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Sample records for ntd germanium thermistors

  1. Neutron Transmutation Doped (NTD) germanium thermistors for sub-mm bolometer applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haller, E. E.; Itoh, K. M.; Beeman, J. W.

    1996-01-01

    Recent advances in the development of neutron transmutation doped (NTD) semiconductor thermistors fabricated from natural and controlled isotopic composition germanium are reported. The near ideal doping uniformity that can be achieved with the NTD process, the device simplicity of NTD Ge thermistors and the high performance of cooled junction field effect transistor preamplifiers led to the widespread acceptance of these thermal sensors in ground-based, airborne and spaceborne radio telescopes. These features made possible the development of efficient bolometer arrays.

  2. Neutron transmutation doped (Ntd) germanium thermistors for sub-Mm bolometer applications

    SciTech Connect

    Haller, E.E. |; Itoh, K.M.; Beeman, J.W.

    1996-09-01

    The authors report on recent advances in the development of Neutron Transmutation Doped (NTD) semiconductor thermistors fabricated from germanium of natural and controlled isotopic composition. The near ideal doping uniformity which can be achieved with the NTD process, the device simplicity of NTD Ge thermistors and the high performance of cooled junction field effect transistor (FET) preamplifiers have led to the widespread acceptance of these thermal sensors in many radiotelescopes operating on the ground, on high altitude aircraft and on spaceborne satellites. These features also have made possible the development of efficient bolometer arrays which are beginning to produce exciting results.

  3. Microcalorimeters with NTD and Expitaxial Germanium Thermistors for High Resolution X-Ray Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silver, Eric; Brinton, John C. (Technical Monitor)

    2004-01-01

    This is a progress report for the second year of a three year SR&T grant to continue the advancement of NTD-based microcalorimeters. We reported last year that we re-prioritized certain aspects of the statement of work and chose to emphasize issues of array development in the first year rather than wait until year two. Consequently, some of the projects scheduled for the first year were delayed to the second year and we report on those topics here. These include: a) Measurements that map out JFET , thermistor, l/f and feedback resistor noise; b) Investigations that evaluate the limits of the JFET preamplifier circuitry as it pertains to stability at the 2 eV level; The results of a) and b) have led to preliminary measurements that demonstrate 3.08 eV resolution at 6 keV. c) Calculations that can predict the current performance.

  4. Micro-Calorimeters with NTD and Epitaxial Germanium Thermistors for High Resolution X-Ray Spectroscopy. Revised

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brinton, John (Technical Monitor); Silver, Eric

    2005-01-01

    This is a progress report for the third year of a three year SR&T grant to continue the advancement of NTD-based microcalorimeters. We highlight our progress to date that allowed us to garner an additional three years of funding for this work.

  5. The Constellation-X Focal Plane Microcalorimeter Array: An NTD-Germanium Solution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beeman, J.; Silver, E.; Bandler, S.; Schnopper, H.; Murray, S.; Madden, N.; Landis, D.; Haller, E. E.; Barbera, M.

    2001-01-01

    The hallmarks of Neutron Transmutation Doped (NTD) germanium cryogenic thermistors include high reliability, reproducibility, and long term stability of bulk carrier transport properties. Using micro-machined NTD Ge thermistors with integral 'flying' leads, we can now fabricate two-dimensional arrays that are built up from a series of stacked linear arrays. We believe that this modular approach of building, assembling, and perhaps replacing individual modules of detectors is essential to the successful fabrication and testing of large multi-element instruments. Details of construction are presented.

  6. X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Astronomy with NTD Germanium-based Microcalorimeters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silver, E.; Bandler, S.; Schnopper, H.; Murray, S.; Madden, N.; Landis, D.; Goulding, F.; Beeman, J.; Haller, E. E.; Barbera, M.

    2003-01-01

    We report on the performance of our NTD-Ge microcalorimeters. To date, the spectral resolution for x-ray and gamma-ray lines from radioactive sources and laboratory plasmas is 4.8 eV in the entire 1 - 6 keV band and 52 eV at 60 keV. Technical details responsible for this performance are presented as well as an innovative electro-thermal approach for enhancing count-rate capability.

  7. Microcalorimeters with Germanium Thermistors for High Resolution Soft and Hard X-ray Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silver, Eric

    2005-01-01

    This is a progress report for the third year of a three year SR&T grant to continue the advancement of NTD-based microcalorimeters. We highlight our progress to date that allowed us to garner an additional three years of funding for this work.

  8. Microcalorimeters with Germanium Thermistors for High Resolution Soft and Hard X-ray Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silver, E.

    2003-01-01

    This is a progress report for the first year of a three year Space Research and Technology (SR&T) grant to continue the advancement of neutron transmutation doped (NTD-based) microcalorimeters. We have re-prioritized certain aspects of the statement of work and chose to emphasize issues of array development in the first year rather than wait until year two. Consequently, some of the projects scheduled for the first year were delayed to the second year. Here we report on our progress to: a) Build and test a 1 x 4 element array and to investigate electrical and thermal cross-talk; b) Build a multiplexed 4 channel analog pulse processor; c) Build a digital pulse processor that can accommodate 4 channels with independent triggers; d) Develop a proportional thermal baseline restoration system compatible with the constant voltage mode of microcalorimeter operation.

  9. Wedge immersed thermistor bolometer measures infrared radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dreyfus, M. G.

    1965-01-01

    Wedge immersed-thermistor bolometer measures infrared radiation in the atmosphere. The thermistor flakes are immersed by optical contact on a wedge-shaped germanium lens whose narrow dimension is clamped between two complementary wedge-shaped germanium blocks bonded with a suitable adhesive.

  10. Germanium

    SciTech Connect

    Major-Sosias, M.A.

    1996-01-01

    Germanium is an important semiconductor material, or metalloid which, by definition, is a material whose electrical properties are halfway between those of metallic conductors and electrical insulators. This paper describes the properties, sources, and market for germanium.

  11. Germanium: From Its Discovery to SiGe Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Haller, E.E.

    2006-06-14

    Germanium, element No.32, was discovered in 1886 by Clemens Winkler. Its first broad application was in the form of point contact Schottky diodes for radar reception during WWII. The addition of a closely spaced second contact led to the first all-solid-state electronic amplifier device, the transistor. The relatively low bandgap, the lack of a stable oxide and large surface state densities relegated germanium to the number 2 position behind silicon. The discovery of the lithium drift process, which made possible the formation of p-i-n diodes with fully depletable i-regions several centimeters thick, led germanium to new prominence as the premier gamma-ray detector. The development of ultra-pure germanium yielded highly stable detectors which have remained unsurpassed in their performance. New acceptors and donors were discovered and the electrically active role of hydrogen was clearly established several years before similar findings in silicon. Lightly doped germanium has found applications as far infrared detectors and heavily Neutron Transmutation Doped (NTD) germanium is used in thermistor devices operating at a few milliKelvin. Recently germanium has been rediscovered by the silicon device community because of its superior electron and hole mobility and its ability to induce strains when alloyed with silicon. Germanium is again a mainstream electronic material.

  12. Thermistor Characteristics and Stability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fricker, H. S.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the uses of thermistors in teaching electronics and semiconductors. Describes how to experimentally measure and graph the characteristics of a thermistor. Suggests one possible approach to understand the shapes of the characteristics. (CW)

  13. Miniature optically immersed thermistor bolometer arrays.

    PubMed

    De Waard, R; Weiner, S

    1967-08-01

    Immersed thermistor bolometers have been in use since 1958 as sensors for ir horizon scanners employed in attitude control of earth-orbiting vehicles.(1) These detectors usually use a single small thermistor flake optically immersed in an antireflection coated pure germanium or silicon hemisphere or hyperhemisphere.(2) Studies of the earth's atmospheric horizon from orbiting vehicles indicate that the most useful radiant power lies in the carbon dioxide spectrum near 15 micro and in the rotational water bands of atmospheric moisture in the spectrum beyond 20 micro.(3) These atmospheric constituents produce high ir optical density and hence provide small angle horizon resolution. Carbon dioxide has the additional advantage, by being uniformly distributed in the atmosphere, of providing a stable horizon. The purpose of this paper is to describe briefly two types of five-element linear arrays of thermistor flakes optically immersed in germanium and silicon lenses (Fig. 1). These detecrs were designed for an advanced horizon definition study program at NASA-Langley Research Center.(4) Germanium immersion is employed for best detectivity in the carbon dioxide spectrum from 14 micro to 16 micro and silicon for the spectrum beyond 20 micro.

  14. Thermistor mount efficiency calibration

    SciTech Connect

    Cable, J.W.

    1980-05-01

    Thermistor mount efficiency calibration is accomplished by use of the power equation concept and by complex signal-ratio measurements. A comparison of thermistor mounts at microwave frequencies is made by mixing the reference and the reflected signals to produce a frequency at which the amplitude and phase difference may be readily measured.

  15. SSPX thermistor system

    SciTech Connect

    Thomassen, K I

    2000-11-29

    The SSPX Thermistor is a glass encapsulated bead thermistor made by Thermometrics, a BR 14 P A 103 J. The BR means ruggedized bead structure, 14 is the nominal bead diameter in mils, P refers to opposite end leads, A is the material system code letter, 103 refers to its 10 k{Omega} zero-power resistance at 25 C, and the tolerance letter J indicates {+-} 5% at 25 C. It is football shaped, with height ->, and is viewed through a slot of height h = 0.01 inches. The slot is perpendicular to the long axis of the bead, and is a distance s {approx} 0.775 cm in front of the thermistor. So plasma is viewed over a large angle along the slot, but over a small angle {alpha} perpendicular to the slot. The angle {alpha} is given by 2s tan{alpha} = -> + h.

  16. A Thermistor Interface.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamin, Gary D.; Dowden, Edward

    1987-01-01

    Describes the use of a precalibrated stainless steel thermistor, interfaced with an Apple computer, in chemistry experiments. Discusses the advantages of "instant" temperature readings in experiments requiring that readings be taken at certain intervals. Outlines such an experiment which investigates freezing point depressions. (TW)

  17. The NTD Nanoscope: potential applications and implementations

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Nanopore transduction detection (NTD) offers prospects for a number of highly sensitive and discriminative applications, including: (i) single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) detection; (ii) targeted DNA re-sequencing; (iii) protein isoform assaying; and (iv) biosensing via antibody or aptamer coupled molecules. Nanopore event transduction involves single-molecule biophysics, engineered information flows, and nanopore cheminformatics. The NTD Nanoscope has seen limited use in the scientific community, however, due to lack of information about potential applications, and lack of availability for the device itself. Meta Logos Inc. is developing both pre-packaged device platforms and component-level (unassembled) kit platforms (the latter described here). In both cases a lipid bi-layer workstation is first established, then augmentations and operational protocols are provided to have a nanopore transduction detector. In this paper we provide an overview of the NTD Nanoscope applications and implementations. The NTD Nanoscope Kit, in particular, is a component-level reproduction of the standard NTD device used in previous research papers. Results The NTD Nanoscope method is shown to functionalize a single nanopore with a channel current modulator that is designed to transduce events, such as binding to a specific target. To expedite set-up in new lab settings, the calibration and troubleshooting for the NTD Nanoscope kit components and signal processing software, the NTD Nanoscope Kit, is designed to include a set of test buffers and control molecules based on experiments described in previous NTD papers (the model systems briefly described in what follows). The description of the Server-interfacing for advanced signal processing support is also briefly mentioned. Conclusions SNP assaying, SNP discovery, DNA sequencing and RNA-seq methods are typically limited by the accuracy of the error rate of the enzymes involved, such as methods involving the polymerase

  18. Sputtered film thermistor IR detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baliga, Shankar B.; Rost, Martin R.; Doctor, Alan P.

    1994-07-01

    The thermistor infrared detector or bolometer is the detector of choice in many classical remote sensing applications such as horizon sensing, noncontact thermometry, and industrial applications. In recent years, the authors have developed a thin film process where the thermistor material is deposited from a target directly onto the substrate. This is an advance over the labor intensive ceramic technology, where sintered flakes of the thermistor are bonded to the substrate. The thin film technique permits a variety of device constructions and configurations. Detectors fabricated on heat-sunk ceramic substrates can withstand high operating temperatures and large incident optical power, in both pulsed and CW laser measurements. For dc or low frequency measurements, the films can be deposited onto a thermally isolated membrane with applications in motion sensing, gas detection, and temperature measurement. Utilizing advances in micromachining a 2D array of thermally isolated microbolometer sensors, integrated onto a silicon wafer containing readout circuitry may be achieved. This paper describes the construction of the sputtered film thermistor detectors, their operation, and applications.

  19. Optimizing the lithography model calibration algorithms for NTD process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, C. M.; Lo, Fred; Yang, Elvis; Yang, T. H.; Chen, K. C.

    2016-03-01

    As patterns shrink to the resolution limits of up-to-date ArF immersion lithography technology, negative tone development (NTD) process has been an increasingly adopted technique to get superior imaging quality through employing bright-field (BF) masks to print the critical dark-field (DF) metal and contact layers. However, from the fundamental materials and process interaction perspectives, several key differences inherently exist between NTD process and the traditional positive tone development (PTD) system, especially the horizontal/vertical resist shrinkage and developer depletion effects, hence the traditional resist parameters developed for the typical PTD process have no longer fit well in NTD process modeling. In order to cope with the inherent differences between PTD and NTD processes accordingly get improvement on NTD modeling accuracy, several NTD models with different combinations of complementary terms were built to account for the NTD-specific resist shrinkage, developer depletion and diffusion, and wafer CD jump induced by sub threshold assistance feature (SRAF) effects. Each new complementary NTD term has its definite aim to deal with the NTD-specific phenomena. In this study, the modeling accuracy is compared among different models for the specific patterning characteristics on various feature types. Multiple complementary NTD terms were finally proposed to address all the NTD-specific behaviors simultaneously and further optimize the NTD modeling accuracy. The new algorithm of multiple complementary NTD term tested on our critical dark-field layers demonstrates consistent model accuracy improvement for both calibration and verification.

  20. Translational Activities to Enable NTD Vaccines.

    PubMed

    Gray, S A; Coler, R N; Carter, D; Siddiqui, A A

    2016-01-01

    There is an urgent need to develop new vaccines for tuberculosis, HIV/AIDS, and malaria, as well as for chronic and debilitating infections known as neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). The term "NTD" emerged at the beginning of the new millennium to describe a set of diseases that are characterized as (1) poverty related, (2) endemic to the tropics and subtropics, (3) lacking public health attention and inadequate industrial investment, (4) having poor research funding and a weak research and development (R&D) pipeline, (5) usually associated with high morbidity but low mortality, and (6) often having no safe and long-lasting treatment available. Many additional challenges to the current control and elimination programs for NTDs exist. These include inconsistent performance of diagnostic tests, regional differences in access to treatment and in treatment outcome, lack of integrated surveillance and vector/intermediate host control, and impact of ecological climatic changes particularly in regions where new cases are increasing in previously nonendemic areas. Moreover, the development of NTD vaccines, including those for schistosomiasis, leishmaniasis, leprosy, hookworm, and Chagas disease are being led by nonprofit product development partnerships (PDPs) working in partnership with academic and industrial partners, contract research organizations, and in some instances vaccine manufacturers in developing countries. In this review, we emphasize global efforts to fuel the development of NTD vaccines, the translational activities needed to effectively move promising vaccine candidates to Phase-I clinical trials and some of the hurdles to ensuring their availability to people in the poorest countries of Africa, Asia, Latin America, and the Caribbean. PMID:27571699

  1. MEMS Flow Sensors Based on Self-Heated aGe-Thermistors in a Wheatstone Bridge.

    PubMed

    Talic, Almir; Cerimovic, Samir; Beigelbeck, Roman; Kohl, Franz; Sauter, Thilo; Keplinger, Franz

    2015-04-28

    A thermal flow transduction method combining the advantages of calorimetric and hot-film transduction principles is developed and analyzed by Finite Element Method (FEM) simulations and confirmed experimentally. The analyses include electrothermal feedback effects of current driven NTC thermistors. Four thin-film germanium thermistors acting simultaneously as heat sources and as temperature sensors are embedded in a micromachined silicon-nitride membrane. These devices form a self-heated Wheatstone bridge that is unbalanced by convective cooling. The voltage across the bridge and the total dissipated power are exploited as output quantities. The used thin-film thermistors feature an extremely high temperature sensitivity. Combined with properly designed resistance values, a power demand in sub-1mW range enables efficient gas-flow transduction, as confirmed by measurements. Two sensor configurations with different arrangements of the membrane thermistors were examined experimentally. Moreover, we investigated the influence of different layouts on the rise time, the sensitivity, and the usable flow range by means of two-dimensional finite element simulations. The simulation results are in reasonable agreement with corresponding measurement data confirming the basic assumptions and modeling approach.

  2. Stretchable graphene thermistor with tunable thermal index.

    PubMed

    Yan, Chaoyi; Wang, Jiangxin; Lee, Pooi See

    2015-02-24

    Stretchable graphene thermistors with intrinsic high stretchability were fabricated through a lithographic filtration method. Three-dimensional crumpled graphene was used as the thermal detection channels, and silver nanowires were used as electrodes. Both the detection channel and electrodes were fully embedded in an elastomer matrix to achieve excellent stretchability. Detailed temperature sensing properties were characterized at different strains up to 50%. It is evident that the devices can maintain their functionalities even at high stretched states. The devices demonstrated strain-dependent thermal indices, and the sensitivity of the thermistors can be effectively tuned using strain. The unique tunable thermal index is advantageous over conventional rigid ceramic thermistors for diverse and adaptive applications in wearable electronics.

  3. Development of NTD Ge Sensors for Superconducting Bolometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garai, A.; Mathimalar, S.; Singh, V.; Dokania, N.; Nanal, V.; Pillay, R. G.; Ramakrishnan, S.; Shrivastava, A.; Jagadeesan, K. C.; Thakare, S. V.

    2016-08-01

    Neutron transmutation-doped (NTD) Ge sensors have been prepared by irradiating device-grade Ge with thermal neutrons at Dhruva reactor, BARC, Mumbai. These sensors are intended to be used for the study of neutrinoless double beta decay in ^{124}Sn with a superconducting Tin bolometer. Resistance measurements are performed on NTD Ge sensors in the temperature range 100-350 mK. The observed temperature dependence is found to be consistent with the variable-range hopping mechanism.

  4. Thermistor holder for skin-temperature measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Williams, B. A.

    1974-01-01

    Sensing head of thermistor probe is supported in center area of plastic ring which has tabs so that it can be anchored in place by rubber bands or adhesive tapes. Device attaches probes to human subjects practically, reliably, and without affecting characteristics of skin segment being measured.

  5. Surface events identification in the EDELWEISS germanium bolometers

    SciTech Connect

    Navick, X.-F.

    2007-03-28

    In the first phase of the EDELWEISS-II Dark Matter search, 23 germanium detectors with NTD thermal sensors and 7 detectors with NbSi thin films are going to be used at 20mK for the direct detection of WIMPs. In this paper, we are describing the different techniques of identification of surface events that might improve strongly the physics results of this experiment.

  6. Laboratory Astrophysics and Microanalysis with NTD-Germanium-Based X-Ray Microcalorimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silver, E.; Schnopper, H.; Bandler, S.; Murray, S.; Madden, N.; Landis, D.; Beeman, J.; Haller, E.; Barbera, M.; Tucker, G.

    2000-01-01

    With the ability to create cosmic plasma conditions in the laboratory it is possible to investigate the dependencies of key diagnostic X-ray lines on density, temperature, and excitation conditions that exist in astrophysical sources with X-ray optics and a high resolution x-ray microcalorimeter. The same instrumentation can be coupled to scanning electron microscopes or x-ray fluorescence probes to analyze the elemental and chemical composition of electronic, biological, geological and particulate materials. We describe how our microcalorimeter and x-ray optics provide significantly improved capabilities for laboratory astrophysics and microanalysis.

  7. An Inexpensive Thermistor Thermometer for Beginning Chemistry Laboratories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Srivastava, Shyam B.; Meloan, Clifton E.

    1984-01-01

    The design and use of an inexpensive thermistor thermometer is described. In addition to providing a rugged thermometer, using the instruments offers an opportunity to have students become familiar with new principles and techniques, such as principles of thermistors, the Wheatstone bridge, and the concept of calibration. (JN)

  8. Used to Calibrate Thermistors on In Situ Permeable Flow Sensors

    1996-12-01

    The software package is comprised of three programs which together are used to calibrate thermistors in an In Situ Permable Flow Sensor. TBATH controls a temperature controlled bath/circulator. The code monitors the temperature of a set of previously calibrated thermistors located in a tank through which the fluid from the bath is circulated. After the temperature has reached and maintained thermal equilibrium for a specified period of time, the bath/circulator is instructed by the programmore » to change the temperature set point to the next specified temperature. An arbitrary number of temperature calibration points can be specified allowing thermistors to be calibrated on a continuous basis without human intervention. CALIB is used to merge two data files that are collected during a temperature calibration run. During calibration of the thermistors on an In Situ Permeable Flow Sensor, the known temperatures in the temperaure controlled tank are recorded in one computer file in one format while the electrical resistance of the thermistors being calibrated is collected in a different file with a different format. This software reads in the two files and writes out a third file with all of the data in it that is required to calculate the calibration coefficients of the thermistors on the probe. POLYFIT is used to calculate the calibration coefficients which permit the temperature of a thermistor to ba calculated from its electrical resistance. During calibration of a thermistor, the electrical resistance of the thermistor is measured at four or more known temperatures and the data sent to this software. The program calculates the coefficients of a fourth order polynomial relating the inverse of the absolute temperature to the natural log of the electrical resistance. Once these coefficients are known, the polynomial can be evaluated with any measured electrical resistance to calculate the equivalent temperature.« less

  9. Additive chemistry and distributions in NTD photoresist thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thackeray, James; Hong, Chang-Young; Clark, Michael B.

    2016-03-01

    The lithographic performance of photoresists is a function of the vertical distribution of formulation components, such as photoacid generator (PAG) molecules, in photoresist thin films and how these components undergo chemical modification and migrate within the film during the lithography processing steps. This paper will discuss how GCIB-SIMS depth profiles were used to monitor the PAG and quencher base distributions before and after exposure and post-exposure bake processing steps for different PAG/photoresist formulations. The authors show that the use of surface active quencher in an NTD photoresist leads to better resist profiles, superior DOF and better OPC performance.

  10. Evaluation of Hewlett Packard rf thermistor mounts for power linearity

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, D.W.

    1988-04-01

    A method has been developed for evaluating the power sensitivity linearity of Model 478A, 478A-H75, and 8478A, thermistor mounts manufactured by Hewlet Packard Company Inc., Palo Alto. This method provides the thermistor mount power sensitivity curve as measured power approaches the maximum rated power of the thermistor mount. This characteristic is essential to the accuracy of power ratio measurements. Selection of thermistor mounts, linerar within 0.001 dB over a 15 dB range, is possible. This is a ten-fold improvement over the previous 0.01 dB value used. This improvement was required for the enhanced certification of 10 dB attenuators needed in the calibration support of attenuation measurement, power calibration, and network analyzer systems.

  11. Thermistors Used in Climatic Chamber at High Temperature and Humidity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Geel, J. L. W. A.; Bosma, R.; van Wensveen, J.; Peruzzi, A.

    2015-03-01

    In 2011, VSL initiated the development of a facility for a relative humidity between and for calibrating high-temperature relative humidity sensors at pressures other than atmospheric. The setup for calculating the relative humidity uses the dew-point temperature, measured by a chilled mirror hygrometer, and the temperature distribution in the chamber, measured by a series of thermistors. This paper describes the results of thermal tests performed on the thermistors to ensure that they meet the requirements of the humidity calibration facility. Different types of thermistors were evaluated up to , and the selected type showed a short-term drift of less than 2 mK. Exposure of these thermistors to temperatures up to gave an initial hysteresis of 40 mK, but after this initial hysteresis, the hysteresis, over the range from up to , was less than 10 mK. Use of a digital multimeter, with a low-power option, limited the self-heating of the thermistors, over the range from up to , to less than 5 mK. During use in the new setup, the thermistors were exposed to changing humidities between 1 %Rh and 90 %Rh and temperatures up to , showing drifts of less than 10 mK.

  12. Mechanical Equivalent of Heat--Software for a Thermistor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boleman, Michael

    2008-01-01

    The Mechanical Equivalent of Heat Apparatus from PASCO scientific provides the means for doing a simple experiment to determine the mechanical equivalent of heat, "J." A necessary step of this experiment is to determine the temperature of an aluminum cylinder. By measuring the resistance of a thermistor embedded in the cylinder, one is able to…

  13. A Hydrazine Leak Sensor Based on Chemically Reactive Thermistors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Dennis D.; Mast, Dion J.; Baker, David L.

    1999-01-01

    Leaks in the hydrazine supply system of the Shuttle APU can result in hydrazine ignition and fire in the aft compartment of the Shuttle. Indication of the location of a leak could provide valuable information required for operational decisions. WSTF has developed a small, single use sensor for detection of hydrazine leaks. The sensor is composed of a thermistor bead coated with copper(II) oxide (CuO) dispersed in a clay or alumina binder. The CuO-coated thermistor is one of a pair of closely located thermistors, the other being a reference. On exposure to hydrazine the CuO reacts exothermically with the hydrazine and increases the temperature of the coated-thermistor by several degrees. The temperature rise is sensed by a resistive bridge circuit and an alarm registered by data acquisition software. Responses of this sensor to humidity changes, hydrazine concentration, binder characteristics, distance from a liquid leak, and ambient pressure levels as well as application of this sensor concept to other fluids are presented.

  14. Process window variation comparison between NTD and PTD for various contact type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Doyoun; Yune, Hyoungsoon; Park, Daejin; Jeong, Joohong; Moon, Woosung; Kim, Mingu; Oh, Seyoung; Park, Chanha; Yang, Hyunjo

    2016-03-01

    As technology node has been shrinking for bit growth, various technologies have been developed for high productivity. Nevertheless, lithography technology is close to its limit. In order to overcome these limits, EUV(Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography) and DSA(Directed Self-Assembly) are being developed, but there still exists problems for mass production. Currently, all lithography technology developments focus on solving the problems related to fine patterning and widening process window. One of the technologies is NTD(Negative Tone Development) which uses inverse development compared to PTD(Positive Tone Development). The exposed area is eliminated by positive developer in PTD, whereas the exposed area is remained in NTD. It is well known that NTD has better characteristics compared to PTD in terms of DOF(Depth of Focus) margin, MEEF(Mask Error Enhancement Factor), and LER(Line End Roughness) for both small contact holes and isolated spaces [1]. Contact hole patterning is especially more difficult than space patterning because of the lower image contrast and smaller process window [2]. Thus, we have focused on the trend of both NTD and PTD contact hole patterns in various environments. We have analyzed optical performance of both NTD and PTD according to size and pitch by SMO(Source Mask Optimization) software. Moreover, the simulation result of NTD process was compared with the NTD wafer level performance and the process window variation of NTD was characterized through both results. This result will be a good guideline to avoid DoF loss when using NTD process for contact layers with various contact types. In this paper, we studied the impact of different sources on various combinations of pattern sizes and pitches while estimating DOF trends aside from source and pattern types.

  15. Evaluation of lens heating effect in high transmission NTD processes at the 20nm technology node

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, Bumhwan; Lee, Sam; Subramany, Lokesh; Li, Chen; Pal, Shyam; Meyers, Sheldon; Mehta, Sohan; Wei, Yayi; Cho, David R.

    2014-04-01

    The NTD (Negative Tone Developer) process has been embraced as a viable alternative to traditionally, more conventional, positive tone develop processes. Advanced technology nodes have necessitated the adopting of NTD processes to achieve such tight design specifications in critical dimensions. Dark field contact layers are prime candidates for NTD processing due to its high imaging contrast. However, reticles used in NTD processes are highly transparent. The transmission rate of those masks can be over 85%. Consequently, lens heating effects result in a non-trivial impact that can limit NTD usability in a high volume mass production environment. At the same time, Source Mask Optimized (SMO) freeform pupils have become popular. This can also result in untoward lens heating effects which are localized in the lens. This can result in a unique drift behavior with each Zernike throughout the exposing of wafers. In this paper, we present our experience and lessons learned from lens heating with NTD processes. The results of this study indicate that lens heating makes impact on drift behavior of each Zernike during exposure while source pupil shape make an impact on the amplitude of Zernike drift. Existing lens models should be finely tuned to establish the correct compensation for drift. Computational modeling for lens heating can be considered as one of these opportunities. Pattern shapes, such as dense and iso pattern, can have different drift behavior during lens heating.

  16. Conjugated polymer/graphene oxide nanocomposite as thermistor

    SciTech Connect

    Joshi, Girish M. Deshmukh, Kalim

    2015-06-24

    We demonstrated the synthesis and measurement of temperature dependent electrical resistivity of graphene oxide (GO) reinforced poly (3, 4 - ethylenedioxythiophene) - tetramethacrylate (PEDOTTMA)/Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) based nanocomposites. Negative temperature coefficient (NTC) was observed for 0.5, 1 % GO loading and the positive temperature coefficient (PTC) was observed for 1.5 and 2 % Go loading in the temperature (40 to 120 °C). The GO inducted nanocomposite perform as an excellent thermistor and suitable for electronic and sensor domain.

  17. Conjugated polymer/graphene oxide nanocomposite as thermistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Girish M.; Deshmukh, Kalim

    2015-06-01

    We demonstrated the synthesis and measurement of temperature dependent electrical resistivity of graphene oxide (GO) reinforced poly (3, 4 - ethylenedioxythiophene) - tetramethacrylate (PEDOTTMA)/Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) based nanocomposites. Negative temperature coefficient (NTC) was observed for 0.5, 1 % GO loading and the positive temperature coefficient (PTC) was observed for 1.5 and 2 % Go loading in the temperature (40 to 120 °C). The GO inducted nanocomposite perform as an excellent thermistor and suitable for electronic and sensor domain.

  18. Mineral commodity profiles: Germanium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Butterman, W.C.; Jorgenson, John D.

    2005-01-01

    Overview -- Germanium is a hard, brittle semimetal that first came into use a half-century ago as a semiconductor material in radar units and as the material from which the first transistor was made. Today it is used principally as a component of the glass in telecommunications fiber optics; as a polymerization catalyst for polyethylene terephthalate (PET), a commercially important plastic; in infrared (IR) night vision devices; and as a semiconductor and substrate in electronics circuitry. Most germanium is recovered as a byproduct of zinc smelting, although it also has been recovered at some copper smelters and from the fly ash of coal-burning industrial powerplants. It is a highly dispersed element, associated primarily with base-metal sulfide ores. In the United States, germanium is recovered from zinc smelter residues and manufacturing scrap and is refined by two companies at four germanium refineries. One of the four refineries is dedicated to processing scrap. In 2000, producers sold zone-refined (high-purity) germanium at about $1,250 per kilogram and electronic-grade germanium dioxide (GeO2) at $800 per kilogram. Domestic refined production was valued at $22 million. Germanium is a critical component in highly technical devices and processes. It is likely to remain in demand in the future at levels at least as high as those of 2000. U.S. resources of germanium are probably adequate to meet domestic needs for several decades.

  19. Effects of inositol supplementation in a cohort of mothers at risk of producing an NTD pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Cavalli, Pietro; Tonni, Gabriele; Grosso, Enrico; Poggiani, Carlo

    2011-11-01

    Neural tube defects (NTDs), most commonly spina bifida and anencephaly, can be prevented with periconceptional intake of folic acid in about 70% of cases. Recurrence of NTDs despite supplementation of high dose of folic acid further suggests that a proportion of NTD cases might be resistant to folic acid. Moreover, heterogeneity of NTDs has been suggested in animal studies, indicating that only some sub-type of NTDs should be considered sensitive to folate intake. Inositol isomers (particularly myo- and chiro-inositol) can prevent folate-resistant NTDs in the curly-tail mutant mouse, suggesting that some cases of human NTDs might benefit from inositol supplementation. In humans, lower inositol blood concentration was found in pregnant women carrying NTD fetuses, whereas a periconceptional combination therapy with folic acid associated with inositol has been linked to normal live births, despite high NTD recurrence risk. Fifteen pregnancies from 12 Caucasian women from different parts of Italy with at least one previous NTD-affected pregnancy underwent periconceptional combined myo-inositol and folic acid supplementation. Maternal serum α-feto-protein levels were found in the normal range, and normal results on ultrasound examination were found in all the pregnancies that followed. No collateral effects or intense uterine contractions were demonstrated in this pilot study in any of the pregnancies after inositol supplementation, and seventeen babies were born without any type of NTD.

  20. Germanium detector passivated with hydrogenated amorphous germanium

    DOEpatents

    Hansen, William L.; Haller, Eugene E.

    1986-01-01

    Passivation of predominantly crystalline semiconductor devices (12) is provided for by a surface coating (21) of sputtered hydrogenated amorphous semiconductor material. Passivation of a radiation detector germanium diode, for example, is realized by sputtering a coating (21) of amorphous germanium onto the etched and quenched diode surface (11) in a low pressure atmosphere of hydrogen and argon. Unlike prior germanium diode semiconductor devices (12), which must be maintained in vacuum at cryogenic temperatures to avoid deterioration, a diode processed in the described manner may be stored in air at room temperature or otherwise exposed to a variety of environmental conditions. The coating (21) compensates for pre-existing undesirable surface states as well as protecting the semiconductor device (12) against future impregnation with impurities.

  1. Investigation of electrical noise in selenium-immersed thermistor bolometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tarpley, J. L.; Sarmiento, P. D.

    1980-01-01

    The selenium immersed, thermistor bolometer, IR detector failed due to spurious and escalating electrical noise outburst as a function of time at elevated temperatures during routine ground based testing in a space simulated environment. Spectrographic analysis of failed bolometers revealed selenium pure zones in the insulating selenium arsenic (Se-As) glass film which surrounds the active sintered Mn, Ni, Co oxide flake. The selenium pure film was identified as a potentially serious failure mechanism. Significant changes were instituted in the manufacturing techniques along with more stringent process controls which eliminated the selenium pure film and successfully produced 22study bolometers.

  2. Germanium, carbon-germanium, and silicon-germanium triangulenes.

    PubMed

    Gapurenko, Olga A; Starikov, Andrey G; Minyaev, Ruslan M; Minkin, Vladimir I

    2015-11-01

    A series of germanium-containing triangular molecules have been studied by density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The triangulene topology of the compounds provides for their high-spin ground states and strong sign alternation of spin density and atomic charge distributions. High values of the exchange coupling constants witness ferromagnetic ordering of electronic structures of all studied triangulenes. The compounds bearing more electronegative atoms in a-positions of the triangular networks possess higher aromatic character and stronger ferromagnetic ordering.

  3. Thermistor based, low velocity isothermal, air flow sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabrita, Admésio A. C. M.; Mendes, Ricardo; Quintela, Divo A.

    2016-03-01

    The semiconductor thermistor technology is applied as a flow sensor to measure low isothermal air velocities (<2 ms-1). The sensor is subjected to heating and cooling cycles controlled by a multifunctional timer. In the heating stage, the alternating current of a main AC power supply source guarantees a uniform thermistor temperature distribution. The conditioning circuit assures an adequate increase of the sensors temperature and avoids the thermal disturbance of the flow. The power supply interruption reduces the consumption from the source and extends the sensors life time. In the cooling stage, the resistance variation of the flow sensor is recorded by the measuring chain. The resistive sensor parameters proposed vary significantly and feature a high sensitivity to the flow velocity. With the aid of a computer, the data transfer, storage and analysis provides a great advantage over the traditional local anemometer readings. The data acquisition chain has a good repeatability and low standard uncertainties. The proposed method measures isothermal air mean velocities from 0.1 ms-1 to 2 ms-1 with a standard uncertainty error less than 4%.

  4. Lithium drifted germanium system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fjarlie, E. J.

    1969-01-01

    General characteristics of the lithium-drifted germanium photodiode-Dewar-preamplifier system and particular operating instructions for the device are given. Information is included on solving operational problems.

  5. Positive temperature coefficient thermistors based on carbon nanotube/polymer composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, You; Lu, Guixia; Wang, Han; Du, Jinhong; Ying, Zhe; Liu, Chang

    2014-10-01

    In order to explore availability of carbon nanotube (CNT)-based positive temperature coefficient (PTC) thermistors in practical application, we prepared carbon nanotube (CNT) filled high density polyethylene (HDPE) composites by using conventional melt-mixing methods, and investigated their PTC effects in details. The CNT-based thermistors exhibit much larger hold current and higher hold voltage, increasing by 129% in comparison with the commercial carbon black (CB) filled HDPE thermistors. Such high current-bearing and voltage-bearing capacity for the CNT/HDPE thermistors is mainly attributed to high thermal conductivity and heat dissipation of entangled CNT networks. Moreover, the CNT/HDPE thermistors exhibit rapid electrical response to applied voltages, comparable to commercial CB-based thermistors. In light of their high current-bearing capacity and quick response, the CNT-based thermistors have great potential to be used as high-performance thermistors in practical application, especially in some critical circumstances of high temperature, large applied currents, and high applied voltages.

  6. Positive temperature coefficient thermistors based on carbon nanotube/polymer composites.

    PubMed

    Zeng, You; Lu, Guixia; Wang, Han; Du, Jinhong; Ying, Zhe; Liu, Chang

    2014-01-01

    In order to explore availability of carbon nanotube (CNT)-based positive temperature coefficient (PTC) thermistors in practical application, we prepared carbon nanotube (CNT) filled high density polyethylene (HDPE) composites by using conventional melt-mixing methods, and investigated their PTC effects in details. The CNT-based thermistors exhibit much larger hold current and higher hold voltage, increasing by 129% in comparison with the commercial carbon black (CB) filled HDPE thermistors. Such high current-bearing and voltage-bearing capacity for the CNT/HDPE thermistors is mainly attributed to high thermal conductivity and heat dissipation of entangled CNT networks. Moreover, the CNT/HDPE thermistors exhibit rapid electrical response to applied voltages, comparable to commercial CB-based thermistors. In light of their high current-bearing capacity and quick response, the CNT-based thermistors have great potential to be used as high-performance thermistors in practical application, especially in some critical circumstances of high temperature, large applied currents, and high applied voltages. PMID:25327951

  7. Fit for purpose: do we have the right tools to sustain NTD elimination?

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Priorities for NTD control programmes will shift over the next 10-20 years as the elimination phase reaches the ‘end game’ for some NTDs, and the recognition that the control of other NTDs is much more problematic. The current goal of scaling up programmes based on preventive chemotherapy (PCT) will alter to sustaining NTD prevention, through sensitive surveillance and rapid response to resurgence. A new suite of tools and approaches will be required for both PCT and Intensive Disease Management (IDM) diseases in this timeframe to enable disease endemic countries to: 1. Sensitively and sustainably survey NTD transmission and prevalence in order to identify and respond quickly to resurgence. 2. Set relevant control targets based not only on epidemiological indicators but also entomological and ecological metrics and use decision support technology to help meet those targets. 3. Implement verified and cost-effective tools to prevent transmission throughout the elimination phase. Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine (LSTM) and partners propose to evaluate and implement existing tools from other disease systems as well as new tools in the pipeline in order to support endemic country ownership in NTD decision-making during the elimination phase and beyond.

  8. Bridgman Growth of Germanium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szofran, F. R.; Volz, M. P.; Cobb, S. D.; Motakef, S.

    1997-01-01

    The high-magnetic-field crystal growth facility at the Marshall Space Flight Center will be briefly described. This facility has been used to grow bulk germanium by the Bridgman technique in magnetic fields up to 5 Tesla. The results of investigations of ampoule material on the interface shape and thermal field applied to the melt on stability against convection will be discussed.

  9. Time-Separating Heating and Sensor Functions of Thermistors in Precision Thermal Control Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cho, Hyung J.; Sukhatme, Kalyani G.; Mahoney, John C.; Penanen, Konstantin Penanen; Vargas, Rudolph, Jr.

    2010-01-01

    A method allows combining the functions of a heater and a thermometer in a single device, a thermistor, with minimal temperature read errors. Because thermistors typically have a much smaller thermal mass than the objects they monitor, the thermal time to equilibrate the thermometer to the temperature of the object is typically much shorter than the thermal time of the object to change its temperature in response to an external perturbation.

  10. Correlation Between Microstructure and Ageing of Iron Manganite Thermistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battault, T.; Legros, R.; Brieu, M.; Coudere, J. J.; Bernard, L.; Rousset, A.

    1997-05-01

    Negative Temperature Coefficient (NTC) thermistors made of spinel structure transition metal manganites usually display ageing phenomena under thermal stress. Their resistance drift depends on their composition, crystal structure (cubic or tetragonal) and heat treatments. We have previously shown in iron manganite thermistors, Mn{3-x}FexO4 (with 0 leq x leq 1.51), that the ageing is due to the migration of Fe^{3+} and Mn^{2+} ions between tetrahedral and octahedral sites of the spinel structure. Iron manganites were investigated by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) in order to relate microstructure to electrical stability. For iron manganites with iron content x leq 0.78, two dimensional defects result in a domain microstructure (microtwins). As x increases and exceeds 0.78, the domain structure gradually vanishes and transforms into a tweed microstructure (x = 1.05) and, for x > 1.30, no bidimensional defects are observed. Thus it is suggested that the microstructural disturbance plays an important role in the kinetics of the ion migration during the ageing of the studied ceramics. Les thermistances à Coefficient de Température Négatif (CTN) élaborées à partir de manganites de métaux de transition à structure spinelle présentent, sous contrainte thermique, le phénomène de vieillissement. La dérive de leur résistance dépend de la composition chimique, de la structure cristallographique (cubique ou quadratique) et des traitements thermiques. Précédemment, nous avons montré, pour les thermistances à base de manganites de fer de composition Mn{3-x}FexO4 (avec 0 leq x leq 1,51), que le vieillissement est dû à une migration des ions Fe^{3+} et Mn^{2+} entre les sites tétraédriques et octaédriques de la structure spinelle. Une étude des manganites de fer a été réalisée par Microscopie Électronique à Transmission (MET) afin de relier la microstructure à la stabilité électrique. Pour les manganites de fer ayant une teneur en fer x leq

  11. Germanium detector vacuum encapsulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madden, N. W.; Malone, D. F.; Pehl, R. H.; Cork, C. P.; Luke, P. N.; Landis, D. A.; Pollard, M. J.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes an encapsulation technology that should significantly improve the viability of germanium gamma-ray detectors for a number of important applications. A specialized vacuum chamber has been constructed in which the detector and the encapsulating module are processed in high vacuum. Very high vacuum conductance is achieved within the valveless encapsulating module. The detector module is then sealed without breaking the chamber vacuum. The details of the vacuum chamber, valveless module, processing, and sealing method are presented.

  12. Attractive mechanical properties of a lightweight highly sensitive bi layer thermistor: polycarbonate/organic molecular conductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laukhina, E.; Lebedev, V.; Rovira, C.; Laukhin, V.; Veciana, J.

    2016-03-01

    The paper covers some of the basic mechanical characteristics of a recently developed bi layer thermistor: polycarbonate/(001) oriented layer of organic molecular conductor α’-(BEDT-TTF)2IxBr3-x, were BEDT-TTF=bis(ethylenedithio)tetrathiafulvalen. The nano and macro mechanical properties have been studied in order to use this flexible, low cost thermistor in sensing applications by proper way. The nano-mechanical properties of the temperature sensitive semiconducting layer of α’-(BEDT-TTF)2IxBr3-x were tested using nanoindentation method. The value of Young's modulus in direction being perpendicular to the layer plan was found as 9.0 ±1.4 GPa. The macro mechanical properties of the thermistor were studied using a 5848 MicroTester. The tensile tests showed that basic mechanical characteristics of the thermistor are close to those of polycarbonate films. This indicates a good mechanical strength of the developed sensor. Therefore, the thermistor can be used in technologies that need to be instrumented with highly robustness lightweight low cost temperature sensors. The paper also reports synthetic details on fabricating temperature sensing e-textile. As the temperature control is becoming more and more important in biomedical technologies like healthcare monitoring, this work strongly contributes on the ongoing research on engineering sensitive conducting materials for biomedical applications.

  13. Determination by the enzyme thermistor of cellobiose formed on degradation of cellulose

    SciTech Connect

    Danielsson, B.; Rieke, E.; Mattiasson, B.; Winquist, F.; Mosbach, K.

    1981-01-01

    A calorimetric assay procedure for the determination of cellobiose was developed. The cellobiose is hydrolyzed by beta-glucosidase and the glucose formed is measured calorimetrically by an enzyme thermistor containing coimmobilized glucose oxidase and catalase. The system was optimized with regard to the arrangement of the enzymes, the pH-dependence of the separated enzymic steps, and of the total system. By placing the Beta-glucosidase in a precolumn that could be switched in and out of the flow through the enzyme thermistor, both cellobiose and glucose present in the sample could be determined. The performance with saturated solutions and crude samples from cellulose degradation experiments was investigated.

  14. Design and operation of a self-calibrated thermistor plasma calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, J. D.

    1982-12-01

    This report describes the design and operation of a new diagnostic instrument for measuring the conversion of laser energy into plasma ions and soft x rays during ICF laser-target interaction experiments. The instrument is operated as a differential calorimeter, and uses low mass thermistor flakes as both energy transducers and calibration sources. The calorimeter provides its own running energy calibration, in situ, by inducing electrical self-heating of the thermistor elements. The instrument can be calibrated over a range of energies, either automatically or by manual selection. Calibration and operating principles are discussed, as well as physical and electronic design considerations, measurement and calibration data, and error sources.

  15. A Simple Experiment to Determine the Characteristics of an NTC Thermistor for Low-Temperature Measurement Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mawire, A.

    2012-01-01

    A simple low-cost experiment for undergraduate students to determine the characteristics of a negative temperature coefficient of resistance thermistor is presented. The experiment measures the resistance-temperature and voltage-temperature characteristics of the thermistor. Results of the resistance-temperature experiment are used to determine…

  16. Germanium: An aqueous processing review

    SciTech Connect

    Lier, R.J.M. van; Dreisinger, D.B.

    1995-08-01

    In industrial aqueous solutions, germanium generally occurs in trace amounts amid high concentrations of other metals, such as zinc, copper and iron. Separation of germanium from these metals as well as its isolation from gallium and indium pose a real challenge to the hydrometallurgist. After a brief discussion of the aqueous chemistry of germanium, this paper reviews the flowsheet of the Apex Mine in Utah. The Apex property was the only mine in the world to be operated primarily for production of gallium and germanium, but apparently closed due to great operating difficulties. Several process variants proposed for the treatment of the Apex ore, including bioleaching methods, are addressed. Following a more general description of the behavior of germanium in hydrometallurgical zinc processing streams, available technology for its recovery from aqueous solutions is summarized. Precipitation, solvent extraction, ion exchange, electrowinning, ion flotation and liquid-membrane separation are all outlined in terms of the aqueous chemistry of germanium. Finally, the production of high purity germanium dioxide and metal is briefly discussed. 61 refs.

  17. Slow Crack Growth of Germanium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salem, Jon

    2016-01-01

    The fracture toughness and slow crack growth parameters of germanium supplied as single crystal beams and coarse grain disks were measured. Although germanium is anisotropic (A=1.7), it is not as anisotropic as SiC, NiAl, or Cu, as evidence by consistent fracture toughness on the 100, 110, and 111 planes. Germanium does not exhibit significant slow crack growth in distilled water. (n=100). Practical values for engineering design are a fracture toughness of 0.7 MPam and a Weibull modulus of m=6+/-2. For well ground and reasonable handled coupons, fracture strength should be greater than 30 MPa.

  18. Germanium geochemistry and mineralogy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bernstein, L.R.

    1985-01-01

    Germanium is enriched in the following geologic environments: 1. (1) iron meteorites and terrestrial iron-nickel; 2. (2) sulfide ore deposits, particularly those hosted by sedimentary rocks; 3. (3) iron oxide deposits; 4. (4) oxidized zones of Ge-bearing sulfide deposits; 5. (5) pegmatites, greisens, and skarns; and 6. (6) coal and lignitized wood. In silicate melts, Ge is highly siderophile in the presence of native iron-nickel; otherwise, it is highly lithophile. Among silicate minerals, Ge is concentrated in those having less polymerized silicate tetrahedra such as olivine and topaz. In deposits formed from hydrothermal solutions, Ge tends to be enriched mostly in either sulfides or in fluorine-bearing phases; it is thus concentrated both in some hydrothermal sulfide deposits and in pegmatites, greisens, and skarns. In sulfide deposits that formed from solutions having low to moderate sulfur activity, Ge is concentrated in sphalerite in amounts up to 3000 ppm. Sulfide deposits that formed from solutions having higher sulfur activity allowed Ge to either form its own sulfides, particularly with Cu, or to substitute for As, Sn, or other metals in sulfosalts. The Ge in hydrothermal fluids probably derives from enrichment during the fractional crystallization of igneous fluids, or is due to the incorporation of Ge from the country rocks, particularly from those containing organic material. Germanium bonds to lignin-derivative organic compounds that are found in peat and lignite, accounting for its common concentration in coals and related organic material. Germanium is precipitated from water together with iron hydroxide, accounting for its concentration in some sedimentary and supergene iron oxide deposits. It also is able to substitute for Fe in magnetite in a variety of geologic environments. In the oxidized zone of Ge-bearing sulfide deposits, Ge is concentrated in oxides, hydroxides, and hydroxy-sulfates, sometimes forming its own minerals. It is particularly

  19. Design and Development of Thermistor based Power Meter at 140 GHz Frequency Band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Rajesh; Kush, Abhimanyue Kumar; Dixit, Rajendra Prasad

    2011-12-01

    Design and development of thermistor based power meter at 140 gigahertz (GHz) frequency band have been presented. Power meter comprises power sensor, amplifier circuit and dialog based graphical user interface in visual C++ for the average power measurement. The output power level of a component or system is very critical design factor. Thus there was a need of a power meter for the development of millimeter wave components at 140 GHz frequency band. Power sensor has been designed and developed using NTC (Negative Temperature Coefficient) thermistors. The design aims at developing a direct, simple and inexpensive power meter that can be used to measure absolute power at 140 GHz frequency band. Due to absorption of 140 GHz frequencies, resistance of thermistor changes to a new value. This change in resistance of thermistor can be converted to a dc voltage change and amplified voltage change can be fed to computer through data acquisition card. Dialog based graphical user interface (GUI) has been developed in visual C++ language for average power measurement in dBm. WR6 standard rectangular waveguide is the input port for the sensor of power meter. Temperature compensation has been achieved. Moderate sensor return loss greater than 20 dB has been found over the frequency range 110 to 170 GHz. The response time of the power sensor is 10 second. Average power accuracy is better than ±0.25 dB within the power range from -10 to 10 dBm at 140 GHz frequency band.

  20. A Low-Cost Thermistor Device for Measurements of Metabolic Heat in Yeast Cells in Suspension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeling, Richard P.

    1980-01-01

    Provides illustrated directions for the construction and use of a low-cost thermistor device. Attached to a servo-type millivolt chart recorder, the device will record minute temperature changes and will simulate data obtained from an oxygen polarograph. Includes results of experiments with baker's yeast. (Author/CS)

  1. The ability to create NTD silicon technology in the IRT-T reactor in a horizontal experimental channel with one-side access

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varlachev, V. A.; Golovatsky, A. V.; Emets, E. G.; Butko, Ya A.

    2016-06-01

    The article shows the ability of creation of neutron transmutation doping (NTD) of monocrystalline silicon technology in the reactor's channel, which has a one-side access. In the article a distribution of thermal neutron flux through the length of channel and it's radius, neutron spectrum were obtained which confirmed that horizontal experimental channel HEC-1 is suitable for NTD.

  2. Layout optimization of DRAM cells using rigorous simulation model for NTD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, Jinhyuck; Kim, Shinyoung; Park, Chanha; Yang, Hyunjo; Yim, Donggyu; Kuechler, Bernd; Zimmermann, Rainer; Muelders, Thomas; Klostermann, Ulrich; Schmoeller, Thomas; Do, Mun-hoe; Choi, Jung-Hoe

    2014-03-01

    DRAM chip space is mainly determined by the size of the memory cell array patterns which consist of periodic memory cell features and edges of the periodic array. Resolution Enhancement Techniques (RET) are used to optimize the periodic pattern process performance. Computational Lithography such as source mask optimization (SMO) to find the optimal off axis illumination and optical proximity correction (OPC) combined with model based SRAF placement are applied to print patterns on target. For 20nm Memory Cell optimization we see challenges that demand additional tool competence for layout optimization. The first challenge is a memory core pattern of brick-wall type with a k1 of 0.28, so it allows only two spectral beams to interfere. We will show how to analytically derive the only valid geometrically limited source. Another consequence of two-beam interference limitation is a "super stable" core pattern, with the advantage of high depth of focus (DoF) but also low sensitivity to proximity corrections or changes of contact aspect ratio. This makes an array edge correction very difficult. The edge can be the most critical pattern since it forms the transition from the very stable regime of periodic patterns to non-periodic periphery, so it combines the most critical pitch and highest susceptibility to defocus. Above challenge makes the layout correction to a complex optimization task demanding a layout optimization that finds a solution with optimal process stability taking into account DoF, exposure dose latitude (EL), mask error enhancement factor (MEEF) and mask manufacturability constraints. This can only be achieved by simultaneously considering all criteria while placing and sizing SRAFs and main mask features. The second challenge is the use of a negative tone development (NTD) type resist, which has a strong resist effect and is difficult to characterize experimentally due to negative resist profile taper angles that perturb CD at bottom characterization by

  3. Thin film thermistor with positive temperature coefficient of resistance based on phase separated blends of ferroelectric and semiconducting polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenz, Thomas; Sharifi Dehsari, Hamed; Asadi, Kamal; Blom, Paul W. M.; Groen, Wilhelm A.; de Leeuw, Dago M.

    2016-09-01

    We demonstrate that ferroelectric memory diodes can be utilized as switching type positive temperature coefficient (PTC) thermistors. The diode consists of a phase separated blend of a ferroelectric and a semiconducting polymer stacked between two electrodes. The current through the semiconducting polymer depends on the ferroelectric polarization. At the Curie temperature the ferroelectric polymer depolarizes and consequently the current density through the semiconductor decreases by orders of magnitude. The diode therefore acts as switching type PTC thermistor. Unlike their inorganic counterparts, the PTC thermistors presented here are thin film devices. The switching temperature can be tuned by varying the Curie temperature of the ferroelectric polymer.

  4. Th and U fuel photofission study by NTD for AD-MSR subcritical assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Sajo-Bohus, Laszlo; Greaves, Eduardo D.; Barros, Haydn; Pino, Felix; Barrera, Maria T.; Farina, Fulvio; Davila, Jesus

    2015-07-23

    During the last decade a considerable effort has been devoted for developing energy generating systems based on advanced nuclear technology within the design concepts of GEN-IV. Thorium base fuel systems such as accelerator driven nuclear reactors are one of the often mentioned attractive and affordable options. Several radiotherapy linear accelerators are on the market and due to their reliability, they could be employed as drivers for subcritical liquid fuel assemblies. Bremsstrahlung photons with energies above 5.5MeV, induce (γ,n) and (e,e’n) reactions in the W-target. Resulting gamma radiation and photo or fission neutrons may be absorbed in target materials such as thorium and uranium isotopes to induce sustained fission or nuclear transmutation in waste radioactive materials. Relevant photo driven and photo-fission reaction cross sections are important for actinides {sup 232}Th, {sup 238}U and {sup 237}Np in the radiotherapy machines energy range of 10-20 MV. In this study we employ passive nuclear track detectors (NTD) to determine fission rates and neutron production rates with the aim to establish the feasibility for gamma and photo-neutron driven subcritical assemblies. To cope with these objectives a 20 MV radiotherapy machine has been employed with a mixed fuel target. Results will support further development for a subcritical assembly employing a thorium containing liquid fuel. It is expected that acquired technological knowledge will contribute to the Venezuelan nuclear energy program.

  5. Th and U fuel photofission study by NTD for AD-MSR subcritical assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sajo-Bohus, Laszlo; Greaves, Eduardo D.; Davila, Jesus; Barros, Haydn; Pino, Felix; Barrera, Maria T.; Farina, Fulvio

    2015-07-01

    During the last decade a considerable effort has been devoted for developing energy generating systems based on advanced nuclear technology within the design concepts of GEN-IV. Thorium base fuel systems such as accelerator driven nuclear reactors are one of the often mentioned attractive and affordable options. Several radiotherapy linear accelerators are on the market and due to their reliability, they could be employed as drivers for subcritical liquid fuel assemblies. Bremsstrahlung photons with energies above 5.5MeV, induce (γ,n) and (e,e'n) reactions in the W-target. Resulting gamma radiation and photo or fission neutrons may be absorbed in target materials such as thorium and uranium isotopes to induce sustained fission or nuclear transmutation in waste radioactive materials. Relevant photo driven and photo-fission reaction cross sections are important for actinides 232Th, 238U and 237Np in the radiotherapy machines energy range of 10-20 MV. In this study we employ passive nuclear track detectors (NTD) to determine fission rates and neutron production rates with the aim to establish the feasibility for gamma and photo-neutron driven subcritical assemblies. To cope with these objectives a 20 MV radiotherapy machine has been employed with a mixed fuel target. Results will support further development for a subcritical assembly employing a thorium containing liquid fuel. It is expected that acquired technological knowledge will contribute to the Venezuelan nuclear energy program.

  6. Electrodeposited germanium nanowires.

    PubMed

    Mahenderkar, Naveen K; Liu, Ying-Chau; Koza, Jakub A; Switzer, Jay A

    2014-09-23

    Germanium (Ge) is a group IV semiconductor with superior electronic properties compared with silicon, such as larger carrier mobilities and smaller effective masses. It is also a candidate anode material for lithium-ion batteries. Here, a simple, one-step method is introduced to electrodeposit dense arrays of Ge nanowires onto indium tin oxide (ITO) substrates from aqueous solution. The electrochemical reduction of ITO produces In nanoparticles that act as a reduction site for aqueous Ge(IV) species, and as a solvent for the crystallization of Ge nanowires. Nanowires deposited at 95 °C have an average diameter of 100 nm, whereas those deposited at room temperature have an average diameter of 35 nm. Both optical absorption and Raman spectroscopy suggest that the electrodeposited Ge is degenerate. The material has an indirect bandgap of 0.90-0.92 eV, compared with a value of 0.67 eV for bulk, intrinsic Ge. The blue shift is attributed to the Moss-Burstein effect, because the material is a p-type degenerate semiconductor. On the basis of the magnitude of the blue shift, the hole concentration is estimated to be 8 × 10(19) cm(-3). This corresponds to an In impurity concentration of about 0.2 atom %. The resistivity of the wires is estimated to be 4 × 10(-5) Ω·cm. The high conductivity of the wires should make them ideal for lithium-ion battery applications. PMID:25157832

  7. Dermal absorption of inorganic germanium in rats.

    PubMed

    Yokoi, Katsuhiko; Kawaai, Takae; Konomi, Aki; Uchida, Yuka

    2008-11-01

    So-called germanium 'health' products including dietary supplements, cosmetics, accessories, and warm bath service containing germanium compounds and metalloid are popular in Japan. Subchronic and chronic oral exposure of germanium dioxide (GeO(2)), popular chemical form of inorganic germanium causes severe germanium toxicosis including death and kidney dysfunction in humans and experimental animals. Intestinal absorption of neutralized GeO(2) or germanate is almost complete in humans and animals. However, it is not known whether germanium is cutaneously absorbed. We tested dermal absorption of neutralized GeO(2) or germanate using male F344/N rats. Three groups of rats were treated with a 3-h topical application of hydrophilic ointment containing graded level of neutralized GeO(2) (pH 7.4): 0, 0.21 and 0.42 mg GeO(2)/g. Germanium concentration in blood and tissues sampled from rats after topical application of inorganic germanium was measured by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Animals topically applied 0.42 mg GeO(2)/g ointment had significantly higher germanium concentrations in plasma, liver, and kidney than those of rats that received no topical germanium. The results indicate that skin is permeable to inorganic germanium ion or germanate and recurrent exposure of germanium compounds may pose a potential health hazard.

  8. The Germanium Dichotomy in Martian Meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humayun, M.; Yang, S.; Righter, K.; Zanda, B.; Hewins, R. H.

    2016-01-01

    Germanium is a moderately volatile and siderophile element that follows silicon in its compatibility during partial melting of planetary mantles. Despite its obvious usefulness in planetary geochemistry germanium is not analyzed routinely, with there being only three prior studies reporting germanium abundances in Martian meteorites. The broad range (1-3 ppm) observed in Martian igneous rocks is in stark contrast to the narrow range of germanium observed in terrestrial basalts (1.5 plus or minus 0.1 ppm). The germanium data from these studies indicates that nakhlites contain 2-3 ppm germanium, while shergottites contain approximately 1 ppm germanium, a dichotomy with important implications for core formation models. There have been no reliable germanium abundances on chassignites. The ancient meteoritic breccia, NWA 7533 (and paired meteorites) contains numerous clasts, some pristine and some impact melt rocks, that are being studied individually. Because germanium is depleted in the Martian crust relative to chondritic impactors, it has proven useful as an indicator of meteoritic contamination of impact melt clasts in NWA 7533. The germanium/silicon ratio can be applied to minerals that might not partition nickel and iridium, like feldspars. We report germanium in minerals from the 3 known chassignites, 2 nakhlites and 5 shergottites by LAICP- MS using a method optimized for precise germanium analysis.

  9. Investigation of the difficulties associated with the use of lead telluride and other II - IV compounds for thin film thermistors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclennan, W. D.

    1975-01-01

    The fabrication of thermistors was investigated for use as atmospheric temperature sensors in meteorological rocket soundings. The final configuration of the thin film thermistor is shown. The composition and primary functions of the six layers of the sensor are described. A digital controller for thin film deposition control is described which is capable of better than .1 A/sec rate control. The computer program modules for digital control of thin film deposition processing are included.

  10. Surface Passivation of Germanium Nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Adhikari, Hemant; Sun, Shiyu; Pianetta, Piero; Chidsey, Chirstopher E.D.; McIntyre, Paul C.; /SLAC, SSRL

    2005-05-13

    The surface of single crystal, cold-wall CVD-grown germanium nanowires was studied by synchrotron radiation photoemission spectroscopy (SR-PES) and also by conventional XPS. The as-grown germanium nanowires seem to be hydrogen terminated. Exposure to laboratory atmosphere leads to germanium oxide growth with oxidation states of Ge{sup 1+}, Ge{sup 2+}, Ge{sup 3+}, while exposure to UV light leads to a predominance of the Ge{sup 4+} oxidation state. Most of the surface oxide could be removed readily by aqueous HF treatment which putatively leaves the nanowire surface hydrogen terminated with limited stability in air. Alternatively, chlorine termination could be achieved by aq. HCl treatment of the native oxide-coated nanowires. Chlorine termination was found to be relatively more stable than the HF-last hydrogen termination.

  11. Electrical properties and thermal sensitivity of Ti/Y modified CuO-based ceramic thermistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Bao; Zhang, Hong; Guo, Jia; Liu, Ya; Li, Zhicheng

    2016-09-01

    The Ti/Y modified CuO-based negative temperature coefficient (NTC) thermistors, Cu0.988-2y Y0.008Ti y O (TYCO; y = 0.01, 0.015, 0.03, 0.05 and 0.07), were synthesized through a wet-chemical method followed by a traditional ceramic sintering technology. The related phase component and electrical properties were investigated. XRD results show that the TYCO ceramics have a monoclinic structure as that of CuO crystal. The TYCO ceramics can be obtained at the sintering temperature 970°C-990°C, and display the typical NTC characteristic. The NTC thermal-sensitive constants of TYCO thermistors can be adjusted from 1112 to 3700 K by changing the amount of Ti in the TYCO ceramics. The analysis of complex impedance spectra revealed that both the bulk effect and grain boundary effect contribute to the electrical behavior and the NTC effect. Both the band conduction and electron-hopping models are proposed for the conduction mechanisms in the TYCO thermistors.

  12. Predicted dynamic electrothermal performance of thermistor bolometer radiometers for Earth radiation budget applications.

    PubMed

    Haeffelin, M P; Mahan, J R; Priestley, K J

    1997-10-01

    The Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) and the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) rely on scanning thermistor bolometer radiometers of a similar design for accomplishing their mission. High-level dynamic electrothermal models of these instruments have been developed on the basis of the Monte Carlo ray-trace, finite-difference, and finite-element methods. The models are capable of simulating the end-to-end response of the ERBE and the CERES instruments to simulated sequences of Earth scenes. Such models will prove useful in the design of future generations of similar instruments, in defining ground-based and in-flight calibration and data-reduction strategies, in the interpretation of flight data, and in understanding data anomalies that might arise after the instruments have been placed in orbit. Two modules that make up the end-to-end model are presented: the optical-thermal radiative module and the thermistor bolometer dynamic electrothermal module. The optics module is used to determine the point-spread function of the optics, which establishes that the instrument has sharply defined footprints on the Earth. Results obtained with the thermistor bolometer dynamic electrothermal module provide valuable insights into the details of channel operation and establish its high level of equivalence. The combination of the two modules allows the point-spread function of the instrument to be determined and reveals the potential of this tool for scanning realistic Earth scenes.

  13. Niemann-Pick type C disease: a QM/MM study of conformational changes in cholesterol in the NPC1(NTD) and NPC2 binding pockets.

    PubMed

    Elghobashi-Meinhardt, Nadia

    2014-10-21

    Niemann-Pick Type C disease is characterized by disrupted lipid trafficking within the late endosomal (LE)/lysosomal (Lys) cellular compartments. Cholesterol transport within the LE/Lys is believed to take place via a concerted hand-off mechanism in which a small (131aa) soluble cholesterol binding protein, NPC2, transfers cholesterol to the N-terminal domain (NTD) of a larger (1278aa) membrane-bound protein, NPC1(NTD). The transfer is thought to occur through the formation of a stable intermediate complex NPC1(NTD)-NPC2, in which the sterol apertures of the two proteins align to allow passage of the cholesterol molecule. In the working model of the NPC1(NTD)-NPC2 complex, the sterol apertures are aligned, but the binding pockets are bent with respect to one another. In order for cholesterol to slide from one binding pocket to the other, a conformational change must occur in the proteins, in the ligand, or in both. Here, we investigate the possibility that the ligand undergoes a conformational change, or isomerization, to accommodate the bent transfer pathway. To understand what structural factors influence the isomerization rate, we calculate the energy barrier to cholesterol isomerization in both the NPC1(NTD) and NPC2 binding pockets. Here, we use a combined quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) energy function to calculate the isomerization barrier within the native NPC1(NTD) and NPC2 binding pockets before protein-protein docking as well as in the binding pockets of the NPC1(NTD)-NPC2 complex after docking has occurred. The results indicate that cholesterol isomerization in the NPC2 binding pocket is energetically favorable, both before and after formation of the NPC1(NTD)-NPC2 complex. The NPC1(NTD) binding pocket is energetically unfavorable to conformational rearrangement of the hydrophobic ligand because it contains more water molecules near the ligand tail and amino acids with polar side chains. For three NPC1(NTD) mutants investigated, L175Q

  14. Optical transparency of crystalline germanium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaplunov, I. A.; Smirnov, Yu. M.; Kolesnikov, A. I.

    2005-02-01

    This paper discusses the optical transparency of single-crystal and polycrystalline germanium. It is shown that the attenuation of IR radiation is affected by the presence of impurities (their form and concentration) and the structure of the material. The temperature dependences of the attenuation factor are obtained.

  15. Thermistor guided radiofrequency ablation of atrial insertion sites in patients with accessory pathways.

    PubMed

    Tracy, C M; Moore, H J; Solomon, A J; Rodak, D J; Fletcher, R D

    1995-11-01

    Radiofrequency ablation has gained acceptance in the treatment of patients with symptomatic Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome. The purpose of this study was to characterize the relation between temperature and other electroconductive parameters in patients undergoing atrial insertion accessory pathway ablation utilizing a thermistor equipped catheter. The mean temperature and power at sites of atrial insertion ablation are lower than has been previously associated with creation of radiofrequency lesions in the ventricle. While high cavitary blood flow in the atrium may result in cooling, the thinner atrial tissue may require less energy to achieve adequate heating than ventricular myocardium.

  16. Epstein-Barr virus nuclear protein 3C binds to the N-terminal (NTD) and beta trefoil domains (BTD) of RBP/CSL; Only the NTD interaction is essential for lymphoblastoid cell growth

    SciTech Connect

    Calderwood, Michael A.; Lee, Sungwook; Holthaus, Amy M.; Blacklow, Stephen C.; Kieff, Elliott; Johannsen, Eric

    2011-05-25

    Association of EBV nuclear proteins EBNA2, EBNA3A and EBNA3C with RBP/CSL, is essential for lymphoblastoid cell line (LCL) proliferation. Conserved residues in the EBNA3 homology domain, required for RBP/CSL interaction, lack the W{Phi}P motif that mediates EBNA2 and Notch binding to the RBP/CSL beta-trefoil domain (BTD). We map RBP/CSL interacting residues within EBNA3A(aa128-204) and EBNA3C(aa211-233). The EBNA3A results are consistent with an earlier report (aa125-222), but the EBNA3C domain is unexpectedly small and includes a 'WTP' sequence. This EBNA3C WTP motif confers RBP/CSL binding in vitro, in yeast, and in mammalian cells. Further, an EBNA3C WTP {yields} STP(W227S) mutation impaired BTD binding whereas EBNA3 homology domain mutations disrupted RBP/CSL N-terminal domain (NTD) binding. WTP was not essential for EBNA3C repression of EBNA2 in reporter assays or for maintenance of LCL growth. Our results indicate that EBNA3 proteins interact with multiple RBP/CSL domains, but only NTD interactions are required for LCL growth.

  17. Epitaxial Deposition Of Germanium Doped With Gallium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huffman, James E.

    1994-01-01

    Epitaxial layers of germanium doped with gallium made by chemical vapor deposition. Method involves combination of techniques and materials used in chemical vapor deposition with GeH4 or GeCl4 as source of germanium and GaCl3 as source of gallium. Resulting epitaxial layers of germanium doped with gallium expected to be highly pure, with high crystalline quality. High-quality material useful in infrared sensors.

  18. Calibration of Germanium Resistance Thermometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ladner, D.; Urban, E.; Mason, F. C.

    1987-01-01

    Largely completed thermometer-calibration cryostat and probe allows six germanium resistance thermometers to be calibrated at one time at superfluid-helium temperatures. In experiments involving several such thermometers, use of this calibration apparatus results in substantial cost savings. Cryostat maintains temperature less than 2.17 K through controlled evaporation and removal of liquid helium from Dewar. Probe holds thermometers to be calibrated and applies small amount of heat as needed to maintain precise temperature below 2.17 K.

  19. Mineral resource of the month: germanium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guberman, David

    2010-01-01

    The article provides information on germanium, an element with electrical properties between those of a metal and an insulator. Applications of germanium include its use as a component of the glass in fiber-optic cable, in infrared optics devices and as a semiconductor and substrate used in electronic and solar applications. Germanium was first isolated by German chemist Clemens Winkler in 1886 and was named after Winkler's native country. In 2008, the leading sources of primary germanium from coal or zinc include Canada, China and Russia.

  20. X-Ray Micro-Calorimeter Based on Si Thermistors for X-Ray Astronomy: Design and First Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aliane, A.; de Moro, F.; Pigot, C.; Agnese, P.; de La Broïse, X.; Gasse, A.; Navick, X.-F.; Karolak, M.; Ribot, H.; Sauvageot, J.-L.; Szeflinski, V.; Gobil, Y.; Renaud, D.; Rivallin, P.; Geoffray, H.

    2008-04-01

    X-ray Astronomy provides a unique window on a wide variety of astrophysical phenomena. The currently operating X-ray space observatories perform X-ray spectral imaging with the use of CCDs. When available, cryogenic X-ray microcalorimeter arrays will far outperform CCDs in terms of spectral resolution, energy bandwidth and count rate. Experience has been gained with Infra-Red bolometer arrays at CEA-LETI (Grenoble) in collaboration with the CEA-SAp (Saclay); taking advantage of this background, we are now developing an X-ray spectro-imaging camera for the next generation space astronomy missions, using silicon technology (implanted and high temperature diffused thermistors). Each pixel of this array detector is made of a tantalum absorber bound, by indium bump hybridization, to a silicon thermistor. The absorber array is bound to the thermistor array in a single automatic step. The thermo-mechanical link, provided by hybridization, is being improved in terms of thermal capacitance. Finally, our main effort is in developing arrays of silicon thermistors with negligible excess 1/ f noise. The thermistor has been simulated with the 2D simulator ATHENA (SILVACO International). We studied the effects of the implants and their thermal treatment on both vertical and lateral dopant distributions at the edges of the thermistor. Prototypes have been created following the procedure optimized by the ATHENA simulation. We present the status of the development and results of measurements performed on these four main building blocks required to create a detector array up to 32×32 pixels in size.

  1. Germanium recycling in the United States in 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jorgenson, John D.

    2006-01-01

    This report describes the recycling flow of germanium in the United States in 2000, as well as other germanium material flow streams. Germanium was recycled mostly from new scrap that was generated during the manufacture of germanium-containing fiber optic cables and from new and old scrap products of germanium-containing infrared imaging devices. In 2000, about 11.5 metric tons of germanium was recycled, about 40 percent of which was derived from old scrap. The germanium recycling rate was estimated to be 50 percent, and germanium scrap recycling efficiency, 76 percent.

  2. Laser synthesis of germanium tin alloys on virtual germanium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefanov, S.; Conde, J. C.; Benedetti, A.; Serra, C.; Werner, J.; Oehme, M.; Schulze, J.; Buca, D.; Holländer, B.; Mantl, S.; Chiussi, S.

    2012-03-01

    Synthesis of heteroepitaxial germanium tin (GeSn) alloys using excimer laser processing of a thin 4 nm Sn layer on Ge has been demonstrated and studied. Laser induced rapid heating, subsequent melting, and re-solidification processes at extremely high cooling rates have been experimentally achieved and also simulated numerically to optimize the processing parameters. "In situ" measured sample reflectivity with nanosecond time resolution was used as feedback for the simulations and directly correlated to alloy composition. Detailed characterization of the GeSn alloys after the optimization of the processing conditions indicated substitutional Sn concentration of up to 1% in the Ge matrix.

  3. Mineral resource of the month: germanium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jorgenson, John D.

    2003-01-01

    Germanium is a hard, brittle semimetal that first came into use over a half-century ago as a semiconductor material in radar units and in the first transistor ever made. Most germanium is recovered as a byproduct of zinc smelting, but it has also been recovered at some copper smelters and from the fly ash of coal-burning industrial power plants.

  4. High efficiency germanium-assisted grating coupler.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shuyu; Zhang, Yi; Baehr-Jones, Tom; Hochberg, Michael

    2014-12-15

    We propose a fiber to submicron silicon waveguide vertical coupler utilizing germanium-on-silicon gratings. The germanium is epitaxially grown on silicon in the same step for building photodetectors. Coupling efficiency based on FDTD simulation is 76% at 1.55 µm and the optical 1dB bandwidth is 40 nm.

  5. Black Germanium fabricated by reactive ion etching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steglich, Martin; Käsebier, Thomas; Kley, Ernst-Bernhard; Tünnermann, Andreas

    2016-09-01

    A reactive ion etching technique for the preparation of statistical "Black Germanium" antireflection surfaces, relying on self-organization in a Cl2 etch chemistry, is presented. The morphology of the fabricated Black Germanium surfaces is the result of a random lateral distribution of pyramidal etch pits with heights around (1450 ± 150) nm and sidewall angles between 80° and 85°. The pyramids' base edges are oriented along the <110> crystal directions of Germanium, indicating a crystal anisotropy of the etching process. In the Vis-NIR, the tapered Black Germanium surface structure suppresses interface reflection to <2.5 % for normal incidence and still to <6 % at an angle of incidence of 70°. The presented Black Germanium might find applications as low-cost AR structure in optoelectronics and IR optics.

  6. MAJORANA Collaboration's experience with germanium detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Mertens, S.; Abgrall, N.; Avignone, F. T.; Barabash, A. S.; Bertrand, F. E.; Brudanin, V.; Busch, M.; Buuck, M.; Byram, D.; Caldwell, A. S.; Chan, Y. -D.; Christofferson, C. D.; Cuesta, C.; Detwiler, J. A.; Efremenko, Yu; Ejiri, H.; Elliott, S. R.; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Giovanetti, G. K.; Goett, J.; Green, M. P.; Gruszko, J.; Guinn, I.; Guiseppe, V. E.; Henning, R.; Hoppe, E. W.; Howard, S.; Howe, M. A.; Jasinski, B. R.; Keeter, K. J.; Kidd, M. F.; Konovalov, S. I.; Kouzes, R. T.; LaFerriere, B. D.; Leon, J.; MacMullin, J.; Martin, R. D.; Meijer, S. J.; Orrell, J. L.; O'Shaughnessy, C.; Overman, N. R.; Poon, A. W. P.; Radford, D. C.; Rager, J.; Rielage, K.; Robertson, R. G. H.; Romero-Romero, E.; Ronquest, M. C.; Shanks, B.; Shirchenko, M.; Snyder, N.; Tedeschi, D.; Trimble, J. E.; Varner, R. L.; Vasilyev, S.; Vetter, K.; Vorren, K.; White, B. R.; Wilkerson, J. F.; Wiseman, C.; Xu, W.; Yakushev, E.; Yu, C. -H.; Yumatov, V.

    2015-05-01

    The goal of the Majorana Demonstrator project is to search for 0νββ decay in 76Ge. Of all candidate isotopes for 0νββ, 76Ge has some of the most favorable characteristics. Germanium detectors are a well established technology, and in searches for 0νββ, the high purity germanium crystal acts simultaneously as source and detector. Furthermore, p-type germanium detectors provide excellent energy resolution and a specially designed point contact geometry allows for sensitive pulse shape discrimination. This paper will summarize the experiences the MAJORANA collaboration made with enriched germanium detectors manufactured by ORTEC®®. The process from production, to characterization and integration in MAJORANA mounting structure will be described. A summary of the performance of all enriched germanium detectors will be given.

  7. MAJORANA Collaboration's experience with germanium detectors

    DOE PAGES

    Mertens, S.; Abgrall, N.; Avignone, F. T.; Barabash, A. S.; Bertrand, F. E.; Brudanin, V.; Busch, M.; Buuck, M.; Byram, D.; Caldwell, A. S.; et al

    2015-05-01

    The goal of the Majorana Demonstrator project is to search for 0νββ decay in 76Ge. Of all candidate isotopes for 0νββ, 76Ge has some of the most favorable characteristics. Germanium detectors are a well established technology, and in searches for 0νββ, the high purity germanium crystal acts simultaneously as source and detector. Furthermore, p-type germanium detectors provide excellent energy resolution and a specially designed point contact geometry allows for sensitive pulse shape discrimination. This paper will summarize the experiences the MAJORANA collaboration made with enriched germanium detectors manufactured by ORTEC®®. The process from production, to characterization and integration in MAJORANAmore » mounting structure will be described. A summary of the performance of all enriched germanium detectors will be given.« less

  8. Assessment of thiol compounds from garlic by automated headspace derivatized in-needle-NTD-GC-MS and derivatized in-fiber-SPME-GC-MS.

    PubMed

    Warren, Jamie Marcus; Parkinson, Don-Roger; Pawliszyn, Janusz

    2013-01-23

    This study investigates the analysis of thiol compounds using a needle trap device (HS-NTD) and solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) derivatized headspace techniques coupled to GC-MS. Thiol compounds and their outgassed products are particularly difficult to monitor in foodstuffs. It was found that with in-needle and in-fiber derivatization, using the derivatization agent N-phenylmaleimide, it was possible to enhance the selectivity toward thiol, which allowed the quantitation of butanethiol, ethanethiol, methanethiol, and propanethiol compounds found in fresh garlic. A side-hole NTD was prepared and packed in house and utilized mixed DVB and Carboxen polymer extraction phases made of 60-80 mesh particles. NTD sampling was accomplished in the exhaustive sampling mode, where breakthrough was negligible. This work demonstrates a new application for a side-hole NTD sampling. A commercial mixed polymer phase of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and divinylbenzene polymer (DVB) SPME fiber was used for SPME extractions. Under optimized derivatization, extraction, and analysis conditions for both NTD-GC-MS and SPME-GC-MS techniques, automated sampling methods were developed for quantitation. Both methods demonstrate a successful approach to thiol determination and provide a quantitative linear response between <0.1 and 10 mg L(-1) (R(2) = 0.9996), with limits of detection (LOD) in the low micrograms per liter range for the investigated thiols. Addition methods using known spiked quantities of thiol analytes in ground garlic facilitated method validation. Carry-over was also negligible for both SPME and NTD under optimized conditions. PMID:23259687

  9. Germanium multiphase equation of state

    DOE PAGES

    Crockett, Scott D.; Lorenzi-Venneri, Giulia De; Kress, Joel D.; Rudin, Sven P.

    2014-05-07

    A new SESAME multiphase germanium equation of state (EOS) has been developed using the best available experimental data and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The equilibrium EOS includes the Ge I (diamond), the Ge II (β-Sn) and the liquid phases. The foundation of the EOS is based on density functional theory calculations which are used to determine the cold curve and the Debye temperature. Results are compared to Hugoniot data through the solid-solid and solid-liquid transitions. We propose some experiments to better understand the dynamics of this element

  10. Thermal conductivity and diffusivity of biomaterials measured with self-heated thermistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valvano, J. W.; Cochran, J. R.; Diller, K. R.

    1985-05-01

    This paper presents an experimental method to measure the thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity of biomaterials. Self-heated thermistor probes, inserted into the tissue of interest, are used to deliver heat as well as to monitor the rate of heat removal. An empirical calibration procedure allows accurate thermal-property measurements over a wide range of tissue temperatures. Operation of the instrument in three media with known thermal properties shows the uncertainty of measurements to be about 2%. The reproducibility is 0.5% for the thermal-conductivity measurements and 2% for the thermal-diffusivity measurements. Thermal properties were measured in dog, pig, rabbit, and human tissues. The tissues included kidney, spleen, liver, brain, heart, lung, pancreas, colon cancer, and breast cancer. Thermal properties were measured for 65 separate tissue samples at 3, 10, 17, 23, 30, 37, and 45°C. The results show that the temperature coefficient of biomaterials approximates that of water.

  11. Electronic considerations for externally segmented germanium detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madden, N. W.; Landis, D. A.; Goulding, F. S.; Pehl, R. H.; Cork, C. P.; Luke, P. N.; Malone, D. F.; Pollard, M. J.

    1991-01-01

    The dominant background source for germanium gamma ray detector spectrometers used for some astrophysics observations is internal beta decay. Externally segmented germanium gamma ray coaxial detectors can identify beta decay by localizing the event. Energetic gamma rays interact in the germanium detector by multiple Compton interactions while beta decay is a local process. In order to recognize the difference between gamma rays and beta decay events, the external electrode (outside of detector) is electrically partitioned. The instrumentation of these external segments and the consequence with respect to the spectrometer energy signal is examined.

  12. Patterning NHS-terminated SAMs on germanium.

    PubMed

    Morris, Carleen J; Shestopalov, Alexander A; Gold, Brian H; Clark, Robert L; Toone, Eric J

    2011-05-17

    Here we report a simple, robust approach to patterning functional SAMs on germanium. The protocol relies on catalytic soft-lithographic pattern transfer from an elastomeric stamp bearing pendant immobilized sulfonic acid moieties to an NHS-functionalized bilayer molecular system comprising a primary ordered alkyl monolayer and a reactive ester secondary overlayer. The catalytic polyurethane-acrylate stamp was used to form micrometer-scale features of chemically distinct SAMs on germanium. The methodology represents the first example of patterned SAMs on germanium, a semiconductor material.

  13. A review on germanium nanowires.

    PubMed

    Pei, Li Z; Cai, Zheng Y

    2012-01-01

    Ge nanowires exhibit wide application potential in the fields of nanoscale devices due to their excellently optical and electrical properties. This article reviews the recent progress and patents of Ge nanowires. The recent progress and patents for the synthesis of Ge nanowires using chemical vapor deposition, laser ablation, thermal evaporation, template method and supercritical fluid-liquid-solid method are demonstrated. Amorphous germanium oxide layer and defects existing in Ge nanowires result in poor Ohmic contact between Ge nanowires and electrodes. Therefore, Ge nanowires should be passivated in order to deposit connecting electrodes before applied in nanoelectronic devices. The experimental progress and patents on the application of Ge nanowires as field effect transistors, lithium batteries, photoresistors, memory cell and fluid sensors are discussed. Finally, the future development of Ge nanowires for the synthesis and practical application is also discussed.

  14. High Efficiency Germanium Immersion Gratings

    SciTech Connect

    Kuzmenko, P J; Davis, P J; Little, S L; Little, L M; Bixler, J V

    2006-05-01

    We have fabricated several germanium immersion gratings by single crystal, single point diamond flycutting on an ultra-precision lathe. Use of a dead sharp tool produces groove corners less than 0.1 micron in radius and consequently high diffraction efficiency. We measured first order efficiencies in immersion of over 80% at 10.6 micron wavelength. Wavefront error was low averaging 0.06 wave rms (at 633 nm) across the full aperture. The grating spectral response was free of ghosts down to our detection limit of 1 part in 10{sup 4}. Scatter should be low based upon the surface roughness. Measurement of the spectral line profile of a CO{sub 2} laser sets an upper bound on total integrated scatter of 0.5%.

  15. Solution synthesis of germanium nanocrystals

    DOEpatents

    Gerung, Henry; Boyle, Timothy J.; Bunge, Scott D.

    2009-09-22

    A method for providing a route for the synthesis of a Ge(0) nanometer-sized material from. A Ge(II) precursor is dissolved in a ligand heated to a temperature, generally between approximately 100.degree. C. and 400.degree. C., sufficient to thermally reduce the Ge(II) to Ge(0), where the ligand is a compound that can bond to the surface of the germanium nanomaterials to subsequently prevent agglomeration of the nanomaterials. The ligand encapsulates the surface of the Ge(0) material to prevent agglomeration. The resulting solution is cooled for handling, with the cooling characteristics useful in controlling the size and size distribution of the Ge(0) materials. The characteristics of the Ge(II) precursor determine whether the Ge(0) materials that result will be nanocrystals or nanowires.

  16. Germanium: giving microelectronics an efficiency boost

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mercer, Celestine N.

    2015-01-01

    Germanium is an essentially nontoxic element, with the exception of only a few compounds. However, if dissolved concentrations in drinking water are as high as one or more parts per million chronic diseases may occur.

  17. Germanium: giving microelectronics an efficiency boost

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mercer, Celestine N.

    2015-07-30

    Germanium is an essentially nontoxic element, with the exception of only a few compounds. However, if dissolved concentrations in drinking water are as high as one or more parts per million chronic diseases may occur.

  18. Tough germanium nanoparticles under electrochemical cycling.

    PubMed

    Liang, Wentao; Yang, Hui; Fan, Feifei; Liu, Yang; Liu, Xiao Hua; Huang, Jian Yu; Zhu, Ting; Zhang, Sulin

    2013-04-23

    Mechanical degradation of the electrode materials during electrochemical cycling remains a serious issue that critically limits the capacity retention and cyclability of rechargeable lithium-ion batteries. Here we report the highly reversible expansion and contraction of germanium nanoparticles under lithiation-delithiation cycling with in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM). During multiple cycles to the full capacity, the germanium nanoparticles remained robust without any visible cracking despite ∼260% volume changes, in contrast to the size-dependent fracture of silicon nanoparticles upon the first lithiation. The comparative in situ TEM study of fragile silicon nanoparticles suggests that the tough behavior of germanium nanoparticles can be attributed to the weak anisotropy of the lithiation strain at the reaction front. The tough germanium nanoparticles offer substantial potential for the development of durable, high-capacity, and high-rate anodes for advanced lithium-ion batteries.

  19. Germanium Resistance Thermometer For Subkelvin Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castles, Stephen H.

    1993-01-01

    Improved germanium resistance thermometer measures temperatures as small as 0.01 K accurately. Design provides large area for electrical connections (to reduce electrical gradients and increase sensitivity to changes in temperatures) and large heat sink (to minimize resistance heating). Gold pads on top and bottom of germanium crystal distribute electrical current and flow of heat nearly uniformly across crystal. Less expensive than magnetic thermometers or superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUID's) otherwise used.

  20. Dangling bonds and vacancies in germanium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, J. R.; Janotti, A.; Van de Walle, C. G.

    2013-01-01

    The quest for metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) with higher carrier mobility has triggered great interest in germanium-based MOSFETs. Still, the performance of germanium-based devices lags significantly behind that of their silicon counterparts, possibly due to the presence of defects such as dangling bonds (DBs) and vacancies. Using screened hybrid functional calculations we investigate the role of DBs and vacancies in germanium. We find that the DB defect in germanium has no levels in the band gap; it acts as a negatively charged acceptor with the (0/-1) transition level below the valence-band maximum (VBM). This explains the absence of electron-spin-resonance observations of DBs in germanium. The vacancy in germanium has a much lower formation energy than the vacancy in silicon and is stable in a number of charge states, depending on the position of the Fermi level. We find the (0/-1) and (-1/-2) transition levels at 0.16 and 0.38 eV above the VBM; the spacing of these levels is explained based on the strength of intraorbital repulsion. We compare these results with calculations for silicon, as well as with available experimental data.

  1. Flow injection analysis biosensor for urea analysis in urine using enzyme thermistor.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Geetesh K; Sharma, Atul; Deshpande, Kanchanmala; Bhand, Sunil

    2014-10-01

    There is a need for analytical methods capable of monitoring urea levels in urine for patients under clinical monitoring to appraise renal function. Herein, we present a practical method to quantify levels of urea in human urine samples using flow injection analysis-enzyme thermistor (FIA-ET) biosensor. The biosensor comprises a covalently immobilized enzyme urease (Jack bean) on aminated silica support, which selectively hydrolyzes the urea present in the sample. Under optimized conditions, the developed biosensor showed a linear response in the range of 10-1,000 mM, R (2) = 0.99, and response time of 90 s in 100 mM phosphate buffer (PB) (flow rate of 0.5 mL/min, sample volume of 0.1 mL, and pH 7.2). The urea-spiked human urine samples showed minimal matrix interference in the range of 10-1,000 mM. Recoveries were obtained (92.26-99.80 %) in the spiked urine samples. The reliability and reproducibility of the developed biosensor were found satisfactory with percent relative standard deviation (% RSD) = 0.741. The developed biosensor showed excellent operational stability up to 30 weeks with 20 % loss in original response when used continuously at room temperature. These results indicate that the developed biosensor could be very effective to detect low and high levels of urea in urine samples.

  2. An enzyme thermistor-based assay for total and free cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Raghavan, V; Ramanathan, K; Sundaram, P V; Danielsson, B

    1999-11-01

    A method to evaluate the free (FC) and total cholesterol (TC) in human serum, bile and gallstone extract using an enzyme thermistor (ET)-based flow injection analysis (FIA) is presented. The cholesterol in high-density (HDL-C) and low density lipoprotein (LDL-C) have also been evaluated. A heparin functionalized Sepharose column was employed for the isolation of HDL and LDL fractions from serum. The estimation of cholesterol and its esters was based on their reaction with cholesterol oxidase (CO), cholesterol esterase (CE) and catalase (CAT). Three different enzyme columns, i.e. co-immobilized CO/CAT (column A), only CE (column B) and co-immobilized CO/CE/CAT (column C) were prepared by cross-linking the enzymes on glass beads using glutaraldehyde. Column A was used for estimating FC and column C was used for estimating total cholesterol (cholesterol plus esterified cholesterol). Column B was used as a pre-column which could be switched 'in' or 'out' in conjunction with column A for the estimation of TC or FC, respectively. A calibration between 1.0 and 8.0 mmol/l for FC and 0. 25 and 4.0 mmol/l for TC was obtained. For more than 2000 assays with the ET device a C.V. of less than 4% was obtained. The assay time was approximately 4 min per assay. The cholesterol estimations on the ET correlated well with similar estimations using a commercially available cholesterol diagnostic kit.

  3. Immobilized laccase on activated poly(vinyl alcohol) microspheres for enzyme thermistor application.

    PubMed

    Bai, Xue; Gu, Haixin; Chen, Wei; Shi, Hanchang; Yang, Bei; Huang, Xin; Zhang, Qi

    2014-07-01

    Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) microspheres were prepared by inverse suspension crosslinked method, with glutaraldehyde as a crosslinking agent. PVA microspheres activated with aldehyde groups were employed for Trametes versicolor laccase immobilization. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were used to characterize the activated PVA microspheres and PVA microspheres with immobilized laccase (Lac/PVA microspheres), which show that laccase was successfully immobilized on the PVA microspheres. The optimum pH and temperature coupling conditions for the immobilized laccase were determined to be 3.3 and 30 °C, respectively. Residual activity was also investigated by soaking the immobilized laccase in organic solvents at different concentrations, proving it chemically stable. Immobilized laccase exhibited good storage stability at 4 °C. The enzyme biosensor showed good performance in 2,2-azinobis(3-ethylthiazoline-6-sulfonate) and bisphenol A, with concentration ranges of 2 to 8 mM and 0.05 to 0.25 mM, respectively. Therefore, PVA microspheres may have high potential as support for enzyme thermistor applications.

  4. Germanium-silicon solid solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zemskov, V. S.; Kubasov, V. N.; Belokurova, I. N.; Titkov, A. N.; Shulpina, I. L.; Safarov, V. I.; Guseva, N. B.

    1977-01-01

    An experiment on melting and directional crystallization of an antimony (Sb) doped germanium silicon (GeSi) solid solution was designed for the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project (ASTP) to study the possibility of using zero-g conditions for obtaining solid-solution monocrystals with uniformly distributed components. Crystallization in the zero-g environment did not occur under ideal stationary growth and segregation conditions. Crystallization under zero-g conditions revealed the heterogeneous nature of Si and Sb distribution in the cross sections of crystals. The presence of the radial thermal gradient in the multipurpose furnace could be one of the reasons for such Si and Sb distribution. The structure of space-grown crystals correlates with the nature of heterogeneities of Si and Sb distribution in crystals. The type of surface morphology and the contour observed in space-grown crystals were never observed in ground-based crystals and indicate the absence of wetting of the graphitized walls of the ampoule by the melt during melting and crystallization.

  5. Recovery of germanium-68 from irradiated targets

    DOEpatents

    Phillips, Dennis R.; Jamriska, Sr., David J.; Hamilton, Virginia T.

    1993-01-01

    A process for selective separation of germanium-68 from proton irradiated molybdenum targets is provided and includes dissolving the molybdenum target in a hydrogen peroxide solution to form a first ion-containing solution, contacting the first ion-containing solution with a cationic resin whereby ions selected from the group consisting of molybdenum, niobium, technetium, selenium, vanadium, arsenic, germanium, zirconium and rubidium remain in a second ion-containing solution while ions selected from the group consisting of rubidium, zinc, beryllium, cobalt, iron, manganese, chromium, strontium, yttrium and zirconium are selectively adsorbed by the first resin, adjusting the pH of the second ion-containing solution to within a range of from about 0.7 to about 3.0, adjusting the soluble metal halide concentration in the second ion-containing solution to a level adapted for subsequent separation of germanium, contacting the pH-adjusted, soluble metal halide-containing second ion-containing solution with a dextran-based material whereby germanium ions are separated by the dextran-based material, and recovering the germanium from the dextran-based material, preferably by distillation.

  6. An enzyme thermistor-based assay for total and free cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Raghavan, V; Ramanathan, K; Sundaram, P V; Danielsson, B

    1999-11-01

    A method to evaluate the free (FC) and total cholesterol (TC) in human serum, bile and gallstone extract using an enzyme thermistor (ET)-based flow injection analysis (FIA) is presented. The cholesterol in high-density (HDL-C) and low density lipoprotein (LDL-C) have also been evaluated. A heparin functionalized Sepharose column was employed for the isolation of HDL and LDL fractions from serum. The estimation of cholesterol and its esters was based on their reaction with cholesterol oxidase (CO), cholesterol esterase (CE) and catalase (CAT). Three different enzyme columns, i.e. co-immobilized CO/CAT (column A), only CE (column B) and co-immobilized CO/CE/CAT (column C) were prepared by cross-linking the enzymes on glass beads using glutaraldehyde. Column A was used for estimating FC and column C was used for estimating total cholesterol (cholesterol plus esterified cholesterol). Column B was used as a pre-column which could be switched 'in' or 'out' in conjunction with column A for the estimation of TC or FC, respectively. A calibration between 1.0 and 8.0 mmol/l for FC and 0. 25 and 4.0 mmol/l for TC was obtained. For more than 2000 assays with the ET device a C.V. of less than 4% was obtained. The assay time was approximately 4 min per assay. The cholesterol estimations on the ET correlated well with similar estimations using a commercially available cholesterol diagnostic kit. PMID:10556661

  7. Front End Spectroscopy ASIC for Germanium Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wulf, Eric

    Large-area, tracking, semiconductor detectors with excellent spatial and spectral resolution enable exciting new access to soft (0.2-5 MeV) gamma-ray astrophysics. The improvements from semiconductor tracking detectors come with the burden of high density of strips and/or pixels that require high-density, low-power, spectroscopy quality readout electronics. CMOS ASIC technologies are a natural fit to this requirement and have led to high-quality readout systems for all current semiconducting tracking detectors except for germanium detectors. The Compton Spectrometer and Imager (COSI), formerly NCT, at University of California Berkeley and the Gamma-Ray Imager/Polarimeter for Solar flares (GRIPS) at Goddard Space Flight Center utilize germanium cross-strip detectors and are on the forefront of NASA's Compton telescope research with funded missions of long duration balloon flights. The development of a readout ASIC for germanium detectors would allow COSI to replace their discrete electronics readout and would enable the proposed Gamma-Ray Explorer (GRX) mission utilizing germanium strip-detectors. We propose a 3-year program to develop and test a germanium readout ASIC to TRL 5 and to integrate the ASIC readout onto a COSI detector allowing a TRL 6 demonstration for the following COSI balloon flight. Our group at NRL led a program, sponsored by another government agency, to produce and integrate a cross-strip silicon detector ASIC, designed and fabricated by Dr. De Geronimo at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The ASIC was designed to handle the large (>30 pF) capacitance of three 10 cm^2 detectors daisy-chained together. The front-end preamplifier, selectable inverter, shaping times, and gains make this ASIC compatible with a germanium cross-strip detector as well. We therefore have the opportunity and expertise to leverage the previous investment in the silicon ASIC for a new mission. A germanium strip detector ASIC will also require precise timing of the signals at

  8. Extrinsic germanium Blocked Impurity Bank (BIB) detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krabach, Timothy N.; Huffman, James E.; Watson, Dan M.

    1989-01-01

    Ge:Ga blocked-impurity-band (BIB) detectors with long wavelength thresholds greater than 190 microns and peak quantum efficiencies of 4 percent, at an operating temperature of 1.8 K, have been fabricated. These proof of concept devices consist of a high purity germanium blocking layer epitaxially grown on a Ga-doped Ge substrate. This demonstration of BIB behavior in germanium enables the development of far infrared detector arrays similar to the current silicon-based devices. Present efforts are focussed on improving the chemical vapor deposition process used to create the blocking layer and on the lithographic processing required to produce monolithic detector arrays in germanium. Approaches to test the impurity levels in both the blocking and active layers are considered.

  9. Chalcogenide and germanium hybrid optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cogburn, Gabriel

    2011-11-01

    When choosing a material to design infrared optics, an optical designer has to decide which material properties are most important to what they are trying to achieve. Factors include; cost, optical performance, index of material, sensor format, manufacturability, mechanical mounting and others. This paper will present an optical design that is made for a 640×480, 17μm sensor and is athermalized by using the material properties of chalcogenide glass and Germanium (Ge). The optical design will be a 3-element, f1.0 optic with an EFL of 20mm at 10μm. It consists of two Ge spherical lenses and a middle chalcogenide aspheric element. By using Ge and chalcogenide, this design utilizes the high index of Ge and combines it with the lower dn/dt of chalcogenide glass to provide an athermalized design without the use of additional electro-optical compensation inside the assembly. This study will start from the optical design process and explain the mechanical and optical properties of the design, then show the manufacturing process of molding an aspheric chalcogenide element. After the three elements are manufactured, they will be assembled and tested throughout the temperature range of -40 to 85°C to compare optical performance to design expectations. Ultimately, this paper will show that a high performance, athermalized optical assembly is possible to manufacture at a lower cost with the use of combining different infrared materials that allow for spherical Ge lenses and only one aspherical chalcogenide element which can be produced in higher volumes at lower costs through glass molding technology.

  10. Comparison of apnea identified by respiratory inductance plethysmography with that detected by end-tidal CO(2) or thermistor. The CHIME Study Group.

    PubMed

    Weese-Mayer, D E; Corwin, M J; Peucker, M R; Di Fiore, J M; Hufford, D R; Tinsley, L R; Neuman, M R; Martin, R J; Brooks, L J; Davidson Ward, S L; Lister, G; Willinger, M

    2000-08-01

    As part of the Collaborative Home Infant Monitoring Evaluation (CHIME) we compared apnea identified by a customized home monitor using respiratory inductance plethysmography (RIP) with simultaneously recorded polysomnography-acquired nasal end-tidal CO(2) (PET(CO(2))) and nasal/oral thermistor in 422 infants during overnight laboratory recordings to determine concordance between techniques, sources of disagreement, and capacity of RIP to detect obstructed breaths within an apnea. Among 233 episodes of apnea identified by at least one method as >/= 16 s, 120 were observed by the CHIME monitor, 219 by PET(CO(2)), and 163 by thermistor. The positive predictive value of the CHIME-identified apnea was 89.2% (95% CI 83, 95) and 73% (95% CI 65, 81) for PET(CO(2)) and thermistor, respectively. However, the sensitivity of the CHIME monitor in identifying events detected by the other methods was only approximately 50%. Among 87 apnea events identified by all three techniques, no two methods showed high agreement in measurement of apnea duration: RIP and PET(CO(2)) (ICC = 0.54), RIP and thermistor (ICC = 0.13), PET(CO(2)) and nasal thermistor (ICC = 0.41). Among the 179 breaths identified by RIP as obstructed, 79.9% were judged to be obstructed on the PET(CO(2)) and 80.4% were judged to be obstructed on the thermistor channel. Among 238 breaths identified on PET(CO(2)) as obstructed, 54.2% were determined to be obstructed by RIP. Among 204 breaths identified on thermistor as obstructed, 55. 4% were determined to be obstructed by RIP. Reasons for discrepancies in apnea detection among channels included body movement, partial airway obstruction, and obstructed breaths. Despite these limitations the CHIME monitor provides an opportunity to record physiological data previously unavailable in the home.

  11. Germanium-Based Nanomaterials for Rechargeable Batteries.

    PubMed

    Wu, Songping; Han, Cuiping; Iocozzia, James; Lu, Mingjia; Ge, Rongyun; Xu, Rui; Lin, Zhiqun

    2016-07-01

    Germanium-based nanomaterials have emerged as important candidates for next-generation energy-storage devices owing to their unique chemical and physical properties. In this Review, we provide a review of the current state-of-the-art in germanium-based materials design, synthesis, processing, and application in battery technology. The most recent advances in the area of Ge-based nanocomposite electrode materials and electrolytes for solid-state batteries are summarized. The limitations of Ge-based materials for energy-storage applications are discussed, and potential research directions are also presented with an emphasis on commercial products and theoretical investigations.

  12. Atomic scale dynamics of ultrasmall germanium clusters

    PubMed Central

    Bals, S.; Van Aert, S.; Romero, C.P.; Lauwaet, K.; Van Bael, M.J.; Schoeters, B.; Partoens, B.; Yücelen, E.; Lievens, P.; Van Tendeloo, G.

    2012-01-01

    Starting from the gas phase, small clusters can be produced and deposited with huge flexibility with regard to composition, materials choice and cluster size. Despite many advances in experimental characterization, a detailed morphology of such clusters is still lacking. Here we present an atomic scale observation as well as the dynamical behaviour of ultrasmall germanium clusters. Using quantitative scanning transmission electron microscopy in combination with ab initio calculations, we are able to characterize the transition between different equilibrium geometries of a germanium cluster consisting of less than 25 atoms. Seven-membered rings, trigonal prisms and some smaller subunits are identified as possible building blocks that stabilize the structure. PMID:22692540

  13. Neutron-transmutation-doped germanium bolometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palaio, N. P.; Rodder, M.; Haller, E. E.; Kreysa, E.

    1983-01-01

    Six slices of ultra-pure germanium were irradiated with thermal neutron fluences between 7.5 x 10 to the 16th and 1.88 x 10 to the 18th per sq cm. After thermal annealing the resistivity was measured down to low temperatures (less than 4.2 K) and found to follow the relationship rho = rho sub 0 exp(Delta/T) in the hopping conduction regime. Also, several junction FETs were tested for noise performance at room temperature and in an insulating housing in a 4.2 K cryostat. These FETs will be used as first stage amplifiers for neutron-transmutation-doped germanium bolometers.

  14. Atomic scale dynamics of ultrasmall germanium clusters.

    PubMed

    Bals, S; Van Aert, S; Romero, C P; Lauwaet, K; Van Bael, M J; Schoeters, B; Partoens, B; Yücelen, E; Lievens, P; Van Tendeloo, G

    2012-06-12

    Starting from the gas phase, small clusters can be produced and deposited with huge flexibility with regard to composition, materials choice and cluster size. Despite many advances in experimental characterization, a detailed morphology of such clusters is still lacking. Here we present an atomic scale observation as well as the dynamical behaviour of ultrasmall germanium clusters. Using quantitative scanning transmission electron microscopy in combination with ab initio calculations, we are able to characterize the transition between different equilibrium geometries of a germanium cluster consisting of less than 25 atoms. Seven-membered rings, trigonal prisms and some smaller subunits are identified as possible building blocks that stabilize the structure.

  15. Silicon and germanium nanocrystals: properties and characterization

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Alexandra; Coutinho, José

    2014-01-01

    Summary Group-IV nanocrystals have emerged as a promising group of materials that extends the realm of application of bulk diamond, silicon, germanium and related materials beyond their traditional boundaries. Over the last two decades of research, their potential for application in areas such as optoelectronic applications and memory devices has been progressively unraveled. Nevertheless, new challenges with no parallel in the respective bulk material counterparts have arisen. In this review, we consider what has been achieved and what are the current limitations with regard to growth, characterization and modeling of silicon and germanium nanocrystals and related materials. PMID:25383290

  16. Germanium-overcoated niobium Dayem bridges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holdeman, L. B.; Peters, P. N.

    1976-01-01

    Overcoating constriction microbridges with semiconducting germanium provides additional thermal conductivity at liquid-helium temperatures to reduce the effects of self-heating in these Josephson junctions. Microwave-induced steps were observed in the I-V characteristics of an overcoated Dayem bridge fabricated in a 15-nm-thick niobium film; at least 20 steps could be counted at 4.2 K. No steps were observed in the I-V characteristics of the bridge prior to overcoating. In addition, the germanium overcoat can protect against electrical disturbances at room temperature.

  17. Novel metastable metallic and semiconducting germaniums

    PubMed Central

    Selli, Daniele; Baburin, Igor A.; Martoňák, Roman; Leoni, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    Group-IVa elements silicon and germanium are known for their semiconducting properties at room temperature, which are technologically critical. Metallicity and superconductivity are found at higher pressures only, Ge β-tin (tI4) being the first high-pressure metallic phase in the phase diagram. However, recent experiments suggest that metallicity in germanium is compatible with room conditions, calling for a rethinking of our understanding of its phase diagram. Missing structures can efficiently be identified based on structure prediction methods. By means of ab initio metadynamics runs we explored the lower-pressure region of the phase diagram of germanium. A monoclinic germanium phase (mC16) with four-membered rings, less dense than diamond and compressible into β-tin phase (tI4) was found. Tetragonal bct-5 appeared between diamond and tI4. mC16 is a narrow-gap semiconductor, while bct-5 is metallic and potentially still superconducting in the very low pressure range. This finding may help resolving outstanding experimental issues. PMID:23492980

  18. Improving CMOS-compatible Germanium photodetectors.

    PubMed

    Li, Guoliang; Luo, Ying; Zheng, Xuezhe; Masini, Gianlorenzo; Mekis, Attila; Sahni, Subal; Thacker, Hiren; Yao, Jin; Shubin, Ivan; Raj, Kannan; Cunningham, John E; Krishnamoorthy, Ashok V

    2012-11-19

    We report design improvements for evanescently coupled Germanium photodetectors grown at low temperature. The resulting photodetectors with 10 μm Ge length manufactured in a commercial CMOS process achieve >0.8 A/W responsivity over the entire C-band, with a device capacitance of <7 fF based on measured data.

  19. Germanium JFET for Cryogenic Readout Electronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Das, N. C.; Monroy, C.; Jhabvala, M.; Shu, P.

    1999-01-01

    The n-channel Germanium junction field effect transistor (Ge-JFET) was designed and fabricated for cryogenic applications. The Ge-JFET exhibits superior noise performance at liquid nitrogen temperature (77 K). From the device current voltage characteristics of n-channel JFETs, it is seen that transconductance increases monotonically with the lowering of temperature to 4.2 K (liquid helium temperature).

  20. Electron tunnelling into amorphous germanium and silicon.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, C. W.; Clark, A. H.

    1972-01-01

    Measurements of tunnel conductance versus bias, capacitance versus bias, and internal photoemission were made in the systems aluminum-oxide-amorphous germanium and aluminium-oxide-amorphous silicon. A function was extracted which expresses the deviation of these systems from the aluminium-oxide-aluminium system.

  1. Reliability and validity of skin temperature measurement by telemetry thermistors and a thermal camera during exercise in the heat.

    PubMed

    James, C A; Richardson, A J; Watt, P W; Maxwell, N S

    2014-10-01

    New technologies afford convenient modalities for skin temperature (TSKIN) measurement, notably involving wireless telemetry and non-contact infrared thermometry. The purpose of this study was to investigate the validity and reliability of skin temperature measurements using a telemetry thermistor system (TT) and thermal camera (TC) during exercise in a hot environment. Each system was compared against a certified thermocouple, measuring the surface temperature of a metal block in a thermostatically controlled waterbath. Fourteen recreational athletes completed two incremental running tests, separated by one week. Skin temperatures were measured simultaneously with TT and TC compared against a hard-wired thermistor system (HW) throughout rest and exercise. Post hoc calibration based on waterbath results displayed good validity for TT (mean bias [MB]=-0.18 °C, typical error [TE]=0.18 °C) and reliability (MB=-0.05 °C, TE=0.31 °C) throughout rest and exercise. Poor validity (MB=-1.4 °C, TE=0.35 °C) and reliability (MB=-0.65 °C, TE=0.52 °C) was observed for TC, suggesting it may be best suited to controlled, static situations. These findings indicate TT systems provide a convenient, valid and reliable alternative to HW, useful for measurements in the field where traditional methods may be impractical. PMID:25436963

  2. Reliability and validity of skin temperature measurement by telemetry thermistors and a thermal camera during exercise in the heat.

    PubMed

    James, C A; Richardson, A J; Watt, P W; Maxwell, N S

    2014-10-01

    New technologies afford convenient modalities for skin temperature (TSKIN) measurement, notably involving wireless telemetry and non-contact infrared thermometry. The purpose of this study was to investigate the validity and reliability of skin temperature measurements using a telemetry thermistor system (TT) and thermal camera (TC) during exercise in a hot environment. Each system was compared against a certified thermocouple, measuring the surface temperature of a metal block in a thermostatically controlled waterbath. Fourteen recreational athletes completed two incremental running tests, separated by one week. Skin temperatures were measured simultaneously with TT and TC compared against a hard-wired thermistor system (HW) throughout rest and exercise. Post hoc calibration based on waterbath results displayed good validity for TT (mean bias [MB]=-0.18 °C, typical error [TE]=0.18 °C) and reliability (MB=-0.05 °C, TE=0.31 °C) throughout rest and exercise. Poor validity (MB=-1.4 °C, TE=0.35 °C) and reliability (MB=-0.65 °C, TE=0.52 °C) was observed for TC, suggesting it may be best suited to controlled, static situations. These findings indicate TT systems provide a convenient, valid and reliable alternative to HW, useful for measurements in the field where traditional methods may be impractical.

  3. Spin transport in p-type germanium.

    PubMed

    Rortais, F; Oyarzún, S; Bottegoni, F; Rojas-Sánchez, J-C; Laczkowski, P; Ferrari, A; Vergnaud, C; Ducruet, C; Beigné, C; Reyren, N; Marty, A; Attané, J-P; Vila, L; Gambarelli, S; Widiez, J; Ciccacci, F; Jaffrès, H; George, J-M; Jamet, M

    2016-04-27

    We report on the spin transport properties in p-doped germanium (Ge-p) using low temperature magnetoresistance measurements, electrical spin injection from a ferromagnetic metal and the spin pumping-inverse spin Hall effect method. Electrical spin injection is carried out using three-terminal measurements and the Hanle effect. In the 2-20 K temperature range, weak antilocalization and the Hanle effect provide the same spin lifetime in the germanium valence band (≈1 ps) in agreement with predicted values and previous optical measurements. These results, combined with dynamical spin injection by spin pumping and the inverse spin Hall effect, demonstrate successful spin accumulation in Ge. We also estimate the spin Hall angle θ(SHE) in Ge-p (6-7 x 10(-4) at room temperature, pointing out the essential role of ionized impurities in spin dependent scattering.

  4. Spin transport in p-type germanium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rortais, F.; Oyarzún, S.; Bottegoni, F.; Rojas-Sánchez, J.-C.; Laczkowski, P.; Ferrari, A.; Vergnaud, C.; Ducruet, C.; Beigné, C.; Reyren, N.; Marty, A.; Attané, J.-P.; Vila, L.; Gambarelli, S.; Widiez, J.; Ciccacci, F.; Jaffrès, H.; George, J.-M.; Jamet, M.

    2016-04-01

    We report on the spin transport properties in p-doped germanium (Ge-p) using low temperature magnetoresistance measurements, electrical spin injection from a ferromagnetic metal and the spin pumping-inverse spin Hall effect method. Electrical spin injection is carried out using three-terminal measurements and the Hanle effect. In the 2-20 K temperature range, weak antilocalization and the Hanle effect provide the same spin lifetime in the germanium valence band (≈1 ps) in agreement with predicted values and previous optical measurements. These results, combined with dynamical spin injection by spin pumping and the inverse spin Hall effect, demonstrate successful spin accumulation in Ge. We also estimate the spin Hall angle {θ\\text{SHE}} in Ge-p (6-7× {{10}-4} ) at room temperature, pointing out the essential role of ionized impurities in spin dependent scattering.

  5. High-fidelity chemical patterning on oxide-free germanium.

    PubMed

    Hohman, J Nathan; Kim, Moonhee; Lawrence, Jeffrey A; McClanahan, Patrick D; Weiss, Paul S

    2012-04-25

    Oxide-free germanium can be chemically patterned directly with self-assembled monolayers of n-alkanethiols via submerged microcontact printing. Native germanium dioxide is water soluble; immersion activates the germanium surface for self-assembly by stripping the oxide. Water additionally provides an effective diffusion barrier that prevents undesired ink transport. Patterns are stable with respect to molecular exchange by carboxyl-functionalized thiols.

  6. Germanium films by polymer-assisted deposition

    DOEpatents

    Jia, Quanxi; Burrell, Anthony K.; Bauer, Eve; Ronning, Filip; McCleskey, Thomas Mark; Zou, Guifu

    2013-01-15

    Highly ordered Ge films are prepared directly on single crystal Si substrates by applying an aqueous coating solution having Ge-bound polymer onto the substrate and then heating in a hydrogen-containing atmosphere. A coating solution was prepared by mixing water, a germanium compound, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, and polyethyleneimine to form a first aqueous solution and then subjecting the first aqueous solution to ultrafiltration.

  7. Xenon Filled Silicon Germanium Thermoelectric Generators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dewinter, F.

    1972-01-01

    An analysis is presented that shows the desirability and feasibility of using a xenon fill in the initial stages of operation of a silicon-germanium radioisotope thermoelectric generator to be used in outer-planetary exploration. The xenon cover gas offers protection against oxidation and against material sublimation, and allows the generator to deliver required power throughout the prelaunch and launch phases. The protective mechanisms afforded by the xenon cover gas and the mechanization of a xenon supply system are also discussed.

  8. Large Cryogenic Germanium Detector. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Mandic, Vuk

    2013-02-13

    The goal of this project was to investigate possible ways of increasing the size of cryogenic Ge detectors. This project identified two possible approaches to increasing the individual cryogenic Ge detector size. The first approach relies on using the existing technology for growing detector-grade (high-purity) germanium crystals of dislocation density 100-7000 cm{sup -2}. The second approach is to consider dislocation-free Ge crystals.

  9. Bottom-up assembly of metallic germanium

    PubMed Central

    Scappucci, Giordano; Klesse, Wolfgang M.; Yeoh, LaReine A.; Carter, Damien J.; Warschkow, Oliver; Marks, Nigel A.; Jaeger, David L.; Capellini, Giovanni; Simmons, Michelle Y.; Hamilton, Alexander R.

    2015-01-01

    Extending chip performance beyond current limits of miniaturisation requires new materials and functionalities that integrate well with the silicon platform. Germanium fits these requirements and has been proposed as a high-mobility channel material, a light emitting medium in silicon-integrated lasers, and a plasmonic conductor for bio-sensing. Common to these diverse applications is the need for homogeneous, high electron densities in three-dimensions (3D). Here we use a bottom-up approach to demonstrate the 3D assembly of atomically sharp doping profiles in germanium by a repeated stacking of two-dimensional (2D) high-density phosphorus layers. This produces high-density (1019 to 1020 cm−3) low-resistivity (10−4Ω · cm) metallic germanium of precisely defined thickness, beyond the capabilities of diffusion-based doping technologies. We demonstrate that free electrons from distinct 2D dopant layers coalesce into a homogeneous 3D conductor using anisotropic quantum interference measurements, atom probe tomography, and density functional theory. PMID:26256239

  10. Germanium-76 Sample Analysis: Revision 3

    SciTech Connect

    Kouzes, Richard T.; Zhu, Zihua; Engelhard, Mark H.

    2011-09-19

    The MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR is a large array of ultra-low background high-purity germanium detectors, enriched in 76Ge, designed to search for zero-neutrino double-beta decay (0{nu}{beta}{beta}). The DEMONSTRATOR will utilize 76Ge from Russia. The first one-gram sample was received from the supplier for analysis on April 24, 2011. The second one-gram sample was received from the supplier for analysis on July 12, 2011. The third sample, which came from the first large shipment of germanium from the vendor, was received from Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on September 13, 2011. The Environmental Molecular Sciences facility, a DOE user facility at PNNL, was used to make the required isotopic and chemical purity measurements that are essential to the quality assurance for the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR. The results of these analyses are reported here. The isotopic composition of a sample of natural germanium was also measured twice. Differences in the result between these two measurements led to a re-measurement of the second 76Ge sample.

  11. Synthesis and characterization of germanium nanowires and germanium/silicon radially heterostructured nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldthorpe, Irene Anne

    Semiconductor nanowires offer new opportunities to study physical phenomena in low-dimensional nanostructures. They also possess technologically useful properties for applications in electronics, optics, sensing, and thermoelectrics. Germanium nanowires are of particular interest, because of germanium's compatibility with standard silicon integrated circuit fabrication processes, its high electronic carrier mobilities, and the low temperature required for germanium nanowire growth. In this work, epitaxially-aligned germanium nanowires are grown on silicon substrates by chemical vapor deposition through the vapor-liquid-solid mechanism. Uniform nanowire diameters between 5 and 50 nm are obtained through the use of monodisperse gold colloids as catalysts. The crystallographic orientation of the nanowires, their strain, and their heteroepitaxial relationship with the substrate are characterized with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and x-ray diffraction (XRD). A process for removing the gold catalysts from the tips of the germanium nanowires is demonstrated. Silicon shells are then heteroepitaxially deposited around the wires to fabricate radial heterostructures. These shells passivate the germanium nanowire surface, create electronic band offsets to confine holes away the surface where they can scatter or recombine, and induce strain which could allow for the engineering of properties such as band gap and carrier mobilities. However, analogous to planar heteroepitaxy, surface roughening and misfit dislocations can relax this strain. The effects of coaxial dimensions on strain relaxation in these structures are analyzed quantitatively by TEM and synchrotron XRD, and these results are related to continuum elasticity models. Lessons learned generated two successful strategies for synthesizing coherent core-shell nanowires with large misfit strain: chlorine surface passivation and growth of nanowires with low-energy sidewall facets. Both approaches avoid the strain

  12. The effect of sintering temperature on electrical characteristics of Fe2TiO5/Nb2O5 ceramics for NTC thermistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiendartun, Risdiana, Fitrilawati, Siregar, R. E.

    2016-02-01

    A study on the fabrication of Iron Titanium Oxide (Fe2TiO5) ceramics for negative temperature coefficient (NTC) thermistors has been carried out, in order to know the effect of sintering temperature on the electrical characteristic of 1.0 % mole Nb2O5 doped Fe2TiO5 ceramics.These ceramics were made by mixing commercial powders of Fe2O3, TiO2 and Nb2O5 with proportional composition to produce Fe2TiO5 based ceramic. The raw pellet was sintered at 1000 °C, 1100 °C and 1200 °C temperature for 2 hours in air. Analysis of the microstructure and crystal structure were performed by using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and x-ray diffraction (XRD) respectively. XRD spectra showed that the crystal structure of all ceramics of Fe2TiO5 made at various sintering temperatures are orthorhombic. The SEM images showed that the grain size of pellet ceramics increase with increasing sintering temperatures. From electrical resistances data that was measured at temperature 30-300 °C, it is found that the value of thermistor constant (B), activation energy (Ea), thermistor sensitivity (α) and room temperature resistance (RRT) decreases with respect to the increasing of sintering temperature. The fabricated Fe2TiO5 ceramics have thermistor constants (B = 6394-6959 K). This can be applied as temperature sensor, and will fulfill the market requirement.

  13. Energetic semiconductor bridge device incorporating Al/MoOx multilayer nanofilms and negative temperature coefficient thermistor chip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Peng; Jiao, Jianshe; Shen, Ruiqi; Ye, Yinghua; Fu, Shuai; Li, Dongle

    2014-05-01

    The design, fabrication, and characterization of an energetic semiconductor bridge device are presented. The device consists of a semiconductor bridge heating element, which has been selectively coated with Al/MoOx multilayer nanofilms to enhance ignition of a conventional pyrotechnics. Integrated negative temperature coefficient thermistor chip provides protection against electromagnetic and electrostatic discharge events. The device was specifically configured to allow ease of interconnection by wire bonds and silver-filled conductive epoxy. Extensive design validation testing was performed. The device has demonstrated low, predictable firing energy and insensitivity. Al/MoOx multilayer nanofilms have no distinct influence on the electrical properties of semiconductor bridge. Nanothermite reaction provides reliable ignition by being able to ignite across a gap.

  14. High-performance LWIR microbolometer with Si/SiGe quantum well thermistor and wafer level packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roer, Audun; Lapadatu, Adriana; Wolla, Erik; Kittilsland, Gjermund

    2013-06-01

    An uncooled microbolometer with peak responsivity in the long wave infrared region of the electromagnetic radiation is developed at Sensonor AS. It is a 384 x 288 focal plane array with a pixel pitch of 25µm, based on monocrystalline Si/SiGe quantum wells as IR sensitive material. The high sensitivity (TCR) and low 1/f-noise are the main performance characteristics of the product. The frame rate is maximum 60Hz and the output interface is digital (LVDS). The quantum well thermistor material is transferred to the read-out integrated circuit (ROIC) by direct wafer bonding. The ROIC wafer containing the released pixels is bonded in vacuum with a silicon cap wafer, providing hermetic encapsulation at low cost. The resulting wafer stack is mounted in a standard ceramic package. In this paper the architecture of the pixels and the ROIC, the wafer packaging and the electro-optical measurement results are presented.

  15. Long-term behavior of silicon germanium thermoelectric generators

    SciTech Connect

    Shields, V.

    1981-01-01

    Problems regarding the use of silicon germanium technology for Multi-Hundred Watt (MHW) Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTG) have been investigated at JPL. The practicability of storage and the subsequent handling of silicon germanium thermoelectric materials for future use has been addressed. 4 refs.

  16. All-Inorganic Germanium Nanocrystal Films by Cationic Ligand Exchange.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, Lance M; Nichols, Asa W; Chernomordik, Boris D; Anderson, Nicholas C; Beard, Matthew C; Neale, Nathan R

    2016-03-01

    We introduce a new paradigm for group IV nanocrystal surface chemistry based on room temperature surface activation that enables ionic ligand exchange. Germanium nanocrystals synthesized in a gas-phase plasma reactor are functionalized with labile, cationic alkylammonium ligands rather than with traditional covalently bound groups. We employ Fourier transform infrared and (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopies to demonstrate the alkylammonium ligands are freely exchanged on the germanium nanocrystal surface with a variety of cationic ligands, including short inorganic ligands such as ammonium and alkali metal cations. This ionic ligand exchange chemistry is used to demonstrate enhanced transport in germanium nanocrystal films following ligand exchange as well as the first photovoltaic device based on an all-inorganic germanium nanocrystal absorber layer cast from solution. This new ligand chemistry should accelerate progress in utilizing germanium and other group IV nanocrystals for optoelectronic applications.

  17. Germanium resistance thermometer calibration at superfluid helium temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, F. C.

    1985-01-01

    The rapid increase in resistance of high purity semi-conducting germanium with decreasing temperature in the superfluid helium range of temperatures makes this material highly adaptable as a very sensitive thermometer. Also, a germanium thermometer exhibits a highly reproducible resistance versus temperature characteristic curve upon cycling between liquid helium temperatures and room temperature. These two factors combine to make germanium thermometers ideally suited for measuring temperatures in many cryogenic studies at superfluid helium temperatures. One disadvantage, however, is the relatively high cost of calibrated germanium thermometers. In space helium cryogenic systems, many such thermometers are often required, leading to a high cost for calibrated thermometers. The construction of a thermometer calibration cryostat and probe which will allow for calibrating six germanium thermometers at one time, thus effecting substantial savings in the purchase of thermometers is considered.

  18. All-inorganic Germanium nanocrystal films by cationic ligand exchange

    DOE PAGES

    Wheeler, Lance M.; Nichols, Asa W.; Chernomordik, Boris D.; Anderson, Nicholas C.; Beard, Matthew C.; Neale, Nathan R.

    2016-01-21

    In this study, we introduce a new paradigm for group IV nanocrystal surface chemistry based on room temperature surface activation that enables ionic ligand exchange. Germanium nanocrystals synthesized in a gas-phase plasma reactor are functionalized with labile, cationic alkylammonium ligands rather than with traditional covalently bound groups. We employ Fourier transform infrared and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopies to demonstrate the alkylammonium ligands are freely exchanged on the germanium nanocrystal surface with a variety of cationic ligands, including short inorganic ligands such as ammonium and alkali metal cations. This ionic ligand exchange chemistry is used to demonstrate enhanced transport inmore » germanium nanocrystal films following ligand exchange as well as the first photovoltaic device based on an all-inorganic germanium nanocrystal absorber layer cast from solution. This new ligand chemistry should accelerate progress in utilizing germanium and other group IV nanocrystals for optoelectronic applications.« less

  19. Germanium implanted with high dose oxygen and its optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qi-Chu; Kelly, J. C.; Kenny, M. J.

    1990-05-01

    Single crystal n-type Ge samples are implanted with 1 × 10 17 to 1.5 × 10 18 cm -2 oxygen ions at 45 keV. Infrared and Rutherford backscattering measurements indicate that germanium dioxide is formed. The atomic ratio of oxygen to germanium is near the GeO 2 stoichiometric value of 2.0 from the surface down to a depth of 550 Å for germanium samples implanted to 1.5 × 10 18 cm -2. The excess oxygen is redistributed during the implantation. The results of optical reflectivity measurements indicate that the reflectivity of germanium in the 0.2-1.4 μm wavelength region is greatly reduced after high dose oxygen ion implantation. The reflectivity value at about 0.7 μm is near zero for germanium implanted to a dose of 1.5 × 10 18 cm -2.

  20. Tensile strain mapping in flat germanium membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Rhead, S. D. Halpin, J. E.; Myronov, M.; Patchett, D. H.; Allred, P. S.; Wilson, N. R.; Leadley, D. R.; Shah, V. A.; Kachkanov, V.; Dolbnya, I. P.; Reparaz, J. S.; Sotomayor Torres, C. M.

    2014-04-28

    Scanning X-ray micro-diffraction has been used as a non-destructive probe of the local crystalline quality of a thin suspended germanium (Ge) membrane. A series of reciprocal space maps were obtained with ∼4 μm spatial resolution, from which detailed information on the strain distribution, thickness, and crystalline tilt of the membrane was obtained. We are able to detect a systematic strain variation across the membranes, but show that this is negligible in the context of using the membranes as platforms for further growth. In addition, we show evidence that the interface and surface quality is improved by suspending the Ge.

  1. Analog/Digital System for Germanium Thermometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodhouse, Christopher

    1988-01-01

    Electronic system containing analog and digital circuits makes high-precision, four-wire measurements of resistance of each germanium resistance thermometer (GRT) in array of devices, using alternating current (ac) of 1 micro-A. At end measurement interval, contents of negative register subtracted from positive one, resulting in very-narrow-band synchronous demodulation of carrier wave and suppression of out-of-band noise. Microprocessor free to perform other duties after measurement complete. Useful in noisy terrestrial environments encountered in factories.

  2. Lateral overgrowth of germanium for monolithic integration of germanium-on-insulator on silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nam, Ju Hyung; Alkis, Sabri; Nam, Donguk; Afshinmanesh, Farzaneh; Shim, Jaewoo; Park, Jin-Hong; Brongersma, Mark; Okyay, Ali Kemal; Kamins, Theodore I.; Saraswat, Krishna

    2015-04-01

    A technique to locally grow germanium-on-insulator (GOI) structure on silicon (Si) platform is studied. On (001) Si wafer, silicon dioxide (SiO2) is thermally grown and patterned to define growth window for germanium (Ge). Crystalline Ge is grown via selective hetero-epitaxy, using SiO2 as growth mask. Lateral overgrowth of Ge crystal covers SiO2 surface and neighboring Ge crystals coalesce with each other. Therefore, single crystalline Ge sitting on insulator for GOI applications is achieved. Chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) is performed to planarize the GOI surface. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis, Raman spectroscopy, and time-resolved photoluminescence (TRPL) show high quality crystalline Ge sitting on SiO2. Optical response from metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) photodetector shows good optical absorption at 850 nm and 1550 nm wavelength.

  3. Temperature-dependant study of phosphorus ion implantation in germanium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razali, M. A.; Smith, A. J.; Jeynes, C.; Gwilliam, R. M.

    2012-11-01

    We present experimental results on shallow junction formation in germanium by phosphorus ion implantation and standard rapid thermal processing. An attempt is made to improve phosphorus activation by implanting phosphorus at high and low temperature. The focus is on studying the germanium damage and phosphorus activation as a function of implant temperature. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry with channelling and Hall Effect measurements are employed for characterisation of germanium damage and phosphorus activation, respectively. High and low temperature implants were found to be better compared to room temperature implant.

  4. Oxygen defect processes in silicon and silicon germanium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chroneos, A.; Sgourou, E. N.; Londos, C. A.; Schwingenschlögl, U.

    2015-06-01

    Silicon and silicon germanium are the archetypical elemental and alloy semiconductor materials for nanoelectronic, sensor, and photovoltaic applications. The investigation of radiation induced defects involving oxygen, carbon, and intrinsic defects is important for the improvement of devices as these defects can have a deleterious impact on the properties of silicon and silicon germanium. In the present review, we mainly focus on oxygen-related defects and the impact of isovalent doping on their properties in silicon and silicon germanium. The efficacy of the isovalent doping strategies to constrain the oxygen-related defects is discussed in view of recent infrared spectroscopy and density functional theory studies.

  5. Oxygen defect processes in silicon and silicon germanium

    SciTech Connect

    Chroneos, A.; Sgourou, E. N.; Londos, C. A.; Schwingenschlögl, U.

    2015-06-15

    Silicon and silicon germanium are the archetypical elemental and alloy semiconductor materials for nanoelectronic, sensor, and photovoltaic applications. The investigation of radiation induced defects involving oxygen, carbon, and intrinsic defects is important for the improvement of devices as these defects can have a deleterious impact on the properties of silicon and silicon germanium. In the present review, we mainly focus on oxygen-related defects and the impact of isovalent doping on their properties in silicon and silicon germanium. The efficacy of the isovalent doping strategies to constrain the oxygen-related defects is discussed in view of recent infrared spectroscopy and density functional theory studies.

  6. Ultra High-Rate Germanium (UHRGe) Modeling Status Report

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, Glen A.; Rodriguez, Douglas C.

    2012-06-07

    The Ultra-High Rate Germanium (UHRGe) project at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is conducting research to develop a high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector that can provide both the high resolution typical of germanium and high signal throughput. Such detectors may be beneficial for a variety of potential applications ranging from safeguards measurements of used fuel to material detection and verification using active interrogation techniques. This report describes some of the initial radiation transport modeling efforts that have been conducted to help guide the design of the detector as well as a description of the process used to generate the source spectrum for the used fuel application evaluation.

  7. Ground Calibrations of the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission Spacecraft Thermistor Bolometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Robert B., III; Smith, G. Lou; Barkstrom, Bruce R.; Priestley, Kory J.; Thomas, Susan; Paden, Jack; Pandey, Direndra K.; Thornhill, K. Lee; Bolden, William C.; Wilson, Robert S.

    1997-01-01

    The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) spacecraft scanning thermistor bolometers will measure earth-reflected solar and earth-emmitted,longwave radiances, at the top-of-the-atmosphere. The measurements are performed in the broadband shortwave (0.3-5.0 micron) and longwave (5.0 - >100 micron) spectral regions as well as in the 8 -12 micron water vapor window over geographical footprints as small as 10 kilometers at the nadir. The CERES measurements are designed to improve our knowledge of the earth's natural climate processes, in particular those related to clouds, and man's impact upon climate as indicated by atmospheric temperature. November 1997, the first set of CERES bolometers is scheduled for launch on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Spacecraft. The CERES bolometers were calibrated radiometrically in a vacuum ground facility using absolute reference sources, tied to the International Temperature Scale of 1990. Accurate bolometer calibrations are dependent upon the derivations of the radiances from the spectral properties [reflectance, transmittance, emittance, etc.] of both the sources and bolometers. In this paper, the overall calibration approaches are discussed for the longwave and shortwave calibrations. The spectral responses for the TRMM bolometer units are presented and applied to the bolometer ground calibrations in order to determine pre-launch calibration gains.

  8. Germanium Detectors in Homeland Security at PNNL

    SciTech Connect

    Stave, Sean C.

    2015-05-01

    Neutron and gamma-ray detection is used for non-proliferation and national security applications. While lower energy resolution detectors such as NaI(Tl) have their place, high purity germanium (HPGe) also has a role to play. A detection with HPGe is often a characterization due to the very high energy resolution. However, HPGe crystals remain small and expensive leaving arrays of smaller crystals as an excellent solution. PNNL has developed two similar HPGe arrays for two very different applications. One array, the Multisensor Aerial Radiation Survey (MARS) detector is a fieldable array that has been tested on trucks, boats, and helicopters. The CASCADES HPGe array is an array designed to assay samples in a low background environment. The history of HPGe arrays at PNNL and the development of MARS and CASCADES will be detailed in this paper along with some of the other applications of HPGe at PNNL.

  9. Germanium detectors in homeland security at PNNL

    DOE PAGES

    Stave, S.

    2015-05-01

    Neutron and gamma-ray detection is used for non-proliferation and national security applications. While lower energy resolution detectors such as NaI(Tl) have their place, high purity germanium (HPGe) also has a role to play. A detection with HPGe is often a characterization due to the very high energy resolution. However, HPGe crystals remain small and expensive leaving arrays of smaller crystals as an excellent solution. PNNL has developed two similar HPGe arrays for two very different applications. One array, the Multisensor Aerial Radiation Survey (MARS) detector is a fieldable array that has been tested on trucks, boats, and helicopters. The CASCADESmore » HPGe array is an array designed to assay samples in a low background environment. The history of HPGe arrays at PNNL and the development of MARS and CASCADES will be detailed in this paper along with some of the other applications of HPGe at PNNL.« less

  10. Germanium detectors in homeland security at PNNL

    SciTech Connect

    Stave, S.

    2015-05-01

    Neutron and gamma-ray detection is used for non-proliferation and national security applications. While lower energy resolution detectors such as NaI(Tl) have their place, high purity germanium (HPGe) also has a role to play. A detection with HPGe is often a characterization due to the very high energy resolution. However, HPGe crystals remain small and expensive leaving arrays of smaller crystals as an excellent solution. PNNL has developed two similar HPGe arrays for two very different applications. One array, the Multisensor Aerial Radiation Survey (MARS) detector is a fieldable array that has been tested on trucks, boats, and helicopters. The CASCADES HPGe array is an array designed to assay samples in a low background environment. The history of HPGe arrays at PNNL and the development of MARS and CASCADES will be detailed in this paper along with some of the other applications of HPGe at PNNL.

  11. Electron paramagnetic resonance at dislocations in germanium

    SciTech Connect

    Pakulis, E.J.

    1982-06-01

    The first observation of the paramagnetic resonance of electrons at dislocations in germanium single crystals is reported. Under subband gap optical excitation, two sets of lines are detected: four lines about the <111> axes with g/sub perpendicular to/ = 0.34 and g/sub parallel/ = 1.94, and 24 lines with g/sub perpendicular to/ = 0.73 and g/sub parallel/ = 1.89 about <111> axes with the six-fold 1.2/sup 0/ distortion. This represents the first measurement of the disortion angle of a dislocation dangling bond. The possibility that the distortion results from a Peierls transition along the dislocation line is discussed.

  12. Synthesis of silicon and germanium nanowires.

    SciTech Connect

    Clement, Teresa J.; Hsu, Julia W. P.

    2007-11-01

    The vapor-liquid-solid growth process for synthesis of group-IV semiconducting nanowires using silane, germane, disilane and digermane precursor gases has been investigated. The nanowire growth process combines in situ gold seed formation by vapor deposition on atomically clean silicon (111) surfaces, in situ growth from the gaseous precursor(s), and real-time monitoring of nanowire growth as a function of temperature and pressure by a novel optical reflectometry technique. A significant dependence on precursor pressure and growth temperature for the synthesis of silicon and germanium nanowires is observed, depending on the stability of the specific precursor used. Also, the presence of a nucleation time for the onset of nanowire growth has been found using our new in situ optical reflectometry technique.

  13. Reduction of Defects in Germanium-Silicon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Crystals grown without contact with a container have far superior quality to otherwise similar crystals grown in direct contact with a container. In addition to float-zone processing, detached- Bridgman growth is a promising tool to improve crystal quality, without the limitations of float zoning or the defects introduced by normal Bridgman growth. Goals of this project include the development of the detached Bridgman process to be reproducible and well understood and to quantitatively compare the defect and impurity levels in crystals grown by these three methods. Germanium (Ge) and germanium-silicon (Ge-Si) alloys are being used. At MSFC, we are responsible for the detached Bridgman experiments intended to differentiate among proposed mechanisms of detachment, and to confirm or refine our understanding of detachment. Because the contact angle is critical to determining the conditions for detachment, the sessile drop method was used to measure the contact angles as a function of temperature and composition for a large number of substrates made of potential ampoule materials. Growth experiments have used pyrolytic boron nitride (pBN) and fused silica ampoules with the majority of the detached results occurring predictably in the pBN. Etch pit density (EPD) measurements of normal and detached Bridgman-grown Ge samples show a two order of magnitude improvement in the detached-grown samples. The nature and extent of detachment is determined by using profilometry in conjunction with optical and electron microscopy. The stability of detachment has been analyzed, and an empirical model for the conditions necessary to achieve sufficient stability to maintain detached growth for extended periods has been developed. We have investigated the effects on detachment of ampoule material, pressure difference above and below the melt, and Si concentration; samples that are nearly completely detached can be grown repeatedly in pBN. Current work is concentrated on developing a

  14. Na-doped optical Germanium bulk crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pekar, G. S.; Singaevsky, A. F.

    2012-09-01

    In an effort to develop a material for infrared (IR) optics with improved parameters, bulk crystals of optical germanium doped with Na have been first grown and studied. Single-crystalline and coarse-crystalline Ge:Na boules of different shapes and dimensions, up to 10 kg by weight, have been grown. Sodium was incorporated into the Ge crystal during the crystal growing from the melt. Despite the fact that Na contamination in the source material was not strictly controlled, the density of Na in the grown crystals determined by the neutron activation analysis as well as by the glow discharge mass spectrometry did not exceed 1015 cm-3. Just this value may be supposed to be close to the solubility limit of Na incorporated in Ge in the course of bulk crystal growth. A first demonstration of donor behavior of Na in bulk Ge crystals is made by means of a thermoelectric type of testing. An interstitial location of Na impurity has been verified by experiments on donor drift in the dc electric field. The crystals are grown with free electron density in the range from 5ṡ1013 to 4ṡ1014 cm-3 which is optimal for using Ge crystals as an optical material for fabricating passive elements of the IR technique. A comparison between the properties of Ge:Na crystals and Ge crystals doped with Sb, a conventional impurity in optical germanium, grown under the same technological conditions and from the same intrinsic Ge as a source material, revealed a number of advantages of Ge:Na crystals; among them, the higher transparency in the IR region, smaller radiation scattering and higher regular optical transmission, lower dislocation density, more uniform distribution of electrical and optical characteristics over the crystal volume, the identity of optical parameters in the single-crystalline, and coarse-crystalline boules. No degradation of optical elements fabricated from Ge:Na crystals was detected in the course of their commercial application, starting from 1998.

  15. Ultraprecision Machining Characteristics of Poly-Crystalline Germanium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Jiwang; Takahashi, Yasunori; Tamaki, Jun'Ichi; Kubo, Akihiko; Kuriyagawa, Tsunemoto; Sato, Yutaka

    Germanium is an excellent infrared optical material. On most occasions, single-crystalline germanium is used as optical lens substrate because its homogeneous structure is beneficial for fabricating uniform optical surfaces. In this work, we attempt to use poly crystals as lens substrates instead of single crystals, which may lead to a significant reduction in production cost. We conducted ultraprecision cutting experiments on poly-crystalline germanium to examine the microscopic machinability. The crystal orientations of specific crystal grains were characterized, and the machining characteristics of these crystal grains including surface textures, cutting forces, and grain boundary steps were investigated under various machining conditions. It was possible to produce uniformly ductile-cut surfaces cross all crystal grains by using an extremely small undeformed chip thickness (˜ 80nm) under negative tool rake angles (˜ -45°). This work indicates the possibility of fabricating high-quality infrared optical components from poly-crystalline germanium.

  16. Near-infrared emission from mesoporous crystalline germanium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boucherif, Abderraouf; Korinek, Andreas; Aimez, Vincent; Arès, Richard

    2014-10-01

    Mesoporous crystalline germanium was fabricated by bipolar electrochemical etching of Ge wafer in HF-based electrolyte. It yields uniform mesoporous germanium layers composed of high density of crystallites with an average size 5-7 nm. Subsequent extended chemical etching allows tuning of crystallites size while preserving the same chemical composition. This highly controllable nanostructure exhibits photoluminescence emission above the bulk Ge bandgap, in the near-infrared range (1095-1360nm) with strong evidence of quantum confinement within the crystallites.

  17. Near-infrared emission from mesoporous crystalline germanium

    SciTech Connect

    Boucherif, Abderraouf; Aimez, Vincent; Arès, Richard; Korinek, Andreas

    2014-10-15

    Mesoporous crystalline germanium was fabricated by bipolar electrochemical etching of Ge wafer in HF-based electrolyte. It yields uniform mesoporous germanium layers composed of high density of crystallites with an average size 5-7 nm. Subsequent extended chemical etching allows tuning of crystallites size while preserving the same chemical composition. This highly controllable nanostructure exhibits photoluminescence emission above the bulk Ge bandgap, in the near-infrared range (1095-1360nm) with strong evidence of quantum confinement within the crystallites.

  18. Promoting Cell Proliferation Using Water Dispersible Germanium Nanowires

    PubMed Central

    Bezuidenhout, Michael; Liu, Pai; Singh, Shalini; Kiely, Maeve

    2014-01-01

    Group IV Nanowires have strong potential for several biomedical applications. However, to date their use remains limited because many are synthesised using heavy metal seeds and functionalised using organic ligands to make the materials water dispersible. This can result in unpredicted toxic side effects for mammalian cells cultured on the wires. Here, we describe an approach to make seedless and ligand free Germanium nanowires water dispersible using glutamic acid, a natural occurring amino acid that alleviates the environmental and health hazards associated with traditional functionalisation materials. We analysed the treated material extensively using Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), High resolution-TEM, and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Using a series of state of the art biochemical and morphological assays, together with a series of complimentary and synergistic cellular and molecular approaches, we show that the water dispersible germanium nanowires are non-toxic and are biocompatible. We monitored the behaviour of the cells growing on the treated germanium nanowires using a real time impedance based platform (xCELLigence) which revealed that the treated germanium nanowires promote cell adhesion and cell proliferation which we believe is as a result of the presence of an etched surface giving rise to a collagen like structure and an oxide layer. Furthermore this study is the first to evaluate the associated effect of Germanium nanowires on mammalian cells. Our studies highlight the potential use of water dispersible Germanium Nanowires in biological platforms that encourage anchorage-dependent cell growth. PMID:25237816

  19. Modified silicon-germanium alloys with improved performance. [thermoelectric material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pisharody, R. K.; Garvey, L. P.

    1978-01-01

    This paper discusses the results of a program on the modification of silicon-germanium alloys by means of small extraneous material additions in order to improve their figures-of-merit. A review of the properties that constitute the figure-of-merit indicates that it is the relatively high thermal conductivity of silicon-germanium alloys that is responsible for their low values of figure-of-merit. The intent of the effort discussed in this paper is therefore the reduction of the thermal conductivity of silicon-germanium alloys by minor alloy additions and/or changes in the basic structure of the material. Because Group III and V elements are compatible with silicon and germanium, the present effort in modifying silicon-germanium alloys has concentrated on additions of gallium phosphide. A significant reduction in thermal conductivity, approximately 40 to 50 percent, has been demonstrated while the electrical properties are only slightly affected as a result. The figure-of-merit of the resultant material is enhanced over that of silicon-germanium alloys and when fully optimized is potentially better than that of any other presently available thermoelectric material.

  20. Protective infrared antireflection coating based on sputtered germanium carbide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, Des; Waddell, Ewan; Placido, Frank

    2011-09-01

    This paper describes optical, durablility and environmental performance of a germanium carbide based durable antireflection coating. The coating has been demonstrated on germanium and zinc selenide infra-red material however is applicable to other materials such as zinc sulphide. The material is deposited using a novel reactive closed field magnetron sputtering technique, offering significant advantages over conventional evaporation processes for germanium carbide such as plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition. The sputtering process is "cold", making it suitable for use on a wide range of substrates. Moreover, the drum format provide more efficient loading for high throughput production. The use of the closed field and unbalanced magnetrons creates a magnetic confinement that extends the electron mean free path leading to high ion current densities. The combination of high current densities with ion energies in the range ~30eV creates optimum thin film growth conditions. As a result the films are dense, spectrally stable, supersmooth and low stress. Films incorporate low hydrogen content resulting in minimal C-H absorption bands within critical infra-red passbands such as 3 to 5um and 8 to 12um. Tuning of germanium carbide (Ge(1-x)Cx) film refractive index from pure germanium (refractive index 4) to pure germanium carbide (refractive index 1.8) will be demonstrated. Use of film grading to achieve single and dual band anti-reflection performance will be shown. Environmental and durability levels are shown to be suitable for use in harsh external environments.

  1. Method of fabricating germanium and gallium arsenide devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jhabvala, Murzban (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A method of semiconductor diode fabrication is disclosed which relies on the epitaxial growth of a precisely doped thickness layer of gallium arsenide or germanium on a semi-insulating or intrinsic substrate, respectively, of gallium arsenide or germanium by either molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) or by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). The method involves: depositing a layer of doped or undoped silicon dioxide on a germanium or gallium arsenide wafer or substrate, selectively removing the silicon dioxide layer to define one or more surface regions for a device to be fabricated thereon, growing a matched epitaxial layer of doped germanium or gallium arsenide of an appropriate thickness using MBE or MOCVD techniques on both the silicon dioxide layer and the defined one or more regions; and etching the silicon dioxide and the epitaxial material on top of the silicon dioxide to leave a matched epitaxial layer of germanium or gallium arsenide on the germanium or gallium arsenide substrate, respectively, and upon which a field effect device can thereafter be formed.

  2. Promoting cell proliferation using water dispersible germanium nanowires.

    PubMed

    Bezuidenhout, Michael; Liu, Pai; Singh, Shalini; Kiely, Maeve; Ryan, Kevin M; Kiely, Patrick A

    2014-01-01

    Group IV Nanowires have strong potential for several biomedical applications. However, to date their use remains limited because many are synthesised using heavy metal seeds and functionalised using organic ligands to make the materials water dispersible. This can result in unpredicted toxic side effects for mammalian cells cultured on the wires. Here, we describe an approach to make seedless and ligand free Germanium nanowires water dispersible using glutamic acid, a natural occurring amino acid that alleviates the environmental and health hazards associated with traditional functionalisation materials. We analysed the treated material extensively using Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), High resolution-TEM, and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Using a series of state of the art biochemical and morphological assays, together with a series of complimentary and synergistic cellular and molecular approaches, we show that the water dispersible germanium nanowires are non-toxic and are biocompatible. We monitored the behaviour of the cells growing on the treated germanium nanowires using a real time impedance based platform (xCELLigence) which revealed that the treated germanium nanowires promote cell adhesion and cell proliferation which we believe is as a result of the presence of an etched surface giving rise to a collagen like structure and an oxide layer. Furthermore this study is the first to evaluate the associated effect of Germanium nanowires on mammalian cells. Our studies highlight the potential use of water dispersible Germanium Nanowires in biological platforms that encourage anchorage-dependent cell growth.

  3. Spectral Characterizations of the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Thermistor Bolometers using Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornhill, K. Lee; Bitting, Herbert; Lee, Robert B., III; Paden, Jack; Pandey, Dhirendra K.; Priestley, Kory J.; Thomas, Susan; Wilson, Robert S.

    1998-01-01

    Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) techniques are being used to characterize the relative spectral response, or sensitivity, of scanning thermistor bolometers in the infrared (IR) region (2 - >= 100-micrometers). The bolometers are being used in the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) program. The CERES measurements are designed to provide precise, long term monitoring of the Earth's atmospheric radiation energy budget. The CERES instrument houses three bolometric radiometers, a total wavelength (0.3- >= 150-micrometers) sensor, a shortwave (0.3-5-micrometers) sensor, and an atmospheric window (8-12-micrometers) sensor. Accurate spectral characterization is necessary for determining filtered radiances for longwave radiometric calibrations. The CERES bolometers spectral response's are measured in the TRW FTS Vacuum Chamber Facility (FTS - VCF), which uses a FTS as the source and a cavity pyroelectric trap detector as the reference. The CERES bolometers and the cavity detector are contained in a vacuum chamber, while the FTS source is housed in a GN2 purged chamber. Due to the thermal time constant of the CERES bolometers, the FTS must be operated in a step mode. Data are acquired in 6 IR spectral bands covering the entire longwave IR region. In this paper, the TRW spectral calibration facility design and data measurement techniques are described. Two approaches are presented which convert the total channel FTS data into the final CERES spectral characterizations, producing the same calibration coefficients (within 0.1 percent). The resulting spectral response curves are shown, along with error sources in the two procedures. Finally, the impact of each spectral response curve on CERES data validation will be examined through analysis of filtered radiance values from various typical scene types.

  4. Strained-germanium nanostructures for infrared photonics.

    PubMed

    Boztug, Cicek; Sánchez-Pérez, José R; Cavallo, Francesca; Lagally, Max G; Paiella, Roberto

    2014-04-22

    The controlled application of strain in crystalline semiconductors can be used to modify their basic physical properties to enhance performance in electronic and photonic device applications. In germanium, tensile strain can even be used to change the nature of the fundamental energy band gap from indirect to direct, thereby dramatically increasing the interband radiative efficiency and allowing population inversion and optical gain. For biaxial tension, the required strain levels (around 2%) are physically accessible but necessitate the use of very thin crystals. A particularly promising materials platform in this respect is provided by Ge nanomembranes, that is, single-crystal sheets with nanoscale thicknesses that are either completely released from or partially suspended over their native substrates. Using this approach, Ge tensilely strained beyond the expected threshold for direct-band gap behavior has recently been demonstrated, together with strong strain-enhanced photoluminescence and evidence of population inversion. We review the basic properties, state of the art, and prospects of tensilely strained Ge for infrared photonic applications.

  5. High Performance AR Coatings For Germanium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willey, Ronald R.

    1989-02-01

    The theoretical design of a high efficiency antireflection coating on germanium for the 8 to 11.5 micrometer band is a relatively simple matter, but the reduction to practice of a high durability version of such a coating is not as easy. The first requirement is to reduce the reflection losses due to the very high index of refraction without adding significant absorptance or scattering. The second is to provide resistance to the environmental conditions which might be encountered by the product. The practical problems of stress and adhesion, hardness and abrasion resistance, and salt fog and humidity resistance pose some major challenges to the transformation from a design to a successful coating process. We describe some of our experiences with the evolution of the process from theory to practice, some of the problems encountered, and what we believe we have learned. Due to the extensive number of variables and the constraint on time and resources, the development could not be totally rigorous or exhaustive. The judgement and experience of the development staff was exercised to focus the resources on areas which were perceived to offer the best possibility of a solution to the requirements. The net result of the work described here was a process with considerably improved properties over the starting point of the development.

  6. Growth and properties of nanocrystalline germanium films

    SciTech Connect

    Niu Xuejun; Dalal, Vikram L.

    2005-11-01

    We report on the growth characteristics and structure of nanocrystalline germanium films using low-pressure plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition process in a remote electron-cyclotron-resonance reactor. The films were grown from mixtures of germane and hydrogen at deposition temperatures varying between 130 deg. C and 310 deg. C. The films were measured for structure using Raman and x-ray spectroscopy. It is shown that the orientation of the film depends strongly upon the deposition conditions. Low-temperature growth leads to both <111> and <220> orientations, whereas at higher temperatures, the <220> grain strongly dominates. The Raman spectrum reveals a sharp crystalline peak at 300 cm{sup -1} and a high ratio between crystalline and amorphous peak that is at 285 cm{sup -1}. The grain size in the films is a strong function of hydrogen dilution, with higher dilutions leading to smaller grain sizes. Growth temperature also has a strong influence on grain size, with higher temperatures yielding larger grain sizes. From these results, which are seen to be compatible with the growth of nanocrystalline Si films, it is seen that the natural growth direction for the film is <220>, and that bonded hydrogen interferes with the growth of <220> grains. High hydrogen dilutions lead to more random nucleation.

  7. Optical properties of colloidal germanium nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect

    WILCOXON,JESS P.; PROVENCIO,PAULA P.; SAMARA,GEORGE A.

    2000-05-01

    Highly crystalline germanium (Ge) nanocrystals in the size range 2--10 nm were grown in inverse micelles and purified and size-separated by high pressure liquid chromatography with on-line optical and electrical diagnostics. The nanocrystals retain the diamond structure of bulk Ge down to at least 2.0 nm (containing about 150 Ge atoms). The background- and impurity-free extinction and photoluminescence (PL) spectra of these nanocrystals revealed rich structure which was interpreted in terms of the bandstructure of Ge shifted to higher energies by quantum confinement. The shifts ranged from {minus}0.1 eV to over 1 eV for the various transitions. PL in the range 350--700 nm was observed from nanocrystals 2--5 nm in size. The 2.0 nm nanocrystals yielded the most intense PL (at 420 nm) which is believed to be intrinsic and attributed to direct recombination at {Gamma}. Excitation at high energy (250 nm) populates most of the conduction bands resulting in competing recombination channels and the observed broad PL spectra.

  8. Detached Growth of Germanium and Germaniumsilicon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dold, P.; Schweizer, M.; Szofran, F.; Benz, K. W.

    1999-01-01

    Up to now, detached growth was observed mainly under microgravity, i.e. under the absence of hydrostatic pressure that hinders the formation of a free melt meniscus. the detached growth of germanium doped with gallium was obtained under 1 g conditions, the growth was performed in quartz-glass ampoule. Part of the crystal grew without wall contact, the detached growth was observed in-situ with a CCD-camera as well as after the growth process in form of growth lines and the formation of <111> facets on the crystal surface. GeSi crystal (oriientation: <111>, maximum silicon content: 4 at%, seed material: Ge) was grown in a pBN crucible (excluding the possibility of in-situ monitoring of the growth process). The grown crystal exhibits three growth facets, indicating also wall free growth. Surface analysis of the crystals (NDIC, SEM) and characterization of crystal segregation (EDAX, resistivity measurement) and defect structure (EPD, x-ray diffraction measurements) will be presented.

  9. Tunnel current across linear homocatenated germanium chains

    SciTech Connect

    Matsuura, Yukihito

    2014-01-28

    The electronic transport properties of germanium oligomers catenating into linear chains (linear Ge chains) have been theoretically studied using first principle methods. The conduction mechanism of a Ge chain sandwiched between gold electrodes was analyzed based on the density of states and the eigenstates of the molecule in a two-probe environment. Like that of silicon chains (Si chains), the highest occupied molecular orbital of Ge chains contains the extended σ-conjugation of Ge 4p orbitals at energy levels close to the Fermi level; this is in contrast to the electronic properties of linear carbon chains. Furthermore, the conductance of a Ge chain is expected to decrease exponentially with molecular length L. The decay constant β, which is defined as e{sup −βL}, of a Ge chain is similar to that of a Si chain, whereas the conductance of the Ge chains is higher than that of Si chains even though the Ge–Ge bond length is longer than the Si–Si bond length.

  10. Determination of the Wetting Angle of Germanium and Germanium-Silicon Melts on Different Substrate Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaiser, Natalie; Croell, Arne; Szofran, F. R.; Cobb. S. D.; Dold, P.; Benz, K. W.

    1999-01-01

    During Bridgman growth of semiconductors detachment of the crystal and the melt meniscus has occasionally been observed, mainly under microgravity (microg) conditions. An important factor for detached growth is the wetting angle of the melt with the crucible material. High contact angles are more likely to result in detachment of the growing crystal from the ampoule wall. In order to achieve detached growth of germanium (Ge) and germanium-silicon (GeSi) crystals under 1g and microg conditions, sessile drop measurements were performed to determine the most suitable ampoule material as well as temperature dependence of the surface tension for GeSi. Sapphire, fused quartz, glassy carbon, graphite, SiC, pyrolytic Boron Nitride (pBN), AIN, and diamond were used as substrates. Furthermore, different cleaning procedures and surface treatments (etching, sandblasting, etc.) of the same substrate material and their effect on the wetting behavior were studied during these experiments. pBN and AIN substrates exhibited the highest contact angles with values around 170 deg.

  11. The role of oxidized germanium in the growth of germanium nanoparticles on hafnia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkenwerder, Wyatt A.; Ekerdt, John G.

    2008-08-01

    The role oxidized germanium (GeO x) plays in germanium (Ge) nanoparticle growth on hafnia is reported. Oxide islands, in the form of hafnium germinate, form on hafnia during the initial stages of growth. The Ge adatoms are oxidized by background oxidants, such as water, only when they are in contact with the hafnia surface. Once a sufficient amount of hafnium germinate has formed, Ge nanoparticles nucleate such that nanoparticle growth proceeds by Ge growth on GeO x. Nanoparticles are not deposited on the hafnia but only on the interfacial oxide islands formed early in the growth process. Annealing hafnia in a silane ambient after Ge nanoparticle growth reduces the amount of GeO x and appears to transform it into a hafnium silicate. Furthermore, the electronic and/or chemical interaction between the Ge nanoparticles and the hafnia substrate is changed by the silane annealing step as reflected in the binding energy shift in the Ge 2p signal and the increased retention time of metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors made from Ge nanoparticles and hafnia. Pretreating hafnia in silane leads to hafnium silicate islands and subsequent Ge nanoparticle growth proceeds on the silicate islands.

  12. Investigation of germanium Raman lasers for the mid-infrared.

    PubMed

    De Leonardis, Francesco; Troia, Benedetto; Soref, Richard A; Passaro, Vittorio M N

    2015-06-29

    In this paper we present a detailed theoretical investigation of integrated racetrack Raman lasers based on the germanium material system operating in the mid-infrared beyond the germanium two-photon absorption cut-off wavelength of 3.17 μm. The effective Raman gain has been estimated in waveguides based on germanium-on-silicon, germanium-on-SOI and germanium-on-Si3N4 technology platforms as a function of their crystallographic orientations. Furthermore, general design guidelines have been determined by means of a comparative analysis of Raman laser performance, i.e. the threshold power, polarization and directionality of the excited Stokes signals as a function of racetrack cavity length and directional-coupler dimensions. Finally, the emitted Raman laser power has been evaluated as a function of overall propagation losses and operative wavelengths up to 3.8 μm, while the time dynamics of Raman lasers has been simulated assuming continuous and pulse waves as input pump signals.

  13. Single-molecule conductance in atomically precise germanium wires.

    PubMed

    Su, Timothy A; Li, Haixing; Zhang, Vivian; Neupane, Madhav; Batra, Arunabh; Klausen, Rebekka S; Kumar, Bharat; Steigerwald, Michael L; Venkataraman, Latha; Nuckolls, Colin

    2015-09-30

    While the electrical conductivity of bulk-scale group 14 materials such as diamond carbon, silicon, and germanium is well understood, there is a gap in knowledge regarding the conductivity of these materials at the nano and molecular scales. Filling this gap is important because integrated circuits have shrunk so far that their active regions, which rely so heavily on silicon and germanium, begin to resemble ornate molecules rather than extended solids. Here we unveil a new approach for synthesizing atomically discrete wires of germanium and present the first conductance measurements of molecular germanium using a scanning tunneling microscope-based break-junction (STM-BJ) technique. Our findings show that germanium and silicon wires are nearly identical in conductivity at the molecular scale, and that both are much more conductive than aliphatic carbon. We demonstrate that the strong donor ability of C-Ge σ-bonds can be used to raise the energy of the anchor lone pair and increase conductance. Furthermore, the oligogermane wires behave as conductance switches that function through stereoelectronic logic. These devices can be trained to operate with a higher switching factor by repeatedly compressing and elongating the molecular junction.

  14. Resolving the germanium atomic weight disparity using multicollector ICPMS.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lu; Meija, Juris

    2010-05-15

    Two most recent mass spectrometric measurements of natural isotopic composition germanium gave discordant Ge atomic weight values of 72.6276(64)(k=2) and 72.6390(69)(k=2), respectively, a decade ago. Each measurement was performed with a different mass spectrometry platform, gas source isotope ratio mass spectrometry and thermal ionization mass spectrometry, respectively. Herein we report results obtained by multicollector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry yielding an atomic weight of germanium 72.6296(19)(k=2) which is in support of the upcoming 2009 Standard Atomic Weight adjustment by IUPAC. Germanium isotope ratios were calibrated using a regression mass bias correction model and NIST SRM 994 gallium isotopic reference material. In this model, no assumptions are made regarding the mass bias differences between gallium and germanium or between the isotopes of germanium. Isotope ratios of 0.5620(21), 0.7515(16), 0.2125(7), and 0.2121(12) were obtained for n((70)Ge)/n((74)Ge), n((72)Ge)/n((74)Ge), n((73)Ge)/n((74)Ge), and n((76)Ge)/n((74)Ge), respectively, with expanded uncertainties (k = 2) estimated in accordance with the ISO/BIPM Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurements.

  15. Single-molecule conductance in atomically precise germanium wires.

    PubMed

    Su, Timothy A; Li, Haixing; Zhang, Vivian; Neupane, Madhav; Batra, Arunabh; Klausen, Rebekka S; Kumar, Bharat; Steigerwald, Michael L; Venkataraman, Latha; Nuckolls, Colin

    2015-09-30

    While the electrical conductivity of bulk-scale group 14 materials such as diamond carbon, silicon, and germanium is well understood, there is a gap in knowledge regarding the conductivity of these materials at the nano and molecular scales. Filling this gap is important because integrated circuits have shrunk so far that their active regions, which rely so heavily on silicon and germanium, begin to resemble ornate molecules rather than extended solids. Here we unveil a new approach for synthesizing atomically discrete wires of germanium and present the first conductance measurements of molecular germanium using a scanning tunneling microscope-based break-junction (STM-BJ) technique. Our findings show that germanium and silicon wires are nearly identical in conductivity at the molecular scale, and that both are much more conductive than aliphatic carbon. We demonstrate that the strong donor ability of C-Ge σ-bonds can be used to raise the energy of the anchor lone pair and increase conductance. Furthermore, the oligogermane wires behave as conductance switches that function through stereoelectronic logic. These devices can be trained to operate with a higher switching factor by repeatedly compressing and elongating the molecular junction. PMID:26373928

  16. 40 CFR 421.180 - Applicability: Description of the primary and secondary germanium and gallium subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... primary and secondary germanium and gallium subcategory. 421.180 Section 421.180 Protection of Environment... POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Primary and Secondary Germanium and Gallium Subcategory § 421.180 Applicability: Description of the primary and secondary germanium and gallium subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  17. 40 CFR 421.180 - Applicability: Description of the primary and secondary germanium and gallium subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... primary and secondary germanium and gallium subcategory. 421.180 Section 421.180 Protection of Environment... POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Primary and Secondary Germanium and Gallium Subcategory § 421.180 Applicability: Description of the primary and secondary germanium and gallium subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  18. 40 CFR 421.180 - Applicability: Description of the primary and secondary germanium and gallium subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... primary and secondary germanium and gallium subcategory. 421.180 Section 421.180 Protection of Environment... POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Primary and Secondary Germanium and Gallium Subcategory § 421.180 Applicability: Description of the primary and secondary germanium and gallium subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  19. 40 CFR 421.180 - Applicability: Description of the primary and secondary germanium and gallium subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... primary and secondary germanium and gallium subcategory. 421.180 Section 421.180 Protection of Environment... POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Primary and Secondary Germanium and Gallium Subcategory § 421.180 Applicability: Description of the primary and secondary germanium and gallium subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  20. 40 CFR 421.180 - Applicability: Description of the primary and secondary germanium and gallium subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... primary and secondary germanium and gallium subcategory. 421.180 Section 421.180 Protection of Environment... POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Primary and Secondary Germanium and Gallium Subcategory § 421.180 Applicability: Description of the primary and secondary germanium and gallium subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  1. Silicon-germanium technology program of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Winter, F.; Stapfer, G.

    1972-01-01

    The outer planetary exploration missions studied by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory require silicon-germanium radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs) in which the factors of safety are as low as is compatible with the reliable satisfaction of the power needs. Work on silicon germanium sublimation performed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory is presented. Analytical modeling work on the solid-diffusion process involved in the steady-state (free) sublimation of silicon germanium is described. Analytical predictions are made of the sublimation suppression which can be achieved by using a cover gas. A series of accelerated (high-temperature) tests which were performed on simulated hardware (using four SiGe couples) to study long-term sublimation and reaction mechanisms are also discussed.

  2. Germanium FCC structure from a colloidal crystal template

    SciTech Connect

    Miguez, H.; Meseguer, F.; Lopez, C.; Holgado, M.; Andreasen, G.; Mifsud, A.; Fornes, V.

    2000-05-16

    Here, the authors show a method to fabricate a macroporous structure in which the pores, essentially identical, arrange regularly in a face-centered cubic (FCC) lattice. The result is a network of air spheres in a germanium medium. This structure presents the highest dielectric contrast ({epsilon}{sub Ge}/{epsilon}{sub air} = 16) ever achieved in the optical regime in such periodic structures, which could result in important applications in photonics. The authors employ solid silica colloidal crystals (opals) as templates within which a cyclic germanium growth process is carried out. Thus, the three-dimensional periodicity of the host is inherited by the guest. Afterward, the silica is removed and a germanium opal replica is obtained.

  3. Moth's eye anti-reflection gratings on germanium freeform surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Meng; Shultz, Jason A.; Owen, Joseph D.; Davies, Matthew A.; Suleski, Thomas J.

    2014-09-01

    Germanium is commonly used for optical components in the infrared, but the high refractive index of germanium causes significant losses due to Fresnel reflections. Anti-reflection (AR) surfaces based on subwavelength "moth's eye" gratings provide one means to significantly increase optical transmission. As found in nature, these gratings are conformal to the curved surfaces of lenslets in the eye of the moth. Engineered optical systems inspired by biological examples offer possibilities for increased performance and system miniaturization, but also introduce significant challenges to both design and fabrication. In this paper, we consider the design and fabrication of conformal moth's eye AR structures on germanium freeform optical surfaces, including lens arrays and Alvarez lenses. Fabrication approaches and limitations based on both lithography and multi-axis diamond machining are considered. Rigorous simulations of grating performance and approaches for simulation of conformal, multi-scale optical systems are discussed.

  4. Study on nanometric cutting of germanium by molecular dynamics simulation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Three-dimensional molecular dynamics simulations are conducted to study the nanometric cutting of germanium. The phenomena of extrusion, ploughing, and stagnation region are observed from the material flow. The uncut thickness which is defined as the depth from bottom of the tool to the stagnation region is in proportion to the undeformed chip thickness on the scale of our simulation and is almost independent of the machined crystal plane. The cutting resistance on (111) face is greater than that on (010) face due to anisotropy of germanium. During nanometric cutting, both phase transformation from diamond cubic structure to β-Sn phase and direct amorphization of germanium occur. The machined surface presents amorphous structure. PMID:23289482

  5. Germanium based electrostatic quantum dots: design and characterization.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzeo, Giovanni; Yablonovitch, Eli; Jiang, Hong-Wen

    2010-03-01

    While the less mature Germanium technology requires an extra effort for the realization of single electron quantum dots, unique properties of Germanium rich heterostructures together with spin coherence times comparable to Silicon, can justify the development of such new technology. We report our progresses on the formation of electrostatic quantum dots in Germanium. We employ an MOS-like structure with no modulation doping already successfully proven in Silicon devices. A two level gate stack is used: the top gate is positively biased to attract electrons while the lowers gates are negatively biased to form the quantum dot and attract holes in a transistor channel, used to detect the electrons in the adjacent quantum dot. Finite Element Method simulations are used to prove the concept of this hybrid holes-transistor/electron-QD device and estimate the sensitivity of the charge detection. Preliminary characterizations of quantum dot devices built with this structure are reported.

  6. Characterisation of a Broad Energy Germanium (BEGe) detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrientos, D.; Boston, A. J.; Boston, H. C.; Quintana, B.; Sagrado, I. C.; Unsworth, C.; Moon, S.; Cresswell, J. R.

    2011-08-01

    Characterisation of Germanium detectors used for gamma-ray tracking or medical imaging is one of the current goals in the Nuclear physics community. Good knowledge of detector response to different gamma radiations is needed for this purpose. In order to develop this task, Pulse Shape Analysis (PSA) techniques have been developed for different detector geometries or setups. In this work, we present the results of the application of PSA for a Canberra Broad Energy Germanium (BEGe) detector. This detector was scanned across its front and bottom face using a fully digital data acquisition system; allowing to record detector charge pulse shapes from well defined positions with collimated sources of 241Am, 22Na and 137Cs. With the study of the data acquired, characteristics of the inner detector geometry like crystal limits or positions of contact and isolate can be found, as well as the direction of the axes for the Germanium crystal.

  7. Simulations for Tracking Cosmogenic Activation in Germanium and Copper

    SciTech Connect

    Aguayo, Estanislao; Kouzes, Richard T.; Orrell, John L.

    2011-11-01

    High-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors housed in copper cryostats and shielding materials are used in measurements of the extraordinarily rare nuclear decay process, neutrinoless double-beta decay (0νββ), and for dark matter searches. Cosmogenic production of 68Ge and 60Co in the germanium and copper represent an irreducible background to these experiments as the subsequent decays of these isotopes can mimic the signals of interest. These radioactive isotopes can be removed by chemical and/or isotopic separation, but begin to grow-in to the material after separation until the material is moved deep underground. This work is motivated by the need to have a reliable, experimentally benchmarked simulation tool for evaluating shielding materials used during transportation and near-surface manufacturing of experiment components. The resulting simulations tool has been used to enhance the effectiveness of an existing transport shield used to ship enriched germanium from the separations facility to the detector manufacturing facility.

  8. Next Generation Device Grade Silicon-Germanium on Insulator

    PubMed Central

    Littlejohns, Callum G.; Nedeljkovic, Milos; Mallinson, Christopher F.; Watts, John F.; Mashanovich, Goran Z.; Reed, Graham T.; Gardes, Frederic Y.

    2015-01-01

    High quality single crystal silicon-germanium-on-insulator has the potential to facilitate the next generation of photonic and electronic devices. Using a rapid melt growth technique we engineer tailored single crystal silicon-germanium-on-insulator structures with near constant composition over large areas. The proposed structures avoid the problem of laterally graded SiGe compositions, caused by preferential Si rich solid formation, encountered in straight SiGe wires by providing radiating elements distributed along the structures. This method enables the fabrication of multiple single crystal silicon-germanium-on-insulator layers of different compositions, on the same Si wafer, using only a single deposition process and a single anneal process, simply by modifying the structural design and/or the anneal temperature. This facilitates a host of device designs, within a relatively simple growth environment, as compared to the complexities of other methods, and also offers flexibility in device designs within that growth environment. PMID:25656076

  9. Stability of Detached Grown Germanium Single Crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schweizer, M.; Volz, M. P.; Cobb, S. D.; Vujisic, L.; Szofran, F. R.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Detachment of the melt meniscus from the crucible during semiconductor Bridgman growth experiments has been observed in recent years, especially under microgravity experiments. Under earth conditions, the hydrostatic pressure counteracts the mechanism, whereby it is more difficult to achieve detached Bridgman growth. Attempts to get stable detached growth under terrestrial conditions have been discussed in the literature and have been the subject of recent experiments in our own group. The advantage of crystals grown without wall contact is obvious: In general, they possess a higher crystal quality than conventional Bridgman grown crystals with wall contact. However, due to the interaction of different parameters such as the wetting behavior of the melt with the crucible, and the dependence of the growth angle with the shape of the melt meniscus, the mechanism leading to detachment is very complicated and not completely understood. We have grown several doped and undoped Germanium crystals with the detached Bridgman and the normal Bridgman growth technique. Pyrolytic boron nitride containers were used for all growth experiments. In the detached grown crystals the typical gap thickness between the pBN crucible and the crystal is in the range of 10 to 100 micrometers, which was determined by performing profilometer measurements. Etch pit density measurements were also performed and a comparison between detached and attached grown crystals will be given. An interesting feature was detected on the surface of a detached grown crystal. Strong surface striations with an average axial distance of 0.5 mm were observed around the whole circumference. The maximum fluctuation of the gap thickness is in the range of 5-10 micrometers. These variations of the detached gap along the crystal axis can be explained by a kind of stiction of the melt/crucible interface and thus by a variation of the meniscus shape. This phenomenon leading to the fluctuation of the gap thickness will be

  10. Stability of Detached Grown Germanium Single Crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schweizer, M.; Volz, M. P.; Cobb, S. D.; Motakef, S.; Szofran, F. R.; Curreri, Peter A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Detachment of the melt meniscus from the crucible during semiconductor Bridgman growth experiments has been observed in recent years especially, under microgravity experiments. Under earth conditions, the hydrostatic pressure counteracts the mechanism, whereby it is more difficult to achieve detached Bridgman growth. Attempts to get stable detached growth under terrestrial conditions have been discussed in the literature and have been the subject of recent experiments in our own group. The advantage of crystals grown without wall contact is obvious: In general, they possess a higher crystal quality than conventional Bridgman grown crystals with wall contact. However, due to the interaction of different parameters such as the wetting behavior of the melt with the crucible, and the dependence of the growth angle with the shape of the melt meniscus, the mechanism leading to detachment is very complicated and not completely understood. We have grown several doped and undoped Germanium crystals with the detached Bridgman and the normal Bridgman growth technique. Pyrolytic boron nitride containers were used for all growth experiments. In the detached grown crystals the typical gap thickness between the pBN crucible and the crystal is in the range of 10 to 100 microns, which was determined by performing profilometer measurements. Etch pit density measurements were also performed and a comparison between detached and attached grown crystals will be given. An interesting feature was detected on the surface of a detached grown crystal. Strong surface striations with an average axial distance of 0.5mm were observed around the whole circumference. The maximum fluctuation of the gap thickness is in the range of 5-10 microns. These variations of the detached gap along the crystal axis can be explained by a kind of stiction of the melt/crucible interface and thus by a variation of the meniscus shape. This phenomenon leading to the fluctuation of the gap thickness will be

  11. Imaging germanium telescope array for gamma-rays (IGETAGRAY)

    SciTech Connect

    Hailey, C.J.; Ziock, K.P. ); Harrison, F.A. Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA ); Fleischmann, J. )

    1990-08-10

    The Germanium Drift Chamber (GDC) is a gamma-ray detector with excellent energy and one-dimensional spatial resolution. Due to recent developments in coded aperture optics, it is feasible to couple one-dimensional coded apertures and GDCs in a special array geometry producing a telescope with true two-dimensional imaging. This Imaging Germanium Telescope Array for Gamma-rays (IGETAGRAY) has made a comparable field of view and sensitivity to true two-dimensional systems, but simplified engineering requirements. IGETAGRAY will make possible high sensitivity spectroscopy of the gamma-ray sky.

  12. Imaging Germanium Telescope Array for Gamma-Rays (IGETAGRAY)

    SciTech Connect

    Hailey, C.J.; Ziock, K.P. ); Harrison, F.A. . Dept. of Physics California Univ., Berkeley, CA . Space Sciences Lab.); Fleischmann, J. )

    1990-01-01

    The Germanium Drift Chamber (GDC) is a gamma-ray detector with excellent energy and one-dimensional spatial resolution. Due to recent developments in coded aperture optics, it is feasible to couple one-dimensional coded apertures and GDCs in a special array geometry producing a telescope with true two-dimensional imaging. This Imaging Germanium Telescope Array for Gamma-Rays (IGETAGRAY) has made a comparable field of view and sensitivity to true two-dimensional systems, but simplified engineering requirements. IGETAGRAY will make possible high sensitivity spectroscopy of the gamma-ray sky. 5 refs., 1 fig.

  13. Silicon germanium semiconductive alloy and method of fabricating same

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Yeonjoon (Inventor); Choi, Sang H. (Inventor); King, Glen C. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A silicon germanium (SiGe) semiconductive alloy is grown on a substrate of single crystalline Al.sub.2O.sub.3. A {111} crystal plane of a cubic diamond structure SiGe is grown on the substrate's {0001} C-plane such that a <110> orientation of the cubic diamond structure SiGe is aligned with a <1,0,-1,0> orientation of the {0001} C-plane. A lattice match between the substrate and the SiGe is achieved by using a SiGe composition that is 0.7223 atomic percent silicon and 0.2777 atomic percent germanium.

  14. The Novel Synthesis of Silicon and Germanium Nanocrystallites

    SciTech Connect

    Kauzlarich, S M; Liu, Q; Yin, S C; Lee, W H; Taylor, B

    2001-04-03

    Interest in the synthesis of semiconductor nanoparticles has been generated by their unusual optical and electronic properties arising from quantum confinement effects. We have synthesized silicon and germanium nanoclusters by reacting Zintl phase precursors with either silicon or germanium tetrachloride in various solvents. Strategies have been investigated to stabilize the surface, including reactions with RLi and MgBrR (R = alkyl). This synthetic method produces group IV nanocrystals with passivated surfaces. These nanoparticle emit over a very large range in the visible region. These particles have been characterized using HRTEM, FTIR, UV-Vis, solid state NMR, and fluorescence. The synthesis and characterization of these nanoclusters will be presented.

  15. Characterisation of two AGATA asymmetric high purity germanium capsules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colosimo, S. J.; Moon, S.; Boston, A. J.; Boston, H. C.; Cresswell, J. R.; Harkness-Brennan, L.; Judson, D. S.; Lazarus, I. H.; Nolan, P. J.; Simpson, J.; Unsworth, C.

    2015-02-01

    The AGATA spectrometer is an array of highly segmented high purity germanium detectors. The spectrometer uses pulse shape analysis in order to track Compton scattered γ-rays to increase the efficiency of nuclear spectroscopy studies. The characterisation of two high purity germanium detector capsules for AGATA of the same A-type has been performed at the University of Liverpool. This work will examine the uniformity of performance of the two capsules, including a comparison of the resolution and efficiency as well as a study of charge collection. The performance of the capsules shows good agreement, which is essential for the efficient operation of the γ-ray tracking array.

  16. Electrical Characteristics CuFe2O4 Thick Film Ceramics Made with Different Screen Size Utiizing Fe2O3 Nanopowder Derived from Yarosite for NTC Thermistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiendartun, Syarif, Dani Gustaman

    2010-10-01

    Fabrication of CuFe2O4 thick film ceramics utilizing Fe2O3 derived from yarosite using screen printing technique for NTC thermistor has been carried out. Effect of thickness variation due to different size of screen (screen 225; 300 and 375 mesh) has been studied. X-ray diffraction analyses (XRD) was done to know crystal structure and phases formation. SEM analyses was carried out to know microstructure of the films. Electrical properties characterization was done through measurement of electrical resistance at various temperatures (room temperature to 100° C). The XRD data showed that the films crystalize in tetragonal spinel. The SEM images showed that the screen with the smaller of the hole size, made the grain size was bigger. Electrical data showed that the larger the screen different size thickness variation (mesh), the larger the resistance, thermistor constant and sensitivity. From the electrical characteristics data, it was known that the electrical characteristics of the CuFe2O4 thick film ceramics followed the NTC characteristic. The value of B and RRT of the produced CuFe2O4 ceramics namely B = 3241-3484 K and RRT = 25.6-87.0 M Ohm, fitted market requirement.

  17. The Effect of Sintering Atmosphere on Electrical Characteristics of Fe2TiO5 Pellet Ceramics Sintered at 1200°C for NTC Thermistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiendartun; Risdiana; Fitrilawati; Siregar, R. E.

    2016-08-01

    Fabrication of Fe2TiO5 pellet ceramics using powder metallurgy technique for NTC thermistor has been carried out, in order to know the effect of sintering atmosphere (Oxygen, Air and Argon Gas) on the characteristic especially the electrical characteristic of Fe2TiO5 ceramics with high working temperature. X-ray diffraction analyses (XRD) was done to know crystal structure and phases formation. A SEM analysis was carried out to know microstructure of pellets. Electrical properties characterization was done through measurement of electrical resistance at various temperatures (room temperature to 250oC). The XRD data showed that the pellets crystallize in orthorhombic. The presence of second phase could not be identified from the XRD analyses. The SEM images showed that the grains size of the ceramic sintered in oxygen gas is smaller than that of the ceramic sintered in air and argon gas. Electrical data showed that the pellet ceramics sintered in oxygen gas had the largest room temperature resistance (RRT), thermistor constant (B), activation energy (Ea) and sensitivity (α) compared to those sintered in air and argon gas. From the electrical characteristics data, it was known that the electrical characteristics of the Fe2TiO5 pellet ceramics followed the NTC characteristic. The value of B and RRT of the produced Fe2TiO5 ceramics namely B = 4389-6149 K and Rrt = 342-26548kQ, fitted market requirement and can be used for temperature sensor.

  18. Near-infrared photoluminescence in germanium oxide enclosed germanium nano- and micro-crystals.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenzhong; Wang, Keda; Han, Daxing; Poudel, Bed; Wang, Xiaowei; Wang, D Z; Zeng, Baoqing; Ren, Z F

    2007-02-21

    We have studied the near-infrared photoluminescence properties of free-standing germanium nano-crystals (20 nm on average) and micro-crystals (60 µm on average) at 80-300 K. Two peaks were observed at ∼1.0 and ∼1.4 eV from both the nano- and micro-crystals. The integrated PL (I(PL)) intensity of the nano-crystals is about an order of magnitude stronger than that of the micro-crystals and the I(PL) is also enhanced by ageing in air for both crystals. The ∼1.0 eV peak position does not change with either the crystal size or temperature. We suggest that the deep traps located at the interfacial region between the surface GeO(2) layer and the bulk crystal Ge is responsible for the near-infrared PL.

  19. Detached Bridgman Growth of Germanium and Germanium-Silicon Alloy Crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szofran, F. R.; Volz, M. P.; Schweizer, M.; Cobb, S. D.; Motakef, S.; Croell, A.; Dold, P.; Curreri, Peter A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Earth based experiments on the science of detached crystal growth are being conducted on germanium and germanium-silicon alloys (2 at% Si average composition) in preparation for a series of experiments aboard the International Space Station (ISS). The purpose of the microgravity experiments includes differentiating among proposed mechanisms contributing to detachment, and confirming or refining our understanding of the detachment mechanism. Because large contact angle are critical to detachment, sessile drop measurements were used to determine the contact angles as a function of temperature and composition for a large number of substrates made of potential ampoule materials. Growth experiments have used pyrolytic boron nitride (pBN) and fused silica ampoules with the majority of the detached results occurring predictably in the pBN. The contact angles were 173 deg (Ge) and 165 deg (GeSi) for pBN. For fused silica, the contact angle decreases from 150 deg to an equilibrium value of 117 deg (Ge) or from 129 deg to an equilibrium value of 100 deg (GeSi) over the duration of the experiment. The nature and extent of detachment is determined by using profilometry in conjunction with optical and electron microscopy. The stability of detachment has been analyzed, and an empirical model for the conditions necessary to achieve sufficient stability to maintain detached growth for extended periods has been developed. Results in this presentation will show that we have established the effects on detachment of ampoule material, pressure difference above and below the melt, and silicon concentration; samples that are nearly completely detached can be grown repeatedly in pBN.

  20. Novel approach for n-type doping of HVPE gallium nitride with germanium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, Patrick; Krupinski, Martin; Habel, Frank; Leibiger, Gunnar; Weinert, Berndt; Eichler, Stefan; Mikolajick, Thomas

    2016-09-01

    We present a novel method for germanium doping of gallium nitride by in-situ chlorination of solid germanium during the hydride vapour phase epitaxy (HVPE) process. Solid germanium pieces were placed in the doping line with a hydrogen chloride flow directed over them. We deduce a chlorination reaction taking place at 800 ° C , which leads to germanium chloroform (GeHCl3) or germanium tetrachloride (GeCl4). The reactor shows a germanium rich residue after in-situ chlorination experiments, which can be removed by hydrogen chloride etching. All gallium nitride crystals exhibit n-type conductivity, which shows the validity of the in-situ chlorination of germanium for doping. A complex doping profile is found for each crystal, which was assigned to a combination of localised supply of the dopant and sample rotation during growth and switch-off effects of the HVPE reactor.

  1. Modified matrix volatilization setup for characterization of high purity germanium.

    PubMed

    Meruva, Adisesha Reddy; Raparthi, Shekhar; Kumar, Sunil Jai

    2016-01-01

    Modified matrix volatilization (MV) method has been described to characterize high purity germanium material of 7 N (99.99999%) purity. Transport of both, the chlorine gas generated in-situ in this method and the argon gas (carrier) is fine controlled by means of a mass flow controller. This enabled both uniform reaction of chlorine gas with the germanium matrix and smooth removal of germanium matrix as its chloride. This resulted in improvement in the reproducibility of the analytical results. The use of quartz reaction vessel has lead to the reduction in the process blank levels. The combined effect of these modifications in the MV setup has resulted in very consistent and low process blanks and hence improved detection limits of this method. Applicability of the method has been expanded to rare earth elements and other elements after examining their recoveries. The quantification is done by using inductively coupled plasma quadrupole mass spectrometer (ICP-QMS) and continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (CS-GFAAS). In the absence of certified reference materials for high pure germanium, the accuracy of the method is established by spike recovery tests. The precision of the method has been found to vary from 1 to 30% for concentrations between 1 and 30 ng g(-1). The limits of detection (LOD) for the target analytes are found to be between 18 and 0.033 ng g(-1). PMID:26695261

  2. Discovery of gallium, germanium, lutetium, and hafnium isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Gross, J.L.; Thoennessen, M.

    2012-09-15

    Currently, twenty-eight gallium, thirty-one germanium, thirty-five lutetium, and thirty-six hafnium isotopes have been observed and the discovery of these isotopes is described here. For each isotope a brief synopsis of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  3. Active noise canceling system for mechanically cooled germanium radiation detectors

    DOEpatents

    Nelson, Karl Einar; Burks, Morgan T

    2014-04-22

    A microphonics noise cancellation system and method for improving the energy resolution for mechanically cooled high-purity Germanium (HPGe) detector systems. A classical adaptive noise canceling digital processing system using an adaptive predictor is used in an MCA to attenuate the microphonics noise source making the system more deployable.

  4. Modified matrix volatilization setup for characterization of high purity germanium.

    PubMed

    Meruva, Adisesha Reddy; Raparthi, Shekhar; Kumar, Sunil Jai

    2016-01-01

    Modified matrix volatilization (MV) method has been described to characterize high purity germanium material of 7 N (99.99999%) purity. Transport of both, the chlorine gas generated in-situ in this method and the argon gas (carrier) is fine controlled by means of a mass flow controller. This enabled both uniform reaction of chlorine gas with the germanium matrix and smooth removal of germanium matrix as its chloride. This resulted in improvement in the reproducibility of the analytical results. The use of quartz reaction vessel has lead to the reduction in the process blank levels. The combined effect of these modifications in the MV setup has resulted in very consistent and low process blanks and hence improved detection limits of this method. Applicability of the method has been expanded to rare earth elements and other elements after examining their recoveries. The quantification is done by using inductively coupled plasma quadrupole mass spectrometer (ICP-QMS) and continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (CS-GFAAS). In the absence of certified reference materials for high pure germanium, the accuracy of the method is established by spike recovery tests. The precision of the method has been found to vary from 1 to 30% for concentrations between 1 and 30 ng g(-1). The limits of detection (LOD) for the target analytes are found to be between 18 and 0.033 ng g(-1).

  5. Solution-processable white-light-emitting germanium nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect

    Shirahata, Naoto

    2014-06-01

    This paper describes an efficient chemical route for the synthesis of visible light emitting nanocrystals of germanium (ncGe). The synthesis started by heating Ge(II) iodide at 300 °C in argon atmosphere. Spectroscopic characterizations confirmed the formation of diamond cubic lattice structures of ncGe. By grafting hydrophobic chains on the ncGe surface, the dispersions in nonpolar solvents of the ncGe became very stable. The as-synthesized ncGe showed the bluish white photoluminescence (PL) feature, but it was found that the PL spectrum is composed of many different emission spectra. Therefore, the color-tuning of white light emission is demonstrated through the witting removal of extra ncGe with unfavorable emission feature by making full use of column chromatographic techniques. - Highlights: • Visible light emitting nanocrystals of germanium was synthesized by chemical reduction of germanium iodide. • White light emission was achieved by control over size distribution of germanium nanocrystals. • Tuning the color of white light was achieved by separation of nanocrystals by emission.

  6. Enhanced life ion source for germanium and carbon ion implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Hsieh, Tseh-Jen; Colvin, Neil; Kondratenko, Serguei

    2012-11-06

    Germanium and carbon ions represent a significant portion of total ion implantation steps in the process flow. Very often ion source materials that used to produce ions are chemically aggressive, especially at higher temperatures, and result in fast ion source performance degradation and a very limited lifetime [B.S. Freer, et. al., 2002 14th Intl. Conf. on Ion Implantation Technology Proc, IEEE Conf. Proc., p. 420 (2003)]. GeF{sub 4} and CO{sub 2} are commonly used to generate germanium and carbon beams. In the case of GeF{sub 4} controlling the tungsten deposition due to the de-composition of WF{sub 6} (halogen cycle) is critical to ion source life. With CO{sub 2}, the materials oxidation and carbon deposition must be controlled as both will affect cathode thermionic emission and anti-cathode (repeller) efficiencies due to the formation of volatile metal oxides. The improved ion source design Extended Life Source 3 (Eterna ELS3) together with its proprietary co-gas material implementation has demonstrated >300 hours of stable continuous operation when using carbon and germanium ion beams. Optimizing cogas chemistries retard the cathode erosion rate for germanium and carbon minimizes the adverse effects of oxygen when reducing gas is introduced for carbon. The proprietary combination of hardware and co-gas has improved source stability and the results of the hardware and co-gas development are discussed.

  7. Substitution of Germanium for Boron in Plant Growth 1

    PubMed Central

    McIlrath, Wayne J.; Skok, John

    1966-01-01

    The observation was confirmed that the addition of germanium dioxide (soluble form) to the nutrient solution can delay for a short time the appearance of boron deficiency symptoms on the shoots of sunflower plants (Helianthus annuus L.). This appeared to be true, however, only under growing conditions in which the plants had a low boron requirement. The delay in the appearance of boron deficiency symptoms by administering germanium was demonstrated in sunflower plants ranging in age from 7 to 20 days. This effect was noted whether the germanium was administered prior to or at the time the plants were transferred to minus-boron nutrient solution. It is proposed that germanium does not truly substitute for boron in metabolic processes of the plant but rather functions through increasing the mobility of soluble boron within the plant and in binding nonmetabolic polyhydroxyl sites thus serving in a sparing role for the limited quantity of soluble boron in the growth centers. Images Fig. 1 PMID:16656385

  8. The 100 micron detector development program. [gallium doped germanium photoconductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, W. J.

    1976-01-01

    An effort to optimize gallium-doped germanium photoconductors (Ge:Ga) for use in space for sensitive detection of far infrared radiation in the 100 micron region is described as well as the development of cryogenic apparatus capable of calibrating detectors under low background conditions.

  9. Large diameter germanium single crystals for infrared optics.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gafni, G.; Azoulay, M.; Shiloh, C.; Noter, Y.; Saya, A.; Galron, H.; Roth, M.

    1989-09-01

    Large single crystals, up to 200 mm in diameter, of high optical quality germanium have been grown by the Czochralski technique. Postgrowth thermal treatment improves the optical homogeneity and reduces optical losses, as shown by measurements of refractive index gradients and modulation transfer function (MTF). A new approach for the piecewise combination of interferograms, as well as a polychromatic treatment of MTF, is presented.

  10. Dangling-bond defects and hydrogen passivation in germanium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Justin R.

    2008-03-01

    The application of germanium in complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology is hampered by high interface-state densities, the microscopic origin of which has remained elusive. Using first-principles calculations, we have investigated the atomic and electronic structure of prototype germanium dangling-bond defects [1]. The computational approach is based on density functional theory, and in order to overcome band-gap problems we have also performed quasiparticle calculations based on the GW approach. Surprisingly, the germanium dangling bonds give rise to electronic levels below the valence-band maximum. They therefore occur exclusively in the negative charge state, explaining why they have eluded observation with electron spin resonance. The associated fixed charge is likely responsible for threshold-voltage shifts and poor performance of n-channel transistors. At silicon/silicon dioxide interfaces, hydrogen is successfully used to passivate dangling-bond defects. We have therefore also investigated the interaction of hydrogen with germanium. In contrast to silicon and other semiconductors in which hydrogen behaves as an amphoteric impurity, interstitial hydrogen in germanium is stable only in the negative charge state, i.e., it behaves exclusively as an acceptor. Passivation of dangling bonds by hydrogen will therefore be ineffective, again explaining experimental observations. Other cases where unusual interfacial defects and problems with hydrogen passivation may occur will be discussed. Work performed in collaboration with A. Janotti, P. Rinke, and C. G. Van de Walle, and supported by the Semiconductor Research Corporation. 1. J. R. Weber, A. Janotti, P. Rinke, and C. G. Van de Walle, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 142101 (2007).

  11. Detached Bridgman Growth of Germanium and Germanium-Silicon Alloy Crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szofran, F. R.; Volz, M. P.; Schweizer, M.; Kaiser, N.; Cobb, S. D.; Motakef, S.; Vujisic, L. J.; Croell, A.; Dold, P.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Earth based experiments on the science of detached crystal growth are being conducted on germanium and germanium-silicon alloys (2at% Si average composition) in preparation for a series of experiments aboard the International Space Station (ISS) to differentiate among proposed mechanisms contributing to detachment. Sessile drop measurements were first carried out for a large number of substrates made of potential ampoule materials to determine the contact angles and the surface tension as a function of temperature and composition. The process atmosphere and duration of the experiment (for some cases) were also found to have significant influence on the wetting angle. Growth experiments have used pyrolytic boron nitride (pBN) and fused silica ampoules with the majority of the detached results occurring predictably in the pBN. The contact angles were 173 deg (Ge) and 165 deg (GeSi) for pBN. For fused silica, the contact angle decreases to an equilibrium value with duration of measurement ranging from 150 to 117 deg (Ge), 129 to 100 deg (GeSi). Forming gas (Ar + 2% H2) and vacuum have been used in the growth ampoules. With gas in the ampoule, a variation of the temperature profile during growth has been used to control the pressure difference between the top of the melt and the volume below the melt caused by detachment of the growing crystal. The stability of detachment has been modeled and substantial insight has been gained into the reasons that detachment has most often been observed in reduced gravity but nonetheless has occurred randomly even there. An empirical model for the conditions necessary to achieve sufficient stability to maintain detached growth for extended periods has been developed and will be presented. Methods for determining the nature and extent of detachment include profilometry and optical and electron microscopy. This surface study is the subject of another presentation at this Congress. Results in this presentation will show that we have

  12. An environmentally-friendly vacuum reduction metallurgical process to recover germanium from coal fly ash.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lingen; Xu, Zhenming

    2016-07-15

    The demand for germanium in the field of semiconductor, electronics, and optical devices is growing rapidly; however, the resources of germanium are scarce worldwide. As a secondary material, coal fly ash could be further recycled to retrieve germanium. Up to now, the conventional processes to recover germanium have two problems as follows: on the one hand, it is difficult to be satisfactory for its economic and environmental effect; on the other hand, the recovery ratio of germanium is not all that could be desired. In this paper, an environmentally-friendly vacuum reduction metallurgical process (VRMP) was proposed to recover germanium from coal fly ash. The results of the laboratory scale experiments indicated that the appropriate parameters were 1173K and 10Pa with 10wt% coke addition for 40min, and recovery ratio germanium was 93.96%. On the basis of above condition, the pilot scale experiments were utilized to assess the actual effect of VRMP for recovery of germanium with parameter of 1473K, 1-10Pa and heating time 40min, the recovery ratio of germanium reached 94.64%. This process considerably enhances germanium recovery, meanwhile, eliminates much of the water usage and residue secondary pollution compared with other conventional processes.

  13. An environmentally-friendly vacuum reduction metallurgical process to recover germanium from coal fly ash.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lingen; Xu, Zhenming

    2016-07-15

    The demand for germanium in the field of semiconductor, electronics, and optical devices is growing rapidly; however, the resources of germanium are scarce worldwide. As a secondary material, coal fly ash could be further recycled to retrieve germanium. Up to now, the conventional processes to recover germanium have two problems as follows: on the one hand, it is difficult to be satisfactory for its economic and environmental effect; on the other hand, the recovery ratio of germanium is not all that could be desired. In this paper, an environmentally-friendly vacuum reduction metallurgical process (VRMP) was proposed to recover germanium from coal fly ash. The results of the laboratory scale experiments indicated that the appropriate parameters were 1173K and 10Pa with 10wt% coke addition for 40min, and recovery ratio germanium was 93.96%. On the basis of above condition, the pilot scale experiments were utilized to assess the actual effect of VRMP for recovery of germanium with parameter of 1473K, 1-10Pa and heating time 40min, the recovery ratio of germanium reached 94.64%. This process considerably enhances germanium recovery, meanwhile, eliminates much of the water usage and residue secondary pollution compared with other conventional processes. PMID:27015376

  14. Respiratory monitoring system based on the nasal pressure technique for the analysis of sleep breathing disorders: Reduction of static and dynamic errors, and comparisons with thermistors and pneumotachographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves de Mesquita, Jayme; Lopes de Melo, Pedro

    2004-03-01

    Thermally sensitive devices—thermistors—have usually been used to monitor sleep-breathing disorders. However, because of their long time constant, these devices are not able to provide a good characterization of fast events, like hypopneas. Nasal pressure recording technique (NPR) has recently been suggested to quantify airflow during sleep. It is claimed that the short time constants of the devices used to implement this technique would allow an accurate analysis of fast abnormal respiratory events. However, these devices present errors associated with nonlinearities and acoustic resonance that could reduce the diagnostic value of the NPR. Moreover, in spite of the high scientific and clinical potential, there is no detailed description of a complete instrumentation system to implement this promising technique in sleep studies. In this context, the purpose of this work was twofold: (1) describe the development of a flexible NPR device and (2) evaluate the performance of this device when compared to pneumotachographs (PNTs) and thermistors. After the design details are described, the system static accuracy is evaluated by a comparative analysis with a PNT. This analysis revealed a significant reduction (p<0.001) of the static error when system nonlinearities were reduced. The dynamic performance of the NPR system was investigated by frequency response analysis and time constant evaluations and the results showed that the developed device response was as good as PNT and around 100 times faster (τ=5,3 ms) than thermistors (τ=512 ms). Experimental results obtained in simulated clinical conditions and in a patient are presented as examples, and confirmed the good features achieved in engineering tests. These results are in close agreement with physiological fundamentals, supplying substantial evidence that the improved dynamic and static characteristics of this device can contribute to a more accurate implementation of medical research projects and to improve the

  15. Improving Memory Characteristics of Hydrogenated Nanocrystalline Silicon Germanium Nonvolatile Memory Devices by Controlling Germanium Contents.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jiwoong; Jang, Kyungsoo; Phu, Nguyen Thi Cam; Trinh, Thanh Thuy; Raja, Jayapal; Kim, Taeyong; Cho, Jaehyun; Kim, Sangho; Park, Jinjoo; Jung, Junhee; Lee, Youn-Jung; Yi, Junsin

    2016-05-01

    Nonvolatile memory (NVM) with silicon dioxide/silicon nitride/silicon oxynitride (ONO(n)) charge trap structure is a promising flash memory technology duo that will fulfill process compatibility for system-on-panel displays, down-scaling cell size and low operation voltage. In this research, charge trap flash devices were fabricated with ONO(n) stack gate insulators and an active layer using hydrogenated nanocrystalline silicon germanium (nc-SiGe:H) films at a low temperature. In this study, the effect of the interface trap density on the performance of devices, including memory window and retention, was investigated. The electrical characteristics of NVM devices were studied controlling Ge content from 0% to 28% in the nc-SiGe:H channel layer. The optimal Ge content in the channel layer was found to be around 16%. For nc-SiGe:H NVM with 16% Ge content, the memory window was 3.13 V and the retention data exceeded 77% after 10 years under the programming condition of 15 V for 1 msec. This showed that the memory window increased by 42% and the retention increased by 12% compared to the nc-Si:H NVM that does not contain Ge. However, when the Ge content was more than 16%, the memory window and retention property decreased. Finally, this research showed that the Ge content has an effect on the interface trap density and this enabled us to determine the optimal Ge content. PMID:27483856

  16. Low temperature carrier transport properties in isotopically controlled germanium

    SciTech Connect

    Itoh, K.

    1994-12-01

    Investigations of electronic and optical properties of semiconductors often require specimens with extremely homogeneous dopant distributions and precisely controlled net-carrier concentrations and compensation ratios. The previous difficulties in fabricating such samples are overcome as reported in this thesis by growing high-purity Ge single crystals of controlled {sup 75}Ge and {sup 70}Ge isotopic compositions, and doping these crystals by the neutron transmutation doping (NTD) technique. The resulting net-impurity concentrations and the compensation ratios are precisely determined by the thermal neutron fluence and the [{sup 74}Ge]/[{sup 70}Ge] ratios of the starting Ge materials, respectively. This method also guarantees unprecedented doping uniformity. Using such samples the authors have conducted four types of electron (hole) transport studies probing the nature of (1) free carrier scattering by neutral impurities, (2) free carrier scattering by ionized impurities, (3) low temperature hopping conduction, and (4) free carrier transport in samples close to the metal-insulator transition.

  17. Ionization efficiency study for low energy nuclear recoils in germanium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barker, D.; Wei, W.-Z.; Mei, D.-M.; Zhang, C.

    2013-08-01

    We used the internal conversion (E0 transition) of germanium-72 to indirectly measure the low energy nuclear recoils of germanium. Together with a reliable Monte Carlo package, in which we implement the internal conversion process, the data was compared to the Lindhard (k = 0.159) and Barker-Mei models. A shape analysis indicates that both models agree well with data in the region of interest within 4%. The most probable value (MPV) of the nuclear recoils obtained from the shape analysis is 17.5 ± 0.12 (sys) ±0.035 (stat) keV with an average path-length of 0.014 μm.

  18. High temperature material interactions of thermoelectric systems using silicon germanium.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stapfer, G.; Truscello, V. C.

    1973-01-01

    The efficient use of silicon germanium thermoelectric material for radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTG) is achieved by operation at relatively high temperatures. The insulation technique which is most appropriate for this application uses multiple layers of molybdenum foil and astroquartz. Even so, the long term operation of these materials at elevated temperatures can cause material interaction to occur within the system. To investigate these material interactions, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory is currently testing a number of thermoelectric modules which use four silicon germanium thermoelectric couples in conjunction with the multifoil thermal insulation. The paper discusses the results of the ongoing four-couple module test program and correlates test results with those of a basic material test program.

  19. Synthesis and Gas Phase Thermochemistry of Germanium-Containing Compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Nathan Robert Classen

    2002-12-31

    The driving force behind much of the work in this dissertation was to gain further understanding of the unique olefin to carbene isomerization observed in the thermolysis of 1,1-dimethyl-2-methylenesilacyclobutane by finding new examples of it in other silicon and germanium compounds. This lead to the examination of a novel phenylmethylenesilacyclobut-2-ene, which did not undergo olefin to carbene rearrangement. A synthetic route to methylenegermacyclobutanes was developed, but the methylenegermacyclobutane system exhibited kinetic instability, making the study of the system difficult. In any case the germanium system decomposed through a complex mechanism which may not include olefin to carbene isomerization. However, this work lead to the study of the gas phase thermochemistry of a series of dialkylgermylene precursors in order to better understand the mechanism of the thermal decomposition of dialkylgermylenes. The resulting dialkylgermylenes were found to undergo a reversible intramolecular {beta} C-H insertion mechanism.

  20. Germanium as negative electrode material for sodium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Baggetto, Loic; Keum, Jong Kahk; Browning, Jim; Veith, Gabriel M

    2013-01-01

    Germanium electrodes show a reversible Na-ion reaction at potentials of 0.15 and 0.6 V during discharge and charge, respectively. The reaction is accompanied with a reversible capacity close to 350 mAh g-1, which matches the value expected for the formation of NaGe. The electrode capacity retention is stable over 15 cycles but declines somewhat rapidly afterwards. This decline is typical for alloying systems undergoing large volume expansion, and calls for engineering solutions to confine the mechanical stress and control the electrolyte decomposition reactions that are likely to be the main sources of degradations. The rate performance results highlight the huge potential of nanosized germanium as a potential Na-ion anode. The reaction kinetics is found to be very good with about 220 mAh g-1 delivered at 170 C. Finally, the preliminary XRD results do not reveal the formation of crystalline phases at full (dis)charge.

  1. Photon Identification with Segmented Germanium Detectors in Low Radiation Environments

    SciTech Connect

    Abt, I.; Caldwell, A.; Kroeninger, K.; Liu, J.; Liu, X.; Majorovits, B.; Stelzer, F.

    2007-03-28

    Effective identification of photon-induced events is essential for a new generation of double beta-decay experiments. One such experiment is the GERmanium Detector Array, GERDA, located at the INFN Gran Sasso National Laboratory (LNGS) in Italy. It uses germanium, enriched in 76Ge, as source and detector, and aims at a background level of less than 10-3 counts/(kg {center_dot} keV {center_dot} y) in the region of the Q{beta}{beta}-value. Highly segmented detectors are being developed for this experiment. A detailed GEANT4 Monte Carlo study about the possibilities to identify photon--induced background was published previously. An 18-fold segmented prototype detector was tested and its performance compared with Monte Carlo predictions. The detector performed well and the agreement with the Monte Carlo is excellent.

  2. Characterization of the impurities in tungsten/silicon-germanium contacts

    SciTech Connect

    Gregg, H.A. Sr.

    1986-03-26

    Secondary ion mass spectrometry and Auger electron spectrometry depth profiling were used to determine impurity distributions in sputter deposited tungsten films over N-type and P-type 80/20 silicon-germanium elements of thermoelectric devices. These analyses showed that silicon, oxygen, sodium, boron, and phosphorous were present as impurities in the tungsten film. All these impurities except oxygen and sodium came from the substrate. Oxygen was gettered by the tungsten films, while sodium was possibly the result of sample handling. Further, the results from this study indicate that an oxide build-up, primarily at the tungsten/silicon-germanium interface of the N-type materials, is the major contributor to contact resistance in thermoelectric devices.

  3. Synthesis and photoluminescence of ultra-pure germanium nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chivas, R.; Yerci, S.; Li, R.; Dal Negro, L.; Morse, T. F.

    2011-09-01

    We have used aerosol deposition to synthesize defect and micro-strain free, ultra-pure germanium nanoparticles. Transmission electron microscopy images show a core-shell configuration with highly crystalline core material. Powder X-ray diffraction measurements verify the presence of highly pure, nano-scale germanium with average crystallite size of 30 nm and micro-strain of 0.058%. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy demonstrates that GeO x ( x ⩽ 2) shells cover the surfaces of the nanoparticles. Under optical excitation, these nanoparticles exhibit two separate emission bands at room temperature: a visible emission at 500 nm with 0.5-1 ns decay times and an intense near-infrared emission at 1575 nm with up to ˜20 μs lifetime.

  4. Diffusion of n-type dopants in germanium

    SciTech Connect

    Chroneos, A.; Bracht, H.

    2014-03-15

    Germanium is being actively considered by the semiconductor community as a mainstream material for nanoelectronic applications. Germanium has advantageous materials properties; however, its dopant-defect interactions are less understood as compared to the mainstream material, silicon. The understanding of self- and dopant diffusion is essential to form well defined doped regions. Although p-type dopants such as boron exhibit limited diffusion, n-type dopants such as phosphorous, arsenic, and antimony diffuse quickly via vacancy-mediated diffusion mechanisms. In the present review, we mainly focus on the impact of intrinsic defects on the diffusion mechanisms of donor atoms and point defect engineering strategies to restrain donor atom diffusion and to enhance their electrical activation.

  5. Beta-nitro derivatives of germanium(IV) corrolates.

    PubMed

    Mastroianni, Marco; Zhu, Weihua; Stefanelli, Manuela; Nardis, Sara; Fronczek, Frank R; Smith, Kevin M; Ou, Zhongping; Kadish, Karl M; Paolesse, Roberto

    2008-12-15

    The reaction between germanium(IV) meso-triphenylcorrolates and nitrate salts affords the corresponding beta-nitro substituted corroles in good yield. Chromatographic separation of the crude reaction mixtures enables isolation of a mu-oxo dimer along with the corresponding monomers bearing a hydroxy or methoxy group at an axial position of the germanium central metal ion. Depending on the reaction conditions, mono- or dinitro substituted complexes can be obtained. The substitution is highly regioselective in each case, giving only the 3-nitro or 3,17-dinitro derivative among the different possible isomers. Five of the synthesized complexes were examined by cyclic voltammetry and UV-visible spectroelectrochemistry in dichloromethane, and the dinitro mu-oxo dimer is structurally characterized.

  6. Electronic Structure of Germanium Nanocrystal Films Probed with Synchrotron Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Bostedt, C

    2002-05-01

    The fundamental structure--property relationship of semiconductor quantum dots has been investigated. For deposited germanium nanocrystals strong quantum confinement effects have been determined with synchrotron radiation based x-ray absorption and photoemission techniques. The nanocrystals are condensed out of the gas phase with a narrow size distribution and subsequently deposited in situ onto various substrates. The particles are crystalline in the cubic phase with a structurally disordered surface shell and the resulting film morphology depends strongly on the substrate material and condition. The disordered surface region has an impact on the overall electronic structure of the particles. In a size-dependent study, the conduction and valence band edge of germanium nanocrystals have been measured for the first time and compared to the bulk crystal. The band edges move to higher energies as the particle size is decreased, consistent with quantum confinement theory. To obtain a more accurate analysis of confinement effects in the empty states, a novel analysis method utilizing an effective particle size for the x-ray absorption experiment, which allows a deconvolution of absorption edge broadening effects, has been introduced. Comparison of the present study to earlier studies on silicon reveals that germanium exhibits stronger quantum confinement effects than silicon. Below a critical particle size of 2.3 {+-} 0.7 nm, the band gap of germanium becomes larger than that of silicon--even if it is the opposite for bulk materials. This result agrees phenomenologically with effective mass and tight binding theories but contradicts the findings of recent pseudopotential calculations. The discrepancy between theory and experiments is attributed to the differences in the theoretical models and experimental systems. The experimentally observed structural disorder of the particle surface has to be included in the theoretical models.

  7. Optical properties of silicon germanium waveguides at telecommunication wavelengths.

    PubMed

    Hammani, Kamal; Ettabib, Mohamed A; Bogris, Adonis; Kapsalis, Alexandros; Syvridis, Dimitris; Brun, Mickael; Labeye, Pierre; Nicoletti, Sergio; Richardson, David J; Petropoulos, Periklis

    2013-07-15

    We present a systematic experimental study of the linear and nonlinear optical properties of silicon-germanium (SiGe) waveguides, conducted on samples of varying cross-sectional dimensions and Ge concentrations. The evolution of the various optical properties for waveguide widths in the range 0.3 to 2 µm and Ge concentrations varying between 10 and 30% is considered. Finally, we comment on the comparative performance of the waveguides, when they are considered for nonlinear applications at telecommunications wavelengths.

  8. Bandwidth improvement for germanium photodetector using wire bonding technology.

    PubMed

    Chen, Guanyu; Yu, Yu; Deng, Shupeng; Liu, Lei; Zhang, Xinliang

    2015-10-01

    We demonstrate an ultrahigh speed germanium photodetector by introducing gold wires into the discrete ground electrodes with standard wire bonding technology. To engineer the parasitic parameter, the physical dimension of the gold wire used for wire bonding is specially designed with an inductance of about 450 pH. Simulation and experimental results show that the bandwidth of the photodetector can be effectively extended from less than 30 GHz to over 60 GHz.

  9. Long-Term Stability of Germanium Resistance Thermometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Courts, S. Scott; Yeager, C. Joseph

    2003-09-01

    Doped germanium resistance thermometers (GRTs) have been used as cryogenic thermometers for forty years. GRTs exhibit a negative temperature coefficient of resistance and possess a high sensitivity that allows for sub-millikelvin control at lower temperatures. These devices also exhibit excellent short- and long-term stability and were used to maintain national temperature scales below 30 K until the advent of the rhodium-iron thermometer. Lake Shore Cryotronics uses GRTs, model GR-200A-1000, as the transfer thermometer for temperature calibration below 30 K. A typical GRT working standard is thermally cycled from 1.4 K to 330 K once a week on average. Every six months, to ensure stability and traceability, these working standard GRTs are compared against a set of standards-grade germanium, platinum, and rhodium-iron resistance thermometers calibrated by the National Institute of Standards and Technology in the US and/or the National Physical Laboratory in the UK. These comparisons yield a measure of the long-term stability of these GRTs over a period of years. This paper reports the long-term stability from 1.4 K to 30 K of eleven germanium resistance thermometers as a function of time and thermal cycling during their use as working standard thermometers.

  10. Tin-germanium alloys as anode materials for sodium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Abel, Paul R; Fields, Meredith G; Heller, Adam; Mullins, C Buddie

    2014-09-24

    The sodium electrochemistry of evaporatively deposited tin, germanium, and alloys of the two elements is reported. Limiting the sodium stripping voltage window to 0.75 V versus Na/Na+ improves the stability of the tin and tin-rich compositions on repeated sodiation/desodiation cycles, whereas the germanium and germanium-rich alloys were stable up to 1.5 V. The stability of the electrodes could be correlated to the surface mobility of the alloy species during deposition suggesting that tin must be effectively immobilized in order to be successfully utilized as a stable electrode. While the stability of the alloys is greatly increased by the presence of germanium, the specific Coulombic capacity of the alloy decreases with increasing germanium content due to the lower Coulombic capacity of germanium. Additionally, the presence of germanium in the alloy suppresses the formation of intermediate phases present in the electrochemical sodiation of tin. Four-point probe resistivity measurements of the different compositions show that electrical resistivity increases with germanium content. Pure germanium is the most resistive yet exhibited the best electrochemical performance at high current densities which indicates that electrical resistivity is not rate limiting for any of the tested compositions.

  11. Synthesis and characterization of silicon and germanium nanowires, silica nanotubes, and germanium telluride/tellurium nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuan, Hsing-Yu

    A supercritical fluid-liquid solid (SFLS) nanowire growth process using alkanethiol-coated Au nanoparticles to seed silicon nanowires was developed for synthesizing silicon nanowires in solution. The organic solvent was found to significantly influence the silicon precursor decomposition in solution. 46.8 mg of silicon nanowires with 63% yield of silicon nanowire synthesis were achieved while using benzene as a solvent. The most widely used metal for seeding Si and Ge nanowires is Au. However, Au forms deep trap in both Si and Ge and alternative metal seeds are more desirable for electronic applications. Different metal nanocrystals were studied for Si and Ge nanowire synthesis, including Co, Ni, CuS, Mn, Ir, MnPt 3, Fe2O3, and FePt. All eight metals have eutectic temperatures with Si and Ge that are well above the nanowire growth temperature. Unlike Au nanocrystals, which seed nanowire growth through the formation of a liquid Au:Si (Au:Ge) alloy, these other metals seed nanowires by forming solid silicide alloys, a process we have called "supercritical fluid-solid-solid" (SFSS) growth. Moreover, Co and Ni nanoparticles were found to catalyze the decomposition of various silane reactants that do not work well to make Si nanowires using Au seeds. In addition to seeding solid nanowires, CuS nanoparticles were found to seed silica nanotubes via a SFSS like mechanism. 5% of synthesized silica nanotubes were coiled. Heterostructured nanomaterials are interesting since they merge the properties of the individual materials and can be used in diverse applications. GeTe/Te heterostructures were synthesized by reacting diphenylgermane (DPG) and TOP-Te in the presence of organic surfactants. Aligned Te nanorods were grown on the surface facets of micrometer-size germanium telluride particles.

  12. Functionalization of Mechanochemically Passivated Germanium Nanoparticles via "Click" Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purkait, Tapas Kumar

    Germanium nanoparticles (Ge NPs) may be fascinating for their electronic and optoelectronic properties, as the band gap of Ge NPs can be tuned from the infrared into the visible range of solar spectru. Further functionalization of those nanoparticles may potentially lead to numerous applications ranging from surface attachment, bioimaging, drug delivery and nanoparticles based devices. Blue luminescent germanium nanoparticles were synthesized from a novel top-down mechanochemical process using high energy ball milling (HEBM) of bulk germanium. Various reactive organic molecules (such as, alkynes, nitriles, azides) were used in this process to react with fresh surface and passivate the surface through Ge-C or Ge-N bond. Various purification process, such as gel permeation chromatography (GPC), Soxhlet dailysis etc. were introduced to purify nanoparticles from molecular impurities. A size separation technique was developed using GPC. The size separated Ge NPs were characterize by TEM, small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), UV-vis absorption and photoluminescence (PL) emission spectroscopy to investigate their size selective properties. Germanium nanoparticles with alkyne termini group were prepared by HEBM of germanium with a mixture of n-alkynes and alpha, o-diynes. Additional functionalization of those nanoparticles was achieved by copper(I) catalyzed azide-alkyne "click" reaction. A variety of organic and organometallic azides including biologically important glucals have been reacted in this manner resulting in nanopartilces adorned with ferrocenyl, trimethylsilyl, and glucal groups. Additional functionalization of those nanoparticles was achieved by reactions with various azides via a Cu(I) catalyzed azide-alkyne "click" reaction. Various azides, including PEG derivatives and cylcodextrin moiety, were grafted to the initially formed surface. Globular nanoparticle arrays were formed through interparticle linking via "click" chemistry or "host-guest" chemistry

  13. Oriented bottom-up growth of armchair graphene nanoribbons on germanium

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, Michael Scott; Jacobberger, Robert Michael

    2016-03-15

    Graphene nanoribbon arrays, methods of growing graphene nanoribbon arrays and electronic and photonic devices incorporating the graphene nanoribbon arrays are provided. The graphene nanoribbons in the arrays are formed using a scalable, bottom-up, chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technique in which the (001) facet of the germanium is used to orient the graphene nanoribbon crystals along the [110] directions of the germanium.

  14. Naturally occurring vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) Whisker growth of germanium sulfide

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finkelman, R.B.; Larson, R.R.; Dwornik, E.J.

    1974-01-01

    The first naturally occurring terrestrial example of vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth has been observed in condensates from gases released by burning coal in culm banks. Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and energy dispersive analysis indicate that the crystals consist of elongated rods (??? 100 ??m) of germanium sulfide capped by bulbs depleted in germanium. ?? 1974.

  15. Oligogermanes as molecular precursors for germanium(0) nanoparticles: Size control and size-dependent fluorescence

    SciTech Connect

    Schrick, Aaron C.; Weinert, Charles S.

    2013-10-15

    Graphical abstract: Catenated germanium compounds are employed as molecular precursors for germanium(0) nanoparticles. The size of the nanoparticles, and their fluorescence spectra, depend on the number of catenated germanium atoms present in the precursor. - Highlights: • We have used oligogermanes for the size-specific synthesis of germanium(0) nanoparticles. • The size of the nanomaterials obtained depends directly on the degree of catenation present in the oligogermane precursor. • The nanoparticles are shown to exhibit size-dependent fluorescence. • Oligogermanes will function as useful precursors for the synthesis of a variety of nanomaterials. - Abstract: Germanium nanoparticles were synthesized in solution from novel oligogermane molecular precursors. The size of the nanoparticles obtained is directly related to the number of catenated germanium atoms present in the oligogermane precursor and the nanoparticles exhibit size-dependent fluorescence. The germanium nanoparticles were also characterized by TEM, powder XRD, FTIR, EDS and XPS methods. This method appears to be a promising new route for the synthesis of germanium nanoparticles since the size of the materials obtained can be controlled by the choice of the oligogermane used as the precursor.

  16. Internal stresses and dislocation structure of large single crystals of germanium for IR optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaplunov, I. A.

    2006-02-01

    The thermoelastic stresses that appear during crystallization have been theoretically estimated for single crystals of germanium grown in the shape of a disk. It is shown that there is a correlation between the stress distribution and the dislocation structure of large single crystals of germanium obtained by the Stepanov method and by directed crystallization.

  17. Low Temperature Carrier Transport Properties in Isotopically Controlled Germanium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itoh, Kohei

    Investigations of electronic and optical properties of semiconductors often require specimens with extremely homogeneous dopant distributions and precisely controlled net-carrier concentrations and compensation ratios. The previous difficulties in fabricating such samples are overcome as reported in this thesis by growing high-purity Ge single crystals of controlled ^{74}Ge and ^{70}Ge isotopic compositions, and doping these crystals by the neutron transmutation doping (NTD) technique. The resulting net-impurity concentrations and the compensation ratios are precisely determined by the thermal neutron fluence and the (^{74 }Ge) / (^{70}Ge) ratios of the starting Ge materials, respectively. This method also guarantees unprecedented doping uniformity. Using such samples we have conducted four types of electron (hole) transport studies probing the nature of (1) free carrier scattering by neutral impurities, (2) free carrier scattering by ionized impurities, (3) low temperature hopping conduction, and (4) free carrier transport in samples close to the metal-insulator transition. We have also performed infrared absorption spectroscopy studies of compensated Ge samples, investigating the line broadening mechanism due to random electric fields arising from ionized impurity centers. In the study of neutral impurity scattering, we find excellent agreement between the low temperature experimental mobility and phase shift calculations for the hydrogen atom scaled to shallow impurities in semiconductors. In the ionized impurity scattering study, none of the theories we have tested so far explains our low temperature experimental mobilities in highly compensated Ge (K>0.3). We discuss possible problems associated with the theories, in particular, the treatment of the screening mechanism. In the study of low temperature hopping conduction, we show results of temperature dependent resistivity measurements as a function of both the net-carrier concentration and the compensation

  18. Bandgap-customizable germanium using lithographically determined biaxial tensile strain for silicon-compatible optoelectronics.

    PubMed

    Sukhdeo, David S; Nam, Donguk; Kang, Ju-Hyung; Brongersma, Mark L; Saraswat, Krishna C

    2015-06-29

    Strain engineering has proven to be vital for germanium-based photonics, in particular light emission. However, applying a large permanent biaxial tensile strain to germanium has been a challenge. We present a simple, CMOS-compatible technique to conveniently induce a large, spatially homogenous strain in circular structures patterned within germanium nanomembranes. Our technique works by concentrating and amplifying a pre-existing small strain into a circular region. Biaxial tensile strains as large as 1.11% are observed by Raman spectroscopy and are further confirmed by photoluminescence measurements, which show enhanced and redshifted light emission from the strained germanium. Our technique allows the amount of biaxial strain to be customized lithographically, allowing the bandgaps of different germanium structures to be independently customized in a single mask process.

  19. Direct Bandgap Light Emission from Strained Germanium Nanowires Coupled with High-Q Nanophotonic Cavities.

    PubMed

    Petykiewicz, Jan; Nam, Donguk; Sukhdeo, David S; Gupta, Shashank; Buckley, Sonia; Piggott, Alexander Y; Vučković, Jelena; Saraswat, Krishna C

    2016-04-13

    A silicon-compatible light source is the final missing piece for completing high-speed, low-power on-chip optical interconnects. In this paper, we present a germanium nanowire light emitter that encompasses all the aspects of potential low-threshold lasers: highly strained germanium gain medium, strain-induced pseudoheterostructure, and high-Q nanophotonic cavity. Our nanowire structure presents greatly enhanced photoluminescence into cavity modes with measured quality factors of up to 2000. By varying the dimensions of the germanium nanowire, we tune the emission wavelength over more than 400 nm with a single lithography step. We find reduced optical loss in optical cavities formed with germanium under high (>2.3%) tensile strain. Our compact, high-strain cavities open up new possibilities for low-threshold germanium-based lasers for on-chip optical interconnects.

  20. Adhesion and friction behavior of group 4 elements germanium, silicon, tin, and lead

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, D. H.

    1975-01-01

    Adhesion and friction studies were conducted with thin films of the group IV elements silicon, germanium, tin, and lead ion plated on the nickel (011) substrate. The mating surface was gold (111). Contacts were made for the elements in the clean state and with oxygen present. Adhesion and friction experiments were conducted at very light loads of 1 to 10 g. Sliding was at a speed of 0.7 mm/min. Friction results indicate that the more covalently bonded elements silicon and germanium exhibit lower adhesion and friction than the more metallic bonded tin and lead. The adhesion of gold to germanium was observed, and recrystallization of the transferred gold occurred. Plastic flow of germanium was seen with sliding. Oxygen reduced, but did not eliminate, the adhesion observed with germanium and silicon.

  1. Nanoindentation-induced phase transformation and structural deformation of monocrystalline germanium: a molecular dynamics simulation investigation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations were conducted to study the nanoindentation of monocrystalline germanium. The path of phase transformation and distribution of transformed region on different crystallographic orientations were investigated. The results indicate the anisotropic behavior of monocrystalline germanium. The nanoindentation-induced phase transformation from diamond cubic structure to β-tin-Ge was found in the subsurface region beneath the tool when indented on the (010) plane, while direct amorphization was observed in the region right under the indenter when the germanium was loaded along the [101] and [111] directions. The transformed phases extend along the < 110 > slip direction of germanium. The depth and shape of the deformed layers after unloading are quite different according to the crystal orientation of the indentation plane. The study results suggest that phase transformation is the dominant mechanism of deformation of monocrystalline germanium film in nanoindentation. PMID:23947487

  2. Suspended germanium cross-shaped microstructures for enhancing biaxial tensile strain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishida, Satomi; Kako, Satoshi; Oda, Katsuya; Ido, Tatemi; Iwamoto, Satoshi; Arakawa, Yasuhiko

    2016-04-01

    We fabricate a suspended germanium cross-shaped microstructure to biaxially enhance residual tensile strain using a germanium epilayer directly grown on a silicon-on-insulator substrate. Such a suspended germanium system with enhanced biaxial tensile strain will be a promising platform for incorporating optical cavities toward the realization of germanium lasers. We demonstrate systematic control over biaxial tensile strain and photoluminescence peaks by changing structural geometry. The photoluminescence peaks corresponding to the direct recombination between the conduction Γ valley and two strain-induced separated valence bands have been clearly assigned. A maximum biaxial strain of 0.8% has been achieved, which is almost half of that required to transform germanium into a direct band-gap semiconductor.

  3. Germanium Lift-Off Masks for Thin Metal Film Patterning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Ari

    2012-01-01

    A technique has been developed for patterning thin metallic films that are, in turn, used to fabricate microelectronics circuitry and thin-film sensors. The technique uses germanium thin films as lift-off masks. This requires development of a technique to strip or undercut the germanium chemically without affecting the deposited metal. Unlike in the case of conventional polymeric lift-off masks, the substrate can be exposed to very high temperatures during processing (sputter deposition). The reason why polymeric liftoff masks cannot be exposed to very high temperatures (greater than 100 C) is because (a) they can become cross linked, making lift-off very difficult if not impossible, and (b) they can outgas nitrogen and oxygen, which then can react with the metal being deposited. Consequently, this innovation is expected to find use in the fabrication of transition edge sensors and microwave kinetic inductance detectors, which use thin superconducting films deposited at high temperature as their sensing elements. Transition edge sensors, microwave kinetic inductance detectors, and their circuitry are comprised of superconducting thin films, for example Nb and TiN. Reactive ion etching can be used to pattern these films; however, reactive ion etching also damages the underlying substrate, which is unwanted in many instances. Polymeric lift-off techniques permit thin-film patterning without any substrate damage, but they are difficult to remove and the polymer can outgas during thin-film deposition. The outgassed material can then react with the film with the consequence of altered and non-reproducible materials properties, which, in turn, is deleterious for sensors and their circuitry. The purpose of this innovation was to fabricate a germanium lift-off mask to be used for patterning thin metal films.

  4. Temperature-dependent Refractive Index of Silicon and Germanium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frey, Bradley J.; Leviton, Douglas B.; Madison, Timothy J.

    2006-01-01

    Silicon and germanium are perhaps the two most well-understood semiconductor materials in the context of solid state device technologies and more recently micromachining and nanotechnology. Meanwhile, these two materials are also important in the field of infrared lens design. Optical instruments designed for the wavelength range where these two materials are transmissive achieve best performance when cooled to cryogenic temperatures to enhance signal from the scene over instrument background radiation. In order to enable high quality lens designs using silicon and germanium at cryogenic temperatures, we have measured the absolute refractive index of multiple prisms of these two materials using the Cryogenic, High-Accuracy Refraction Measuring System (CHARMS) at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, as a function of both wavelength and temperature. For silicon, we report absolute refractive index and thermo-optic coefficient (dn/dT) at temperatures ranging from 20 to 300 K at wavelengths from 1.1 to 5.6 pin, while for germanium, we cover temperatures ranging from 20 to 300 K and wavelengths from 1.9 to 5.5 microns. We compare our measurements with others in the literature and provide temperature-dependent Sellmeier coefficients based on our data to allow accurate interpolation of index to other wavelengths and temperatures. Citing the wide variety of values for the refractive indices of these two materials found in the literature, we reiterate the importance of measuring the refractive index of a sample from the same batch of raw material from which final optical components are cut when absolute accuracy greater than k5 x 10" is desired.

  5. Gallium-doped germanium, evaluation of photoconductors, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, W. J.

    1979-01-01

    Gallium-doped germanium far infrared detectors were evaluated at low temperatures and low background simulating the space environment. Signal and noise characteristics were determined for detector temperatures in the 2K to 4K range. Optimum performance occurs at about 2.5K for all devices tested. The minimum average NEP in the 40-130 micron region was found to be approximately 4 x 10 to the minus 17th power watt Hz(-1/2) at a frequency of 1 Hz.

  6. Effect on magnetic properties of germanium encapsulated C60 fullerene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umran, Nibras Mossa; Kumar, Ranjan

    2013-02-01

    Structural and electronic properties of Gen(n = 1-4) doped C60 fullerene are investigated with ab initio density functional theory calculations by using an efficient computer code, known as SIESTA. The pseudopotentials are constructed using a Trouiller-Martins scheme, to describe the interaction of valence electrons with the atomic cores. In endohedral doped embedding of more germanium atoms complexes we have seen that complexes are stable and thereafter cage break down. We have also investigated that binding energy, electronic affinity increases and magnetic moment oscillating behavior as the number of semiconductor atoms in C60 fullerene goes on increasing.

  7. Interstitial-Mediated Diffusion in Germanium under Proton Irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bracht, H.; Schneider, S.; Klug, J. N.; Liao, C. Y.; Hansen, J. Lundsgaard; Haller, E. E.; Larsen, A. Nylandsted; Bougeard, D.; Posselt, M.; Wündisch, C.

    2009-12-01

    We report experiments on the impact of 2.5 MeV proton irradiation on self-diffusion and dopant diffusion in germanium (Ge). Self-diffusion under irradiation reveals an unusual depth independent broadening of the Ge isotope multilayer structure. This behavior and the observed enhanced diffusion of B and retarded diffusion of P demonstrates that an interstitial-mediated diffusion process dominates in Ge under irradiation. This fundamental finding opens up unique ways to suppress vacancy-mediated diffusion in Ge and to solve the donor deactivation problem that hinders the fabrication of Ge-based nanoelectronic devices.

  8. A miniature temperature high germanium doped PCF interferometer sensor.

    PubMed

    Favero, F C; Spittel, R; Just, F; Kobelke, J; Rothhardt, M; Bartelt, H

    2013-12-16

    We report in this paper a high thermal sensitivity (78 pm/°C) modal interferometer using a very short Photonic Crystal Fiber stub with a shaped Germanium doped core. The Photonic Crystal Fiber is spliced between two standard fibers. The splice regions allow the excitation of the core and cladding modes in the PCF and perform an interferometric interaction of such modes. The device is proposed for sensitive temperature measurements in transmission, as well as in reflection operation mode with the same high temperature sensitivity.

  9. Ultra-low noise mechanically cooled germanium detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barton, P.; Amman, M.; Martin, R.; Vetter, K.

    2016-03-01

    Low capacitance, large volume, high purity germanium (HPGe) radiation detectors have been successfully employed in low-background physics experiments. However, some physical processes may not be detectable with existing detectors whose energy thresholds are limited by electronic noise. In this paper, methods are presented which can lower the electronic noise of these detectors. Through ultra-low vibration mechanical cooling and wire bonding of a CMOS charge sensitive preamplifier to a sub-pF p-type point contact HPGe detector, we demonstrate electronic noise levels below 40 eV-FWHM.

  10. Resonance-enhanced waveguide-coupled silicon-germanium detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alloatti, L.; Ram, R. J.

    2016-02-01

    A photodiode with 0.55 ± 0.1 A/W responsivity at a wavelength of 1176.9 nm has been fabricated in a 45 nm microelectronics silicon-on-insulator foundry process. The resonant waveguide photodetector exploits carrier generation in silicon-germanium within a microring which is compatible with high-performance electronics. A 3 dB bandwidth of 5 GHz at -4 V bias is obtained with a dark current of less than 20 pA.

  11. Three holes bound to a double acceptor - Be(+) in germanium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haller, E. E.; Mcmurray, R. E., Jr.; Falicov, L. M.; Haegel, N. M.; Hansen, W. L.

    1983-01-01

    A double acceptor binding three holes has been observed for the first time with photoconductive far-infrared spectroscopy in beryllium-doped germanium single crystals. This new center, Be(+), has a hole binding energy of about 5 meV and is only present when free holes are generated by ionization of either neutral shallow acceptors or neutral Be double acceptors. The Be(+) center thermally ionizes above 4 K. It disappears at a uniaxial stress higher than about a billion dyn/sq cm parallel to (111) as a result of the lifting of the valence-band degeneracy.

  12. Germanium nanowire growth controlled by surface diffusion effects

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidtbauer, Jan; Bansen, Roman; Heimburger, Robert; Teubner, Thomas; Boeck, Torsten; Fornari, Roberto

    2012-07-23

    Germanium nanowires (NWs) were grown onto Ge(111) substrates by the vapor-liquid-solid process using gold droplets. The growth was carried out in a molecular beam epitaxy chamber at substrate temperatures between 370 Degree-Sign C and 510 Degree-Sign C. The resulting nanowire growth rate turns out to be highly dependent on the substrate temperature exhibiting the maximum at T = 430 Degree-Sign C. The temperature dependence of growth rate can be attributed to surface diffusion both along the substrate and nanowire sidewalls. Analyzing the diffusive material transport yields a diffusion length of 126 nm at a substrate temperature of 430 Degree-Sign C.

  13. Preparation of freestanding germanium nanocrystals by ultrasonic aerosol pyrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoldt, Conrad R.; Haag, Michael A.; Larsen, Brian A.

    2008-07-01

    This letter reports a synthetic route adaptable for the continuous, large-scale production of germanium (Ge) nanocrystals for emerging electronic and optoelectronic applications. Using an ultrasonic aerosol pyrolysis approach, diamond cubic Ge nanocrystals with dense, spherical morphologies and sizes ranging from 3to14nm are synthesized at 700°C from an ultrasonically generated aerosol of tetrapropylgermane (TPG) precursor and toluene solvent. The ultimate crystal size demonstrates a near linear relationship within the range of TPG concentrations investigated, while the shape of the measured size distributions predicts multiple particle formation mechanisms during aerosol decomposition and condensation.

  14. Infrared absorption study of neutron-transmutation-doped germanium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, I. S.; Haller, E. E.

    1988-01-01

    Using high-resolution far-infrared Fourier transform absorption spectroscopy and Hall effect measurements, the evolution of the shallow acceptor and donor impurity levels in germanium during and after the neutron transmutation doping process was studied. The results show unambiguously that the gallium acceptor level concentration equals the concentration of transmutated Ge-70 atoms during the whole process indicating that neither recoil during transmutation nor gallium-defect complex formation play significant roles. The arsenic donor levels appear at full concentration only after annealing for 1 h at 450 C. It is shown that this is due to donor-radiation-defect complex formation. Again, recoil does not play a significant role.

  15. Germanium wrap-around photodetectors on Silicon photonics.

    PubMed

    Going, Ryan; Seok, Tae Joon; Loo, Jodi; Hsu, Kyle; Wu, Ming C

    2015-05-01

    We present a novel waveguide coupling scheme where a germanium diode grown via rapid melt growth is wrapped around a silicon waveguide. A 4 fF PIN photodiode is demonstrated with 0.95 A/W responsivity at 1550 nm, 6 nA dark current, and nearly 9 GHz bandwidth. Devices with shorter intrinsic region exhibit higher bandwidth (30 GHz) and slightly lower responsivity (0.7 A/W). An NPN phototransistor is also demonstrated using the same design with 14 GHz f(T). PMID:25969287

  16. Intrinsic germanium detector used in borehole sonde for uranium exploration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Senftle, F.E.; Moxham, R.M.; Tanner, A.B.; Boynton, G.R.; Philbin, P.W.; Baicker, J.A.

    1976-01-01

    A borehole sonde (~1.7 m long; 7.3 cm diameter) using a 200 mm2 planar intrinsic germanium detector, mounted in a cryostat cooled by removable canisters of frozen propane, has been constructed and tested. The sonde is especially useful in measuring X- and low-energy gamma-ray spectra (40–400 keV). Laboratory tests in an artificial borehole facility indicate its potential for in-situ uranium analyses in boreholes irrespective of the state of equilibrium in the uranium series. Both natural gamma-ray and neutron-activation gamma-ray spectra have been measured with the sonde. Although the neutron-activation technique yields greater sensitivity, improvements being made in the resolution and efficiency of intrinsic germanium detectors suggest that it will soon be possible to use a similar sonde in the passive mode for measurement of uranium in a borehole down to about 0.1% with acceptable accuracy. Using a similar detector and neutron activation, the sonde can be used to measure uranium down to 0.01%.

  17. Reduction of phosphorus diffusion in germanium by fluorine implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Mubarek, H. A. W.

    2013-12-01

    The control of phosphorus (P) diffusion in germanium (Ge) is essential for the realisation of ultrashallow n-type junctions in Ge. This work reports a detailed study of the effect of fluorine (F) co-implantation on P diffusion in Ge. P and F profiles were characterized by secondary ion mass spectroscopy. The ion implantation damage was investigated using cross sectional transmission electron microscopy. It is shown that F co-implantation reduces the implanted P profile width and reduces both intrinsic and extrinsic P diffusion in Ge. A defect mediated mechanism for the strong influence of F co-implantation on P diffusion in Ge is proposed and invokes the formation of FnVm clusters in the F-amorphized Ge layer. A fraction of these FnVm clusters decorate the interstitial type end-of-range defects in the re-grown Ge layer and the rest react during re-growth with interstitial germanium atoms diffusing back from the amorphous crystalline interface. The Ge vacancies are then annihilated and mobile interstitial F is released and out diffuses from the surface. This results in a re-grown Ge layer which has a low vacancy concentration and in which the P diffusion rate is reduced. These results open the way to the realization of enhanced Ge n-type devices.

  18. Materials and Fabrication Issues for Large Machined Germanium Immersion Gratings

    SciTech Connect

    Kuzmenko, P J; Davis, P J; Little, S L; Hale, L C

    2006-05-22

    LLNL has successfully fabricated small (1.5 cm{sup 2} area) germanium immersion gratings. We studied the feasibility of producing a large germanium immersion grating by means of single point diamond flycutting. Our baseline design is a 63.4o blaze echelle with a 6 cm beam diameter. Birefringence and refractive index inhomogeneity due to stresses produced by the crystal growth process are of concern. Careful selection of the grating blank and possibly additional annealing to relieve stress will be required. The Large Optics Diamond Turning Machine (LODTM) at LLNL is a good choice for the fabrication. It can handle parts up to 1.5 meter in diameter and 0.5 meter in length and is capable of a surface figure accuracy of better than 28 nm rms. We will describe the machine modifications and the machining process for a large grating. A next generation machine, the Precision Optical Grinder and Lathe (POGAL), currently under development has tighter specifications and could produce large gratings with higher precision.

  19. Initial Component Testing for a Germanium Array Cryostat

    SciTech Connect

    Keillor, Martin E.; Aalseth, Craig E.; Day, Anthony R.; Fast, James E.; Hoppe, Eric W.; Hyronimus, Brian J.; Hossbach, Todd W.; Seifert, Allen

    2009-06-01

    This report describes progress on the construction of two ultra-low-background cryostats that are part of the NA-22 funded “Radionuclide Laboratories” (RN Labs) project. Each cryostat will house seven high-purity germanium crystals (HPGe). These cryostats are being built from a limited set of materials that are known to have very low levels of radioactive impurities. The RN Labs instrument is designed to take advantage of low background performance, high detection efficiency, and γ-γ coincidence signatures to provide unprecedented gamma spectroscopy sensitivity. The project is focused on improving gamma analysis capabilities for nuclear detonation detection (NDD) applications. The instrument also has the potential for basic nuclear physics research. Section 1 provides the background for the project. Section 2 discusses germanium crystal acceptance testing. Design problems were found after the first delivery of new detectors from the vendor, Canberra Semiconductors. The first four crystals were returned for repair, resulting in a delay in crystal procurement. Section 3 provides an update on copper electroforming. In general, electroforming parts for RN Labs has proceeded smoothly, but there have been recent problems in electroforming three large copper parts necessary for the project. Section 4 describes the first round of testing for the instrument: anti-cosmic scintillator testing, electronics testing, and initial vacuum testing. Section 5 concludes with an overall description of the state of the project and challenges that remain.

  20. Background Reduction For Germanium Double Beta Decay Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez, H.; Cebrian, S.; Morales, J.; Villar, J. A.

    2007-03-28

    The new generation experiments to search for the neutrinoless double beta decay of 76Ge (Q{beta}{beta}=2039keV) using enriched germanium detectors, need to reach a background level of {approx}10-3 c keV-1 kg-1 y-1 in the Region of Interest (RoI: 2-2.1 MeV) that would have, for 70 kg of germanium enriched to 86% in 76Ge, 3 keV of FWHM and 5 years of measuring time, a sensitivity on the effective neutrino mass of {<=} 40 meV. To reduce the background level close to the value needed, we have to combine several techniques. Three of the most important points to study are: segmentation and granularity of the crystal and spatial resolution of the detector directly correlated with an offline Pulse Shape Analysis (PSA). Preliminary studies about these strategies for background reduction were developed during last months, obtaining some promising results.

  1. Evaluating a new segmented germanium detector contact technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, E. G.; Lister, C. J.; Chowdhury, P.; Hull, E.; Pehl, R.

    2012-10-01

    New technologies for making gamma ray detectors position sensitive have many applications in space science, medical imaging, homeland security, and in nuclear structure research. One promising approach uses high-purity germanium wafers with the planar surfaces segmented into orthogonal strip patterns forming a Double-Sided Strip Detector (DSSD). The combination of data from adjoining strips, or pixels, is physics-rich for Compton image formation and polarization studies. However, sensitivity to charge loss and various kinds of cross-talk [1] have limited the usefulness of first generation devices. We are investigating new contact technologies, developed by PhDs Co [2], based on amorphous-germanium and yttrium contacts RF sputter deposited to a thickness of ˜ 1000 å. New techniques allow both physical and photolithographic segmentation of the contacts with inter-strip gap widths of 0.25 mm. These modifications should improve all aspects of charge collection. The new detector technology employs the same material and fabrication technique for both the n- and p- contacts, thus removing artificial asymmetry in the data. Results from tests of cross-talk, charge collection, and scattering asymmetry will be presented and compared with older technologies. This mechanically cooled counter, NP-7, seems to represent a breakthrough.[4pt] [1] S. Gros et al., Nucl. Inst. Meth. A 602, 467 (2009).[0pt] [2] E. Hull et al Nucl Inst Meth A 626, 39 (2011)

  2. Reduction of phosphorus diffusion in germanium by fluorine implantation

    SciTech Connect

    El Mubarek, H. A. W.

    2013-12-14

    The control of phosphorus (P) diffusion in germanium (Ge) is essential for the realisation of ultrashallow n-type junctions in Ge. This work reports a detailed study of the effect of fluorine (F) co-implantation on P diffusion in Ge. P and F profiles were characterized by secondary ion mass spectroscopy. The ion implantation damage was investigated using cross sectional transmission electron microscopy. It is shown that F co-implantation reduces the implanted P profile width and reduces both intrinsic and extrinsic P diffusion in Ge. A defect mediated mechanism for the strong influence of F co-implantation on P diffusion in Ge is proposed and invokes the formation of F{sub n}V{sub m} clusters in the F-amorphized Ge layer. A fraction of these F{sub n}V{sub m} clusters decorate the interstitial type end-of-range defects in the re-grown Ge layer and the rest react during re-growth with interstitial germanium atoms diffusing back from the amorphous crystalline interface. The Ge vacancies are then annihilated and mobile interstitial F is released and out diffuses from the surface. This results in a re-grown Ge layer which has a low vacancy concentration and in which the P diffusion rate is reduced. These results open the way to the realization of enhanced Ge n-type devices.

  3. Crystal Growth of Germanium-Silicon Alloys on the ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volz, M. P.; Mazuruk, K.; Croell, A.

    2015-01-01

    A series of Ge(1-x)Si(x) crystal growth experiments are planned to be conducted in the Low Gradient Furnace (LGF) onboard the International Space Station. The experiments are part of the investigation "Influence of Containment on the Growth of Silicon-Germanium" (ICESAGE). The primary objective of the research is to determine the influence of containment on the processing-induced defects and impurity incorporation in germanium-silicon alloy crystals. A comparison will be made between crystals grown by the normal and "detached" Bridgman methods and the ground-based float zone technique. Crystals grown without being in contact with a container have superior quality to otherwise similar crystals grown in direct contact with a container, especially with respect to impurity incorporation, formation of dislocations, and residual stress in crystals. "Detached" or "dewetted" Bridgman growth is similar to regular Bridgman growth in that most of the melt is in contact with the crucible wall, but the crystal is separated from the wall by a small gap, typically of the order of 10-100 microns. Long duration reduced gravity is essential to test the proposed theory of detached growth. Detached growth requires the establishment of a meniscus between the crystal and the ampoule wall. This meniscus can exist over a much larger range of processing parameters in microgravity and the meniscus is more stable under microgravity conditions. The plans for the flight experiments will be described.

  4. Germanium as an integrated resistor material in RF MEMS switches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grenier, K.; Bordas, C.; Pinaud, S.; Salvagnac, L.; Dubuc, D.

    2007-05-01

    This paper introduces the use of germanium as resistive material in RF MicroElectroMechanical (MEMS) devices. Integrated resistors are indeed highly required into RF MEMS switches, in order to prevent any RF signal leakage in the bias lines and also to be compatible with ICs. Germanium material presents strong advantages compared to others. It is widely used in microtechnologies, notably as an important semi-conductor in SiGe transistors as well as sacrificial or structural layers and also mask layer in various processes (Si micromachining especially). But it also presents a great electrical characteristic with a very high resistivity value. This property is particularly interesting for the elaboration of integrated resistors for RF components as it assures miniaturised resistors in total agreement with electromagnetic requirements. Its compatibility as resistive material in MEMS has been carried out. Its integration in the entire MEMS process has been fruitfully achieved and led to the successful demonstration and validation of integrated Ge resistors into serial RF MEMS variable capacitors, without any RF perturbations.

  5. Characterisation of the SmartPET planar Germanium detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boston, H. C.; Boston, A. J.; Cooper, R. J.; Cresswell, J.; Grint, A. N.; Mather, A. R.; Nolan, P. J.; Scraggs, D. P.; Turk, G.; Hall, C. J.; Lazarus, I.; Berry, A.; Beveridge, T.; Gillam, J.; Lewis, R.

    2007-08-01

    Small Animal Reconstruction PET (SmartPET) is a project funded by the UK medical research council (MRC) to demonstrate proof of principle that Germanium can be utilised in Positron Emission Tomography (PET). The SmartPET demonstrator consists of two orthogonal strip High Purity Germanium (HPGe) planar detectors manufactured by ORTEC. The aim of the project is to produce images of an internal source with sub mm 3 spatial resolution. Before this image can be achieved the detectors have to be fully characterised to understand the response at any given location to a γ-ray interaction. This has been achieved by probing the two detectors at a number of specified points with collimated sources of various energies and strengths. A 1 mm diameter collimated beam of photons was raster scanned in 1 mm steps across the detector. Digital pulse shape data were recorded from all the detector channels and the performance of the detector for energy and position determination has been assessed. Data will be presented for the first SmartPET detector.

  6. Germanium ion implantation to Improve Crystallinity during Solid Phase Epitaxy and the effect of AMU Contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, K. S.; Yoo, D. H.; Son, G. H.; Lee, C. H.; Noh, J. H.; Han, J. J.; Yu, Y. S.; Hyung, Y. W.; Yang, J. K.; Song, D. G.; Lim, T. J.; Kim, Y. K.; Lee, S. C.; Lee, H. D.; Moon, J. T.

    2006-11-01

    Germanium ion implantation was investigated for crystallinity enhancement during solid phase epitaxial regrowth (SPE) using high current implantation equipment. Electron back-scatter diffraction(EBSD) measurement showed numerical increase of 19 percent of <100> signal, which might be due to pre-amorphization effect on silicon layer deposited by LPCVD process with germanium ion implantation. On the other hand, electrical property such as off-leakage current of NMOS transistor degraded in specific regions of wafers, which implied non-uniform distribution of donor-type impurities into channel area. It was confirmed that arsenic atoms were incorporated into silicon layer during germanium ion implantation. Since the equipment for germanium pre-amorphization implantation(PAI) was using several source gases such as BF3 and AsH3, atomic mass unit(AMU) contamination during PAI of germanium with AMU 74 caused the incorporation of arsenic with AMU 75 which resided in arc-chamber and other parts of the equipment. It was effective to use germanium isotope of AMU 72 to suppress AMU contamination, however it led serious reduction of productivity because of decrease in beam current by 30 percent as known to be difference in isotope abundance. It was effective to use enriched germanium source gas with AMU 72 in order to improve productivity. Spatial distribution of arsenic impurities in wafers was closely related to hardware configuration of ion implantation equipment.

  7. Advances in fractal germanium micro/nanoclusters induced by gold: microstructures and properties.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhiwen; Shek, Chan-Hung; Wu, C M Lawrence; Lai, Joseph K L

    2014-02-01

    Germanium materials are a class of unique semiconductor materials with widespread technological applications because of their valuable semiconducting, electrical, optical, and thermoelectric power properties in the fields of macro/mesoscopic materials and micro/nanodevices. In this review, we describe the efforts toward understanding the microstructures and various properties of the fractal germanium micro/nanoclusters induced by gold prepared by high vacuum thermal evaporation techniques, highlighting contributions from our laboratory. First, we present the integer and non-integer dimensional germanium micro/nanoclusters such as nanoparticles, nanorings, and nanofractals induced by gold and annealing. In particular, the nonlinear electrical behavior of a gold/germanium bilayer film with the interesting nanofractal is discussed in detail. In addition, the third-order optical nonlinearities of the fractal germanium nanocrystals embedded in gold matrix will be summarized by using the sensitive and reliable Z-scan techniques aimed to determine the nonlinear absorption coefficient and nonlinear refractive index. Finally, we emphasize the thermoelectric power properties of the gold/germanium bilayer films. The thermoelectric power measurement is considered to be a more effective method than the conductivity for investigating superlocalization in a percolating system. This research may provide a novel insight to modulate their competent performance and promote rational design of micro/nanodevices. Once mastered, germanium thin films with a variety of fascinating micro/nanoclusters will offer vast and unforeseen opportunities in the semiconductor industry as well as in other fields of science and technology.

  8. Inelasticity and precipitation of germanium from a solid solution in Al-Ge binary alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kardashev, B. K.; Korchunov, B. N.; Nikanorov, S. P.; Osipov, V. N.

    2015-08-01

    The influence of precipitation of germanium atoms in a solid solution on the dependence of the inelasticity characteristics on the germanium content in aluminum-germanium alloys prepared by directional crystallization has been studied. It has been shown that the Young's modulus defect, the amplitude-dependent decrement, and the microplastic flow stress at a specified cyclic strain amplitude have extreme values at the eutectic germanium content in the alloy. The eutectic composition of the alloy undergoes a ductilebrittle transition. It has been found that there is a correlation between the dependences of the Young's modulus defect, amplitude-dependent decrement, microplastic flow stress, and specific entropy of the exothermal process of germanium precipitation on the germanium content in the hypoeutectic alloy. The concentration dependences of the inelasticity characteristics and their changes after annealing have been explained by the change in the resistance to the motion of intragrain dislocations due to different structures of the Guinier-Preston zones formed during the precipitation of germanium atoms.

  9. Mechanically Cooled Large-Volume Germanium Detector Systems for Nuclear Explosion Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Hull, Ethan L.; Pehl, Richard H.; Lathrop, James R.; Martin, Gregory N.; Mashburn, R. B.; Miley, Harry S.; Aalseth, Craig E.; Hossbach, Todd W.; Bowyer, Ted W.

    2006-09-21

    Compact maintenance free mechanical cooling systems are being developed to operate large volume (~570 cm3, ~3 kg, 140% or larger) germanium detectors for field applications. We are using a new generation of Stirling-cycle mechanical coolers for operating the very largest volume germanium detectors with absolutely no maintenance or liquid nitrogen requirements. The user will be able to leave these systems unplugged on the shelf until needed. The flip of a switch will bring a system to life in ~1 hour for measurements. The maintenance-free operating lifetime of these detector systems will exceed five years. These features are necessary for remote long-duration liquid-nitrogen free deployment of large-volume germanium gamma-ray detector systems for Nuclear Explosion Monitoring (NEM). The Radionuclide Aerosol Sampler/Analyzer (RASA) will greatly benefit from the availability of such detectors by eliminating the need for liquid nitrogen at RASA sites while still allowing the very largest available germanium detectors to be utilized. These mechanically cooled germanium detector systems being developed here will provide the largest, most sensitive detectors possible for use with the RASA. To provide such systems, the appropriate technical fundamentals are being researched. Mechanical cooling of germanium detectors has historically been a difficult endeavor. The success or failure of mechanically cooled germanium detectors stems from three main technical issues: temperature, vacuum, and vibration. These factors affect one another. There is a particularly crucial relationship between vacuum and temperature. These factors will be experimentally studied both separately and together to insure a solid understanding of the physical limitations each factor places on a practical mechanically cooled germanium detector system for field use. Using this knowledge, a series of mechanically cooled germanium detector prototype systems are being designed and fabricated. Our collaborators

  10. Synthesis and characterization of germanium nanoparticles for flexible thin-film photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, Hsiang Wei (Ivy)

    Photovoltaic cells based on low-cost polycrystalline and nanocrystalline materials are of great interest for both scientific and industrial purposes because of their intriguing properties found in semiconductor nanoparticles as well as the need to make high-energy conversion photovoltaics. The main theme of this dissertation is the synthesis of such nanoparticles of elemental germanium. Butyl-capped crystalline germanium nanoparticles were synthesized at room temperature in dimethoxymethane via the reduction of germanium tetrachloride with sodium naphthalide and the subsequent reaction with n-butyl Grignard. The nanoparticles were isolated in hexane and characterized by transmission electron microscopy, selected area electron diffraction, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, elemental analysis, X-ray powder diffraction, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, and photoluminescence spectroscopy. When heated under vacuum between 300--550°C, the as prepared nanoparticles become amorphous and grow in size. At 561°C, a phase change is observed which is associated with the change from the amorphous to crystalline. Numerous exothermic peaks were found in between 900--950°C under thermogravimetric analysis. Detailed studies of this reduction synthesis have been performed to optimize the synthetic route. The germanium nanoparticle nucleation is influenced by variations of reductant, concentration, temperature, and synthesis. Results indicate that the reduction route of germanium nanoparticles follows similar kinetics at room temperature, as does the related II-VI nanoparticle synthetic route. The reduction route was also found to produce a polymeric side product that can be removed at 300°C under vacuum. Under an in-situ heating experiment, this germanium containing polymer acts as a germanium source for the formation of small germanium nanoparticles at temperatures above 300°C. At temperatures above 400°C the polymer further acts to build germanium films. The metathesis

  11. Influence of Containment on the Growth of Silicon-Germanium: A Materials Science Flight Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volz, M. P.; Mazuruk, K.; Croell, A.

    2012-01-01

    This investigation involves the comparison of results achieved from three types of crystal growth of germanium and germanium-silicon alloys: (1) Float zone growth (2) Bridgman growth (3) Detached Bridgman growth crystal The fundamental goal of the proposed research is to determine the influence of containment on the processing-induced defects and impurity incorporation in germanium-silicon (GeSi) crystals (silicon concentration in the solid up to 5 at%) for three different growth configurations in order to quantitatively assess the improvements of crystal quality possible by detached growth.

  12. Influence of germanium on the formation of thermal donors in silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Dashevskii, M.Ya.; Dokuchaeva, A.A.; Anisimov K.I.

    1987-03-01

    In silicon samples doped with germanium to a concentration 5 x 10/sup 19/-10/sup 20/ cm/sup -3/ after heat treatment at 450/sup 0/C the breakdown of the thermal donors and restoration of the electrical resistivity to a value close to the resistivity of the unannealed samples, proceed faster, than in samples not doped with germanium. It is indirectly confirmed by the assumption that the oxygen solubility in germanium-doped silicon samples is higher at 450/sup 0/C than in the undoped samples.

  13. Analyses of On-orbit Determinations of the Clouds and the Earth Radiant Energy System (CERES) Thermistor Bolometer Sensor Zero-radiance Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Robert B., III; Thomas, Susan; Priestley, Kory J.; Barkstrom, Bruce R.; Paden, Jack; Pandey, Dhirendra K.; Smith, G. Louis; Al-hajjah, Aiman; Wilson, Robert S.

    1999-01-01

    The Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) missions were designed to measure broadband earth-reflected shortwave solar (0.3 micrometers to less than 5.0 micrometers) and earth-emitted longwave (5.0 micrometers to greater than 100 micrometers) radiances as well as earth-emitted narrow-band radiances in the water vapor window region between 8 micrometers and 12 micrometers. However, the CERES scanning thermistor bolometer sensor zero-radiance offsets were found to vary as much as 1.0 Wm (exp -2) sr (exp -1) with the scan angle measurement geometry due to gravitational forces and systematic electronic noise. To minimize the gravitational effects, the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Spacecraft CERES sensors' offsets were derived on-orbit as functions of scan elevation and azimuth angles from the January 7-8, 1998 radiometric observations of deep cold space, representative of a 3 K blackbody. In this paper, the TRMM/CERES six orbit data base of on-orbit derived offsets is presented and analyzed to define the sampling requirements for the CERES sensors located on the Earth Science Enterprise (ESE) Terra Spacecraft and on the Earth Observing System (EOS) Afternoon (PM-1) Spacecraft, scheduled for launches in 1999 and 2000, respectively. Analyses of the TRMM/CERES shortwave sensor earth radiance measurements indicate that offsets can be determined on-orbit at the plus or minus 0.02 Wm (exp -2) sr (exp -1) precision level. Offset measuring techniques and sampling requirements are discussed for the TRMM and ESE missions. Ground, pre-launch Terra CERES cross-track scan offsets are presented and described which were measured as a function of scan angle.

  14. SUPPLEMENTARY COMPARISON: Bilateral Supplementary Comparison P1-APMP.EM.RF-S4: Calibration factor of thermistor mount power sensors: in Type-N, 30 MHz 3000 MHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Tieren; Hall, Blair

    2004-01-01

    This is the final report on the APMP bilateral supplementary comparison in RF power measurement P1-APMP.EM.RF-S4. The purpose of the comparison is to determine the level of consistency of calibration results given by two national standards laboratories. This is a comparison of one of the high-frequency key quantities. The comparison protocol was based on that used in the key comparison CCEM.RF-K8; however, the frequency points differ. One of the participants, the National Measurement Laboratory, also took part in CCEM.RF-K8. The travelling standard is a Hewlett-Packard 8478B thermistor mount, with a type-N male RF connector. The calibration factor is determined at a number of frequencies between 30 MHz and 3000 MHz, together with an appropriate statement of uncertainty. Measurements have been made at a nominal power level of 1 mW. The value of the reflection coefficient is also determined, as it is needed for the uncertainty calculation. The pilot laboratory was the National Measurement Laboratory, in Australia, and the comparison coordinator was the Measurement Standards Laboratory of New Zealand. This report contains a brief description of the measurement set-ups at each laboratory and a summary of the associated uncertainty budgets. The actual measurements from each laboratory are presented as they appear in calibration certificates from the respective laboratories. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the APMP, according to the provisions of the Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

  15. Buried Porous Silicon-Germanium Layers in Monocrystalline Silicon Lattices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fathauer, Robert W. (Inventor); George, Thomas (Inventor); Jones, Eric W. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    Monocrystalline semiconductor lattices with a buried porous semiconductor layer having different chemical composition is discussed and monocrystalline semiconductor superlattices with a buried porous semiconductor layers having different chemical composition than that of its monocrystalline semiconductor superlattice are discussed. Lattices of alternating layers of monocrystalline silicon and porous silicon-germanium have been produced. These single crystal lattices have been fabricated by epitaxial growth of Si and Si-Ge layers followed by patterning into mesa structures. The mesa structures are strain etched resulting in porosification of the Si-Ge layers with a minor amount of porosification of the monocrystalline Si layers. Thicker Si-Ge layers produced in a similar manner emitted visible light at room temperature.

  16. Electron temperature and density measurements of laser induced germanium plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakeel, Hira; Arshad, Saboohi; Haq, S. U.; Nadeem, Ali

    2016-05-01

    The germanium plasma produced by the fundamental harmonics (1064 nm) of Nd:YAG laser in single and double pulse configurations have been studied spectroscopically. The plasma is characterized by measuring the electron temperature using the Boltzmann plot method for neutral and ionized species and electron number density as a function of laser irradiance, ambient pressure, and distance from the target surface. It is observed that the plasma parameters have an increasing trend with laser irradiance (9-33 GW/cm2) and with ambient pressure (8-250 mbar). However, a decreasing trend is observed along the plume length up to 4.5 mm. The electron temperature and electron number density are also determined using a double pulse configuration, and their behavior at fixed energy ratio and different interpulse delays is discussed.

  17. Phosphorus diffusion in germanium following implantation and excimer laser annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chen; Li, Cheng; Huang, Shihao; Lu, Weifang; Yan, Guangming; Zhang, Maotian; Wu, Huanda; Lin, Guangyang; Wei, Jiangbin; Huang, Wei; Lai, Hongkai; Chen, Songyan

    2014-05-01

    We focus our study on phosphorus diffusion in ion-implanted germanium after excimer laser annealing (ELA). An analytical model of laser annealing process is developed to predict the temperature profile and the melted depth in Ge. Based on the heat calculation of ELA, a phosphorus diffusion model has been proposed to predict the dopant profiles in Ge after ELA and fit SIMS profiles perfectly. A comparison between the current-voltage characteristics of Ge n+/p junctions formed by ELA at 250 mJ/cm2 and rapid thermal annealing at 650 °C for 15 s has been made, suggesting that ELA is promising for high performance Ge n+/p junctions.

  18. Reliability assessment of germanium gate stacks with promising initial characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Cimang; Lee, Choong Hyun; Nishimura, Tomonori; Nagashio, Kosuke; Toriumi, Akira

    2015-02-01

    This work reports on the reliability assessment of germanium (Ge) gate stacks with promising initial electrical properties, with focus on trap generation under a constant electric stress field (Estress). Initial Ge gate stack properties do not necessarily mean highly robust reliability when it is considered that traps are newly generated under high Estress. A small amount of yttrium- or scandium oxide-doped GeO2 (Y-GeO2 or Sc-GeO2, respectively) significantly reduces trap generation in Ge gate stacks without deterioration of the interface. This is explained by the increase in the average coordination number (Nav) of the modified GeO2 network that results from the doping.

  19. A pseudo-single-crystalline germanium film for flexible electronics

    SciTech Connect

    Higashi, H.; Yamada, S.; Kanashima, T.; Hamaya, K.; Kasahara, K.; Park, J.-H.; Miyao, M.; Kudo, K.; Okamoto, H.; Moto, K.; Tsunoda, I.

    2015-01-26

    We demonstrate large-area (∼600 μm), (111)-oriented, and high-crystallinity, i.e., pseudo-single-crystalline, germanium (Ge) films at 275 °C, where the temperature is lower than the softening temperature of a flexible substrate. A modulated gold-induced layer exchange crystallization method with an atomic-layer deposited Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} barrier and amorphous-Ge/Au multilayers is established. From the Raman measurements, we can judge that the crystallinity of the obtained Ge films is higher than those grown by aluminum-induced-crystallization methods. Even on a flexible substrate, the pseudo-single-crystalline Ge films for the circuit with thin-film transistor arrays can be achieved, leading to high-performance flexible electronics based on an inorganic-semiconductor channel.

  20. Anomalous compression behavior of germanium during phase transformation

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Xiaozhi; Tan, Dayong; Ren, Xiangting; Yang, Wenge E-mail: duanweihe@scu.edu.cn; He, Duanwei E-mail: duanweihe@scu.edu.cn; Mao, Ho-Kwang

    2015-04-27

    In this article, we present the abnormal compression and plastic behavior of germanium during the pressure-induced cubic diamond to β-tin structure transition. Between 8.6 GPa and 13.8 GPa, in which pressure range both phases are co-existing, first softening and followed by hardening for both phases were observed via synchrotron x-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. These unusual behaviors can be interpreted as the volume misfit between different phases. Following Eshelby, the strain energy density reaches the maximum in the middle of the transition zone, where the switch happens from softening to hardening. Insight into these mechanical properties during phase transformation is relevant for the understanding of plasticity and compressibility of crystal materials when different phases coexist during a phase transition.

  1. Noise performance of high-efficiency germanium quantum dot photodetectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siontas, Stylianos; Liu, Pei; Zaslavsky, Alexander; Pacifici, Domenico

    2016-08-01

    We report on the noise analysis of high performance germanium quantum dot (Ge QD) photodetectors with responsivity up to ˜2 A/W and internal quantum efficiency up to ˜400%, over the 400-1100 nm wavelength range and at a reverse bias of -10 V. Photolithography was performed to define variable active-area devices that show suppressed dark current, leading to a higher signal-to-noise ratio, up to 105, and specific detectivity D * ≃ 6 × 10 12 cm Hz 1 / 2 W-1. These figures of merit suggest Ge QDs as a promising alternative material for high-performance photodetectors working in the visible to near-infrared spectral range.

  2. Giant pop-ins and amorphization in germanium during indentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliver, David J.; Bradby, Jodie E.; Williams, Jim S.; Swain, Michael V.; Munroe, Paul

    2007-02-01

    Sudden excursions of unusually large magnitude (>1 μm), "giant pop-ins," have been observed in the force-displacement curve for high load indentation of crystalline germanium (Ge). A range of techniques including Raman microspectroscopy, focused ion-beam cross sectioning, and transmission electron microscopy, are applied to study this phenomenon. Amorphous material is observed in residual indents following the giant pop-in. The giant pop-in is shown to be a material removal event, triggered by the development of shallow lateral cracks adjacent to the indent. Enhanced depth recovery, or "elbowing," observed in the force-displacement curve following the giant pop-in is explained in terms of a compliant response of plates of material around the indent detached by lateral cracking. The possible causes of amorphization are discussed, and the implications in light of earlier indentation studies of Ge are considered.

  3. FTIR and DFT studies of Novel Germanium-Carbon Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robbins, D. L.; Rittby, C. M. L.; Graham, W. R. M.

    2001-10-01

    The vibrational fundamentals and structures of germanium-carbon clusters formed by laser ablation and trapped in solid Ar are currently under investigation. The determination of the ground state geometries and vibrational fundamentals are facilitated by the comparison of frequencies and ^13C isotopic shifts measured by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy with the predictions of density functional theory. The identification of the ν3 mode of linear GeC_3Ge (observed at 1920.7 cm-1 ) has been made.(D.L.Robbins, C.M.L. Rittby, and W.R.M. Graham J. Chem. Phys. 114, 3570 (2001).) The results of further calculations and assignments on larger species such as GeC4 and GeC9 will be reported.

  4. Germanium-Vacancy Single Color Centers in Diamond.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, Takayuki; Ishibashi, Fumitaka; Miyamoto, Yoshiyuki; Doi, Yuki; Kobayashi, Satoshi; Miyazaki, Takehide; Tahara, Kosuke; Jahnke, Kay D; Rogers, Lachlan J; Naydenov, Boris; Jelezko, Fedor; Yamasaki, Satoshi; Nagamachi, Shinji; Inubushi, Toshiro; Mizuochi, Norikazu; Hatano, Mutsuko

    2015-01-01

    Atomic-sized fluorescent defects in diamond are widely recognized as a promising solid state platform for quantum cryptography and quantum information processing. For these applications, single photon sources with a high intensity and reproducible fabrication methods are required. In this study, we report a novel color center in diamond, composed of a germanium (Ge) and a vacancy (V) and named the GeV center, which has a sharp and strong photoluminescence band with a zero-phonon line at 602 nm at room temperature. We demonstrate this new color center works as a single photon source. Both ion implantation and chemical vapor deposition techniques enabled fabrication of GeV centers in diamond. A first-principles calculation revealed the atomic crystal structure and energy levels of the GeV center. PMID:26250337

  5. Proton irradiation of germanium isotope multilayer structures at elevated temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, S.; Bracht, H.; Petersen, M. C.; Hansen, J. Lundsgaard; Larsen, A. Nylandsted

    2008-02-01

    Irradiation of germanium (Ge) isotope heterostructures with 2.5 MeV protons have been performed at 550 °C. The applied proton flux was varied between 1.0 and 1.5 μA leading to various rates of Frenkel pair production. After irradiation, concentration profiles of the Ge isotopes were recorded by means of secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). An inhomogeneous broadening of the isotope structure was observed. In addition to the effect of irradiation enhanced self-diffusion, an influence of the formation of microscopic defects on the detected broadening was ascertained. Atomic force and scanning electron microscopy show that the microscopic defects are most probably resulting from an aggregation of vacancies formed during irradiation. Numerical analysis of Ge profiles not disturbed by microdefect formation indicates a significant contribution of self-interstitials to self-diffusion under irradiation.

  6. Hydrogen concentration and distribution in high-purity germanium crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, W.L.; Haller, E.E.; Luke, P.N.

    1981-10-01

    High-purity germanium crystals used for making nuclear radiation detectors are usually grown in a hydrogen ambient from a melt contained in a high-purity silica crucible. The benefits and problems encountered in using a hydrogen ambient are reviewed. A hydrogen concentration of about 2 x 10/sup 15/cm/sup -3/ has been determined by growing crystals in hydrogen spiked with tritium and counting the tritium ..beta..-decays in detectors made from these crystals. Annealing studies show that the hydrogen is strongly bound, either to defects or as H/sub 2/ with a dissociation energy > 3 eV. This is lowered to 1.8 eV when copper is present. Etching defects in dislocation-free crystals grown in hydrogen have been found by etch stripping to have a density of about 1 x 10/sup 7/ cm/sup -3/ and are estimated to contain 10/sup 8/ H atoms each.

  7. Tunable split-ring resonators using germanium telluride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kodama, C. H.; Coutu, R. A.

    2016-06-01

    We demonstrate terahertz (THz) split-ring resonator (SRR) designs with incorporated germanium telluride (GeTe) thin films. GeTe is a chalcogenide that undergoes a nonvolatile phase change from the amorphous to crystalline state at approximately 200 °C, depending on the film thickness and stoichiometry. The phase change also causes a drop in the material's resistivity by six orders of magnitude. In this study, two GeTe-incorporated SRR designs were investigated. The first was an SRR made entirely out of GeTe and the second was a gold SRR structure with a GeTe film incorporated into the gap region of the split ring. These devices were characterized using THz time-domain spectroscopy and were heated in-situ to determine the change in the design operation with varying temperatures.

  8. Method of manufacturing a niobium-aluminum-germanium superconductive material

    DOEpatents

    Wang, John L.; Pickus, Milton R.; Douglas, Kent E.

    1980-01-01

    A method for manufacturing flexible Nb.sub.3 (Al,Ge) multifilamentary superconductive material in which a sintered porous niobium compact is infiltrated with an aluminum-germanium alloy and thereafter deformed and heat treated in a series of steps at different successively higher temperatures preferably below 1000.degree. C. to produce filaments composed of Nb.sub.3 (Al,G3) within the compact. By avoiding temperatures in excess of 1000.degree. C. during the heat treatment, cladding material such as copper can be applied to facilitate a deformation step preceding the heat treatment and can remain in place through the heat treatment to also serve as a temperature stabilizer for supeconductive material produced. Further, these lower heat treatment temperatures favor formation of filaments with reduced grain size and, hence with more grain boundaries which in turn increase the current-carrying capacity of the superconductive material.

  9. Hafnium Germanate from a Hydrous Hafnium Germanium Oxide Gel.

    PubMed

    Lambert, P. M.

    1998-03-23

    The gel chemistry of germanium is explored through the formation and composition of a hydrous metal oxide precursor gel used in the preparation of the HfGeO(4) and HfGeO(4):Ti X-ray phosphors. The enhanced solubility of hexagonal GeO(2) in dilute ammoniacal solutions is exploited to give a convenient and high-yield precipitation. The precursor gel is shown by FT-IR to be a diphasic mixture of hydrous hafnia and an ammonium germanate gel. Thermal treatment drives the crystallization of a hafnium-rich, simple tetragonal Hf(1)(-)(x)()Ge(x)()O(2) structure at 893 degrees C, that upon further heating to 1200 degrees C yields scheelite HfGeO(4).

  10. Bridgman Growth of Germanium Crystals in a Rotating Magnetic Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volz, M. P.; Szofran, F. R.; Cobb, S. D.; Schweizer, M.; Walker, J. S.

    2005-01-01

    A series of (100)-oriented gallium-doped germanium crystals has been grown by the vertical Bridgman method and under the influence of a rotating magnetic field (RMF). Time-dependent flow instabilities occur when the critical magnetic Taylor number (Tm(sup c)) is exceeded, and this can be observed by noting the appearance of striations in the grown crystals. Tm(sup c) decreases as the aspect ratio of the melt increases, and approaches the theoretical limit expected for an infinite cylinder. Intentional interface demarcations are introduced by pulsing the RMF on and off The RMF has a marked affect on the interface shape, changing it from concave to nearly flat as the RMF strength is increased.

  11. Comparison of Germanium Telluride (GeTe) Crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Comparison of Germanium Telluride (GeTe) Crystals grown on Earth (left) and in space (right) during the Skylab SL-3 mission. These crystals were grown using a vapor transport crystal growth method in the Multipurpose Electric Furnace System (MEFS). Crystals grown on earth are needles and platelettes with distorted surfaces and hollow growth habits. The length of the ground-based needle is approximately 2 mm and the average lenth of the platelets is 1 mm. The dull appearance of the Skylab crystals resulted from condensation of the transport agent during the long cooling period dictated by the Skylab furnace. In a dedicated process, this would be prevented by removing the ampoule from the furnace and quenching the vapor source.

  12. Bridgman Growth of Germanium Crystals in a Rotating Magnetic Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volz, M. P.; Walker, J. S.; Schweizer, M.; Cobb, S. D.; Szofran, F. R.

    2004-01-01

    A series of (100)-oriented gallium-doped germanium crystals have been grown by the Bridgman method and under the influence of a rotating magnetic field (RMF). Time-dependent flow instabilities occur when the critical magnetic Taylor number (Tm(sup c) is exceeded, and this can be observed by noting the appearance of striations in the grown crystals. The experimental data indicate that Tm(sup c) increases as the aspect ratio of the melt decreases. Modeling calculations predicting Tm(sup c) as a function of aspect ratio are in reasonable agreement with the experimental data. The RMF has a marked affect on the interface shape, changing it from concave to nearly flat as the RMF strength is increased. Also, by pulsing the RMF on and off, it is shown that intentional interface demarcations can be introduced.

  13. Bridgman Growth of Germanium Crystals in a Rotating Magnetic Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volz, M. P.; Schweizer, M.; Cobb, S. D.; Walker, J. S.; Szofran, F. R.; Curreri, Peter A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A series of (100)-oriented gallium-doped germanium crystals have been grown by the Bridgman method and under the influence of a rotating magnetic field (RMF). The RMF has a marked affect on the interface shape, changing it from concave to nearly flat. The onset of time-dependent flow instabilities occurs when the critical magnetic Taylor number is exceeded, and this can be observed by noting the appearance of striations in the grown crystals. The critical magnetic Taylor number is a sensitive function of the aspect ratio and, as the crystal grows under a constant applied magnetic field, the induced striations change from nonperiodic to periodic, undergo a period-doubling transition, and then cease to exist. Also, by pulsing the RMF on and off, it is shown that intentional interface demarcations can be introduced.

  14. Young’s modulus of [111] germanium nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Maksud, M.; Yoo, J.; Harris, C. T.; Palapati, N. K. R.; Subramanian, A.

    2015-11-02

    Our paper reports a diameter-independent Young’s modulus of 91.9 ± 8.2 GPa for [111] Germanium nanowires (Ge NWs). When the surface oxide layer is accounted for using a core-shell NW approximation, the YM of the Ge core approaches a near theoretical value of 147.6 ± 23.4 GPa. The ultimate strength of a NW device was measured at 10.9 GPa, which represents a very high experimental-to-theoretical strength ratio of ~75%. Furthermore, with increasing interest in this material system as a high-capacity lithium-ion battery anode, the presented data provide inputs that are essential in predicting its lithiation-induced stress fields and fracture behavior.

  15. Young’s modulus of [111] germanium nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Maksud, M.; Palapati, N. K. R.; Subramanian, A.; Yoo, J.; Harris, C. T.

    2015-11-01

    This paper reports a diameter-independent Young’s modulus of 91.9 ± 8.2 GPa for [111] Germanium nanowires (Ge NWs). When the surface oxide layer is accounted for using a core-shell NW approximation, the YM of the Ge core approaches a near theoretical value of 147.6 ± 23.4 GPa. The ultimate strength of a NW device was measured at 10.9 GPa, which represents a very high experimental-to-theoretical strength ratio of ∼75%. With increasing interest in this material system as a high-capacity lithium-ion battery anode, the presented data provide inputs that are essential in predicting its lithiation-induced stress fields and fracture behavior.

  16. Characteristics of GRIFFIN high-purity germanium clover detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizwan, U.; Garnsworthy, A. B.; Andreoiu, C.; Ball, G. C.; Chester, A.; Domingo, T.; Dunlop, R.; Hackman, G.; Rand, E. T.; Smith, J. K.; Starosta, K.; Svensson, C. E.; Voss, P.; Williams, J.

    2016-06-01

    The Gamma-Ray Infrastructure For Fundamental Investigations of Nuclei, GRIFFIN, is a new experimental facility for radioactive decay studies at the TRIUMF-ISAC laboratory. The performance of the 16 high-purity germanium (HPGe) clover detectors that will make up the GRIFFIN spectrometer is reported. The energy resolution, efficiency, timing resolution, crosstalk and preamplifier properties of each crystal were measured using a combination of analog and digital data acquisition techniques. The absolute efficiency and add-back factors are determined for the energy range of 80-3450 keV. The detectors show excellent performance with an average over all 64 crystals of a FWHM energy resolution of 1.89(6) keV and relative efficiency with respect to a 3 in . × 3 in . NaI detector of 41(1)% at 1.3 MeV.

  17. An experimental characterisation of a Broad Energy Germanium detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harkness-Brennan, L. J.; Judson, D. S.; Boston, A. J.; Boston, H. C.; Colosimo, S. J.; Cresswell, J. R.; Nolan, P. J.; Adekola, A. S.; Colaresi, J.; Cocks, J. F. C.; Mueller, W. F.

    2014-10-01

    The spectroscopic and charge collection performance of a BE2825 Broad Energy Germanium (BEGe) detector has been experimentally investigated. The efficiency and energy resolution of the detector have been measured as a function of energy and the noise contributions to the preamplifier signal have been determined. Collimated gamma-ray sources mounted on an automated 3-axis scanning table have been used to study the variation in preamplifier signal shape with gamma-ray interaction position in the detector, so that the position-dependent charge collection process could be characterised. A suite of experimental measurements have also been undertaken to investigate the performance of the detector as a function of bias voltage and we report on anomalous behaviour observed when the detector was operating close to the depletion voltage.

  18. Towards monolithic integration of germanium light sources on silicon chips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Shinichi; Zaher Al-Attili, Abdelrahman; Oda, Katsuya; Ishikawa, Yasuhiko

    2016-04-01

    Germanium (Ge) is a group-IV indirect band gap semiconductor, and therefore bulk Ge cannot emit light efficiently. However, the direct band gap energy is close to the indirect one, and significant engineering efforts are being made to convert Ge into an efficient gain material monolithically integrated on a Si chip. In this article, we will review the engineering challenges of developing Ge light sources fabricated using nano-fabrication technologies compatible with complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor processes. In particular, we review recent progress in applying high-tensile strain to Ge to reduce the direct band gap. Another important technique is doping Ge with donor impurities to fill the indirect band gap valleys in the conduction band. Realization of carrier confinement structures and suitable optical cavities will be discussed. Finally, we will discuss possible applications of Ge light sources in potential photonics-electronics convergent systems.

  19. Band Anticrossing in Dilute Germanium Carbides Using Hybrid Density Functionals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephenson, Chad A.; O'brien, William A.; Qi, Meng; Penninger, Michael; Schneider, William F.; Wistey, Mark A.

    2016-04-01

    Dilute germanium carbides (Ge1- x C x ) offer a direct bandgap for compact silicon photonics, but widely varying properties have been reported. This work reports improved band structure calculations for Ge1- x C x using ab initio simulations that employ the HSE06 exchange-correlation density functional. Contrary to Vegard's law, the conduction band minimum at Γ is consistently found to decrease with increasing C content, while L and X valleys change much more slowly. The calculated Ge bandgap is within 11% of experimental values. A decrease in energy at the Γ conduction band valley of (170 meV ± 50)/%C is predicted, leading to a direct bandgap for x > 0.008. These results indicate a promising material for Group IV lasers.

  20. Development of silicon-germanium visible-near infrared arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeller, John W.; Rouse, Caitlin; Efstathiadis, Harry; Haldar, Pradeep; Lewis, Jay S.; Dhar, Nibir K.; Wijewarnasuriya, Priyalal; Puri, Yash R.; Sood, Ashok K.

    2016-05-01

    Photodetectors based on germanium which do not require cooling and can provide good near-infrared (NIR) detection performance offer a low-cost alternative to conventional infrared sensors based on material systems such as InGaAs, InSb, and HgCdTe. As a result of the significant difference in thermal expansion coefficients between germanium and silicon, tensile strain incorporated into Ge epitaxial layers deposited on Si utilizing specialized growth processes can extend the operational range of detection to 1600 nm and longer wavelengths. We have fabricated Ge based PIN photodetectors on 300 mm diameter Si wafers to take advantage of high throughput, large-area complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology. This device fabrication process involves low temperature epitaxial deposition of Ge to form a thin p+ (boron) Ge seed/buffer layer, and subsequent higher temperature deposition of a thicker Ge intrinsic layer. This is followed by selective ion implantation of phosphorus of various concentrations to form n+ Ge regions, deposition of a passivating oxide cap, and then top copper contacts to complete the PIN detector devices. Various techniques including transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) have been employed to characterize the material and structural properties of the epitaxially grown layers and fabricated detector devices, and these results are presented. The I-V response of the photodetector devices with and without illumination was also measured, for which the Ge based photodetectors consistently exhibited low dark currents of around ~1 nA at -1 V bias.

  1. An aeronomical application of a germanium near infrared (NIR) detector

    SciTech Connect

    Noto, J.; Kerr, R.B.; Rudy, R.J.; Williams, R.; Hecht, J.H.

    1994-12-31

    A collaboration between Boston University and the Aerospace corporation has resulted in a germanium based detector used in conjunction with an infrared optimized Fabry-Perot spectrometer. Gold plated mirrors were installed and the appropriate transmissive optics are used in the Fabry-Perot to optimize the NIR transmission. The detector is a germanium PIN diode coated with a layer of silicon-nitride. Current produced by the detector is measured by using a Capacitive Trans-Impedance Amplifier (CITA). An A/D converter samples the amplified capacitor voltage and outputs a 12 bit word that is then passed on to the controlling computer system. The detector, amplifier, and associated electronics are mounted inside a standard IR dewar and operated at 77 K. The authors have operated this detector and spectrometer system at Millstone Hill for about 6 months. Acceptable noise characteristics, a NEP of 10{sup {minus}17} watts, and a QE of 90% at 1.2 {micro}m, have been achieved with an amplifier gain of 200. The system is currently configured for observations of thermospheric helium, and has made the first measurement of the He 10,830 {angstrom} nightglow emission isolated from OH contamination. In an effort to both increase the sensitivity of the Fabry-Perot in the visible and to adapt it for planetary astronomy the authors have entered into a collaboration with CIDTEC. A Charge Injection Detector or CID has some unique capabilities that distinguish it from a CCD and the authors are evaluating it as a detector for the Hadinger fringe pattern produced by a Fabry-Perot. The CID allows non-destructive readout and random access of individual pixels with in the entire frame, this allows for both ``electronic masking`` of bright objects and allows each fringe to be observed without having to readout a large number of dark pixels.

  2. Epidemiological survey of workers exposed to inorganic germanium compounds

    PubMed Central

    Swennen, B; Mallants, A; Roels, H; Buchet, J; Bernard, A; Lauwerys, R; Lison, D

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To assess occupational exposure to inorganic germanium (Ge) in workers from a producing plant, and to assess the health of these workers, with a special focus on respiratory, kidney, and liver functions.
METHODS—Cross sectional study of 75 workers exposed to Ge and 79 matched referents. Exposure was characterised by measuring air and urine concentrations of the element during a typical working week, and health was assessed by a questionnaire, clinical examination, lung function testing, chest radiography, and clinical chemistry in serum and urine, including high and low molecular weight urinary proteins.
RESULTS—Airborne concentrations of Ge (inhalable fraction) ranged from 0.03 to 300 µg/m, which was reflected by increased urinary excretion of Ge (0.12-200 µg/g creatinine, after the shift at the end of the working week). Lung, liver, and haematological variables were not significantly different between referents and workers exposed to Ge. A slightly higher urinary concentration of high molecular weight proteins (albumin and transferrin) was found in workers exposed to Ge, possibly reflecting subclinical glomerular changes. No relation was found between the intensity or duration of exposure and the urinary concentration of albumin. No difference between referents and workers exposed to Ge was found for other renal variables.
CONCLUSIONS—Measurement of urinary Ge can detect occupational exposure to inorganic Ge and its compounds. It is prudent to recommend the monitoring of renal variables in workers exposed to Ge.


Keywords: inorganic germanium; occupational exposure; biological monitoring PMID:10810110

  3. Research progress of Si-based germanium materials and devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buwen, Cheng; Cheng, Li; Zhi, Liu; Chunlai, Xue

    2016-08-01

    Si-based germanium is considered to be a promising platform for the integration of electronic and photonic devices due to its high carrier mobility, good optical properties, and compatibility with Si CMOS technology. However, some great challenges have to be confronted, such as: (1) the nature of indirect band gap of Ge; (2) the epitaxy of dislocation-free Ge layers on Si substrate; and (3) the immature technology for Ge devices. The aim of this paper is to give a review of the recent progress made in the field of epitaxy and optical properties of Ge heterostructures on Si substrate, as well as some key technologies on Ge devices. High crystal quality Ge epilayers, as well as Ge/SiGe multiple quantum wells with high Ge content, were successfully grown on Si substrate with a low-temperature Ge buffer layer. A local Ge condensation technique was proposed to prepare germanium-on-insulator (GOI) materials with high tensile strain for enhanced Ge direct band photoluminescence. The advances in formation of Ge n+p shallow junctions and the modulation of Schottky barrier height of metal/Ge contacts were a significant progress in Ge technology. Finally, the progress of Si-based Ge light emitters, photodetectors, and MOSFETs was briefly introduced. These results show that Si-based Ge heterostructure materials are promising for use in the next-generation of integrated circuits and optoelectronic circuits. Project supported in part by the National Natural Science Foundation (Nos. 61036003, 61435013) and the Major State Basic Research Development Program of China (No. 2013CB632103).

  4. Ge-rich silicon germanium as a new platform for optical interconnects on silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vakarin, Vladyslav; Chaisakul, Papichaya; Frigerio, Jacopo; Ballabio, Andrea; Le Roux, Xavier; Coudevylle, Jean Rene; Vivien, Laurent; Isella, Giovanni; Marris-Morini, Delphine

    2016-05-01

    We propose germanium-rich silicon-germanium (SiGe) as a new platform for optical interconnects. The platform viability is experimentally and theoretically investigated through the realization of main building blocks of passive circuitry. Germanium-rich Si1-xGex guiding layer on a graded SiGe layer is used to experimentally show 12μm radius bends by light confinement tuning at a wavelength of 1550nm. As a next step, Mach Zehnder interferometer with 10 dB extinction ratio is demonstrated. High Ge content of the proposed platform allows the coupling with Ge-based active devices, relying on a high quality epitaxial growth. Hence, the integration on Silicon of high speed and low power consumption Ge-rich active components is possible, despite the high lattice mismatch between silicon and germanium.

  5. Mechanically Cooled Large-Volume Germanium Detector Systems for Nuclear Explosion Monitoring DOENA27323-1

    SciTech Connect

    Hull, E.L.

    2006-07-28

    Compact maintenance free mechanical cooling systems are being developed to operate large volume germanium detectors for field applications. To accomplish this we are utilizing a newly available generation of Stirling-cycle mechanical coolers to operate the very largest volume germanium detectors with no maintenance. The user will be able to leave these systems unplugged on the shelf until needed. The flip of a switch will bring a system to life in ~ 1 hour for measurements. The maintenance-free operating lifetime of these detector systems will exceed 5 years. These features are necessary for remote long-duration liquid-nitrogen free deployment of large-volume germanium gamma-ray detector systems for Nuclear Explosion Monitoring. The Radionuclide Aerosol Sampler/Analyzer (RASA) will greatly benefit from the availability of such detectors by eliminating the need for liquid nitrogen at RASA sites while still allowing the very largest available germanium detectors to be reliably utilized.

  6. Mechanically Cooled Large-Volume Germanium Detector Systems for Neclear Explosion Monitoring DOENA27323-2

    SciTech Connect

    Hull, E.L.

    2006-10-30

    Compact maintenance free mechanical cooling systems are being developed to operate large volume high-resolution gamma-ray detectors for field applications. To accomplish this we are utilizing a newly available generation of Stirling-cycle mechanical coolers to operate the very largest volume germanium detectors with no maintenance. The user will be able to leave these systems unplugged on the shelf until needed. The maintenance-free operating lifetime of these detector systems will exceed 5 years. Three important factors affect the operation of mechanically cooled germanium detectors: temperature, vacuum, and vibration. These factors will be studied in the laboratory at the most fundamental levels to insure a solid understanding of the physical limitations each factor places on a practical mechanically cooled germanium detector system. Using this knowledge, mechanically cooled germanium detector prototype systems will be designed and fabricated.

  7. Self-assembled asymmetric membrane containing micron-size germanium for high capacity lithium ion batteries

    DOE PAGES

    Byrd, Ian; Chen, Hao; Webber, Theron; Li, Jianlin; Wu, Ji

    2015-10-23

    We report the formation of novel asymmetric membrane electrode containing micron-size (~5 μm) germanium powders through a self-assembly phase inversion method for high capacity lithium ion battery anode. 850 mA h g-1 capacity (70%) can be retained at a current density of 600 mA g-1 after 100 cycles with excellent rate performance. Such a high retention rate has rarely been seen for pristine micron-size germanium anodes. Moreover, scanning electron microscope studies reveal that germanium powders are uniformly embedded in a networking porous structure consisting of both nanopores and macropores. It is believed that such a unique porous structure can efficientlymore » accommodate the ~260% volume change during germanium alloying and de-alloying process, resulting in an enhanced cycling performance. Finally, these porous membrane electrodes can be manufactured in large scale using a roll-to-roll processing method.« less

  8. Self-assembled asymmetric membrane containing micron-size germanium for high capacity lithium ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Byrd, Ian; Chen, Hao; Webber, Theron; Li, Jianlin; Wu, Ji

    2015-10-23

    We report the formation of novel asymmetric membrane electrode containing micron-size (~5 μm) germanium powders through a self-assembly phase inversion method for high capacity lithium ion battery anode. 850 mA h g-1 capacity (70%) can be retained at a current density of 600 mA g-1 after 100 cycles with excellent rate performance. Such a high retention rate has rarely been seen for pristine micron-size germanium anodes. Moreover, scanning electron microscope studies reveal that germanium powders are uniformly embedded in a networking porous structure consisting of both nanopores and macropores. It is believed that such a unique porous structure can efficiently accommodate the ~260% volume change during germanium alloying and de-alloying process, resulting in an enhanced cycling performance. Finally, these porous membrane electrodes can be manufactured in large scale using a roll-to-roll processing method.

  9. Induced Radioactivity Measured in a Germanium Detector After a Long Duration Balloon Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starr, R.; Evans, L. G.; Floyed, S. R.; Drake, D. M.; Feldman, W. C.; Squyres, S. W.; Rester, A. C.

    1997-01-01

    A 13-day long duration balloon flight carrying a germanium detector was flown from Williams Field, Antartica in December 1992. After recovery of the payload the activity induced in the detector was measured.

  10. Replacing tin in lactide polymerization: design of highly active germanium-based catalysts.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jia; Haquette, Pierre; Martin, Juliette; Salim, Karine; Thomas, Christophe M

    2013-12-16

    Most germane: Hexacoordinate germanium(IV) species exhibit unprecedented activities, yet controlled behavior, as initiators for the ring-opening polymerization of rac-lactide to form polylactide polymers.

  11. Electronic and magnetic properties of Fe and Mn doped two dimensional hexagonal germanium sheets

    SciTech Connect

    Soni, Himadri R. Jha, Prafulla K.

    2014-04-24

    Using first principles density functional theory calculations, the present paper reports systematic total energy calculations of the electronic properties such as density of states and magnetic moment of pristine and iron and manganese doped two dimensional hexagonal germanium sheets.

  12. SIMS Characterization of Amorphous Silicon Germanium Alloys Grown by Hot-Wire Deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Reedy, R. C.; Mason, A. R.; Nelson, B. P.; Xu, Y.

    1998-10-16

    In this paper, we present methods for the quantitative secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) characterization of amorphous SiGe:H alloy materials. A set of samples was grown with germanium content ranging from 5% to 77% and was subsequently analyzed by electron probe X-ray microanalysis (EPMA) and nuclear reaction analysis (NRA). Calibration of the SIMS quantification was performed with respect to EPMA data for germanium and NRA data for hydrogen.

  13. HEROICA: A fast screening facility for the characterization of germanium detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreotti, Erica; Gerda Collaboration

    2013-08-01

    In the course of 2012, a facility for the fast screening of germanium detectors called HEROICA (Hades Experimental Research Of Intrinsic Crystal Appliances) has been installed at the HADES underground laboratory in the premises of the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK•CEN, in Mol (Belgium). The facility allows performing a complete characterization of the critical germanium detectors' operational parameters with a rate of about two detectors per week.

  14. HEROICA: A fast screening facility for the characterization of germanium detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Andreotti, Erica; Collaboration: GERDA Collaboration

    2013-08-08

    In the course of 2012, a facility for the fast screening of germanium detectors called HEROICA (Hades Experimental Research Of Intrinsic Crystal Appliances) has been installed at the HADES underground laboratory in the premises of the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK•CEN, in Mol (Belgium). The facility allows performing a complete characterization of the critical germanium detectors' operational parameters with a rate of about two detectors per week.

  15. Direct band gap electroluminescence from bulk germanium at room temperature using an asymmetric fin type metal/germanium/metal structure

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Dong Maekura, Takayuki; Kamezawa, Sho; Yamamoto, Keisuke; Nakashima, Hiroshi

    2015-02-16

    We demonstrated direct band gap (DBG) electroluminescence (EL) at room temperature from n-type bulk germanium (Ge) using a fin type asymmetric lateral metal/Ge/metal structure with TiN/Ge and HfGe/Ge contacts, which was fabricated using a low temperature (<400 °C) process. Small electron and hole barrier heights were obtained for TiN/Ge and HfGe/Ge contacts, respectively. DBG EL spectrum peaked at 1.55 μm was clearly observed even at a small current density of 2.2 μA/μm. Superlinear increase in EL intensity was also observed with increasing current density, due to superlinear increase in population of elections in direct conduction band. The efficiency of hole injection was also clarified.

  16. The Primary and Secondary Production of Germanium: A Life-Cycle Assessment of Different Process Alternatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertz, Benedicte; Verhelle, Jensen; Schurmans, Maarten

    2015-02-01

    Germanium is a semiconducting metalloid element used in optical fibers, catalysis, infrared optics, solar cells, and light-emitting diodes. The need for Ge in these markets is considered to increase by a steady ~1% on a yearly basis. Its economic importance, coupled with the identified supply risks, has led to the classification of germanium as a critical raw material within Europe. Since the early 1950s, Umicore Electro-Optic Materials has supplied germanium-based materials solutions to its markets around the world. Umicore extracts germanium from a wide range of refining and recycling feeds. The main objectives of this study were to quantify the potential environmental impacts of the production of germanium from production scraps from the photovoltaic industry and to compare them with the potential impacts of the primary production of germanium from coal. The data related to the secondary production are Umicore-specific data. Environmental impact scores have been calculated for the impact categories recommended by the International reference life cycle data system. The comparison of the primary and secondary production highlights the benefit linked to the recycling of metals.

  17. Epitaxial growth of nanostructured gold films on germanium via galvanic displacement.

    PubMed

    Sayed, Sayed Y; Buriak, Jillian M

    2010-12-01

    This work focuses on the synthesis and characterization of gold films grown via galvanic displacement on Ge(111) substrates. The synthetic approach uses galvanic displacement, a type of electroless deposition that takes place in an efficient manner under aqueous, room temperature conditions. Investigations involving X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques were performed to study the crystallinity and orientation of the resulting gold-on-germanium films. A profound effect of HF(aq) concentration was noted, and although the SEM images did not show significant differences in the resulting gold films, a host of X-ray diffraction studies demonstrated that higher concentrations of HF(aq) led to epitaxial gold-on-germanium, whereas in the absence of HF(aq), lower degrees of order (fiber texture) resulted. Cross-sectional nanobeam diffraction analyses of the Au-Ge interface confirmed the epitaxial nature of the gold-on-germanium film. This epitaxial behavior can be attributed to the simultaneous etching of the germanium oxides, formed during the galvanic displacement process, in the presence of HF. High-resolution TEM analyses showed the coincident site lattice (CSL) interface of gold-on-germanium, which results in a small 3.8% lattice mismatch due to the coincidence of four gold lattices with three of germanium.

  18. Maximizing Tensile Strain in Germanium Nanomembranes for Enhanced Optoelectronic Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez Perez, Jose Roberto

    Silicon, germanium, and their alloys, which provide the leading materials platform of microelectronics, are extremely inefficient light emitters because of their indirect fundamental energy band gap. This basic materials property has so far hindered the development of group-IV photonic-active devices, including light emitters and diode lasers, thereby significantly limiting our ability to integrate electronic and photonic functionalities at the chip level. Theoretical studies have predicted that tensile strain in Ge lowers the direct energy band gap relative to the indirect one, and that, with sufficient strain, Ge becomes direct-band gap, thus enabling facile interband light emission and the fabrication of Group IV lasers. It has, however, not been possible to impart sufficient strain to Ge to reach the direct-band gap goal, because bulk Ge fractures at much lower strains. Here it is shown that very thin sheets of Ge(001), called nanomembranes (NMs), can be used to overcome this materials limitation. Germanium nanomembranes (NMs) in the range of thicknesses from 20nm to 100nm were fabricated and then transferred and mounted to a flexible substrate [a polyimide (PI) sheet]. An apparatus was developed to stress the PI/NM combination and provide for in-situ Raman measurements of the strain as a function of applied stress. This arrangement allowed for the introduction of sufficient biaxial tensile strain (>1.7%) to transform Ge to a direct-band gap material, as determined by photoluminescence (PL) measurements and theory. Appropriate shifts in the emission spectrum and increases in PL intensities were observed. The advance in this work was nanomembrane fabrication technology; i.e., making thin enough Ge sheets to accept sufficiently high levels of strain without fracture. It was of interest to determine if the strain at which fracture ultimately does occur can be raised, by evaluating factors that initiate fracture. Attempts to assess the effect of free edges (enchant

  19. Automation of the Characterization of High Purity Germanium Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dugger, Charles ``Chip''

    2014-09-01

    Neutrinoless double beta decay is a rare hypothesized process that may yield valuable insight into the fundamental properties of the neutrino. Currently there are several experiments trying to observe this process, including the Majorana DEMONSTRAOR experiment, which uses high purity germanium (HPGe) detectors to generate and search for these events. Because the event happens internally, it is essential to have the lowest background possible. This is done through passive detector shielding, as well as event discrimination techniques that distinguish between multi-site events characteristic of gamma-radiation, and single-site events characteristic of neutrinoless double beta decay. Before fielding such an experiment, the radiation response of the detectors must be characterized. A robotic arm is being tested for future calibration of HPGe detectors. The arm will hold a source at locations relative to the crystal while data is acquired. Several radioactive sources of varying energy levels will be used to determine the characteristics of the crystal. In this poster, I will present our work with the robot, as well as the characterization of data we took with an underground HPGe detector at the WIPP facility in Carlsbad, NM (2013). Neutrinoless double beta decay is a rare hypothesized process that may yield valuable insight into the fundamental properties of the neutrino. Currently there are several experiments trying to observe this process, including the Majorana DEMONSTRAOR experiment, which uses high purity germanium (HPGe) detectors to generate and search for these events. Because the event happens internally, it is essential to have the lowest background possible. This is done through passive detector shielding, as well as event discrimination techniques that distinguish between multi-site events characteristic of gamma-radiation, and single-site events characteristic of neutrinoless double beta decay. Before fielding such an experiment, the radiation response of

  20. Development of a new type of germanium detector for dark matter searches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Wenzhao

    Monte Carlo simulation is an important tool used to develop a better understanding of important physical processes. This thesis describes three Monte Carlo simulations used to understand germanium detector response to low energy nuclear recoils and radiogenic backgrounds for direct dark matter searches. The first simulation is the verification of Barker-Mei model, a theoretical model for calculating the ionization efficiency for germanium detector for the energy range of 1 - 100 keV. Utilizing the shape analysis, a bin-to-bin comparison between simulation and experimental data was performed for verifying the accuracy of the Barker-Mei model. A percentage difference within 4% was achieved between data and simulation, which showed the validity of the Barker-Mei model. The second simulation is the study of a new type of germanium detector for n/gamma discrimination at 77 K with plasma time difference in pulse shape. Due to the poor time resolution, conventional P-type Point Contact (PPC) and coaxial germanium detectors are not capable of discriminating nuclear recoils from electron recoils. In this thesis, a new idea of using great detector granularity and plasma time difference in pulse shape to discriminate nuclear recoils from electron recoils with planar germanium detectors in strings was discussed. The anticipated sensitivity of this new detector array is shown for detecting dark matter. The last simulation is a study of a new type of germanium-detector array serving as a PMT screening facility for ultra-low background dark matter experiments using noble liquid xenon as detector material such LUX/LZ and XENON100/XENON1T. A well-shaped germanium detector array and a PMT were simulated to study the detector response to the signal and background for a better understanding of the radiogenic gamma rays from PMTs. The detector efficiency and other detector performance were presented in this work.

  1. HEROICA: an underground facility for the fast screening of germanium detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreotti, E.; Garfagnini, A.; Maneschg, W.; Barros, N.; Benato, G.; Brugnera, R.; Costa, F.; Falkenstein, R.; Guthikonda, K. K.; Hegai, A.; Hemmer, S.; Hult, M.; Jänner, K.; Kihm, T.; Lehnert, B.; Liao, H.; Lubashevskiy, A.; Lutter, G.; Marissens, G.; Modenese, L.; Pandola, L.; Reissfelder, M.; Sada, C.; Salathe, M.; Schmitt, C.; Schulz, O.; Schwingenheuer, B.; Turcato, M.; Ur, C.; von Sturm, K.; Wagner, V.; Westermann, J.

    2013-06-01

    HEROICA (Hades Experimental Research Of Intrinsic Crystal Appliances) is an infrastructure to characterize germanium detectors and has been designed and constructed at the HADES Underground Research Laboratory, located in Mol (Belgium). Thanks to the 223 m overburden of clay and sand, the muon flux is lowered by four orders of magnitude. This natural shield minimizes the exposure of radio-pure germanium material to cosmic radiation resulting in a significant suppression of cosmogenic activation in the germanium detectors. The project has been strongly motivated by a special production of germanium detectors for the GERDA experiment. GERDA, currently collecting data at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso of INFN, is searching for the neutrinoless double beta decay of 76Ge. In the near future, GERDA will increase its mass and sensitivity by adding new Broad Energy Germanium (BEGe) detectors. The production of the BEGe detectors is done at Canberra in Olen (Belgium), located about 30 km from the underground test site. Therefore, HADES is used both for storage of the crystals over night, during diode production, and for the characterization measurements. A full quality control chain has been setup and tested on the first seven prototype detectors delivered by the manufacturer at the beginning of 2012. The screening capabilities demonstrate that the installed setup fulfills a fast and complete set of measurements on the diodes and it can be seen as a general test facility for the fast screening of high purity germanium detectors. The results are of major importance for a future massive production and characterization chain of germanium diodes foreseen for a possible next generation 1-tonne double beta decay experiment with 76Ge.

  2. Radium needle used to calibrate germanium gamma-ray detector.

    PubMed

    Kamboj, S; Lovett, D; Kahn, B; Walker, D

    1993-03-01

    A standard platinum-iridium needle that contains 374 MBq 226Ra was tested as a source for calibrating a portable germanium detector used with a gamma-ray spectrometer for environmental radioactivity measurements. The counting efficiencies of the 11 most intense gamma rays emitted by 226Ra and its short-lived radioactive progeny at energies between 186 and 2,448 keV were determined, at the full energy peaks, to construct a curve of counting efficiency vs. energy. The curve was compared to another curve between 43 and 1,596 keV obtained with a NIST mixed-radionuclide standard. It was also compared to the results of a Monte Carlo simulation. The 226Ra source results were consistent with the NIST standard between 248 and 1,596 keV. The Monte Carlo simulation gave a curve parallel to the curve for the combined radium and NIST standard data between 250 and 2,000 keV, but at higher efficiency.

  3. Synthesis of germanium nanocrystals in high temperature supercritical CO(2).

    PubMed

    Lu, Xianmao; Korgel, Brian A; Johnston, Keith P

    2005-07-01

    Germanium nanocrystals were synthesized in supercritical (sc) CO(2) by thermolysis of diphenylgermane (DPG) or tetraethylgermane (TEG) with octanol as a capping ligand at 500 °C and 27.6 MPa. The Ge nanocrystals were characterized with high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and x-ray diffraction (XRD). On the basis of TEM, the mean diameters of the nanocrystals made from DPG and TEG were 10.1 and 5.6 nm, respectively. The synthesis in sc-CO(2) produced much less organic contamination compared with similar reactions in organic supercritical fluids. When the same reaction of DPG with octanol was performed in the gas phase without CO(2) present, bulk Ge crystals were formed instead of nanocrystals. Thus, the solvation of the hydrocarbon ligands by CO(2) was sufficient to provide steric stabilization. The presence of steric stabilization in CO(2) at a reduced temperature of 2.5, with a reduced solvent density of only 0.4, may be attributed to a reduction in the differences between ligand-ligand interactions and ligand-CO(2) interactions relative to thermal energy.

  4. Proton-induced radiation damage in germanium detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Bruckner, J.; Korfer, M.; Wanke, H. , Mainz ); Schroeder, A.N.F. ); Figes, D.; Dragovitsch, P. ); Englert, P.A.J. ); Starr, R.; Trombka, J.I. . Goddard Space Flight Center); Taylor, I. ); Drake, D.M.; Shunk, E.R. )

    1991-04-01

    High-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors will be used in future space missions for gamma-ray measurements and will be subject to interactions with energetic particles. To simulate this process several large-volume n-type HPGe detectors were incrementally exposed to a particle fluence of up to 10{sub 8} protons cm{sup {minus}2} (proton energy: 1.5 GeV) at different operating temperatures (90 to 120 K) to induce radiation damage. Basic scientific as well as engineering data on detector performance were collected. During the incremental irradiation, the peak shape produced by the detectors showed a significant change from a Gaussian shape to a broad complex structure. After the irradiation all detectors were thoroughly characterized by measuring many parameters. To remove the accumulated radiation damage the detectors were stepwise annealed at temperatures T {le} 110{degrees}C while staying specially designed cryostats. This paper shows that n-type HPGe detectors can be used in charged particles environments as high-energy resolution devices until a certain level of radiation damage is accumulated and that the damage can be removed at moderate annealing temperatures and the detector returned to operating condition.

  5. Germanium Detector Crystal Axis Orientation for the MAJORANA Demonstrator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Letourneau, Hannah

    2013-10-01

    The MAJORANA Demonstrator, currently being constructed at Sanford Underground Research Facility in Lead, South Dakota, is an array of germanium detectors which will be used to search for neutrinoless double beta decay, which would demonstrate that neutrinos have a Majorana mass term and lepton number is not conserved. An important characteristic of semiconductor detectors is the crystal axis orientation, because the propagation of electromagnetic signals is attenuated by the location of the interaction relative to the axis of the crystal. Conventionally, a goniometer is used to position a collimated low energy gamma source in many small increments around the detector to measure the rise time at each position. However, due to physical constraints from the casing of the Demonstrator, a different method must be developed. At the University of Washington this summer, I worked with a 76 Ge point-contact detector. I found the crystal axis orientation first with Americium 241, a lower energy gamma source. Then, I used a higher energy source, Thorium 232, in conjunction with the only a few angular reference points to also calculate rise time. Also, I wrote code to process the data. The success of this method will be evaluated and discussed. NSF

  6. Photothermal ionization spectroscopy of donors in high-purity germanium

    SciTech Connect

    Darken, L.S.

    1989-02-01

    The results of narrow linewidth (0.10 cm/sup -1/ FWHM) photothermal ionization spectroscopy (PTIS) investigations of shallow donors in high-purity germanium are reported. The donors observed include phosphorus, arsenic, lithium, a hydrogen-oxygen complex, and three lithium-related complexes. One lithium-related complex designated D(Li,Y) is reported here for the first time. Within experimental accuracy, energies of the excited states with respect to the conduction band are the same for all donors. Fourteen different 1S..-->..excited state transitions (five previously unreported, two others seen for the first time in PTIS from the ground state) have been observed. The Zeeman effect was used to help identify these levels. PTIS lines from the ground state to 2P/sub 0/ and 3P/sub 0/ were found to be relatively weak but their intensity was in good agreement with the intensity calculated by means of the Cascade theory. In as-grown samples, linewidth broadening of group V donors was observed that depended on the square root of the dislocation density (etch pit density) and with features expected from deformation potential theory.

  7. Etching of germanium-tin using ammonia peroxide mixture

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, Yuan; Ong, Bin Leong; Wang, Wei; Gong, Xiao; Liang, Gengchiau; Yeo, Yee-Chia; Zhang, Zheng; Pan, Jisheng; Tok, Eng-Soon

    2015-12-28

    The wet etching of germanium-tin (Ge{sub 1-x}Sn{sub x}) alloys (4.2% < x < 16.0%) in ammonia peroxide mixture (APM) is investigated. Empirical fitting of the data points indicates that the etch depth of Ge{sub 1-x}Sn{sub x} is proportional to the square root of the etch time t and decreases exponentially with increasing x for a given t. In addition, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results show that increasing t increases the intensity of the Sn oxide peak, whereas no obvious change is observed for the Ge oxide peak. This indicates that an accumulation of Sn oxide on the Ge{sub 1-x}Sn{sub x} surface decreases the amount of Ge atoms exposed to the etchant, which accounts for the decrease in etch rate with increasing etch time. Atomic force microscopy was used to examine the surface morphologies of the Ge{sub 0.918}Sn{sub 0.082} samples. Both root-mean-square roughness and undulation periods of the Ge{sub 1-x}Sn{sub x} surface were observed to increase with increasing t. This work provides further understanding of the wet etching of Ge{sub 1-x}Sn{sub x} using APM and may be used for the fabrication of Ge{sub 1-x}Sn{sub x}-based electronic and photonic devices.

  8. Isotopic germanium targets for high beam current applications at GAMMASPHERE.

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, J. P.; Lauritsen, T.

    2000-11-29

    The creation of a specific heavy ion residue via heavy ion fusion can usually be achieved through a number of beam and target combinations. Sometimes it is necessary to choose combinations with rare beams and/or difficult targets in order to achieve the physics goals of an experiment. A case in point was a recent experiment to produce {sup 152}Dy at very high spins and low excitation energy with detection of the residue in a recoil mass analyzer. Both to create the nucleus cold and with a small recoil-cone so that the efficiency of the mass analyzer would be high, it was necessary to use the {sup 80}Se on {sup 76}Ge reaction rather than the standard {sup 48}Ca on {sup 108}Pd reaction. Because the recoil velocity of the {sup 152}Dy residues was very high using this symmetric reaction (5% v/c), it was furthermore necessary to use a stack of two thin targets to reduce the Doppler broadening. Germanium targets are fragile and do not withstand high beam currents, therefore the {sup 76}Ge target stacks were mounted on a rotating target wheel. A description of the {sup 76}Ge target stack preparation will be presented and the target performance described.

  9. Measurement of Compton scattering in phantoms by germanium detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Zasadny, K.R.; Koral, K.F. . Medical Center); Floyd, C.E. Jr.; Jaszczak, R.J. . Dept. of Radiology)

    1990-04-01

    Quantitative Anger-camera tomography requires correction for Compton scattering. The Anger camera spectral-fitting technique can measure scatter fractions at designated positions in an image allowing for correction. To permit verification of those measurements for {sup 131}I, the authors have determined scatter fractions with a high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector and various phantom configurations. The scatter fraction values for {sup 99m}Tc were also measured and are compared to results from Monte Carlo simulation. The phantom consisted of a 22.2 cm diameter {times} 18.6 cm high cylinder filled with water and a 6 cm diameter water-filled sphere placed at various locations inside the cylinder. Radioisotope is added to either the sphere or the cylinder. The source is collimated by an Anger camera collimator and the active area of the HPGe detector is defined by a 0.6 cm diameter hole in a lead shielding mask. Corrections include accounting for the HPGe detector efficiency as a function of gamma-ray energy, the finite energy resolution of detector and the HPGe detector energy resolution compared to that for a NaI(Tl) Anger camera.

  10. Point defect states in Sb-doped germanium

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, Neil S. Monmeyran, Corentin; Agarwal, Anuradha; Kimerling, Lionel C.

    2015-10-21

    Defect states in n-type Sb-doped germanium were investigated by deep-level transient spectroscopy. Cobalt-60 gamma rays were used to generate isolated vacancies and interstitials which diffuse and react with impurities in the material to form four defect states (E{sub 37}, E{sub 30}, E{sub 22}, and E{sub 21}) in the upper half of the bandgap. Irradiations at 77 K and 300 K as well as isothermal anneals were performed to characterize the relationships between the four observable defects. E{sub 37} is assigned to the Sb donor-vacancy associate (E-center) and is the only vacancy containing defect giving an estimate of 2 × 10{sup 11 }cm{sup −3} Mrad{sup −1} for the uncorrelated vacancy-interstitial pair introduction rate. The remaining three defect states are interstitial associates and transform among one another. Conversion ratios between E{sub 22}, E{sub 21}, and E{sub 30} indicate that E{sub 22} likely contains two interstitials.

  11. Size-dependent color tuning of efficiently luminescent germanium nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Shirahata, Naoto; Hirakawa, Daigo; Masuda, Yoshitake; Sakka, Yoshio

    2013-06-18

    It is revealed that rigorous control of the size and surface of germanium nanoparticles allows fine color tuning of efficient fluorescence emission in the visible region. The spectral line widths of each emission were very narrow (<500 meV). Furthermore, the absolute fluorescence quantum yields of each emission were estimated to be 4-15%, which are high enough to be used as fluorescent labeling tags. In this study, a violet-light-emitting nanoparticle is demonstrated to be a new family of luminescent Ge. Such superior properties of fluorescence were observed from the fractions separated from one mother Ge nanoparticle sample by the fluorescent color using our developed combinatorial column technique. It is commonly believed that a broad spectral line width frequently observed from Ge nanoparticle appears because of an indirect band gap nature inherited even in nanostructures, but the present study argues that such a broad luminescence spectrum is expressed as an ensemble of different spectral lines and can be separated into the fractions emitting light in each wavelength region by the appropriate postsynthesis process.

  12. Stability and exfoliation of germanane: a germanium graphane analogue.

    PubMed

    Bianco, Elisabeth; Butler, Sheneve; Jiang, Shishi; Restrepo, Oscar D; Windl, Wolfgang; Goldberger, Joshua E

    2013-05-28

    Graphene's success has shown not only that it is possible to create stable, single-atom-thick sheets from a crystalline solid but that these materials have fundamentally different properties than the parent material. We have synthesized for the first time, millimeter-scale crystals of a hydrogen-terminated germanium multilayered graphane analogue (germanane, GeH) from the topochemical deintercalation of CaGe2. This layered van der Waals solid is analogous to multilayered graphane (CH). The surface layer of GeH only slowly oxidizes in air over the span of 5 months, while the underlying layers are resilient to oxidation based on X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy measurements. The GeH is thermally stable up to 75 °C; however, above this temperature amorphization and dehydrogenation begin to occur. These sheets can be mechanically exfoliated as single and few layers onto SiO2/Si surfaces. This material represents a new class of covalently terminated graphane analogues and has great potential for a wide range of optoelectronic and sensing applications, especially since theory predicts a direct band gap of 1.53 eV and an electron mobility ca. five times higher than that of bulk Ge.

  13. Defect Density Characterization of Detached-Grown Germanium Crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schweizer, M.; Cobb, S. D.; Volz, M. P.; Szoke, J.; Szofran, F. R.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Several (111)-oriented, Ga-doped germanium crystals were grown in pyrolytic boron nitride (pBN) containers by the Bridgman and the detached Bridgman growth techniques. Growth experiments in closed-bottom pBN containers resulted in nearly completely detached-grown crystals, because the gas pressure below the melt can build up to a higher pressure than above the melt. With open-bottom tubes the gas pressure above and below the melt is balanced during the experiment, and thus no additional force supports the detachment. In this case the crystals grew attached to the wall. Etch pit density (EPD) measurements along the axial growth direction indicated a strong improvement of the crystal quality of the detached-grown samples compared to the attached samples. Starting in the seed with an EPD of 6-8 x 10(exp 3)/square cm it decreased in the detached-grown crystals continuously to about 200-500/square cm . No significant radial difference between the EPD on the edge and the middle of the crystal exists. In the attached grown samples the EPD increases up to a value of about 2-4 x 10(exp 4)/square cm (near the edge) and up to 1 x 10(exp 4)/square cm in the middle of the sample. Thus the difference between the detached- and the attached-grown crystals with respect to the EPD is approximately two orders of magnitude.

  14. Spin Qubits in Germanium Structures with Phononic Gap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smelyanskiy, V. N.; Vasko, F. T.; Hafiychuk, V. V.; Dykman, M. I.; Petukhov, A. G.

    2014-01-01

    We propose qubits based on shallow donor electron spins in germanium structures with phononic gap. We consider a phononic crystal formed by periodic holes in Ge plate or a rigid cover / Ge layer / rigid substrate structure with gaps approximately a few GHz. The spin relaxation is suppressed dramatically, if the Zeeman frequency omegaZ is in the phononic gap, but an effective coupling between the spins of remote donors via exchange of virtual phonons remains essential. If omegaZ approaches to a gap edge in these structures, a long-range (limited by detuning of omegaZ) resonant exchange interaction takes place. We estimate that ratio of the exchange integral to the longitudinal relaxation rate exceeds 10(exp 5) and lateral scale of resonant exchange 0.1 mm. The exchange contribution can be verified under microwave pumping through oscillations of spin echo signal or through the differential absorption measurements. Efficient manipulation of spins due to the Rabi oscillations opens a new way for quantum information applications.

  15. X-ray Characterization of Detached-Grown Germanium Crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volz, M. P.; Schweizer, M.; Raghothamachar, B.; Dudley, M.; Szoke, J.; Cobb, S. D.; Szofran, F. R.

    2005-01-01

    Germanium (111)-oriented crystals have been grown by the vertical Bridgman technique, in both detached and attached configurations. Microstructural characterization of these crystals has been performed using synchrotron white beam x-ray topography (SWBXT) and double axis x-ray diffraction. Dislocation densities were measured from x-ray topographs obtained using the reflection geometry. For detached-grown crystals, the dislocation density is 4-6 x 10(exp 4) per square centimeter in the seed region, and decreases in the direction of growth to less than 10(exp 3) per square centimeter, and in some crystals reaches less than 10(exp 2) per square centimeter. For crystals grown in the attached configuration, dislocation densities were on the order of 10(exp 4) per square centimeter in the middle of the crystals, increasing to greater than 10(exp 5) per square centimeter near the edge. The measured dislocation densities are in excellent agreement with etch pit density results. The rocking curve linewidths were relatively insensitive to the dislocation densities. However, broadening and splitting of the rocking curves were observed in the vicinity of subgrain boundaries identified by x-ray topography in some of the attached-grown crystals.

  16. Strip interpolation in silicon and germanium strip detectors.

    SciTech Connect

    Wulf, E. A.; Phlips, B. F.; Johnson, W. N.; Kurfess, J. D.; Lister, C. J.; Kondev, F.; Physics; Naval Research Lab.

    2004-01-01

    The position resolution of double-sided strip detectors is limited by the strip pitch and a reduction in strip pitch necessitates more electronics. Improved position resolution would improve the imaging capabilities of Compton telescopes and PET detectors. Digitizing the preamplifier waveform yields more information than can be extracted with regular shaping electronics. In addition to the energy, depth of interaction, and which strip was hit, the digitized preamplifier signals can locate the interaction position to less than the strip pitch of the detector by looking at induced signals in neighboring strips. This allows the position of the interaction to be interpolated in three dimensions and improve the imaging capabilities of the system. In a 2 mm thick silicon strip detector with a strip pitch of 0.891 mm, strip interpolation located the interaction of 356 keV gamma rays to 0.3 mm FWHM. In a 2 cm thick germanium detector with a strip pitch of 5 mm, strip interpolation of 356 keV gamma rays yielded a position resolution of 1.5 mm FWHM.

  17. Development of a Germanium Small-Animal SPECT System

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Lindsay C.; Ovchinnikov, Oleg; Shokouhi, Sepideh; Peterson, Todd E.

    2015-01-01

    Advances in fabrication techniques, electronics, and mechanical cooling systems have given rise to germanium detectors suitable for biomedical imaging. We are developing a small-animal SPECT system that uses a double-sided Ge strip detector. The detector’s excellent energy resolution may help to reduce scatter and simplify processing of multi-isotope imaging, while its ability to measure depth of interaction has the potential to mitigate parallax error in pinhole imaging. The detector’s energy resolution is <1% FWHM at 140 keV and its spatial resolution is approximately 1.5 mm FWHM. The prototype system described has a single-pinhole collimator with a 1-mm diameter and a 70-degree opening angle with a focal length variable between 4.5 and 9 cm. Phantom images from the gantry-mounted system are presented, including the NEMA NU-2008 phantom and a hot-rod phantom. Additionally, the benefit of energy resolution is demonstrated by imaging a dual-isotope phantom with 99mTc and 123I without cross-talk correction. PMID:26755832

  18. Bending-induced Symmetry Breaking of Lithiation in Germanium Nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Gu, Meng; Yang, Hui; Perea, Daniel E.; Zhang, Jiguang; Zhang, Sulin; Wang, Chong M.

    2014-08-01

    From signal transduction of living cells to oxidation and corrosion of metals, mechanical stress intimately couples with chemical reactions, regulating these biological and physiochemical processes. The coupled effect is particularly evident in electrochemical lithiation/delithiation cycling of high-capacity electrodes, such as silicon (Si), where on one hand lithiation-generated stress mediates lithiation kinetics, and on the other electrochemical reaction rate regulates stress generation and mechanical failure of the electrodes. Here we report for the first time the evidence on the controlled lithiation in germanium nanowires (GeNWs) through external bending. Contrary to the symmetric core-shell lithiation in free-standing GeNWs, we show bending GeNWs breaks the lithiation symmetry, speeding up lithaition at the tensile side while slowing down at the compressive side of the GeNWs. The bending-induced symmetry breaking of lithiation in GeNWs is further corroborated by chemomechanical modeling. In the light of the coupled effect between lithiation kinetics and mechanical stress in the electrochemical cycling, our findings shed light on strain/stress engineering of durable high-rate electrodes and energy harvesting through mechanical motion.

  19. Environmental Radioactivity: Gamma Ray Spectroscopy with Germanium detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vyas, Gargi; Beausang, Cornelius; Hughes, Richard; Tarlow, Thomas; Gell, Kristen; University of Richmond Physics Team

    2013-10-01

    A CF-1000BRL series portable Air Particle Sampler with filter paper as filter media was placed in one indoor and one outdoor location at 100 LPM flow rate on six dates under alternating rainy and warm weather conditions over the course of sixteen days in May 2013. The machine running times spanned between 6 to 69 hours. Each filter paper was then put in a germanium gamma ray detector, and the counts ranged from 93000 to 250000 seconds. The spectra obtained were analyzed by the CANBERRA Genie 2000 software, corrected using a background spectrum, and calibrated using a 20.27 kBq activity multi-nuclide source. We graphed the corrected counts (from detector analysis time)/second (from air sampler running time)/liter (from the air sampler's flow rate) of sharp, significantly big peaks corresponding to a nuclide in every sample against the sample number along with error bars. The graphs were then used to compare the samples and they showed a similar trend. The slight differences were usually due to the different running times of the air sampler. The graphs of about 22 nuclides were analyzed. We also tried to recognize the nuclei to which several gamma rays belonged that were displayed but not recognized by the Genie 2000 software.

  20. Biallelic and Genome Wide Association Mapping of Germanium Tolerant Loci in Rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    PubMed Central

    Talukdar, Partha; Douglas, Alex; Price, Adam H.; Norton, Gareth J.

    2015-01-01

    Rice plants accumulate high concentrations of silicon. Silicon has been shown to be involved in plant growth, high yield, and mitigating biotic and abiotic stresses. However, it has been demonstrated that inorganic arsenic is taken up by rice through silicon transporters under anaerobic conditions, thus the ability to efficiently take up silicon may be considered either a positive or a negative trait in rice. Germanium is an analogue of silicon that produces brown lesions in shoots and leaves, and germanium toxicity has been used to identify mutants in silicon and arsenic transport. In this study, two different genetic mapping methods were performed to determine the loci involved in germanium sensitivity in rice. Genetic mapping in the biparental cross of Bala × Azucena (an F6 population) and a genome wide association (GWA) study with 350 accessions from the Rice Diversity Panel 1 were conducted using 15 μM of germanic acid. This identified a number of germanium sensitive loci: some co-localised with previously identified quantitative trait loci (QTL) for tissue silicon or arsenic concentration, none co-localised with Lsi1 or Lsi6, while one single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) was detected within 200 kb of Lsi2 (these are genes known to transport silicon, whose identity was discovered using germanium toxicity). However, examining candidate genes that are within the genomic region of the loci detected above reveals genes homologous to both Lsi1 and Lsi2, as well as a number of other candidate genes, which are discussed. PMID:26356220

  1. Biallelic and Genome Wide Association Mapping of Germanium Tolerant Loci in Rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Talukdar, Partha; Douglas, Alex; Price, Adam H; Norton, Gareth J

    2015-01-01

    Rice plants accumulate high concentrations of silicon. Silicon has been shown to be involved in plant growth, high yield, and mitigating biotic and abiotic stresses. However, it has been demonstrated that inorganic arsenic is taken up by rice through silicon transporters under anaerobic conditions, thus the ability to efficiently take up silicon may be considered either a positive or a negative trait in rice. Germanium is an analogue of silicon that produces brown lesions in shoots and leaves, and germanium toxicity has been used to identify mutants in silicon and arsenic transport. In this study, two different genetic mapping methods were performed to determine the loci involved in germanium sensitivity in rice. Genetic mapping in the biparental cross of Bala × Azucena (an F6 population) and a genome wide association (GWA) study with 350 accessions from the Rice Diversity Panel 1 were conducted using 15 μM of germanic acid. This identified a number of germanium sensitive loci: some co-localised with previously identified quantitative trait loci (QTL) for tissue silicon or arsenic concentration, none co-localised with Lsi1 or Lsi6, while one single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) was detected within 200 kb of Lsi2 (these are genes known to transport silicon, whose identity was discovered using germanium toxicity). However, examining candidate genes that are within the genomic region of the loci detected above reveals genes homologous to both Lsi1 and Lsi2, as well as a number of other candidate genes, which are discussed.

  2. Electrodeposition of germanium at elevated temperatures and pressures from ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Wu, Minxian; Vanhoutte, Gijs; Brooks, Neil R; Binnemans, Koen; Fransaer, Jan

    2015-05-14

    The electrodeposition of germanium at elevated temperatures up to 180 °C and pressures was studied from the ionic liquids 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium dicyanamide and 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide containing [GeCl4(BuIm)2] (where BuIm = 1-butylimidazole) or GeCl4. Cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance (EQCM), rotating ring-disk electrode (RRDE), scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) were used to investigate the electrochemical behavior and the properties of the electrodeposited germanium. Electrodeposition at elevated temperatures leads to higher deposition rates due to: (1) increase in the diffusion rate of the electroactive germanium compounds; (2) faster electrochemical kinetics in the electrolyte; and (3) higher electrical conductivity of the electrodeposited germanium film. Moreover, the morphology of the germanium film is also of a better quality at higher electrodeposition temperatures due to an increase in adatom mobility.

  3. Germanium anode with excellent lithium storage performance in a germanium/lithium-cobalt oxide lithium-ion battery.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiuwan; Yang, Zhibo; Fu, Yujun; Qiao, Li; Li, Dan; Yue, Hongwei; He, Deyan

    2015-02-24

    Germanium is a highly promising anode material for lithium-ion batteries as a consequence of its large theoretical specific capacity, good electrical conductivity, and fast lithium ion diffusivity. In this work, Co3O4 nanowire array fabricated on nickel foam was designed as a nanostructured current collector for Ge anode. By limiting the voltage cutoff window in an appropriate range, the obtained Ge anode exhibits excellent lithium storage performance in half- and full-cells, which can be mainly attributed to the designed nanostructured current collector with good conductivity, enough buffering space for the volume change, and shortened ionic transport length. More importantly, the assembled Ge/LiCoO2 full-cell shows a high energy density of 475 Wh/kg and a high power density of 6587 W/kg. A high capacity of 1184 mA h g(-1) for Ge anode was maintained at a current density of 5000 mA g(-1) after 150 cycles.

  4. 25 Gbps silicon photonics multi-mode fiber link with highly alignment tolerant vertically illuminated germanium photodiode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okumura, Tadashi; Wakayama, Yuki; Matsuoka, Yasunobu; Oda, Katsuya; Sagawa, Misuzu; Takemoto, Takashi; Nomoto, Etsuko; Arimoto, Hideo; Tanaka, Shigehisa

    2015-02-01

    For a multi mode fiber optical link, a high speed silicon photonics receiver based on a highly alignment tolerant vertically illuminated germanium photodiode was developed. The germanium photodiode has 20 GHz bandwidth and responsivity of 0.5 A/W with highly alignment tolerance for passive optical assembly. The receiver achieves 25 Gbps error free operation after 100 m multi mode fiber transmission.

  5. Multiphysical simulation analysis of the dislocation structure in germanium single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podkopaev, O. I.; Artemyev, V. V.; Smirnov, A. D.; Mamedov, V. M.; Sid'ko, A. P.; Kalaev, V. V.; Kravtsova, E. D.; Shimanskii, A. F.

    2016-09-01

    To grow high-quality germanium crystals is one of the most important problems of growth industry. The dislocation density is an important parameter of the quality of single crystals. The dislocation densities in germanium crystals 100 mm in diameter, which have various shapes of the side surface and are grown by the Czochralski technique, are experimentally measured. The crystal growth is numerically simulated using heat-transfer and hydrodynamics models and the Alexander-Haasen dislocation model in terms of the CGSim software package. A comparison of the experimental and calculated dislocation densities shows that the dislocation model can be applied to study lattice defects in germanium crystals and to improve their quality.

  6. Syntheses and spectroscopy of germanium and tin compounds with biorelevant ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breitinger, D. K.; Grützner, T.; Wick, H.; Schimmer, O.; Eschelbach, H.

    1997-06-01

    The germanium and tin compounds diaquabis(glycolato)germanium(IV) Ge(OCH 2COO) 2(H 2O) 2 ( 1), bis(thioglycolato)-, bis(thiolactato)-, and bis(thiohydracrylato)-germanium(IV) Ge(SJCOO) 2 (J = CH 2 ( 2), CH(CH 3) ( 3), CH 2CH 2 ( 4)), as well as the tetrakis(alkylthioglycolato)tetrels Tt(SCH 2COOR) 4 (Tt = Ge ( 5, 6) and Sn ( 7, 8); R = Me, i-Pr, respectively), under study for their antimutagenic properties, were studied by vibrational spectrometry. Some of the skeletal vibrations of the octahedral 1 and otherwise tetrahedral compounds were assigned. Data from 1H- and 13C- NMR spectra and from mass spectra are also reported.

  7. σ-Bond electron delocalization of branched oligogermanes and germanium containing oligosilanes

    PubMed Central

    Hlina, Johann; Zitz, Rainer; Wagner, Harald; Stella, Filippo; Baumgartner, Judith; Marschner, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    In order to evaluate the influence of germanium atoms in oligo- and polysilanes, a number of oligosilane compounds were prepared where two or more silicon atoms were replaced by germanium. While it can be expected that the structural features of thus altered molecules do not change much, the more interesting question is, whether this modification would have a profound influence on the electronic structure, in particular on the property of σ-bond electron delocalization. The UV-spectroscopic comparison of the oligosilanes with germanium enriched oligosilanes and also with oligogermanes showed a remarkable uniform picture. The expected bathochromic shift for oligogermanes and Ge-enriched oligosilanes was observed but its extent was very small. For the low energy absorption band the bathochromic shift from a hexasilane chain (256 nm) to a hexagermane chain with identical substituent patterns (259 nm) amounts to a mere 3 nm. PMID:25431502

  8. Germanium and Silicon Nanocrystal Thin-Film Field-Effect Transistors from Solution

    SciTech Connect

    Holman, Zachary C.; Liu, Chin-Yi; Kortshagen, Uwe R.

    2010-07-09

    Germanium and silicon have lagged behind more popular II-VI and IV-VI semiconductor materials in the emerging field of semiconductor nanocrystal thin film devices. We report germanium and silicon nanocrystal field-effect transistors fabricated by synthesizing nanocrystals in a plasma, transferring them into solution, and casting thin films. Germanium devices show n-type, ambipolar, or p-type behavior depending on annealing temperature with electron and hole mobilities as large as 0.02 and 0.006 cm2 V-1 s-1, respectively. Silicon devices exhibit n-type behavior without any postdeposition treatment, but are plagued by poor film morphology.

  9. The MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR: A Search for Neutrinoless Double-beta Decay of Germanium-76

    SciTech Connect

    Schubert, Alexis G.; Aguayo, Estanislao; Avignone, F. T.; Zhang, C.; Back, Henning O.; Barabash, Alexander S.; Bergevin, M.; Bertrand, F.; Boswell, M.; Brudanin, V.; Busch, Matthew; Chan, Yuen-Dat; Christofferson, Cabot-Ann; Collar, J. I.; Combs, Dustin C.; Cooper, R. J.; Detwiler, Jason A.; Leon, Jonathan D.; Doe, Peter J.; Efremenko, Yuri; Egorov, Viatcheslav; Ejiri, H.; Elliott, S. R.; Esterline, James H.; Fast, James E.; Fields, N.; Finnerty, P.; Fraenkle, Florian; Gehman, Victor M.; Giovanetti, G. K.; Green, M.; Guiseppe, Vincente; Gusey, K.; Hallin, A. L.; Hazama, R.; Henning, Reyco; Hime, Andrew; Hoppe, Eric W.; Horton, Mark; Howard, Stanley; Howe, Mark; Johnson, R. A.; Keeter, K.; Keillor, Martin E.; Keller, C.; Kephart, Jeremy D.; Kidd, M. F.; Knecht, A.; Kochetov, Oleg; Konovalov, S.; Kouzes, Richard T.; LaFerriere, Brian D.; LaRoque, B. H.; Leviner, L.; Loach, J. C.; MacMullin, S.; Marino, Michael G.; Martin, R. D.; Mei, Dong-Ming; Merriman, Jason H.; Miller, M. L.; Mizouni, Leila; Nomachi, Masaharu; Orrell, John L.; Overman, Nicole R.; Phillips, D.; Poon, Alan; Perumpilly, Gopakumar; Prior, Gersende; Radford, D. C.; Rielage, Keith; Robertson, R. G. H.; Ronquest, M. C.; Shima, T.; Shirchenko, M.; Snavely, Kyle J.; Sobolev, V.; Steele, David; Strain, J.; Thomas, K.; Timkin, V.; Tornow, Werner; Vanyushin, I.; Varner, R. L.; Vetter, Kai; Vorren, Kris R.; Wilkerson, J. F.; Wolfe, B. A.; Yakushev, E.; Young, A.; Yu, Chang-Hong; Yumatov, Vladimir

    2012-09-28

    The observation of neutrinoless double-beta decay would determine whether the neutrino is a Majorana particle and provide information on the absolute scale of neutrino mass. The MAJORANA Collaboration is constructing the DEMONSTRATOR, an array of germanium detectors, to search for neutrinoless double-beta decay of 76Ge. The DEMONSTRATOR will contain 40 kg of germanium; up to 30 kg will be enriched to 86% in 76Ge. The DEMONSTRATOR will be deployed deep underground in an ultra-low-background shielded environment. Operation of the DEMONSTRATOR aims to determine whether a future tonne-scale germanium experiment can achieve a background goal of one count per tonne-year in a 4-keV region of interest around the 76Ge neutrinoless double-beta decay Q-value of 2039 keV.

  10. Chromatographic separation of germanium and arsenic for the production of high purity (77)As.

    PubMed

    Gott, Matthew D; DeGraffenreid, Anthony J; Feng, Yutian; Phipps, Michael D; Wycoff, Donald E; Embree, Mary F; Cutler, Cathy S; Ketring, Alan R; Jurisson, Silvia S

    2016-04-01

    A simple column chromatographic method was developed to isolate (77)As (94±6% (EtOH/HCl); 74±11 (MeOH)) from germanium for potential use in radioimmunotherapy. The separation of arsenic from germanium was based on their relative affinities for different chromatographic materials in aqueous and organic environments. Using an organic or mixed mobile phase, germanium was selectively retained on a silica gel column as germanate, while arsenic was eluted from the column as arsenate. Subsequently, enriched (76)Ge (98±2) was recovered for reuse by elution with aqueous solution (neutral to basic). Greater than 98% radiolabeling yield of a (77)As-trithiol was observed from methanol separated [(77)As]arsenate [17].

  11. Operando X-ray scattering and spectroscopic analysis of germanium nanowire anodes in lithium ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Silberstein, Katharine E; Lowe, Michael A; Richards, Benjamin; Gao, Jie; Hanrath, Tobias; Abruña, Héctor D

    2015-02-17

    X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) analysis of X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) measurements have been employed to determine structural and bonding changes, as a function of the lithium content/state of charge, of germanium nanowires used as the active anode material within lithium ion batteries (LIBs). Our data, collected throughout the course of battery cycling (operando), indicate that lithium incorporation within the nanostructured germanium occurs heterogeneously, preferentially into amorphous regions over crystalline domains. Maintenance of the molecular structural integrity within the germanium nanowire is dependent on the depth of discharge. Discharging to a shallower cutoff voltage preserves partial crystallinity for several cycles.

  12. Elasticity, anelasticity, and microplasticity of directionally crystallized aluminum-germanium alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kardashev, B. K.; Korchunov, B. N.; Nikanorov, S. P.; Osipov, V. N.; Fedorov, V. Yu.

    2014-07-01

    The structure, Young's modulus defect, and internal friction in aluminum-germanium alloys have been studied under conditions of longitudinal elastic vibrations with a strain amplitude in the range of 10-6-3 × 10-4 at frequencies about 100 kHz. The ribbon-shaped samples of the alloys with the germanium content from 35 to 64 wt % have been produced by drawing from the melt by the Stepanov method at a rate of 0.1 mm/s. It has been shown that the dependences of the Young's modulus defect, logarithmic decrement, and vibration stress amplitude on the germanium content in the alloy at a constant strain amplitude have an extremum at 53 wt % Ge. This composition corresponds to the eutectic composition. The dependences of the Young's modulus defect, the decrement, and vibration stress amplitude at a constant microstrain amplitude have been explained by the vibrational displacements of dislocations, which depend on the alloy structure.

  13. Cloud point preconcentration of germanium and determination by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böyükbayram, A. Elif; Volkan, Mürvet

    2000-07-01

    Cloud point methodology has been successfully employed for the preconcentration of germanium at trace levels from aqueous samples prior to hydride generation flame atomic absorption spectrometry (HGAAS). Germanium was taken into complex with quercetin in aqueous non-ionic surfactant (Triton X-114) medium and concentrated in the surfactant rich phase by bringing the solution to the cloud point temperature (19°C). The preconcentration of only 50 ml of solution with 0.1% Triton X-114 and 2×10 -5 M quercetin at pH 6.4 gives a preconcentration factor of 200. Under these conditions, the detection limit (3 s) and the sensitivity of the cloud-point extraction-HGAAS system were 0.59 and 0.0620 μg l -1, respectively. The extraction efficiency was investigated at low germanium concentrations (10-30 μg l -1) and satisfactory recoveries (93-105%) were obtained.

  14. Micro grooving on single-crystal germanium for infrared Fresnel lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Jiwang; Maekawa, Kouki; Tamaki, Jun'ichi; Kuriyagawa, Tsunemoto

    2005-10-01

    Single-crystal germanium is an excellent optical material in the infrared wavelength range. The development of germanium Fresnel lenses not only improves the optical imaging quality but also enables the miniaturization of optical systems. In the present work, we developed a ductile-mode micro grooving process for fabricating Fresnel lenses on germanium. We used a sharply pointed diamond tool to generate the micro Fresnel structures under three-axis ultraprecision numerical control. By adopting a small angle between the cutting edge and the tangent of the objective surface, this method enables the uniform thinning of the undeformed chip thickness to the nanometric range, and thus provides complete ductile regime machining of brittle materials. Under the present conditions, a Fresnel lens which has a form error of 0.5 µm and surface roughness of 20-50 nm Ry (peak-to-valley) was fabricated successfully during a single tool pass.

  15. PREFACE: 2nd Workshop on Germanium Detectors and Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abt, I.; Majorovits, B.; Keller, C.; Mei, D.; Wang, G.; Wei, W.

    2015-05-01

    The 2nd workshop on Germanium (Ge) detectors and technology was held at the University of South Dakota on September 14-17th 2014, with more than 113 participants from 8 countries, 22 institutions, 15 national laboratories, and 8 companies. The participants represented the following big projects: (1) GERDA and Majorana for the search of neutrinoless double-beta decay (0νββ) (2) SuperCDMS, EDELWEISS, CDEX, and CoGeNT for search of dark matter; (3) TEXONO for sub-keV neutrino physics; (4) AGATA and GRETINA for gamma tracking; (5) AARM and others for low background radiation counting; (5) as well as PNNL and LBNL for applications of Ge detectors in homeland security. All participants have expressed a strong desire on having better understanding of Ge detector performance and advancing Ge technology for large-scale applications. The purpose of this workshop was to leverage the unique aspects of the underground laboratories in the world and the germanium (Ge) crystal growing infrastructure at the University of South Dakota (USD) by brining researchers from several institutions taking part in the Experimental Program to Stimulate Competitive Research (EPSCoR) together with key leaders from international laboratories and prestigious universities, working on the forefront of the intensity to advance underground physics focusing on the searches for dark matter, neutrinoless double-beta decay (0νββ), and neutrino properties. The goal of the workshop was to develop opportunities for EPSCoR institutions to play key roles in the planned world-class research experiments. The workshop was to integrate individual talents and existing research capabilities, from multiple disciplines and multiple institutions, to develop research collaborations, which includes EPSCor institutions from South Dakota, North Dakota, Alabama, Iowa, and South Carolina to support multi-ton scale experiments for future. The topic areas covered in the workshop were: 1) science related to Ge

  16. An estimate of the Germanium isotopic composition of the Ocean.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galy, A.; Rouxel, O.; Mantoura, S.; Elderfield, H.; de La Rocha, C.

    2004-12-01

    Ge is a trace element in seawater whose biogeochemistry is dominated by its Si-like behaviour. Its residence time is poorly constrained but could be close to the mixing time of the ocean. In addition, hydrothermal vents are enriched in Ge (relative to Si) and this excess has been witnessed in the water column. Moreover, Si isotopic variations have been reported in the ocean, related to the precipitation of biogenic opal, while the Si residence time is slightly higher than the Ge residence time. Therefore, variations in the isotopic composition of dissolved Ge in the ocean are expected provided that at least one of the major input or output of Ge has a different isotopic composition. Given the low Ge concentration (around 40 picomol/kg) and the state-of-the art analytical facilities, a direct measurement of the isotopic composition of the seawater is barely conceivable. The major input of Ge into the ocean are the rivers and the hydrothermal vents, while the removal of Ge occurs through the precipitation of biogenic opal and the early diagenesis of passive margins. The mechanism of the later is, however, not well established but could be related to the precipitation of Fe-oxyhydroxide. So the measurement of marine authigenic minerals, biogenic silica and the comparison with an estimate of the bulk silicate Earth (BSE) composition will give some constraints on the Germanium isotopic composition of the ocean. A new technique for the precise and accurate determination of Ge stable isotope compositions has been developed and applied to silicate, sulfide, and biogenic material. The analyses were performed using a continuous flow hydride generation system coupled to a Nu Instrument MC-ICPMS. Samples have been purified through anion and cation exchange resins to separate Ge from matrix elements and potential interferences. Deep sea clays have a similar isotopic composition that MORBs or granites, suggesting that isotopic composition of the dissolved Ge in rivers might not

  17. Germanium as a Material to Enable Silicon Photonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichikawa, R.; Takita, S.; Ishikawa, Y.; Wada, K.

    Germanium has been an enabler of the information age. Ge on Si nucleates Si photonics as well as high-speed CMOS electronics. Recently, Ge has played a significant role in integrating materials such as III-Vs on Si. The structure of GaAs on a thick Ge layer on Si has been studied for many years to expand its device application menu such as lasers, high-performance transistors, and tandem solar cells on Si. However, an ultra-thin Ge buffer layer (referred to as (Ge) hereafter) technology described in this chapter has created new fields for applications. One of the emerging fields is the structure and properties of AlGaAs/GaAs/(Ge)/Si/Ge, which has been impossible to create previously using the thick Ge buffer on Si technology. Here, we demonstrate an application as a new green power generation platform, i.e., high-efficiency cost-effective tandem solar cells using Si as a cell as well as the mechanical substrate. The (Ge) thickness has not been fully optimized yet, but is in the range 10-20 nm. Our design for a tandem solar cell shows that its theoretical efficiency reaches 43%. The key attributes are the crystalline quality and surface roughness of ultrathin (Ge). We have experimentally optimized the (Ge) buffer thickness to achieve both requirements and prototyped Ge solar cells on Si. The Ge solar cells have successfully reproduced their ideal external quantum efficiency. This is the proof of concept of the success of the Ge challenge as the material enabler to integrate Si and GaAs.

  18. Low-energy tetrahedral polymorphs of carbon, silicon, and germanium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mujica, Andrés; Pickard, Chris J.; Needs, Richard J.

    2015-06-01

    Searches for low-energy tetrahedral polymorphs of carbon and silicon have been performed using density functional theory computations and the ab initio random structure searching approach. Several of the hypothetical phases obtained in our searches have enthalpies that are lower or comparable to those of other polymorphs of group 14 elements that have either been experimentally synthesized or recently proposed as the structure of unknown phases obtained in experiments, and should thus be considered as particularly interesting candidates. A structure of P b a m symmetry with 24 atoms in the unit cell was found to be a low-energy, low-density metastable polymorph in carbon, silicon, and germanium. In silicon, P b a m is found to have a direct band gap at the zone center with an estimated value of 1.4 eV, which suggests applications as a photovoltaic material. We have also found a low-energy chiral framework structure of P 41212 symmetry with 20 atoms per cell containing fivefold spirals of atoms, whose projected topology is that of the so-called Cairo-type two-dimensional pentagonal tiling. We suggest that P 41212 is a likely candidate for the structure of the unknown phase XIII of silicon. We discuss P b a m and P 41212 in detail, contrasting their energetics and structures with those of other group 14 elements, particularly the recently proposed P 42/n c m structure, for which we also provide a detailed interpretation as a network of tilted diamondlike tetrahedra.

  19. Nanoscale morphology and photoemission of arsenic implanted germanium films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petö, G.; Khanh, N. Q.; Horváth, Z. E.; Molnár, G.; Gyulai, J.; Kótai, E.; Guczi, L.; Frey, L.

    2006-04-01

    Germanium films of 140 nm thickness deposited onto Si substrate were implanted with 70 keV arsenic ions with a dose of 2.5×1014 cm-2. The morphology of the implanted films was determined by Rutherford backscattering and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy. Concentration of oxygen and carbon impurities and their distribution in the implanted layer were detected by secondary-ion-mass spectroscopy and nuclear reaction analysis using the O16(He4,He4)O16 reaction. The depth dependence of the valence band density of states was investigated by measuring the energy distribution curve of photoelectrons using Ar ion etching for profiling. The morphology of As implanted film was dominated by nanosized (10-100 nm) Ge islands separated by empty bubbles at a depth of 20-50 nm under the surface. At depth ranges of 0-20 and 70 to a measured depth of 140 nm, however, morphology of the as-evaporated Ge film was not modified. At a depth of 20-50 nm, photoelectron spectra were similar to those obtained for Ge amorphized with heavy ion (Sb) implantation [implantation induced (I.I.) a-Ge]. The depth profile of the morphology and the photoemission data indicate correlation between the morphology and valence band density of states of the ion I.I. a-Ge. As this regime was formed deep in the evaporated film, i.e., isolated from the environment, any contamination, etc., effect can be excluded. The depth distribution of this I.I. a-Ge layer shows that the atomic displacement process cannot account for its formation.

  20. Low Power Silicon Germanium Electronics for Microwave Radiometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doiron, Terence A.; Krebs, Carolyn (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Space-based radiometric observations of key hydrological parameters (e.g., soil moisture) at the spatial and temporal scales required in the post-2002 era face significant technological challenges. These measurements are based on relatively low frequency thermal microwave emission (at 1.4 GHz for soil moisture and salinity, 10 GHz and up for precipitation, and 19 and 37 GHz for snow). The long wavelengths at these frequencies coupled with the high spatial and radiometric resolutions required by the various global hydrology communities necessitate the use of very large apertures (e.g., greater than 20 m at 1.4 GHz) and highly integrated stable RF electronics on orbit. Radio-interferometric techniques such as Synthetic Thinned Array Radiometry (STAR), using silicon germanium (SiGe) low power radio frequency integrated circuits (RFIC), is one of the most promising technologies to enable very large non-rotating apertures in space. STAR instruments are composed of arrays of small antenna/receiving elements that are arranged so that the collecting area is smaller than an equivalent real aperture system, allowing very high packing densities for launch. A 20 meter aperture at L-band, for example, will require greater than 1000 of these receiving elements. SiGe RFIC's reduce power consumption enough to make an array like this possible in the power-limited environment of space flight. An overview of the state-of-the-art will be given, and current work in the area of SiGe radiometer development for soil moisture remote sensing will be discussed.

  1. Detached Solidification of Germanium-Silicon Crystals on the ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volz, M. P.; Mazuruk, K.; Croell, A.

    2016-01-01

    A series of Ge(sub 1-x) Si(sub x) crystal growth experiments are planned to be conducted in the Low Gradient Furnace (LGF) onboard the International Space Station. The primary objective of the research is to determine the influence of containment on the processing-induced defects and impurity incorporation in germanium-silicon alloy crystals. A comparison will be made between crystals grown by the normal and "detached" Bridgman methods and the ground-based float zone technique. Crystals grown without being in contact with a container have superior quality to otherwise similar crystals grown in direct contact with a container, especially with respect to impurity incorporation, formation of dislocations, and residual stress in crystals. "Detached" or "dewetted" Bridgman growth is similar to regular Bridgman growth in that most of the melt is in contact with the crucible wall, but the crystal is separated from the wall by a small gap, typically of the order of 10-100 microns. Long duration reduced gravity is essential to test the proposed theory of detached growth. Detached growth requires the establishment of a meniscus between the crystal and the ampoule wall. The existence of this meniscus depends on the ratio of the strength of gravity to capillary forces. On Earth, this ratio is large and stable detached growth can only be obtained over limited conditions. Crystals grown detached on the ground exhibited superior structural quality as evidenced by measurements of etch pit density, synchrotron white beam X-ray topography and double axis X-ray diffraction.

  2. Removal of the long-lived {sup 222}Rn daughters from steel and germanium surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Wojcik, Marcin; Zuzel, Grzegorz; Majorovits, Bela

    2011-04-27

    Removal of the long-lived {sup 222}Rn daughters ({sup 210}Pb, {sup 210}Bi and {sup 210}Po) from stainless steel and germanium surfaces was investigated. As cleaning technique etching was applied to samples in a form of discs exposed earlier to a strong radon source. Reduction of the {sup 210}Pb activity was tested using a HPGe spectrometer, for {sup 210}Bi a beta spectrometer and for {sup 210}Po an alpha spectrometer was used. According to the conducted measurements all the isotopes were removed very efficiently from germanium. Results obtained for stainless steel were worse but still better than those achieved for copper.

  3. Segmentation of the Outer Contact on P-Type Coaxial Germanium Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Hull, Ethan L.; Pehl, Richard H.; Lathrop, James R.; Martin, Gregory N.; Mashburn, R. B.; Miley, Harry S.; Aalseth, Craig E.; Hossbach, Todd W.

    2006-09-21

    Germanium detector arrays are needed for low-level counting facilities. The practical applications of such user facilities include characterization of low-level radioactive samples. In addition, the same detector arrays can also perform important fundamental physics measurements including the search for rare events like neutrino-less double-beta decay. Coaxial germanium detectors having segmented outer contacts will provide the next level of sensitivity improvement in low background measurements. The segmented outer detector contact allows performance of advanced pulse shape analysis measurements that provide additional background reduction. Currently, n-type (reverse electrode) germanium coaxial detectors are used whenever a segmented coaxial detector is needed because the outer boron (electron barrier) contact is thin and can be segmented. Coaxial detectors fabricated from p-type germanium cost less, have better resolution, and are larger than n-type coaxial detectors. However, it is difficult to reliably segment p-type coaxial detectors because thick (~1 mm) lithium-diffused (hole barrier) contacts are the standard outside contact for p-type coaxial detectors. During this Phase 1 Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) we have researched the possibility of using amorphous germanium contacts as a thin outer contact of p-type coaxial detectors that can be segmented. We have developed amorphous germanium contacts that provide a very high hole barrier on small planar detectors. These easily segmented amorphous germanium contacts have been demonstrated to withstand several thousand volts/cm electric fields with no measurable leakage current (<1 pA) from charge injection over the hole barrier. We have also demonstrated that the contact can be sputter deposited around and over the curved outside surface of a small p-type coaxial detector. The amorphous contact has shown good rectification properties on the outside of a small p-type coaxial detector. These encouraging

  4. GIOVE: a new detector setup for high sensitivity germanium spectroscopy at shallow depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heusser, G.; Weber, M.; Hakenmüller, J.; Laubenstein, M.; Lindner, M.; Maneschg, W.; Simgen, H.; Stolzenburg, D.; Strecker, H.

    2015-11-01

    We report on the development and construction of the high-purity germanium spectrometer setup GIOVE (Germanium Inner Outer VEto), recently built and now operated at the shallow underground laboratory of the Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik, Heidelberg. Particular attention was paid to the design of a novel passive and active shield, aiming at efficient rejection of environmental and muon induced radiation backgrounds. The achieved sensitivity level of ≤ 100 \\upmu Bq kg^{-1} for primordial radionuclides from U and Th in typical γ ray sample screening measurements is unique among instruments located at comparably shallow depths and can compete with instruments at far deeper underground sites.

  5. Initial Field Measurements with the Multisensor Airborne Radiation Survey (MARS) High Purity Germanium (HPGe) Detector Array

    SciTech Connect

    Fast, James E.; Bonebrake, Christopher A.; Dorow, Kevin E.; Glasgow, Brian D.; Jensen, Jeffrey L.; Morris, Scott J.; Orrell, John L.; Pitts, W. Karl; Rohrer, John S.; Todd, Lindsay C.

    2010-06-29

    Abstract: The Multi-sensor Airborne Radiation Survey (MARS) project has developed a new single cryostat detector array design for high purity germanium (HPGe) gamma ray spectrometers that achieves the high detection efficiency required for stand-off detection and actionable characterization of radiological threats. This approach is necessary since a high efficiency HPGe detector can only be built as an array due to limitations in growing large germanium crystals. The system is ruggedized and shock mounted for use in a variety of field applications. This paper reports on results from initial field measurements conducted in a truck and on two different boats.

  6. Temperature-dependent hyperfine interactions at 111Cd-C complex in germanium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mola, Genene Tessema

    2013-09-01

    The temperature dependent nuclear hyperfine interaction of 111Cd-carbon complex in germanium has been studied using the perturbed γ- γ angular correlation (PAC) method. The parameters of the hyperfine interaction representing substitutional carbon-cadmium complex in germanium ( ν Q1=207(1) MHz ( η=0.16)) shows dependence on temperature. The formation and thermal stability of the complex has been reported by the same author earlier. It was found in this study that the quadrupole coupling constant of the interaction increases at sample temperature below 293 K. The results are encouraging toward better understanding of the complex in the host matrix.

  7. Ionization Measurements of SuperCDMS SNOLAB 100 mm Diameter Germanium Crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Chagani, H.; Bauer, D.A.; Brandt, D.; Brink, P.L.; Cabrera, B.; Cherry, M.; Silva, E.Do Couto e; Godfrey, G.G.; Hall, J.; Hansen, S.; Hasi, J.; Kelsey, M.; Kenney, C.J.; Mandic, V.; Nagasawa, D.; Novak, L.; Mirabolfathi, N.; Partridge, R.; Radpour, R.; Resch, R.; Sadoulet, B.; /UC, Berkeley /Stanford U. /SLAC /Stanford U. /Santa Clara U. /Minnesota U.

    2012-06-12

    Scaling cryogenic Germanium-based dark matter detectors to probe smaller WIMP-nucleon cross-sections poses significant challenges in the forms of increased labor, cold hardware, warm electronics and heat load. The development of larger crystals alleviates these issues. The results of ionization tests with two 100 mm diameter, 33 mm thick cylindrical detector-grade Germanium crystals are presented here. Through these results the potential of using such crystals in the Super Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (SuperCDMS) SNOLAB experiment is demonstrated.

  8. Investigation into Methods to Improve Ion Source Life for Germanium Implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweeney, Joseph; Sergi, Steven; Tang, Ying; Byl, Oleg; Yedave, Sharad; Kaim, Robert; Bishop, Steve

    2011-01-01

    Germanium tetrafluoride has long been the standard dopant gas of choice for germanium implantation processes. While this material maintains several positive attributes (e.g., it is a nonflammable gas that is easily delivered to an ion source), its use can result in extremely short ion source lifetimes. This is especially the case for the situation when an ion implanter runs solely or predominantly GeF4. Presented here is an examination of various potential solutions to the short source life problem, some of which enable significant improvement.

  9. Doping of germanium and silicon crystals with non-hydrogenic acceptors for far infrared lasers

    DOEpatents

    Haller, Eugene E.; Brundermann, Erik

    2000-01-01

    A method for doping semiconductors used for far infrared lasers with non-hydrogenic acceptors having binding energies larger than the energy of the laser photons. Doping of germanium or silicon crystals with beryllium, zinc or copper. A far infrared laser comprising germanium crystals doped with double or triple acceptor dopants permitting the doped laser to be tuned continuously from 1 to 4 terahertz and to operate in continuous mode. A method for operating semiconductor hole population inversion lasers with a closed cycle refrigerator.

  10. Reductant-free colloidal synthesis of near-IR emitting germanium nanocrystals: role of primary amine.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Batu; Ogawara, Makoto; Sakka, Yoshio; Shirahata, Naoto

    2014-03-01

    High temperature colloidal synthesis without using hazardous reducing agent is demonstrated here to develop a straight forward pathway for synthesizing near-IR (NIR) light emitting germanium nanocrystals (Ge NCs). The NCs were prepared by heating a mixture of germanium (II) iodide and organoamine. This article presents an important role of the primary amine which serves as a reducing agent as well as an inhibitor against oxidation by comparing with the tertiary amine. Interestingly, the difference in chemical reactivity between each amine causes the difference in major structural phase of the products. An efficient route to produce NIR light emitting Ge NCs is demonstrated.

  11. Probing the Electronic Density of States of Germanium Nanoparticles: A Method for Determining Atomic Structure

    SciTech Connect

    Williamson, A; Bostedt, C; van Buuren, T; Willey, T; Terminello, L; Galli, G; Pizzagalli, L

    2004-03-31

    We present first principles electronic structure calculations and photoemission measurements of the change in the valence band DOS of germanium as its dimensions are reduced from the bulk to the nanoscale. By comparing the calculated broadening of the s and s--p band peaks and the energy of surface dangling bonds to the measured DOS we identify the most likely structure of these nanoparticles. We propose that, in contrast to recent interpretations, small 2-3 nm germanium nanoparticles prepared by gas phase aggregation have a distorted diamond structure core and a thermally disordered surface.

  12. Optimization of the Transport Shield for Neutrinoless Double Beta-decay Enriched Germanium

    SciTech Connect

    Aguayo Navarrete, Estanislao; Kouzes, Richard T.; Orrell, John L.; Reid, Douglas J.; Fast, James E.

    2012-04-15

    This document presents results of an investigation of the material and geometry choice for the transport shield of germanium, the active detector material used in 76Ge neutrinoless double beta decay searches. The objective of this work is to select the optimal material and geometry to minimize cosmogenic production of radioactive isotopes in the germanium material. The design of such a shield is based on the calculation of the cosmogenic production rate of isotopes that are known to cause interfering backgrounds in 76Ge neutrinoless double beta decay searches.

  13. Microstructures of niobium-germanium alloys processed in inert gas in the 100 meter drop tube

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bayuzick, R. J.; Robinson, M. B.; Hofmeister, W. H.; Evans, N. D.

    1986-01-01

    The 100 meter drop tube at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center has been used for a series of experiments with niobium-germanium alloys. These experiments were conducted with electromagnetic levitation melting in a 200 torr helium environment. Liquid alloys experienced large degrees of undercooling prior to solidification in the drop tube. Several interesting metastable structures were observed. However, the recalescence event prevented extended solid solubility of germanium in the A-15 beta phase. Liquids of eutectic composition were found to undercool in the presence of solid alpha and solid Nb5Ge3.

  14. Anharmonic lattice dynamics in germanium measured with ultrafast x-ray diffraction.

    PubMed

    Cavalleri, A; Siders, C W; Brown, F L; Leitner, D M; Tóth, C; Squier, J A; Barty, C P; Wilson, K R; Sokolowski-Tinten, K; Horn Von Hoegen, M; von der Linde, D; Kammler, M

    2000-07-17

    Damping of impulsively generated coherent acoustic oscillations in a femtosecond laser-heated thin germanium film is measured as a function of fluence by means of ultrafast x-ray diffraction. By simultaneously measuring picosecond strain dynamics in the film and in the unexcited silicon substrate, we separate anharmonic damping from acoustic transmission through the buried interface. The measured damping rate and its dependence on the calculated temperature of the thermal bath is consistent with estimated four-body, elastic dephasing times (T2) for 7-GHz longitudinal acoustic phonons in germanium.

  15. Self-assembly of tin wires via phase transformation of heteroepitaxial germanium-tin on germanium substrate

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Wei; Li, Lingzi; Yeo, Yee-Chia; Tok, Eng Soon

    2015-06-14

    This work demonstrates and describes for the first time an unusual strain-relaxation mechanism by the formation and self-assembly of well-ordered tin wires during the thermal annealing of epitaxial Ge{sub 0.83}Sn{sub 0.17}-on-Ge(001) substrate. Fully strained germanium-tin alloys (Ge{sub 0.83}Sn{sub 0.17}) were epitaxially grown on Ge(001) substrate by molecular beam epitaxy. The morphological and compositional evolution of Ge{sub 0.83}Sn{sub 0.17} during thermal annealing is studied by atomic force microscopy, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy. Under certain annealing conditions, the Ge{sub 0.83}Sn{sub 0.17} layer decomposes into two stable phases, and well-defined Sn wires that are preferentially oriented along two orthogonal 〈100〉 azimuths are formed. The formation of the Sn wires is related to the annealing temperature and the Ge{sub 0.83}Sn{sub 0.17} thickness, and can be explained by the nucleation of a grain with Sn islands on the outer front, followed by grain boundary migration. The Sn wire formation process is found to be thermally activated, and an activation enthalpy (E{sub c}) of 0.41 eV is extracted. This thermally activated phase transformation, i.e., 2D epitaxial layer to 3D wires, occurs via a mechanism akin to “cellular precipitation.” This synthesis route of Sn wires opens new possibilities for creation of nanoscale patterns at high-throughput without the need for lithography.

  16. Self-assembly of tin wires via phase transformation of heteroepitaxial germanium-tin on germanium substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wei; Li, Lingzi; Tok, Eng Soon; Yeo, Yee-Chia

    2015-06-01

    This work demonstrates and describes for the first time an unusual strain-relaxation mechanism by the formation and self-assembly of well-ordered tin wires during the thermal annealing of epitaxial Ge0.83Sn0.17-on-Ge(001) substrate. Fully strained germanium-tin alloys (Ge0.83Sn0.17) were epitaxially grown on Ge(001) substrate by molecular beam epitaxy. The morphological and compositional evolution of Ge0.83Sn0.17 during thermal annealing is studied by atomic force microscopy, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy. Under certain annealing conditions, the Ge0.83Sn0.17 layer decomposes into two stable phases, and well-defined Sn wires that are preferentially oriented along two orthogonal ⟨100⟩ azimuths are formed. The formation of the Sn wires is related to the annealing temperature and the Ge0.83Sn0.17 thickness, and can be explained by the nucleation of a grain with Sn islands on the outer front, followed by grain boundary migration. The Sn wire formation process is found to be thermally activated, and an activation enthalpy (Ec) of 0.41 eV is extracted. This thermally activated phase transformation, i.e., 2D epitaxial layer to 3D wires, occurs via a mechanism akin to "cellular precipitation." This synthesis route of Sn wires opens new possibilities for creation of nanoscale patterns at high-throughput without the need for lithography.

  17. Germanium and Rare Earth Element accumulation in woody bioenergy crops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hentschel, Werner

    2016-04-01

    Germanium and REEs are strategic elements that are used for high tech devices and engineered systems, however these elements are hardly concentrated into mineable ore deposits. Since these elements occur widely dispersed in the earth crust with concentrations of several mgṡkg‑1 (Ge 1.6 mgṡkg‑1, Nd 25 mgṡkg‑1) a new possibility to gain these elements could be phytomining, a technique that uses plants to extract elements from soils via their roots. Since knowledge about accumulating plant species is quite limited we conducted research on the concentrations of strategic elements in wood and leaves of fast growing tree species (Salix spec., Populus spec., Betula pendula, Alnus glutinosa, Fraxinus excelsior, Acer pseudoplatanus). In total 35 study sites were selected in the mining affected area around Freiberg (Saxony, Germany), differing in their species composition and degree of contamination with toxic trace metals (Pb, As, Cd). On each site plant tissues (wood and leaves, respectively) of different species were sampled. In addition soil samples were taken from a soil depth of 0 - 30 cm and 30 - 60 cm. The aim of our work was to investigate correlations between the concentrations of the target elements in plant tissues and soil characteristics like pH, texture, nutrients and concentrations in six operationally defined soil fractions (mobile, acid soluble, oxidizable, amorphic oxides, crystalline oxides, residual or siliceous). Concentrations of elements in soil extracts and plant tissues were measured with ICP-MS. The element Nd was selected as representative for the group of REEs, since this element showed a high correlation with the concentrations of the other REE We found that the concentration of Nd in the leaves (0.31 mgṡkg‑1Nd) were several times higher than in herbaceous species (0.05 mgṡkg‑1 Nd). The concentration of Ge in leaves were ten times lower than that of Nd whereas in herbaceous species Nd and Ge were in equal magnitude. Within

  18. Deposition and Examination of Glow Discharge Produced Amorphous Hydrogenated Germanium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wickboldt, Paul

    1993-01-01

    This thesis presents the results of extensive studies of the deposition and examination of amorphous hydrogenated germanium (a-Ge:H) thin films deposited from an rf glow discharge of GeH_4 and H_2 gases. For the purpose of these studies, a diode-type capacitively coupled glow discharge system was constructed. Results are presented of the measurements of film stress for a large number of a-Ge:H films. The stress is found to vary from high tensile (+6.6 kbar) to high compressive (-7.8 kbar), and correlates with total hydrogen content, microstructure and photoconductivity. The origin of these stresses is considered and discussed in the context of other measurements. The effects of air exposure and annealing are demonstrated. Two examples are given of the effects of varying a deposition parameter on the film properties; the effects of varying the electrode gap and the power. By piecing together extensive measurements of optical, electronic and structural properties, the electrode gap study is used to demonstrate the link between structure and electronic transport, and to clarify an earlier model of a-Ge:H film structure. The results suggest a strategy for further optimization of a-Ge:H optoelectronic properties by adjusting growth conditions to reduce the formation of columnar-type microstructure. Finally, a basic examination of the GeH _4 + H_2 glow discharge is presented. Using measurements of the DC and rf cathode potentials, it is determined that the discharges used to deposit a-Ge:H are in the so called gamma mode in which the discharge characteristics are dominated by ion-induced electron emission (gamma electrons) from the cathode. The, using a residual gas analyzer (RGA), an examination is made of discharge chemistry which centers around a comparison of SiH _{rm 4} + H_2 chemistry. Significant differences between SiH _{rm 4} + H _2 and GeH_4 + H _2 chemistry are demonstrated, and possible explanations are discussed. Measurements were then made to determine the

  19. High bit rate germanium single photon detectors for 1310nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seamons, J. A.; Carroll, M. S.

    2008-04-01

    There is increasing interest in development of high speed, low noise and readily fieldable near infrared (NIR) single photon detectors. InGaAs/InP Avalanche photodiodes (APD) operated in Geiger mode (GM) are a leading choice for NIR due to their preeminence in optical networking. After-pulsing is, however, a primary challenge to operating InGaAs/InP single photon detectors at high frequencies1. After-pulsing is the effect of charge being released from traps that trigger false ("dark") counts. To overcome this problem, hold-off times between detection windows are used to allow the traps to discharge to suppress after-pulsing. The hold-off time represents, however, an upper limit on detection frequency that shows degradation beginning at frequencies of ~100 kHz in InGaAs/InP. Alternatively, germanium (Ge) single photon avalanche photodiodes (SPAD) have been reported to have more than an order of magnitude smaller charge trap densities than InGaAs/InP SPADs2, which allowed them to be successfully operated with passive quenching2 (i.e., no gated hold off times necessary), which is not possible with InGaAs/InP SPADs, indicating a much weaker dark count dependence on hold-off time consistent with fewer charge traps. Despite these encouraging results suggesting a possible higher operating frequency limit for Ge SPADs, little has been reported on Ge SPAD performance at high frequencies presumably because previous work with Ge SPADs has been discouraged by a strong demand to work at 1550 nm. NIR SPADs require cooling, which in the case of Ge SPADs dramatically reduces the quantum efficiency of the Ge at 1550 nm. Recently, however, advantages to working at 1310 nm have been suggested which combined with a need to increase quantum bit rates for quantum key distribution (QKD) motivates examination of Ge detectors performance at very high detection rates where InGaAs/InP does not perform as well. Presented in this paper are measurements of a commercially available Ge APD

  20. High duty cycle far-infrared germanium lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamberlin, Danielle Russell

    The effects of crystal geometry, heat transport, and optics on high duty cycle germanium hole population inversion lasers are investigated. Currently the laser's low duty cycle limits its utility for many applications. This low duty cycle is a result of the combination of the large electrical input power necessary and insufficient heat extraction. In order to achieve a continuous-wave device, the input power must be decreased and the cooling power increased. In order to improve laser efficiency and lower the input power, the effect of laser crystal geometry on the electric field uniformity is considered. Geometries with d/L>>1 or <<1 are shown to have improved electric field uniformity, where d is the distance between electrical contacts and L is the length in the direction of the Hall electric field. A geometry with d/L>>1 is shown to decrease the threshold voltage for lasing. Laser crystals with the traditional contact geometry have been compared to a new, planar contact design with both electrical contacts on the same side of the laser crystal. This new geometry provides a large d/L ratio while also allowing effective heat sinking. A pure, single-crystal silicon heat sink is developed for planar contact design lasers, which improves the duty cycle tenfold. For the traditional contact design, copper heat sinks are developed that demonstrate cooling powers up to 10 Watts. The effects of thermal conductivity, surface area, and interfacial thermal resistance on the heat transport are compared. To improve the cavity quality, thereby allowing for smaller crystal volumes, new optical designs are investigated. A vertical cavity structure is demonstrated for the planar contact structure using strontium titanate single crystals as mirrors. A mode-selecting cavity is implemented for the traditional contact design. The spectra of small-volume, near-threshold lasers are measured. In contrast to the emission of larger lasers, these lasers emit within narrow frequency peaks

  1. Germanium and Rare Earth Element accumulation in woody bioenergy crops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hentschel, Werner

    2016-04-01

    Germanium and REEs are strategic elements that are used for high tech devices and engineered systems, however these elements are hardly concentrated into mineable ore deposits. Since these elements occur widely dispersed in the earth crust with concentrations of several mgṡkg-1 (Ge 1.6 mgṡkg-1, Nd 25 mgṡkg-1) a new possibility to gain these elements could be phytomining, a technique that uses plants to extract elements from soils via their roots. Since knowledge about accumulating plant species is quite limited we conducted research on the concentrations of strategic elements in wood and leaves of fast growing tree species (Salix spec., Populus spec., Betula pendula, Alnus glutinosa, Fraxinus excelsior, Acer pseudoplatanus). In total 35 study sites were selected in the mining affected area around Freiberg (Saxony, Germany), differing in their species composition and degree of contamination with toxic trace metals (Pb, As, Cd). On each site plant tissues (wood and leaves, respectively) of different species were sampled. In addition soil samples were taken from a soil depth of 0 - 30 cm and 30 - 60 cm. The aim of our work was to investigate correlations between the concentrations of the target elements in plant tissues and soil characteristics like pH, texture, nutrients and concentrations in six operationally defined soil fractions (mobile, acid soluble, oxidizable, amorphic oxides, crystalline oxides, residual or siliceous). Concentrations of elements in soil extracts and plant tissues were measured with ICP-MS. The element Nd was selected as representative for the group of REEs, since this element showed a high correlation with the concentrations of the other REE We found that the concentration of Nd in the leaves (0.31 mgṡkg-1Nd) were several times higher than in herbaceous species (0.05 mgṡkg-1 Nd). The concentration of Ge in leaves were ten times lower than that of Nd whereas in herbaceous species Nd and Ge were in equal magnitude. Within the tree

  2. Germanium determination by flame atomic absorption spectrometry: an increased vapor pressure-chloride generation system.

    PubMed

    Kaya, Murat; Volkan, Mürvet

    2011-03-15

    A new chloride generation system was designed for the direct, sensitive, rapid and accurate determination of the total germanium in complex matrices. It was aimed to improve the detection limit of chloride generation technique by increasing the vapor pressure of germanium tetrachloride (GeCl(4)). In order to do so, a novel joint vapor production and gas-liquid separation unit equipped with a home-made oven was incorporated to an ordinary nitrous oxide-acetylene flame atomic absorption spectrometer. Several variables such as reaction time, temperature and acid concentration have been investigated. The linear range for germanium determination was 0.1-10 ng mL(-1) for 1 mL sampling volume with a detection limit (3s) of 0.01 ng mL(-1). The relative standard deviation (RSD) was 2.4% for nine replicates of a 1 ng mL(-1) germanium solution. The method was validated by the analysis of one non-certified and two certified geochemical reference materials, respectively, CRM GSJ-JR-2 (Rhyolite), and GSJ-JR-1 (Rhyolite), and GBW 07107 (Chinese Rock). Selectivity of the method was investigated for Cd(2+), Co(2+), Cu(2+), Fe(3+), Ga(3+), Hg(2+), Ni(2+), Pb(2+), Sn(2+), and Zn(2+) ions and ionic species of As(III), Sb(III), Te(IV), and Se(IV). PMID:21315908

  3. Probing the structural evolution of ruthenium doped germanium clusters: Photoelectron spectroscopy and density functional theory calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Yuanyuan; Lu, Shengjie; Hermann, Andreas; Kuang, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Chuanzhao; Lu, Cheng; Xu, Hongguang; Zheng, Weijun

    2016-07-01

    We present a combined experimental and theoretical study of ruthenium doped germanium clusters, RuGen‑ (n = 3–12), and their corresponding neutral species. Photoelectron spectra of RuGen‑ clusters are measured at 266 nm. The vertical detachment energies (VDEs) and adiabatic detachment energies (ADEs) are obtained. Unbiased CALYPSO structure searches confirm the low-lying structures of anionic and neutral ruthenium doped germanium clusters in the size range of 3 ≤ n ≤ 12. Subsequent geometry optimizations using density functional theory (DFT) at PW91/LANL2DZ level are carried out to determine the relative stability and electronic properties of ruthenium doped germanium clusters. It is found that most of the anionic and neutral clusters have very similar global features. Although the global minimum structures of the anionic and neutral clusters are different, their respective geometries are observed as the low-lying isomers in either case. In addition, for n > 8, the Ru atom in RuGen‑/0 clusters is absorbed endohedrally in the Ge cage. The theoretically predicted vertical and adiabatic detachment energies are in good agreement with the experimental measurements. The excellent agreement between DFT calculations and experiment enables a comprehensive evaluation of the geometrical and electronic structures of ruthenium doped germanium clusters.

  4. Probing the structural evolution of ruthenium doped germanium clusters: Photoelectron spectroscopy and density functional theory calculations.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yuanyuan; Lu, Shengjie; Hermann, Andreas; Kuang, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Chuanzhao; Lu, Cheng; Xu, Hongguang; Zheng, Weijun

    2016-07-21

    We present a combined experimental and theoretical study of ruthenium doped germanium clusters, RuGen(-) (n = 3-12), and their corresponding neutral species. Photoelectron spectra of RuGen(-) clusters are measured at 266 nm. The vertical detachment energies (VDEs) and adiabatic detachment energies (ADEs) are obtained. Unbiased CALYPSO structure searches confirm the low-lying structures of anionic and neutral ruthenium doped germanium clusters in the size range of 3 ≤ n ≤ 12. Subsequent geometry optimizations using density functional theory (DFT) at PW91/LANL2DZ level are carried out to determine the relative stability and electronic properties of ruthenium doped germanium clusters. It is found that most of the anionic and neutral clusters have very similar global features. Although the global minimum structures of the anionic and neutral clusters are different, their respective geometries are observed as the low-lying isomers in either case. In addition, for n > 8, the Ru atom in RuGen(-/0) clusters is absorbed endohedrally in the Ge cage. The theoretically predicted vertical and adiabatic detachment energies are in good agreement with the experimental measurements. The excellent agreement between DFT calculations and experiment enables a comprehensive evaluation of the geometrical and electronic structures of ruthenium doped germanium clusters.

  5. Multidimensional Germanium-Based Materials as Anodes for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Qin, Jinwen; Cao, Minhua

    2016-04-20

    Metallic germanium is an ideal anode for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), owing to its high theoretical capacity (1624 mA h g(-1) ) and low operating voltage. Herein, we highlight recent advances in the development of Ge-based anodes in LIBs, although improvements in their coulombic efficiency (CE), capacity retention, and rate performance are still required. One of the major concerns facing the development of Ge anodes is the controlled formation of microstructures. In this Focus Review, we summarize Ge-based materials with different structural dimensions, that is, zero-dimensional (0D), one-dimensional (1D), two-dimensional (2D), three-dimensional (3D), and even monolithic and macroscale structures. Moreover, the design of Ge-based oxide materials, as an effective route for achieving higher Li-storage capacities and cycling performance, is also discussed. Finally, we briefly summarize new types of Ge-based materials, such as ternary germanium oxides, germanium sulfides, and germanium phosphides, and predict that they will bring about a reformation in the field of LIBs.

  6. Enhanced Third Harmonic Generation in Single Germanium Nanodisks Excited at the Anapole Mode.

    PubMed

    Grinblat, Gustavo; Li, Yi; Nielsen, Michael P; Oulton, Rupert F; Maier, Stefan A

    2016-07-13

    We present an all-dielectric germanium nanosystem exhibiting a strong third order nonlinear response and efficient third harmonic generation in the optical regime. A thin germanium nanodisk shows a pronounced valley in its scattering cross section at the dark anapole mode, while the electric field energy inside the disk is maximized due to high confinement within the dielectric. We investigate the dependence of the third harmonic signal on disk size and pump wavelength to reveal the nature of the anapole mode. Each germanium nanodisk generates a high effective third order susceptibility of χ((3)) = 4.3 × 10(-9) esu, corresponding to an associated third harmonic conversion efficiency of 0.0001% at an excitation wavelength of 1650 nm, which is 4 orders of magnitude greater than the case of an unstructured germanium reference film. Furthermore, the nonlinear conversion via the anapole mode outperforms that via the radiative dipolar resonances by about 1 order of magnitude, which is consistent with our numerical simulations. These findings open new possibilities for the optimization of upconversion processes on the nanoscale through the appropriate engineering of suitable dielectric materials.

  7. Multidimensional Germanium-Based Materials as Anodes for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Qin, Jinwen; Cao, Minhua

    2016-04-20

    Metallic germanium is an ideal anode for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), owing to its high theoretical capacity (1624 mA h g(-1) ) and low operating voltage. Herein, we highlight recent advances in the development of Ge-based anodes in LIBs, although improvements in their coulombic efficiency (CE), capacity retention, and rate performance are still required. One of the major concerns facing the development of Ge anodes is the controlled formation of microstructures. In this Focus Review, we summarize Ge-based materials with different structural dimensions, that is, zero-dimensional (0D), one-dimensional (1D), two-dimensional (2D), three-dimensional (3D), and even monolithic and macroscale structures. Moreover, the design of Ge-based oxide materials, as an effective route for achieving higher Li-storage capacities and cycling performance, is also discussed. Finally, we briefly summarize new types of Ge-based materials, such as ternary germanium oxides, germanium sulfides, and germanium phosphides, and predict that they will bring about a reformation in the field of LIBs. PMID:26990878

  8. Strain relaxation in transistor channels with embedded epitaxial silicon germanium source/drain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, J. P.; Li, K.; Pandey, S. M.; Benistant, F. L.; See, A.; Zhou, M. S.; Hsia, L. C.; Schampers, Ruud; Klenov, Dmitri O.

    2008-12-01

    We report on the channel strain relaxation in transistors with embedded silicon germanium layer selectively grown in source and drain areas on recessed Si(001). Nanobeam electron diffraction is used to characterize the local strain in the device channel. Our results show that strain is reduced in the device channel regions after implantation and thermal anneal.

  9. Probing the structural evolution of ruthenium doped germanium clusters: Photoelectron spectroscopy and density functional theory calculations

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Yuanyuan; Lu, Shengjie; Hermann, Andreas; Kuang, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Chuanzhao; Lu, Cheng; Xu, Hongguang; Zheng, Weijun

    2016-01-01

    We present a combined experimental and theoretical study of ruthenium doped germanium clusters, RuGen− (n = 3–12), and their corresponding neutral species. Photoelectron spectra of RuGen− clusters are measured at 266 nm. The vertical detachment energies (VDEs) and adiabatic detachment energies (ADEs) are obtained. Unbiased CALYPSO structure searches confirm the low-lying structures of anionic and neutral ruthenium doped germanium clusters in the size range of 3 ≤ n ≤ 12. Subsequent geometry optimizations using density functional theory (DFT) at PW91/LANL2DZ level are carried out to determine the relative stability and electronic properties of ruthenium doped germanium clusters. It is found that most of the anionic and neutral clusters have very similar global features. Although the global minimum structures of the anionic and neutral clusters are different, their respective geometries are observed as the low-lying isomers in either case. In addition, for n > 8, the Ru atom in RuGen−/0 clusters is absorbed endohedrally in the Ge cage. The theoretically predicted vertical and adiabatic detachment energies are in good agreement with the experimental measurements. The excellent agreement between DFT calculations and experiment enables a comprehensive evaluation of the geometrical and electronic structures of ruthenium doped germanium clusters. PMID:27439955

  10. Germanium determination by flame atomic absorption spectrometry: an increased vapor pressure-chloride generation system.

    PubMed

    Kaya, Murat; Volkan, Mürvet

    2011-03-15

    A new chloride generation system was designed for the direct, sensitive, rapid and accurate determination of the total germanium in complex matrices. It was aimed to improve the detection limit of chloride generation technique by increasing the vapor pressure of germanium tetrachloride (GeCl(4)). In order to do so, a novel joint vapor production and gas-liquid separation unit equipped with a home-made oven was incorporated to an ordinary nitrous oxide-acetylene flame atomic absorption spectrometer. Several variables such as reaction time, temperature and acid concentration have been investigated. The linear range for germanium determination was 0.1-10 ng mL(-1) for 1 mL sampling volume with a detection limit (3s) of 0.01 ng mL(-1). The relative standard deviation (RSD) was 2.4% for nine replicates of a 1 ng mL(-1) germanium solution. The method was validated by the analysis of one non-certified and two certified geochemical reference materials, respectively, CRM GSJ-JR-2 (Rhyolite), and GSJ-JR-1 (Rhyolite), and GBW 07107 (Chinese Rock). Selectivity of the method was investigated for Cd(2+), Co(2+), Cu(2+), Fe(3+), Ga(3+), Hg(2+), Ni(2+), Pb(2+), Sn(2+), and Zn(2+) ions and ionic species of As(III), Sb(III), Te(IV), and Se(IV).

  11. Enhanced Third Harmonic Generation in Single Germanium Nanodisks Excited at the Anapole Mode.

    PubMed

    Grinblat, Gustavo; Li, Yi; Nielsen, Michael P; Oulton, Rupert F; Maier, Stefan A

    2016-07-13

    We present an all-dielectric germanium nanosystem exhibiting a strong third order nonlinear response and efficient third harmonic generation in the optical regime. A thin germanium nanodisk shows a pronounced valley in its scattering cross section at the dark anapole mode, while the electric field energy inside the disk is maximized due to high confinement within the dielectric. We investigate the dependence of the third harmonic signal on disk size and pump wavelength to reveal the nature of the anapole mode. Each germanium nanodisk generates a high effective third order susceptibility of χ((3)) = 4.3 × 10(-9) esu, corresponding to an associated third harmonic conversion efficiency of 0.0001% at an excitation wavelength of 1650 nm, which is 4 orders of magnitude greater than the case of an unstructured germanium reference film. Furthermore, the nonlinear conversion via the anapole mode outperforms that via the radiative dipolar resonances by about 1 order of magnitude, which is consistent with our numerical simulations. These findings open new possibilities for the optimization of upconversion processes on the nanoscale through the appropriate engineering of suitable dielectric materials. PMID:27331867

  12. Germanium recovery from gasification fly ash: evaluation of end-products obtained by precipitation methods.

    PubMed

    Arroyo, Fátima; Font, Oriol; Fernández-Pereira, Constantino; Querol, Xavier; Juan, Roberto; Ruiz, Carmen; Coca, Pilar

    2009-08-15

    In this study the purity of the germanium end-products obtained by two different precipitation methods carried out on germanium-bearing solutions was evaluated as a last step of a hydrometallurgy process for the recovery of this valuable element from the Puertollano Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) fly ash. Since H(2)S is produced as a by-product in the gas cleaning system of the Puertollano IGCC plant, precipitation of germanium as GeS(2) was tested by sulfiding the Ge-bearing solutions. The technological and hazardous issues that surround H(2)S handling conducted to investigate a novel precipitation procedure: precipitation as an organic complex by adding 1,2-dihydroxy benzene pyrocatechol (CAT) and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) to the Ge-bearing solutions. Relatively high purity Ge end-products (90 and 93% hexagonal-GeO(2) purity, respectively) were obtained by precipitating Ge from enriched solutions, as GeS(2) sulfiding the solutions with H(2)S, or as organic complex with CAT/CTAB mixtures and subsequent roasting of the precipitates. Both methods showed high efficiency (>99%) to precipitate selectively Ge using a single precipitation stage from germanium-bearing solutions.

  13. Femtosecond third-order nonlinear spectra of lead-germanium oxide glasses containing silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    De Boni, Leonardo; Barbano, Emerson C; de Assumpção, Thiago A; Misoguti, Lino; Kassab, Luciana R P; Zilio, Sergio C

    2012-03-12

    This work reports on the spectral dependence of both nonlinear refraction and absorption in lead-germanium oxide glasses (PbO-GeO₂) containing silver nanoparticles. We have found that this material is suitable for all-optical switching at telecom wavelengths but at the visible range it behaves either as a saturable absorber or as an optical limiter.

  14. Thermophysical Properties of Molten Germanium Measured by the High Temperature Electrostatic Levitator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhim, W. K.; Ishikawa, T.

    1998-01-01

    Thermophysical properties of molten germanium such as the density, the thermal expansion coefficient, the hemisphereical total emissivity, the constant pressure specific heat capacity, the surface tension, and the electrical resistivity have been measured using the High Temperature Electrostatic Levitator at JPL.

  15. High-resolution imaging gamma-ray spectroscopy with externally segmented germanium detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callas, J. L.; Mahoney, W. A.; Varnell, L. S.; Wheaton, W. A.

    1993-01-01

    Externally segmented germanium detectors promise a breakthrough in gamma-ray imaging capabilities while retaining the superb energy resolution of germanium spectrometers. An angular resolution of 0.2 deg becomes practical by combining position-sensitive germanium detectors having a segment thickness of a few millimeters with a one-dimensional coded aperture located about a meter from the detectors. Correspondingly higher angular resolutions are possible with larger separations between the detectors and the coded aperture. Two-dimensional images can be obtained by rotating the instrument. Although the basic concept is similar to optical or X-ray coded-aperture imaging techniques, several complicating effects arise because of the penetrating nature of gamma rays. The complications include partial transmission through the coded aperture elements, Compton scattering in the germanium detectors, and high background count rates. Extensive electron-photon Monte Carlo modeling of a realistic detector/coded-aperture/collimator system has been performed. Results show that these complicating effects can be characterized and accounted for with no significant loss in instrument sensitivity.

  16. Probing the structural evolution of ruthenium doped germanium clusters: Photoelectron spectroscopy and density functional theory calculations.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yuanyuan; Lu, Shengjie; Hermann, Andreas; Kuang, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Chuanzhao; Lu, Cheng; Xu, Hongguang; Zheng, Weijun

    2016-01-01

    We present a combined experimental and theoretical study of ruthenium doped germanium clusters, RuGen(-) (n = 3-12), and their corresponding neutral species. Photoelectron spectra of RuGen(-) clusters are measured at 266 nm. The vertical detachment energies (VDEs) and adiabatic detachment energies (ADEs) are obtained. Unbiased CALYPSO structure searches confirm the low-lying structures of anionic and neutral ruthenium doped germanium clusters in the size range of 3 ≤ n ≤ 12. Subsequent geometry optimizations using density functional theory (DFT) at PW91/LANL2DZ level are carried out to determine the relative stability and electronic properties of ruthenium doped germanium clusters. It is found that most of the anionic and neutral clusters have very similar global features. Although the global minimum structures of the anionic and neutral clusters are different, their respective geometries are observed as the low-lying isomers in either case. In addition, for n > 8, the Ru atom in RuGen(-/0) clusters is absorbed endohedrally in the Ge cage. The theoretically predicted vertical and adiabatic detachment energies are in good agreement with the experimental measurements. The excellent agreement between DFT calculations and experiment enables a comprehensive evaluation of the geometrical and electronic structures of ruthenium doped germanium clusters. PMID:27439955

  17. Design and optimisation of suspended strained germanium membranes for near-infrared lasing (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burt, Daniel; Aldeek, Waseem; Aldaghri, Osamah A.; Ikonic, Zoran; Querin, Oswaldo M.; Kelsall, Robert W.

    2016-05-01

    The development of a semiconductor laser compatible with silicon substrates and high-volume silicon integrated circuit manufacturing is a key requirement for monolithic silicon photonic transceivers. Tensile strained germanium is a promising material system which meets these criteria, and both optically pumped and electrically injected lasing have been reported[1,2]. It is well established that growth of thick (~1 micron) layers of germanium on silicon substrates by two-stage chemical vapour deposition followed by thermal annealing results in nearly-relaxed germanium with a residual biaxial tensile strain of typically 0.15-0.25% [3]. Several researchers have investigated methods of amplifying this built-in strain in order to increase the attainable optical gain. Increased uniaxial strain levels have been demonstrated in suspended linear bridge structures created by wet chemical underetching. However, uniaxial strain is less effective than biaxial strain in converting germanium from an indirect to a direct gap semiconductor and hence generating substantial optical gain. In this work, we have computationally investigated and optimised two-dimensional patterning and under-etching of germanium membranes in order to achieve biaxial strain amplification. Strain simulations were carried out using finite element methods and the shape of the suspended germanium structures was optimised to achieve the highest tensile strain whilst remaining below the empirically determined yield strength of the thin membranes. The net optical gain distribution across the membrane was calculated using 8 band k.p bandstructure to determine the full interband gain, the inter-valence-band absorption and the intervalley and intravalley phonon- and impurity-assisted free carrier absorption. Band-gap narrowing effects were included using empirical data. Biaxial strain values of ~1% can be achieved in the lasing region of the structure, which, although below the level required to convert germanium

  18. The Construction and Characterization of Native Insulators on Gallium-Arsenide and Germanium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crisman, Everett Earle

    Because of the excellent electrical properties that are obtained at the interfaces between silicon and thermally grown "native" oxides and nitrides, metal-insulator -semiconductor field effect transistors (MISFET's) have become the basic elements in fast high density computer memories as well as a primary structure for probing semiconductor surface charge transport phenomena. As silicon surface mobilities approach the bulk mobility a physical constraint is also being approached with respect to speed and density. Other semiconductors with higher bulk mobilities have, therefore, been suggested as replacements for silicon: gallium arsenide because of its very high room temperature electron mobility and germanium because it is one of the few well studied semiconductors with electron and hole mobilities of nearly the same magnitude. Unlike silicon, Ge and GaAs do not react readily wit oxygen or nitrogen to form uniform layers of interface passivating "native" insulators. In this study, techniques are reported for making native insulators on gallium arsenide and germanium. On gallium arsenide, the insulator is an oxide formed by a plasma oxidation technique (POX). On germanium, oxides have been formed by a high pressure oxidation technique (HPO) and these subsequently have been converted to nitrides (or oxynitride) by reaction with ammonia gas. Details of the formation techniques and basic characterization of the insulators and insulator/semiconductor interface electrical properties are present. Surface mobilities of about 20% of the bulk values were measured for MISFET's constructed on both GaAs and Ge using native oxides as the insulator. Fixed interface charge density in the low to mid 10('11)/cm('2) and midgap densities of states in the high 10('11)/cm('2)-eV range were also measured on similar MIS capacitors. On germanium nitride structures fixed surface charge density and interface density of states were both measured to be on the order of 10('10). Characterization

  19. Removal and deposition efficiencies of the long-lived 222Rn daughters during etching of germanium surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuzel, G.; Wójcik, M.; Majorovits, B.; Lampert, M. O.; Wendling, P.

    2012-06-01

    Removal and deposition efficiencies of the long-lived 222Rn daughters during etching from and onto surfaces of standard and high purity germanium were investigated. The standard etching procedure of Canberra-France used during production of high purity n-type germanium diodes was applied to germanium discs, which have been exposed earlier to a strong radon source for deposition of its progenies. An uncontaminated sample was etched in a solution containing 210Pb, 210Bi and 210Po. All isotopes were measured before and after etching with appropriate detectors. In contrast to copper and stainless steel, they were removed from germanium very efficiently. However, the reverse process was also observed. Considerable amounts of radioactive lead, bismuth and polonium isotopes present initially in the artificially polluted etchant were transferred to the clean high purity surface during processing of the sample.

  20. Anomalous small angle x-ray scattering studies of amorphous metal-germanium alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, M.

    1993-12-01

    This dissertation addresses the issue of composition modulation in sputtered amorphous metal-germanium thin films with the aim of understanding the intermediate range structure of these films as a function of composition. The investigative tool used in this work is anomalous small-angle X-ray scattering (ASAXS). The primary focus of this investigation is the amorphous iron-germanium (a-Fe{sub x}Ge{sub 100-x}) system with particular emphasis on the semiconductor-rich regime. Brief excursions are made into the amorphous tungsten-germanium (a-W{sub x}Ge{sub 100-x}) and the amorphous molybdenum-germanium (a-Mo{sub x}Ge{sub 100-x}) systems. All three systems exhibit an amorphous structure over a broad composition range extending from pure amorphous germanium to approximately 70 atomic percent metal when prepared as sputtered films. Across this composition range the structures change from the open, covalently bonded, tetrahedral network of pure a-Ge to densely packed metals. The structural changes are accompanied by a semiconductor-metal transition in all three systems as well as a ferromagnetic transition in the a-Fe{sub x}Ge{sub 100-x} system and a superconducting transition in the a-Mo{sub x}Ge{sub 100-x} system. A long standing question, particularly in the a-Fe{sub x}Ge{sub 100-x} and the a-Mo{sub x}Ge{sub 100-x} systems, has been whether the structural changes (and therefore the accompanying electrical and magnetic transitions) are accomplished by homogeneous alloy formation or phase separation. The application of ASAXS to this problem proves unambiguously that fine scale composition modulations, as distinct from the simple density fluctuations that arise from cracks and voids, are present in the a-Fe{sub x}Ge{sub 100-x}, a-W{sub x}Ge{sub 100-x}, and a-Mo{sub x}Ge{sub 100-x} systems in the semiconductor-metal transition region. Furthermore, ASAXS shows that germanium is distributed uniformly throughout each sample in the x<25 regime of all three systems.

  1. Temperature control and characterization of silicon-germanium growth by rapid thermal chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Sung-Bo

    Rapid thermal chemical vapor deposition (RTCVD) is an emerging technology to utilize low thermal budgets required to grow silicon-germanium alloys in a coherent way. However, the current state-of-the-art in RTCVD technique lacks some key elements required for acceptance of RTCVD in mainstream IC fabrication. These shortcomings include adequate control of wafer temperature during processing, and sufficient understanding of the growth kinetics. This dissertation describes and discusses the temperature control in RTCVD, the growth, and characterization of silicon-germanium alloys. The RTCVD system provides very reliable temperature-measurements, for a range of 480˜820°C, based on infrared-light (1.3 or 1.55mum) absorption in the silicon wafer during the growth of silicon-germanium alloys. A wafer heat transfer model developed using the view-factor analysis is used to investigate temperature distributions with respect to lamp configurations in RTCVD system. For a precise temperature control, a neural model-based controller in single-input-single-output (SISO) system is proposed, and compared with other controllers. Silicon-germanium alloys, in various semiconductor structures including dots, have been grown by RTCVD where temperature is well-controlled by the model-based controller. The structural and chemical properties of silicon-germanium alloys are characterized by X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy (AFM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). The different growth characteristics dominated by a silicon-source gas are exploited, and their process models are developed with the experimental data utilizing neural networks employed the Bayesian framework to accurately describe the process behaviors such as growth rate and Ge fraction in alloys with respect to process variables (to capture the process nonlinearity). By controlling growth rate and Ge fraction, a uniform and a grading Ge profile in silicon-germanium

  2. 1.9% bi-axial tensile strain in thick germanium suspended membranes fabricated in optical germanium-on-insulator substrates for laser applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gassenq, A.; Guilloy, K.; Osvaldo Dias, G.; Pauc, N.; Rouchon, D.; Hartmann, J.-M.; Widiez, J.; Tardif, S.; Rieutord, F.; Escalante, J.; Duchemin, I.; Niquet, Y.-M.; Geiger, R.; Zabel, T.; Sigg, H.; Faist, J.; Chelnokov, A.; Reboud, V.; Calvo, V.

    2015-11-01

    High tensile strains in Ge are currently studied for the development of integrated laser sources on Si. In this work, we developed specific Germanium-On-Insulator 200 mm wafer to improve tolerance to high strains induced via shaping of the Ge layers into micro-bridges. Building on the high crystalline quality, we demonstrate bi-axial tensile strain of 1.9%, which is currently the highest reported value measured in thick (350 nm) Ge layer. Since this strain is generally considered as the onset of the direct bandgap in Ge, our realization paves the way towards mid-infrared lasers fully compatible with CMOS fab technology.

  3. Analog Readout and Analysis Software for the Ultra-High Rate Germanium (UHRGe) Project

    SciTech Connect

    Fast, James E.; Aguayo Navarrete, Estanislao; Evans, Allan T.; VanDevender, Brent A.; Rodriguez, Douglas C.; Wood, Lynn S.

    2011-09-01

    High-resolution high-purity germanium (HPGe) spectrometers are needed for Safeguards applications such as spent fuel assay and uranium hexafluoride cylinder verification. In addition, these spectrometers would be applicable to other high-rate applications such as non-destructive assay of nuclear materials using nuclear resonance fluorescence. Count-rate limitations of today's HPGe technologies, however, lead to concessions in their use and reduction in their efficacy. Large-volume, very high-rate HPGe spectrometers are needed to enable a new generation of nondestructive assay systems. The Ultra-High Rate Germanium (UHRGe) project is developing HPGe spectrometer systems capable of operating at unprecedented rates, 10 to 100 times those available today. This report documents current status of developments in the analog electronics and analysis software.

  4. Numerical evaluation of Auger recombination coefficients in relaxed and strained germanium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dominici, Stefano; Wen, Hanqing; Bertazzi, Francesco; Goano, Michele; Bellotti, Enrico

    2016-05-01

    The potential applications of germanium and its alloys in infrared silicon-based photonics have led to a renewed interest in their optical properties. In this letter, we report on the numerical determination of Auger coefficients at T = 300 K for relaxed and biaxially strained germanium. We use a Green's function based model that takes into account all relevant direct and phonon-assisted processes and perform calculations up to a strain level corresponding to the transition from indirect to direct energy gap. We have considered excess carrier concentrations ranging from 1016 cm-3 to 5 × 1019 cm-3. For use in device level simulations, we also provide fitting formulas for the calculated electron and hole Auger coefficients as functions of carrier density.

  5. Schottky contacts in germanium nanowire network devices synthesized from nickel seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouveia, R. C.; Rodrigues, A. D.; Leite, E. R.; Chiquito, A. J.

    2016-10-01

    This paper presents reliable process to the synthesis of germanium nanowires by the vapor-liquid-solid method using nickel as an alternative catalyst to gold, the most commonly used metal, without toxic gas precursors. The structural study showed single-crystalline germanium nanowires with diamond structure, lengths of tens of microns and diameters smaller than 40 nm. The reduced dimensions of the nanowires led to phonons localization effect, with correlation lengths of the same order of the nanowires diameters. Additionally, the analysis of electronic properties of metal-nanowire-metal devices indicated the presence of Schottky barriers, whose values depend linearly on temperature. This linear dependence was assigned to the tunneling process through an insulator layer (mostly GeOx) at the metal-semiconductor interface. These results point to the existence of another channel for electrons transference from metal to semiconductor being very significant to electronic devices fabrication.

  6. Production of pristine, sulfur-coated and silicon-alloyed germanium nanoparticles via laser pyrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Seongbeom; Park, Song Yi; Jeong, Jaeki; Kim, Gi-Hwan; Rohani, Parham; Kim, Dong Suk; Swihart, Mark T.; Kim, Jin Young

    2015-07-01

    Here we demonstrate production of three types of germanium containing nanoparticles (NPs) by laser pyrolysis of GeH4 and characterize their sizes, structures and composition. Pristine Ge NPs were fabricated with 50 standard cubic centimeter per minute (sccm) of GeH4 and 25 sccm of SF6 as a photosensitizer gas, while sulfur-coated Ge NPs were produced with 25 sccm of GeH4 and 50 sccm of SF6. The laser pyrolysis of SiH4/GeH4 mixtures produced Si1-xGex alloy NPs. Effects of key process parameters including laser intensity and gas flow rates on NP properties have been investigated. The ability of the laser pyrolysis technique to flexibly produce a variety of germanium-containing NPs, as illustrated in this study shows promise for commercial-scale production of new nanomaterials as high purity dry powders.

  7. Deformation potentials for band-to-band tunneling in silicon and germanium from first principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandenberghe, William G.; Fischetti, Massimo V.

    2015-01-01

    The deformation potentials for phonon-assisted band-to-band tunneling (BTBT) in silicon and germanium are calculated using a plane-wave density functional theory code. Using hybrid functionals, we obtain: DTA = 4.1 × 108 eV/cm, DTO = 1.2 × 109 eV/cm, and DLO = 2.2 × 109 eV/cm for BTBT in silicon and DTA = 7.8 × 108 eV/cm and DLO = 1.3 × 109 eV/cm for BTBT in germanium. These values agree with experimentally measured values and we explain why in diodes, the TA/TO phonon-assisted BTBT dominates over LO phonon-assisted BTBT despite the larger deformation potential for the latter. We also explain why LO phonon-assisted BTBT can nevertheless dominate in many practical applications.

  8. Dissolution chemistry and biocompatibility of silicon- and germanium-based semiconductors for transient electronics.

    PubMed

    Kang, Seung-Kyun; Park, Gayoung; Kim, Kyungmin; Hwang, Suk-Won; Cheng, Huanyu; Shin, Jiho; Chung, Sangjin; Kim, Minjin; Yin, Lan; Lee, Jeong Chul; Lee, Kyung-Mi; Rogers, John A

    2015-05-01

    Semiconducting materials are central to the development of high-performance electronics that are capable of dissolving completely when immersed in aqueous solutions, groundwater, or biofluids, for applications in temporary biomedical implants, environmentally degradable sensors, and other systems. The results reported here include comprehensive studies of the dissolution by hydrolysis of polycrystalline silicon, amorphous silicon, silicon-germanium, and germanium in aqueous solutions of various pH values and temperatures. In vitro cellular toxicity evaluations demonstrate the biocompatibility of the materials and end products of dissolution, thereby supporting their potential for use in biodegradable electronics. A fully dissolvable thin-film solar cell illustrates the ability to integrate these semiconductors into functional systems.

  9. Silicon and germanium nanoparticles with tailored surface chemistry as novel inorganic fiber brightening agents.

    PubMed

    Deb-Choudhury, Santanu; Prabakar, Sujay; Krsinic, Gail; Dyer, Jolon M; Tilley, Richard D

    2013-07-31

    Low-molecular-weight organic molecules, such as coumarins and stilbenes, are used commercially as fluorescent whitening agents (FWAs) to mask photoyellowing and to brighten colors in fabrics. FWAs achieve this by radiating extra blue light, thus changing the hue and also adding to the brightness. However, organic FWAs can rapidly photodegrade in the presence of ultraviolet (UV) radiation, exacerbating the yellowing process through a reaction involving singlet oxygen species. Inorganic nanoparticles, on the other hand, can provide a similar brightening effect with the added advantage of photostability. We report a targeted approach in designing new inorganic silicon- and germanium-based nanoparticles, functionalized with hydrophilic (amine) surface terminations as novel inorganic FWAs. When applied on wool, by incorporation in a sol-gel Si matrix, the inorganic FWAs improved brightness properties, demonstrated enhanced photostability toward UV radiation, especially the germanium nanoparticles, and also generated considerably lower levels of reactive oxygen species compared to a commercial stilbene-based organic FWA, Uvitex NFW.

  10. Characterization of a high-purity germanium detector for small-animal SPECT.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Lindsay C; Campbell, Desmond L; Hull, Ethan L; Peterson, Todd E

    2011-09-21

    We present an initial evaluation of a mechanically cooled, high-purity germanium double-sided strip detector as a potential gamma camera for small-animal SPECT. It is 90 mm in diameter and 10 mm thick with two sets of 16 orthogonal strips that have a 4.5 mm width with a 5 mm pitch. We found an energy resolution of 0.96% at 140 keV, an intrinsic efficiency of 43.3% at 122 keV and a FWHM spatial resolution of approximately 1.5 mm. We demonstrated depth-of-interaction estimation capability through comparison of pinhole acquisitions with a point source on and off axes. Finally, a flood-corrected flood image exhibited a strip-level uniformity of less than 1%. This high-purity germanium offers many desirable properties for small-animal SPECT.

  11. Density functional calculation of the structural and electronic properties of germanium quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Anas, M. M.; Gopir, G.

    2015-04-24

    We apply first principles density functional computational methods to study the structures, densities of states (DOS), and higher occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) – lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) gaps of selected free-standing Ge semiconductor quantum dots up to 1.8nm. Our calculations are performed using numerical atomic orbital approach where linear combination of atomic orbital was applied. The surfaces of the quantum dots was passivized by hydrogen atoms. We find that surface passivation does affect the electronic properties associated with the changes of surface state, electron localization, and the energy gaps of germanium nanocrystals as well as the confinement of electrons inside the quantum dots (QDs). Our study shows that the energy gaps of germanium quantum dots decreases with the increasing dot diameter. The size-dependent variations of the computed HOMO-LUMO gaps in our quantum dots model were found to be consistent with the effects of quantum confinement reported in others theoretical and experimental calculation.

  12. Characterization of a high-purity germanium detector for small-animal SPECT

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Lindsay C; Campbell, Desmond L; Hull, Ethan L; Peterson, Todd E

    2011-01-01

    We present an initial evaluation of a mechanically-cooled, high-purity germanium double-sided strip detector as a potential gamma camera for small-animal SPECT. It is 90 mm in diameter and 10 mm thick with two sets of 16 orthogonal strips that have a 4.5 mm width with a 5 mm pitch. We found an energy resolution of 0.96% at 140 keV, an intrinsic efficiency of 43.3% at 122 keV and a FWHM spatial resolution of approximately 1.5 mm. We demonstrated depth-of-interaction estimation capability through comparison of pinhole acquisitions with a point source on and off axis. Finally, a flood-corrected-flood image exhibited a strip-level uniformity of less than 1%. This high-purity germanium offers many desirable properties for small-animal SPECT. PMID:21852723

  13. Ultra-precision cutting of Fresnel lenses on single crystal germanium and the machining processing analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Yufeng; Zhu, Yongjian; Pan, Weiqing

    2010-10-01

    Single crystal germanium is used in infrared spectroscopes and other optical equipment as an excellent infrared optical material. The development of germanium Fresnel lenses not only improves the optical imaging quality but also enables the miniaturization of optical systems. In a previous work, a Fresnel lens with precise curvatures, sharp edges and precise cross-sectional profiles were fabricated. However, sometimes, microcracks will occur to the edge of grooves when the wear of the diamond tool is large in the machining process. In the present work, in order to minimize the effect of the tool tip wear to the groove edge of Fresnel lens, a novel machining process and machining conditions are proposed for fabricating a high-precision Fresnel lens.

  14. Recommendations for a Static Cosmic Ray Shield for Enriched Germanium Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Aguayo Navarrete, Estanislao; Orrell, John L.; Ankney, Austin S.; Berguson, Timothy J.

    2011-09-21

    This document provides a detailed study of cost and materials that could be used to shield the detector material of the international Tonne-scale germanium neutrinoless double-beta decay experiment from hadronic particles from cosmic ray showers at the Earth's surface. This work was motivated by the need for a shield that minimizes activation of the enriched germanium during storage; in particular, when the detector material is being worked on at the detector manufacturer's facility. This work considers two options for shielding the detector material from cosmic ray particles. One option is to use a pre-existing structure already located near the detector manufacturer, such as Canberra Industries in Meriden, Connecticut. The other option is to build a shield onsite at a detector manufacturer's site. This paper presents a cost and efficiency analysis of such construction.

  15. An improved matrix separation method for characterization of ultrapure germanium (8N).

    PubMed

    Reddy, M A; Shekhar, R; Jai Kumar, Sunil

    2016-10-01

    An improved matrix separation method has been described to characterize ultrapure germanium of 8N (99.999999%) purity. In this method, temperature of the reaction vessel in which in-situ generated chlorine gas reacts with germanium solid material directly is optimized to quantitatively remove Ge matrix from all its impurities. Optimized reaction temperature has been found to be 230±5°C. Recovery studies on more than 60 elements have been carried out at the optimized temperature. Recoveries of all the analytes except As, Se, Sn, Hg, Tl are found to be quantitative. The method has been examined for various amounts of Ge material and found to be suitable even for 10g of Ge sample and provides low parts per billion and trillion levels of process blanks. Determination of concentrations of impurities has been done by inductively coupled plasma quadrupole mass spectrometer (ICP-QMS) and high resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometer (HR-CS-GFAAS). In the absence of certified reference materials for ultrapure germanium, accuracy of the proposed method is established by spike recovery tests. Precision of this method is found to vary from 7% to 50% for concentrations between 4 and 0.004ngg(-1). Limits of detection (LOD) for the target analytes are found to be between 6 and 0.011ngmL(-1) or 1.8-0.003ngg(-1) for the proposed procedure. The method has been successfully applied for that characterization of ultrapure germanium material of 8N purity.

  16. An improved matrix separation method for characterization of ultrapure germanium (8N).

    PubMed

    Reddy, M A; Shekhar, R; Jai Kumar, Sunil

    2016-10-01

    An improved matrix separation method has been described to characterize ultrapure germanium of 8N (99.999999%) purity. In this method, temperature of the reaction vessel in which in-situ generated chlorine gas reacts with germanium solid material directly is optimized to quantitatively remove Ge matrix from all its impurities. Optimized reaction temperature has been found to be 230±5°C. Recovery studies on more than 60 elements have been carried out at the optimized temperature. Recoveries of all the analytes except As, Se, Sn, Hg, Tl are found to be quantitative. The method has been examined for various amounts of Ge material and found to be suitable even for 10g of Ge sample and provides low parts per billion and trillion levels of process blanks. Determination of concentrations of impurities has been done by inductively coupled plasma quadrupole mass spectrometer (ICP-QMS) and high resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometer (HR-CS-GFAAS). In the absence of certified reference materials for ultrapure germanium, accuracy of the proposed method is established by spike recovery tests. Precision of this method is found to vary from 7% to 50% for concentrations between 4 and 0.004ngg(-1). Limits of detection (LOD) for the target analytes are found to be between 6 and 0.011ngmL(-1) or 1.8-0.003ngg(-1) for the proposed procedure. The method has been successfully applied for that characterization of ultrapure germanium material of 8N purity. PMID:27474273

  17. A first-principles core-level XPS study on the boron impurities in germanium crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Yamauchi, Jun; Yoshimoto, Yoshihide; Suwa, Yuji

    2013-12-04

    We systematically investigated the x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) core-level shifts and formation energies of boron defects in germanium crystals and compared the results to those in silicon crystals. Both for XPS core-level shifts and formation energies, relationship between defects in Si and Ge is roughly linear. From the similarity in the formation energy, it is expected that the exotic clusters like icosahedral B12 exist in Ge as well as in Si.

  18. High-capacity nanostructured germanium-containing materials and lithium alloys thereof

    DOEpatents

    Graetz, Jason A.; Fultz, Brent T.; Ahn, Channing; Yazami, Rachid

    2010-08-24

    Electrodes comprising an alkali metal, for example, lithium, alloyed with nanostructured materials of formula Si.sub.zGe.sub.(z-1), where 0germanium exhibit a combination of improved capacities, cycle lives, and/or cycling rates compared with similar electrodes made from graphite. These electrodes are useful as anodes for secondary electrochemical cells, for example, batteries and electrochemical supercapacitors.

  19. Effects of a lactobacilli, oligosaccharide and organic germanium intake on the immune responses of mice.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Takashi; Saito, Miki; Aso, Hisashi

    2012-01-01

    The organic germanium compound, Ge-132, has immune-modulating effects. We evaluated the symbiotic effects of Ge-132 with lactobacilli and oligosaccharide (LB/OS) on the immune responses of mice. The highest fecal IgA levels were observed in the mice receiving a low concentration of Ge-132 with LB/OS for 8 weeks. Our data suggest that LB/OS with a low concentration of Ge-132 stimulated the intestinal immunity.

  20. FWM-based wavelength conversion of 40 Gbaud PSK signals in a silicon germanium waveguide.

    PubMed

    Ettabib, Mohamed A; Hammani, Kamal; Parmigiani, Francesca; Jones, Liam; Kapsalis, Alexandros; Bogris, Adonis; Syvridis, Dimitris; Brun, Mickael; Labeye, Pierre; Nicoletti, Sergio; Petropoulos, Periklis

    2013-07-15

    We demonstrate four wave mixing (FWM) based wavelength conversion of 40 Gbaud differential phase shift keyed (DPSK) and quadrature phase shift keyed (QPSK) signals in a 2.5 cm long silicon germanium waveguide. For a 290 mW pump power, bit error ratio (BER) measurements show approximately a 2-dB power penalty in both cases of DPSK (measured at a BER of 10(-9)) and QPSK (at a BER of 10(-3)) signals that we examined.

  1. The first ionothermal synthesis of a germanium phosphate with one-dimensional chain-like structure.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Li, Yang; Liu, Lei; Dong, Jinxiang

    2012-09-21

    A novel germanium phosphate with a chain-like framework constructed from GeO(4)N(2) octahedra and PO(4) tetrahedra, [NH(4)](2)[Ge(NH(3))(2)(PO(4))(2)]·0.38H(2)O, was first synthesized via in situ decomposition of urea from ionic eutectic mixtures comprising urea and quaternary ammonium salts. PMID:22847659

  2. Experimental investigation of boron diffusion in silicon/silicon germanium heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Paohua

    Silicon (Si) is the most widely used semiconductor material in the electronics industry today. Incorporating germanium (Ge) into silicon adds bandgap engineering capability to the advanced technology base and manufacturing economies of silicon. Many researchers have recently demonstrated the potential of Si 1-xGex alloys for extending the performance limits of silicon-based devices including bipolar transistors as well as field-effect transistors. One of the most studied devices is the n-Si/p-Si1-x Gex/n-Si heterojunction bipolar transistor which includes a boron-doped Si1-xGex base layer. For optimal device and fabrication process design, it is important to have an understanding of boron diffusion in the Si/Si1-xGex heterostructure. The objectives of this work are the experimental characterization and modeling of boron diffusion in Si/Si1-xGex heterostructures. Boron diffusion in Si/Si1-xGex was characterized as a function of various processing parameters (anneal temperature, time, and ambient) and materials parameters (germanium content x, boron concentration, and macroscopic strain). Boron diffusivity in strained Si1-xGe x was observed, in general, to decrease with increasing germanium content for all annealing conditions and over large ranges of boron concentration investigated. Furthermore, boron diffusion was shown to depend primarily on germanium content rather than macroscopic strain. The segregation phenomenon across a Si/Si1-xGex heterointerface was also characterized and models for boron diffusion in Si1-x Gex are proposed.

  3. Nanorods of Silicon and Germanium with Well-Defined Shapes and Sizes

    SciTech Connect

    Slavi C. Sevov

    2012-05-03

    We have made number of important discoveries along the major goals of the project, namely i) electrodeposition of germanium thin films from clusters, ii) synthesis of cluster-based surfactants with long hydrocarbon chains and micelles made of them, iii) grafting of Ge{sub 9}-clusters onto self assembled films of siloxanes attached to glass substrates, iv) doping of Ge{sub 9}-clusters, and v) expanding the clusters to ten-atom cages of Ge{sub 10}{sup 2-}.

  4. Tunability of the dielectric function of heavily doped germanium thin films for mid-infrared plasmonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frigerio, Jacopo; Ballabio, Andrea; Isella, Giovanni; Sakat, Emilie; Pellegrini, Giovanni; Biagioni, Paolo; Bollani, Monica; Napolitani, Enrico; Manganelli, Costanza; Virgilio, Michele; Grupp, Alexander; Fischer, Marco P.; Brida, Daniele; Gallacher, Kevin; Paul, Douglas J.; Baldassarre, Leonetta; Calvani, Paolo; Giliberti, Valeria; Nucara, Alessandro; Ortolani, Michele

    2016-08-01

    Heavily doped semiconductor thin films are very promising for application in mid-infrared plasmonic devices because the real part of their dielectric function is negative and broadly tunable in the 5 to 50 μ m wavelength range at least. In this work, we investigate the electrodynamics of heavily n -type-doped germanium epilayers at infrared frequencies beyond the assumptions of the Drude model. The films are grown on silicon and germanium substrates, are in situ doped with phosphorous in the 1017 to 1019 cm-3 range, then screened plasma frequencies in the 100 to 1200 cm-1 range were observed. We employ infrared spectroscopy, pump-probe spectroscopy, and dc transport measurements to determine the tunability of the plasma frequency. Although no plasmonic structures have been realized in this work, we derive estimates of the decay time of mid-infrared plasmons and of their figures of merit for field confinement and for surface plasmon propagation. The average electron scattering rate increases almost linearly with excitation frequency, in agreement with quantum calculations based on a model of the ellipsoidal Fermi surface at the conduction band minimum of germanium accounting for electron scattering with optical phonons and charged impurities. Instead, we found weak dependence of plasmon losses on neutral impurity density. In films where a transient plasma was generated by optical pumping, we found significant dependence of the energy relaxation times in the few-picosecond range on the static doping level of the film, confirming the key but indirect role played by charged impurities in energy relaxation. Our results indicate that underdamped mid-infrared plasma oscillations are attained in n -type-doped germanium at room temperature.

  5. Synthesis of Silicon and Germanium Containing Heteroaromatic Sulfides as Cholesterol Level Lowering and Vasodilating Agents

    PubMed Central

    Rubina, Kira; Abele, Edgars; Arsenyan, Pavel; Abele, Ramona; Veveris, Maris

    2001-01-01

    Silicon and germanium containing heteroaromatic sulfides have been prepared using phase transfer catalytic (PTC) system thiol / Si or Ge containing alkyl halide / solid KOH / 18- crown-6 / toluene. The target sulfides were isolated in yields up to 92 %. It has been found that 2-{[dimethyl (β-triethylgermylethyl)-silylmethyl]thio}-1-methylimidazole and 2-{[dimethyl(β-triphenylsilylethyl) silyl-methyl]thio}benzothiazole are the most active cholesterol level lowering and vasodilating agents. PMID:18475980

  6. Charge collection performance of a segmented planar high-purity germanium detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, R. J.; Boston, A. J.; Boston, H. C.; Cresswell, J. R.; Grint, A. N.; Harkness, L. J.; Nolan, P. J.; Oxley, D. C.; Scraggs, D. P.; Lazarus, I.; Simpson, J.; Dobson, J.

    2008-10-01

    High-precision scans of a segmented planar high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector have been performed with a range of finely collimated gamma ray beams allowing the response as a function of gamma ray interaction position to be quantified. This has allowed the development of parametric pulse shape analysis (PSA) techniques and algorithms for the correction of imperfections in performance. In this paper we report on the performance of this detector, designed for use in a positron emission tomography (PET) development system.

  7. Epitaxial Growth of Perovskite Strontium Titanate on Germanium via Atomic Layer Deposition.

    PubMed

    Lin, Edward L; Edmondson, Bryce I; Hu, Shen; Ekerdt, John G

    2016-01-01

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is a commercially utilized deposition method for electronic materials. ALD growth of thin films offers thickness control and conformality by taking advantage of self-limiting reactions between vapor-phase precursors and the growing film. Perovskite oxides present potential for next-generation electronic materials, but to-date have mostly been deposited by physical methods. This work outlines a method for depositing SrTiO3 (STO) on germanium using ALD. Germanium has higher carrier mobilities than silicon and therefore offers an alternative semiconductor material with faster device operation. This method takes advantage of the instability of germanium's native oxide by using thermal deoxidation to clean and reconstruct the Ge (001) surface to the 2×1 structure. 2-nm thick, amorphous STO is then deposited by ALD. The STO film is annealed under ultra-high vacuum and crystallizes on the reconstructed Ge surface. Reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED) is used during this annealing step to monitor the STO crystallization. The thin, crystalline layer of STO acts as a template for subsequent growth of STO that is crystalline as-grown, as confirmed by RHEED. In situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy is used to verify film stoichiometry before and after the annealing step, as well as after subsequent STO growth. This procedure provides framework for additional perovskite oxides to be deposited on semiconductors via chemical methods in addition to the integration of more sophisticated heterostructures already achievable by physical methods. PMID:27501462

  8. An aluminum-germanium eutectic structure for silicon wafer bonding technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez-Quintana, I.; Ottaviani, G.; Tonini, R.; Felisari, L.; Garavaglia, M.; Oggioni, L.; Morin, D.

    2005-08-01

    An aluminum-germanium eutectic bonding technology has been used to uniformly bond two silicon wafers for MEMS packaging at temperatures as low as 450 °C, well below the aluminum-silicon eutectic temperature (577 °C). A device silicon wafer has been put in contact with a cap wafer where an aluminum film covered by a germanium film has been thermally evaporated. The annealing has been performed in a vacuum furnace under uniaxial pressure variable from 1.8 up to 30 kbar. The samples have been analyzed with various analytical techniques. 4He+ MeV Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS) has been used to measure the thicknesses of the deposited films and to follow the aluminum-germanium intermixing, Scanning Acoustic Microscope (SAM) to control the uniformity of the bonding, Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) associated with electron induced X-ray fluorescence to analyze composition, morphology and elements distribution in the film between the two bonded wafers. The temperatures for the annealing were selected above and below the Ge-Al the eutectic temperature. At temperatures below the eutectic no-bonding has been obtained for any applied pressure. Above the eutectic bonding occurs. The formation of a liquid film is mandatory to obtain a reproducible and robust bonding. The pressure is necessary to improve the contacts between the two wafers; its role in the metallurgy of the bonding needs to be explored.

  9. Germanium: a new catalyst for diamond synthesis and a new optically active impurity in diamond.

    PubMed

    Palyanov, Yuri N; Kupriyanov, Igor N; Borzdov, Yuri M; Surovtsev, Nikolay V

    2015-01-01

    Diamond attracts considerable attention as a versatile and technologically useful material. For many demanding applications, such as recently emerged quantum optics and sensing, it is important to develop new routes for fabrication of diamond containing defects with specific optical, electronic and magnetic properties. Here we report on successful synthesis of diamond from a germanium-carbon system at conditions of 7 GPa and 1,500-1,800 °C. Both spontaneously nucleated diamond crystals and diamond growth layers on seeds were produced in experiments with reaction time up to 60 h. We found that diamonds synthesized in the Ge-C system contain a new optical centre with a ZPL system at 2.059 eV, which is assigned to germanium impurities. Photoluminescence from this centre is dominated by zero-phonon optical transitions even at room temperature. Our results have widened the family of non-metallic elemental catalysts for diamond synthesis and demonstrated the creation of germanium-related optical centres in diamond. PMID:26435400

  10. Germanium: a new catalyst for diamond synthesis and a new optically active impurity in diamond

    PubMed Central

    Palyanov, Yuri N.; Kupriyanov, Igor N.; Borzdov, Yuri M.; Surovtsev, Nikolay V.

    2015-01-01

    Diamond attracts considerable attention as a versatile and technologically useful material. For many demanding applications, such as recently emerged quantum optics and sensing, it is important to develop new routes for fabrication of diamond containing defects with specific optical, electronic and magnetic properties. Here we report on successful synthesis of diamond from a germanium-carbon system at conditions of 7 GPa and 1,500–1,800 °C. Both spontaneously nucleated diamond crystals and diamond growth layers on seeds were produced in experiments with reaction time up to 60 h. We found that diamonds synthesized in the Ge-C system contain a new optical centre with a ZPL system at 2.059 eV, which is assigned to germanium impurities. Photoluminescence from this centre is dominated by zero-phonon optical transitions even at room temperature. Our results have widened the family of non-metallic elemental catalysts for diamond synthesis and demonstrated the creation of germanium-related optical centres in diamond. PMID:26435400

  11. Experimentally determining the relative efficiency of spherically bent germanium and quartz crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, G. V.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Hell, N.; Magee, E.

    2016-11-01

    We have used the EBIT-I electron beam ion trap at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and a duplicate Orion High Resolution X-ray Spectrometer (OHREX) to measure the relative efficiency of a spherically bent quartz (10 1 ¯ 1) crystal (2d = 6.687 Å) and a spherically bent germanium (111) crystal (2d = 6.532 Å). L-shell X-ray photons from highly charged molybdenum ions generated in EBIT-I were simultaneously focussed and Bragg reflected by each crystal, both housed in a single spectrometer, onto a single CCD X-ray detector. The flux from each crystal was then directly compared. Our results show that the germanium crystal has a reflection efficiency significantly better than the quartz crystal, however, the energy resolution is significantly worse. Moreover, we find that the spatial focussing properties of the germanium crystal are worse than those of the quartz crystal. Details of the experiment are presented, and we discuss the advantages of using either crystal on a streak-camera equipped OHREX spectrometer.

  12. Segmented Monolithic Germanium Detector Arrays for X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Ethan L. Hull

    2011-03-27

    The experimental results from the Phase I effort were extremely encouraging. During Phase I PHDs Co. made the first strides toward a new detector technology that could have great impact on synchrotron x-ray absorption (XAS) measurements, and x-ray detector technology in general. Detector hardware that allowed critical demonstration measurements of our technology was designed and fabricated. This new technology allows good charge collection from many pixels on a single side of a multi-element monolithic germanium planar detector. The detector technology provides “dot-like” collection electrodes having very low capacitance. The detector technology appears to perform as anticipated in the Phase I proposal. In particular, the 7-pixel detector studied showed remarkable properties; making it an interesting example of detector physics. The technology is enabled by the use of amorphous germanium contact technology on germanium planar detectors. Because of the scalability associated with the fabrication of these technologies at PHDs Co., we anticipate being able to supply larger detector systems at significantly lower cost than systems made in the conventional manner.

  13. Novel Germanium/Polypyrrole Composite for High Power Lithium-ion Batteries

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Xuanwen; Luo, Wenbin; Zhong, Chao; Wexler, David; Chou, Shu-Lei; Liu, Hua-Kun; Shi, Zhicong; Chen, Guohua; Ozawa, Kiyoshi; Wang, Jia-Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Nano-Germanium/polypyrrole composite has been synthesized by chemical reduction method in aqueous solution. The Ge nanoparticles were directly coated on the surface of the polypyrrole. The morphology and structural properties of samples were determined by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Thermogravimetric analysis was carried out to determine the polypyrrole content. The electrochemical properties of the samples have been investigated and their suitability as anode materials for the lithium-ion battery was examined. The discharge capacity of the Ge nanoparticles calculated in the Ge-polypyrrole composite is 1014 mAh g−1 after 50 cycles at 0.2 C rate, which is much higher than that of pristine germanium (439 mAh g−1). The composite also demonstrates high specific discharge capacities at different current rates (1318, 1032, 661, and 460 mAh g−1 at 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, and 4.0 C, respectively). The superior electrochemical performance of Ge-polypyrrole composite could be attributed to the polypyrrole core, which provides an efficient transport pathway for electrons. SEM images of the electrodes have demonstrated that polypyrrole can also act as a conductive binder and alleviate the pulverization of electrode caused by the huge volume changes of the nanosized germanium particles during Li+ intercalation/de-intercalation. PMID:25168783

  14. Electron Spin Coherence of Shallow Donors in Natural and Isotopically Enriched Germanium.

    PubMed

    Sigillito, A J; Jock, R M; Tyryshkin, A M; Beeman, J W; Haller, E E; Itoh, K M; Lyon, S A

    2015-12-11

    Germanium is a widely used material for electronic and optoelectronic devices and recently it has become an important material for spintronics and quantum computing applications. Donor spins in silicon have been shown to support very long coherence times (T_{2}) when the host material is isotopically enriched to remove any magnetic nuclei. Germanium also has nonmagnetic isotopes so it is expected to support long T_{2}'s while offering some new properties. Compared to Si, Ge has a strong spin-orbit coupling, large electron wave function, high mobility, and highly anisotropic conduction band valleys which will all give rise to new physics. In this Letter, the first pulsed electron spin resonance measurements of T_{2} and the spin-lattice relaxation (T_{1}) times for ^{75}As and ^{31}P donors in natural and isotopically enriched germanium are presented. We compare samples with various levels of isotopic enrichment and find that spectral diffusion due to ^{73}Ge nuclear spins limits the coherence in samples with significant amounts of ^{73}Ge. For the most highly enriched samples, we find that T_{1} limits T_{2} to T_{2}=2T_{1}. We report an anisotropy in T_{1} and the ensemble linewidths for magnetic fields oriented along different crystal axes but do not resolve any angular dependence to the spectral-diffusion-limited T_{2} in samples with ^{73}Ge. PMID:26705654

  15. Germanium and uranium in coalified wood from Upper Devonian black shale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Breger, Irving A.; Schopf, James M.

    1954-01-01

    Microscopic study of black, vitreous, carbonaceous material occurring in the Chattanooga shale in Tennessee and in the Cleveland member of the Ohio shale in Ohio has revealed coalified woody plant tissue. Some samples have shown sufficient detail to be identified with the genus Callixylon. Similar material has been reported in the literature as "bituminous" or "asphaltic" stringers. Spectrographic analyses of the ash from the coalified wood have shown unusually high percentages of germanium, uranium, vanadium, and nickel. The inverse relationship between uranium and germanium in the ash and the ash content of various samples shows an association of these elements with the organic constituents of the coal. On the basis of geochemical considerations, it seems most probable that the wood or coalified wood was germanium-bearing at the time logs or woody fragments were floated into the basins of deposition of the Chattanooga shale and the Cleveland member of the Ohio shale. Once within the marine environment, the material probably absorbed uranium with the formation of organo-uranium compounds such as have been found to exist in coals. It is suggested that a more systematic search for germaniferous coals in the vicinity of the Chattanooga shale and the Cleveland member of the Ohio shale might be rewarding.

  16. Germanium and uranium in coalified wood bom upper Devonian black shale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Breger, I.A.; Schopf, J.M.

    1955-01-01

    Microscopic study of black, vitreous, carbonaceous material occurring in the Chattanooga shale in Tennessee and in the Cleveland member of the Ohio shale in Ohio has revealed coalified woody plant tissue. Some samples have shown sufficient detail to be identified with the genus Cauixylon. Similar material has been reported in the literature as "bituminous" or "asphaltic" stringers. Spectrographic analyses of the ash from the coalified wood have shown unusually high percentages of germanium, uranium, vanadium, and nickel. The inverse relationship between uranium and germanium in the ash and the ash content of various samples shows an association of these elements with the organic constituents of the coal. On the basis of geochemical considerations, it seems most probable that the wood or coalified wood was germanium-bearing at the time logs or woody fragmenta were floated into the basins of deposition of the Chattanooga shale and the Cleveland member of the Ohio shale. Once within the marine environment, the material probably absorbed uranium with the formation of organo-uranium compounds such as exist in coals. It is suggested that a more systematic search for germaniferous coals in the vicinity of the Chattanooga shale and the Cleveland member of the Ohio shale might be rewarding. ?? 1955.

  17. Electrodeposition of germanium from the ionic liquid 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium dicyanamide.

    PubMed

    Wu, Minxian; Brooks, Neil R; Schaltin, Stijn; Binnemans, Koen; Fransaer, Jan

    2013-04-14

    The electrodeposition of germanium from the ionic liquid 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium dicyanamide ([BMP][DCA]) and a mixture of [BMP][DCA] and 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium chloride ([BMP]Cl) was studied using cyclic voltammetry and using an electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance (EQCM). [GeCl4(BuIm)2] (BuIm = N-butylimidazole) was used as germanium source as it has a solubility of 0.47 M, up to 13 times the solubility of GeCl4 in [BMP][DCA]. Cyclic voltammograms show an irreversible electrochemical behavior and two reduction waves were observed. The wave at the more positive potential was assigned to the reduction of Ge(4+) to Ge(2+). The wave at the more negative potential was attributed to the formation of Ge(0). The diffusion coefficient of Ge(4+) in [BMP][DCA] containing 0.1 M [GeCl4(BuIm)2] is 1.1 × 10(-12) m(2) s(-1), and the exchange current density is 2 × 10(-4) A m(-2) at 50 °C. Polymerization of dicyanamide anions took place at the anode in the solution of [BMP][DCA]. The polymerization reaction could be avoided by using an equimolar [BMP]Cl-[BMP][DCA] mixture as electrolyte. Smooth, porous germanium films were electrodeposited on both copper and silicon substrates.

  18. Defect Density Comparison of Detached versus Attached Bridgman Grown Germanium Crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schweizer, M.; Cobb, S. D.; Volz, M. P.; Szofran, F. R.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Semiconductor Bridgman growth without contact between the growing crystal and the growth ampoule has been observed on Earth in the last few years during several experiments. Previously, this so-called detached or dewetted growth phenomenon occurred preferentially under microgravity conditions due to the absence of the hydrostatic pressure. Many theoretical as well as experimental investigations helped to provide a better understanding of the mechanism and to identify the parameters leading to the detachment. Thus, recent attempts to get stable detached growth under terrestrial conditions by Duffar et al. growing III-V compounds and our own group with germanium and germanium-silicon alloys were frequently successful. At this conference we present the results of several germanium growth experiments performed in pyrolytic boron nitride containers. To exert an influence on the pressure ratio above and below the melt we used closed-bottom and open-bottom containers. This resulted in mainly detached-grown single crystals with the closed-bottom crucibles and attached single crystals with the open-bottom tubes. Evidence of detached growth is obtained from the crystal surface with a combination of axial profilometer scans and optical and electron microscopy. Detailed investigations of the defect structure, which is the main focus of this presentation, have shown an improvement of the crystal quality in the detached-grown samples, with a strong reduction of the etch pit density by about two orders of magnitude.

  19. The mineralogical deportment of germanium in the Clarksville Electrolytic Zinc Plant of Savage Zinc Inc.

    SciTech Connect

    Dutrizac, J.E.; Chen, T.T.; Longton, R.J.

    1996-08-01

    Germanium is a strategic element which is widely used for infrared night vision systems, fiber optics, gamma-ray detectors, semiconductors, catalysts, and phosphors. Germanium is recovered from the dusts and residues generated during the processing of certain complex Zn-Cu-Pb sulfide ores or low-temperature sphalerite ores. A mineralogical study was carried out on the neutral leach residue and weak acid leach residue generated from Gordonsville zinc concentrate at the Clarksville Electrolytic Zinc Plant of Savage Zinc Inc. The intent was to characterize the mineral forms and associations of germanium. The Gordonsville zinc concentrate consists mostly of sphalerite which has a solid solution Ge content of {approximately} 400 ppm; the sphalerite is the dominant, if not only, Ge carrier in the concentrate. The major Ge carrier in the neutral residue is the iron gel-silica gel phase, but modest amounts of Ge are present in the ZnO, ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}, sphalerite, and Zn-Fe-Pb silicate phases. The major Ge carrier in the acid residue is the iron gel-silica gel phase which contains up to 1.7% Ge and accounts for {approximately} 70% of the total Ge content of this residue. The remaining Ge is carried by the Zn-Fe-Pb silicate, ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}, and some of the rare Mn-Pb-Fe oxide phases.

  20. Internal friction in intrinsic and n-type germanium and silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerk, A. P.; Williams, Wendell S.

    1982-05-01

    The dependence of the high-temperature internal friction of germanium and silicon, both intrinsic and highly n type, was measured as a function of temperature, frequency, dislocation density, and dopant concentration. An acoustoelectric peak in both germanium and silicon was detected and found to agree well with the theory of Weinreich. The high-temperature dislocation-dependent damping in intrinsic germanium and silicon was studied and seen to be consistent with most previous studies. If deformed at high temperature and allowed to anneal, highly doped n-type material behaved intrinsically due to preferential precipitation at dislocations; however, if deformed at moderate temperatures and not allowed to anneal, such crystals exhibited a greatly enhanced dislocation-dependent internal friction which depended on the extrinsic carrier concentration. A theory was developed for dislocation damping in semiconductors and was found to agree well with experimental results. The model is based upon electronic viscous damping of dislocations by excess current carriers whose lifetimes are controlled by Auger recombination processes.

  1. Spin-dependent intravalley and intervalley electron-phonon scatterings in germanium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Z.; Nestoklon, M. O.; Cheng, J. L.; Ivchenko, E. L.; Wu, M. W.

    2013-08-01

    The spin-dependent electron-phonon scattering in the L and Γ valleys of germanium crystals has been investigated theoretically. For this purpose, the 16 × 16 k · p Hamiltonian correctly describing the electron dispersion in the vicinity of the L point of the Brillouin zone in germanium in the lowest conduction bands and the highest valence bands has been constructed. This Hamiltonian facilitates the analysis of the spin-dependent properties of conduction electrons. Then, the electron scatterings by phonons in the L and Γ valleys, i.e., intra- L valley, intra-Γ valley, inter- L-Γ valley, and inter- L-L valley scatterings, have been considered successively. The scattering matrix expanded in powers of the electron wave vectors counted from the centers of the valleys has been constructed using the invariant method for each type of processes. The numerical coefficients in these matrices have been found by the pseudopotential method. The partial contributions of the Elliott and Yafet mechanisms to the spin-dependent electron scattering have been analyzed. The obtained results can be used in studying the optical orientation and relaxation of hot electrons in germanium.

  2. Experimental Study on the Ultraprecision Ductile Machinability of Single-Crystal Germanium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Jiwang; Maekawa, Kouki; Tamaki, Jun'ichi; Kubo, Akihiko

    Single-crystal germanium is an important infrared optical material. In the present work, single-point diamond turning experiments on single-crystal germanium (100), (110) and (111) planes were conducted in order to examine their ultraprecision machining characteristics. Three kinds of surface textures and chip morphologies were observed during the brittle-ductile transition of the machining mode. The brittle-ductile boundary changed significantly with the crystal orientations of the workpieces. Due to the crystallographic anisotropy, micro-fractures were generated on the workpiece surface in a radial pattern from the rotation center. However, it was possible to produce completely ductile-cut surfaces on all crystal orientations by using undeformed chip thicknesses smaller than a critical value, namely, the minimum critical undeformed chip thickness, which was approximately 60nm under the present conditions. Compared to wet cutting, dry cutting was beneficial for ductile machining on a few specific crystal orientations. The findings in this study provide criterions for determining process parameters for the fabrication of aspherical and diffraction infrared optics using single-crystal germanium.

  3. Imaging the oblique propagation of electrons in germanium crystals at low temperature and low electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moffatt, R. A.; Cabrera, B.; Corcoran, B. M.; Kreikebaum, J. M.; Redl, P.; Shank, B.; Yen, J. J.; Young, B. A.; Brink, P. L.; Cherry, M.; Tomada, A.; Phipps, A.; Sadoulet, B.; Sundqvist, K. M.

    2016-01-01

    Excited electrons in the conduction band of germanium collect into four energy minima, or valleys, in momentum space. These local minima have highly anisotropic mass tensors which cause the electrons to travel in directions which are oblique to an applied electric field at sub-Kelvin temperatures and low electric fields, in contrast to the more isotropic behavior of the holes. This experiment produces a full two-dimensional image of the oblique electron and hole propagation and the quantum transitions of electrons between valleys for electric fields oriented along the [0,0,1] direction. Charge carriers are excited with a focused laser pulse on one face of a germanium crystal and then drifted through the crystal by a uniform electric field of strength between 0.5 and 6 V/cm. The pattern of charge density arriving on the opposite face is used to reconstruct the trajectories of the carriers. Measurements of the two-dimensional pattern of charge density are compared in detail with Monte Carlo simulations developed for the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (SuperCDMS) to model the transport of charge carriers in high-purity germanium detectors.

  4. Electron Spin Coherence of Shallow Donors in Natural and Isotopically Enriched Germanium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigillito, A. J.; Jock, R. M.; Tyryshkin, A. M.; Beeman, J. W.; Haller, E. E.; Itoh, K. M.; Lyon, S. A.

    2015-12-01

    Germanium is a widely used material for electronic and optoelectronic devices and recently it has become an important material for spintronics and quantum computing applications. Donor spins in silicon have been shown to support very long coherence times (T2 ) when the host material is isotopically enriched to remove any magnetic nuclei. Germanium also has nonmagnetic isotopes so it is expected to support long T2's while offering some new properties. Compared to Si, Ge has a strong spin-orbit coupling, large electron wave function, high mobility, and highly anisotropic conduction band valleys which will all give rise to new physics. In this Letter, the first pulsed electron spin resonance measurements of T2 and the spin-lattice relaxation (T1) times for 75As and 31P donors in natural and isotopically enriched germanium are presented. We compare samples with various levels of isotopic enrichment and find that spectral diffusion due to 73Ge nuclear spins limits the coherence in samples with significant amounts of 73Ge. For the most highly enriched samples, we find that T1 limits T2 to T2=2 T1. We report an anisotropy in T1 and the ensemble linewidths for magnetic fields oriented along different crystal axes but do not resolve any angular dependence to the spectral-diffusion-limited T2 in samples with 73Ge.

  5. Thermal cycling properties of a lead-free positive temperature coefficient thermistor in the Ba0.97(Bi0.5Na0.5)0.03TiO3 system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Hyoung-Seuk; Choi, Soon-Mok; Choi, Duck-Kyun

    2016-01-01

    A Pb-free PTC (positive temperature coefficient thermistor) heater was developed in the Ba0.97(Bi0.5Na0.5)0.03TiO3 system especially for automotive part applications. The reliability was verified by using a thermal cycling test designed on the basis of the result from a quality function deployment (QFD) analysis. We compared the thermal cycling test results from the newly-developed Pb-free PTC heaters with the results from PTC heaters currently on the market, namely, PTC heaters containing Pb. Life prediction and stress-strength relationships were analyzed together with a thermal diffusivity evaluation. We discuss the potential failure mechanisms during the thermal cycling test, focusing on the fact that electrical degradation in PTC materials is closely related to mechanical degradation due to the internal stress in the materials that comes from repeated phase changes. Different grain size distributions on the sintered bulks were considered to a key factor for explaining the different results of the reliability tests between the new Pb-free PTC heaters developed in this study and the commercial PTC heaters containing Pb.

  6. Supplementation of dietary germanium biotite enhances induction of the immune responses by foot-and-mouth disease vaccine in cattle

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background After the recent outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in Korea, a vaccination policy has been applied to control the disease. In addition, several non-specific immune stimulators have been used without any scientific evidence that they would enhance the immune response after FMD vaccination and/or protect against FMD. Based on the current situation, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the non-specific immune stimulator germanium biotite on FMD vaccination and immune responses in cattle. To achieve our goal, immune responses to FMD vaccination, such as levels of IgG and IgA, antibody duration, and virus-neutralizing titers were investigated after germanium biotite feeding. The PBMC typing and proliferative response after stimulation with mitogens, the cytokines expression level of PBMC, and the lysozyme activity in the serum were measured to evaluate the immune enhancing effects of germanium biotite following its administration. Results Following the first vaccination, high level of IgG (at 4 weeks) and IgA (at 2 and 31 weeks) titers in serum and saliva were observed in the germanium biotite-feeding group (p < 0.05). The germanium biotite group also showed high and longstanding inhibition percentage value in ELISA assay at 31 weeks (p < 0.05). Generally, higher virus-neutralizing antibody titers were observed in the feeding group at 20 and 31 weeks after vaccination. Following the feeding germanium biotite, the germanium biotite group showed increased subpopulation of CD4+ lymphocytes and MHC I+II+ cells in PBMCs at 23 week, responding to stimulation of ConA. The levels of IFN-γ (at 3 and 8 weeks), IL-1α (at 3, 11, and 23 weeks), IL-1β (at 3, 8, and 11 weeks), and IL-4 (at 8 and 11 weeks) gene expression were also significantly increased in the feeding group (p < 0.01 and p < 0.05). Feeding with germanium biotite increased the lymphocytes’ proliferative response to the stimulation of ConA and LPS at 23

  7. Reactivity of divalent germanium alkoxide complexes is in sharp contrast to the heavier tin and lead analogues.

    PubMed

    Ferro, Lorenzo; Hitchcock, Peter B; Coles, Martyn P; Fulton, J Robin

    2012-02-01

    The chemistry of β-diketiminate germanium alkoxide complexes has been examined and shown to be in sharp contrast to its heavier congeners. For instance, (BDI)GeOR (BDI = [{N(2,6-(i)Pr(2)C(6)H(3))C(Me)}(2)CH], R = (i)Pr, (s)Bu, (t)Bu) does not react with carbon dioxide to form a metal carbonate complex. Addition of aliphatic electrophiles, such as methyl iodide or methyl triflate, results in the net oxidative addition to the germanium, giving cationic tetravalent germanium complexes, [(BDI)Ge(Me)OR][X] (X = I, OTf). An examination of the contrasting reactivities of the alkoxide ligand and the germanium loan pair with Lewis acids yielded the unusual germanium(II)-copper(I) adduct, {μ(2)-Cu(2)I(2)}[(BDI)GeO(t)Bu](2). This complex not only displays a rare example of a divalent Ge-Cu bond, but is the first example in which a planar Cu(2)I(2) diamond core possesses a three-coordinate copper bound to another metal center. PMID:22242862

  8. Investigation of Surface Roughness of Single Point Diamond Turned Germanium Substrate by Coherence Correlation Interferometry and Image Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Shivani; Khatri, Neha; Karar, Vinod; Dhami, S. S.

    2016-09-01

    Germanium is a widely used material in the infrared range. Single crystal germanium is used as semiconductor and optical material due to its salient features like high refractive index and proper working in cryogenic conditions. Thus, germanium is an important substrate for infrared lens having many applications in thermal imaging cameras, optical telescopes and miniaturization of infrared optical elements. These applications require optical elements of excellent surface quality and high dimensional accuracy. In addition to fulfil the demands, ultraprecision machine is used to fabricate the optical components. In this work, single crystal germanium (111) mirror is fabricated by using single point diamond tool with, negative rake angle. A large number of experiments are performed to achieve the surface finish of nanometric range. The best and worst combinations of process parameters are found on the basis of surface roughness with the help of coherence correlation interferometry(CCI) measurement and image processing using Canny, Prewitt, Roberts and Sobel edge filters and histogram. These results can be used for fabrication of diffractive optical elements and aspheric lenses of germanium.

  9. Analysis of high-purity germanium dioxide by ETV-ICP-AES with preliminary concentration of trace elements.

    PubMed

    Medvedev, Nickolay S; Shaverina, Anastasiya V; Tsygankova, Alphiya R; Saprykin, Anatoly I

    2016-08-01

    The paper presents a combined technique of germanium dioxide analysis by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) with preconcentration of trace elements by distilling off matrix and electrothermal (ETV) introduction of the trace elements concentrate into the ICP. Evaluation of metrological characteristics of the developed technique of high-purity germanium dioxide analysis was performed. The limits of detection (LODs) for 25 trace elements ranged from 0.05 to 20ng/g. The accuracy of proposed technique is confirmed by "added-found" («or spiking») experiment and comparing the results of ETV-ICP-AES and ICP-AES analysis of high purity germanium dioxide samples.

  10. In situ encapsulation of germanium clusters in carbon nanofibers: high-performance anodes for lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Xiao, Ying; Wang, Xia; Liu, Bing; Cao, Minhua

    2014-10-01

    Alloyed anode materials for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) usually suffer from considerable capacity losses during charge-discharge process. Herein, in situ-grown germanium clusters are homogeneously encapsulated into porous nitrogen-doped carbon nanofibers (N-CNFs) to form Ge/N-CNFs hybrids, using a facile electrospinning method followed by thermal treatment. When used as anode in LIBs, the Ge/N-CNFs hybrids exhibit excellent lithium storage performance in terms of specific capacity, cycling stability, and rate capability. The excellent electrochemical properties can be attributed to the unique structural features: the distribution of the germanium clusters, porous carbon nanofibers, and GeN chemical bonds all contribute to alleviating the large volume changes of germanium during the discharge-charge process, while at same time the unique porous N-CNFs not only increase the contact area between the electrode and the electrolyte, but also the conductivity of the hybrid.

  11. Structural and optical properties of 200 mm germanium-on-insulator (GeOI) substrates for silicon photonics applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reboud, Vincent; Widiez, Julie; Hartmann, Jean Michel; Osvaldo Dias, Guilherme; Fowler, Daivid; Chelnokov, Alexei; Gassenq, Alban; Guilloy, Kevin; Pauc, Nicolas; Calvo, Vincent; Geiger, Richard; Zabel, T.; Faist, Jérôme; Sigg, Hans

    2015-02-01

    Integrated laser sources compatible with microelectronics represent currently one of the main challenges for silicon photonics. Using the Smart CutTM technology, we have fabricated for the first time 200 mm optical Germanium-On-Insulator (GeOI) substrates which consist of a thick layer of germanium (typically greater than 500 nm) on top of a thick buried oxide layer (around 1 µm). From this, we fabricated suspended microbridges with efficient Bragg mirror cavities. The high crystalline quality of the Ge layer should help to avoid mechanical failure when fabricating suspended membranes with amounts of tensile strain high enough to transform Ge into a direct bandgap material. Optical GeOI process feasibility has successfully been demonstrated, opening the way to waferscale fabrication of new light emitting devices based on highly-tensely strained (thanks to suspended membranes) and/or doped germanium.

  12. The MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR: An R&D project towards a tonne-scale germanium neutrinoless double-beta decay search

    SciTech Connect

    Aalseth, Craig E; Amman, M; Amsbaugh, John F; Avignone, F. T.; Back, Henning O; Barabash, A; Barbeau, Phil; Beene, Jim; Bergevin, M; Bertrand, F; Boswell, M; Brudanin, V; Bugg, William; Burritt, Tom H; Chan, Yuen-Dat; Collar, J I; Cooper, R J; Creswick, R; Detwiler, Jason A; Doe, P J; Efremenko, Yuri; Egorov, Viatcheslav; Ejiri, H; Elliott, Steven R; Ely, James H; Esterline, James H; Farach, H A; Fast, James E; Fields, N; Finnerty, P; Fujikawa, Brian; Fuller, Erin S; Gehman, Victor; Giovanetti, G K; Guiseppe, Vincente; Gusey, K; Hallin, A L; Hazama, R; Henning, Reyco; Hime, Andrew; Hoppe, Eric W; Hossbach, Todd W; Howe, M A; Johnson, R A; Keeter, K; Keillor, Martin E; Keller, C; Kephart, Jeremy D; Kidd, Mary; Kochetov, Oleg; Konovalov, S; Kouzes, Richard T; Lesko, Kevin; Leviner, L; Loach, J C; Luke, P; MacMullin, S; Marino, Michael G; Mei, Dong-Ming; Miley, Harry S; Miller, M; Mizouni, Leila K; Montoya, A; Myers, A W; Nomachi, Masaharu; Odom, Brian; Orrell, John L; Phillips, D; Poon, Alan; Prior, Gersende; Qian, J; Radford, D C; Rielage, Keith; Robertson, R G. H.; Rodriguez, Larry; Rykaczewski, Krzysztof P; Schubert, Alexis G; Shima, T; Shirchenko, M; Strain, J; Thomas, K; Thompson, Robert C; Timkin, V; Tornow, W; Van Wechel, T D; Vanyushin, I; Vetter, Kai; Warner, Ray A; Wilkerson, J; Wouters, Jan; Yakushev, E; Young, A; Yu, Chang-Hong; Yumatov, Vladimir; Zhang, C L; Zimmerman, S

    2009-12-17

    The MAJORANA collaboration is pursuing the development of the so-called MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR. The DEMONSTRATOR is intended to perform research and development towards a tonne-scale germanium-based experiment to search for the neutrinoless double-beta decay of 76Ge. The DEMONSTRATOR can also perform a competitive direct dark matter search for light WIMPs in the 1-10GeV/c2 mass range. It will consist of approximately 60 kg. of germanium detectors in an ultra-low background shield located deep underground at the Sanford Underground Laboratory in Lead, SD. The DEMONSTRATOR will also perform background and technology studies, and half of the detector mass will be enriched germanium. This talk will review the motivation, design, technology and status of the Demonstrator.

  13. Prelaunch Calibrations of the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission and Earth Observing System Morning (EOS-AM1) Spacecraft Thermistor Bolometer Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Robert B., III; Barkstrom, Bruce R.; Bitting, Herbert C.; Crommelynck, Dominique A. H.; Paden, Jack; Pandey, Dhirendra K.; Priestley, Kory J.; Smith, G. Louis; Thomas, Susan; Thornhill, K. Lee; Wilson, Robert S.

    1998-01-01

    The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) spacecraft scanning thermistor bolometer sensors measure earth radiances in the broadband shortwave solar (O.3 - 5.0 micron and total (0.3 to 100 microns) spectral bands as well as in the 8-12 microns water vapor window spectral band. On November 27, 1997, the launch of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) spacecraft placed the first set of CERES sensors into orbit, and 30 days later, the sensors initiated operational measurements of the earth radiance fields. In 1998, the Earth Observing System morning (EOS-AM1) spacecraft will place the second and third sensor sets into orbit. The prelaunch CERES sensors' count conversion coefficients (gains and zero-radiance offsets) were determined in vacuum ground facilities. The gains were tied radiometrically to the International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS-90). The gain determinations included the spectral properties (reflectance, transmittance, emittance, etc.) of both the sources and sensors as well as the in-field-of-view (FOV) and out-of-FOV sensor responses. The resulting prelaunch coefficients for the TRMM and EOS-AM1 sensors are presented. Inflight calibration systems and on-orbit calibration approaches are described, which are being used to determine the temporal stabilities of the sensors' gains and offsets from prelaunch calibrations through on-orbit measurements. Analyses of the TRMM prelaunch and on-orbit calibration results indicate that the sensors have retained their ties to ITS-90 at accuracy levels better than /- 0.3% between the 1995 prelaunch and 1997 on-orbit calibrations.

  14. Biological insertion of nanostructured germanium and titanium oxides into diatom biosilica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeffryes, Clayton S.

    There is significant interest in titanium oxide and germanium-silicon oxide nanocomposites for optoelectronic, photocatalytic, and solar cell applications. The ability of the marine diatom Pinnularia sp. to uptake soluble metal oxides from cell culture medium, and incorporate them into the micro- and nano-structure of their amorphous silica cell walls, called frustules, was evaluated using an engineered photobioreactor system. The effects of metal oxides on the structural and elemental properties of the frustule were also evaluated. Diatom cell cultures grown in 5 L photobioreactors were initially charged with 0.5 mM of soluble silicon, Si(OH)4, an obligate substrate required for frustule fomation. Upon exhaustion of Si(OH)4 cells were exposed to the mixed pulse-addition of soluble silicon and germanium or co-perfusion addition of soluble silicon and titanium, which were incorporated into the frustules. Metals composition of the cell culture medium, diatom biomass and purified frustules were measured, as was the local elemental composition within the frustule pores and the metal oxide crystallinity. Diatom frustules having a germanium composition of 1.6 wt % were devoid of the native intra-pore structures and possessed enhanced photoluminescence and electroluminescence when compared to frustules without Ge. Diatoms cultivated in the presence of soluble titanium incorporated amorphous titania into the frustule, which maintained native structure even when local TiO2 concentrations within the nanopores approached 60 wt. %. Titanium oxide could also be biomimetically deposited directly within the diatom nanopores by adsorbing poly-L-lysine to the diatom biosilica where it catalyzed the soluble titanium precursor Ti-BALDH into amorphous titania nanoparticles. Both biogenic and biomimetic titania could be converted to anatase titanium by thermal annealing. It was determined that nanostructured metal oxide composites can be fabricated biomimetically or in cell culture to

  15. High Purity Germanium Detectors and Angular Distribution of 2Al(p,g)28Si

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Andre

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this research was to study high purity germanium detector systems, and to calculate and compare absorption ratios of 27Al(p,g)28Si. Work with the germanium detector online array for gamma ray spectroscopy in nuclear astrophysics in the Nuclear Science Laboratory at the University of Notre Dame, also known as Georgina, including energy calibrations and work with software and hardware logic, provided the necessary background and experience with high purity germanium detectors and angular distribution of gamma rays. The knowledge taken from work with the Georgina detectors was then applied to the analysis of 27Al(p,g)28Si. Previous experimental data of 27Al(p,g)28Si was analyzed using the Ep = 1778.9 keV resonance. The data used was taken from a 2010 experiment completed in the Nuclear Science Laboratory at the University of Notre Dame using the 4MV KN particle accelerator. A 1977 paper by A. Anttila and J. Keinonen with analysis of the same reaction using the Ep = 992 keV resonance was used for the energy calibration and gamma energies. Peak fitting and background reduction of the spectra were completed using analysis software, jtek. Angular distribution ratios from a 56Co source were used for the normalization of the 27Al data. Angular dependent absorption factors were used to analyze the angular distribution of γ-rays from the 27Al beam target. With these absorption factors, relative gamma intensity measurements of 27Al(p,g)28Si were calculated.

  16. A small diameter, flexible, all attitude, self-contained germanium spectrometer. Operator`s manual

    SciTech Connect

    Bordzindki, R.L.; Lepel, E.A.; Reeves, J.H.; Kohli, R.

    1997-05-01

    The end of the Cold War has brought about tremendous changes in the nuclear complex of the Department of Energy. One of the many changes has been the shutdown or decommissioning of many facilities that performed nuclear work. One of the steps in the process of decommissioning a facility involves the decontamination or removal of drain lines or pipes that may have carried radioactive materials at one time. The removal of all these pipes and drain lines to a nuclear disposal facility could be quite costly. It was suggested by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) that a germanium spectrometer could be built that could fit through straight pipes with a diameter as small as 5.08 cm (2 inches) and pass through curved pipes with a diameter as small as 7.6 cm (3 inches) such as that of a 3-inch p-trap in a drain line. The germanium spectrometer could then be used to simultaneously determine all gamma-ray emitting radionuclides in or surrounding the pipe. By showing the absence of any gamma-ray emitting radionuclides, the pipes could then be reused in place or disposed of as non-radioactive material, thus saving significantly in disposal costs. A germanium spectrometer system has been designed by PNNL and fabricated by Princeton Gamma Tech (PGT) that consists of three segments, each 4.84 cm in diameter and about 10 cm in length. Flexible stainless steel bellows were used to connect the segments. Segment 1 is a small liquid nitrogen reservoir. The reservoir is filled with a sponge-like material which enables the detector to be used in any orientation. A Stirling cycle refrigerator is under development which can replace the liquid nitrogen reservoir to provide continuous cooling and operation.

  17. Electron stimulated desorption of cesium atoms from germanium-covered tungsten

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ageev, V. N.; Kuznetsov, Yu. A.; Madey, T. E.

    2006-05-01

    The electron stimulated desorption (ESD) yield and energy distributions for Cs atoms from cesium layers adsorbed on germanium-covered tungsten have been measured for different Ge film thicknesses, 0.25-4.75 ML (monolayer), as a function of electron energy and cesium coverage Θ. The measurements have been carried out using a time-of-flight method and surface ionization detector. In the majority of measurements Cs is adsorbed at 300 K. The appearance threshold for Cs atoms is about 30 eV, which correlates well with the Ge 3d ionization energy. As the electron energy increases the Cs atom ESD yield passes through a wide maximum at an electron energy of about 120 eV. In the Ge film thickness range from 0.5 to 2 ML, resonant Cs atom yield peaks are observed at electron energies of 50 and 80 eV that can be associated with W 5p and W 5s level excitations. As the cesium coverage increases the Cs atom yield passes through a smooth maximum at 1 ML coverage. The Cs atom ESD energy distributions are bell-shaped; they shift toward higher energies with increasing cesium coverage for thin germanium films and shift toward lower energies with increasing cesium coverage for thick germanium films. The energy distributions for ESD of Cs from a 1 ML Ge film exhibit a strong temperature dependence; at T = 160 K they consist of two bell-shaped curves: a narrow peak with a maximum at a kinetic energy of 0.35 eV and a wider peak with a maximum at a kinetic energy of 0.5 eV. The former is associated with W level excitations and the latter with a Ge 3d level excitation. These results can be interpreted in terms of the Auger stimulated desorption model.

  18. Delivery of Erbium:YAG laser radiation through side-firing germanium oxide optical fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngo, Anthony K.; Fried, Nathaniel M.

    2006-02-01

    The Erbium:YAG laser is currently being tested experimentally for endoscopic applications in urology, including more efficient laser lithotripsy and more precise incision of urethral strictures than the Holmium:YAG laser. While side-firing silica fibers are available for use with the Ho:YAG laser in urology, no such fibers exist for use with the Er:YAG laser. These applications may benefit from the availability of a side-firing, mid-infrared optical fiber capable of delivering the laser radiation at a 90-degree angle to the tissue. The objective of this study is to describe the simple construction and characterization of a side-firing germanium oxide fiber for potential use in endoscopic laser surgery. Side-firing fibers were constructed from 450-micron-core germanium oxide fibers of 1.45-m-length by polishing the distal tip at a 45-degree angle and placing a 1-cm-long protective quartz cap over the fiber tip. Er:YAG laser radiation with a wavelength of 2.94 microns, pulse duration of 300 microseconds, pulse repetition rate of 3 Hz, and pulse energies of from 5 to 550 mJ was coupled into the fibers. The fiber transmission rate and damage threshold measured 48 +/- 4 % and 149 +/- 37 mJ, respectively (n = 6 fibers). By comparison, fiber transmission through normal germanium oxide trunk fibers measured 66 +/- 3 %, with no observed damage (n = 5 fibers). Sufficient pulse energies were transmitted through the side-firing fibers for contact tissue ablation. Although these initial tests are promising, further studies will need to be conducted, focusing on assembly of more flexible, smaller diameter fibers, fiber bending transmission tests, long-term fiber reliability tests, and improvement of the fiber output spatial beam profile.

  19. Feasibility of organo-beryllium target mandrels using organo-germanium PECVD as a surrogate

    SciTech Connect

    Brusasco, R.M.; Dittrich, T.; Cook, R.C.

    1995-03-09

    Inertial Confinement Fusion capsules incorporating beryllium are becoming attractive for use in implosion experiments designed for modest energy gain. This paper explores the feasibility of chemical vapor deposition of organo-beryllium precursors to form coating materials of interest as ablators and fuel containers. Experiments were performed in a surrogate chemical system utilizing tetramethylgermane as the organometallic precursor. Coatings with up to 60 mole percent germanium were obtained. These coatings compare favorably with those previously reported in the literature and provide increasing confidence that a similar deposition process with an organo-beryllium precursor would be successful.

  20. Optical Activation of Germanium Plasmonic Antennas in the Mid-Infrared.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Marco P; Schmidt, Christian; Sakat, Emilie; Stock, Johannes; Samarelli, Antonio; Frigerio, Jacopo; Ortolani, Michele; Paul, Douglas J; Isella, Giovanni; Leitenstorfer, Alfred; Biagioni, Paolo; Brida, Daniele

    2016-07-22

    Impulsive interband excitation with femtosecond near-infrared pulses establishes a plasma response in intrinsic germanium structures fabricated on a silicon substrate. This direct approach activates the plasmonic resonance of the Ge structures and enables their use as optical antennas up to the mid-infrared spectral range. The optical switching lasts for hundreds of picoseconds until charge recombination redshifts the plasma frequency. The full behavior of the structures is modeled by the electrodynamic response established by an electron-hole plasma in a regular array of antennas. PMID:27494498

  1. Lattice dynamics and thermoelectric properties of nanocrystalline silicon-germanium alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Claudio, Tania; Stein, Niklas; Peterman, Nils; Stroppa, Daniel; Koza, Michael M.; Wiggers, Hartmut; Klobes, B.; Schierning, Gabi; Hermann, Raphael P.

    2015-10-26

    The lattice dynamics and thermoelectric properties of sintered phosphorus-doped nanostructured silicon- germanium alloys obtained by gas-phase synthesis were studied. Measurements of the density of phonon states by inelastic neutron scattering were combined with measurements of the elastic constants and the low- temperature heat capacity. A strong influence of nanostructuring and alloying on the lattice dynamics was observed. The thermoelectric transport properties of samples with different doping as well as samples sintered at different temperature were characterized between room temperature and 1000C. A peak figure of merit zT = 0:88 at 900C is observed and comparatively insensitive to the aforementioned param- eter variations.

  2. Gallium Arsenide Layers Grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy on Single Crystalline Germanium Islands on Insulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takai, Mikio; Tanigawa, Takaho; Minamisono, Tadanori; Gamo, Kenji; Namba, Susumu

    1984-05-01

    Gallium arsenide (GaAs) layers have successfully been grown by molecular beam epitaxy on single crystalline germanium (Ge) islands, recrystallized by zone melting with SiO2 capping layers, on thermally-oxidized Si-wafers. The GaAs layers, grown on the single crystalline Ge islands, show smooth surfaces without any grain-boundaries, while those, grown on the Ge islands with grain-boundaries and on the SiO2, have grain-boundaries. The GaAs layers on the single crystalline Ge islands emit photoluminescence, the intensity of which is almost comparable to that of GaAs layers on bulk Ge crystals.

  3. Thermal Conductivity Accumulation Function of Silicon-Germanium Alloy from Thermoreflectance and First-Principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parrish, Kevin; Freedman, Justin; Regner, Keith; Jain, Ankit; Malen, Jonathan; McGaughey, Alan

    Phonons are the dominant heat carriers in semiconductors. Alloying changes their properties by introducing mass disorder and altering the bonding environment. In this study, we determine the thermal conductivity accumulation functions of silicon-germanium alloys using broadband frequency-domain thermoreflectance experiments. The accumulation function describes the cumulative mean free path-dependent contributions to thermal conductivity and provides a measure for determining how alloying alters thermal conductivity compared to pure semiconductors. The experimental results are compared to calculations based in density functional theory, lattice dynamics, the virtual crystal approximation, and the Boltzmann transport equation. In both thermoreflectance and lattice dynamics we find alloying increases the proportional accumulation of long MFP phonons.

  4. Optical Activation of Germanium Plasmonic Antennas in the Mid-Infrared.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Marco P; Schmidt, Christian; Sakat, Emilie; Stock, Johannes; Samarelli, Antonio; Frigerio, Jacopo; Ortolani, Michele; Paul, Douglas J; Isella, Giovanni; Leitenstorfer, Alfred; Biagioni, Paolo; Brida, Daniele

    2016-07-22

    Impulsive interband excitation with femtosecond near-infrared pulses establishes a plasma response in intrinsic germanium structures fabricated on a silicon substrate. This direct approach activates the plasmonic resonance of the Ge structures and enables their use as optical antennas up to the mid-infrared spectral range. The optical switching lasts for hundreds of picoseconds until charge recombination redshifts the plasma frequency. The full behavior of the structures is modeled by the electrodynamic response established by an electron-hole plasma in a regular array of antennas.

  5. Enhancement of electromagnetic showers initiated by ultrarelativistic electrons in aligned thick germanium crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baurichter, A.; Mikkelsen, U.; Kirsebom, K.; Medenwaldt, R.; Møller, S.; Uggerhøj, E.; Worm, T.; Elsener, K.; Ballestrero, S.; Sona, P.; Romano, J.; Biino, C.; Moore, R.; Vilakazi, Z. Z.

    1996-10-01

    The distribution of the energy deposited in thin silicon detectors placed on the downstream side of a thick germanium single crystal bombarded with a 70, 150 and 250 GeV electron beam along directions close to the <110> axis or {110} and {100} planes has been measured. The enhancement of the shower with respect to random incidence, as reflected in the higher value of the centroid of the distribution, is studied as a function of the incidence angle to the axis or plane.

  6. Enhanced shower formation in aligned thick germanium crystals and discrimination against charged hadrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baurichter, A.; Kirsebom, K.; Medewaldt, R.; Mikkelsen, U.; Møller, S.; Uggerhøj, E.; Worm, T.; Elsener, K.; Ballestrero, S.; Sona, P.; Romano, J.

    1995-11-01

    The distribution of the energy released in a thin silicon detector placed on the downstream side of a thick germanium single crystal bombarded with a 150 GeV electron or pion beam along directions close to the <110> axis or along random directions has been investigated. In view of a possible application to very high energy gamma ray astronomy and particle physics, the intrinsic capability of such a device to reject, on the basis of energy discrimination, unwanted events due to charged hadrons together with the resulting loss of efficiency for the detection of showers initiated by high energy electrons, is determined as a function of the chosen energy threshold.

  7. Effect of uniaxial stress on gallium, beryllium, and copper-doped germanium hole population inversion lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Chamberlin, D R

    1998-05-01

    The effects of stress on germanium lasers doped with single, double, and triple acceptors have been investigated. The results can be explained quantitatively with theoretical calculations and can be attributed to specific changes in the energy levels of acceptors in germanium under stress. In contrast to previous measurements, gallium-doped Ge crystals show a decrease in lasing upon uniaxial stress. The decrease seen here is attributed to the decrease in heavy hole effective mass upon application of uniaxial stress, which results in a decreased population inversion. The discrepancy between this work and previous studies can be explained with the low compensation level of the material used here. Because the amount of ionized impurity scattering in low-compensated germanium lasers is small to begin with, the reduction in scattering with uniaxial stress does not play a significant role in changing the laser operation. Beryllium-doped germanium lasers operate based on a different mechanism of population inversion. In this material it is proposed that holes can transfer between bands by giving their energy to a neutral beryllium atom, raising the hole from the ground to a bound excited state. The free hole will then return to zero energy with some probability of entering the other band. The minimum and maximum E/B ratios for lasing change with uniaxial stress because of the change in effective mass and bound excited state energy. These limits have been calculated for the case of 300 bar [100] stress, and match very well with the observed data. This adds further credence to the proposed mechanism for population inversion in this material. In contrast to Be and Ga-doped lasers, copper-doped lasers under uniaxial stress show an increase in the range of E and B where lasing is seen. To understand this change the theoretical limits for population inversion based on both the optical phonon mechanism and the neutral acceptor mechanism have been calculated. The data are

  8. Germanium-catalyzed growth of single-crystal GaN nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saleem, Umar; Wang, Hong; Peyrot, David; Olivier, Aurélien; Zhang, Jun; Coquet, Philippe; Ng, Serene Lay Geok

    2016-04-01

    We report the use of Germanium (Ge) as catalyst for Gallium Nitride (GaN) nanowires growth. High-yield growth has been achieved with Ge nanoparticles obtained by dewetting a thin layer of Ge on a Si (100) substrate. The nanowires are long and grow straight with very little curvature. The GaN nanowires are single-crystalline and show a Wurtzite structure growing along the [0001] axis. The growth follows a metal-free Vapor-Liquid-Solid (VLS) mechanism, further allowing a CMOS technology compatibility. The synthesis of nanowires has been done using an industrial Low Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition (LPCVD) system.

  9. Suppression of donor-vacancy clusters in germanium by concurrent annealing and irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, S.; Bracht, H.

    2011-01-01

    Diffusion of phosphorous and arsenic in germanium under in situ proton irradiation has been performed and analyzed with secondary ion mass spectrometry. Dopant profiles corresponding to proton-exposed regions exhibit a higher penetration depth and more pronounced box shape than profiles of nonexposed regions. Continuum theoretical simulations reveal that diffusion under irradiation is much less affected by inactive donor-vacancy clusters than diffusion under annealing only. The suppression of donor-vacancy clusters is caused by interstitials in supersaturation and vacancy concentrations close to thermal equilibrium. Concurrent annealing and irradiation have the potential to attain high active doping levels in Ge.

  10. Design and Development of Binary Diffractive Germanium Lens by Thin Film Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alshami, M.; Wabby, A.; Mousselly, M. F.

    2015-11-01

    The design and development of infrared (λ: [8]-[12] μm) binary diffractive germanium lens (BDGL) by two - steps thin film deposition (Physical vapor deposition (PVD) technique) is presented. The optical design of the required elements using the optical design code Zemax, the design of the 4 steps binary surface and its required metallic masks using the programming language Delphi, the procedures of fabrication, and the measurement of the resulting profile, were presented. The comparison between the refractive/diffractive lenses by measuring the minimum resolvable temperature difference (MRTD) shows the advantages of binary diffractive surface.

  11. Electric field effect thermoelectric transport in individual silicon and germanium/silicon nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brovman, Yuri M.; Small, Joshua P.; Hu, Yongjie; Fang, Ying; Lieber, Charles M.; Kim, Philip

    2016-06-01

    We have simultaneously measured conductance and thermoelectric power (TEP) of individual silicon and germanium/silicon core/shell nanowires in the field effect transistor device configuration. As the applied gate voltage changes, the TEP shows distinctly different behaviors while the electrical conductance exhibits the turn-off, subthreshold, and saturation regimes, respectively. At room temperature, peak TEP value of ˜300 μ V/K is observed in the subthreshold regime of the Si devices. The temperature dependence of the saturated TEP values is used to estimate the carrier doping of Si nanowires.

  12. Electronic Structure of Single-Crystal Monolayer Graphene on Hydrogen-Terminated Germanium Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Sung Joon; Lee, Jae-Hyun; Ahn, Joung Real; Whang, Dongmok

    2015-03-01

    Graphene, atomically flat 2-Dimensional layered nano material, has a lot of interesting characteristics from its unusual electronic structure. Almost properties of graphene are influenced by its crystallinity, therefore the uniform growth of single crystal graphene and layer control over the wafer scale areas remains a challenge in the fields of electronic, photonic and other devices based on graphene. Here, we report the method to make wafer scale single crystal monolayer graphene on hydrogen terminated germanium(110) surface and properties and electronic band structure of the graphene by using the tool of scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, electron transport measurement, electron diffraction and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy.

  13. Silicon-Germanium multi-quantum well photodetectors in the near infrared.

    PubMed

    Onaran, Efe; Onbasli, M Cengiz; Yesilyurt, Alper; Yu, Hyun Yong; Nayfeh, Ammar M; Okyay, Ali K

    2012-03-26

    Single crystal Silicon-Germanium multi-quantum well layers were epitaxially grown on silicon substrates. Very high quality films were achieved with high level of control utilizing recently developed MHAH epitaxial technique. MHAH growth technique facilitates the monolithic integration of photonic functionality such as modulators and photodetectors with low-cost silicon VLSI technology. Mesa structured p-i-n photodetectors were fabricated with low reverse leakage currents of ~10 mA/cm² and responsivity values exceeding 0.1 A/W. Moreover, the spectral responsivity of fabricated detectors can be tuned by applied voltage.

  14. Commensurate germanium light emitters in silicon-on-insulator photonic crystal slabs.

    PubMed

    Jannesari, R; Schatzl, M; Hackl, F; Glaser, M; Hingerl, K; Fromherz, T; Schäffler, F

    2014-10-20

    We report on the fabrication and characterization of silicon-on-insulator (SOI) photonic crystal slabs (PCS) with commensurately embedded germanium quantum dot (QD) emitters for near-infrared light emission. Substrate pre-patterning defines preferential nucleation sites for the self-assembly of Ge QDs during epitaxial growth. Aligned two-dimensional photonic crystal slabs are then etched into the SOI layer. QD ordering enhances the photoluminescence output as compared to PCSs with randomly embedded QDs. Rigorously coupled wave analysis shows that coupling of the QD emitters to leaky modes of the PCS can be tuned via their location within the unit cell of the PCS.

  15. Structural and optical properties of axial silicon-germanium nanowire heterojunctions

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, X.; Tsybeskov, L.; Kamins, T. I.; Wu, X.; Lockwood, D. J.

    2015-12-21

    Detailed studies of the structural and optical properties of axial silicon-germanium nanowire heterojunctions show that despite the 4.2% lattice mismatch between Si and Ge they can be grown without a significant density of structural defects. The lattice mismatch induced strain is partially relieved due to spontaneous SiGe intermixing at the heterointerface during growth and lateral expansion of the Ge segment of the nanowire. The mismatch in Ge and Si coefficients of thermal expansion and low thermal conductivity of Si/Ge nanowire heterojunctions are proposed to be responsible for the thermally induced stress detected under intense laser radiation in photoluminescence and Raman scattering measurements.

  16. Aluminum, gallium, germanium, copper, and phosphorus complexes of meso-triaryltetrabenzocorrole.

    PubMed

    Pomarico, Giuseppe; Nardis, Sara; Naitana, Mario L; Vicente, M Graça H; Kadish, Karl M; Chen, Ping; Prodi, Luca; Genovese, Damiano; Paolesse, Roberto

    2013-04-01

    5,10,15-Triaryltetrabenzocorrole complexes of aluminum, gallium, germanium, and phosphorus were synthesized by coordination of these metal ions in the preformed triaryltetrabenzocorrole macrocycle, opening a way to the investigation of different metal complexes. The UV-vis spectra of these derivatives exhibit a red shift and broadening of all absorption bands because of the π-extended aromatic system and distortion of the molecular framework. The electrochemical and photophysical behaviors of the free base and the metal complexes of meso-triaryltetrabenzocorrole were investigated and characterized.

  17. Germanium oxide removal by citric acid and thiol passivation from citric acid-terminated Ge(100).

    PubMed

    Collins, Gillian; Aureau, Damien; Holmes, Justin D; Etcheberry, Arnaud; O'Dwyer, Colm

    2014-12-01

    Many applications of germanium (Ge) are underpinned by effective oxide removal and surface passivation. This important surface treatment step often requires H-X (X = Cl, Br, I) or HF etchants. Here, we show that aqueous citric acid solutions are effective in the removal of GeOx. The stability of citric acid-treated Ge(100) is compared to HF and HCl treated surfaces and analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Further Ge surface passivation was investigated by thiolation using alkane monothiols and dithiols. The organic passivation layers show good stability with no oxide regrowth observed after 3 days of ambient exposure.

  18. In operandi observation of dynamic annealing: A case study of boron in germanium nanowire devices

    SciTech Connect

    Koleśnik-Gray, Maria M.; Krstić, Vojislav; Sorger, Christian; Weber, Heiko B.; Biswas, Subhajit; Holmes, Justin D.

    2015-06-08

    We report on the implantation of boron in individual, electrically contacted germanium nanowires with varying diameter and present a technique that monitors the electrical properties of a single device during implantation of ions. This method gives improved access to study the dynamic annealing ability of the nanowire at room temperature promoted by its quasi-one-dimensional confinement. Based on electrical data, we find that the dopant activation efficiency is nontrivially diameter dependent. As the diameter decreases, a transition from a pronounced dynamic-annealing to a radiation-damage dominated regime is observed.

  19. Formation and thermodynamics of gaseous germanium and tin vanadates: a mass spectrometric and quantum chemical study.

    PubMed

    Shugurov, S M; Panin, A I; Lopatin, S I; Emelyanova, K A

    2015-06-01

    The stabilities of gaseous germanium and tin vanadates were confirmed by high temperature mass spectrometry, and its structures were determined by quantum chemical calculations. A number of gas-phase reactions involving these gaseous salts were studied. On the basis of the equilibrium constants, the standard formation enthalpies of gaseous GeV2O6 (-1520 ± 42 kJ mol(-1)) and SnV2O6 (-1520 ± 43 kJ mol(-1)) were determined at a temperature of 298 K.

  20. Ultra compact 45 GHz CMOS compatible Germanium waveguide photodiode with low dark current.

    PubMed

    DeRose, Christopher T; Trotter, Douglas C; Zortman, William A; Starbuck, Andrew L; Fisher, Moz; Watts, Michael R; Davids, Paul S

    2011-12-01

    We present a compact 1.3 × 4 μm2 Germanium waveguide photodiode, integrated in a CMOS compatible silicon photonics process flow. This photodiode has a best-in-class 3 dB cutoff frequency of 45 GHz, responsivity of 0.8 A/W and dark current of 3 nA. The low intrinsic capacitance of this device may enable the elimination of transimpedance amplifiers in future optical data communication receivers, creating ultra low power consumption optical communications. PMID:22273883

  1. Nanoscale dry etching of germanium by using inductively coupled CF4 plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shim, Kyu-Hwan; Yang, Ha Yong; Kil, Yeon-Ho; Yang, Hyeon Deok; Yang, Jong-Han; Hong, Woong-Ki; Kang, Sukill; Jeong, Tae Soo; Kim, Taek Sung

    2012-08-01

    The nanoscale dry etching of germanium was investigated by using inductively coupled CF4 plasma and electron-beam lithography. The optimal dose of PMMA as E-beam lithography resist was ˜200 mC/cm2. When ICP Power was 200W, CF4 gas flow rate was 40 sccm, and process pressure was 20 mTorr, it had a smooth surface and good etch rate. The etching selectivity of Ge wafer to PMMA resist was as low as ˜1.5. Various sub-100 nm dry-etching patterns have been obtained. SEM pictures showed good profile qualities with a smooth etching sidewall and ultrasmall etching features.

  2. Erbium Doping Effects on the Conduction Band Edge in Germanium Nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect

    Meulenberg, Robert W.; Willey, Trevor M.; Lee, Jonathan R.; Terminello, Louis J.; Van Buren, T.

    2011-05-16

    We have produced erbium-doped germanium nanocrystals (NCs) using a new two cell physical vapor deposition system. Using element specific x-ray techniques (absorption and photoemission), we are able to probe the chemical environment of Er in the Ge NCs. Evidence for the optically active Er3+ state is seen at low Er concentrations, with a disruption of NC formation at high Er concentrations. The x-ray absorption measurements suggest that the Er occupies lattice sites near the surface of the NC. Analysis of the quantum confinement effect with Er doping suggests that the native quantum properties of the Ge NC are maintained at low Er concentrations.

  3. Use of high-temperature superconductors for resonators of far-infrared p-germanium lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bespalov, A. V.; Lang, P. T.; Betz, J.; Renk, K. F.

    1991-05-01

    The use of a high-temperature superconductor material for fabricating a resonator of a far-infrared solid-state laser is reported. In the experiment, the active medium consisted of a p-germanium crystal at 4.2 K in crossed electric and magnetic fields. An SrTiO3 plate was used as a highly reflecting mirror, and a YBa2Cu3O(7-delta) thin films on an MgO plate as the output coupling mirror. Highly reproducible operation of the laser is demonstrated.

  4. Suppression of donor-vacancy clusters in germanium by concurrent annealing and irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, S.; Bracht, H.

    2011-01-03

    Diffusion of phosphorous and arsenic in germanium under in situ proton irradiation has been performed and analyzed with secondary ion mass spectrometry. Dopant profiles corresponding to proton-exposed regions exhibit a higher penetration depth and more pronounced box shape than profiles of nonexposed regions. Continuum theoretical simulations reveal that diffusion under irradiation is much less affected by inactive donor-vacancy clusters than diffusion under annealing only. The suppression of donor-vacancy clusters is caused by interstitials in supersaturation and vacancy concentrations close to thermal equilibrium. Concurrent annealing and irradiation have the potential to attain high active doping levels in Ge.

  5. n-Type Doping of Germanium from Phosphine: Early Stages Resolved at the Atomic Level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scappucci, G.; Warschkow, O.; Capellini, G.; Klesse, W. M.; McKenzie, D. R.; Simmons, M. Y.

    2012-08-01

    To understand the atomistic doping process of phosphorus in germanium, we present a combined scanning tunneling microscopy, temperature programed desorption, and density functional theory study of the reactions of phosphine with the Ge(001) surface. Combining experimental and theoretical results, we demonstrate that PH2+H with a footprint of one Ge dimer is the only product of room temperature chemisorption. Further dissociation requires thermal activation. At saturation coverage, PH2+H species self-assemble into ordered patterns leading to phosphorus coverages of up to 0.5 monolayers.

  6. Final Report for Monitoring of Reactor Antineutrinos with Compact Germanium Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Orrell, John L.; Collar, J. I.

    2009-07-01

    This 2008 NCMR project has pursued measurement of the antineutrino-nucleus coherent scattering interaction using a low-energy threshold germanium gamma-ray spectrometer of roughly one-half kilogram total mass. These efforts support development of a compact system for monitoring the antineutrino emission from nuclear reactor cores. Such a monitoring system is relevant to nuclear safeguards and nuclear non-proliferation in general by adding a strong method for assuring quantitative material balance of special nuclear material in the nuclear fuel cycle used in electricity generation.

  7. Screening of the quantum-confined Stark effect in AlN/GaN nanowire superlattices by germanium doping

    SciTech Connect

    Hille, P. Müßener, J.; Becker, P.; Teubert, J.; Schörmann, J.; Eickhoff, M.; Mata, M. de la; Rosemann, N.; Chatterjee, S.; Magén, C.; Arbiol, J.

    2014-03-10

    We report on electrostatic screening of polarization-induced internal electric fields in AlN/GaN nanowire heterostructures with germanium-doped GaN nanodiscs embedded between AlN barriers. The incorporation of germanium at concentrations above 10{sup 20} cm{sup –3} shifts the photoluminescence emission energy of GaN nanodiscs to higher energies accompanied by a decrease of the photoluminescence decay time. At the same time, the thickness-dependent shift in emission energy is significantly reduced. In spite of the high donor concentration, a degradation of the photoluminescence properties is not observed.

  8. Enhanced electromagnetic showers initiated by 20-180 GeV gamma rays on aligned thick germanium crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baurichter, A.; Kirsebom, K.; Medenwaldt, R.; Mikkelsen, U.; Møller, S. P.; Uggerhøj, E.; Worm, T.; Kononets, Y. V.; Elsener, K.; Ballestrero, S.; Sona, P.; Biino, C.; Connell, S. H.; Sellschop, J. P. F.; Vilakazi, Z. Z.; Apyan, A.; Avakian, R. O.; Ispirian, K. A.; Taroian, S. P.

    1999-06-01

    The distribution of the energy released in a silicon detector placed on the downstream side of thick germanium single crystals bombarded by 20-180 GeV gamma rays along directions close to the <1 1 0> axis or along a random direction has been investigated. A large enhancement of the shower for axial incidence of the gamma rays has been found. The response of the system composed of a germanium crystal and a silicon detector to single gamma rays as a function of their energy has been deduced and compared with existing Monte Carlo simulations.

  9. Mapping the electromagnetic field confinement in the gap of germanium nanoantennas with plasma wavelength of 4.5 micrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calandrini, Eugenio; Venanzi, Tommaso; Appugliese, Felice; Badioli, Michela; Giliberti, Valeria; Baldassarre, Leonetta; Biagioni, Paolo; De Angelis, Francesco; Klesse, Wolfgang M.; Scappucci, Giordano; Ortolani, Michele

    2016-09-01

    We study plasmonic nanoantennas for molecular sensing in the mid-infrared made of heavily doped germanium, epitaxially grown with a bottom-up doping process and featuring free carrier density in excess of 1020 cm-3. The dielectric function of the 250 nm thick germanium film is determined, and bow-tie antennas are designed, fabricated, and embedded in a polymer. By using a near-field photoexpansion mapping technique at λ = 5.8 μm, we demonstrate the existence in the antenna gap of an electromagnetic energy density hotspot of diameter below 100 nm and confinement volume 105 times smaller than λ3.

  10. Room-temperature electroluminescence from germanium in an Al(0.3)Ga(0.7)As/Ge heterojunction light-emitting diode by Γ-valley transport.

    PubMed

    Cho, Seongjae; Park, Byung-Gook; Yang, Changjae; Cheung, Stanley; Yoon, Euijoon; Kamins, Theodore I; Yoo, S J Ben; Harris, James S

    2012-07-01

    Group-IV materials for monolithic integration with silicon optoelectronic systems are being extensively studied. As a part of efforts, light emission from germanium has been pursued with the objective of evolving germanium into an efficient light source for optical communication systems. In this study, we demonstrate room-temperature electroluminescence from germanium in an Al(0.3)Ga(0.7)As/Ge heterojunction light-emitting diode without any complicated manipulation for alternating material properties of germanium. Electroluminescence peaks were observed near 1550 nm and the energy around this wavelength corresponds to that emitted from direct recombination at the Γ-valley of germanium.

  11. Visible photoluminescence of the deposited germanium-oxide prepared from clusters in the gas phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negishi, Yuichi; Nagao, Satoshi; Nakamura, Yoshiaki; Nakajima, Atsushi; Kamei, Shinichi; Kaya, Koji

    2000-11-01

    Optical properties of the deposited germanium-oxide (Ge-O) prepared from the laser ablation of GeO2 were investigated. When the GenOm clusters, having the compositions mainly at n=m, were deposited onto a substrate as a precursor, strong visible photoluminescence peaked at 500 nm was observed under the excitation of 325 nm laser light. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy for the deposited Ge-O on the substrate consistently shows the substantial component of the oxidation state of Ge2+, which shows the contributions from 1:1 composition of Ge2+-O2-. Correspondingly, the electronic structures of the germanium-oxide cluster were studied by using photoelectron spectroscopy in gas phase. Our developed method of the halogen atom doping enables us to determine the highest occupied molecular orbital-the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital gap of the corresponding neutral GenOn clusters experimentally, and it was found that the gap of the GenOn (n=2-5) clusters reasonably corresponds to the energy of the visible light. These results imply that the GenOn clusters can be ascribed to the origin of the visible photoluminescence.

  12. A flexible method for depositing dense nanocrystal thin films: impaction of germanium nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect

    Holman, Zachary C.; Kortshagen, Uwe R.

    2010-07-27

    Nanomaterials are exciting candidates for use in new optical and electronic devices ranging from solar cells to gas sensors. However, to reach their full potential, nanomaterials must be deposited as dense thin films on flexible substrates using inexpensive processing technologies such as roll-to-roll printing. We report a new, flexible technique for depositing aerosolized nanocrystals that lends itself to roll-to-roll processes. Germanium nanocrystals produced in a plasma are accelerated through a slit orifice by a supersonic gas jet and are impacted onto a translated substrate. A uniform nanocrystal film is quickly deposited over large areas, and features as small as 2 µm can then be patterned using conventional lift-off photolithography. The density of a deposited film depends on the pressures upstream and downstream of the orifice, their ratio, and the distance between the orifice and the substrate. Nanocrystal film densities exceeding 50% of the density of bulk germanium are routinely achieved with several sizes of nanocrystals, approaching the theoretical limit for randomly packed spheres. A simple model is presented that shows that the calculated nanocrystal velocity upon impaction is strongly correlated with the resulting film density.

  13. Novel two-dimensional silicon and germanium allotropes: a first-principles study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gimbert, Florian; Lee, Chi-Cheng; Friedlein, Rainer; Fleurence, Antoine; Yamada-Takamura, Yukiko; Ozaki, Taisuke

    2014-03-01

    Graphene has been extensively studied but its integration into Si-based device technologies is difficult. It has been recently predicted by first-principles calculations that freestanding silicene and germanene, the counterparts of graphene made of Si and Ge atoms respectively, have graphene-like electronic structure with a low buckled structure. So far, the models predicted by first-principles calculations were not able to describe completely the experimental results. These difficulties tend to suggest a more complex phase diagram for freestanding silicene or for silicene on a substrate than the simple buckled phase. We report for the first time a novel two-dimensional silicon and germanium allotropes, with a structure similar of that of MoS2 layer. After investigating a large range of lattice constants by first-principles calculations with OpenMX code, we show that this structure is the ground state for freestanding two-dimensional silicon and germanium layers instead of the usually considered low buckled silicene and germanene.

  14. Characterization of High-purity Germanium Crystals for Rare Event Physics Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Miranda

    2012-10-01

    Germanium detectors are made with high-purity crystals grown in a hydrogen atmosphere at the University of South Dakota. Before these crystals can be effectively utilized, they need to be characterized for their purity, dislocation density and carrier mobility. These measurements will provide feedback to improve the crystal growth process. X-ray diffraction is used to determine the orientation of grown crystals and quality of crystalline structure. Dislocations occur when the crystal lattice structure of the germanium does not stay uniform throughout the layers. Dislocation density should be within a range of 100-10,000/cm^3 in order to avoid hydrogen-bonding issues. Our group has achieved acceptable dislocation densities of 3294/cm^2 and 7361/cm^2. The crystals have reached purity levels of 99.99999999999%, but remaining unintentional impurities need to be identified to verify their nature and source. We used Photothermal Ionization Spectroscopy to determine shallow level impurities. These results are incorporated with the Van Der Pauw Hall Effect measurement, which is used to determine whether the crystal is n-type or p-type, as well as the carrier concentration and mobility. The dominant impurities are Al, B, and P. We show an entire calibration program in our research group.

  15. Germanium-tin interdiffusion in strained Ge/GeSn multiple-quantum-well structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wei; Dong, Yuan; Zhou, Qian; Tok, Eng Soon; Yeo, Yee-Chia

    2016-06-01

    The thermal stability and germanium-tin (Ge-Sn) interdiffusion properties were studied in epitaxial Ge/GeSn multiple-quantum-well (MQW) structure. No obvious interdiffusion was observed for annealing temperatures of 300 °C or below, while observable interdiffusion occurred for annealing temperatures of 380 °C and above. High-resolution x-ray diffraction was used to obtain the interdiffusion coefficient by analyzing the decrease rate of Ge/GeSn periodic satellite peaks. The interdiffusion coefficient is much higher, and the activation enthalpy of 1.21 eV is substantially lower in Ge/GeSn MQW structure than that previously reported in silicon-germanium (Si-Ge) systems. When the annealing temperature is increased to above 500 °C, Ge-Sn interdiffusion becomes severe. Some small pits appear on the surface, which should be related to Sn out-diffusion to the Ge cap layer, followed by Sn desorption from the top surface. This work provides insights into the Ge-Sn interdiffusion and Sn segregation behaviors in Ge/GeSn MQW structure, and the thermal budget that may be used for fabrication of devices comprising Ge/GeSn heterostructures.

  16. Theory of structure and hyperfine properties of anomalous muonium in elemental semiconductors: Diamond, silicon, and germanium

    SciTech Connect

    Sahoo, N.; Sulaiman, S. B.; Mishra, K. C.; Das, T. P.

    1989-06-15

    A number of possible models for the anomalous muonium (Mu/sup */)center in the elemental semiconductors diamond, silicon, and germanium areinvestigated in detail, both with respect to their stabilities and abilities toexplain the extensive available experimental hyperfine-interaction data, thelatter being the major focus of the present work. Using the unrestrictedHartree-Fock cluster procedure, the electronic structures and potential-energycurves associated with muon positions are obtained for the different models.The results are utilized to obtain hyperfine properties associated with themuon and its neighboring nuclei, including vibrational effects associated withthe muon. Our results show that stability considerations favor both thevacancy-associated (VA) and bond-centered (BC) models for Mu/sup */.The VA model explains all the experimentally observed features of the muonhyperfine properties and provides reasonably good quantitative agreement withexperiment. However, questions remain regarding its formation and ability toexplain level-crossing resonance (LCR) data. On the other hand, although the BCmodel appears to explain the experimental features from LCR measurements, inits present form, it seriously overestimates the strengths of the muonhyperfine interactions as compared to experiment, by more than an order ofmagnitude in some cases. Additionally, it does not explain the trend fromdiamond through germanium. On the basis of the results in this paper for the VAand BC models, the direction for future investigations for understanding thenature of the Mu/sup */ center is commented on.

  17. Exploration Of Activity Measurements And Equilibrium Checks For Sediment Dating Using Thick-Window Germanium Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Warner, Jacob A.; Gladkis, Laura G.; Timmers, Heiko; Fitzsimmons, Kathryn E.; Reynolds, Eva M.

    2011-06-01

    Activity measurements on sediment samples for trapped-charge geological dating using gamma-ray spectroscopy are an important verification of the field-site dose rate determination. Furthermore gamma-ray spectroscopy can check if the natural decay series are in secular equilibrium which is a crucial assumption in such dating. Typically the activities of leading members of the Thorium and Uranium decay series are measured, which requires Germanium detectors with thin windows and good energy resolution in order to effectively detect the associated low energy gamma-rays. Such equipment is not always readily available. The potential of conventional Germanium detectors with thick entrance window has been explored towards routine gamma-ray spectroscopy of sediment samples using higher energy gamma-rays. Alternative isotopes, such as Ac-228 and Pb-212 for the Thorium series, and Pa-234m, Ra-226 and Bi-214 for the Uranium series, have been measured in order to determine the mass-specific activity for the respective series and possibly provide a check of secular equilibrium. In addition to measurements of the K-40 activity, with the alternative approach, the activities of both decay series can be accurately determined. The secular equilibrium condition may be tested for the Thorium series. Measurement accuracy for Pa-234m is, however, not sufficient to permit also a reliable check of equilibrium for the Uranium series.

  18. Experimental investigation of size effects on the thermal conductivity of silicon-germanium alloy thin films.

    PubMed

    Cheaito, Ramez; Duda, John C; Beechem, Thomas E; Hattar, Khalid; Ihlefeld, Jon F; Medlin, Douglas L; Rodriguez, Mark A; Campion, Michael J; Piekos, Edward S; Hopkins, Patrick E

    2012-11-01

    We experimentally investigate the role of size effects and boundary scattering on the thermal conductivity of silicon-germanium alloys. The thermal conductivities of a series of epitaxially grown Si(1-x)Ge(x) thin films with varying thicknesses and compositions were measured with time-domain thermoreflectance. The resulting conductivities are found to be 3 to 5 times less than bulk values and vary strongly with film thickness. By examining these measured thermal conductivities in the context of a previously established model, it is shown that long wavelength phonons, known to be the dominant heat carriers in alloy films, are strongly scattered by the film boundaries, thereby inducing the observed reductions in heat transport. These results are then generalized to silicon-germanium systems of various thicknesses and compositions; we find that the thermal conductivities of Si(1-x)Ge(x) superlattices are ultimately limited by finite size effects and sample size rather than periodicity or alloying. This demonstrates the strong influence of sample size in alloyed nanosystems. Therefore, if a comparison is to be made between the thermal conductivities of superlattices and alloys, the total sample thicknesses of each must be considered.

  19. Experimental Investigation of Size Effects on the Thermal Conductivity of Silicon-Germanium Alloy Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheaito, Ramez; Duda, John C.; Beechem, Thomas E.; Hattar, Khalid; Ihlefeld, Jon F.; Medlin, Douglas L.; Rodriguez, Mark A.; Campion, Michael J.; Piekos, Edward S.; Hopkins, Patrick E.

    2012-11-01

    We experimentally investigate the role of size effects and boundary scattering on the thermal conductivity of silicon-germanium alloys. The thermal conductivities of a series of epitaxially grown Si1-xGex thin films with varying thicknesses and compositions were measured with time-domain thermoreflectance. The resulting conductivities are found to be 3 to 5 times less than bulk values and vary strongly with film thickness. By examining these measured thermal conductivities in the context of a previously established model, it is shown that long wavelength phonons, known to be the dominant heat carriers in alloy films, are strongly scattered by the film boundaries, thereby inducing the observed reductions in heat transport. These results are then generalized to silicon-germanium systems of various thicknesses and compositions; we find that the thermal conductivities of Si1-xGex superlattices are ultimately limited by finite size effects and sample size rather than periodicity or alloying. This demonstrates the strong influence of sample size in alloyed nanosystems. Therefore, if a comparison is to be made between the thermal conductivities of superlattices and alloys, the total sample thicknesses of each must be considered.

  20. Importance of frequency-dependent grain boundary scattering in nanocrystalline silicon and silicon-germanium thermoelectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hua, Chengyun; Minnich, Austin J.

    2014-12-01

    Nanocrystalline silicon and silicon-germanium alloys are promising thermoelectric (TE) materials that have achieved substantially improved figure of merits compared to their bulk counterparts. This enhancement is typically attributed to a reduction in lattice thermal conductivity by phonon scattering at grain boundaries. However, further improvements are difficult to achieve because grain boundary scattering is poorly understood, with recent experimental observations suggesting that the phonon transmissivity may depend on phonon frequency rather than being constant as in the commonly used gray model. Here, we examine the impact of frequency-dependent grain boundary scattering in nanocrystalline silicon and silicon-germanium alloys in a realistic 3D geometry using frequency-dependent variance-reduced Monte Carlo simulations. We find that the grain boundary may not be as effective as predicted by the gray model in scattering certain phonons, with a substantial amount of heat being carried by low frequency phonons with mean free paths longer than the grain size. Our result will help guide the design of more efficient TEs.