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Sample records for nucleaires aspects radiologiques

  1. Le syndrome des enfants battus: aspects cliniques et radiologiques

    PubMed Central

    Jlalia, Zied; Znaigui, Talel; Smida, Mahmoud

    2016-01-01

    La maltraitance physique des enfants ou le syndrome des enfants battus est responsable de plus de 75.000 décès par an en France. Ce problème de santé publique reste sous diagnostiqué en Tunisie et dans le monde. Le chemin a été laborieux pour la reconnaissance du syndrome des enfants battus dans certaines sociétés même occidentales. Nous avons voulus exposer ce problème aux praticiens afin qu'il soit mieux diagnostiqué et pris en charge. La maltraitance physique des enfants est appelée à tort syndrome de Silverman qui ne regroupe en fait que les lésions squelettiques chez ces enfants tels que les fractures. Mots clés: Fracture, maltraitance, enfant, neuro-radiologie PMID:27642408

  2. Importantes lésions radiologiques de spondylodiscite tuberculeuse pauci-symptomatique

    PubMed Central

    Andrianarimanitra, Hasina Ursèle; Rajaonarison, Narindra Lova Hasina Ny Ony; Randrianalison, Miora Lovatiana; Ahmad, Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    La spondylodiscite tuberculeuse est la localisation la plus fréquente des tuberculoses ostéo-articulaires et parmi-celle-ci l'atteinte dorsolombaire est prédominante. Les formes associées à d'autres localisations de la tuberculose restent rares chez les immuno-compétants. Les auteurs rapportent une observation d'un patient présentant des signes radiologiques majeurs d'une tuberculose multiviscérale et spondylo-discale confirmée histologiquement, avec un tableau clinique pauvre afin de discuter l'intérêt de l'imagerie dans le diagnostic de cette pathologie. PMID:25489376

  3. Profil épidemio-clinique et radiologique des atteintes ostéo-articulaires des hémophiles à Madagascar

    PubMed Central

    Narindra, Lova Hasina Rajaonarison Ny Ony; Rabemanorintsoa, Feno Hasina; Randrianantenaina, Faralahy Ravelonarivo; Rakoto, Olivat Alson Aimée; Ahmad, Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Déterminer le profil épidémio-clinique et radiologique des atteintes ostéo-articulaires des hémophiles malagasy. Méthodes Une étude prospective, descriptive portant sur 25 patients hémophiles venant de tout Madagascar a été réalisée. Des radiographies numérisées des genoux, des chevilles et des coudes en incidence de face et de profil ainsi qu'une échographie des hanches, des genoux, des chevilles et des coudes ont été réalisées chez ces patients. Le type et la sévérité de la maladie ainsi que l'aspect de la cavité articulaire, la synoviale, les noyaux épiphysaires et les surfaces articulaires ont été analysés. Résultats Soixante-huit pourcent des patients étaient hémophiles de type A et 32 % de type B. Quarante pourcent étaient classés sévères, 28 % modérés et 32 % mineurs. Les atteintes ostéo-articulaires ont été retrouvées chez 56 % des patients. Il n'existait pas de prédominance d'atteinte selon le type ni la sévérité de la maladie. Les plus jeunes étaient les plus atteints et l'articulation du genou et de la cheville étaient les plus touchées. Conclusion Les complications ostéo-articulaire de l'hémophilie sont graves et ne dépendent pas du type ni de la sévérité de l'affection. Elles touchent surtout les enfants d'âge scolaire. Le couple radiographie-échographie permet de diagnostiquer et de surveiller ces lésions. PMID:25870742

  4. Les myélopathies cervicarthrosiques: résultat clinique et radiologique de la chirurgie sur une série de 135 patients opérés au service de neurochirurgie CHU Avicenne

    PubMed Central

    Djoubairou, Ben Ousmanou; Nabil, Moussé; Karekezi, Claire; Diawara, Seylan; El Fatemi, Nizar; Gana, Rachid; El Abbadi, Najia; Maaqili, Moulay Rachid

    2014-01-01

    La myélopathie cervicarthrosique est un syndrome clinique en relation avec la diminution des dimensions du canal rachidien, la cervicarthrose est l’étiologie principale après 50 ans. L'objectif du traitement est de rétablir les dimensions du canal rachidien cervical. Le choix de la technique chirurgicale sera guidé par l'analyse des signes cliniques, imageries, pré opératoire en fonction de laquelle sera pratiquée soit la voie antérieure, postérieure, ou exceptionnellement la voie combinée. Notre étude a pour but dans un premier temps d’évaluer à long terme les résultats cliniques et radiologiques de la chirurgie ensuite répondre à cette préoccupation: La lordose cervicale pré opératoire et postopératoire sont t-elles des facteurs de bon pronostic? Nous rapportons une étude rétrospective entre 2000 et 2013 portant sur 135 patients opérés dans notre formation et remplissant les critères inclusions. La collecte des données s'est faite en s'aidant du dossier médical des patients (échelle d'Association des orthopédistes Japonais), Imagerie (Radio, TDM, IRM), mesure de l'angle de courbure rachidienne en pré et postopératoire, ceci dans le but d’évaluer à long terme les résultats clinique et radiologique de la chirurgie. Ont été inclus dans notre étude 135 patients, 82 Hommes (60%), 53 femmes (40%) avec un âge moyen de 52 ans, ayant consulté pour des motifs divers (Névralgies cervicobrachiales, lourdeur des membres, troubles génito-sphinctériens). Soixante cinq patients (48%) ont bénéficié d'un abord antérieur (dissectomie, cloward, somatotomie médiane), 64 patients (47%) ont été opérés par voie postérieure (laminectomie de 1 à 3 niveaux) et 6 patients (5%) ont bénéficié d'un abord combiné dans un délai moyen de 3 mois devant la persistance des symptômes. Le niveau cervical le plus touché était C5C6 suivie de C4C5. L’évolution globale de nos patients était favorable dans 58% des cas, stationnaire

  5. Regulatory aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, Arthur M.

    1986-07-01

    At this time, there is no US legislation that is specifically aimed at regulating the environmental release of genetically engineered organisms or their modified components, either during the research and development stage or during application. There are some statutes, administered by several federal agencies, whose language is broad enough to allow the extension of intended coverage to include certain aspects of biotechnology. The one possible exception is FIFRA, which has already brought about the registration of several natural microbial pesticides but which also has provision for requiring the registration of “strain improved” microbial pesticides. Nevertheless, there may be gaps in coverage even if all pertinent statutes were to be actively applied to the control of environmental release of genetically modified substances. The decision to regulate biotechnology under TSCA was justified, in part, on the basis of its intended role as a gap-filling piece of environmental legislation. The advantage of regulating biotechnology under TSCA is that this statute, unlike others, is concerned with all media of exposure (air, water, soil, sediment, biota) that may pose health and environmental hazards. Experience may show that extending existing legislation to regulate biotechnology is a poor compromise compared to the promulgation of new legislation specifically designed for this purpose. It appears that many other countries are ultimately going to take the latter course to regulate biotechnology.

  6. Measuring Aspects of Morality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziv, Avner

    1976-01-01

    A group test measuring five aspects of morality in children is presented. The aspects are: resistance to temptation, stage of moral judgment, confession after transgression, reaction of fear or guilt, and severity of punishment for transgression. (Editor)

  7. (Collaboration with the Institut de Physique Nucleaire, Universite de Paris Sud, on use of skull melting techniques to grow ZrO/sub 2/ crystals doped with divalent ions, Orsay, France, March 2--6, 1989): Foreign trip report

    SciTech Connect

    Finch, C.B.

    1989-07-21

    The traveler collaborated with Michel Genet and others at the Institut de Physique Nucleaire to grow CaO-stabilized ZrO/sub 2/ single crystals by the skull technique. This effort was the initial state of a program to produce rare-earth-doped ZrO/sub 2/ single-crystal specimens to be used in spectroscopic studies at both IPN and ORNL. Because of a re-direction in the research priorities at the IPN and the accompanying dearth of funding for this project, this assignment was terminated with the mutual consent of the two institutions.

  8. Aspects of Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ullmann, Stephen

    1974-01-01

    Several aspects of language--code, relation of structure to meaning, creativity, capacity to influence thought--are discussed, as well as reasons for including foreign language study in school and university. (RM)

  9. Les pyélonephrites aigues de la femme enceinte: place du traitement médical et indications d'un drainage de la voie excrétrice supérieure (y'a-t-il des facteurs prédictifs cliniques, biologiques et radiologiques pour rendre le drainage licite?)

    PubMed Central

    El Bahri, Abdessamad; Janane, Abdellatif; Chafiki, Jaouad; Arnaud, Tayiri; Ghadouane, Mohammed; Ameur, Ahmed; Abbar, Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    Les pyélonéphrites aigues gravidiques (PNAg) sont fréquentes et peuvent avoir des conséquences maternelles et fœtales graves. Le but de notre étude était de déterminer les facteurs prédictifs cliniques, biologiques et radiologiques qui permettent de se limiter au traitement médical ou d'associer un drainage de la voie excrétrice supérieure dans la prise en charge des PNAg. Nous rapportons, de façon rétrospective une série de 26 cas dans les services d'Urologie et de Gynécologie de l'Hôpital Militaire d'Instruction Mohamed V de Rabat (Maroc) sur une période allant du 1er Janvier 2010 au 30 Aout 2012. Toutes les patientes avaient une PNAg symptomatique objectivée par l'ECBU et/ou l’échographie rénale. La fréquence de la pyélonéphrite aigue gravidique par rapport aux pyélonéphrites aigues en général a été de 27,95% avec une prédominance chez les primipares de 53,84%. Son pic de fréquence se situe à 73,08% pour les gestantes âgées de 19 à 37 ans ainsi qu'au troisième trimestre (77%) de la grossesse. La triade clinique fièvre, lombalgie, troubles mictionnels et l’échographie rénale sont les éléments importants du diagnostic. L'antibiothérapie probabiliste a été débuté d'emblée et adaptée en fonctions des résultats de l'examen cytobactériologique des urines. Sa durée est de trois à six semaines en fonction de l’évolution clinique. La protéine C réactive est un marqueur de progression de la maladie ou de l'efficacité thérapeutique. Les principaux facteurs prédictifs du drainage de la voie excrétrice supérieure sont: persistance de la symptomatologie clinique, du syndrome infectieux et des anomalies visibles à l’échographie rénale ainsi que l'altération de la fonction rénale. La montée de la sonde JJ est le principal traitement urologique. Le traitement médical repose sur l'antibiothérapie probabiliste qui sera adaptée Ultérieurement en fonction des résultats de l'antibiogramme. Les facteurs pr

  10. Cognitive aspects of color

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derefeldt, Gunilla A. M.; Menu, Jean-Pierre; Swartling, Tiina

    1995-04-01

    This report surveys cognitive aspects of color in terms of behavioral, neuropsychological, and neurophysiological data. Color is usually defined as psychophysical color or as perceived color. Behavioral data on categorical color perception, absolute judgement of colors, color coding, visual search, and visual awareness refer to the more cognitive aspects of color. These are of major importance in visual synthesis and spatial organization, as already shown by the Gestalt psychologists. Neuropsychological and neurophysiological findings provide evidence for an interrelation between cognitive color and spatial organization. Color also enhances planning strategies, as has been shown by studies on color and eye movements. Memory colors and the color- language connections in the brain also belong among the cognitive aspects of color.

  11. [Pulmonary Echinococcosis: Surgical Aspects].

    PubMed

    Eichhorn, M E; Hoffmann, H; Dienemann, H

    2015-10-01

    Pulmonary cystic echinococcosis is a very rare disease in Germany. It is caused by the larvae of the dog tapeworm (echinococcus granulosus). The liver is the most affected organ, followed by the lungs. Surgery remains the main therapeutic approach for pulmonary CE. Whenever possible, parenchyma-preserving lung surgery should be preferred over anatomic lung resections. To ensure best therapeutic results, surgery needs to be performed under precise consideration of important infectiological aspects and patients should be treated in specialised centres based on interdisciplinary consensus. In addition to surgical aspects, this review summarises special infectiological features of this disease, which are crucial to the surgical approach. PMID:26351761

  12. Medical Aspects of Surfing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renneker, Mark

    1987-01-01

    The medical aspects of surfing include ear and eye injuries and sprains and strains of the lower back and neck, as well as skin cancer from exposure to the sun. Treatment, rehabilitation, and prevention of these problems are discussed. Surfing is recommended as part of an exercise program for reasonably healthy people. (Author/MT)

  13. Global aspects of monsoons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murakami, T.

    1985-01-01

    Recent developments are studied in three areas of monsoon research: (1) global aspects of the monsoon onset, (2) the orographic influence of the Tibetan Plateau on the summer monsoon circulations, and (3) tropical 40 to 50 day oscillations. Reference was made only to those studies that are primarily based on FGGE Level IIIb data. A brief summary is given.

  14. Sociological Aspects of Deafness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Federation of the Deaf, Rome (Italy).

    Nine conference papers treat the sociological aspects of deafness. Included are "Individuals Being Deaf and Blind and Living with a Well Hearing Society" by A. Marx (German Federal Republic), "A Deaf Man's Experiences in a Hearing World" by A. B. Simon(U.S.A.), "Problem of Text Books and School Appliances for Vocational Education of Deaf Adults"…

  15. Aspects of Marine Ecology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Awkerman, Gary L.

    This publication is designed for use in standard science curricula to develop oceanologic manifestations of certain science topics. Included are teacher guides, student activities, and demonstrations to impart ocean science understanding, specifically, aspects of marine ecology, to high school students. The course objectives include the ability of…

  16. Behavioural aspects of terrorism.

    PubMed

    Leistedt, Samuel J

    2013-05-10

    Behavioural and social sciences are useful in collecting and analysing intelligence data, understanding terrorism, and developing strategies to combat terrorism. This article aims to examine the psychopathological concepts of terrorism and discusses the developing roles for behavioural scientists. A systematic review was conducted of studies investigating behavioural aspects of terrorism. These studies were identified by a systematic search of databases, textbooks, and a supplementary manual search of references. Several fundamental concepts were identified that continue to influence the motives and the majority of the behaviours of those who support or engage in this kind of specific violence. Regardless of the psychological aspects and new roles for psychiatrists, the behavioural sciences will continue to be called upon to assist in developing better methods to gather and analyse intelligence, to understand terrorism, and perhaps to stem the radicalisation process.

  17. Psychosocial Aspects of Obesity.

    PubMed

    Beck, Amy R

    2016-01-01

    This article is the sixth in a series of the comorbidities of childhood obesity and reviews psychosocial aspects with a focus on weight-based victimization and discrimination stemming from weight bias and stigma. Outcomes from these bullying and discriminatory experiences are pervasive and impact youth across all settings, including school. Lastly, this article provides recommendations on how to reduce bias and stigma to better serve these students in the school environment. PMID:26739931

  18. Aspects of B physics

    SciTech Connect

    Gaillard, M.K.

    1987-10-14

    Various aspects of weak decays are commented on. Probing of the standard model and of phenomena beyond the standard model are discussed, followed by a theoretical view of B mesons and some experimental observations on B mesons. The point is made that any data on B decay would be interesting in that it would provide powerful new constraints in analyses of the standard model and extensions thereof. (LEW)

  19. Ceramics with decorative aspect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voica, Cezara

    2009-08-01

    The last decades brought the development of bone china techniques used for producing the decorative articles. These products can be glazed with a transparent and thin glaze layer, even with more special (decorative) ones which gives new aesthetic aspect. The present article presents the results obtained after the studies performed for matte glazes for decorative bone china. As microcrystalization agent were used zinc oxide; the content of this oxide bring some changes of the basic glaze thus the chemical composition must be adjusted as the fluxes would present the desired properties after the heating process.

  20. Theoretical aspects of immunity.

    PubMed

    Deem, Michael W; Hejazi, Pooya

    2010-01-01

    The immune system recognizes a myriad of invading pathogens and their toxic products. It does so with a finite repertoire of antibodies and T cell receptors. We here describe theories that quantify the dynamics of the immune system. We describe how the immune system recognizes antigens by searching the large space of receptor molecules. We consider in some detail the theories that quantify the immune response to influenza and dengue fever. We review theoretical descriptions of the complementary evolution of pathogens that occurs in response to immune system pressure. Methods including bioinformatics, molecular simulation, random energy models, and quantum field theory contribute to a theoretical understanding of aspects of immunity.

  1. Diabetic patients: Psychological aspects.

    PubMed

    Adili, Fatemeh; Larijani, Bagher; Haghighatpanah, Mohammadreza

    2006-11-01

    This study was undertaken to consider the psychological aspect of diabetes with regard to improving clinical outcomes. The review was limited to literature reports on the causes, solutions, and treatments of some common psychological problems known to complicate diabetes management. A literature search was undertaken using Pub-Med, CINAHL, Proquest, Elsevier, Blackwell Synergy, Ovid, Ebsco, Rose net, and Google websites, including studies published in English journals between 1995 and 2006. Therefore about 88 articles were selected based on the inclusion criteria. In earlier studies, relatively little empirical research was found to substantiate the effect of psychological counseling in complicated diabetes. The greatest deficits were seen in areas of mental health, self-esteem parent impact, and family cohesion. There were some different factors, which influence the psychological aspect of diabetic patients, such as age, gender, place of living, familial and social support, motivation, energy, life satisfaction, and lifestyle. There are various types of solutions for coping with the psychological problems in diabetic clients. The most essential solution lies in educating the patients and healthcare providers on the subject. Before initiating each educational intervention, a thorough assessment would be crucial. Treatment plans may benefit from cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), behavior family therapy, improving family communication, problem-solving skills, and providing motivation for diabetic patients. Moreover, it seems that the close collaboration between diabetologists and psychologists would be fruitful.

  2. Regulatory aspects on nanomedicines.

    PubMed

    Sainz, Vanessa; Conniot, João; Matos, Ana I; Peres, Carina; Zupancic, Eva; Moura, Liane; Silva, Liana C; Florindo, Helena F; Gaspar, Rogério S

    2015-12-18

    Nanomedicines have been in the forefront of pharmaceutical research in the last decades, creating new challenges for research community, industry, and regulators. There is a strong demand for the fast development of scientific and technological tools to address unmet medical needs, thus improving human health care and life quality. Tremendous advances in the biomaterials and nanotechnology fields have prompted their use as promising tools to overcome important drawbacks, mostly associated to the non-specific effects of conventional therapeutic approaches. However, the wide range of application of nanomedicines demands a profound knowledge and characterization of these complex products. Their properties need to be extensively understood to avoid unpredicted effects on patients, such as potential immune reactivity. Research policy and alliances have been bringing together scientists, regulators, industry, and, more frequently in recent years, patient representatives and patient advocacy institutions. In order to successfully enhance the development of new technologies, improved strategies for research-based corporate organizations, more integrated research tools dealing with appropriate translational requirements aiming at clinical development, and proactive regulatory policies are essential in the near future. This review focuses on the most important aspects currently recognized as key factors for the regulation of nanomedicines, discussing the efforts under development by industry and regulatory agencies to promote their translation into the market. Regulatory Science aspects driving a faster and safer development of nanomedicines will be a central issue for the next years.

  3. Geometrical aspects of entanglement

    SciTech Connect

    Leinaas, Jon Magne; Myrheim, Jan; Ovrum, Eirik

    2006-07-15

    We study geometrical aspects of entanglement, with the Hilbert-Schmidt norm defining the metric on the set of density matrices. We focus first on the simplest case of two two-level systems and show that a 'relativistic' formulation leads to a complete analysis of the question of separability. Our approach is based on Schmidt decomposition of density matrices for a composite system and nonunitary transformations to a standard form. The positivity of the density matrices is crucial for the method to work. A similar approach works to some extent in higher dimensions, but is a less powerful tool. We further present a numerical method for examining separability and illustrate the method by a numerical study of bound entanglement in a composite system of two three-level systems.

  4. Aspects of Plant Intelligence

    PubMed Central

    TREWAVAS, ANTHONY

    2003-01-01

    Intelligence is not a term commonly used when plants are discussed. However, I believe that this is an omission based not on a true assessment of the ability of plants to compute complex aspects of their environment, but solely a reflection of a sessile lifestyle. This article, which is admittedly controversial, attempts to raise many issues that surround this area. To commence use of the term intelligence with regard to plant behaviour will lead to a better understanding of the complexity of plant signal transduction and the discrimination and sensitivity with which plants construct images of their environment, and raises critical questions concerning how plants compute responses at the whole‐plant level. Approaches to investigating learning and memory in plants will also be considered. PMID:12740212

  5. Aspects, Wrappers and Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Filman, Robert E.

    2003-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides information on Object Infrastructure Framework (OIF), an Aspect-Oriented Programming (AOP) system. The presentation begins with an introduction to the difficulties and requirements of distributed computing, including functional and non-functional requirements (ilities). The architecture of Distributed Object Technology includes stubs, proxies for implementation objects, and skeletons, proxies for client applications. The key OIF ideas (injecting behavior, annotated communications, thread contexts, and pragma) are discussed. OIF is an AOP mechanism; AOP is centered on: 1) Separate expression of crosscutting concerns; 2) Mechanisms to weave the separate expressions into a unified system. AOP is software engineering technology for separately expressing systematic properties while nevertheless producing running systems that embody these properties.

  6. Environmental aspects of wastewater reclamation.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sunil; Choudhary, Mahendra Pratap

    2007-07-01

    The population is increasing rapidly and the demand for water by cities, industries and agriculture has tended to grow even faster than the population. Wastewater reclamation consists of a combination of conventional and advanced treatment processes employed to return a wastewater to nearly original quality, reclaiming the water. The environmental health aspects associated with reclamation of wastewater include quality aspects and public health aspects. An attempt has been made in the present paper to describe these aspects and to suggest appropriate solutions.

  7. Applied aspects of chronoergohygiene.

    PubMed

    Gaffuri, E; Costa, G

    1986-01-01

    Chronoergohygiene defines a field of study set on optimizing the work timing compared to the desiderata of human physiology in order to improve the working conditions. Production systems follow their own laws with a timing resulting from economic, technological and natural factors; this timing could contrast with che chronological variables of the person 'involved'. Important aspects to be considered in this regard concern: a energy expense and nutrition, in relation to the mechanization and automation of the working tasks, sociocultural models, individual behaviors in eating habits; b. work performance, with particular reference to the modifications during the life-span and the rhythmic variations in the circadian period; c. toxicologic risks, considering problems of chronokinetics of the toxic agent and of 'chronoesthesia' of the body functions and apparatuses; d. work and social organization, with special reference to shift work, work pace and commuting. The research for a dynamic evaluation of the human-machine interaction in time and into forms of chronological compatibility between man and work organization should optimize industrial hygiene.

  8. Strategic Aspects of Communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagen, Edward; Hammerstein, Peter; Hess, Nicole

    Rarely do human behavioral scientists and scholars study language, music, and other forms of communication as strategies—a means to some end. Some even deny that communication is the primary function of these phenomena. Here we draw upon selections of our earlier work to briefly define the strategy concept and sketch how decision theory, developed to explain the behavior of rational actors, is applied to evolved agents. Communication can then be interpreted as a strategy that advances the "fitness interests" of such agents. When this perspective is applied to agents with conflicts of interest, deception emerges as an important aspect of communication. We briefly review costly signaling, one solution to the problem of honest communication among agents with conflicts of interest. We also explore the subversion of cooperative signals by parasites and by plants defending themselves against herbivores, and we touch on biases in human gossip. Experiments with artificial embodied and communicating agents confirm that when there are conflicts of interest among agents, deception readily evolves. Finally, we consider signaling among super-organisms and the possible implications for understanding human music and language.

  9. Psychosocial aspects of abortion

    PubMed Central

    Illsley, Raymond; Hall, Marion H.

    1976-01-01

    The literature on psychosocial aspects of abortion is confusing. Individual publications must be interpreted in the context of cultural, religious, and legal constraints obtaining in a particular society at a given time, with due attention to the status and availability of alternatives to abortion that might be chosen by a woman with an “unwanted” pregnancy. A review of the literature shows that, where careful pre- and post-abortion assessments are made, the evidence is that psychological benefit commonly results, and serious adverse emotional sequelae are rare. The outcome of refused abortion seems less satisfactory, with regrets and distress frequently occurring. Research on the administration of abortion services suggests that counselling is often of value, that distress is frequently caused by delays in deciding upon and in carrying out abortions, and by unsympathetic attitudes of service providers. The phenomenon of repeated abortion seeking should be seen in the context of the availability and cost of contraception and sterilization. The place of sterilization with abortion requires careful study. A recommendation is made for observational descriptive research on populations of women with potentially unwanted pregnancies in different cultures, with comparisons of management systems and an evaluation of their impact on service users. PMID:1085671

  10. Perceptual aspects of singing.

    PubMed

    Sundberg, J

    1994-06-01

    The relations between acoustic and perceived characteristics of vowel sounds are demonstrated with respect to timbre, loudness, pitch, and expressive time patterns. The conditions for perceiving an ensemble of sine tones as one tone or several tones are reviewed. There are two aspects of timbre of voice sounds: vowel quality and voice quality. Although vowel quality depends mainly on the frequencies of the lowest two formants. In particular, the center frequency of the so-called singer's formant seems perceptually relevant. Vocal loudness, generally assumed to correspond closely to the sound pressure level, depends rather on the amplitude balance between the lower and the higher spectrum partials. The perceived pitch corresponds to the fundamental frequency, or for vibrato tones, the mean of this frequency. In rapid passages, such as coloratura singing, special patterns are used. Pitch and duration differences are categorically perceived in music. This means that small variations in tuning or duration do not affect the musical interval and the note value perceived. Categorical perception is used extensively in music performance for the purpose of musical expression because without violating the score, the singer may sharpen or flatten and lengthen or shorten the tones, thereby creating musical expression. PMID:8061767

  11. Electrical aspects of rainout

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenkilde, C.E.

    1981-11-23

    Rainout commonly denotes the aggregate of phenomena associated with precipitation scavenging of radioactivity from a cloud of nuclear debris that is within a natural rain cloud. (In contrast, the term, washout, is applicable when the nuclear cloud is below the rain cloud and the term, fallout, commonly denotes the direct gravitational settling of contaminated solid material from a nuclear cloud.) Nuclear debris aerosols may be scavenged within natural clouds by a variety of different physical processes which may involve diffusion, convection, impaction, nucleation, phoresis, turbulence, and/or electricity among others. Processes which involve electrical aspects are scrutinized for their susceptibility to the intimate presence of the radioactive-cloud environment. This particular choice of electrical processes is not accidental. Nearly all of the listed processes were examined earlier by Williams. His rough estimates suggested that electrical effects, and to a lesser extent turbulence, could enhance the scavenging of those submicron aerosols which reside in the size-range that bridges the minimum in the scavenging rate coefficient which is commonly called the Greenfield gap. This minimum in the scavenging-rate coefficient is created by the simultaneous reduction of scavenging via diffusion and the reduction of scavenging via inertial impaction. However, Williams omitted the specific influence of a radioactive environment. This report aims to remedy this omission.

  12. Cultural aspects of suicide.

    PubMed

    Maharajh, Hari D; Abdool, Petal S

    2005-09-01

    Undefined cultural factors cannot be dismissed and significantly contribute to the worldwide incidence of death by suicide. Culture is an all embracing term and defines the relationship of an individual to his environment. This study seeks to investigate the effect of culture on suicide both regionally and internationally. Culture-bound syndrome with suicidal behaviours specific to a particular culture or geographical region are discussed. Opinions are divided as to the status of religious martyrs. The law itself is silent on many aspects of suicidal behaviour and despite decriminalization of suicide as self-murder, the latter remains on the statutes of many developing countries. The Caribbean region is of concern due to its steady rise in mean suicide rate, especially in Trinidad and Tobago where socio-cultural factors are instrumental in influencing suicidal behaviour. These include transgenerational cultural conflicts, psycho-social problems, media exposure, unemployment, social distress, religion and family structure. The methods used are attributed to accessibility and lethality. Ingestion of poisonous substances is most popular followed by hanging. The gender differences seen with regard to suicidality can also be attributed to gender related psychopathology and psychosocial differences in help-seeking behaviour. These are influenced by the cultural environment to which the individual is exposed. Culture provides coping strategies to individuals; as civilization advances many of these coping mechanisms are lost unclothing the genetic predisposition of vulnerable groups. In the management of suicidal behaviour, a system of therapeutic re-culturation is needed with an emphasis on relevant culture- based therapies.

  13. Sociological aspects of rhinoplasty.

    PubMed

    Babuccu, Orhan; Latifoğlu, Osman; Atabay, Kenan; Oral, Nursen; Coşan, Behçet

    2003-01-01

    Although the psychological aspect of the rhinoplasty operation has been a subject of interest for a long time, with the exception of a few studies, sociological factors have been almost totally ignored. In this prospective study the personality characteristics and socioeconomic backgrounds of 216 rhinoplasty patients were evaluated. Between 1994 and 2000, a questionnaire and the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) were given preoperatively to 157 females and 59 males. The MMPI was also given to age-matched people as a control. Six months after surgery, patients were called on the telephone and asked to rate their satisfaction. According to questionnaire, a great majority of the rhinoplasty patients were young, unmarried women with high education levels. In the rhinoplasty group, one or more scales of the inventory were not in the normal ranges in 45% of the patients, whereas this proportion in the control group was 28% (p < 0.01). When MMPI results are considered, female patients of this study could be described as egocentric, childish, highly active, impulsive, competitive, reactive, perfectionistic about themselves, talkative, and emotionally superficial. Male patients could be described as rigid, stubborn, over-sensitive, suspicious, perfectionistic, pessimistic, over-reactive, and having somatizations. Tension and anxiety with feelings of inferiority were found to be characteristics of the male patients. The satisfaction rate after six months was reported as 72%. There was no significant correlation between MMPI results and demographic variables, nor satisfaction rate. In conclusion, the rhinoplasty patients in our study are young people at the very beginning of their careers. It could be that their personalities and socioeconomic backgrounds combine to make aesthetic surgery rewarding enough, both socially and personally, to encourage them to follow through.

  14. Aspects of flux compactification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Tao

    In this thesis, we study three main aspects of flux compactifications: (1) classify supergravity solutions from flux compactification; (2) construct flux-deformed geometry and 4D low-energy theory to describe these flux vacua; and (3) study 4D particle phenomenology and cosmology of flux vacua. In the first part, we review G-structure, the basic tool to study supersymmetric flux solutions, and some typical solutions obtained in heterotic, type IIA and type IIB string theories. Then we present a comprehensive classification of supersymmetric vacua of M-theory compactification on 7D manifolds with general four-form fluxes. We analyze the cases where the resulting four-dimensional vacua have N = 1, 2, 3, 4 supersymmetry and the internal space allows for SU(2)-, SU(3)- or G 2-structures. In particular, we find for N = 2 supersymmetry, that the external space-time is Minkowski and the base manifold of the internal space is conformally Kahler for SU(2) structures, while for SU(3) structures the internal space has to be Einstein-Sasaki and no internal fluxes are allowed. Moreover, we provide a new vacuum with N = 1 supersymmetry and SU(3) structure, where all fluxes are non-zero and the first order differential equations are solved. In the second part, we simply review the methods used to construct one subclass of fluxed-deformed geometry or the so-called "twisted manifold", and the associated 4D effective theory describing these flux vacua. Then by employing (generalized) Scherk-Schwarz reduction, we construct the geometric twisting for Calabi-Yau manifolds of Voisin-Borcea type (K 3 x T2)/ Z2 and study the superpotential in a type IIA orientifold based on this geometry. The twists modify the direct product by fibering the K 3 over T2 while preserving the Z2 involution. As an important application, the Voisin-Borcea class contains T6/( Z2 x Z2 ), the usual setting for intersecting D6 brane model building. Past work in this context considered only those twists inherited

  15. Genetic aspects of arteriosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Goldbourt, U; Neufeld, H N

    1986-01-01

    This review discusses the genetic factors in the development of arteriosclerosis and coronary heart disease (CHD). In several studies, multivariate analysis of prospective mortality/morbidity data and angiographic findings have indicated that a family history of CHD contributed to CHD risk independently of the established risk factors. In addition, ethnic groups that differ in the prevalence and incidence of CHD also markedly differ in blood groups and protein-enzymatic markers. These or other genetic differences may affect CHD rates. Data from fraternal and identical twins, the source of some early genetic CHD findings, are reviewed. Genetic disorders of lipoprotein metabolism and transport, such as familial hypercholesterolemia, as well as other monogenic disorders are discussed. The role of apoprotein E polymorphism i other monogenic disorders are discussed. The role of apoprotein E polymorphism in determining plasma LDL variability among individuals is considered. Recombinant DNA technology, molecular cloning, and the identification of restriction fragment length polymorphisms are new tools for investigators who assess DNA polymorphism. Recent advances in that domain include: DNA polymorphisms affecting blood levels of apo A-I and A-II, association of a DNA insertion on chromosome 19 with severe premature atherosclerosis, and information concerning linkage of the genes for various apolipoproteins. In addition, the evidence for a major genetic component in diabetes mellitus and research into the genetic aspects of hypertension are reviewed. The male/female ratio in pathologically and epidemiologically assessed atherosclerosis may provide clues to the role of genetics. Early structural changes in the coronary artery intima are compatible with the ethnic and gender predilection. A key question in understanding underlying mechanisms in atherosclerosis is why coronary arteries are occluded in individuals whose other arterial systems are largely unaffected. The

  16. [Medical aspects of fasting].

    PubMed

    Gavrankapetanović, F

    1997-01-01

    Fasting (arabic-savm) was proclaimed through islam, and thus it is an obligation for Holly Prophet Muhammad s.a.v.s.-Peace be to Him-in the second year after Hijra (in 624 after Milad-born of Isa a.s.). There is a month of fasting-Ramadan-each lunar (hijra) year. So, it was 1415th fasting this year. Former Prophets have brought obligative messages on fasting to their people; so there are also certain forms of fasting with other religions i.e. with Catholics, Jews, Orthodox. These kinds of fasting above differ from muslim fasting, but they also appear obligative. All revelations have brought fasting as obligative. From medical point of view, fasting has two basical components: psychical and physical. Psychical sphere correlate closely with its fundamental ideological message. Allah dz.s. says in Quran: "... Fasting is obligative for you, as it was obligative to your precedents, as to avoid sins; during very few days (II, II, 183 & 184)." Will strength, control of passions, effort and self-discipline makes a pure faithfull person, who purify its mind and body through fasting. Thinking about The Creator is more intensive, character is more solid; and spirit and will get stronger. We will mention the hadith saying: "Essaihune humus saimun!" That means: "Travellers at the Earth are fasters (of my ummet)." The commentary of this hadith, in the Collection of 1001 hadiths (Bin bir hadis), number 485, says: "There are no travelling dervishs or monks in islam; thus there is no such a kind of relligousity in islam. In stead, it is changed by fasting and constant attending of mosque. That was proclaimed as obligation, although there were few cases of travelling in the name of relligousity, like travelling dervishs and sheichs." In this paper, the author discusses medical aspects of fasting and its positive characteristics in the respect of healthy life style and prevention of many sicks. The author mentions positive influence of fasting to certain system and organs of human

  17. Robots in Space -Psychological Aspects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sipes, Walter E.

    2006-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on the psychological aspects of developing robots to perform routine operations associated with monitoring, inspection, maintenance and repair in space is shown. The topics include: 1) Purpose; 2) Vision; 3) Current Robots in Space; 4) Ground Based Robots; 5) AERCam; 6) Rotating Bladder Robot (ROBLR); 7) DART; 8) Robonaut; 9) Full Immersion Telepresence Testbed; 10) ERA; and 11) Psychological Aspects

  18. Aspect-Oriented Design with Reusable Aspect Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kienzle, Jörg; Al Abed, Wisam; Fleurey, Franck; Jézéquel, Jean-Marc; Klein, Jacques

    The idea behind Aspect-Oriented Modeling (AOM) is to apply aspect-oriented techniques to (software) models with the aim of modularizing crosscutting concerns. This can be done within different modeling notations, at different levels of abstraction, and at different moments during the software development process. This paper demonstrates the applicability of AOM during the software design phase by presenting parts of an aspect-oriented design of a crisis management system. The design solution proposed in this paper is based on the Reusable Aspect Models (RAM) approach, which allows a modeler to express the structure and behavior of a complex system using class, state and sequence diagrams encapsulated in several aspect models. The paper describes how the model of the "create mission" functionality of the server backend can be decomposed into 23 inter-dependent aspect models. The presentation of the design is followed by a discussion on the lessons learned from the case study. Next, RAM is compared to 8 other AOM approaches according to 6 criteria: language, concern composition, asymmetric and symmetric composition, maturity, and tool support. To conclude the paper, a discussion section points out the features of RAM that specifically support reuse.

  19. Topological Aspects of Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egghe, Leo; Rousseau, Ronald

    1998-01-01

    Discusses topological aspects of theoretical information retrieval, including retrieval topology; similarity topology; pseudo-metric topology; document spaces as topological spaces; Boolean information retrieval as a subsystem of any topological system; and proofs of theorems. (LRW)

  20. International Aspects of School Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziv, Avner

    1974-01-01

    This paper is concerned with various aspects of the philosophy and training of school psychologists in several countries around the world and offers some thoughts about the possible implications of the different approaches. (Author)

  1. Administrative Aspects of Human Experimentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irvine, George W.

    1992-01-01

    The following administrative aspects of scientific experimentation with human subjects are discussed: the definition of human experimentation; the distinction between experimentation and treatment; investigator responsibility; documentation; the elements and principles of informed consent; and the administrator's role in establishing and…

  2. A Digital Solar Aspect Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albus, James S.

    1961-01-01

    The solar aspect sensor described herein performs the analog-to-digital conversion of data optically. To accomplish this, it uses a binary "Gray code" light mask to produce a digital indication, in vehicle-fixed coordinates, of the elevation and azimuth angles of incident light from the sun. This digital solar aspect sensor system, in Explorer X, provided measurements of both elevation and azimuth angles to +/- 2 degrees at a distance of over 140,000 statute miles.

  3. Gender Aspects of Human Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moussa, Ghada

    2008-01-01

    The chapter deals with the gender dimensions in human security through focusing on the relationship between gender and human security, first manifested in international declarations and conventions, and subsequently evolving in world women conferences. It aims at analysing the various gender aspects in its relation to different human security…

  4. Aspects of Spirituality in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bussing, Arndt; Foller-Mancini, Axel; Gidley, Jennifer; Heusser, Peter

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyses which aspects of spirituality are valued by adolescents, and how they are interconnected with youths' life satisfaction and "self-centeredness". The participants were 254 adolescents (11th grade) of four different high schools from west Germany. After re-validation of the 6-factorial student's version of the ASP questionnaire…

  5. Computational aspects of multibody dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, K. C.

    1989-01-01

    Computational aspects are addressed which impact the requirements for developing a next generation software system for flexible multibody dynamics simulation which include: criteria for selecting candidate formulation, pairing of formulations with appropriate solution procedures, need for concurrent algorithms to utilize computer hardware advances, and provisions for allowing open-ended yet modular analysis modules.

  6. Legal Aspects of Pupil Transportation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mawdsley, Ralph D.

    The legal aspects of pupil transportation are examined, including the liability of various factions for transportation decisions and the duty of school districts to provide adequate transportation. Discussed are court decisions dealing with such complex topics as transportation of special education students, transportation for purpose of…

  7. Behavioral Aspects of Marijuana Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulson, Patricia

    This paper examines the behavioral aspects of marijuana use. The focus of the study was to investigate the attitudes and practices toward drugs by users and non-users and the relationship of these attitudes and practices to selected psychosocial factors. A survey instrument in the form of an anonymous questionnaire was developed and administered…

  8. Legal Aspects of the Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borrull, Alexandre Lopez; Oppenheim, Charles

    2004-01-01

    Presents a literature review that covers the following topics related to legal aspects of the Web: copyright; domain names and trademarks; linking, framing, caching, and spamdexing; patents; pornography and censorship on the Internet; defamation; liability; conflict of laws and jurisdiction; legal deposit; and spam, i.e., unsolicited mails.…

  9. Pragmatic Aspects of Scalar Modifiers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawada, Osamu

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation investigates the pragmatic aspects of scalar modifiers from the standpoint of the interface between semantics and pragmatics, focusing on (i) the (non) parallelism between the truth-conditional scalar modifiers and the non-truth-conditional scalar modifiers, (ii) the compositionality and dimensionality of non-truth-conditional…

  10. Psychological Aspects of Chronic Pain

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, Rosevelt

    1983-01-01

    Since its inception in June 1979, over 500 patients have been treated at the King/Drew Pain Center in Los Angeles. Based upon the treatment and observations of this patient group, this paper describes the psychologic aspects in patients suffering from chronic abdominal pain, low back pain, phantom limb pain, chest pain, and arthritic pain. PMID:6864816

  11. Personality aspects in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Diana, R; Grosz, A; Mancini, E

    1985-12-01

    To test the claim that peculiar personality bias is detectable in multiple sclerosis (MS) we used the Szondi test to investigate the psychodynamic aspects of 110 MS patients in comparison with 200 healthy subjects. MS patients appeared to have a greater need for love in a passive form than normal people, rigid defense mechanisms, difficulty in resolving their inner conflicts either by sublimation or by internalization of satisfactory new emotional experiences, feelings of autoaggressiveness, and many symptoms of depression. Some of these aspects correlate with the severity of the disease, others seem to date back to early childhood as peculiar personality patterns. An investigation of childhood events in 110 controls confirmed that MS patients had had many more unhappy experiences in childhood than might commonly be expected. Further, the oft-reported psychiatric troubles preceding MS clinical onset suggest that at least in some MS patients there are specific gaps in personality structure dating back to early phases of their development. PMID:4086262

  12. Liposarcome dorsal: aspect clinique rare

    PubMed Central

    Agbessi, Odry; Arrob, Adil; Fiqhi, Kamal; Khalfi, Lahcen; Nassih, Mohammed; El Khatib, Karim

    2015-01-01

    Décrit la première fois par Virchow en 1860, le liposarcome est une tumeur mésenchymateuse rare. Cette rareté est relative car les liposarcomes représentent quand même 14 à 18% de l'ensemble des tumeurs malignes des parties molles et ils constituent le plus fréquent des sarcomes des parties molles. Pour la majorité des auteurs, il ne se développerait jamais sur un lipome ou une lipomatose préexistant. Nous rapportons un cas de volumineux liposarcome de la face dorsale du tronc. L'histoire de la maladie, l'aspect clinique inhabituel « de tumeur dans tumeur », l'aspect de la pièce opératoire nous fait évoquer la possibilité de la transformation maligne d'un lipome bénin préexistant. PMID:26113914

  13. Tularaemia: clinical aspects in Europe.

    PubMed

    Maurin, Max; Gyuranecz, Miklós

    2016-01-01

    Tularaemia is a zoonotic disease caused by Francisella tularensis, a Gram-negative, facultative intracellular bacterium. Typically, human and animal infections are caused by F tularensis subspecies tularensis (type A) strains mainly in Canada and USA, and F tularensis subspecies holarctica (type B) strains throughout the northern hemisphere, including Europe. In the past, the epidemiological, clinical, therapeutic, and prognostic aspects of tularaemia reported in the English medical literature were mainly those that had been reported in the USA, where the disease was first described. Tularaemia has markedly changed in the past decade, and a large number of studies have provided novel data for the disease characteristics in Europe. In this Review we aim to emphasise the specific and variable aspects of tularaemia in different European countries. In particular, two natural lifecycles of F tularensis have been described in this continent, although not fully characterised, which are associated with different modes of transmission, clinical features, and public health burdens of tularaemia.

  14. Practical aspects of corrosion fundamentals

    SciTech Connect

    Isaacs, H.S.

    1994-08-01

    Aspects important in corrosion have been introduced. They are: (a) ``Pourbaix Diagrams`` which consider thermodynamic stability of metals as a function of electrical potential and water pH; (b) the anodic interfacial reaction rates which depend on potential and accumulation of reaction products; (c) the prediction of polarization curves based on the kinetics and thermodynamics; and (d) localized corrosion models, as this form of corrosion is a major cause of corrosion failures.

  15. Legal aspects of satellite teleconferencing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, D. D.

    1971-01-01

    The application of satellite communications for teleconferencing purposes is discussed. The legal framework within which such a system or series of systems could be developed is considered. The analysis is based on: (1) satellite teleconferencing regulation, (2) the options available for such a system, (3) regulatory alternatives, and (4) ownership and management aspects. The system is designed to provide a capability for professional education, remote medical diagnosis, business conferences, and computer techniques.

  16. Precision digital solar aspect sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scherer, H. P.

    1972-01-01

    The development of a digital solar aspect sensor with a resolution of approximately 14 arc-seconds is discussed. An interpolation technique was used to generate the fine angle measurements. The sensor and its mode of operation are described. The electronic and mechanical design of the sensor were completed, and two flight units, one for the OAO 4 and the other for determining the attitude of a spinning spacecraft, are being fabricated.

  17. Extreme Low Aspect Ratio Stellarators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moroz, Paul

    1997-11-01

    Recently proposed Spherical Stellarator (SS) concept [1] includes the devices with stellarator features and low aspect ratio, A <= 3.5, which is very unusual for stellarators (typical stellarators have A ≈ 7-10 or above). Strong bootstrap current and high-β equilibria are two distinguished elements of the SS concept leading to compact, steady-state, and efficient fusion reactor. Different coil configurations advantageous for the SS have been identified and analyzed [1-6]. In this report, we will present results on novel stellarator configurations which are unusual even for the SS approach. These are the extreme-low-aspect-ratio-stellarators (ELARS), with the aspect ratio A ≈ 1. We succeeded in finding ELARS configurations with extremely compact, modular, and simple design compatible with significant rotational transform (ι ≈ 0.1 - 0.15), large plasma volume, and good particle transport characteristics. [1] P.E. Moroz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 651 (1996); [2] P.E. Moroz, Phys. Plasmas 3, 3055 (1996); [3] P.E. Moroz, D.B. Batchelor et al., Fusion Tech. 30, 1347 (1996); [4] P.E. Moroz, Stellarator News 48, 2 (1996); [5] P.E. Moroz, Plasma Phys. Reports 23, 502 (1997); [6] P.E. Moroz, Nucl. Fusion 37, No. 8 (1997). *Supported by DOE Grant No. DE-FG02-97ER54395.

  18. Aspects épidémiologiques, diagnostiques et thérapeutiques des ostéosarcomes de l'enfant au CHU Aristide le Dantec de Dakar: à propos de 16 cas

    PubMed Central

    Ndour, Oumar; Alumeti, Desire Munyali; Fall, Mbaye; Fall, Aimée Faye; Diouf, Cheikh; Ndoye, Ndeye Aby; Ngom, Gabriel; Ndoye, Mamadou

    2013-01-01

    Le but de cette étude était de décrire les aspects épidémiologiques, diagnostiques et thérapeutiques des ostéosarcomes de l'enfant. Il s'agissait d'une étude rétrospective sur dix ans qui a colligé 16 dossiers d'ostéosarcome pris en charge au service de Chirurgie Pédiatrique de l'hôpital Aristide Le Dantec de Dakar. Les paramètres étudiés étaient le niveau d'instruction et le niveau socioprofessionnel des parents, l'origine géographique, l’âge, le sexe, les antécédents particuliers, le délai de consultation, les motifs de consultation, les signes physiques, les signes radiologiques, la biologie, les modalités thérapeutiques et l’évolution. Tous les patients avaient bénéficié d'un examen anatomopathologique qui a confirmé le diagnostic d'ostéosarcome. Pour la majeure partie de nos patients (58% des cas) les parents avaient un niveau d'instruction bas. L’âge moyen était de 11ans. Une prédominance masculine était retrouvée avec un sex-ratio de 3,25:1. Le délai de consultation moyen était de 16 mois. Le principal motif de consultation était la tuméfaction (10 cas). Huit patients avaient bénéficié d'un traitement traditionnel. La taille de la tumeur était supérieure à 10cm dans 14 cas. La localisation la plus fréquente était le genou (14 cas). La radiographie standard retrouvait dans 15 cas des images d'ostéolyse. Le bilan d'extension n'avait pas retrouvé de métastases. Les options thérapeutiques étaient dominées par l'amputation seule (43,75% des cas). La survie à 2 ans était de 17%. L'ostéosarcome atteint le plus souvent le garçon après l’âge de 10 ans. Sa prise en charge au Sénégal se heurte à d’énormes difficultés liées au retard diagnostique. La solution repose essentiellement sur une collaboration pluridisciplinaire. PMID:23720705

  19. Aspects of spirituality concerning illness.

    PubMed

    van Leeuwen, René; Tiesinga, Lucas J; Jochemsen, Henk; Jochemasen, Henk; Post, Doeke

    2007-12-01

    The spiritual dimension of illness, health and care may be seen as a unique aspect in addition to the physical, mental and social dimension. This contribution describes experiences of patients, nurses and hospital chaplains in relation to the spiritual aspects of being ill. Qualitative research was performed with the design of a focus group study, consisting of 13 focus groups with a total of 67 participants. A purposive sample was used comprising patients, nurses and hospital chaplains working in oncology, cardiology and neurology in different institutions and regions in the Netherlands. The qualitative analysis consisted of open coding and the determining of topics, followed by the subsequent attachment of substantial dimensions and characteristic fragments. Data were analysed by using the computer program KWALITAN. Spirituality play various roles in patients lives during their illness. There is a wide range of topics that may have an individual effect on patients. Despite differences in emphasis, the topics play a role in different patient categories. Although the spiritual topics seem to manifest themselves more clearly in long-term care relationships, they may also play a role during brief admittance periods (such as treatment decisions). The spiritual topics that arise from this study offer caregivers a framework for signalling the spiritual needs of patients. The question is not whether spirituality is a relevant focus area in care, but how and to what degree it plays a role with individual patients. Follow up research should aim at further exploration of spiritual aspects in care, the relationship between spirituality and health and at effective training of caregivers.

  20. [Psychotherapeutic aspects in forensic evaluation].

    PubMed

    Schorsch, E

    1983-09-01

    Splitting up of psychiatry into a forensic and a psychotherapeutic branch is unjustified as far as the scope of these branches is concerned, and entails a disadvantage at the expense of the delinquents, since nobody feels he is therapeutically responsible. Therapeutic aspects in expertising are worked out, and the specific difficulties and conflicts between forensic and therapeutic problems are demonstrated. Anyone who believes that therapeutic identity cannot be reconciled with legislation concerned with culpability, suffers from the prejudice induced by a "blind spot" in his mental eye.

  1. Medical aspects of scuba diving.

    PubMed

    Suke, R

    1985-11-01

    Scuba divers may encounter dangerous levels of stress, due to increased ambient pressures and hostile environments. Divers therefore require a high level of mental and cardiorespiratory fitness. They must be informed of specific contraindications to diving. Family physicians with a basic knowledge of the medical aspects of scuba diving are in a very good position to examine and advise sports divers. Screening mainly involves an assessment of emotional stability and cardiorespiratory fitness, and an ear, nose and throat examination. Common problems suffered by scuba divers are discussed, as are temporary and permanent contraindications to diving.

  2. Nutritional aspects related to endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Halpern, Gabriela; Schor, Eduardo; Kopelman, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    This literature review analyzed the evidence on nutritional aspects related to the pathogenesis and progression of endometriosis. Diets deficient in nutrients result in changes in lipid metabolism, oxidative stress and promote epigenetic abnormalities, that may be involved in the genesis and progression of the disease. Foods rich in omega 3 with anti-inflammatory effects, supplementation with N-acetylcysteine, vitamin D and resveratrol, in addition to the increased consumption of fruits, vegetables (preferably organic) and whole grains exert a protective effect, reducing the risk of development and possible regression of disease. Dietary re-education seems to be a promising tool in the prevention and treatment of endometriosis. PMID:26841161

  3. Medical Aspects of Scuba Diving

    PubMed Central

    Suke, Ralph

    1985-01-01

    Scuba divers may encounter dangerous levels of stress, due to increased ambient pressures and hostile environments. Divers therefore require a high level of mental and cardiorespiratory fitness. They must be informed of specific contraindications to diving. Family physicians with a basic knowledge of the medical aspects of scuba diving are in a very good position to examine and advise sports divers. Screening mainly involves an assessment of emotional stability and cardiorespiratory fitness, and an ear, nose and throat examination. Common problems suffered by scuba divers are discussed, as are temporary and permanent contraindications to diving. PMID:21274131

  4. Mechanical engineering aspects of TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Citrolo, J.C.

    1983-04-01

    This paper briefly presents the principles which characterize a tokamak and discusses the mechanical aspects of TFTR, particularly the toroidal field coils and the vacuum chamber, in the context of being key components common to all tokamaks. The mechanical loads on these items as well as other design requirements are considered and the solutions to these requirements as executed in TFTR are presented. Future technological developments beyond the scope of TFTR, which are necessary to bring the tokamak concept to a full fusion-power system, are also presented. Additional methods of plasma heating, current drive, and first wall designs are examples of items in this category.

  5. Psychological aspects of endocrine disease.

    PubMed

    Sonino, N; Guidi, J; Fava, G A

    2015-03-01

    This review illustrates how an innovative psychoneuroendocrine approach to endocrine patients may improve their management. Important psychological issues pertain to all the different phases of an endocrine disorder. Before disease onset, stressful life events may play a pathogenetic role and, together with chronic stress, may contribute to a cumulative burden also called allostatic load; psychological and psychiatric symptoms are common both in the prodromal and in the active phase of illness; after cure or remission, there could be residual symptoms and impaired quality of life that deserve attention. All these aspects should be taken into consideration and introduced in current endocrine care and practice.

  6. Terminological aspects of data elements

    SciTech Connect

    Strehlow, R.A. ); Kenworthey, W.H. Jr. ); Schuldt, R.E. )

    1991-01-01

    The creation and display of data comprise a process that involves a sequence of steps requiring both semantic and systems analysis. An essential early step in this process is the choice, definition, and naming of data element concepts and is followed by the specification of other needed data element concept attributes. The attributes and the values of data element concept remain associated with them from their birth as a concept to a generic data element that serves as a template for final application. Terminology is, therefore, centrally important to the entire data creation process. Smooth mapping from natural language to a database is a critical aspect of database, and consequently, it requires terminology standardization from the outset of database work. In this paper the semantic aspects of data elements are analyzed and discussed. Seven kinds of data element concept information are considered and those that require terminological development and standardization are identified. The four terminological components of a data element are the hierarchical type of a concept, functional dependencies, schematas showing conceptual structures, and definition statements. These constitute the conventional role of terminology in database design. 12 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Investigating legal aspects of cyberbullying.

    PubMed

    Paul, Simone; Smith, Peter K; Blumberg, Herbert H

    2012-11-01

    In the UK schools are required by law to protect students from bullying; the responsibility of teachers to govern such behaviour has been extended outside the school setting to include cyberbullying. In this investigation, cyberbullying in secondary education is explored from the student perspective using a qualitative method of enquiry. Reported awareness and understanding about the legal aspects of cyberbullying are investigated; consideration is given to legislation, cybercrime, children's rights, school sanctions and safeguarding responsibilities. A total of 197 male and female students aged between 11 and 14 years old participated. Despite the availability of information on guidelines and legislation at national, local, and school level, this does not appear to have reached ground level of the individual student. There is a considerable gap between what students should know and what they report to be aware of with regard to legal aspects of cyberbullying. To address concerns of keeping up with the pace of change in cyberbullying, a collaborative approach is required with young people and adults sharing expertise.

  8. Investigating legal aspects of cyberbullying.

    PubMed

    Paul, Simone; Smith, Peter K; Blumberg, Herbert H

    2012-11-01

    In the UK schools are required by law to protect students from bullying; the responsibility of teachers to govern such behaviour has been extended outside the school setting to include cyberbullying. In this investigation, cyberbullying in secondary education is explored from the student perspective using a qualitative method of enquiry. Reported awareness and understanding about the legal aspects of cyberbullying are investigated; consideration is given to legislation, cybercrime, children's rights, school sanctions and safeguarding responsibilities. A total of 197 male and female students aged between 11 and 14 years old participated. Despite the availability of information on guidelines and legislation at national, local, and school level, this does not appear to have reached ground level of the individual student. There is a considerable gap between what students should know and what they report to be aware of with regard to legal aspects of cyberbullying. To address concerns of keeping up with the pace of change in cyberbullying, a collaborative approach is required with young people and adults sharing expertise. PMID:23079364

  9. Ergonomical aspects of anaesthetic practice

    PubMed Central

    Raghavendra Rao, RS

    2016-01-01

    Anaesthesiologist's service begins as a general physician, goes on as an investigator cum data analyser leading to the architectural planning of a forthcoming surgical event, but only after articulately convincing the subject along with his kith and kin. In the era of rapid developments in the field of medicine which includes relevant developments in anaesthetic care, an adequate work environment has to be provided to the anaesthesia team so that all anaesthetic procedures can be carried out safely and efficiently and an optimal workflow can be established in the operating room environment. Such ecological state demands an updated knowledge and ergonomics to aid him. Unfortunately, ergonomics is an area of anaesthesia that has received little attention and should be addressed through more education and training for workplace well-ness. Hence, an attempt is made to discuss few aspects on ergonomics for the interface between anaesthesiologist-machine-patient systems regarded as human-machine-system. PMID:27212716

  10. Epidemiological aspects of heart diseases

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Aimin; Tao, Ziqi; Wei, Peng; Zhao, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the leading cause of mortality worldwide. Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the main cause of mortality in heart patients following stroke, rheumatic heart disease and myocardial infarctions. Approximately 80% of individuals succumb to CVDs, due to poor living conditions in low and middle income families and malnutrition. Infectious diseases, human immunodeficiency, tuberculosis, malaria, high blood pressure or hypertension, obesity and overweight, and nutritional disorders including smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, high salt and sugar intake, as well as other factors are responsible for CVDs and CHDs in young as well as elderly individuals. The focus of the present review are recent epidemiological aspects of CVD and CHD as well as the usefulness of a Mediterranean diet for heart patients and the prevention of heart diseases. PMID:27602082

  11. Immune Aspects of Female Infertility

    PubMed Central

    Brazdova, Andrea; Senechal, Helene; Peltre, Gabriel; Poncet, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    Immune infertility, in terms of reproductive failure, has become a serious health issue involving approximately 1 out of 5 couples at reproductive age. Semen that is defined as a complex fluid containing sperm, cellular vesicles and other cells and components, could sensitize the female genital tract. The immune rejection of male semen in the female reproductive tract is explained as the failure of natural tolerance leading to local and/or systemic immune response. Present active immune mechanism may induce high levels of anti-seminal/sperm antibodies. It has already been proven that iso-immunization is associated with infertility. Comprehensive studies with regards to the identification of antibody-targets and the determination of specific antibody class contribute to the development of effective immuno-therapy and, on the other hand, potential immuno-contraception, and then of course to complex patient diagnosis. This review summarizes the aspects of female immune infertility. PMID:27123194

  12. Sensory aspects of movement disorders

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Neepa; Jankovic, Joseph; Hallett, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Movement disorders, which include disorders such as Parkinson’s disease, dystonia, Tourette’s syndrome, restless legs syndrome, and akathisia, have traditionally been considered to be disorders of impaired motor control resulting predominantly from dysfunction of the basal ganglia. This notion has been revised largely because of increasing recognition of associated behavioural, psychiatric, autonomic, and other non-motor symptoms. The sensory aspects of movement disorders include intrinsic sensory abnormalities and the effects of external sensory input on the underlying motor abnormality. The basal ganglia, cerebellum, thalamus, and their connections, coupled with altered sensory input, seem to play a key part in abnormal sensorimotor integration. However, more investigation into the phenomenology and physiological basis of sensory abnormalities, and about the role of the basal ganglia, cerebellum, and related structures in somatosensory processing, and its effect on motor control, is needed. PMID:24331796

  13. [Modern psychosomatic aspects of dermatology].

    PubMed

    Jovanović, M; Duran, V; Poljacki, M; Misić-Pavkov, G; Matović, L; Subotić, M; Golub, R

    1994-01-01

    Concerning their origin most diseases are multifactorial and that goes for skin diseases too. Emphasizing just one must not exclude further research and other aspects of etiopathogenetic mechanisms. It has been known for along time that psychological factors have a certain influence on the start, aggravation and maintenance on skin changes and that cosmetic defects of this kind disturb the psychological peace of the sick person and his capacity of establishing satisfactory social relations. Psychosomatic approach in dermatology cannot be reduced to investigation of specific etiology in the field of psyche without physical or social spheres. It unites all of them and in that way the old question what cause and what the consequence is has no importance, because there is no time or distance limit among them. They act simultaneously, holistically. PMID:7739438

  14. [Clinical aspects of witchcraft delusions].

    PubMed

    Pashkovskiĭ, V E

    2005-01-01

    To distinguish clinical variants and to specify nosologic entity of witchcraft delusions, 69 patients (10 males, aged 15-72 years) have been examined. It was found that witchcraft delusions exist in passive and active forms. In a passive form, the patient is sure that unknown (mystic) power damaged him/her; in an active form the patient, possessing a gift for unusual abilities, can influence the others (bewitches, heals, etc). Five clinical syndromes, in the structure of which the above delusions were found, namely, paranoiac-hypochondriac, hallucination-paranoid, depressive-paranoid, paraphrenic and delirious, were identified. Psychoses of schizophrenia spectrum were diagnosed in 52 patients, organic--in 8, alcoholic--in 7 and recurrent depressive disorder--in 2. Clinical significance of witchcraft delusions is closely related to its social aspect. Being combined with ideas of persecution, poisoning and damage, it results in the brutal forms of delusions defense and may be considered as an unfavorable prognostic trait.

  15. Epidemiological aspects of heart diseases

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Aimin; Tao, Ziqi; Wei, Peng; Zhao, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the leading cause of mortality worldwide. Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the main cause of mortality in heart patients following stroke, rheumatic heart disease and myocardial infarctions. Approximately 80% of individuals succumb to CVDs, due to poor living conditions in low and middle income families and malnutrition. Infectious diseases, human immunodeficiency, tuberculosis, malaria, high blood pressure or hypertension, obesity and overweight, and nutritional disorders including smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, high salt and sugar intake, as well as other factors are responsible for CVDs and CHDs in young as well as elderly individuals. The focus of the present review are recent epidemiological aspects of CVD and CHD as well as the usefulness of a Mediterranean diet for heart patients and the prevention of heart diseases.

  16. Ergonomical aspects of anaesthetic practice.

    PubMed

    Raghavendra Rao, R S

    2016-05-01

    Anaesthesiologist's service begins as a general physician, goes on as an investigator cum data analyser leading to the architectural planning of a forthcoming surgical event, but only after articulately convincing the subject along with his kith and kin. In the era of rapid developments in the field of medicine which includes relevant developments in anaesthetic care, an adequate work environment has to be provided to the anaesthesia team so that all anaesthetic procedures can be carried out safely and efficiently and an optimal workflow can be established in the operating room environment. Such ecological state demands an updated knowledge and ergonomics to aid him. Unfortunately, ergonomics is an area of anaesthesia that has received little attention and should be addressed through more education and training for workplace well-ness. Hence, an attempt is made to discuss few aspects on ergonomics for the interface between anaesthesiologist-machine-patient systems regarded as human-machine-system. PMID:27212716

  17. Psychiatric Aspects of Organ Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Kalra, G.; Desousa, A.

    2011-01-01

    Surgical transplantation of human organs from deceased as well as living donors to sick and dying patients began after the Second World War. Over the past 50 years the transplantation of human organs, tissues and cells has become a worldwide practice which has extended, and greatly enhanced the quality of hundreds of thousands of lives. The field of transplantation medicine provides an important chance for liaison between psychiatric professionals and other transplant physicians and surgeons. The discrepancy between the ever-increasing demand for organs but the decreasing supply makes it important to evaluate and prioritize individuals who are in dire need of the organ. However, this also gives rise to certain ethical questions. The following paper discusses various psychiatric aspects of organ transplantation in general. PMID:25013589

  18. Clinical aspects of cervical insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Lotgering, Frederik K

    2007-06-01

    Fetal loss is a painful experience. A history of second or early third trimester fetal loss, after painless dilatation of the cervix, prolapse or rupture of the membranes, and expulsion of a live fetus despite minimal uterine activity, is characteristic for cervical insufficiency. In such cases the risk of recurrence is high, and a policy of prophylactic cerclage may be safer than one of serial cervical length measurements followed by cerclage, tocolysis and bed rest in case of cervical shortening or dilatation. In low risk cases, however, prophylactic cerclage is not useful. There is a need for more basic knowledge of cervical ripening, objective assessment of cervical visco-elastic properties, and randomized controlled trials of technical aspects of cervical cerclage (e.g. suturing technique).

  19. Key aspects of coronal heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimchuk, James A.

    2015-04-01

    We highlight 10 key aspects of coronal heating that must be understood before we can consider the problem to be solved. (1) All coronal heating is impulsive. (2) The details of coronal heating matter. (3) The corona is filled with elemental magnetic stands. (4) The corona is densely populated with current sheets. (5) The strands must reconnect to prevent an infinite build-up of stress. (6) Nanoflares repeat with different frequencies. (7) What is the characteristic magnitude of energy release? (8) What causes the collective behaviour responsible for loops? (9) What are the onset conditions for energy release? (10) Chromospheric nanoflares are not a primary source of coronal plasma. Significant progress in solving the coronal heating problem will require coordination of approaches: observational studies, field-aligned hydrodynamic simulations, large-scale and localized three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations, and possibly also kinetic simulations. There is a unique value to each of these approaches, and the community must strive to coordinate better.

  20. Key Aspects of Coronal Heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimchuk, James A.

    2015-04-01

    We highlight ten key aspects of coronal heating that must be understood before we can consider the problem to be solved. (1) All coronal heating is impulsive. (2) The details of coronal heating matter. (3) The corona is filled with elemental magnetic stands. (4) The corona is densely populated with current sheets. (5) The strands must reconnect to prevent an infinite buildup of stress. (6) Nanoflares repeat with different frequencies. (7) What is the characteristic magnitude of energy release? (8) What causes the collective behavior responsible for loops? (9) What are the onset conditions for energy release? (10) Chromospheric nanoflares are not a primary source of coronal plasma. Significant progress in solving the coronal heating problem will require a coordination of approaches: observational studies, field-aligned hydrodynamic simulations, large-scale and localized 3D MHD simulations, and possibly also kinetic simulations. There is a unique value to each of these approaches, and the community must strive to coordinate better.

  1. Nutritional aspects of stone disease.

    PubMed

    Hess, Bernhard

    2002-12-01

    Kidney stones can form during a state of urinary supersaturation. Because urine often is supersaturated with respect to various salts, crystal formation is very common in nonstone formers and stone formers alike, and it may even be absent in kidney stone formers. Thus, uncomplicated crystalluria does not distinguish between stone formers and healthy people. Landmark clinical studies, however, have shown that under identical conditions of dietary and fluid intake, healthy controls almost exclusively excrete single calcium oxalate crystals 3 to 4 microns in diameter, whereas recurrent calcium stone formers pass larger crystals, 10 to 12 microns in diameter, often fused into polycrystalline aggregates 20 to 300 microns in diameter. Thus, those who form stones appear to be more "sensitive" to a given diet than nonstone formers. It is in these subjects that "bad dietary habits" induce nephrolithiasis, making nutritional aspects important. This article reviews the current evidence-based knowledge of the impact of nutrition on the recurrence of a kidney stone.

  2. The molecular aspects of chordoma.

    PubMed

    Gulluoglu, Sukru; Turksoy, Ozlem; Kuskucu, Aysegul; Ture, Ugur; Bayrak, Omer Faruk

    2016-04-01

    Chordomas are one of the rarest bone tumors, and they originate from remnants of embryonic notochord along the spine, more frequently at the skull base and sacrum. Although they are relatively slow growing and low grade, chordomas are highly recurrent, aggressive, locally invasive, and prone to metastasize to the lungs, bone, and the liver. Chordomas highly and generally show a dual epithelial-mesenchymal differentiation. These tumors resist chemotherapy and radiotherapy; therefore, radical surgery and high-dose radiation are the most used treatments, although there is no standard way to treat the disease. The molecular biology process behind the initiation and progression of a chordoma needs to be revealed for a better understanding of the disease and to develop more effective therapies. Efforts to discover the mysteries of these molecular aspects have delineated several molecular and genetic alterations in this tumor. Here, we review and describe the emerging insights into the molecular landscape of chordomas.

  3. Cosmological aspects of spontaneous baryogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Simone, Andrea; Kobayashi, Takeshi

    2016-08-01

    We investigate cosmological aspects of spontaneous baryogenesis driven by a scalar field, and present general constraints that are independent of the particle physics model. The relevant constraints are obtained by studying the backreaction of the produced baryons on the scalar field, the cosmological expansion history after baryogenesis, and the baryon isocurvature perturbations. We show that cosmological considerations alone provide powerful constraints, especially for the minimal scenario with a quadratic scalar potential. Intriguingly, we find that for a given inflation scale, the other parameters including the reheat temperature, decoupling temperature of the baryon violating interactions, and the mass and decay constant of the scalar are restricted to lie within ranges of at most a few orders of magnitude. We also discuss possible extensions to the minimal setup, and propose two ideas for evading constraints on isocurvature perturbations: one is to suppress the baryon isocurvature with nonquadratic scalar potentials, another is to compensate the baryon isocurvature with cold dark matter isocurvature by making the scalar survive until the present.

  4. Educational aspects of molecular simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Michael P.

    This article addresses some aspects of teaching simulation methods to undergraduates and graduate students. Simulation is increasingly a cross-disciplinary activity, which means that the students who need to learn about simulation methods may have widely differing backgrounds. Also, they may have a wide range of views on what constitutes an interesting application of simulation methods. Almost always, a successful simulation course includes an element of practical, hands-on activity: a balance always needs to be struck between treating the simulation software as a 'black box', and becoming bogged down in programming issues. With notebook computers becoming widely available, students often wish to take away the programs to run themselves, and access to raw computer power is not the limiting factor that it once was; on the other hand, the software should be portable and, if possible, free. Examples will be drawn from the author's experience in three different contexts. (1) An annual simulation summer school for graduate students, run by the UK CCP5 organization, in which practical sessions are combined with an intensive programme of lectures describing the methodology. (2) A molecular modelling module, given as part of a doctoral training centre in the Life Sciences at Warwick, for students who might not have a first degree in the physical sciences. (3) An undergraduate module in Physics at Warwick, also taken by students from other disciplines, teaching high performance computing, visualization, and scripting in the context of a physical application such as Monte Carlo simulation.

  5. [Genetic aspects of fertility disorders].

    PubMed

    Wieacker, P

    2013-12-01

    Genetic disorders of fertility can occur at the level of gonadal differentiation or function, germ cell production or function, and the genital ducts. In gonadal dysgenesis, the differentiation of testes or ovaries is impaired. Gonadal dysgenesis can be caused by chromosome aberrations or monogenetic defects in XY or XX gonadal dysgenesis. For the biosynthesis of sexual hormones, a normal development of the gonads and an intact hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis is necessary. Disorders of steroid hormone synthesis are associated with an increased or diminished production of sexual hormones. Clinical and genetic aspects of adrenogenital syndrome are discussed here. Mutations of the androgen receptor cause a spectrum of androgen insensitivity ranging from women with female external genitalia through patients with genital ambiguity to men with infertility. Disturbed spermatogenesis is heterogeneous and can be the result of chromosome aberrations such as Klinefelter syndrome or structural aberrations as translocations and microdeletions of the Y chromosome. Premature ovarian failure is characterized by amenorrhea and hypergonadotropic hypogonadism before 40 years of age. Beside nongenetic factors, premature ovarian failure can be caused by chromosome aberrations or monogenetic defects. Disorders of the genital ducts such as anomalies of the müllerian ducts in females and of the wolffian ducts in males can be associated with sterility or infertility.

  6. Emerging therapeutic aspects in oncology

    PubMed Central

    MacEwan, David J

    2013-01-01

    Cancer remains a peculiarly stubborn disease to treat. Some forms of cancer have seen tremendous advances in the effectiveness of their treatments, whereas other forms have remained resistant to pharmacological control. This lack of hope for success is in part due to the types of drugs that are used in the clinic, and the targeted biological system being based purely on cellular growth rates. However, recent drugs designed to affect specific signalling pathways or proteins have been showing much success. Thanks to the ingenuity of pharmacologists in understanding and targeting these processes, there have been real improvements in treatment. Here we are presented with some of the research into such critical systems that have to be understood, so that they can be conquered. We will also look at the challenges facing cancer pharmacologists and what the field may present to us all in the future. Linked Articles This article is part of a themed section on Emerging Therapeutic Aspects in Oncology. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2013.169.issue-8 PMID:23889318

  7. Biological aspects of gender disorders.

    PubMed

    Corsello, S M; Di Donna, V; Senes, P; Luotto, V; Ricciato, M P; Paragliola, R M; Pontecorvi, A

    2011-12-01

    The scientific community is very interested in the biological aspects of gender disorders and sexual orientation. There are different levels to define an individual's sex: chromosomal, gonadic, and phenotypic sex. Concerning the psychological sex, men and women are different by virtue of their own gender identity, which means they recognize themselves as belonging to a determinate sex. They are different also as a result of their own role identity, a set of behaviors, tendencies, and cognitive and emotional attitudes, commonly defined as "male" and "female". Transsexuality is a disorder characterized by the development of a gender identity opposed to phenotypic sex, whereas homosexuality is not a disturbance of gender identity but only of sexual attraction, expressing sexual orientation towards people of the same sex. We started from a critical review of literature on genetic and hormonal mechanisms involved in sexual differentiation. We re-examined the neuro-anatomic and functional differences between men and women, with special reference to their role in psychosexual differentiation and to their possible implication in the genesis of homosexuality and identity gender disorders. Homosexuality and transsexuality are conditions without a well defined etiology. Although the influence of educational and environmental factors in humans is undeniable, it seems that organic neurohormonal prenatal and postnatal factors might contribute in a determinant way in the development of these two conditions. This "organicistic neurohormal theory" might find support in the study of particular situations in which the human fetus is exposed to an abnormal hormonal environment in utero.

  8. [Histological aspects of posttraumatic regeneration].

    PubMed

    Truupyl'd Aiu

    1976-02-01

    A number of histological aspects (regeneration capacity, origins of regeneration, means of reparation) are discussed on the example of the reparative regeneration of the adrenal cortex. The adrenal cortex is found to possess high regeneration capacity after a traumatic injury of the organ. Realization of this capacity is dependent on general and local conditions, the character and the volume of the injury and the degree of involvment of cambial zones being of substantial significance. Among these zones are the glomerular zone and the external part of the bundle zone, whose proliferating cells are the source of the reparative regeneration of the cortical substance. The reparation of the functioning mass of the adrenal cortex is performed by the type of regenerative hypertrophy or the reparative regeneration depending on the character of the trauma. After the first type, the division of cells and their differentiation occur within the limits of the available structural elements, after the second type- of the newly formed ones. Both types are evolutionally conditioned and are definitely similar eather to postnatal growth and physiological regeneration (regenerative hypertrophy), or to the embryonic histogenesis of the definitive adrenal cortex (reparative regeneration).

  9. Technical aspects of MR perfusion.

    PubMed

    Sourbron, Steven

    2010-12-01

    The most common methods for measuring perfusion with MRI are arterial spin labelling (ASL), dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC-MRI), and T(1)-weighted dynamic contrast enhancement (DCE-MRI). This review focuses on the latter approach, which is by far the most common in the body and produces measures of capillary permeability as well. The aim is to present a concise but complete overview of the technical issues involved in DCE-MRI data acquisition and analysis. For details the reader is referred to the references. The presentation of the topic is essentially generic and focuses on technical aspects that are common to all DCE-MRI measurements. For organ-specific problems and illustrations, we refer to the other papers in this issue. In Section 1 "Theory" the basic quantities are defined, and the physical mechanisms are presented that provide a relation between the hemodynamic parameters and the DCE-MRI signal. Section 2 "Data acquisition" discusses the issues involved in the design of an optimal measurement protocol. Section 3 "Data analysis" summarizes the steps that need to be taken to determine the hemodynamic parameters from the measured data. PMID:20363574

  10. Hemodynamic aspects of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Nagata, Ken; Sato, Mika; Satoh, Yuichi; Watahiki, Yasuhito; Kondoh, Yasushi; Sugawara, Maki; Box, Georgia; Wright, David; Leung, Sumie; Yuya, Hiromichi; Shimosegawa, Eku

    2002-11-01

    Neuroradiological functional imaging techniques demonstrate the patterns of hypoperfusion and hypometabolism that are thought to be useful in the differential diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) from other dementing disorders. Besides the distribution patterns of perfusion or energy metabolism, vascular transit time (VTT), vascular reactivity (VR), and oxygen extraction fraction (OEF), which can be measured with positron emission tomography (PET), provide hemodynamic aspects of brain pathophysiology. In order to evaluate the hemodynamic features of AD, PET studies were carried out in 20 patients with probable AD and 20 patients with vascular dementia (VaD). The PET findings were not included in their diagnostic process of AD. Using oxygen-15-labeled compounds, cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO(2)), OEF, cerebral blood volume, and VTT were measured quantitatively during resting state. To evaluate VR, CBF was also measured during CO(2) inhalation. There was a significant increase in OEF in and around the parietotemporal cortices, but both VTT and VR were well preserved in patients with AD. By contrast, VR was markedly depressed and VTT was mildly prolonged in patients with VaD. Thus, from the hemodynamic point of view, the preservation of vascular reserve may be a distinct difference between AD and VaD. Furthermore, this indicates a hemodynamic integrity of the vasculature in the level of arterioles in AD.

  11. Breast Cancer 2012 - New Aspects.

    PubMed

    Kolberg, H-C; Lüftner, D; Lux, M P; Maass, N; Schütz, F; Fasching, P A; Fehm, T; Janni, W; Kümmel, S

    2012-07-01

    Treatment options as well as the characteristics for therapeutic decisions in patients with primary and advanced breast cancer are increasing in number and variety. New targeted therapies in combination with established chemotherapy schemes are broadening the spectrum, however potentially promising combinations do not always achieve a better result. New data from the field of pharmacogenomics point to prognostic and predictive factors that take not only the properties of the tumour but also inherited genetic properties of the patient into consideration. Current therapeutic decision-making is thus based on a combination of classical clinical and modern molecular biomarkers. Also health-economic aspects are more frequently being taken into consideration so that health-economic considerations may also play a part. This review is based on information from the recent annual congresses. The latest of these are the 34th San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium 2011 and the ASCO Annual Meeting 2012. Among their highlights are the clinically significant results from the CLEOPATRA, BOLERO-2, EMILIA and SWOG S0226 trials on the therapy for metastatic breast cancer as well as further state-of-the-art data on the adjuvant use of bisphosphonates within the framework of the ABCSG-12, ZO-FAST, NSABP-B34 and GAIN trials.

  12. Key aspects of coronal heating.

    PubMed

    Klimchuk, James A

    2015-05-28

    We highlight 10 key aspects of coronal heating that must be understood before we can consider the problem to be solved. (1) All coronal heating is impulsive. (2) The details of coronal heating matter. (3) The corona is filled with elemental magnetic stands. (4) The corona is densely populated with current sheets. (5) The strands must reconnect to prevent an infinite build-up of stress. (6) Nanoflares repeat with different frequencies. (7) What is the characteristic magnitude of energy release? (8) What causes the collective behaviour responsible for loops? (9) What are the onset conditions for energy release? (10) Chromospheric nanoflares are not a primary source of coronal plasma. Significant progress in solving the coronal heating problem will require coordination of approaches: observational studies, field-aligned hydrodynamic simulations, large-scale and localized three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations, and possibly also kinetic simulations. There is a unique value to each of these approaches, and the community must strive to coordinate better. PMID:25897094

  13. General aspects of metal toxicity.

    PubMed

    Kozlowski, H; Kolkowska, P; Watly, J; Krzywoszynska, K; Potocki, S

    2014-01-01

    This review is focused on the general mechanisms of metal toxicity in humans. The possible and mainly confirmed mechanisms of their action are discussed. The metals are divided into four groups due to their toxic effects. First group comprises of metal ions acting as Fenton reaction catalyst mainly iron and copper. These types of metal ions participate in generation of the reactive oxygen species. Metals such as nickel, cadmium and chromium are considered as carcinogenic agents. Aluminum, lead and tin are involved in neurotoxicity. The representative of the last group is mercury, which may be considered as a generally toxic metal. Fenton reaction is a naturally occurring process producing most active oxygen species, hydroxyl radical: Fe(2+) + He2O2 ↔ Fe(3+) + OH(-) + OH(•) It is able to oxidize most of the biomolecules including DNA, proteins, lipids etc. The effect of toxicity depends on the damage of molecules i.e. production site of the hydroxyl radical. Chromium toxicity depends critically on its oxidation state. The most hazardous seems to be Cr(6+) (chromates) which are one of the strongest inorganic carcinogenic agents. Cr(6+) species act also as oxidative agents damaging among other nucleic acids. Redox inactive Al(3+), Cd(2+) or Hg(2+) may interfere with biology of other metal ions e.g. by occupying metal binding sites in biomolecules. All these aspects will be discussed in the review. PMID:25039781

  14. [Legal aspects of ritual circumcision].

    PubMed

    Schreiber, M; Schott, G E; Rascher, W; Bender, A W

    2009-12-01

    Female circumcision (genital mutilation) is a criminal violation of human rights under German law. Even with consent of the person to be circumcised and/or her legal representative this procedure must not be carried out since a consent to female circumcision is unethical and therefore void. As much consent as there is on female circumcision the legal situation with ritual male circumcision is very unclear. In practice and unnoticed by the public male circumcision is carried out - be it for medical or ritual reasons - without deeper-going reflexions on the clearness of the medical indication or the legal situation with ritual circumcision. From the medical aspect there are big differences between female and male circumcision but also certain parallels. Various reasons, partly founded in prejudice and misinformation, make people refrain from regarding circumcision of boys also as illegal. Contrary to the prevailing opinion male circumcision also represents a bodily harm which a doctor can only carry out after a preoperative interview and with the consent of the affected person. Since ritual male circumcision does not serve the wellbeing of a child it is not possible for the parents to give their consent to the circumcision in lieu of the child. Male circumcision is only permitted if the child has given his consent and is thus only legally permitted if the child has reached an age at which he is mature enough to understand the meaning and extent of such an action which is hardly the case before he has completed his 16 (th) year.

  15. Global Aspects of Radiation Memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winicour, Jeffrey

    2015-04-01

    The gravitational radiation memory effect produces a net displacement of test particles. The proposed sources lead to E mode memory, as characterized by an even parity polarization pattern. Although odd parity, or B mode, radiation memory is mathematically possible, no physically realistic source has been identified. There is an electromagnetic counterpart to radiation memory which produces a net momentum ``kick'' of charged test particles. A global null cone treatment shows that electromagnetic E mode memory requires unbounded charges and no physically realistic source produces B mode memory. A compelling theoretical aspect of E mode gravitational radiation memory is related to the supertranslations in the Bondi-Metzner-Sachs (BMS) asymptotic symmetry group. For a stationary system, supertranslations can be eliminated and the BMS group reduced to the Poincare group, for which angular momentum is well-defined. However, for a stationary to stationary transition, the two Poincare groups obtained at early and late times differ by a supertranslation if the gravitational radiation has nonzero E mode memory. This suggests a distinctly general relativistic mechanism for angular momentum loss and presents a ripe problem for the numerical simulation of high spin black hole binaries. Supported by NSF grant PHY-1201276 to the University of Pittsburgh.

  16. Psychological aspects of peacekeeping operations

    PubMed Central

    Raju, M. S. V. K.

    2014-01-01

    Peacekeeping operations are but one aspect of the systems of peace that have evolved over the past seven decades in a world that is riven with violence of all kinds. With the end of cold war in the late eighties of the last century we have come to see much intrastate violence, in addition to usual interstate hostilities and war, arising out of religious, political, ethnic and economic differences between people. In the changed scenario peacekeeping operations have become complex politico-military-humanitarian efforts. A soldier, trained for conventional military operations, is obliged to participate in the unconventional operations of waging peace in alien lands often in volatile and violent situations and in the process he stands to get exposed to widely variable demands for adjustment that have the potential to bring to the fore many maladaptive responses. Peacekeeping operations also have the potential to offer opportunities for growth and resilience. India is a major player in peacekeeping activities for well over sixty years all over the world. It is necessary for the commanders and mental health professionals to understand the multifarious factors that impinge on the peacekeeping soldier's mind and the emerging patterns of responses thereof for effective management trained manpower and fulfillment of mission objectives PMID:25788805

  17. Key aspects of coronal heating

    PubMed Central

    Klimchuk, James A.

    2015-01-01

    We highlight 10 key aspects of coronal heating that must be understood before we can consider the problem to be solved. (1) All coronal heating is impulsive. (2) The details of coronal heating matter. (3) The corona is filled with elemental magnetic stands. (4) The corona is densely populated with current sheets. (5) The strands must reconnect to prevent an infinite build-up of stress. (6) Nanoflares repeat with different frequencies. (7) What is the characteristic magnitude of energy release? (8) What causes the collective behaviour responsible for loops? (9) What are the onset conditions for energy release? (10) Chromospheric nanoflares are not a primary source of coronal plasma. Significant progress in solving the coronal heating problem will require coordination of approaches: observational studies, field-aligned hydrodynamic simulations, large-scale and localized three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations, and possibly also kinetic simulations. There is a unique value to each of these approaches, and the community must strive to coordinate better. PMID:25897094

  18. Metabolic aspects of bacterial persisters

    PubMed Central

    Prax, Marcel; Bertram, Ralph

    2014-01-01

    Persister cells form a multi-drug tolerant subpopulation within an isogenic culture of bacteria that are genetically susceptible to antibiotics. Studies with different Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria have identified a large number of genes associated with the persister state. In contrast, the revelation of persister metabolism has only been addressed recently. We here summarize metabolic aspects of persisters, which includes an overview about the bifunctional role of selected carbohydrates as both triggers for the exit from the drug tolerant state and metabolites which persisters feed on. Also alarmones as indicators for starvation have been shown to influence persister levels via different signaling cascades involving the activation of toxin-antitoxin systems and other regulatory factors. Finally, recent data obtained by 13C-isotopolog profiling demonstrated an active amino acid anabolism in Staphylococcus aureus cultures challenged with high drug concentrations. Understanding the metabolism of persister cells poses challenges but also paves the way for the development of anti-persister compounds. PMID:25374846

  19. Aspects of fluency in writing.

    PubMed

    Uppstad, Per Henning; Solheim, Oddny Judith

    2007-03-01

    The notion of 'fluency' is most often associated with spoken-language phenomena such as stuttering. The present article investigates the relevance of considering fluency in writing. The basic argument for raising this question is empirical-it follows from a focus on difficulties in written and spoken language as manifestations of different problems which should be investigated separately on the basis of their symptoms. Key-logging instruments provide new possibilities for the study of writing. The obvious use of this new technology is to study writing as it unfolds in real time, instead of focusing only on aspects of the end product. A more sophisticated application is to exploit the key-logging instrument in order to test basic assumptions of contemporary theories of spelling. The present study is a dictation task involving words and non-words, intended to investigate spelling in nine-year-old pupils with regard to their mastery of the doubling of consonants in Norwegian. In this study, we report on differences with regard to temporal measures between a group of strong writers and a group of poor ones. On the basis of these pupils' writing behavior, the relevance of the concept of 'fluency' in writing is highlighted. The interpretation of the results questions basic assumptions of the cognitive hypothesis about spelling; the article concludes by hypothesizing a different conception of spelling.

  20. Psychological aspects of peacekeeping operations.

    PubMed

    Raju, M S V K

    2014-01-01

    Peacekeeping operations are but one aspect of the systems of peace that have evolved over the past seven decades in a world that is riven with violence of all kinds. With the end of cold war in the late eighties of the last century we have come to see much intrastate violence, in addition to usual interstate hostilities and war, arising out of religious, political, ethnic and economic differences between people. In the changed scenario peacekeeping operations have become complex politico-military-humanitarian efforts. A soldier, trained for conventional military operations, is obliged to participate in the unconventional operations of waging peace in alien lands often in volatile and violent situations and in the process he stands to get exposed to widely variable demands for adjustment that have the potential to bring to the fore many maladaptive responses. Peacekeeping operations also have the potential to offer opportunities for growth and resilience. India is a major player in peacekeeping activities for well over sixty years all over the world. It is necessary for the commanders and mental health professionals to understand the multifarious factors that impinge on the peacekeeping soldier's mind and the emerging patterns of responses thereof for effective management trained manpower and fulfillment of mission objectives. PMID:25788805

  1. Electrical Aspects of Impinging Flames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chien, Yu-Chien

    This dissertation examines the use of electric fields as one mechanism for controlling combustion as flames are partially extinguished when impinging on nearby surfaces. Electrical aspects of flames, specifically, the production of chemi-ions in hydrocarbon flames and the use of convective flows driven by these ions, have been investigated in a wide range of applications in prior work but despite this fairly comprehensive effort to study electrical aspects of combustion, relatively little research has focused on electrical phenomena near flame extinguishment, nor for flames near impingement surfaces. Electrical impinging flames have complex properties under global influences of ion-driven winds and flow field disturbances from the impingement surface. Challenges of measurements when an electric field is applied in the system have limited an understanding of changes to the flame behavior and species concentrations caused by the field. This research initially characterizes the ability of high voltage power supplies to respond on sufficiently short time scales to permit real time electrical flame actuation. The study then characterizes the influence of an electric field on the impinging flame shape, ion current and flow field of the thermal plume associated with the flame. The more significant further examinations can be separated into two parts: 1) the potential for using electric fields to control the release of carbon monoxide (CO) from surface-impinging flames, and 2) an investigation of controlling electrically the heat transfer to a plate on which the flame impinges. Carbon monoxide (CO) results from the incomplete oxidation of hydrocarbon fuels and, while CO can be desirable in some syngas processes, it is usually a dangerous emission from forest fires, gas heaters, gas stoves, or furnaces where insufficient oxygen in the core reaction does not fully oxidize the fuel to carbon dioxide and water. Determining how carbon monoxide is released and how heat transfer

  2. Psychiatric aspects of therapeutic abortion.

    PubMed

    Doane, B K; Quigley, B G

    1981-09-01

    A search of the literature on the psychiatric aspects of abortion revealed poor study design, a lack of clear criteria for decisions for or against abortion, poor definition of psychologic symptoms experienced by patients, absence of control groups in clinical studies, and indecisiveness and uncritical attitudes in writers from various disciplines. A review of the sequelae of therapeutic abortion revealed that although the data are vague, symptoms of depression were reported most frequently, whereas those of psychosis were rare. Positive emotional responses and a favourable attitude toward therapeutic abortion were often reported, although again the statistical bases for these reports were inadequate. There was a lack of evidence that the reported effects were due to having an abortion rather than to other variables.Other areas dealt with inadequately in most of the articles reviewed included analyses of symptoms and of the evidence on the duration of sequelae, descriptions of the criteria for approving abortions, investigation of the psychiatric histories of the patients, presentation of data on the effects of refusing abortion requests, systematic study of a number of epidemiologic factors, and analyses of the circumstances leading to pregnancy in patients having abortions. The evidence was found to be sparse on the effects of supportive relationships, different abortion techniques and the length of gestation on the psychologic status of patients. Little attention was paid to the consequences of psychiatric labelling of patients, or to the effect of having an abortion on factors that may influence future pregnancies.The potential roles of health care professionals appear to deserve more study, and little research seems to have been done to compare the psychologic factors associated with abortion and those associated with live birth. As well, there is little evidence that differences in abortion legislation account for significant differences in the psychologic

  3. Psychiatric aspects of Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Grover, Sandeep; Somaiya, Mansi; Kumar, Santhosh; Avasthi, Ajit

    2015-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is essentially characterized by the motor symptoms in the form of resting tremor, rigidity and bradykinesia. However, over the years it has been recognized that motor symptoms are just the “tip of the iceberg” of clinical manifestations of PD. Besides motor symptoms, PD characterized by many non-motor symptoms, which include cognitive decline, psychiatric disturbances (depression, psychosis and impulse control), sleep difficulties, autonomic failures (gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, urinary, thermoregulation) and pain syndrome. This review evaluates the various aspects of psychiatric disorders including cognitive decline and sleep disturbances in patients with PD. The prevalence rate of various psychiatric disorders is high in patients with PD. In terms of risk factors, various demographic, clinical and treatment-related variables have been shown to be associated with higher risk of development of psychiatric morbidity. Evidence also suggests that the presence of psychiatric morbidity is associated with poorer outcome. Randomized controlled trials, evaluating the various pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments for management of psychiatric morbidity in patients with PD are meager. Available evidence suggests that tricyclic antidepressants like desipramine and nortriptyline are efficacious for management of depression. Among the antipsychotics, clozapine is considered to be the best choice for management of psychosis in patients with PD. Among the various cognitive enhancers, evidence suggest efficacy of rivastigmine in management of dementia in patients with PD. To conclude, this review suggests that psychiatric morbidity is highly prevalent in patients with PD. Hence, a multidisciplinary approach must be followed to improve the overall outcome of PD. Further studies are required to evaluate the efficacy of various other measures for management of psychiatric morbidity in patients with PD. PMID:25552854

  4. New biochemical aspects of sweeteners.

    PubMed

    Mäkinen, K K

    1985-03-01

    It has been customary to explain the dentally beneficial effects of xylitol and certain other polyols in terms of microbiological effects only. The almost complete nonfermentability of xylitol in human dental plaque does contribute to the promising clinical findings that have been obtained both in human and animal trials. The nonfermentability or very low fermentability of xylitol by dental plaque leads to a number of consequential phenomena of possible significance in oral biology. The following are associated with the consumption of xylitol: a decrease in the production of lactic acid; the formation of soluble extracellular polysaccharides which make plaque less adhesive; an increase in the general nitrogen metabolism of dental plaque, this resulting in increased transamination and proteolysis with enhancement of the pool of free amino acids and the possibility of ammonia formation. When these effects are combined with the saliva-stimulating properties of xylitol (common to all sweet carbohydrates), the mechanism of the xylitol effect may be more adequately explained. A number of physicochemical facts have, however, received very little attention. They include the following: xylitol and other polyols strongly protect proteins and enzymes from denaturation; xylitol and other polyols seem to govern the precipitation reactions that occur in saliva or in saturated calcium phosphate solutions. The former reactions may play a role in carbohydrate-induced wound healing and the maintenance of the integrity of the oral defence mechanisms. The latter reactions may manifest themselves in the inhibition of spontaneous precipitation of calcium phosphate; thus these polyols may mimic the function of innate inhibitors, statherin, for example. The total explanation of the xylitol effect may thus comprise aspects that are related both to microbiology and to physical chemistry.

  5. Biotechnology patents and ethical aspects.

    PubMed

    Terragni, F

    1993-01-01

    Should we set any limits on patenting? More specifically, must we set any limits on patenting in the field of biotechnology? There should be general agreement on the exclusion of humans from patentability. The European Parliament voted unanimously on an amendment to the Community Directive regarding patenting stating that the human body and its parts are not patentable as such. Patenting of humans indeed would be against fundamental human rights; against the shared principles of freedom, autonomy, and dignity of each single human being. The same reasons apply to requests to reject the "commercialization of the human body." However, much more difficult is reaching a consensus on what are the parts of humans that should not be marketed--organs, tissues, cells, genes, smaller DNA fragments? Probably there is no consensus on where to draw the line when we deal with parts of the human body. Nevertheless, an ethical component is very strong in raising opposition to patenting human DNA. Whatever our personal view on the issue, we cannot deny that ethical aspects must be considered in granting patents on human DNA. With reference to animals, the fears raised are that the patenting of transgenic animals could amplify the instrumental use (reification) and the neglect of their sentient nonobjectual nature: patenting could motivate, instead, the tendency to consider animals as the standard of things invented and as new consumer products. Moreover, animal patenting increases production and thus brings about the great suffering of animals. In regard to plants, the ethical implications of patenting have more to do with their socioeconomic effects, in particular on Third World countries, than for the organisms involved.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. New Aspects of Plasma Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schukla, Padma K.; Stenflo, Lennart; Eliasson, Bengt

    2008-03-01

    Nonlinear collective processes in very dense plasmas / P. K. Shukla, B. Eliasson and D. Shaikh -- Quantum, spin and QED effects in plasmas / G. Brodin and M. Marklund -- Spin quantum plasmas - new aspects of collective dynamics / M. Marklund and G. Brodin -- Revised quantum electrodynamics with fundamental applications / B. Lehnert -- Quantum methodologies in beam, fluid and plasma physics / R. Fedele -- Plasma effects in cold atom physics / J. T. Mendonca ... [et al.] -- General properties of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability in different plasma configurations: the plasma foil model / F. Pegoraro and S. V. Bulanov -- The Rayleigh-Taylor instability of a plasma foil accelerated by the radiation pressure of an ultra intense laser pulse / F. Pegoraro and S. V. Bulanov -- Generation of galactic seed magnetic fields / H. Saleem -- Nonlinear dynamics of mirror waves in non-Maxwellian plasmas / O. A. Pokhotelov et al. -- Formation of mirror structures near instability threshold / E. A. Kuznetsov, T. Passot and P. L. Sulem -- Nonlinear dispersive Alfvén waves in magnetoplasmas / P. K. Shukla ... [et al.] -- Properties of drift and Alfvén waves in collisional plasmas / J. Vranjes, S. Poedts and B. P. Pandey -- Current driven acoustic perturbations in partially ionized collisional plasmas / J. Vranjes ... [et al.] -- Multifluid theory of solitons / F. Verheest -- Nonlinear wavepackets in pair-ion and electron-positron-ion plasmas / I. Kourakis et al. -- Electro-acoustic solitary waves in dusty plasmas / A. A. Mamun and P. K. Shukla -- Physics of dust in magnetic fusion devices / Z. Wang et al. -- Short wavelength ballooning mode in Tokamaks / A. Hirose and N. Joiner -- Effects of perpendicular shear superposition and hybrid ions intruduction on parallel shear driven plasma instabilities / T. Kaneko and R. Hatakeyama.

  7. Regulatory aspects of clinical xenotransplantation.

    PubMed

    Schuurman, Henk-Jan

    2015-11-01

    Xenotransplantation attracted interest from regulatory authorities, particularly after the demonstration of pig-to-human transmission of porcine endogenous retrovirus (1996). This added to the risk of a product, resulting in a Guidance of the US Food and Drug Administration (2003). This addresses the full flow chart in product manufacturing, starting with the designated pathogen-free status of the source animal; and special aspects regarding the recipient like informed consent and monitoring for infectious pathogens. Also archiving of records from the donor and recipient, as well as storage of samples is described. The European Medicines Agency issued a Guideline on xenogeneic cell therapy products (2009). Cell-based medicinal products are subject to specific regulations and directives, which apply also to xenogeneic products: the xenotransplant guidances/guidelines are an addition to these regulations. Noteworthy, acellular products like heart valves and decellularized cornea are not considered a cell therapy product, but rather a medical device with its own regulation. WHO issued relevant documents, especially about safety, and the International Xenotransplantation Association published consensus documents, a.o., addressing preclinical efficacy requirements before entering clinical trials. This manuscript presents an overview of the regulatory framework, with special focus on cell therapy products necause these are expected to reach the market first (i.e., pancreatic islets, hepatocytes and cellularized cornea); major illustrations are from the European situation. Albeit being complex, the regulation of xenotransplant products does not form a block in product development, but rather supports the introduction of efficacious and safe products to meet the medical need.

  8. ETUDE AU MICROSCOPE ELECTRONIQUE DES TRANSFORMATIONS NUCLEAIRES DE E. COLI K12 S ET K12 S (λ26) APRES IRRADIATION AUX RAYONS ULTRAVIOLETS ET AUX RAYONS X

    PubMed Central

    Ryter, Antoinette

    1960-01-01

    Nuclear transformations induced in E. coli K12S and K12S(λ26) by ultraviolet radiations and x-rays have been studied with ultrathin sections in the electron microscope. The nucleoplasm keeps its normal aspect during "fragmentation" and during "condensation" of the nucleus into the "vesicular" form. Serial sections show that the "fragmented" nucleus consists in reality of only one very tortuous vacuole. No difference either in the shape or in the fine structure of the nucleus could be observed between the lysogenic strain and the non-lysogenic strain. A high concentration of NaCl has a "condensation" effect on the fragmented nuclei and decreases the induction rate. PMID:13745076

  9. The technical aspects of computers.

    PubMed

    Richards, B

    1990-12-01

    This chapter is concerned with the technical aspects of computers. It is therefore concerned with how computers came about in the way they did, and who were the people who pioneered their development--what they were like in the early years, what they are like now, and what are likely to be the future developments. The emphasis is always on giving information to the readers so that they may know what questions to ask of the experts and, equally important, which experts to spend time with. In consequence of this last statement it becomes necessary to present a panorama showing the range of computers both size-wise and cost-wise; such scenario will therefore cover the vista from large main-frames (which must inevitably be needed in District Health Authorities and District General Hospitals) to the desk-top personal computers which all clinicians of the future will find essential. Because readers will be experiencing the impact and, hopefully, the benefits of the computer at the lower end of the size and price scale, considerable space has been devoted to explaining the various items (disc drives, monitors, printers) that pervade the microcomputer scene. New terminology must be introduced to readers if they are to discuss intelligently their computer needs to the providers of such facilities. Just as an automobile is no use without oil, petrol, water and a competent user, so the computer hardware needs computer software and a competent user. The chapter therefore continued with some considerable space being devoted to software (operating systems, programming languages, utilities and expert systems) so that the user will have clear guidance as to which path to follow in order to become a competent user of the present and future technology. Because of the rapid advances in data storage, in networking and in computer programs, the clinicians of tomorrow will have vast sources of information at their disposal. This latter will include not only patient records, but also

  10. Pharmacotherapeutic Aspects of Space Medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Putcha, Lakshmi

    2004-01-01

    produced by any drug depend upon rates of absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination of the drug; space flight-induced changes in blood flow and the function of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, liver, or kidneys may alter these processes. Another important aspect of clinical efficacy of medications in space is the stability of pharmaceuticals. As the U.S. space program is moving toward extended Space Shuttle flights and beyond, to space station missions and planetary explorations, understanding how space flight affects organ systems and clinical pharmacology is necessary to optimize pharmacotherapeutics in space and ensure adequate safety and health of crewmembers.

  11. Colloidal aspects of texture perception.

    PubMed

    van Vliet, Ton; van Aken, George A; de Jongh, Harmen H J; Hamer, Rob J

    2009-08-30

    Recently, considerable attention has been given to the understanding of texture attributes that cannot directly be related to physical properties of food, such as creamy, crumbly and watery. The perception of these attributes is strongly related to the way the food is processed during food intake, mastication, swallowing of it and during the cleaning of the mouth after swallowing. Moreover, their perception is modulated by the interaction with other basic attributes, such as taste and aroma attributes (e.g. sourness and vanilla). To be able to link the composition and structure of food products to more complicated texture attributes, their initial physical/colloid chemical properties and the oral processing of these products must be well understood. Understanding of the processes in the mouth at colloidal length scales turned out to be essential to grasp the interplay between perception, oral physiology and food properties. In view of the huge differences in physical chemical properties between food products, it is practical to make a distinction between solid, semi-solid, and liquid food products. The latter ones are often liquid dispersions of emulsion droplets or particles in general. For liquid food products for instance flow behaviour and colloidal stability of dispersed particles play a main role in determining their textural properties. For most solid products stiffness and fracture behaviour in relation to water content are essential while for semi-solids a much larger range of mechanical properties will play a role. Examples of colloidal aspects of texture perception will be discussed for these three categories of products based on selected sensory attributes and/or relevant colloidal processes. For solid products some main factors determining crispness will be discussed. For crispiness of dry cellular solid products these are water content and the architecture of the product at mesoscopic length scales (20-1000 microm). In addition the distribution of

  12. Understanding How Grammatical Aspect Influences Legal Judgment.

    PubMed

    Sherrill, Andrew M; Eerland, Anita; Zwaan, Rolf A; Magliano, Joseph P

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that grammatical aspect can bias how individuals perceive criminal intentionality during discourse comprehension. Given that criminal intentionality is a common criterion for legal definitions (e.g., first-degree murder), the present study explored whether grammatical aspect may also impact legal judgments. In a series of four experiments participants were provided with a legal definition and a description of a crime in which the grammatical aspect of provocation and murder events were manipulated. Participants were asked to make a decision (first- vs. second-degree murder) and then indicate factors that impacted their decision. Findings suggest that legal judgments can be affected by grammatical aspect but the most robust effects were limited to temporal dynamics (i.e., imperfective aspect results in more murder actions than perfective aspect), which may in turn influence other representational systems (i.e., number of murder actions positively predicts perceived intentionality). In addition, findings demonstrate that the influence of grammatical aspect on situation model construction and evaluation is dependent upon the larger linguistic and semantic context. Together, the results suggest grammatical aspect has indirect influences on legal judgments to the extent that variability in aspect changes the features of the situation model that align with criteria for making legal judgments. PMID:26496364

  13. Effect of particle aspect ratio in magnetorheology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morillas, Jose R.; Carreón-González, Elizabeth; de Vicente, Juan

    2015-12-01

    We investigate the influence of the aspect ratio of the dispersed particles in magnetorheology. Two systems are studied: conventional magnetorheological fluids prepared by dispersion of nickel nanowires, and inverse ferrofluids prepared by dispersion of glass fibers in a ferrofluid. In both cases the apparent yield stress is found to increase with aspect ratio in contradiction to available models in the literature. Experimental observations demonstrate that the particle volume fraction within the aggregates initially increases with increasing the aspect ratio of the dispersed particles. When the aspect ratio is further raised, a gel-like percolating structure forms inhibiting the formation of elongated clusters in the field direction.

  14. Systemic lupus erythematosus: Clinical and experimental aspects

    SciTech Connect

    Smolen, J.S.

    1987-01-01

    This text covers questions related to the history, etiology, pathogenesis, clinical aspects and therapy of systematic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Both animal models and human SLE are considered. With regard to basic science, concise information on cellular immunology, autoantibodies, viral aspects and molecular biology in SLE is provided. Clinical topics then deal with medical, dermatologic, neurologic, radiologic, pathologic, and therapeutic aspects. The book not only presents the most recent information on clinical and experimental insights, but also looks at future aspects related to the diagnosis and therapy of SLE.

  15. Understanding How Grammatical Aspect Influences Legal Judgment.

    PubMed

    Sherrill, Andrew M; Eerland, Anita; Zwaan, Rolf A; Magliano, Joseph P

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that grammatical aspect can bias how individuals perceive criminal intentionality during discourse comprehension. Given that criminal intentionality is a common criterion for legal definitions (e.g., first-degree murder), the present study explored whether grammatical aspect may also impact legal judgments. In a series of four experiments participants were provided with a legal definition and a description of a crime in which the grammatical aspect of provocation and murder events were manipulated. Participants were asked to make a decision (first- vs. second-degree murder) and then indicate factors that impacted their decision. Findings suggest that legal judgments can be affected by grammatical aspect but the most robust effects were limited to temporal dynamics (i.e., imperfective aspect results in more murder actions than perfective aspect), which may in turn influence other representational systems (i.e., number of murder actions positively predicts perceived intentionality). In addition, findings demonstrate that the influence of grammatical aspect on situation model construction and evaluation is dependent upon the larger linguistic and semantic context. Together, the results suggest grammatical aspect has indirect influences on legal judgments to the extent that variability in aspect changes the features of the situation model that align with criteria for making legal judgments.

  16. Gravity as an emergent phenomenon: Conceptual aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padmanabhan, T.

    2012-07-01

    I describe several conceptual aspects involved in a particular approach which treats gravity as an emergent phenomenon. These aspects are related to the features of classical gravitational theorieswhich defy explanationwithin the conventional perspective. The alternative paradigm throws light on these features and could provide better insights into possible description of quantum structure of spacetime.

  17. [Legal aspects of psychiatry in Soviet legislation].

    PubMed

    Babayan, E A

    1977-01-01

    The Author examines and describes in detail the normative and organizational aspects of forensic-psychiatric services in the URSS. Both criminal expert opinions and civil aspects are described. The problem of civil rights of mentally ill persons are discussed together with education and training of the experts employed in institutions and by the courts.

  18. Some medical aspects of radionuclide intakes

    SciTech Connect

    Poda, G A

    1983-01-01

    In the field of medicine, particularly industrial medicine, the radiation aspect of the practice probably takes about 1/10 of 1% of our time. All the health physicist's tools of principles of internal dosimetry, lung models, mathematics, chemistry, etc. have little meaning until applied to an individual who has had an intake. This article discusses some of the medical aspects of internal dosimetry.

  19. CBV_ASPECTS Improvement over CT_ASPECTS on Determining Irreversible Ischemic Lesion Decreases over Time

    PubMed Central

    Padroni, Marina; Boned, Sandra; Ribó, Marc; Muchada, Marian; Rodriguez-Luna, David; Coscojuela, Pilar; Tomasello, Alejandro; Cabero, Jordi; Pagola, Jorge; Rodriguez-Villatoro, Noelia; Juega, Jesus M.; Sanjuan, Estela; Molina, Carlos A.; Rubiera, Marta

    2016-01-01

    The Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score (ASPECTS) is a useful scoring system for assessing early ischemic signs on noncontrast computed tomography (CT). Cerebral blood volume (CBV) on CT perfusion defines the core lesion assumed to be irreversibly damaged. We aim to explore the advantages of CBV_ASPECTS over CT_ASPECTS in the prediction of final infarct volume according to time. Methods Consecutive patients with anterior circulation stroke who underwent endovascular reperfusion according to initial CT_ASPECTS ≥7 were studied. CBV_ASPECTS was assessed blindly later on. Recanalization was defined as thrombolysis in cerebral ischemia score 2b-3. Final infarct volumes were measured on follow-up imaging. We compared ASPECTS on CBV and CT images, and defined ASPECTS agreement as: CT_ASPECTS - CBV_ASPECTS ≤1. Results Sixty-five patients, with a mean age of 67 ± 14 years and a median National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score of 16 (range 10–20), were studied. The recanalization rate was 78.5%. The median CT_ASPECTS was 9 (range 8–10), and the CBV_ASPECTS was 8 (range 8–10). The mean time from symptoms to CT was 219 ± 143 min. Fifty patients (76.9%) showed ASPECTS agreement. The ASPECTS difference was inversely correlated to the time from symptoms to CT (r = −0.36, p < 0.01). A ROC curve defined 120 min as the best cutoff point after which the ASPECTS difference becomes more frequently ≤1. After 120 min, 89.5% of the patients showed ASPECTS agreement (as compared with 37.5% for <120 min, p < 0.01). CBV_ASPECTS but not CT_ASPECTS correlated with final infarct (r = −0.33, p < 0.01). However, if CT was done >2 h after symptom onset, CT_ASPECTS also correlated to final infarct (r = −0.39, p = 0.01). Conclusions In acute stroke, CBV_ASPECTS correlates with the final infarct volume. However, when CT is performed after 120 min from symptom onset, CBV_ASPECTS does not add relevant information to CT_ASPECTS. PMID:27781042

  20. Environmental Aspects, Objectives and Targets Identification Process

    SciTech Connect

    R. Green

    2002-07-29

    The purpose of this report is to document the environmental aspects and associated environmental impacts of the Bechtel SAIC Company (BSC) scope of work, evaluate the significance of those environmental aspects based on established criteria, and establish environmental objectives and targets for specific environmental aspects. This report is intended to be used by environmental staff in the evaluation of BSC work packages during the annual risk-based planning process. This report shall be fully reviewed and revised annually during the annual work planning process to reflect changes in BSC operations, facilities, and scope of work. Planned BSC work will be evaluated to determine if the work is covered by a previously defined activity, product or service (see Table 2); if work activities require redefinition or addition of a new activity; and if the significant evaluation for each environment aspect is still valid based on scope of planned work. New workscope initiated during the fiscal year through the Baseline Change Proposal process (i.e., not as part of the annual work plan) also will be reviewed for new environmental aspects and determination of whether the new workscope would change the significance rating of any environmental aspect. If a new environmental aspect is identified in a new work activity, product, or service but the aspect is not determined to be significant (see Section 4), then this report can be changed through an interim change notice (ICN). This report can be changed five times through an ICN before a full revision is required. However, if new workscope causes an environmental aspect to be graded as significant using the evaluation process in Section 4, this report shall be revised though a full review and revision.

  1. The histological aspects of fillers complications.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Ute S; Clerici, Thierry J

    2004-12-01

    The histological aspects of resorbable heterologous fillers (bovine collagen, acid hyaluronique), autologous fillers (lipofilling, dermis-fat graft), biodegradable fillers (New-Fill), and permanent fillers (silicone, Artecoll, Evolution, Aquamid, DermaLive, DermaDeep, Bioplastique, Paraffin) are described. This article relates the morphological aspect of these materials, the normal tissue reaction after injection, and its chronological evolution as the morphological aspects from the different side effects, more frequently observed for the permanent fillers. They mainly consist of granulomatous reactions which may appear long after injection.

  2. Aspects of prehistoric astronomy in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, N. Kameswara

    2005-12-01

    Some archeoastronomical aspects regarding the development of observational astronomy in India during prehistoric times are described. A plea is made for the preservation of megalithic monuments of possible astronomical significance.

  3. Multiple sclerosis: Experimental and clinical aspects

    SciTech Connect

    Scheinberg, L.; Raine, C.S.

    1984-01-01

    This book discusses the experimental and clinical aspects of multiple sclerosis. Specifically discussed are - Association of Epstein Barr Virus with pathology of central nervous system; immunology of viruses; and immunosuppression.

  4. Some Legal Aspects of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kowalski, Casimir J.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    This article explores some legal aspects of public and private education, as well as several Amendments to the Constitution and their relationships to higher education: the First, Fourth, Fifth, Sixth, and Fourteenth Amendments. (Author)

  5. [Communication in health care - legal aspects].

    PubMed

    Mina, András

    2016-04-24

    This paper is focusing on the legal aspects of communication in health care, especially on doctor-patient relationship, responsibility for information, communication of adverse events, and legal declarations. PMID:27084442

  6. Approaches to high aspect ratio triangulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Posenau, M.-A.

    1993-01-01

    In aerospace computational fluid dynamics calculations, high aspect ratio, or stretched, triangulations are necessary to adequately resolve the features of a viscous flow around bodies. In this paper, we explore alternatives to the Delaunay triangulation which can be used to generate high aspect ratio triangulations of point sets. The method is based on a variation of the lifting map concept which derives Delaunay triangulations from convex hull calculations.

  7. Technical aspects of ileoanal pouch surgery.

    PubMed

    Carne, Peter W G; Pemberton, John H

    2004-02-01

    Ileal pouch-anal anastomosis has become the surgical procedure of choice for chronic ulcerative colitis. Since the initial description of the technique, various modifications have facilitated its evolution into a safe operation with excellent long-term outcomes. However, some aspects of the operation remain contentious. Our aim is to describe the technical aspects of ileal pouch-anal anastomosis and review the current literature in the areas of controversy.

  8. Practical aspects of telehealth: financial considerations.

    PubMed

    Loh, P K; Sabesan, S; Allen, D; Caldwell, P; Mozer, R; Komesaroff, P A; Talman, P; Williams, M; Shaheen, N; Grabinski, O; Withnall, D

    2013-07-01

    The second in a series of articles about the practical aspects of telehealth, this paper includes information and a case history on the cost-benefits for patients and practitioners using telehealth. The case history demonstrates that telehealth can save travel time for patients, carers and specialists, and can reduce out-of-pocket expenses. The practical aspects of telehealth article series considers the contextual, clinical, technical and ethical components of online video consultations.

  9. Optimal aspect ratio of endocytosed spherocylindrical nanoparticle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ying-Bing; Liu, Yan-Hui; Zeng, Yan; Mao, Wei; Hu, Lin; Mao, Zong-Liang; Xu, Hou-Qiang

    2015-02-01

    Recent simulations have demonstrated that bioparticle size and shape modulate the process of endocytosis, and studies have provided more quantitative information that the endocytosis efficiency of spherocylindrical bioparticles is decided by its aspect ratio. At the same time, the dimensions of the receptor-ligand complex have strong effects on the size-dependent exclusion of proteins within the cellular environment. However, these earlier theoretical works including simulations did not consider the effects of ligand-receptor complex dimension on the endocytosis process. Thus, it is necessary to resolve the effects of ligand-receptor complex dimension and determine the optimal aspect ratio of spherocylindrical bioparticles in the process of endocytosis. Accordingly, we proposed a continuum elastic model, of which the results indicate that the aspect ratio depends on the ligand-receptor complex dimension and the radius of the spherocylindrical bioparticle. This model provides a phase diagram of the aspect ratio of endocytosed spherocylindrical bioparticles, the larger aspect ratio of which appears in the phase diagram with increasing ligand density, and highlights the bioparticle design.

  10. Nutritional Aspects of Treatment in Epileptic Patients

    PubMed Central

    SOLTANI, Danesh; GHAFFAR POUR, Majid; TAFAKHORI, Abbas; SARRAF, Payam; BITARAFAN, Sama

    2016-01-01

    Epilepsy is a neurological disorder characterized by interruption of normal neuronal functions that is manifested by behavioral disorders, changing of awareness level, and presence of some sensory, autonomic and motor symptoms or signs. It is resulted from many different causes. Many antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are considered to manage epileptic attacks. Some of them change metabolism and absorption of many nutrients. Therefore, epileptic patients may be in higher risk of nutrient deficiency and its unwelcome effects. In the present paper, we intend to review the relationship between nutrition and epilepsy in two aspects. In one aspect we discuss the nutritional status in epileptic patients, the causes of nutritional deficiencies and the way of compensation of the nutrient deficiencies. It will guide these patients to have a healthy life. In another aspect we explain the role of some nutrients and specific diets in management of epileptic attacks. It can help to better control of epileptic attacks in these patients. PMID:27375750

  11. GCS plan for software aspects of certification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shagnea, Anita M.; Lowman, Douglas S.; Withers, B. Edward

    1990-01-01

    As part of the Guidance and Control Software (GCS) research project being sponsored by NASA to evaluate the failure processes of software, standard industry software development procedures are being employed. To ensure that these procedures are authentic, the guidelines outlined in the Radio Technical Commission for Aeronautics (RTCA/DO-178A document entitled, software considerations in airborne systems and equipment certification, were adopted. A major aspect of these guidelines is proper documentation. As such, this report, the plan for software aspects of certification, was produced in accordance with DO-178A. An overview is given of the GCS research project, including the goals of the project, project organization, and project schedules. It also specifies the plans for all aspects of the project which relate to the certification of the GCS implementations developed under a NASA contract. These plans include decisions made regarding the software specification, accuracy requirements, configuration management, implementation development and verification, and the development of the GCS simulator.

  12. Algorithms for high aspect ratio oriented triangulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Posenau, Mary-Anne K.

    1995-01-01

    Grid generation plays an integral part in the solution of computational fluid dynamics problems for aerodynamics applications. A major difficulty with standard structured grid generation, which produces quadrilateral (or hexahedral) elements with implicit connectivity, has been the requirement for a great deal of human intervention in developing grids around complex configurations. This has led to investigations into unstructured grids with explicit connectivities, which are primarily composed of triangular (or tetrahedral) elements, although other subdivisions of convex cells may be used. The existence of large gradients in the solution of aerodynamic problems may be exploited to reduce the computational effort by using high aspect ratio elements in high gradient regions. However, the heuristic approaches currently in use do not adequately address this need for high aspect ratio unstructured grids. High aspect ratio triangulations very often produce the large angles that are to be avoided. Point generation techniques based on contour or front generation are judged to be the most promising in terms of being able to handle complicated multiple body objects, with this technique lending itself well to adaptivity. The eventual goal encompasses several phases: first, a partitioning phase, in which the Voronoi diagram of a set of points and line segments (the input set) will be generated to partition the input domain; second, a contour generation phase in which body-conforming contours are used to subdivide the partition further as well as introduce the foundation for aspect ratio control, and; third, a Steiner triangulation phase in which points are added to the partition to enable triangulation while controlling angle bounds and aspect ratio. This provides a combination of the advancing front/contour techniques and refinement. By using a front, aspect ratio can be better controlled. By using refinement, bounds on angles can be maintained, while attempting to minimize

  13. [Current aspects of rehabilitation of stroke patients].

    PubMed

    Koval'chuk, V V; Bogatyreva, M D; Minullin, T I

    2014-01-01

    Based on the review of literature, the key aspects of stroke rehabilitation (medical, physical, psychological, professional and social) were singled out. Main principles of medical aspects were defined as following: early rehabilitation, systemic and long term measures, their complicity and disciplinary, adequacy of rehabilitation measures and providing the conditions for the active participation of the patient and his/her close friends and relatives. Measures directed to motor, speech and cognitive function recovery are considered. In conclusion, attention is drawn to pharmacological drugs, in particular nicergoline (sermion).

  14. [Genetically modified organisms (GMO): toxicological aspects].

    PubMed

    Ludwicki, J K

    1998-01-01

    The genetically modified organisms (GMO) are one of the major public concerns partially due to the activity of the non-governmental organizations which believe that public opinion must be duly informed on what leaves the laboratories and enters the environment or is proposed as food. This article discusses some major toxicological and nutritional aspects of GMO designed as food for humans. The range of current use of GMOs, potential hazards for humans, safety assessment, allergenic concerns, and some aspects of the use of marker genes are discussed in regard to human safety. The need for relevant regulations is stressed.

  15. Interdisciplinary Aspects of Learning: Physics and Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oleg, Yavoruk

    2015-01-01

    The article deals with interdisciplinary aspects of learning in the case of physics and psychology. It describes the lab-based academic course focused on: observation and experimentation; discovery of new scientific facts; measurement; identification of errors; the study of psychological characteristics of people (time perception, the reaction…

  16. Aspects of Vocabulary Knowledge in German Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neary-Sundquist, Colleen A.

    2015-01-01

    Previous research on second language vocabulary acquisition has shown that learning to use a new word is not a simple matter of making a form-meaning connection. Knowing a word instead requires mastery of as many as nine different aspects of vocabulary knowledge (Nation, 2001). The current study uses data from five beginning-level textbooks of…

  17. Psychosomatic Aspects of Cancer: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, John B.

    1980-01-01

    It is suggested in this literature review on the psychosomatic aspects of cancer that psychoanalytic interpretations which focused on intrapsychic elements have given way to considerations of rehabilitation and assistance with the complex emotional reactions of patients and their families to terminal illness and death. (Author/DB)

  18. An Underdiscussed Aspect of Chomsky (1959)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adelman, Barry Eshkol

    2007-01-01

    Chomsky's (1959) review of Skinner's (1957) "Verbal Behavior" has been influential and attributed with a role in the cognitive revolution. However, while counter reviews from within behavior analysis have noted that Chomsky misunderstood the subject matter, certain aspects of his scholarship have been underdiscussed. This includes several…

  19. Psychophysical aspects in medical illumination techniques.

    PubMed

    Giacomuzzi, S M; Buchberger, W; Peer, R; Peer, S; Bale, R; Perkmann, R; Jaschke, W

    2001-01-01

    The relation between image and visual perception of the human eye is an important point in digital imaging systems. Research aims should therefore pay attention to psychophysical aspects. Optimising of digital imaging systems can only be reached if the important final steps in the diagnostic process--visual perception and signal detection--are taken into account.

  20. Some cognitive aspects of meditation practice.

    PubMed

    Delmonte, M M

    1983-12-01

    This article reviews the role of some cognitive factors in practice of meditation. It is suggested that more attention should be given to such covert aspects of meditation as expectations, attitudes, and imagery, etc. Non-observable subjective experiences during meditation have not been adequately researched.

  1. Aspects of Bangime Phonology, Morphology, and Morphosyntax

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hantgan, Abbie

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation provides a description of aspects of the phonology, morphology, and morphosyntax of Bangime. Bangime is a language isolate spoken in the Dogon language speaking area of Central Eastern Mali. Although the Bangande, the speakers of Bangime, self-identify with the Dogon, their language bears practically no resemblance to the…

  2. Thermodynamic geometry and critical aspects of bifurcations.

    PubMed

    Mihara, A

    2016-07-01

    This work presents an exploratory study of the critical aspects of some well-known bifurcations in the context of thermodynamic geometry. For each bifurcation its normal form is regarded as a geodesic equation of some model analogous to a thermodynamic system. From this hypothesis it is possible to calculate the corresponding metric and curvature and analyze the critical behavior of the bifurcation.

  3. On virial analysis at low aspect ratio

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Bongard, Michael W.; Barr, Jayson L.; Fonck, Raymond J.; Reusch, Joshua A.; Thome, Kathreen E.

    2016-07-28

    The validity of virial analysis to infer global MHD equilibrium poloidal beta βp and internal inductance ℓi from external magnetics measurements is examined for low aspect ratio configurations with A < 2. Numerical equilibrium studies at varied aspect ratio are utilized to validate the technique at finite aspect ratio. The effect of applying high-A approximations to low-A experimental data is quantified and demonstrates significant over-estimation of stored energy (factors of 2–10) in spherical tokamak geometry. Experimental approximations to equilibrium-dependent volume integral terms in the analysis are evaluated at low-A. Highly paramagnetic configurations are found to be inadequately represented through themore » virial mean radius parameter RT. Alternate formulations for inferring βp and ℓi that are independent of RT to avoid this difficulty are presented for the static isotropic limit. Lastly, these formulations are suitable for fast estimation of tokamak stored energy components at low aspect ratio using virial analysis.« less

  4. Aspects of Tutor and Writing Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaidin, M. Arifin

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the correlation between aspects of tutor and the students' basic writing outcomes of the Elementary School Teacher Education at the Distance Learning Program Unit, Open University of Palu. This is ex post facto correlation with the population research of 387 people and the total sample of 100 people. This…

  5. Developmental Aspects of English Segment Duration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Bruce L.

    The experiment reported here attempted to investigate the nature of both intrinsic, unlearned temporal parameters as well as learned, language-specific durational properties in the speech of young children. Developmental aspects of several temporal parameters were investigated in the speech of ten 2 1/2 to 3-year-old and ten 4 to 4 1/2-year-old…

  6. Dynamical aspects of an adiabatic piston.

    PubMed

    Munakata, T; Ogawa, H

    2001-09-01

    Dynamical aspects of an adiabatic piston are investigated, based on the mass ratio expansion of the master equation for the piston velocity distribution function. Simple theory for piston motion and relaxation of an ideal gas in a cylinder turns out to reproduce our numerical experiments quantitatively.

  7. Dynamical aspects of an adiabatic piston

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munakata, Toyonori; Ogawa, Hideki

    2001-09-01

    Dynamical aspects of an adiabatic piston are investigated, based on the mass ratio expansion of the master equation for the piston velocity distribution function. Simple theory for piston motion and relaxation of an ideal gas in a cylinder turns out to reproduce our numerical experiments quantitatively.

  8. Legal Aspects of Organizing a Library Network.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlile, Huntington; Burkley, John H.

    1980-01-01

    Three aspects of a library network are discussed: (1) legal structure, (2) membership, and (3) governance. An ideal network organization, from a legal viewpoint, is outlined. Also discussed are these types of network organizational structures: government networks, quasi-government networks, nonprofit membership corporations, and unincorporated…

  9. Thermodynamic geometry and critical aspects of bifurcations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mihara, A.

    2016-07-01

    This work presents an exploratory study of the critical aspects of some well-known bifurcations in the context of thermodynamic geometry. For each bifurcation its normal form is regarded as a geodesic equation of some model analogous to a thermodynamic system. From this hypothesis it is possible to calculate the corresponding metric and curvature and analyze the critical behavior of the bifurcation.

  10. Some Economic Aspects of the Internet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Donald W.

    1998-01-01

    Describes a broad framework for examining economic aspects of the Internet; the framework consists of four sets of processes, services, and participants, including information creation, use, communication, and value-added information processes. Each process involves several economic measures and relationships among these measures. Examples are…

  11. Aspects of Teacher Accountability in New Mexico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Carroll L.

    The term "accountability" involves more than the recent demand by the public that schools justify the academic levels achieved by their students. Such aspects of accountability as teacher certification, school accreditation, educational evaluation, and student testing have existed for years. The New Mexico State Department of Education has…

  12. Satellite sound broadcast research aspect in CRL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hase, Yoshihiro; Kondo, Kimio; Ohmori, Shingo

    1990-01-01

    Researches on Satellite Sound Broadcasting Services (SSBS) have become active in the past few years. Activities of the Consultative Committee for International Radio (CCIR) and the World Administrative Radio Conference (WARC), especially about digital systems proposed in the CCIR report, are briefly reviewed. The Communications Research Laboratory (CRL) future plan of SSBS research, stressing propagation rather than communications aspects, is described.

  13. Social Aspects of Bioenergy Sustainability Workshop Report

    SciTech Connect

    Luchner, Sarah; Johnson, Kristen; Lindauer, Alicia; McKinnon, Taryn; Broad, Max

    2013-05-30

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Bioenergy Technologies Office held a workshop on “Social Aspects of Bioenergy” on April 24, 2012, in Washington, D.C., and convened a webinar on this topic on May 8, 2012. The findings and recommendations from the workshop and webinar are compiled in this report.

  14. Psychological Aspects of Female College Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilcoxon, Barbara R.

    The purpose of this study was to determine and compare the psychological aspects (femininity, masculinity, and androgyny), attitudes, self-esteem, and social competence exhibited by female college athletes participating in elected individual and team sports. For the purpose of this research the following hypotheses were tested: The social costs of…

  15. Aspects of the Syntax of Indonesian Teochew

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peng, Anne Elise

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation is to provide a description of some aspects of the syntax of Indonesian Teochew, a Southern Min Chinese language spoken in Indonesian. This dissertation examines two dialects of Indonesian Teochew: Jambi Teochew, which is spoken in Jambi City, Sumatra, and Pontianak Teochew, which is spoken in Pontianak, West…

  16. Instructional Aspects of Intelligent Tutoring Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pieters, Jules M., Ed.

    This collection contains three papers addressing the instructional aspects of intelligent tutoring systems (ITS): (1) "Some Experiences with Two Intelligent Tutoring Systems for Teaching Computer Programming: Proust and the LISP-Tutor" (van den Berg, Merrienboer, and Maaswinkel); (2) "Some Issues on the Construction of Cooperative ITS" (Kanselaar,…

  17. ASPECT Emergency Response Chemical and Radiological Mapping

    ScienceCinema

    LANL

    2016-07-12

    A unique airborne emergency response tool, ASPECT is a Los Alamos/U.S. Environmental Protection Agency project that can put chemical and radiological mapping tools in the air over an accident scene. The name ASPECT is an acronym for Airborne Spectral Photometric Environmental Collection Technology. Update, Sept. 19, 2008: Flying over storm-damaged refineries and chemical factories, a twin-engine plane carrying the ASPECT (Airborne Spectral Photometric Environmental Collection Technology) system has been on duty throughout the recent hurricanes that have swept the Florida and Gulf Coast areas. ASPECT is a project of the U.S. U.S. Environmental Protection Agencys National Decontamination Team. Los Alamos National Laboratory leads a science and technology program supporting the EPA and the ASPECT aircraft. Casting about with a combination of airborne photography and infrared spectroscopy, the highly instrumented plane provides emergency responders on the ground with a clear concept of where danger lies, and the nature of the sometimes-invisible plumes that could otherwise kill them. ASPECT is the nations only 24/7 emergency response aircraft with chemical plume mapping capability. Bob Kroutil of Bioscience Division is the project leader, and while he said the team has put in long hours, both on the ground and in the air, its a worthwhile effort. The plane flew over 320 targeted sites in four days, he noted. Prior to the deployment to the Gulf Coast, the plane had been monitoring the Democratic National Convention in Denver, Colorado. Los Alamos National Laboratory Divisions that are supporting ASPECT include, in addition to B-Division, CTN-5: Networking Engineering and IRM-CAS: Communication, Arts, and Services. Leslie Mansell, CTN-5, and Marilyn Pruitt, IRM-CAS, were recognized the the U.S. EPA for their outstanding support to the hurricane response of Gustav in Louisiana and Ike in Texas. The information from the data collected in the most recent event, Hurricane

  18. ASPECT Emergency Response Chemical and Radiological Mapping

    SciTech Connect

    LANL

    2008-05-12

    A unique airborne emergency response tool, ASPECT is a Los Alamos/U.S. Environmental Protection Agency project that can put chemical and radiological mapping tools in the air over an accident scene. The name ASPECT is an acronym for Airborne Spectral Photometric Environmental Collection Technology. Update, Sept. 19, 2008: Flying over storm-damaged refineries and chemical factories, a twin-engine plane carrying the ASPECT (Airborne Spectral Photometric Environmental Collection Technology) system has been on duty throughout the recent hurricanes that have swept the Florida and Gulf Coast areas. ASPECT is a project of the U.S. U.S. Environmental Protection Agencys National Decontamination Team. Los Alamos National Laboratory leads a science and technology program supporting the EPA and the ASPECT aircraft. Casting about with a combination of airborne photography and infrared spectroscopy, the highly instrumented plane provides emergency responders on the ground with a clear concept of where danger lies, and the nature of the sometimes-invisible plumes that could otherwise kill them. ASPECT is the nations only 24/7 emergency response aircraft with chemical plume mapping capability. Bob Kroutil of Bioscience Division is the project leader, and while he said the team has put in long hours, both on the ground and in the air, its a worthwhile effort. The plane flew over 320 targeted sites in four days, he noted. Prior to the deployment to the Gulf Coast, the plane had been monitoring the Democratic National Convention in Denver, Colorado. Los Alamos National Laboratory Divisions that are supporting ASPECT include, in addition to B-Division, CTN-5: Networking Engineering and IRM-CAS: Communication, Arts, and Services. Leslie Mansell, CTN-5, and Marilyn Pruitt, IRM-CAS, were recognized the the U.S. EPA for their outstanding support to the hurricane response of Gustav in Louisiana and Ike in Texas. The information from the data collected in the most recent event, Hurricane

  19. Product Aspect Clustering by Incorporating Background Knowledge for Opinion Mining

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yiheng; Zhao, Yanyan; Qin, Bing; Liu, Ting

    2016-01-01

    Product aspect recognition is a key task in fine-grained opinion mining. Current methods primarily focus on the extraction of aspects from the product reviews. However, it is also important to cluster synonymous extracted aspects into the same category. In this paper, we focus on the problem of product aspect clustering. The primary challenge is to properly cluster and generalize aspects that have similar meanings but different representations. To address this problem, we learn two types of background knowledge for each extracted aspect based on two types of effective aspect relations: relevant aspect relations and irrelevant aspect relations, which describe two different types of relationships between two aspects. Based on these two types of relationships, we can assign many relevant and irrelevant aspects into two different sets as the background knowledge to describe each product aspect. To obtain abundant background knowledge for each product aspect, we can enrich the available information with background knowledge from the Web. Then, we design a hierarchical clustering algorithm to cluster these aspects into different groups, in which aspect similarity is computed using the relevant and irrelevant aspect sets for each product aspect. Experimental results obtained in both camera and mobile phone domains demonstrate that the proposed product aspect clustering method based on two types of background knowledge performs better than the baseline approach without the use of background knowledge. Moreover, the experimental results also indicate that expanding the available background knowledge using the Web is feasible. PMID:27561001

  20. Product Aspect Clustering by Incorporating Background Knowledge for Opinion Mining.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yiheng; Zhao, Yanyan; Qin, Bing; Liu, Ting

    2016-01-01

    Product aspect recognition is a key task in fine-grained opinion mining. Current methods primarily focus on the extraction of aspects from the product reviews. However, it is also important to cluster synonymous extracted aspects into the same category. In this paper, we focus on the problem of product aspect clustering. The primary challenge is to properly cluster and generalize aspects that have similar meanings but different representations. To address this problem, we learn two types of background knowledge for each extracted aspect based on two types of effective aspect relations: relevant aspect relations and irrelevant aspect relations, which describe two different types of relationships between two aspects. Based on these two types of relationships, we can assign many relevant and irrelevant aspects into two different sets as the background knowledge to describe each product aspect. To obtain abundant background knowledge for each product aspect, we can enrich the available information with background knowledge from the Web. Then, we design a hierarchical clustering algorithm to cluster these aspects into different groups, in which aspect similarity is computed using the relevant and irrelevant aspect sets for each product aspect. Experimental results obtained in both camera and mobile phone domains demonstrate that the proposed product aspect clustering method based on two types of background knowledge performs better than the baseline approach without the use of background knowledge. Moreover, the experimental results also indicate that expanding the available background knowledge using the Web is feasible. PMID:27561001

  1. Soins Aux Brules Apres Un Accident Nucleaire

    PubMed Central

    Bargues, L.; Donat, N.; Jault, P.; Leclerc, T.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Les lésions radiques sont dues le plus souvent à des radio-isotopes utilisés dans l’industrie. L’explosion d’un réacteur nucléaire, les armes nucléaires ou une attaque terroriste constituent un risque d’afflux massif de victimes brûlées. Les radiations ionisantes occasionnent des brûlures thermiques, des syndromes d’irradiation aiguë avec pancytopénie et des signes cutanés retardés. Après une période de latence, des symptômes cutanés apparaissent et leur profondeur est proportionnelle à la dose reçue. Les protocoles habituels de réanimation des brûlés s’appliquent ici. Les soins aux irradiés nécessitent aussi une mesure de l’irradiation et une décontamination par des personnels entraînés. En cas de catastrophe nucléaire, la priorité est d’optimiser les structures existantes et de préserver les moyens pour les patients ayant la plus forte probabilité de survie. Après un accident nucléaire isolé, les difficultés dans les centres de brûlés sont l’évaluation de la profondeur et les techniques chirurgicales de couverture cutanée. La préparation des moyens médicaux et des centres de brûlés est nécessaire pour faire face à la prise en charge de ces brûlures différentes et complexes. PMID:21991218

  2. Analytical Aspects of Hydrogen Exchange Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engen, John R.; Wales, Thomas E.

    2015-07-01

    This article reviews the analytical aspects of measuring hydrogen exchange by mass spectrometry (HX MS). We describe the nature of analytical selectivity in hydrogen exchange, then review the analytical tools required to accomplish fragmentation, separation, and the mass spectrometry measurements under restrictive exchange quench conditions. In contrast to analytical quantitation that relies on measurements of peak intensity or area, quantitation in HX MS depends on measuring a mass change with respect to an undeuterated or deuterated control, resulting in a value between zero and the maximum amount of deuterium that can be incorporated. Reliable quantitation is a function of experimental fidelity and to achieve high measurement reproducibility, a large number of experimental variables must be controlled during sample preparation and analysis. The method also reports on important qualitative aspects of the sample, including conformational heterogeneity and population dynamics.

  3. Circulation control STOL aircraft design aspects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loth, John L.

    1987-01-01

    Since Davidson patented Circulation Control Airfoils in 1960, there have been only 2 aircraft designed and flown with circulation control (CC). Designing with CC is complex for the following reasons: the relation between lift increase and blowing momentum is nonlinear; for good cruise performance one must change the wing geometry in flight from a round to a sharp trailing edge. The bleed air from the propulsion engines or an auxiliary compressor, must be used efficiently. In designing with CC, the propulsion and control aspects are just as important as aerodynamics. These design aspects were examined and linearized equations are presented in order to facilitate a preliminary analysis of the performance potential of CC. The thrust and lift requirements for takeoff make the calculated runway length very sensitive to the bleed air ratio. Thrust vectoring improves performance and can offset nose down pitching moments. The choice of blowing jet to free stream velocity ratio determines the efficiency of applying bleed air power.

  4. A low aspect ratio tokamak transmutation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, L. J.; Wu, Y. C.; Xiao, B. J.; Xu, Q.; Huang, Q. Y.; Wu, B.; Chen, Y. X.; Xu, W. N.; Chen, Y. P.; Liu, X. P.

    2000-03-01

    A low aspect ratio tokamak transmutation system is proposed as an alternative application of fusion energy on the basis of a review of previous studies. This system includes: (1) a low aspect ratio tokamak as fusion neutron driver, (2) a radioactivity-clean nuclear power system as blanket, and (3) a novel concept of liquid metal centre conductor post as part of the toroidal field coils. In the conceptual design, a driver of 100 MW fusion power under 1 MW/m2 neutron wall loading can transmute the amount of high level waste (including minor actinides and fission products) produced by ten standard pressurized water reactors of 1 GW electrical power output. Meanwhile, the system can produce tritium on a self-sustaining basis and an output of about 2 GW of electrical energy. After 30 years of operation, the biological hazard potential level of the whole system will decrease by two orders of magnitude.

  5. Method for nanomachining high aspect ratio structures

    DOEpatents

    Yun, Wenbing; Spence, John; Padmore, Howard A.; MacDowell, Alastair A.; Howells, Malcolm R.

    2004-11-09

    A nanomachining method for producing high-aspect ratio precise nanostructures. The method begins by irradiating a wafer with an energetic charged-particle beam. Next, a layer of patterning material is deposited on one side of the wafer and a layer of etch stop or metal plating base is coated on the other side of the wafer. A desired pattern is generated in the patterning material on the top surface of the irradiated wafer using conventional electron-beam lithography techniques. Lastly, the wafer is placed in an appropriate chemical solution that produces a directional etch of the wafer only in the area from which the resist has been removed by the patterning process. The high mechanical strength of the wafer materials compared to the organic resists used in conventional lithography techniques with allows the transfer of the precise patterns into structures with aspect ratios much larger than those previously achievable.

  6. Safety aspects related to unmanned platforms

    SciTech Connect

    Berge, G.

    1996-12-31

    This article discusses some safety aspects related to unmanned platforms. The discussion is based on a specific project, but the aspects are of general character and should be of interest for similar situations. Based on frame conditions for the project, an event analysis is performed. Results from the event analysis are used to define scenarios that in turn is the basis for specification of necessary emergency preparedness means and some operational conditions. It turned out that for this particular platform there are four different kinds of operational phases which require different levels of emergency preparedness means. The phases are: Unmanned phase, maintenance phase; drilling phase; well work-over phase. Differentiating the effort of safety systems among these four phases, gave rise to reduced cost--still satisfying the acceptance criteria defined.

  7. Special radiation protection aspects of medical accelerators.

    PubMed

    Silari, M

    2001-01-01

    Radiation protection aspects relevant to medical accelerators are discussed. An overview is first given of general safety requirements. Next, shielding and labyrinth design are discussed in some detail for the various types of accelerators, devoting more attention to hadron machines as they are far less conventional than electron linear accelerators. Some specific aspects related to patient protection are also addressed. Finally, induced radioactivity in accelerator components and shielding walls is briefly discussed. Three classes of machines are considered: (1) medical electron linacs for 'conventional' radiation therapy, (2) low energy cyclotrons for production of radionuclides mainly for medical diagnostics and (3) medium energy cyclotrons and synchrotrons for advanced radiation therapy with protons or light ion beams (hadron therapy). PMID:11843087

  8. Microstructural aspects of spallation in copper

    SciTech Connect

    Zurek, A.K.; Frantz, C.E.

    1987-01-01

    Compressive shock waves result in a specific kind of fracture called a spall. The metallurgical aspects of copper spalling and crack or void initiation sites, the effects of grain size and substructure, and the micromechanical aspects of growth and coalescence have not received the detailed attention that other deformation phenomena have received. The present work was stimulated by the observation that under identical shock loading conditions the spall strength of copper can vary between 0.4 to 2.4 GPa - an unusually wide range - merely as a result of changes in its microstructure. Examples of fracture morphology are presented and possible micromechanics of fracture resulting from different microstructures are discussed. Finally, the implications of these observations on modeling are presented.

  9. Aspect-Oriented Monitoring of C Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Havelund, Klaus; VanWyk, Eric

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents current work on extending ASPECTC with state machines, resulting in a framework for aspect-oriented monitoring of C programs. Such a framework can be used for testing purposes, or it can be part of a fault protection strategy. The long term goal is to explore the synergy between the fields of runtime verification, focused on program monitoring, and aspect-oriented programming, focused on more general program development issues. The work is inspired by the observation that most work in this direction has been done for JAVA, partly due to the lack of easily accessible extensible compiler frameworks for C. The work is performed using the SILVER extensible attribute grammar compiler framework, in which C has been defined as a host language. Our work consists of extending C with ASPECTC, and subsequently to extend ASPECTC with state machines.

  10. Environmental aspects of solar energy technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Strojan, C.L.

    1980-09-01

    Solar energy technologies have environmental effects, and these may be positive or negative compared with current ways of producing energy. In this respect, solar energy technologies are no different from other energy systems. Where solar energy technologies differ is that no unresolvable technological problems (e.g., CO/sub 2/ emissions) or sociopolitical barriers (e.g., waste disposal, catastrophic accidents) have been identified. This report reviews some of the environmental aspects of solar energy technologies and ongoing research designed to identify and resolve potential environmental concerns. It is important to continue research and assessment of environmental aspects of solar energy to ensure that unanticipated problems do not arise. It is also important that the knowledge gained through such environmental research be incorporated into technology development programs and policy initiatives.

  11. Aspects of coherent states of nonlinear algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shreecharan, T.; Chaitanya, K. V. S. Shiv

    2010-12-01

    Various aspects of coherent states of nonlinear su(2) and su(1, 1) algebras are studied. It is shown that the nonlinear su(1, 1) Barut-Girardello and Perelomov coherent states are related by a Laplace transform. We then concentrate on the derivation and analysis of the statistical and geometrical properties of these states. The Berry's phase for the nonlinear coherent states is also derived.

  12. Radio astronomy Explorer B antenna aspect processor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, W. H.; Novello, J.; Reeves, C. C.

    1972-01-01

    The antenna aspect system used on the Radio Astronomy Explorer B spacecraft is described. This system consists of two facsimile cameras, a data encoder, and a data processor. Emphasis is placed on the discussion of the data processor, which contains a data compressor and a source encoder. With this compression scheme a compression ratio of 8 is achieved on a typical line of camera data. These compressed data are then convolutionally encoded.

  13. Economic and environmental aspects of STOL transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, E. C.

    1972-01-01

    A system study to analyze the question of the impact of advanced STOL aircraft in meeting the needs of short-haul air transportation systems is discussed. The study is concerned with the following aspects: (1) service to the passenger, (2) economic viability, and (3) economic criteria to include community noise, ground and air decongestion, and air pollution. The STOL aircraft parameters are defined. Preliminary conclusions concerning the feasibility of short-haul air transportation are presented.

  14. Aspects and applications of patched grid calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walters, Robert W.; Switzer, George F.; Thomas, James L.

    1991-01-01

    Patched grid calculations within the framework of an implicit, flux vector split upwind/relaxation algorithm for the Euler equations are presented. Aspects of computing on patched grids are discussed including the effect of a metric-discontinuous interface on the convergence rate of the algorithm, and the effect of curvature along an interface. Applications to a converging-diverging nozzle including effects of choking and bypass slots in two dimensions are presented.

  15. Novel aspects of plasma control in ITER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humphreys, D.; Ambrosino, G.; de Vries, P.; Felici, F.; Kim, S. H.; Jackson, G.; Kallenbach, A.; Kolemen, E.; Lister, J.; Moreau, D.; Pironti, A.; Raupp, G.; Sauter, O.; Schuster, E.; Snipes, J.; Treutterer, W.; Walker, M.; Welander, A.; Winter, A.; Zabeo, L.

    2015-02-01

    ITER plasma control design solutions and performance requirements are strongly driven by its nuclear mission, aggressive commissioning constraints, and limited number of operational discharges. In addition, high plasma energy content, heat fluxes, neutron fluxes, and very long pulse operation place novel demands on control performance in many areas ranging from plasma boundary and divertor regulation to plasma kinetics and stability control. Both commissioning and experimental operations schedules provide limited time for tuning of control algorithms relative to operating devices. Although many aspects of the control solutions required by ITER have been well-demonstrated in present devices and even designed satisfactorily for ITER application, many elements unique to ITER including various crucial integration issues are presently under development. We describe selected novel aspects of plasma control in ITER, identifying unique parts of the control problem and highlighting some key areas of research remaining. Novel control areas described include control physics understanding (e.g., current profile regulation, tearing mode (TM) suppression), control mathematics (e.g., algorithmic and simulation approaches to high confidence robust performance), and integration solutions (e.g., methods for management of highly subscribed control resources). We identify unique aspects of the ITER TM suppression scheme, which will pulse gyrotrons to drive current within a magnetic island, and turn the drive off following suppression in order to minimize use of auxiliary power and maximize fusion gain. The potential role of active current profile control and approaches to design in ITER are discussed. Issues and approaches to fault handling algorithms are described, along with novel aspects of actuator sharing in ITER.

  16. Secondary metabolites in bryophytes: an ecological aspect.

    PubMed

    Xie, Chun-Feng; Lou, Hong-Xiang

    2009-03-01

    Bryophytes frequently grow in an unfavorable environment as the earliest land plants, and inevitably biosynthesize secondary metabolites against biotic or abiotic stress. They not only defend against the plant competition, microbial attack, and insect or animal predation, but also function in UV protection, drought tolerance, and freezing survival. This review covers the ecological aspect of secondary metabolites in bryophytes and is taxonomically presented according to the ecological significances.

  17. Some aspects of holographic W-gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wei; Theisen, Stefan

    2015-08-01

    We use the Chern-Simons formulation of higher spin theories in three dimensions to study aspects of holographic W-gravity. Concepts which were useful in studies of pure bulk gravity theories, such as the Fefferman-Graham gauge and the residual gauge transformations, which induce Weyl transformations in the boundary theory and their higher spin generalizations, are reformulated in the Chern-Simons language. Flat connections that correspond to conformal and lightcone gauges in the boundary theory are considered.

  18. Psychological aspects of aeronautical flight simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huff, E. M.; Nagel, D. C.

    1975-01-01

    Attention is given to the class of ground based devices which have been used by scientists, engineers, and test pilots to evaluate current or future aircraft systems. The characteristics of a flight simulator and its major subsystems are considered, taking into account simulator cockpits, visual scene attachments, aspects of visual attachment fidelity, simulator motion systems, motion system fidelity, and simulation computer systems. Questions related to psychological research and simulation are examined. Simulator validity criteria are discussed along with problems of subsystem fidelity.

  19. Environmental health aspects of the microelectronics industry.

    PubMed

    Himmelstein, J S; Levy, B S

    1986-01-01

    This article reviews examples of contamination to the surface or groundwater, the ambient air, and soil resulting from the microelectronics industry. The potential effects on human health arising from such environmental contamination are discussed, as well as aspects of their diagnosis, treatment, and related public health implications. Given the high costs of pollution control, the emphasis must be on prevention, which can be facilitated by a high level of suspicion and by the design of safety and pollution control into manufacturing processes.

  20. Novel aspects of plasma control in ITER

    SciTech Connect

    Humphreys, D.; Jackson, G.; Walker, M.; Welander, A.; Ambrosino, G.; Pironti, A.; Felici, F.; Kallenbach, A.; Raupp, G.; Treutterer, W.; Kolemen, E.; Lister, J.; Sauter, O.; Moreau, D.; Schuster, E.

    2015-02-15

    ITER plasma control design solutions and performance requirements are strongly driven by its nuclear mission, aggressive commissioning constraints, and limited number of operational discharges. In addition, high plasma energy content, heat fluxes, neutron fluxes, and very long pulse operation place novel demands on control performance in many areas ranging from plasma boundary and divertor regulation to plasma kinetics and stability control. Both commissioning and experimental operations schedules provide limited time for tuning of control algorithms relative to operating devices. Although many aspects of the control solutions required by ITER have been well-demonstrated in present devices and even designed satisfactorily for ITER application, many elements unique to ITER including various crucial integration issues are presently under development. We describe selected novel aspects of plasma control in ITER, identifying unique parts of the control problem and highlighting some key areas of research remaining. Novel control areas described include control physics understanding (e.g., current profile regulation, tearing mode (TM) suppression), control mathematics (e.g., algorithmic and simulation approaches to high confidence robust performance), and integration solutions (e.g., methods for management of highly subscribed control resources). We identify unique aspects of the ITER TM suppression scheme, which will pulse gyrotrons to drive current within a magnetic island, and turn the drive off following suppression in order to minimize use of auxiliary power and maximize fusion gain. The potential role of active current profile control and approaches to design in ITER are discussed. Issues and approaches to fault handling algorithms are described, along with novel aspects of actuator sharing in ITER.

  1. What is Aspect-Oriented Programming, Revisited

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Filman, Robert E.; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    For the Advanced Separation of Concerns workshop at OOPSLA 2000 in Minneapolis, Dan Friedman and I wrote a paper that argued that the distinguishing characteristic of Aspect-Oriented Programming systems (qua programming systems) is that they provide quantification and obliviousness. In this paper, I expand on the themes of our Minneapolis workshop paper, respond to some of the comments we've received on that paper, and provide a computational formalization of the notion of quantification.

  2. Some anthropometric aspects of workstation design.

    PubMed

    Pheasant, S

    1987-01-01

    The anthropometric factors which should be taken into account, in the design of any product or environment, fall into four main areas: clearance, reach, posture and strength. A systematic approach to these questions is described and illustrated by reference to certain aspects of the design of hospital equipment. Current standards concerning hospital beds are discussed. The paper concludes with a brief consideration of lifting strength.

  3. Aspects of computer vision in surgical endoscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodin, Vincent; Ayache, Alain; Berreni, N.

    1993-09-01

    This work is related to a project of medical robotics applied to surgical endoscopy, led in collaboration with Doctor Berreni from the Saint Roch nursing-home in Perpignan, France). After taking what Doctor Berreni advises, two aspects of endoscopic color image processing have been brought out: (1) The help to the diagnosis by the automatic detection of the sick areas after a learning phase. (2) The 3D reconstruction of the analyzed cavity by using a zoom.

  4. Economic aspects of chronic diseases in Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Van Minh, Hoang; Lan Huong, Dao; Bao Giang, Kim; Byass, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Introduction There remains a lack of information on economic aspects of chronic diseases. This paper, by gathering available and relevant research findings, aims to report and discuss current evidence on economic aspects of chronic diseases in Vietnam. Methods Data used in this paper were obtained from various information sources: international and national journal articles and studies, government documents and publications, web-based statistics and fact sheets. Results In Vietnam, chronic diseases were shown to be leading causes of deaths, accounting for 66% of all deaths in 2002. The burdens caused by chronic disease morbidity and risk factors are also substantial. Poorer people in Vietnam are more vulnerable to chronic diseases and their risk factors, other than being overweight. The estimated economic loss caused by chronic diseases for Vietnam in 2005 was about US$20 million (0.033% of annual national GDP). Chronic diseases were also shown to cause economic losses for families and individuals in Vietnam. Both population-wide and high-risk individual interventions against chronic disease were shown to be cost-effective in Vietnam. Conclusion Given the evidence from this study, actions to prevent chronic diseases in Vietnam are clearly urgent. Further research findings are required to give greater insights into economic aspects of chronic diseases in Vietnam. PMID:20057939

  5. Reconciling symbolic and dynamic aspects of language

    PubMed Central

    Rączaszek-Leonardi, Joanna; Kelso, J.A. Scott

    2009-01-01

    The present paper examines natural language as a dynamical system. The oft-expressed view of language as “a static system of symbols” is here seen as an element of a larger system that embraces the mutuality of symbols and dynamics. Following along the lines of the theoretical biologist H.H. Pattee, the relation between symbolic and dynamic aspects of language is expressed within a more general framework that deals with the role of information in biological systems. In this framework, symbols are seen as information-bearing entities that emerge under pressures of communicative needs and that serve as concrete constraints on development and communication. In an attempt to identify relevant dynamic aspects of such a system, one has to take into account events that happen on different time scales: evolutionary language change (i.e., a diachronic aspect), processes of communication (language use) and language acquisition. Acknowledging the role of dynamic processes in shaping and sustaining the structures of natural language calls for a change in methodology. In particular, a purely synchronic analysis of a system of symbols as “meaning-containing entities” is not sufficient to obtain answers to certain recurring problems in linguistics and the philosophy of language. A more encompassing research framework may be the one designed specifically for studying informationally based coupled dynamical systems (coordination dynamics) in which processes of self-organization take place over different time scales. PMID:19173014

  6. Aspects of probing on the micro scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bos, Edwin J. C.

    2010-08-01

    This paper discusses the aspects that influence the interaction between a probe tip and a work piece during tactile probing in a coordinate measuring machine (CMM). The trend of component miniaturization results in a need for 3- dimensional characterization of micrometer sized features to nanometer accuracy. As the scale of the measurement decreases, the problems associated with the surface-probe interactions become increasingly apparent. The aspects of the interaction that are discussed include contact forces, surface forces, tip rotations, finite stiffness effects and probe repeatability. These aspects are investigated using the Gannen XP 3D tactile probing system developed by Xpress Precision Engineering using modeling and experimental verification of the effects. The Gannen XP suspension consists of three slender rods with integrated piezo resistive strain gauges. The deformation of the slender rods is measured using the strain gauges and is a measure for the deflection of the probe tip. It is shown that the standard deviation in repeatability is 2 nm in any direction and over the whole measurement range of the probe. The probe has an isotropic stiffness of 480 N/m and a moving mass below 25 mg. Finally, the TriNano CMM will be discussed. This novel coordinate measuring machine is designed for measuring three dimensional micro features with nanometer uncertainty. The TriNano has a kinematic and highly symmetrical design based on three parallel axes and obeys to the Abbe principle in its entire measurement volume.

  7. Aspect-Oriented Subprogram Synthesizes UML Sequence Diagrams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barry, Matthew R.; Osborne, Richard N.

    2006-01-01

    The Rational Sequence computer program described elsewhere includes a subprogram that utilizes the capability for aspect-oriented programming when that capability is present. This subprogram is denoted the Rational Sequence (AspectJ) component because it uses AspectJ, which is an extension of the Java programming language that introduces aspect-oriented programming techniques into the language

  8. Myocardial Na,K-ATPase: Clinical aspects

    PubMed Central

    Kjeldsen, Keld

    2003-01-01

    The specific binding of digitalis glycosides to Na,K-ATPase is used as a tool for Na,K-ATPase quantification with high accuracy and precision. In myocardial biopsies from patients with heart failure, total Na,K-ATPase concentration is decreased by around 40%; a correlation exists between a decrease in heart function and a decrease in Na,K-ATPase concentration. During digitalization, around 30% of remaining pumps are occupied by digoxin. Myocardial Na,K-ATPase is also influenced by other drugs used for the treatment of heart failure. Thus, potassium loss during diuretic therapy has been found to reduce myocardial Na,K-ATPase, whereas angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors may stimulate Na,K pump activity. Furthermore, hyperaldosteronism induced by heart failure has been found to decrease Na,K-ATPase activity. Accordingly, treatment with the aldosterone antagonist, spironolactone, may also influence Na,K-ATPase activity. The importance of Na,K pump modulation with heart disease, inhibition in digitalization and other effects of medication should be considered in the context of sodium, potassium and calcium regulation. It is recommended that digoxin be administered to heart failure patients who, after institution of mortality-reducing therapy, still have heart failure symptoms, and that the therapy be continued if symptoms are revealed or reduced. Digitalis glycosides are the only safe inotropic drugs for oral use that improve hemodynamics in heart failure. An important aspect of myocardial Na,K pump affection in heart disease is its influence on extracellular potassium (Ke) homeostasis. Two important aspects should be considered: potassium handling among myocytes, and effects of potassium entering the extracellular space of the heart via the bloodstream. It should be noted that both of these aspects of Ke homeostasis are affected by regulatory aspects, eg, regulation of the Na,K pump by physiological and pathophysiological conditions, as well as by medical

  9. Noise of Embedded High Aspect Ratio Nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bridges, James E.

    2011-01-01

    A family of high aspect ratio nozzles were designed to provide a parametric database of canonical embedded propulsion concepts. Nozzle throat geometries with aspect ratios of 2:1, 4:1, and 8:1 were chosen, all with convergent nozzle areas. The transition from the typical round duct to the rectangular nozzle was designed very carefully to produce a flow at the nozzle exit that was uniform and free from swirl. Once the basic rectangular nozzles were designed, external features common to embedded propulsion systems were added: extended lower lip (a.k.a. bevel, aft deck), differing sidewalls, and chevrons. For the latter detailed Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations were made to predict the thrust performance and to optimize parameters such as bevel length, and chevron penetration and azimuthal curvature. Seventeen of these nozzles were fabricated at a scale providing a 2.13 inch diameter equivalent area throat." ! The seventeen nozzles were tested for far-field noise and a few data were presented here on the effect of aspect ratio, bevel length, and chevron count and penetration. The sound field of the 2:1 aspect ratio rectangular jet was very nearly axisymmetric, but the 4:1 and 8:1 were not, the noise on their minor axes being louder than the major axes. Adding bevel length increased the noise of these nozzles, especially on their minor axes, both toward the long and short sides of the beveled nozzle. Chevrons were only added to the 2:1 rectangular jet. Adding 4 chevrons per wide side produced some decrease at aft angles, but increased the high frequency noise at right angles to the jet flow. This trend increased with increasing chevron penetration. Doubling the number of chevrons while maintaining their penetration decreased these effects. Empirical models of the parametric effect of these nozzles were constructed and quantify the trends stated above." Because it is the objective of the Supersonics Project that

  10. Nuclear Structure Aspects in Nuclear Astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Michael Scott

    2006-12-01

    Nuclear Astrophysics as a broad and diverse field of study can be viewed as a magnifier of the impact of microscopic processes on the evolution of macroscopic events. One of the primary goals in Nuclear Astrophysics is the understanding of the nucleosynthesis processes that take place in the cosmos and the simulation of the correlated stellar and explosive burning scenarios. These simulations are strongly dependent on the input from Nuclear Physics which sets the time scale for all stellar dynamic processes--from giga-years of stellar evolution to milliseconds of stellar explosions--and provides the basis for most of the signatures that we have for the interpretation of these events--from stellar luminosities, elemental and isotopic abundances to neutrino flux from distant supernovae. The Nuclear Physics input comes through nuclear structure, low energy reaction rates, nuclear masses, and decay rates. There is a common perception that low energy reaction rates are the most important component of the required nuclear physics input; however, in this article we take a broader approach and present an overview of the close correlation between various nuclear structure aspects and their impact on nuclear astrophysics. We discuss the interplay between the weak and the strong forces on stellar time scales due to the limitations they provide for the evolution of slow and rapid burning processes. The effects of shell structure in nuclei on stellar burning processes as well as the impact of clustering in nuclei is outlined. Furthermore we illustrate the effects of the various nuclear structure aspects on the major nucleosynthesis processes that have been identified in the last few decades. We summarize and provide a coherent overview of the impact of all aspects of nuclear structure on nuclear astrophysics.

  11. Institutional and socioeconomic aspects of water supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rauchenschwandtner, H.; Pachel, M.

    2012-04-01

    Institutional and socioeconomic aspects of water supply Within the project CC-WaterS the participating researchers of the Vienna University of Economics and B.A. have been responsible for the analysis of the socioeconomic aspects related to water supply and climate change, the assessment of future water demands in the City of Vienna, as well as an estimation of economic consequences of possible water shortages and possible scope for the introduction of new legal guidelines. The institutional and socioeconomic dimensions of drinking water and sanitation systems are being examined by utilisation of different prognostic scenarios in order to assess future costs of water provisioning and future demands of main water users, thus providing an information basis and recommendations for policy and decision makers in the water sector. These dimensions, for example, include EU legislation - especially the Water Framework Directive -, national legislations and strategies targeted at achieving sustainability in water usage, best practices and different forms of regulating water markets, and an analysis of the implications of demographic change. As a basis this task encompasses research of given institutional, social, and legal-political structures in the area of water supply. In this course we provide an analysis of the structural characteristics of water markets, the role of water prices, the increasing perception of water as an economic good as well as implications thereof, the public awareness in regard to climate change and water resources, as well as related legal aspects and involved actors from regional to international level; and show how water resources and the different systems of water provisioning are affected by (ideological) conflicts on various levels. Furthermore, and in order to provide a solid basis for management recommendations related to climate change and water supply, an analytical risk-assessment framework based on the concepts of new institutional

  12. Psychiatric aspects of pain in cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Ozkan, Sedat

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this review is to discuss the psychiatric aspects of pain in cancer patients from a biopsychosocial approach. Pain in cancer patients is considered as a complex reaction causing severe suffering and involves many psychological aspects. It has many dimensions such as personality, affect, cognition and social relations. The pain experience may also be influenced by some psychological factors such as anxiety, depression and the meaning of pain. Therefore, a successful management of cancer pain requires a multidisciplinary approach. Since cancer pain is generally treated medically, the psychological impact of pain is often underestimated. However, cancer pain is usually related to high levels of psychological distress. Culture, as an important factor affecting cancer pain, will also be discussed during this review. It is crucial to understand cultural diversity in the treatment of cancer patients with pain. Research shows that a minority patients of various ethnicities have less control of their pain because of the miscommunication problem within the medical setting. By paying attention to patients' cultural diversities, problems such as miscommunication causing inadequate control of pain can be eliminated. In order to manage pain in cancer patients, cognitive-behavioral interventions may be integrated with pharmacotherapy. The main goal of these strategies is to provide a sense of control and better coping skills to deal with cancer. Patients' maladaptive thoughts or behaviors may cause physical and emotional stress. Main behavioral strategies include biofeedback, relaxation training, and hypnosis. Cognitive strategies include guided imagery, distraction, thought monitoring and problem solving. By discussing all of these aspects of cancer pain, the multidimensional characteristic of pain and the relation between cancer pain and psychiatric factors will be clarified. PMID:20590361

  13. Psychosocial aspects of rehabilitation in sports.

    PubMed

    Covassin, Tracey; Beidler, Erica; Ostrowski, Jennifer; Wallace, Jessica

    2015-04-01

    When an athlete is injured, the primary focus of the sports medicine team is to treat the physical effects of the injury. However, many injured athletes experience negative psychological responses that should also be addressed throughout the rehabilitation process. Sports medicine professions should use psychosocial skills to help decrease the negative consequences of the injury, such as fear of reinjury, anxiety, depression, and adherence to rehabilitation. These psychosocial skills include goal setting, imagery, relaxation techniques, motivation, and self-talk. This article addresses the negative consequences of injury, psychosocial skills used to aid in the rehabilitation process, and clinical implications of the psychological aspects of rehabilitation in sport. PMID:25818709

  14. Engineering aspects of seismological studies in Peru

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ocola, L.

    1982-01-01

    In retrospect, the Peruvian national long-range earthquake-study program began after the catastrophic earthquake of May 31, 1970. This earthquake triggered a large snow avalanche from Huascaran mountain, killing over 60,000 people, and covering with mud small cities and tens of villages in the Andean valley of Callejon de Huaylas, Huaraz. Since then, great efforts have been made to learn about the natural seismic environment and its engineering and social aspects. The Organization of American States (OAS)has been one of the most important agencies in the development of the program. 

  15. Current aspects of occupational chemical carcinogenesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lassiter, D.

    1975-01-01

    The history of measures to control occupational exposure to carcinogenic substances is reviewed. Health hazards associated with exposure to a certain chemical substance must be considered not only from the aspects of its acute or chronic toxicity, but also from its potential to produce tumors (latent effect). There can be no clear distinction between classic toxicity and oncogenesis until the mechanisms of both are completely understood for a given chemical substance. The assessment of carcinogenic potential for a specific substance must include the consideration of published information, monitoring and control data from the affected industry, and the in-depth epidemiologic experience of affected employees.

  16. Selenium. Nutritional, toxicologic, and clinical aspects

    SciTech Connect

    Fan, A.M.; Kizer, K.W. )

    1990-08-01

    Despite the recent findings of environmental contamination, selenium toxicosis in humans is exceedingly rare in the United States, with the few known cases resulting from industrial accidents and an episode involving the ingestion of superpotent selenium supplements. Chronic selenosis is essentially unheard of in this country because of the typical diversity of the American diet. Nonetheless, because of the growing public interest in selenium as a dietary supplement and the occurrence of environmental selenium contamination, medical practitioners should be familiar with the nutritional, toxicologic, and clinical aspects of this trace element. 53 references.

  17. Statistical aspects of food safety sampling.

    PubMed

    Jongenburger, I; den Besten, H M W; Zwietering, M H

    2015-01-01

    In food safety management, sampling is an important tool for verifying control. Sampling by nature is a stochastic process. However, uncertainty regarding results is made even greater by the uneven distribution of microorganisms in a batch of food. This article reviews statistical aspects of sampling and describes the impact of distributions on the sampling results. Five different batch contamination scenarios are illustrated: a homogeneous batch, a heterogeneous batch with high- or low-level contamination, and a batch with localized high- or low-level contamination. These batch contamination scenarios showed that sampling results have to be interpreted carefully, especially when heterogeneous and localized contamination in food products is expected.

  18. An Underdiscussed Aspect of Chomsky (1959)

    PubMed Central

    Adelman, Barry Eshkol

    2007-01-01

    Chomsky's (1959) review of Skinner's (1957) Verbal Behavior has been influential and attributed with a role in the cognitive revolution. However, while counter reviews from within behavior analysis have noted that Chomsky misunderstood the subject matter, certain aspects of his scholarship have been underdiscussed. This includes several instances where Chomsky misquotes Skinner or takes his quotes out of context. Similar to the findings of Sokal (1996a, 1996b), it is speculated that the problems with Chomsky were overlooked by cognitive psychologists because his general outlook was accepted. Implications for the editorial review process are discussed. PMID:22477378

  19. An underdiscussed aspect of chomsky (1959).

    PubMed

    Adelman, Barry Eshkol

    2007-01-01

    Chomsky's (1959) review of Skinner's (1957)Verbal Behavior has been influential and attributed with a role in the cognitive revolution. However, while counter reviews from within behavior analysis have noted that Chomsky misunderstood the subject matter, certain aspects of his scholarship have been underdiscussed. This includes several instances where Chomsky misquotes Skinner or takes his quotes out of context. Similar to the findings of Sokal (1996a, 1996b), it is speculated that the problems with Chomsky were overlooked by cognitive psychologists because his general outlook was accepted. Implications for the editorial review process are discussed.

  20. Psychosocial aspects of rehabilitation in sports.

    PubMed

    Covassin, Tracey; Beidler, Erica; Ostrowski, Jennifer; Wallace, Jessica

    2015-04-01

    When an athlete is injured, the primary focus of the sports medicine team is to treat the physical effects of the injury. However, many injured athletes experience negative psychological responses that should also be addressed throughout the rehabilitation process. Sports medicine professions should use psychosocial skills to help decrease the negative consequences of the injury, such as fear of reinjury, anxiety, depression, and adherence to rehabilitation. These psychosocial skills include goal setting, imagery, relaxation techniques, motivation, and self-talk. This article addresses the negative consequences of injury, psychosocial skills used to aid in the rehabilitation process, and clinical implications of the psychological aspects of rehabilitation in sport.

  1. PSYCHOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF IRRITABLE BOWEL SYNDROME

    PubMed Central

    Rajagopalan, Mani; Kurian, George; John, Jacob K.

    1996-01-01

    Psychological aspects of Irritable Bowel Syndrome have been well investigated in Western countries, but there is a paucity of Indian studies focusing on this area. A series of fifty patients with the Irritable Bowel Syndrome were studied with respect to their depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms and their personality traits. Patients had a mean score of 14.68 on Hamilton's depression rating scale and 11.22 on Hamilton's anxiety rating scale, and were more introverted and more neurotic than the general population. No association was found between psychological symptoms and severity of gastrointestinal symptoms. These findings suggest that psychological symptoms are a concomitant part of the Irritable Bowel Syndrome. PMID:21584134

  2. High aspect ratio, remote controlled pumping assembly

    DOEpatents

    Brown, Steve B.; Milanovich, Fred P.

    1995-01-01

    A miniature dual syringe-type pump assembly which has a high aspect ratio and which is remotely controlled, for use such as in a small diameter penetrometer cone or well packer used in water contamination applications. The pump assembly may be used to supply and remove a reagent to a water contamination sensor, for example, and includes a motor, gearhead and motor encoder assembly for turning a drive screw for an actuator which provides pushing on one syringe and pulling on the other syringe for injecting new reagent and withdrawing used reagent from an associated sensor.

  3. Selenium. Nutritional, toxicologic, and clinical aspects.

    PubMed Central

    Fan, A. M.; Kizer, K. W.

    1990-01-01

    Despite the recent findings of environmental contamination, selenium toxicosis in humans is exceedingly rare in the United States, with the few known cases resulting from industrial accidents and an episode involving the ingestion of superpotent selenium supplements. Chronic selenosis is essentially unheard of in this country because of the typical diversity of the American diet. Nonetheless, because of the growing public interest in selenium as a dietary supplement and the occurrence of environmental selenium contamination, medical practitioners should be familiar with the nutritional, toxicologic, and clinical aspects of this trace element. PMID:2219873

  4. [Clinical aspects of viral respiratory infections].

    PubMed

    Pescetti, G; Gozzelino, F

    1980-12-01

    The Authors deal with some clinical aspect of the commonest types of respiratory tract viral infections. After a description of the characteristics of the most important diseases (common cold, ARD, influenza, viral pneumonia) they deal with some particular problem difficult in resolution, both from a pathogenetic and clinical viewpoint and quite constant bacterial over infection, the cardiac complications, th possible evolution to fibrosis and the relationship between viral infections and asthma. The nowadays problem of immunological and chemotherapeutic prevention of viral infections, particularly of type A influenza, is also discussed.

  5. Acoustic aspects of a radial diffuser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Krasinski, J.; Sun, S.; Wawszczak, W.

    This paper describes experimental research on the acoustical aspects of an axially-symmetrical radial diffuser. Tests were made at high subsonic and supersonic speeds at the diffuser entry, using compressed air. The results are analyzed from the point of view of the internal flow and Lighthill's theory of sound generated aerodynamically. The outstanding features of this diffuser are a high efficiency in subsonic and supersonic ranges and extreme shortness and powerful sound attenuating capacity. The noise level of a supersonic nozzle at Mach 4.0 was reduced from about 110 dB to 80 dB.

  6. Social psychological aspects of energy conservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aronson, Elliot; Yates, Suzanne

    1985-11-01

    Although some increases in the adoption of energy-efficient practices have been noted, only a small fraction of the potential savings are being realized, perhaps because human behavior is too complex for existing economic models. The rational-economic model is able to predict behavior in many situations, but it has limitations. To design effective public policy, the social, cognitive, and personal forces, that in addition to the economic realities define the situation, must be understood. This chapter examines one aspect of current energy conservation policy, the home energy audit program mandated by the Residential Conservation Service, and attempts to show how existing social psychological research might be beneficially applied.

  7. Some aspects of virtual black holes

    SciTech Connect

    Faizal, M.

    2012-03-15

    We first consider consistently third-quantize modified gravity. We then analyze certain aspects of virtual black holes in this third-quantized modified gravity. We see how a statistical mechanical origin for the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy naturally arises in this model. Furthermore, the area and hence the entropy of a real macroscopic black hole is quantized in this model. Virtual black holes cause a loss of quantum coherence, which gives an intrinsic entropy to all physical systems that can be used to define a direction of time and hence provide a solution to the problem of time.

  8. Some aspects of the palaeoecology of commensals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somerville, Elizabeth M.

    1999-10-01

    As well as the economically important mammals, many other vertebrate species live in and around human settlements. Some of these commensals (e.g. Mus domesticus, Passer domesticus) have a long history of association with people. The zooarchaeological record is sparse because systematic sieving is required to retrieve the bones of such small species. However, it is also possible to investigate this aspect of the palaeoecology of human settlement by using studies of the behavioural ecology of modern species. The relationship between people and their commensals, both indigenous and invading, is places in the overall context of landscape change in Britain.

  9. Aspects of SUSY CFTs and RG flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Intriligator, Kenneth; Cordova, Clay; Dumitrescu, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    Supersymmetry is used to explore aspects of quantum field theories in various spacetime dimensions. There are interacting, supersymmetric conformal field theories (SCFTs) in six and lower spacetime dimensions. We have argued for the a-theorem in six dimensions, by using susy to connect the conformal a-anomaly to the six-dimensional analog of 't Hooft anomalies, for the R-symmetry and gravity. We also use strong constraints on the unitary representations of the superconformal group to classify supersymmetry preserving deformations of SCFTs in various spacetime dimensions.

  10. Engineering aspects of a kinestatic charge detector.

    PubMed

    Giakos, G C; Dibianca, F A; Endorf, R J; Wagenaar, D J; Devidas, S; Zeman, H; Laughter, J; Nagarajan, S; Mahmud, A; Kollipara, S

    1995-01-01

    The engineering aspects of a nine-channel digital radiographic system developed for bioimaging research, based on high gas pressure ionography and kinestatic principles, are presented. The research imaging system uses a pulsed x-ray beam which allows one to study simultaneously the ionic signal characteristics at 10 different ionization sites along the drift axis. This research imaging detector system allows one to investigate methods to improve the detection and image quality parameters as part of the development of a large scale prototype medical imaging system. PMID:21307485

  11. Some Geometrical Aspects of M-Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Azcárraga, José A.; Izquierdo, José M.

    2008-06-01

    Some geometrical aspects of super-p-brane theory, M-theory, and their connection with supergravity, are reviewed. In particular, the different fractions of preserved supersymmetries are discussed both from the algebraic and the supergravity solutions point of view. We also review the `preon conjecture' according to which states preserving a 31/32 fraction of supersymmetries would be the building blocks of M-theory, and on the failed attempts made so far to find these states in terms of supergravity solutions.

  12. Medical knowledge evolution query constraining aspects.

    PubMed

    Eklund, Ann-Marie

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present a first analysis towards better understanding of the query constraining aspects of knowledge, as expressed in the most used public medical bibliographic database MEDLINE. Our results indicate, possibly not surprising, that new terms occur, but also that traditional terms are replaced by more specific ones or even go out of use as they become common knowledge. Hence, as knowledge evolve over time, search methods may benefit from becoming more sensitive to knowledge expression, to enable finding new, as well as older, relevant database contents.

  13. Photodynamic therapy--aspects of pain management.

    PubMed

    Fink, Christine; Enk, Alexander; Gholam, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Topical photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a highly effective and safe treatment method for actinic keratoses with an excellent cosmetic outcome and is commonly used for the therapy of large areas of photodamaged skin with multiple clinically manifest and subclinical lesions. However, the major drawback of photodynamic therapy is the pain experienced during the treatment that can be intense and sometimes even intolerable for patients, requiring interruption or termination of the process. Several strategies for controlling pain during photodynamic therapy have been studied but few effective methods are currently available. Therefore, this review puts the spotlight on predictors on pain intensity and aspects of pain management during photodynamic therapy. PMID:25640485

  14. Flutter analysis of low aspect ratio wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parnell, L. A.

    1986-01-01

    Several very low aspect ratio flat plate wing configurations are analyzed for their aerodynamic instability (flutter) characteristics. All of the wings investigated are delta planforms with clipped tips, made of aluminum alloy plate and cantilevered from the supporting vehicle body. Results of both subsonic and supersonic NASTRAN aeroelastic analyses as well as those from another version of the program implementing the supersonic linearized aerodynamic theory are presented. Results are selectively compared with the experimental data; however, supersonic predictions of the Mach Box method in NASTRAN are found to be erratic and erroneous, requiring the use of a separate program.

  15. High aspect ratio, remote controlled pumping assembly

    DOEpatents

    Brown, S.B.; Milanovich, F.P.

    1995-11-14

    A miniature dual syringe-type pump assembly is described which has a high aspect ratio and which is remotely controlled, for use such as in a small diameter penetrometer cone or well packer used in water contamination applications. The pump assembly may be used to supply and remove a reagent to a water contamination sensor, for example, and includes a motor, gearhead and motor encoder assembly for turning a drive screw for an actuator which provides pushing on one syringe and pulling on the other syringe for injecting new reagent and withdrawing used reagent from an associated sensor. 4 figs.

  16. Aspects of microwave-heating uniformity

    SciTech Connect

    Ginsberg, T.; Makowitz, H.

    1983-01-01

    Interest has been shown in the field of nuclear reactor safety in the use of microwave heating to simulate the nuclear heat source. The objective of the investigation reported here was to evaluate the usefulness of microwave dielectric heating as a simulator of the nuclear heat source in experiments which simulate the process of boiling of molten mixtures of nuclear fuel and steel. This paper summarizes the results of studies of several aspects of energy deposition in dielectric liquid samples which are exposed to microwave radiation.

  17. [New aspects in aortic valve disease].

    PubMed

    Tornos, P

    2001-01-01

    Renewed interest for aortic valve disease has evolved in recent years. Aortic valve replacement has become the second most frequent cause of cardiac surgery, following coronary bypass surgery. In addition, the etiologic and physiopathologic knowledge of this disorder has improved. In the present paper we analyze three aspects of the disease which are, at present, the subject of study and controversy: first, we discuss the possible relationship between degenerative aortic stenosis and atherosclerosis; second, the involvement of the aortic root in cases of bicuspid aortic valve; and third, the surgical indications in asymptomatic patients with either aortic stenosis or regurgitation.

  18. [Microbiological and clinical aspects of tularaemia].

    PubMed

    Pavliš, Oto; Pohanka, Miroslav

    2011-10-01

    Francisella tularensis belongs to the most important biological agents potentially applicable in biological warfare and bioterrorism. High virulence, easy and rapid spread among individual vectors, stability of the cells in aerosol and good penetration into the lungs make F. tularensis one of the most important biological warfare agents in both human and veterinary medicine. The text provides comprehensive data about tularaemia and outlines the fate of the pathogen in the host. Special attention is paid to immunological aspects of the disease, therapy, and diagnostic methods.

  19. Biochemical and physiological aspects of endogenous androgens.

    PubMed

    Kicman, Andrew T

    2010-01-01

    This review attempts to give a synopsis of the major aspects concerning the biochemistry of endogenous androgens, supplemented with several facets of physiology, particularly with respect to testosterone. Testosterone continues to be the most common adverse finding declared by World Anti-Doping Agency accredited laboratories, such samples having an augmented testosterone to epitestosterone ratio. Knowledge regarding the precursors and metabolism of endogenous testosterone is therefore fundamental to understanding many of the issues concerning doping with testosterone and its prohormones, including the detection of their administration. Further, adverse findings for nandrolone are frequent, but this steroid and 19-norandrostenedione are also produced endogenously, an appealing hypothesis being that they are minor by-products of the aromatization of androgens. At sports tribunals pertaining to adverse analytical findings of natural androgen administration, experts often raise issues that concern some aspect of steroid biochemistry and physiology. Salient topics included within this review are the origins and interconversion of endogenous androgens, the biosynthesis of testosterone and epitestosterone, the mechanism of aromatization, the molecular biology of the androgen receptor, the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis, disturbances to this axis by anabolic steroid administration, the transport (binding) of androgens in blood, and briefly the metabolism and excretion of androgens.

  20. Immunological aspects of chronic venous disease pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Grudzińska, Ewa

    2014-01-01

    Chronic venous disease (CVD) is a very common health problem concerning up to 1/3 of the society. Although venous hypertension and valvular incompetence have been long known to be crucial for development of the illness, its exact aetiology remains unclear. Recent findings indicate that inflammatory processes may be crucial for development of incompetent valves and vein wall remodelling. One of the most interesting theories describes “leucocyte trapping” as the mechanism responsible for elevated vein wall permeability and oxidative stress in the veins. At the same time, the cytokine profile of the blood in incompetent veins has not been thoroughly examined. Popular anti-inflammatory drugs relieve some symptoms but do not have much proved effects in prevention and treatment. We intend to summarize the existing knowledge of the immunological aspects of CVD in order to emphasize its importance for understanding the aetiology of this illness. We also wish to indicate some aspects that remain to be studied in more detail. PMID:26155174

  1. Aspects on Transfer of Aided - Design Files

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goanta, A. M.; Anghelache, D. G.

    2016-08-01

    At this stage of development of hardware and software, each company that makes design software packages has a certain type of file created and customized in time to distinguish that company from its competitors. Thus today are widely known the DWG files belonging AutoCAD, IPT / IAM belonging to Inventor, PAR / ASM of Solid Edge's, PRT from the NX and so on. Behind every type of file there is a mathematical model which is common to more types of files. A specific aspect of the computer -aided design is that all softwares are working with both individual parts and assemblies, but their approach is different in that some use the same type of file both for each part and for the whole (PRT ), while others use different types of files (IPT / IAM, PAR / ASM, etc.). Another aspect of the computer -aided design is to transfer files between different companies which use different software packages or even the same software package but in different versions. Each of these situations generates distinct issues. Thus, to solve the partial reading by a project different from the native one, transfer files of STEP and IGES type are used

  2. Omniclassical Diffusion in Low Aspect Ratio Tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    H.E. Mynick; R.B. White; D.A. Gates

    2004-03-19

    Recently reported numerical results for axisymmetric devices with low aspect ratio A found radial transport enhanced over the expected neoclassical value by a factor of 2 to 3. In this paper, we provide an explanation for this enhancement. Transport theory in toroidal devices usually assumes large A, and that the ratio B{sub p}/B{sub t} of the poloidal to the toroidal magnetic field is small. These assumptions result in transport which, in the low collision limit, is dominated by banana orbits, giving the largest collisionless excursion of a particle from an initial flux surface. However in a small aspect ratio device one may have B{sub p}/B{sub t} {approx} 1, and the gyroradius may be larger than the banana excursion. Here, we develop an approximate analytic transport theory valid for devices with arbitrary A. For low A, we find that the enhanced transport, referred to as omniclassical, is a combination of neoclassical and properly generalized classical effects, which become dominant in the low-A, B{sub p}/B{sub t} {approx} 1 regime. Good agreement of the analytic theory with numerical simulations is obtained.

  3. Modeling generic aspects of ideal fibril formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, D.

    2016-01-01

    Many different proteins self-aggregate into insoluble fibrils growing apically by reversible addition of elementary building blocks. But beyond this common principle, the modalities of fibril formation are very disparate, with various intermediate forms which can be reshuffled by minor modifications of physico-chemical conditions or amino-acid sequences. To bypass this complexity, the multifaceted phenomenon of fibril formation is reduced here to its most elementary principles defined for a linear prototype of fibril. Selected generic features, including nucleation, elongation, and conformational recruitment, are modeled using minimalist hypotheses and tools, by separating equilibrium from kinetic aspects and in vitro from in vivo conditions. These reductionist approaches allow to bring out known and new rudiments, including the kinetic and equilibrium effects of nucleation, the dual influence of elongation on nucleation, the kinetic limitations on nucleation and fibril numbers, and the accumulation of complexes in vivo by rescue from degradation. Overlooked aspects of these processes are also pointed: the exponential distribution of fibril lengths can be recovered using various models because it is attributable to randomness only. It is also suggested that the same term "critical concentration" is used for different things, involved in either nucleation or elongation.

  4. Hindlimb unloading rodent model: technical aspects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morey-Holton, Emily R.; Globus, Ruth K.

    2002-01-01

    Since its inception at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Ames Research Center in the mid-1970s, many laboratories around the world have used the rat hindlimb unloading model to simulate weightlessness and to study various aspects of musculoskeletal loading. In this model, the hindlimbs of rodents are elevated to produce a 30 degrees head-down tilt, which results in a cephalad fluid shift and avoids weightbearing by the hindquarters. Although several reviews have described scientific results obtained with this model, this is the first review to focus on the technical aspects of hindlimb unloading. This review includes a history of the technique, a brief comparison with spaceflight data, technical details, extension of the model to mice, and other important technical considerations (e.g., housing, room temperature, unloading angle, the potential need for multiple control groups, age, body weight, the use of the forelimb tissues as internal controls, and when to remove animals from experiments). This paper is intended as a reference for researchers, reviewers of manuscripts, and institutional animal care and use committees. Over 800 references, related to the hindlimb unloading model, can be accessed via the electronic version of this article.

  5. Clinical aspects of neurocysticercosis in children.

    PubMed

    Morales, N M; Agapejev, S; Morales, R R; Padula, N A; Lima, M M

    2000-04-01

    The purpose of this report was to evaluate the clinical aspects of neurocysticercosis in children from a Brazilian region. A retrospective study of 25 children with this neuroparasitosis was performed. The diagnosis was based on clinical, cerebrospinal fluid, and neuroimaging findings. The patients were predominantly male (72%), were 1 to 11 years of age (average = 8 years, 6 months), and most resided in urban areas (68%). The more frequent manifestations were epileptic seizures (72%), headache (60%), learning disability (24%), behavioral changes (12%), psychomotor involution (8%), and intracranial hypertension (4%). The neurologic examination was normal in 80% of the patients. Twenty-two children received only symptomatic drugs. Three patients underwent treatment with cysticidal drugs, one with praziquantel and two with albendazole, with complete remission of the signs in one patient (33%) and improvement in two others (67%). Of the 25 patients, 43.4% had remission and 47.8% had improvement. We emphasize the need to consider neurocysticercosis as a differential diagnosis in children coming from endemic areas and presenting with learning disabilities, behavioral changes, and psychomotor involution. The clinical aspects in most of the children from the Botucatu region suggest a spontaneous resolution of neurocysticercosis without the need for cysticidal treatment.

  6. Psychiatric aspects of murder and attempted murder.

    PubMed

    Medicott, R W

    1976-01-14

    The clinical data and forensic aspects of 28 individuals charged with murder and 10 charged with attempted murder examined over the last 35 years are recorded. The majority of those aged 40 years or over were criminally insane. A positive family history of psychiatric illness was present in the majority of the criminally insane group. Murder and attempted murder in the setting of a stable marriage was almost invariably the result of serious psychiatric illness. After the clearcut cases of schizophrenia and depressive illness were separated there were left a mixed paranoid group and a large group of individuals with severe personality disorders. Of the forensic aspects a case is made for the wider use of "unfitness to plead" in the severely psychotic. The follow-up of cases strongly suggested that those found not guilty on psychiatric grounds were likely to be held for longer periods than those treated as criminals. The author suggests that the public would be better protected if the Crown sought an insanity verdict in some cases rather than oppose it.

  7. Chemical aspects of nuclear waste treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Bond, W. D.

    1980-01-01

    The chemical aspects of the treatment of gaseous, liquid, and solid wastes are discussed in overview. The role of chemistry and the chemical reactions in waste treatment are emphasized. Waste treatment methods encompass the chemistry of radioactive elements from every group of the periodic table. In most streams, the radioactive elements are present in relatively low concentrations and are often associated with moderately large amounts of process reagents, or materials. In general, it is desirable that waste treatment methods are based on chemistry that is selective for the concentration of radionuclides and does not require the addition of reagents that contribute significantly to the volume of the treated waste. Solvent extraction, ion exchange, and sorbent chemistry play a major role in waste treatment because of the high selectivity provided for many radionuclides. This paper deals with the chemistry of the onsite treatment methods that is typically used at nuclear installations and is not concerned with the chemistry of the various alternative materials proposed for long-term storage of nuclear wastes. The chemical aspects are discussed from a generic point of view in which the chemistry of important radionuclides is emphasized.

  8. Functional aspects of emotions in fish.

    PubMed

    Kittilsen, Silje

    2013-11-01

    There is an ongoing scientific discussion on whether fish have emotions, and if so how they experience them? The discussion has incorporated important areas such as brain anatomy and function, physiological and behavioural responses, and the cognitive abilities that fish possess. Little attention has however, been directed towards what functional aspects emotions ought to have in fish. If fish have emotions - why? The elucidation of this question and an assessment of the scientific evidences of emotions in fish in an evolutionary and functional framework would represent a valuable contribution in the discussion on whether fish are emotional creatures. Here parts of the vast amount of literature from both biology and psychology relating to the scientific field of emotions, animal emotion, and the functional aspects that emotions fulfil in the lives of humans and animals are reviewed. Subsequently, by viewing fish behaviour, physiology and cognitive abilities in the light of this functional framework it is possible to infer what functions emotions may serve in fish. This approach may contribute to the vital running discussion on the subject of emotions in fish. In fact, if it can be substantiated that emotions are likely to serve a function in fish similar to that of other higher vertebrate species, the notion that fish do have emotions will be strengthened.

  9. Specific aspects of erectile dysfunction in sexology.

    PubMed

    Borrás-Valls, J J; Gonzalez-Correales, R

    2004-10-01

    The sexology of erectile dysfunction (ED) is approached from a perspective that integrates medical, psychological, and social aspects. This article reviews the clinical intervention in sexology beginning with the diagnostic evaluation, where the organic and psychological factors (predisposing, precipitating, and perpetuating) contributing to ED are determined. A description of the differential diagnosis process follows, which establishes the relevance of organic factors in order to organize therapeutic strategies. There are three possible treatment processes: psychological intervention with the patient, intervention on the partner relationship, or intervention with the partner. Referral criteria are also described, such as when patients with ED should be referred to a sexologist, and to whom sexologists should refer patients with ED.

  10. [Forensic aspects of gunshot suicides in Germany].

    PubMed

    Kunz, Sebastian Niko; Meyer, Harald J; Kraus, Sybille

    2013-12-01

    Suicidal gunshot wounds are a common appearance in forensic casework. The main task of the coroner lies in the detection of typical pathomorphological correlates, thus differentiating between homicide, suicide and accident. Apart from characteristic bloodstain patterns on the gun and shooting hand, the localisation of the entrance wound and the position of the weapon, additional details such as family background or medical history are important aspects of forensic investigation. An uncommon choice of weaponry and its unusual morphological manifestation often complicate the examination and reconstruction of such cases. Furthermore, due to social stigmatisation, the possibility of secondary changes by relatives at the crime scene should be considered. In addition to autopsy findings, a careful crime scene investigation and bloodstain pattern analysis, a ballistic reconstruction can be an essential tool to gain knowledge of the shooting distance and position of the gun. PMID:23857247

  11. Aspect of Thrombolytic Therapy: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Md. Ramjan; Salim Hossain, Mohammad; Saiful Islam Arman, Md.; Sarwar Raju, Golam; Dasgupta, Prianka; Noshin, Tasnim Fariha

    2014-01-01

    Thrombolytic therapy, also known as clot busting drug, is a breakthrough treatment which has saved untold lives. It has been used in the clinical area to treat venous and arterial thromboembolic complaints which are a foremost cause of death. In 1761, Morgagni lead the way of thrombolytic therapy. Now day's different types of thrombolytic drugs are currently available in market: alteplase, anistreplase, urokinase, streptokinase, tenecteplase, and so forth. Thrombolytic therapy should be given with maintaining proper care in order to minimize the risk of clinically important bleeding as well as enhance the chances of successfully thrombolysis of clot. These cares include preinfusion care, during the infusion care, and postinfusion care. Besides proper knowledge of contraindication, evolutionary factor, and combination of drug is essential for successful thrombolytic therapy. In these review we discussed about these aspect of thrombolytic therapy. PMID:25574487

  12. [Nonpharmacologic and rehabilitation aspects in inpatient settings].

    PubMed

    Gatterer, G; Rosenberger-Spitzy, A

    1996-01-01

    Dementia is one of the most psychic diseases of people over the age of 65 years and are often the reason or consequence of a hospitalization or need for commitment to rest homes. However, this disease should not lead to therapeutic nihilism, it should be a challenge for the development of new ideas and care concepts. The present publication shows the possibilities of non-pharmacological rehabilitative measures in the stationary field, whereby the priorities are on psychological and psychotherapeutical and also milieu therapeutical aspects. Additional well known intervention measures (e.g. physicotherapy, ergotherapy, logopedia, care) are summarized. Especially new concepts in stationary care can help to improve quality of life of geriatric patients with dementia in stationary fields: therefore they should be promoted and integrated to a greater amount into the total rehabilitative concept.

  13. Economic Aspects of the Chemical Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koleske, Joseph V.

    Within the formal disciplines of science at traditional universities, through the years, chemistry has grown to have a unique status because of its close correspondence with an industry and with a branch of engineering—the chemical industry and chemical engineering. There is no biology industry, but aspects of biology have closely related disciplines such as fish raising and other aquaculture, animal cloning and other facets of agriculture, ethical drugs of pharmaceutical manufacture, genomics, water quality and conservation, and the like. Although there is no physics industry, there are power generation, electricity, computers, optics, magnetic media, and electronics that exist as industries. However, in the case of chemistry, there is a named industry. This unusual correspondence no doubt came about because in the chemical industry one makes things from raw materials—chemicals—and the science, manufacture, and use of chemicals grew up together during the past century or so.

  14. Conceptual Aspects of Gauge/Gravity Duality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Haro, Sebastian; Mayerson, Daniel R.; Butterfield, Jeremy N.

    2016-11-01

    We give an introductory review of gauge/gravity duality, and associated ideas of holography, emphasising the conceptual aspects. The opening sections gather the ingredients, viz. anti-de Sitter spacetime, conformal field theory and string theory, that we need for presenting, in Sect. 5, the central and original example: Maldacena's AdS/CFT correspondence. Sections 6 and 7 develop the ideas of this example, also in applications to condensed matter systems, QCD, and hydrodynamics. Sections 8 and 9 discuss the possible extensions of holographic ideas to de Sitter spacetime and to black holes. Section 10 discusses the bearing of gauge/gravity duality on two philosophical topics: the equivalence of physical theories, and the idea that spacetime, or some features of it, are emergent.

  15. Energy optimization aspects by injection process technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tulbure, A.; Ciortea, M.; Hutanu, C.; Farcas, V.

    2016-08-01

    In the proposed paper, the authors examine the energy aspects related to the injection moulding process technology in the automotive industry. Theoretical considerations have been validated by experimental measurements on the manufacturing process, for two types of injections moulding machines, hydraulic and electric. Practical measurements have been taken with professional equipment separately on each technological operation: lamination, compression, injection and expansion. For results traceability, the following parameters were, whenever possible, maintained: cycle time, product weight and the relative time. The aim of the investigations was to carry out a professional energy audit with accurate losses identification. Base on technological diagram for each production cycle, at the end of this contribution, some measure to reduce the energy consumption were proposed.

  16. Aspects of wave turbulence in preheating

    SciTech Connect

    Crespo, José A.; De Oliveira, H.P. E-mail: oliveira@dft.if.uerj.br

    2014-06-01

    In this work we have studied the nonlinear preheating dynamics of several inflationary models. It is well established that after a linear stage of preheating characterized by the parametric resonance, the nonlinear dynamics becomes relevant driving the system towards turbulence. Wave turbulence is the appropriated description of this phase since the matter contents are fields instead of usual fluids. Turbulence develops due to the nonlinear interations of waves, here represented by the small inhomogeneities of the scalar fields. We present relevant aspects of wave turbulence such as the Kolmogorov-Zakharov spectrum in frequency and wave number that indicates the energy transfer through scales. From the power spectrum of the matter energy density we were able to estimate the temperature of the thermalized system.

  17. [Microbiological aspects of zirconia orthopedic structures].

    PubMed

    Panteleev, V D; Chervinets, V M; Troshin, A V; Panteleev, S V; Chervinets, A V

    2015-01-01

    The article gives a detailed analysis of oral cavity microbiological aspects of 23 patients before and after prosthetic treatment with zirconia structures. Microbiocenoses of oral cavity in patients with defects of the dentition can be described as disbiotic. It was found that the incidence of lactobacilli and bifidobacteria was increased and frequency of occurrence of pathogens, including Staphylococcus aureus, was decreased under the influence of temporary plastic prosthesis as an intermediate step prosthetics. After applying prosthetic zirconia an increase of the normal biotopes number was seen, as well as reduce in the number of Staphylococcus aureus and the yeast fungus Candida to less than 4 lg CFU/ml. Such amounts do not cause inflammation in the oral cavity.

  18. Current aspects of auxin biosynthesis in plants.

    PubMed

    Kasahara, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Auxin is an important plant hormone essential for many aspects of plant growth and development. Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) is the most studied auxin in plants, and its biosynthesis pathway has been investigated for over 70 years. Although the complete picture of auxin biosynthesis remains to be elucidated, remarkable progress has been made recently in understanding the mechanism of IAA biosynthesis. Genetic and biochemical studies demonstrate that IAA is mainly synthesized from l-tryptophan (Trp) via indole-3-pyruvate by two-step reactions in Arabidopsis. While IAA is also produced from Trp via indole-3-acetaldoxime in Arabidopsis, this pathway likely plays an auxiliary role in plants of the family Brassicaceae. Recent studies suggest that the Trp-independent pathway is not a major route for IAA biosynthesis, but they reveal an important role for a cytosolic indole synthase in this pathway. In this review, I summarize current views and future prospects of IAA biosynthesis research in plants.

  19. Cross-cultural aspects of anxiety disorders.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Stefan G; Hinton, Devon E

    2014-06-01

    A person's cultural background influences the experience and expression of emotions. In reviewing the recent literature on cross-cultural aspects of anxiety disorders, we identified some culturally related ethnopsychology/ethnophysiology factors (the culture's conceptualizations of how the mind and body function) and contextual factors that influence anxiety disorders. Ethnopsychology/ethnophysiology factors include the person's ideas about the mental and bodily processes (and their interaction), whereas contextual factors are associated with the social norms and rules that may contribute to anxiety, including individualism vs. collectivism and self-construals. From the perspective of ethnopsychology/ethnophysiology and contextual factors, we will discuss "khyâl cap" ("wind attacks"), taijin kyofusho, and ataques de nervios, three prominent examples of culture-specific expressions of anxiety disorders that have all been included in the DSM-5 list of cultural concepts of distress. PMID:24744049

  20. Ethical aspects of tissue engineering: a review.

    PubMed

    de Vries, Rob B M; Oerlemans, Anke; Trommelmans, Leen; Dierickx, Kris; Gordijn, Bert

    2008-12-01

    Tissue engineering (TE) is a promising new field of medical technology. However, like other new technologies, it is not free of ethical challenges. Identifying these ethical questions at an early stage is not only part of science's responsibility toward society, but also in the interest of the field itself. In this review, we map which ethical issues related to TE have already been documented in the scientific literature. The issues that turn out to dominate the debate are the use of human embryonic stem cells and therapeutic cloning. Nevertheless, a variety of other ethical aspects are mentioned, which relate to different phases in the development of the field. In addition, we discuss a number of ethical issues that have not yet been raised in the literature.

  1. Conceptual Aspects of Gauge/Gravity Duality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Haro, Sebastian; Mayerson, Daniel R.; Butterfield, Jeremy N.

    2016-07-01

    We give an introductory review of gauge/gravity duality, and associated ideas of holography, emphasising the conceptual aspects. The opening sections gather the ingredients, viz. anti-de Sitter spacetime, conformal field theory and string theory, that we need for presenting, in Sect. 5, the central and original example: Maldacena's AdS/CFT correspondence. Sections 6 and 7 develop the ideas of this example, also in applications to condensed matter systems, QCD, and hydrodynamics. Sections 8 and 9 discuss the possible extensions of holographic ideas to de Sitter spacetime and to black holes. Section 10 discusses the bearing of gauge/gravity duality on two philosophical topics: the equivalence of physical theories, and the idea that spacetime, or some features of it, are emergent.

  2. Social psychological aspects of energy conservation

    SciTech Connect

    Aronson, E.; Yates, S.

    1985-01-01

    Although some increases in the adoption of energy-efficient practices have been noted, only a small fraction of the potential savings are being realized, perhaps because human behavior is too complex for existing economic models. The rational-economic model is able to predict behavior in many situations, but it has limitations. To design effective public policy, the social, cognitive, and personal forces, which in addition to the economic realities define the situation, must be understood. This chapter examines one aspect of current energy-conservation policy, the home energy audit program mandated by the Residential Conservation Service, and attempts to show how existing social psychological research might be beneficially applied. 8 references.

  3. Daytime Aspect Camera for Balloon Altitudes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dietz, Kurt L.; Ramsey, Brian D.; Alexander, Cheryl D.; Apple, Jeff A.; Ghosh, Kajal K.; Swift, Wesley R.

    2002-01-01

    We have designed, built, and flight-tested a new star camera for daytime guiding of pointed balloon-borne experiments at altitudes around 40 km. The camera and lens are commercially available, off-the-shelf components, but require a custom-built baffle to reduce stray light, especially near the sunlit limb of the balloon. This new camera, which operates in the 600- to 1000-nm region of the spectrum, successfully provides daytime aspect information of approx. 10 arcsec resolution for two distinct star fields near the galactic plane. The detected scattered-light backgrounds show good agreement with the Air Force MODTRAN models used to design the camera, but the daytime stellar magnitude limit was lower than expected due to longitudinal chromatic aberration in the lens. Replacing the commercial lens with a custom-built lens should allow the system to track stars in any arbitrary area of the sky during the daytime.

  4. A Daytime Aspect Camera for Balloon Altitudes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dietz, Kurt L.; Ramsey, Brian D.; Alexander, Cheryl D.; Apple, Jeff A.; Ghosh, Kajal K.; Swift, Wesley R.; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We have designed, built, and flight-tested a new star camera for daytime guiding of pointed balloon-borne experiments at altitudes around 40km. The camera and lens are commercially available, off-the-shelf components, but require a custom-built baffle to reduce stray light, especially near the sunlit limb of the balloon. This new camera, which operates in the 600-1000 nm region of the spectrum, successfully provided daytime aspect information of approximately 10 arcsecond resolution for two distinct star fields near the galactic plane. The detected scattered-light backgrounds show good agreement with the Air Force MODTRAN models, but the daytime stellar magnitude limit was lower than expected due to dispersion of red light by the lens. Replacing the commercial lens with a custom-built lens should allow the system to track stars in any arbitrary area of the sky during the daytime.

  5. [Legal aspects of hyperkinetic disorders/ADHD].

    PubMed

    Hässler, F; Reis, O; Buchmann, J; Bohne-Suraj, S

    2008-07-01

    With a prevalence of 2-6%, hyperkinetic disorders (F 90, ICD-10) and disturbances of activity and attention (F 90.0, ADHD, ICD-10) are among the psychiatric disorders most commonly diagnosed in children, adolescents, and adults. Children and adolescents diagnosed with ADHD suffer from hyperactivity and deficits in attention and impulse control. Adults usually have problems focusing on one goal, maintaining their attention, modulating emotions effectively, structuring their tasks, and controlling impulses and in executive functions. Legal implications derive from core symptoms and from treatment with stimulants governed by legislation on narcotics. This paper discusses juridical aspects of ADHD in connection with the administration of medication at school, trips abroad within and outside the Schengen area, driving, competitive sports, military service, the increased risk of delinquency, the individual capacity to incur criminal responsibility, developmental criteria for the ability to act responsibly, and modalities for withdrawal treatment or treatment during detention.

  6. [Ethical aspects concerning nurses' managerial activity].

    PubMed

    Trevizan, Maria Auxiliadora; Mendes, Isabel Amélia Costa; Lourenço, Maria Regina; Shinyashiki, Gilberto Tadeu

    2002-01-01

    Aiming at addressing the ethical aspects concerning nurses' managerial activities, the authors of this work referred to Etzioni and adopted a hospital classification as a reference of organization in which consent is based on the internalization of rules accepted as legitimate. Regarding patients, their need to adapt to medical behavior and hospital rules through internalization is considered to be a result of physicians', nurses' and the hospital's power. However, the authors view that such internalization is naive, without consent, especially by taking into account that most Brazilian patients do not know that they should or should not consent and are used to obeying. Thus, the work focused on nurses' managerial actions, indicating that they must be based on professional values, the Nursing ethical code as well as on the rights of hospitalized patients, thus integrating qualified care guided by respect, free consent and promotion of patients as the protagonists and subjects of care.

  7. [Clinical aspects of congenital maxillofacial deformities].

    PubMed

    Sólya, Kitti; Dézsi, Csilla; Vanya, Melinda; Szabó, János; Sikovanyecz, János; Kozinszky, Zoltán; Szili, Károly

    2015-09-13

    The cleft lip and palate deformity is one of the most common type of congenital abnormalities. The aim of this paper is to summarise the literature knowledge about cleft lip and/or palate. The authors review and discuss international literature data on the prevention, genetic and environmental predisposing factors, anatomical and embryological features, as well as pre- and post-natal diagnosis and treatment of these deformities. The aetiology is multifactorial, driven by both genetic and environmental factors which lead to multifaceted phenotypes and clinical features of these malformations. The lack of the multidisciplinary knowledge about prenatal diagnosis, prevention, genetic aspects and treatment strategy could result in serious diagnostic errors, hence clinical teamwork is critically important to solve the problems of this pathology. Only the professional teamwork and multidisciplinary cooperation can guarantee the optimal level of health care and better quality of life for these patients and their families.

  8. Behavioral and neurophysiological aspects of target interception.

    PubMed

    Merchant, Hugo; Zarco, Wilbert; Prado, Luis; Pérez, Oswaldo

    2009-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the behavioral and neurophysiological aspects of manual interception. We review the most important elements of an interceptive action from the sensory and cognitive stage to the motor side of this behavior. We describe different spatial and temporal target parameters that can be used to control the interception movement, as well as the different strategies used by the subject to intercept a moving target. We review the neurophysiological properties of the parietofrontal system during target motion processing and during a particular experiment of target interception. Finally, we describe the neural responses associated with the temporal and spatial parameters of a moving target and the possible neurophysiological mechanisms used to integrate this information in order to trigger an interception movement.

  9. Wear aspects of internal combustion engine valves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panţuru, M.; Chicet, D.; Paulin, C.; Alexandru, A.; Munteanu, C.

    2016-08-01

    Because the surface engineering is becoming an increasingly viable alternative to the constructive changes made to improve the efficiency of internal combustion engines, have been proposed and tested various types of coatings of some organs of internal combustion engines. One vital organ is the engine valves, which is subjected during operation to combined thermal, mechanical, corrosion and wear solicitations, which are leading to severe corrosion and complete breakdown. In this paper were analyzed aspects of valves wear and the active surfaces were coated using the atmospheric plasma spraying method (APS) with two commercial powders: Ni-Al and YSZ. Microstructural analyzes were made on these layers and also observations regarding the possibility of using them as thermal barrier and anti-oxidant coatings.

  10. [Three aspects of the medical ethos].

    PubMed

    Saraga, Michael; Marion-Veyron, Régis; Stiefel, Friedrich; Bourquin, Céline

    2016-02-10

    For many years, a major focus of interest has been the patient, in the context of a constantly changing society and increasingly complex medical practices. We propose to shift this focus on the physician, who is entangled in a similar, but less evident way. In these three articles, we explore, in succession, the lived experience of the contemporary physician, the ethos which brings together the medical community, and the education of the future physician, using research projects currently under way within the Service of Liaison Psychiatry at Lausanne University Hospital. Here, we describe three aspects of the medical ethos shaping medicine and the physicians: pragmatism, scientific rationality, and the individualistic embodiment of clinical practice. PMID:27039440

  11. Cross-Cultural Aspects of Anxiety Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Hofmann, Stefan G.; Hinton, Devon E.

    2014-01-01

    A person’s cultural background influences the experience and expression of emotions. In reviewing the recent literature on cross-cultural aspects of anxiety disorders, we identified some culturally related ethnopsychology/ethnophysiology factors (the culture’s conceptualizations of how the mind and body function) and contextual factors that influence anxiety disorders. Ethnopsychology/ethnophysiology factors include the person’s ideas about the mental and bodily processes (and their interaction), whereas contextual factors are associated with the social norms and rules that may contribute to anxiety, including individualism vs. collectivism and self-construals. From the perspective of ethnopsychology/ethnophysiology and contextual factors, we will discuss “khyâl cap” (“wind attacks”), taijin kyofusho, and ataques de nervios, three prominent examples of culture-specific expressions of anxiety disorders that have all been included in the DSM-5 list of cultural concepts of distress, PMID:24744049

  12. Cocoa agronomy, quality, nutritional, and health aspects.

    PubMed

    Badrie, Neela; Bekele, Frances; Sikora, Elzbieta; Sikora, Marek

    2015-01-01

    The history of cocoa and chocolate including the birth and the expansion of the chocolate industry was described. Recent developments in the industry and cocoa economy were briefly depicted. An overview of the classification of cacao as well as studies on phenotypic and genetic diversity was presented. Cocoa agronomic practices including traditional and modern propagation techniques were reviewed. Nutrition-related health benefits derived from cocoa consumption were listed and widely reviewed. The specific action of cocoa antioxidants was compared to those of teas and wines. Effects of adding milk to chocolate and chocolate drinks versus bioavailability of cocoa polyphenols were discussed. Finally, flavor, sensory, microbiological, and toxicological aspects of cocoa consumption were presented.

  13. [Forensic aspects of gunshot suicides in Germany].

    PubMed

    Kunz, Sebastian Niko; Meyer, Harald J; Kraus, Sybille

    2013-12-01

    Suicidal gunshot wounds are a common appearance in forensic casework. The main task of the coroner lies in the detection of typical pathomorphological correlates, thus differentiating between homicide, suicide and accident. Apart from characteristic bloodstain patterns on the gun and shooting hand, the localisation of the entrance wound and the position of the weapon, additional details such as family background or medical history are important aspects of forensic investigation. An uncommon choice of weaponry and its unusual morphological manifestation often complicate the examination and reconstruction of such cases. Furthermore, due to social stigmatisation, the possibility of secondary changes by relatives at the crime scene should be considered. In addition to autopsy findings, a careful crime scene investigation and bloodstain pattern analysis, a ballistic reconstruction can be an essential tool to gain knowledge of the shooting distance and position of the gun.

  14. Primitive defenses: cognitive aspects and therapeutic handling.

    PubMed

    Groh, L S

    In this paper the primitive defenses first described by Melanie Klein under the label of "schizoid mechanisms" are examined. The defenses considered are splitting the pathological uses of identification and projective identification, and the psychotic forms of denial. This examination is twofold: (1) the cognitive aspects of these defenses as described in terms of concepts developed by Jean Piaget; (2) concrete examples of the operation of these defenses during the treatment of schizophrenic patients are given and the effects of interventions based on the cognitive analysis are described. It is stressed that at times interventions, such as interpretation and confrontation, based on cognitive analysis, can temporarily and in some instances even permanently stop the operation of these defenses, allowing emotionally meaningful material to emerge which expedites the therapeutic process.

  15. NEUROLOGICAL ASPECTS OF HUMAN GLYCOSYLATION DISORDERS

    PubMed Central

    Freeze, Hudson H.; Eklund, Erik A.; Ng, Bobby G.; Patterson, Marc C.

    2016-01-01

    This review will present principles of glycosylation, describe the relevant glycosylation pathways and their related disorders, and highlight some of the neurological aspects and issues that continue to challenge researchers. Over 100 rare human genetic disorders that result from deficiencies in the different glycosylation pathways are known today. Most of these disorders impact the central and/or peripheral nervous systems. Patients typically have developmental delay/intellectual disability, hypotonia, seizures, neuropathy, and metabolic abnormalities in multiple organ systems. Between these disorders there is great clinical diversity because all cell types differentially glycosylate proteins and lipids. The patients have hundreds of mis-glycosylated products afflicting a myriad of processes including cell signaling, cell-cell interaction and cell migration. This vast complexity in glycan composition and function, along with limited analytic tools has impeded the identification of key glycosylated molecules that cause pathologies, and to date few critical target proteins have been pinpointed. PMID:25840006

  16. Hydrodynamics and electromyography: ergonomics aspects in aquatics.

    PubMed

    Clarys, J P

    1985-03-01

    In a quadruple approach we have suggested the ergonomics links between fundamental hydrodynamics, applied dynamics of swimming, electromyographical aspects and specific training. Fundamental and applied hydrodynamics were investigated in a Dutch Marine Ship model test station allowing for the measurement of passive drag in different positions and of active (swimming) drag. It was found that drag in a prone position under the water surface was greater than at the water surface, but active drag while swimming reached twice the drag values of any passive drag condition. This indicates that body form has no influence on drag and propulsion. Since it is merely the technical execution of the swimming movement that will influence performance, telemetric EMG of the involved musculature has allowed a complete kinesiological picture of the front crawl movements to be made. This knowledge is basic for the study of specific and alternative training systems, such as specific dry land training.

  17. Fundamental aspects of postharvest heat treatments

    PubMed Central

    Lurie, Susan; Pedreschi, Romina

    2014-01-01

    Heat treatments have been investigated for use in many aspects of postharvest storage. They have been developed for insect control, prevention of fungal development and prevention of postharvest storage disorders including chilling injury. The treatment times and temperature range vary widely, from days at 35 °C to 39 °C in hot air, to up to 63 °C for less than a minute in hot water. Much of the research has been performed to develop solutions to a particular problem, and less investigation has been conducted on the responses of the commodity to the treatment. However, since the turn of the century, a number of groups have been active in examining the molecular responses and changes that occur in commodities during and after the heat treatment. This review examines the changes at the level of transcriptome, proteome and metabolome that occur in response to the different heat treatments. PMID:26504541

  18. Cross-cultural aspects of anxiety disorders.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Stefan G; Hinton, Devon E

    2014-06-01

    A person's cultural background influences the experience and expression of emotions. In reviewing the recent literature on cross-cultural aspects of anxiety disorders, we identified some culturally related ethnopsychology/ethnophysiology factors (the culture's conceptualizations of how the mind and body function) and contextual factors that influence anxiety disorders. Ethnopsychology/ethnophysiology factors include the person's ideas about the mental and bodily processes (and their interaction), whereas contextual factors are associated with the social norms and rules that may contribute to anxiety, including individualism vs. collectivism and self-construals. From the perspective of ethnopsychology/ethnophysiology and contextual factors, we will discuss "khyâl cap" ("wind attacks"), taijin kyofusho, and ataques de nervios, three prominent examples of culture-specific expressions of anxiety disorders that have all been included in the DSM-5 list of cultural concepts of distress.

  19. Medical aspects of capital punishment executions.

    PubMed

    Khan, Arif; Leventhal, Robyn M

    2002-07-01

    Between 1976 and the middle of 2001, approximately 718 human executions occurred in the U.S. (a small segment of worldwide executions). Data regarding the medical aspects of these executions are not readily available. We searched all public domain data in the U.S. to obtain specific data for all persons executed in the U.S. since 1976. Of the five methods of execution used (lethal injection, lethal gas, electrocution, hanging, and firing squad), significant differences emerged as measured by rate of complications, duration of time spent by the condemned in the "death chamber," as well as duration of time from the onset of execution procedures to pronouncement of death. These data suggest that human executions are difficult to carry out. Human executions are associated with significant physical complications. These data may help inform future discussions on human executions.

  20. Cocoa agronomy, quality, nutritional, and health aspects.

    PubMed

    Badrie, Neela; Bekele, Frances; Sikora, Elzbieta; Sikora, Marek

    2015-01-01

    The history of cocoa and chocolate including the birth and the expansion of the chocolate industry was described. Recent developments in the industry and cocoa economy were briefly depicted. An overview of the classification of cacao as well as studies on phenotypic and genetic diversity was presented. Cocoa agronomic practices including traditional and modern propagation techniques were reviewed. Nutrition-related health benefits derived from cocoa consumption were listed and widely reviewed. The specific action of cocoa antioxidants was compared to those of teas and wines. Effects of adding milk to chocolate and chocolate drinks versus bioavailability of cocoa polyphenols were discussed. Finally, flavor, sensory, microbiological, and toxicological aspects of cocoa consumption were presented. PMID:24915358

  1. [Migrant workers. The critical aspects of integration].

    PubMed

    Berra, Alessandro

    2011-01-01

    The integration of migrant poplulations with the indigeneous population is regulated by the Italian Decree, D.Lgs 9/7/2003 n. 215 in enforcement of the directive 2000/43/EC implementing the principle of equal treatment between persons irrespective of racial or ethnic origin. The Italian decree, D.Lgs 215/2003, at present in force, according to regulation stipulated as to the equal treatment of diverse cohabiting populations, explicitly forbids any form of discrimination whatsoever, be it direct or indirect. A first description of today's migrant panorama is offered by the Caritas Migrantes and the CNEL (Italian National Council of the Economy of Labour). The most critical aspects on the integration of migrants are described and discussed in the text.

  2. Medicolegal aspects of doping in football

    PubMed Central

    Graf‐Baumann, T

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the historical background of the medicolegal aspects of doping in sports and especially in football. The definitions of legal terms are explained and the procedure of individual case management as part of FIFA's approach to doping is presented. Finally, three medicolegal problems awaiting urgent solution are outlined: firstly, the difficulties in decision making arising from the decrease of the T/E ratio from 6 to 4; secondly, the therapeutic application of α‐reductase inhibitors for male pattern baldness in the face of the classification of finasteride as a forbidden masking agent; and lastly, the increasing use of recreational drugs and its social and legal implications in positive cases. PMID:16799105

  3. Primitive defenses: cognitive aspects and therapeutic handling.

    PubMed

    Groh, L S

    In this paper the primitive defenses first described by Melanie Klein under the label of "schizoid mechanisms" are examined. The defenses considered are splitting the pathological uses of identification and projective identification, and the psychotic forms of denial. This examination is twofold: (1) the cognitive aspects of these defenses as described in terms of concepts developed by Jean Piaget; (2) concrete examples of the operation of these defenses during the treatment of schizophrenic patients are given and the effects of interventions based on the cognitive analysis are described. It is stressed that at times interventions, such as interpretation and confrontation, based on cognitive analysis, can temporarily and in some instances even permanently stop the operation of these defenses, allowing emotionally meaningful material to emerge which expedites the therapeutic process. PMID:7429737

  4. Dioxins: analytical chemical aspects of the problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedorov, L. A.; Myasoedov, Boris F.

    1990-11-01

    The dioxins are a large set of polyhalogenated polycyclic compounds formed as impurities during many types of production using chlorine, bromine and their compounds. These xenobiotics have no equals among other contaminants in their danger to man and in global ecological effects. The current status of some aspects of the problem of dioxin and related compounds is considered using material from the foreign scientific press. Data are presented on the physicochemical and other properties of dioxins. Information is correlated on the main sources of dioxins and on the methods of determining them in the environment and the biosphere (air, soil, water, biological samples, etc.). Problems considered are the contamination of the environment, monitoring, ways of reducing the danger and the prevention of dioxin contamination. The bibliography contains 563 references.

  5. Historical and social aspects of halitosis.

    PubMed

    Elias, Marina Sá; Ferriani, Maria das Graças Carvalho

    2006-01-01

    Buccal odors have always been a factor of concern for society. This study aims to investigate the historical and social base of halitosis, through systematized research in the database BVS (biblioteca virtual em saúde - virtual library in health) and also in books. Lack of knowledge on how to prevent halitosis allows for its occurrence, limiting quality of life. As social relationships are one of the pillars of the quality of life concept, halitosis needs to be considered a factor of negative interference. Education in health should be accomplished with a view to a dynamic balance, involving human beings' physical and psychological aspects, as well as their social interactions, so that individuals do not become jigsaw puzzles of sick parts.

  6. [Comparative anatomy of the mandible. Functional aspects].

    PubMed

    Denoix, J M

    1983-12-01

    The structural morphology of the mandibula is presented and correlated to various types of mastication in several Mammalian species. The latter include: Carnivores (Dog, Cat, Cheetah, Lion); Omnivores (Man, Chimpanzee, Hog); Herbivores (Horse, Ox, Goat, Camel, Rabbit). While the mandibula is studied as a composite unit, a more analytical, segmental approach has been included, and both are illustrated by X-rays. The aspects presented underline the distribution as well as the local modifications of compact bone, and in addition, the arrangement and the development of spongy bone trabeculae. A preliminary classification with respect to structural elements has been suggested from two viewpoints: that of tension, the other of compression. Are also presented those variations linked to diet and alimentary intake, as well as their functional correlates.

  7. Meteorological aspects of siting large wind turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Hiester, T.R.; Pennell, W.T.

    1981-01-01

    This report, which focuses on the meteorological aspects of siting large wind turbines (turbines with a rated output exceeding 100 kW), has four main goals. The first is to outline the elements of a siting strategy that will identify the most favorable wind energy sites in a region and that will provide sufficient wind data to make responsible economic evaluations of the site wind resource possible. The second is to critique and summarize siting techniques that were studied in the Department of Energy (DOE) Wind Energy Program. The third goal is to educate utility technical personnel, engineering consultants, and meteorological consultants (who may have not yet undertaken wind energy consulting) on meteorological phenomena relevant to wind turbine siting in order to enhance dialogues between these groups. The fourth goal is to minimize the chances of failure of early siting programs due to insufficient understanding of wind behavior.

  8. Cathepsins of lepidopteran insects: Aspects and prospects.

    PubMed

    Saikhedkar, Nidhi; Summanwar, Aarohi; Joshi, Rakesh; Giri, Ashok

    2015-09-01

    Molecular understanding of lepidopteran physiology has revealed that proteases consist of one of the central regulatory/reacting system for insect growth and survival. Among the various proteases, cathepsins are the most crucial cellular proteases, which play vital roles during insect development. In the present review, we have discussed various aspects of the lepidopteran insect cathepsins, emphasizing their roles in processes like development, growth, metamorphosis, apoptosis and immunity. Cathepsins are categorized into different types on the basis of their sequence diversification, leading to variation in structure and catalytic function. Cathepsins exhibit tissue and stage specific expression pattern which is fine-tuned by a delicate balance of expression, compartmentalization, zymogen activation, inhibition by protein inhibitors and degradation. The indispensability of cathepsins as cellular proteases in the above mentioned processes proposes them as novel targets for designing effective and specific insect controlling strategies.

  9. Psychological Aspects of Chronic Musculoskeletal Pain

    PubMed Central

    Crofford, Leslie J.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic musculoskeletal pain, by its very nature, will be associated with negative emotions and psychological distress. There are individual differences in personality, coping skills, behavioral adaptation, and social support that dramatically alter the psychological outcomes of patients with chronic pain. Patients that have an aspect of central pain amplification associated with mechanical or inflammatory pain and patients with fibromyalgia (FM) are likely to exhibit higher levels of psychological distress and illness behaviors. This manuscript will discuss several different constructs for the association between chronic pain, central pain amplification, and psychological distress. The first key question addresses mechanisms shared in common between chronic pain and mood disorders, including the individual factors that influence psychological comorbidity. Second, how pain affects mood and vice versa. Finally, the utility of cognitive behavioral approaches to the management of chronic pain symptoms will be discussed. PMID:26267008

  10. Dynamic Aspects of Cochlear Microphonic Potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meenderink, Sebastiaan W. F.; van der Heijden, Marcel

    2011-11-01

    Cochlear microphonic potentials were recorded from the Mongolian gerbil in response to low-frequency auditory stimuli. Provided that contamination of the potentials by the phase-locked neurophonic is avoided, these recordings can be interpreted "as if recorded from a single outer hair cell". It is found that the instantaneous I/O-curves resemble the well-known Boltzmann activation curve. The dynamic aspect of the I/O-curves does reveal hysteresis and a level-dependent gain that is not observed in static measures of these curves. We explore a model that simulates CM generation from hair cell populations, but find it inadequate to reproduce the data. Rather, there seem to be fast, adaptive mechanisms probably at the level of the transduction channels themselves.

  11. [Functional and orthopaedic aspects of dystrophinopathies].

    PubMed

    Boulay, C; Finidori, G

    2015-12-01

    Although the clinical picture and the natural progression of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD) differ, borderline forms exist. Classical orthopaedic treatment is based on self-rehabilitation (by the parents and the patient), physical therapy, posture alignment with orthotics, ergotherapy to set up technical aides, notably positioning in an electric wheelchair to provide more satisfactory autonomy. The functional aspect predominates over pure orthopaedics. Although surgical indications have evolved for the lower limbs, pelvic-spinal arthrodesis for treatment of scoliosis remains the reference treatment, but the methods have evolved since the advent of corticotherapy for DMD. Corticotherapy slows the progression of motor deficits, the age at which walking ability is lost is delayed (shifting from 10 years to 13-14 years depending on the studies), scoliosis progresses later, respiratory insufficiency is better controlled, and therefore survival is prolonged (between 20 and 40 years). However, although this functional aspect seems to respond better to the progress in overall treatment, it also results from a multidisciplinary approach to the disease. Nevertheless, assessment is required, not at a time t as reflected by the scales currently in use, but during daily activities as proposed by qualitative and quantitative monitoring seeking to model nyctohemeral functional motor skills. The principle is to characterize the type of activity (sitting, standing, lying down, walking), its duration, its intensity (walking speed), its frequency (number of activity changes, number of walking episodes), and their sequence (temporal sequence, organization of activity variation). The goal is to identify the variety of functional motor skills and their occurrence over time to determine whether treatment contributes a functional benefit and whether this benefit is put into practice daily. PMID:26773586

  12. Clustering aspects in nuclear structure functions

    SciTech Connect

    Hirai, M.; Saito, K.; Watanabe, T.; Kumano, S.

    2011-03-15

    For understanding an anomalous nuclear effect experimentally observed for the beryllium-9 nucleus at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, clustering aspects are studied in structure functions of deep inelastic lepton-nucleus scattering by using momentum distributions calculated in antisymmetrized (or fermionic) molecular dynamics (AMD) and also in a simple shell model for comparison. According to AMD, the {sup 9}Be nucleus consists of two {alpha}-like clusters with a surrounding neutron. The clustering produces high-momentum components in nuclear wave functions, which affects nuclear modifications of the structure functions. We investigated whether clustering features could appear in the structure function F{sub 2} of {sup 9}Be along with studies for other light nuclei. We found that nuclear modifications of F{sub 2} are similar in both AMD and shell models within our simple convolution description although there are slight differences in {sup 9}Be. It indicates that the anomalous {sup 9}Be result should be explained by a different mechanism from the nuclear binding and Fermi motion. If nuclear-modification slopes d(F{sub 2}{sup A}/F{sub 2}{sup D})/dx are shown by the maximum local densities, the {sup 9}Be anomaly can be explained by the AMD picture, namely by the clustering structure, whereas it certainly cannot be described in the simple shell model. This fact suggests that the large nuclear modification in {sup 9}Be should be explained by large densities in the clusters. For example, internal nucleon structure could be modified in the high-density clusters. The clustering aspect of nuclear structure functions is an unexplored topic which is interesting for future investigations.

  13. Le Francais, Langue Seconde: Aspects de la Conversation (French as a Second Language: Conversational Aspects).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Germain, Claude

    The nature of conversation as communication is explored in its psychological, linguistic, and didactic aspects with particular reference to the learning of French as a second language. Major emphasis is placed on psychological and linguistic theories. In the didactic section, the problems, value, and methodology of conversation classes are…

  14. Aspects Psychosociaux de la Toxicomanie Juvenile (Psychosocial Aspects of the Juvenile Addict).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tremblay, Yolande; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This paper reviews literature on the psychosocial aspects of drug addiction in youth, with specific reference to youth in Quebec, Canada. It notes trends in drug use and discusses three factors in drug usage: availability of the drug, the environment in which the drug use occurs, and the personality of the adolescent. (JDD)

  15. Different Aspects of the Monotonicity of a Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tossavainen, Timo; Haukkanen, Pentti; Pesonen, Martti

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate which aspects are overriding in the concept images of monotonicity of Finnish tertiary mathematics students, i.e., on which aspects of monotonicity they base their argument in different types of exercises related to that concept. Further, we examine the relationship between the quality of principal aspects and the…

  16. Tailoring Software Inspections for Aspect-Oriented Programming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Charlette Ward

    2009-01-01

    Aspect-Oriented Software Development (AOSD) is a new approach that addresses limitations inherent in conventional programming, especially the principle of separation of concerns by emphasizing the encapsulation and modularization of crosscutting concerns through a new abstraction, the "aspect." Aspect-oriented programming is an emerging AOSD…

  17. EDITORIAL: Safety aspects of fusion power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolbasov, B. N.

    2007-07-01

    This special issue of Nuclear Fusion contains 13 informative papers that were initially presented at the 8th IAEA Technical Meeting on Fusion Power Plant Safety held in Vienna, Austria, 10-13 July 2006. Following recommendation from the International Fusion Research Council, the IAEA organizes Technical Meetings on Fusion Safety with the aim to bring together experts to discuss the ongoing work, share new ideas and outline general guidance and recommendations on different issues related to safety and environmental (S&E) aspects of fusion research and power facilities. Previous meetings in this series were held in Vienna, Austria (1980), Ispra, Italy (1983), Culham, UK (1986), Jackson Hole, USA (1989), Toronto, Canada (1993), Naka, Japan (1996) and Cannes, France (2000). The recognized progress in fusion research and technology over the last quarter of a century has boosted the awareness of the potential of fusion to be a practically inexhaustible and clean source of energy. The decision to construct the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) represents a landmark in the path to fusion power engineering. Ongoing activities to license ITER in France look for an adequate balance between technological and scientific deliverables and complying with safety requirements. Actually, this is the first instance of licensing a representative fusion machine, and it will very likely shape the way in which a more common basis for establishing safety standards and policies for licensing future fusion power plants will be developed. Now that ITER licensing activities are underway, it is becoming clear that the international fusion community should strengthen its efforts in the area of designing the next generations of fusion power plants—demonstrational and commercial. Therefore, the 8th IAEA Technical Meeting on Fusion Safety focused on the safety aspects of power facilities. Some ITER-related safety issues were reported and discussed owing to their potential

  18. AspectAssay: A Technique for Expanding the Pool of Available Aspect Mining Test Data Using Concern Seeding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, David G., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    Aspect-oriented software design (AOSD) enables better and more complete separation of concerns in software-intensive systems. By extracting aspect code and relegating crosscutting functionality to aspects, software engineers can improve the maintainability of their code by reducing code tangling and coupling of code concerns. Further, the number…

  19. [Some clinical aspects of sodium homeostasis disorders].

    PubMed

    Sulyok, Endre

    2013-09-22

    In this review three major issues of sodium homeostasis are addressed. Specifically, volume-dependent (salt-sensitive) hypertension, sodium chloride content of maintenance fluid and clinical evaluation of hyponatremia are discussed. Regarding volume-dependent hypertension the endocrine/paracrine systems mediating renal sodium retention, the relationship between salt intake, plasma sodium levels and blood pressure, as well as data on the dissociation of sodium and volume regulation are presented. The concept of perinatal programming of salt-preference is also mentioned. Some theoretical and practical aspects of fluid therapy are summarized with particular reference to using hypotonic sodium chloride solution for maintenance fluid as opposed to the currently proposed isotonic sodium chloride solution. Furthermore, the incidence, the aetiological classification and central nervous system complications of hyponatremia are presented, too. In addition, clinical and pathophysical features of hyponatremic encephalophathy and osmotic demyelinisation are given. The adaptive reactions of the brain to hypotonic stress are also described with particular emphasis on the role of brain-specific water channel proteins (aquaporin-4) and the benzamil-inhibitable sodium channels. In view of the outmost clinical significance of hyponatremia, the principles of efficient and safe therapeutic approaches are outlined. PMID:24036017

  20. Dedicated breast computed tomography: Basic aspects.

    PubMed

    Sarno, Antonio; Mettivier, Giovanni; Russo, Paolo

    2015-06-01

    X-ray mammography of the compressed breast is well recognized as the "gold standard" for early detection of breast cancer, but its performance is not ideal. One limitation of screening mammography is tissue superposition, particularly for dense breasts. Since 2001, several research groups in the USA and in the European Union have developed computed tomography (CT) systems with digital detector technology dedicated to x-ray imaging of the uncompressed breast (breast CT or BCT) for breast cancer screening and diagnosis. This CT technology--tracing back to initial studies in the 1970s--allows some of the limitations of mammography to be overcome, keeping the levels of radiation dose to the radiosensitive breast glandular tissue similar to that of two-view mammography for the same breast size and composition. This paper presents an evaluation of the research efforts carried out in the invention, development, and improvement of BCT with dedicated scanners with state-of-the-art technology, including initial steps toward commercialization, after more than a decade of R&D in the laboratory and/or in the clinic. The intended focus here is on the technological/engineering aspects of BCT and on outlining advantages and limitations as reported in the related literature. Prospects for future research in this field are discussed. PMID:26127031

  1. Poorly Understood Aspects of Striated Muscle Contraction

    PubMed Central

    Månsson, Alf

    2015-01-01

    Muscle contraction results from cyclic interactions between the contractile proteins myosin and actin, driven by the turnover of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Despite intense studies, several molecular events in the contraction process are poorly understood, including the relationship between force-generation and phosphate-release in the ATP-turnover. Different aspects of the force-generating transition are reflected in the changes in tension development by muscle cells, myofibrils and single molecules upon changes in temperature, altered phosphate concentration, or length perturbations. It has been notoriously difficult to explain all these events within a given theoretical framework and to unequivocally correlate observed events with the atomic structures of the myosin motor. Other incompletely understood issues include the role of the two heads of myosin II and structural changes in the actin filaments as well as the importance of the three-dimensional order. We here review these issues in relation to controversies regarding basic physiological properties of striated muscle. We also briefly consider actomyosin mutation effects in cardiac and skeletal muscle function and the possibility to treat these defects by drugs. PMID:25961006

  2. Some structural aspects of urbanization in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Rafiq, M; Hailemariam, A

    1987-07-01

    This article studies the emerging patterns of urbanization in Ethiopia. Over the period from 1967-1984, a number of structural changes have occurred which are likely to play a dominant role in the future urban growth in Ethiopia. In spite of its long history of settled population, Ethiopia did not witness sustained growth of urban centers. Ethiopia is 1 of the least urbanized areas in the Third World. A 3rd aspect of urbanization in Ethiopia is the wide range of regional differentials in the level of urbanization. Most of the urban population is concentrated in 2 administrative regions--Shoa and Eritrea. A more balanced urban growth may, inter alia, involve a better spread in terms of higher education, industrialization, provision of health and social services, and the development of communication and commercial infrastructure. Another striking feature of urbanization in Ethiopia is that growth has not been disproportionately concentrated in the largest urban centers. The largest urban centers have not assumed an inordinately higher level of primacy. The basic form of the curve depicting the relationship between the size of a locality and its rank has remained unchanged over the period. The post-revolution land reforms and the new socioeconomic structure emerging from reorganization of the society appear to have a rural-urban migration inhibiting effect. Some of the country's regional differentials may be associated with environmental factors.

  3. MONISA study: characteristics and methodological aspects.

    PubMed

    de Sousa, Thiago Ferreira; Fonseca, Silvio Aparecido; José, Helma Pio Mororó; Nahas, Markus Vinicius

    2012-12-01

    The objective is to present the characteristics and methodological procedures adopted in the MONISA Study (Surveillance of health and quality of life indicators of college students). This is a prospective, panel type study, with biannual surveys of representative samples of undergraduate students at a public university in the State of Bahia, Brazil. This study carried out five surveys, totaling 10 years of monitoring (2010-2018). The sample is stratified and proportional to the courses, study period (day and night) and year of attending university. Finally, college students are selected at each stratum, through the registration list in alphabetical order. To obtain the information is used a structured questionnaire with the following sections: socio-demographic indicators, indicators of lifestyle and health, eating habits and body weight control, physical activity and other leisure options, preventive behaviors, and indicators environment and learning conditions. The novel aspects of this study may help in clarifying possible trends related to the health of Brazilian college students and to subsidize policies and programs or projects to promote health and quality of life in local, organizational level.

  4. Quality and safety aspects of infant nutrition.

    PubMed

    Koletzko, Berthold; Shamir, Raanan; Ashwell, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    Quality and safety aspects of infant nutrition are of key importance for child health, but oftentimes they do not get much attention by health care professionals whose interest tends to focus on functional benefits of early nutrition. Unbalanced diets and harmful food components induce particularly high risks for untoward effects in infants because of their rapid growth, high nutrient needs, and their typical dependence on only one or few foods during the first months of life. The concepts, standards and practices that relate to infant food quality and safety were discussed at a scientific workshop organized by the Child Health Foundation and the Early Nutrition Academy jointly with the European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, and a summary is provided here. The participants reviewed past and current issues on quality and safety, the role of different stakeholders, and recommendations to avert future issues. It was concluded that a high level of quality and safety is currently achieved, but this is no reason for complacency. The food industry carries the primary responsibility for the safety and suitability of their products, including the quality of composition, raw materials and production processes. Introduction of new or modified products should be preceded by a thorough science based review of suitability and safety by an independent authority. Food safety events should be managed on an international basis. Global collaboration of food producers, food-safety authorities, paediatricians and scientists is needed to efficiently exchange information and to best protect public health.

  5. Topological aspects of nonlinear optical responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morimoto, Takahiro; Nagaosa, Naoto

    There are a variety of nonlinear optical effects including higher harmonic generations, photovoltaic effects, and nonlinear Kerr rotations. A recent remarkable progress in the photovoltaic effect is the high efficiency solar cell action in perovskite oxides without inversion symmetry. The crystal structure lacking inversion replaces the role of artificial structures such as p-n junctions in conventional solar cells. One of the proposed mechanisms for this phenomenon is the shift-current which is supported by a band structure lacking inversion and is related to the Berry connection of Bloch wavefunctions. Motivated by these, we explore topological aspects of the nonlinear optical responses. To this end, we employ the Keldysh method combined with the Floquet formalism, where effective band structures can be defined under an electric field periodic in time. This enables us to describe the shift-current, nonlinear Kerr rotation, photovoltaic effect, and the photo-induced change in the order parameters in a unified fashion. We connect these nonlinear optical responses to topological quantities involving the Berry connection and Berry curvature. It is found that vector fields defined with the Berry connections in the space of momentum and/or parameters govern the nonlinear responses.

  6. Human Factors Aspects of Operating Small Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    OHara, J.M.; Higgins, J.; Deem, R.; Xing, J.; DAgostino, A.

    2010-11-07

    The nuclear-power community has reached the stage of proposing advanced reactor designs to support power generation for decades to come. They are considering small modular reactors (SMRs) as one approach to meet these energy needs. While the power output of individual reactor modules is relatively small, they can be grouped to produce reactor sites with different outputs. Also, they can be designed to generate hydrogen, or to process heat. Many characteristics of SMRs are quite different from those of current plants, and so may require a concept of operations (ConOps) that also is different. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has begun examining the human factors engineering- (HFE) and ConOps- aspects of SMRs; if needed, they will formulate guidance to support SMR licensing reviews. We developed a ConOps model, consisting of the following dimensions: Plant mission; roles and responsibilities of all agents; staffing, qualifications, and training; management of normal operations; management of off-normal conditions and emergencies; and, management of maintenance and modifications. We are reviewing information on SMR design to obtain data about each of these dimensions, and have identified several preliminary issues. In addition, we are obtaining operations-related information from other types of multi-module systems, such as refineries, to identify lessons learned from their experience. Here, we describe the project's methodology and our preliminary findings.

  7. Aspects of abuse: abusive head trauma.

    PubMed

    Hinds, Tanya; Shalaby-Rana, Eglal; Jackson, Allison M; Khademian, Zarir

    2015-03-01

    Abusive Head Trauma (AHT) is a form of child physical abuse that involves inflicted injury to the brain and its associated structures. Abusive Head Trauma, colloquially called Shaken Baby Syndrome, is the most common cause of serious or fatal brain injuries in children aged 2 years and younger. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends the term Abusive Head Trauma, as opposed to Shaken Baby Syndrome, as the former term encompasses multiple forms of inflicted head injury (inertial, contact, and hypoxic-ischemic) and a range of clinical presentations and radiologic findings and their sequelae. Children diagnosed with AHT are 5 times more likely to die compared with accidentally head-injured children, yet signs and symptoms are not always obvious, and therefore the diagnosis can be overlooked. Therefore, the American Academy of Pediatrics has tasked pediatricians with knowing how and when to begin an evaluation of children with signs and symptoms that could possibly be due to AHT. Overall, a detailed history of present illness and medical history, recognition of physical and radiological findings, and careful interpretation of retinal pathology are important aspects of formulating the differential diagnoses and increasing or decreasing the index of suspicion for AHT.

  8. Neutronic aspects of a DHCE experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Gomes, I.C.; Tsai, H.; Smith, D.L.

    1998-03-01

    The DHCE (Dynamic Helium Charging Experiment) irradiation experiment was conceived to simulate fusion-relevant helium production in a fission reactor irradiation. The main objective is to maintain the Helium-to-DPA ratio at, roughly, the same level as expected in a fusion environment. The problem in fission reactor irradiation is that Helium production is very low, because the fission neutrons, for basically all structural materials relevant for fusion applications, do not have enough energy to trigger the Helium producing reactions. A DHCE experiment involves the decay of Tritium to Helium-3 to produce the required Helium during irradiation. This paper describes an analysis of the most important aspects of a DHCE experiment and compares different types of fission reactors and their suitability for performing such an experiment. It is concluded that DHCE experiments are feasible in a certain class of mixed-spectrum fission reactors, but a careful and detailed evaluation, for each facility and condition, must be performed to ensure the success of the experiment.

  9. Energy aspects of solid waste management: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The Eighteenth Annual Illinois Energy Conference entitled Energy Aspects of Solid Waste Management'' was held in Chicago, Illinois on October 29--30, 1990. The conference program was developed by a planning committee that drew upon Illinois energy and environmental specialists from the major sectors including energy industries, environmental organizations, research universities, utility companies, federal, state and local government agencies, and public interest groups. Within this framework, the committee identified a number of key topic areas surrounding solid waste management in Illinois which were the focus of the conference. These issues included: review of the main components of the solid waste cycle in the Midwest and what the relative impact of waste reduction, recycling, incineration and land disposal might be on Illinois' and the Midwest's solid waste management program. Investigation of special programs in the Midwest dealing with sewage sludge, combustion residuals and medical/infectious wastes. Review of the status of existing landfills in Illinois and the Midwest and an examination of the current plans for siting of new land disposal systems. Review of the status of incinerators and waste-to-energy systems in Illinois and the Midwest, as well as an update on activities to maximize methane production from landfills in the Midwest.

  10. Energy aspects of solid waste management: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-31

    The Eighteenth Annual Illinois Energy Conference entitled ``Energy Aspects of Solid Waste Management`` was held in Chicago, Illinois on October 29--30, 1990. The conference program was developed by a planning committee that drew upon Illinois energy and environmental specialists from the major sectors including energy industries, environmental organizations, research universities, utility companies, federal, state and local government agencies, and public interest groups. Within this framework, the committee identified a number of key topic areas surrounding solid waste management in Illinois which were the focus of the conference. These issues included: review of the main components of the solid waste cycle in the Midwest and what the relative impact of waste reduction, recycling, incineration and land disposal might be on Illinois` and the Midwest`s solid waste management program. Investigation of special programs in the Midwest dealing with sewage sludge, combustion residuals and medical/infectious wastes. Review of the status of existing landfills in Illinois and the Midwest and an examination of the current plans for siting of new land disposal systems. Review of the status of incinerators and waste-to-energy systems in Illinois and the Midwest, as well as an update on activities to maximize methane production from landfills in the Midwest.

  11. Medico-legal aspects of doping.

    PubMed

    Madea, B; Grellner, W; Musshoff, F; Dettmeyer, R

    1998-03-01

    Abuse of anabolic steroids is an increasing problem not only among athletes but also body-builders and teenagers. A fast-developing black market has been established since the opening of the borders to eastern Europe. Medico-legal aspects of doping are addressed with particular reference to toxicology and pathology. Constituents of anabolic steroids bought on the black market were identified using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry; the products did not contain the expected ingredients in 35% of cases. Long-term effects and fatalities because of anabolic steroid abuse are reported here based on our own case material and a literature review. In our own cases, severe cardiovascular side-effects developed after long-term abuse of Dianabol (methandrostenolone) and Oral-Turinabol (chlordehydromethyltestosterone), i.e. myocardial infarction, stroke, organomegaly and/or severe atherosclerosis. The pathogenesis of cardiovascular complications (cardiotoxic effect, risk of atherosclerosis, thrombogenic risk) is discussed based on the available literature reports following fatal outcome after the abuse of anabolic steroids. PMID:15335551

  12. Cardiometabolic Aspects of the Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Bee K.; Weickert, Martin O.; Lois, Konstantinos; Nestler, John E.; Sattar, Naveed; Lehnert, Hendrik

    2012-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder amongst women of reproductive age and is associated with various metabolic perturbations, in addition to chronic anovulation and factors related to androgen excess. In general, women live longer than men and develop cardiovascular disease at an older age. However, women with PCOS, as compared with age- and body mass index-matched women without the syndrome, appear to have a higher risk of insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, glucose intolerance, dyslipidemia, and an increased prothrombotic state, possibly resulting in a higher rate of type 2 diabetes mellitus, fatty liver disease, subclinical atherosclerosis, vascular dysfunction, and finally cardiovascular disease and mortality. Further alterations in PCOS include an increased prevalence of sleep apnea, as well as various changes in the secretion and/or function of adipokines, adipose tissue-derived proinflammatory factors and gut hormones, all of them with direct or indirect influences on the complex signaling network that regulates metabolism, insulin sensitivity, and energy homeostasis. Reviews on the cardiometabolic aspects of PCOS are rare, and our knowledge from recent studies is expanding rapidly. Therefore, it is the aim of the present review to discuss and to summarize the current knowledge, focusing on the alterations of cardiometabolic factors in women with PCOS. Further insight into this network of factors may facilitate finding therapeutic targets that should ameliorate not only ovarian dysfunction but also the various cardiometabolic alterations related to the syndrome. PMID:22829562

  13. Obesity and shift work: chronobiological aspects.

    PubMed

    Antunes, L C; Levandovski, R; Dantas, G; Caumo, W; Hidalgo, M P

    2010-06-01

    The present review has the objective of summarising chronobiological aspects of shift work and obesity. There was a systematic search in PubMed databases, using the following descriptors: shift work; obesity; biological clock. Shift work is extremely frequent in several services and industries, in order to systematise the needs for flexibility of the workforce, necessary to optimise productivity and business competitiveness. In developing countries, this population represents a considerable contingent workforce. Recently, studies showed that overweight and obesity are more prevalent in shift workers than day workers. In addition, the literature shows that shift workers seem to gain weight more often than those workers submitted to a usual work day. In conclusion, there is considerable epidemiological evidence that shift work is associated with increased risk for obesity, diabetes and CVD, perhaps as a result of physiological maladaptation to chronically sleeping and eating at abnormal circadian times. The impact of shift work on metabolism supports a possible pathway to the development of obesity and its co-morbities. The present review demonstrated the adverse cardiometabolic implications of circadian misalignment, as occurs chronically with shift workers. PMID:20122305

  14. Computational and Practical Aspects of Drug Repositioning

    PubMed Central

    Oprea, Tudor I.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The concept of the hypothesis-driven or observational-based expansion of the therapeutic application of drugs is very seductive. This is due to a number of factors, such as lower cost of development, higher probability of success, near-term clinical potential, patient and societal benefit, and also the ability to apply the approach to rare, orphan, and underresearched diseases. Another highly attractive aspect is that the “barrier to entry” is low, at least in comparison to a full drug discovery operation. The availability of high-performance computing, and databases of various forms have also enhanced the ability to pose reasonable and testable hypotheses for drug repurposing, rescue, and repositioning. In this article we discuss several factors that are currently underdeveloped, or could benefit from clearer definition in articles presenting such work. We propose a classification scheme—drug repositioning evidence level (DREL)—for all drug repositioning projects, according to the level of scientific evidence. DREL ranges from zero, which refers to predictions that lack any experimental support, to four, which refers to drugs approved for the new indication. We also present a set of simple concepts that can allow rapid and effective filtering of hypotheses, leading to a focus on those that are most likely to lead to practical safe applications of an existing drug. Some promising repurposing leads for malaria (DREL-1) and amoebic dysentery (DREL-2) are discussed. PMID:26241209

  15. Intrauterine Growth Restriction: Antenatal and Postnatal Aspects.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Deepak; Shastri, Sweta; Sharma, Pradeep

    2016-01-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), a condition that occurs due to various reasons, is an important cause of fetal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. It has been defined as a rate of fetal growth that is less than normal in light of the growth potential of that specific infant. Usually, IUGR and small for gestational age (SGA) are used interchangeably in literature, even though there exist minute differences between them. SGA has been defined as having birth weight less than two standard deviations below the mean or less than the 10th percentile of a population-specific birth weight for specific gestational age. These infants have many acute neonatal problems that include perinatal asphyxia, hypothermia, hypoglycemia, and polycythemia. The likely long-term complications that are prone to develop when IUGR infants grow up includes growth retardation, major and subtle neurodevelopmental handicaps, and developmental origin of health and disease. In this review, we have covered various antenatal and postnatal aspects of IUGR. PMID:27441006

  16. New High Aspect-Ratio Titania Nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panaitescu, Eugen; Richter, Christiaan; Menon, Latika

    2007-03-01

    Titanium oxide nanotubes show great promise in photocatalytic, gas sensing, biological, and other applications. Techniques for the fabrication of titania nanotubes include electrodeposition in polymer molds starting from alumina templates, anodization of titanium in fluoride containing solutions, and hydrothermal treatment of nano- and micropowders. We have developed a new synthesis route for the production of new ultra-high aspect-ratio (over 1000:1) titania nanotubes by anodization in chloride containing acid solutions. The fabrication process occurs rapidly, in a fraction of the time when compared with other methods such as anodization in the highly toxic fluoride-containing electrolytes. We have demonstrated nanotubes with diameters as small as 25 nm, and lengths of up to 50 μm, and we have produced them with varying carbon content through the addition of organic acids in the electrolyte. This opens up new possibilities for many advanced applications of such nanotubes. Various synthesis conditions (pH, chloride content, electrolyte nature), and their influence on morphology, composition, and crystalline structure will be presented. Preliminary results on photocatalytic and transmission properties will also be discussed.

  17. Socio-economic Aspects of Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Marešová, Petra; Mohelská, Hana; Dolejš, Josef; Kuča, Kamil

    2015-01-01

    Social development, better living conditions and medical advances lead to the fact that more people have the opportunity to live longer than in the past. The aging population is a characteristic feature of demographic trends in developed countries. This trend is closely linked with the issue of increasing number of diseases in old age and increasing government expenditure on health and social care. The most frequently mentioned diseases in old age include dementia. The cause may lie in all kinds of diseases, the most common are Alzheimer's disease and cerebrovascular disease. Now the care of current 35 million patients with dementia costs over $ 600 billion per year, it is approximately one percent of global Gross Domestic Product. This review discusses the recent issues and questions in the area of social and economic aspects of Alzheimer's disease. It focuses in detail on the national strategies in the approach to Alzheimer's disease, the anticipated problems concerning the insufficient number of social workers and necessary expenses of state budgets in the future. The situation in the area of health insurance companies' expenditures is illustrated in the context of the analysis of long-term care systems, in the chosen countries within the European Union. PMID:26510983

  18. Organization and developmental aspects of lymphatic vessels.

    PubMed

    Ohtani, Osamu; Ohtani, Yuko

    2008-05-01

    The lymphatic system plays important roles in maintaining tissue fluid homeostasis, immune surveillance of the body, and the taking up dietary fat and fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E and K. The lymphatic system is involved in many pathological conditions, including lymphedema, inflammatory diseases, and tumor dissemination. A clear understanding of the organization of the lymphatic vessels in normal conditions would be critically important to develop new treatments for diseases involving the lymphatic vascular system. Therefore, the present paper reviews the organization of the lymphatic vascular system of a variety of organs, including the thyroid gland, lung and pleura, small intestine, cecum and colon in the rat, the diaphragm in the rat, monkey, and human, Peyer's patches and the appendix in the rabbit, and human tonsils. Methods employed include scanning electron microscopy of lymphatic corrosion casts and tissues with or without treatment of alkali maceration technique, transmission electron microscopy of intact tissues, confocal microscopy in conjunction with immunohistochemistry to some lymphatic-specific markers (i.e., LYVE-1 and VEGFR-3), and light microscopy in conjunction with enzyme-histochemistry to 5'-nucleotidase. Some developmental aspects of the lymphatic vessels and lymphedema are also discussed.

  19. Geochemical Aspects of Radioactive Waste Disposal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moody, Judith B.

    1984-04-01

    The author's stated purpose in writing this book is to summarize the large number of government-sponsored research reports on the geochemical aspects of high-level nuclear waste isolation. Although this book has a 1984 publication date, the majority of the cited documents were published before 1982. Unfortunately, passage of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA) of 1982 and its signing into law by President Reagan (January 1983) [U.S. Congress, 1983] has significantly altered the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (CRWM) Program. Therefore this book does not accurately reflect the present U.S. program in geologic disposal of high-level nuclear waste. For example, chapter 2, “Radioactive Waste Management,” is almost 3 years out of date in a field that is changing rapidly (see U.S. DOE [1984a] for the current status of the CRWM Program). Additionally, the source material, which forms the input for this book, is chiefly grey literature, i.e., the referenced documents may or may not have undergone peer review and therefore do not represent the technical judgment of the scientific community. Also, this book only presents a selective sampling of information because the literature cited does not include a representative selection of the widespread available literature on this topic.

  20. [Some clinical aspects of sodium homeostasis disorders].

    PubMed

    Sulyok, Endre

    2013-09-22

    In this review three major issues of sodium homeostasis are addressed. Specifically, volume-dependent (salt-sensitive) hypertension, sodium chloride content of maintenance fluid and clinical evaluation of hyponatremia are discussed. Regarding volume-dependent hypertension the endocrine/paracrine systems mediating renal sodium retention, the relationship between salt intake, plasma sodium levels and blood pressure, as well as data on the dissociation of sodium and volume regulation are presented. The concept of perinatal programming of salt-preference is also mentioned. Some theoretical and practical aspects of fluid therapy are summarized with particular reference to using hypotonic sodium chloride solution for maintenance fluid as opposed to the currently proposed isotonic sodium chloride solution. Furthermore, the incidence, the aetiological classification and central nervous system complications of hyponatremia are presented, too. In addition, clinical and pathophysical features of hyponatremic encephalophathy and osmotic demyelinisation are given. The adaptive reactions of the brain to hypotonic stress are also described with particular emphasis on the role of brain-specific water channel proteins (aquaporin-4) and the benzamil-inhibitable sodium channels. In view of the outmost clinical significance of hyponatremia, the principles of efficient and safe therapeutic approaches are outlined.

  1. Modeling aspects of the surface reconstruction problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toth, Charles K.; Melykuti, Gabor

    1994-08-01

    The ultimate goal of digital photogrammetry is to automatically produce digital maps which may in turn form the basis of GIS. Virtually all work in surface reconstruction deals with various kinds of approximations and constraints that are applied. In this paper we extend these concepts in various ways. For one, matching is performed in object space. Thus, matching and densification (modeling) is performed in the same reference system. Another extension concerns the solution of the second sub-problem. Rather than simply densifying (interpolating) the surface, we propose to model it. This combined top-down and bottom-up approach is performed in scale space, whereby the model is refined until compatibility between the data and expectations is reached. The paper focuses on the modeling aspects of the surface reconstruction problem. Obviously, the top-down and bottom-up model descriptions ought to be in a form which allows the generation and verification of hypotheses. Another crucial question is the degree of a priori scene knowledge necessary to constrain the solution space.

  2. Aspects of hot Galilean field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, Kristan

    2015-04-01

    We reconsider general aspects of Galilean-invariant thermal field theory. Using the proposal of our companion paper, we recast non-relativistic hydrodynamics in a manifestly covariant way and couple it to a background spacetime. We examine the concomitant consequences for the thermal partition functions of Galilean theories on a time-independent, but weakly curved background. We work out both the hydrodynamics and partition functions in detail for the example of parity-violating normal fluids in two dimensions to first order in the gradient expansion, finding results that differ from those previously reported in the literature. As for relativistic field theories, the equality-type constraints imposed by the existence of an entropy current appear to be in one-to-one correspondence with those arising from the existence of a hydrostatic partition function. Along the way, we obtain a number of useful results about non-relativistic hydrodynamics, including a manifestly boost-invariant presentation thereof, simplified Ward identities, the systematics of redefinitions of the fluid variables, and the positivity of entropy production.

  3. Notable Aspects of Glycan-Protein Interactions.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Miriam

    2015-01-01

    This mini review highlights several interesting aspects of glycan-mediated interactions that are common between cells, bacteria, and viruses. Glycans are ubiquitously found on all living cells, and in the extracellular milieu of multicellular organisms. They are known to mediate initial binding and recognition events of both immune cells and pathogens with their target cells or tissues. The host target tissues are hidden under a layer of secreted glycosylated decoy targets. In addition, pathogens can utilize and display host glycans to prevent identification as foreign by the host's immune system (molecular mimicry). Both the host and pathogens continually evolve. The host evolves to prevent infection and the pathogens evolve to evade host defenses. Many pathogens express both glycan-binding proteins and glycosidases. Interestingly, these proteins are often located at the tip of elongated protrusions in bacteria, or in the leading edge of the cell. Glycan-protein interactions have low affinity and, as a result, multivalent interactions are often required to achieve biologically relevant binding. These enable dynamic forms of adhesion mechanisms, reviewed here, and include rolling (cells), stick and roll (bacteria) or surfacing (viruses). PMID:26340640

  4. Notable Aspects of Glycan-Protein Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Miriam

    2015-01-01

    This mini review highlights several interesting aspects of glycan-mediated interactions that are common between cells, bacteria, and viruses. Glycans are ubiquitously found on all living cells, and in the extracellular milieu of multicellular organisms. They are known to mediate initial binding and recognition events of both immune cells and pathogens with their target cells or tissues. The host target tissues are hidden under a layer of secreted glycosylated decoy targets. In addition, pathogens can utilize and display host glycans to prevent identification as foreign by the host’s immune system (molecular mimicry). Both the host and pathogens continually evolve. The host evolves to prevent infection and the pathogens evolve to evade host defenses. Many pathogens express both glycan-binding proteins and glycosidases. Interestingly, these proteins are often located at the tip of elongated protrusions in bacteria, or in the leading edge of the cell. Glycan-protein interactions have low affinity and, as a result, multivalent interactions are often required to achieve biologically relevant binding. These enable dynamic forms of adhesion mechanisms, reviewed here, and include rolling (cells), stick and roll (bacteria) or surfacing (viruses). PMID:26340640

  5. Clinical aspects of malignant mesothelioma in Australia.

    PubMed

    Driscoll, T R; Baker, G J; Daniels, S; Lee, J; Thompson, R; Ferguson, D A; Leigh, J

    1993-02-01

    Australia is currently experiencing an epidemic of malignant mesothelioma. The clinical aspects of malignant mesothelioma were investigated in 295 Australian patients as part of a national study of the disease. Most patients were male (91%), with the mean age at diagnosis being 64 years. The predominant cell type was epithelial (38%) and the majority of primary tumours arose from the pleura (94%). Mean survival was poor (17.6 months from first symptom; 11.8 months from diagnosis). Patients with a pleural primary tumour were more likely to present with dyspnoea, chest pain and cough; to have a pleural effusion diagnosed radiologically; and to have metastatic spread. Patients with a peritoneal primary tumour were more likely to present with weight loss, loss of appetite, abdominal pain and ascites; to have radiologic evidence of asbestos exposure; and to have spread along a needle track created during a diagnostic tap. A minority of patients had past thoracic conditions, or radiologic findings, specifically related to previous asbestos exposure. About one fifth of patients had no known asbestos exposure. Forty-one per cent of subjects received some form of chemotherapy, radiotherapy and/or surgery, but no formal disease staging had been documented for any patient. Proper controlled trials of secondary and tertiary treatments in malignant mesothelioma are now needed.

  6. [Melatonin in dermatology. Experimental and clinical aspects].

    PubMed

    Fischer, T; Wigger-Alberti, W; Elsner, P

    1999-01-01

    Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) is a hormone with multiple functions in humans, produced by the pineal gland and stimulated by beta-adrenergic receptors. Serum melatonin levels exhibit a circadian rhythm with low levels during the day, rise in the evening and maximum levels at night between 2 and 4 a.m. Melatonin participates in the regulation of several physiological processes such as seasonal biological rhythm, daily sleep induction, aging and modulation of immunobiological defence reactions. Furthermore, melatonin has a highly lipophilic molecular structure facilitating penetration of cell membranes and serving as an extra- and intracellular free radical scavenger. Melatonin seems to quench mainly hydroxyl radicals, the most damaging of all free radicals. Melatonin may play a role in the etiology and treatment of several dermatoses e.g. atopic eczema, psoriasis and malignant melanoma. The influence of melatonin on hair growth is another aspect. Topical application of melatonin inhibits the development of UV-erythema. Penetration through skin after topical application and oral bioavailability auxit further investigations on the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic actions of melatonin. PMID:10068925

  7. Sanitary engineering aspects of nuclear energy developments*

    PubMed Central

    Kenny, A. W.

    1962-01-01

    So many developments have taken place in the field of nuclear energy since 1956, when the author's previous paper on radioactive waste disposal was published in the Bulletin of the World Health Organization, that a fresh review of the subject is now appropriate. The present paper deals with those aspects of the problem which are of most interest to the sanitary engineer. It considers specific points in the latest recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection in relation to public drinking-water supplies, and examines the problem of fall-out, with special reference to the presence and significance of strontium-90 in drinking-water. A general survey of the various uses of radioactive materials is followed by a discussion of the legislative and control measures necessary to ensure safe disposal of wastes. The methods of waste disposal adopted in a number of nuclear energy establishments are described in detail. The paper concludes with some remarks on solid waste disposal, siting of nuclear energy industries and area monitoring. PMID:14455214

  8. Teaching the Ethical Aspects of Environmental Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palinkas, C. M.

    2014-12-01

    Environmental and societal issues are often inherently linked, especially in coastal and estuarine environments, and science and social values must often be balanced in ecosystem management and decision-making. A new seminar course has been developed for the Marine Estuarine and Environmental Science (MEES) graduate program, an inter-institutional program within the University System of Maryland, to examine these issues. This 1-credit course, offered for the first time in Spring 2015, takes a complex systems perspective on major environmental and societal challenges to examine these linked issues in a variety of contexts. After a brief introduction to the emerging field of "geoethics," students develop a list of issues to examine throughout the seminar. Example topics could include fracking, offshore wind technology, dam removal, and iron fertilization, among others. A case-study approach is taken, with each class meeting focusing on one issue. For each case study, students are asked to 1) identify relevant scientific principles and major knowledge gaps, 2) predict potential outcomes, 3) identify stakeholders and likely viewpoints, and 4) construct communication plans to disseminate findings to these stakeholders. At the end of the semester, students give a brief presentation of the ethical aspects of their own research topics.

  9. Process implementation aspects for biocatalytic hydrocarbon oxyfunctionalization.

    PubMed

    Bühler, Bruno; Schmid, Andreas

    2004-09-30

    Oxidoreductases catalyze a large variety of regio-, stereo-, and chemoselective hydrocarbon oxyfunctionalizations, reactions, which are important in industrial organic synthesis but difficult to achieve by chemical means. This review summarizes process implementation aspects for the in vivo application of the especially versatile enzyme class of oxygenases, capable of specifically introducing oxygen from molecular oxygen into a large range of organic molecules. Critical issues such as reaching high enzyme activity and specificity, product degradation, cofactor recycling, reactant toxicity, and substrate and oxygen mass transfer can be overcome by biochemical process engineering and biocatalyst engineering. Both strategies provide a growing toolset to facilitate process implementation, optimization, and scale-up. Major advances were achieved via heterologous overexpression of oxygenase genes, directed evolution, metabolic engineering, and in situ product removal. Process examples from industry and academia show that the combined use of different concepts enables efficient oxygenase-based whole-cell catalysis of various commercially interesting reactions such as the biosynthesis of chiral compounds, the specific oxyfunctionalization of complex molecules, and also the synthesis of medium-priced chemicals. Better understanding of the cell metabolism and future developments in both biocatalyst and bioprocess engineering are expected to promote the implementation of many and various industrial biooxidation processes. PMID:15380656

  10. Test aspects of the JPL Viterbi decoder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breuer, M. A.

    1989-01-01

    The generation of test vectors and design-for-test aspects of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) Viterbi decoder chip is discussed. Each processor integrated circuit (IC) contains over 20,000 gates. To achieve a high degree of testability, a scan architecture is employed. The logic has been partitioned so that very few test vectors are required to test the entire chip. In addition, since several blocks of logic are replicated numerous times on this chip, test vectors need only be generated for each block, rather than for the entire circuit. These unique blocks of logic have been identified and test sets generated for them. The approach employed for testing was to use pseudo-exhaustive test vectors whenever feasible. That is, each cone of logid is tested exhaustively. Using this approach, no detailed logic design or fault model is required. All faults which modify the function of a block of combinational logic are detected, such as all irredundant single and multiple stuck-at faults.

  11. Computational and Practical Aspects of Drug Repositioning.

    PubMed

    Oprea, Tudor I; Overington, John P

    2015-01-01

    The concept of the hypothesis-driven or observational-based expansion of the therapeutic application of drugs is very seductive. This is due to a number of factors, such as lower cost of development, higher probability of success, near-term clinical potential, patient and societal benefit, and also the ability to apply the approach to rare, orphan, and underresearched diseases. Another highly attractive aspect is that the "barrier to entry" is low, at least in comparison to a full drug discovery operation. The availability of high-performance computing, and databases of various forms have also enhanced the ability to pose reasonable and testable hypotheses for drug repurposing, rescue, and repositioning. In this article we discuss several factors that are currently underdeveloped, or could benefit from clearer definition in articles presenting such work. We propose a classification scheme-drug repositioning evidence level (DREL)-for all drug repositioning projects, according to the level of scientific evidence. DREL ranges from zero, which refers to predictions that lack any experimental support, to four, which refers to drugs approved for the new indication. We also present a set of simple concepts that can allow rapid and effective filtering of hypotheses, leading to a focus on those that are most likely to lead to practical safe applications of an existing drug. Some promising repurposing leads for malaria (DREL-1) and amoebic dysentery (DREL-2) are discussed. PMID:26241209

  12. Medical aspects of the hazardous waste problem.

    PubMed

    Ozonoff, D

    1982-12-01

    Although no one knows exactly how much toxic material continues to be released into our environment, most observers believe the amount is substantial. In the last few years, in the state of Massachusetts alone, 22 communities have had their municipal water supplies seriously compromised by chemical contamination, (1) causing alarm and dismay among water users. Nation-wide, public concern has reached the point that in some opinion polls, hazardous waste ranks second only behind inflation as a cause of serious worry. Despite widespread anxiety, shared by public health officials, few studies have shown conclusive evidence of health consequences from toxic materials in the environment. Even in the case of such gross contamination as in the Love Canal area of Niagara Falls, New York, health effects have been difficult to establish. (2) This is partly due to intrusion of the adversary process in cases where liability is involved; it is also a result, however, of inherent technical problems that plague any determination of health hazard. This paper reviews some of these problems, considers some current risk assessment approaches, and touches on medicolegal and regulatory aspects of the hazardous waste problem. PMID:7165025

  13. Medical aspects of the hazardous waste problem

    SciTech Connect

    Ozonoff, D.

    1982-12-01

    Although no one knows exactly how much toxic material continues to be released into our environment, most observers believe the amount is substantial. In the last few years, in the state of Massachusetts alone, 22 communities have had their municipal water supplies seriously compromised by chemical contamination, causing alarm and dismay among water users. Nation-wide, public concern has reached the point that in some opinion polls, hazardous waste ranks second only behind inflation as a cause of serious worry. Despite widespread anxiety, shared by public health officials, few studies have shown conclusive evidence of health consequences from toxic materials in the environment. Even in the case of such gross contamination as in the Love Canal area of Niagara Falls, New York, health effects have been difficult to establish. This is partly due to intrusion of the adversary process in cases where liability is involved; it is also a result, however, of inherent technical problems that plague any determination of health hazard. This paper reviews some of these problems, considers some current risk assessment approaches, and touches on medicolegal and regulatory aspects of the hazardous waste problem.

  14. Contextualized Language and Transferential Aspects of Context.

    PubMed

    Movahedi, Siamak

    2015-08-01

    The analytic process, in which the patient's and the analyst's internal characters struggle to create a script through the analysand's mouth and the analyst's pen, resembles Pirandello's Six Characters in Search of an Author (1921): different characters come together on the analytic stage to rehearse the analyst's role as coauthor of a play that depicts the ongoing analytic saga. To compose the text for the interplay of characters, the author must search for contexts that may confer meaning upon the words and actions of characters. This involves a search for a mise en scène (stage) that will assign mise en sens (meaning) to the actors' role-specific dialogue. Yet mise en scène, in the theatrical sense, is a set of iconic signs set with its own décor, props, and costumes. In contrast, the psychoanalytic scene is a symbolic stage for the play of words--words that may contain unconscious codes for switching into particular language games. A clinical case report describes a struggle with the contextual analysis of an aspect of a treatment that involved reported episodes of verbal indiscretions "taken out of context" with unwanted consequences. PMID:26263926

  15. [Psychopathological aspects of negative symptoms in schizophrenia].

    PubMed

    Cermolacce, M; Belzeaux, R; Pringuey, D; Adida, M; Azorin, J-M

    2015-12-01

    During the past ten years, research on schizophrenia has witnessed a clear emphasis on studies based on negative symptoms. This interest can be explained in terms of diagnosis, specific treatment, functional prognosis and outcome issues. However, main current approaches consider negative symptoms from an operationalist view, which implies objective and atheoretical descriptions of clinical criteria, observed from a third person perspective. And the understanding of negative symptoms in schizophrenia, still a crucial issue of mental health, remains only partial. From a different perspective, psychopathology - and notably psychiatric phenomenology -, can provide a conceptual and clinical framework, taking into account subjective experience (first person perspective), based on a global understanding of the clinical situation lived by patients with schizophrenia. In the present review, we give a brief survey on the historical aspects of the description of negative symptoms. Then, we introduce the clinical contributions raised by clinical phenomenology. We principally develop Minkowski's notion of loss of vital contact, and Blankenburg's notion of loss of natural evidence. Then we highlight the current debates which are discussed and explored in contemporary psychopathology. In conclusion, we discuss the possible articulation between objective and subjective approaches, in order to better understand pauci-symptomatic forms of schizophrenia.

  16. Molecular and cellular aspects of rhabdovirus entry.

    PubMed

    Albertini, Aurélie A V; Baquero, Eduard; Ferlin, Anna; Gaudin, Yves

    2012-01-01

    Rhabdoviruses enter the cell via the endocytic pathway and subsequently fuse with a cellular membrane within the acidic environment of the endosome. Both receptor recognition and membrane fusion are mediated by a single transmembrane viral glycoprotein (G). Fusion is triggered via a low-pH induced structural rearrangement. G is an atypical fusion protein as there is a pH-dependent equilibrium between its pre- and post-fusion conformations. The elucidation of the atomic structures of these two conformations for the vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) G has revealed that it is different from the previously characterized class I and class II fusion proteins. In this review, the pre- and post-fusion VSV G structures are presented in detail demonstrating that G combines the features of the class I and class II fusion proteins. In addition to these similarities, these G structures also reveal some particularities that expand our understanding of the working of fusion machineries. Combined with data from recent studies that revealed the cellular aspects of the initial stages of rhabdovirus infection, all these data give an integrated view of the entry pathway of rhabdoviruses into their host cell.

  17. Conformal aspects of Spinor-Vector duality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faraggi, Alon E.; Florakis, Ioannis; Mohaupt, Thomas; Tsulaia, Mirian

    2011-07-01

    We present a detailed study of various aspects of Spinor-Vector duality in Heterotic string compactifications and expose its origin in terms of the internal conformal field theory. In particular, we illustrate the main features of the duality map by using simple toroidal orbifolds preserving N=1 and N=2 spacetime supersymmetries in four dimensions. We explain how the duality map arises in this context by turning on special values of the Wilson lines around the compact cycles of the manifold. We argue that in models with N=2 spacetime supersymmetry, the interpolation between the Spinor-Vector dual vacua can be continuously realized. We trace the origin of the Spinor-Vector duality map to the presence of underlying N=(2,2) and N=(4,4) SCFTs, and explicitly show that the induced spectral flow in the twisted sectors is responsible for the observed duality. The isomorphism between current algebra representations gives rise to a number of chiral character identities, reminiscent of the recently-discovered MSDS symmetry.

  18. Security aspects of space operations data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitz, Stefan

    1993-01-01

    This paper deals with data security. It identifies security threats to European Space Agency's (ESA) In Orbit Infrastructure Ground Segment (IOI GS) and proposes a method of dealing with its complex data structures from the security point of view. It is part of the 'Analysis of Failure Modes, Effects Hazards and Risks of the IOI GS for Operations, including Backup Facilities and Functions' carried out on behalf of the European Space Operations Center (ESOC). The security part of this analysis has been prepared with the following aspects in mind: ESA's large decentralized ground facilities for operations, the multiple organizations/users involved in the operations and the developments of ground data systems, and the large heterogeneous network structure enabling access to (sensitive) data which does involve crossing organizational boundaries. An IOI GS data objects classification is introduced to determine the extent of the necessary protection mechanisms. The proposal of security countermeasures is oriented towards the European 'Information Technology Security Evaluation Criteria (ITSEC)' whose hierarchically organized requirements can be directly mapped to the security sensitivity classification.

  19. Cultural aspects of information technology implementation.

    PubMed

    Demeester, M

    1999-12-01

    Culture sets our values and norms. It is a way of thinking that determines our behaviours, decisions, actions and knowledge. Technology transfer and integration are basically the exchange of the knowledge, know-how and skills through which technology was created and on which its use depends. Culture is deeply rooted in ourselves. We are usually unaware of its influence on our professional activity. Cultures are diverse, and their encounter through technology exchange triggers conflicts that are expressed in objective terms. We need to detect and resolve those conflicts at the right level, i.e. at the cultural level instead of only focusing on the visible 'obstacles' to the deployment of telematics applications. This paper summarises the basic concepts on which we ground a practical approach to detecting and resolving culture-based conflicts in technology transfer and integration. It investigates the relation between cultural preferences and actions. Culture is translated and reduced to a seven dimensions framework. Cultural preferences influence the decision-making process that leads to tangible actions. The structure and dynamics of that process are described as a Change Governance Framework. It considers the control aspects of decision making that are sensitive to cultural preferences, i.e. the way decisions are taken, why, by whom. PMID:10659932

  20. Visually representing reality: aesthetics and accessibility aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Nes, Floris L.

    2009-02-01

    This paper gives an overview of the visual representation of reality with three imaging technologies: painting, photography and electronic imaging. The contribution of the important image aspects, called dimensions hereafter, such as color, fine detail and total image size, to the degree of reality and aesthetic value of the rendered image are described for each of these technologies. Whereas quite a few of these dimensions - or approximations, or even only suggestions thereof - were already present in prehistoric paintings, apparent motion and true stereoscopic vision only recently were added - unfortunately also introducing accessibility and image safety issues. Efforts are made to reduce the incidence of undesirable biomedical effects such as photosensitive seizures (PSS), visually induced motion sickness (VIMS), and visual fatigue from stereoscopic images (VFSI) by international standardization of the image parameters to be avoided by image providers and display manufacturers. The history of this type of standardization, from an International Workshop Agreement to a strategy for accomplishing effective international standardization by ISO, is treated at some length. One of the difficulties to be mastered in this process is the reconciliation of the, sometimes opposing, interests of vulnerable persons, thrill-seeking viewers, creative video designers and the game industry.

  1. [Multiple homicides--forensic and criminologic aspects].

    PubMed

    Padosch, Stephan A; Schmidt, Peter H; Rothschild, Markus A; Madea, Burkhard

    2004-01-01

    The interpretation of medicolegal findings in homicide is an important tool of case profiling (so-called "operative case analysis"). In 17 cases of "multiple homicides" involving 22 offenders (21 males, 1 female; mean age 33 years) and 45 victims (21 males, 24 females; mean age 35 years; 41 fatalities, 4 survivors), the autopsy reports and the prosecution authorities' files were retrospectively analysed with regard to individual characteristics of perpetrators and victims, circumstances, and mode of commitment in order to comprehensively characterise relevant forensic and criminologic aspects. 31 victims were found to belong to the close social environment of the perpetrator, and 32 killings were committed in the victim's, perpetrator's or the joint flat. The main motives included greed (n = 7), personal conflicts (n = 5) and concealing of a crime (n = 9). The relevant injuries were attributable to gunshot wounds (n = 13), sharp force (n = 11), blunt force (n = 3), ligature strangulation (n = 3), smothering (n = 6), fire/carbon monoxide (n = 2) and combined impacts (n = 7). In 12 victims, defense injuries were found. The blood alcohol concentration exceeded 1.5 g/l in 5 victims. In 5 offenders, a psychiatric impairment of juridical responsibility was assessed (and 20 German criminal code, n = 1, psychosis; and 21 German criminal code, n = 4; acute alcohol intoxication). As far as data were available, 16 crimes were judged as murder, 12 as manslaughter and one as physical injury with fatal outcome.

  2. Molecular and Cellular Aspects of Rhabdovirus Entry

    PubMed Central

    Albertini, Aurélie A. V.; Baquero, Eduard; Ferlin, Anna; Gaudin, Yves

    2012-01-01

    Rhabdoviruses enter the cell via the endocytic pathway and subsequently fuse with a cellular membrane within the acidic environment of the endosome. Both receptor recognition and membrane fusion are mediated by a single transmembrane viral glycoprotein (G). Fusion is triggered via a low-pH induced structural rearrangement. G is an atypical fusion protein as there is a pH-dependent equilibrium between its pre- and post-fusion conformations. The elucidation of the atomic structures of these two conformations for the vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) G has revealed that it is different from the previously characterized class I and class II fusion proteins. In this review, the pre- and post-fusion VSV G structures are presented in detail demonstrating that G combines the features of the class I and class II fusion proteins. In addition to these similarities, these G structures also reveal some particularities that expand our understanding of the working of fusion machineries. Combined with data from recent studies that revealed the cellular aspects of the initial stages of rhabdovirus infection, all these data give an integrated view of the entry pathway of rhabdoviruses into their host cell. PMID:22355455

  3. Instrumental aspects of Simulated Moving Bed chromatography.

    PubMed

    Faria, Rui P V; Rodrigues, Alírio E

    2015-11-20

    The Simulated Moving Bed (SMB) is one of the greatest illustrations of the potential of continuous multicolumn counter-current chromatographic processes. Although it was initially developed for the purification of petrochemicals, the advances that this technology has experienced during more than 50 years of existence were at the basis of its successful expansion into the food and pharmaceuticals industries. In this context, the present work provides an overview of the evolution of SMB focused on the most relevant instrumental aspects related with this technology. For that purpose, the details of the design and construction of this equipment will be reviewed, with special attention to the valves design. Due to its increasing interest, the technical requirements imposed by unconventional operating modes will be addressed together with the design adaptations that allow the operation of SMB units with compressible fluids and the implementation of Hybrid-SMB processes. Finally, as SMB technology has been unable to meet all the process specifications within the growing biopharmaceuticals industry, the development of alternative multicolumn counter-current units has intensified over the last few years. Hence, examples of the design and application of these new units will be provided.

  4. Clinical and Neurobiological Aspects of Narcolepsy

    PubMed Central

    Nishino, Seiji

    2007-01-01

    Narcolepsy is characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS), cataplexy and/or other dissociated manifestations of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep (hypnagogic hallucinations and sleep paralysis). Narcolepsy is currently treated with amphetamine-like central nervous system (CNS) stimulants (for EDS) and antidepressants (for cataplexy). Some other classes of compounds such as modafinil (a non-amphetamine wake-promoting compound for EDS) and gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB, a short-acting sedative for EDS/fragmented nighttime sleep and cataplexy) given at night are also employed. The major pathophysiology of human narcolepsy has been recently elucidated based on the discovery of narcolepsy genes in animals. Using forward (i.e., positional cloning in canine narcolepsy) and reverse (i.e., mouse gene knockout) genetics, the genes involved in the pathogenesis of narcolepsy (hypocretin/orexin ligand and its receptor) in animals have been identified. Hypocretins/orexins are novel hypothalamic neuropeptides also involved in various hypothalamic functions such as energy homeostasis and neuroendocrine functions. Mutations in hypocretin-related genes are rare in humans, but hypocretin-ligand deficiency is found in many narcolepsy-cataplexy cases. In this review, the clinical, pathophysiological and pharmacological aspects of narcolepsy are discussed. PMID:17470414

  5. Immunological aspects of liver cell transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Oldhafer, Felix; Bock, Michael; Falk, Christine S; Vondran, Florian W R

    2016-01-01

    Within the field of regenerative medicine, the liver is of major interest for adoption of regenerative strategies due to its well-known and unique regenerative capacity. Whereas therapeutic strategies such as liver resection and orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) can be considered standards of care for the treatment of a variety of liver diseases, the concept of liver cell transplantation (LCTx) still awaits clinical breakthrough. Success of LCTx is hampered by insufficient engraftment/long-term acceptance of cellular allografts mainly due to rejection of transplanted cells. This is in contrast to the results achieved for OLT where long-term graft survival is observed on a regular basis and, hence, the liver has been deemed an immune-privileged organ. Immune responses induced by isolated hepatocytes apparently differ considerably from those observed following transplantation of solid organs and, thus, LCTx requires refined immunological strategies to improve its clinical outcome. In addition, clinical usage of LCTx but also related basic research efforts are hindered by the limited availability of high quality liver cells, strongly emphasizing the need for alternative cell sources. This review focuses on the various immunological aspects of LCTx summarizing data available not only for hepatocyte transplantation but also for transplantation of non-parenchymal liver cells and liver stem cells. PMID:27011904

  6. Practical aspects of mobile roof support usage

    SciTech Connect

    Chase, F.E.; Mark, C.; Barczak, T.M.

    1996-12-01

    Mobile roof supports are shield-type support units mounted on crawler tracks. Mobile roof support (MRS) units are used during retreat mining, and they eliminate the setting of roadway, turn, and crosscut breaker posts which are required during pillar recovery operations. Mobiles are a more effective ground support than timbers, and their usage enhance the safety of section personnel and reduces material handling injuries. MRS usage is rapidly increasing, and approximately 40 U.S. coal mines have successfully employed this relatively new technology. This paper is in response to increasing requests from operators, State and Federal Regulatory Agencies, and others on the practical aspects of MRS usage in underground coal mines. During this investigation, nearly half of the U.S. mines which have utilized mobiles were visited. This report depicts the more common pillar extraction methods which operators have found success. The Christmas tree and outside lift methods are illustrated and discussed. Roof control plans that do not require breaker posts or allow pillar extraction with fewer than four mobiles are also examined. In addition, operators` experiences with setting pressures, loads, and rates of loading during pillar extraction are addressed. Mining and support strategies to more effectively control hillseams, weak roof, and gob overrides which have entrapped equipment are also discussed.

  7. Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy: Clinical and molecular aspects

    PubMed Central

    Tavazzi, Eleonora; White, Martyn K.; Khalili, Kamel

    2011-01-01

    The fatal CNS demyelinating disease, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), is rare and appears to occur almost always as a consequence of immune dysfunction. Thus it is associated with HIV/AIDS and also as a side-effect of certain immunomodulatory monoclonal antibody therapies. In contrast to the rarity of PML, the etiological agent of the disease, the polyomavirus JC (JCV) is widespread in populations worldwide. In the forty years since JCV was first isolated, much has been learned about the virus and the disease from laboratory and clinical observations. However, there are many aspects of the viral life cycle and the pathogenesis of the disease that still remain unclear and our understanding is constantly evolving. In this review, we will discuss our current understanding of the clinical features of PML and molecular characteristics of JCV and how they relate to each other. Clinical observations can inform molecular studies of the virus and likewise molecular findings concerning the life cycle of the virus can guide the development of novel therapeutic strategies. PMID:21936015

  8. Intrauterine Growth Restriction: Antenatal and Postnatal Aspects

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Deepak; Shastri, Sweta; Sharma, Pradeep

    2016-01-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), a condition that occurs due to various reasons, is an important cause of fetal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. It has been defined as a rate of fetal growth that is less than normal in light of the growth potential of that specific infant. Usually, IUGR and small for gestational age (SGA) are used interchangeably in literature, even though there exist minute differences between them. SGA has been defined as having birth weight less than two standard deviations below the mean or less than the 10th percentile of a population-specific birth weight for specific gestational age. These infants have many acute neonatal problems that include perinatal asphyxia, hypothermia, hypoglycemia, and polycythemia. The likely long-term complications that are prone to develop when IUGR infants grow up includes growth retardation, major and subtle neurodevelopmental handicaps, and developmental origin of health and disease. In this review, we have covered various antenatal and postnatal aspects of IUGR. PMID:27441006

  9. Radiological and practical aspects of body packing

    PubMed Central

    Reginelli, A; Pinto, F; Sica, G; Scaglione, M; Berger, F H; Romano, L; Brunese, L

    2014-01-01

    Body packing represents the concealment of illegal substances in a person's body with the aim of smuggling. “Body packers” either swallow drug-filled packets or introduce drug-filled packets into their bodies rectally or vaginally with the purpose of concealing them. The three main smuggled drugs are cocaine, heroin and cannabis products. Body packing represents a serious risk of acute narcotic toxicity from drug exposure, intestinal obstruction owing to pellet impaction and bowel perforation with consequent abdominal sepsis. A suspected body packer is generally admitted to hospital to perform imaging investigations and confirm the presence of drugs in his/her body. Radiological imaging methods are essential to diagnose body packing and to detect potential complications. Increasing sophistication of traffickers and improvements in packaging add to the detection difficulty. Radiologists should be aware of the appearance of drug packets in a range of imaging modalities. This article informs physicians about the challenging aspects of body packing, its background and medicolegal issues, what imaging methods can be used and what criteria are necessary to perform a correct diagnosis. PMID:24472727

  10. Ricin Toxicity: Clinical and Molecular Aspects

    PubMed Central

    Moshiri, Mohammad; Hamid, Fatemeh; Etemad, Leila

    2016-01-01

    Seeds of the castor bean plant Ricinuscommunis L (CB) contain ricin toxin (RT), one of the most poisonous naturally-occurring substances known. Ricin toxin, a water-soluble glycoprotein that does not partition into the oil extract, is a ribosome-inactivating toxin composed of two chains, labeled A and B. Severity of the toxicity varies depending on the route of exposure to the toxin. Inhalational is the most toxic route, followed by oral ingestion. Orally-ingested RT accumulates in the liver and spleen but other cells are also affected. The main clinical manifestations are also related to the administration route. Oral ingestion of CB or RT results in abdominal pain, vomiting, diarrhea, and various types of gastrointestinal bleeding that leading to volume depletion, hypovolemic shock, and renal failure. Inhalation of the toxin presents with non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema, diffuse necrotizing pneumonia, interstitial and alveolar inflammation, and edema. Local injection of RT induces indurations at the injection site, swelling of regional lymph nodes, hypotension, and death. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) has been developed to detect RT in animal tissues and fluids. Ricinine, an alkaloid of CB, can be detected in rat urine within 48 h of RT exposure. Supportive care is the basic treatment and standard biowarfare decontamination protocols are used for RT intoxication. Dexamethasone and difluoromethylornithine might be effective treatments. This review examines the clinical and molecular aspects of ricin toxicity. PMID:27536698

  11. [Medical-social aspects of multiple sclerosis].

    PubMed

    Vermersch, P; Marissal, J P

    2001-09-01

    On a daily basis the quality of life of patients suffering from multiple sclerosis (MS) partially depends on social measures. These are not specific to MS. Patients often need to be helped by hospital or town social services for the numerous and complicated administrative steps to be taken. The information given to a patient is of prime importance concerning his rights, particularly his occupational rights. Many organisations have to be contacted to obtain financial and material aids, even if the latter are considered insufficient in many fields especially for improvements in accommodation. An invalidity card may entitle its holder to certain tax reductions. The competences of the COTOREP are wide-ranging and include the recognition of the handicapped worker, his training and his regarding at work, his orientation and admission into a specialised structure, the degree of his invalidity rate and should his handicap justify it, benefits such as the handicapped adults allowance and the compensatory third person's allowance. It is essential to adopt a multidisciplinary way when dealing with MS in order to provide a better care, experiments in specialised structures and networks are being undertaken. Numerous partners are taking part in these new approaches and patient associations may find their place there. Social aspects have to be taken into account as well in the way the cost of the disease is evaluated in terms of money and humanity. PMID:11787351

  12. Medico-legal aspects of doping.

    PubMed

    Madea, B; Grellner, W; Musshoff, F; Dettmeyer, R

    1998-03-01

    Abuse of anabolic steroids is an increasing problem not only among athletes but also body-builders and teenagers. A fast-developing black market has been established since the opening of the borders to eastern Europe. Medico-legal aspects of doping are addressed with particular reference to toxicology and pathology. Constituents of anabolic steroids bought on the black market were identified using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry; the products did not contain the expected ingredients in 35% of cases. Long-term effects and fatalities because of anabolic steroid abuse are reported here based on our own case material and a literature review. In our own cases, severe cardiovascular side-effects developed after long-term abuse of Dianabol (methandrostenolone) and Oral-Turinabol (chlordehydromethyltestosterone), i.e. myocardial infarction, stroke, organomegaly and/or severe atherosclerosis. The pathogenesis of cardiovascular complications (cardiotoxic effect, risk of atherosclerosis, thrombogenic risk) is discussed based on the available literature reports following fatal outcome after the abuse of anabolic steroids.

  13. Dedicated breast computed tomography: Basic aspects

    SciTech Connect

    Sarno, Antonio; Mettivier, Giovanni Russo, Paolo

    2015-06-15

    X-ray mammography of the compressed breast is well recognized as the “gold standard” for early detection of breast cancer, but its performance is not ideal. One limitation of screening mammography is tissue superposition, particularly for dense breasts. Since 2001, several research groups in the USA and in the European Union have developed computed tomography (CT) systems with digital detector technology dedicated to x-ray imaging of the uncompressed breast (breast CT or BCT) for breast cancer screening and diagnosis. This CT technology—tracing back to initial studies in the 1970s—allows some of the limitations of mammography to be overcome, keeping the levels of radiation dose to the radiosensitive breast glandular tissue similar to that of two-view mammography for the same breast size and composition. This paper presents an evaluation of the research efforts carried out in the invention, development, and improvement of BCT with dedicated scanners with state-of-the-art technology, including initial steps toward commercialization, after more than a decade of R and D in the laboratory and/or in the clinic. The intended focus here is on the technological/engineering aspects of BCT and on outlining advantages and limitations as reported in the related literature. Prospects for future research in this field are discussed.

  14. The forensic aspects of sexual violence.

    PubMed

    Newton, Mary

    2013-02-01

    Complainants of sexual assault may disclose to different agencies, the police and health professionals being the most likely. It is possible for certain evidence types to be collected before a clinical forensic assessment takes place that do not require the need for a Forensic Medical Practitioner. If the time frames after the incident and the nature of assault warrant the need for a forensic medical examination of either a complainant or a suspect, this should only be conducted by doctors and nurses who have received relevant, up-to-date specialist theoretical and practical training. Clear evidence shows that few other criminal offences require as extensive an examination and collection of forensic evidence as that of a sexual assault. The forensic evidence in a case may identify an assailant, eliminate a nominated suspect(s), and assist in the prosecution of a case. The elements of forensic medical examination, reviewed in this chapter, are those that are the most varied across jurisdictions around the world currently. Key focus points of this chapter are considerations for early evidence collection, utilising dedicated medical examination facilities for sample collection, contamination issues associated with evidence collection and certain practical aspects of forensic sampling methods which have evolved given results identified by Forensic Scientists processing evidential samples in sexual assault cases, Some of the problems encountered by the forensic science provider will also be discussed.

  15. Ricin Toxicity: Clinical and Molecular Aspects.

    PubMed

    Moshiri, Mohammad; Hamid, Fatemeh; Etemad, Leila

    2016-04-01

    Seeds of the castor bean plant Ricinuscommunis L (CB) contain ricin toxin (RT), one of the most poisonous naturally-occurring substances known. Ricin toxin, a water-soluble glycoprotein that does not partition into the oil extract, is a ribosome-inactivating toxin composed of two chains, labeled A and B. Severity of the toxicity varies depending on the route of exposure to the toxin. Inhalational is the most toxic route, followed by oral ingestion. Orally-ingested RT accumulates in the liver and spleen but other cells are also affected. The main clinical manifestations are also related to the administration route. Oral ingestion of CB or RT results in abdominal pain, vomiting, diarrhea, and various types of gastrointestinal bleeding that leading to volume depletion, hypovolemic shock, and renal failure. Inhalation of the toxin presents with non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema, diffuse necrotizing pneumonia, interstitial and alveolar inflammation, and edema. Local injection of RT induces indurations at the injection site, swelling of regional lymph nodes, hypotension, and death. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) has been developed to detect RT in animal tissues and fluids. Ricinine, an alkaloid of CB, can be detected in rat urine within 48 h of RT exposure. Supportive care is the basic treatment and standard biowarfare decontamination protocols are used for RT intoxication. Dexamethasone and difluoromethylornithine might be effective treatments. This review examines the clinical and molecular aspects of ricin toxicity. PMID:27536698

  16. Contextualized Language and Transferential Aspects of Context.

    PubMed

    Movahedi, Siamak

    2015-08-01

    The analytic process, in which the patient's and the analyst's internal characters struggle to create a script through the analysand's mouth and the analyst's pen, resembles Pirandello's Six Characters in Search of an Author (1921): different characters come together on the analytic stage to rehearse the analyst's role as coauthor of a play that depicts the ongoing analytic saga. To compose the text for the interplay of characters, the author must search for contexts that may confer meaning upon the words and actions of characters. This involves a search for a mise en scène (stage) that will assign mise en sens (meaning) to the actors' role-specific dialogue. Yet mise en scène, in the theatrical sense, is a set of iconic signs set with its own décor, props, and costumes. In contrast, the psychoanalytic scene is a symbolic stage for the play of words--words that may contain unconscious codes for switching into particular language games. A clinical case report describes a struggle with the contextual analysis of an aspect of a treatment that involved reported episodes of verbal indiscretions "taken out of context" with unwanted consequences.

  17. [Hepatic cell transplantation. Technical and methodological aspects].

    PubMed

    Pareja, Eugenia; Martínez, Amparo; Cortés, Miriam; Bonora, Ana; Moya, Angel; Sanjuán, Fernando; Gómez-Lechón, M José; Mir, José

    2010-03-01

    Hepatic cell transplantation consists of grafting already differentiated cells such as hepatocytes. Human hepatocytes are viable and functionally active. Liver cell transplantation is carried out by means of a 3-step method: isolation of hepatocytes from donor liver rejected for orthotopic transplantation, preparing a cell suspension for infusion and, finally, hepatocytes are implanted into the recipient. There are established protocols for the isolation of human hepatocytes from unused segments of donor livers, based on collagenase digestion of cannulated liver tissue at 37 degrees C. The hepatocytes can be used fresh or cryopreserved. Cryopreservation of isolated human hepatocytes would then be available for planned use. In cell transplant, the important aspects are: infusion route, number of cells, number of infusions and viability of the cells. The cells are infused into the patient through a catheter inserted via portal vein or splenic artery. Liver cell transplantation allows liver tissue to be used that would, otherwise, be discarded, enabling multiple patients to be treated with hepatocytes from a single tissue donor.

  18. [Legal aspects of networking of medical activities].

    PubMed

    Preissler, Reinhold

    2005-04-01

    Medical networks lack a legal definition. From the viewpoint of social law, this term means a form of organization of joint-service providers in a non-specified composition for the undertaking of medical care activities; from the point of view of occupational law, this consists of a loose form of joint practice. Such medical network can conclude treatment contracts with the patients and exchange patients' medical records. A practice network can take over services as contract partner of hospitals or other institutions, in the interest of improved competition chances within the integrated care system. The joining of a third partner is basically left open by the MBO, however according to SGB V this is possible only after approval by all contract partners. In advance of a planned medical care center, is it recommended to found a physician network as starting model. Before single practices fuse into a single enterprise, management-, tax-, legal-, as well as psychological aspects must be considered. PMID:15957655

  19. Biospheric Aspects of the Hydrological Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutjes, R. W. A.; Kabat, P.; Running, S. W.; Shuttleworth, W. J.; Field, C.; Bass, B.; da Silva Dias, M. F.; Avissar, R.; Becker, A.; Claussen, M.; Dolman, A. J.; Feddes, R. A.; Fosberg, M.; Fukushima, Y.; Gash, J. H. C.; Guenni, L.; Hoff, H.; Jarvis, P. G.; Kayane, I.; Krenke, A. N.; Liu, Changming; Meybeck, M.; Nobre, C. A.; Oyebande, L.; Pitman, A.; Pielke, R. A., Sr.; Raupach, M.; Saugier, B.; Schulze, E. D.; Sellers, P. J.; Tenhunen, J. D.; Valentini, R.; Victoria, R. L.; Vörösmarty, C. J.

    1998-12-01

    The Core Project Biospheric Aspects of the Hydrological Cycle (BAHC) of the International Geosphere Biosphere Programme (IGBP) addresses the biospheric aspects of the hydrological cycle through experiments and modelling of energy, water, carbon dioxide and sediment fluxes in the soil- vegetation-atmosphere system at a variety of spatial and temporal scales. Active regulation of water, energy and carbon dioxide fluxes by the vegetation make it an important factor in regulating the Earth's hydrological cycle and in the formation of the climate. Consequently, human induced conversion of vegetation cover is an important driver for climate change. A number of recent studies, discussed in this paper, emphasise the importance of the terrestrial biosphere for the climate system. Initially, these studies demonstrate the influence of the land surface on tropical weather and climate, revealing the mechanisms, acting at various scales, that connect increasing temperatures and decreasing rainfall to large-scale deforestation and other forms of land degradation. More recently, the significance of the land surface processes for water cycle and for weather and climate in temperate and boreal zones was demonstrated. In addition the terrestrial biosphere plays a significant role in the carbon dioxide fluxes and in global carbon balance. Recent work suggests that many ecosystems both in the tropics and in temperate zones may act as a substantial sink for carbon dioxide, though the temporal variability of this sink strength is yet unclear. Further, carbon dioxide uptake and evaporation by vegetation are intrinsically coupled, leading to links and feedbacks between land surface and climate that are hardly explored yet. Earth's vegetation cover and its changes owing to human impact have a profound influence on a lateral redistribution of water and transported constituents, such as nutrients and sediments, and acts therefore as an important moderator of Earth's biogeochemical cycles. In

  20. Aspects of inflation in string theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumann, Daniel

    2008-10-01

    In this thesis we make small steps towards the ambitious goal of a microphysical understanding of the inflationary era in the early universe. We identify three key questions that require a proper understanding of the ultraviolet limit of the theory: (i) the delicate flatness of the inflaton potential, (ii) the possibility of observable gravitational waves and (iii) a large non-Gaussianity of the primordial density fluctuations. We study these fundamental aspects of inflation in the context of string theory. V (φ): In the first half of the thesis, we give the first fully explicit derivation of the potential for warped D-brane inflation. The analysis exposes the eta-problem, relates effective parameters in the inflaton Lagrangian to microscopic string theory input, and illustrates important correlations between the parameters of the potential. We show that compactification constraints significantly limit the possibility of obtaining inflationary solutions in these scenarios. r: All inflationary models that predict an observable gravitational wave signal require that the inflaton field evolves over a super-Planckian range. In the second half of the thesis, we derive a microscopic bound on the maximal inflaton field variation for D-brane models. The bound arises from the compact nature of the extra dimensions and puts a strong upper limit on the gravitational wave signal. fNL: Finally, we explain that our limit on the field range also significantly constrains the parameter space of Dirac-Born-Infeld inflation. In this case the bound strongly restricts the possibility of a large non-Gaussianity in the primordial fluctuations.

  1. [Surgical aspects of acute aortic dissection].

    PubMed

    Laas, J; Heinemann, M; Jurmann, M; Borst, H G

    1992-12-01

    This paper highlights some of the surgical aspects of acute aortic dissections such as: emergency diagnosis, indications for surgery, reconstructive operative techniques, malperfusion phenomena and necessity for follow-up. Aortic dissection is caused by an intimal tear, called the "entry", and subsequent splitting of the media by the stream of blood. Two lumina are thus created, which may communicate through "re-entries". As this creates severe weakness of the aortic wall, rupture and/or dilatation are the imminent dangers of acute aortic dissection. Acute aortic dissection type A, by definition involving the ascending aorta (Figures 1 and 2), is an absolute indication for emergency surgical treatment, because its natural history shows an extremely poor outcome (Figure 3). Due to impending (intrapericardial) aortic rupture, it may be necessary to limit diagnostic procedures to a minimum. Transesophageal echocardiography is the method of choice for establishing a quick, precise and reliable diagnosis (Figure 4). In stable patients, computed tomography gives additional information about aortic diameters or sites of extrapericardial perforation. Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) shows perfusion of the lumina and dependent organs. The surgical strategy in acute aortic dissection type A aims at replacement of the ascending aorta. Reconstructive techniques have to be considered, especially in aortic valve regurgitation without annuloectasia (Figures 5 and 6). In recent times, the use of GRF tissue glue has reduced the need for teflon felt. Involvement of the aortic arch should be treated aggressively up to the point of total arch replacement in deep hypothermic circulatory arrest as part of the primary procedure (Figure 7). Malperfusion phenomena of aortic branches remain risk-factors.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Measuring the Hidden Aspects of Solar Magnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stenflo, J. O.

    2008 marks the 100th anniversary of the discovery of astrophysical magnetic fields, when George Ellery Hale recorded the Zeeman splitting of spectral lines in sunspots. With the introduction of Babcock's photoelectric magnetograph, it soon became clear that the Sun's magnetic field outside sunspots is extremely structured. The field strengths that were measured were found to get larger when the spatial resolutionwas improved. It was therefore necessary to come up with methods to go beyond the spatial resolution limit and diagnose the intrinsic magnetic-field properties without dependence on the quality of the telescope used. The line-ratio technique that was developed in the early 1970s revealed a picture where most flux that we see in magnetograms originates in highly bundled, kG fields with a tiny volume filling factor. This led to interpretations in terms of discrete, strong-field magnetic flux tubes embedded in a rather field-free medium, and a whole industry of flux tube models at increasing levels of sophistication. This magnetic-field paradigm has now been shattered with the advent of high-precision imaging polarimeters that allow us to apply the so-called "Second Solar Spectrum" to diagnose aspects of solar magnetism that have been hidden to Zeeman diagnostics. It is found that the bulk of the photospheric volume is seething with intermediately strong, tangled fields. In the new paradigm, the field behaves like a fractal with a high degree of self-similarity, spanning about 8 orders of magnitude in scale size, down to scales of order 10m.

  3. Genus Paracoccidioides: Species Recognition and Biogeographic Aspects

    PubMed Central

    Theodoro, Raquel Cordeiro; Teixeira, Marcus de Melo; Felipe, Maria Sueli Soares; Paduan, Karina dos Santos; Ribolla, Paulo Martins; San-Blas, Gioconda; Bagagli, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    Background Paracoccidioidomycosis is a systemic mycosis caused by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (species S1, PS2, PS3), and Paracoccidioides lutzii. This work aimed to differentiate species within the genus Paracoccidioides, without applying multilocus sequencing, as well as to obtain knowledge of the possible speciation processes. Methodology/Principal Findings Single nucleotide polymorphism analysis on GP43, ARF and PRP8 intein genes successfully distinguished isolates into four different species. Morphological evaluation indicated that elongated conidia were observed exclusively in P. lutzii isolates, while all other species (S1, PS2 and PS3) were indistinguishable. To evaluate the biogeographic events that led to the current geographic distribution of Paracoccidioides species and their sister species, Nested Clade and Likelihood Analysis of Geographic Range Evolution (LAGRANGE) analyses were applied. The radiation of Paracoccidioides started in northwest South America, around 11–32 million years ago, as calculated on the basis of ARF substitution rate, in the BEAST program. Vicariance was responsible for the divergence among S1, PS2 and P. lutzii and a recent dispersal generated the PS3 species, restricted to Colombia. Taking into account the ancestral areas revealed by the LAGRANGE analysis and the major geographic distribution of L. loboi in the Amazon basin, a region strongly affected by the Andes uplift and marine incursions in the Cenozoic era, we also speculate about the effect of these geological events on the vicariance between Paracoccidioides and L. loboi. Conclusions/Significance The use of at least 3 SNPs, but not morphological criteria, as markers allows us to distinguish among the four cryptic species of the genus Paracoccidioides. The work also presents a biogeographic study speculating on how these species might have diverged in South America, thus contributing to elucidating evolutionary aspects of the genus Paracoccidioides. PMID:22666382

  4. Fluid mechanics aspects of magnetic drug targeting.

    PubMed

    Odenbach, Stefan

    2015-10-01

    Experiments and numerical simulations using a flow phantom for magnetic drug targeting have been undertaken. The flow phantom is a half y-branched tube configuration where the main tube represents an artery from which a tumour-supplying artery, which is simulated by the side branch of the flow phantom, branches off. In the experiments a quantification of the amount of magnetic particles targeted towards the branch by a magnetic field applied via a permanent magnet is achieved by impedance measurement using sensor coils. Measuring the targeting efficiency, i.e. the relative amount of particles targeted to the side branch, for different field configurations one obtains targeting maps which combine the targeting efficiency with the magnetic force densities in characteristic points in the flow phantom. It could be shown that targeting efficiency depends strongly on the magnetic field configuration. A corresponding numerical model has been set up, which allows the simulation of targeting efficiency for variable field configuration. With this simulation good agreement of targeting efficiency with experimental data has been found. Thus, the basis has been laid for future calculations of optimal field configurations in clinical applications of magnetic drug targeting. Moreover, the numerical model allows the variation of additional parameters of the drug targeting process and thus an estimation of the influence, e.g. of the fluid properties on the targeting efficiency. Corresponding calculations have shown that the non-Newtonian behaviour of the fluid will significantly influence the targeting process, an aspect which has to be taken into account, especially recalling the fact that the viscosity of magnetic suspensions depends strongly on the magnetic field strength and the mechanical load. PMID:26415215

  5. Composting public health aspects: Odors and bioaerosols

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, T.O.; Epstein, E.

    1995-09-01

    The two dominating public health issues associated with composting are odors and bioaerosols, regardless of the feedstock or method of composting. Odors, per se, are an irritant and a nuisance rather than a direct health problem. However, when odors emanate form a facility, the surrounding public often associates odors with compounds which may result in health problems. For example, hydrogen sulfide is not found in high concentrations during composting or found to be of a health significance in the air surrounding composting facilities, yet health issues related to this compound have emerged as a result of odors. Another health concern associated with odors is bioaerosols. Bioaerosols are biological organisms or substances from biological organisms which have been implicated in human health. Bioaerosols may contain fungal spores, actinomycetes, microbial products, and other organisms. Mitigating odors and bioaerosols is a function of facility design and operations. There is a greater opportunity in municipal solid waste (MSW) and biosolids facilities for effective design than with year waste facilities. MSW and biosolids facilities as a result of the nature of the feedstock generally require more sophisticated materials handling equipment which require enclosures. With enclosures there is a greater opportunity to scrub the air for removal of odors and dust. There are also more regulatory requirements for MSW and sewage sludge composting for both process and product by states and the Federal government. The objective of this paper is to provide information on the concerns, state-of-the-art, and potential mitigating aspects which need to be considered in the design and operation of MSW facilities.

  6. Simon Newcomb, Other Aspects of His Career

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corbin, Brenda G.

    2014-01-01

    Simon Newcomb (1835-1909) is perhaps the best known American astronomer of the late 19th century. Among the many aspects of his long career, he was one of the founders and the first president of what later became the American Astronomical Society. However, he wrote widely on subjects other than astronomy, even producing works of fiction. He was especially interested in economics and published such titles as A critical examination of our financial policy during the Southern rebellion, A plain man's talk on the labor question, Principles of political economy and others. The very interesting title, A statistical inquiry into the probability of causes of the production of sex in human offspring was written in 1904. Newcomb even produced a work of science fiction, His Wisdom, the Defender: a story, published in 1900. William Alvord, President of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, on awarding Newcomb the Bruce Medal stated “The essential quality of his mind is that of a philosopher rather than that of a mathematician or an astronomer merely.” It has been suggested (Bradley Schaefer and others) that Arthur Conan Doyle used Newcomb as the model for Prof. Moriarty in his Sherlock Holmes novels. He had close friendships with many scientists of his time including Alexander Graham Bell. On the other hand, it has been reported that he also had contentious relationships with some scientists and could be intimidating. A devoted family man, he encouraged his three daughters in their intellectual pursuits. Newcomb, who held naval rank in the Corps of Professors of Mathematics, was buried in Arlington National Cemetery with full military honors. His funeral was attended by many noted scientists and other dignitaries including President William Howard Taft.

  7. Economic aspects of amino acids production.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Udo; Huebner, Susanna

    2003-01-01

    Amino acids represent basic elements of proteins, which as a main source of nutrition themselves serve as a major reserve for maintaining essential functions of humans as well as animals. Taking the recent state of scientific knowledge into account, the industrial sector of amino acids is a priori "suitable" to a specific kind of an ecologically sound way of production, which is based on biotechnology. The following article may point out characteristics of this particular industrial sector and illustrates the applicability of the latest economic methods, founded on development of the discipline of bionics in order to describe economic aspects of amino acids markets. The several biochemical and technological fields of application of amino acids lead to specific market structures in high developed and permanently evolving systems. The Harvard tradition of industrial economics explains how market structures mould the behaviour of the participants and influences market results beyond that. A global increase in intensity of competition confirms the notion that the supply-side is characterised by asymmetric information in contrast to Kantzenbachs concept of "narrow oligopoly" with symmetrical shared knowledge about market information. Departing from this point, certain strategies of companies in this market form shall be derived. The importance of Research and Development increases rapidly and leads to innovative manufacturing methods which replace more polluting manufacturing processes like acid hydrolysis. In addition to these modifications within the production processes the article deals furthermore with the pricing based on product life cycle concept and introduces specific applications of tools like activity based costing and target costing to the field of amino acid production. The authors come to the conclusion that based on a good transferability of latest findings in bionics and ecological compatibility competitors in amino acids manufacturing are well advised

  8. Anatomical aspects of angiosperm root evolution

    PubMed Central

    Seago, James L.; Fernando, Danilo D.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Anatomy had been one of the foundations in our understanding of plant evolutionary trends and, although recent evo-devo concepts are mostly based on molecular genetics, classical structural information remains useful as ever. Of the various plant organs, the roots have been the least studied, primarily because of the difficulty in obtaining materials, particularly from large woody species. Therefore, this review aims to provide an overview of the information that has accumulated on the anatomy of angiosperm roots and to present possible evolutionary trends between representatives of the major angiosperm clades. Scope This review covers an overview of the various aspects of the evolutionary origin of the root. The results and discussion focus on angiosperm root anatomy and evolution covering representatives from basal angiosperms, magnoliids, monocots and eudicots. We use information from the literature as well as new data from our own research. Key Findings The organization of the root apical meristem (RAM) of Nymphaeales allows for the ground meristem and protoderm to be derived from the same group of initials, similar to those of the monocots, whereas in Amborellales, magnoliids and eudicots, it is their protoderm and lateral rootcap which are derived from the same group of initials. Most members of Nymphaeales are similar to monocots in having ephemeral primary roots and so adventitious roots predominate, whereas Amborellales, Austrobaileyales, magnoliids and eudicots are generally characterized by having primary roots that give rise to a taproot system. Nymphaeales and monocots often have polyarch (heptarch or more) steles, whereas the rest of the basal angiosperms, magnoliids and eudicots usually have diarch to hexarch steles. Conclusions Angiosperms exhibit highly varied structural patterns in RAM organization; cortex, epidermis and rootcap origins; and stele patterns. Generally, however, Amborellales, magnoliids and, possibly

  9. Thermal aspects of grinding for surface integrity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ju, Yongqing

    Thermal aspects of grinding are analyzed in detail since it is argued that temperature controls the effect of grinding on workpiece surface integrity. Transient and steady state heat partition in sliding contact is discussed in detail. This leads to a complete thermal model for heat partition and temperatures in surface grinding. Numerical predictions of the model are shown to agree with experimental results available in the literature. Effects of grinding conditions including real contact area ratio, thermal properties, feeds and speeds, and type of cut (down or up grinding) on heat partition and workpiece temperature are studied systematically. It is shown that the presence of the fluid inside the grinding zone can reduce the heat flux into the workpiece and workpiece temperature significantly. It is also found that some ratios of workpiece velocity to wheel velocity result in high temperatures and therefore should be avoided. This result provides a basis for the difference between conventional and creep-feed grinding regions. After obtaining temperature, an efficient and robust FFT approach is developed to obtain the thermal stress field induced by moving heat sources. Study of the 'hot spot' problem shows that the effect of hot spots on surface displacement and stress is small suggesting that grinding thermal stress is induced by the global temperature while local temperature controls metallurgical phase transformations. It is also shown that thermal stress is dominant on the global scale while the global scale mechanical stress is insignificant. Thus, the superior thermal properties of CBN compared to Alsb2Osb3 leads to low temperature and less deleterious residual stresses. Finally, spectral analysis is performed to evaluate contact behavior of the finished surface. This analysis shows that a good grinding process improves not only the magnitude of the surface roughness but the frequency content as well.

  10. Flavoured aspects of the QCD thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaczmarek, O.

    2016-01-01

    We discuss recent progress in lattice QCD studies on various aspects involving strange and heavy quarks. Appropriate combinations of conserved net strange and net charm fluctuations and their correlations with other conserved charges provide evidence that in the hadronic phase so far unobserved hadrons contribute to the thermodynamics and need to be included in hadron resonance gas models. In the strange sector this leads to significant reductions of the chemical freeze-out temperature of strange hadrons. We have found that a description of the thermodynamics of open strange and open charm degrees of freedom in terms of an uncorrelated hadron gas is valid only up to temperatures close to the chiral crossover temperature. This suggests that in addition to light and strange hadrons also open charm hadrons start to dissolve already close to the chiral crossover. Further indications that open charm mesons start to melt in the vicinity of Tc is obtained from an analysis of screening masses, while in the charmonium sector these screening masses show a behavior compatible with a sequential melting pattern. In the last section we discuss resent progress in extracting a transport coefficient, the heavy quark momentum diffusion coefficient, based on continuum extrapolated color-electric field correlation functions and estimate the time scale associated with the kinetic equilibration of heavy quarks. Close to Tc this suggests that charm quark kinetic equilibration appears almost as fast as that of light partons in agreement with qualitative discoveries at RHIC and LHC that charm quarks appear to flow about as effectively as light quarks.

  11. Photochemical aspects related to humic substances

    SciTech Connect

    Frimmel, F.H. )

    1994-01-01

    Dissolved humic substances (HS) show yellow color and relatively strong absorption in the UV range [a(254 nm) ca. 0.04 cm[sup [minus]1] for c(DOC) = 1 mg/L]. This is the basis for photochemical reactions in the photic zone of aquatic systems and in water treatment using IV sources. Even though understanding the mechanisms involved in the energy transfer and the resulting reactions is hampered by the poorly defined structure of HS, reliable information has been gathered on some typical aspects of their photochemistry. The luminescence of HS can be influenced and partly quenched by molecular interactions with other water constituents (e.g., heavy metals and organic micropollutants). The presence of oxygen may lead to the sensitized production of singlet oxygen (O[sub 2]), that can react specifically with substances containing diene structures or low valent sulfur. Because of the presence of these structures in HS, humic molecules will also react with the sensitized products. As a consequence, their biological, chemical, and physical properties are influenced. In addition, HS have a significant impact on the photochemical treatment of organic micropollutants in water. This has to be kept in mind when using photochemical steps for water treatment. The results from model experiments reflecting the conditions in surface water and in water treatment are given and discussed. In the presence of H[sub 2]O[sub 2], irradiation led to a transformation and partial degradation of HS. The rate of photochemical degradation of pesticides (e.g., atrazine) was decreased in the presence of HS. Fe and Mn quenched the luminescence. From this, a decrease of excited states of HS for sensitizing reactions can be deduced. The results suggest the manyfold and significant influences of HS on the photochemistry of aquatic systems. 66 refs., 9 figs., 7 tabs.

  12. Fluid mechanics aspects of magnetic drug targeting.

    PubMed

    Odenbach, Stefan

    2015-10-01

    Experiments and numerical simulations using a flow phantom for magnetic drug targeting have been undertaken. The flow phantom is a half y-branched tube configuration where the main tube represents an artery from which a tumour-supplying artery, which is simulated by the side branch of the flow phantom, branches off. In the experiments a quantification of the amount of magnetic particles targeted towards the branch by a magnetic field applied via a permanent magnet is achieved by impedance measurement using sensor coils. Measuring the targeting efficiency, i.e. the relative amount of particles targeted to the side branch, for different field configurations one obtains targeting maps which combine the targeting efficiency with the magnetic force densities in characteristic points in the flow phantom. It could be shown that targeting efficiency depends strongly on the magnetic field configuration. A corresponding numerical model has been set up, which allows the simulation of targeting efficiency for variable field configuration. With this simulation good agreement of targeting efficiency with experimental data has been found. Thus, the basis has been laid for future calculations of optimal field configurations in clinical applications of magnetic drug targeting. Moreover, the numerical model allows the variation of additional parameters of the drug targeting process and thus an estimation of the influence, e.g. of the fluid properties on the targeting efficiency. Corresponding calculations have shown that the non-Newtonian behaviour of the fluid will significantly influence the targeting process, an aspect which has to be taken into account, especially recalling the fact that the viscosity of magnetic suspensions depends strongly on the magnetic field strength and the mechanical load.

  13. Thermodynamic Aspects of Tropical Cyclone Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z.

    2012-12-01

    The thermodynamic aspects of tropical cyclone (TC) formation near the center of the wave pouch, a region of approximately closed Lagrangian circulation within the wave critical layer, are examined through diagnoses of a high-resolution numerical simulation and dropsonde data from a recent field campaign. It is found that the meso-β area near the pouch center is characterized by high saturation fraction, small difference in equivalent potential temperature (θe) between the surface and the middle troposphere, and a short incubation time scale. Updrafts tend to be more vigorous in this region, presumably due to reduced dry air entrainment, while downdrafts are not suppressed. The thermodynamic conditions near the pouch center are thus critically important for TC formation. The balanced responses to convective and stratiform heating at the pre-genesis stage are examined using the Sawyer-Eliassen equation. Deep convection is concentrated near the pouch center. The strong radial and vertical gradients of latent heat release effectively force the transverse circulation and spin up a surface proto-vortex near the pouch center. Stratiform heating induces modest mid-level inflow and very weak low-level outflow, which contributes to the mid-level spin-up without substantially spinning down the low-level circulation. The analysis of dropsonde data shows that the mid-level θe increases significantly near the pouch center one to two days prior to genesis but changes little away from the pouch center. This may indicate convective organization and the impending TC genesis. It also suggests that the critical information of TC genesis near the pouch center may be masked out if a spatial average is taken over the pouch scale. Time-radius plots of (a) saturation fraction (SF; units: %), (b) θe difference between 950 mb and 700 mb (950 mb "minus" 700 hPa; units: K), and (c) χm in the numerical model simulation of Felix.

  14. Microbiological and histopathological aspects of canine pyometra

    PubMed Central

    Coggan, Jennifer Anne; Melville, Priscilla Anne; de Oliveira, Clair Motos; Faustino, Marcelo; Moreno, Andréa Micke; Benites, Nilson Roberti

    2008-01-01

    As pyometra is recognized as one of the main causes of disease and death in the bitch the purposes of this study were to evaluate microbiological and histopathological aspects of canine pyometra and to research the virulence factors of the E. coli isolates identifying possible risks to human health. The microbiological isolation from the intrauterine contents of 100 dogs with pyometra was carried out and the virulence factors in the E. coli strains were identified using PCR method. This study also consisted of the counting of microorganisms colonies forming units in samples of intrauterine content, tests of antimicrobial susceptibility of the E. coli isolates and the histological examination of the uterus. E. coli was the most prevalent microorganism isolated (76.6%) and 120 strains (79.5%) were positive for sfa, 86 (56.9%) were positive for cnf, 87 (57.6%) were positive for pap, 52 (34.4%) were positive for hly, 51 (33.8%) were positive for iuc and 5 (3.3%) were positive for afa genes. One observed more sensitivity of E. coli to norfloxacin, polimixin B, sulphazotrin, chloranfenicol and enrofloxacin. In 42% of the samples of uterine walls where microorganisms were isolated, the sizes of the areas of the inflammatory responses corresponded to 39–56%. Virulence factors were identified in 98.0% of the strains evaluated, demonstrating a high frequency of potentially pathogenic E. coli. It must be considered that dogs are animals that are living in close proximity to man for thousands of years and have an important role in the transmission of E. coli to other animals and to man. PMID:24031249

  15. Economic aspects of amino acids production.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Udo; Huebner, Susanna

    2003-01-01

    Amino acids represent basic elements of proteins, which as a main source of nutrition themselves serve as a major reserve for maintaining essential functions of humans as well as animals. Taking the recent state of scientific knowledge into account, the industrial sector of amino acids is a priori "suitable" to a specific kind of an ecologically sound way of production, which is based on biotechnology. The following article may point out characteristics of this particular industrial sector and illustrates the applicability of the latest economic methods, founded on development of the discipline of bionics in order to describe economic aspects of amino acids markets. The several biochemical and technological fields of application of amino acids lead to specific market structures in high developed and permanently evolving systems. The Harvard tradition of industrial economics explains how market structures mould the behaviour of the participants and influences market results beyond that. A global increase in intensity of competition confirms the notion that the supply-side is characterised by asymmetric information in contrast to Kantzenbachs concept of "narrow oligopoly" with symmetrical shared knowledge about market information. Departing from this point, certain strategies of companies in this market form shall be derived. The importance of Research and Development increases rapidly and leads to innovative manufacturing methods which replace more polluting manufacturing processes like acid hydrolysis. In addition to these modifications within the production processes the article deals furthermore with the pricing based on product life cycle concept and introduces specific applications of tools like activity based costing and target costing to the field of amino acid production. The authors come to the conclusion that based on a good transferability of latest findings in bionics and ecological compatibility competitors in amino acids manufacturing are well advised

  16. Aspect ratio dependence in magnetorotational instability shearing box simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodo, G.; Mignone, A.; Cattaneo, F.; Rossi, P.; Ferrari, A.

    2008-08-01

    Aims: We study the changes in the properties of turbulence driven by the magnetorotational instability in a shearing box, as the computational domain size in the radial direction is varied relative to the height. Methods: We perform 3D simulations in the shearing box approximation, with a net magnetic flux, and we consider computational domains with different aspect ratios. Results: We find that in boxes of aspect ratio unity the transport of angular momentum is strongly intermittent and dominated by channel solutions in agreement with previous work. In contrast, in boxes with larger aspect ratios, the channel solutions and the associated intermittent behavior disappear. Conclusions: There is strong evidence that, as the aspect ratio becomes larger, the characteristics of the solution become aspect ratio independent. We conclude that shearing box calculations with an aspect ratio of unity or near unity may introduce spurious effects.

  17. EDITORIAL: Safety aspects of fusion power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolbasov, B. N.

    2007-07-01

    This special issue of Nuclear Fusion contains 13 informative papers that were initially presented at the 8th IAEA Technical Meeting on Fusion Power Plant Safety held in Vienna, Austria, 10-13 July 2006. Following recommendation from the International Fusion Research Council, the IAEA organizes Technical Meetings on Fusion Safety with the aim to bring together experts to discuss the ongoing work, share new ideas and outline general guidance and recommendations on different issues related to safety and environmental (S&E) aspects of fusion research and power facilities. Previous meetings in this series were held in Vienna, Austria (1980), Ispra, Italy (1983), Culham, UK (1986), Jackson Hole, USA (1989), Toronto, Canada (1993), Naka, Japan (1996) and Cannes, France (2000). The recognized progress in fusion research and technology over the last quarter of a century has boosted the awareness of the potential of fusion to be a practically inexhaustible and clean source of energy. The decision to construct the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) represents a landmark in the path to fusion power engineering. Ongoing activities to license ITER in France look for an adequate balance between technological and scientific deliverables and complying with safety requirements. Actually, this is the first instance of licensing a representative fusion machine, and it will very likely shape the way in which a more common basis for establishing safety standards and policies for licensing future fusion power plants will be developed. Now that ITER licensing activities are underway, it is becoming clear that the international fusion community should strengthen its efforts in the area of designing the next generations of fusion power plants—demonstrational and commercial. Therefore, the 8th IAEA Technical Meeting on Fusion Safety focused on the safety aspects of power facilities. Some ITER-related safety issues were reported and discussed owing to their potential

  18. Economic Aspects of Sanitation in Developing Countries

    PubMed Central

    Van Minh, Hoang; Nguyen-Viet, Hung

    2011-01-01

    Background: Improved sanitation has been shown to have great impacts on people’s health and economy. However, the progress of achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) on halving the proportion of people without access to clean water and basic sanitation by 2015 has thus far been delayed. One of the reasons for the slow progress is that policy makers, as well as the general public, have not fully understood the importance of the improved sanitation solutions. This paper, by gathering relevant research findings, aims to report and discuss currently available evidence on the economic aspects of sanitation, including the economic impacts of unimproved sanitation and the costs and economic benefits of some common improved sanitation options in developing countries. Methods: Data used in this paper were obtained from different information sources: international and national journal articles and reports, web-based statistics, and fact sheets. We used both online search and hand search methods to gather the information. Results: Scientific evidence has demonstrated that the economic cost associated with poor sanitation is substantial. At the global level, failure to meet the MDG water and sanitation target would have ramifications in the area of US$38 billion, and sanitation accounts for 92% of this amount. In developing countries, the spending required to provide new coverage to meet the MDG sanitation target (not including program costs) is US$142 billion (US$ year 2005). This translates to a per capita spending of US$28 for sanitation. Annually, this translates to roughly US$14 million. The evidence complied in this paper demonstrates that investing in sanitation is socially and economically worthwhile. For every US$1 invested, achieving the sanitation MDG target and universal sanitation access in the non-OECD countries would result in a global return of US$9.1 and US$11.2, respectively. Conclusion: Given the current state of knowledge, sanitation is

  19. [Thrombotic microangiopathies: HUS/TTP. Physiopathological aspects].

    PubMed

    Sánchez Avalos, J C

    2000-01-01

    confirmation of these findings is needed. We postulate that the abnormal cleavage of the vWF subunit, with formation of different multimers with increased platelet aggregating capacity is an important mechanism to increase the microcirculatory thrombosis, but it is only a partial aspect in a more complex and unknown thrombogenic stimulation secondary to the endothelial lesion or activation. Better knowledge of the endothelial physiology and the genetic polymorphism of the endothelial cell, the clonation of vWF-cleavage protease, etc., will provide valuable tools for the understanding of these fascinating entities. PMID:10835700

  20. Psychosocial aspects of fertility behavior: an overview.

    PubMed

    David, H P

    1981-06-01

    Selected aspects of decision making in fertility behavior are reviewed. Attention is directed to assessing motivational determinants, the value of children, the concept of "wantedness," delayed childbearing, and adolescent fertility. A woman's decision to use or not to use a birth control method is heavily influenced by partner interaction. The perception of the partner's attitudes and degree of control in the couple relationship are likely to affect the type of method used, the consistency of contraceptive practice, and the resolution of eventual pregnancies. The present generation in many countries is the 1st to be involved in the conscious process of deciding when and how many children to have and to discontinue contraception. The psychosocial model of fertility behaviour emphasizes the subjective assessment of the environment by the individual and the importance of the 2 partners in a couple influencing each other's perceptions and choice behavior. A key feature of successful couple planning behavior is their joint ability to anticipate future outcomes, plan ahead, and develop contingency alternatives. The history of attempts to explain and delineate motivational determinants of fertility behavior is long and filled with testimonials regarding the complexity of the task. It has been well documented in cross-national studies and commentaries that the pleasures which parents experience in raising their children are highly valued. The gradual transition in the perceived economic value of children probably reflects changing parental attitudes accompanying the secular decline in fertility rates. Reducing the number of unwanted pregnancies has been and continues to be one of the major objectives of international planned parenthood and responsible parenthood movements. No published evidence exists, however, that the unexpected, unplanned, or even unwanted pregnancy is always "bad" or that a planned pregnancy more often produces a psychologically healthy child. To date

  1. Molecular and Biotechnological Aspects of Microbial Proteases†

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Mala B.; Tanksale, Aparna M.; Ghatge, Mohini S.; Deshpande, Vasanti V.

    1998-01-01

    diverse origins have been analyzed with the aim of studying their evolutionary relationships. Despite the extensive research on several aspects of proteases, there is a paucity of knowledge about the roles that govern the diverse specificity of these enzymes. Deciphering these secrets would enable us to exploit proteases for their applications in biotechnology. PMID:9729602

  2. Renewability and sustainability aspects of nuclear energy

    SciTech Connect

    Şahin, Sümer

    2014-09-30

    Renewability and sustainability aspects of nuclear energy have been presented on the basis of two different technologies: (1) Conventional nuclear technology; CANDU reactors. (2) Emerging nuclear technology; fusion/fission (hybrid) reactors. Reactor grade (RG) plutonium, {sup 233}U fuels and heavy water moderator have given a good combination with respect to neutron economy so that mixed fuel made of (ThO{sub 2}/RG‐PuO{sub 2}) or (ThC/RG-PuC) has lead to very high burn up grades. Five different mixed fuel have been selected for CANDU reactors composed of 4 % RG‐PuO{sub 2} + 96 % ThO{sub 2}; 6 % RG‐PuO{sub 2} + 94 % ThO{sub 2}; 10 % RG‐PuO{sub 2} + 90 % ThO{sub 2}; 20 % RG‐PuO{sub 2} + 80 % ThO{sub 2}; 30 % RG‐PuO{sub 2} + 70 % ThO{sub 2}, uniformly taken in each fuel rod in a fuel channel. Corresponding operation lifetimes have been found as ∼ 0.65, 1.1, 1.9, 3.5, and 4.8 years and with burn ups of ∼ 30 000, 60 000, 100 000, 200 000 and 290 000 MW.d/ton, respectively. Increase of RG‐PuO{sub 2} fraction in radial direction for the purpose of power flattening in the CANDU fuel bundle has driven the burn up grade to 580 000 MW.d/ton level. A laser fusion driver power of 500 MW{sub th} has been investigated to burn the minor actinides (MA) out of the nuclear waste of LWRs. MA have been homogenously dispersed as carbide fuel in form of TRISO particles with volume fractions of 0, 2, 3, 4 and 5 % in the Flibe coolant zone in the blanket surrounding the fusion chamber. Tritium breeding for a continuous operation of the fusion reactor is calculated as TBR = 1.134, 1.286, 1.387, 1.52 and 1.67, respectively. Fission reactions in the MA fuel under high energetic fusion neutrons have lead to the multiplication of the fusion energy by a factor of M = 3.3, 4.6, 6.15 and 8.1 with 2, 3, 4 and 5 % TRISO volume fraction at start up, respectively. Alternatively with thorium, the same fusion driver would produce ∼160 kg {sup 233}U per year in addition to fission

  3. Psychosocial aspects of fertility behavior: an overview.

    PubMed

    David, H P

    1981-06-01

    Selected aspects of decision making in fertility behavior are reviewed. Attention is directed to assessing motivational determinants, the value of children, the concept of "wantedness," delayed childbearing, and adolescent fertility. A woman's decision to use or not to use a birth control method is heavily influenced by partner interaction. The perception of the partner's attitudes and degree of control in the couple relationship are likely to affect the type of method used, the consistency of contraceptive practice, and the resolution of eventual pregnancies. The present generation in many countries is the 1st to be involved in the conscious process of deciding when and how many children to have and to discontinue contraception. The psychosocial model of fertility behaviour emphasizes the subjective assessment of the environment by the individual and the importance of the 2 partners in a couple influencing each other's perceptions and choice behavior. A key feature of successful couple planning behavior is their joint ability to anticipate future outcomes, plan ahead, and develop contingency alternatives. The history of attempts to explain and delineate motivational determinants of fertility behavior is long and filled with testimonials regarding the complexity of the task. It has been well documented in cross-national studies and commentaries that the pleasures which parents experience in raising their children are highly valued. The gradual transition in the perceived economic value of children probably reflects changing parental attitudes accompanying the secular decline in fertility rates. Reducing the number of unwanted pregnancies has been and continues to be one of the major objectives of international planned parenthood and responsible parenthood movements. No published evidence exists, however, that the unexpected, unplanned, or even unwanted pregnancy is always "bad" or that a planned pregnancy more often produces a psychologically healthy child. To date

  4. Renewability and sustainability aspects of nuclear energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Şahin, Sümer

    2014-09-01

    Renewability and sustainability aspects of nuclear energy have been presented on the basis of two different technologies: (1) Conventional nuclear technology; CANDU reactors. (2) Emerging nuclear technology; fusion/fission (hybrid) reactors. Reactor grade (RG) plutonium, 233U fuels and heavy water moderator have given a good combination with respect to neutron economy so that mixed fuel made of (ThO2/RG-PuO2) or (ThC/RG-PuC) has lead to very high burn up grades. Five different mixed fuel have been selected for CANDU reactors composed of 4 % RG-PuO2 + 96 % ThO2; 6 % RG-PuO2 + 94 % ThO2; 10 % RG-PuO2 + 90 % ThO2; 20 % RG-PuO2 + 80 % ThO2; 30 % RG-PuO2 + 70 % ThO2, uniformly taken in each fuel rod in a fuel channel. Corresponding operation lifetimes have been found as ˜ 0.65, 1.1, 1.9, 3.5, and 4.8 years and with burn ups of ˜ 30 000, 60 000, 100 000, 200 000 and 290 000 MW.d/ton, respectively. Increase of RG-PuO2 fraction in radial direction for the purpose of power flattening in the CANDU fuel bundle has driven the burn up grade to 580 000 MW.d/ton level. A laser fusion driver power of 500 MWth has been investigated to burn the minor actinides (MA) out of the nuclear waste of LWRs. MA have been homogenously dispersed as carbide fuel in form of TRISO particles with volume fractions of 0, 2, 3, 4 and 5 % in the Flibe coolant zone in the blanket surrounding the fusion chamber. Tritium breeding for a continuous operation of the fusion reactor is calculated as TBR = 1.134, 1.286, 1.387, 1.52 and 1.67, respectively. Fission reactions in the MA fuel under high energetic fusion neutrons have lead to the multiplication of the fusion energy by a factor of M = 3.3, 4.6, 6.15 and 8.1 with 2, 3, 4 and 5 % TRISO volume fraction at start up, respectively. Alternatively with thorium, the same fusion driver would produce ˜160 kg 233U per year in addition to fission energy production in situ, multiplying the fusion energy by a factor of ˜1.3.

  5. Observed Aspects of Reconnection in Solar Eruptions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Ronald L.

    2010-01-01

    Signatures of reconnection in major CME (coronal mass ejection)/flare eruptions and in coronal X-ray jets are illustrated and interpreted. The signatures are magnetic field lines and their feet that brighten in flare emission. CME/flare eruptions are magnetic explosions in which: 1. The field that erupts is initially a closed arcade. 2. At eruption onset, most of the free magnetic energy to be released is not stored in field bracketing a current sheet, but in sheared field in the core of the arcade. 3. The sheared core field erupts by a process that from its start or soon after involves fast tether-cutting reconnection at an initially small current sheet low in the sheared core field. If the arcade has oppositely-directed field over it, the eruption process from its start or soon after also involves fast breakout reconnection at an initially small current sheet between the arcade and the overarching field. These aspects are shown by the small area of the bright field lines and foot-point flare ribbons in the onset of the eruption. 4. At either small current sheet, the fast reconnection progressively unleashes the erupting core field to erupt with progressively greater force. In turn, the erupting core field drives the current sheet to become progressively larger and to undergo progressively greater fast reconnection in the explosive phase of the eruption, and the flare arcade and ribbons grow to become comparable to the pre-eruption arcade in lateral extent. In coronal X-ray jets: 1. The magnetic energy released in the jet is built up by the emergence of a magnetic arcade into surrounding unipolar "open" field. 2. A simple jet is produced when a burst of reconnection occurs at the current sheet between the arcade and the open field. This produces a bright reconnection jet and a bright reconnection arcade that are both much smaller in diameter that the driving arcade. 3. A more complex jet is produced when the arcade has a sheared core field and undergoes an

  6. Promoting Cognitive and Social Aspects of Inquiry through Classroom Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jin, Hui; Wei, Xin; Duan, Peiran; Guo, Yuying; Wang, Wenxia

    2016-01-01

    We investigated how Chinese physics teachers structured classroom discourse to support the cognitive and social aspects of inquiry-based science learning. Regarding the cognitive aspect, we examined to what extent the cognitive processes underlying the scientific skills and the disciplinary reasoning behind the content knowledge were taught.…

  7. Comprehensive Aspectual UML approach to support AspectJ.

    PubMed

    Magableh, Aws; Shukur, Zarina; Ali, Noorazean Mohd

    2014-01-01

    Unified Modeling Language is the most popular and widely used Object-Oriented modelling language in the IT industry. This study focuses on investigating the ability to expand UML to some extent to model crosscutting concerns (Aspects) to support AspectJ. Through a comprehensive literature review, we identify and extensively examine all the available Aspect-Oriented UML modelling approaches and find that the existing Aspect-Oriented Design Modelling approaches using UML cannot be considered to provide a framework for a comprehensive Aspectual UML modelling approach and also that there is a lack of adequate Aspect-Oriented tool support. This study also proposes a set of Aspectual UML semantic rules and attempts to generate AspectJ pseudocode from UML diagrams. The proposed Aspectual UML modelling approach is formally evaluated using a focus group to test six hypotheses regarding performance; a "good design" criteria-based evaluation to assess the quality of the design; and an AspectJ-based evaluation as a reference measurement-based evaluation. The results of the focus group evaluation confirm all the hypotheses put forward regarding the proposed approach. The proposed approach provides a comprehensive set of Aspectual UML structural and behavioral diagrams, which are designed and implemented based on a comprehensive and detailed set of AspectJ programming constructs.

  8. Tense and Aspect in Childhood Language Impairment: Contributions from Hungarian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard, Laurence B.; Lukacs, Agnes; Kas, Bence

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies of children with language impairment (LI) reveal an insensitivity to aspect that may constitute part of the children's deficit. In this study, we examine aspect as well as tense in Hungarian-speaking children with LI. Twenty-one children with LI, 21 TD children matched for age, and 21 TD children matched for receptive vocabulary…

  9. Tense-Aspect Processing in Second Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Ho Leung

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation provides a language processing perspective on the study of second language acquisition (SLA) of tense and aspect. Of special interest are the universal vis-a-vis language-specific dimensions of temporal and aspectual semantics involved. According to the Aspect Hypothesis (AH, e.g. Andersen & Shirai, 1994), the initial…

  10. An Undergraduate Course in Legal Aspects of Geology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tank, Ronald W.

    1984-01-01

    A seminar which uses a case history approach and the Socratic method to evaluate legal aspects of geology is described. Water rights law, mineral law, and legal aspects of landslides, subsidence, sedimentation, erosion, and submergence are discussed. Students deal with hypothetical problems and participate in group projects related to these areas.…

  11. Numerical Investigation of Finite Aspect-Ratio Flapping Foils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mittal, R.; Najjar, F.; Bozkurttas, M.

    2003-11-01

    Most wings and fins found in nature tend to be of low aspect-ratio. However, despite this preponderence of low aspect-ratio foils in nature, most experimental and numerical studies in this area of bio-hydrodynamics have focussed on examining infinite aspect-ratio flapping foils. Here we have used numerical simulations to investigate the flow associated with finite aspect-ratio foils. Particular focus of the study is on examining the effect of aspect-ratio on the thrust chracteristics and the wake topology of the foil. The simulations employ a newly developed Cartesian grid method which allows us to simulate flows with complex three-dimensional bodies on fixed Cartesian grids. The simulations indicate that the wake topology of these relatively low aspect-ratio foils is significantly different from that observed for infinite-aspect-ratio foils. The simulations also allow us to assess the advantage/disadvantage that the lower aspect ratio might confer on the performance of a flapping foil. Results from this study will be presented.

  12. Equilibrium studies for low-aspect-ratio torsatrons

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, L.; Carreras, B.A.; Harris, J.H.; Hicks, H.R.; Lynch, V.E.

    1983-10-01

    Three-dimensional MHD equilibrium studies have been done for low aspect ratio torsatrons. These studies cover continuous-coil and modular torsatrons. The equilibrium properties improve with aspect ratio, as is expected. The role played by the vertical field has also been investigated. Outward shifts cause the flux surfaces to deteriorate. Inward shifts improve the flux surfaces at the expense of stability properties.

  13. Social Conflict: The Negative Aspect of Social Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbey, Antonia; Rovine, Michael

    Interpersonal relationships can be nonsupportive as well as supportive. A study was conducted to investigate the negative aspects of social relations which parallel two positive components of social relations, esteem support and affirmative support. If social support represents the positive aspects of interpersonal relationships, social conflict…

  14. Psychosocial Aspects of Nuclear Developments. Task Force Report 20.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychiatric Association, Washington, DC.

    This is the report of a task force formed to bring psychological understanding to bear on the various aspects of the development of nuclear arms and nuclear energy and the threat they pose to human physical, mental, and emotional health. The first of seven articles considers the sociopsychological aspects of the nuclear arms race. Other articles…

  15. Comprehensive Aspectual UML approach to support AspectJ.

    PubMed

    Magableh, Aws; Shukur, Zarina; Ali, Noorazean Mohd

    2014-01-01

    Unified Modeling Language is the most popular and widely used Object-Oriented modelling language in the IT industry. This study focuses on investigating the ability to expand UML to some extent to model crosscutting concerns (Aspects) to support AspectJ. Through a comprehensive literature review, we identify and extensively examine all the available Aspect-Oriented UML modelling approaches and find that the existing Aspect-Oriented Design Modelling approaches using UML cannot be considered to provide a framework for a comprehensive Aspectual UML modelling approach and also that there is a lack of adequate Aspect-Oriented tool support. This study also proposes a set of Aspectual UML semantic rules and attempts to generate AspectJ pseudocode from UML diagrams. The proposed Aspectual UML modelling approach is formally evaluated using a focus group to test six hypotheses regarding performance; a "good design" criteria-based evaluation to assess the quality of the design; and an AspectJ-based evaluation as a reference measurement-based evaluation. The results of the focus group evaluation confirm all the hypotheses put forward regarding the proposed approach. The proposed approach provides a comprehensive set of Aspectual UML structural and behavioral diagrams, which are designed and implemented based on a comprehensive and detailed set of AspectJ programming constructs. PMID:25136656

  16. The Meaning of the Perfective Aspect in Russian.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrell, James

    1951-01-01

    Descriptions of the perfective aspect in Russian taken from Miklosich, Saxmatov, Peskovsky, Fortunatov, and Karcevskij serve as background reading to the author's discussion of the problem. He explores three basic questions: (1) Is aspect a Russian problem in grammar or lexicography; (2) What is the nature of the correlation between the perfective…

  17. [The physiotherapic aspect of omeral epicondilitis (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Marenghi, P; Tella, G C

    1976-01-01

    The Authors describe history, etiopatogenesis, clinic, therapy of omeral epicondilitis, very frequent affection. Physiotherapic aspects are studied by different methods. The indications are different compared to clinical aspect, pain modality, relapse eventuality. They conclude with personal considerations based on what observed in Orthopedic Clinica of Parma University.

  18. Comprehensive Aspectual UML Approach to Support AspectJ

    PubMed Central

    Magableh, Aws; Shukur, Zarina; Mohd. Ali, Noorazean

    2014-01-01

    Unified Modeling Language is the most popular and widely used Object-Oriented modelling language in the IT industry. This study focuses on investigating the ability to expand UML to some extent to model crosscutting concerns (Aspects) to support AspectJ. Through a comprehensive literature review, we identify and extensively examine all the available Aspect-Oriented UML modelling approaches and find that the existing Aspect-Oriented Design Modelling approaches using UML cannot be considered to provide a framework for a comprehensive Aspectual UML modelling approach and also that there is a lack of adequate Aspect-Oriented tool support. This study also proposes a set of Aspectual UML semantic rules and attempts to generate AspectJ pseudocode from UML diagrams. The proposed Aspectual UML modelling approach is formally evaluated using a focus group to test six hypotheses regarding performance; a “good design” criteria-based evaluation to assess the quality of the design; and an AspectJ-based evaluation as a reference measurement-based evaluation. The results of the focus group evaluation confirm all the hypotheses put forward regarding the proposed approach. The proposed approach provides a comprehensive set of Aspectual UML structural and behavioral diagrams, which are designed and implemented based on a comprehensive and detailed set of AspectJ programming constructs. PMID:25136656

  19. 25 CFR 87.9 - Programming aspects of plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Programming aspects of plans. 87.9 Section 87.9 Indians... JUDGMENT FUNDS § 87.9 Programming aspects of plans. In assessing any tribal programming proposal the... such reservation residents; the nature of recent programming affecting the subject tribe or group...

  20. 25 CFR 87.9 - Programming aspects of plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Programming aspects of plans. 87.9 Section 87.9 Indians... JUDGMENT FUNDS § 87.9 Programming aspects of plans. In assessing any tribal programming proposal the... such reservation residents; the nature of recent programming affecting the subject tribe or group...

  1. 25 CFR 87.9 - Programming aspects of plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Programming aspects of plans. 87.9 Section 87.9 Indians... JUDGMENT FUNDS § 87.9 Programming aspects of plans. In assessing any tribal programming proposal the... such reservation residents; the nature of recent programming affecting the subject tribe or group...

  2. 25 CFR 87.9 - Programming aspects of plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Programming aspects of plans. 87.9 Section 87.9 Indians... JUDGMENT FUNDS § 87.9 Programming aspects of plans. In assessing any tribal programming proposal the... such reservation residents; the nature of recent programming affecting the subject tribe or group...

  3. 25 CFR 87.9 - Programming aspects of plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Programming aspects of plans. 87.9 Section 87.9 Indians... JUDGMENT FUNDS § 87.9 Programming aspects of plans. In assessing any tribal programming proposal the... such reservation residents; the nature of recent programming affecting the subject tribe or group...

  4. Practical aspects of laser holographic interferometry in wind tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Licursi, J.; Lee, G.

    1985-01-01

    Practical aspects of using laser holographic interferometry in some NASA Ames wind tunnels are presented. These aspects include the development of techniques for dual-plate interferometry, optics alignment, and laser alignment. In addition, methods to alleviate problems associated with vibration, photographic processing, photographic drying, and photographic reconstruction are discussed.

  5. Retrieval of aerosol aspect ratio from optical measurements in Vienna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocifaj, M.; Horvath, H.; Gangl, M.

    The phase function and extinction coefficient measured simultaneously are interpreted in terms of surface distribution function and mean effective aspect ratio of aerosol particles. All optical data were collected in the atmosphere of Vienna during field campaign in June 2005. It is shown that behavior of aspect ratio of Viennese aerosols has relation to relative humidity in such a way, that nearly spherical particles (with aspect ratio ɛ≈1) might became aspherical with ɛ≈1.3-1.6 under low relative humidity conditions. Typically, >80% of all Viennese aerosols have the aspect ratio <1.4, so the morphology of these particles behaves like perturbed spheres. The ɛ, exceptionally, can reach the value about 2, but these situations occur with probability <2%. Most typically, the aspect ratio peaks at ɛ≈1.2 in the atmosphere of Vienna.

  6. [Regulatory aspects and medicolegal considerations regarding clinical drug trials].

    PubMed

    Cammarano, Andrea; De Dominicis, Enrico; Marella, Gian Luca; Maurici, Massimo; Arcudi, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    This article aims to explore the regulatory and medicolegal aspects of experimental drug trials. Firstly, the authors provide definitions of drug according to WHO, the European Community and our official Pharmacopoeia, and that of experimental studies. They then explain the distinction between pure or basic research and drug trials and explain the various phases of the latter. Besides providing definitions, and exploring doctrinal, theoretical but also practical aspects of drug trials, the authors also discuss and analyze legislative aspects, with particular reference to the Italian legislative framework, and medicolegal issues, including informed consent, effects on humans, and professional responsibility.

  7. Effective communication, critical aspects and compositionality in algebra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olteanu, Lucian

    2014-10-01

    This paper contains a discussion of how the concept of critical aspects and the principle of compositionality can provide a powerful tool to analyse and understand the communications that occur in the classroom. It is grounded in data collected in a longitudinal study. The content chosen is algebra. It is argued that the critical aspects and the principle of compositionality should be considered as a methodological principle that describes how communication in the classroom should be designed. Here, I present the power of using variation theory whose main purpose is to generate an understanding of critical aspects and compositionality in practice.

  8. Strontium: Part II. Chemistry, Biological Aspects and Applications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Britton, G. C.; Johnson, C. H.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews basic information on the Chemistry of strontium and its compounds. Explains biological aspects of strontium and its pharmaceutical applications. Highlights industrial application of strontium and its components. (ML)

  9. The unsteady lift of a wing of finite aspect ratio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Robert T

    1940-01-01

    Unsteady-lift functions for wings of finite aspect ratio have been calculated by correcting the aerodynamic inertia and the angle of attack of the infinite wing. The calculations are based on the operational method.

  10. Low-aspect-ratio optimization studies for ATF-II

    SciTech Connect

    Hirshman, S.P.; Morris, R.N.; Hedrick, C.L.; Lyon, J.F.; Rome, J.A.; Painter, S.L.; Van Rij, W.I.

    1989-01-01

    A numerical procedure for optimizing stellarator MHD and transport properties at finite ..beta.. is described. This method is applied to finding a low-aspect-ratio ATF-II configuration. 4 refs., 6 figs.

  11. Coping with Rosacea: Managing Psychosocial Aspects of Rosacea

    MedlinePlus

    ... form Search You are here Home Coping With Rosacea Managing Psychosocial Aspects of Rosacea The conspicuous redness, blemishes and swelling caused by ... constructive opportunities to create understanding. top Living With Rosacea Millions of people suffer from rosacea, yet increasing ...

  12. Practical aspects of telehealth: doctor-patient relationship and communication.

    PubMed

    Sabesan, S; Allen, D; Caldwell, P; Loh, P K; Mozer, R; Komesaroff, P A; Talman, P; Williams, M; Shaheen, N; Grabinski, O

    2014-01-01

    The fourth in a series of articles about the practical aspects of telehealth, this paper provides advice and information for specialists to communicate effectively with patients during a telehealth video consultation. PMID:24450527

  13. Mathematical modeling of synergetic aspects of machine building enterprise management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazakov, O. D.; Andriyanov, S. V.

    2016-04-01

    The multivariate method of determining the optimal values of leading key performance indicators of production divisions of machine-building enterprises in the aspect of synergetics has been worked out.

  14. Frontal affinity chromatography (FAC): theory and basic aspects.

    PubMed

    Kasai, Ken-ichi

    2014-01-01

    Frontal affinity chromatography (FAC) is a versatile analytical tool for determining specific interactions between biomolecules and is particularly useful in the field of glycobiology. This article presents its basic aspects, merits, and theory. PMID:25117240

  15. Applying Aspect-Oriented Programming to Intelligent Synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Filman, Robert E.; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    I discuss a component-centered, aspect-oriented system, the Object Infrastructure Framework (OIF), NASA's initiative on Intelligent Synthesis Environments (ISE), and the application of OIF to the architecture of ISE.

  16. Power Quality Aspects in a Wind Power Plant: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Muljadi, E.; Butterfield, C. P.; Chacon, J.; Romanowitz, H.

    2006-01-01

    Although many operational aspects affect wind power plant operation, this paper focuses on power quality. Because a wind power plant is connected to the grid, it is very important to understand the sources of disturbances that affect the power quality.

  17. Based Aspect-oriented Petri Nets in Software Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Wensong; Yang, Xingui; Zuo, Ke

    Aspect Oriented (Aspect-Oriented, referred to as AO) as a new programming technology is increasingly cause for concern. This article describes a number of experts to study the current object-oriented Petri Nets (OO PN) adding aspect-oriented thinking, combined with software design and development cycle, given the aspect-oriented OO PN in software engineering methods and steps. Shows the method of using AO PN government office system software design and development of application examples, and gives some object class, the log section and the application form. As the plane of isolation, reducing the coupling, the use of AO PN ways in different applications will use a combination of each section, allowing code reusability enhancement. OOPN itself can process the software system design and development of effective control to ensure that the software system reliability and standardization.

  18. Criticism and interpretation: teaching the persuasive aspects of research articles.

    PubMed

    Gillen, Christopher M

    2006-01-01

    Research articles are an excellent tool for promoting active learning about the scientific process. One difficulty in teaching research articles is that they address a professional audience and often seek to be persuasive as well as informative. This essay discusses pedagogical strategies that are intended to help students differentiate the purely informative aspects of research articles, such as descriptions of the methods and results, from the persuasive aspects, such as interpretation of results and critical evaluation of the work of other scientists.

  19. Psychological aspects of von Recklinghausen neurofibromatosis (NF1)

    PubMed Central

    Mouridsen, S E; Sørensen, S A

    1995-01-01

    Neurofibromatosis is a devasting autosomal dominant disease which is extremely variable in its symptomatology, intensity, and progression. There have been numerous reports published about the physical aspects of neurofibromatosis, while psychological issues have been given little attention so far. The present article presents a review of the current knowledge concerning psychological aspects of neurofibromatosis. Information is provided relating to physical appearance, intellectual impairment, neuropsychological findings, learning disability, and psychiatric disorders. PMID:8825915

  20. Selecting tense, aspect, and connecting words in language generation

    SciTech Connect

    Gaasterland, T.; Dorr, B.

    1995-12-31

    Generating language that reflects the temporal organization of represented knowledge requires a language generation model that integrates contemporary theories of tense and aspect, temporal representations, and methods to plan text. This paper presents a model that produces complex sentences that reflect temporal relations present in underlying temporal concepts. The main result of this work is the successful application of constrained linguistic theories of tense and aspect to a generator which produces meaningful event combinations and selects appropriate connecting words that relate them.

  1. Psychological aspects of the role of religion in identity construction.

    PubMed

    Brandt, Pierre-Yves

    2013-06-01

    Religious plurality can generate fears through identity destabilization. Religions offer ressources for coping with fears. On one side, production of stereotypes follows a defensive way. On the other side, claim to be universal help to cross boundaries and to cope with stigmatization, misrecognition and discrimination. Coping strategies combine at least five aspects: community, intimate relationship, rules, construction of identity, and worlview. This article shows how these aspects are intertwined.

  2. Low aspect ratio wings at high angles of attack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stallings, Robert L., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    A survey is conducted of the results of investigations into the flowfields and aerodynamic forces associated with low aspect ratio wings at high angles of attack. Attention is given to criteria for the cataloging of these flowfields, the phenomenon of vortex breakdown, with varying wing incidence and Mach number, and the effects of aspect ratio and compressibility. The planforms treated are of rectangular, clipped-delta, and strake-wing combination geometries. Extensive graphic representations of performance trends with varying parameters are furnished.

  3. Promoting cognitive and social aspects of inquiry through classroom discourse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Hui; Wei, Xin; Duan, Peiran; Guo, Yuying; Wang, Wenxia

    2016-01-01

    We investigated how Chinese physics teachers structured classroom discourse to support the cognitive and social aspects of inquiry-based science learning. Regarding the cognitive aspect, we examined to what extent the cognitive processes underlying the scientific skills and the disciplinary reasoning behind the content knowledge were taught. Regarding the social aspect, we examined how classroom discourse supported student learning in terms of students' opportunities to talk and interaction patterns. Our participants were 17 physics teachers who were actively engaged in teacher education programs in universities and professional development programs in local school districts. We analyzed one lesson video from each participating teacher. The results suggest both promises and challenges. Regarding the cognitive aspect of inquiry, the teachers in general recognized the importance of teaching the cognitive processes and disciplinary reasoning. However, they were less likely to address common intuitive ideas about science concepts and principles. Regarding the social aspect of inquiry, the teachers frequently interacted with students in class. However, it appeared that facilitating conversations among students and prompting students to talk about their own ideas are challenging. We discuss the implications of these findings for teacher education programs and professional development programs in China.

  4. Misperception of aspect ratio in binocularly viewed surfaces.

    PubMed

    Hibbard, Paul B; Goutcher, Ross; O'Kane, Lisa M; Scarfe, Peter

    2012-10-01

    The horizontal-vertical illusion, in which the vertical dimension is overestimated relative to the horizontal direction, has been explained in terms of the statistical relationship between the lengths of lines in the world, and the lengths of their projections onto the retina (Howe & Purves, 2002). The current study shows that this illusion affects the apparent aspect ratio of shapes, and investigates how it interacts with binocular cues to surface slant. One way in which statistical information could give rise to the horizontal-vertical illusion would be through prior assumptions about the distribution of slant. This prior would then be expected to interact with retinal cues to slant. We determined the aspect ratio of stereoscopically viewed ellipses that appeared circular. We show that observers' judgements of aspect ratio were affected by surface slant, but that the largest image vertical:horizontal aspect ratio that was considered to be a surface with a circular profile was always found for surfaces close to fronto-parallel. This is not consistent with a Bayesian model in which the horizontal-vertical illusion arises from a non-uniform prior probability distribution for slant. Rather, we suggest that assumptions about the slant of surfaces affect apparent aspect ratio in a manner that is more heuristic, and partially dissociated from apparent slant. PMID:22925917

  5. Aspect-Oriented Model-Driven Software Product Line Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groher, Iris; Voelter, Markus

    Software product line engineering aims to reduce development time, effort, cost, and complexity by taking advantage of the commonality within a portfolio of similar products. The effectiveness of a software product line approach directly depends on how well feature variability within the portfolio is implemented and managed throughout the development lifecycle, from early analysis through maintenance and evolution. This article presents an approach that facilitates variability implementation, management, and tracing by integrating model-driven and aspect-oriented software development. Features are separated in models and composed of aspect-oriented composition techniques on model level. Model transformations support the transition from problem to solution space models. Aspect-oriented techniques enable the explicit expression and modularization of variability on model, template, and code level. The presented concepts are illustrated with a case study of a home automation system.

  6. Implications of the small aspect angles of equatorial spread F

    SciTech Connect

    Hysell, D.L.; Farley, D.T.

    1996-03-01

    Small-scale equatorial spread F irregularities are almost perfectly aligned with the geomagnetic field. The authors develop here an analytic plasma kinetic theory of small-scale, quasi-field-aligned irregularities that include ion viscosity and finite Larmor radius effects. They conclude, for one thing, that the measured aspect angles are too small to be consistent with a dissipative drift wave source of 3-m irregularities. Nonlinearly driven flute modes appear to be the only available mechanism. The authors compare the relative influence of parallel and perpendicular dissipation and conclude that the aspect width depends only weakly on any single geophysical parameters, such as collision frequency, gradient length, temperature, etc. This finding is consistent with their observation that the measured aspect angles vary little with altitude and only weakly with instability level. 29 refs., 5 figs.

  7. [Journey to what is essentially invisible: pysochosocial aspects of disease].

    PubMed

    Turabián, J L; Pérez-Franco, B

    2014-03-01

    Physicians may be well equipped for the biological aspects of disease, but not for its psychosocial dimensions, an issue that has been absent in family medicine. The psychosocial aspects of the disease are the factors involved in how patients react to the disease, play a role in the expression of symptoms and disease, and have implications on the lives of patients. Moreover, the biological effects (specific) and psychosocial effects (non-specific) are not simply additive but interactive. Physicians should be aware of this hidden, essentially invisible patient psychosocial morbidity, and must incorporate bio-psychosocial interventions into routine medical care to be more effective. In addition, to consider these aspects in the context of care contributes to the distinctive elements of family medicine.

  8. Method of fabricating a high aspect ratio microstructure

    DOEpatents

    Warren, John B.

    2003-05-06

    The present invention is for a method of fabricating a high aspect ratio, freestanding microstructure. The fabrication method modifies the exposure process for SU-8, an negative-acting, ultraviolet-sensitive photoresist used for microfabrication whereby a UV-absorbent glass substrate, chosen for complete absorption of UV radiation at 380 nanometers or less, is coated with a negative photoresist, exposed and developed according to standard practice. This UV absorbent glass enables the fabrication of cylindrical cavities in a negative photoresist microstructures that have aspect ratios of 8:1.

  9. Aspect Ratio Dependence in Magnetorotational Instability Shearing Box Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mignone, Andrea; Ferrari, Attilio; Bodo, Gianluigi; Rossi, Paola; Cattaneo, Fausto

    Three-dimensional numerical simulations of the magnetorotational instability in the shearing box approximation with a nonzero net flux are presented. By changing the size of the computational domain in the radial direction relative to the vertical box height, we find, in agreement with previous studies, that transport of angular momentum (associated with the so-called "channel solution") is strongly intermittent and maximized for boxes of unit aspect ratio. On the other hand, in boxes with larger aspect ratio the intermittent behavior disappears and angular momentum transport is inhibited.

  10. Two often disregarded aspects of Foucaultʼs pendulum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez, José-Philippe; Pujol, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    This paper revisits the famous Foucault's pendulum by highlighting two often-disregarded aspects in mechanics courses. The first one concerns the existence of a local accelerated reference frame to express the law of dynamics without the Coriolis force. The second aspect deals with the geometrical phase that appears in pendulum dynamics. This last point, which could appear banal, should be related to analogous consideration in quantum physics. It is also linked to vectorial parallel transport of the pendulum angular momentum eigenvector. Numerical simulations with MATLAB are proposed.

  11. Collider Aspects of Flavour Physics at High Q

    SciTech Connect

    del Aguila, F.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J.A.; Allanach, B.C.; Alwall, J.; Andreev, Yu.; Aristizabal Sierra, D.; Bartl, A.; Beccaria, M.; Bejar, S.; Benucci, L.; Bityukov, S.; Borjanovic, I.; Bozzi, G.; Burdman, G.; Carvalho, J.; Castro, N.; Clerbaux, B.; de Campos, F.; de Gouvea, A.; Dennis, C.; Djouadi, A.; /Cambridge U., DAMTP /Louvain U., CP3 /Moscow, INR /Valencia U. /Vienna U. /Salento U. /INFN, Lecce /Barcelona, Autonoma U. /Barcelona, IFAE /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /Karlsruhe U. /Sao Paulo U. /LIP, Coimbra /Brussels U. /Sao Paulo U., Guaratingueta /Northwestern U. /Oxford U. /Orsay, LPT /Athens U. /Lisbon U.

    2008-03-07

    This chapter of the report of the 'Flavour in the era of LHC' workshop discusses flavor related issues in the production and decays of heavy states at LHC, both from the experimental side and from the theoretical side. We review top quark physics and discuss flavor aspects of several extensions of the Standard Model, such as supersymmetry, little Higgs model or models with extra dimensions. This includes discovery aspects as well as measurement of several properties of these heavy states. We also present public available computational tools related to this topic.

  12. Meat Safety and Regulatory Aspects in the European Union

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwinger, Ron H.; Golden, Thomas E.; Hatakka, Maija; Chalus, Thierry

    Meat safety is concerned with chemical, physical and biological aspects. With regard to the chemical aspects, residues and contaminants should be kept at as low a level as possible, but should certainly not exceed the maximum levels laid down in Community legislation. To prevent residues and contaminants in meat, it is essential to follow good agricultural practice, which involves feeding and management requirements, observing the correct withdrawal period, following treatment of animals, with veterinary medicines, a strict selection of raw materials, correct use of pesticides on grassland, preventing the access of animals to toxins or environmental contaminants, etc.

  13. Low aspect ratio wings at high angles of attack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stallings, R. L., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    A comprehensive evaluation is made of experimental data compiled to date for the flowfields and aerodynamic forces that occur at high angles of attack for low aspect ratio wings with delta, rectangular, clipped delta, and strake/wing planform geometries. Attention is given to wing leading edge-generated vortex breakdown, aspect ratio and compressibility effects, and strake vortex effects on main wing areas. Although the nonlinear effects created by a wing-body combination significantly alter wing-alone aerodynamics, the wing-alone data presented are vital to the development of prediction methodologies for large angle of attack aerodynamics.

  14. Farley-Buneman Waves at Large Aspect Angles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perron, P.; St-Maurice, J. P.; Noel, J. M. A.

    2015-12-01

    The FB instability mechanism provides an excellent explanation for the presence of large amplitude plasma waves in the cm to few m wavelength range in the high latitude E region whenever the ambient electric field exceeds 20 mV/m. Observations suggest that the instabilities are moving at their threshold speed when they reach their largest amplitudes. This can be explained in terms of a combination of decreasing electric field and increasing aspect angle inside individual structures. However, another feature of observations is that linear theory predicts instability for aspect angles smaller than 1.5 degree, up to maybe 2 degrees even though there is plenty of evidence to show that large amplitude structures exist at aspect angles well beyond 2 degrees during FB events. We show that this observational feature is caused by the weak altitude dependence of the eigenfrequency, which forces the aspect angle to grow monotonically with time. This means that after the structures have reached their maximum amplitude, they continue to exist, but with the caveat that their aspect angle increases while their amplitude decreases. This allows damped modes at large aspect angles to be observed. However, as the aspect angle increases, the phase velocity will also change, although that change is actually a strong function of the wavelength. This means that we must assess the real and imaginary part of the eigenfrequency to query the Doppler shift of the structures and see how they compare with observations at different radar frequencies. To this goal, we have studied both the fluid isothermal dispersion relation, as well as the full kinetic dispersion. Our results for sub-meter wavelengths show that the phase velocity remains very constant at only slightly less than the ion-acoustic speed as the aspect angle increases. At larger wavelengths, the transition to zero phase velocity proceeds according to V_d/(1+ψ), a result in agreement with simple fluid predictions based on small

  15. SOME ASPECTS OF HEALTH CARE IN MEDIEVAL INDIA

    PubMed Central

    Rao, B. Rama

    1992-01-01

    It appears that from medieval period onwards the subjects having practical application were given more importance than the philosophical and theoretical aspects. But the physicians were keen observes and new drugs and information were added and the effect of religion, astrology and other systems is also seen. While the womenfolk used to collect from the nearby forests, drugs that were useful for common ailments, some drugs were also imported from other countries. Specialization in certain diseases or practices was prevalent and the physicians enjoyed a high status and respect in the society. Several such other aspects are dealt with in this article. PMID:22556577

  16. Fabrication and characterization of plasmonic nanorods with high aspect ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Xiaoxiao; Hu, Sheng; Li, Zhigang; Lv, Jiangtao; Si, Guangyuan

    2016-08-01

    Metallic nanostructures with high aspect ratios are important for developing devices in photonics and integrated optics. However, fabricating well-aligned plasmonic arrays is challenging due to the difficulties of etching metals. In this work, we investigate the feasibility of constructing high aspect ratio nanorods with desired shapes and controllable geometric parameters using direct focused ion beam etching. The whole fabrication process only involves a metal-deposition step and a single milling of designed patterns. Detailed characterizations of the fabricated devices are also experimentally demonstrated.

  17. Guide to good practices for operations aspects of unique processes

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-01

    This Guide to Good Practices is written to enhance understanding of, and provide direction for, Operations Aspects of Facility Chemistry and Unique Processes, Chapter XIII of Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5480.19, Conduct of Operations Requirements for DOE Facilities. The practices in this guide should be considered when planning or reviewing employee training and facility management programs. Contractors are advised to adopt procedures that meet the intent of DOE Order 5480.19. Operations Aspects of Unique Processes is an element of an effective Conduct of Operations program. The complexity and array of activities performed in DOE facilities dictate the necessity for all personnel to coordinate interrelated activities affecting unique processes.

  18. Ostéochondrome volumineux de l'omoplate: à propos d'un cas

    PubMed Central

    Karabila, Mohamed Amine; Otmani, Leila; Azouz, Mohamed; Mhamdi, Younes; Hmouri, Ismail; Kharmaz, Mohamed; Bardouni, Ahmed; Lahlou, Abdou; Mahfoud, Mustapha; Salehberrada, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Nous rapportons le cas d'un ostéochondrome de l'omoplate ayant un aspect radiologique et une localisation inhabituelle chez un jeune homme de 24 ans qui consulte pour une déformation de son épaule gauche avec une bosse postérieure refoulant son omoplate. Un bilan radiologique standard a montré une exostose pédiculée à la partie supérieure de l'omoplate. La tomodensitométrie était en faveur d'une exostose volumineuse. La résection chirurgicale de la tumeur et l'examen anatomo-pathologique ont permis de confirmer le diagnostic d'un ostéochondrome. Après un recul de dix mois, les résultats fonctionnels étaient très bons. PMID:26985278

  19. Examining Some Aspects of Alternative Basic Education Programmes in Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onwu, Gilbert O. M.; Agu, Augustine

    2010-01-01

    This study examines some aspects of the quality of Alternative Basic Education (ABE) provision in Ethiopia. Educational indicators of quality were formulated under two general topic areas of ABE programme process and content, and pupil learning outcomes. A qualitative-interpretative research approach and survey design was used to collect data from…

  20. Designing the Thematic Curriculum: An All Aspects Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finch, Curtis R.; Frantz, Nevin R.; Mooney, Marianne; Aneke, Norbert O.

    This guide focuses on two interrelated areas of developing vocational education curricula: designing a thematic curriculum and using the "all aspects of the industry" approach when creating thematic curricula. The following are among the topics discussed in the guide's eight sections: principles of the thematic curriculum and its potential to…

  1. [New drugs--chemical, pharmacological, metabolical, analytical and legal aspects].

    PubMed

    Ewald, Andreas H

    2015-03-01

    The characterisation of new psychoactive drugs which were identified in the last years in continuously increasing numbers is a challenge for different academic institutions. This paper gives an overview on new psychoactive drugs in regard of their chemistry, pharmacology, metabolism, analytics and legal aspects in Germany.

  2. Charles Darwin and Evolution: Illustrating Human Aspects of Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kampourakis, Kostas; McComas, William F.

    2010-01-01

    Recently, the nature of science (NOS) has become recognized as an important element within the K-12 science curriculum. Despite differences in the ultimate lists of recommended aspects, a consensus is emerging on what specific NOS elements should be the focus of science instruction and inform textbook writers and curriculum developers. In this…

  3. Onto-phylogenetic aspect of myotomal myogenesis in Chordata.

    PubMed

    Kiełbówna, Leokadia; Daczewska, Małgorzata

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents an onto- and phylogenetic aspect of myotoamal myogenesis in Chordata. A comparative analysis of early stages of myotomal myogenesis in Chordata indicates that the myogenic process in this phylum underwent evolutionary changes. The first stage of the process is myogenesis leading to development of mononucleate mature muscle cells, the most advanced stage is formation of multinucleate muscle fibres.

  4. A Dual Aspect Process Model of Intensive Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Firth, Graham

    2009-01-01

    Intensive Interaction is an empirically researched approach to developing fundamental communication and sociability for people with severe and profound learning disabilities and/or autism. However, it is the author's contention that certain aspects of Intensive Interaction are not universally conceptualised in a uniform manner, and that there are…

  5. Exploring the Impact of Aspects of the London Leadership Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sammons, Pam; Matthews, Peter; Day, Christopher; Gu, Qing

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses the methodology adopted for the formative evaluation of aspects of the London Leadership Strategy (LLS). The LLS is an ambitious example of a program designed and supported by the National College of School Leadership in England (NCSL) to enhance leadership and management so as to improve the quality of education and raise…

  6. Health Aspects of the Disposal of Waste Chemicals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grisham, Joe W., Ed.

    Intended to be a source of information on the nature and significance of health effects related to chemical disposal, this document is the final report of the Executive Scientific Panel on Health Aspects of the Disposal of Waste Chemicals. The panel, which was organized by the Universities Associated for Research and Education in Pathology…

  7. Teaching and Learning about Solid Waste: Aspects of Content Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cinquetti, Heloisa Chalmers Sisla; de Carvalho, Luiz Marcelo

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates aspects of content knowledge related to teaching and learning about solid waste, focusing on the processes of learning and teaching by Elementary School teachers in Brazil, in two modalities of continuing education: courses and school-based meetings. We analyse elements of teachers' reflections whilst referring to three…

  8. Biological Aspects of Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Allan S.; Woodside, D. Blake

    1987-01-01

    Reviews biological factors relevant to the understanding of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. Considers the physical presentation of these disorders; the medical complications of starvation, binging, and purging; and the cognitive and behavioral effects of starvation. Reviews neurophysiological and neurochemical aspects of these illnesses and…

  9. Epilepsy in Down Syndrome: Clinical Aspects and Possible Mechanisms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stafstrom, Carl E.

    1993-01-01

    This review examines clinical aspects of seizures among individuals with Down's syndrome and explores possible mechanisms by which the trisomy 21 brain may generate seizures. Evidence suggests an interplay between pathologically hyperexcitable membrane properties, altered neuronal structure, and abnormal inhibitory neurotransmission. (Author/JDD)

  10. Analysis of Discovery of Chaos: Social and Cognitive Aspects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, J. B.

    The purpose of this study was to examine Edward Lorenz's psychological processes and other environmental aspects in the discovery of chaos at that time. The general concept of chaos is discussed based on relations with previous scientific theories such as Newtonian physics and quantum mechanics. The constraints of discovery in terms of available…

  11. Dancing through the Emotional Aspects of the Career Search.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chope, Robert C.

    This paper discusses how emotional reactions to the job search, especially in the new economy, can adversely influence an individual's effectiveness. It suggests that career counselors and coaches can assist clients with some of the emotional aspects of the job search without referring these people to other mental health professionals. There are…

  12. Discursive Aspects of Metafiction: A Neo-Oral Aura?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgakopoulou, Alexandra

    1991-01-01

    This paper attempts to identify certain regularities and tendencies of metafictional discourse. The focus is on the aspects of its metacommunicative component, which refers to interpersonal relations between the interactants of the narrative. What is interesting is the incorporation of typically oral modes of involvement in the self-conscious…

  13. The Russian Market of University Services: Social and Demographic Aspects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bydanova, Elizaveta; Mushketova, Natalia; Rouet, Gilles

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to analyze the impact of demographic, social, economic and international aspects on the market of university services in Russia. It also reminds readers briefly of the evolution of the Russian higher education system during the last 20 years and considers some consequences of the current public policy and…

  14. Attitude Strength: An Extra-Content Aspect of Attitude.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alwitt, Linda F.

    Attitude strength is considered as an extra-content aspect of attitude. A model of the relationship of attitude strength to attitude direction and behavior proposes that attitude strength is comprised of three dimensions that moderate the relationship between attitude direction and behavior. The dimensions are parallel to the tripartite dimensions…

  15. The History, Biology and Medical Aspects of Leprosy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eichman, Phillip

    1999-01-01

    Presents information about the history, biology, and medical aspects of leprosy, including its description in historical documents, its cause and effects, statistics on its prevalence, and various attempts at treatment. Notes that leprosy is one of the few infectious diseases that, although treatable with medication, remains incurable. Contains 30…

  16. Nuclear and materials aspects of the thorium fuel cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, P.; Sundaram, C. V.

    1981-09-01

    This paper is an attempt to assess and review the materials aspects of the thorium fuel cycle. It starts with an examination of the nuclear aspects of the thorium fuel cycle, meant as an introduction for materials scientists and engineers who may not normally be familiar with the concepts and terms involved. After defining and describing the thorium and uranium fuel cycles, the reasons for the resurgence of interest in the thorium fuel cycle and the technical and economic considerations that support its early adoption are examined. The reactor physics and fissile economics aspects of the thorium and uranium cycles are then compared. The specific reactor types suitable for the adoption of the thorium cycle are briefly examined and described. Subsequent sections of the paper are devoted to a detailed discussion of the materials aspects of the thorium fuel cycle. Available information on fabrication, refabrication and irradiation performance of thorium-based fuels for light water reactors, heavy water reactors, high temperature gas-cooled reactors, molten salt breeder reactors and fast breeder reactors is critically reviewed and analysed. Materials problems related to cladding and structural materials are also discussed whenever these are unique to the thorium cycle.

  17. Aspects of Compliance in a Reciprocal Family System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lytton, Hugh

    This paper examines some of the aspects of compliance, its antecedents and consequences, that emerged from a sutdy of 136, 2 1/2 year-old boys. The investigation studied parent-child interaction by means of naturalistic home observation, ratings based on observation and interviews, and experimental procedures. Four compliance criterion measures,…

  18. What Aspects of Face Processing Are Impaired in Developmental Prosopagnosia?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Grand, Richard; Cooper, Philip A.; Mondloch, Catherine J.; Lewis, Terri L.; Sagiv, Noam; de Gelder, Beatrice; Maurer, Daphne

    2006-01-01

    Developmental prosopagnosia (DP) is a severe impairment in identifying faces that is present from early in life and that occurs despite no apparent brain damage and intact visual and intellectual function. Here, we investigated what aspects of face processing are impaired/spared in developmental prosopagnosia by examining a relatively large group…

  19. Measurement of Central Aspects of Scientific Research: Performance, Interdisciplinarity, Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Raan, Anthony F. J.

    2005-01-01

    This article presents an overview of measuring science based on a bibliometric methodology. The 2 main lines of this methodology are discussed. First, the measurement of research performance is addressed, including aspects such as interdisciplinarity, collaboration, and knowledge users. It is demonstrated that advanced bibliometric methods are an…

  20. Aspects of a Grammar of Makary Kotoko (Chadic, Cameroon)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allison, Sean David

    2012-01-01

    Makary Kotoko (MK), a Central Chadic B language, is spoken in the north of Cameroon just south of Lake Chad. Published works on MK to date include about a dozen articles on different aspects of the grammar of the language, primarily by H. Tourneux. The present work, which is based on a substantial corpus of recorded texts, is a systematic…

  1. Progeria: Medical Aspects, Psychosocial Perspectives, and Intervention Guidelines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livneh, Hanoch; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Discusses progeria (or Hutchinson-Gilford syndrome), a rare childhood disorder that invariably results in death during adolescence. Describes the major medical aspects of progeria, and discusses the psychosocial implications of the disorder with particular emphasis on grief-triggered reactions. Presents an overview of psychosocial intervention…

  2. Clinical aspects of coal workers' pneumoconiosis and silicosis

    SciTech Connect

    Balaan, M.R.; Weber, S.L.; Banks, D.E. )

    1993-01-01

    Coal workers' pneumoconiosis and silicosis are two important respiratory disorders that result from the inhalation of respirable particles in mining. This chapter focuses on the clinical aspects of these disorders, including their pathogenesis and pathology, and approaches to their evaluation and management. 57 refs.

  3. The Aspect Hypothesis: Development of Morphology and Appropriateness of Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comajoan, Llorenc

    2006-01-01

    According to the aspect hypothesis (Andersen & Shirai, 1996; Bardovi-Harlig, 2000), perfective morphology emerges before imperfective morphology, it is first used in telic predicates (achievements and accomplishments) and it later extends to atelic predicates (activities and states). The opposite development is hypothesized for imperfective…

  4. Aspects of Spatial Influence on Science Teaching Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engelhardt, David Frederic

    A number of aspects of the relationships between characteristics of architectural space and science teaching methods in secondary schools were investigated using teacher questionnaire response and interviews for comparative facilities. Significant factors include--(1) the provision of classroom-laboratories, (2) proximity of the library, (3) size…

  5. A PROBLEM IN THE MORPHOLOGY OF RUSSIAN VERBAL ASPECT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HARRINGTON, RONALD V.

    CONTEMPORARY RUSSIAN VERB STEMS ENDING IN "I" HAVE TWO VARIANT NONFINAL SUFFIXES TO MARK IMPERFECTIVE ASPECT, "IVAJ" AND "AJ." PURELY PHONOLOGICAL FACTORS DO NOT SEEM TO DETERMINE WHICH PREFIX IS USED AND THERE IS LITTLE EVIDENCE FOR A CAUSAL RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN A PARTICULAR PREFIX AND A PREFERRED SUFFIX. IN MANY CASES THE "IVAJ" SUFFIX IS FOUND…

  6. Lexical Aspects of Very Advanced L2 French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundell, Fanny Forsberg; Lindqvist, Christina

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigates the possibilities for adult learners to attain nativelikeness in the domain of lexis. Aspects investigated are general lexical knowledge (C-test), receptive deep knowledge, productive collocation knowledge, and productive lexico-pragmatic knowledge in a group of long-residency Swedish French second language (L2)…

  7. "Applied" Aspects of the Drug Resistance Strategies Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hecht, Michael L.; Miller-Day, Michelle A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses the applied aspects of our Drug Resistance Strategies Project. We argue that a new definitional distinction is needed to expand the notion of "applied" from the traditional notion of utilizing theory, which we call "applied.1," in order to consider theory-grounded, theory testing and theory developing applied research. We…

  8. Using Spreadsheets to Teach Aspects of Biology Involving Mathematical Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlton, Kevin; Nicholls, Mike; Ponsonby, David

    2004-01-01

    Some aspects of biology, for example the Hardy-Weinberg simulation of population genetics or modelling heat flow in lizards, have an undeniable mathematical basis. Students can find the level of mathematical skill required to deal with such concepts to be an insurmountable hurdle to understanding. If not used effectively, spreadsheet models…

  9. Social and Cultural Aspects of Infertility in Mozambique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerrits, Trudie

    1997-01-01

    The sociocultural aspects of infertility among members of the matrilineal ethnic group Macua are studied. Strategies applied by infertile women, the use of traditional healers versus modern hospital, and explanations given for infertility are presented. Solutions attempted, social consequences of infertility, and recommendations for culturally…

  10. [Urticaria pigmentosa: clinical and therapeutic aspects for the paediatrician].

    PubMed

    Moll-Manzur, Catherina; Araos-Baeriswyl, Esteban; Downey, Camila; Dossi, María T

    2016-08-01

    Urticaria pigmentosa, also known as maculopapular mastocytosis, is the most common type of paediatric mastocytosis. It presents with yellow to brown macules or papules, usually located on trunk and extremities. Regarding its diagnostic and therapeutic implications, the objective of this article is to serve as an update for the paediatrician on the most relevant aspects of this pathology.

  11. Emotional Aspects of Childhood Career Development: Importance and Future Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliveira, Íris M.; Taveira, Maria do Céu; Porfeli, Erik J.

    2015-01-01

    Childhood is a central period for career and social-emotional development. However, the literature covering childhood career development and the role of emotions in careers is scarce. In this article, we advocate for the consideration of emotions in childhood career development. Emotional aspects of children's career exploration, key-figures and…

  12. Games, Gaming, and Gamification: Some Aspects of Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson-Smith, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Unsupported claims have been made for the use of games in education and the gamification (game-like aspects, such as scores and point goals) of various learning elements. This brief article examines what may be the motivational basis of gaming and how it can affect students' behavior and ultimate success.

  13. Radiological aspects of the SSRL 3 GeV injector

    SciTech Connect

    Ipe, N.

    1991-09-01

    This document describes the shielding of the injector, results of radiation measurements, the personnel protection system, the beam containment system, the area monitoring, administrative controls and procedures, operator training and personnel dosimetry. In addition, other radiological aspects of the injector such as muons, air activation, toxic gases, induced activity and skyshine are discussed. 79 refs., 18 figs., 13 tabs.

  14. Temporal Aspects of English Speech Production: A Developmental Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Bruce L.

    1978-01-01

    Developmental aspects of several temporal parameters in the speech of 2- to 4-year-old English-speaking children were investigated; adults served as a control group. Children seemed to possess timing control systems which are more sophisticated than has previously been suggested. (Author/SW)

  15. Consumer Aspects of Death and Dying. The Forgotten Dimension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eddy, James M.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    The consumer aspects of death and dying are discussed as part of a comprehensive death education program. Suggested areas to be covered include traditional funeral procedures and costs; alternatives including cremation, body donation, and funeral and memorial societies; and drawing up a will. Some suggested teaching strategies are outlined. (JMF)

  16. Nonviolent Aspects of Interparental Conflict and Dating Violence among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tschann, Jeanne M.; Pasch, Lauri A.; Flores, Elena; Marin, Barbara VanOss; Baisch, E. Marco; Wibbelsman, Charles J.

    2009-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined whether nonviolent aspects of interparental conflict, in addition to interparental violence, predicted dating violence perpetration and victimization among 150 Mexican American and European American male and female adolescents, ages 16 to 20. When parents had more frequent conflict, were more verbally aggressive…

  17. A Game Demonstrating Aspects of Bumblebee Natural History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westgarth-Smith, Angus R.

    2004-01-01

    The Bumblebee Game is an exciting outdoor game, which demonstrates aspects of bumblebee natural history including food chains, food webs and competition for food, predation by crab spiders, parasitism by "Conopidae" ("Diptera") and brood parasitism by cuckoo bees. It has been played successfully with groups of 10-25 people. Although most suitable…

  18. A Unified Analysis of Japanese Aspect Marker "te iru."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shinzato, Rumiko

    1993-01-01

    Following Jacobson's 1990 work, this study is another attempt to offer a unified analysis of the Japanese aspect marker "te iru" that touches upon Gestalt psychologists' ideas of figure/ground opposition, Langacker's cognitive grammar, and Kunihiro's cognitive analysis. (Contains 34 references.) (LB)

  19. Psychological Aspects of Sleep Disorders in Children with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, David T.

    This paper reviews literature and clinical experiences on the neurobiological and psychological aspects of sleep in children with mental retardation. The lack of a universal, operational definition of sleep disorders is noted, and a study is cited in which 61% of a group of 20 children (ages 2-13) with developmental disabilities were found to have…

  20. Methodological Aspects of Documenting Civics Lessons in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Aviv

    2014-01-01

    In this paper the author wishes to shed light on some methodological aspects of documenting civics classes as part of educational research. Rooted in the research traditions of grounded theory and the use of ideal types, this study concentrates on one case of a civics course taught in an Israel high school. Touching on the empirical and…

  1. Serious and Playful Inquiry: Epistemological Aspects of Collaborative Creativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Florence R.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a micro-genetic analysis of the development of a creative solution arrived at by students working collaboratively to solve a robotics problem in a sixth grade science classroom. Results indicate that four aspects of the enacted curriculum proved important to developing the creative solution, including the…

  2. Plasma Chemical Aspects Of Dust Formation In Hydrocarbon Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Berndt, J.; Kovacevic, E.; Stepanovic, O.; Stefanovic, I.; Winter, J.

    2008-09-07

    This contribution deals with some plasma chemical aspects of dust formation in hydrocarbon plasmas. The interplay between dust formation and plasma chemistry will be discussed by means of different experimental results. One specific example concerns the formation of benzene and the role of atomic hydrogen for plasma chemical processes and dust formation in hydrocarbon discharges.

  3. Everyday Spirituality: An Aspect of the Holistic Curriculum in Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bone, Jane; Cullen, Joy; Loveridge, Judith

    2007-01-01

    Early childhood education in Aotearoa New Zealand includes different philosophical perspectives, may be part of the public or private sector and aims to be inclusive and holistic. The early childhood curriculum, Te Whariki, supports these aims. Aspects of the curriculum that are holistic may be conceptualized in diverse ways and this qualitative…

  4. Social and Psychological Aspects of Genetic Disorders: A Selected Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Education in Maternal and Child Health, Washington, DC.

    The scope of this bibliography encompasses the social and psychological aspects of genetic disorders. The bibliography lists selected English-language articles and books from the professional literature along with audiovisual materials produced by both voluntary organizations and professional filmmakers. The entries are organized by the following…

  5. Constituent Aspects of Workplace Guidance in Secondary VET

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swager, Robert; Klarus, Ruud; van Merriënboer, Jeroen J. G.; Nieuwenhuis, Loek F. M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to present an integrated model of workplace guidance to enhance awareness of what constitutes good guidance, to improve workplace guidance practices in vocational education and training. Design/methodology/approach: To identify constituent aspects of workplace guidance, a systematic search of Web of Science was conducted,…

  6. Evaluation of expert system application based on usability aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munaiseche, C. P. C.; Liando, O. E. S.

    2016-04-01

    Usability usually defined as a point of human acceptance to a product or a system based on understands and right reaction to an interface. The performance of web application has been influence by the quality of the interface of that web to supporting information transfer process. Preferably, before the applications of expert systems were installed in the operational environment, these applications must be evaluated first by usability testing. This research aimed to measure the usability of the expert system application using tasks as interaction media. This study uses an expert system application to diagnose skin disease in human using questionnaire method which utilize the tasks as interaction media in measuring the usability. Certain tasks were executed by the participants in observing usability value of the application. The usability aspects observed were learnability, efficiency, memorability, errors, and satisfaction. Each questionnaire question represent aspects of usability. The results present the usability value for each aspect and the total average merit for all the five-usability aspect was 4.28, this indicated that the tested expert system application is in the range excellent for the usability level, so the application can be implemented as the operated system by user. The main contribution of the study is the research became the first step in using task model in the usability evaluation for the expert system application software.

  7. Aspects of Theories, Frameworks and Paradigms in Mathematics Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoilescu, Dorian

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses major theoretical debates and paradigms from the last decades in general education and their specific influences in mathematics education contexts. Behaviourism, cognitive science, constructivism, situated cognition, critical theory, place-based learning, postmodernism and poststructuralism and their significant aspects in…

  8. Developmental and Psychological Aspects of the Savant Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wehmeyer, Michael L.

    1992-01-01

    This literature review examines the psychological aspects of the savant syndrome in people with intellectual disabilities, focusing on the means by which such abilities as calendar calculation are accomplished and highlighting variables (such as intense motivation in one area) postulated as important for development of the syndrome. (Author/DB)

  9. Crisis Management Aspects of Bam Catastrophic Earthquake: Review Article

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghi-Bazargani, Homayoun; Azami-Aghdash, Saber; Kazemi, Abdolhassan; Ziapour, Behrad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Bam earthquake was the most catastrophic natural disasters in recent years. The aim of this study was to review different aspects of crisis management during and after the catastrophic earthquake in Bam City, Iran. Methods: Data needed for this systematic review were collected through searching PubMed, EMBASE and SID databases, for the period from 2003 to 2011. Keywords included earthquake, Iran and Bam earthquake. The data were summarized and were analyzed using Content Analysis. Results: Out of 422 articles, 25 articles were included in the study. Crisis Management aspects and existing pitfalls were classified into seven categories including planning and organization, human resource management, management of logistics, international humanitarian aids, field performance of the military and security forces, health and medical service provision, and information management. Positive aspects and major pitfalls of crisis management have been introduced in all the mentioned categories. Conclusion: The available evidence indicated poor crisis management during Bam earthquake that resulted in aggravating the losses as well as diminishing the effect of interventions. Thus, concerning the importance of different aspects of the crisis management and the high prevalence of disasters in Iran, the observed vulnerability in disaster management process should be addressed. PMID:26000241

  10. Psychosocial Aspects of Siblings' Experiences of Pediatric Cancer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, Marla; Brack, Gregory

    1994-01-01

    Identified those aspects of experiences of siblings of children with cancer that might have impact on school functioning. Also examined extent to which parents and siblings concurred in their reports of siblings' psychosocial functioning and adjustment. Findings from 15 children and adults attending pediatric oncology camp revealed that most…

  11. Acquisition of Three Word Knowledge Aspects through Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daskalovska, Nina

    2016-01-01

    A number of studies have shown that second or foreign language learners can acquire vocabulary through reading. The aim of the study was to investigate (a) the effects of reading an authentic novel on the acquisition of 3 aspects of word knowledge: spelling, meaning, and collocation; (b) the influence of reading on the acquisition of partial and…

  12. Aspects of the Cognitive Model of Physics Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brekke, Stewart E.

    Various aspects of the cognitive model of physics problem solving are discussed in detail including relevant cues, encoding, memory, and input stimuli. The learning process involved in the recognition of familiar and non-familiar sensory stimuli is highlighted. Its four components include selection, acquisition, construction, and integration. The…

  13. Some Aspects of Sustainable Development in Kindergartens in Slovenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vodopivec, Jurka Lepicnik

    2011-01-01

    Aspects of environmental crisis (industrialization, explosive growth of population and urbanization) have a negative effect on the environment. However, they also impact the mentality of population (for example, urbanization has lead to the decreasing numbers of adults and children having a direct contact with the natural environment).…

  14. Fluid Dynamics of a High Aspect-Ratio Jet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munro, Scott E.; Ahuja, K. K.

    2003-01-01

    Circulation control wings are a type of pneumatic high-lift device that have been extensively researched as to their aerodynamic benefits. However, there has been little research into the possible airframe noise reduction benefits of a circulation control wing. The key element of noise is the jet noise associated with the jet sheet emitted from the blowing slot. High aspect-ratio jet acoustic results (aspect-ratios from 100 to 3,000) from a related study showed that the jet noise of this type of jet was proportional to the slot height to the 3/2 power and slot width to the 1/2 power. Fluid dynamic experiments were performed in the present study on the high aspect-ratio nozzle to gain understanding of the flow characteristics in an effort to relate the acoustic results to flow parameters. Single hot-wire experiments indicated that the jet exhaust from the high aspect-ratio nozzle was similar to a 2-d turbulent jet. Two-wire space-correlation measurements were performed to attempt to find a relationship between the slot height of the jet and the length-scale of the flow noise generating turbulence structure. The turbulent eddy convection velocity was also calculated, and was found to vary with the local centerline velocity, and also as a function of the frequency of the eddy.

  15. Multilingual Aspects of Fluency Disorders. Communication Disorders across Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, Peter; Van Borsel, John

    2011-01-01

    This book contains contributions by scholars working on diverse aspects of speech who bring their findings to bear on the practical issue of how to treat stuttering in different language groups and in multilingual speakers. The book considers classic issues in speech production research, as well as whether regions of the brain that are affected in…

  16. A Solar Aspect System for the HEROES Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christe, Steven; Shih, Albert; Rodriguez, Marcello; Gregory, Kyle; Cramer, Alexander; Edgerton, Melissa; Gaskin, Jessica; O'Connor, Brian; Sobey, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    A new Solar Aspect System (SAS) has been developed to provide the ability to observe the Sun on an existing balloon payload HERO (short for High Energy Replicated Optics). Developed under the HEROES program (High Energy Replicated Optics to Explore the Sun), the SAS aspect system provides solar pointing knowledge in pitch, yaw, and roll. The required precision of these measurements must be better than the HEROES X-ray resolution of approximately 20 arcsec Full Width at Half Maximum (FWHM) so as to not degrade the image resolution. The SAS consists of two separate systems: the Pitch-Yaw Aspect System (PYAS) and the Roll Aspect System (RAS). The PYAS functions by projecting an image of the Sun onto a screen with precision fiducials. A CCD camera takes an image of these fiducials, and an automated algorithm determines the location of the Sun as well as the location of the fiducials. The spacing between fiducials is unique and allows each to be identified so that the location of the Sun on the screen can be precisely determined. The RAS functions by imaging the Earth's horizon in opposite directions using a silvered prism imaged by a CCD camera. The design and first results of the performance of these systems during the HEROES flight which occurred in September 2013 are presented here.

  17. Language and Social Inclusion: Unexplored Aspects of Intercultural Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musgrave, Simon; Bradshaw, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Social inclusion policy in Australia has largely ignored key issues of communication for linguistic minorities, across communities and with the mainstream community. In the (now disbanded) Social Inclusion Board's reports (e.g., Social Inclusion Unit, 2009), the emphasis is on the economic aspects of inclusion, while little attention has been…

  18. [Greek medicine in ancient times and its ophthalmological aspects].

    PubMed

    Bieganowski, Lech

    2003-01-01

    The article presents the state of medical knowledge in ancient Greece. Sacred medicine related to the cult of Asclepius and the origin of secular medicine is described. Ophthalmological aspects concerning the anatomy of the eye, diagnosis and treatment of ocular diseases are emphasized.

  19. Legal and Contractual Aspects of Interlibrary and Information Service Operations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duggan, Maryann

    Legal and contractual aspects of networks are reviewed from a lay practitioner's viewpoint. The legal basis for establishment of networks determines the authorization to enter into contracts, receive and convey funds, cross state lines, etc. Existing state laws (or lack of appropriate state laws) hinder development of networks by the process of…

  20. [New aspects in the treatment of adolescent anorexia nervosa].

    PubMed

    Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate

    2015-01-01

    Adolescent anorexia nervosa often takes a chronic and disabling course associated with reduced health-related quality of life in adulthood. The aim of this short review is to introduce new aspects on the somatic and psychotherapeutic treatment of AN, such as nutritional rehabilitation, prophylaxis of osteoporosis as well as new findings on the effect of treatment settings and new psychotherapeutic methods.

  1. Epidemiology and unique aspects of aging and infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, T T

    2000-06-01

    The elderly population will grow rapidly over the next 25 years. The majority of patients with serious or life-threatening infections will be old. It is imperative that primary care physicians and infectious diseases specialists become aware of and knowledgeable about the special and unique aspects of infections in the geriatric population.

  2. The psychosomatic aspects of children with vocal nodules.

    PubMed

    Toohill, R J

    1975-10-01

    Psychological and emotional aspects of voice disorders have long received attention from otolaryngologits and speech clinicians. The literature contains frequent reports of such problems, but there are few studies on the full importance of these aspects. The cause of vocal nodules in children has been attributed to vocal abuse, and therapy has consisted of the elimination of this abuse. Reports of long-term follow-up are few, lending suspicion to both the proposed causes and the therapeutic approaches. Seventy-seven prepuberal children with vocal nodules are studies from the social, medical, and physical aspects. The incidence of vocal nodules approaches 1% of all children. Boys predominate this amount by ratios greater than 3:1, with incidence peaks between ages 5 and 10. Conventional modes of therapy have been unsuccessful because of the lack of recognition of psychosomatic factors. New approaches for therapy are suggested including parental involvement, counseling, group therapy, and drug therapy. Though emotional problems may persist, the somatic aspect of this disease disappears at puberty.

  3. Aspects of the husbandry and management of captive cervids.

    PubMed

    McNulty, Erin; Selariu, Anca I; Anderson, Kelly; Hayes-Klug, Jeanette; Nalls, Amy V; Powers, Jenny G; Hoover, Edward A; Mathiason, Candace K

    2016-04-01

    In a continuing effort to better understand the transmission and persistence of chronic wasting disease in wild populations of cervids, Colorado State University, Fort Collins houses two species of deer indoors to study the pathogenesis of chronic wasting disease. Here we report key aspects regarding the husbandry and medication of Reeves' muntjac and white-tailed deer in captivity for research purposes. PMID:27003353

  4. Reciprocal Modulation of Cognitive and Emotional Aspects in Pianistic Performances

    PubMed Central

    Higuchi, Marcia K. Kodama; Fornari, José; Del Ben, Cristina M.; Graeff, Frederico G.; Leite, João Pereira

    2011-01-01

    Background High level piano performance requires complex integration of perceptual, motor, cognitive and emotive skills. Observations in psychology and neuroscience studies have suggested reciprocal inhibitory modulation of the cognition by emotion and emotion by cognition. However, it is still unclear how cognitive states may influence the pianistic performance. The aim of the present study is to verify the influence of cognitive and affective attention in the piano performances. Methods and Findings Nine pianists were instructed to play the same piece of music, firstly focusing only on cognitive aspects of musical structure (cognitive performances), and secondly, paying attention solely on affective aspects (affective performances). Audio files from pianistic performances were examined using a computational model that retrieves nine specific musical features (descriptors) – loudness, articulation, brightness, harmonic complexity, event detection, key clarity, mode detection, pulse clarity and repetition. In addition, the number of volunteers' errors in the recording sessions was counted. Comments from pianists about their thoughts during performances were also evaluated. The analyses of audio files throughout musical descriptors indicated that the affective performances have more: agogics, legatos, pianos phrasing, and less perception of event density when compared to the cognitive ones. Error analysis demonstrated that volunteers misplayed more left hand notes in the cognitive performances than in the affective ones. Volunteers also played more wrong notes in affective than in cognitive performances. These results correspond to the volunteers' comments that in the affective performances, the cognitive aspects of piano execution are inhibited, whereas in the cognitive performances, the expressiveness is inhibited. Conclusions Therefore, the present results indicate that attention to the emotional aspects of performance enhances expressiveness, but constrains

  5. Biostatistical aspects of genome-wide association studies.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, Andreas; König, Inke R; Thompson, John R

    2008-02-01

    To search the entire human genome for association is a novel and promising approach to unravelling the genetic basis of complex genetic diseases. In these genome-wide association studies (GWAs), several hundreds of thousands of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are analyzed at the same time, posing substantial biostatistical and computational challenges. In this paper, we discuss a number of biostatistical aspects of GWAs in detail. We specifically consider quality control issues and show that signal intensity plots are a sine qua condition non in today's GWAs. Approaches to detect and adjust for population stratification are briefly examined. We discuss different strategies aimed at tackling the problem of multiple testing, including adjustment of p -values, the false positive report probability and the false discovery rate. Another aspect of GWAs requiring special attention is the search for gene-gene and gene-environment interactions. We finally describe multistage approaches to GWAs.

  6. Symmetry aspects in stability investigations for thin membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eriksson, Anders; Nordmark, Arne

    2016-08-01

    Modelling of structural instability problems is considered for thin square membranes subjected to hydrostatic pressure, with a focus on the effects from symmetry conditions considered or neglected in the model. An analysis is performed through group-theoretical concepts of the symmetry aspects present in a flat membrane with one-sided pressure loading. The response of the membrane is described by its inherent differential eigensolutions, which are shown to be of five different types with respect to symmetry. A discussion is given on how boundary conditions must be introduced in order to catch all types of eigensolutions when modelling only a subdomain of the whole. Lacking symmetry in a FEM model of the whole domain is seen as a perturbation to the problem, and is shown to affect the calculated instability response, hiding or modifying instability modes. Numerical simulations verify and illustrate the analytical results, and further show the convergence with mesh fineness of different aspects of instability results.

  7. Neural segregation of objective and contextual aspects of fairness

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Nicholas D; Symmonds, Mkael; Fleming, Stephen M; Dolan, Raymond J

    2011-01-01

    Perception of fairness can influence outcomes in human exchange. However, an inherent subjectivity in attribution renders it difficult to manipulate fairness experimentally. Here using a modified Ultimatum Game, within a varying social context, we induced a bias in human subjects’ acceptance of objectively identical offers. To explain this fairness-related behaviour we use a computational model to specify metrics for the objective and contextual aspects of fairness, testing for correlations between these model parameters and brain activity determined using fMRI. We show that objective social inequality, as defined by our model, is tracked in posterior insula cortex. Crucially, this inequality is integrated with social context in posterior and mid-insula, consistent with construction of a fairness motivation that flexibly adapted to the social environment. We suggest the dual importance of objective and contextual aspects to fairness we highlight might explain seemingly inconsistent societal phenomena, including public attitudes to income disparities. PMID:21471359

  8. Physical aspects of computing the flow of a viscous fluid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, U. B.

    1984-01-01

    One of the main themes in fluid dynamics at present and in the future is going to be computational fluid dynamics with the primary focus on the determination of drag, flow separation, vortex flows, and unsteady flows. A computation of the flow of a viscous fluid requires an understanding and consideration of the physical aspects of the flow. This is done by identifying the flow regimes and the scales of fluid motion, and the sources of vorticity. Discussions of flow regimes deal with conditions of incompressibility, transitional and turbulent flows, Navier-Stokes and non-Navier-Stokes regimes, shock waves, and strain fields. Discussions of the scales of fluid motion consider transitional and turbulent flows, thin- and slender-shear layers, triple- and four-deck regions, viscous-inviscid interactions, shock waves, strain rates, and temporal scales. In addition, the significance and generation of vorticity are discussed. These physical aspects mainly guide computations of the flow of a viscous fluid.

  9. Advances in low aspect ratio stellarator coil design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valanju Miner, P. M., Jr.; Hirshman, S. P.; Brooks, A.; Pomphrey, N.

    1999-11-01

    Recent advances have led to two new exciting low aspect ratio stellarator plasma configurations - QA: Quasi-Axisymmetric and QO: Quasi-Omnigeneous Stellarators. The difficult task of designing an optimal set of stellarator coils to produce these configurations is critical to the success of these new ideas. Since existing computational tools were found to be inadequate for these low aspect ratio configurations, new methods, consisting of singular value decomposition, surface displacement targeting, and Genetic Algorithms, have been developed. These new methods have led to successful designs of optimal, low current density coils which reproduce the target plasma configurations with good accuracy and flexibility while satisfying various engineering constraints. Results for modular and saddle coil sets for both QA and QO machines will be presented.

  10. Aspects of Manual Wheelchair Configuration Affecting Mobility: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Medola, Fausto Orsi; Elui, Valeria Meirelles Carril; Santana, Carla da Silva; Fortulan, Carlos Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Many aspects relating to equipment configuration affect users’ actions in a manual wheelchair, determining the overall mobility performance. Since the equipment components and configuration determine both stability and mobility efficiency, configuring the wheelchair with the most appropriate set-up for individual users’ needs is a difficult task. Several studies have shown the importance of seat/backrest assembly and the relative position of the rear wheels to the user in terms of the kinetics and kinematics of manual propulsion. More recently, new studies have brought to light evidence on the inertial properties of different wheelchair configurations. Further new studies have highlighted the handrim as a key component of wheelchair assembly, since it is the interface through which the user drives the chair. In light of the new evidence on wheelchair mechanics and propulsion kinetics and kinematics, this article presents a review of the most important aspects of wheelchair configuration that affect the users’ actions and mobility. PMID:24648656

  11. Electrochemical and Crystallographic Aspects of Lead Granular Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolić, Nebojša D.; Ivanović, Evica R.; Branković, Goran; Lačnjevac, Uroš Č.; Stevanović, Sanja I.; Stevanović, Jasmina S.; Pavlović, Miomir G.

    2015-08-01

    Lead granules synthesized by the potentiostatic regime of electrolysis were characterized by the scanning electron microscopy technique. Effect of the different parameters of electrolysis, such as solution composition, overpotential of electrodeposition, and quantity of the electricity, on lead granular growth has been systematically investigated. Aside from the electrochemical aspects of lead granular growth, crystallographic aspects of the obtained granules were also analyzed. In the dependence of the electrodeposition conditions, granules of various shapes were obtained. The granules, such as octahedrons and hexagons, as well as many various types of twinned particles: single-twinned, multiply-twinned, lamellar-twinned, and many other complicated shapes denoted as polyparticles, were synthesized through regulation of the parameters of electrolysis. Increasing both the concentration of Pb2+ ions and overpotential of the electrodeposition favored the formation of more complicated forms. Formation of granules of specified crystallographic characteristics was also correlated with the basic principle of metal electrocrystallization.

  12. Streamlining Software Aspects of Certification: Report on the SSAC Survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayhurst, Kelly J.; Dorsey, Cheryl A.; Knight, John C.; Leveson, Nancy G.; McCormick, G. Frank

    1999-01-01

    The aviation system now depends on information technology more than ever before to ensure safety and efficiency. To address concerns about the efficacy of software aspects of the certification process, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) began the Streamlining Software Aspects of Certification (SSAC) program. The SSAC technical team was commissioned to gather data, analyze results, and propose recommendations to maximize efficiency and minimize cost and delay, without compromising safety. The technical team conducted two public workshops to identify and prioritize software approval issues, and conducted a survey to validate the most urgent of those issues. The SSAC survey, containing over two hundred questions about the FAA's software approval process, reached over four hundred industry software developers, aircraft manufacturers, and FAA designated engineering representatives. Three hundred people responded. This report presents the SSAC program rationale, survey process, preliminary findings, and recommendations.

  13. Evolution of cooling-channel properties for varying aspect ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pizzarelli, M.; Nasuti, F.; Onofri, M.

    2016-07-01

    A trade-off analysis is performed on a cooling channel system representative of liquid rocket engine cooling systems. This analysis requires multiple cooling channel flow calculations which are performed by means of a proper numerical approach, referred to as quasi-two-dimensional (2D) model. This model, which is suited to high-aspect-ratio cooling channels (HARCC), permits to have a fast prediction of both the coolant flow evolution and the temperature distribution along the whole cooling channel structure. Before using the quasi-2D model for the trade-off analysis, its validation by comparison with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) results is presented and discussed. The results show that the pump power required to overcome losses in the cooling circuit can be minimized selecting a channel shaped with a suitably high aspect ratio.

  14. Effects of finite aspect ratio on wind turbine airfoil measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiefer, Janik; Miller, Mark A.; Hultmark, Marcus; Hansen, Martin O. L.

    2016-09-01

    Wind turbines partly operate in stalled conditions within their operational cycle. To simulate these conditions, it is also necessary to obtain 2-D airfoil data in terms of lift and drag coefficients at high angles of attack. Such data has been obtained previously, but often at low aspect ratios and only barely past the stall point, where strong wall boundary layer influence is expected. In this study, the influence of the wall boundary layer on 2D airfoil data, especially in the post stall domain, is investigated. Here, a wind turbine airfoil is tested at different angles of attack and with two aspect ratios of AR = 1 and AR = 2. The tests are conducted in a wind tunnel that is pressurized up to 150 bar in order to achieve a constant Reynolds number of Rec = 3 • 106, despite the variable chord length.

  15. Modeling and Composing Scenario-Based Requirements with Aspects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Araujo, Joao; Whittle, Jon; Ki, Dae-Kyoo

    2004-01-01

    There has been significant recent interest, within the Aspect-Oriented Software Development (AOSD) community, in representing crosscutting concerns at various stages of the software lifecycle. However, most of these efforts have concentrated on the design and implementation phases. We focus in this paper on representing aspects during use case modeling. In particular, we focus on scenario-based requirements and show how to compose aspectual and non-aspectual scenarios so that they can be simulated as a whole. Non-aspectual scenarios are modeled as UML sequence diagram. Aspectual scenarios are modeled as Interaction Pattern Specifications (IPS). In order to simulate them, the scenarios are transformed into a set of executable state machines using an existing state machine synthesis algorithm. Previous work composed aspectual and non-aspectual scenarios at the sequence diagram level. In this paper, the composition is done at the state machine level.

  16. Subjective Aspects of Cognitive Control at Different Stages of Processing

    PubMed Central

    Morsella, Ezequiel; Wilson, Lilian E.; Berger, Christopher C.; Honhongva, Mikaela; Gazzaley, Adam; Bargh, John A.

    2009-01-01

    While research on cognitive control has addressed the effects that different forms of cognitive interference have on behavior and the activities of certain brain regions, until recently scientific approaches have been silent regarding the effects of interference on subjective experience. We demonstrate that, at the level of the individual trial, participants can reliably introspect the subjective aspects (e.g., perceptions of difficulty, competition, and control) of responding in interference paradigms. Similar subjective effects were obtained for both expressed and unexpressed (subvocalized) actions. Few participants discerned the source of these effects. These basic findings illuminate aspects of cognitive control and cognitive effort. In addition, these data have implications for the study of response interference in affect and self-control, and they begin to address theories regarding the function of consciousness. PMID:19933564

  17. Some aspects of the characterization of decorations on ceramic glazes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Arantegui, J.; Larrea, A.; Molera, J.; Pradell, T.; Vendrell-Saz, M.

    From antiquity, glazes have been one of the techniques used for decorating ceramics. Potters took advantage of the optical properties of these glazes to improve the quality of the object, especially to obtain an appearance or some characteristics that had commercial success. This is why it is important to know the reasons of the visual appearance of glazes. In this paper we present some aspects of the characterization of lustre, one of the on-glaze decorations that results in a more spectacular visual effect, as a microstructure, its composition, its raw materials and some technological aspects of its production. Lustre is a three-dimensional heterogeneous structure, where copper and silver nanoparticles play the most important role, but also alkali elements in the glaze and other components of raw lustre pigments. Lustre properties are determined by copper and silver composition and by distribution and dimension of these metallic nanocrystals in the decoration layer.

  18. Neurophysiology of perceptual and motor aspects of interception.

    PubMed

    Merchant, Hugo; Georgopoulos, Apostolos P

    2006-01-01

    The interception of moving targets is a complex activity that involves a dynamic interplay of several perceptual and motor processes and therefore involves a rich interaction among several brain areas. Although the behavioral aspects of interception have been studied for the past three decades, it is only during the past decade that neural studies have been focused on this problem. In addition to the interception itself, several neural studies have explored, within that context, the underlying mechanisms concerning perceptual aspects of moving stimuli, such as optic flow and apparent motion. In this review, we discuss the wealth of knowledge that has accumulated on this topic with an emphasis on the results of neural studies in behaving monkeys.

  19. Economic aspects of the new Spanish laws on pharmaceutical preparations.

    PubMed

    Antoñanzas, Fernando; Oliva, Juan; Pinillos, Mariola; Juàrez, Carmelo

    2007-09-01

    In this article, we provide readers with a summary of the main economic features of the recently approved Spanish law regarding pharmaceutical preparations entitled the Law of Guarantees and Rational Use of Pharmaceuticals and Health Products (Law 29/2006 of July 26th). We review information on pricing, reference pricing, promotion of generic drugs, public reimbursement, patients' contributions, and penalties. Other aspects of minor economic relevance such as the information on prices shown in the packs and the transparency on the results of clinical trials irrespective of whether these are positive or not, are not addressed in this paper. We conclude with some observations on the new horizons opened up by this new legal framework. We have not included any detailed references to the new law; we merely wish to comment on certain aspects of its application.

  20. Taylor vortices in annular spherical flow at large aspect ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loukopoulos, Vassilios C.; Karahalios, George T.

    2004-07-01

    Motivated by recent theoretical and experimental work, we numerically investigate spherical Couette flow with a view to obtaining for the first time Taylor vortices at large aspect ratios σ such as 0.38, 0.42, and 0.48. It is found that Taylor vortices can exist, stable or time-dependent, in a range of Reynolds numbers [Re1, Re2] and their formation depends on the aspect ratio, on the imposition of various rotationary conditions on the boundaries, on the history of the flow and on the rate at which energy is transferred into the fluid to its final value. With increasing σ the range [Re1, Re2] manifests a clear tendency to shorten.