  3. Late effects of ionizing radiation on functional status of bronchopulmonary system in COPD patients among the clean-up workers of the Chornobyl NPP accident.

    PubMed

    Sushko, V O; Shvaiko, L I; Bazyka, K D

    2014-09-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the effects of ionizing radiation on the functional condition of the bronchopulmonary system in clean-up workers of Chornobyl NPP patients with COPD in a remote post-emergency period. Materials and methods. The study of functional characteristics was carried out in 272 patients - 197 clean-up workers of Chornobyl NPP accident (ChNPPA) with radiation exposure from 25 to 988 mSv; 75 - group of nosological control and 20 healthy persons. Results and conclusions. For the clean-up workers of Chornobyl NPP with exposure doses over 500 mSv demonstrated correlation between respiratory function parameters and dose which is confirmed for these patients, compared with irradiated in doses less than 500 mSv and nosology control, a significant decreasing of VC (76,3 ± 8,5%, 82,4 ± 8,5% and 82,7 ± 8,1% accordingly, p <0,05), FVC (78,2 ± 8,3%, 84,3 ± 7,9% і 86,1 ± 9,7%, p <0,05), FEF 50 (26,1 ± 11,5%, 32,6 ± 10,6% і 32,1 ± 12,7%, p <0, 05) і FEF 75 (23,8 ± 8,1%, 27,8 ± 9,3% і 27,6 ± 9,2%, p <0,05). These changers combined with decrease in lung diffusion capacity in cases more than 500 mSv, and indicate severe respiratory disorders in patients with COPD among clean-up workers of ChNPPA.

  4. Theoretical modeling, near-optimum design and predicted performance of n(+)pp(+) and p(+)nn(+) indium phosphide homojunction solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goradia, Chandra; Thesling, William; Weinberg, Irving

    1991-01-01

    Using a detailed simulation model of p(+)nn(+) and n(+)pp(+) indium phosphide (InP) homojunction solar cells, extensive parametric variation computer simulation runs are conducted to help arrive at near-optimum designs of these two solar cell configurations. Values of all the geometrical and material parameters corresponding to the near-optimal designs of both these configurations are presented. For each configuration, results are given for parametric variation runs showing how the performance parameters JSC, VOC, and eta vary with each of the cell parameters for the near-optimally designed cell.

  5. Arboreal lichen in uncut and partially cut subalpine fir stands in woodland caribou habitat, northern Idaho and southeastern British Columbia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rominger, Eric M.; Allen-Johnson, Lydia; Oldemeyer, John L.

    1994-01-01

    To better understand the effects of partial cutting on arboreal lichen production within woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou) habitat, lichen was hand picked from 1228 branches on 307 subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa) trees in Idaho (ID), and in British Columbia (BC). Lichen biomass from partially cut stands was compared with biomass on trees from adjacent uncut stands at each site. Arboreal lichen biomass did not differ significantly between uncut and partially cut stands. Total number of branches per tree did not differ significantly between uncut and partially cut stands. Live branches had more lichen than dead branches. Species composition of arboreal lichen changed in partially cut stands compared with adjacent uncut stands. The ratio of live to dead branches was substantially different within the BC partial cut.

  6. Understanding fossil phytolith preservation: the role of partial dissolution in paleoecology and archaeology.

    PubMed

    Cabanes, Dan; Shahack-Gross, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Opaline phytoliths are important microfossils used for paleoecological and archaeological reconstructions that are primarily based on relative ratios of specific morphotypes. Recent studies have shown that phytolith assemblages are prone to post-depositional alteration involving partial dissolution, however, the manner in which partial dissolution affects morphotype composition is poorly understood. Here we show that morphotype assemblages from four different plant species subjected to controlled partial dissolution are significantly different from the original assemblages, indicating that the stability of various morphotypes differs, mainly depending on their surface area to bulk ratios. This underlying mechanism produces distorted morphotype compositions in partially dissolved phytolith assemblages, bearing vast implications for morphotype-based paleoecological and archaeological interpretation. Together with analyses of phytolith assemblages from a variety of archaeological sites, our results establish criteria by which well-preserved phytolith assemblages can be selected for accurate paleoecological and archaeological reconstructions.

  7. Understanding Fossil Phytolith Preservation: The Role of Partial Dissolution in Paleoecology and Archaeology

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Opaline phytoliths are important microfossils used for paleoecological and archaeological reconstructions that are primarily based on relative ratios of specific morphotypes. Recent studies have shown that phytolith assemblages are prone to post-depositional alteration involving partial dissolution, however, the manner in which partial dissolution affects morphotype composition is poorly understood. Here we show that morphotype assemblages from four different plant species subjected to controlled partial dissolution are significantly different from the original assemblages, indicating that the stability of various morphotypes differs, mainly depending on their surface area to bulk ratios. This underlying mechanism produces distorted morphotype compositions in partially dissolved phytolith assemblages, bearing vast implications for morphotype-based paleoecological and archaeological interpretation. Together with analyses of phytolith assemblages from a variety of archaeological sites, our results establish criteria by which well-preserved phytolith assemblages can be selected for accurate paleoecological and archaeological reconstructions. PMID:25993338

  8. Relative abundance and species richness of cerambycid beetles in partial cut and uncut bottomland hardwood forests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Newell, P.; King, S.

    2009-01-01

    Partial cutting techniques are increasingly advocated and used to create habitat for priority wildlife. However, partial cutting may or may not benefit species dependent on deadwood; harvesting can supplement coarse woody debris in the form of logging slash, but standing dead trees may be targeted for removal. We sampled cerambycid beetles during the spring and summer of 2006 and 2007 with canopy malaise traps in 1- and 2-year-old partial cut and uncut bottomland hardwood forests of Louisiana. We captured a total of 4195 cerambycid beetles representing 65 species. Relative abundance was higher in recent partial cuts than in uncut controls and with more dead trees in a plot. Total species richness and species composition were not different between treatments. The results suggest partial cuts with logging slash left on site increase the abundance of cerambycid beetles in the first few years after partial cutting and that both partial cuts and uncut forest should be included in the bottomland hardwood forest landscape.

  9. Partially Testing a Process Model for Understanding Victim Responses to an Anticipated Worksite Closure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blau, Gary

    2007-01-01

    This study partially tested a recent process model for understanding victim responses to worksite/function closure (W/FC) proposed by Blau [Blau, G. (2006). A process model for understanding victim responses to worksite/function closure. "Human Resource Management Review," 16, 12-28], in a pharmaceutical manufacturing site. Central to the model…

  10. Incremental fusion of partial biometric information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abboud, Ali J.; Jassim, Sabah A.

    2012-06-01

    Existing face recognition schemes are mostly based on extracting biometric feature vectors either from whole face images, or from a fixed facial region (e.g., eyes, nose, and mouth). Extreme variation in quality conditions between biometric enrolment and verification stages badly affects the performance of face recognition systems. Such problems have partly motivated several investigations into the use of partial facial features for face recognition. Nevertheless, partial face recognition is potentially useful in several applications, for instance, it used in forensics for detectives to identify individuals after some accidents such as fire or explosion. In this paper, we propose a scheme to fuse the biometric information of partial face images incrementally based on their recognition accuracy (or discriminative power) ranks. Such fusion scheme uses the optimal ratio of full/partial face images in each different quality condition. We found that such scheme is also useful for full face images to enhance authentication accuracy significantly. Nevertheless, it reduces the required storage requirements and processing time of the biometric system. Our experiments show that the required ratio of full/partial facial images to achieve optimal performance varies from (5%) to (80%) according to the quality conditions whereas the authentication accuracy improves significantly for low quality biometric samples.

  11. Assessment of VIIRS radiometric performance using vicarious calibration sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uprety, Sirish; Cao, Changyong; Blonski, Slawomir; Wang, Wenhui

    2014-09-01

    Radiometric performance of satellite instruments needs to be regularly monitored to determine if there is any drift in the instrument response over time despite the calibration with the best effort. If a drift occurs, it needs to be characterized in order to keep the radiometric accuracy and stability well within the specification. Instrument gain change over time can be validated independently using many techniques such as using stable earth targets (desert, ocean, snow sites etc), inter-comparison with other well calibrated radiometers (using SNO, SNO-x), deep convective clouds (DCC), lunar observations or other methods. This study focus on using vicarious calibration sites for the assessment of radiometric performance of Suomi National Polar-Orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) reflective solar bands. The calibration stability is primarily analyzed by developing the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) reflectance time series over these sites. In addition, the radiometric bias relative to AQUA MODIS is estimated over these calibration sites and analyzed. The radiometric bias is quantified in terms of observed and spectral bias. The spectral characterization and bias analysis will be performed using hyperspectral measurements and radiative transfer models such as MODTRAN.

  12. Belowground Biomass Sampling to Estimate Fine Root Mass across NEON Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spencer, J. J.; Meier, C. L.; Abercrombie, H.; Everhart, J. C.

    2013-12-01

    Production of belowground biomass is an important and relatively uncharacterized component of the net primary productivity (NPP) of ecosystems. Fine root productivity makes up a significant portion of total belowground production because fine roots turn over rapidly, and therefore contribute disproportionately to annual estimates of belowground net primary productivity (BNPP). One of the major goals of the National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) is to quantify above- and below-ground NPP at 60 sites within 20 different eco-climactic regions. NEON's Terrestrial Observation System will carry out belowground biomass sampling throughout the life of the observatory to estimate fine root production. However, belowground biomass sampling during NEON operations will be constrained to a maximum depth of 50cm. This limited depth range leaves the question of what proportion of total fine root mass is being collected and how to optimally characterize belowground biomass given sampling depth limitations. During the construction period, NEON is characterizing fine root biomass distribution at depth down to 2m at each site, as well as physical and chemical properties in each soil horizon. Each sampling unit is a pit (2m deep and approximately 1.5m wide), dug in the site's dominant vegetation type where fine root biomass sampling will also occur during Operations. To sample fine root biomass in each pit, soil samples of a known volume are taken from three vertical profiles down the face of the pit. Samples are then wet sieved to extract fine root mass, and roots are dried at 65°C for 48 hours and then weighed. The soil pit data are used to estimate the proportion of total fine root biomass from each site as a function of depth. Non-linear curves are fitted to the data to calculate total fine root mass at depth and to provide estimates of the proportion of the total fine root mass that is sampled at each site during NEON's 30 year operational sampling. The belowground

  13. Upgrading the SPP-500-1 moisture separators-steam reheaters used in the Leningrad NPP turbine units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legkostupova, V. V.; Sudakov, A. V.

    2015-03-01

    The specific features of existing designs of moisture separators-steam reheaters (MSRs) and experience gained with using them at nuclear power plants are considered. Main factors causing damage to and failures of MSRs are described: nonuniform distribution of wet steam flow among the separation modules, breakthrough of moisture through the separator (and sometimes also through the steam reheater), which may lead to the occurrence of additional thermal stresses and, hence, to thermal-fatigue damage to or stress corrosion cracking of metal. MSR failure results in a less efficient operation of the turbine unit as a whole and have an adverse effect on the reliability of the low-pressure cylinder's last-stage blades. By the time the design service life of the SPP-500-1 MSRs had been exhausted in power units equipped with RBMK-1000 reactors, the number of damages inflicted to both the separation part and to the pipework and heating surface tubes was so large, that a considerable drop of MSR effectiveness and turbine unit efficiency as a whole occurred. The design of the upgraded separation part used in the SPP-500-1 MSR at the Leningrad NPP is described and its effectiveness is shown, which was confirmed by tests. First, efforts taken to achieve more uniform distribution of moisture content over the perimeter and height of steam space downstream of the separation modules and to bring it to values close to the design ones were met with success. Second, no noticeable effect of the individual specific features of separation modules on the moisture content was revealed. Recommendations on elaborating advanced designs of moisture separators-steam reheaters are given: an MSR arrangement in which the separator is placed under or on the side from the steam reheater; axial admission of wet steam for ensuring its uniform distribution among the separation modules; inlet chambers with an extended preliminary separation system and devices for uniformly distributing steam flows in the

  14. NPP Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Predicted Sensor Performance Calibration and Preliminary Data Product Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Priestly, Kory; Smith, George L.; Thomas, Susan; Maddock, Suzanne L.

    2009-01-01

    Continuation of the Earth Radiation Budget (ERB) Climate Data Record (CDR) has been identified as critical in the 2007 NRC Decadal Survey, the Global Climate Observing System WCRP report, and in an assessment titled Impacts of NPOESS Nunn-McCurdy Certification on Joint NASA-NOAA Climate Goals. In response, NASA, NOAA and NPOESS agreed in early 2008 to fly the final existing CERES Flight Model (FM-5) on the NPP spacecraft for launch in 2010. Future opportunities for ERB CDR continuity consist of procuring an additional CERES Sensor with modest performance upgrades for flight on the NPOESS C1 spacecraft in 2013, followed by a new CERES follow-on sensor for flight in 2018 on the NPOESS C3 spacecraft. While science goals remain unchanged for the long-term ERB Climate Data Record, it is now understood that the task of achieving these goals is more difficult for two reasons. The first is an increased understanding of the dynamics of the Earth/atmosphere system which demonstrates that rigorous separation of natural variability from anthropogenic change on decadal time scales requires higher accuracy and stability than originally envisioned. Secondly, future implementation scenarios involve less redundancy in flight hardware (1 vs. 2 orbits and operational sensors) resulting in higher risk of loss of continuity and reduced number of independent observations to characterize performance of individual sensors. Although EOS CERES CDR's realize a factor of 2 to 4 improvement in accuracy and stability over previous ERBE CDR's, future sensors will require an additional factor of 2 improvement to answer rigorously the science questions moving forward. Modest investments, defined through the CERES Science Team s 30-year operational history of the EOS CERES sensors, in onboard calibration hardware and pre-flight calibration and test program will ensure meeting these goals while reducing costs in re-processing scientific datasets. The CERES FM-5 pre-flight radiometric

  15. Improved Ozone and Carbon Monoxide Profile Retrievals Using Multispectral Measurements from NASA "A Train", NPP, and TROPOMI Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, D.; Bowman, K. W.; Kulawik, S. S.; Miyazaki, K.; Worden, J. R.; Worden, H. M.; Livesey, N. J.; Payne, V.; Luo, M.; Natraj, V.; Veefkind, P.; Aben, I.; Landgraf, J.; Flynn, L. E.; Han, Y.; Liu, X.; Strow, L. L.; Kuai, L.

    2015-12-01

    Tropospheric ozone is at the juncture of air quality and climate. Ozone directly impacts human and plant health, and directly forces the climate system through absorption of thermal radiation. Carbon monoxide is a chemical precursor of greenhouse gases CO2 and tropospheric O3, and is also an ideal tracer of transport processes due to its medium life time (weeks to months). The Aqua-AIRS and Aura-OMI instruments in the NASA "A-Train", CrIS and OMPS instruments on the NOAA Suomi-NPP, IASI and GOME-2 on METOP and TROPOMI aboard the Sentinel 5 precursor (S5p) have the potential to provide the synoptic chemical and dynamical context for ozone necessary to quantify long-range transport at global scales and to provide an anchor to the near-term constellation of geostationary sounders: NASA TEMPO, ESA Sentinel 4, and the Korean GEMS. We introduce the JPL MUlti-SpEctral, MUlti-SpEcies, MUlti-SatEllite (MUSES) retrieval algorithm, which ingests panspectral observations across multiple platforms in a non-linear optimal estimation framework. MUSES incorporates advances in remote sensing science developed during the EOS-Aura era including rigorous error analysis diagnostics and observation operators needed for trend analysis, climate model evaluation, and data assimilation. Its performance has been demonstrated through prototype studies for multi-satellite missions (AIRS, CrIS, TROPOMI, TES, OMI, and OMPS). We present joint tropospheric ozone retrievals from AIRS/OMI and CrIS/OMPS over global scales, and demonstrate the potential of joint carbon monoxide profiles from TROPOMI/CrIS. These results indicate that ozone can be retrieved with ~2 degrees of freedom for signal (dofs) in the troposphere, which is similar to TES. Joint CO profiles have dofs similar to the MOPITT multispectral retrieval but with higher spatial resolution and coverage. Consequently, multispectral retrievals show promise in providing continuity with NASA EOS observations and pave the way towards a new

  16. Telecloning of qudits via partially entangled states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araneda, Gabriel; Cisternas, Nataly; Delgado, Aldo

    2016-08-01

    We study the process of quantum telecloning of d-dimensional pure quantum states using partially entangled pure states as quantum channel. This process efficiently mixes optimal universal symmetric cloning with quantum teleportation. It is shown that it is possible to implement universal symmetric telecloning in a probabilistic way using unambiguous state discrimination and quantum state separation schemes. It is also shown that other strategies, such as minimum error discrimination, lead to a decrease in the fidelity of the copies and that certain partially entangled pure states with maximal Schmidt rank lead to an average telecloning fidelity which is always above the optimal fidelity of measuring and preparation of quantum states. We also discuss the case of partially entangled pure states with non-maximal Schmidt rank. The results presented here are valid for arbitrary numbers of copies of a single-input qudit state of any dimension.

  17. Thin film oxygen partial pressure sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wortman, J. J.; Harrison, J. W.; Honbarrier, H. L.; Yen, J.

    1972-01-01

    The development is described of a laboratory model oxygen partial pressure sensor using a sputtered zinc oxide thin film. The film is operated at about 400 C through the use of a miniature silicon bar. Because of the unique resistance versus temperature relation of the silicon bar, control of the operational temperature is achieved by controlling the resistance. A circuit for accomplishing this is described. The response of sputtered zinc oxide films of various thicknesses to oxygen, nitrogen, argon, carbon dioxide, and water vapor caused a change in the film resistance. Over a large range, film conductance varied approximately as the square root of the oxygen partial pressure. The presence of water vapor in the gas stream caused a shift in the film conductance at a given oxygen partial pressure. A theoretical model is presented to explain the characteristic features of the zinc oxide response to oxygen.

  18. Partial connectivity increases cultural accumulation within groups.

    PubMed

    Derex, Maxime; Boyd, Robert

    2016-03-15

    Complex technologies used in most human societies are beyond the inventive capacities of individuals. Instead, they result from a cumulative process in which innovations are gradually added to existing cultural traits across many generations. Recent work suggests that a population's ability to develop complex technologies is positively affected by its size and connectedness. Here, we present a simple computer-based experiment that compares the accumulation of innovations by fully and partially connected groups of the same size in a complex fitness landscape. We find that the propensity to learn from successful individuals drastically reduces cultural diversity within fully connected groups. In comparison, partially connected groups produce more diverse solutions, and this diversity allows them to develop complex solutions that are never produced in fully connected groups. These results suggest that explanations of ancestral patterns of cultural complexity may need to consider levels of population fragmentation and interaction patterns between partially isolated groups. PMID:26929364

  19. Robotic partial nephrectomy: current technique and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liang; Lee, Benjamin R

    2013-09-01

    Over the past decade, management of the T1 renal mass has focused on nephron-sparing surgery. Robotic partial nephrectomy has played an increasing role in the technique of preserving renal function by decreasing warm ischemia time, as well as optimizing outcomes of hemorrhage and fistula. Robot-assisted partial nephrectomy is designed to provide a minimally-invasive nephron-sparing surgical option utilizing reconstructive capability, decreasing intracorporeal suturing time, technical feasibility and safety. Ultimately, its benefits are resulting in its dissemination across institutions. Articulated instrumentation and three-dimensional vision facilitate resection, collecting system reconstruction and renorrhaphy, leading to decreased warm ischemia time while preserving oncological outcomes. The aim of the present review was to present our surgical sequence and technique, as well as review the current status of robot-assisted partial nephrectomy.

  20. Partial connectivity increases cultural accumulation within groups

    PubMed Central

    Boyd, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Complex technologies used in most human societies are beyond the inventive capacities of individuals. Instead, they result from a cumulative process in which innovations are gradually added to existing cultural traits across many generations. Recent work suggests that a population’s ability to develop complex technologies is positively affected by its size and connectedness. Here, we present a simple computer-based experiment that compares the accumulation of innovations by fully and partially connected groups of the same size in a complex fitness landscape. We find that the propensity to learn from successful individuals drastically reduces cultural diversity within fully connected groups. In comparison, partially connected groups produce more diverse solutions, and this diversity allows them to develop complex solutions that are never produced in fully connected groups. These results suggest that explanations of ancestral patterns of cultural complexity may need to consider levels of population fragmentation and interaction patterns between partially isolated groups. PMID:26929364

  1. Diffraction imaging: The limits of partial coherence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Bo; Abbey, Brian; Dilanian, Ruben; Balaur, Eugeniu; van Riessen, Grant; Junker, Mark; Tran, Chanh Q.; Jones, Michael W. M.; Peele, Andrew G.; McNulty, Ian; Vine, David J.; Putkunz, Corey T.; Quiney, Harry M.; Nugent, Keith A.

    2012-12-01

    Coherent diffraction imaging (CDI) typically requires that the source should be highly coherent both laterally and longitudinally. In this paper, we demonstrate that lateral and longitudinal partial coherence can be successfully included in a CDI reconstruction algorithm simultaneously using experimental x-ray data. We study the interplay between lateral partial coherence and longitudinal partial coherence and their relative influence on CDI. We compare our results against the coherence criteria published by Spence [Spence , UltramicroscopyULTRD60304-399110.1016/j.ultramic.2004.05.005 101, 149 (2004)] and show that for iterative ab initio phase-recovery algorithms based on those typically used in CDI and in cases where the coherence properties are known, we are able to relax the minimal coherence requirements by a factor of 2 both laterally and longitudinally, potentially yielding significant reduction in exposure time.

  2. Scintillations of partially coherent Laguerre Gaussian beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yüceer, M.; Eyyuboğlu, H. T.; Lukin, I. P.

    2010-12-01

    Scintillations of Laguerre-Gaussian (LG) beams for weak atmospheric turbulence conditions are derived for on-axis receiver positions by using Huygens-Fresnel (HF) method in semi-analytic fashion. Numerical evaluations indicate that at the fully coherent limit, higher values of radial mode numbers will give rise to more scintillations, at medium and low partial coherence levels, particularly at longer propagation distances, scintillations will fall against rises in radial mode numbers. At small source sizes, the scintillations of LG beams having full coherence will initially rise, reaching saturation at large source sizes. For LG beams with low partial coherence levels, a steady fall toward the larger source sizes is observed. Partially coherent beams of medium levels generally exhibit a rising trend toward the large source sizes, also changing the respective positions of the related curves. Beams of low coherence levels will be less affected by the variations in the refractive index structure constant.

  3. Partial connectivity increases cultural accumulation within groups.

    PubMed

    Derex, Maxime; Boyd, Robert

    2016-03-15

    Complex technologies used in most human societies are beyond the inventive capacities of individuals. Instead, they result from a cumulative process in which innovations are gradually added to existing cultural traits across many generations. Recent work suggests that a population's ability to develop complex technologies is positively affected by its size and connectedness. Here, we present a simple computer-based experiment that compares the accumulation of innovations by fully and partially connected groups of the same size in a complex fitness landscape. We find that the propensity to learn from successful individuals drastically reduces cultural diversity within fully connected groups. In comparison, partially connected groups produce more diverse solutions, and this diversity allows them to develop complex solutions that are never produced in fully connected groups. These results suggest that explanations of ancestral patterns of cultural complexity may need to consider levels of population fragmentation and interaction patterns between partially isolated groups.

  4. Partial Thickness Rotator Cuff Tears: Current Concepts

    PubMed Central

    Matthewson, Graeme; Beach, Cara J.; Nelson, Atiba A.; Woodmass, Jarret M.; Ono, Yohei; Boorman, Richard S.; Lo, Ian K. Y.; Thornton, Gail M.

    2015-01-01

    Partial thickness rotator cuff tears are a common cause of pain in the adult shoulder. Despite their high prevalence, the diagnosis and treatment of partial thickness rotator cuff tears remains controversial. While recent studies have helped to elucidate the anatomy and natural history of disease progression, the optimal treatment, both nonoperative and operative, is unclear. Although the advent of arthroscopy has improved the accuracy of the diagnosis of partial thickness rotator cuff tears, the number of surgical techniques used to repair these tears has also increased. While multiple repair techniques have been described, there is currently no significant clinical evidence supporting more complex surgical techniques over standard rotator cuff repair. Further research is required to determine the clinical indications for surgical and nonsurgical management, when formal rotator cuff repair is specifically indicated and when biologic adjunctive therapy may be utilized. PMID:26171251

  5. On partially massless theory in 3 dimensions

    SciTech Connect

    Alexandrov, Sergei; Deffayet, Cédric

    2015-03-24

    We analyze the first-order formulation of the ghost-free bigravity model in three-dimensions known as zwei-dreibein gravity. For a special choice of parameters, it was argued to have an additional gauge symmetry and give rise to a partially massless theory. We provide a thorough canonical analysis and identify that whether the theory becomes partially massless depends on the form of the stability condition of the secondary constraint responsible for the absence of the ghost. Generically, it is found to be an equation for a Lagrange multiplier implying that partially massless zwei-dreibein gravity does not exist. However, for special backgrounds this condition is identically satisfied leading to the presence of additional symmetries, which however disappear at quadratic order in perturbations.

  6. [Fiber-reinforced adhesive partial dentures].

    PubMed

    Kreulen, C M

    2003-06-01

    Dental applications of fiber-reinforced polymers include adhesive partial dentures. Dental resin composite materials can be reinforced by several types of fibres. Fiber orientation, proper wetting of the fibers by the resin and fiber volume are important. An application of fiber reinforced composites is the composite inlay bridge. This paper deals with some aspects of this type of adhesive partial denture. Advantages include the satisfactory esthetics and the minimally invasive character. Not clear yet is the long-term survival. The adhesive properties of fiber-reinforced adhesive partial dentures require an adaptation of the current dental philosophy, in which direct and indirect restorative techniques can be combined. An increase in knowledge and experience is needed to determine the dental applications. PMID:12852063

  7. Virtual environment application with partial gravity simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, David M.; Vanchau, Michael N.

    1994-01-01

    To support manned missions to the surface of Mars and missions requiring manipulation of payloads and locomotion in space, a training facility is required to simulate the conditions of both partial and microgravity. A partial gravity simulator (Pogo) which uses pneumatic suspension is being studied for use in virtual reality training. Pogo maintains a constant partial gravity simulation with a variation of simulated body force between 2.2 and 10 percent, depending on the type of locomotion inputs. this paper is based on the concept and application of a virtual environment system with Pogo including a head-mounted display and glove. The reality engine consists of a high end SGI workstation and PC's which drive Pogo's sensors and data acquisition hardware used for tracking and control. The tracking system is a hybrid of magnetic and optical trackers integrated for this application.

  8. Female-biased obligate strategies in a partially migratory population.

    PubMed

    Fudickar, Adam M; Schmidt, Andreas; Hau, Michaela; Quetting, Michael; Partecke, Jesko

    2013-07-01

    Partial migration occurs when a breeding population consists of seasonal migrants and year-round residents. Although it is common among birds, the basis of individual movement decisions within partially migratory populations is still unresolved. Over 4 years, we used state of the art tracking techniques, a combination of geolocators and radio transmitters, to follow individual European blackbirds Turdus merula year round from a partially migratory population to determine individual strategies and departure and arrival dates. The individual-based tracking combined with measures of energetic and hormonal (corticosterone) state enabled us to distinguish between obligate and facultative migration and to test several classical hypotheses of partial migration: the 'Arrival Time'-, 'Dominance'- and 'Thermal Tolerance'-hypotheses. Two distinct periods of departures from the breeding grounds were observed during the study; one in early autumn, and another during the midst of winter. Although blackbirds that migrated in autumn were never observed overwintering within 300 km of the study site, four individuals that departed in the winter were observed within 40 km. Females were significantly more likely to migrate in autumn than males but there was no difference in the age or body size of migrants and non migrants in autumn. Just prior to autumn migration, migrants had higher fat scores than non migrants and tended to have higher concentrations of baseline corticosterone, but similar concentrations of triglycerides. Unlike autumn migrants, we found no difference between the tendencies of males versus females to depart in winter, nor did we find any difference in body size or age of individuals that departed in the winter. Autumn migration was sex biased and resembled obligate migration. Our results provide strong support for the 'Arrival Time' hypothesis for partial migration in the autumn. We found no clear support for the 'Dominance' or 'Thermal Tolerance' hypotheses. By

  9. Adult case of partial trisomy 9q

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Complete and partial trisomy 9 is the fourth most common chromosomal disorder. It is also associated with various congenital characteristics affecting the cranio-facial, skeletal, central nervous, gastrointestinal, cardiac and renal systems. Very few cases have been reported in adults. Partial trisomy 9q is also associated with short stature, poor growth and growth hormone deficiency. This is the first reported case of an extensive endocrinology investigation of short stature in trisomy 9q and the outcome of growth hormone treatment. Case Presentation The case involves a 23-year-old female of pure partial trisomy 9q. The case involves a 23-year old female with pure partial trisomy 9q involving a duplication of 9q22.1 to q32, de novo, confirmed by genetic studies using fluorescene in situ hybridization (FISH) method. The diagnosis was at 6 years of age. She did not demonstrate all the congenital morphologies identified with trisomy 9q disorders especially in relation to multi-organ morphologies. There is also a degree of associated intellectual impairment. At prepuberty, she was referred for poor growth and was diagnosed with partial growth hormone deficiency. She responded very well to treatment with growth hormone and is currently living an independent life with some support. Conclusions Trisomy 9q is associated with short stature and failure to thrive. Growth hormone deficiency should be identified in cases of trisomy 9q and treatment offered. This is the first reported case of response to growth hormone replacement in partial trisomy 9. PMID:20158889

  10. Digital generation of partially coherent vortex beams.

    PubMed

    Perez-Garcia, Benjamin; Yepiz, Adad; Hernandez-Aranda, Raul I; Forbes, Andrew; Swartzlander, Grover A

    2016-08-01

    We present an experimental technique to generate partially coherent vortex beams with an arbitrary azimuthal index using only a spatial light modulator. Our approach is based on digitally simulating the intrinsic randomness of broadband light passing through a spiral phase plate. We illustrate the versatility of the technique by generating partially coherent beams with different coherence lengths and orbital angular momentum content, without any moving optical device. Consequently, we study its cross-correlation function in a wavefront folding interferometer. The comparison with theoretical predictions yields excellent agreement. PMID:27472596

  11. Partial gravity - Human impacts on facility design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Capps, Stephen; Moore, Nathan

    1990-01-01

    Partial gravity affects the body differently than earth gravity and microgravity environments. The main difference from earth gravity is human locomotion; while the main dfference from microgravity is the specific updown orientation and reach envelopes which increase volume requirements. Much data are available on earth gravity and microgravity design; however, very little information is available on human reactions to reduced gravity levels in IVA situations (without pressure suits). Therefore, if humans commit to permanent lunar habitation, much research should be conducted in the area of partial gravity effects on habitat design.

  12. Pheochromocytoma Presenting as Partial HELLP Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Daaboul, Yazan; Korjian, Serge; Khalil, Lamis; Nemr, Rita

    2015-01-01

    Diagnosis of pheochromocytoma in partial HELLP syndrome is extremely rare. We report a case of a 25-year-old multigravida woman at 30 weeks of gestation who presented with clinical features consistent with partial HELLP syndrome. Her symptoms were not controlled by pharmacologic therapy, and the patient underwent urgent cesarean section. The patient gave birth to a viable baby, but she sustained an episode of ventricular fibrillation intraoperatively that did not result in any long-term sequelae. The patient's symptoms persisted postoperatively and work-up for secondary etiologies of hypertension demonstrated a right adrenal pheochromocytoma. Following resection, the patient's signs and symptoms resolved, and her lab tests normalized. PMID:26351602

  13. DEVICE FOR CONTROL OF OXYGEN PARTIAL PRESSURE

    DOEpatents

    Bradner, H.; Gordon, H.S.

    1957-12-24

    A device is described that can sense changes in oxygen partial pressure and cause a corresponding mechanical displacement sufficient to actuate meters, valves and similar devices. A piston and cylinder arrangement contains a charge of crystalline metal chelate pellets which have the peculiar property of responding to variations in the oxygen content of the ambient atmosphere by undergoing a change in dimension. A lever system amplifies the relative displacement of the piston in the cylinder, and actuates the controlled valving device. This partial pressure oxygen sensing device is useful in controlled chemical reactions or in respiratory devices such as the oxygen demand meters for high altitude aircraft.

  14. Comparison between DMSP-OLS and S-NPP Day-Night Band in Correlating with Regional Socio-economic Variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, X.; Shao, X.; Cao, C.; Fu, X.

    2013-12-01

    Night-time light imagery offers a unique view of the Earth's surface. In the past, the nighttime light data collected by the DMSP-OLS sensors have been used as efficient means to correlate with the global socio-economic activities. With the launch of Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) satellite in October 2011, the Day Night Band (DNB) of the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) onboard S-NPP represents a major advancement in night time imaging capabilities because it surpassed its predecessor DMSP-OLS in radiometric accuracy, spatial resolution, and geometric quality. In this paper, we compared the performance of DNB image and DMSP image in correlating regional socio-economic activities and analyzed the leading causes for the differences. The correlation coefficients between the socio-economic variables such as population, regional GDP etc. and the characteristic variables derived from the night time light images of DNB and DMSP at provincial level in China were computed as performance metrics for comparison. In general, the correlation between DNB data and socio-economic data is better than that of DMSP data. To explain the difference in the correlation, we further analyzed the effects of several factors such as radiometric saturation and quantization of DMSP data, low spatial resolution, different data acquisition times between DNB and DMSP images, and difference in the transformation used in converting digital number (DN) value to radiance.

  15. Experience gained from the development and results from tests of the equipment of the Kalinin NPP Unit 4 regeneration and intermediate steam separation and reheating system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trifonov, N. N.; Sukhorukov, Yu. G.; Ermolov, V. F.; Svyatkin, F. A.; Nikolaenkova, E. K.; Sintsova, T. G.; Grigor'eva, E. B.; Esin, S. B.; Ukhanova, M. G.; Golubev, E. A.; Bik, S. P.; Tren'kin, V. B.

    2014-06-01

    The equipment of the Kalinin NPP Unit 4 regeneration, intermediate separation, and steam reheating (ISSR) systems is described and the results of their static and dynamic tests are presented. It was shown from an analysis of test results that the equipment of the regeneration and ISSR systems produce the design thermal and hydraulic characteristics in static and dynamic modes of its operation. Specialists of the Central boiler-Turbine Institute Research and Production Association have developed procedures and computer programs for calculating the system of direct-contact horizontal low-pressure heaters (connected according to the gravity circuit arrangement jointly with the second-stage electrically-driven condensate pumps) and the ISSR system, the results of which are in satisfactory agreement with experimental data. The drawbacks of the layout solutions due to which cavitation failure of the pumps may occur are considered. Technical solutions aimed at securing stable operation of the equipment of regeneration and ISSR systems are proposed. The process arrangement for heating the chamber-type high-pressure heaters adopted at the Kalinin NPP is analyzed. The version of this circuit developed at the Central Boiler-Turbine Institute Research and Production Association that allows the heating rate equal to 1°C/min to be obtained is proposed.

  16. Distribution and migration of ⁹⁰Sr in components of the Dnieper River basin and the Black Sea ecosystems after the Chernobyl NPP accident.

    PubMed

    Mirzoyeva, N Yu; Egorov, V N; Polikarpov, G G

    2013-11-01

    The change in (90)Sr concentrations in hydrobionts, water and bottom sediments of the Chernobyl NPP pond-cooler, the Kievskoe and Kakhovskoe reservoirs, the Northern-Crimean canal and the Black Sea after the Chernobyl NPP accident was studied. The environmental half-times for the decrease of (90)Sr concentrations were determined: in water - 4.1-24.3 years; algae and flowering water plants - 3.6-7.7 years, in molluscs - 2.4-6.7 years, and in fish - 7.8-12.9 years. The time for (90)Sr concentrations to decrease to pre-accident levels were estimated: in freshwater reservoirs and the northwest part of the Black Sea this was 32-44 years, and in freshwater hydrobionts this was 25-73 years. The contribution of dose from (90)Sr to the hydrobionts, sampled from the Kakhovskoe reservoir, the Northern-Crimean canal and the Black Sea, has not reached values which could impact them during the entire post-accident period. This complex of comparative studies was carried out for the first time.

  17. 77 FR 1417 - Partial Approval and Partial Disapproval of Air Quality Implementation Plans; California; San...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-10

    .... Proposed Action On September 9, 2011 (76 FR 55842), EPA proposed to partially approve and partially... approval/disapproval October 1, 2010 (75 FR 60623). SJVUAPCD is scheduled to adopt amendments to Rule 4352.../disapproval January 26, 2010, (75 FR 3996). SJVUAPCD submitted amendments to EPA on July 28, 2011 and...

  18. NPP Making the News

    NASA Video Gallery

    When it comes to a NASA mission, it is not just about the science and engineering but it is also important to educate the public about the program. In this video television crews work night and day...

  19. Allosteric Partial Inhibition of Monomeric Proteases. Sulfated Coumarins Induce Regulation, not just Inhibition, of Thrombin

    PubMed Central

    Verespy III, Stephen; Mehta, Akul Y.; Afosah, Daniel; Al-Horani, Rami A.; Desai, Umesh R.

    2016-01-01

    Allosteric partial inhibition of soluble, monomeric proteases can offer major regulatory advantages, but remains a concept on paper to date; although it has been routinely documented for receptors and oligomeric proteins. Thrombin, a key protease of the coagulation cascade, displays significant conformational plasticity, which presents an attractive opportunity to discover small molecule probes that induce sub-maximal allosteric inhibition. We synthesized a focused library of some 36 sulfated coumarins to discover two agents that display sub-maximal efficacy (~50%), high potency (<500 nM) and high selectivity for thrombin (>150-fold). Michaelis-Menten, competitive inhibition, and site-directed mutagenesis studies identified exosite 2 as the site of binding for the most potent sulfated coumarin. Stern-Volmer quenching of active site-labeled fluorophore suggested that the allosteric regulators induce intermediate structural changes in the active site as compared to those that display ~80–100% efficacy. Antithrombin inactivation of thrombin was impaired in the presence of the sulfated coumarins suggesting that allosteric partial inhibition arises from catalytic dysfunction of the active site. Overall, sulfated coumarins represent first-in-class, sub-maximal inhibitors of thrombin. The probes establish the concept of allosteric partial inhibition of soluble, monomeric proteins. This concept may lead to a new class of anticoagulants that are completely devoid of bleeding. PMID:27053426

  20. Conservation Development in the Partially Sighted Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Lee; And Others

    1979-01-01

    A comparative study of conservation development in partially sighted, sighted, and sighted blindfolded children at four age levels was assessed. Conservation on tasks of mass, weight, and volume were evaluated using Piaget and Inhelder's prediction, judgment, and explanation questions. The significant differences were found between groups, task,…

  1. Partial spectral analysis of hydrological time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jukić, D.; Denić-Jukić, V.

    2011-03-01

    SummaryHydrological time series comprise the influences of numerous processes involved in the transfer of water in hydrological cycle. It implies that an ambiguity with respect to the processes encoded in spectral and cross-spectral density functions exists. Previous studies have not paid attention adequately to this issue. Spectral and cross-spectral density functions represent the Fourier transforms of auto-covariance and cross-covariance functions. Using this basic property, the ambiguity is resolved by applying a novel approach based on the spectral representation of partial correlation. Mathematical background for partial spectral density, partial amplitude and partial phase functions is presented. The proposed functions yield the estimates of spectral density, amplitude and phase that are not affected by a controlling process. If an input-output relation is the subject of interest, antecedent and subsequent influences of the controlling process can be distinguished considering the input event as a referent point. The method is used for analyses of the relations between the rainfall, air temperature and relative humidity, as well as the influences of air temperature and relative humidity on the discharge from karst spring. Time series are collected in the catchment of the Jadro Spring located in the Dinaric karst area of Croatia.

  2. Absolute partial photoionization cross sections of ozone.

    SciTech Connect

    Berkowitz, J.; Chemistry

    2008-04-01

    Despite the current concerns about ozone, absolute partial photoionization cross sections for this molecule in the vacuum ultraviolet (valence) region have been unavailable. By eclectic re-evaluation of old/new data and plausible assumptions, such cross sections have been assembled to fill this void.

  3. Partial Hospitalization Programs: A Current Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitelaw, Carolyn A.; Perez, Edgardo L.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews the historical background, standards, the issue of day treatment versus day care, functional issues, specialization, efficacy and cost effectiveness, utilization issues, and alternative models of care of partial hospitalization programs in North America. Emphasizes issues of relevance when planning alternative programs to inpatient…

  4. Partially Correct Constructs Illuminate Students' Inconsistent Answers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ron, Gila; Dreyfus, Tommy; Hershkowitz, Rina

    2010-01-01

    We present a view of knowledge construction processes, focusing on partially correct constructs. Motivated by unexpected and seemingly inconsistent quantitative data based on the written reports of students working on an elementary probability task, we analyze in detail the knowledge construction processes of a representative student. We show how…

  5. Partial intravenous anesthesia in cats and dogs.

    PubMed

    Duke, Tanya

    2013-03-01

    The partial intravenous anesthesia technique (PIVA) is used to lower the inspired concentration of an inhalational anesthetic by concurrent use of injectable drugs. This technique reduces the incidence of undesirable side-effects and provides superior quality of anesthesia and analgesia. Drugs commonly used for PIVA include opioids, alpha-2 adrenergic agonists, injectable anesthetic agents, and lidocaine. Most are administered by intravenous infusion.

  6. Partial face recognition: alignment-free approach.

    PubMed

    Liao, Shengcai; Jain, Anil K; Li, Stan Z

    2013-05-01

    Numerous methods have been developed for holistic face recognition with impressive performance. However, few studies have tackled how to recognize an arbitrary patch of a face image. Partial faces frequently appear in unconstrained scenarios, with images captured by surveillance cameras or handheld devices (e.g., mobile phones) in particular. In this paper, we propose a general partial face recognition approach that does not require face alignment by eye coordinates or any other fiducial points. We develop an alignment-free face representation method based on Multi-Keypoint Descriptors (MKD), where the descriptor size of a face is determined by the actual content of the image. In this way, any probe face image, holistic or partial, can be sparsely represented by a large dictionary of gallery descriptors. A new keypoint descriptor called Gabor Ternary Pattern (GTP) is also developed for robust and discriminative face recognition. Experimental results are reported on four public domain face databases (FRGCv2.0, AR, LFW, and PubFig) under both the open-set identification and verification scenarios. Comparisons with two leading commercial face recognition SDKs (PittPatt and FaceVACS) and two baseline algorithms (PCA+LDA and LBP) show that the proposed method, overall, is superior in recognizing both holistic and partial faces without requiring alignment.

  7. A Partial Theory of Executive Succession.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thiemann, Francis C.

    This study has two purposes: (1) To construct a partial theory of succession, and (2) to utilize a method of theory construction which combines some of the concepts of Hans Zetterberg with the principles of formal symbolic logic. A bibliography on succession in complex organizations with entries on descriptive and empirical studies from various…

  8. Dopamine receptor partial agonists and addiction.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Fabricio A; Dalley, Jeffrey W

    2015-04-01

    Many drugs abused by humans acutely facilitate, either directly or indirectly, dopamine neurotransmission in the mesolimbic pathway. As a consequence dopamine receptor agonists and antagonists have been widely investigated as putative pharmacological therapies for addiction. This general strategy, however, has had only limited success due in part to poor treatment adherence and efficacy and the significant adverse effects of dopaminergic medications. In this perspective, we discuss the potential therapeutic use of dopamine receptor partial agonists in addiction, developed initially as antipsychotic agents. Recent research indicates that the dopamine D2 receptor partial agonists, such as aripiprazole, also shows useful ancillary efficacy in several animal models of psychostimulant and opioid addiction. Notably, these findings suggest that unlike full dopamine receptor agonists and antagonists these compounds have low abuse liability and are generally well tolerated. Indeed, partial dopamine agonists attenuate the rewarding properties of opioids without interfering with their analgesic effects. Herein we discuss the utility and potential of dopamine receptor partial agonists as treatments for both stimulant and non-stimulant drug addiction.

  9. PARTIALLY SEEING PROGRAM, 1966-1967.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lake County Special Education District, Gurnee, IL.

    THIS ADMINISTRATIVE OUTLINE OF THE PARTIALLY SEEING PROGRAM IN LAKE COUNTY, ILLINOIS, PRESENTS THE DUTIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF THE TWO ITINERANT TEACHERS AND THEIR IMMEDIATE SUPERVISORS. THE PROGRAM'S PHILOSOPHY, GOALS, HISTORY AND PLACEMENT IN THE COUNTY'S ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE IS PRESENTED. THE ITINERANT TEACHER'S ADMINISTRATIVE…

  10. Partial Automated Alignment and Integration System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelley, Gary Wayne (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention is a Partial Automated Alignment and Integration System (PAAIS) used to automate the alignment and integration of space vehicle components. A PAAIS includes ground support apparatuses, a track assembly with a plurality of energy-emitting components and an energy-receiving component containing a plurality of energy-receiving surfaces. Communication components and processors allow communication and feedback through PAAIS.

  11. Partially Decentralized Control Architectures for Satellite Formations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, J. Russell; Bauer, Frank H.

    2002-01-01

    In a partially decentralized control architecture, more than one but less than all nodes have supervisory capability. This paper describes an approach to choosing the number of supervisors in such au architecture, based on a reliability vs. cost trade. It also considers the implications of these results for the design of navigation systems for satellite formations that could be controlled with a partially decentralized architecture. Using an assumed cost model, analytic and simulation-based results indicate that it may be cheaper to achieve a given overall system reliability with a partially decentralized architecture containing only a few supervisors, than with either fully decentralized or purely centralized architectures. Nominally, the subset of supervisors may act as centralized estimation and control nodes for corresponding subsets of the remaining subordinate nodes, and act as decentralized estimation and control peers with respect to each other. However, in the context of partially decentralized satellite formation control, the absolute positions and velocities of each spacecraft are unique, so that correlations which make estimates using only local information suboptimal only occur through common biases and process noise. Covariance and monte-carlo analysis of a simplified system show that this lack of correlation may allow simplification of the local estimators while preserving the global optimality of the maneuvers commanded by the supervisors.

  12. 31 CFR 315.41 - Partial redemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Partial redemption. 315.41 Section 315.41 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL..., SERIES A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, J, AND K, AND U.S. SAVINGS NOTES General Provisions for Payment §...

  13. Some Considerations on the Partial Credit Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verhelst, N. D.; Verstralen, H. H. F. M.

    2008-01-01

    The Partial Credit Model (PCM) is sometimes interpreted as a model for stepwise solution of polytomously scored items, where the item parameters are interpreted as difficulties of the steps. It is argued that this interpretation is not justified. A model for stepwise solution is discussed. It is shown that the PCM is suited to model sums of binary…

  14. Canonical coordinates for partial differential equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, L. R.; Villarreal, Ramiro

    1988-01-01

    Necessary and sufficient conditions are found under which operators of the form Sigma (m, j=1) x (2) sub j + X sub O can be made constant coefficient. In addition, necessary and sufficient conditions are derived which classify those linear partial differential operators that can be moved to the Kolmogorov type.

  15. Canonical coordinates for partial differential equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, L. R.; Villarreal, Ramiro

    1987-01-01

    Necessary and sufficient conditions are found under which operators of the form Sigma(m, j=1) X(2)sub j + X sub 0 can be made constant coefficient. In addition, necessary and sufficient conditions are derived which classify those linear partial differential operators that can be moved to the Kolmogorov type.

  16. Some Partial Models for Urban Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guthrie, Harold W.

    This paper focuses on partial models for solving urban problems to contrast our achievements as social scientists with our aspirations as prescribers of public policy. The objectives of this paper are (1) to review some of the reasons that an ideal set of solutions for urban problems has not been produced by social scientists and (2) to describe…

  17. Partial Data Traces: Efficient Generation and Representation

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, F; De Supinski, B R; McKee, S A; Yoo, A

    2001-08-20

    Binary manipulation techniques are increasing in popularity. They support program transformations tailored toward certain program inputs, and these transformations have been shown to yield performance gains beyond the scope of static code optimizations without profile-directed feedback. They even deliver moderate gains in the presence of profile-guided optimizations. In addition, transformations can be performed on the entire executable, including library routines. This work focuses on program instrumentation, yet another application of binary manipulation. This paper reports preliminary results on generating partial data traces through dynamic binary rewriting. The contributions are threefold. First, a portable method for extracting precise data traces for partial executions of arbitrary applications is developed. Second, a set of hierarchical structures for compactly representing these accesses is developed. Third, an efficient online algorithm to detect regular accesses is introduced. The authors utilize dynamic binary rewriting to selectively collect partial address traces of regions within a program. This allows partial tracing of hot paths for only a short time during program execution in contrast to static rewriting techniques that lack hot path detection and also lack facilities to limit the duration of data collection. Preliminary results show reductions of three orders of a magnitude of inline instrumentation over a dual process approach involving context switching. They also report constant size representations for regular access patters in nested loops. These efforts are part of a larger project to counter the increasing gap between processor and main memory speeds by means of software optimization and hardware enhancements.

  18. Accommodating blind and partially sighted clients

    PubMed Central

    England, Gary; Gebbels, Tim; Whelan, Chantelle; Freeman, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Veterinary surgeons provide an important service to blind and partially sighted guide dog owners. By adopting basic disability awareness and visual impairment training, practices can ensure that the assistance needs of those clients are met, facilitating access to veterinary care. PMID:25642013

  19. 24 CFR 203.371 - Partial claim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN INSURANCE PROGRAMS UNDER NATIONAL HOUSING ACT AND OTHER AUTHORITIES SINGLE FAMILY MORTGAGE INSURANCE Contract Rights and Obligations Claim Procedure § 203.371 Partial claim. (a... not exceeded the equivalent of 12 monthly mortgage payments; (3) The mortgagor is able to...

  20. 44 CFR 295.6 - Partial payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Partial payments. 295.6 Section 295.6 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CERRO GRANDE FIRE ASSISTANCE CERRO GRANDE FIRE ASSISTANCE General § 295.6...

  1. 44 CFR 295.6 - Partial payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Partial payments. 295.6 Section 295.6 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CERRO GRANDE FIRE ASSISTANCE CERRO GRANDE FIRE ASSISTANCE General § 295.6...

  2. Headborne illuminator for the partially sighted.

    PubMed

    Goodlaw, E I; Genensky, S M

    1978-12-01

    An inexpensive, headborne device is described that provides a bright spot of light on reading material even when the material is brought within 1 or 2 cm of the viewing eye. This aid has been used with great success by one of the authors for about 2 yr. This illuminator, or modifications of it, should prove valuable to other partially sighted people.

  3. 32 CFR 751.13 - Partial payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... can demonstrate a need for immediate funds to replace some of those items (e.g., food, clothes, baby... shall be taken to ensure the amount of the partial payment is deducted from the adjudicated value of the... payments are to be subtracted from the adjudicated value of the claim before payment of the balance...

  4. Partial face recognition: alignment-free approach.

    PubMed

    Liao, Shengcai; Jain, Anil K; Li, Stan Z

    2013-05-01

    Numerous methods have been developed for holistic face recognition with impressive performance. However, few studies have tackled how to recognize an arbitrary patch of a face image. Partial faces frequently appear in unconstrained scenarios, with images captured by surveillance cameras or handheld devices (e.g., mobile phones) in particular. In this paper, we propose a general partial face recognition approach that does not require face alignment by eye coordinates or any other fiducial points. We develop an alignment-free face representation method based on Multi-Keypoint Descriptors (MKD), where the descriptor size of a face is determined by the actual content of the image. In this way, any probe face image, holistic or partial, can be sparsely represented by a large dictionary of gallery descriptors. A new keypoint descriptor called Gabor Ternary Pattern (GTP) is also developed for robust and discriminative face recognition. Experimental results are reported on four public domain face databases (FRGCv2.0, AR, LFW, and PubFig) under both the open-set identification and verification scenarios. Comparisons with two leading commercial face recognition SDKs (PittPatt and FaceVACS) and two baseline algorithms (PCA+LDA and LBP) show that the proposed method, overall, is superior in recognizing both holistic and partial faces without requiring alignment. PMID:23520259

  5. Electron microscopic analysis of partially replicated bacteriophage T7 DNA.

    PubMed Central

    Burck, K B; Scraba, D G; Miller, R C

    1979-01-01

    Partially replicated bacteriophage T7 DNA was isolated from Escherichia coli infected with UV-irradiated T7 bacteriophage and was analyzed by electron microscopy. The analysis determined the distribution of eye forms and forks in the partially replicated molecules. Eye forms and forks in unit length molecules were aligned with respect to the left end of the T7 genome, and segments were scored for replication in each molecule. The resulting histogram showed that only the left 25 to 30% of the molecules was replicated. Several different origins of DNA replication were used to initiate replication in the UV-irradiated experiments in which 32P-labeled progeny DNA from UV-irradiated phage was annealed with ordered restriction fragments of T7 DNA (K. B. Burck and R. C. Miller, Jr., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 75:6144--6148, 1978). Both analyses support partial-replica hypotheses (N. A. Barricelli and A. H. Doermann, Virology 13:460--476, 1961; Doermann et al., J. Cell. comp. Physiol. 45[Suppl.]:51--74, 1955) as an explanation for the distribution of marker rescue frequencies during cross-reactivation; i.e., replication proceeds in a bidirectional manner from an origin to a site of UV damage, and those regions of the genome which replicate most efficiently are rescued most efficiently by a coinfecting phage. In addition, photoreactivation studies support the hypothesis that thymine dimers are the major UV damage blocking cross-reactivation in the right end of the T7 genome. Images PMID:291738

  6. Pioneer Transcription Factors Target Partial DNA Motifs on Nucleosomes to Initiate Reprogramming

    PubMed Central

    Soufi, Abdenour; Garcia, Meilin Fernandez; Jaroszewicz, Artur; Osman, Nebiyu; Pellegrini, Matteo; Zaret, Kenneth S.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Pioneer transcription factors (TFs) access silent chromatin and initiate cell fate changes, using diverse types of DNA binding domains (DBDs). FoxA, the paradigm pioneer TF, has a winged helix DBD that resembles linker histone and thereby binds its target sites on nucleosomes and in compacted chromatin. Herein we compare the nucleosome and chromatin targeting activities of Oct4 (POU DBD), Sox2 (HMG box DBD), Klf4 (zinc finger DBD), and c-Myc (bHLH DBD), which together reprogram somatic cells to pluripotency. Purified Oct4, Sox2, and Klf4 proteins can bind nucleosomes in vitro, and in vivo they preferentially target silent sites enriched for nucleosomes. Pioneer activity relates simply to the ability of a given DBD to target partial motifs displayed on the nucleosome surface. Such partial motif recognition can occur by coordinate binding between factors. Our findings provide insight into how pioneer factors can target naïve chromatin sites. PMID:25892221

  7. Partial rupture of the quadriceps muscle in a child

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The quadriceps femoris muscle ruptures usually occur in the middle-aged population. We present a 4-year-old patient with partial rupture of the quadriceps femoris muscle. To our knowledge, this is the youngest patient reported with a quadriceps femoris muscle rupture. Case Presentation A 4-year-old girl admitted to our clinic with left knee pain and limitation in knee movements. Her father reported that she felt pain while jumping on sofa. There was no direct trauma to thigh or knee. We located a palpable soft tissue swelling at distal anterolateral side of thigh. The history revealed that 10 days ago the patient was treated for upper tract respiratory infection with intramuscular Clindamycin for 7 days. When we consulted the patient with her previous doctor and nurse, we learnt that multiple daily injections might be injected to same side of left thigh. MRI showed a partial tear of vastus lateralis muscle matching with the injection sites. The patient treated with long leg half-casting for three weeks. Clinical examination and knee flexion had good results with conservative treatment. Conclusions Multiple intramuscular injections may contribute to damage muscles and make prone to tears with muscle contractions. Doctors and nurses must be cautious to inject from different parts of both thighs. PMID:20849662

  8. Calculation of atom-centered partial charges for heme

    SciTech Connect

    Manchester, J.I.; Paulsen, M.D.; Ornstein, R.L.

    1994-05-01

    Atom-centered partial charges are calculated for the Fe-heme in cytochrome P450cam for use in molecular dynamics simulations of polar substrates bound in the active site of the enzyme. Charges are fit to the electrostatic potential produced by ab initio UHF wavefunctions for an Fe-porphine model. Basis set dependence of these charges is observed using the LANL1DZ, LANL2DZ and augmented 6-31G levels of theory. Upon geometry optimization of the enzyme, these charge sets cause varying degrees of distortion of the porphyrin from its crystallographically observed conformation. Scaling the charges calculated from the augmented 6-31G basis by 75% reduces the heme distortion while preserving reasonable interactions with a polar substrate. A comparison of the calculated charges with other published values is presented.

  9. 40 CFR Table 7 to Subpart Vvvvvv... - Partially Soluble HAP

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Partially Soluble HAP 7 Table 7 to... Pt. 63, Subpt. VVVVVV, Table 7 Table 7 to Subpart VVVVVV of Part 63—Partially Soluble HAP As required... partially soluble HAP listed in the following table. Partially soluble HAP name CAS No. 1....

  10. 40 CFR Table 7 to Subpart Vvvvvv... - Partially Soluble HAP

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Partially Soluble HAP 7 Table 7 to... Pt. 63, Subpt. VVVVVV, Table 7 Table 7 to Subpart VVVVVV of Part 63—Partially Soluble HAP As required... partially soluble HAP listed in the following table. Partially soluble HAP name CAS No. 1....

  11. 40 CFR Table 7 to Subpart Vvvvvv... - Partially Soluble HAP

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Partially Soluble HAP 7 Table 7 to... Pt. 63, Subpt. VVVVVV, Table 7 Table 7 to Subpart VVVVVV of Part 63—Partially Soluble HAP As required... partially soluble HAP listed in the following table. Partially soluble HAP name CAS No. 1....

  12. Planarian Immobilization, Partial Irradiation, and Tissue Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Guedelhoefer IV, Otto C.; Sánchez Alvarado, Alejandro

    2012-01-01

    The planarian, a freshwater flatworm, has proven to be a powerful system for dissecting metazoan regeneration and stem cell biology1,2. Planarian regeneration of any missing or damaged tissues is made possible by adult stem cells termed neoblasts3. Although these stem cells have been definitively shown to be pluripotent and singularly capable of reconstituting an entire animal4, the heterogeneity within the stem cell population and the dynamics of their cellular behaviors remain largely unresolved. Due to the large number and wide distribution of stem cells throughout the planarian body plan, advanced methods for manipulating subpopulations of stem cells for molecular and functional study in vivo are needed. Tissue transplantation and partial irradiation are two methods by which a subpopulation of planarian stem cells can be isolated for further study. Each technique has distinct advantages. Tissue transplantation allows for the introduction of stem cells, into a naïve host, that are either inherently genetically distinct or have been previously treated pharmacologically. Alternatively, partial irradiation allows for the isolation of stem cells within a host, juxtaposed to tissue devoid of stem cells, without the introduction of a wound or any breech in tissue integrity. Using these two methods, one can investigate the cell autonomous and non-autonomous factors that control stem cell functions, such as proliferation, differentiation, and migration. Both tissue transplantation5,6 and partial irradiation7 have been used historically in defining many of the questions about planarian regeneration that remain under study today. However, these techniques have remained underused due to the laborious and inconsistent nature of previous methods. The protocols presented here represent a large step forward in decreasing the time and effort necessary to reproducibly generate large numbers of grafted or partially irradiated animals with efficacies approaching 100 percent. We

  13. Allograft tolerance in pigs after fractionated lymphoid irradiation. I. Skin grafts after partial lateral irradiation and bone marrow cell grafting

    SciTech Connect

    Vaiman, M.; Daburon, F.; Remy, J.; Villiers, P.A.; de Riberolles, C.; Lecompte, Y.; Mahouy, G.; Fradelizi, D.

    1981-05-01

    Experiments with pigs have been performed to establish bone marrow chimerism and skin graft tolerance between SLA genotyped animals. Recipients were conditioned by means of fractionated partial irradiation from lateral cobalt sources (partial lateral irradiation (PLI)). The head, neck, and lungs were protected with lead, the rest of the body being irradiated including the thymus, the majority of lymphoid organs with spleen, and most of the bone marrow sites.

  14. Structure of comorbid diseases in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, exposed to ionizing radiation as a result of the Chornobyl NPP accident.

    PubMed

    Gasanova, O V; Sarkisova, E O; Ovsyannikova, L M; Chumak, A A; Nosach, O V; Nezgovorova, G A; Gromadska, V M

    2014-09-01

    Objective - to study of the structure of comorbid diseases in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), exposed to ionizing radiation due to the Chornobyl accident, and in the groups of comparison. Materials and methods. Array of surveyed males was divided into 4 groups: the main group - 136 patients with NAFLD affected by the Chornobyl NPP accident, the first comparison group (І CG) - 28 affected by Chornobyl NPP accident without liver disease, the second comparison group (II CG) - 50 patients with NAFLD not exposed to factors of the Chornobyl disaster, and the third comparison group (III CG) - 16 unexposed persons without liver disease. Results. A significant amount of co-morbid pathology was found in all studied groups but III CG: at the average from 4.1 ± 0.4 diseases in II CG to 5.2 ± 0.2 in the main group of patients (p < 0.05), among which in 6.6-7.1 % of cases more than 10 diseases were established. The most common disorders were cardiovascular and cerebrovascular and endocrine diseases. Structure of comorbid pathology in NAFLD in the main study group differed from this in II CG by a significantly greater frequency of detection of cerebrovascular diseases (73.5 and 56 %, p < 0.05). As for features of the metabolic syndrome in Chornobyl accident sufferers essential hypertension (71.3 % ), discirculatory encephalopathy (48.5 %) and thyroid diseases (47.1 %) were more frequent than in II GC: correspondingly 58 % (p < 0.001), 28 %, (p < 0.01), and 30 %, (p < 0.05). Essential hypertension in only 35.7 % patients without NAFLD (I CG) was detected (71.3 % in the study group, p < 0.01), and chronic cerebrovascular insufficiency in 71.4 % (39.7 % in the study group, p < 0.01). Conclusion. Structure of comorbid pathology in NAFLD patients sufferers of the Chornobyl NPP accident was different both in a large number of identified diseases and nosological structure. The most common disorders were cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and endocrine diseases

  15. Retinal pigment epithelial change and partial lipodystrophy.

    PubMed Central

    Davis, T. M.; Holdright, D. R.; Schulenberg, W. E.; Turner, R. C.; Joplin, G. F.

    1988-01-01

    Cuticular drusen and retinal pigment epithelial changes were found incidentally in a 27 year old Lebanese woman during assessment of partial lipodystrophy. Her vision was normal despite involvement of both maculae. The patient had hypocomplementaemia, but serum C3 nephritic factor was absent and renal function was normal. She had impaired glucose tolerance and a continuous infusion of glucose with model assessment (CIGMA) test revealed low normal tissue insulin sensitivity and high normal pancreatic beta cell function. Mild fasting hypertriglyceridaemia (2.0 mmol/l) may have been secondary to impaired insulin sensitivity. Endocrine function was otherwise normal apart from a completely absent growth hormone response to adequate hypoglycaemia. The simultaneous occurrence of partial lipodystrophy and retinal pigmentary epithelial and basement membrane changes appears to be a newly recognized syndrome. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:3255937

  16. Wear mechanisms of partially stabilized zirconia

    SciTech Connect

    Aronov, V.

    1987-01-01

    This paper is devoted to an investigation of the wear mechanisms of magnesia and yttria partially-stabilized zirconia in ceramic/ceramic and ceramic/metal sliding-contact tribological systems at high temperature. It was found that the wear of ceramics rubbed against ceramics at room temperature may be attributed to intensive plastic deformation of surfaces resulting in low cycle fatigue. The wear mechanism of ceramics rubbed against metals was by polishing and surface fracture, while that of metals was adhesive transfer of material on to ceramic surfaces. Investigation of the wear behavior of magnesia partially-stabilized zirconia rubbed against itself showed that up to three orders of magnitude increase in wear resistance can be achieved in a particular temperature range, depending on both sliding speed and the ambient temperature. XRD analysis revealed that a thermally-induced phase transformation takes place on the frictional interface.

  17. Multiple teleportation via partially entangled GHZ state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Pei-Ying; Yu, Xu-Tao; Zhan, Hai-Tao; Zhang, Zai-Chen

    2016-08-01

    Quantum teleportation is important for quantum communication. We propose a protocol that uses a partially entangled Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) state for single hop teleportation. Quantum teleportation will succeed if the sender makes a Bell state measurement, and the receiver performs the Hadamard gate operation, applies appropriate Pauli operators, introduces an auxiliary particle, and applies the corresponding unitary matrix to recover the transmitted state.We also present a protocol to realize multiple teleportation of partially entangled GHZ state without an auxiliary particle. We show that the success probability of the teleportation is always 0 when the number of teleportations is odd. In order to improve the success probability of a multihop, we introduce the method used in our single hop teleportation, thus proposing a multiple teleportation protocol using auxiliary particles and a unitary matrix. The final success probability is shown to be improved significantly for the method without auxiliary particles for both an odd or even number of teleportations.

  18. Local cerebral metabolism during partial seizures

    SciTech Connect

    Engel, J. Jr.; Kuhl, D.E.; Phelps, M.E.; Rausch, R.; Nuwer, M.

    1983-04-01

    Interictal and ictal fluorodeoxyglucose scans were obtained with positron CT from four patients with spontaneous recurrent partial seizures, one with epilepsia partialis continua, and one with a single partial seizure induced by electrical stimulation of the hippocampus. Ictal metabolic patterns were different for each patient studied. Focal and generalized increased and decreased metabolism were observed. Ictal hypermetabolism may exceed six times the interictal rate and could represent activation of excitatory or inhibitory synapses in the epileptogenic region and its projection fields. Hypometabolism seen on ictal scans most likely reflects postictal depression and may indicate projection fields of inhibited neurons. No quantitative relationship between alterations in metabolism and EEG or behavioral measurements of ictal events could be demonstrated.

  19. The Lockheed alternate partial polarizer universal filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Title, A. M.

    1976-01-01

    A tunable birefringent filter using an alternate partial polarizer design has been built. The filter has a transmission of 38% in polarized light. Its full width at half maximum is .09A at 5500A. It is tunable from 4500 to 8500A by means of stepping motor actuated rotating half wave plates and polarizers. Wave length commands and thermal compensation commands are generated by a PPD 11/10 minicomputer. The alternate partial polarizer universal filter is compared with the universal birefringent filter and the design techniques, construction methods, and filter performance are discussed in some detail. Based on the experience of this filter some conclusions regarding the future of birefringent filters are elaborated.

  20. Dynamic partial FPGA reconfiguration in space applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graczyk, Rafal; Stolarski, Marcin; Palau, Marie-Catherine; Orleanski, Piotr

    2012-05-01

    Design and implementation of hardware mock-up of high performance system for general avionics testing in reconfigurable FPGAs. Strong emphasis is put on exploiting dynamic partial reconfiguration capability as a method for functionality multiplexing and fault mitigation. Additionally, dynamic reconfiguration can be used for fault injection which makes Single Event Upset in configuration memory simulation possible. LEON3 processors are used to create an avionic systems test-bed, for testing the mock-ups of real system flight software and testing dynamic full and partial reconfiguration. Experiments with different means of reconfiguration are performed to measure reconfiguration times and stability of software. Several solutions for whole system reconfiguration controller have been implemented and tested.