Science.gov

Sample records for nuclear collective phenomena

  1. Analysis of nuclear reactor instability phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    Lahey, R.T. Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The phenomena known as density-wave instability often occurs in phase change systems, such as boiling water nuclear reactors (BWRS). Our current understanding of density-wave oscillations is in fairly good shape for linear phenomena (eg, the onset of instabilities) but is not very advanced for non-linear phenomena [Lahey and Podowski, 1989]. In particular, limit cycle and chaotic instability modes are not well understood in boiling systems such as current and advanced generation BWRs (eg, SBWR). In particular, the SBWR relies on natural circulation and is thus inherently prone to problems with density-wave instabilities. The purpose of this research is to develop a quantitative understanding of nonlinear nuclear-coupled density-wave instability phenomena in BWRS. This research builds on the work of Achard et al [1985] and Clausse et al [1991] who showed, respectively, that Hopf bifurcations and chaotic oscillations may occur in boiling systems.

  2. Collective Phenomena in Macroscopic Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertin, G.; Pozzoli, R.; Romé, M.; Sreenivasan, K. R.

    2007-08-01

    A hypothesis of the magnetostatic turbulence and its implications of astrophysics / D.D. Ryutov and B.A. Remingtonn-- Coherent structures and turbulence in electron plasmas / M. Rome ... [et al.] -- Self-organization of non-linear vortices in plasma lens for ion-beam-focusing in crossed radial electrical and longitudinal magnetic fields / V. Maslov, I. Onishchenko and A. Goncharov -- Collective processes at kinetic levels in dusty plasmas / P.K. Shukla and B. Eliasson -- Magnetic field generation in anisotropic relativistic plasma regimes / F. Pegoraro, F. Califano and D. del Sarto -- Generation and observation of coherent, long-lived structures in a laser-plasma channel / T. V. Liseykina ... [et al.] -- Theoretical resolution of magnetic reconnection in high energy plasmas / B. Coppi -- The power of being flat: conformal invariance in two-dimensional turbulence / A. Celani -- Stochastic resonance: from climate to biology / R. Benzi -- Energy-enstrophy theory for coupled fluid/rotating sphere system-exact solutions for super-rotations / C. C. Lim -- Thermophoretic convection of silica nanoparticles / A. Vailati ... [et al.] -- Fluctuations and pattern formation in fluids with competing interactions / A. Imperio, D. Pini and L. Reatto -- Alternatives and paradoxes in rotational and gravitational instabilities / J.P. Goedbloed -- Poynting jets and MHD winds from rapidly rotating magnetized stars / R.V.E. Lovelace, M.M. Romanova, G.V. Ustyugova and A.V. Koldoba -- Turbulence and transport in astrophysical accretion disks / J.M. Stone -- Gravitational instabilities in gaseous discs and the formation of supermassive Black Hole seeds at high redshifts / G. Lodato -- Fine Structure and Dynamics of Sunspot Penumbra / M. Ryutova, T. Berger and A. Title -- Phase Mixing in Mond / L. Ciotti, C. Nipoti and P. Londrillo -- MHD simulations of jet acceleration: the role of disk resistivity / G. Bodo ... [et al.] -- Hamiltonian structure of a collisionless reconnection model valid

  3. Novel nuclear phenomena in quantum chromodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, S.J.

    1987-08-01

    Many of the key issues in understanding quantum chromodynamics involve processes in nuclear targets at intermediate energies. A range of hadronic and nuclear phenomena-exclusive processes, color transparency, hidden color degrees of freedom in nuclei, reduced nuclear amplitudes, jet coalescence, formation zone effects, hadron helicity selection rules, spin correlations, higher twist effects, and nuclear diffraction were discussed as tools for probing hadron structure and the propagation of quark and gluon jets in nuclei. Several areas were also reviewed where there has been significant theoretical progress determining the form of hadron and nuclear wave functions, including QCD sum rules, lattice gauge theory, and discretized light-cone quantization. A possible interpretation was also discussed of the large spin correlation A/sub NN/ in proton-proton scattering, and how relate this effect to an energy and angular dependence of color transparency in nuclei. 76 refs., 24 figs.

  4. Nuclear phenomena in low-energy nuclear reaction research.

    PubMed

    Krivit, Steven B

    2013-09-01

    This is a comment on Storms E (2010) Status of Cold Fusion, Naturwissenschaften 97:861-881. This comment provides the following remarks to other nuclear phenomena observed in low-energy nuclear reactions aside from helium-4 make significant contributions to the overall energy balance; and normal hydrogen, not just heavy hydrogen, produces excess heat.

  5. Nuclear phenomena in low-energy nuclear reaction research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krivit, Steven B.

    2013-09-01

    This is a comment on Storms (Naturwissenschaften 97:861-881, 2010) Status of Cold Fusion, Naturwissenschaften, 97:861-881. This comment provides the following corrections: other nuclear phenomena observed in low-energy nuclear reactions aside from helium-4 make significant contributions to the overall energy balance; and normal hydrogen, not just heavy hydrogen, produces excess heat.

  6. Hadronic and nuclear phenomena in quantum chromodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, S.J.

    1987-06-01

    Many of the key issues in understanding quantum chromodynamics involves processes at intermediate energies. We discuss a range of hadronic and nuclear phenomena - exclusive processes, color transparency, hidden color degrees of freedom in nuclei, reduced nuclear amplitudes, jet coalescence, formation zone effects, hadron helicity selection rules, spin correlations, higher twist effects, and nuclear diffraction - as tools for probing hadron structure and the propagation of quark and gluon jets in nuclei. Many of these processes can be studied in electroproduction, utilizing internal targets in storage rings. We also review several areas where there has been significant theoretical progress in determining the form of hadron and nuclear wavefunctions, including QCD sum rules, lattice gauge theory, and discretized light-cone quantization. 98 refs., 40 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Anomalous Nuclear Phenomena Assocoated with Ultrafast Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Xingliu; Zhou, Xiaoping; Liu, Chun; Wang, Liying; Zhang, Zhongliang

    2007-04-01

    Quantum physics predicts the existence of an underlying sea of zero-point energy at every point in the universe. A minority of physicists accept it as real energy which we cannot directly sense since it is the same everywhere, even inside our bodies and measuring devices. If the zero-point energy is real, there is the possibility that it can be tapped as a source of power or be harnassed to generate a propulsive force for space travel. However if some asymmetric variation of the Casimir force could be identified one could in effect sail through space as if propelled by a kind of quantum fluctuation wind. In our previous papers, anomalous excess heat and localized nuclear reactions on the surface of electrodes in electrolysis cells have been observed. A physical model of transient vortex dynamics with torsion coherence with the zero point energy has been proposed by Xingliu Jiang based on the ultrafast processes of triple phases area of tip effect on the electrode surface. Considering the large equiverlent capacitance of electrochemical double layer, it is presumed that the double layer can exhibit nonlinear electrical response with spatial and temporal variations confined to microscopic areas by tip effect. Experimental results of transient processes with ultrafast phenomena with nanosecond duration in electrical discharge systems including electrolysis cells and corona discharge have been presented.

  8. The emergence of collective phenomena in systems with random interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramkina, Volha

    Emergent phenomena are one of the most profound topics in modern science, addressing the ways that collectivities and complex patterns appear due to multiplicity of components and simple interactions. Ensembles of random Hamiltonians allow one to explore emergent phenomena in a statistical way. In this work we adopt a shell model approach with a two-body interaction Hamiltonian. The sets of the two-body interaction strengths are selected at random, resulting in the two-body random ensemble (TBRE). Symmetries such as angular momentum, isospin, and parity entangled with complex many-body dynamics result in surprising order discovered in the spectrum of low-lying excitations. The statistical patterns exhibited in the TBRE are remarkably similar to those observed in real nuclei. Signs of almost every collective feature seen in nuclei, namely, pairing superconductivity, deformation, and vibration, have been observed in random ensembles [3, 4, 5, 6]. In what follows a systematic investigation of nuclear shape collectivities in random ensembles is conducted. The development of the mean field, its geometry, multipole collectivities and their dependence on the underlying two-body interaction are explored. Apart from the role of static symmetries such as SU(2) angular momentum and isospin groups, the emergence of dynamical symmetries including the seniority SU(2), rotational symmetry, as well as the Elliot SU(3) is shown to be an important precursor for the existence of geometric collectivities.

  9. Investigation of collective phenomena in dusty plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruhunusiri, Wellalage Don Suranga

    I study dusty plasma produced by electrostatically confining melamine formaldehyde microparticles in a radio-frequency glow discharge plasma. Dusty plasma is a mixture of particles of solid matter (dust), electrons, ions, and neutral gas atoms. The dust particles have a very high charge and a mass compared to the electrons and ions in the ambient plasma. As a consequence, a dusty plasma exhibits collective phenomena such as dust acoustic waves, crystallization, and melting. The discrete nature of dust particles gives rise to compressibility. In this thesis I report findings of four tasks that were performed to investigate dust acoustic waves, compressibility, and melting. First, the nonlinear phenomenon of synchronization was characterized experimentally for the dust acoustic wave propagating in a dust cloud with many layers. I find four synchronized states, with frequencies that are multiples of 1, 2, 3, and 1/2 of the driving frequency. Comparing to phenomena that are typical of the van der Pol paradigm, I find that synchronization of the dust acoustic wave exhibits the signature of the suppression mechanism but not that of the phaselocking mechanism. Additionally, I find that the synchronization of the dust acoustic wave exhibits three characteristics that differ from the van der Pol paradigm: a threshold amplitude that can be seen in the Arnold tongue diagram, a branching of the 1:1 harmonic tongue at its lower extremity, and a nonharmonic state. Second, to assess which physical processes are important for a dust acoustic instability, I derived dispersion relations that encompass more physical processes than commonly done. I investigated how various physical processes affect a dust acoustic wave by solving these dispersion relations using parameters from a typical dust acoustic wave experiment. I find that the growth rate diminishes for large ion currents. I also find that the compressibility, a measure of the coupling between the dust particles, have a strong

  10. Collective phenomena in cold indirect excitons

    SciTech Connect

    Butov, L. V.

    2016-03-15

    Due to their long lifetimes, indirect excitons can cool to below the temperature of quantum degeneracy. This gives an opportunity to experimentally study cold composite bosons. Both theoretically predicted phenomena and phenomena that have not been anticipated were observed in a cold gas of indirect excitons. In this contribution, we overview our studies of cold indirect excitons over the past decade, presenting spontaneous coherence and condensation of excitons, spatially modulated exciton state, long-range spin currents and spin textures, and exciton localization–delocalization transitions.

  11. Collective phenomena in relativistic heavy-ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shan

    1998-12-01

    Collective motion in the final state of relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions, produced by the release of compressional energy built-up during the stage of maximum density, is widely accepted as a good observable to test models and a useful tool to probe the nuclear equation of state. This dissertation presents an experimental study of nuclear collisions at the Bevalac accelerator at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, with special emphasis on collective phenomena. The main detector used is a time projection chamber with more than two million pixels. Using high statistics measurements of all charged final- state fragments in Au + Au reactions at 0.25, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1.0, and 1.15A GeV, we present a new method to unify the description of light fragment spectra and the three main categories of collective motion: sideward flow, squeeze-out, and transverse expansion. In this alternative representation, the speed of collective expansion is shown to be slowest in the plane of the reaction, and is modulated sinusoidally according to fragment azimuth relative to this plane. This simple yet complete characterization of squeeze-out leads to its interpretation as an in-plane retardation of collective expansion. We test momentum space power law behavior by studying the momentum-space densities of fragments up to 4He. We conclude that the simple momentum-space power law consistently describes light participant fragment production at p⊥/A/ge0.2 GeV/c over a remarkably wide range of transverse momentum, azimuth relative to the reaction plane, rapidity, multiplicity and beam energy in intermediate-energy heavy-ion collisions and in particular, the increase in sideward flow with fragment mass is well described by a momentum- space power law under these conditions. This behavior is consistent with composite fragment formation through a statistical coalescence mechanism in momentum space. Our conclusion supports the use of models without composite formation to interpret flow

  12. Analysis of nuclear reactor instability phenomena. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Lahey, R.T. Jr.

    1993-03-01

    The phenomena known as density-wave instability often occurs in phase change systems, such as boiling water nuclear reactors (BWRS). Our current understanding of density-wave oscillations is in fairly good shape for linear phenomena (eg, the onset of instabilities) but is not very advanced for non-linear phenomena [Lahey and Podowski, 1989]. In particular, limit cycle and chaotic instability modes are not well understood in boiling systems such as current and advanced generation BWRs (eg, SBWR). In particular, the SBWR relies on natural circulation and is thus inherently prone to problems with density-wave instabilities. The purpose of this research is to develop a quantitative understanding of nonlinear nuclear-coupled density-wave instability phenomena in BWRS. This research builds on the work of Achard et al [1985] and Clausse et al [1991] who showed, respectively, that Hopf bifurcations and chaotic oscillations may occur in boiling systems.

  13. Collective phenomena in photonic, plasmonic and hybrid structures.

    PubMed

    Boriskina, Svetlana V; Povinelli, Michelle; Astratov, Vasily N; Zayats, Anatoly V; Podolskiy, Viktor A

    2011-10-24

    Preface to a focus issue of invited articles that review recent progress in studying the fundamental physics of collective phenomena associated with coupling of confined photonic, plasmonic, electronic and phononic states and in exploiting these phenomena to engineer novel devices for light generation, optical sensing, and information processing. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  14. [open quotes]Abnormal[close quotes] nuclear phenomena and possible nuclear process

    SciTech Connect

    Jiefu Yang; Dexiu Chen; Guanghui Zhou; Qiangsheng Wu; Jianping Huang; Lijun Tang; Xiaomei Cheng; Dongzhu Xie; Liming Gu )

    1994-03-01

    A careful study of [open quotes]abnormal[close quotes] nuclear phenomena in a cold fusion experiment indicates that cold fusion is a new problem in ultralow energy, and one cannot use the traditional idea of deuteron-deuteron fusion to understand and appraise cold fusion. The contradiction between the new phenomena and traditional theory is analyzed, and a possible new nuclear process is suggested. 8 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Applications for Nuclear Phenomena Generated by Ultra-Intense Lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ledingham, K. W. D.; McKenna, P.; Singhal, R. P.

    2003-05-01

    The amplification of laser light to generate powers large enough to affect the nucleus has been the desire of scientists since the invention of the laser 40 years ago. Many lasers, including tabletop varieties, now have pulse powers greater than the electrical power generated by all the world's power plants combined. When this power is focused to dimensions of a few microns, laser-driven nuclear phenomena can occur. Here we review the developments in this research field and describe the potential of laser-produced proton, neutron, and heavy ion beams, together with isotope and isomer production.

  16. Free-energy calculation methods for collective phenomena in membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnova, Yuliya G.; Fuhrmans, Marc; Barragan Vidal, Israel A.; Müller, Marcus

    2015-09-01

    Collective phenomena in membranes are those which involve the co-operative reorganization of many molecules. Examples of these are membrane fusion, pore formation, bending, adhesion or fission. The time and length scales, on which these processes occur, pose a challenge for atomistic simulations. Therefore, in order to solve the length scale problem it is popular to introduce a coarse-grained representation. To facilitate sampling of the relevant states additional computational techniques, which encourage the system to explore the free-energy landscape far from equilibrium and visit transition states, are needed. These computational techniques provide insights about the free-energy changes involved in collective transformations of membranes, yielding information about the rate limiting states, the transformation mechanism and the influence of architectural, compositional and interaction parameters. A common approach is to identify an order parameter (or reaction coordinate), which characterizes the pathway of membrane reorganization. However, no general strategy exists to define such an order parameter that can properly describe cooperative reorganizations in membranes. Recently developed methods can overcome this problem of the order-parameter choice and allow us to study collective phenomena in membranes. We will discuss such methods as thermodynamic integration, umbrella sampling, and the string method and results provided by their applications to particle-based simulations, particularly focusing on membrane fusion and pore formation.

  17. Modeling local chemistry in the presence of collective phenomena.

    SciTech Connect

    Chandross, Michael Evan; Modine, Normand Arthur

    2005-01-01

    Confinement within the nanoscale pores of a zeolite strongly modifies the behavior of small molecules. Typical of many such interesting and important problems, realistic modeling of this phenomena requires simultaneously capturing the detailed behavior of chemical bonds and the possibility of collective dynamics occurring in a complex unit cell (672 atoms in the case of Zeolite-4A). Classical simulations alone cannot reliably model the breaking and formation of chemical bonds, while quantum methods alone are incapable of treating the extended length and time scales characteristic of complex dynamics. We have developed a robust and efficient model in which a small region treated with the Kohn-Sham density functional theory is embedded within a larger system represented with classical potentials. This model has been applied in concert with first-principles electronic structure calculations and classical molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo simulations to study the behavior of water, ammonia, the hydroxide ion, and the ammonium ion in Zeolite-4a. Understanding this behavior is important to the predictive modeling of the aging of Zeolite-based desiccants. In particular, we have studied the absorption of these molecules, interactions between water and the ammonium ion, and reactions between the hydroxide ion and the zeolite cage. We have shown that interactions with the extended Zeolite cage strongly modifies these local chemical phenomena, and thereby we have proven out hypothesis that capturing both local chemistry and collective phenomena is essential to realistic modeling of this system. Based on our results, we have been able to identify two possible mechanisms for the aging of Zeolite-based desiccants.

  18. Collective Phenomena In Volume And Surface Barrier Discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kogelschatz, U.

    2010-07-01

    Barrier discharges are increasingly used as a cost-effective means to produce non-equilibrium plasmas at atmospheric pressure. This way, copious amounts of electrons, ions, free radicals and excited species can be generated without appreciable gas heating. In most applications the barrier is made of dielectric material. In laboratory experiments also the use of resistive, ferroelectric and semiconducting materials has been investigated, also porous ceramic layers and dielectric barriers with controlled surface conductivity. Major applications utilizing mainly dielectric barriers include ozone generation, surface cleaning and modification, polymer and textile treatment, sterilization, pollution control, CO2 lasers, excimer lamps, plasma display panels (flat TV screens). More recent research efforts are also devoted to biomedical applications and to plasma actuators for flow control. Sinu- soidal feeding voltages at various frequencies as well as pulsed excitation schemes are used. Volume as well as surface barrier discharges can exist in the form of filamentary, regularly patterned or laterally homogeneous discharges. Reviews of the subject and the older literature on barrier discharges were published by Kogelschatz (2002, 2003), by Wagner et al. (2003) and by Fridman et al. (2005). A detailed discussion of various properties of barrier discharges can also be found in the recent book "Non-Equilibrium Air Plasmas at Atmospheric Pressure" by Becker et al. (2005). The physical effects leading to collective phenomena in volume and surface barrier discharges will be discussed in detail. Special attention will be given to self-organization of current filaments. Main similarities and differences of the two types of barrier discharges will be elaborated.

  19. Leading twist nuclear shadowing phenomena in hard processes with nuclei

    DOE PAGES

    L. Franfurt; Guzey, V.; Strikman, M.

    2012-01-08

    We present and discuss the theory and phenomenology of the leading twist theory of nuclear shadowing which is based on the combination of the generalization of Gribov-Glauber theory, QCD factorization theorems, and HERA QCD analysis of diffraction in lepton-proton deep inelastic scattering (DIS). We apply this technique for the analysis of a wide range of hard processes with nuclei-inclusive DIS on deuterons, medium-range and heavy nuclei, coherent and incoherent diffractive DIS with nuclei, and hard diffraction in proton-nucleus scattering - and make predictions for the effect of nuclear shadowing in the corresponding sea quark and gluon parton distributions. We alsomore » analyze the role of the leading twist nuclear shadowing in generalized parton distributions in nuclei and certain characteristics of final states in nuclear DIS. We discuss the limits of applicability of the leading twist approximation for small x scattering off nuclei and the onset of the black disk regime and methods of detecting it. It will be possible to check many of our predictions in the near future in the studies of the ultraperipheral collisions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Further checks will be possible in pA collisions at the LHC and forward hadron production at Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). As a result, detailed tests will be possible at an Electon-Ion Collider (EIC) in USA and at the Large Hadron-Electron Collider (LHeC) at CERN.« less

  20. Leading twist nuclear shadowing phenomena in hard processes with nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    L. Franfurt; Guzey, V.; Strikman, M.

    2012-01-08

    We present and discuss the theory and phenomenology of the leading twist theory of nuclear shadowing which is based on the combination of the generalization of Gribov-Glauber theory, QCD factorization theorems, and HERA QCD analysis of diffraction in lepton-proton deep inelastic scattering (DIS). We apply this technique for the analysis of a wide range of hard processes with nuclei-inclusive DIS on deuterons, medium-range and heavy nuclei, coherent and incoherent diffractive DIS with nuclei, and hard diffraction in proton-nucleus scattering - and make predictions for the effect of nuclear shadowing in the corresponding sea quark and gluon parton distributions. We also analyze the role of the leading twist nuclear shadowing in generalized parton distributions in nuclei and certain characteristics of final states in nuclear DIS. We discuss the limits of applicability of the leading twist approximation for small x scattering off nuclei and the onset of the black disk regime and methods of detecting it. It will be possible to check many of our predictions in the near future in the studies of the ultraperipheral collisions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Further checks will be possible in pA collisions at the LHC and forward hadron production at Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). As a result, detailed tests will be possible at an Electon-Ion Collider (EIC) in USA and at the Large Hadron-Electron Collider (LHeC) at CERN.

  1. Signatures of new phenomena in ultrarelativistic nuclear collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Gyulassy, M.

    1983-11-01

    Three classes of observables are discussed which may shed light on the properties of the quark-gluon plasma formed in ultrarelativistic nuclear collisions. They are: (1) thermometers: the penetrating probes ..mu../sup +/..mu../sup -/, ..gamma.., c, (2) barometers: transverse flow via

    , and (3) seismometers: fluctuations of dN/dy and dE perpendicular/dy. The need for reliable estimates of the background due to the non-equilibrium processes is emphasized. 49 references.

  2. Novel collective phenomena in high-energy proton-proton and proton-nucleus collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dusling, Kevin; Li, Wei; Schenke, Björn

    2016-01-01

    The observation of long-range rapidity correlations among particles in high-multiplicity p-p and p-Pb collisions has created new opportunities for investigating novel high-density QCD phenomena in small colliding systems. We review experimental results related to the study of collective phenomena in small systems at RHIC and the LHC along with the related developments in theory and phenomenology. Perspectives on possible future directions for research are discussed with the aim of exploring emergent QCD phenomena.

  3. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Phenomena Identification and Ranking Tables (PIRTs) Volume 1: Main Report

    SciTech Connect

    Ball, Sydney J

    2008-03-01

    A phenomena identification and ranking table (PIRT) process was conducted for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) design. This design (in the conceptual stage) is a modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) that generates both electricity and process heat for hydrogen production. Expert panels identified safety-relevant phenomena, ranked their importance, and assessed the knowledge levels in the areas of accidents and thermal fluids, fission-product transport and dose, high-temperature materials, graphite, and process heat for hydrogen production. This main report summarizes and documents the process and scope of the reviews, noting the major activities and conclusions. The identified phenomena, analyses, rationales, and associated ratings of the phenomena, plus a summary of each panel's findings, are presented. Individual panel reports for these areas are provided as attached volumes to this main report and provide considerably more detail about each panel's deliberations as well as a more complete listing of the phenomena that were evaluated.

  4. Novel High Transverse Momentum Phenomena in Hadronic and Nuclear Collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; /SLAC

    2009-04-10

    I discuss a number of novel phenomenological features of QCD in high transverse momentum reactions. The presence of direct higher-twist processes, where a proton is produced directly in the hard subprocess, can explain the 'baryon anomaly' - the large proton-to-pion ratio seen at RHIC in high centrality heavy ion collisions. Direct hadronic processes can also account for the deviation from leading-twist PQCD scaling at fixed x{sub T} = 2 p{sub T}/{radical}s. I suggest that the 'ridge' --the same-side long-range rapidity correlation observed at RHIC in high centrality heavy ion collisions is due to the imprint of semihard DGLAP gluon radiation from initial-state partons which have transverse momenta biased toward the trigger. A model for early thermalization of the quark-gluon medium is also outlined. Rescattering interactions from gluon-exchange, normally neglected in the parton model, have a profound effect in QCD hard-scattering reactions, leading to leading-twist single-spin asymmetries, diffractive deep inelastic scattering, diffractive hard hadronic reactions, the breakdown of the Lam-Tung relation in Drell-Yan reactions, nuclear shadowing--all leading-twist dynamics not incorporated in the light-front wavefunctions of the target computed in isolation. Anti shadowing is shown to be quark flavor specific and thus different in charged and neutral deep inelastic lepton-nucleus scattering. I also discuss other aspects of quantum effects in heavy ion collisions, such as tests of hidden color in nuclear wavefunctions, the use of diffraction to materialize the Fock states of a hadronic projectile and test QCD color transparency, and the important consequences of color-octet intrinsic heavy quark distributions in the proton for particle and Higgs production at high x{sub F}. I also discuss how the AdS/CFT correspondence between Anti-de Sitter space and conformal gauge theories allows one to compute the analytic form of frame-independent light-front wavefunctions of

  5. Experimental nuclear reaction data collection EXFOR

    SciTech Connect

    Semkova, V.; Otuka, N.; Simakov, S. P.; Zerkin, V.

    2011-07-01

    The International Network of Nuclear Reaction Data Centres (NRDC) constitutes a worldwide cooperation of 14 nuclear data centres. The main activity of the NRDC Network is collection and compilation of experimental nuclear reaction cross section data and the related bibliographic information in the EXFOR and CINDA databases as well as dissemination of nuclear reaction data and associated documentation to users. The database contains information and numerical data from more than about 19000 experiments consisting of more than 140000 datasets. EXFOR is kept up to date by constantly adding newly published experimental information. Tools developed for data dissemination utilise modern database technologies with fast online capabilities over the Internet. Users are provided with sophisticated search options, a user-friendly retrieval interface for downloading data in different formats, and additional output options such as improved data plotting capabilities. The present status of the EXFOR database will be presented together with the latest development for data access and retrieval. (authors)

  6. Novel collective phenomena in high-energy proton–proton and proton–nucleus collisions

    DOE PAGES

    Dusling, Kevin; Li, Wei; Schenke, Björn

    2016-01-22

    The observation of long-range rapidity correlations among particles in high-multiplicity p–p and p–Pb collisions created new opportunities for investigating novel high-density QCD phenomena in small colliding systems. We also review experimental results related to the study of collective phenomena in small systems at RHIC and the LHC along with the related developments in theory and phenomenology. Finally, perspectives on possible future directions for research are discussed with the aim of exploring emergent QCD phenomena.

  7. PREFACE: New nuclear structure phenomena in the vicinity of closed shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, A.; Wyss, R.

    1995-01-01

    The proceedings of the international symposium on "New Nuclear Structure Phenomena in the Vicinity of Closed Shells - SELMA 94", held in Stockholm, Uppsala and on the Baltic Sea from Aug. 30 - Sep. 3 are collected in this volume. Since almost 40% of the session time was kept open for discussions, it is difficult to give full justice to the character of the meeting in a written report. However, since also many posters are presented in this volume, we hope that some of the flavour of this lively symposium will pass onto the reader. We have chosen to group related contributions in order to facilitate the reading. Several articles, though, may fit into several categories. With the event of large detector arrays there has been a tremendous development in the field of nuclear spectroscopy. The discovery of super-deformation has been followed by detailed spectroscopy in the second well. Hence, the concept of shell closure is reinterpreted in general terms, involving shapes different from spherical. Close to the drip lines, we expect new shells and new structure effects to emerge. Loosely bound neutrons may form a new state of nuclear matter. The regions of the nuclear chart far from the line of stability can be explored in the future by means of radioactive ion beams. New structure effects, that one might encounter far from the line of stability was one of the themes of this conference. The strong impact of the nuclear shell model is also evident in other branches of physics, like the structure of metal-clusters. Special attention was paid to the Sn-isotopes. In the Sn-isotopic chain, spectroscopic measurements are extending beyond the doubly-magic nucleus 132Sn. Large efforts have recently been made to study nuclei in the vicinity of the doubly-magic nucleus 100Sn, the other extreme end of the chain. Spectroscopic data on 100Sn would open the entire shell for nuclear structure studies, ranging over a number of 32 neutrons. During the organization of this meeting, the

  8. Connexions for the nuclear geometrical collective model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosensteel, G.; Sparks, N.

    2015-11-01

    The Bohr-Mottelson-Frankfurt model of nuclear rotations and quadrupole vibrations is a foundational model in nuclear structure physics. The model, also called the geometrical collective model or simply GCM(3), has two hidden mathematical structures, one group theoretic and the other differential geometric. Although the group structure has been understood for some time, the geometric structure is a new feature that this paper investigates in some detail. Using the de Rham Laplacian \\triangle =\\star d \\star d for the kinetic energy extends significantly the physical scope of the GCM(3) model. This Laplacian contains a ‘magnetic’ term due to the connexion between base manifold rotational and fibre vortex degrees of freedom. When the connexion specializes to irrotational flow, the Laplacian reduces to the Bohr-Mottelson kinetic energy operator.

  9. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Phenomena Identification and Ranking Tables (PIRTs) Volume 5: Graphite PIRTs

    SciTech Connect

    Burchell, Timothy D; Bratton, Rob; Marsden, Barry; Srinivasan, Makuteswara; Penfield, Scott; Mitchell, Mark; Windes, Will

    2008-03-01

    Here we report the outcome of the application of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Phenomena Identification and Ranking Table (PIRT) process to the issue of nuclear-grade graphite for the moderator and structural components of a next generation nuclear plant (NGNP), considering both routine (normal operation) and postulated accident conditions for the NGNP. The NGNP is assumed to be a modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR), either a gas-turbine modular helium reactor (GTMHR) version [a prismatic-core modular reactor (PMR)] or a pebble-bed modular reactor (PBMR) version [a pebble bed reactor (PBR)] design, with either a direct- or indirect-cycle gas turbine (Brayton cycle) system for electric power production, and an indirect-cycle component for hydrogen production. NGNP design options with a high-pressure steam generator (Rankine cycle) in the primary loop are not considered in this PIRT. This graphite PIRT was conducted in parallel with four other NRC PIRT activities, taking advantage of the relationships and overlaps in subject matter. The graphite PIRT panel identified numerous phenomena, five of which were ranked high importance-low knowledge. A further nine were ranked with high importance and medium knowledge rank. Two phenomena were ranked with medium importance and low knowledge, and a further 14 were ranked medium importance and medium knowledge rank. The last 12 phenomena were ranked with low importance and high knowledge rank (or similar combinations suggesting they have low priority). The ranking/scoring rationale for the reported graphite phenomena is discussed. Much has been learned about the behavior of graphite in reactor environments in the 60-plus years since the first graphite rectors went into service. The extensive list of references in the Bibliography is plainly testament to this fact. Our current knowledge base is well developed. Although data are lacking for the specific grades being considered for Generation IV (Gen IV

  10. Large amplitude collective nuclear motion and soliton concept

    SciTech Connect

    Kartavenko, V.G. |

    1993-12-31

    An application of a soliton theory methods to some nonlinear problems in low and intermediate energies (E {approx} 10--100MeV/nucleon) nucleus - nucleus collisions are presented. Linear and nonlinear excitations of the nuclear density are investigated in the framework of nuclear hydrodynamics. The problem of dynamical instability and clusterization phenomena in a breakup of excited nuclear systems are considered from the points of view of a soliton concept.

  11. Experiments to investigate direct containment heating phenomena with scaled models of the Surry Nuclear Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Blanchat, T.K.; Allen, M.D.; Pilch, M.M.; Nichols, R.T.

    1994-06-01

    The Containment Technology Test Facility (CTTF) and the Surtsey Test Facility at Sandia National Laboratories are used to perform scaled experiments that simulate High Pressure Melt Ejection accidents in a nuclear power plant (NPP). These experiments are designed to investigate the effects of direct containment heating (DCH) phenomena on the containment load. High-temperature, chemically reactive melt (thermite) is ejected by high-pressure steam into a scale model of a reactor cavity. Debris is entrained by the steam blowdown into a containment model where specific phenomena, such as the effect of subcompartment structures, prototypic air/steam/hydrogen atmospheres, and hydrogen generation and combustion, can be studied. Four Integral Effects Tests (IETs) have been performed with scale models of the Surry NPP to investigate DCH phenomena. The 1/61{sup th} scale Integral Effects Tests (IET-9, IET-10, and IET-11) were conducted in CTRF, which is a 1/6{sup th} scale model of the Surry reactor containment building (RCB). The 1/10{sup th} scale IET test (IET-12) was performed in the Surtsey vessel, which had been configured as a 1/10{sup th} scale Surry RCB. Scale models were constructed in each of the facilities of the Surry structures, including the reactor pressure vessel, reactor support skirt, control rod drive missile shield, biological shield wall, cavity, instrument tunnel, residual heat removal platform and heat exchangers, seal table room and seal table, operating deck, and crane wall. This report describes these experiments and gives the results.

  12. A framework for the systematic realisation of phenomena for enhanced sensing of radiological and nuclear materials, and radiation.

    PubMed

    Healy, M J F

    2015-09-01

    The quest for new sensing phenomena continues because detecting, discriminating, identifying, measuring and monitoring nuclear materials and their radiation from greater range, at lower concentrations, and in a more timely fashion brings greater safety, security and efficiency. The potential phenomena are diverse, and those that have been realised can be found in disparate fields of science, engineering and medicine, which makes the full range difficult to realise and record. The framework presented here offers a means to systematically and comprehensively explore nuclear sensing phenomena. The approach is based on the fundamental concepts of matter and energy, where the sequence starts with the original nuclear material and its emissions, and progressively considers signatures arising from secondary effects and the emissions from associated materials and the environment. Concepts of operations such as active and passive interrogation, and networked sensing are considered. In this operational light, unpacking nuclear signatures forces a fresh look at the sensing concept. It also exposes how some phenomena that exist in established technology may be considered novel based on how they could be exploited rather than what they fundamentally are. This article selects phenomena purely to illustrate the framework and how it can be best used to foster creativity in the quest for novel phenomena rather than exhaustively listing, categorising or comparing any practical aspects of candidate phenomena.

  13. Evaluation of natural phenomena hazards as part of safety assessments for nuclear facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Kot, C.A.; Hsieh, B.J.; Srinivasan, M.G.; Shin, Y.W.

    1995-02-01

    The continued operation of existing US Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities and laboratories requires a safety reassessment based on current criteria and guidelines. This also includes evaluations for the effects of Natural Phenomena Hazards (NPH), for which these facilities may not have been designed. The NPH evaluations follow the requirements of DOE Order 5480.28, Natural Phenomena Hazards Mitigation (1993) which establishes NPH Performance Categories (PCs) for DOE facilities and associated target probabilistic performance goals. These goals are expressed as the mean annual probability of exceedance of acceptable behavior for structures, systems and components (SSCs) subjected to NPH effects. The assignment of an NPH Performance Category is based on the overall hazard categorization (low, moderate, high) of a facility and on the function of an SSC under evaluation (DOE-STD-1021, 1992). Detailed guidance for the NPH analysis and evaluation criteria are also provided (DOE-STD-1020, 1994). These analyses can be very resource intensive, and may not be necessary for the evaluation of all SSCs in existing facilities, in particular for low hazard category facilities. An approach relying heavily on screening inspections, engineering judgment and use of NPH experience data (S. J. Eder et al., 1993), can minimize the analytical effort, give reasonable estimates of the NPH susceptibilities, and yield adequate information for an overall safety evaluation of the facility. In the following sections this approach is described in more detail and is illustrated by an application to a nuclear laboratory complex.

  14. The Earth Phenomena Observation System (EPOS): A Coordination Manager for Enhanced Hurricane Data Collection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramson, M.; Kolitz, S.; Adams, M.; Carter, D.; Robinson, E.

    2012-12-01

    The Earth Phenomena Observation System (EPOS) has been developed over the past decade to manage current and future visions of a Sensor Web of Earth Science data collection missions. The initial solution we developed was a centralized coordination approach to tasking for a selected set of existing and notional satellites and unmanned vehicles (air and surface ship) to dynamically respond to transient phenomena that have a significant impact on human life such as hurricanes and wildfires. More recently we extended this work into the EPOS Coordination Manager that coordinates asynchronous distributed dynamic replanning of multiple single-mission systems. This approach is more conducive to coordinating current and planned Earth observation collection systems which are owned by separate organizations and tend to be controlled independently of each other. We compute a complex yet intuitive value function that enables us to tractably solve a series of optimization problems that allocate requests to the single mission planners, or "sub-planners." We consider requests with time windows and priority levels, some of which require simultaneous observations by different sensors. Currently we are enhancing the EPOS Coordination Manager to aid science data collection for current NASA missions, including the Hurricane and Severe Storm Sentinel (HS3), the Airborne Tropical TRopopause EXperiment (ATTREX), and the Earth Observing Mission 1 (EO-1). For the last of these missions, EO-1, we have contributed to EO-1 operations through several planning and scheduling tools we developed over the past several years. Given a current set of collection plans by EO-1 and missions that contribute to hurricane data collection such as NASA's Hurricane and Severe Storm Sentinel (HS3), GOES (Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite), Aqua, Terra, Cloudsat, Calipso, TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission), and NPP (National Polar-orbiting Partnership), EPOS will address enhanced data

  15. Diffusion Geometry Unravels the Emergence of Functional Clusters in Collective Phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Domenico, Manlio

    2017-04-01

    Collective phenomena emerge from the interaction of natural or artificial units with a complex organization. The interplay between structural patterns and dynamics might induce functional clusters that, in general, are different from topological ones. In biological systems, like the human brain, the overall functionality is often favored by the interplay between connectivity and synchronization dynamics, with functional clusters that do not coincide with anatomical modules in most cases. In social, sociotechnical, and engineering systems, the quest for consensus favors the emergence of clusters. Despite the unquestionable evidence for mesoscale organization of many complex systems and the heterogeneity of their interconnectivity, a way to predict and identify the emergence of functional modules in collective phenomena continues to elude us. Here, we propose an approach based on random walk dynamics to define the diffusion distance between any pair of units in a networked system. Such a metric allows us to exploit the underlying diffusion geometry to provide a unifying framework for the intimate relationship between metastable synchronization, consensus, and random search dynamics in complex networks, pinpointing the functional mesoscale organization of synthetic and biological systems.

  16. Collective phenomena in crowds-Where pedestrian dynamics need social psychology.

    PubMed

    Sieben, Anna; Schumann, Jette; Seyfried, Armin

    2017-01-01

    This article is on collective phenomena in pedestrian dynamics during the assembling and dispersal of gatherings. To date pedestrian dynamics have been primarily studied in the natural and engineering sciences. Pedestrians are analyzed and modeled as driven particles revealing self-organizing phenomena and complex transport characteristics. However, pedestrians in crowds also behave as living beings according to stimulus-response mechanisms or act as human subjects on the basis of social norms, social identities or strategies. To show where pedestrian dynamics need social psychology in addition to the natural sciences we propose the application of three categories-phenomena, behavior and action. They permit a clear discrimination between situations in which minimal models from the natural sciences are appropriate and those in which sociological and psychological concepts are needed. To demonstrate the necessity of this framework, an experiment in which a large group of people (n = 270) enters a concert hall through two different spatial barrier structures is analyzed. These two structures correspond to everyday situations such as boarding trains and access to immigration desks. Methods from the natural and social sciences are applied. Firstly, physical measurements show the influence of the spatial structure on the dynamics of the entrance procedure. Density, waiting time and speed of progress show large variations. Secondly, a questionnaire study (n = 60) reveals how people perceive and evaluate these entrance situations. Markedly different expectations, social norms and strategies are associated with the two spatial structures. The results from the questionnaire study do not always conform to objective physical measures, indicating the limitations of models which are based on objective physical measures alone and which neglect subjective perspectives.

  17. Collective phenomena in crowds—Where pedestrian dynamics need social psychology

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    This article is on collective phenomena in pedestrian dynamics during the assembling and dispersal of gatherings. To date pedestrian dynamics have been primarily studied in the natural and engineering sciences. Pedestrians are analyzed and modeled as driven particles revealing self-organizing phenomena and complex transport characteristics. However, pedestrians in crowds also behave as living beings according to stimulus-response mechanisms or act as human subjects on the basis of social norms, social identities or strategies. To show where pedestrian dynamics need social psychology in addition to the natural sciences we propose the application of three categories–phenomena, behavior and action. They permit a clear discrimination between situations in which minimal models from the natural sciences are appropriate and those in which sociological and psychological concepts are needed. To demonstrate the necessity of this framework, an experiment in which a large group of people (n = 270) enters a concert hall through two different spatial barrier structures is analyzed. These two structures correspond to everyday situations such as boarding trains and access to immigration desks. Methods from the natural and social sciences are applied. Firstly, physical measurements show the influence of the spatial structure on the dynamics of the entrance procedure. Density, waiting time and speed of progress show large variations. Secondly, a questionnaire study (n = 60) reveals how people perceive and evaluate these entrance situations. Markedly different expectations, social norms and strategies are associated with the two spatial structures. The results from the questionnaire study do not always conform to objective physical measures, indicating the limitations of models which are based on objective physical measures alone and which neglect subjective perspectives. PMID:28591142

  18. Collective Phenomena Emerging from the Interactions between Dynamical Processes in Multiplex Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicosia, Vincenzo; Skardal, Per Sebastian; Arenas, Alex; Latora, Vito

    2017-03-01

    We introduce a framework to intertwine dynamical processes of different nature, each with its own distinct network topology, using a multilayer network approach. As an example of collective phenomena emerging from the interactions of multiple dynamical processes, we study a model where neural dynamics and nutrient transport are bidirectionally coupled in such a way that the allocation of the transport process at one layer depends on the degree of synchronization at the other layer, and vice versa. We show numerically, and we prove analytically, that the multilayer coupling induces a spontaneous explosive synchronization and a heterogeneous distribution of allocations, otherwise not present in the two systems considered separately. Our framework can find application to other cases where two or more dynamical processes such as synchronization, opinion formation, information diffusion, or disease spreading, are interacting with each other.

  19. Using Synchronous Boolean Networks to Model Several Phenomena of Collective Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Kochemazov, Stepan; Semenov, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an approach for modeling and analysis of a number of phenomena of collective behavior. By collectives we mean multi-agent systems that transition from one state to another at discrete moments of time. The behavior of a member of a collective (agent) is called conforming if the opinion of this agent at current time moment conforms to the opinion of some other agents at the previous time moment. We presume that at each moment of time every agent makes a decision by choosing from the set (where 1-decision corresponds to action and 0-decision corresponds to inaction). In our approach we model collective behavior with synchronous Boolean networks. We presume that in a network there can be agents that act at every moment of time. Such agents are called instigators. Also there can be agents that never act. Such agents are called loyalists. Agents that are neither instigators nor loyalists are called simple agents. We study two combinatorial problems. The first problem is to find a disposition of instigators that in several time moments transforms a network from a state where the majority of simple agents are inactive to a state with the majority of active agents. The second problem is to find a disposition of loyalists that returns the network to a state with the majority of inactive agents. Similar problems are studied for networks in which simple agents demonstrate the contrary to conforming behavior that we call anticonforming. We obtained several theoretical results regarding the behavior of collectives of agents with conforming or anticonforming behavior. In computational experiments we solved the described problems for randomly generated networks with several hundred vertices. We reduced corresponding combinatorial problems to the Boolean satisfiability problem (SAT) and used modern SAT solvers to solve the instances obtained. PMID:25526612

  20. Quantifying solid-fluid interfacial phenomena in porous rocks with proton nuclear magnetic resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Ehud J.; Velasco, Katherine K.; Nur, Amos M.

    1986-04-01

    The three order-of-magnitude variation in the proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) longitudinal relaxation time T1 of water adsorbed on silica surfaces versus that of bulk water makes proton NMR studies of porous materials powerful tools to study the effects of adsorption. Recent theory permits the utilization of this different response to obtain pore space surface-to-volume (S/V) distribution functions by inverting the decay of the z component of magnetization of fully saturated porous rocks; information can likewise be obtained on the fluid distribution at partially saturated conditions. A computer program has been developed to invert the NMR relaxation curves for the S/V distribution function, assuming an isolated pore regime, the ramifications of which are examined. The program has been applied to experimental results from water, porous sandstones, and tight gas sands at various pore fluid saturations and varying electrolyte content. For the fully saturated case, the results show promise in the application of NMR to describing pore space geometries in rock samples with widely varying surface-to-volume ratios. For partially saturated rocks, the results reflect the preferential early draining of the large pores at high water saturations, connectivity percolation phenomena at intermediate saturations, and the dominating role of adsorbed water films at low water saturations. Experiments on rocks saturated with saline solutions disclose the importance of the effects of alteration of the active sites on the rock surfaces as well as the role of electrolytes in modifying the structural properties of bulk solution.

  1. Environmental consequences of postulated plutonium releases from Exxon Nuclear MOFP, Richland, Washington, as a result of severe natural phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    Jamison, J.D.; Watson, E.C.

    1980-02-01

    Potential environmental consequences in terms of radiation dose to people are presented for postulated plutonium releases caused by severe natural phenomena at the Exxon Nuclear Company Mixed Oxide Fabrication Plant (MOFP), Richland, Washington. The severe natural phenomena considered are earthquakes, tornadoes, high straight-line winds, and floods. Maximum plutonium deposition values are given for significant locations around the site. All important potential exposure pathways are examined. The most likely 50-year committed dose equivalents are given for the maximum-exposed individual and the population within a 50-mile radius of the plant. The maximum plutonium deposition values most likely to occur offsite are also given.

  2. Crises and Collective Socio-Economic Phenomena: Simple Models and Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouchaud, Jean-Philippe

    2013-05-01

    Financial and economic history is strewn with bubbles and crashes, booms and busts, crises and upheavals of all sorts. Understanding the origin of these events is arguably one of the most important problems in economic theory. In this paper, we review recent efforts to include heterogeneities and interactions in models of decision. We argue that the so-called Random Field Ising model ( rfim) provides a unifying framework to account for many collective socio-economic phenomena that lead to sudden ruptures and crises. We discuss different models that can capture potentially destabilizing self-referential feedback loops, induced either by herding, i.e. reference to peers, or trending, i.e. reference to the past, and that account for some of the phenomenology missing in the standard models. We discuss some empirically testable predictions of these models, for example robust signatures of rfim-like herding effects, or the logarithmic decay of spatial correlations of voting patterns. One of the most striking result, inspired by statistical physics methods, is that Adam Smith's invisible hand can fail badly at solving simple coordination problems. We also insist on the issue of time-scales, that can be extremely long in some cases, and prevent socially optimal equilibria from being reached. As a theoretical challenge, the study of so-called "detailed-balance" violating decision rules is needed to decide whether conclusions based on current models (that all assume detailed-balance) are indeed robust and generic.

  3. Collective coherent behavior and classical analogue of quantum phenomena in terahertz metasurfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Ningning

    Metasurfaces made of subwavelength resonators exhibit exotic optical properties which do not exist in natural materials. Several of the unique properties of metasurfaces depend on the nearest neighbor interactions in the lattice which is important for the fundamental understanding their effective medium behavior. The collective coherent behavior influenced by the nearest-neighboring meta-atoms interactions in metasurface system has been rarely probed in the past. Therefore, in this thesis, I study the collective coherent behavior in meta-atoms dominated by the near-field and the far-field interactions in the lattice. The interaction effects have been studied in two fundamentally different metasurface systems: Lorentzian and Fano resonant meta-atoms. I identified universal behavior in both types of resonant metasurfaces, where in the Lorentzian resonator, the resonant shift due to nearest neighbor interaction decays exponentially as the lattice constant increases. While, in the Fano meta-atoms, I observed an exponential decay of the Fano resonance linewidth with a universal decay constant as the lattice constant was increased. Apart from the near-field coupling, I also studied the far-field diffraction mode mediated coupling in meta-atoms. Through diffraction mode management, I show that each of the eigenmodes of a Lorentzian resonator can be tailored by matching the fundamental diffractive mode of the lattice. Furthermore, by using these tricks to couple meta-atoms, I designed experiments to demonstrate classical analogue of quantum phenomena such as electromagnetically induced transparency and absorbance by coupling resonance modes of different Lorentzian and Fano resonators. The understanding and the discovery of the universal behavior of coupling effects in this thesis would provide future directions to design efficient metasurface lattices with applications in optical switches, narrow-band filters, modulator and quantum information processing devices across the

  4. Open questions on nuclear collective motion

    SciTech Connect

    Frauendorf, S.

    2016-07-07

    The status of the macroscopic and microscopic description of the collective quadrupole modes is reviewed, where limits due to non-adiabaticity and decoherence are exposed. The microscopic description of the yrast states in vibrator-like nuclei in the framework of the rotating mean field is presented.

  5. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Phenomena Identification and Ranking Tables (PIRTs) Volume 4: High-Temperature Materials PIRTs

    SciTech Connect

    Corwin, William R; Ballinger, R.; Majumdar, S.; Weaver, K. D.

    2008-03-01

    The Phenomena Identification and Ranking Table (PIRT) technique was used to identify safety-relevant/safety-significant phenomena and assess the importance and related knowledge base of high-temperature structural materials issues for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP), a very high temperature gas-cooled reactor (VHTR). The major aspects of materials degradation phenomena that may give rise to regulatory safety concern for the NGNP were evaluated for major structural components and the materials comprising them, including metallic and nonmetallic materials for control rods, other reactor internals, and primary circuit components; metallic alloys for very high-temperature service for heat exchangers and turbomachinery, metallic alloys for high-temperature service for the reactor pressure vessel (RPV), other pressure vessels and components in the primary and secondary circuits; and metallic alloys for secondary heat transfer circuits and the balance of plant. These materials phenomena were primarily evaluated with regard to their potential for contributing to fission product release at the site boundary under a variety of event scenarios covering normal operation, anticipated transients, and accidents. Of all the high-temperature metallic components, the one most likely to be heavily challenged in the NGNP will be the intermediate heat exchanger (IHX). Its thin, internal sections must be able to withstand the stresses associated with thermal loading and pressure drops between the primary and secondary loops under the environments and temperatures of interest. Several important materials-related phenomena related to the IHX were identified, including crack initiation and propagation; the lack of experience of primary boundary design methodology limitations for new IHX structures; and manufacturing phenomena for new designs. Specific issues were also identified for RPVs that will likely be too large for shop fabrication and transportation. Validated procedures

  6. Group theoretic approaches to nuclear and hadronic collective motion

    SciTech Connect

    Biedenharn, L.C.

    1982-01-01

    Three approaches to nuclear and hadronic collective motion are reviewed, compared and contrasted: the standard symmetry approach as typified by the Interacting Boson Model, the kinematic symmetry group approach of Gell-Mann and Tomonaga, and the recent direct construction by Buck. 50 references.

  7. Yang-Mills equation for the nuclear geometrical collective model connexion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sparks, N.; Rosensteel, G.

    2017-01-01

    The Bohr-Mottelson collective model of rotations and quadrupole vibrations is a foundational model in nuclear structure physics. A modern formulation using differential geometry of bundles builds on this legacy collective model to allow a deformation-dependent interaction between rotational and vortical degrees of freedom. The interaction is described by the bundle connexion. This article reports the Yang-Mills equation for the connexion. For a class of solutions to the Yang-Mills equation, the differential geometric collective model attains agreement between experiment and theory for the moments of inertia of deformed isotopes. More generally, the differential geometric framework applies to models of emergent phenomena in which two interacting sets of degrees of freedom must be unified.

  8. Environmental consequences of postulate plutonium releases from Atomics International's Nuclear Materials Development Facility (NMDF), Santa Susana, California, as a result of severe natural phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    Jamison, J.D.; Watson, E.C.

    1982-02-01

    Potential environmental consequences in terms of radiation dose to people are presented for postulated plutonium releases caused by severe natural phenomena at the Atomics International's Nuclear Materials Development Facility (NMDF), in the Santa Susana site, California. The severe natural phenomena considered are earthquakes, tornadoes, and high straight-line winds. Plutonium deposition values are given for significant locations around the site. All important potential exposure pathways are examined. The most likely 50-year committed dose equivalents are given for the maximum-exposed individual and the population within a 50-mile radius of the plant. The maximum plutonium deposition values likely to occur offsite are also given. The most likely calculated 50-year collective committed dose equivalents are all much lower than the collective dose equivalent expected from 50 years of exposure to natural background radiation and medical x-rays. The most likely maximum residual plutonium contamination estimated to be deposited offsite following the earthquake, and the 150-mph and 170-mph tornadoes are above the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) proposed guideline for plutonium in the general environment of 0.2 ..mu..Ci/m/sup 2/. The deposition values following the 110-mph and the 130-mph tornadoes are below the EPA proposed guideline.

  9. Environmental consequences of postulated plutonium releases from General Electric Company Vallecitos Nuclear Center, Vallecitos, California, as a result of severe natural phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    Jamison, J.D.; Watson, E.C.

    1980-11-01

    Potential environmental consequences in terms of radiation dose to people are presented for postulated plutonium releases caused by severe natural phenomena at the General Electric Company Vallecitos Nuclear Center, Vallecitos, California. The severe natural phenomena considered are earthquakes, tornadoes, and high straight-line winds. Maximum plutonium deposition values are given for significant locations around the site. All important potential exposure pathways are examined. The most likely 50-year committed dose equivalents are given for the maximum-exposed individual and the population within a 50-mile radius of the plant. The maximum plutonium deposition values likely to occur offsite are also given. The most likely calculated 50-year collective committed dose equivalents are all much lower than the collective dose equivalent expected from 50 years of exposure to natural background radiation and medical x-rays. The most likely maximum residual plutonium contamination estimated to be deposited offsite following the earthquakes, and the 180-mph and 230-mph tornadoes are above the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) proposed guideline for plutonium in the general environment of 0.2 ..mu..Ci/m/sup 2/. The deposition values following the 135-mph tornado are below the EPA proposed guidelines.

  10. Lost transparency! Weathering phenomena on the archaeological window glass collection of the Cistercian Abbey of the Dunes - Koksijde (Belgium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wouters, Hilde; Nuyts, Gert; Cagno, Simone; Minten, Nicole; Meulebroeck, Wendy; Baert, Kitty; Terryn, Herman; Janssens, Koen; Thienpont, Hugo; Nys, Karin

    As far as Belgium and archaeological window glass is concerned, the most important site is the Dunes Abbey, a former Cistercian abbey near the Flemish coastline. The collection contains approximately 15,000 fragments dating from the 13th to the 16th century. This glass was exposed to atmospheric weathering while in situ for several hundred years, buried for up to 400 years, excavated by different individual excavators in different eras and for over half a century stored in uncontrolled conditions. Moreover, different conservation treatments have been applied to the glass. Due to this, the collection was in a friable condition and we assume half of it has already been completely lost. The remaining collection retains fragments whose condition ranges between almost perfectly preserved material to being completely weathered to the point that no original glass survives. In this research, an important asset is recognizing what has already been lost and maximizing what is still available. During recent conservation and stock making campaigns, the different weathering phenomena were separated into 9 groups based on empirical criteria and detailed registration. As a first step to further investigation of the weathering processes, quantitative SEM-EDX analyses are used to give better insight into the chemical composition of these groups. The aim is to bridge the gap between interpretative archaeologically and archaeological science and to develop a common terminology to evaluate the complexity of weathering phenomena in archaeological window glass collections which can be used as a tool for the assembling and interpretation of these collections.

  11. Natural Circulation in Water Cooled Nuclear Power Plants Phenomena, models, and methodology for system reliability assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Jose Reyes

    2005-02-14

    In recent years it has been recognized that the application of passive safety systems (i.e., those whose operation takes advantage of natural forces such as convection and gravity), can contribute to simplification and potentially to improved economics of new nuclear power plant designs. In 1991 the IAEA Conference on ''The Safety of Nuclear Power: Strategy for the Future'' noted that for new plants the use of passive safety features is a desirable method of achieving simplification and increasing the reliability of the performance of essential safety functions, and should be used wherever appropriate''.

  12. Introduction to monitoring dynamic environmental phenomena of the world using satellite data collection systems, 1978

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carter, William Douglas; Paulson, Richard W.

    1979-01-01

    The rapid development of satellite technology, especially in the area of radio transmission and imaging systems, makes it possible to monitor dynamic surface phenomena of the Earth in considerable detail. The monitoring systems that have been developed are compatible with standard monitoring systems such as snow, stream, and rain gages; wind, temperature and humidity measuring instruments; tiltmeters and seismic event counters. Supported by appropriate power, radios and antennae, remote stations can be left unattended for at least 1 year and consistently relay local information via polar orbiting or geostationary satellites. These data, in conjunction with timely Landsat images, can provide a basis for more accurate estimates on snowfall, water runoff, reservoir level changes, flooding, drought effects, and vegetation trends and may be of help in forecasting volcanic eruptions. These types of information are critical for resource inventory and development, especially in developing countries where remote regions are commonly difficult to access. This paper introduces the reader to the systems available, describes their features and limitations, and provides suggestions on how to employ them. An extensive bibliography is provided for those who wish more information.

  13. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Phenomena Identification and Ranking Tables (PIRTs) Volume 2: Accident and Thermal Fluids Analysis PIRTs

    SciTech Connect

    Ball, Sydney J; Corradini, M.; Fisher, Stephen Eugene; Gauntt, R.; Geffraye, G.; Gehin, Jess C; Hassan, Y.; Moses, David Lewis; Renier, John-Paul; Schultz, R.; Wei, T.

    2008-03-01

    An accident, thermal fluids, and reactor physics phenomena identification and ranking process was conducted by a panel of experts on the next generation nuclear plant (NGNP) design (consideration given to both pebble-bed and prismatic gas-cooled reactor configurations). Safety-relevant phenomena, importance, and knowledge base were assessed for the following event classes: (1) normal operation (including some reactor physics aspects), (2) general loss of forced circulation (G-LOFC), (3) pressurized loss-of-forced circulation (P-LOFC), (4) depressurized loss-of-forced circulation (D-LOFC), (5) air ingress (following D-LOFC), (6) reactivity transients - including anticipated transients without scram (ATWS), (7) processes coupled via intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) (IHX failure with molten salt), and (8) steam/water ingress. The panel's judgment of the importance ranking of a given phenomenon (or process) was based on the effect it had on one or more figures of merit or evaluation criteria. These included public and worker dose, fuel failure, and primary (and other safety) system integrity. The major phenomena of concern that were identified and categorized as high importance combined with medium to low knowledge follow: (1) core coolant bypass flows (normal operation), (2) power/flux profiles (normal operation), (3) outlet plenum flows (normal operation), (4) reactivity-temperature feedback coefficients for high-plutonium-content cores (normal operation and accidents), (5) fission product release related to the transport of silver (normal operation), (6)emissivity aspects for the vessel and reactor cavity cooling system (G-LOFC), (7) reactor vessel cavity air circulation and heat transfer (G-LOFC), and (8)convection/radiation heating of upper vessel area (P-LOFC).

  14. Sharp transitions in nuclear dynamics: Limits to collectivity and stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colonna, M.; Di Toro, M.; Latora, V.; Smerzi, A.

    Two limiting cases of nuclear dynamics are analysed in details: the disappearing of giant collective motions in hot nuclei and the nuclear disassembly in violent heavy ion collisions. It is shown that sharp transitions occur in the dynamical behaviour of finite nuclei. For collective vibration built on excited states we get a dramatic increase of the widths due to the enhancement of two body collisions with increasing temperature. The case of hot Giant Dipole Resonances (GDR) is discussed. As a consequence of the competition with neutron evaporation we get a sharp quenching of giant photon emission. Pre-equilibrium effects on the GDR formation are also accounted for. Limiting temperatures for the observation of GDR γ-decays are deduced for various nuclei, ranging from 6.0 to 3.5 MeV with increasing mass number. A detailed study of the onset of a new multifragmentation mechanism in violent heavy ion collisions around 50 MeV/u beam energy for symmetric partners is performed. It is shown that the nuclear system enters a dynamical instability region and fragments are directly produced from the growing of fluctuations. An hybrid model is developped just coupling average informations on the system entering the critical region to a statistical multifragmentration decay picture. Some hints towards a fully dynamical description of fragment production are finally discussed.

  15. Collective Phenomena and Non-Finite State Computation in a Human Social System

    PubMed Central

    DeDeo, Simon

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the computational structure of a paradigmatic example of distributed social interaction: that of the open-source Wikipedia community. We examine the statistical properties of its cooperative behavior, and perform model selection to determine whether this aspect of the system can be described by a finite-state process, or whether reference to an effectively unbounded resource allows for a more parsimonious description. We find strong evidence, in a majority of the most-edited pages, in favor of a collective-state model, where the probability of a “revert” action declines as the square root of the number of non-revert actions seen since the last revert. We provide evidence that the emergence of this social counter is driven by collective interaction effects, rather than properties of individual users. PMID:24130745

  16. Nuclear power and the public: an update of collected survey research on nuclear power

    SciTech Connect

    Rankin, W.L.; Melber, B.D.; Overcast, T.D.; Nealey, S.M.

    1981-12-01

    The purpose of this research was to collect, analyze, and summarize all of the nuclear power-related surveys conducted in the United States through June 1981, that we could obtain. The surveys collected were national, statewide, and areawide in scope. Slightly over 100 surveys were collected for an earlier, similar effort carried out in 1977. About 130 new surveys were added to the earlier survey data. Thus, about 230 surveys were screened for inclusion in this report. Because of space limitations, national surveys were used most frequently in this report, followed distantly by state surveys. In drawing our conclusions about public beliefs and attitudes toward nuclear power, we placed most of our confidence in survey questions that were used by national polling firms at several points in time. A summary of the research findings is presented, beginning with general attitudes toward nuclear power, followed by a summary of beliefs and attitudes about nuclear power issues, and ended by a summary of beliefs and attitudes regarding more general energy issues.

  17. The residual proton-neutron interaction and nuclear collectivity

    SciTech Connect

    Casten, R.F.

    1990-01-01

    The essential role of the valence, residual p-n interaction in the development of collectivity, though long known in general terms, has recently become increasingly apparent. A brief review of the p-n interaction is given, including some very basic nuclear data that illustrate its effects and the phenomenological N{sub p}N{sub n} scheme and the P-factor. This is followed by a discussion of recent experimental extractions of p-n matrix elements throughout the periodic table and theoretical efforts to understand them, in terms of both Shell and Nilsson models. 20 refs., 13 figs.

  18. Full-scale plume study: a summary of data collected and phenomena observed

    SciTech Connect

    Lavery, T.; Holzworth, G.; Schiermeier, F.; Snyder, W.; Truppi, L.

    1986-09-01

    The paper briefly describes the field tracer studies that were conducted in support of EPA's Complex Terrain Model Development project. A more detailed description is given of the last field study, conducted from the Tracy Power Plant near Reno, Nevada. During 14 experiment periods, 128 hours of dual-tracer samples were collected at up to 100 locations. These concentration measurements were supported by conventional meteorological information as well as information from lidars and monostatic and doppler acoustic sounders. Finally, the paper describes some typical but complex flow patterns that occurred during stable conditions in the irregular terrain of the study area.

  19. Some Phenomena Theoretically Predicted and Explained by the Time Analysis of the Experimental Data on Nuclear Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olkhovsky, V. S.; Davydovsky, V. V.; Dolinska, M. E.; Doroshko, N. L.

    The self-consistent methods in time analysis of nuclear collisions and decays are based on the properties of time as a quantum observable, canonically conjugate to energy, and the appropriate definition of mean durations of quantum collisions, the variances in their distributions, the decay functions, and the surviving functions of the meta-stable states, including radioactive and compound nuclei. Even a simplified application of these methods for the elementary study of the α-decay in the exponential-law-decay approximation resulted in the simple phenomenological method of the determination of the α-particle one-step virtual and real sojourn time inside the parent α-radioactive nucleus between the α-particle successive incoherent multiple internal reflections during the α-decay. And also the direct temporal study of the quasi-monochromatic proton scattering by 12C and 14N nuclei at the range of isolated resonances distorted by the nonresonant background, accompanied by the bremsstrahlung, brings to the simple revealing of the possible existence of the delay-advance phenomenon in the proton emission during scattering (in the center-of-mass system). The utilization of the self-consistent methods of time analysis to the study of high-energy nuclear reactions (near and above 0.1 GeV per nucleon in the final compound-fragment formations) resulted in the discovery of the phenomenon of time resonances (or explosions) for such formations. Some perspectives of the further study of the evident temporal phenomena in nuclear processes are also indicated.

  20. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Imaging Studies of Two-Phase Flow Phenomena: Application to Suspension Rheology.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seymour, Joseph Daniel

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging, a non -invasive spectroscopic technique, is used to measure velocity in the fluid phase of suspensions in tube flow by a position encode pulsed gradient spin echo (PGSE) technique. The mean velocity of an ensemble of nuclei within a discrete volume element (voxel) of the sample, localized by the NMR experiment, causes a residual phase shift in nuclei precession and random displacements due to Brownian motion of the nuclei and fluctuations about the mean velocity cause attenuation of signal. The average macroscopic and fluctuating velocity distributions in suspensions of spheres and fibers at concentrations from the dilute to concentrated regimes are measured. The fluctuational motion in low Reynolds number flow is due to the many body hydrodynamic interactions of the non-colloidal particles. The fluctuational motion measured depends on the length and time scales of the NMR experiment and it is the stationary Gaussian Markov statistics of the fluctuation in motion that is measured. Interpretation of the signal in NMR PGSE experiments depends on a model of the motion and the fluctuations are modelled as a colored noise stochastic process. The stochastic model is connected to the averaged theory of two-phase flow through formulation of the averaged theory as an equivalent stochastic differential equation. Tube flow is studied to increase understanding of NMR measurements in two-phase solid-liquid systems and provide data on systems inaccessible to standard velocity measurement techniques. Macroscopic rheological characterization of materials by NMR imaging is possible using 1-D and 2 -D NMR velocity phase encoded data. 1-D velocity probability distribution data is used to characterize the macroscopic material flow behavior of a Newtonian standard, a 3% polyacrylamide solution, tomato juice and paper pulp. The measurement of yield stress rheological behavior using 2-D position dependent velocity data is presented and used to

  1. A Microscopic Quantal Model for Nuclear Collective Rotation

    SciTech Connect

    Gulshani, P.

    2007-10-26

    A microscopic, quantal model to describe nuclear collective rotation in two dimensions is derived from the many-nucleon Schrodinger equation. The Schrodinger equation is transformed to a body-fixed frame to decompose the Hamiltonian into a sum of intrinsic and rotational components plus a Coriolis-centrifugal coupling term. This Hamiltonian (H) is expressed in terms of space-fixed-frame particle coordinates and momenta by using commutator of H with a rotation angle. A unified-rotational-model type wavefunction is used to obtain an intrinsic Schrodinger equation in terms of angular momentum quantum number and two-body operators. A Hartree-Fock mean-field representation of this equation is then obtained and, by means of a unitary transformation, is reduced to a form resembling that of the conventional semi-classical cranking model when exchange terms and intrinsic spurious collective excitation are ignored.

  2. Collecting and recirculating condensate in a nuclear reactor containment

    DOEpatents

    Schultz, Terry L.

    1993-01-01

    An arrangement passively cools a nuclear reactor in the event of an emergency, condensing and recycling vaporized cooling water. The reactor is surrounded by a containment structure and has a storage tank for cooling liquid, such as water, vented to the containment structure by a port. The storage tank preferably is located inside the containment structure and is thermally coupleable to the reactor, e.g. by a heat exchanger, such that water in the storage tank is boiled off to carry away heat energy. The water is released as a vapor (steam) and condenses on the cooler interior surfaces of the containment structure. The condensed water flows downwardly due to gravity and is collected and routed back to the storage tank. One or more gutters are disposed along the interior wall of the containment structure for collecting the condensate from the wall. Piping is provided for communicating the condensate from the gutters to the storage tank.

  3. Effect of collectivity on the nuclear level density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Pratap; Banerjee, K.; Gohil, M.; Bhattacharya, C.; Kundu, S.; Rana, T. K.; Ghosh, T. K.; Mukherjee, G.; Pandey, R.; Pai, H.; Srivastava, V.; Meena, J. K.; Banerjee, S. R.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Pandit, D.; Pal, S.; Bhattacharya, S.

    2013-09-01

    Neutron evaporation spectra at backward angles from 201Tl*, 185Re*, and 169Tm* compound nuclei, having different ground-state deformations, have been measured at two excitation energies (E* ˜ 37 and 26 MeV). The values of the inverse level density parameter (k), extracted at these excitations using statistical model calculations, are observed to decrease substantially at the lower excitation energy (˜26 MeV) for nuclei having large ground-state deformation (residues of 185Re* and 169Tm*), whereas for near-spherical nuclei (residues of 201Tl*), the k value remains unchanged at the two energies. The decrease in k at the lower excitation energy for the deformed systems amounts to a relative increase in nuclear level density, indicating a collective enhancement. The present observation clearly establishes the existence of a strong correlation between collectivity and ground-state deformation.

  4. Collecting and recirculating condensate in a nuclear reactor containment

    DOEpatents

    Schultz, T.L.

    1993-10-19

    An arrangement passively cools a nuclear reactor in the event of an emergency, condensing and recycling vaporized cooling water. The reactor is surrounded by a containment structure and has a storage tank for cooling liquid, such as water, vented to the containment structure by a port. The storage tank preferably is located inside the containment structure and is thermally coupleable to the reactor, e.g. by a heat exchanger, such that water in the storage tank is boiled off to carry away heat energy. The water is released as a vapor (steam) and condenses on the cooler interior surfaces of the containment structure. The condensed water flows downwardly due to gravity and is collected and routed back to the storage tank. One or more gutters are disposed along the interior wall of the containment structure for collecting the condensate from the wall. Piping is provided for communicating the condensate from the gutters to the storage tank. 3 figures.

  5. VideoSAR collections to image underground chemical explosion surface phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yocky, David A.; Calloway, Terry M.; Wahl, Daniel E.

    2017-05-01

    Fully-polarimetric X-band (9.6 GHz center frequency) VideoSAR with 0.125-meter ground resolution flew collections before, during, and after the fifth Source Physics Experiment (SPE-5) underground chemical explosion. We generate and exploit synthetic aperture RADAR (SAR) and VideoSAR products to characterize surface effects caused by the underground explosion. To our knowledge, this has never been done. Exploited VideoSAR products are "movies" of coherence maps, phase-difference maps, and magnitude imagery. These movies show two-dimensional, time-varying surface movement. However, objects located on the SPE pad created unwanted, vibrating signatures during the event which made registration and coherent processing more difficult. Nevertheless, there is evidence that dynamic changes are captured by VideoSAR during the event. VideoSAR provides a unique, coherent, time-varying measure of surface expression of an underground chemical explosion.

  6. Pulsar electrodynamics: Relativistic kinetic theory of radiative plasmas--collective phenomena and their radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Costa, A. A. da; Diver, D. A.; Laing, E. W.; Stark, C. R.; Teodoro, L. F. A.

    2011-01-15

    The classical modeling of radiation by accelerated charged particles in pulsars predicts a cutoff in photon energy at around 25 GeV. While this is broadly consistent with observations, the classical treatment is not self-consistent, and cannot be extended to explain the rare high-energy detections of photons in the 100s of GeV range. In this paper we revisit the theoretical modeling of high-energy radiation processes in very strong electromagnetic fields, in the context of both single particles and collective plasmas. There are no classical constraints on this description. We find that there is indeed a critical energy of around 50 GeV that arises naturally in this self-consistent treatment, but rather than being a cutoff, this critical energy signals a transition from radiation that is classical to a quasiquantum description, in which the particle is able to radiate almost its total energy in a single event. This new modeling therefore places pulsar radiation processes on a more secure physical basis, and admits the possibility of the production of TeV photons in a self-consistent way.

  7. The organized melee: Emergence of collective behavior in concentrated suspensions of swimming bacteria and associated phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cisneros Salerno, Luis

    Suspensions of the aerobic bacteria Bacilus subtilis develop patterns and flows from the interplay of motility, chemotaxis and buoyancy. In sessile drops, such bioconvectively driven flows carry plumes down the slanted meniscus and concentrate cells at the drop edge, while in pendant drops such self-concentration occurs at the bottom. These dynamics are explained quantitatively by a mathematical model consisting of oxygen diffusion and consumption, chemotaxis, and viscous fluid dynamics. Concentrated regions in both geometries comprise nearly close-packed populations, forming the collective "Zooming BioNematic" (ZBN) phase. This state exhibits large-scale orientational coherence, analogous to the molecular alignment of nematic liquid crystals, coupled with remarkable spatial and temporal correlations of velocity and vorticity, as measured by both novel and standard applications of particle imaging velocimetry. To probe mechanisms leading to this phase, response of individual cells to steric stress was explored, finding that they can reverse swimming direction at spatial constrictions without turning the cell body. The consequences of this propensity to flip the flagella are quantified, showing that "forwards" and "backwards" motion are dynamically and morphologically indistinguishable. Finally, experiments and mathematical modeling show that complex flows driven by previously unknown bipolar flagellar arrangements are induced when B. subtilis are confined in a thin layer of fluid, between asymmetric boundaries. The resulting driven flow circulates around the cell body ranging over several cell diameters, in contrast to the more localized flows surrounding free swimmers. This discovery extends our knowledge of the dynamic geometry of bacteria and their flagella, and reveals new mechanisms for motility-associated molecular transport and intercellular communication.

  8. (Evolution of nuclear collectivity at high spins and temperatures)

    SciTech Connect

    Baktash, C.

    1989-09-28

    The traveler attended and presented an invited talk entitled Evolution of nuclear collectivity at high spins and temperatures'' at the XII Workshop on Nuclear Physics at Iguazu Falls, Argentina. Following the conference, the traveler visited the TANDAR Laboratory in Buenos Aires, Argentina, for two weeks. This trip was the first by one of the principal investigators of an ORNL-TANDAR exchange program that was recently approved and funded by the NSF. The results of the extensive consultations that the traveler had with his Argentine collaborators, A. J. Kreiner and G. Garcia-Bermudez, can be summarized as follows: (1) discussed the spectroscopy work on several nuclei of common interest that are being studied at the two laboratories, (2) agreed on the first joint experiments to be performed at the Holifield and TANDAR facilities, (3) developed a tentative timetable for the future visits by both groups, and (4) continued with the analysis of data on {sup 82}Sr taken earlier at ORNL in collaboration with Dr. Garcia-Bermudez.

  9. Nuclear plant reliability: Data collection and usage guide

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, T.; Schwan, C.; Parry, G.W.

    1992-04-01

    Nuclear power utilities are implementing and refining an increasing number of programs to comply with regulatory requirements and guidance in order to enhance plant safety and operating performance, reduce costs, and extend useful plant life. One common feature of nearly all these programs is their need for extensive data. Many of the programs have their homes in different organizations within a utility, but they may have overlapping data requirements with other programs. This report puts forward the idea of creating a Data Guidebook to promote the efficient collection and use of data. A prerequisite for the development of such a guidebook is a detailed understanding of the data needs of the individual programs, and how the data can be obtained. Two Appendices are provided which discuss these issues for two of the currently active programs, the Individual Plant Examination (IPE) program, and Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM).

  10. Is it possible to enhance the nuclear Schiff moment by nuclear collective modes?

    SciTech Connect

    Auerbach, N. Dmitriev, V. F. Flambaum, V. V. Lisetskiy, A. Sen'kov, R. A. Zelevinsky, V. G.

    2007-09-15

    The nuclear Schiff moment is predicted to be enhanced in nuclei with static quadrupole and octupole deformation. The analogous suggestion of the enhanced contribution to the Schiff moment from the soft collective quadrupole and octupole vibrations in spherical nuclei is tested in the framework of the quasiparticle random phase approximation with separable quadrupole and octupole forces applied to the odd {sup 217-221}Ra and {sup 217-221}Rn isotopes. In this framework, we confirm the existence of the enhancement effect due to the soft modes, but only in the limit when the frequencies of quadrupole and octupole vibrations are close to zero.

  11. Fluctuation phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    Montroll, E.W.; Lebowitz, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    Fluctuation phenomena are the ''tip of the iceberg'' revealing the existence, behind even the most quiescent appearing macroscopic states, of an underlying world of agitated, ever-changing microscopic processes. While the presence of these fluctuations can be ignored in some cases, e.g. if one is satisfied with purely thermostatic description of systems in equilibrium, they are central to the understanding of other phenomena, e.g. the nucleation of a new phase following the quenching of a system into the co-existence region. This volume contains a collection of review articles, written by experts in the field, on the subject of fluctuation phenomena. Some of the articles are of a very general nature discussing the modern mathematical formulation of the problems involved, while other articles deal with specific topics such as kinetics of phase transitions and conductivity in solids. The juxtaposition of the variety of physical situations in which fluctuation phenomena play an important role is novel and should give the reader an insight into this subject.

  12. How nuclear data collected for medical radionuclides production could constrain nuclear codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guertin, Arnaud; Duchemin, Charlotte; Fardin, Arnaud; Guigot, Corentin; Nigron, Etienne; Remy, Charlotte; Haddad, Férid; Michel, Nathalie; Métivier, Vincent

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this article is to give the status of nuclear data collected in the framework of the production of innovative radionuclides for therapy and diagnosis applications in collaboration with the GIP ARRONAX, which possesses a multi-particle high energy cyclotron, and to show constrains that can be put on nuclear codes. In order to assess the cross section of a given production route, experiments have been carried out using the stacked-foil technique and gamma-spectroscopy for a set of radionuclides of medical interest: photon (Tc-99m) and positon (Sc-44g) emitters for diagnosis, electron (Re-186g, Tb-155, Sn-117m) and alpha particle (Th-226, Ra-233, Bi-213) emitters for therapeutic applications. A systematic comparison has been performed between the results from the TALYS code (version 1.6) and the large set of data collected using different projectiles (proton, deuteron and alpha particle) from few MeV up to 70 MeV and covering a wide range of target masses. A better overall agreement with our experimental data has been obtained with a combination of models already included in the TALYS code differing from the default one.

  13. ALP-RISK, a smartphone app for collecting data on geomorphic phenomena at high altitude in the Mont Blanc region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravanel, Ludovic; Deline, Philip

    2014-05-01

    A network of observers (mountain guides, hut keepers and mountaineers) has been created from 2005 for the Mont Blanc massif in order to acquire data on rockfall in permafrost-affected rock walls. This network, fully operational since 2007, is based on observation sheets or oral communications and has documented nearly 350 events with volume between 100 and 45,000 m3. Their analysis confirmed and helped to better understand the role of the permafrost degradation as main triggering factor. To i) reinforce this network, ii) facilitate its observation work and iii) develop it as well in space (the whole Mont Blanc region, or eventually the whole western Alps) as in a thematic point of view (all glacial and periglacial brutal phenomena), the Alp-Risk app has been created in the framework of the Alcotra PrévRisk Mont-Blanc project. The latter (2011-13) has been developed to improve the prevention of individual and collective natural hazards around the Mont Blanc massif. The app was created for I-Phones and Androids in three languages (French, English and Italian) and allows, as intuitively and quickly as possible, transmitting data on natural hazards in high mountain (snow and ice avalanche, landslides and rockfalls, landslides, moraine destabilization, water pocket outburst flood, torrential flood, and others) to both practitioners (observations available directly on the app via an interface web), scientists, and possibly local managers. Alp-Risk thus constitutes a new step for participatory science in the Mont Blanc region.

  14. Modeling the influence of string collective phenomena on the long range rapidity correlations between the transverse momentum and the multiplicities

    SciTech Connect

    Andronov, E.; Vechernin, V.

    2016-01-22

    The long-range rapidity correlations between the multiplicities (n-n) and the transverse momentum and the multiplicity (pT-n) of charge particles are analyzed in the framework of the simple string inspired model with two types of sources. The sources of the first type correspond to the initial strings formed in a hadronic collision. The sources of the second type imitate the appearance of the emitters of a new kind resulting from interaction (fusion) of the initial strings. The model enabled to describe effectively the influence of the string fusion effects on the strength both the n-n and the pT-n correlations. It was found that in the region, where the process of string fusion comes into play, the calculation results predict the non-monotonic behaviour of the n-n and pT-n correlation coefficients with the growth of the mean number of initial strings, i.e. with the increase of the collision centrality. It was shown also that the increase of the event-by-event fluctuation in the number of primary strings leads to the change of the pT-n correlation sign from negative to positive. One can try to search these signatures of string collective phenomena in interactions of various nuclei at different energies varying the class of collision centrality and its width.

  15. A Superradiant Laser and Spin Squeezed States: Collective Phenomena in a Rubidium Cavity QED System for Enhancing Precision Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohnet, Justin G.

    By allowing a large ensemble of laser cooled and trapped 87Rb atoms to interact collectively with an optical cavity, I have explored two phenomena that may prove useful for enhancing precision measurements: superradiant lasing and spin squeezing. Superradiant lasers have been proposed as future ultrastable optical frequency references, with predicted linewidths < 1 millihertz. These lasers operate in an unusual regime of laser physics where collective emission from an atomic ensemble maps the quantum phase stored in the atoms onto the optical cavity field. I will give an overview of my experimental work using a cold-atom, superradiant Raman laser as a model system to confirm a number of the key predictions concerning superradiant lasing, including the possibility of coherent emission with < 1 intracavity photon on average and greatly reduced sensitivity to cavity frequency noise. I also present work using cavity-aided, coherence-preserving measurements of the atomic state population to create entanglement between atoms. The entanglement enables more precise estimation of the quantum phase at the heart of nearly all precision measurements and sensors utilizing quantum objects. By utilizing a cycling transition for the quantum non-demolition probe, we have reduced by several orders of magnitude the measurement induced back-action caused by spontaneous Raman transitions. We directly observe, with no background subtraction, a spin squeezed state with sensitivity to measuring a quantum phase enhanced 10.5 times in variance (i.e. 10.2 dB) beyond the standard quantum limit for an unentangled state. This experimental breakthrough demonstrates that quantum-aided sensing techniques can realize large enough enhancements to have a substantial impact on precision measurements and may aid advances in technology as well as searches for new physics.

  16. Growth of semiconductor nanostructures by MBE for the study of electron and nuclear spin enhancement and other physical phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qiang

    Molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) is an extremely versatile thin film technique, which can produce single-crystal layers with atomic dimensional controls and thus permit the preparation of novel structures and devices tailored to meet specific needs. Spin relaxation time ts is one of the key features in spin-related phenomena and thus of great importance for spintronics. In this work, we prepare high quality samples, mainly of CdTe epilayers, by MBE, characterize their spin relaxation dynamics, and discuss the results theoretically. First, with the goal of understanding the mechanisms of electron relaxation dynamics and nuclear spin enhancement, we focus on the growth and characterization of CdTe epilayers. By changing the shutter sequences and inserting ZnSe buffer layer, we have reproducibly grown (111) and (100) CdTe epilayers of high crystalline qualities by MBE, despite the large lattice mismatch between CdTe and GaAs substrate. Then we investigate ts for the (111) and (100) CdTe epilayers. It is found that for the (111) CdTe, spin relaxation rate t-1s is significantly enhanced and shows no temperature dependence through 130K to 300K, while t-1s for the (100) CdTe is strongly affected by the temperature. It is also found that t-1s is dependent on material quality for both (111) and (100) CdTe. We theoretically discuss the effect of strain and defect on spin relaxation time of CdTe. It is the first experimental observation of the effect of strain on t-1s in a II-VI semiconductor material. Second, the growth and characterization of ZnTe/ZnSe related type II quantum structures, or quantum dots (QDs), are also presented in this work. The PL of Zn-Se-Te related type II quantum structures show blue shifts with higher intensities of exciting laser, an indication of type II QDs. Besides being an attractive method to p-type dope wide bandgap materials, the resulting material may be a promising structure for spin enhancement properties. Third, we present the study of the

  17. Calculation of Nuclear Level Density Parameters of Some Light Deformed Medical Radionuclides Using Collective Excitation Modes of Observed Nuclear Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okuducu, Ş.; Akti, N. N.; Saraç, H.; Bölükdemir, M. H.; Tel, E.

    In this study the nuclear energy level density based on nuclear collective excitation mechanism has been identified in terms of the low-lying collective level bands near the neutron binding energy. Nuclear level density parameters of some light deformed medical radionuclides used widely in medical applications have been calculated by using different collective excitation modes of observed nuclear spectra. The calculated parameters have been used successfully in estimation of the neutron-capture cross section basic data for the production of new medical radionuclides. The investigated radionuclides have been considered in the region of mass number 40collective coupled state bands of the interest radionuclides. The present calculated results have been compared with the compiled values from the literatures for s-wave neutron resonance data.

  18. A semiclassical, microscopic model for nuclear collective rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulshani, P.

    2006-10-01

    In this article, a semiclassical, microscopic model (dubbed SMRM) is derived to describe collective rotation in deformed nuclei. The SMRM is derived by transforming the time-dependent, multiparticle Schrodinger equation to a rotating frame whose axes are chosen to coincide with the principal axes of the expectation value of an arbitrary, second-rank, symmetric, tensor (nuclear shape) operator . This transformation circumvents the difficulty associated with the introduction of redundant particle coordinates in the Villars' transformation. The SMRM Schrodinger equation, which resembles the cranking model (CM) equation, is a time-dependent, time-reversal-invariant, nonlinear integro-differential equation. In this equation, the angular velocity is determined by the wave function and deformation-rotation shear operators, and this introduces the nonlinearity in the equation. A variational method is proposed and justified to obtain: a stationary solution of the SMRM Schrodinger equation in the Rayleigh-Ritz Hartree-Fock particle-hole formalism, the rotational energy increment, and the associated moment of inertia. When exchange interaction terms are neglected or a separable interaction is used, the SMRM moment of inertia is shown to reduce to that given by the CM provided that a certain relationship exists between the moment of inertia and the expectation value of . However, the SMRM and CM wave functions are not the same (SMRM preserves and CM violates time-reversal invariance) implying that the calculated values of other parameters, including the moment of inertia at higher values of the angular momentum, may not be the same in the two models. In any case, the SMRM derives the CM moment of inertia from a microscopic, time-reversal invariant, nonlinear theory.

  19. An historical collection of papers on nuclear thermal propulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The present volume of historical papers on nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) encompasses NTP technology development regarding solid-core NTP technology, advanced concepts from the early years of NTP research, and recent activities in the field. Specific issues addressed include NERVA rocket-engine technology, the development of nuclear rocket propulsion at Los Alamos, fuel-element development, reactor testing for the Rover program, and an overview of NTP concepts and research emphasizing two decades of NASA research. Also addressed are the development of the 'nuclear light bulb' closed-cycle gas core and a demonstration of a fissioning UF6 gas in an argon vortex. The recent developments reviewed include the application of NTP to NASA's Lunar Space Transportation System, the use of NTP for the Space Exploration Initiative, and the development of nuclear rocket engines in the former Soviet Union.

  20. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Phenomena Identification and Ranking Tables (PIRTs) Volume 3: Fission-Product Transport and Dose PIRTs

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, Robert Noel

    2008-03-01

    release path. This exercise has identified a host of material properties, thermofluid states, and physics models that must be collected, defined, and understood to evaluate this attenuation factor. The assembled PIRT table underwent two iterations with extensive reorganization between meetings. Generally, convergence was obtained on most issues, but different approaches to the specific physics and transport paths shade the answers accordingly. The reader should be cautioned that merely selecting phenomena based on high importance and low knowledge may not capture the true uncertainty of the situation. This is because a transport path is composed of several serial linkages, each with its own uncertainty. The propagation of a chain of modest uncertainties can lead to a very large uncertainty at the end of a long path, resulting in a situation that is of little regulatory guidance.

  1. The many-nucleon theory of nuclear collective structure and its macroscopic limits: an algebraic perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowe, D. J.; McCoy, A. E.; Caprio, M. A.

    2016-03-01

    The nuclear collective models introduced by Bohr, Mottelson and Rainwater, together with the Mayer-Jensen shell model, have provided the central framework for the development of nuclear physics. This paper reviews the microscopic evolution of the collective models and their underlying foundations. In particular, it is shown that the Bohr-Mottelson models have expressions as macroscopic limits of microscopic models that have precisely defined expressions in many-nucleon quantum mechanics. Understanding collective models in this way is especially useful because it enables the analysis of nuclear properties in terms of them to be revisited and reassessed in the light of their microscopic foundations.

  2. Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy: A Collection of Speeches

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Seaborg, Glenn T.

    1970-07-01

    It is now a quarter of a century since nuclear energy was introduced to the public. Its introduction was made in the most dramatic, but unfortunately in the most destructive way - through the use of a nuclear weapon. Since that introduction enormous strides have been made in developing the peaceful applications of this great and versatile force. Because these strides have always been overshadowed by the focusing of public attention on the military side of the atom, the public has never fully understood or appreciated the gains and status of the peaceful atom. This booklet is an attempt to correct, in some measure, this imbalance in public information and attitude. It is a compilation of remarks, and excerpts of remarks, that I [Seaborg] have made in recent years in an effort to bring to the public the story of the remarkable benefits the peaceful atom has to offer man. This is a story that grows with the development and progress of the peaceful atom. It must be told so that we can learn to use the power of nuclear energy wisely and through this use help to build a world in which the military applications of the atom will never again be a threat to mankind.

  3. Paranormal phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaina, Alex

    1996-08-01

    Critical analysis is given of some paranormal phenomena events (UFO, healers, psychokinesis (telekinesis))reported in Moldova. It is argued that correct analysis of paranormal phenomena should be made in the framework of electromagnetism.

  4. Adiabatic self-consistent collective path in nuclear fusion reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Kai; Nakatsukasa, Takashi

    2017-07-01

    Collective reaction paths for fusion reactions 16O+α →20Ne and 16O+16O→32S are microscopically determined on the basis of the adiabatic self-consistent collective coordinate (ASCC) method. The collective path is maximally decoupled from other intrinsic degrees of freedom. The reaction paths turn out to deviate from those obtained with standard mean-field calculations with constraints on quadrupole and octupole moments. The potentials and inertial masses defined in the ASCC method are calculated along the reaction paths, which leads to the collective Hamiltonian used for calculation of the subbarrier fusion cross sections. The inertial mass inside the Coulomb barrier may have a significant influence on the fusion cross section at the deep subbarrier energy.

  5. Hand held data collection and monitoring system for nuclear facilities

    DOEpatents

    Brayton, Darryl D.; Scharold, Paul G.; Thornton, Michael W.; Marquez, Diana L.

    1999-01-01

    Apparatus and method is disclosed for a data collection and monitoring system that utilizes a pen based hand held computer unit which has contained therein interaction software that allows the user to review maintenance procedures, collect data, compare data with historical trends and safety limits, and input new information at various collection sites. The system has a means to allow automatic transfer of the collected data to a main computer data base for further review, reporting, and distribution purposes and uploading updated collection and maintenance procedures. The hand held computer has a running to-do list so sample collection and other general tasks, such as housekeeping are automatically scheduled for timely completion. A done list helps users to keep track of all completed tasks. The built-in check list assures that work process will meet the applicable processes and procedures. Users can hand write comments or drawings with an electronic pen that allows the users to directly interface information on the screen.

  6. Hand held data collection and monitoring system for nuclear facilities

    DOEpatents

    Brayton, D.D.; Scharold, P.G.; Thornton, M.W.; Marquez, D.L.

    1999-01-26

    Apparatus and method is disclosed for a data collection and monitoring system that utilizes a pen based hand held computer unit which has contained therein interaction software that allows the user to review maintenance procedures, collect data, compare data with historical trends and safety limits, and input new information at various collection sites. The system has a means to allow automatic transfer of the collected data to a main computer data base for further review, reporting, and distribution purposes and uploading updated collection and maintenance procedures. The hand held computer has a running to-do list so sample collection and other general tasks, such as housekeeping are automatically scheduled for timely completion. A done list helps users to keep track of all completed tasks. The built-in check list assures that work process will meet the applicable processes and procedures. Users can hand write comments or drawings with an electronic pen that allows the users to directly interface information on the screen. 15 figs.

  7. Correlations of Energy Ratios for Collective Nuclear Bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamfir, N. V.; Bucurescu, D.; Căta-Danil, G.; Ivaşcu, M.; Mărginean, N.

    2009-01-01

    It is shown that the Mallmann's energy correlations, introduced a long time ago for the ground state bands of the even-even nuclei are, in fact, universal. Various bands in all collective nuclei (even-even, odd-even, and odd-odd) obey the same systematics. This unique, universal behaviour indicates the same spin dependence of the energy of the levels and, consequently, a common structure of all collective bands. Based on the second-order anharmonic vibrator description, parameter-free recurrence relations between energy ratios are deduced. These relations can be used to predict levels of higher spins in various bands.

  8. Correlations of Energy Ratios for Collective Nuclear Bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamfir, N. V.; Bucurescu, D.; Căta-Danil, G.; Ivaşcu, M.; Mărginean, N.

    2009-03-01

    It is shown that the Mallmann's energy correlations, introduced a long time ago for the ground state bands of the even-even nuclei are, in fact, universal. Various bands in all collective nuclei (even-even, odd-even, and odd-odd) obey the same systematics. This unique, universal behaviour indicates the same spin dependence of the energy of the levels in all bands in all collective nuclei. Based on a second-order anharmonic vibrator description, parameter-free recurrence relations between energy ratios are deduced. These relations can be used to predict levels of higher spins in various bands.

  9. Nuclear interlevel transfer driven by collective outer shell electron oscillations

    SciTech Connect

    Rinker, G.A.; Solem, J.G.; Biedenharn, L.C.

    1986-10-20

    The general problem of dynamic electron-nucleus coupling is discussed, and the possibility of using this mechanism to initiate gamma-ray lasing. Single-particle and collective mechanisms are considered. The problems associated with accurate calculation of these processes are discussed, and some numerical results are given. Work in process in described. 10 refs., 7 figs.

  10. Quantum chaos in the nuclear collective model. II. Peres lattices.

    PubMed

    Stránský, Pavel; Hruska, Petr; Cejnar, Pavel

    2009-06-01

    This is a continuation of our paper [Phys. Rev. E 79, 046202 (2009)] devoted to signatures of quantum chaos in the geometric collective model of atomic nuclei. We apply the method by Peres to study ordered and disordered patterns in quantum spectra drawn as lattices in the plane of energy vs average of a chosen observable. Good qualitative agreement with standard measures of chaos is manifested. The method provides an efficient tool for studying structural changes in eigenstates across quantum spectra of general systems.

  11. Data Collection in the Arabian Peninsula for Nuclear Explosion Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Rodgers, A; Tkalcic, H; Al-Amri, A M S

    2003-07-11

    We report results from the second year of our project (ROA0101-35) to collect seismic event and waveform data recorded in and around the Arabian Peninsula. This effort involves several elements. We have a temporary broadband seismic station operating near the IMS primary array site (PS38) in central Saudi Arabia. We recently installed two temporary broadband stations in the United Arab Emirates (funded by NNSA NA-24 Office of Non-Proliferation & International Security). We are working with King Abdulaziz city for Science and Technology to collect and analyze data from the Saudi National Seismic Network, that consist of 37 digital three-component stations (26 broadband and 11 short-period). We are collaborating with Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research (KISR) to analyze data from their 8 station national seismic network. We participated in the Workshop on Reference Events odnear the Dead Sea Rift held in Paris, France in October 2002. In this paper we present results of these efforts including integration of the raw data into LLNL's Seismic Research Database and preliminary analysis of event locations and source parameters and inference of earth structure.

  12. Nuclear structure and triaxiality with the algebraic collective model

    SciTech Connect

    Caprio, M. A.; Rowe, D. J.; Welsh, T. A.

    2009-01-28

    A tractable scheme for numerical diagonalization of the Bohr Hamiltonian, based on SU(1,1)xSO(5) algebraic methods, has recently been proposed. The direct product basis obtained from an optimally chosen set of SU(1,1){beta} wave functions and the SO(5) spherical harmonics {psi}{sub v{alpha}}{sub LM}({gamma},{omega}) provides an exceedingly efficient basis for numerical solution, as compared to conventional diagonalization in a five-dimensional oscillator basis. In this contribution, the status of the SU(1,1)xSO(5) algebraic collective model is summarized and applications are presented. In particular, the transition from axially symmetric to triaxial structure is explored.

  13. Perspectives in the theory of nuclear collective motion

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, A.

    1980-03-13

    This report discusses three different subjects. The first is the development of a generalized version of the VMI (variable moment of inertia) model that ties it to the original form of the IBM (interacting boson model) and provides a possibility of fitting vibrational spectra with generalized vibrational formulas. The second is a suggestion for fitting band crossing calculations of the phenomenological type more completely than has hitherto been done into the framework of the VMI method. The third, which is the most important and far reaching, is the description f a complete mathematical method for the microscopic derivation of the IBM from a conventional shell-model Hamiltonian. In addition to elements already foreseen by previous authors, there is proposed a solution for the most important problem outstanding, not only within the framework of the IBM, but also in all previous work on boson expansion. This is the problem of actually selecting, in a general fashion, the most collective excitations. A criterion is introduced that the subspace constructed from these excitations should possess an average energy that is lower than the rest of the shell model space; the actual implementation of this criterion is explained. 8 tables, 62 references.

  14. Analysis of Air Activity Concentration Data Collected in the Kanto Plain, Japan, following the 2011 Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Accident

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-09

    Concentration Data Collected in the Kanto Plain, Japan, following the 2011 Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Accident 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER...collected at three locations following the release of radioactive materials from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station. The time series at...useful in other similar exposure situations. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Operation Tomodachi, Department of Defense, Japan, Fukushima , accidents, nuclear

  15. Water hammer phenomena occurring in nuclear power installations while filling horizontal pipe containing saturated steam with liquid

    SciTech Connect

    Selivanov, Y.F.; Kirillov, P.L.; Yefanov, A.D.

    1995-09-01

    The potentiality of the water hammer occurrence in nuclear reactor loop components has been considered under the conditions of filling a steam-containing pipeline leg involving horizontal and vertical sections with liquid subcooled to the saturation temperature. As a result of free discharging from the tank, the liquid enters the horizontal pipeline. When the liquid slug formation in the pipeline is fulfilled. The pressure drop being occurred in steam flowing along the pipelines causes the liquid slug to move to the pipeline inlet. When the liquid slug decelerates, a water hammer occurs. This mechanism of water hammer occurrence is tested by experiments. The regimes of the occurrence of multiple considerable water hammers were identified.

  16. Direct investigation of collective phenomena in patterned Ising-like arrays using high-resolution Kerr microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraleigh, Robert Douglas

    Magnetic systems with interacting ferromagnetic single-domain elements are a useful landscape to explore a wide range of fundamental and technological phenomena. In this dissertation, we consider a system of interacting ferromagnetic islands with perpendicular anisotropy. Islands are lithographically-defined to be single-domain and are arranged into large arrays with geometries that are geometrically frustrated and unfrustrated. We explore field-driven local and global magnetic switching behavior using a home-built diffraction-limited magneto-optical Kerr microscope wherein individual islands in each array are isolated, indexed, and tracked in the presence of an applied external field. Global and local switching behavior is directly accessed through analysis island switching fields in the presence of magnetic hysteresis loops. We first explore the considerations regarding lithographic definition of disconnected islands and deposition of Co/Pt multilayers with strong perpendicular anisotropy. The thickness and number of stacked Co/Pt bilayers as well as deposition method significantly affect the strength of perpendicular anisotropy. We find sputter deposition of a 8-stack bilayer of Co0.3 nm=Pt 1 nm optimizes strong perpendicular anisotropy with square hysteresis loops. Our experimental sample contains several sets of ordered arrays with varying geometry and inter-island spacing. Each island is single-domain with length scales amenable to Kerr imaging such that magnetic degrees of freedom are optically accessible. We next discuss the development, calibration, and operation of a home-built magneto-optical Kerr microscope. The Kerr microscope uses a xenon stabilized white light source, Glan-Thompson polarizers, and a 100x oil objective lens to illuminate a sample with linear polarized light. A cooled CCD camera receives the re ected light and transmits it to the computer in a sequence timed with the application of an external magnetic field. We use LabVIEW software to

  17. Experiments to investigate direct containment heating phenomena with scaled models of the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Blanchat, T.K.; Pilch, M.M.; Allen, M.D.

    1997-02-01

    The Surtsey Test Facility is used to perform scaled experiments simulating High Pressure Melt Ejection accidents in a nuclear power plant (NPP). The experiments investigate the effects of direct containment heating (DCH) on the containment load. The results from Zion and Surry experiments can be extrapolated to other Westinghouse plants, but predicted containment loads cannot be generalized to all Combustion Engineering (CE) plants. Five CE plants have melt dispersal flow paths which circumvent the main mitigation of containment compartmentalization in most Westinghouse PWRs. Calvert Cliff-like plant geometries and the impact of codispersed water were addressed as part of the DCH issue resolution. Integral effects tests were performed with a scale model of the Calvert Cliffs NPP inside the Surtsey test vessel. The experiments investigated the effects of codispersal of water, steam, and molten core stimulant materials on DCH loads under prototypic accident conditions and plant configurations. The results indicated that large amounts of coejected water reduced the DCH load by a small amount. Large amounts of debris were dispersed from the cavity to the upper dome (via the annular gap). 22 refs., 84 figs., 30 tabs.

  18. Remediation of (137)Cs contaminated concrete using electrokinetic phenomena and ionic salt washes in nuclear energy contexts.

    PubMed

    Parker, Andrew J; Joyce, Malcolm J; Boxall, Colin

    2017-10-15

    This work describes the first known the use of electrokinetic treatments and ionic salt washes to remediate concrete contaminated with (137)Cs. A series of experiments were performed on concrete samples, contaminated with K(+) and (137)Cs, using a bespoke migration cell and an applied electric field (60V potential gradient and current limit of 35mA). Additionally, two samples were treated with an ionic salt wash (≤400molm(-3) of KCl) alongside the electrokinetic treatment. The results show that the combined treatment produces removal efficiencies three times higher (>60%) than the electrokinetic treatment alone and that the decontamination efficiency appears to be proportional to the initial degree of contamination. Furthermore, the decontamination efficiencies are equivalent to previous electrokinetic studies that utilised hazardous chemical enhancement agents demonstrating the potential of the technique for use on nuclear licensed site. The results highlight the relationship between the initial contamination concentration within the concrete and achievable removal efficiency of electrokinetic treatment and other treatments. This information would be useful when selecting the most appropriate decontamination techniques for particular contamination scenarios. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Colloidal Phenomena.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russel, William B.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Described is a graduate level engineering course offered at Princeton University in colloidal phenomena stressing the physical and dynamical side of colloid science. The course outline, reading list, and requirements are presented. (BT)

  20. Colloidal Phenomena.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russel, William B.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Described is a graduate level engineering course offered at Princeton University in colloidal phenomena stressing the physical and dynamical side of colloid science. The course outline, reading list, and requirements are presented. (BT)

  1. Transport Phenomena.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, D. B.

    1984-01-01

    Describes a course designed to achieve a balance between exposing students to (1) advanced topics in transport phenomena, pointing out similarities and differences between three transfer processes and (2) common methods of solving differential equations. (JN)

  2. Generator coordinate method and nuclear collective motions (VII): the preservation of symmetry properties

    SciTech Connect

    XU Gong-ou

    1985-01-01

    In order to preserve all the symmetry properties for the effective collective Hamiltonian obtained with the generator coordinate method, it is necessary for the trial wave function to have proper transformation properties. The generator coordinates should then transform in the same way as the represented collective operators. Also, the center-of-mass motion should be independent of the internal motion in conformity with the invariance of the nuclear Hamiltonian with respect to space rotation and Galilean transformation.

  3. Generator coordinate method and nuclear collective motions (IV)-TDGCM versus ATDHF

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, G.

    1982-04-01

    Considering the time-dependent generator coordinate method, the time-dependent Schroedinger equation for nuclear collective motions is obtained. It is then possible to obtain through the Wigner matrix a variational expression for mean collective properties q-bar(t) and p-bar(t) in classical limits. Under adiabatic approximation this is just the expression by which Villars has obtained the ATDHF results.

  4. Search for new phenomena in events with at least three photons collected in pp collisions at √s = 8 TeV with the ATLAS detector

    SciTech Connect

    Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdinov, O.; Aben, R.; Abolins, M.; AbouZeid, O. S.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Abreu, R.; Abulaiti, Y.; Acharya, B. S.; Adamczyk, L.; Adams, D. L.; Adelman, J.; Adomeit, S.; Adye, T.; Affolder, A. A.; Agatonovic-Jovin, T.; Agricola, J.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J. A.; Ahlen, S. P.; Ahmadov, F.; Aielli, G.; Akerstedt, H.; Åkesson, T. P. A.; Akimov, A. V.; Alberghi, G. L.; Albert, J.; Albrand, S.; Alconada Verzini, M. J.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I. N.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alio, L.; Alison, J.; Alkire, S. P.; Allbrooke, B. M. M.; Allport, P. P.; Aloisio, A.; Alonso, A.; Alonso, F.; Alpigiani, C.; Altheimer, A.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; Álvarez Piqueras, D.; Alviggi, M. G.; Amadio, B. T.; Amako, K.; Amaral Coutinho, Y.; Amelung, C.; Amidei, D.; Amor Dos Santos, S. P.; Amorim, A.; Amoroso, S.; Amram, N.; Amundsen, G.; Anastopoulos, C.; Ancu, L. S.; Andari, N.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C. F.; Anders, G.; Anders, J. K.; Anderson, K. J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Angelidakis, S.; Angelozzi, I.; Anger, P.; Angerami, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Anisenkov, A. V.; Anjos, N.; Annovi, A.; Antonelli, M.; Antonov, A.; Antos, J.; Anulli, F.; Aoki, M.; Aperio Bella, L.; Arabidze, G.; Arai, Y.; Araque, J. P.; Arce, A. T. H.; Arduh, F. A.; Arguin, J-F.; Argyropoulos, S.; Arik, M.; Armbruster, A. J.; Arnaez, O.; Arnal, V.; Arnold, H.; Arratia, M.; Arslan, O.; Artamonov, A.; Artoni, G.; Asai, S.; Asbah, N.; Ashkenazi, A.; Åsman, B.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astalos, R.; Atkinson, M.; Atlay, N. B.; Augsten, K.; Aurousseau, M.; Avolio, G.; Axen, B.; Ayoub, M. K.; Azuelos, G.; Baak, M. A.; Baas, A. E.; Baca, M. J.; Bacci, C.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Backes, M.; Backhaus, M.; Bagiacchi, P.; Bagnaia, P.; Bai, Y.; Bain, T.; Baines, J. T.; Baker, O. K.; Baldin, E. M.; Balek, P.; Balestri, T.; Balli, F.; Balunas, W. K.; Banas, E.; Banerjee, Sw.; Bannoura, A. A. E.; Bansil, H. S.; Barak, L.; Barberio, E. L.; Barberis, D.; Barbero, M.; Barillari, T.; Barisonzi, M.; Barklow, T.; Barlow, N.; Barnes, S. L.; Barnett, B. M.; Barnett, R. M.; Barnovska, Z.; Baroncelli, A.; Barone, G.; Barr, A. J.; Barreiro, F.; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, J.; Bartoldus, R.; Barton, A. E.; Bartos, P.; Basalaev, A.; Bassalat, A.; Basye, A.; Bates, R. L.; Batista, S. J.; Batley, J. R.; Battaglia, M.; Bauce, M.; Bauer, F.; Bawa, H. S.; Beacham, J. B.; Beattie, M. D.; Beau, T.; Beauchemin, P. H.; Beccherle, R.; Bechtle, P.; Beck, H. P.; Becker, K.; Becker, M.; Beckingham, M.; Becot, C.; Beddall, A. J.; Beddall, A.; Bednyakov, V. A.; Bee, C. P.; Beemster, L. J.; Beermann, T. A.; Begel, M.; Behr, J. K.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bell, W. H.; Bella, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Bellerive, A.; Bellomo, M.; Belotskiy, K.; Beltramello, O.; Benary, O.; Benchekroun, D.; Bender, M.; Bendtz, K.; Benekos, N.; Benhammou, Y.; Benhar Noccioli, E.; Benitez Garcia, J. A.; Benjamin, D. P.; Bensinger, J. R.; Bentvelsen, S.; Beresford, L.; Beretta, M.; Berge, D.; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E.; Berger, N.; Berghaus, F.; Beringer, J.; Bernard, C.; Bernard, N. R.; Bernius, C.; Bernlochner, F. U.; Berry, T.; Berta, P.; Bertella, C.; Bertoli, G.; Bertolucci, F.; Bertsche, C.; Bertsche, D.; Besana, M. I.; Besjes, G. J.; Bessidskaia Bylund, O.; Bessner, M.; Besson, N.; Betancourt, C.; Bethke, S.; Bevan, A. J.; Bhimji, W.; Bianchi, R. M.; Bianchini, L.; Bianco, M.; Biebel, O.; Biedermann, D.; Bieniek, S. P.; Biglietti, M.; Bilbao De Mendizabal, J.; Bilokon, H.; Bindi, M.; Binet, S.; Bingul, A.; Bini, C.; Biondi, S.; Bjergaard, D. M.; Black, C. W.; Black, J. E.; Black, K. M.; Blackburn, D.; Blair, R. E.; Blanchard, J. -B.; Blanco, J. E.; Blazek, T.; Bloch, I.; Blocker, C.; Blum, W.; Blumenschein, U.; Bobbink, G. J.; Bobrovnikov, V. S.; Bocchetta, S. S.; Bocci, A.; Bock, C.; Boehler, M.; Bogaerts, J. A.; Bogavac, D.; Bogdanchikov, A. G.; Bohm, C.; Boisvert, V.; Bold, T.; Boldea, V.; Boldyrev, A. S.; Bomben, M.; Bona, M.; Boonekamp, M.; Borisov, A.; Borissov, G.; Borroni, S.; Bortfeldt, J.; Bortolotto, V.; Bos, K.; Boscherini, D.; Bosman, M.; Boudreau, J.; Bouffard, J.; Bouhova-Thacker, E. V.; Boumediene, D.; Bourdarios, C.; Bousson, N.; Boutle, S. K.; Boveia, A.; Boyd, J.; Boyko, I. R.; Bozic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, G.; Brandt, O.; Bratzler, U.; Brau, B.; Brau, J. E.; Braun, H. M.; Brazzale, S. F.; Breaden Madden, W. D.; Brendlinger, K.; Brennan, A. J.; Brenner, L.; Brenner, R.; Bressler, S.; Bristow, K.; Bristow, T. M.; Britton, D.; Britzger, D.; Brochu, F. M.; Brock, I.; Brock, R.; Bronner, J.; Brooijmans, G.; Brooks, T.; Brooks, W. K.; Brosamer, J.; Brost, E.; Brown, J.; Bruckman de Renstrom, P. A.; Bruncko, D.; Bruneliere, R.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Bruschi, M.; Bruscino, N.; Bryngemark, L.; Buanes, T.; Buat, Q.; Buchholz, P.; Buckley, A. G.; Buda, S. I.; Budagov, I. A.; Buehrer, F.; Bugge, L.; Bugge, M. K.; Bulekov, O.; Bullock, D.; Burckhart, H.; Burdin, S.; Burgard, C. D.; Burghgrave, B.; Burke, S.; Burmeister, I.; Busato, E.; Büscher, D.; Büscher, V.; Bussey, P.; Butler, J. M.; Butt, A. I.; Buttar, C. M.; Butterworth, J. M.; Butti, P.; Buttinger, W.; Buzatu, A.; Buzykaev, A. R.; Cabrera Urbán, S.; Caforio, D.; Cairo, V. M.; Cakir, O.; Calace, N.; Calafiura, P.; Calandri, A.; Calderini, G.; Calfayan, P.; Caloba, L. P.; Calvet, D.; Calvet, S.; Camacho Toro, R.; Camarda, S.; Camarri, P.; Cameron, D.; Caminal Armadans, R.; Campana, S.; Campanelli, M.; Campoverde, A.; Canale, V.; Canepa, A.; Cano Bret, M.; Cantero, J.; Cantrill, R.; Cao, T.; Capeans Garrido, M. D. M.; Caprini, I.; Caprini, M.; Capua, M.; Caputo, R.; Cardarelli, R.; Cardillo, F.; Carli, T.; Carlino, G.; Carminati, L.; Caron, S.; Carquin, E.; Carrillo-Montoya, G. D.; Carter, J. R.; Carvalho, J.; Casadei, D.; Casado, M. P.; Casolino, M.; Castaneda-Miranda, E.; Castelli, A.; Castillo Gimenez, V.; Castro, N. F.; Catastini, P.; Catinaccio, A.; Catmore, J. R.; Cattai, A.; Caudron, J.; Cavaliere, V.; Cavalli, D.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Cavasinni, V.; Ceradini, F.; Cerio, B. C.; Cerny, K.; Cerqueira, A. S.; Cerri, A.; Cerrito, L.; Cerutti, F.; Cerv, M.; Cervelli, A.; Cetin, S. A.; Chafaq, A.; Chakraborty, D.; Chalupkova, I.; Chang, P.; Chapman, J. D.; Charlton, D. G.; Chau, C. C.; Chavez Barajas, C. A.; Cheatham, S.; Chegwidden, A.; Chekanov, S.; Chekulaev, S. V.; Chelkov, G. A.; Chelstowska, M. A.; Chen, C.; Chen, H.; Chen, K.; Chen, L.; Chen, S.; Chen, S.; Chen, X.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, H. C.; Cheng, Y.; Cheplakov, A.; Cheremushkina, E.; Cherkaoui El Moursli, R.; Chernyatin, V.; Cheu, E.; Chevalier, L.; Chiarella, V.; Chiarelli, G.; Chiodini, G.; Chisholm, A. S.; Chislett, R. T.; Chitan, A.; Chizhov, M. V.; Choi, K.; Chouridou, S.; Chow, B. K. B.; Christodoulou, V.; Chromek-Burckhart, D.; Chudoba, J.; Chuinard, A. J.; Chwastowski, J. J.; Chytka, L.; Ciapetti, G.; Ciftci, A. K.; Cinca, D.; Cindro, V.; Cioara, I. A.; Ciocio, A.; Cirotto, F.; Citron, Z. H.; Ciubancan, M.; Clark, A.; Clark, B. L.; Clark, P. J.; Clarke, R. N.; Cleland, W.; Clement, C.; Coadou, Y.; Cobal, M.; Coccaro, A.; Cochran, J.; Coffey, L.; Cogan, J. G.; Colasurdo, L.; Cole, B.; Cole, S.; Colijn, A. P.; Collot, J.; Colombo, T.; Compostella, G.; Conde Muiño, P.; Coniavitis, E.; Connell, S. H.; Connelly, I. A.; Consorti, V.; Constantinescu, S.; Conta, C.; Conti, G.; Conventi, F.; Cooke, M.; Cooper, B. D.; Cooper-Sarkar, A. M.; Cornelissen, T.; Corradi, M.; Corriveau, F.; Corso-Radu, A.; Cortes-Gonzalez, A.; Cortiana, G.; Costa, G.; Costa, M. J.; Costanzo, D.; Côté, D.; Cottin, G.; Cowan, G.; Cox, B. E.; Cranmer, K.; Cree, G.; Crépé-Renaudin, S.; Crescioli, F.; Cribbs, W. A.; Crispin Ortuzar, M.; Cristinziani, M.; Croft, V.; Crosetti, G.; Cuhadar Donszelmann, T.; Cummings, J.; Curatolo, M.; Cúth, J.; Cuthbert, C.; Czirr, H.; Czodrowski, P.; D’Auria, S.; D’Onofrio, M.; Da Cunha Sargedas De Sousa, M. J.; Da Via, C.; Dabrowski, W.; Dafinca, A.; Dai, T.; Dale, O.; Dallaire, F.; Dallapiccola, C.; Dam, M.; Dandoy, J. R.; Dang, N. P.; Daniells, A. C.; Danninger, M.; Dano Hoffmann, M.; Dao, V.; Darbo, G.; Darmora, S.; Dassoulas, J.; Dattagupta, A.; Davey, W.; David, C.; Davidek, T.; Davies, E.; Davies, M.; Davison, P.; Davygora, Y.; Dawe, E.; Dawson, I.; Daya-Ishmukhametova, R. K.; De, K.; de Asmundis, R.; De Benedetti, A.; De Castro, S.; De Cecco, S.; De Groot, N.; de Jong, P.; De la Torre, H.; De Lorenzi, F.; De Pedis, D.; De Salvo, A.; De Sanctis, U.; De Santo, A.; De Vivie De Regie, J. B.; Dearnaley, W. J.; Debbe, R.; Debenedetti, C.; Dedovich, D. V.; Deigaard, I.; Del Peso, J.; Del Prete, T.; Delgove, D.; Deliot, F.; Delitzsch, C. 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    2016-04-01

    Results of a search for new phenomena in events with at least three photons are reported. Data from proton–proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 20.3 fb-1, were collected with the ATLAS detector at the LHC. The observed data are well described by the Standard Model. Limits at the 95 % confidence level on new phenomena are presented based on the rate of events in an inclusive signal region and a restricted signal region targeting the rare decay Z→3γ, as well as di-photon and tri-photon resonance searches. For a Standard Model Higgs boson decaying to four photons via a pair of intermediate pseudoscalar particles (a), limits are found to be σ× BR (h→aa)× BR (a→γγ)2<10-3σSM for 10 GeV a< 62 GeV. Finally, limits are also presented for Higgs boson-like scalars (H) for mH> 125 GeV, and for a Z' decaying to three photons via Z'→a+γ→3γ. Additionally, the observed limit on the branching ratio of the Z boson decay to three photons is found to be BR(Z→3γ)<2.2×10-6, a result five times stronger than the previous result from LEP.

  5. Search for new phenomena in events with at least three photons collected in pp collisions at √s = 8 TeV with the ATLAS detector

    DOE PAGES

    Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; ...

    2016-04-01

    Results of a search for new phenomena in events with at least three photons are reported. Data from proton–proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 20.3 fb-1, were collected with the ATLAS detector at the LHC. The observed data are well described by the Standard Model. Limits at the 95 % confidence level on new phenomena are presented based on the rate of events in an inclusive signal region and a restricted signal region targeting the rare decay Z→3γ, as well as di-photon and tri-photon resonance searches. For a Standard Model Higgsmore » boson decaying to four photons via a pair of intermediate pseudoscalar particles (a), limits are found to be σ× BR (h→aa)× BR (a→γγ)2<10-3σSM for 10 GeV a< 62 GeV. Finally, limits are also presented for Higgs boson-like scalars (H) for mH> 125 GeV, and for a Z' decaying to three photons via Z'→a+γ→3γ. Additionally, the observed limit on the branching ratio of the Z boson decay to three photons is found to be BR(Z→3γ)<2.2×10-6, a result five times stronger than the previous result from LEP.« less

  6. Search for new phenomena in events with at least three photons collected in pp collisions at [Formula: see text] = 8 TeV with the ATLAS detector.

    PubMed

    Aad, G; Abbott, B; Abdallah, J; Abdinov, O; Aben, R; Abolins, M; AbouZeid, O S; Abramowicz, H; Abreu, H; Abreu, R; Abulaiti, Y; Acharya, B S; Adamczyk, L; Adams, D L; Adelman, J; Adomeit, S; Adye, T; Affolder, A A; Agatonovic-Jovin, T; Agricola, J; Aguilar-Saavedra, J A; Ahlen, S P; Ahmadov, F; Aielli, G; Akerstedt, H; Åkesson, T P A; Akimov, A V; Alberghi, G L; Albert, J; Albrand, S; Alconada Verzini, M J; Aleksa, M; Aleksandrov, I N; Alexa, C; Alexander, G; Alexopoulos, T; Alhroob, M; Alimonti, G; Alio, L; Alison, J; Alkire, S P; Allbrooke, B M M; Allport, P P; Aloisio, A; Alonso, A; Alonso, F; Alpigiani, C; Altheimer, A; Alvarez Gonzalez, B; Álvarez Piqueras, D; Alviggi, M G; Amadio, B T; Amako, K; Amaral Coutinho, Y; Amelung, C; Amidei, D; Amor Dos Santos, S P; Amorim, A; Amoroso, S; Amram, N; Amundsen, G; Anastopoulos, C; Ancu, L S; Andari, N; Andeen, T; Anders, C F; Anders, G; Anders, J K; Anderson, K J; Andreazza, A; Andrei, V; Angelidakis, S; Angelozzi, I; Anger, P; Angerami, A; 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    2016-01-01

    Results of a search for new phenomena in events with at least three photons are reported. Data from proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 20.3 fb[Formula: see text], were collected with the ATLAS detector at the LHC. The observed data are well described by the Standard Model. Limits at the 95 % confidence level on new phenomena are presented based on the rate of events in an inclusive signal region and a restricted signal region targeting the rare decay [Formula: see text], as well as di-photon and tri-photon resonance searches. For a Standard Model Higgs boson decaying to four photons via a pair of intermediate pseudoscalar particles (a), limits are found to be [Formula: see text] for 10 GeV [Formula: see text] 62 GeV. Limits are also presented for Higgs boson-like scalars (H) for [Formula: see text] 125 GeV, and for a [Formula: see text] decaying to three photons via [Formula: see text]. Additionally, the observed limit on the branching ratio of the Z boson decay to three photons is found to be BR[Formula: see text], a result five times stronger than the previous result from LEP.

  7. Search for new phenomena in events with at least three photons collected in pp collisions at √{s} = 8 TeV with the ATLAS detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

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K.; Bulekov, O.; Bullock, D.; Burckhart, H.; Burdin, S.; Burgard, C. D.; Burghgrave, B.; Burke, S.; Burmeister, I.; Busato, E.; Büscher, D.; Büscher, V.; Bussey, P.; Butler, J. M.; Butt, A. I.; Buttar, C. M.; Butterworth, J. M.; Butti, P.; Buttinger, W.; Buzatu, A.; Buzykaev, A. R.; Cabrera Urbán, S.; Caforio, D.; Cairo, V. M.; Cakir, O.; Calace, N.; Calafiura, P.; Calandri, A.; Calderini, G.; Calfayan, P.; Caloba, L. P.; Calvet, D.; Calvet, S.; Camacho Toro, R.; Camarda, S.; Camarri, P.; Cameron, D.; Caminal Armadans, R.; Campana, S.; Campanelli, M.; Campoverde, A.; Canale, V.; Canepa, A.; Cano Bret, M.; Cantero, J.; Cantrill, R.; Cao, T.; Capeans Garrido, M. D. M.; Caprini, I.; Caprini, M.; Capua, M.; Caputo, R.; Cardarelli, R.; Cardillo, F.; Carli, T.; Carlino, G.; Carminati, L.; Caron, S.; Carquin, E.; Carrillo-Montoya, G. D.; Carter, J. R.; Carvalho, J.; Casadei, D.; Casado, M. P.; Casolino, M.; Castaneda-Miranda, E.; Castelli, A.; Castillo Gimenez, V.; Castro, N. 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    2016-04-01

    Results of a search for new phenomena in events with at least three photons are reported. Data from proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 20.3 fb^{-1}, were collected with the ATLAS detector at the LHC. The observed data are well described by the Standard Model. Limits at the 95 % confidence level on new phenomena are presented based on the rate of events in an inclusive signal region and a restricted signal region targeting the rare decay Z→ 3γ , as well as di-photon and tri-photon resonance searches. For a Standard Model Higgs boson decaying to four photons via a pair of intermediate pseudoscalar particles ( a), limits are found to be σ × {{ BR }}(h → aa) × {{ BR }}(a → γ γ )2 < 10^{-3} σ _{ {SM}} for 10 GeV < ma < 62 GeV. Limits are also presented for Higgs boson-like scalars ( H) for mH > 125 GeV, and for a Z' decaying to three photons via Z' → a+γ → 3γ . Additionally, the observed limit on the branching ratio of the Z boson decay to three photons is found to be BR(Z → 3γ ) < 2.2 × 10^{-6}, a result five times stronger than the previous result from LEP.

  8. Quantitative Proteomics Identifies Vasopressin-Responsive Nuclear Proteins in Collecting Duct Cells

    PubMed Central

    Schenk, Laura K.; Bolger, Steven J.; Luginbuhl, Kelli; Gonzales, Patricia A.; Rinschen, Markus M.; Yu, Ming-Jiun; Hoffert, Jason D.; Pisitkun, Trairak

    2012-01-01

    Vasopressin controls transport in the renal collecting duct, in part, by regulating transcription. This complex process, which can involve translocation and/or modification of transcriptional regulators, is not completely understood. Here, we applied a method for large-scale profiling of nuclear proteins to quantify vasopressin-induced changes in the nuclear proteome of cortical collecting duct (mpkCCD) cells. Using stable isotope labeling and tandem mass spectrometry, we quantified 3987 nuclear proteins and identified significant changes in the abundance of 65, including previously established targets of vasopressin signaling in the collecting duct. Vasopressin-induced changes in the abundance of the transcription factors JunB, Elf3, Gatad2b, and Hmbox1; transcriptional co-regulators Ctnnb1 (β-catenin) and Crebbp; subunits of the Mediator complex; E3 ubiquitin ligase Nedd4; nuclear transport regulator RanGap1; and several proteins associated with tight junctions and adherens junctions. Bioinformatic analysis showed that many of the quantified transcription factors have putative binding sites in the 5′-flanking regions of genes coding for the channel proteins Aqp2, Aqp3, Scnn1b (ENaCβ), and Scnn1g (ENaCγ), which are known targets of vasopressin. Immunoblotting demonstrated that the increase in β-catenin in nuclear fractions was accompanied by an even larger increase in its phosphorylated form (pSer552). The findings provide a new online database resource for nuclear proteomics (http://helixweb.nih.gov/ESBL/Database/mNPD/) and generate new hypotheses regarding vasopressin-mediated transcriptional regulation in the collecting duct. PMID:22440904

  9. Experiments to investigate direct containment heating phenomena with scaled models of the Zion Nuclear Power Plant in the Surtsey Test Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, M.D.; Pilch, M.M.; Blanchat, T.K.; Griffith, R.O.; Nichols, R.T.

    1994-05-01

    The Surtsey Facility at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is used to perform scaled experiments that simulate hypothetical high-pressure melt ejection (HPME) accidents in a nuclear power plant (NPP). These experiments are designed to investigate the effect of specific phenomena associated with direct containment heating (DCH) on the containment load, such as the effect of physical scale, prototypic subcompartment structures, water in the cavity, and hydrogen generation and combustion. In the Integral Effects Test (IET) series, 1:10 linear scale models of the Zion NPP structures were constructed in the Surtsey vessel. The RPV was modeled with a steel pressure vessel that had a hemispherical bottom head, which had a 4-cm hole in the bottom head that simulated the final ablated hole that would be formed by ejection of an instrument guide tube in a severe NPP accident. Iron/alumina/chromium thermite was used to simulate molten corium that would accumulate on the bottom head of an actual RPV. The chemically reactive melt simulant was ejected by high-pressure steam from the RPV model into the scaled reactor cavity. Debris was then entrained through the instrument tunnel into the subcompartment structures and the upper dome of the simulated reactor containment building. The results of the IET experiments are given in this report.

  10. Transport Phenomena.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCready, Mark J.; Leighton, David T.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the problems created in graduate chemical engineering programs when students enter with a wide diversity of understandings of transport phenomena. Describes a two-semester graduate transport course sequence at the University of Notre Dame which focuses on fluid mechanics and heat and mass transfer. (TW)

  11. Transport Phenomena.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCready, Mark J.; Leighton, David T.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the problems created in graduate chemical engineering programs when students enter with a wide diversity of understandings of transport phenomena. Describes a two-semester graduate transport course sequence at the University of Notre Dame which focuses on fluid mechanics and heat and mass transfer. (TW)

  12. Nuclear power plant containment metallic pressure boundary materials and plans for collecting and presenting their properties

    SciTech Connect

    Oland, C.B.

    1995-04-01

    A program is being conducted at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL to assist the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)) in their assessment of the effects of degradation (primarily corrosion) on the structural capacity and leaktight integrity of metal containments and steel liners of reinforced concrete structures in nuclear power plants. One of the program objectives is to characterize and quantify manifestations of corrosion on the properties of steels used to construct containment pressure boundary components. This report describes a plan for use in collecting and presenting data and information on ferrous alloys permitted for use in construction of pressure retaining components in concrete and metal containments. Discussions about various degradation mechanisms that could potentially affect the mechanical properties of these materials are also included. Conclusions and recommendations presented in this report will be used to guide the collection of data and information that will be used to prepare a material properties data base for containment steels.

  13. A microscopic derivation of nuclear collective rotation-vibration model and its application to nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Gulshani, P.

    2016-07-07

    We derive a microscopic version of the successful phenomenological hydrodynamic model of Bohr-Davydov-Faessler-Greiner for collective rotation-vibration motion of an axially symmetric deformed nucleus. The derivation is not limited to small oscillation amplitude. The nuclear Schrodinger equation is canonically transformed to collective co-ordinates, which is then linearized using a constrained variational method. The associated constraints are imposed on the wavefunction rather than on the particle co-ordinates. The approach yields three self-consistent, time-reversal invariant, cranking-type Schrodinger equations for the rotation-vibration and intrinsic motions, and a self-consistency equation. For harmonic oscillator mean-field potentials, these equations are solved in closed forms for excitation energy, cut-off angular momentum, and other nuclear properties for the ground-state rotational band in some deformed nuclei. The results are compared with measured data.

  14. A microscopic derivation of nuclear collective rotation-vibration model and its application to nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulshani, P.

    2016-07-01

    We derive a microscopic version of the successful phenomenological hydrodynamic model of Bohr-Davydov-Faessler-Greiner for collective rotation-vibration motion of an axially symmetric deformed nucleus. The derivation is not limited to small oscillation amplitude. The nuclear Schrodinger equation is canonically transformed to collective co-ordinates, which is then linearized using a constrained variational method. The associated constraints are imposed on the wavefunction rather than on the particle co-ordinates. The approach yields three self-consistent, time-reversal invariant, cranking-type Schrodinger equations for the rotation-vibration and intrinsic motions, and a self-consistency equation. For harmonic oscillator mean-field potentials, these equations are solved in closed forms for excitation energy, cut-off angular momentum, and other nuclear properties for the ground-state rotational band in some deformed nuclei. The results are compared with measured data.

  15. Conditions for observation of fade out of collective enhancement of the nuclear level density

    SciTech Connect

    Grimes, S. M.

    2008-11-15

    The results of two recent papers searching for the disappearance of collective enhancements with energy in nuclear level densities are examined. It is found that the effects of such enhancements are less than has been assumed. The reduction in the size of the effect only partially resolves the disagreement between theory and experiment. This effect also plays a role in explaining the results of an earlier experiment.

  16. Direct evidence of fadeout of collective enhancement in nuclear level density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, K.; Roy, Pratap; Pandit, Deepak; Sadhukhan, Jhilam; Bhattacharya, S.; Bhattacharya, C.; Mukherjee, G.; Ghosh, T. K.; Kundu, S.; Sen, A.; Rana, T. K.; Manna, S.; Pandey, R.; Roy, T.; Dhal, A.; Asgar, Md. A.; Mukhopadhyay, S.

    2017-09-01

    The phenomenon of collective enhancement in nuclear level density and its fadeout has been probed using neutron evaporation study of two strongly deformed (173Lu, 185Re), and one spherical (201Tl) compound nuclei over the excitation energy (E*) range of ∼ 22- 56 MeV. Clear signature of the fadeout of collective enhancement in nuclear level density was observed for the first time in both the deformed evaporation residues 172Lu and 184Re at an excitation energy range ∼ 14- 21 MeV. Calculations based on finite temperature density functional theory, as well as macroscopic-microscopic shape transition model, have strongly established a close correlation between the observed fadeout of collective enhancement and a deformed to spherical nuclear shape transition in these nuclei occurring in the same excitation energy zone. Interestingly, a weak signature of fadeout has also been observed for the spherical residue 200Tl. This is due to a similar shape transition of the deformed excited state configuration of 200Tl.

  17. Collective effective dose in Europe from X-ray and nuclear medicine procedures.

    PubMed

    Bly, R; Jahnen, A; Järvinen, H; Olerud, H; Vassileva, J; Vogiatzi, S

    2015-07-01

    Population doses from radiodiagnostic (X-ray and nuclear medicine) procedures in Europe were estimated based on data collected from 36 European countries. For X-ray procedures in EU and EFTA countries (except Liechtenstein) the collective effective dose is 547,500 man Sv, resulting in a mean effective dose of 1.06 mSv per caput. For all European countries included in the survey the collective effective dose is 605,000 man Sv, resulting in a mean effective dose of 1.05 mSv per caput. For nuclear medicine procedures in EU countries and EFTA (except Liechtenstein) countries the collective effective dose is 30,700 man Sv, resulting in a mean effective dose of 0.06 mSv per caput. For all European countries included in the survey the collective effective dose is 31,100 man Sv, resulting in a mean effective dose of 0.05 mSv per caput. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Energetic M1 transitions as a probe of nuclear collectivity at high temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Baktash, C.

    1987-01-01

    At ORNL, we have recently utilized the Spin Spectrometer setup to investigate the differential effects of increasing spin and excitation energy on nuclear shape and collectivity in /sup 158/Yb. Along the yrast line of this and other N = 88 nuclei, weakly prolate shapes gradually give way to triaxial, and then finally to non-collective oblate shapes as the spin approaches 40 h-bar. However, above the yrast line, large deformation and collectivity once again sets in. This is evidenced by the emergence of a broad quadrupole structure (E/sub ..gamma../ approx. = 1.2 MeV) in the continuum gamma-ray spectra that grows with increasing temperature. The short (sub ps) lifetimes of these transitions attest to the collective nature of these structures. The emergence and growth of the quadrupole structure at high excitation energies is closely correlated with the appearance of energetic (E/sub ..gamma../ approx. = 2.5 MeV), fast M1 transitions which form another broad structure in the continuum spectra. From the centroid of the M1 bump, a quadrupole deformation parameter of 0.35 is inferred. Because of this sensitivity, these energetic M1 transitions provide a unique probe of nuclear shape in the excitation energy range of approx. = 3 to 10 MeV. 6 refs., 2 figs.

  19. Delivery and collection of radioactive packages to and from UK hospital nuclear medicine departments.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Richard S; Davies, Glyn; Hesslewood, Stuart R; Hinton, Paul J; Maxwell, Alan

    2004-12-01

    Under radiation protection legislation in the UK, employers have a duty to maintain appropriate records to account for radioactive materials in their possession and to ensure security of these materials. This applies to radioactive packages, containing items such as technetium generators, which are regularly delivered to hospital nuclear medicine departments. It also applies to the collection of packages, such as those containing used generators for return to the supplier. This article has been written by the professional bodies representing nuclear medicine in the UK in order to provide guidance to hospitals on appropriate procedures that will comply with the legislation. General principles, which should be met by any acceptable protocol, are stated, and practical guidance on how these may be implemented is given. Some example scenarios are outlined.

  20. Proton scattering to collective states: what we learn about the effective interaction in the nuclear medium

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, J.J.

    1983-01-01

    Electron scattering measurements of the normal parity isoscalar collective excitations of N = Z nuclei completely specify the nuclear structure information required for the analysis of complementary proton scattering experiments. The analysis of the proton scattering data is then interpreted as a study of the medium modifications of the two-nucleon effective interaction. It has been found that the isoscalar spin-independent central component of the effective interaction is strongly dependent upon density and is well described by the local density approximation based upon nuclear matter effective interactions. The results are sensitive to the difference between effective interactions based upon the Hamad-Johnston and Paris potentials, and favor an intermediate interaction. The qualitative features of the medium corrections can be adequately represented by a few physically motivated parameters, which can be chosen so as to reproduce either the Hamada-Johnston or Paris results. 20 references, 10 figures.

  1. Single-particle and collective motion in nuclear open quantum systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fossez, Kevin

    2017-01-01

    The properties of drip-line nuclei are profoundly affected by the environment of continuum states and the presence of decay channels. Their description requires the development of realistic theoretical approaches rooted in the open quantum system framework. However this formidable task presents many challenges and calls for closer collaborations between theorists and experimentalists. In this presentation a brief introduction to the problem of the description of weakly bound and unbound nuclei will be given with an emphasis on the relationship between nuclear structure and reactions. This will be illustrated by two recent investigations on the nuclei 11Be and 39Mg, where the role of the interplay between the collectivity and the continuum on single-particle structure has been studied. Finally the question of the existence of a nuclear system in the continuum is discussed for the case of the four-neutron system.

  2. Interplay of collective flow phenomena and velocity correlations of intermediate-mass fragments in collisions of Au+Au at E=(100-400)A MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotte, R.; Kämpfer, B.; Mösner, J.; Neubert, W.; Wohlfarth, D.; Alard, J. P.; Amouroux, V.; Basrak, Z.; Bastid, N.; Belayev, I. M.; Berger, L.; Blaich, Th.; Boussange, S.; Buta, A.; Čaplar, R.; Cerruti, C.; Cindro, N.; Coffin, J. P.; Donà, R.; Dupieux, P.; Erö, J.; Fan, Z. G.; Fintz, P.; Fodor, Z.; Fraysse, L.; Freifelder, R.; Frolov, S.; Gobbi, A.; Grigorian, Y.; Guillaume, G.; Herrmann, N.; Hildenbrand, K. D.; Hölbling, S.; Houari, O.; Ibnouzahir, M.; Jeong, S. C.; Jundt, F.; Kecskemeti, J.; Koncz, P.; Korchagin, Y.; Krämer, M.; Kuhn, C.; Legrand, I.; Lebedev, A.; Manko, V.; Matulewicz, T.; Mgebrishvili, G.; Moisa, D.; Montarou, G.; Montbel, I.; Pelte, D.; Petrovici, M.; Pras, P.; Rami, F.; Ramillien, V.; Reisdorf, W.; Sadchikov, A.; Schüll, D.; Seres, Z.; Sikora, B.; Simion, V.; Smolyankin, S.; Sodan, U.; Teh, K.; Tezkratt, R.; Trzaska, M.; Vasiliev, M. A.; Wagner, P.; Wessels, J. P.; Wienold, T.; Wilhelmi, Z.; Zhilin, A. V.

    1995-05-01

    Velocity correlations of intermediate mass fragments (IMF), produced in collisions of Au+Au at 100, 150, 250, and 400A MeV beam energy, are extracted from measurements with the 4π detector system (FOPI) in construction stage I at Schwerionen-Synchrotron (SIS) at the Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung (GSI) in Darmstadt. The IMF correlation functions of peripheral and semicentral events are found to be strongly affected by the collective sideward motion of nuclear matter. The sideflow causes an enhancement of correlations at small relative velocities. This enhancement results from the mixing of differently azimuthally oriented events; it vanishes if the events are rotated into a unique reaction plane. Selecting violent central collisions, the comparison of the data with a Coulomb dominated final-state interaction model points to a radius of the expanding and multifragmenting source of Rs~=13 fm for 100A MeV which appears shrinking by 20% when increasing the projectile energy to 400 MeV per nucleon. The deduced source radii are found to depend on the radial explosion energy used in the model. The inclusion of such a collective expansion is necessary for a reasonable description of the experimental single-particle spectra of the IMF. The unique Coulomb suppression of small relative IMF velocities, found for the given beam energy range, is attributed to rather constant averaged next-neighbor distances =8.6+/-0.2 fm of the IMF charge centers within the source at breakup time.

  3. Observation of gamma-rays from fallout collected at Ibaraki, Japan, during the Fukushima nuclear accident.

    PubMed

    Saegusa, Jun; Kikuta, Yasuaki; Akino, Hitoshi

    2013-07-01

    Gamma-ray pulse height distributions were measured for a fallout sample collected at Ibaraki, Japan, during the Fukushima accident in March 2011. The fallout was collected in a pan of water and then evaporated to dryness on a stainless-steel holder. The sample was measured by a germanium detector three times over a year. In the pulse height distribution of the initial measurement, approximately 140 peaks were observed in the 50-2048 keV energy region. Most of these peaks were either total absorption peaks or sum peaks of Te, I or Cs isotopes. Unlike fallout samples at the past nuclear accidents, nuclides such as Ce and Ru were not detected whereas (110m)Ag was prominently observed. The radioactivity concentration of (137)Cs was determined to be at least 1.4×10(4) Bq m(-2), approximately 14% of which was attributed to rainout.

  4. Authentication and Interpretation of Weight Data Collected from Accountability Scales at Global Nuclear Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzgerald, Peter; Laughter, Mark D; Martyn, Rose; Richardson, Dave; Rowe, Nathan C; Pickett, Chris A; Younkin, James R; Shephard, Adam M

    2010-01-01

    Accountability scale data from the Global Nuclear Fuels (GNF) fuel fabrication facility in Wilmington, NC has been collected and analyzed as a part of the Cylinder Accountability and Tracking System (CATS) field trial in 2009. The purpose of the data collection was to demonstrate an authentication method for safeguards applications, and the use of load cell data in cylinder accountability. The scale data was acquired using a commercial off-the-shelf communication server with authentication and encryption capabilities. The authenticated weight data was then analyzed to determine facility operating activities. The data allowed for the determination of the number of full and empty cylinders weighed and the respective weights along with other operational activities. Data authentication concepts, practices and methods, the details of the GNF weight data authentication implementation and scale data interpretation results will be presented.

  5. Weak size dependence of resuspended radiocesium adsorbed on soil particles collected after the Fukushima nuclear accident.

    PubMed

    Kaneyasu, Naoki; Ohashi, Hideo; Suzuki, Fumie; Okuda, Tomoaki; Ikemori, Fumikazu; Akata, Naofumi; Kogure, Toshihiro

    2017-03-24

    Most studies of the properties of airborne radionuclides emitted from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant have focused on the relatively early stages of the accident, and little is known about the characteristics of radiocesium in the long-term. In this study, we analyzed activity size distributions of airborne radiocesium collected over 5 months in Tsukuba, Japan. Radiocesium in the accumulation mode size range (0.1-2 μm in aerodynamic diameter) was overwhelming in the early aerosol samples and decreased with time, while that associated with coarse aerosols remained airborne. We examined the radiocesium adsorbed onto airborne soil particles, and found that the size dependence of (137)Cs surface density adsorbed on soil particles was weak. That is, radiocesium was distributed homogeneously throughout the aerodynamic diameter range of 2.1-11 μm. This characteristic may be related to the reported structure of radiocesium-bearing soil particles collected from the ground, which consisted of an aggregate of specific clay minerals and other non-cesium adsorbing particles. The resuspension factors for the first two aerosol samples collected during late April and May 2011 were close to those in European cities in the months following the Chernobyl accident, despite different soil and weather conditions.

  6. Simple biophysics underpins collective conformations of the intrinsically disordered proteins of the Nuclear Pore Complex.

    PubMed

    Vovk, Andrei; Gu, Chad; Opferman, Michael G; Kapinos, Larisa E; Lim, Roderick Yh; Coalson, Rob D; Jasnow, David; Zilman, Anton

    2016-05-20

    Nuclear Pore Complexes (NPCs) are key cellular transporter that control nucleocytoplasmic transport in eukaryotic cells, but its transport mechanism is still not understood. The centerpiece of NPC transport is the assembly of intrinsically disordered polypeptides, known as FG nucleoporins, lining its passageway. Their conformations and collective dynamics during transport are difficult to assess in vivo. In vitro investigations provide partially conflicting results, lending support to different models of transport, which invoke various conformational transitions of the FG nucleoporins induced by the cargo-carrying transport proteins. We show that the spatial organization of FG nucleoporin assemblies with the transport proteins can be understood within a first principles biophysical model with a minimal number of key physical variables, such as the average protein interaction strengths and spatial densities. These results address some of the outstanding controversies and suggest how molecularly divergent NPCs in different species can perform essentially the same function.

  7. A Novel Saccharomyces cerevisiae FG Nucleoporin Mutant Collection for Use in Nuclear Pore Complex Functional Experiments.

    PubMed

    Adams, Rebecca L; Terry, Laura J; Wente, Susan R

    2015-11-03

    FG nucleoporins (Nups) are the class of proteins that both generate the permeability barrier and mediate selective transport through the nuclear pore complex (NPC). The FG Nup family has 11 members in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and the study of mutants lacking different FG domains has been instrumental in testing transport models. To continue analyzing the distinct functional roles of FG Nups in vivo, additional robust genetic tools are required. Here, we describe a novel collection of S. cerevisiae mutant strains in which the FG domains of different groups of Nups are absent (Δ) in the greatest number documented to date. Using this plasmid-based ΔFG strategy, we find that a GLFG domain-only pore is sufficient for viability. The resulting extensive plasmid and strain resources are available to the scientific community for future in-depth in vivo studies of NPC transport. Copyright © 2016 Adams et al.

  8. Identification of β-Catenin-Interacting Proteins in Nuclear Fractions of Native Rat Collecting Duct Cells.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jacqueline R; Chou, Chung-Lin; Medvar, Barbara; Knepper, Mark A; Jung, Hyun Jun

    2017-03-15

    The gene encoding the aquaporin-2 water channel is regulated transcriptionally in response to vasopressin. In the renal collecting duct, vasopressin stimulates the nuclear translocation and phosphorylation (at Ser552) of β-catenin, a multifunctional protein that acts as a transcriptional co-regulator in the nucleus. The purpose of this study was to identify β-catenin interacting proteins that may be involved in transcriptional regulation in rat inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD) cells using both experimental and computational approaches. We used a standard chromatin immunoprecipitation procedure coupled to mass spectrometry (ChIP-MS) in a nuclear fraction isolated from rat IMCD suspensions. Over four biological replicates, we reproducibly identified 43 β-catenin binding proteins, including several known β-catenin binding partners as well as novel interacting proteins. Multiple proteins involved in transcriptional regulation were identified (Taf1, Jup, Tdrd3, Cdh1, Cenpj and several histones). Many of the identified β-catenin binding partners were found in prior studies to translocate to the nucleus in response to vasopressin. There was only one DNA-binding transcription factor (TF), specifically Taf1, part of the RNA-polymerase II pre-initiation complex. To identify sequence-specific TFs that may interact with β-catenin, Bayes' Theorem was used to integrate data from several information sources. The analysis identified several TFs with potential binding sites in the Aqp2 gene promoter that could interact with β-catenin in the regulation of Aqp2 gene transcription, specifically Jun, Junb, Jund, Atf1, Atf2, Mef2d, Usf1, Max, Pou2f1 and Rxra. The findings provide information necessary for modeling the transcriptional response to vasopressin.

  9. Size distribution of radioactive particles collected at Tokai, Japan 6 days after the nuclear accident.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Yutaka; Yasuda, Kenichiro; Magara, Masaaki

    2014-06-01

    Airborne radioactive particles released by the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident in 2011 were collected with a cascade low-pressure impactor at the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) in Tokai, Japan, 114 km south of the FDNPP. Size-fractionated samples were collected twice, in the periods of March 17-April 1, 2011, and May 9-13, 2011. These size-fractionated samplings were carried out in the earliest days at a short distance from the FDNPP. Radioactivity of short-lived nuclides (several ten days of half-life) was determined as well as (134)Cs and (137)Cs. The elemental composition of size-fractionated samples was also measured. In the first collection, the activity median aerodynamic diameter (AMAD) of (129m)Te, (140)Ba, (134)Cs, (136)Cs and (137)Cs was 1.5-1.6 μm, while the diameter of (131)I was 0.45 μm. The diameters of (134)Cs and (137)Cs in the second collection were expressed as three peaks at <0.5 μm, 0.94 μm, and 7.8 μm. The (134)Cs/(137)Cs ratio of the first collection was 1.02 in total, but the ratio in the fine fractions was 0.91. A distribution map of (134)Cs/(137)Cs - (136)Cs/(137)Cs ratios was helpful in understanding the change of radioactive Cs composition. The Cs composition of size fractions <0.43 μm and the composition in the 1.1-2.1 μm range (including the AMAD of 1.5-1.6 μm) were similar to the calculated compositions of fuels in the reactors No. 1 and No. 3 at the FDNPP using the ORIGEN-II code. The Cs composition collected in May, 2011 was similar to the calculation results of reactor No. 2 fuel composition. The change of Cs composition implies that the radioactive Cs was released from the three reactors at the FDNPP via different processes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Light flash phenomena induced by HzE particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcnulty, P. J.; Pease, V. P.

    1980-01-01

    Astronauts and Apollo and Skylab missions have reported observing a variety of visual phenomena when their eyes are closed and adapted to darkness. These phenomena have been collectively labelled as light flashes. Visual phenomena which are similar in appearance to those observed in space have been demonstrated at the number of accelerator facilities by expressing the eyes of human subjects to beams of various types of radiation. In some laboratory experiments Cerenkov radiation was found to be the basis for the flashes observed while in other experiments Cerenkov radiation could apparently be ruled out. Experiments that differentiate between Cerenkov radiation and other possible mechanisms for inducing visual phenomena was then compared. The phenomena obtained in the presence and absence of Cerenkov radiation were designed and conducted. A new mechanism proposed to explain the visual phenomena observed by Skylab astronauts as they passed through the South Atlantic Anomaly, namely nuclear interactions in and near the sensitive layer of the retina, is covered. Also some studies to search for similar transient effects of space radiation on sensors and microcomputer memories are described.

  11. Live Operation Data Collection Optimization and Communication for the Domestic Nuclear Detection Office’s Rail Test Center

    SciTech Connect

    Gelston, Gariann M.

    2010-04-06

    For the Domestic Nuclear Detection Office’s Rail Test Center (i.e., DNDO’s RTC), port operation knowledge with flexible collection tools and technique are essential in both technology testing design and implementation intended for live operational settings. Increased contextual data, flexibility in procedures, and rapid availability of information are keys to addressing the challenges of optimization, validation, and analysis within live operational setting data collection. These concepts need to be integrated into technology testing designs, data collection, validation, and analysis processes. A modified data collection technique with a two phased live operation test method is proposed.

  12. Interference phenomena observed during cold fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Matsumoto, T. )

    1992-03-01

    In this paper the interference phenomena of waves observed during a cold fusion experiment are described. Nuclear emissions have successfully recorded two different interference phenomena of waves from an electrolyzing cell. It is inferred that the waves might be gravitational and antigravitational waves, which can be expected to be radiated from gravity decays of quad-neutrons.

  13. Simple biophysics underpins collective conformations of the intrinsically disordered proteins of the Nuclear Pore Complex

    PubMed Central

    Vovk, Andrei; Gu, Chad; Opferman, Michael G; Kapinos, Larisa E; Lim, Roderick YH; Coalson, Rob D; Jasnow, David; Zilman, Anton

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear Pore Complexes (NPCs) are key cellular transporter that control nucleocytoplasmic transport in eukaryotic cells, but its transport mechanism is still not understood. The centerpiece of NPC transport is the assembly of intrinsically disordered polypeptides, known as FG nucleoporins, lining its passageway. Their conformations and collective dynamics during transport are difficult to assess in vivo. In vitro investigations provide partially conflicting results, lending support to different models of transport, which invoke various conformational transitions of the FG nucleoporins induced by the cargo-carrying transport proteins. We show that the spatial organization of FG nucleoporin assemblies with the transport proteins can be understood within a first principles biophysical model with a minimal number of key physical variables, such as the average protein interaction strengths and spatial densities. These results address some of the outstanding controversies and suggest how molecularly divergent NPCs in different species can perform essentially the same function. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.10785.001 PMID:27198189

  14. Estimated collective effective dose to the population from X-ray and nuclear medicine examinations in Finland.

    PubMed

    Bly, R; Järvinen, H; Korpela, M H; Tenkanen-Rautakoski, P; Mäkinen, A

    2011-09-01

    The collective effective doses to the population from X-ray and nuclear medicine (NM) examinations in Finland in 2008 and 2009, respectively, were estimated. The estimated collective effective dose per inhabitant was 0.45 mSv from X-ray examinations and 0.03 mSv from NM examinations. The collective effective doses per inhabitant have not changed substantially during the last 10 y. However, proportional dose due to CT examinations has increased from 50 % in 2005 to 58 % in 2009 of the total collective effective dose from all X-ray examinations and proportional dose of PET examinations from 7 to 13 % of the total collective effective dose from NM examinations. The collective effective dose from conventional plain radiography was over 20 % higher when estimated using the new (ICRP 103) tissue weighting factors than that obtained using the old (ICRP 60) tissue weighting factors.

  15. Superconductivity and other collective phenomena in a hybrid Bose-Fermi mixture formed by a polariton condensate and an electron system in two dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    CotleÅ£, Ovidiu; Zeytinoǧlu, Sina; Sigrist, Manfred; Demler, Eugene; Imamoǧlu, Ataç

    2016-02-01

    Interacting Bose-Fermi systems play a central role in condensed matter physics. Here, we analyze a novel Bose-Fermi mixture formed by a cavity exciton-polariton condensate interacting with a two-dimensional electron system. We show that that previous predictions of superconductivity [F. P. Laussy, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 106402 (2010), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.104.106402] and excitonic supersolid formation [I. A. Shelykh, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 140402 (2010), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.105.140402] in this system are closely intertwined, resembling the predictions for strongly correlated electron systems such as high-temperature superconductors. In stark contrast to a large majority of Bose-Fermi systems analyzed in solids and ultracold atomic gases, the renormalized interaction between the polaritons and electrons in our system is long-ranged and strongly peaked at a tunable wave vector, which can be rendered incommensurate with the Fermi momentum. We analyze the prospects for experimental observation of superconductivity and find that critical temperatures on the order of a few kelvins can be achieved in heterostructures consisting of transition metal dichalcogenide monolayers that are embedded in an open cavity structure. All-optical control of superconductivity in semiconductor heterostructures could enable the realization of new device concepts compatible with semiconductor nanotechnology. In addition the possibility to interface quantum Hall physics, superconductivity, and nonequilibrium polariton condensates is likely to provide fertile ground for investigation of completely new physical phenomena.

  16. Are both sympatric species Ilex perado and Ilex canariensis secretly hybridizing? Indication from nuclear markers collected in Tenerife

    PubMed Central

    Manen, Jean-François

    2004-01-01

    Background Intra-specific and intra-individual polymorphism is frequently observed in nuclear markers of Ilex (Aquifoliaceae) and discrepancy between plastid and nuclear phylogenies is the rule in this genus. These observations suggest that inter-specific plastid or/and nuclear introgression played an important role in the process of evolution of Ilex. With the aim of a precise understanding of the evolution of this genus, two distantly related sympatric species collected in Tenerife (Canary Islands), I. perado and I. canariensis, were studied in detail. Introgression between these two species was previously never reported. One plastid marker (the atpB-rbcL spacer) and two nuclear markers, the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and the nuclear encoded plastid glutamine synthetase (nepGS) were analyzed for 13 and 27 individuals of I. perado and I. canariensis, respectively. Results The plastid marker is intra-specifically constant and correlated with species identity. On the other hand, whereas the nuclear markers are conserved in I. perado, they are highly polymorphic in I. canariensis. The presence of pseudogenes and recombination in ITS sequences of I. canariensis explain this polymorphism. Ancestral sequence polymorphism with incomplete lineage sorting, or past or recent hybridization with an unknown species could explain this polymorphism, not resolved by concerted evolution. However, as already reported for many other plants, past or recent introgression of an alien genotype seem the most probable explanation for such a tremendous polymorphism. Conclusions Data do not allow the determination with certitude of the putative species introgressing I. canariensis, but I. perado is suspected. The introgression would be unilateral, with I. perado as the male donor, and the paternal sequences would be rapidly converted in highly divergent and consequently unidentifiable pseudogenes. At least, this study allows the establishment of precautionary measures when

  17. Are both sympatric species Ilex perado and Ilex canariensis secretly hybridizing? Indication from nuclear markers collected in Tenerife.

    PubMed

    Manen, Jean-François

    2004-11-18

    Intra-specific and intra-individual polymorphism is frequently observed in nuclear markers of Ilex (Aquifoliaceae) and discrepancy between plastid and nuclear phylogenies is the rule in this genus. These observations suggest that inter-specific plastid or/and nuclear introgression played an important role in the process of evolution of Ilex. With the aim of a precise understanding of the evolution of this genus, two distantly related sympatric species collected in Tenerife (Canary Islands), I. perado and I. canariensis, were studied in detail. Introgression between these two species was previously never reported. One plastid marker (the atpB-rbcL spacer) and two nuclear markers, the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and the nuclear encoded plastid glutamine synthetase (nepGS) were analyzed for 13 and 27 individuals of I. perado and I. canariensis, respectively. The plastid marker is intra-specifically constant and correlated with species identity. On the other hand, whereas the nuclear markers are conserved in I. perado, they are highly polymorphic in I. canariensis. The presence of pseudogenes and recombination in ITS sequences of I. canariensis explain this polymorphism. Ancestral sequence polymorphism with incomplete lineage sorting, or past or recent hybridization with an unknown species could explain this polymorphism, not resolved by concerted evolution. However, as already reported for many other plants, past or recent introgression of an alien genotype seem the most probable explanation for such a tremendous polymorphism. Data do not allow the determination with certitude of the putative species introgressing I. canariensis, but I. perado is suspected. The introgression would be unilateral, with I. perado as the male donor, and the paternal sequences would be rapidly converted in highly divergent and consequently unidentifiable pseudogenes. At least, this study allows the establishment of precautionary measures when nuclear markers are used in

  18. Comparison of results for quarter 5 surface water split samples collected at the nuclear fuel services site Erwin Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    King, David A.

    2013-09-23

    Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU), under the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) contract, collected split surface water samples with Nuclear Fuel Services (NFS) representatives on August 21, 2013. Representatives from the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation were also in attendance. Samples were collected at four surface water stations, as required in the approved Request for Technical Assistance number 11-018. These stations included Nolichucky River upstream (NRU), Nolichucky River downstream (NRD), Martin Creek upstream (MCU), and Martin Creek downstream (MCD). Both ORAU and NFS performed gross alpha and gross beta analyses, and the comparison of results using the duplicate error ratio (DER), also known as the normalized absolute difference, are tabulated. All DER values were less than 3 and results are consistent with low (e.g., background) concentrations.

  19. Third-generation site characterization: Cryogenic core collection, nuclear magnetic resonance, and electrical resistivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiaalhosseini, Saeed

    In modern contaminant hydrology, management of contaminated sites requires a holistic characterization of subsurface conditions. Delineation of contaminant distribution in all phases (i.e., aqueous, non-aqueous liquid, sorbed, and gas), as well as associated biogeochemical processes in a complex heterogeneous subsurface, is central to selecting effective remedies. Arguably, a factor contributing to the lack of success of managing contaminated sites effectively has been the limitations of site characterization methods that rely on monitoring wells and grab sediment samples. The overarching objective of this research is to advance a set of third-generation (3G) site characterization methods to overcome shortcomings of current site characterization techniques. 3G methods include 1) cryogenic core collection (C3) from unconsolidated geological subsurface to improve recovery of sediments and preserving key attributes, 2) high-throughput analysis (HTA) of frozen core in the laboratory to provide high-resolution, depth discrete data of subsurface conditions and processes, 3) resolution of non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) distribution within the porous media using a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) method, and 4) application of a complex resistivity method to track NAPL depletion in shallow geological formation over time. A series of controlled experiments were conducted to develop the C 3 tools and methods. The critical aspects of C3 are downhole circulation of liquid nitrogen via a cooling system, the strategic use of thermal insulation to focus cooling into the core, and the use of back pressure to optimize cooling. The C3 methods were applied at two contaminated sites: 1) F.E. Warren (FEW) Air Force Base near Cheyenne, WY and 2) a former refinery in the western U.S. The results indicated that the rate of core collection using the C3 methods is on the order of 30 foot/day. The C3 methods also improve core recovery and limits potential biases associated with flowing sands

  20. Some remarks about simulation of cosmic ray phenomena with use of nuclear interaction models based on the current SPS proton-antiproton data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wrotniak, J. A.; Yodh, G. B.

    1985-01-01

    The x-y controversy is studied by introducing models with as many features (except for x and y distributions) in common, as possible, to avoid an extrapolation problem, only primary energies of 500 TeV are considered. To prove the point, Monte Carlo simulations are performed of EAS generated by 500 TeV vertical primary protons. Four different nuclear interaction models were used. Two of them are described elsewhere. Two are: (1) Model M-Y00 - with inclusive x and y distributions behaving in a scaling way; and (2) Model M-F00 - at and below ISR energies (1 TeV in Lab) exactly equivalent to the above, then gradually changing to provide the distributions in rapidity at 155 TeV as given by SPS proton-antiproton. This was achieved by gradual decrease in the scale unit in x distributions of produced secondaries, as interaction energy increases. Other modifications to the M-Y00 model were made.

  1. Study of the characteristics of seismic signals generated by natural and cultural phenomena. [such as earthquakes, sonic booms, and nuclear explosions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goforth, T. T.; Rasmussen, R. K.

    1974-01-01

    Seismic data recorded at the Tonto Forest Seismological Observatory in Arizona and the Uinta Basin Seismological Observatory in Utah were used to compare the frequency of occurrence, severity, and spectral content of ground motions resulting from earthquakes, and other natural and man-made sources with the motions generated by sonic booms. A search of data recorded at the two observatories yielded a classification of over 180,000 earthquake phase arrivals on the basis of frequency of occurrence versus maximum ground velocity. The majority of the large ground velocities were produced by seismic surface waves from moderate to large earthquakes in the western United States, and particularly along the Pacific Coast of the United States and northern Mexico. A visual analysis of raw film seismogram data over a 3-year period indicates that local and regional seismic events, including quarry blasts, are frequent in occurrence, but do not produce ground motions at the observatories comparable to either the large western United States earthquakes or to sonic booms. Seismic data from the Nevada Test Site nuclear blasts were used to derive magnitude-distance-sonic boom overpressure relations.

  2. Nuclear Data for Astrophysics: Collections at NucAstroData.org

    DOE Data Explorer

    In May of 2003, Dr. Michael Smith, Physics Division, ORNL, published a paper announcing the launch of the new website NucAstroData.org and the rationale behind it. An excerpt from the abstract of that paper, found in volume 718, pages 339-346, of ScienceDirect - Nuclear Physics A, explains: "In order to address important astrophysics problems such as the origin of the chemical elements, the inner workings of our Sun, and the evolution of stars, crucial nuclear datasets are needed. Recent evaluation and dissemination efforts have produced a number of such datasets, many of which are online and readily available to the research community. Current international efforts in this field are, unfortunately, insufficient to keep pace with the latest nuclear physics measurements and model calculations. A dedicated effort is required to update and expand existing datasets. I discuss several strategies and new initiatives that would ensure a more effective utilization of nuclear data in astrophysics. These include launching a new web site, www.nucastrodata.org, to aid in locating available nuclear data sets, and an interactive online plotting program with an easy-to-use graphical user interface to over 8000 reaction rates." This website continues to be resource for the nuclear astrophysics community. NucAstroData provides both links to datasets around the world and a repository where researchers can upload their own data. Tools for generating and manipulating reaction rates, merging libraries of data, plotting data and performing other tasks are provided under the website's Infrastructure section and the menu selection for software leads to useful codes.

  3. Collective Sideward Flow of Nuclear Matter in Violent High-Energy Heavy-Ion Collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Stöcker, Horst; Maruhn, Jouchim A.; Greiner, Walter

    1980-03-01

    The nuclear fluid dynamical model with final thermal breakup is used to study the reactions {sup 20}Ne + {sup 238}U and {sup 40} Ar + {sup 40}Ca at E{sub LAB}=390 MeV/n. Calculated double differential cross sections d{sup 2}{sigma}/d{Omega}dE are in agreement with recent experimental data. It is shown that azimuthally dependent triple differential cross sections d{sup 3}{sigma}/dEd cos{theta}d{phi} yield considerably deeper insight into the collision process and allow for snapshots of the reactions. Strongly correlated jets of nuclear matter are predicted.

  4. Nuclear weapons, nuclear effects, nuclear war

    SciTech Connect

    Bing, G.F.

    1991-08-20

    This paper provides a brief and mostly non-technical description of the militarily important features of nuclear weapons, of the physical phenomena associated with individual explosions, and of the expected or possible results of the use of many weapons in a nuclear war. Most emphasis is on the effects of so-called ``strategic exchanges.``

  5. LETTER TO THE EDITOR: Collective modes of tri-nuclear molecules of the type 96Sr+ 10Be+ 146Ba

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hess, P. O.; Scheid, W.; Greiner, W.; Hamilton, J. H.

    1999-12-01

    The collective modes of the tri-nuclear molecule 96Sr+ 10Be+ 146Ba, observed in recent cold fission decay of 252Cf into three clusters, are theoretically investigated. The main excitations are rotations, the butterfly and belly-dancer modes and icons/Journals/Common/beta" ALT="beta" ALIGN="TOP"/>- and icons/Journals/Common/gamma" ALT="gamma" ALIGN="TOP"/>-vibrations. Due to the presence of the Be nucleus, butterfly excitation energies are shifted up to 2 MeV. There are only a few collective states below 1 MeV which are not rotational. The first rotational level of spin 2+ lies at an energy of about 6 keV. Proposals of how these collective modes may be measured are suggested.

  6. Genetic relationships among Aedes aegypti collections in Venezuela as determined by mitochondrial DNA variation and nuclear single nucleotide polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Urdaneta-Marquez, Ludmel; Bosio, Christopher; Herrera, Flor; Rubio-Palis, Yasmin; Salasek, Michael; Black, William C

    2008-03-01

    A population genetic analysis of gene flow was conducted among 619 Aedes aegypti from nine collections distributed among six geographic regions of Venezuela. Genetic markers included a 387-basepair region of the mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase 4 (ND4) gene and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at 11 nuclear loci. Genotypes at SNP loci were identified using melting curve analysis. Six different ND4 haplotypes were detected and patterns of variation suggested that collections were isolated by distance. The variance in SNP allele frequencies was much less than the variance in haplotype frequencies and a pattern of isolation by distance was not detected. Aedes aegypti from eight collections were orally challenged with dengue 2 virus. Disseminated infection rates ranged from 77% to 95%. The percentage of mosquitoes exhibiting a midgut infection barrier ranged from 2% to 15%, and those exhibiting a midgut escape barrier ranged from 2% to 18%. Venezuelan Ae. aegypti appear to be susceptible to dengue virus infection.

  7. Calculation of total effective dose equivalent and collective dose in the event of a LOCA in Bushehr Nuclear Power Plant.

    PubMed

    Raisali, G; Davilu, H; Haghighishad, A; Khodadadi, R; Sabet, M

    2006-01-01

    In this research, total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) and collective dose (CD) are calculated for the most adverse potential accident in Bushehr Nuclear Power Plant from the viewpoint of radionuclides release to the environment. Calculations are performed using a Gaussian diffusion model and a slightly modified version of AIREM computer code to adopt for conditions in Bushehr. The results are comparable with the final safety analysis report which used DOZAM code. Results of our calculations show no excessive dose in populated regions. Maximum TEDE is determined to be in the WSW direction. CD in the area around the nuclear power plant by a distance of 30 km (138 man Sv) is far below the accepted limits. Thyroid equivalent dose is also calculated for the WSW direction (maximum 25.6 mSv) and is below the limits at various distances from the reactor stack.

  8. Radiocesium concentrations in wild mushrooms collected in Kawauchi Village after the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant.

    PubMed

    Nakashima, Kanami; Orita, Makiko; Fukuda, Naoko; Taira, Yasuyuki; Hayashida, Naomi; Matsuda, Naoki; Takamura, Noboru

    2015-01-01

    It is well known from the experience after the 1986 accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant that radiocesium tends to concentrate in wild mushrooms. In this study, we collected wild mushrooms from the Kawauchi Village of Fukushima Prefecture, located within 30 km of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, and evaluated their radiocesium concentrations to estimate the risk of internal radiation exposure in local residents. We found that radioactive cesium exceeding 100 Bq/kg was detected in 125 of 154 mushrooms (81.2%). We calculated committed effective doses based on 6,278 g per year (age > 20 years, 17.2 g/day), the average intake of Japanese citizens, ranging from doses of 0.11-1.60 mSv, respectively. Although committed effective doses are limited even if residents eat contaminated foods several times, we believe that comprehensive risk-communication based on the results of the radiocesium measurements of food, water, and soil is necessary for the recovery of Fukushima after this nuclear disaster.

  9. Radiocesium concentrations in wild mushrooms collected in Kawauchi Village after the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant

    PubMed Central

    Nakashima, Kanami; Orita, Makiko; Fukuda, Naoko; Taira, Yasuyuki; Hayashida, Naomi; Matsuda, Naoki

    2015-01-01

    It is well known from the experience after the 1986 accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant that radiocesium tends to concentrate in wild mushrooms. In this study, we collected wild mushrooms from the Kawauchi Village of Fukushima Prefecture, located within 30 km of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, and evaluated their radiocesium concentrations to estimate the risk of internal radiation exposure in local residents. We found that radioactive cesium exceeding 100 Bq/kg was detected in 125 of 154 mushrooms (81.2%). We calculated committed effective doses based on 6,278 g per year (age > 20 years, 17.2 g/day), the average intake of Japanese citizens, ranging from doses of 0.11–1.60 mSv, respectively. Although committed effective doses are limited even if residents eat contaminated foods several times, we believe that comprehensive risk-communication based on the results of the radiocesium measurements of food, water, and soil is necessary for the recovery of Fukushima after this nuclear disaster. PMID:26623189

  10. Nuclear collective motion with a coherent coupling interaction between quadrupole and octupole modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minkov, N.; Yotov, P.; Drenska, S.; Scheid, W.; Bonatsos, D.; Lenis, D.; Petrellis, D.

    2006-04-01

    A collective Hamiltonian for the rotation-vibration motion of nuclei is considered in which the axial quadrupole and octupole degrees of freedom are coupled through the centrifugal interaction. The potential of the system depends on the two deformation variables β2 and β3. The system is considered to oscillate between positive and negative β3 values by rounding an infinite potential core in the (β2,β3) plane with β2>0. By assuming a coherent contribution of the quadrupole and octupole oscillation modes in the collective motion, the energy spectrum is derived in an explicit analytic form, providing specific parity shift effects. On this basis several possible ways in the evolution of quadrupole-octupole collectivity are outlined. A particular application of the model to the energy levels and electric transition probabilities in alternating parity spectra of the nuclei Nd150, Sm152, Gd154, and Dy156 is presented.

  11. Arcjet Cathode Phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curran, Francis M.; Haag, Thomas W.; Raquet, John F.

    1989-01-01

    Cathode tips made from a number of different materials were tested in a modular arcjet thruster in order to examine cathode phenomena. Periodic disassembly and examination, along with the data collected during testing, indicated that all of the tungsten-based materials behaved similarly despite the fact that in one of these samples the percentage of thorium oxide was doubled and another was 25 percent rhenium. The mass loss rate from a 2 percent thoriated rhenium cathode was found to be an order of magnitude greater than that observed using 2 percent thoriated tungsten. Detailed analysis of one of these cathode tips showed that the molten crater contained pure tungsten to a depth of about 150 microns. Problems with thermal stress cracking were encountered in the testing of a hafnium carbide tip. Post test analysis showed that the active area of the tip had chemically reacted with the propellant. A 100 hour continuous test was run at about 1 kW. Post test analysis revealed no dendrite formation, such as observed in a 30 kW arcjet lifetest, near the cathode crater. The cathodes from both this test and a previously run 1000 hour cycled test displayed nearly identical arc craters. Data and calculations indicate that the mass losses observed in testing can be explained by evaporation.

  12. Arcjet cathode phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curran, Francis M.; Haag, Thomas W.; Raquet, John F.

    1989-01-01

    Cathode tips made from a number of different materials were tested in a modular arcjet thruster in order to examine cathode phenomena. Periodic disassembly and examination, along with the data collected during testing, indicated that all of the tungsten-based materials behaved similarly despite the fact that in one of these samples the percentage of thorium oxide was doubled and another was 25 percent rhenium. The mass loss rate from a 2 percent thoriated rhenium cathode was found to be an order of magnitude greater than that observed using 2 percent thoriated tungsten. Detailed analysis of one of these cathode tips showed that the molten crater contained pure tungsten to a depth of about 150 microns. Problems with thermal stress cracking were encountered in the testing of a hafnium carbide tip. Post test analysis showed that the active area of the tip had chemically reacted with the propellant. A 100 hour continuous test was run at about 1 kW. Post test analysis revealed no dendrite formation, such as observed in a 30 kW arcjet lifetest, near the cathode crater. The cathodes from both this test and a previously run 1000 hour cycled test displayed nearly identical arc craters. Data and calculations indicate that the mass losses observed in testing can be explained by evaporation.

  13. A study of randomness, correlations, and collectivity in the nuclear shell model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velázquez, V.; Hirsch, J. G.; Frank, A.; Zuker, A. P.

    2003-03-01

    A variable combination of realistic and random two-body interactions allows the study of collective properties [such as the energy spectra and B(E2) transition strengths] in 44Ti, 48Cr, and 24Mg. It is found that the average energies of the yrast band states maintain the ordering for any degree of randomness, but the B(E2) values lose their quadrupole collectivity when randomness dominates the Hamiltonian. The high probability of the yrast band to be ordered in the presence of pure random forces exhibits the strong correlations between the different members of the band.

  14. Disaggregation of collective dose--a worked example based on future discharges from the Sellafield nuclear fuel reprocessing site, UK.

    PubMed

    Jones, S R; Lambers, B; Stevens, A

    2004-03-01

    Collective dose has long been advocated as an important measure of the detriment associated with practices that involve the use of radioactivity. Application of collective dose in the context of worker protection is relatively straightforward, whereas its application in the context of discharges to the environment can yield radically different conclusions depending upon the population groups and integration times that are considered. The computer program PC-CREAM98 has been used to provide an indicative disaggregation into individual dose bands of the collective dose due to potential future radioactive discharges from the nuclear fuel reprocessing site at Sellafield in the UK. Two alternative discharge scenarios are considered, which represent a 'stop reprocessing early, minimum discharge' scenario and a 'reprocessing beyond current contracts' scenario. For aerial discharges, collective dose at individual effective dose rates exceeding 0.015 microSv y(-1) is only incurred within the UK, and at effective dose rates exceeding 1.5 microSv y(-1) is only incurred within about 20 km of Sellafield. The geographical distribution of collective dose from liquid discharges is harder to assess, but it appears that collective dose incurred outside the UK is at levels of individual effective dose rate below 1.5 microSv y(-1), with the majority being incurred at rates of 0.002 microSv y(-1) or less. In multi-attribute utility analyses, the view taken on the radiological detriment to be attributed to the two discharge scenarios will depend critically on the weight or monetary value ascribed to collective doses incurred within the differing bands of individual dose rate.

  15. Collective phenomena in pp and ep scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celiberto, Francesco Giovanni; Fiore, Roberto; Jenkovszky, László

    2017-03-01

    Bjorken scaling violation in deep inelastic electron-proton scattering (DIS) is related to the rise of hadronic cross sections by using the additive quark model. Of special interest is the connection between saturation in the low-x behavior of the DIS structure functions (SF) and possible slow-down of the pp cross section rise due to saturation effects. We also identify saturation effects in the DIS SF with phase transition that can be described by the Van der Waals equation of state.

  16. Collective Phenomena in the Inner Ear

    SciTech Connect

    Zweig, George

    2002-10-16

    Two contrasting views of cochlear mechanics are compared with each other, and with experiment. The first posits that all qualitative features of the nonlinear cochlear response are those of a simple dynamical system poised at a Hopf bifurcation, the second argues that the cochlear response must be found with 3-D simulations. Hopf bifurcations are explained, and their consequences explored.

  17. COMPARISON OF RESULTS FOR QUARTER 2 SURFACE WATER SPLIT SAMPLES COLLECTED AT THE NUCLEAR FUEL SERVICES SITE, ERWIN, TENNESSEE

    SciTech Connect

    2013-01-21

    Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU), under the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) contract, collected split surface water samples with Nuclear Fuel Services (NFS) representatives on November 15, 2012. Representatives from the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation were also in attendance. Samples were collected at four surface water stations, as required in the approved Request for Technical Assistance number 11-018. These stations included Nolichucky River upstream (NRU), Nolichucky River downstream (NRD), Martin Creek upstream (MCU), and Martin Creek downstream (MCD). Both ORAU and NFS performed gross alpha and gross beta analyses, and the results are compared using the duplicate error ratio (DER), also known as the normalized absolute difference. A DER {<=} 3 indicates that, at a 99% confidence interval, split sample results do not differ significantly when compared to their respective one standard deviation (sigma) uncertainty (ANSI N42.22). The NFS split sample report does not specify the confidence level of reported uncertainties (NFS 2012). Therefore, standard two sigma reporting is assumed and uncertainty values were divided by 1.96. In conclusion, all DER values were less than 3 and results are consistent with low (e.g., background) concentrations.

  18. Understanding Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of a Poa pratensis Worldwide Collection through Morphological, Nuclear and Chloroplast Diversity Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Russi, Luigi; Marconi, Gianpiero; Sharbel, Timothy F.; Veronesi, Fabio; Albertini, Emidio

    2015-01-01

    Poa pratensis L. is a forage and turf grass species well adapted to a wide range of mesic to moist habitats. Due to its genome complexity little is known regarding evolution, genome composition and intraspecific phylogenetic relationships of this species. In the present study we investigated the morphological and genetic diversity of 33 P. pratensis accessions from 23 different countries using both nuclear and chloroplast molecular markers as well as flow cytometry of somatic tissues. This with the aim of shedding light on the genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships of the collection that includes both cultivated and wild materials. Morphological characterization showed that the most relevant traits able to distinguish cultivated from wild forms were spring growth habit and leaf colour. The genome size analysis revealed high variability both within and between accessions in both wild and cultivated materials. The sequence analysis of the trnL-F chloroplast region revealed a low polymorphism level that could be the result of the complex mode of reproduction of this species. In addition, a strong reduction of chloroplast SSR variability was detected in cultivated materials, where only two alleles were conserved out of the four present in wild accessions. Contrarily, at nuclear level, high variability exist in the collection where the analysis of 11 SSR loci allowed the detection of a total of 91 different alleles. A Bayesian analysis performed on nuclear SSR data revealed that studied materials belong to two main clusters. While wild materials are equally represented in both clusters, the domesticated forms are mostly belonging to cluster P2 which is characterized by lower genetic diversity compared to the cluster P1. In the Neighbour Joining tree no clear distinction was found between accessions with the exception of those from China and Mongolia that were clearly separated from all the others. PMID:25893249

  19. Coupled Phenomena in Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matsubara, Akira; Nomura, Kazuo

    1979-01-01

    Various phenomena in chemistry and biology can be understood through Gibbs energy utilization. Some common phenomena in chemistry are explained including neutralization, hydrolysis, oxidation and reaction, simultaneous dissociation equilibrium of two weak acids, and common ion effect on solubility. (Author/SA)

  20. Coupled Phenomena in Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matsubara, Akira; Nomura, Kazuo

    1979-01-01

    Various phenomena in chemistry and biology can be understood through Gibbs energy utilization. Some common phenomena in chemistry are explained including neutralization, hydrolysis, oxidation and reaction, simultaneous dissociation equilibrium of two weak acids, and common ion effect on solubility. (Author/SA)

  1. Theory of collective quantum effects of the nuclear spin bath in a Ge/Si core/shell nanowire quantum dot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coish, William A.; Chesi, Stefano

    2012-02-01

    We study a quantum-dot spin-valve setup with a uniform hyperfine coupling of the electron spin to the nuclear bath. We propose Ge/Si core/shell nanowire quantum dots as a promising platform in which, through engineering of the nuclear spin positions and of the radial and longitudinal electron confinement, a nearly uniform hyperfine interaction can be realized. The dynamics of this coupled system are exactly soluble in terms of collective nuclear states with fixed total angular momentum. We theoretically show that the quantum-mechanical properties of such collective states of the nuclear spins can be probed through electron transport in this spin-valve setup. The associated transport current shows an enhancement due to coupling to collective modes in the nuclear-spin system directly analogous to the problem of superradiance in quantum optics. This effect is robust to dephasing of the nuclear spins and would provide a demonstration of large-scale collective quantum effects in a nuclear-spin system.

  2. Nuclear dissipation as damping of collective motion in the time-dependent RPA and extensions of it

    SciTech Connect

    Yannouleas, C.P.

    1982-07-01

    We have formulated a nonperturbative, microscopic dissipative process in the limit of an infinite mean free path which does not require any statistical assumptions. It attributes the damping of the collective motion to real transitions from the collective state to degenerate, more complicated nucelar states. The dissipation is described through wave packets which solve an approximate Schroedinger equation within extended subspaces, larger than the original subspace of the undamped motion. When the simple RPA is used, this process associates the dissipation with the escape width for direct particle emission. When the Second RPA is used, it associates the dissipation with the spreading width for transitions to the 2p-2h components of the nuclear compound states. The energy loss rate for sharp n-phonon initial states is proportional to the total collective energy. The classical dissipation, however, is obtained for coherent, multiphonon, initial packets which describe the damping of the mean field oscillations, and allow a theoretical connection with the Vibrating Potential Model, and thereby with models of one-body dissipation. The present model contrasts with linear response theories. Canonical coordinates for the collective degree of freedom are explicitly introduced. This allows the construction of a nonlinear frictional Hamiltonian which provides a connection with quantal friction. The dissipation process developed here is properly reversible rather than irreversible, in the sense that it is described by an approximate Schroedinger equation which honors time reversibility, rather than by a coarse grained master equation which violates it. Thus, the present theory contrasts with transport theories.

  3. Uranium Pyrophoricity Phenomena and Prediction

    SciTech Connect

    DUNCAN, D.R.

    2000-04-20

    We have compiled a topical reference on the phenomena, experiences, experiments, and prediction of uranium pyrophoricity for the Hanford Spent Nuclear Fuel Project (SNFP) with specific applications to SNFP process and situations. The purpose of the compilation is to create a reference to integrate and preserve this knowledge. Decades ago, uranium and zirconium fires were commonplace at Atomic Energy Commission facilities, and good documentation of experiences is surprisingly sparse. Today, these phenomena are important to site remediation and analysis of packaging, transportation, and processing of unirradiated metal scrap and spent nuclear fuel. Our document, bearing the same title as this paper, will soon be available in the Hanford document system [Plys, et al., 2000]. This paper explains general content of our topical reference and provides examples useful throughout the DOE complex. Moreover, the methods described here can be applied to analysis of potentially pyrophoric plutonium, metal, or metal hydride compounds provided that kinetic data are available. A key feature of this paper is a set of straightforward equations and values that are immediately applicable to safety analysis.

  4. Anomalons, honey, and glue in nuclear collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Gyulassy, M.

    1982-12-01

    In these lectures, selected topics in nuclear collisions in the energy range 10/sup -1/ to 10/sup 3/ GeV per nucleon are discussed. The evidence for anomalous projectile fragments with short mean free paths is presented. Theoretical speculations on novel topological nuclear excitation and on quark-nuclear complexes in connection with anomalons are discussed. Recent tests for pion field instabilities are presented. Then evidence for collective nuclear flow phenomena are reviewed. Global event analysis and cascade simulations are presented. We address the question of whether nuclear flow is like viscous honey. Finally, the criteria for the production of a quark-gluon plasma are discussed. Nuclear stopping power and longitudinal growth at high energies are considered. Results from cosmic ray data show that nuclear collision at TeV per nucleon energies are likely to product a plasma.

  5. Nuclear morphometry in histological specimens of canine prostate cancer: Correlation with histological subtypes, Gleason score, methods of collection and survival time.

    PubMed

    Di Donato, Guido; Laufer-Amorim, Renée; Palmieri, Chiara

    2017-05-06

    Ten normal prostates, 22 benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and 29 prostate cancer (PC) were morphometrically analyzed with regard to mean nuclear area (MNA), mean nuclear perimeter (MNP), mean nuclear diameter (MND), coefficient of variation of the nuclear area (NACV), mean nuclear diameter maximum (MDx), mean nuclear diameter minimum (MDm), mean nuclear form ellipse (MNFe) and form factor (FF). The relationship between nuclear morphometric parameters and histological type, Gleason score, methods of sample collection, presence of metastases and survival time of canine PC were also investigated. Overall, nuclei from neoplastic cells were larger, with greater variation in nuclear size and shape compared to normal and hyperplastic cells. Significant differences were found between more (small acinar/ductal) and less (cribriform, solid) differentiated PCs with regard to FF (p<0.05). MNA, MNP, MND, MDx, and MDm were significantly correlated with the Gleason score of PC (p<0.05). MNA, MNP, MDx and MNFe may also have important prognostic implications in canine prostatic cancer since negatively correlated with the survival time. Biopsy specimens contained nuclei that were smaller and more irregular in comparison to those in prostatectomy and necropsy specimens and therefore factors associated with tissue sampling and processing may influence the overall morphometric evaluation. The results indicate that nuclear morphometric analysis in combination with Gleason score can help in canine prostate cancer grading, thus contributing to the establishment of a more precise prognosis and patient's management. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Science and Paranormal Phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    Noyes, H. Pierre

    1999-06-03

    In order to ground my approach to the study of paranormal phenomena, I first explain my operational approach to physics, and to the ''historical'' sciences of cosmic, biological, human, social and political evolution. I then indicate why I believe that ''paranormal phenomena'' might-but need not- fit into this framework. I endorse the need for a new theoretical framework for the investigation of this field presented by Etter and Shoup at this meeting. I close with a short discussion of Ted Bastin's contention that paranormal phenomena should be defined as contradicting physics.

  7. Dissolution of aerosol particles collected from nuclear facility plutonium production process

    DOE PAGES

    Xu, Ning; Martinez, Alexander; Schappert, Michael Francis; ...

    2015-08-14

    Here, a simple, robust analytical chemistry method has been developed to dissolve plutonium containing particles in a complex matrix. The aerosol particles collected on Marple cascade impactor substrates were shown to be dissolved completely with an acid mixture of 12 M HNO3 and 0.1 M HF. A pressurized closed vessel acid digestion technique was utilized to heat the samples at 130 °C for 16 h to facilitate the digestion. The dissolution efficiency for plutonium particles was 99 %. The resulting particle digestate solution was suitable for trace elemental analysis and isotope composition determination, as well as radiochemistry measurements.

  8. Dissolution of aerosol particles collected from nuclear facility plutonium production process

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Ning; Martinez, Alexander; Schappert, Michael Francis; Montoya, Dennis Patrick; Martinez, Patrick Thomas; Tandon, Lav

    2015-08-14

    Here, a simple, robust analytical chemistry method has been developed to dissolve plutonium containing particles in a complex matrix. The aerosol particles collected on Marple cascade impactor substrates were shown to be dissolved completely with an acid mixture of 12 M HNO3 and 0.1 M HF. A pressurized closed vessel acid digestion technique was utilized to heat the samples at 130 °C for 16 h to facilitate the digestion. The dissolution efficiency for plutonium particles was 99 %. The resulting particle digestate solution was suitable for trace elemental analysis and isotope composition determination, as well as radiochemistry measurements.

  9. Physical phenomena in lamps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cayless, M. A.

    1988-01-01

    Electric lamps depend for their performance on an extraordinary range of natural phenomena, some of considerable subtlety or complexity, making them a fascinating field for the scientist or engineer. The author describes some of the less obvious phenomena which are crucial to the efficient performance of modern lamps. These include: thermal diffusion; resonance line broadening; hyperfine structure; metal halide cycles; ionic pumping; voids in tungsten; photoelectricity and electrolysis; and Penning effect

  10. COMPARISON OF RESULTS FOR QUARTER 4 SURFACE WATER SPLIT SAMPLES COLLECTED AT THE NUCLEAR FUELS SERVICES SITE, ERWIN, TN

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2013-08-15

    Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU), under the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) contract, collected split surface water samples with Nuclear Fuel Services (NFS) representatives on June 12, 2013. Representatives from the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation were also in attendance. Samples were collected at four surface water stations, as required in the approved Request for Technical Assistance number 11-018. These stations included Nolichucky River upstream (NRU), Nolichucky River downstream (NRD), Martin Creek upstream (MCU), and Martin Creek downstream (MCD). Both ORAU and NFS performed gross alpha and gross beta analyses, and Table 1 presents the comparison of results using the duplicate error ratio (DER), also known as the normalized absolute difference. A DER ≤ 3 indicates at a 99% confidence interval that split sample results do not differ significantly when compared to their respective one standard deviation (sigma) uncertainty (ANSI N42.22). The NFS split sample report specifies 95% confidence level of reported uncertainties (NFS 2013). Therefore, standard two sigma reporting values were divided by 1.96. In conclusion, most DER values were less than 3 and results are consistent with low (e.g., background) concentrations. The gross beta result for sample 5198W0014 was the exception. The ORAU gross beta result of 6.30 ± 0.65 pCi/L from location NRD is well above NFS's non-detected result of 1.56 ± 0.59 pCi/L. NFS's data package includes no detected result for any radionuclide at location NRD. At NRC's request, ORAU performed gamma spectroscopic analysis of sample 5198W0014 to identify analytes contributing to the relatively elevated gross beta results. This analysis identified detected amounts of naturally-occurring constituents, most notably Ac-228 from the thorium decay series, and does not suggest the presence of site-related contamination.

  11. Comparison of Results for Quarter 1 Surface Water Split Samples Collected at the Nuclear Fuel Services Site, Erwin, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    David A. King, CHP, PMP

    2012-10-10

    Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU), under the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) contract, collected split surface water samples with Nuclear Fuel Services (NFS) representatives on August 22, 2012. Representatives from the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation were also in attendance. Samples were collected at four surface water stations, as required in the approved Request for Technical Assistance number 11-018. These stations included Nolichucky River upstream (NRU), Nolichucky River downstream (NRD), Martin Creek upstream (MCU), and Martin Creek downstream (MCD). Both ORAU and NFS performed gross alpha and gross beta analyses. The comparison of results using the duplicate error ratio (DER), also known as the normalized absolute difference. A DER ≤ 3 indicates that, at a 99% confidence interval, split sample results do not differ significantly when compared to their respective one standard deviation (sigma) uncertainty. The NFS split sample report does not specify the confidence level of reported uncertainties. Therefore, standard two sigma reporting is assumed and uncertainty values were divided by 1.96. A comparison of split sample results, using the DER equation, indicates one set with a DER greater than 3. A DER of 3.1 is calculated for gross alpha results from ORAU sample 5198W0003 and NFS sample MCU-310212003. The ORAU result is 0.98 ± 0.30 pCi/L (value ± 2 sigma) compared to the NFS result of -0.08 ± 0.60 pCi/L. Relatively high DER values are not unexpected for low (e.g., background) analyte concentrations analyzed by separate laboratories, as is the case here. It is noted, however, NFS uncertainties are at least twice the ORAU uncertainties, which contributes to the elevated DER value. Differences in ORAU and NFS minimum detectable activities are even more pronounced. comparison of ORAU and NFS split samples produces reasonably consistent results for low (e.g., background

  12. Data collection, validation, and description for the Oak Ridge nuclear facilities mortality study

    SciTech Connect

    Watkins, J.P.; Reagan, J.L.; Cragle, D.L.; West, C.M.; Tankersley, W.G.; Frome, E.L.; Crawford-Brown, D.J.

    1995-06-01

    To investigate the long-term health effects of protracted occupational exposure to low levels of ionizing radiation, a mortality study was initiated by pooling data for 118,588 workers hired between 1943 and 1982, at three Department of Energy (DOE) facilities in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, with follow-up through 1984. Topics for this discussion will include issues involving the collection and validation of data for individuals in the study cohort, and characteristics of their demographic and radiation exposure data. Since the data were compiled between the late 1960s and the present under the direction of several principal investigators, it was essential to verify data precision and to understand how exposure data were generated prior to beginning any analysis. A stratified random sample of workers in the cohort was chosen for verification of their computerized data as it appeared in the database. Original source documents were reviewed to verify demographic data, as well as internal and external radiation exposure data. Extensive effort was expended to document the personal radiation monitoring policies and types of dosimeters used at each facility over the 42 years included in the study. Characteristics of internal and external exposure data by facility and year were examined by graphical methods with the intent of combining these monitoring data over time and across facilities.

  13. Collection and characterization of aerosols from metal cutting techniques typically used in decommissioning nuclear facilities.

    PubMed

    Newton, G J; Hoover, M D; Barr, E B; Wong, B A; Ritter, P D

    1987-11-01

    This study was designed to collect and characterize aerosols released during metal cutting activities typically used in decommissioning radioactively contaminated facilities. Such information can guide in the selection of appropriate control technologies for these airborne materials. Mechanical cutting tools evaluated included a multi-wheel pipe cutter, reciprocating saw, band saw, chop saw, and large and small grinding wheels. Melting-vaporization cutting techniques included an oxy-acetylene torch, electric arc cut rod and plasma torch. With the exception of the multi-wheel pipe cutter, all devices created aerosols in the respirable size range (less than 10 micron aerodynamic diameter). Time required to cut 2-in. (5-cm) Schedule 40, Type 304L, stainless steel ranged from about 0.6 min for the plasma torch to about 3.0 min for the reciprocating saw. Aerosol production rate ranged from less than 10 mg/min for the reciprocating saw to more than 3000 mg/min for the electric arc cut rod. Particles from mechanical tools were irregular in shape, whereas particles from vaporization tools were spheres and ultrafine branched-chain aggregates.

  14. Activity concentrations of environmental samples collected in Fukushima Prefecture immediately after the Fukushima nuclear accident

    PubMed Central

    Hosoda, Masahiro; Tokonami, Shinji; Tazoe, Hirofumi; Sorimachi, Atsuyuki; Monzen, Satoru; Osanai, Minoru; Akata, Naofumi; Kakiuchi, Hideki; Omori, Yasutaka; Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Sahoo, Sarata K.; Kovács, Tibor; Yamada, Masatoshi; Nakata, Akifumi; Yoshida, Mitsuaki; Yoshino, Hironori; Mariya, Yasushi; Kashiwakura, Ikuo

    2013-01-01

    Radionuclide concentrations in environmental samples such as surface soils, plants and water were evaluated by high purity germanium detector measurements. The contribution rate of short half-life radionuclides such as 132I to the exposure dose to residents was discussed from the measured values. The highest values of the 131I/137Cs activity ratio ranged from 49 to 70 in the environmental samples collected at Iwaki City which is located to the south of the F1-NPS. On the other hand, the 132I/131I activity ratio in the same environmental samples had the lowest values, ranging from 0.01 to 0.02. By assuming that the 132I/131I activity ratio in the atmosphere was equal to the ratio in the environmental samples, the percent contribution to the thyroid equivalent dose by 132I was estimated to be less than 2%. Moreover, the contribution to the thyroid exposure by 132I might be negligible if 132I contamination was restricted to Iwaki City. PMID:23887080

  15. Ion exchange phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    Bourg, I.C.; Sposito, G.

    2011-05-01

    Ion exchange phenomena involve the population of readily exchangeable ions, the subset of adsorbed solutes that balance the intrinsic surface charge and can be readily replaced by major background electrolyte ions (Sposito, 2008). These phenomena have occupied a central place in soil chemistry research since Way (1850) first showed that potassium uptake by soils resulted in the release of an equal quantity of moles of charge of calcium and magnesium. Ion exchange phenomena are now routinely modeled in studies of soil formation (White et al., 2005), soil reclamation (Kopittke et al., 2006), soil fertilitization (Agbenin and Yakubu, 2006), colloidal dispersion/flocculation (Charlet and Tournassat, 2005), the mechanics of argillaceous media (Gajo and Loret, 2007), aquitard pore water chemistry (Tournassat et al., 2008), and groundwater (Timms and Hendry, 2007; McNab et al., 2009) and contaminant hydrology (Chatterjee et al., 2008; van Oploo et al., 2008; Serrano et al., 2009).

  16. Flow phenomena in turbomachines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creitzer, E. M.; Epstein, A. H.; Giles, M. B.; McCune, J. E.; Tan, C. S.

    1993-01-01

    This report describes work carried out at the Gas Turbine Laboratory at MIT during the period 10/20/89 - 10/19/92, as part of our multi-investigator effort on basic unsteady flow phenomena in turbomachines. Within the overall project four separate tasks are specified. These are, in brief: (1) The Influence of Inlet Temperature Nonuniformities on Turbine Heat Transfer and Dynamics; (2) Assessment of Unsteady Losses in Stator/ Rotor Interactions; (3) Unsteady Phenomena and Flowfield instabilities in Multistage Axial Compressors; (4) Vortex Wake-Compressor Blade Interaction in Cascades - A New Rapid Method for Unsteady Separation and Vorticity Flux Calculations.

  17. Imaging of snapping phenomena

    PubMed Central

    Guillin, R; Marchand, A J; Roux, A; Niederberger, E; Duvauferrier, R

    2012-01-01

    Snapping phenomena result from the sudden impingement between anatomical and/or heterotopical structures with subsequent abrupt movement and noise. Snaps are variously perceived by patients, from mild discomfort to significant pain requiring surgical management. Identifying the precise cause of snaps may be challenging when no abnormality is encountered on routinely performed static examinations. In this regard, dynamic imaging techniques have been developed over time, with various degrees of success. This review encompasses the main features of each imaging technique and proposes an overview of the main snapping phenomena in the musculoskeletal system. PMID:22744321

  18. Stress pulse phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    McGlaun, M.

    1993-08-01

    This paper is an introductory discussion of stress pulse phenomena in simple solids and fluids. Stress pulse phenomena is a very rich and complex field that has been studied by many scientists and engineers. This paper describes the behavior of stress pulses in idealized materials. Inviscid fluids and simple solids are realistic enough to illustrate the basic behavior of stress pulses. Sections 2 through 8 deal with the behavior of pressure pulses. Pressure is best thought of as the average stress at a point. Section 9 deals with shear stresses which are most important in studying solids.

  19. Frost phenomena on Mars.

    PubMed

    Anderson, D M; Gaffney, E S; Low, P F

    1967-01-20

    The hypothesis that the Martian wave of darkening might be a frostheaving phenomenon has been examined. Consideration of the water-vapor sorption characteristics of a silicate mineral surface at temperatures below freezing leads to the conclusion that, without strongly deliquescent salts to attract and retain liquid water in the Martian soil, frost-heaving phenomena are not to be expected on Mars. On the other hand frost-heaving phenomena involving the freezing and thawing of ammonia may be common in the soils of Jupiter.

  20. COMPARISON OF RESULTS FOR QUARTER 3 SURFACE WATER SPLIT SAMPLES COLLECTED AT THE NUCLEAR FUEL SERVICES SITE, ERWIN, TENNESSEE

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2013-05-28

    Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU), under the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) contract, collected split surface water samples with Nuclear Fuel Services (NFS) representatives on March 20, 2013. Representatives from the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation were also in attendance. Samples were collected at four surface water stations, as required in the approved Request for Technical Assistance number 11-018. These stations included Nolichucky River upstream (NRU), Nolichucky River downstream (NRD), Martin Creek upstream (MCU), and Martin Creek downstream (MCD). Both ORAU and NFS performed gross alpha and gross beta analyses, and Table 1 presents the comparison of results using the duplicate error ratio (DER), also known as the normalized absolute difference. A DER {<=} 3 indicates that at a 99% confidence interval, split sample results do not differ significantly when compared to their respective one standard deviation (sigma) uncertainty (ANSI N42.22). The NFS split sample report does not specify the confidence level of reported uncertainties (NFS 2013). Therefore, standard two sigma reporting is assumed and uncertainty values were divided by 1.96. In conclusion, most DER values were less than 3 and results are consistent with low (e.g., background) concentrations. The gross beta result for sample 5198W0012 was the exception. The ORAU result of 9.23 ± 0.73 pCi/L from location MCD is well above NFS's result of -0.567 ± 0.63 pCi/L (non-detected). NFS's data package included a detected result for U-233/234, but no other uranium or plutonium detection, and nothing that would suggest the presence of beta-emitting radionuclides. The ORAU laboratory reanalyzed sample 5198W0012 using the remaining portion of the sample volume and a result of 11.3 ± 1.1 pCi/L was determined. As directed, the laboratory also counted the filtrate using gamma spectrometry analysis and

  1. Neutron Star Phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruderman, Malvin

    1998-01-01

    Various phenomena involving neutron stars are addressed. Electron-positron production in the near magnetosphere of gamma-ray pulsars is discussed along with magnetic field evolution in spun-up and spinning-down pulsars. Glitches and gamma-ray central engines are also discussed.

  2. Quantum phenomena in superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, J.

    1987-08-01

    This paper contains remarks by the author on aspects of macroscopic quantum phenomena in superconductors. Some topics discussed are: Superconducting low-inductance undulatory galvanometer (SLUGS), charge imbalance, cylindrical dc superconducting quantum interference device (SQUIDS), Geophysics, noise theory, magnetic resonance with SQUIDS, and macroscopic quantum tunneling. 23 refs., 4 figs. (LSP)

  3. Fundamentals of Electromagnetic Phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorrain, Paul; Corson, Dale R.; Lorrain, Francois

    Based on the classic Electromagnetic Fields and Waves by the same authors, Fundamentals of Electromagnetic Phenomena capitalizes on the older text's traditional strengths--solid physics, inventive problems, and an experimental approach--while offering a briefer, more accessible introduction to the basic principles of electromagnetism.

  4. Realistic collective nuclear Hamiltonian

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dufour, Marianne; Zuker, Andrés P.

    1996-10-01

    The residual part of the realistic forces-obtained after extracting the monopole terms responsible for bulk properties-is strongly dominated by pairing and quadrupole interactions, with important στ.στ, octupole, and hexadecapole contributions. Their forms retain the simplicity of the traditional pairing plus multipole models, while eliminating their flaws through a normalization mechanism dictated by a universal A-1/3 scaling. Coupling strengths and effective charges are calculated and shown to agree with empirical values. Comparisons between different realistic interactions confirm the claim that they are very similar.

  5. Analysis of dust samples collected from spent nuclear fuel interim storage containers at Hope Creek, Delaware, and Diablo Canyon, California

    SciTech Connect

    Bryan, Charles R.; Enos, David George

    2014-07-01

    Potentially corrosive environments may form on the surface of spent nuclear fuel dry storage canisters by deliquescence of deposited dusts. To assess this, samples of dust were collected from in-service dry storage canisters at two near-marine sites, the Hope Creek and Diablo Canyon storage installations, and have been characterized with respect to mineralogy, chemistry, and texture. At both sites, terrestrially-derived silicate minerals, including quartz, feldspars, micas, and clays, comprise the largest fraction of the dust. Also significant at both sites were particles of iron and iron-chromium metal and oxides generated by the manufacturing process. Soluble salt phases were minor component of the Hope Creek dusts, and were compositionally similar to inland salt aerosols, rich in calcium, sulfate, and nitrate. At Diablo Canyon, however, sea-salt aerosols, occurring as aggregates of NaCl and Mg-sulfate, were a major component of the dust samples. The seasalt aerosols commonly occurred as hollow spheres, which may have formed by evaporation of suspended aerosol seawater droplets, possibly while rising through the heated annulus between the canister and the overpack. The differences in salt composition and abundance for the two sites are attributed to differences in proximity to the open ocean and wave action. The Diablo Canyon facility is on the shores of the Pacific Ocean, while the Hope Creek facility is on the shores of the Delaware River, several miles from the open ocean.

  6. Define and Quantify the Physics of Air Flow, Pressure Drop and Aerosol Collection in Nuclear Grade HEPA Filters

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, Murray E.

    2015-02-23

    Objective: Develop a set of peer-review and verified analytical methods to adjust HEPA filter performance to different flow rates, temperatures and altitudes. Experimental testing will measure HEPA filter flow rate, pressure drop and efficiency to verify the analytical approach. Nuclear facilities utilize HEPA (High Efficiency Particulate Air) filters to purify air flow for workspace ventilation. However, the ASME AG-1 technical standard (Code on Nuclear Air and Gas Treatment) does not adequately describe air flow measurement units for HEPA filter systems. Specifically, the AG-1 standard does not differentiate between volumetric air flow in ACFM (actual cubic feet per minute)compared to mass flow measured in SCFM (standard cubic feet per minute). More importantly, the AG-1 standard has an overall deficiency for using HEPA filter devices at different air flow rates, temperatures, and altitudes. Technical Approach: The collection efficiency and pressure drops of 18 different HEPA filters will be measured over a range of flow rates, temperatures and altitudes. The experimental results will be compared to analytical scoping calculations. Three manufacturers have allocated six HEPA filters each for this effort. The 18 filters will be tested at two different flow rates, two different temperatures and two different altitudes. The 36 total tests will be conducted at two different facilities: the ATI Test facilities (Baltimore MD) and the Los Alamos National Laboratory (Los Alamos NM). The Radiation Protection RP-SVS group at Los Alamos has an aerosol wind tunnel that was originally designed to evaluate small air samplers. In 2010, modifications were started to convert the wind tunnel for HEPA filter testing. (Extensive changes were necessary for the required aerosol generators, HEPA test fixtures, temperature control devices and measurement capabilities.) To this date, none of these modification activities have been funded through a specific DOE or NNSA program. This is

  7. Membrane Transport Phenomena (MTP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, Larry W.

    1997-01-01

    The third semi-annual period of the MTP project has been involved with performing experiments using the Membrane Transport Apparatus (MTA), development of analysis techniques for the experiment results, analytical modeling of the osmotic transport phenomena, and completion of a DC-9 microgravity flight to test candidate fluid cell geometries. Preparations were also made for the MTP Science Concept Review (SCR), held on 13 June 1997 at Lockheed Martin Astronautics in Denver. These activities are detailed in the report.

  8. Lunar transient phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cameron, W. S.

    1991-03-01

    Lunar transient phenomena (LTP) sightings are classified into five categories: brightenings, darkenings, reddish colorations, bluish colorations, and obscurations. There is evidence that the remaining LTP's are of lunar origin. A substantial number of sightings are independently confirmed. They have been recorded on film and spectrograms, as well as with photoelectric photometers and polarization equipment. It suggested that the LTP's may be gentle outgassings of less-than-volcanic proportions.

  9. Determinants and mapping of collective perceptions of technological risk: the case of the second nuclear power plant in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Hung, Hung-Chih; Wang, Tzu-Wen

    2011-04-01

    Nuclear power is a highly controversial and salient example of environmental risk. The siting or operating of a nuclear power plant often faces widespread public opposition. Although studies of public perceptions of nuclear power date back to 1970s, little research attempts to explain the spatial heterogeneity of risk attitude toward nuclear power among individuals or communities. This article intends to improve the knowledge about the major factors contributing to nuclear power plant risk perceptions by mapping the geographical patterns of local risk perception and examining the determinants in forming the nature and distribution of the perceived risk among potentially affected population. The analysis was conducted by a case study of the Second Nuclear Power Plant (SNPP) in Taiwan by using a novel methodology that incorporates a comprehensive risk perception (CRP) model into an ethnographic approach called risk perception mapping (RPM). First, we examined the determinants of local nuclear power risk perceptions through the CRP model and multivariate regression analysis. Second, the results were integrated with the RPM approach to map and explain the spatial pattern of risk perceptions. The findings demonstrate that the respondents regard the nuclear power plant as an extremely high-risk facility, causing them to oppose the SNPP and reject the compensation payment to accept its continuing operation. Results also indicate that perceptions of nuclear power risk were mainly influenced by social trust, psychological and socioeconomic attributes, proximity, and the perceived effects of the SNPP on the quality of everyday life. © 2010 Society for Risk Analysis.

  10. Paramutation phenomena in plants.

    PubMed

    Pilu, Roberto

    2015-08-01

    Paramutation is a particular epigenetic phenomenon discovered in Zea mays by Alexander Brink in the 1950s, and then also found in other plants and animals. Brink coined the term paramutation (from the Greek syllable "para" meaning beside, near, beyond, aside) in 1958, with the aim to differentiate paramutation from mutation. The peculiarity of paramutation with respect to other gene silencing phenomena consists in the ability of the silenced allele (named paramutagenic) to silence the other allele (paramutable) present in trans. The newly silenced (paramutated) allele remains stable in the next generations even after segregation from the paramutagenic allele and acquires paramutagenic ability itself. The inheritance behaviour of these epialleles permits a fast diffusion of a particular gene expression level/phenotype in a population even in the absence of other evolutionary influences, thus breaking the Hardy-Weinberg law. As with other gene silencing phenomena such as quelling in the fungus Neurospora crassa, transvection in Drosophila, co-suppression and virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) described in transgenic plants and RNA interference (RNAi) in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, paramutation occurs without changes in the DNA sequence. So far the molecular basis of paramutation remains not fully understood, although many studies point to the involvement of RNA causing changes in DNA methylation and chromatin structure of the silenced genes. In this review I summarize all paramutation phenomena described in plants, focusing on the similarities and differences between them.

  11. Analysis of Dust Samples Collected from an Unused Spent Nuclear Fuel Interim Storage Container at Hope Creek, Delaware.

    SciTech Connect

    Bryan, Charles R.; Enos, David

    2015-03-01

    In July, 2014, the Electric Power Research Institute and industry partners sampled dust on the surface of an unused canister that had been stored in an overpack at the Hope Creek Nuclear Generating Station for approximately one year. The foreign material exclusion (FME) cover that had been on the top of the canister during storage, and a second recently - removed FME cover, were also sampled. This report summarizes the results of analyses of dust samples collected from the unused Hope Creek canister and the FME covers. Both wet and dry samples of the dust/salts were collected, using SaltSmart(TM) sensors and Scotch - Brite(TM) abrasive pads, respectively. The SaltSmart(TM) samples were leached and the leachate analyzed chemically to determine the composition and surface load per unit area of soluble salts present on the canister surface. The dry pad samples were analyzed by X-ray fluorescence and by scanning electron microscopy to determine dust texture and mineralogy; and by leaching and chemical analysis to deter mine soluble salt compositions. The analyses showed that the dominant particles on the canister surface were stainless steel particles, generated during manufacturing of the canister. Sparse environmentally - derived silicates and aluminosilicates were also present. Salt phases were sparse, and consisted of mostly of sulfates with rare nitrates and chlorides. On the FME covers, the dusts were mostly silicates/aluminosilicates; the soluble salts were consistent with those on the canister surface, and were dominantly sulfates. It should be noted that the FME covers were w ashed by rain prior to sampling, which had an unknown effect of the measured salt loads and compositions. Sulfate salts dominated the assemblages on the canister and FME surfaces, and in cluded Ca - SO4 , but also Na - SO4 , K - SO4 , and Na - Al - SO4 . It is likely that these salts were formed by particle - gas conversion reactions, either

  12. Wolf-Rayet phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conti, P. S.

    1982-01-01

    The properties of stars showing Wolf-Rayet phenomena are outlined along with the direction of future work. Emphasis is placed on the characteristics of W-R spectra. Specifically the following topics are covered: the absolute visual magnitudes; the heterogeneity of WN spectra; the existence of transition type spectra and compositions the mass loss rates; and the existence of very luminous and possibly very massive W-R stars. Also, a brief overview of current understanding of the theoretical aspects of stellar evolution and stellar winds and the various scenarios that have been proposed to understand W-R spectra are included.

  13. [Lateralization phenomena and headache].

    PubMed

    Nattero, G; Savi, L

    1984-09-08

    Ipsilateral carotid and vertebral vasomotor phenomena are marked components of a unilateral cluster headache crisis. Investigation of lateralisation at the height of a crisis has shown that Doppler findings supplement Heick's observation of the reversible opening of both intra and extracranial arteriovenous shunts. This observation is in line with personal thermographic evidence and that of Lance indicating local hypothermia, and with Wolff's demonstration of dilatation and congestion associated with the superficial temporal artery. Personal dynamographic findings now point to a local extra-intracranial artery pressure gradient as the cause of the peripheral component of lateralisation in cluster headache.

  14. Phenomena of Pneumatic Tire Hydroplaning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dreher, R. C.; Horne, W. B.

    1963-01-01

    Recent research on pneumatic tire hydroplaning has been collected and summarized with the aim of describing what is presently known about the phenomena of tire hydroplaning. A physical description of tire hydroplaning is given along with formulae for estimating the ground speed at which it occurs. Eight manifestations of tire hydroplaning which have been experimentally observed are presented and discussed. These manifestations are: detachment of tire footprint, hydrodynamic ground pressure, spin-down of wheel, suppression of tire bow wave, scouring action of escaping fluid in tire-ground footprint region, peaking of fluid displacement drag, loss in braking traction, and loss of tire directional stability. The vehicle, pavement, tire, and fluid parameters of importance to tire hydroplaning are listed and described. Finally, the hazards of tire hydroplaning to ground and air-vehicle-ground performance are listed, and procedures are given to minimize these effects.

  15. Effects of the hyperfine interactions on the decay of the collective nuclear excited states in. alpha. -hematite

    SciTech Connect

    Faigel, G.; Berman, L.E.; Grover, J.R.; Hastings, J.B.; Haustein, P.E.; Siddons, D.P. . Central Research Inst. for Physics; Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY )

    1989-01-01

    In this paper the time dependence of the coherent decay of nuclear excited state in an {alpha}-{sup 57}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} single crystal is presented. The experiment was carried out in diffraction geometry. A highly monocromatized and collimated beam of synchrotron radiation was used for the excitation of nuclear levels. Quantum beat spectra taken below and above the (7,7,7) pure nuclear reflection of hematite show a characteristic pattern corresponding to the magnetic and quadrupole hyperfine interactions. 16 refs., 1 fig.

  16. Fundamental investigation of duct/ESP phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, C.A. ); Durham, M.D. ); Sowa, W.A. . Combustion Lab.); Himes, R.M. ); Mahaffey, W.A. )

    1991-10-21

    Radian Corporation was contracted to investigate duct injection and ESP phenomena in a 1.7 MW pilot plant constructed for this test program. This study was an attempt to resolve problems found in previous studies and answer remaining questions for the technology using an approach which concentrates on the fundamental mechanisms of the process. The goal of the study was to obtain a better understanding of the basic physical and chemical phenomena that control: (1) the desulfurization of flue gas by calcium-based reagent, and (2) the coupling of an existing ESP particulate collection device to the duct injection process. Process economics are being studied by others. (VC)

  17. Collective flow measured with the Plastic Ball

    SciTech Connect

    Ritter, H.G.; Gutbrod, H.H.; Kampert, K.H.; Kolb, B.; Poskanzer, A.M.; Schicker, R.; Schmidt, H.R.; Siemiarczuk, T.

    1989-08-01

    The experimental results from the Plastic Ball detector have contributed vastly to the understanding of the reaction mechanism of nuclear collisions at several hundred MeV per nucleon. The discovery of the collective flow phenomena (bounce-off of spectator fragments, side-splash in the reaction plane, and squeeze-out out of the reaction plane), as they were predicted by hydrodynamical models, has led to the experimental observation of compressed nuclear matter, which is a necessary condition before one can study the equation of state in detail and search for phase transitions at higher energies. 39 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Weld pool phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    David, S.A.; Vitek, J.M.; Zacharia, T.; DebRoy, T.

    1994-09-01

    During welding, the composition, structure and properties of the welded structure are affected by the interaction of the heat source with the metal. The interaction affects the fluid flow, heat transfer and mass transfer in the weld pool, and the solidification behavior of the weld metal. In recent years, there has been a growing recognition of the importance of the weld pool transport processes and the solid state transformation reactions in determining the composition, structure and properties of the welded structure. The relation between the weld pool transport processes and the composition and structure is reviewed. Recent applications of various solidification theories to welding are examined to understand the special problems of weld metal solidification. The discussion is focussed on the important problems and issues related to weld pool transport phenomena and solidification. Resolution of these problems would be an important step towards a science based control of composition, structure and properties of the weld metal.

  19. Thermal Wave Phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This map from the MGS Horizon Sensor Assembly (HORSE) shows middle atmospheric temperatures near the 1 mbar level of Mars between Ls 170 to 175 (approx. July 14 - 23, 1999). Local Mars times between 1:30 and 4:30 AM are included. Infrared radiation measured by the Mars Horizon Sensor Assembly was used to make the map. That device continuously views the 'limb' of Mars in four directions, to help orient the spacecraft instruments to the nadir: straight down.

    The map shows thermal wave phenomena that are caused by the large topographic variety of Mars' surface, as well the latitudinally symmetric behavior expected at this time of year near the equinox.

  20. Thermal Wave Phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This map from the MGS Horizon Sensor Assembly (HORSE) shows middle atmospheric temperatures near the 1 mbar level of Mars between Ls 170 to 175 (approx. July 14 - 23, 1999). Local Mars times between 1:30 and 4:30 AM are included. Infrared radiation measured by the Mars Horizon Sensor Assembly was used to make the map. That device continuously views the 'limb' of Mars in four directions, to help orient the spacecraft instruments to the nadir: straight down.

    The map shows thermal wave phenomena that are caused by the large topographic variety of Mars' surface, as well the latitudinally symmetric behavior expected at this time of year near the equinox.

  1. Intracranial Perishunt Catheter Fluid Collections with Edema, a Sign of Shunt Malfunction: Correlation of CT/MRI and Nuclear Medicine Findings.

    PubMed

    Kale, H A; Muthukrishnan, A; Hegde, S V; Agarwal, V

    2017-09-01

    Fluid collections with edema along the intracranial tract of ventriculoperitoneal shunt catheters in adults are rare and are more frequently seen in children. The imaging appearance of these fluid collections is frequently confusing and presents a diagnostic dilemma. We present 6 cases of adult patients noted to have collections with edema along the tract of ventriculoperitoneal shunt catheters. To our knowledge, there are no previous studies correlating the CT/MR imaging findings with nuclear medicine scans in this entity. We hypothesized that when seen in adults, the imaging findings of a CSF-like fluid collection around the intracranial ventriculoperitoneal shunt catheter on CT/MR imaging may suggest areas of CSF accumulation with interstitial edema. It is important to recognize this rare ventriculoperitoneal shunt complication in adults to prevent misdiagnosis of an abscess or cystic tumor. © 2017 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  2. Turbulent phenomena in protein folding.

    PubMed

    Kalgin, Igor V; Chekmarev, Sergei F

    2011-01-01

    Protein folding and hydrodynamic turbulence are two long-standing challenges, in molecular biophysics and fluid dynamics, respectively. The theories of these phenomena have been developed independently and used different formalisms. Here we show that the protein folding flows can be surprisingly similar to turbulent fluid flows. Studying a benchmark model protein (an SH3 domain), we have found that the flows for the slow folding trajectories of the protein, in which a partly formed N- and C-terminal β sheet hinders the RT loop from attaching to the protein core, have many properties of turbulent flows of a fluid. The flows are analyzed in a three-dimensional (3D) space of collective variables, which are the numbers of native contacts between the terminal β strands, between the RT loop and the protein core, and the rest of the native contacts. We have found that the flows have fractal nature and are filled with 3D eddies; the latter contain strange attractors, at which the tracer flow paths behave as saddle trajectories. Two regions of the space increment have been observed, in which the flux variations are self-similar with the scaling exponent h=1/3, in surprising agreement with the Kolmogorov inertial range theory of turbulence. In one region, the cascade of protein rearrangements is directed from larger to smaller scales (net folding), and in the other, it is oppositely directed (net unfolding). Folding flows for the fast trajectories are essentially "laminar" and do not have the property of self-similarity. Based on the results of our study, we infer, and support this inference by simulations, that the origin of the similarity between the protein folding and turbulent motion of a fluid is in a cascade mechanism of structural transformations in the systems that underlies these phenomena.

  3. Approximate calculational techniques for radiation protection applications (collection of papers presented at the November 1985 American Nuclear Society meeting)

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, A.F.; Roussin, R.W.

    1986-09-01

    Although radiation protection principles are, on the whole, well understood and a whole series of computer codes exist for their solution, it is felt that there is a need for practical, approximate techniques to be used by the practicing nuclear engineer for a variety of applications. Within the context of approximate techniques, the papers presented cover a broad overview of specific problems, for example, skyshine and penetration analysis, with applications extending from general nuclear reactor design to spent fuel storage and fusion. Separate abstracts have been prepared for individual papers.

  4. Probing exotic phenomena at the interface of nuclear and particle physics with the electric dipole moments of diamagnetic atoms: A unique window to hadronic and semi-leptonic CP violation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamanaka, N.; Sahoo, B. K.; Yoshinaga, N.; Sato, T.; Asahi, K.; Das, B. P.

    2017-03-01

    The current status of electric dipole moments of diamagnetic atoms which involves the synergy between atomic experiments and three different theoretical areas, i.e. particle, nuclear and atomic, is reviewed. Various models of particle physics that predict CP violation, which is necessary for the existence of such electric dipole moments, are presented. These include the standard model of particle physics and various extensions of it. Effective hadron level combined charge conjugation (C) and parity (P) symmetry violating interactions are derived taking into consideration different ways in which a nucleon interacts with other nucleons as well as with electrons. Nuclear structure calculations of the CP-odd nuclear Schiff moment are discussed using the shell model and other theoretical approaches. Results of the calculations of atomic electric dipole moments due to the interaction of the nuclear Schiff moment with the electrons and the P and time-reversal (T) symmetry violating tensor-pseudotensor electron-nucleus are elucidated using different relativistic many-body theories. The principles of the measurement of the electric dipole moments of diamagnetic atoms are outlined. Upper limits for the nuclear Schiff moment and tensor-pseudotensor coupling constant are obtained combining the results of atomic experiments and relativistic many-body theories. The coefficients for the different sources of CP violation have been estimated at the elementary particle level for all the diamagnetic atoms of current experimental interest and their implications for physics beyond the standard model is discussed. Possible improvements of the current results of the measurements as well as quantum chromodynamics, nuclear and atomic calculations are suggested.

  5. Analyses of the population structure in a global collection of Phytophthora nicotianae isolates inferred from mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Genetic variation within the heterothallic cosmopolitan plant pathogen Phytophthora nicotianae was determined in 96 isolates from a wide range of hosts and geographic locations by characterizing four mitochondrial (10% of the genome) and three nuclear loci. Fifty-two SNPs ( average of 1 every 58 bp)...

  6. ON DETECTING TRANSIENT PHENOMENA

    SciTech Connect

    Belanger, G.

    2013-08-10

    Transient phenomena are interesting and potentially highly revealing of details about the processes under observation and study that could otherwise go unnoticed. It is therefore important to maximize the sensitivity of the method used to identify such events. In this article, we present a general procedure based on the use of the likelihood function for identifying transients which is particularly suited for real-time applications because it requires no grouping or pre-processing of the data. The method makes use of all the information that is available in the data throughout the statistical decision-making process, and is suitable for a wide range of applications. Here we consider those most common in astrophysics, which involve searching for transient sources, events or features in images, time series, energy spectra, and power spectra, and demonstrate the use of the method in the case of a weak X-ray flare in a time series and a short-lived quasi-periodic oscillation in a power spectrum. We derive a fit statistic that is ideal for fitting arbitrarily shaped models to a power density distribution, which is of general interest in all applications involving periodogram analysis.

  7. Nuclear Pasta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva Schneider, Andre; Horowitz, Charles; Berry, Don; Briggs, Christian

    2014-03-01

    For decades it has been theorized that just below nuclear saturation density matter undergoes a series of phase transitions. These phases, which are expected to exist in core-collapse supernovae and neutron stars, involve a range of exotic nuclear shapes collectively known as nuclear pasta. Recently, Jose Pons and collaborators suggested that ``the maximum period of isolated X-ray pulsars may be the first observational evidence for an amorphous inner crust, ..., possibly owing to the existence of a nuclear pasta phase.'' In this talk we present results of semi-classical molecular dynamics simulations of nuclear pasta and discuss how each phase might contribute to neutron star crust properties.

  8. Quantitative Analysis of Plutonium Content in Particles Collected from a Certified Reference Material by Total Nuclear Reaction Energy (Q Value) Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Croce, M. P.; Hoover, A. S.; Rabin, M. W.; Bond, E. M.; Wolfsberg, L. E.; Schmidt, D. R.; Ullom, J. N.

    2016-08-01

    Microcalorimeters with embedded radioisotopes are an emerging category of sensor with advantages over existing methods for isotopic analysis of trace-level nuclear materials. For each nuclear decay, the energy of all decay products captured by the absorber (alpha particles, gamma rays, X-rays, electrons, daughter nuclei, etc.) is measured in one pulse. For alpha-decaying isotopes, this gives a measurement of the total nuclear reaction energy (Q value) and the spectra consist of well-separated, narrow peaks. We have demonstrated a simple mechanical alloying process to create an absorber structure consisting of a gold matrix with small inclusions of a radioactive sample. This absorber structure provides an optimized energy thermalization environment, resulting in high-resolution spectra with minimal tailing. We have applied this process to the analysis of particles collected from the surface of a plutonium metal certified reference material (CRM-126A from New Brunswick Laboratory) and demonstrated isotopic analysis by microcalorimeter Q value spectroscopy. Energy resolution from the Gaussian component of a Bortels function fit was 1.3 keV FWHM at 5244 keV. The collected particles were integrated directly into the detector absorber without any chemical processing. The ^{238}Pu/^{239}Pu and ^{240}Pu/^{239}Pu mass ratios were measured and the results confirmed against the certificate of analysis for the reference material. We also demonstrated inter-element analysis capability by measuring the ^{241}Am/^{239}Pu mass ratio.

  9. Emergent Phenomena at Oxide Interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, H.Y.

    2012-02-16

    operator changes sign with T-operation. (iii) Gauge symmetry (G), which is associated with a change in the phase of the wave-function as {Psi} {yields} e{sup i{theta}}{Psi}. Gauge symmetry is connected to the law of charge conservation, and broken G-symmetry corresponds to superconductivity/superfluidity. To summarize, the interplay among these electronic degrees of freedom produces various forms of symmetry breaking patterns of I, T, and G, leading to novel emergent phenomena, which can appear only by the collective behavior of electrons and cannot be expected from individual electrons. Figure 1 shows this schematically by means of several representative phenomena. From this viewpoint, the interfaces of TMOs offer a unique and important laboratory because I is already broken by the structure itself, and the detailed form of broken I-symmetry can often be designed. Also, two-dimensionality usually enhances the effects of electron correlations by reducing their kinetic energy. These two features of oxide interfaces produce many novel effects and functions that cannot be attained in bulk form. Given that the electromagnetic responses are a major source of the physical properties of solids, and new gauge structures often appear in correlated electronic systems, we put 'emergent electromagnetism' at the center of Fig. 1.

  10. Advances in modelling of condensation phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, W.S.; Zaltsgendler, E.; Hanna, B.

    1997-07-01

    The physical parameters in the modelling of condensation phenomena in the CANDU reactor system codes are discussed. The experimental programs used for thermal-hydraulic code validation in the Canadian nuclear industry are briefly described. The modelling of vapour generation and in particular condensation plays a key role in modelling of postulated reactor transients. The condensation models adopted in the current state-of-the-art two-fluid CANDU reactor thermal-hydraulic system codes (CATHENA and TUF) are described. As examples of the modelling challenges faced, the simulation of a cold water injection experiment by CATHENA and the simulation of a condensation induced water hammer experiment by TUF are described.

  11. Hysteresis phenomena in hydraulic measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ran, H. J.; Luo, X. W.; Chen, Y. L.; Xu, H. Y.; Farhat, M.

    2012-11-01

    Hysteresis phenomena demonstrate the lag between the generation and the removal of some physical phenomena. This paper studies the hysteresis phenomena of the head-drop in a scaled model pump turbine using experiment test and CFD methods. These lag is induced by complicated flow patterns, which influenced the reliability of rotating machine. Keeping the same measurement procedure is concluded for the hydraulic machine measurement.

  12. Sample collection, preservation and submittal procedures for 10 CFR 50 and 10 CFR 50 and 10 CFR 61 nuclear power plant matrices

    SciTech Connect

    Banavali, A.D.; Moreno, E.M.; McCurdy, D.E.

    1994-12-31

    Sample collection, preservation and submittal procedures are described here for nuclear power plant 10 CFR 50 and 10 CFR 61 samples. While sample collection procedures should ensure that a sample reflects the true media type from a homogeneity standpoint, sample preservation is absolutely necessary to prevent the adsorption of analytes occurring on the walls of the container. After sample collection and preservation, the samples should be shipped to the radioanalytical laboratory as soon as possible to reduce the magnitude of analyte adsorption on the walls of the container. When samples are shipped for analysis, sample transmittal forms should be properly filled out to ensure that instructions are clear as to the isotopic analysis requested and the weight/volume of sample shipped, minimum detectable concentration (MDC) required, station code, etc.

  13. Exotic phenomena in nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neff, Thomas; Feldmeier, Hans; Roth, Robert

    2006-10-01

    In the Fermionic Molecular Dynamics (FMD) model the nuclear many-body system is described using Slater determinants with Gaussian wave-packets as single-particle states. The flexibility of the FMD wave functions allows for a consistent description of shell model like structures, deformed states, cluster structures as well as halos. An effective interaction derived from the realistic Argonne V18 interaction using the Unitary Correlation Operator Method is used for all nuclei. Results for nuclei in the p-shell will be presented. Halo features are present in the Helium isotopes, cluster structures are studied in Beryllium and Carbon isotopes. The interplay between shell structure and cluster structures in the ground and the Hoyle state in ^12C will be discussed.

  14. Novel QCD Phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; /SLAC

    2007-07-06

    I discuss a number of novel topics in QCD, including the use of the AdS/CFT correspondence between Anti-de Sitter space and conformal gauge theories to obtain an analytically tractable approximation to QCD in the regime where the QCD coupling is large and constant. In particular, there is an exact correspondence between the fifth-dimension coordinate z of AdS space and a specific impact variable {zeta} which measures the separation of the quark constituents within the hadron in ordinary space-time. This connection allows one to compute the analytic form of the frame-independent light-front wavefunctions of mesons and baryons, the fundamental entities which encode hadron properties and allow the computation of exclusive scattering amplitudes. I also discuss a number of novel phenomenological features of QCD. Initial- and final-state interactions from gluon-exchange, normally neglected in the parton model, have a profound effect in QCD hard-scattering reactions, leading to leading-twist single-spin asymmetries, diffractive deep inelastic scattering, diffractive hard hadronic reactions, the breakdown of the Lam Tung relation in Drell-Yan reactions, and nuclear shadowing and non-universal antishadowing--leading-twist physics not incorporated in the light-front wavefunctions of the target computed in isolation. I also discuss tests of hidden color in nuclear wavefunctions, the use of diffraction to materialize the Fock states of a hadronic projectile and test QCD color transparency, and anomalous heavy quark effects. The presence of direct higher-twist processes where a proton is produced in the hard subprocess can explain the large proton-to-pion ratio seen in high centrality heavy ion collisions.

  15. Hypervelocity impact phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    Chhabildas, L.C.

    1995-07-01

    There is a need to determine the equations of state of materials in regimes of extreme high pressures, temperatures and strain rates that are not attainable on current two-stage light-gas guns. Understanding high-pressure material behavior is crucial to address the physical processes associated with a variety of hypervelocity impact events related to space sciences-orbital-debris impact, debris-shield designs, high-speed plasma propagation, and impact lethality applications. At very high impact velocities material properties will be dominated by phase-changes, such as melting or vaporization, which cannot be achieved at lower impact velocities. Development of well-controlled and repeatable hypervelocity launch capabilities is the first step necessary to improve our understanding of material behavior at extreme pressures and temperatures not currently available using conventional two-stage light-gas gun techniques. In this paper, techniques that have been used to extend both the launch capabilities of a two-stage light gas gun to 16 km/s, and their use to determine the material properties at pressures and temperature states higher than those ever obtained in the laboratory are summarized. The newly developed hypervelocity launcher (HVL) can launch intact (macroscopic dimensions) plates to 16 km/s. Time-resolved interferometric techniques have been used to determine shock-loading/release characteristics of materials impacted by such fliers as well as shock-induced vaporization phenomena in fully vaporized states. High-speed photography or radiography has been used to evaluate the debris propagation characteristics resulting from disc impact of thin bumper sheets at hypervelocities in excess of 10 km/s using the HVL. Examples of these experiments are provided in this paper.

  16. Effect of pH on the release of radionuclides and chelating agents from cement-solidified decontamination ion-exchange resins collected from operating nuclear power stations

    SciTech Connect

    McIsaac, C.V.; Akers, D.W.; McConnell, J.W. )

    1991-06-01

    Data are presented on the physical stability and leachability of radionuclides and chelating agents from cement-solidified decontamination ion-exchange resin wastes collected from two operating commercial light water reactors. Small-scale waste--form specimens collected during solidifications performed at the Brunswick Steam Electric Plant Unit 1 and at the James A. FitzPatrick Nuclear Power Station were leach-tested and subjected to compressive strength testing in accordance with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Technical Position on Waste Form'' (Revision 1). Samples of untreated resin waste collected from each solidification vessel before the solidification process were analyzed for concentrations of radionuclides, selected transition metals, and chelating agents to determine the quantities of these chemicals in the waste-form specimens. The chelating agents included oxalic, citric, and picolinic acids. In order to determine the effect of leachant chemical composition and pH on the stability and leachability of the waste forms, waste-form specimens were leached in various leachants. Results of this study indicate that differences in pH do not affect releases from cement-solidified decontamination ion-exchange resin waste forms, but that differences in leachant chemistry and the presence of chelating agents may affect the releases of radionuclides and chelating agents. Also, this study indicates that the cumulative releases of radionuclides and chelating agents are similar for waste- form specimens that decomposed and those that retained their general physical form. 36 refs., 60 figs., 28 tabs.

  17. Teaching Optical Phenomena with Tracker

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodrigues, M.; Carvalho, P. Simeão

    2014-01-01

    Since the invention and dissemination of domestic laser pointers, observing optical phenomena is a relatively easy task. Any student can buy a laser and experience at home, in a qualitative way, the reflection, refraction and even diffraction phenomena of light. However, quantitative experiments need instruments of high precision that have a…

  18. Teaching Optical Phenomena with Tracker

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodrigues, M.; Carvalho, P. Simeão

    2014-01-01

    Since the invention and dissemination of domestic laser pointers, observing optical phenomena is a relatively easy task. Any student can buy a laser and experience at home, in a qualitative way, the reflection, refraction and even diffraction phenomena of light. However, quantitative experiments need instruments of high precision that have a…

  19. Nursing phenomena in inpatient psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Frauenfelder, F; Müller-Staub, M; Needham, I; Van Achterberg, T

    2011-04-01

    Little is known about the question if the nursing diagnosis classification of North American Nursing Association-International (NANDA-I) describes the adult inpatient psychiatric nursing care. The present study aimed to identify nursing phenomena mentioned in journal articles about the psychiatric inpatient nursing care and to compare these phenomena with the labels and the definitions of the nursing diagnoses to elucidate how well this classification covers these phenomena. A search of journal articles took place in the databases MedLine, PsychInfo, Cochrane and CINAHL. A qualitative content analysis approach was used to identify nursing phenomena in the articles. Various phenomena were found in the articles. The study demonstrated that NANDA-I describes essential phenomena for the adult inpatient psychiatry on the level of labels and definitions. However, some apparently important nursing phenomena are not covered by the labels or definitions of NANDA-I. Other phenomena are assigned as defining characteristics or as related factors to construct nursing diagnoses. The further development of the classification NANDA-I will strengthen the application in the daily work of psychiatric nurses and enhance the quality of nursing care in the inpatient setting. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing.

  20. Wave phenomena in sunspots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Löhner-Böttcher, Johannes

    2016-03-01

    Context: The dynamic atmosphere of the Sun exhibits a wealth of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves. In the presence of strong magnetic fields, most spectacular and powerful waves evolve in the sunspot atmosphere. Allover the sunspot area, continuously propagating waves generate strong oscillations in spectral intensity and velocity. The most prominent and fascinating phenomena are the 'umbral flashes' and 'running penumbral waves' as seen in the sunspot chromosphere. Their nature and relation have been under intense discussion in the last decades. Aims: Waves are suggested to propagate upward along the magnetic field lines of sunspots. An observational study is performed to prove or disprove the field-guided nature and coupling of the prevalent umbral and penumbral waves. Comprehensive spectroscopic observations at high resolution shall provide new insights into the wave characteristics and distribution across the sunspot atmosphere. Methods: Two prime sunspot observations were carried out with the Dunn Solar Telescope at the National Solar Observatory in New Mexico and with the Vacuum Tower Telescope at the Teide Observatory on Tenerife. The two-dimensional spectroscopic observations were performed with the interferometric spectrometers IBIS and TESOS. Multiple spectral lines are scanned co-temporally to sample the dynamics at the photospheric and chromospheric layers. The time series (1 - 2.5 h) taken at high spatial and temporal resolution are analyzed according to their evolution in spectral intensities and Doppler velocities. A wavelet analysis was used to obtain the wave power and dominating wave periods. A reconstruction of the magnetic field inclination based on sunspot oscillations was developed. Results and conclusions: Sunspot oscillations occur continuously in spectral intensity and velocity. The obtained wave characteristics of umbral flashes and running penumbral waves strongly support the scenario of slow-mode magnetoacoustic wave propagation along the

  1. Cooperative phenomena in swarms

    SciTech Connect

    Millonas, M.M.

    1992-12-01

    A model of the cooperative behavior of a large number of locally acting organisms is proposed. The space in which the organisms move is discretized, and is modeled by a lattice of nodes, or cells. Each cell has a specified volume, and is connected to other cells in the space in a definite way. Organisms move probabilistically between local cells in this space, but with weights dependent on local morphogenic substances, or morphogens. The morphogens are in turn are effected by the passage of an organism. The evolution of the morphogens, and the corresponding flow of the organisms constitutes the collective behavior of the group. The generic properties of such systems are analyzed, and a number of results are obtained. The model has various types of phase transitions and self-organizing properties controlled both by the level of the noise, and other parameters.

  2. Cooperative phenomena in swarms

    SciTech Connect

    Millonas, M.M.

    1992-01-01

    A model of the cooperative behavior of a large number of locally acting organisms is proposed. The space in which the organisms move is discretized, and is modeled by a lattice of nodes, or cells. Each cell has a specified volume, and is connected to other cells in the space in a definite way. Organisms move probabilistically between local cells in this space, but with weights dependent on local morphogenic substances, or morphogens. The morphogens are in turn are effected by the passage of an organism. The evolution of the morphogens, and the corresponding flow of the organisms constitutes the collective behavior of the group. The generic properties of such systems are analyzed, and a number of results are obtained. The model has various types of phase transitions and self-organizing properties controlled both by the level of the noise, and other parameters.

  3. Interspecies nuclear transfer using fibroblasts from leopard, tiger, and lion ear piece collected postmortem as donor cells and rabbit oocytes as recipients.

    PubMed

    Yelisetti, Uma Mahesh; Komjeti, Suman; Katari, Venu Charan; Sisinthy, Shivaji; Brahmasani, Sambasiva Rao

    2016-06-01

    Skin fibroblast cells were obtained from a small piece of an ear of leopard, lion, and tiger collected postmortem and attempts were made to synchronize the skin fibroblasts at G0/G1 of cell cycle using three different approaches. Efficiency of the approaches was tested following interspecies nuclear transfer with rabbit oocytes as recipient cytoplasm. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting revealed that the proportion of G0/G1 cells increased significantly (P < 0.05) when cells subjected to serum starvation, contact inhibition, and 3 mM sodium butyrate (NaBu) treatment when compared with cycling cells. However, 3 mM NaBu treatment caused alterations in cell morphology and increase in dead cells. Thus, interspecies nuclear transfer was carried out using fibroblast cells subjected to contact inhibition for 72 h, serum starvation for 48 h, and cells treated with 1.0 mM NaBu for 48 h. The fusion rates, the proportion of fused couplets that cleaved to two-cell and developed to blastocyst, were highest in all three species when the donor cells were treated with 1.0 mM NaBu for 48 h. But, the blastocyst percentage of interspecies nuclear embryos (5-6%) was significantly lower when compared with rabbit-rabbit nuclear transfer embryos (22.9%). In conclusion, fibroblast cells of leopard, lion, and tiger were successfully synchronized and used for the development of blastocysts using rabbit oocytes as recipient cytoplasm.

  4. Misconceptions of Emergent Semiconductor Phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Katherine G.

    The semiconductor field of Photovoltaics (PV) has experienced tremendous growth, requiring curricula to consider ways to promote student success. One major barrier to success students may face when learning PV is the development of misconceptions. The purpose of this work was to determine the presence and prevalence of misconceptions students may have for three PV semiconductor phenomena; Diffusion, Drift and Excitation. These phenomena are emergent, a class of phenomena that have certain characteristics. In emergent phenomena, the individual entities in the phenomena interact and aggregate to form a self-organizing pattern that can be observed at a higher level. Learners develop a different type of misconception for these phenomena, an emergent misconception. Participants (N=41) completed a written protocol. The pilot study utilized half of these protocols (n = 20) to determine the presence of both general and emergent misconceptions for the three phenomena. Once the presence of both general and emergent misconceptions was confirmed, all protocols (N=41) were analyzed to determine the presence and prevalence of general and emergent misconceptions, and to note any relationships among these misconceptions (full study). Through written protocol analysis of participants' responses, numerous codes emerged from the data for both general and emergent misconceptions. General and emergent misconceptions were found in 80% and 55% of participants' responses, respectively. General misconceptions indicated limited understandings of chemical bonding, electricity and magnetism, energy, and the nature of science. Participants also described the phenomena using teleological, predictable, and causal traits, indicating participants had misconceptions regarding the emergent aspects of the phenomena. For both general and emergent misconceptions, relationships were observed between similar misconceptions within and across the three phenomena, and differences in misconceptions were

  5. Superradiant control of γ-ray propagation by vibrating nuclear arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiwen; Svidzinsky, Anatoly A.

    2013-09-01

    The collective nature of light interactions with atomic and nuclear ensembles yields the fascinating phenomena of superradiance and radiation trapping. We study the interaction of γ rays with a coherently vibrating periodic array of two-level nuclei. Such nuclear motion can be generated, e.g., in ionic crystals illuminated by a strong driving optical laser field. We find that deflection of the incident γ beam into the Bragg angle can be switched on and off by nuclear vibrations on a superradiant time scale determined by the collective nuclear frequency Ωa, which is of the order of terahertz. Namely, if the incident γ wave is detuned from the nuclear transition by frequency Δ≫Ωa it passes through the static nuclear array. However, if the nuclei vibrate with frequency Δ then parametric resonance can yield energy transfer into the Bragg deflected beam on the superradiant time scale, which can be used for fast control of γ rays.

  6. Investigations of natural groundwater hazards at the proposed Yucca Mountain high level nuclear waste repository. Part A: Geology at Yucca Mountain. Part B: Modeling of hydro-tectonic phenomena relevant to Yucca Mountain. Annual report - Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Szymanski, J.S.; Schluter, C.M.; Livingston, D.E.

    1993-05-01

    This document is an annual report describing investigations of natural groundwater hazards at the proposed Yucca Mountain, Nevada High-Level Nuclear Waste Repository.This document describes research studies of the origin of near surface calcite/silica deposits at Yucca Mountain. The origin of these deposits is controversial and the authors have extended and strengthened the basis of their arguments for epigenetic, metasomatic alteration of the tuffs at Yucca Mountain. This report includes stratigraphic, mineralogical, and geochronological information along with geochemical data to support the conclusions described by Livingston and Szymanski, and others. As part of their first annual report, they take this opportunity to clarify the technical basis of their concerns and summarize the critical geological field evidence and related information. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  7. Face it: collecting mental health and disaster related data using Facebook vs. personal interview: the case of the 2011 Fukushima nuclear disaster.

    PubMed

    Ben-Ezra, Menachem; Palgi, Yuval; Aviel, Or; Dubiner, Yonit; Evelyn Baruch; Soffer, Yechiel; Shrira, Amit

    2013-06-30

    Collecting mental health data during disaster is a difficult task. The aim of this study was to compare reported sensitive information regarding the disaster and general questions on physical or psychological functioning between social network (Facebook) interview and face-to-face interview after the 2011 Fukushima nuclear disaster. Data were collected from a battery of self-reported questionnaires. The questionnaires were administered to 133 face-to-face participants and to 40 Facebook interviewees, during March-April 2011. The face-to-face interview group showed a significantly higher level of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and elevated risk for clinical level of PTSD and reported more worries about another disaster, lower life satisfaction, less perceived social support and lower self-rated health than the Facebook group. Our data may suggest that the reliability of internet surveys is jeopardized during extreme conditions such as large-scale disasters as it tends to underestimate the reactions to such events. This indicates the discrepancy from data collected in situ to data collected using social networks. The implications of these results are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Unsteady flow phenomena in turbomachines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greitzer, Edward M.; Epstein, Alan H.; Giles, Michael B.; McCune, James E.; Tan, Choon S.

    1990-01-01

    Work carried out at the Gas Turbine Laboratory at M.I.T. as part of the multi-investigator effort on basic unsteady flow phenomena is described. Within the overall project, four separate tasks are specified. These are, in brief: unsteady flow in compressors; computational techniques for unsteady flows; unsteady phenomena, inlet distortion, and flow instabilities in multistage compressors; and unsteady vortical wakes behind blade rows - prediction of relationships with blade properties.

  9. Schizoid phenomena in substance abusers.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Ralph H

    2002-01-01

    It is hypothesized that the spectrum of schizoid disorders, schizoid phenomena, and the underlying psychodynamics can often be found in the gamut of addictions and stand in the way of recovery. Features of schizoidness, the varieties of schizoid presentations, the etiology and pathogenesis of drug/alcohol abuse in the schizoid, and readily clinically apparent psychodynamic features are discussed. Schizoid phenomena can be dealt with effectively with an informed psychotherapy.

  10. Toward Understanding Astrophysical Phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luan, Jing

    2015-06-01

    I hope to resume working on fast radio bursts (FRBs) in the near future. But after we completed our FRB paper, I decided to pause this project because of the lack of observational constraints. The pulsar triple system, J0733+1715, has its orbital parameters fitted to high accuracy owing to the precise timing of the central ms pulsar. The two orbits are highly hierarchical, namely Porb,1 " Porb,2, where 1 and 2 label the inner and outer white dwarf (WD) companions respectively. Moreover, their orbital planes almost coincide, providing a unique opportunity to study secular interaction associated purely with eccentricity beyond the solar system. Secular interaction only involves effect averaged over many orbits. Thus each companion can be represented by an elliptical wire with its mass distributed inversely proportional to its local orbital speed. Generally there exists a mutual torque, which vanishes only when their apsidal lines are parallel or anti-parallel. To maintain either mode, the eccentricity ratio, e1/ e2, must be of the proper value, so that both apsidal lines precess together. For J0733+1715, e1 " e2 for the parallel mode, while e 1 " e2 for the anti-parallel one. We show that the former precesses ˜10 times slower than the latter. Currently the system is dominated by the parallel mode. Although only a little anti-parallel mode survives, both eccentricities especially e1 oscillate on ˜103yr timescale. Detectable changes would occur within ˜1y. We demonstrate that the anti-parallel mode gets damped ˜10 4 times faster than its parallel brother by any dissipative process diminishing e1. If it is the tidal damping in the inner WD, we proceed to estimate its tidal quantity parameter (Q) to be ˜106, which was poorly constrained by observations. However, tidal damping may also happen during the preceding low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB) phase or hydrogen thermal nuclear flashes. But, in both cases, the inner companion fills its Roche lobe and probably suffers

  11. Removal of Radiocesium from Food by Processing: Data Collected after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident - 13167

    SciTech Connect

    Uchida, Shigeo; Tagami, Keiko

    2013-07-01

    Removal of radiocesium from food by processing is of great concern following the accident of TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. Foods in markets are monitored and recent monitoring results have shown that almost all food materials were under the standard limit concentration levels for radiocesium (Cs-134+137), that is, 100 Bq kg{sup -1} in raw foods, 50 Bq kg{sup -1} in baby foods, and 10 Bq kg{sup -1} in drinking water; those food materials above the limit cannot be sold. However, one of the most frequently asked questions from the public is how much radiocesium in food would be removed by processing. Hence, information about radioactivity removal by processing of food crops native to Japan is actively sought by consumers. In this study, the food processing retention factor, F{sub r}, which is expressed as total activity in processed food divided by total activity in raw food, is reported for various types of corps. For white rice at a typical polishing yield of 90-92% from brown rice, the F{sub r} value range was 0.42-0.47. For leafy vegetable (indirect contamination), the average F{sub r} values were 0.92 (range: 0.27-1.2) after washing and 0.55 (range: 0.22-0.93) after washing and boiling. The data for some fruits are also reported. (authors)

  12. Spatial variations of tritium concentrations in groundwater collected in the southern coastal region of Fukushima, Japan, after the nuclear accident.

    PubMed

    Kashiwaya, Koki; Muto, Yuta; Kubo, Taiki; Ikawa, Reo; Nakaya, Shinji; Koike, Katsuaki; Marui, Atsunao

    2017-10-03

    Spatial variations in tritium concentrations in groundwater were identified in the southern part of the coastal region in Fukushima Prefecture, Japan. Higher tritium concentrations were measured at wells near the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (F1NPS). Mean tritium concentrations in precipitation in the 5 weeks after the F1NPS accident were estimated to be 433 and 139 TU at a distance of 25 and 50 km, respectively, from the F1NPS. The elevations of tritium concentrations in groundwater were calculated using a simple mixing model of the precipitation and groundwater. By assuming that these precipitation was mixed into groundwater with a background tritium concentration in a hypothetical well, concentrations of 13 and 7 TU at distances of 25 and 50 km from the F1NPS, respectively, were obtained. The calculated concentrations are consistent with those measured at the studied wells. Therefore, the spatial variation in tritium concentrations in groundwater was probably caused by precipitation with high tritium concentrations as a result of the F1NPS accident. However, the highest estimated tritium concentrations in precipitation for the study site were much lower than the WHO limits for drinking water, and the concentrations decreased to almost background level at the wells by mixing with groundwater.

  13. Electromagnetic pulse (EMP): Phenomena, simulation, and hardening. (Latest citations from the INSPEC database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning natural and nuclear electromagnetic pulse (EMP) phenomena, simulation, and hardening. Topics include analyses, evaluations, and simulations of EMP interactions, and EMP coupling with various susceptible systems, devices, objects, and materials. Protective methods and technology for specific devices and overall premises are included along with testing methodologies and experimental results from simulated EMP phenomena. Computer aided analysis of EMP phenomena is also included. (Contains a minimum of 222 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  14. Electromagnetic pulse (EMP): Phenomena, simulation, and hardening. (Latest citations from the INSPEC database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-02-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning natural and nuclear electromagnetic pulse (EMP) phenomena, simulation, and hardening. Topics include analyses, evaluations, and simulations of EMP interactions, and EMP coupling with various susceptible systems, devices, objects, and materials. Protective methods and technology for specific devices and overall premises are included along with testing methodologies and experimental results from simulated EMP phenomena. Computer aided analysis of EMP phenomena is also included. (Contains a minimum of 240 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  15. The Unique Ability of the Electron-Positron (Epo) Lattice (Epola) Model of Space to Explain the Natural Causes of All Known Physical Features and Phenomena, Extrinsic to Nuclear Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simhony, Menahem

    1999-10-01

    The binding energy _bE of an epo pair in the epola is 1.02 MeV. In an epola spot, deformed by a "guest" nucleus, such a quantum can be absorbed; this frees an epo pair off bonds, making it appear to our detection. The epo lattice constant is 4.4 fm, 50 R_e. Thus atomic bodies can move in the epola, sweeping their constituent nuclei and electrons between epola particles, creating EM de Broglie waves in the epola space, but no winds or currents. Starting a motion provides the energy of the bound epola particles that vibrate in the waves. This led us to answer the question WHY there is inertia. Epola deformations by masses of constituent nuclear particles of atomic bodies led us to answer the question WHY there is gravity. Epola deformations by electric charges and magnetism of the particles lead to answer the questions of HOW and WHY does space carry and transfer with the speed c of light the tremendous gravitational and EM interaction forces, energies, and radiations. The lattice structure per se causes all quantizations, and the applicability of the otherwise "divine" principles of uncertainty, exclusion, particle-wave duality, universality of our backyard findings, etc. 1.M.Simhony, The Epola Space, 1990, 160 pp, and The Story of Matter and Space, 1999, 70 pp (available from the author). M.Simhony, Invitation to the Natural Physics or Matter, Space, and Radiation, World Scientific, 1994. See the website: http://come.to/natural_physics

  16. Teaching optical phenomena with Tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, M.; Simeão Carvalho, P.

    2014-11-01

    Since the invention and dissemination of domestic laser pointers, observing optical phenomena is a relatively easy task. Any student can buy a laser and experience at home, in a qualitative way, the reflection, refraction and even diffraction phenomena of light. However, quantitative experiments need instruments of high precision that have a relatively complex setup. Fortunately, nowadays it is possible to analyse optical phenomena in a simple and quantitative way using the freeware video analysis software ‘Tracker’. In this paper, we show the advantages of video-based experimental activities for teaching concepts in optics. We intend to show: (a) how easy the study of such phenomena can be, even at home, because only simple materials are needed, and Tracker provides the necessary measuring instruments; and (b) how we can use Tracker to improve students’ understanding of some optical concepts. We give examples using video modelling to study the laws of reflection, Snell’s laws, focal distances in lenses and mirrors, and diffraction phenomena, which we hope will motivate teachers to implement it in their own classes and schools.

  17. The nuclear symmetry energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldo, M.; Burgio, G. F.

    2016-11-01

    The nuclear symmetry energy characterizes the variation of the binding energy as the neutron to proton ratio of a nuclear system is varied. This is one of the most important features of nuclear physics in general, since it is just related to the two component nature of the nuclear systems. As such it is one of the most relevant physical parameters that affect the physics of many phenomena and nuclear processes. This review paper presents a survey of the role and relevance of the nuclear symmetry energy in different fields of research and of the accuracy of its determination from the phenomenology and from the microscopic many-body theory. In recent years, a great interest was devoted not only to the Nuclear Matter symmetry energy at saturation density but also to its whole density dependence, which is an essential ingredient for our understanding of many phenomena. We analyze the nuclear symmetry energy in different realms of nuclear physics and astrophysics. In particular we consider the nuclear symmetry energy in relation to nuclear structure, astrophysics of Neutron Stars and supernovae, and heavy ion collision experiments, trying to elucidate the connections of these different fields on the basis of the symmetry energy peculiarities. The interplay between experimental and observational data and theoretical developments is stressed. The expected future developments and improvements are schematically addressed, together with most demanded experimental and theoretical advances for the next few years.

  18. Triaxially deformed relativistic point-coupling model for Λ hypernuclei: A quantitative analysis of the hyperon impurity effect on nuclear collective properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, W. X.; Yao, J. M.; Hagino, K.; Li, Z. P.; Mei, H.; Tanimura, Y.

    2015-02-01

    Background: The impurity effect of hyperons on atomic nuclei has received a renewed interest in nuclear physics since the first experimental observation of appreciable reduction of E 2 transition strength in low-lying states of the hypernucleus Λ7Li . Many more data on low-lying states of Λ hypernuclei will be measured soon for s d -shell nuclei, providing good opportunities to study the Λ impurity effect on nuclear low-energy excitations. Purpose: We carry out a quantitative analysis of the Λ hyperon impurity effect on the low-lying states of s d -shell nuclei at the beyond-mean-field level based on a relativistic point-coupling energy density functional (EDF), considering that the Λ hyperon is injected into the lowest positive-parity (Λs) and negative-parity (Λp) states. Method: We adopt a triaxially deformed relativistic mean-field (RMF) approach for hypernuclei and calculate the Λ binding energies of hypernuclei as well as the potential-energy surfaces (PESs) in the (β ,γ ) deformation plane. We also calculate the PESs for the Λ hypernuclei with good quantum numbers by using a microscopic particle rotor model (PRM) with the same relativistic EDF. The triaxially deformed RMF approach is further applied in order to determine the parameters of a five-dimensional collective Hamiltonian (5DCH) for the collective excitations of triaxially deformed core nuclei. Taking 25,27Mg Λ and Si31Λ as examples, we analyze the impurity effects of Λs and Λp on the low-lying states of the core nuclei. Results: We show that Λs increases the excitation energy of the 21+ state and decreases the E 2 transition strength from this state to the ground state by 12 %to17 % . On the other hand, Λp tends to develop pronounced energy minima with larger deformation, although it modifies the collective parameters in such a way that the collectivity of the core nucleus can be either increased or decreased. Conclusions: The quadrupole deformation significantly affects the

  19. Transport Phenomena and Materials Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kou, Sindo

    1996-10-01

    An extremely useful guide to the theory and applications of transport phenomena in materials processing This book defines the unique role that transport phenomena play in materials processing and offers a graphic, comprehensive treatment unlike any other book on the subject. The two parts of the text are, in fact, two useful books. Part I is a very readable introduction to fluid flow, heat transfer, and mass transfer for materials engineers and anyone not yet thoroughly familiar with the subject. It includes governing equations and boundary conditions particularly useful for studying materials processing. For mechanical and chemical engineers, and anyone already familiar with transport phenomena, Part II covers the many specific applications to materials processing, including a brief description of various materials processing technologies. Readable and unencumbered by mathematical manipulations (most of which are allocated to the appendixes), this book is also a useful text for upper-level undergraduate and graduate-level courses in materials, mechanical, and chemical engineering. It includes hundreds of photographs of materials processing in action, single and composite figures of computer simulation, handy charts for problem solving, and more. Transport Phenomena and Materials Processing: * Describes eight key materials processing technologies, including crystal growth, casting, welding, powder and fiber processing, bulk and surface heat treating, and semiconductor device fabrication * Covers the latest advances in the field, including recent results of computer simulation and flow visualization * Presents special boundary conditions for transport phenomena in materials processing * Includes charts that summarize commonly encountered boundary conditions and step-by-step procedures for problem solving * Offers a unique derivation of governing equations that leads to both overall and differential balance equations * Provides a list of publicly available computer

  20. Toward Understanding the Microscopic Origin of Nuclear Clustering

    SciTech Connect

    Okolowicz, J.; Nazarewicz, Witold

    2013-01-01

    Open Quantum System (OQS) description of a many-body system involves interaction of Shell Model (SM) states through the particle continuum. In realistic nuclear applications, this interaction may lead to collective phenomena in the ensemble of SM states. We claim that the nuclear clustering is an emergent, near-threshold phenomenon, which cannot be elucidated within the Closed Quantum System (CQS) framework. We approach this problem by investigating the near-threshold behavior of Exceptional Points (EPs) in the realistic Continuum Shell Model (CSM). The consequences for the alpha-clustering phenomenon are discussed.

  1. Abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neuzil, C.E.

    1995-01-01

    So-called abnormal pressures, subsurface fluid pressures significantly higher or lower than hydrostatic, have excited speculation about their origin since subsurface exploration first encountered them. Two distinct conceptual models for abnormal pressures have gained currency among earth scientists. The static model sees abnormal pressures generally as relict features preserved by a virtual absence of fluid flow over geologic time. The hydrodynamic model instead envisions abnormal pressures as phenomena in which flow usually plays an important role. This paper develops the theoretical framework for abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena, shows that it explains the manifold occurrences of abnormal pressures, and examines the implications of this approach. -from Author

  2. Undergraduates' understanding of cardiovascular phenomena.

    PubMed

    Michael, Joel A; Wenderoth, Mary Pat; Modell, Harold I; Cliff, William; Horwitz, Barbara; McHale, Philip; Richardson, Daniel; Silverthorn, Dee; Williams, Stephen; Whitescarver, Shirley

    2002-12-01

    Undergraduates students in 12 courses at 8 different institutions were surveyed to determine the prevalence of 13 different misconceptions (conceptual difficulties) about cardiovascular function. The prevalence of these misconceptions ranged from 20 to 81% and, for each misconception, was consistent across the different student populations. We also obtained explanations for the students' answers either as free responses or with follow-up multiple-choice questions. These results suggest that students have a number of underlying conceptual difficulties about cardiovascular phenomena. One possible source of some misconceptions is the students' inability to apply simple general models to specific cardiovascular phenomena. Some implications of these results for teachers of physiology are discussed.

  3. Testing prediction capabilities of an 131I terrestrial transport model by using measurements collected at the Hanford nuclear facility.

    PubMed

    Apostoaei, A Iulian

    2005-05-01

    A model describing transport of 131I in the environment was developed by SENES Oak Ridge, Inc., for assessment of radiation doses and excess lifetime risk from 131I atmospheric releases from Oak Ridge Reservation in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, and from Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory in southeast Idaho. This paper describes the results of an exercise designed to test the reliability of this model and to identify the main sources of uncertainty in doses and risks estimated by this model. The testing of the model was based on materials published by the International Atomic Energy Agency BIOMASS program, specifically environmental data collected after the release into atmosphere of 63 curies of 131I during 2-5 September 1963, after an accident at the Hanford PUREX Chemical Separations Plant, in Hanford, Washington. Measurements of activity in air, vegetation, and milk were collected in nine counties around Hanford during the first couple of months after the accident. The activity of 131I in the thyroid glands of two children was measured 47 d after the accident. The model developed by SENES Oak Ridge, Inc., was used to estimate concentrations of 131I in environmental media, thyroid doses for the general population, and the activity of 131I in thyroid glands of the two children. Predicted concentrations of 131I in pasture grass and milk and thyroid doses were compared with similar estimates produced by other modelers. The SENES model was also used to estimate excess lifetime risk of thyroid cancer due to the September 1963 releases of 131I from Hanford. The SENES model was first calibrated and then applied to all locations of interest around Hanford without fitting the model parameters to a given location. Predictions showed that the SENES model reproduces satisfactorily the time-dependent and the time-integrated measured concentrations in vegetation and milk, and provides reliable estimates of 131I activity in thyroids of children. SENES model

  4. Collective instabilities

    SciTech Connect

    K.Y. Ng

    2003-08-25

    The lecture covers mainly Sections 2.VIII and 3.VII of the book ''Accelerator Physics'' by S.Y. Lee, plus mode-coupling instabilities and chromaticity-driven head-tail instability. Besides giving more detailed derivation of many equations, simple interpretations of many collective instabilities are included with the intention that the phenomena can be understood more easily without going into too much mathematics. The notations of Lee's book as well as the e{sup jwt} convention are followed.

  5. The presence of nuclear families in prehistoric collective burials revisited: the bronze age burial of Montanissell Cave (Spain) in the light of aDNA.

    PubMed

    Simón, Marc; Jordana, Xavier; Armentano, Nuria; Santos, Cristina; Díaz, Nancy; Solórzano, Eduvigis; López, Joan B; González-Ruiz, Mercedes; Malgosa, Assumpció

    2011-11-01

    Ancient populations have commonly been thought to have lived in small groups where extreme endogamy was the norm. To contribute to this debate, a genetic analysis has been carried out on a collective burial with eight primary inhumations from Montanissell Cave in the Catalan pre-Pyrenees. Radiocarbon dating clearly placed the burial in the Bronze Age, around 3200 BP. The composition of the group-two adults (one male, one female), one young woman, and five children from both sexes-seemed to represent the structure of a typical nuclear family. The genetic evidence proves this assumption to be wrong. In fact, at least five out of the eight mitochondrial haplotypes were different, denying the possibility of a common maternal ancestor for all of them. Nevertheless, 50% of the inhumations shared haplogroup J, so the possibility of a maternal relationship cannot be ruled out. Actually, combining different analyses performed using ancient and living populations, the probability of having four related J individuals in Montanissell Cave would range from 0.9884 to 0.9999. Owing to the particularities of this singular collective burial (small number of bodies placed altogether in a hidden cave, the evidence of non-simultaneous interments, close dating and unusual grave goods), we suggest that it might represent a small group with a patrilocal mating system.

  6. Discovery potential for new phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    Godfrey, S.; Hewett, J.L.; Price, L.E.

    1997-03-01

    The authors examine the ability of future facilities to discover and interpret non-supersymmetric new phenomena. The authors first explore explicit manifestations of new physics, including extended gauge sectors, leptoquarks, exotic fermions, and technicolor models. They then take a more general approach where new physics only reveals itself through the existence of effective interactions at lower energy scales.

  7. Visualizing Chemical Phenomena in Microdroplets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Sunghee; Wiener, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Phenomena that occur in microdroplets are described to the undergraduate chemistry community. Droplets having a diameter in the micrometer range can have unique and interesting properties, which arise because of their small size and, especially, their high surface area-to-volume ratio. Students are generally unfamiliar with the characteristics of…

  8. Quantum Phenomena Observed Using Electrons

    SciTech Connect

    Tonomura, Akira

    2011-05-06

    Electron phase microscopy based on the Aharonov-Bohm (AB) effect principle has been used to illuminate fundamental phenomena concerning magnetism and superconductivity by visualizing quantitative magnetic lines of force. This paper deals with confirmation experiments on the AB effect, the magnetization process of tiny magnetic heads for perpendicular recording, and vortex behaviors in high-Tc superconductors.

  9. Visualizing Chemical Phenomena in Microdroplets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Sunghee; Wiener, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Phenomena that occur in microdroplets are described to the undergraduate chemistry community. Droplets having a diameter in the micrometer range can have unique and interesting properties, which arise because of their small size and, especially, their high surface area-to-volume ratio. Students are generally unfamiliar with the characteristics of…

  10. The (137)Cs activity concentration of suspended and dissolved fractions in irrigation waters collected from the 80 km zone around TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station.

    PubMed

    Tsukada, Hirofumi; Nihira, Satoshi; Watanabe, Takashi; Takeda, Satoru

    2017-08-11

    Fifty-four samples of irrigation water were collected in 2014 from agricultural ponds, rivers, and dams within the 80 km zone around TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (FDNPS). The samples were filtered with a 0.45 μm pore-size membrane filter to produce suspended and dissolved fractions. The (137)Cs activity concentration of the suspended fraction varied from 1.5 to 300 Bq g(-1) dry weight and was significantly higher than that in the soil around each sampling site. The range of (137)Cs activity concentrations in the dissolved fraction varied over three orders of magnitude at 0.0075-6.7 Bq l(-1), which was a larger range than that of the suspended fraction; the higher values for samples were from within the 20 km zone. In the dissolved fraction 87 ± 9% of the (137)Cs (n = 37) was in a monovalent cationic form (Cs(+)) and therefore potentially mobile. The distribution coefficient (Kd) ranged from 4100 to 2,100,000; the geometric mean value (110,000) was higher than that reported by the IAEA (2010). The geometric mean Kd of samples collected from the 20 km zone was 61,000 (n = 27), which was significantly lower than that collected from 20 to 80 km zone (200,000, n = 27). The Kd-value was negative correlated with the concentration of stable (133)Cs and the electric conductivity in the dissolved fraction. This shows relatively higher mobility of radiocaesium in irrigation waters may occur when there are higher contents of cations present. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Diffraction phenomena in elastic scattering of heavy ions

    SciTech Connect

    Kotlyar, V.V.; Shebeko, A.V.

    1981-08-01

    Nuclear diffraction phenomena in elastic scattering of heavy ions are studied in the intermediate energy range. Examination is carried out using the strong absorption models for the S-matrix in the angular momentum representation. New asymptotic expressions for the diffraction scattering amplitudes are obtained. The main attention is paid to the study of the relation between the Fresnel and the Fraunhofer parts of the amplitudes obtained in different regions of scattering angles.

  12. Single event phenomena: A summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, W. E.; Coss, J. R.

    1989-04-01

    Single event phenomena (SEP) are effects resulting from a single particle inducing a significant response in an integrated circuit. SEP are of greatest concern to spacecraft designers but are becoming of concern to avionics and large earth-bound electronic systems due to the continual reduction in size (which increases SEP sensitivity) of circuit elements. The phenomena include soft error and multiple errors in memory cells or logic latches, latchup, MOSFET power device burnout, MNOS punch-through and transients. Cyclotron and Van de Graaff accelerators are used to produce heavy ions, protons and neutrons which induce SEP effects. Methods of testing are described. Solutions to SEP are varied, but include parts substitutions or redesign and software solutions which will be described.

  13. Thermodynamic constraints on fluctuation phenomena.

    PubMed

    Maroney, O J E

    2009-12-01

    The relationships among reversible Carnot cycles, the absence of perpetual motion machines, and the existence of a nondecreasing globally unique entropy function form the starting point of many textbook presentations of the foundations of thermodynamics. However, the thermal fluctuation phenomena associated with statistical mechanics has been argued to restrict the domain of validity of this basis of the second law of thermodynamics. Here we demonstrate that fluctuation phenomena can be incorporated into the traditional presentation, extending rather than restricting the domain of validity of the phenomenologically motivated second law. Consistency conditions lead to constraints upon the possible spectrum of thermal fluctuations. In a special case this uniquely selects the Gibbs canonical distribution and more generally incorporates the Tsallis distributions. No particular model of microscopic dynamics need be assumed.

  14. Statistical phenomena in particle beams

    SciTech Connect

    Bisognano, J.J.

    1984-09-01

    Particle beams are subject to a variety of apparently distinct statistical phenomena such as intrabeam scattering, stochastic cooling, electron cooling, coherent instabilities, and radiofrequency noise diffusion. In fact, both the physics and mathematical description of these mechanisms are quite similar, with the notion of correlation as a powerful unifying principle. In this presentation we will attempt to provide both a physical and a mathematical basis for understanding the wide range of statistical phenomena that have been discussed. In the course of this study the tools of the trade will be introduced, e.g., the Vlasov and Fokker-Planck equations, noise theory, correlation functions, and beam transfer functions. Although a major concern will be to provide equations for analyzing machine design, the primary goal is to introduce a basic set of physical concepts having a very broad range of applicability.

  15. Molecular model for chirality phenomena.

    PubMed

    Latinwo, Folarin; Stillinger, Frank H; Debenedetti, Pablo G

    2016-10-21

    Chirality is a hallmark feature for molecular recognition in biology and chemical physics. We present a three-dimensional continuum model for studying chirality phenomena in condensed phases using molecular simulations. Our model system is based upon a simple four-site molecule and incorporates non-trivial kinetic behavior, including the ability to switch chirality or racemize, as well as thermodynamics arising from an energetic preference for specific chiral interactions. In particular, we introduce a chiral renormalization parameter that can locally favor either homochiral or heterochiral configurations. Using this model, we explore a range of chirality-specific phenomena, including the kinetics of chiral inversion, the mechanism of spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking in the liquid, chirally driven liquid-liquid phase separation, and chiral crystal structures.

  16. Thermodynamic constraints on fluctuation phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maroney, O. J. E.

    2009-12-01

    The relationships among reversible Carnot cycles, the absence of perpetual motion machines, and the existence of a nondecreasing globally unique entropy function form the starting point of many textbook presentations of the foundations of thermodynamics. However, the thermal fluctuation phenomena associated with statistical mechanics has been argued to restrict the domain of validity of this basis of the second law of thermodynamics. Here we demonstrate that fluctuation phenomena can be incorporated into the traditional presentation, extending rather than restricting the domain of validity of the phenomenologically motivated second law. Consistency conditions lead to constraints upon the possible spectrum of thermal fluctuations. In a special case this uniquely selects the Gibbs canonical distribution and more generally incorporates the Tsallis distributions. No particular model of microscopic dynamics need be assumed.

  17. New phenomena searches at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Soha, Aron; /UC, Davis

    2006-04-01

    The authors report on recent results from the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) experiment, which is accumulating data from proton-antiproton collisions with {radical}s = 1.96 TeV at Run II of the Fermilab Tevatron. The new phenomena being explored include Higgs, Supersymmetry, and large extra dimensions. They also present the latest results of searches for heavy objects, which would indicate physics beyond the Standard Model.

  18. Mathematical Modeling of Diverse Phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, J. C.

    1979-01-01

    Tensor calculus is applied to the formulation of mathematical models of diverse phenomena. Aeronautics, fluid dynamics, and cosmology are among the areas of application. The feasibility of combining tensor methods and computer capability to formulate problems is demonstrated. The techniques described are an attempt to simplify the formulation of mathematical models by reducing the modeling process to a series of routine operations, which can be performed either manually or by computer.

  19. Visualization of solidification front phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Workman, Gary L.; Smith, Guy A.

    1993-01-01

    Directional solidification experiments have been utilized throughout the Materials Processing in Space Program to provide an experimental platform which minimizes variables in solidification experiments. Because of the wide-spread use of this experimental technique in space-based research, it has become apparent that a better understanding of all the phenomena occurring during solidification can be better understood if direct visualization of the solidification interface were possible.

  20. Estimation of the collective ionizing dose in the Portuguese population for the years 2011 and 2012, due to nuclear medicine exams.

    PubMed

    Costa, F; Teles, P; Nogueira, A; Barreto, A; Santos, A I; Carvalho, A; Martins, B; Oliveira, C; Gaspar, C; Barros, C; Neves, D; Costa, D; Rodrigues, E; Godinho, F; Alves, F; Cardoso, G; Cantinho, G; Conde, I; Vale, J; Santos, J; Isidoro, J; Pereira, J; Salgado, L; Rézio, M; Vieira, M; Simãozinho, P; Almeida, P; Castro, R; Parafita, R; Pintão, S; Lúcio, T; Reis, T; Vaz, P

    2015-01-01

    In 2009-2010 a Portuguese consortium was created to implement the methodologies proposed by the Dose Datamed II (DDM2) project, aiming to collect data from diagnostic X-ray and nuclear medicine (NM) procedures, in order to determine the most frequently prescribed exams and the associated ionizing radiation doses for the Portuguese population. The current study is the continuation of this work, although it focuses only on NM exams for the years 2011 and 2012. The annual frequency of each of the 28 selected NM exams and the average administered activity per procedure was obtained by means of a nationwide survey sent to the 35 NM centres in Portugal. The results show a reduction of the number of cardiac exams performed in the last two years compared with 2010, leading to a reduction of the annual average effective dose of Portuguese population due to NM exams from 0.08 mSv ± 0.017 mSv/caput to 0.059 ± 0.011 mSv/caput in 2011 and 0.054 ± 0.011 mSv/caput in 2012. Portuguese total annual average collective effective dose due to medical procedures was estimated to be 625.6 ± 110.9 manSv in 2011 and 565.1 ± 117.3 manSv in 2012, a reduction in comparison with 2010 (840.3 ± 183.8 manSv). The most frequent exams and the ones that contributed the most for total population dose were the cardiac and bone exams, although a decrease observed in 2011 and in 2012 was verified. The authors intend to perform this study periodically to identify trends in the annual Portuguese average effective dose and to help to raise awareness about the potential dose optimization. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  1. Collective resonant phenomena on small bodies in the solar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Froeschle, Ch.; Froeschle, C.

    1992-03-01

    The role resonances play in the orbital evolutions of asteroids, meteor streams, and comets is examined. Crossing of separatrixlike zones is argued to be crucial for the formation of arcs and for the dissolution of streams. The orbital inclination of a meteor stream appears to be a critical parameter for arc formation. Numerical results obtained in any other context show that the competition between the Poynting-Robertson drag and the gravitational interaction of grains near the 2/1 resonance might be very important over the long term for the structure of meteor streams.

  2. Concentrations of Radiocesium in Local Foods Collected in Kawauchi Village after the Accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orita, Makiko; Nakashima, Kanami; Hayashida, Naomi; Endo, Yuuko; Yamashita, Shunichi; Takamura, Noboru

    2016-06-01

    We evaluated the current concentrations of radiocesium in local foods collected in Kawauchi Village, which is located less than 30 km from Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, to minimize public anxiety regarding internal radiation exposure through the consumption of locally produced foods after the 2011 Fukushima accident. The number of samples exceeding the regulatory radiocesium limit (100 Bq/kg for general foods) was five out of 4,080 vegetables (0.1%), 652 of 1,986 (32.8%) among edible wild plants and fungi, and eight of 647 (1.2%) in fruits. Our study confirmed that the internal radiation doses of ingesting these foods are acceptably low compared to the public dose limit, ranging from 24.4 to 42.7 μSv for males and from 21.7 to 43.4 μSv for females, although the potential for radiation exposure still exists. Long-term comprehensive follow-up should take place to clarify trends in radiocesium concentrations in local foods and the committed effective doses found in Fukushima-area residents. By constructing a system that allows residents to access information on radiocesium concentration in foods, a risk communication model between specialists and residents could be developed in the recovery phase after the Fukushima accident.

  3. Populations genetic analysis of nuclear and mitochondrial loci in skin biopsies collected from central and northeastern North Atlantic humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae): population identity and migratory destinations.

    PubMed

    Larsen, A H; Sigurjónsson, J; Oien, N; Vikingsson, G; Palsbøll, P

    1996-11-22

    It has been speculated that humpback whales, Megaptera novaeangliae, from the northeastern North Atlantic breed in tropical waters off the coast of West Africa and therefore that they represent a separate breeding population from that which winters in the West Indies. We determined the genotype at six microsatellite loci as well as the sequence of the first 288 nucleotides in the mitochondrial control region of 133 skin biopsies collected from humpback whales in the central North Atlantic (Iceland and Jan Mayen) and the northeastern North Atlantic (Bear Island and the northern coast of Norway). We detected no significant deviations from Hardy-Weinberg proportions nor any differences in genotype frequencies between localities at the nuclear loci. However, the mitochondrial analyses revealed two distinct matrilineal aggregations: the central and the northeastern North Atlantic. Our findings were not compatible with the idea of a separate eastern North Atlantic breeding ground unless one has been established recently. The proposed alternative hypothesis of a common North Atlantic panmictic population (wintering primarily in the West Indies) in which individual whales display maternally directed site-fidelity to specific feeding grounds was supported by re-sightings of two northeastern North Atlantic humpback whales in the West Indies.

  4. Specific activity and activity ratios of radionuclides in soil collected about 20 km from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant: Radionuclide release to the south and southwest.

    PubMed

    Tagami, Keiko; Uchida, Shigeo; Uchihori, Yukio; Ishii, Nobuyoshi; Kitamura, Hisashi; Shirakawa, Yoshiyuki

    2011-10-15

    Soil samples at different depths (0-2, 5-7 and 10-12cm) were collected from J Village, about 20km south of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP) to determine their radionuclide specific activities and activity ratios. The concentrations and activity ratios of (131)I, (134, 136, 137)Cs and (129m)Te were obtained, but only trace amounts of (95)Nb, (110m)Ag and (140)La were detected which were too low to provide accurate concentrations. Radionuclides such as (95)Zr, (103, 106)Ru and (140)Ba that were found in Chernobyl fallout, were not found in these soil samples. This suggests that noble gasses and volatile radionuclides predominated in the releases from FNPP to the terrestrial environment. The average activity ratios of (131)I/(137)Cs, (134)Cs/(137)Cs, (136)Cs/(137)Cs and (129m)Te/(137)Cs were 55, 0.90, 0.22 and 4.0 (corrected to March 11, 2011) in the 0-2cm soil samples of April 20 and 28, 2011.

  5. Concentrations of Radiocesium in Local Foods Collected in Kawauchi Village after the Accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station.

    PubMed

    Orita, Makiko; Nakashima, Kanami; Hayashida, Naomi; Endo, Yuuko; Yamashita, Shunichi; Takamura, Noboru

    2016-06-23

    We evaluated the current concentrations of radiocesium in local foods collected in Kawauchi Village, which is located less than 30 km from Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, to minimize public anxiety regarding internal radiation exposure through the consumption of locally produced foods after the 2011 Fukushima accident. The number of samples exceeding the regulatory radiocesium limit (100 Bq/kg for general foods) was five out of 4,080 vegetables (0.1%), 652 of 1,986 (32.8%) among edible wild plants and fungi, and eight of 647 (1.2%) in fruits. Our study confirmed that the internal radiation doses of ingesting these foods are acceptably low compared to the public dose limit, ranging from 24.4 to 42.7 μSv for males and from 21.7 to 43.4 μSv for females, although the potential for radiation exposure still exists. Long-term comprehensive follow-up should take place to clarify trends in radiocesium concentrations in local foods and the committed effective doses found in Fukushima-area residents. By constructing a system that allows residents to access information on radiocesium concentration in foods, a risk communication model between specialists and residents could be developed in the recovery phase after the Fukushima accident.

  6. Compression and immersion tests and leaching of radionuclides, stable metals, and chelating agents from cement-solidified decontamination waste collected from nuclear power stations

    SciTech Connect

    Akers, D.W.; Kraft, N.C.; Mandler, J.W.

    1994-06-01

    A study was performed for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to evaluate structural stability and leachability of radionuclides, stable metals, and chelating agents from cement-solidified decontamination ion-exchange resin wastes collected from seven commercial boiling water reactors and one pressurized water reactor. The decontamination methods used at the reactors were the Can-Decon, AP/Citrox, Dow NS-1, and LOMI processes. Samples of untreated resin waste and solidified waste forms were subjected to immersion and compressive strength testing. Some waste-form samples were leach-tested using simulated groundwaters and simulated seawater for comparison with the deionized water tests that are normally performed to assess waste-form leachability. This report presents the results of these tests and assesses the effects of the various decontamination methods, waste form formulations, leachant chemical compositions, and pH of the leachant on the structural stability and leachability of the waste forms. Results indicate that releases from intact and degraded waste forms are similar and that the behavior of some radionuclides such as {sup 55}Fe, {sup 60}Co, and {sup 99}Tc were similar. In addition, the leachability indexes are greater than 6.0, which meets the requirement in the NRC`s ``Technical Position on Waste Form,`` Revision 1.

  7. Concentrations of Radiocesium in Local Foods Collected in Kawauchi Village after the Accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station

    PubMed Central

    Orita, Makiko; Nakashima, Kanami; Hayashida, Naomi; Endo, Yuuko; Yamashita, Shunichi; Takamura, Noboru

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the current concentrations of radiocesium in local foods collected in Kawauchi Village, which is located less than 30 km from Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, to minimize public anxiety regarding internal radiation exposure through the consumption of locally produced foods after the 2011 Fukushima accident. The number of samples exceeding the regulatory radiocesium limit (100 Bq/kg for general foods) was five out of 4,080 vegetables (0.1%), 652 of 1,986 (32.8%) among edible wild plants and fungi, and eight of 647 (1.2%) in fruits. Our study confirmed that the internal radiation doses of ingesting these foods are acceptably low compared to the public dose limit, ranging from 24.4 to 42.7 μSv for males and from 21.7 to 43.4 μSv for females, although the potential for radiation exposure still exists. Long-term comprehensive follow-up should take place to clarify trends in radiocesium concentrations in local foods and the committed effective doses found in Fukushima-area residents. By constructing a system that allows residents to access information on radiocesium concentration in foods, a risk communication model between specialists and residents could be developed in the recovery phase after the Fukushima accident. PMID:27334847

  8. A Guide to Nuclear Weapons Phenomena and Effects Literature

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-10-31

    electromagnetic pulse FEMA Federal Emergency Management Agency HE high-explosive HEART Hydrometer Erosion and Recession Test (program) xl HEMP high...of personnel who have responsibility for EMP protection of new HEMP -protected facilities. Evaluation of Methodologies for Estimating Vulnerability to

  9. Glossary of Terms--Nuclear Weapon Phenomena and Effects

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-02-15

    said to be fraction- ated [38]. As a result of fractionation, the delayed fallout generally contains relatively more of strontium-90 and cesium -137...See neutrons, prompt, gamma ray(s) prompt.) Sfr radiation, recoil. Disintegration radiations accompanied by a recoil movement of a dis

  10. Materials issues in nuclear environments: A history of unanticipated phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    Garner, F.A.

    1995-10-01

    The development of spallation neutron sources for plutonium conversion, transmutation of waste or energy production will most likely lead to designs and/or materials that exceed the envelope of existing knowledge concerning the response of such materials in the new irradiation environment. If previous history can be used as a guide, it is inevitable that some previously unanticipated phenomenon will arise, requiring the development of an irradiation test program to define the behavior and limitations of the materials.

  11. Heat Transfer Phenomena in Supercritical Water Nuclear Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Mark H. Anderson; MichaelL. Corradini; Riccardo Bonazza; Jeremy R. Licht

    2007-10-03

    A supercritical water heat transfer facility has been built at the University of Wisconsin to study heat transfer in ancircular and square annular flow channel. A series of integral heat transfer measurements has been carried out over a wide range of heat flux, mas velocity and bulk water temperatures at a pressure of 25 MPa. The circular annular test section geometry is a 1.07 cm diameter heater rod within a 4.29 diameter flow channel.

  12. Correlated randomness and switching phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanley, H. E.; Buldyrev, S. V.; Franzese, G.; Havlin, S.; Mallamace, F.; Kumar, P.; Plerou, V.; Preis, T.

    2010-08-01

    One challenge of biology, medicine, and economics is that the systems treated by these serious scientific disciplines have no perfect metronome in time and no perfect spatial architecture-crystalline or otherwise. Nonetheless, as if by magic, out of nothing but randomness one finds remarkably fine-tuned processes in time and remarkably fine-tuned structures in space. Further, many of these processes and structures have the remarkable feature of “switching” from one behavior to another as if by magic. The past century has, philosophically, been concerned with placing aside the human tendency to see the universe as a fine-tuned machine. Here we will address the challenge of uncovering how, through randomness (albeit, as we shall see, strongly correlated randomness), one can arrive at some of the many spatial and temporal patterns in biology, medicine, and economics and even begin to characterize the switching phenomena that enables a system to pass from one state to another. Inspired by principles developed by A. Nihat Berker and scores of other statistical physicists in recent years, we discuss some applications of correlated randomness to understand switching phenomena in various fields. Specifically, we present evidence from experiments and from computer simulations supporting the hypothesis that water’s anomalies are related to a switching point (which is not unlike the “tipping point” immortalized by Malcolm Gladwell), and that the bubbles in economic phenomena that occur on all scales are not “outliers” (another Gladwell immortalization). Though more speculative, we support the idea of disease as arising from some kind of yet-to-be-understood complex switching phenomenon, by discussing data on selected examples, including heart disease and Alzheimer disease.

  13. Phenomena and Diosignes of Aratous

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avgoloupis, S. I.

    2013-01-01

    Aratous (305-240B.C.) was a singular intellectual, writer and poet which engage himself to compose a very interesting astronomical poet, using the "Dactylous sixstage' style, the formal style of the ancient Greek Epic poetry. This astronomic poem of Aratous "Phenomena and Diosignes" became very favorite reading during the Alexandrine, the Romman and the Byzandin eras as well and had received many praises from significant poets and particularly from Hipparchous and from Theonas from Alexandria, an astronomer of 4rth century A.C.(in Greeks)

  14. Gravitational anomaly and transport phenomena.

    PubMed

    Landsteiner, Karl; Megías, Eugenio; Pena-Benitez, Francisco

    2011-07-08

    Quantum anomalies give rise to new transport phenomena. In particular, a magnetic field can induce an anomalous current via the chiral magnetic effect and a vortex in the relativistic fluid can also induce a current via the chiral vortical effect. The related transport coefficients can be calculated via Kubo formulas. We evaluate the Kubo formula for the anomalous vortical conductivity at weak coupling and show that it receives contributions proportional to the gravitational anomaly coefficient. The gravitational anomaly gives rise to an anomalous vortical effect even for an uncharged fluid.

  15. Interpretation of cell culture phenomena.

    PubMed

    Vierck, J L; Dodson, M V

    2000-03-01

    This paper discusses the dilemma of interpreting unusual or abnormal phenomena seen in cell cultures and is not intended to address the statistical design of experiments. Problems that can be encountered when growing cells in experimental situations include low or decreasing cell numbers, abnormal cell morphology, microbial contamination, and detachment of the cell monolayer. If any of these situations occur, it is not realistic to proceed with data analysis until the problem is corrected. The best policy is to attempt to standardize all types of cultures used for analysis and to avoid using any cultures that display atypical characteristics.

  16. PREFACE Integrability and nonlinear phenomena Integrability and nonlinear phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez-Ullate, David; Lombardo, Sara; Mañas, Manuel; Mazzocco, Marta; Nijhoff, Frank; Sommacal, Matteo

    2010-10-01

    research. We hope that this collection of papers will provide a good overview for anyone interested in recent developments in the field of integrability and nonlinear phenomena. [1] Integrable models in nonlinear optics and soliton solutions Degasperis A [2] Hamiltonian PDEs: deformations, integrability, solutions Dubrovin B [3] Smooth and peaked solitons of the CH equation Holm D D and Ivanov R I [4] KP solitons in shallow water Kodama Y [5] Two extensions of 1D Toda hierarchy Takasaki K [6] On the Lax representation of the 2-component KP and 2D Toda hierarchies Guido Carlet and Manuel Manas [7] The q-deformed mKP hierarchy with self-consistent sources, Wronskian solutions and solitons Lin R L, Peng H and Manas M [8] Hodograph solutions of the dispersionless coupled KdV hierarchies, critical points and the Euler-Poisson-Darboux equation Konopelchenko B, Martinez Alonso L and E Medina [9] Non-Hamiltonian generalizations of the dispersionless 2DTL hierarchy Bogdanov L V [10] Squared eigenfunctions and the perturbation theory for the nondegenerate N x N operator: a general outline Kaup D J and Van Gorder R A [11] The noncommutative AKNS system: projection to matrix systems, countable superposition and soliton-like solutions Schiebold C [12] On the soliton solutions of the two-dimensional Toda lattice Biondini G and Wang D [13] Differential algebra of the Painleve property Benes G N and Previato E [14] Klein's curve Braden H W and Northover T P [15] Quantum monodromy and pattern formation Zhilinskii B [16] A symptotics for a special solution to the second member of the Painleve I hierarchy Claeys T [17] Darboux transformation for a two-component derivative nonlinear Schroedinger equation Ling L and Liu Q P [18] Backlund transformations as exact integrable time discretizations for the trigonometric Gaudin model Ragnisco O and Zullo F [19] Exceptional orthogonal polynomials and the Darboux transformation Gomez-Ullate D, Kamran N and Milson R [20] The hydrodynamic Chaplygin

  17. Transport phenomena in nanoporous materials.

    PubMed

    Kärger, Jörg

    2015-01-12

    Diffusion, that is, the irregular movement of atoms and molecules, is a universal phenomenon of mass transfer occurring in all states of matter. It is of equal importance for fundamental research and technological applications. The present review deals with the challenges of the reliable observation of these phenomena in nanoporous materials. Starting with a survey of the different variants of diffusion measurement, it highlights the potentials of "microscopic" techniques, notably the pulsed field gradient (PFG) technique of NMR and the techniques of microimaging by interference microscopy (IFM) and IR microscopy (IRM). Considering ensembles of guest molecules, these techniques are able to directly record mass transfer phenomena over distances of typically micrometers. Their concerted application has given rise to the clarification of long-standing discrepancies, notably between microscopic equilibrium and macroscopic non-equilibrium measurements, and to a wealth of new information about molecular transport under confinement, hitherto often inaccessible and sometimes even unimaginable. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Critical phenomena on k -booklets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grassberger, Peter

    2017-01-01

    We define a "k -booklet" to be a set of k semi-infinite planes with -∞ phenomena: self-avoiding random walks, the Ising model, and percolation. For k =2 , a booklet is equivalent to a single infinite lattice, and for k =1 to a semi-infinite lattice. In both these cases the systems show standard critical phenomena. This is not so for k ≥3 . Self-avoiding walks starting at y =0 show a first-order transition at a shifted critical point, with no power-behaved scaling laws. The Ising model and percolation show hybrid transitions, i.e., the scaling laws of the standard models coexist with discontinuities of the order parameter at y ≈0 , and the critical points are not shifted. In the case of the Ising model, ergodicity is already broken at T =Tc , and not only for T

  19. Functional theories of thermoelectric phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eich, F. G.; Di Ventra, M.; Vignale, G.

    2017-02-01

    We review the progress that has been recently made in the application of time-dependent density functional theory to thermoelectric phenomena. As the field is very young, we emphasize open problems and fundamental issues. We begin by introducing the formal structure of thermal density functional theory, a density functional theory with two basic variables—the density and the energy density—and two conjugate fields—the ordinary scalar potential and Luttinger’s thermomechanical potential. The static version of this theory is contrasted with the familiar finite-temperature density functional theory, in which only the density is a variable. We then proceed to constructing the full time-dependent non equilibrium theory, including the practically important Kohn-Sham equations that go with it. The theory is shown to recover standard results of the Landauer theory for thermal transport in the steady state, while showing greater flexibility by allowing a description of fast thermal response, temperature oscillations and related phenomena. Several results are presented here for the first time, i.e. the proof of invertibility of the thermal response function in the linear regime, the full expression of the thermal currents in the presence of Luttinger’s thermomechanical potential, an explicit prescription for the evaluation of the Kohn-Sham potentials in the adiabatic local density approximation, a detailed discussion of the leading dissipative corrections to the adiabatic local density approximation and the thermal corrections to the resistivity that follow from it.

  20. Collective Electrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mead, Carver A.

    2002-08-01

    In this book Carver Mead offers a radically new approach to the standard problems of electromagnetic theory. Motivated by the belief that the goal of scientific research should be the simplification and unification of knowledge, he describes a new way of doing electrodynamics--collective electrodynamics--that does not rely on Maxwell's equations, but rather uses the quantum nature of matter as its sole basis. Collective electrodynamics is a way of looking at how electrons interact, based on experiments that tell us about the electrons directly. (As Mead points out, Maxwell had no access to these experiments.) The results Mead derives for standard electromagnetic problems are identical to those found in any text. Collective electrodynamics reveals, however, that quantities that we usually think of as being very different are, in fact, the same--that electromagnetic phenomena are simple and direct manifestations of quantum phenomena. Mead views his approach as a first step toward reformulating quantum concepts in a clear and comprehensible manner. The book is divided into five sections: magnetic interaction of steady currents, propagating waves, electromagnetic energy, radiation in free space, and electromagnetic interaction of atoms. In an engaging preface, Mead tells how his approach to electromagnetic theory was inspired by his interaction with Richard Feynman. Carver A. Mead is the Gordon and Betty Moore Professor of Engineering and Applied Science, Emeritus, at the California Institute of Technology. He won the 1999 Lemelson-MIT Prize for Invention and Innovation.

  1. Isotopic compositions of (236)U and Pu isotopes in "black substances" collected from roadsides in Fukushima prefecture: fallout from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident.

    PubMed

    Sakaguchi, Aya; Steier, Peter; Takahashi, Yoshio; Yamamoto, Masayoshi

    2014-04-01

    Black-colored road dusts were collected in high-radiation areas in Fukushima Prefecture. Measurement of (236)U and Pu isotopes and (134,137)Cs in samples was performed to confirm whether refractory elements, such as U and Pu, from the fuel core were discharged and to ascertain the extent of fractionation between volatile and refractory elements. The concentrations of (134,137)Cs in all samples were exceptionally high, ranging from 0.43 to 17.7 MBq/kg, respectively. (239+240)Pu was detected at low levels, ranging from 0.15 to 1.14 Bq/kg, and with high (238)Pu/(239+240)Pu activity ratios of 1.64-2.64. (236)U was successfully determined in the range of (0.28 to 6.74) × 10(-4) Bq/kg. The observed activity ratios for (236)U/(239+240)Pu were in reasonable agreement with those calculated for the fuel core inventories, indicating that trace amounts of U from the fuel cores were released together with Pu isotopes but without large fractionation. The quantities of U and (239+240)Pu emitted to the atmosphere were estimated as 3.9 × 10(6) Bq (150 g) and 2.3 × 10(9) Bq (580 mg), respectively. With regard to U, this is the first report to give a quantitative estimation of the amount discharged. Appreciable fractionation between volatile and refractory radionuclides associated with the dispersal/deposition processes with distance from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant was found.

  2. Radiocesium concentrations in the bark, sapwood and heartwood of three tree species collected at Fukushima forests half a year after the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear accident.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Katsushi; Kagawa, Akira; Tonosaki, Mario

    2013-08-01

    Radiocesium ((134)Cs and (137)Cs) distribution in tree stems of Japanese cedar (aged 40-56 y), red pine (42 y), and oak (42 y) grown in Fukushima Prefecture were investigated approximately half a year after the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear accident. Japanese cedar, red pine, and oak were selected from five sites, one site, and one site, respectively. Three trees at each site were felled, and bark, sapwood (the outer layer of wood in the stem), and heartwood (the inner layer of wood in the stem) separately collected to study radiocesium concentrations measured by gamma-ray spectrometry. The radiocesium deposition densities at the five sites were within the range of 16-1020 kBq m(-2). The radiocesium was distributed in bark, sapwood, and heartwood in three tree species, indicating that very rapid translocation of radiocesium into the wood. The concentration of radiocesium in oak (deciduous angiosperm) bark was higher than that in the bark of Japanese cedar and red pine (evergreen gymnosperms). Both sapwood and heartwood contained radiocesium, and the values were much lower than that in the bark samples. The results suggest that radiocesium contamination half a year after the accident was mainly attributable to the direct radioactive deposition. The radiocesium concentrations in the Japanese cedar samples taken from five sites rose with the density of radiocesium accumulation on the ground surface. To predict the future dynamics of radiocesium in tree stems, the present results taken half a year after the accident are important, and continuous study of radiocesium in tree stems is necessary. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Natural phenomena hazards, Hanford Site, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Conrads, T.J.

    1998-09-29

    This document presents the natural phenomena hazard loads for use in implementing DOE Order 5480.28, Natural Phenomena Hazards Mitigation, and supports development of double-shell tank systems specifications at the Hanford Site in south-central Washington State. The natural phenomena covered are seismic, flood, wind, volcanic ash, lightning, snow, temperature, solar radiation, suspended sediment, and relative humidity.

  4. Fundamental investigation of duct/ESP phenomena. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, C.A.; Durham, M.D.; Sowa, W.A.; Himes, R.M.; Mahaffey, W.A.

    1991-10-21

    Radian Corporation was contracted to investigate duct injection and ESP phenomena in a 1.7 MW pilot plant constructed for this test program. This study was an attempt to resolve problems found in previous studies and answer remaining questions for the technology using an approach which concentrates on the fundamental mechanisms of the process. The goal of the study was to obtain a better understanding of the basic physical and chemical phenomena that control: (1) the desulfurization of flue gas by calcium-based reagent, and (2) the coupling of an existing ESP particulate collection device to the duct injection process. Process economics are being studied by others. (VC)

  5. Time-dependent density-functional description of nuclear dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakatsukasa, Takashi; Matsuyanagi, Kenichi; Matsuo, Masayuki; Yabana, Kazuhiro

    2016-10-01

    The basic concepts and recent developments in the time-dependent density-functional theory (TDDFT) for describing nuclear dynamics at low energy are presented. The symmetry breaking is inherent in nuclear energy density functionals, which provides a practical description of important correlations at the ground state. Properties of elementary modes of excitation are strongly influenced by the symmetry breaking and can be studied with TDDFT. In particular, a number of recent developments in the linear response calculation have demonstrated their usefulness in the description of collective modes of excitation in nuclei. Unrestricted real-time calculations have also become available in recent years, with new developments for quantitative description of nuclear collision phenomena. There are, however, limitations in the real-time approach; for instance, it cannot describe the many-body quantum tunneling. Thus, the quantum fluctuations associated with slow collective motions are explicitly treated assuming that time evolution of densities is determined by a few collective coordinates and momenta. The concept of collective submanifold is introduced in the phase space associated with the TDDFT and used to quantize the collective dynamics. Selected applications are presented to demonstrate the usefulness and quality of the new approaches. Finally, conceptual differences between nuclear and electronic TDDFT are discussed, with some recent applications to studies of electron dynamics in the linear response and under a strong laser field.

  6. Flow reduction due to degassing and redissolution phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    Doughty, C.

    1995-03-01

    At the Stripa mine in Sweden, flow and transport experiments in a water-saturated fractured granite were conducted to investigate techniques for site characterization for a geologic nuclear waste repository. In the Simulated Drift Experiment, measured water inflow to an excavated drift with pressure held at 1 bar was only 1/9th the value expected based on inflow to boreholes with pressure held at 2.7 bars. Several physical and chemical mechanisms were hypothesized to be responsible for this reduction in flow. One possibility is that significant degassing of dissolved nitrogen takes place between 2.7 and 1 bars, credating a two-phase regime with an accompanying decrease in fluid mobility, resulting in a decrease in flow to the drift. To investigate this process, theoretical studies on degassing and redissolution phenomena have been carried out, beginning with an idealized model which yields a simple analytical solution, then relaxing some of the simplifying assumptions and using TOUGH2 to study the phenomena numerically. In conjunction with these theoretical studies, laboratory experiments on flow and degassing in transparent fracture replicas are being carried out, and are being used to check the modeling approach. We need to develop a fundamental understanding of degassing and redissolution in particular and two-phase flow phenomena in general for flow in fractures and fracture networks, in order to successfully model conditions around a nuclear waste repository, where long time and large space scales may preclude conclusive field experiments.

  7. Nuclear Nonproliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Atkins-Duffin, C E

    2008-12-10

    With an explosion equivalent of about 20kT of TNT, the Trinity test was the first demonstration of a nuclear weapon. Conducted on July 16, 1945 in Alamogordo, NM this site is now a Registered National Historic Landmark. The concept and applicability of nuclear power was demonstrated on December 20, 1951 with the Experimental Breeder Reactor Number One (EBR-1) lit four light bulbs. This reactor is now a Registered National Historic Landmark, located near Arco, ID. From that moment forward it had been clearly demonstrated that nuclear energy has both peaceful and military applications and that the civilian and military fuel cycles can overlap. For the more than fifty years since the Atoms for Peace program, a key objective of nuclear policy has been to enable the wider peaceful use of nuclear energy while preventing the spread of nuclear weapons. Volumes have been written on the impact of these two actions on the world by advocates and critics; pundits and practioners; politicians and technologists. The nations of the world have woven together a delicate balance of treaties, agreements, frameworks and handshakes that are representative of the timeframe in which they were constructed and how they have evolved in time. Collectively these vehicles attempt to keep political will, nuclear materials and technology in check. This paper captures only the briefest abstract of the more significant aspects on the Nonproliferation Regime. Of particular relevance to this discussion is the special nonproliferation sensitivity associated with the uranium isotope separation and spent fuel reprocessing aspects of the nuclear fuel cycle.

  8. Earthquake prediction with electromagnetic phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    Hayakawa, Masashi

    2016-02-01

    Short-term earthquake (EQ) prediction is defined as prospective prediction with the time scale of about one week, which is considered to be one of the most important and urgent topics for the human beings. If this short-term prediction is realized, casualty will be drastically reduced. Unlike the conventional seismic measurement, we proposed the use of electromagnetic phenomena as precursors to EQs in the prediction, and an extensive amount of progress has been achieved in the field of seismo-electromagnetics during the last two decades. This paper deals with the review on this short-term EQ prediction, including the impossibility myth of EQs prediction by seismometers, the reason why we are interested in electromagnetics, the history of seismo-electromagnetics, the ionospheric perturbation as the most promising candidate of EQ prediction, then the future of EQ predictology from two standpoints of a practical science and a pure science, and finally a brief summary.

  9. Cathode phenomena in plasma thrusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrade, H. O.; Auweter-Kurtz, M.; Kurtz, H. L.

    1987-05-01

    Processes at the arc cathode attachment decisively determine the entire discharge behavior of almost all arc devices and therefore also of MPD and/or arc jet thrusters. One well known process occurring on spotty arc attachments in a transverse magnetic field is the fact that the cathode spots move or jump in the direction opposite to the Lorentzian rule. In pulsed thruster devices with cold cathodes and very likely also in continuously running thrusters with so-called thermionic-seemingly diffuse attachments of hot surfaces, the arc attachment consists of many high current density spots. These spots can stick or spread upstream and thereby overheat the insulating material of the back-plate of the thruster. In this paper an explanation of the phenomena of spot motion is presented.

  10. 76 FR 72982 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request

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  6. Phenomena associated with magma expansion into a drift

    SciTech Connect

    Gaffney, E. S.

    2002-01-01

    One of the significant threats to the proposed Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository has been identified as the possibility of intersection of the underground structure by a basaltic intrusion. Based on the geology of the region, it is assumed that such an intrusion would consist of an alkali basalt similar to the nearby Lathrop Wells cone, which has been dated at about 78 ka. The threat of radioactive release may be either from eruption through the surface above the repository of basalt that had been contaminated or from migration through ground water of radionucleides released as a result of damage to waste packages that interact with the magma. As part of our study of these threats, we are analyzing the phenomena associated with magma expansion into drifts in tuff. The early phenomena of the encounter of volatile-rich basaltic magma with a drift are discussed here.

  7. Directions for nuclear research in the transplutonium elements

    SciTech Connect

    Wilhelmy, J.B.; Chasman, R.R.; Friedman, A.M.; Ahmad, I.

    1983-01-01

    The study of the heavy nuclides has played a vital role in our understanding of the alpha decay process, nuclear fission, nuclear binding energies and the limits of nuclear stability. This study has led to the understanding of novel shape degrees of freedom, such as the very large quadrupole deformations associated with the fission isomer process, and the very recently discovered octupole deformation. The existence of these unique phenomena in the heavy element region is not accidental. Fission isomerism is due to the delicate balance between nuclear forces holding the nucleus together and Coulomb forces causing nuclear fission. Octupole deformation arises from the increasing strength of matrix elements with increasing oscillator shell. Both illustrate the unique features of the heavy element region. Fission studies have given us information about large collective aspects in nuclei and the importance that nuclear structural effects can play in altering these macro properties. A new class of atomic studies has become possible with the availability of heavy elements. With these isotopes, we are now able to produce electric fields of such magnitude that it becomes possible to spontaneously create positron-electron pairs in the vacuum. We have organized this presentation into three major sections: nuclear structure, fission studies and atomic studies of supercritical systems. In each we will try to emphasize the new directions which can benefit from the continued availability of isotopes supplied by the Trans-plutonium Production Program. 117 references. (WHK)

  8. Effects of Social Psychological Phenomena on School Psychologists' Ethical Decision-Making: A Preliminary Empirical Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klose, Laurie McGarry; Lasser, Jon; Reardon, Robert F.

    2012-01-01

    This preliminary, exploratory study examines the impact of select social psychological phenomena on school-based ethical decision-making of school psychologists. Responses to vignettes and hypothetical statements reflecting several social psychological phenomena were collected from 106 practicing school psychologists. Participants were asked to…

  9. Ordering Phenomena in Undercooled Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Fultz, Brent

    1997-07-17

    Much of the work performed under this grant was devoted to using modern ideas in kinetics to understand atom movements in metallic alloys far from thermodynamic equilibrium. Kinetics arguments were based explicitly on the vacancy mechanism for atom movements. The emphasis was on how individual atom movements are influenced by the local chemical environment of the moving atom, and how atom movements cause changes in the local chemical environments. The author formulated a kinetic master equation method to treat atom movements on a crystal lattice with a vacancy mechanism. Some of these analyses [3,10,16] are as detailed as any treatment of the statistical kinetics of atom movements in crystalline alloys. Three results came from this work. Chronologically they were (1) A recognition that tracking time dependencies is not necessarily the best way to study kinetic phenomena. If multiple order parameters can be measured in a material, the ''kinetic path'' through the space spanned by these order parameters maybe just as informative about the chemical factors that affect atom movements [2,3,5-7,9-11,14-16,18,19,21,23,24,26,36,37]. (2) Kinetic paths need not follow the steepest gradient of the free energy function (this should be well-known), and for alloys far from equilibrium the free energy function can be almost useless in describing kinetic behavior. This is why the third result surprised me. (3) In cluster approximations with multiple order parameters, saddle points are common features of free energy functions. Interestingly, kinetic processes stall or change time scale when the kinetic path approaches a state at a saddle point in the free energy function, even though these states exist far from thermodynamic equilibrium. The author calls such a state a ''pseudostable'' (falsely stable) state [6,21,26]. I have also studied these phenomena by more ''exact'' Monte Carlo simulations. The kinetic paths showed features similar to those found in analytical theories. The

  10. Electromagnetic pulse (EMP): Phenomena, simulation, and hardening. (Latest citations from the INSPEC database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning natural and nuclear electromagnetic pulse (EMP) phenomena, simulation, and hardening. Topics include analyses, evaluations, and simulations of EMP interactions, and EMP coupling with various susceptible systems, devices, objects, and materials. Protective methods and technology for specific devices and overall premises are included along with testing methodologies and experimental results from simulated EMP phenomena. Computer aided analysis of EMP phenomena is also included. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  11. EDITORIAL: Quantum phenomena in Nanotechnology Quantum phenomena in Nanotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loss, Daniel

    2009-10-01

    Twenty years ago the Institute of Physics launched the journal Nanotechnology from its publishing house based in the home town of Paul Dirac, a legendary figure in the development of quantum mechanics at the turn of the last century. At the beginning of the 20th century, the adoption of quantum mechanical descriptions of events transformed the existing deterministic world view. But in many ways it also revolutionised the progress of research itself. For the first time since the 17th century when Francis Bacon established inductive reasoning as the means of advancing science from fact to axiom to law, theory was progressing ahead of experiments instead of providing explanations for observations that had already been made. Dirac's postulation of antimatter through purely theoretical investigation before its observation is the archetypal example of theory leading the way for experiment. The progress of nanotechnology and the development of tools and techniques that enabled the investigation of systems at the nanoscale brought with them many fascinating observations of phenomena that could only be explained through quantum mechanics, first theoretically deduced decades previously. At the nanoscale, quantum confinement effects dominate the electrical and optical properties of systems. They also render new opportunities for manipulating the response of systems. For example, a better understanding of these systems has enabled the rapid development of quantum dots with precisely determined properties, which can be exploited in a range of applications from medical imaging and photovoltaic solar cells to quantum computation, a radically new information technology being currently developed in many labs worldwide. As the first ever academic journal in nanotechnology, {\\it Nanotechnology} has been the forum for papers detailing progress of the science through extremely exciting times. In the early years of the journal, the investigation of electron spin led to the formulation

  12. Global Correlations for Low-Lying Collective 2+ States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Z. Z.; Lei, Y.; Pittel, S.; Bijker, R.

    2017-07-01

    By using the triaxial rotor model and the anharmonic vibrator model with phonon mixing, we derive a global correlation between the quadrupole moments of the two lowest 2+ states in collective nuclei that had previously been observed in experimental data across the periodic table. We then derive other electromagnetic properties for these two models of nuclear structure and compare them globally with experimental data. We find that both models are able to robustly describe the experimental data across the region of nuclei for which the models are applicable, including a large number that they have in common. We then show that there seems to exists a robust orthogonal transformation between these two models for realistic nuclear systems, suggesting that these two seemingly diverse descriptions of quadrupole collective phenomena seem to act in a similar model space and may therefore have a common origin.

  13. Interplay between one-particle and collective degrees of freedom in nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamamoto, Ikuko

    2016-02-01

    Some developments of nuclear-structure physics uniquely related to Copenhagen School are sketched based on theoretical considerations versus experimental findings and one-particle versus collective aspects. Based on my personal overview I pick up the following topics; (1) Study of vibration in terms of particle-vibration coupling; (2) one-particle motion in deformed and rotating potentials, and yrast spectroscopy in high-spin physics; (3) triaxial shape in nuclei: wobbling motion and chiral bands; (4) nuclear structure of drip line nuclei: in particular, shell-structure (or magic numbers) change and spherical or deformed halo phenomena; (5) shell structure in oblate deformation.

  14. WESF natural phenomena hazards survey

    SciTech Connect

    Wagenblast, G.R., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-01

    A team of engineers conducted a systematic natural hazards phenomena (NPH) survey for the 225-B Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF). The survey is an assessment of the existing design documentation to serve as the structural design basis for WESF, and the Interim Safety Basis (ISB). The lateral force resisting systems for the 225-B building structures, and the anchorages for the WESF safety related systems were evaluated. The original seismic and other design analyses were technically reviewed. Engineering judgment assessments were made of the probability of NPH survival, including seismic, for the 225-B structures and WESF safety systems. The method for the survey is based on the experience of the investigating engineers,and documented earthquake experience (expected response) data.The survey uses knowledge on NPH performance and engineering experience to determine the WESF strengths for NPH resistance, and uncover possible weak links. The survey, in general, concludes that the 225-B structures and WESF safety systems are designed and constructed commensurate with the current Hanford Site design criteria.

  15. Breakdown phenomena in rf windows

    SciTech Connect

    Saito, Y.

    1995-07-05

    The multipactor and flashover phenomena of alumina rf windows used in high-power klystrons have been investigated. Multipactoring due to the high yield of secondary electron emission takes place during rf operation. A spectrum analysis of the luminescence due to multipactoring shows that multipactor electron bombardment causes an F-center of alumina, thus leading to surface melting. From the results of a high-power examination of rf windows with several kinds of alumina ceramics, it was found that an alumina material with a crystallized grain-boundary and without any voids between the boundaries, thus having a low loss-tangent value, is not liable to F-centers, even under multipactoring. Flashovers in a tree-like pattern of alumina luminescence occasionally take place on a TiN-coated surface. From the results of surface-charging measurements and high-power examinations of annealed alumina disks, the flashover phenomenon is considered to be an avalanche of electrons which have been trapped in mechanically introduced defects. The effectivenesses of multipactor-suppressing coatings and of a field-reduced window structure were also examined. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.

  16. Understanding empathy and related phenomena.

    PubMed

    Shamasundar, C

    1999-01-01

    Over a period of time, the author arrived at a few tentative postulates concerning empathy and related processes based on some of his experiences and observations. The central theme of these postulates is, firstly, that interpersonal interaction is an interaction of the personal-space fields. Secondly, empathy, therapeutic benefit, and the professional stress are all related to the same process of interpersonal interaction. This interaction takes place as an enmeshment of personal spaces of the interacting individuals, and involves transfer of a wide range of information in the affective, cognitive, and other areas. This is because the personal spaces have fieldlike qualities analogous to what Kurt Lewin described. Thus, such phenomena as empathy, therapeutic benefit, professional stress are all consequences of the same process. It is possible to substantiate these postulates by diverse evidences in the published literature. The natural consequences of such an interpersonal interaction are empathic understanding, transfer of mood states (like hope, distress or expectancy), affective states (like anxiety, sadness, anger or hostility), ideas, images and even attitudes and values, etc. This phenomenon of transfer can explain such processes as therapeutic benefit in individual and group settings, professional stress, shared delusions, and even experimenter bias. Whether one becomes aware of such transferred information or not depends upon the intent and sensitivity of the participants.

  17. Monitoring of Transient Lunar Phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barker, Timothy; Farber, Ryan; Ahrendts, Gary

    2014-06-01

    Transient Lunar Phenomena (TLP’s) are described as short-lived changes in the brightness of areas on the face of the Moon. TLP research is characterized by the inability to substantiate, reproduce, and verify findings. Our current research includes the analysis of lunar images taken with two Santa Barbara Instrument Group (SBIG) ST8-E CCD cameras mounted on two 0.36m Celestron telescopes. On one telescope, we are using a sodium filter, and on the other an H-alpha filter, imaging approximately one-third of the lunar surface. We are focusing on two regions: Hyginus and Ina. Ina is of particular interest because it shows evidence of recent activity (Schultz, P., Staid, M., Pieters, C. Nature, Volume 444, Issue 7116, pp. 184-186, 2006). A total of over 50,000 images have been obtained over approximately 35 nights and visually analyzed to search for changes. As of March, 2014, no evidence of TLPs has been found. We are currently developing a Matlab program to do image analysis to detect TLPs that might not be apparent by visual inspection alone.

  18. Conductance phenomena in microcrystalline cellulose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilsson, M.

    2006-02-01

    We have investigated the conduction phenomena in compacted tablets of cellulose with varying relative humidity (RH) with techniques such as Low Frequency Dielectric Spectroscopy (LFDS) and Transient Current (TC) at room temperature. Two exponential decaying regions in the transient current measurements indicate two ionic species contributing to the conduction mechanism. A high power-law exponent of 9 for the conductance with moisture content has been found. The mobility initially decreases with RH up to monolayer coverage, and further water vapor increases the mobility, indicating a blocking of available positions for the charge carrier ions. When the amount of water molecules present in the tablet increases one order of magnitude, the number of charge carriers increases 5-6 orders of magnitude, suggesting a transition from a power-law increase to a linear effective medium theory for the conduction. The charge carrier dependence on RH suggests that a percolating network of water molecules adsorbed to 6-OH units on the cellulose chain span through the sample. The conductivity mechanisms in cellulose are still not clear.

  19. Electronic phenomena at high pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Drickamer, H.G.

    1981-01-01

    High pressure research is undertaken either to investigate intrinsically high pressure phenomena or in order to get a better understanding of the effect of the chemical environment on properties or processes at one atmosphere. Studies of electronic properties which fall in each area are presented. Many molecules and complexes can assume in the excited state different molecular arrangements and intermolecular forces depending on the medium. Their luminescence emission is then very different in a rigid or a fluid medium. With pressure one can vary the viscosity of the medium by a factor of 10/sup 7/ and thus control the distribution and rate of crossing between the excited state conformations. In rare earth chelates the efficiency of 4f-4f emission of the rare earth is controlled by the feeding from the singlet and triplet levels of the organic ligand. These ligand levels can be strongly shifted by pressure. A study of the effect of pressure on the emission efficiency permits one to understand the effect of ligand chemistry at one atmosphere. At high pressure electronic states can be sufficiently perturbed to provide new ground states. In EDA complexes these new ground states exhibit unusual chemical reactivity and new products.

  20. Exclusive processes: Tests of coherent QCD phenomena and nucleon substructure at CEBAF

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, S.J.

    1994-07-01

    Measurements of exclusive processes such as electroproduction, photoproduction, and Compton scattering are among the most sensitive probes of proton structure and coherent phenomena in quantum chromodynamics. The continuous electron beam at CEBAF, upgraded in laboratory energy to 10--12 GeV, will allow a systematic study of exclusive, semi-inclusive, and inclusive reactions in a kinematic range well-tuned to the study of fundamental nucleon and nuclear substructure. I also discuss the potential at CEBAF for studying novel QCD phenomena at the charm production threshold, including the possible production of nuclear-bound quarkonium.

  1. Pathways toward understanding Macroscopic Quantum Phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, B. L.; Subaşi, Y.

    2013-06-01

    Macroscopic quantum phenomena refer to quantum features in objects of 'large' sizes, systems with many components or degrees of freedom, organized in some ways where they can be identified as macroscopic objects. This emerging field is ushered in by several categories of definitive experiments in superconductivity, electromechanical systems, Bose-Einstein condensates and others. Yet this new field which is rich in open issues at the foundation of quantum and statistical physics remains little explored theoretically (with the important exception of the work of A J Leggett [1], while touched upon or implied by several groups of authors represented in this conference. Our attitude differs in that we believe in the full validity of quantum mechanics stretching from the testable micro to meso scales, with no need for the introduction of new laws of physics.) This talk summarizes our thoughts in attempting a systematic investigation into some key foundational issues of quantum macroscopic phenomena, with the goal of ultimately revealing or building a viable theoretical framework. Three major themes discussed in three intended essays are the large N expansion [2], the correlation hierarchy [3] and quantum entanglement [4]. We give a sketch of the first two themes and then discuss several key issues in the consideration of macro and quantum, namely, a) recognition that there exist many levels of structure in a composite body and only by judicious choice of an appropriate set of collective variables can one give the best description of the dynamics of a specific level of structure. Capturing the quantum features of a macroscopic object is greatly facilitated by the existence and functioning of these collective variables; b) quantum entanglement, an exclusively quantum feature [5], is known to persist to high temperatures [6] and large scales [7] under certain conditions, and may actually decrease with increased connectivity in a quantum network [8]. We use entanglement as a

  2. Intrinsic interfacial phenomena in manganite heterostructures.

    PubMed

    Vaz, C A F; Walker, F J; Ahn, C H; Ismail-Beigi, S

    2015-04-01

    We review recent advances in our understanding of interfacial phenomena that emerge when dissimilar materials are brought together at atomically sharp and coherent interfaces. In particular, we focus on phenomena that are intrinsic to the interface and review recent work carried out on perovskite manganites interfaces, a class of complex oxides whose rich electronic properties have proven to be a useful playground for the discovery and prediction of novel phenomena.

  3. Nuclear weapons and international law

    SciTech Connect

    Pogany, I.

    1987-01-01

    Using two different perspectives, this collection of essays addresses the central legal question of whether the manufacture, deployment, and potential use of nuclear weapons is lawful. In addition, individual chapters focus on a variety of topical issues, including nuclear weapon free zones, nuclear testing, international law and regulations, nuclear weapons and nonproliferation, anti-ballistic missile systems, and the Strategic Defense Initiative.

  4. Combining dehydration, construct optimization and improved data collection to solve the crystal structure of a CRM1-RanGTP-SPN1-Nup214 quaternary nuclear export complex.

    PubMed

    Monecke, Thomas; Dickmanns, Achim; Weiss, Manfred S; Port, Sarah A; Kehlenbach, Ralph H; Ficner, Ralf

    2015-12-01

    High conformational flexibility is an intrinsic and indispensable property of nuclear transport receptors, which makes crystallization and structure determination of macromolecular complexes containing exportins or importins particularly challenging. Here, the crystallization and structure determination of a quaternary nuclear export complex consisting of the exportin CRM1, the small GTPase Ran in its GTP-bound form, the export cargo SPN1 and an FG repeat-containing fragment of the nuclear pore complex component nucleoporin Nup214 fused to maltose-binding protein is reported. Optimization of constructs, seeding and the development of a sophisticated protocol including successive PEG-mediated crystal dehydration as well as additional post-mounting steps were essential to obtain well diffracting crystals.

  5. Observation of Celestial Phenomena in Ancient China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiaochun

    Because of the need for calendar-making and portent astrology, the Chinese were diligent and meticulous observers of celestial phenomena. China has maintained the longest continuous historical records of celestial phenomena in the world. Extraordinary or abnormal celestial events were particularly noted because of their astrological significance. The historical records cover various types of celestial phenomena, which include solar and lunar eclipses, sunspots, "guest stars" (novae or supernovae as we understand today), comets and meteors, and all kinds of planetary phenomena. These records provide valuable historical data for astronomical studies today.

  6. Nuclear Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fossión, Rubén

    2010-09-01

    The atomic nucleus is a typical example of a many-body problem. On the one hand, the number of nucleons (protons and neutrons) that constitute the nucleus is too large to allow for exact calculations. On the other hand, the number of constituent particles is too small for the individual nuclear excitation states to be explained by statistical methods. Another problem, particular for the atomic nucleus, is that the nucleon-nucleon (n-n) interaction is not one of the fundamental forces of Nature, and is hard to put in a single closed equation. The nucleon-nucleon interaction also behaves differently between two free nucleons (bare interaction) and between two nucleons in the nuclear medium (dressed interaction). Because of the above reasons, specific nuclear many-body models have been devised of which each one sheds light on some selected aspects of nuclear structure. Only combining the viewpoints of different models, a global insight of the atomic nucleus can be gained. In this chapter, we revise the the Nuclear Shell Model as an example of the microscopic approach, and the Collective Model as an example of the geometric approach. Finally, we study the statistical properties of nuclear spectra, basing on symmetry principles, to find out whether there is quantum chaos in the atomic nucleus. All three major approaches have been rewarded with the Nobel Prize of Physics. In the text, we will stress how each approach introduces its own series of approximations to reduce the prohibitingly large number of degrees of freedom of the full many-body problem to a smaller manageable number of effective degrees of freedom.

  7. Nuclear Models

    SciTech Connect

    Fossion, Ruben

    2010-09-10

    The atomic nucleus is a typical example of a many-body problem. On the one hand, the number of nucleons (protons and neutrons) that constitute the nucleus is too large to allow for exact calculations. On the other hand, the number of constituent particles is too small for the individual nuclear excitation states to be explained by statistical methods. Another problem, particular for the atomic nucleus, is that the nucleon-nucleon (n-n) interaction is not one of the fundamental forces of Nature, and is hard to put in a single closed equation. The nucleon-nucleon interaction also behaves differently between two free nucleons (bare interaction) and between two nucleons in the nuclear medium (dressed interaction).Because of the above reasons, specific nuclear many-body models have been devised of which each one sheds light on some selected aspects of nuclear structure. Only combining the viewpoints of different models, a global insight of the atomic nucleus can be gained. In this chapter, we revise the the Nuclear Shell Model as an example of the microscopic approach, and the Collective Model as an example of the geometric approach. Finally, we study the statistical properties of nuclear spectra, basing on symmetry principles, to find out whether there is quantum chaos in the atomic nucleus. All three major approaches have been rewarded with the Nobel Prize of Physics. In the text, we will stress how each approach introduces its own series of approximations to reduce the prohibitingly large number of degrees of freedom of the full many-body problem to a smaller manageable number of effective degrees of freedom.

  8. Nuclear Structure at the Limits

    SciTech Connect

    Nazarewicz, Witold

    1997-12-31

    One of the frontiers of today`s nuclear science is the ``journey to the limits``: of atomic charge and nuclear mass, of neutron-to-proton ratio, and of angular momentum. The tour to the limits is not only a quest for new, exciting phenomena but the new data are expected, as well, to bring qualitatively new information about the fundamental properties of the nucleonic many-body system, the nature of the nuclear interaction, and nucleonic correlations at various energy-distance scales. In this talk, current developments in nuclear structure at the limits are discussed from a theoretical perspective.

  9. Wave phenomena in phononic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhovich, Alexey

    Novel wave phenomena in two- and three-dimensional (2D and 3D) phononic crystals were investigated experimentally using ultrasonic techniques. These ultrasonic techniques allow the full wave field to be imaged directly, which is a considerable advantage in fundamental studies of wave propagation in periodic media. Resonant tunnelling of ultrasonic waves was successfully observed for the first time by measuring the transmission of ultrasound pulses through a double barrier consisting of two 3D phononic crystals separated by a cavity. This effect is the classical analogue of resonant tunnelling of a quantum mechanical particle through a double potential barrier, in which transmission reaches unity at resonant frequencies. For phononic crystals, the tunnelling peak was found to be less than unity, an effect that was explained by absorption. Absorption introduces a small propagating component inside the crystals in addition to the dominant evanescent mode at band gap frequencies, and causes leakage of the pulse from the cavity. The dynamics of resonant tunnelling was explored by measuring the group velocities of the ultrasonic pulses. Very slow and very fast velocities were found at frequencies close to and at the resonance, respectively. These extreme values are less than the speed of sound in air and greater than the speed of sound in any of the crystal's constituent materials. Negative refraction and focusing effects in 2D phononic crystals were also observed. Negative refraction of ultrasound was demonstrated unambiguously in a prism-shaped 2D crystal at frequencies in the 2nd pass band, where the equifrequency contours are circular so that the wave vector and group velocity are antiparallel. The Multiple Scattering Theory and Snell's law allowed theoretical predictions of the refraction angles. Excellent agreement was found between theory and experiment. The negative refraction experiments revealed a mechanism that can be used to focus ultrasound using a flat

  10. Understanding of thermoacoustic phenomena and their applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biwa, Tetsushi

    2012-09-01

    The problem of acoustic wave propagation in a tube provides a starting point for the study of thermoacoustic phenomena, which can be analyzed in detail using hydrodynamics. A thermodynamic approach has elucidated various applications of thermoacoustic phenomena. The thermoacoustical perspective unifies these two approaches through acoustical energy flows and facilitates the development of thermoacoustic heat engines.

  11. Simulation of Quantum Phenomena in Nanowire Sensors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-17

    2014 Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited Final Report: Simulation of Quantum Phenomena in Nanowire Sensors The views, opinions and/or...4358 19-Aug-2014 ABSTRACT Final Report: Simulation of Quantum Phenomena in Nanowire Sensors Report Title The vital link between low-energy electron

  12. A Connection between Transport Phenomena and Thermodynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swaney, Ross; Bird, R. Byron

    2017-01-01

    Although students take courses in transport phenomena and thermodynamics, they probably do not ask whether these two subjects are related. Here we give an answer to that question. Specifically we give relationships between the equations of change for total energy, internal energy, and entropy of transport phenomena and key equations of equilibrium…

  13. Understanding the Physics of changing mass phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellermeijer, A. L.

    2008-05-01

    Changing mass phenomena, like a falling chain or a bungee jumper, might give surprising results, even for experienced physicists. They have resulted in hot discussions in journals, in which for instance Physics professors claim the impossibility of an acceleration larger then g in case of a bungee jumper. These phenomena are also interesting as topics for challenging student projects, and used as such by Dutch high school students. I will take these phenomena as the context in which I like to demonstrate the possibilities of ICT in the learning process of physics. Especially dynamical modeling enables us to describe these phenomena in an elegant way and with knowledge of high school mathematics. Furthermore tools for video-analysis and data from measurements with sensors allow us to study the phenomena in experiments. This example demonstrates the level of implementation of ICT in Physics Education in The Netherlands [1].

  14. High energy nuclear structures

    SciTech Connect

    Boguta, J.; Kunz, J.

    1984-03-09

    In conventional nuclear physics the nucleus is described as a non-relativistic many-body system, which is governed by the Schroedinger equation. Nucleons interact in this framework via static two-body potentials, mesonic degrees of freedom are neglected. An alternative description of nuclear physics in terms of a relativistic field theory has been developed by Walecka. The model Lagrangian containing baryons, sigma-mesons and ..omega..-mesons was subsequently extended to include also ..pi..-mesons and rho-mesons. An essential feature of such a nuclear Lagrangian is its renormalizability. In addition to the description of known nuclear structure the field theoretical approach may reveal entirely new nuclear phenomena, based on the explicit treatment of mesonic degrees of freedom. The existence of such abnormal nuclear states was proposed by Lee and Wick employing the sigma-model Lagrangian. There the non-linearity of the meson field equations allows for soliton solutions in the presence of nucleons, in particular the sigma-field may exhibit a kink. Different types of soliton solutions occur in gauge theories with hidden symmetries. In the phenomenological Lagrangian the rho-meson is described by a non-abelian gauge field, that acquires its mass spontaneously due to the non-vanishing vacuum expectation value of a Higgs field. A general ansatz for soliton solutions of such a gauge theory was given by Dashen et al. A specific solution and its possible implications for nuclear physics like anomalous nuclear states were discussed by Boguta.

  15. Polarization phenomena in quantum chromodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, S.J.

    1994-12-01

    The author discusses a number of interrelated hadronic spin effects which test fundamental features of perturbative and nonperturbative QCD. For example, the anomalous magnetic moment of the proton and the axial coupling g{sub A} on the nucleon are shown to be related to each other for fixed proton radius, independent of the form of the underlying three-quark relativistic quark wavefunction. The renormalization scale and scheme ambiguities for the radiative corrections to the Bjorken sum rule for the polarized structure functions can be eliminated by using commensurate scale relations with other observables. Other examples include (a) new constraints on the shape and normalization of the polarized quark and gluon structure functions of the proton at large and small x{sub bj}; (b) consequences of the principle of hadron retention in high x{sub F} inclusive reactions; (c) applications of hadron helicity conservation to high momentum transfer exclusive reactions; and (d) the dependence of nuclear structure functions and shadowing on virtual photon polarization. The author also discusses the implications of a number of measurements which are in striking conflict with leading-twist perturbative QCD predictions, such as the extraordinarily large spin correlation A{sub NN} observed in large angle proton-proton scattering, the anomalously large {rho}{pi} branching ratio of the J/{psi}, and the rapidly changing polarization dependence of both J/{psi} and continuum lepton pair hadroproduction observed at large x{sub F}. The azimuthal angular dependence of the Drell-Yan process is shown to be highly sensitive to the projectile distribution amplitude, the fundamental valence light-cone wavefunction of the hadron.

  16. Assessment of phylogenetic relationship of rare plant species collected from Saudi Arabia using internal transcribed spacer sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA.

    PubMed

    Al-Qurainy, F; Khan, S; Nadeem, M; Tarroum, M; Alaklabi, A

    2013-03-11

    The rare and endangered plants of any country are important genetic resources that often require urgent conservation measures. Assessment of phylogenetic relationships and evaluation of genetic diversity is very important prior to implementation of conservation strategies for saving rare and endangered plant species. We used internal transcribed spacer sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA for the evaluation of sequence identity from the available taxa in the GenBank database by using the Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST). Two rare plant species viz, Heliotropium strigosum claded with H. pilosum (98% branch support) and Pancratium tortuosum claded with P. tenuifolium (61% branch support) clearly. However, some species, viz Scadoxus multiflorus, Commiphora myrrha and Senecio hadiensis showed close relationships with more than one species. We conclude that nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer sequences are useful markers for phylogenetic study of these rare plant species in Saudi Arabia.

  17. Consideration of Initial Nuclear Radiation in an Attack on a Civilian Population

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-03-01

    4 2.Initial Nuclear Radiation. .. ................ 5 D. Thermal and Residual ?Fuclear Radiation ....... 9 E. Blast Casualties...Comparison of Distance and Explosive Yield for Blast, Thermal Radiation, and Components of the Initial Nuclear Radiation Field ..... ........... 15 II...several of the phenomena. Phenomena that occur promptly are air blast and ground shock, thermal radiation and heat, initial nuclear radiation, and

  18. Detonation Phenomena of PBX Microsamples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plaksin, I.; Campos, J.; Ribeiro, J.; Mendes, R.

    2002-07-01

    Detonation study of PBX micro-samples, based in HMX with an inert (HTPB, epoxy) or energetic (GAP) binder was performed on the meso-scale level, using the multifiber optical probes of 50 mum of maximum resolution, connected directly to a fast electronic streak camera with 0.6 ns resolution. The direct 2D observation of particle to particle successive transition of transmitted shock wave, through the binder, allows to analyse and to discuss, not only the cooperative formation of a multihead detonation front (DF), in the collection of particles surrounded by binder, but also the synenergetic effect, behind the DF, by the appearing of dissipative structures drawing spatial and temporal DF oscillations.

  19. Congestion phenomena on complex networks.

    PubMed

    De Martino, Daniele; Dall'asta, Luca; Bianconi, Ginestra; Marsili, Matteo

    2009-01-01

    We define a minimal model of traffic flows in complex networks in order to study the trade-off between topological-based and traffic-based routing strategies. The resulting collective behavior is obtained analytically for an ensemble of uncorrelated networks and summarized in a rich phase diagram presenting second-order as well as first-order phase transitions between a free-flow phase and a congested phase. We find that traffic control improves global performance, enlarging the free-flow region in parameter space only in heterogeneous networks. Traffic control introduces nonlinear effects and, beyond a critical strength, may trigger the appearance of a congested phase in a discontinuous manner. The model also reproduces the crossover in the scaling of traffic fluctuations empirically observed on the Internet.

  20. Synchronization Phenomena and Epoch Filter of Electroencephalogram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matani, Ayumu

    Nonlinear electrophysiological synchronization phenomena in the brain, such as event-related (de)synchronization, long distance synchronization, and phase-reset, have received much attention in neuroscience over the last decade. These phenomena contain more electrical than physiological keywords and actually require electrical techniques to capture with electroencephalography (EEG). For instance, epoch filters, which have just recently been proposed, allow us to investigate such phenomena. Moreover, epoch filters are still developing and would hopefully generate a new paradigm in neuroscience from an electrical engineering viewpoint. Consequently, electrical engineers could be interested in EEG once again or from now on.

  1. Critical phenomena in active matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paoluzzi, Matteo; Marchetti, M. Cristina; Claudio Maggi Collaboration; Umberto Marini Bettolo Marconi Collaboration; Nicoletta Gnan Collaboration

    A collection of active agents can organize in phases with structural properties remarkably similar to those of ordinary materials, such as active gases, liquids and glasses. These phases are formed, however, out of equilibrium, where the machinery of equilibrium statistical mechanics cannot be applied. It has recently been shown that models of particles with Gaussian colored noise can capture some of the nonequilibrium behavior of active Brownian particles, including motility-induced phase separation. By using the Unified Gaussian Colored Noise Approximation (UCNA) it has been possible to obtain an equilibrium-like probability distribution function and an effective free energy for active Brownian particles. Here we employ UCNA to examine the effect of colored noise on mean-field order-disorder transitions. Starting with a φ4 Landau model that undergoes a second-order phase transition as a function of a tuning parameter, we calculate the shift in transition due to colored noise as a function of the noise amplitude and correlation time τ. We find that the transition line exhibits reentrance as a function of τ. The mean-field theoretical predictions are compared with Molecular Dynamics simulations of active Lennard-Jones particles. We acknowledge support from NSF-DMR-1305184.

  2. Nuclear power and nuclear weapons

    SciTech Connect

    Vaughen, V.C.A.

    1983-01-01

    The proliferation of nuclear weapons and the expanded use of nuclear energy for the production of electricity and other peaceful uses are compared. The difference in technologies associated with nuclear weapons and nuclear power plants are described.

  3. Vented nuclear fuel element

    DOEpatents

    Grossman, Leonard N.; Kaznoff, Alexis I.

    1979-01-01

    A nuclear fuel cell for use in a thermionic nuclear reactor in which a small conduit extends from the outside surface of the emitter to the center of the fuel mass of the emitter body to permit escape of volatile and gaseous fission products collected in the center thereof by virtue of molecular migration of the gases to the hotter region of the fuel.

  4. Canister storage building natural phenomena design loads

    SciTech Connect

    Tallman, A.M.

    1996-02-01

    This document presents natural phenomena hazard (NPH) loads for use in the design and construction of the Canister Storage Building (CSB), which will be located in the 200 East Area of the Hanford Site.

  5. Perspective: Emergent magnetic phenomena at interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, Yuri

    2015-06-01

    The discovery of emergent magnetic phenomena is of fundamental and technological interest. This perspective highlights recent promising examples of emergent ferromagnetism at complex oxide interfaces in the context of spin based electronics.

  6. Classifying prion and prion-like phenomena.

    PubMed

    Harbi, Djamel; Harrison, Paul M

    2014-01-01

    The universe of prion and prion-like phenomena has expanded significantly in the past several years. Here, we overview the challenges in classifying this data informatically, given that terms such as "prion-like", "prion-related" or "prion-forming" do not have a stable meaning in the scientific literature. We examine the spectrum of proteins that have been described in the literature as forming prions, and discuss how "prion" can have a range of meaning, with a strict definition being for demonstration of infection with in vitro-derived recombinant prions. We suggest that although prion/prion-like phenomena can largely be apportioned into a small number of broad groups dependent on the type of transmissibility evidence for them, as new phenomena are discovered in the coming years, a detailed ontological approach might be necessary that allows for subtle definition of different "flavors" of prion / prion-like phenomena.

  7. Nuclear rights - nuclear wrongs

    SciTech Connect

    Paul, E.F.; Miller, F.D.; Paul, J.; Ahrens, J.

    1986-01-01

    This book contains 11 selections. The titles are: Three Ways to Kill Innocent Bystanders: Some Conundrums Concerning the Morality of War; The International Defense of Liberty; Two Concepts of Deterrence; Nuclear Deterrence and Arms Control; Ethical Issues for the 1980s; The Moral Status of Nuclear Deterrent Threats; Optimal Deterrence; Morality and Paradoxical Deterrence; Immoral Risks: A Deontological Critique of Nuclear Deterrence; No War Without Dictatorship, No Peace Without Democracy: Foreign Policy as Domestic Politics; Marxism-Leninism and its Strategic Implications for the United States; Tocqueveille War.

  8. Young children's understanding of random phenomena.

    PubMed

    Kuzmak, S D; Gelman, R

    1986-06-01

    2 experiments on the development of the understanding of random phenomena are reported. Of interest was whether children understand the characteristic uncertainty in the physical nature of random phenomena as well as the unpredictability of outcomes. Children were asked, for both a random and a determined phenomenon, whether they knew what its next outcome would be and why. In Experiment 1, 4-, 5-, and 7-year-olds correctly differentiated their responses to the question of outcome predictability; the 2 older groups also mentioned appropriate characteristics of the random mechanism in explaining why they did not know what its outcome would be. Although 3-year-olds did not differentiate the random and determined phenomena, neither did they treat both phenomena as predictable. This latter result is inconsistent with Piaget and Inhelder's characterization of an early stage of development. Experiment 2 was designed to control for the possibility that children in Experiment 1 learned how to respond on the basis of pretest experience with the 2 different phenomena. 5- and 7-year-olds performed at a comparable level to the same-aged children in Experiment 1. Results suggest an earlier understanding of random phenomena than previously has been reported and support results in the literature indicating an early understanding of causality.

  9. Hadrons in the Nuclear Medium

    SciTech Connect

    Misak Sargsian; G.A. Miller; John Arrington; William Bertozzi; Werner Boeglin; Carl Carlson; Donal Day; Leonid Frankfurt; Kim Egiyan; Rolf Ent; Shalev Gilad; Keith Griffioen; Douglas Higinbotham; Sebastian Kuhn; Wally Melnitchouk; Eliezer Piasetzky; Stepan Stepanyan; Mark Strikman; Lawrence Weinstein

    2002-10-01

    Quantum Chromodynamics, the microscopic theory of strong interactions, has not yet been applied to the calculation of nuclear wave functions. However, it certainly provokes a number of specific questions and suggests the existence of novel phenomena in nuclear physics which are not part of the traditional framework of the meson-nucleon description of nuclei. Many of these phenomena are related to high nuclear densities and the role of color in nucleonic interactions. Quantum fluctuations in the spatial separation between nucleons may lead to local high density configurations of cold nuclear matter in nuclei, up to four times larger than typical nuclear densities. We argue here that experiments utilizing the higher energies available upon completion of the Jefferson Laboratory energy upgrade will be able to probe the quark-gluon structure of such high density configurations and therefore elucidate the fundamental nature of nuclear matter. We review three key experimental programs: quasi-elastic electro-disintegration of light nuclei, deep inelastic scattering from nuclei at x>1, and the measurement of tagged structure functions. These interrelated programs are all aimed at the exploration of the quark structure of high density nuclear configurations. The study of the QCD dynamics of elementary hard processes is another important research direction and nuclei provide a unique avenue to explore these dynamics. We argue that the use of nuclear targets and large values of momentum transfer at would allow us to determine whether the physics of the nucleon form factors is dominated by spatially small configurations of three quarks.

  10. Quantum nuclear pasta and nuclear symmetry energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fattoyev, F. J.; Horowitz, C. J.; Schuetrumpf, B.

    2017-05-01

    Complex and exotic nuclear geometries, collectively referred to as "nuclear pasta," are expected to appear naturally in dense nuclear matter found in the crusts of neutron stars and supernovae environments. The pasta geometries depend on the average baryon density, proton fraction, and temperature and are critically important in the determination of many transport properties of matter in supernovae and the crusts of neutron stars. Using a set of self-consistent microscopic nuclear energy density functionals, we present the first results of large scale quantum simulations of pasta phases at baryon densities 0.03 ≤ρ ≤0.10 fm-3 , proton fractions 0.05 ≤Yp≤0.40 , and zero temperature. The full quantum simulations, in particular, allow us to thoroughly investigate the role and impact of the nuclear symmetry energy on pasta configurations. We use the Sky3D code that solves the Skyrme Hartree-Fock equations on a three-dimensional Cartesian grid. For the nuclear interaction we use the state-of-the-art UNEDF1 parametrization, which was introduced to study largely deformed nuclei, hence is suitable for studies of the nuclear pasta. Density dependence of the nuclear symmetry energy is simulated by tuning two purely isovector observables that are insensitive to the current available experimental data. We find that a minimum total number of nucleons A =2000 is necessary to prevent the results from containing spurious shell effects and to minimize finite size effects. We find that a variety of nuclear pasta geometries are present in the neutron star crust, and the result strongly depends on the nuclear symmetry energy. The impact of the nuclear symmetry energy is less pronounced as the proton fractions increase. Quantum nuclear pasta calculations at T =0 MeV are shown to get easily trapped in metastable states, and possible remedies to avoid metastable solutions are discussed.

  11. Analysis of Precipitation (Rain and Snow) Levels and Straight-line Wind Speeds in Support of the 10-year Natural Phenomena Hazards Review for Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, Elizabeth J.; Dewart, Jean Marie; Deola, Regina

    2015-12-10

    This report provides site-specific return level analyses for rain, snow, and straight-line wind extreme events. These analyses are in support of the 10-year review plan for the assessment of meteorological natural phenomena hazards at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). These analyses follow guidance from Department of Energy, DOE Standard, Natural Phenomena Hazards Analysis and Design Criteria for DOE Facilities (DOE-STD-1020-2012), Nuclear Regulatory Commission Standard Review Plan (NUREG-0800, 2007) and ANSI/ ANS-2.3-2011, Estimating Tornado, Hurricane, and Extreme Straight-Line Wind Characteristics at Nuclear Facility Sites. LANL precipitation and snow level data have been collected since 1910, although not all years are complete. In this report the results from the more recent data (1990–2014) are compared to those of past analyses and a 2004 National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration report. Given the many differences in the data sets used in these different analyses, the lack of statistically significant differences in return level estimates increases confidence in the data and in the modeling and analysis approach.

  12. Electromagnetic pulse (EMP): Phenomena, simulation, and hardening. (Latest citations from the INSPEC: Information Services for the Physics and Engineering Communities data base). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning natural and nuclear electromagnetic pulse (EMP) phenomena, simulation, and hardening. Topics include analyses, evaluations, and simulations of EMP interactions, and EMP coupling with various susceptible systems, devices, objects, and materials. Protective methods and technology for specific devices and overall premises are included along with testing methodologies and experimental results from simulated EMP phenomena. Computer aided analysis of EMP phenomena is also included. (Contains a minimum of 196 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  13. A hot tip: imaging phenomena using in situ multi-stimulus probes at high temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nonnenmann, Stephen S.

    2016-02-01

    Accurate high temperature characterization of materials remains a critical challenge to the continued advancement of various important energy, nuclear, electronic, and aerospace applications. Future experimental studies must assist these communities to progress past empiricism and derive deliberate, predictable designs of material classes functioning within active, extreme environments. Successful realization of systems ranging from fuel cells and batteries to electromechanical nanogenerators and turbines requires a dynamic understanding of the excitation, surface-mediated, and charge transfer phenomena which occur at heterophase interfaces (i.e. vapor-solid, liquid-solid, solid-solid) and impact overall performance. Advancing these frontiers therefore necessitates in situ (operando) characterization methods capable of resolving, both spatially and functionally, the coherence between these complex, collective excitations, and their respective response dynamics, through studies within the operating regime. This review highlights recent developments in scanning probe microscopy in performing in situ imaging at high elevated temperatures. The influence of and evolution from vacuum-based electron and tunneling microscopy are briefly summarized and discussed. The scope includes the use of high temperature imaging to directly observe critical phase transition, electronic, and electrochemical behavior under dynamic temperature settings, thus providing key physical parameters. Finally, both challenges and directions in combined instrumentation are proposed and discussed towards the end.

  14. Diversity of threshold phenomena in geophysical media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guglielmi, A. V.

    2017-01-01

    The sample analysis of threshold phenomena in the lithosphere, atmosphere, and magnetosphere is conducted. The phenomena due to the flow of electric current and pore fluid in the rocks are considered, the scenario of wind-driven generation of atmospheric electricity is suggested, and the model of the geomagnetic storm time Dst variation is analyzed. An important general conclusion consists in the fact that in the geophysical media there is a wide class of threshold phenomena that are affine with phase transitions of the second kind. These phenomena are also related to the critical transitions in self-oscillatory systems with soft self-excitation. The integral representation of bifurcation diagrams for threshold phenomena is suggested. This provides a simple way to take into account the influence of the fluctuations on the transition of a system through the threshold. Fluctuations remove singularity at the threshold point and, generally, lead to a certain shifting of the threshold. The question concerning the hard transition through the threshold and several aspects of modeling the blow-up instability which is presumed to occasionally develop in the geophysical media are discussed.

  15. Anomalous Light Phenomena vs. Bioelectric Brain Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teodorani, M.; Nobili, G.

    We present a research proposal concerning the instrumented investigation of anomalous light phenomena that are apparently correlated with particular mind states, such as prayer, meditation or psi. Previous research by these authors demonstrate that such light phenomena can be monitored and measured quite efficiently in areas of the world where they are reported in a recurrent way. Instruments such as optical equipment for photography and spectroscopy, VLF spectrometers, magnetometers, radar and IR viewers were deployed and used massively in several areas of the world. Results allowed us to develop physical models concerning the structural and time-variable behaviour of light phenomena, and their kinematics. Recent insights and witnesses have suggested to us that a sort of "synchronous connection" seems to exist between plasma-like phenomena and particular mind states of experiencers who seem to trigger a light manifestation which is very similar to the one previously investigated. The main goal of these authors is now aimed at the search for a concrete "entanglement-like effect" between the experiencer's mind and the light phenomena, in such a way that both aspects are intended to be monitored and measured simultaneously using appropriate instrumentation. The goal of this research project is twofold: a) to verify quantitatively the existence of one very particular kind of mind-matter interaction and to study in real time its physical and biophysical manifestations; b) to repeat the same kind of experiment using the same test-subject in different locations and under various conditions of geomagnetic activity.

  16. [Spiritual phenomena occurring in everybody and health].

    PubMed

    Krsiak, M

    2008-01-01

    The past several years have seen an explosion of research in the area of spirituality and health. However, confusion and incomprehension of the conception of spirituality (e.g. confounding spirituality with various conventional views on religiousness) hampers better understanding in this area. The present paper proposes definition of spiritual phenomena in man based on natural epistemological and instrumental criteria (whether a certain phenomenon can be objectively known and evoked): spiritual phenomena in man are those, which cannot be objectively known nor evoked, but which act (e.g., love, idea). Spiritual phenomena can be really known only in the self ("in spirit"). Objectively known can be only manifestations of spiritual phenomena. Some attributes of love (e.g. its personal uniqueness) or ideas (e.g., sense of own life) whose satisfaction appears to be important for health are briefly outlined. A review of some frequently cited recent papers investigating the role of spirituality in health and discussion of frequent pitfalls in this area is given. Spirituality is a universal human phenomenon. All human beings, secular or religious, encounter with spiritual phenomena. Although the present conception of spirituality distances from some conventional views on religiousness, it is not atheistic. On the contrary, it accommodates the basic religious concept "God is love". Conceptual clarification is essential for further progress in the study of impact of spirituality on health.

  17. Neuropsychiatric phenomena in the medieval text Cantigas de Santa Maria.

    PubMed

    Gondim, Francisco De Assis Aquino; Griesbach, Sarah H; Thomas, Florian P

    2015-05-12

    To discuss the neuropsychiatric phenomena described in Cantigas de Santa Maria (Canticles of St. Mary [CSM]). CSM is a collection of 427 canticles composed in Galician-Portuguese between 1252 and 1284 at the Court of King Alfonso X the Wise of Spain (1221-1284). The canticles (of which 9 are repeated) include devotional and liturgical poems and 353 narrative stories consisting mainly of depictions of Marian miracles. Most are set to music and many are illustrated. We reviewed the canticles for description of miracles and other neuropsychiatric phenomena. Two neurologists reached a consensus about the descriptions. Of the 353 miracles, 279 medically relevant facts (from 187 canticles) and 25 instances of resurrection were reported. Possible neuropsychiatric conditions were described in 98 canticles. Physicians were mentioned in 16 narratives. The most common neurologic conditions detailed were blindness (n = 17), dystonia, weakness, and deformities (n = 20). Other common conditions included psychosis (n = 15), speech disorder/deaf-mutism (n = 12), infections (n = 15), sexual dysfunction/infertility/obstetrical-gynecologic issues (n = 18), head trauma (n = 5), ergotism/St. Anthony's fire (n = 7), and others. There were 9 instances of prodromic mystical experiences/hallucinations heralding death. While limited by retrospection and interpretation of neuropsychiatric phenomena in the medieval context, these short accounts are among the first descriptions of neuropsychiatric conditions in early Portuguese/Galician. They reflect how medieval societies used rational and irrational approaches to understand occurrences in their lives. © 2015 American Academy of Neurology.

  18. Monitoring corrosion and chemistry phenomena in supercritical aqueous systems

    SciTech Connect

    Macdonald, D.D.; Pang, J.; Liu, C.; Kriksunov, L.; Medina, E.; Villa, J.; Bueno, J.

    1994-12-31

    The in situ monitoring of the chemistry and electrochemistry of aqueous heat transport fluids in thermal (nuclear and fossil) power plants is now considered essential if adequate assessment and close control of corrosion and mass transfer phenomena are to be achieved. Because of the elevated temperatures and pressures involved. new sensor technologies are required that are able to measure key parameters under plant operating conditions for extended periods of time. In this paper, the authors outline a research and development program that is designed to develop practical sensors for use in thermal power plants. The current emphasis is on sensors for measuring corrosion potential, pH, the concentrations of oxygen and hydrogen, and the electrochemical noise generated by corrosion processes at temperatures ranging from {approximately}250 C to 500 C. The program is currently at the laboratory stage, but testing of prototype sensors in a coal-fired supercritical power plant in Spain will begin shortly.

  19. 76 FR 52698 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request AGENCY: Nuclear... internal or external administration of the byproduct material or the radiation there from to human...

  20. 76 FR 32379 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request AGENCY: Nuclear... there is no increased risk to the common defense and security. Submit, by August 5, 2011, comments...

  1. 77 FR 21813 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-11

    ... establishes requirements that are applicable to all persons in the United States governing domestic licensing... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request AGENCY: Nuclear...

  2. Safety culture in the nuclear versus non-nuclear organization

    SciTech Connect

    Haber, S.B.; Shurberg, D.A.

    1996-10-01

    The importance of safety culture in the safe and reliable operation of nuclear organizations is not a new concept. The greatest barriers to this area of research are twofold: (1) the definition and criteria of safety culture for a nuclear organization and (2) the measurement of those attributes in an objective and systematic fashion. This paper will discuss a proposed resolution of those barriers as demonstrated by the collection of data across nuclear and non-nuclear facilities over a two year period.

  3. Concentration of 129I in aquatic biota collected from a lake adjacent to the spent nuclear fuel reprocessing plant in Rokkasho, Japan.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Shinji; Kakiuchi, Hideki; Hasegawa, Hidenao; Kawamura, Hidehisa; Hisamatsu, Shun'ichi

    2015-11-01

    The spent nuclear fuel reprocessing plant in Rokkasho, Japan, has been undergoing final testing since March 2006. During April 2006-October 2008, that spent fuel was cut and chemically processed, the plant discharged (129)I into the atmosphere and coastal waters. To study (129)I behaviour in brackish Lake Obuchi, which is adjacent to the plant, (129)I concentrations in aquatic biota were measured by accelerator mass spectrometry. Owing to (129)I discharge from the plant, the (129)I concentration in the biota started to rise from the background concentration in 2006 and was high during 2007-08. The (129)I concentration has been rapidly decreasing after the fuel cutting and chemically processing were finished. The (129)I concentration factors in the biota were higher than those reported by IAEA for marine organisms and similar to those reported for freshwater biota. The estimated annual committed effective dose due to ingestion of foods with the maximum (129)I concentration in the biota samples was 2.8 nSv y(-1).

  4. Theories of dynamical phenomena in sunspots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, J. H.

    1981-01-01

    Attempts that have been made to understand and explain observed dynamical phenomena in sunspots within the framework of magnetohydrodynamic theory are surveyed. The qualitative aspects of the theory and physical arguments are emphasized, with mathematical details generally avoided. The dynamical phenomena in sunspots are divided into two categories: aperiodic (quasi-steady) and oscillatory. For each phenomenon discussed, the salient observational features that any theory should explain are summarized. The two contending theoretical models that can account for the fine structure of the Evershed motion, namely the convective roll model and the siphon flow model, are described. With regard to oscillatory phenomena, attention is given to overstability and oscillatory convection, umbral oscillations and flashes. penumbral waves, five-minute oscillations in sunspots, and the wave cooling of sunspots.

  5. The making of extraordinary psychological phenomena.

    PubMed

    Lamont, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This article considers the extraordinary phenomena that have been central to unorthodox areas of psychological knowledge. It shows how even the agreed facts relating to mesmerism, spiritualism, psychical research, and parapsychology have been framed as evidence both for and against the reality of the phenomena. It argues that these disputes can be seen as a means through which beliefs have been formulated and maintained in the face of potentially challenging evidence. It also shows how these disputes appealed to different forms of expertise, and that both sides appealed to belief in various ways as part of the ongoing dispute about both the facts and expertise. Finally, it shows how, when a formal Psychology of paranormal belief emerged in the twentieth century, it took two different forms, each reflecting one side of the ongoing dispute about the reality of the phenomena. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Nuclear Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badawi, Ramsey D.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the use of nuclear medicine techniques in diagnosis and therapy. Describes instrumentation in diagnostic nuclear medicine and predicts future trends in nuclear medicine imaging technology. (Author/MM)

  7. Nuclear ventriculography

    MedlinePlus

    ... ventriculography (RNV); Multiple gate acquisition scan (MUGA); Nuclear cardiology; Cardiomyopathy - nuclear ventriculography ... 56. Udelson JE, Dilsizian V, Bonow RO. Nuclear cardiology. In: Bonow RO, Mann DL, Zipes DP, Libby ...

  8. Nuclear Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badawi, Ramsey D.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the use of nuclear medicine techniques in diagnosis and therapy. Describes instrumentation in diagnostic nuclear medicine and predicts future trends in nuclear medicine imaging technology. (Author/MM)

  9. PREFACE: Physics and Mathematics of Nonlinear Phenomena 2013 (PMNP2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konopelchenko, B. G.; Landolfi, G.; Martina, L.; Vitolo, R.

    2014-03-01

    Modern theory of nonlinear integrable equations is nowdays an important and effective tool of study for numerous nonlinear phenomena in various branches of physics from hydrodynamics and optics to quantum filed theory and gravity. It includes the study of nonlinear partial differential and discrete equations, regular and singular behaviour of their solutions, Hamitonian and bi- Hamitonian structures, their symmetries, associated deformations of algebraic and geometrical structures with applications to various models in physics and mathematics. The PMNP 2013 conference focused on recent advances and developments in Continuous and discrete, classical and quantum integrable systems Hamiltonian, critical and geometric structures of nonlinear integrable equations Integrable systems in quantum field theory and matrix models Models of nonlinear phenomena in physics Applications of nonlinear integrable systems in physics The Scientific Committee of the conference was formed by Francesco Calogero (University of Rome `La Sapienza', Italy) Boris A Dubrovin (SISSA, Italy) Yuji Kodama (Ohio State University, USA) Franco Magri (University of Milan `Bicocca', Italy) Vladimir E Zakharov (University of Arizona, USA, and Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics, Russia) The Organizing Committee: Boris G Konopelchenko, Giulio Landolfi, Luigi Martina, Department of Mathematics and Physics `E De Giorgi' and the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, and Raffaele Vitolo, Department of Mathematics and Physics `E De Giorgi'. A list of sponsors, speakers, talks, participants and the conference photograph are given in the PDF. Conference photograph

  10. Self field electromagnetism and quantum phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schatten, Kenneth H.

    1994-07-01

    Quantum Electrodynamics (QED) has been extremely successful inits predictive capability for atomic phenomena. Thus the greatest hope for any alternative view is solely to mimic the predictive capability of quantum mechanics (QM), and perhaps its usefulness will lie in gaining a better understanding of microscopic phenomena. Many ?paradoxes? and problematic situations emerge in QED. To combat the QED problems, the field of Stochastics Electrodynamics (SE) emerged, wherein a random ?zero point radiation? is assumed to fill all of space in an attmept to explain quantum phenomena, without some of the paradoxical concerns. SE, however, has greater failings. One is that the electromagnetic field energy must be infinit eto work. We have examined a deterministic side branch of SE, ?self field? electrodynamics, which may overcome the probelms of SE. Self field electrodynamics (SFE) utilizes the chaotic nature of electromagnetic emissions, as charges lose energy near atomic dimensions, to try to understand and mimic quantum phenomena. These fields and charges can ?interact with themselves? in a non-linear fashion, and may thereby explain many quantum phenomena from a semi-classical viewpoint. Referred to as self fields, they have gone by other names in the literature: ?evanesccent radiation?, ?virtual photons?, and ?vacuum fluctuations?. Using self fields, we discuss the uncertainty principles, the Casimir effects, and the black-body radiation spectrum, diffraction and interference effects, Schrodinger's equation, Planck's constant, and the nature of the electron and how they might be understood in the present framework. No new theory could ever replace QED. The self field view (if correct) would, at best, only serve to provide some understanding of the processes by which strange quantum phenomena occur at the atomic level. We discuss possible areas where experiments might be employed to test SFE, and areas where future work may lie.

  11. Nuclear data for nuclear transmutation

    SciTech Connect

    Harada, Hideo

    2009-05-04

    Current status on nuclear data for the study of nuclear transmutation of radioactive wastes is reviewed, mainly focusing on neutron capture reactions. It is stressed that the highest-precision frontier research in nuclear data measurements should be a key to satisfy the target accuracies on the nuclear data requested for realizing the nuclear transmutation.

  12. Nuclear data for nuclear transmutation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harada, Hideo

    2009-05-01

    Current status on nuclear data for the study of nuclear transmutation of radioactive wastes is reviewed, mainly focusing on neutron capture reactions. It is stressed that the highest-precision frontier research in nuclear data measurements should be a key to satisfy the target accuracies on the nuclear data requested for realizing the nuclear transmutation.

  13. Modeling of fundamental phenomena in welds

    SciTech Connect

    Zacharia, T.; Vitek, J.M.; Goldak, J.A.; DebRoy, T.A.; Rappaz, M.; Bhadeshia, H.K.D.H.

    1993-12-31

    Recent advances in the mathematical modeling of fundamental phenomena in welds are summarized. State-of-the-art mathematical models, advances in computational techniques, emerging high-performance computers, and experimental validation techniques have provided significant insight into the fundamental factors that control the development of the weldment. The current status and scientific issues in the areas of heat and fluid flow in welds, heat source metal interaction, solidification microstructure, and phase transformations are assessed. Future research areas of major importance for understanding the fundamental phenomena in weld behavior are identified.

  14. Incorporating interfacial phenomena in solidification models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beckermann, Christoph; Wang, Chao Yang

    1994-01-01

    A general methodology is available for the incorporation of microscopic interfacial phenomena in macroscopic solidification models that include diffusion and convection. The method is derived from a formal averaging procedure and a multiphase approach, and relies on the presence of interfacial integrals in the macroscopic transport equations. In a wider engineering context, these techniques are not new, but their application in the analysis and modeling of solidification processes has largely been overlooked. This article describes the techniques and demonstrates their utility in two examples in which microscopic interfacial phenomena are of great importance.

  15. Incorporating interfacial phenomena in solidification models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beckermann, Christoph; Wang, Chao Yang

    1994-01-01

    A general methodology is available for the incorporation of microscopic interfacial phenomena in macroscopic solidification models that include diffusion and convection. The method is derived from a formal averaging procedure and a multiphase approach, and relies on the presence of interfacial integrals in the macroscopic transport equations. In a wider engineering context, these techniques are not new, but their application in the analysis and modeling of solidification processes has largely been overlooked. This article describes the techniques and demonstrates their utility in two examples in which microscopic interfacial phenomena are of great importance.

  16. Phenomena at hot-wire electrodes.

    PubMed

    Gründler, P

    2000-06-01

    An overview is given describing phenomena at heated microelectrodes where matter and heat energy are simultaneously emitted into the solution. With controlled electric heating, virtual "quiescent" periods as well as ones with constant streaming conditions are found that depend on the heating time. A close look at a permanently heated wire reveals a well defined structure with stationary concentration, temperature and flow rate profiles. The observed phenomena can be utilised for analytical measurements, e.g. with the novel method "Temperature Pulse Voltammetry" (TPV).

  17. Local phenomena, chapter 3, part C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Oceanic and coastal phenomena with dimensions ranging to 100 km are dealt with. The two major categories discussed are waves, their generation and dynamics and ocean-land related problems. The dynamics, of surface waves in both capillary and gravity ranges indicates that microwave technology provides a superior means of measuring simultaneously the spatial and temporal properties of ocean waves. The need for basic studies of physical phenomena in support of active microwave sensing is indicated. Active microwave scattering from surface waves is discussed in terms of wave dynamics.

  18. Nuclear shape phase transition within a conjunction of γ-rigid and γ-stable collective behaviors in deformation-dependent mass formalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chabab, M.; El Batoul, A.; Lahbas, A.; Oulne, M.

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, we present a theoretical study of a conjunction of γ-rigid and γ-stable collective motions in critical point symmetries of the phase transitions from spherical to deformed shapes of nuclei using an exactly separable version of the Bohr Hamiltonian with a deformation-dependent mass term. The deformation-dependent mass is applied simultaneously to γ-rigid and γ-stable parts of this famous collective Hamiltonian. Moreover, the β part of the problem is described by means of Davidson potential, while the γ-angular part corresponding to axially symmetric shapes is treated by a harmonic oscillator potential. The energy eigenvalues and normalized eigenfunctions of the problem are obtained in compact forms by making use of the asymptotic iteration method. The combined effect of the deformation-dependent mass and rigidity as well as harmonic oscillator stiffness parameters on the energy spectrum and wave functions is duly investigated. Also, the electric quadrupole transition ratios and energy spectrum of some γ-stable and prolate nuclei are calculated and compared with the experimental data as well as with other theoretical models.

  19. Advances IN Explosive Nuclear Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lotay, Gavin

    2016-09-01

    Breathtaking results from the Planck satellite mission and Hubble space telescope have highlighted the key role modern Astronomy is playing for our understanding of Big Bang Cosmology. However, not so widely publicized is the similar wealth of observational data now available on explosive stellar phenomena, such as X-ray bursts, novae and Supernovae. These astronomical events are responsible for the synthesis of almost all the chemical elements we find on Earth and observe in our Galaxy, as well as energy generation throughout the cosmos. Regrettably, understanding the latest collection of observational data is severely hindered by the current, large uncertainties in the underlying nuclear physics processes that drive such stellar scenarios. In order to resolve this issue, it is becoming increasingly clear that there is a need to explore the unknown properties and reactions of nuclei away from the line of stability. Consequently, state-of-the-art radioactive beam facilities have become terrestrial laboratories for the reproduction of explosive astrophysical events. In this talk, both direct and indirect methods for studying key astrophysical reactions using radioactive beams will be discussed.

  20. Comprehensive Glossary of Nuclear Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langlands, Tracy; Stone, Craig; Meyer, Richard

    2001-10-01

    We have developed a comprehensive glossary of terms covering the broad fields of nuclear and related areas of science. The glossary has been constructed with two sections. A primary section consists of over 6,000 terms covering the fields of nuclear and high energy physics, nuclear chemistry, radiochemistry, health physics, astrophysics, materials science, analytical science, environmental science, nuclear medicine, nuclear engineering, nuclear instrumentation, nuclear weapons, and nuclear safeguards. Approximately 1,500 terms of specific focus on military and nuclear weapons testing define the second section. The glossary is currently larger than many published glossaries and dictionaries covering the entire field of physics. Glossary terms have been defined using an extensive collection of current and historical publications. Historical texts extend back into the 1800's, the early days of atomic physics. The glossary has been developed both as a software application and as a hard copy document.

  1. Natural phenomena exhibited by forest fires

    Treesearch

    J. S. Barrows

    1961-01-01

    Forest fire phenomena are presented through a series of motion pictures and 35 mm slides. These films have been taken by the staffs of the Southeastern, Pacific Southwest, and Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Stations of the U. S. Forest Service and by Dr. Vincent J. Schaefer during the course of fire research activities. Both regular speed and time-lapse...

  2. Displaying Computer Simulations Of Physical Phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Val

    1991-01-01

    Paper discusses computer simulation as means of experiencing and learning to understand physical phenomena. Covers both present simulation capabilities and major advances expected in near future. Visual, aural, tactile, and kinesthetic effects used to teach such physical sciences as dynamics of fluids. Recommends classrooms in universities, government, and industry be linked to advanced computing centers so computer simulations integrated into education process.

  3. Intervention in Biological Phenomena via Feedback Linearization

    PubMed Central

    Fnaiech, Mohamed Amine; Nounou, Hazem; Nounou, Mohamed; Datta, Aniruddha

    2012-01-01

    The problems of modeling and intervention of biological phenomena have captured the interest of many researchers in the past few decades. The aim of the therapeutic intervention strategies is to move an undesirable state of a diseased network towards a more desirable one. Such an objective can be achieved by the application of drugs to act on some genes/metabolites that experience the undesirable behavior. For the purpose of design and analysis of intervention strategies, mathematical models that can capture the complex dynamics of the biological systems are needed. S-systems, which offer a good compromise between accuracy and mathematical flexibility, are a promising framework for modeling the dynamical behavior of biological phenomena. Due to the complex nonlinear dynamics of the biological phenomena represented by S-systems, nonlinear intervention schemes are needed to cope with the complexity of the nonlinear S-system models. Here, we present an intervention technique based on feedback linearization for biological phenomena modeled by S-systems. This technique is based on perfect knowledge of the S-system model. The proposed intervention technique is applied to the glycolytic-glycogenolytic pathway, and simulation results presented demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed technique. PMID:23209459

  4. Geophysical phenomena classification by artificial neural networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gough, M. P.; Bruckner, J. R.

    1995-01-01

    Space science information systems involve accessing vast data bases. There is a need for an automatic process by which properties of the whole data set can be assimilated and presented to the user. Where data are in the form of spectrograms, phenomena can be detected by pattern recognition techniques. Presented are the first results obtained by applying unsupervised Artificial Neural Networks (ANN's) to the classification of magnetospheric wave spectra. The networks used here were a simple unsupervised Hamming network run on a PC and a more sophisticated CALM network run on a Sparc workstation. The ANN's were compared in their geophysical data recognition performance. CALM networks offer such qualities as fast learning, superiority in generalizing, the ability to continuously adapt to changes in the pattern set, and the possibility to modularize the network to allow the inter-relation between phenomena and data sets. This work is the first step toward an information system interface being developed at Sussex, the Whole Information System Expert (WISE). Phenomena in the data are automatically identified and provided to the user in the form of a data occurrence morphology, the Whole Information System Data Occurrence Morphology (WISDOM), along with relationships to other parameters and phenomena.

  5. Wave Phenomena in an Acoustic Resonant Chamber

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Mary E.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    Discusses the design and operation of a high Q acoustical resonant chamber which can be used to demonstrate wave phenomena such as three-dimensional normal modes, Q values, densities of states, changes in the speed of sound, Fourier decomposition, damped harmonic oscillations, sound-absorbing properties, and perturbation and scattering problems.…

  6. Simple Phenomena, Slow Motion, Surprising Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koupil, Jan; Vicha, Vladimir

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a few simple experiments that are worthwhile for slow motion recording and analysis either because of interesting phenomena that can be seen only when slowed down significantly or because of the ability to do precise time measurements. The experiments described in this article are quite commonly done in Czech schools. All…

  7. Observations of Nonlinear Phenomena in Rotordynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehrich, Fredric F.

    Observations, analysis and understanding of nonlinear rotordynamic phenomena observed in aircraft gas turbine engines and other high-speed rotating machinery over the course of the author's career are described. Included are observations of sum-and-difference frequency response; effects of roller bearing clearance; relaxation oscillations; subharmonic response; chaotic response; and other generic nonlinear responses such as superharmonic and ultra-subharmonic response.

  8. Simple Phenomena, Slow Motion, Surprising Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koupil, Jan; Vicha, Vladimir

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a few simple experiments that are worthwhile for slow motion recording and analysis either because of interesting phenomena that can be seen only when slowed down significantly or because of the ability to do precise time measurements. The experiments described in this article are quite commonly done in Czech schools. All…

  9. Some Phenomena on Negative Inversion Constructions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sung, Tae-Soo

    2013-01-01

    We examine the characteristics of NDI (negative degree inversion) and its relation with other inversion phenomena such as SVI (subject-verb inversion) and SAI (subject-auxiliary inversion). The negative element in the NDI construction may be" not," a negative adverbial, or a negative verb. In this respect, NDI has similar licensing…

  10. Solar Phenomena Associated with "EIT Waves"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biesecker, D. A.; Myers, D. C.; Thompson, B. J.; Hammer, D. M.; Vourlidas, A.

    2002-01-01

    In an effort to understand what an 'EIT wave' is and what its causes are, we have looked for correlations between the initiation of EIT waves and the occurrence of other solar phenomena. An EIT wave is a coronal disturbance, typically appearing as a diffuse brightening propagating across the Sun. A catalog of EIT waves, covering the period from 1997 March through 1998 June, was used in this study. For each EIT wave, the catalog gives the heliographic location and a rating for each wave, where the rating is determined by the reliability of the observations. Since EIT waves are transient, coronal phenomena, we have looked for correlations with other transient, coronal phenomena: X-ray flares, coronal mass ejections (CMEs), and metric type II radio bursts. An unambiguous correlation between EIT waves and CMEs has been found. The correlation of EIT waves with flares is significantly weaker, and EIT waves frequently are not accompanied by radio bursts. To search for trends in the data, proxies for each of these transient phenomena are examined. We also use the accumulated data to show the robustness of the catalog and to reveal biases that must be accounted for in this study.

  11. Reduplication phenomena: body, mind and archetype.

    PubMed

    Garner, J

    2000-09-01

    The many biological and few psychodynamic explanations of reduplicative syndromes tend to have paralleled the dualism of the phenomenon with organic theories concentrating on form and dynamic theories emphasising content. This paper extends the contribution of psychoanalytic thinking to an elucidation of the form of the delusion. Literature on clinical and aetiological aspects of reduplicative phenomena is reviewed alongside a brief examination of psychoanalytic models not overtly related to these phenomena. The human experience of doubles as universal archetype is considered. There is an obvious aetiological role for brain lesions in delusional misidentifications, but psychological symptoms in an individual can rarely be reduced to an organic disorder. The splitting and doubling which occurs in the phenomena have resonances in cultural mythology and in theories from different schools of psychodynamic thought. For the individual patient and doctor, it is a diverting but potentially empty debate to endeavour to draw strict divisions between what is physical and what is psychological although both need to be investigated. Nevertheless, in patients in whom there is clear evidence of an organic contribution to aetiology a psychodynamic understanding may serve to illuminate the patient's experience. Organic brain disease or serious functional illness predispose to regression to earlier modes of archetypical and primitive thinking with concretization of the metaphorical and mythological world. Psychoanalytic models have a contribution in describing the form as well as the content of reduplicative phenomena.

  12. Wave Phenomena in an Acoustic Resonant Chamber

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Mary E.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    Discusses the design and operation of a high Q acoustical resonant chamber which can be used to demonstrate wave phenomena such as three-dimensional normal modes, Q values, densities of states, changes in the speed of sound, Fourier decomposition, damped harmonic oscillations, sound-absorbing properties, and perturbation and scattering problems.…

  13. Temporal Phenomena in the Korean Conjunctive Constructions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Dongmin

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study is to characterize the temporal phenomena in the Korean conjunctive constructions. These constructions consist of three components: a verbal stem, a clause medial temporal suffix, and a clause terminal suffix. This study focuses on both the temporality of the terminal connective suffixes and the grammatical meanings of the…

  14. Displaying Computer Simulations Of Physical Phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Val

    1991-01-01

    Paper discusses computer simulation as means of experiencing and learning to understand physical phenomena. Covers both present simulation capabilities and major advances expected in near future. Visual, aural, tactile, and kinesthetic effects used to teach such physical sciences as dynamics of fluids. Recommends classrooms in universities, government, and industry be linked to advanced computing centers so computer simulations integrated into education process.

  15. Geophysical phenomena classification by artificial neural networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gough, M. P.; Bruckner, J. R.

    1995-01-01

    Space science information systems involve accessing vast data bases. There is a need for an automatic process by which properties of the whole data set can be assimilated and presented to the user. Where data are in the form of spectrograms, phenomena can be detected by pattern recognition techniques. Presented are the first results obtained by applying unsupervised Artificial Neural Networks (ANN's) to the classification of magnetospheric wave spectra. The networks used here were a simple unsupervised Hamming network run on a PC and a more sophisticated CALM network run on a Sparc workstation. The ANN's were compared in their geophysical data recognition performance. CALM networks offer such qualities as fast learning, superiority in generalizing, the ability to continuously adapt to changes in the pattern set, and the possibility to modularize the network to allow the inter-relation between phenomena and data sets. This work is the first step toward an information system interface being developed at Sussex, the Whole Information System Expert (WISE). Phenomena in the data are automatically identified and provided to the user in the form of a data occurrence morphology, the Whole Information System Data Occurrence Morphology (WISDOM), along with relationships to other parameters and phenomena.

  16. Temporal Phenomena in the Korean Conjunctive Constructions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Dongmin

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study is to characterize the temporal phenomena in the Korean conjunctive constructions. These constructions consist of three components: a verbal stem, a clause medial temporal suffix, and a clause terminal suffix. This study focuses on both the temporality of the terminal connective suffixes and the grammatical meanings of the…

  17. Economic agents and markets as emergent phenomena.

    PubMed

    Tesfatsion, Leigh

    2002-05-14

    An overview of recent work in agent-based computational economics is provided, with a stress on the research areas highlighted in the National Academy of Sciences Sackler Colloquium session "Economic Agents and Markets as Emergent Phenomena" held in October 2001.

  18. Sundance Fire: an analysis of fire phenomena

    Treesearch

    Hal E. Anderson

    1968-01-01

    The Sundance Fire on September 1, 1967, made a spectacular run of 16 miles in 9 hours and destroyed more than 50,000 acres. This run became the subject of a detailed research analysis of the environmental, topographic, and vegetation variables aimed at reconstructing and describing fire phenomena. This report details the fire's progress; discusses the fire's...

  19. Nitrous oxide sedation and sexual phenomena.

    PubMed

    Jastak, J T; Malamed, S F

    1980-07-01

    Nine cases of sexual phenomena that occurred with use of nitrous oxide and oxygen sedation are described. Dentists involved routinely used concentrations of nitrous oxide greater than 50% and did not have assistants in the room during dental procedures. Recommendations on the concentrations of nitrous oxide and the presence of an assistant are made.

  20. Crystal Melting and Wall Crossing Phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamazaki, Masahito

    2010-02-01

    This paper summarizes recent developments in the theory of Bogomol'nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield (BPS) state counting and the wall crossing phenomena, emphasizing in particular the role of the statistical mechanical model of crystal melting. This paper is divided into two parts, which are closely related to each other. In the first part, we discuss the statistical mechanical model of crystal melting counting BPS states. Each of the BPS state contributing to the BPS index is in one-to-one correspondence with a configuration of a molten crystal, and the statistical partition function of the melting crystal gives the BPS partition function. We also show that smooth geometry of the Calabi-Yau manifold emerges in the thermodynamic limit of the crystal. This suggests a remarkable interpretation that an atom in the crystal is a discretization of the classical geometry, giving an important clue as to the geometry at the Planck scale.In the second part we discuss the wall crossing phenomena. Wall crossing phenomena states that the BPS index depends on the value of the moduli of the Calabi-Yau manifold, and jumps along real codimension one subspaces in the moduli space. We show that by using type IIA/M-theory duality, we can provide a simple and an intuitive derivation of the wall crossing phenomena, furthermore clarifying the connection with the topological string theory. This derivation is consistent with another derivation from the wall crossing formula, motivated by multi-centered BPS extremal black holes. We also explain the representation of the wall crossing phenomena in terms of crystal melting, and the generalization of the counting problem and the wall crossing to the open BPS invariants.

  1. Crystal Melting and Wall Crossing Phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamazaki, Masahito

    This paper summarizes recent developments in the theory of Bogomol'nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield (BPS) state counting and the wall crossing phenomena, emphasizing in particular the role of the statistical mechanical model of crystal melting. This paper is divided into two parts, which are closely related to each other. In the first part, we discuss the statistical mechanical model of crystal melting counting BPS states. Each of the BPS states contributing to the BPS index is in one-to-one correspondence with a configuration of a molten crystal, and the statistical partition function of the melting crystal gives the BPS partition function. We also show that smooth geometry of the Calabi-Yau manifold emerges in the thermodynamic limit of the crystal. This suggests a remarkable interpretation that an atom in the crystal is a discretization of the classical geometry, giving an important clue as such to the geometry at the Planck scale. In the second part, we discuss the wall crossing phenomena. Wall crossing phenomena states that the BPS index depends on the value of the moduli of the Calabi-Yau manifold, and jumps along real codimension one subspaces in the moduli space. We show that by using type IIA/M-theory duality, we can provide a simple and an intuitive derivation of the wall crossing phenomena, furthermore clarifying the connection with the topological string theory. This derivation is consistent with another derivation from the wall crossing formula, motivated by multicentered BPS extremal black holes. We also explain the representation of the wall crossing phenomena in terms of crystal melting, and the generalization of the counting problem and the wall crossing to the open BPS invariants.

  2. Astrophysical phenomena related to supermassive black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pott, Jörg-Uwe

    2006-12-01

    The thesis contains the results of my recent projects in astrophysical research. All projects aim at pushing the limits of our knowledge about the interaction between a galaxy, the fundamental building block of today's universe, and a supermassive black hole (SMBH) at its center. Over the past years a lot of observational evidence has been gathered for the current understanding, that at least a major part of the galaxies with a stellar bulge contain central SMBHs. The typical extragalactic approach consists of searching for the spectroscopic pattern of Keplerian rotation, produced by stars and gas, when orbiting a central dark mass (Kormendy & Richstone 1995). It suggests that a significant fraction of large galaxies host in their very nucleus a SMBH of millions to billions of solar masses (Kormendy & Gebhardt 2001). In the closest case, the center of our Milky Way, the most central stars, which can be imaged, were shown to move on orbits with circulation times of a few decades only, evidencing a mass and compactness of the dark counter part of the Keplerian motion, which can only be explained by a SMBH (Eckart & Genzel 1996; Ghez et al. 2000; Schödel et al. 2002). Having acknowledged the widespread existence of SMBHs the obvious next step is investigating the interaction with their environment. Although the basic property of a SMBH, which is concentrating a huge amount of mass in a ludicrously small volume defined by the Schwarzschild radius, only creates a deep gravitational trough, its existence evokes much more phenomena than simply attracting the surrounding matter. It can trigger or exacerbate star formation via tidal forces (Morris 1993). It shapes the distribution of its surrounding matter to accretion discs, which themselves release gravitational potential energy as radiation, possibly due to magnetic friction (Blandford 1995). The radiation efficiency of such active galactic nuclei (AGN) can become roughly 100 times more efficient than atomic nuclear

  3. "Did You Climax or Are You Just Laughing at Me?" Rare Phenomena Associated With Orgasm.

    PubMed

    Reinert, Anna E; Simon, James A

    2017-07-01

    The study of the human orgasm has shown a core set of physiologic and psychological symptoms experienced by most individuals. The study of normal sheds light on the abnormal and has spotlighted rare physical and psychological symptoms experienced by some individuals in association with orgasm. These phenomena are rare and, as is typical of rare phenomena, their documentation in the medical literature is largely confined to case studies. To identify peri-orgasmic phenomena, defined as unusual physical or psychological symptoms subjectively experienced by some individuals as part of the orgasm response, distinct from the usual or normal orgasm response. A list of peri-orgasmic phenomena was made with help from sexual health colleagues and, using this list as a foundation, a literature search was performed of articles published in English. Publications included in this review report on physical or psychological phenomena at the time of orgasm that are distinct from psychological, whole-body, and genito-pelvic sensations commonly experienced at the time of orgasm. Cases of physical symptoms related to the physiology of sexual intercourse and not specifically to orgasm were excluded. Case studies of peri-orgasmic phenomena were reviewed, including cases describing cataplexy (weakness), crying, dysorgasmia, dysphoria, facial and/or ear pain, foot pain, headache, pruritus, laughter, panic attack, post-orgasm illness syndrome, seizures, and sneezing. The literature review confirms the existence of diverse and frequently replicated peri-orgasmic phenomena. The value of case studies is in the collection and recording of observations so that hypotheses can be formed about the observed phenomena. Accordingly, this review could inspire further research on the neurophysiologic mechanisms of orgasm. Reinert AE, Simon JA. "Did You Climax or Are You Just Laughing at Me?" Rare Phenomena Associated With Orgasm. Sex Med Rev 2017;5:275-281. Copyright © 2017 International Society for

  4. High-spin nuclear structure studies with radioactive ion beams

    SciTech Connect

    Baktash, C.

    1992-12-31

    Two important developments in the sixties, namely the advent of heavy-ion accelerators and fabrication of Ge detectors, opened the way for the experimental studies of nuclear properties at high angular momentum. Addition of a new degree of freedom, namely spin, made it possible to observe such fascinating phenomena as occurrences and coexistence of a variety of novel shapes, rise, fall and occasionally rebirth of nuclear collectivity, and disappearance of pairing correlations. Today, with the promise of development of radioactive ion beams (RIB) and construction of the third-generation Ge-detection systems (GAMMASPHERE and EUROBALL), the authors are poised to explore new and equally fascinating phenomena that have been hitherto inaccessible. With the addition of yet another dimension, namely the isospin, they will be able to observe and verify predictions for exotic shapes as varied as rigid triaxiality, hyperdeformation and triaxial octupole shapes, or to investigate the T = 0 pairing correlations. In this paper, they shall review, separately for neutron-deficient and neutron-rich nuclei, these and a few other new high-spin physics opportunities that may be realized with RIB. Following this discussion, they shall present a list of the beam species, intensities and energies that are needed to fulfill these goals. The paper will conclude with a description of the experimental techniques and instrumentations that are required for these studies.

  5. Nuclear Molecular Resonances in Heavy-Ion Collisions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erb, Karl A.; Bromley, D. Allan

    1979-01-01

    Explains that some nuclear scattering phenomena can be attributed to states in which two nuclei are bound to each other at their surfaces, revolving and vibrating for a time before coalescing or disintegrating. (Author/GA)

  6. High Energy Phenomena on the Sun. [conference on solar activity effects and solar radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramaty, R. (Editor); Stone, R. G. (Editor)

    1973-01-01

    The proceedings of a symposium of high energy phenomena on the sun are presented. The subjects discussed include the following: (1) flare theories and optical observations, (2) microwave and hard X-ray observations, (3) ultraviolet and soft X-ray emissions, (4) nuclear reactions in solar flares, (5) energetic particles from the sun, (6) magnetic fields and particle storage, and (7) radio emissions in the corona and interplanetary space.

  7. Radiation transport phenomena and modeling. Part A: Codes; Part B: Applications with examples

    SciTech Connect

    Lorence, L.J. Jr.; Beutler, D.E.

    1997-09-01

    This report contains the notes from the second session of the 1997 IEEE Nuclear and Space Radiation Effects Conference Short Course on Applying Computer Simulation Tools to Radiation Effects Problems. Part A discusses the physical phenomena modeled in radiation transport codes and various types of algorithmic implementations. Part B gives examples of how these codes can be used to design experiments whose results can be easily analyzed and describes how to calculate quantities of interest for electronic devices.

  8. Auroral Phenomena: Associated with auroras in complex ways are an extraordinary number of other physical phenomena.

    PubMed

    O'brien, B J

    1965-04-23

    The array of auroral phenomena involves all the basic types of physical phenomena: heat, light, sound, electricity and magnetism, atomic physics, and plasma physics. The uncontrollability, the unreproducibility, and the sheer enormity of the phenomena will keep experimentalists and theorists busy but unsatisfied for many years to come. The greatest challenge in this field of research is an adequate experimentally verifiable theory of the local energization of auroral particle fluxes. Once that is achieved, there is every likelihood that the multitude of correlations between auroral phenomena can be understood and appreciated. Until that time, however, such correlations are to be regarded like icebergs-the parts that can be seen are only a small fraction of the whole phenomenon, and it is the large unseen parts that can be dangerous to theorists and experimentalists alike.

  9. A review of impulsive phase phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejager, C.

    1986-01-01

    A brief review is given of impulsive phase phenomena in support of the models used to compute the energies of the different components of the flares under study. The observational characteristics of the impulsive phase are discussed as well as the evidence for multi-thermal or non-thermal phenomena. The significance of time delays between hard X-rays and microwaves is discussed in terms of electron beams and Alfven waves, two-step acceleration, and secondary bursts at large distances from the primary source. Observations indicating the occurrence of chromospheric evaporation, coronal explosions, and thermal conduction fronts are reviewed briefly, followed by the gamma ray and neutron results. Finally, a preferred flare scenario and energy source are presented involving the interactions in a complex of magnetic loops with the consequent reconnection and electron acceleration.

  10. Coherence Phenomena in Coupled Optical Resonators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, D. D.; Chang, H.

    2004-01-01

    We predict a variety of photonic coherence phenomena in passive and active coupled ring resonators. Specifically, the effective dispersive and absorptive steady-state response of coupled resonators is derived, and used to determine the conditions for coupled-resonator-induced transparency and absorption, lasing without gain, and cooperative cavity emission. These effects rely on coherent photon trapping, in direct analogy with coherent population trapping phenomena in atomic systems. We also demonstrate that the coupled-mode equations are formally identical to the two-level atom Schrodinger equation in the rotating-wave approximation, and use this result for the analysis of coupled-resonator photon dynamics. Notably, because these effects are predicted directly from coupled-mode theory, they are not unique to atoms, but rather are fundamental to systems of coherently coupled resonators.

  11. Study of non-equilibrium transport phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharma, Surendra P.

    1987-01-01

    Nonequilibrium phenomena due to real gas effects are very important features of low density hypersonic flows. The shock shape and emitted nonequilibrium radiation are identified as the bulk flow behavior parameters which are very sensitive to the nonequilibrium phenomena. These parameters can be measured in shock tubes, shock tunnels, and ballistic ranges and used to test the accuracy of computational fluid dynamic (CFD) codes. Since the CDF codes, by necessity, are based on multi-temperature models, it is also desirable to measure various temperatures, most importantly, the vibrational temperature. The CFD codes would require high temperature rate constants, which are not available at present. Experiments conducted at the NASA Electric Arc-driven Shock Tube (EAST) facility reveal that radiation from steel contaminants overwhelm the radiation from the test gas. For the measurement of radiation and the chemical parameters, further investigation and then appropriate modifications of the EAST facility are required.

  12. Transport Phenomena During Equiaxed Solidification of Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beckermann, C.; deGroh, H. C., III

    1997-01-01

    Recent progress in modeling of transport phenomena during dendritic alloy solidification is reviewed. Starting from the basic theorems of volume averaging, a general multiphase modeling framework is outlined. This framework allows for the incorporation of a variety of microscale phenomena in the macroscopic transport equations. For the case of diffusion dominated solidification, a simplified set of model equations is examined in detail and validated through comparisons with numerous experimental data for both columnar and equiaxed dendritic growth. This provides a critical assessment of the various model assumptions. Models that include melt flow and solid phase transport are also discussed, although their validation is still at an early stage. Several numerical results are presented that illustrate some of the profound effects of convective transport on the final compositional and structural characteristics of a solidified part. Important issues that deserve continuing attention are identified.

  13. Oscillatory phenomena in a solar network region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsiropoula, Georgia; Tziotziou, Kostas; Schwartz, Pavol; Heinzel, Petr

    2009-03-01

    We examine oscillatory phenomena in a solar network region from multi-wavelength, observations obtained by the ground-based Dutch Open Telescope (DOT), and by instruments on the spacecraft Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SoHO). The observations were obtained during a coordinated observing campaign on October 14, 2005. The temporal variations of the intensities and velocities in two distinct regions of the quiet Sun were investigated: one containing several dark mottles and the other several bright points defining the network boundaries (NB). The aim is to find similarities and/or differences in the oscillatory phenomena observed in these two regions and in different spectral lines formed from the chromosphere to the transition region, as well as propagation characteristics of waves.

  14. Optimizing Laboratory Experiments for Dynamic Astrophysical Phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    Ryutov, D; Remington, B

    2005-09-13

    To make a laboratory experiment an efficient tool for the studying the dynamical astrophysical phenomena, it is desirable to perform them in such a way as to observe the scaling invariance with respect to the astrophysical system under study. Several examples are presented of such scalings in the area of magnetohydrodynamic phenomena, where a number of scaled experiments have been performed. A difficult issue of the effect of fine-scale dissipative structures on the global scale dissipation-free flow is discussed. The second part of the paper is concerned with much less developed area of the scalings relevant to the interaction of an ultra-intense laser pulse with a pre-formed plasma. The use of the symmetry arguments in such experiments is also considered.

  15. Coherence Phenomena in Coupled Optical Resonators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, D. D.; Chang, H.

    2004-01-01

    We predict a variety of photonic coherence phenomena in passive and active coupled ring resonators. Specifically, the effective dispersive and absorptive steady-state response of coupled resonators is derived, and used to determine the conditions for coupled-resonator-induced transparency and absorption, lasing without gain, and cooperative cavity emission. These effects rely on coherent photon trapping, in direct analogy with coherent population trapping phenomena in atomic systems. We also demonstrate that the coupled-mode equations are formally identical to the two-level atom Schrodinger equation in the rotating-wave approximation, and use this result for the analysis of coupled-resonator photon dynamics. Notably, because these effects are predicted directly from coupled-mode theory, they are not unique to atoms, but rather are fundamental to systems of coherently coupled resonators.

  16. Frustrated pretransitional phenomena in aperiodic composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mariette, C.; Frantsuzov, Ilya; Wang, Bo; Guérin, L.; Rabiller, P.; Hollingsworth, Mark D.; Toudic, B.

    2016-11-01

    This paper reports on symmetry breaking in the aperiodic inclusion compound n -octadecane/urea and its isotopomer n -octadecane/urea-d4. The high-symmetry phase is described by a hexagonal rank-4 superspace group. Pretransitional phenomena in this crystallographic superspace reveal competing short-range-ordering phenomena within the high-symmetry phase. Very high-resolution diffraction data show that critical scattering appears at inequivalent points within the four-dimensional Brillouin zone, although the first phase transition at Tc1 near 158 K implies the condensation at only one of those points. The resulting superspace group remains of dimension 4. Two other phase transitions are reported at Tc2= 152.8 (4 ) K and Tc3= 109 (4 ) K in n -octadecane/urea-d4. The two low-symmetry phases that arise are described by rank-5 superspace groups.

  17. Observational data needs for plasma phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niedner, M. B., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Bright comets display a rich variety of interesting plasma phenomena which occur over an enormous range of spatial scales, and which require different observational techniques to be studied effectively. Wide-angle photography of high time resolution is probably the best method of studying the phenomenon of largest known scale: the plasma tail disconnection event (DE), which has been attributed to magnetic reconnection at interplanetary sector boundary crossings. These structures usually accelerate as they recede from the head region and observed velocities are typically in the range 50 V km/s. They are often visible for several days following the time of disconnection, and are sometimes seen out past 0.2 AU from the cometary head. The following areas pertaining to plasma phenomena in the ionoshere are addressed: the existence, size, and heliocentric distance variations of the contact surface, and the observational signatures of magnetic reconnection at sector boundary crossings.

  18. Parity-time-symmetric quantum critical phenomena

    PubMed Central

    Ashida, Yuto; Furukawa, Shunsuke; Ueda, Masahito

    2017-01-01

    Synthetic non-conservative systems with parity-time (PT) symmetric gain–loss structures can exhibit unusual spontaneous symmetry breaking that accompanies spectral singularity. Recent studies on PT symmetry in optics and weakly interacting open quantum systems have revealed intriguing physical properties, yet many-body correlations still play no role. Here by extending the idea of PT symmetry to strongly correlated many-body systems, we report that a combination of spectral singularity and quantum criticality yields an exotic universality class which has no counterpart in known critical phenomena. Moreover, we find unconventional low-dimensional quantum criticality, where superfluid correlation is anomalously enhanced owing to non-monotonic renormalization group flows in a PT-symmetry-broken quantum critical phase, in stark contrast to the Berezinskii–Kosterlitz–Thouless paradigm. Our findings can be experimentally tested in ultracold atoms and predict critical phenomena beyond the Hermitian paradigm of quantum many-body physics. PMID:28593991

  19. Nuclear functions of prefoldin

    PubMed Central

    Millán-Zambrano, Gonzalo; Chávez, Sebastián

    2014-01-01

    Prefoldin is a cochaperone, present in all eukaryotes, that cooperates with the chaperonin CCT. It is known mainly for its functional relevance in the cytoplasmic folding of actin and tubulin monomers during cytoskeleton assembly. However, both canonical and prefoldin-like subunits of this heterohexameric complex have also been found in the nucleus, and are functionally connected with nuclear processes in yeast and metazoa. Plant prefoldin has also been detected in the nucleus and physically associated with a gene regulator. In this review, we summarize the information available on the involvement of prefoldin in nuclear phenomena, place special emphasis on gene transcription, and discuss the possibility of a global coordination between gene regulation and cytoplasmic dynamics mediated by prefoldin. PMID:25008233

  20. Spontaneous pneumocephalus presenting with alien limb phenomena.

    PubMed

    Nash, R; Wilson, M; Adams, M; Kitchen, N

    2012-07-01

    Spontaneous pneumocephalus is a rare condition that has been reported infrequently. Alien limb syndrome is an uncommon phenomenon most often seen in patients with frontal and callosal lesions. Case report of a patient with pneumocephalus presenting with alien limb syndrome. The patient underwent successful surgical management. A literature review and discussion of aspects of this presentation are also included. In this case, a spontaneous pneumocephalus has formed a frontal space-occupying lesion and presented with alien limb phenomena.

  1. Multiscale Phenomena in Biology and Scientific Perspectivism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callebaut, Werner

    2009-09-01

    This paper is a plea for considering scientific perspectivism as the appropriate philosophical stance to deal with a number of epistemological, methodological, and ontological challenges modelers of complex, multi-scale phenomena are facing. Broadly speaking, perspectivism is the philosophical position that one's access to the world through perception, experience, and reason is possible only through one's own perspective and interpretation. Scientific perspectivism extends this position to scientific.

  2. Understanding Natural Language Descriptions of Physical Phenomena

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-05-07

    continue pouring coffee in it. People know all these things and can explain them with ease to others, but in most cases mathematical formulas are not...a part of these explanations. Instead of producing mathematical formulas or using formal representation languages, people use their own natural...in all these cases is on developing a conceptual understanding of the phenomena. The fact that human readers can learn about the physical world

  3. Mirage phenomena in superconducting quantum corrals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmid, M.; Kampf, A. P.

    2005-09-01

    [Dedicated to Bernhard Mühlschlegel on the occasion ofhis 80th birthday]We investigate the local density of states and the order parameter structure inside an elliptic quantum corral on surfaces of isotropic and anisotropic superconductors. The Bogoliubov-de Gennes equations are solved in the presence of non-magnetic and magnetic impurities. We observe and discuss a variety of mirage and anti-mirage phenomena, which specifically reflect the nature of the superconducting pairing state.

  4. Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) and Associated Phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manoharan, P. K.

    2008-10-01

    The Sun is the most powerful radio waves emitting object in the sky. The first documented recognition of the reception of radio waves from the Sun was made in 1942 by Hey.15 Since then solar radio observations, from ground-based and space-based instruments, have played a major role in understanding the physics of the Sun and fundamental physical processes of the solar radio emitting phenomena...

  5. Low-gravity experiments in critical phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moldover, Michael R.

    1986-01-01

    Studies of anomalous thermodynamic, transport, and structural phenomena in multibody systems near critical points are reviewed. The nomenclature used to describe critical points is explained; theoretical predictions of the thermodynamic properties of bulk systems are presented; and experimental tests of these predictions systems are discussed, considering equilibration and gravity effects in fluid systems and emphasizing the value of experiments conducted in a reduced-gravity environment. Several such experiments are described, and the available academic-research opportunities are briefly surveyed.

  6. Breakdown phenomena in high power klystrons

    SciTech Connect

    Vlieks, A.E.; Allen, M.A.; Callin, R.S.; Fowkes, W.R.; Hoyt, E.W.; Lebacqz, J.V.; Lee, T.G.

    1988-03-01

    In the course of developing new high peak power klystrons at SLAC, high electric fields in several regions of these devices have become an important source of vacuum breakdown phenomena. In addition, a renewed interest in breakdown phenomena for nanosecond pulse, multi-megavolt per centimeter fields has been sparked by recent R and D work in the area of gigawatt RF sources. The most important regions of electrical breakdown are in the output cavity gap area, the RF ceramic windows, and the gun ceramic insulator. The details of the observed breakdown in these regions, experiments performed to understand the phenomena and solutions found to alleviate the problems will be discussed. Recently experiments have been performed on a new prototype R and D klystron. Peak electric fields across the output cavity gaps of this klystron exceed 2 MV/cm. The effect of peak field duration (i.e. pulse width) on the onset of breakdown have been measured. The pulse widths varied from tens of nanoseconds to microseconds. Results from these experiments will be presented. The failure of ceramic RF windows due to multipactor and puncturing was an important problem to overcome in order that our high power klystrons would have a useful life expectancy. Consequently many studies and tests were made to understand and alleviate window breakdown phenomena. Some of the results in this area, especially the effects of surface coatings, window materials and processing techniques and their effects on breakdown will be discussed. Another important source of klystron failure in the recent past at SLAC has been the puncturing of the high voltage ceramic insulator in the gun region. A way of alleviating this problem has been found although the actual cause of the puncturing is not yet clear. The ''practical'' solution to this breakdown process will be described and a possible mechanism for the puncturing will be presented. 9 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Natural phenomena hazards site characterization criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    The criteria and recommendations in this standard shall apply to site characterization for the purpose of mitigating Natural Phenomena Hazards (wind, floods, landslide, earthquake, volcano, etc.) in all DOE facilities covered by DOE Order 5480.28. Criteria for site characterization not related to NPH are not included unless necessary for clarification. General and detailed site characterization requirements are provided in areas of meteorology, hydrology, geology, seismology, and geotechnical studies.

  8. The dynamics of information-driven coordination phenomena: A transfer entropy analysis

    PubMed Central

    Borge-Holthoefer, Javier; Perra, Nicola; Gonçalves, Bruno; González-Bailón, Sandra; Arenas, Alex; Moreno, Yamir; Vespignani, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Data from social media provide unprecedented opportunities to investigate the processes that govern the dynamics of collective social phenomena. We consider an information theoretical approach to define and measure the temporal and structural signatures typical of collective social events as they arise and gain prominence. We use the symbolic transfer entropy analysis of microblogging time series to extract directed networks of influence among geolocalized subunits in social systems. This methodology captures the emergence of system-level dynamics close to the onset of socially relevant collective phenomena. The framework is validated against a detailed empirical analysis of five case studies. In particular, we identify a change in the characteristic time scale of the information transfer that flags the onset of information-driven collective phenomena. Furthermore, our approach identifies an order-disorder transition in the directed network of influence between social subunits. In the absence of clear exogenous driving, social collective phenomena can be represented as endogenously driven structural transitions of the information transfer network. This study provides results that can help define models and predictive algorithms for the analysis of societal events based on open source data. PMID:27051875

  9. Seismoelectric Phenomena in Fluid-Saturated Sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Block, G I; Harris, J G

    2005-04-22

    Seismoelectric phenomena in sediments arise from acoustic wave-induced fluid motion in the pore space, which perturbs the electrostatic equilibrium of the electric double layer on the grain surfaces. Experimental techniques and the apparatus built to study this electrokinetic (EK) effect are described and outcomes for studies of seismoelectric phenomena in loose glass microspheres and medium-grain sand are presented. By varying the NaCl concentration in the pore fluid, we measured the conductivity dependence of two kinds of EK behavior: (1) the electric fields generated within the samples by the passage of transmitted acoustic waves, and (2) the electromagnetic wave produced at the fluid-sediment interface by the incident acoustic wave. Both phenomena are caused by relative fluid motion in the sediment pores--this feature is characteristic of poroelastic (Biot) media, but not predicted by either viscoelastic fluid or solid models. A model of plane-wave reflection from a fluid-sediment interface using EK-Biot theory leads to theoretical predictions that compare well to the experimental data for both sand and glass microspheres.

  10. Physical mechanism of membrane osmotic phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    Guell, D.C.; Brenner, H.

    1996-09-01

    The microscale, physicomechanical cause of osmosis and osmotic pressure in systems involving permeable and semipermeable membranes is not well understood, and no fully satisfactory mechanism has been offered to explain these phenomena. A general theory, albeit limited to dilute systems of inert, noninteracting solute particles, is presented which demonstrates that short-range forces exerted by the membrane on the dispersed solute particles constitute the origin of osmotic phenomena. At equilibrium, the greater total force exerted by the membrane on those solute particles present in the reservoir containing the more concentrated of the two solutions bathing the membrane is balanced by a macroscopically observable pressure difference between the two reservoirs. The latter constitutes the so-called osmotic pressure difference. Under nonequilibrium conditions, the membrane-solute force is transmitted to the solvent, thus driving the convective flow of solvent observed macroscopically as osmosis. While elements of these ideas have been proposed previously in various forms, the general demonstration offered here of the physicomechanical source of osmotic phenomena is novel. Beyond the purely academic interest that exists in establishing a mechanical understanding of osmotic pressure, the analysis lays the foundation underlying a quantitative theory of osmosis in dilute, nonequilibrium systems outlined in a companion paper.

  11. Thermal transport phenomena in nanoparticle suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardellini, Annalisa; Fasano, Matteo; Bozorg Bigdeli, Masoud; Chiavazzo, Eliodoro; Asinari, Pietro

    2016-12-01

    Nanoparticle suspensions in liquids have received great attention, as they may offer an approach to enhance thermophysical properties of base fluids. A good variety of applications in engineering and biomedicine has been investigated with the aim of exploiting the above potential. However, the multiscale nature of nanosuspensions raises several issues in defining a comprehensive modelling framework, incorporating relevant molecular details and much larger scale phenomena, such as particle aggregation and their dynamics. The objectives of the present topical review is to report and discuss the main heat and mass transport phenomena ruling macroscopic behaviour of nanosuspensions, arising from molecular details. Relevant experimental results are included and properly put in the context of recent observations and theoretical studies, which solved long-standing debates about thermophysical properties enhancement. Major transport phenomena are discussed and in-depth analysis is carried out for highlighting the role of geometrical (nanoparticle shape, size, aggregation, concentration), chemical (pH, surfactants, functionalization) and physical parameters (temperature, density). We finally overview several computational techniques available at different scales with the aim of drawing the attention on the need for truly multiscale predictive models. This may help the development of next-generation nanoparticle suspensions and their rational use in thermal applications.

  12. Stability and restoration phenomena in competitive systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uechi, Lisa; Akutsu, Tatsuya

    2013-10-01

    A conservation law along with stability, recovering phenomena, and characteristic patterns of a nonlinear dynamical system have been studied and applied to physical, biological, and ecological systems. In our previous study, we proposed a system of symmetric 2n-dimensional conserved nonlinear differential equations. In this paper, competitive systems described by a 2-dimensional nonlinear dynamical (ND) model with external perturbations are applied to population cycles and recovering phenomena of systems from microbes to mammals. The famous 10-year cycle of population density of Canadian lynx and snowshoe hare is numerically analyzed. We find that a nonlinear dynamical system with a conservation law is stable and generates a characteristic rhythm (cycle) of population density, which we call the standard rhythm of a nonlinear dynamical system. The stability and restoration phenomena are strongly related to a conservation law and the balance of a system. The standard rhythm of population density is a manifestation of the survival of the fittest to the balance of a nonlinear dynamical system.

  13. An interpretation of passive containment cooling phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Bum-Jin; Kang, Chang-Sun,

    1995-09-01

    A simplified interpretation model for the cooling capability of the Westinghouse type PCCS is proposed in this paper. The PCCS domain was phenomenologically divided into 3 regions; water entrance effect region, asymptotic region, and air entrance effect region. The phenomena in the asymptotic region is focused in this paper. Due to the very large height to thickness ratio of the water film, the length of the asymptotic region is estimated to be over 90% of the whole domain. Using the analogy between heat and mass transfer phenomena in a turbulent situation, a new dependent variable combining temperature and vapor mass fraction was defined. The similarity between the PCCS phenomena, which contains the sensible and latent heat transfer, and the buoyant air flow on a vertical heated plate is derived. The modified buoyant coefficient and thermal conductivity were defined. Using these newly defined variable and coefficients, the modified correlation for the interfacial heat fluxes and the ratios of latent heat transfer to sensible heat transfer is established. To verify the accuracy of the correlation, the results of this study were compared with the results of other numerical analyses performed for the same configuration and they are well within the range of 15% difference.

  14. Physics-based prognostic modelling of filter clogging phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eker, Omer F.; Camci, Fatih; Jennions, Ian K.

    2016-06-01

    In industry, contaminant filtration is a common process to achieve a desired level of purification, since contaminants in liquids such as fuel may lead to performance drop and rapid wear propagation. Generally, clogging of filter phenomena is the primary failure mode leading to the replacement or cleansing of filter. Cascading failures and weak performance of the system are the unfortunate outcomes due to a clogged filter. Even though filtration and clogging phenomena and their effects of several observable parameters have been studied for quite some time in the literature, progression of clogging and its use for prognostics purposes have not been addressed yet. In this work, a physics based clogging progression model is presented. The proposed model that bases on a well-known pressure drop equation is able to model three phases of the clogging phenomena, last of which has not been modelled in the literature yet. In addition, the presented model is integrated with particle filters to predict the future clogging levels and to estimate the remaining useful life of fuel filters. The presented model has been implemented on the data collected from an experimental rig in the lab environment. In the rig, pressure drop across the filter, flow rate, and filter mesh images are recorded throughout the accelerated degradation experiments. The presented physics based model has been applied to the data obtained from the rig. The remaining useful lives of the filters used in the experimental rig have been reported in the paper. The results show that the presented methodology provides significantly accurate and precise prognostic results.

  15. Switching Phenomena in a System with No Switches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preis, Tobias; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2010-02-01

    It is widely believed that switching phenomena require switches, but this is actually not true. For an intriguing variety of switching phenomena in nature, the underlying complex system abruptly changes from one state to another in a highly discontinuous fashion. For example, financial market fluctuations are characterized by many abrupt switchings creating increasing trends ("bubble formation") and decreasing trends ("financial collapse"). Such switching occurs on time scales ranging from macroscopic bubbles persisting for hundreds of days to microscopic bubbles persisting only for a few seconds. We analyze a database containing 13,991,275 German DAX Future transactions recorded with a time resolution of 10 msec. For comparison, a database providing 2,592,531 of all S&P500 daily closing prices is used. We ask whether these ubiquitous switching phenomena have quantifiable features independent of the time horizon studied. We find striking scale-free behavior of the volatility after each switching occurs. We interpret our findings as being consistent with time-dependent collective behavior of financial market participants. We test the possible universality of our result by performing a parallel analysis of fluctuations in transaction volume and time intervals between trades. We show that these financial market switching processes have properties similar to those of phase transitions. We suggest that the well-known catastrophic bubbles that occur on large time scales—such as the most recent financial crisis—are no outliers but single dramatic representatives caused by the switching between upward and downward trends on time scales varying over nine orders of magnitude from very large (≈102 days) down to very small (≈10 ms).

  16. Nuclear Structure at the Limits

    SciTech Connect

    Nazarewicz, W.

    1998-01-12

    One of the frontiers of today�s nuclear science is the �journey to the limits� of atomic charge and nuclear mass, of neutron-to-proton ratio, and of angular momentum. The tour to the limits is not only a quest for new, exciting phenomena, but the new data are expected, as well, to bring qualitatively new information about the fundamental properties of the nucleonic many-body system, the nature of the nuclear interaction, and nucleonic correlations at various energy-distance scales. In this series of lectures, current developments in nuclear structure at the limits are discussed from a theoretical perspective, mainly concentrating on medium-mass and heavy nuclei.

  17. Resistances to Knowing in the Nuclear Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mack, John E.

    1984-01-01

    Explores psychological reasons why educators and parents resist dealing with the issue of nuclear war. Describing individual resistance (avoidance) and collective resistance (commitment to a nation's economic and political assumptions), the author discusses implications for nuclear education. (SK)

  18. Resistances to Knowing in the Nuclear Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mack, John E.

    1984-01-01

    Explores psychological reasons why educators and parents resist dealing with the issue of nuclear war. Describing individual resistance (avoidance) and collective resistance (commitment to a nation's economic and political assumptions), the author discusses implications for nuclear education. (SK)

  19. Emergent ultrafast phenomena in correlated oxides and heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gandolfi, M.; Celardo, G. L.; Borgonovi, F.; Ferrini, G.; Avella, A.; Banfi, F.; Giannetti, C.

    2017-03-01

    The possibility of investigating the dynamics of solids on timescales faster than the thermalization of the internal degrees of freedom has disclosed novel non-equilibrium phenomena that have no counterpart at equilibrium. Transition metal oxides (TMOs) provide an interesting playground in which the correlations among the charges in the metal d-orbitals give rise to a wealth of intriguing electronic and thermodynamic properties involving the spin, charge, lattice and orbital orders. Furthermore, the physical properties of TMOs can be engineered at the atomic level, thus providing the platform to investigate the transport phenomena on timescales of the order of the intrinsic decoherence time of the charge excitations. Here, we review and discuss three paradigmatic examples of transient emerging properties that are expected to open new fields of research: (i) the creation of non-thermal magnetic states in spin–orbit Mott insulators; (ii) the possible exploitation of quantum paths for the transport and collection of charge excitations in heterostructures; (iii) the transient wave-like behavior of the temperature field in strongly anisotropic TMOs.

  20. Nuclear Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Provides a brief review of the latest developments in nuclear chemistry. Nuclear research today is directed toward increased activity in radiopharmaceuticals and formation of new isotopes by high-energy, heavy-ion collisions. (Author/BB)

  1. Nuclear Scans

    MedlinePlus

    Nuclear scans use radioactive substances to see structures and functions inside your body. They use a special ... images. Most scans take 20 to 45 minutes. Nuclear scans can help doctors diagnose many conditions, including ...

  2. Nuclear Winter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrlich, Anne

    1984-01-01

    "Nuclear Winter" was recently coined to describe the climatic and biological effects of a nuclear war. These effects are discussed based on models, simulations, scenarios, and projections. Effects on human populations are also considered. (JN)

  3. Nuclear Medicine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home » Science Education » Science Topics » Nuclear Medicine SCIENCE EDUCATION SCIENCE EDUCATION Science Topics Resource Links for General Public Resource ... Related Documents: Nuclear Medicine Fact Sheet.pdf SCIENCE EDUCATION Science Topics Resource Links for General Public Resource ...

  4. Nuclear Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Provides a brief review of the latest developments in nuclear chemistry. Nuclear research today is directed toward increased activity in radiopharmaceuticals and formation of new isotopes by high-energy, heavy-ion collisions. (Author/BB)

  5. Nuclear Winter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrlich, Anne

    1984-01-01

    "Nuclear Winter" was recently coined to describe the climatic and biological effects of a nuclear war. These effects are discussed based on models, simulations, scenarios, and projections. Effects on human populations are also considered. (JN)

  6. Nuclear spin circular dichroism

    SciTech Connect

    Vaara, Juha; Rizzo, Antonio; Kauczor, Joanna; Norman, Patrick; Coriani, Sonia

    2014-04-07

    Recent years have witnessed a growing interest in magneto-optic spectroscopy techniques that use nuclear magnetization as the source of the magnetic field. Here we present a formulation of magnetic circular dichroism (CD) due to magnetically polarized nuclei, nuclear spin-induced CD (NSCD), in molecules. The NSCD ellipticity and nuclear spin-induced optical rotation (NSOR) angle correspond to the real and imaginary parts, respectively, of (complex) quadratic response functions involving the dynamic second-order interaction of the electron system with the linearly polarized light beam, as well as the static magnetic hyperfine interaction. Using the complex polarization propagator framework, NSCD and NSOR signals are obtained at frequencies in the vicinity of optical excitations. Hartree-Fock and density-functional theory calculations on relatively small model systems, ethene, benzene, and 1,4-benzoquinone, demonstrate the feasibility of the method for obtaining relatively strong nuclear spin-induced ellipticity and optical rotation signals. Comparison of the proton and carbon-13 signals of ethanol reveals that these resonant phenomena facilitate chemical resolution between non-equivalent nuclei in magneto-optic spectra.

  7. Analysis of extreme hydrological phenomena in southern Italy (Calabria region)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caloiero, Tommaso; Aceto, Luigi; Aurora Pasqua, A.; Petrucci, Olga

    2017-04-01

    Calabria (southern Italy) is a region exposed to the effects of contrasting climatic and hydrological phenomena. In fact, due to its oblong shape, to its position in the middle of the Mediterranean Basin, and for its mountainous nature, Calabria shows a high spatial variability of the climatic features and of related phenomena such as floods and drought. The present paper is based on the historical database ASICal (Historically flooded areas in Calabria), a catalogue of effects of floods and rain-related landslides that occurred in the region since the XIX Century. The catalogue has been built using the typical historical data sources as chronicles, diaries, historical books, local and regional agencies, press archives, scientific papers, and documents of civil protection offices. From these sources, we selected information on damage caused by rain related phenomena at a municipal scale and chronologically sorted by year, month and day. The analysis of the entire catalogue allows highlighting the regional Damaging Hydrogeological Events (DHE), defined as periods of intense rain causing damage on regional sectors conventionally selected as larger than 30% of the entire regional territory. For each event, as a measure of the magnitude of rainfall, the return period of the daily rainfall recorded during the event has been evaluated. In addition, we recently carried out a similar historical research to identify the main drought events affecting the region. In this case, due to the spatial and temporal characteristics of drought, data are collected both at municipal and regional scale, and the temporal scale is generally monthly or annual. For each event, we used as climatic descriptors a drought index for monitoring drought phenomena. Among drought indices, we used the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) which can be considered the most robust and effective, since it can be calculated for different time-scales and can be used to analyse different drought categories

  8. How do Turkish High School Graduates Use the Wave Theory of Light to Explain Optics Phenomena?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sengoren, S. K.

    2010-01-01

    This research was intended to investigate whether Turkish students who had graduated from high school used the wave theory of light properly in explaining optical phenomena. The survey method was used in this research. The data, which were collected from 175 first year university students in Turkey, were analysed quantitatively and qualitatively.…

  9. How do Turkish High School Graduates Use the Wave Theory of Light to Explain Optics Phenomena?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sengoren, S. K.

    2010-01-01

    This research was intended to investigate whether Turkish students who had graduated from high school used the wave theory of light properly in explaining optical phenomena. The survey method was used in this research. The data, which were collected from 175 first year university students in Turkey, were analysed quantitatively and qualitatively.…

  10. Nuclear Fuels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nash, J. Thomas

    1983-01-01

    Trends in and factors related to the nuclear industry and nuclear fuel production are discussed. Topics addressed include nuclear reactors, survival of the U.S. uranium industry, production costs, budget cuts by the Department of Energy and U.S. Geological survey for resource studies, mining, and research/development activities. (JN)

  11. Nuclear Fuels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nash, J. Thomas

    1983-01-01

    Trends in and factors related to the nuclear industry and nuclear fuel production are discussed. Topics addressed include nuclear reactors, survival of the U.S. uranium industry, production costs, budget cuts by the Department of Energy and U.S. Geological survey for resource studies, mining, and research/development activities. (JN)

  12. Studies of Novel Quantum Phenomena in Ruthenates

    SciTech Connect

    Mao, Zhiqiang

    2011-04-08

    Strongly correlated oxides have been the subject of intense study in contemporary condensed matter physics, and perovskite ruthenates (Sr,Ca)n+1RunO3n+1 have become a new focus in this field. One of important characteristics of ruthenates is that both lattice and orbital degrees of freedom are active and are strongly coupled to charge and spin degrees of freedom. Such a complex interplay of multiple degrees of freedom causes the properties of ruthenates to exhibit a gigantic response to external stimuli under certain circumstances. Magnetic field, pressure, and chemical composition all have been demonstrated to be effective in inducing electronic/magnetic phase transitions in ruthenates. Therefore, ruthenates are ideal candidates for searching for novel quantum phenomena through controlling external parameters. The objective of this project is to search for novel quantum phenomena in ruthenate materials using high-quality single crystals grown by the floating-zone technique, and investigate the underlying physics. The following summarizes our accomplishments. We have focused on trilayered Sr4Ru3O10 and bilayered (Ca1-xSrx)3Ru2O7. We have succeeded in growing high-quality single crystals of these materials using the floating-zone technique and performed systematic studies on their electronic and magnetic properties through a variety of measurements, including resistivity, Hall coefficient, angle-resolved magnetoresistivity, Hall probe microscopy, and specific heat. We have also studied microscopic magnetic properties for some of these materials using neutron scattering in collaboration with Los Alamos National Laboratory. We have observed a number of unusual exotic quantum phenomena through these studies, such as an orbital selective metamagnetic transition, bulk spin valve effect, and a heavy-mass nearly ferromagnetic state with a surprisingly large Wilson ratio. Our work has also revealed underlying physics of these exotic phenomena. Exotic phenomena of correlated

  13. Microgravity Transport Phenomena Experiment (MTPE) Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, Larry W.

    1999-01-01

    The Microgravity Transport Phenomena Experiment (MTPE) is a fluids experiment supported by the Fundamentals in Biotechnology program in association with the Human Exploration and Development of Space (BEDS) initiative. The MTP Experiment will investigate fluid transport phenomena both in ground based experiments and in the microgravity environment. Many fluid transport processes are affected by gravity. Osmotic flux kinetics in planar membrane systems have been shown to be influenced by gravimetric orientation, either through convective mixing caused by unstably stratified fluid layers, or through a stable fluid boundary layer structure that forms in association with the membrane. Coupled transport phenomena also show gravity related effects. Coefficients associated with coupled transport processes are defined in terms of a steady state condition. Buoyancy (gravity) driven convection interferes with the attainment of steady state, and the measurement of coupled processes. The MTP Experiment measures the kinetics of molecular migration that occurs in fluids, in response to the application of various driving potentials. Three separate driving potentials may be applied to the MTP Experiment fluids, either singly or in combination. The driving potentials include chemical potential, thermal potential, and electrical potential. Two separate fluid arrangements are used to study membrane mediated and bulk fluid transport phenomena. Transport processes of interest in membrane mediated systems include diffusion, osmosis, and streaming potential. Bulk fluid processes of interest include coupled phenomena such as the Soret Effect, Dufour Effect, Donnan Effect, and thermal diffusion potential. MTP Experiments are performed in the Microgravity Transport Apparatus (MTA), an instrument that has been developed specifically for precision measurement of transport processes. Experiment fluids are contained within the MTA fluid cells, designed to create a one dimensional flow geometry

  14. Simulating physical phenomena with a quantum computer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz, Gerardo

    2003-03-01

    In a keynote speech at MIT in 1981 Richard Feynman raised some provocative questions in connection to the exact simulation of physical systems using a special device named a ``quantum computer'' (QC). At the time it was known that deterministic simulations of quantum phenomena in classical computers required a number of resources that scaled exponentially with the number of degrees of freedom, and also that the probabilistic simulation of certain quantum problems were limited by the so-called sign or phase problem, a problem believed to be of exponential complexity. Such a QC was intended to mimick physical processes exactly the same as Nature. Certainly, remarks coming from such an influential figure generated widespread interest in these ideas, and today after 21 years there are still some open questions. What kind of physical phenomena can be simulated with a QC?, How?, and What are its limitations? Addressing and attempting to answer these questions is what this talk is about. Definitively, the goal of physics simulation using controllable quantum systems (``physics imitation'') is to exploit quantum laws to advantage, and thus accomplish efficient imitation. Fundamental is the connection between a quantum computational model and a physical system by transformations of operator algebras. This concept is a necessary one because in Quantum Mechanics each physical system is naturally associated with a language of operators and thus can be considered as a possible model of quantum computation. The remarkable result is that an arbitrary physical system is naturally simulatable by another physical system (or QC) whenever a ``dictionary'' between the two operator algebras exists. I will explain these concepts and address some of Feynman's concerns regarding the simulation of fermionic systems. Finally, I will illustrate the main ideas by imitating simple physical phenomena borrowed from condensed matter physics using quantum algorithms, and present experimental

  15. Rod Driven Frequency Entrainment and Resonance Phenomena.

    PubMed

    Salchow, Christina; Strohmeier, Daniel; Klee, Sascha; Jannek, Dunja; Schiecke, Karin; Witte, Herbert; Nehorai, Arye; Haueisen, Jens

    2016-01-01

    A controversy exists on photic driving in the human visual cortex evoked by intermittent photic stimulation. Frequency entrainment and resonance phenomena are reported for frequencies higher than 12 Hz in some studies while missing in others. We hypothesized that this might be due to different experimental conditions, since both high and low intensity light stimulation were used. However, most studies do not report radiometric measurements, which makes it impossible to categorize the stimulation according to photopic, mesopic, and scotopic vision. Low intensity light stimulation might lead to scotopic vision, where rod perception dominates. In this study, we investigated photic driving for rod-dominated visual input under scotopic conditions. Twelve healthy volunteers were stimulated with low intensity light flashes at 20 stimulation frequencies, leading to rod activation only. The frequencies were multiples of the individual alpha frequency (α) of each volunteer in the range from 0.40 to 2.30(∗)α. Three hundred and six-channel whole head magnetoencephalography recordings were analyzed in time, frequency, and spatiotemporal domains with the Topographic Matching Pursuit algorithm. We found resonance phenomena and frequency entrainment for stimulations at or close to the individual alpha frequency (0.90-1.10(∗)α) and half of the alpha frequency (0.40-0.55(∗)α). No signs of resonance and frequency entrainment phenomena were revealed around 2.00(∗)α. Instead, on-responses at the beginning and off-responses at the end of each stimulation train were observed for the first time in a photic driving experiment at frequencies of 1.30-2.30(∗)α, indicating that the flicker fusion threshold was reached. All results, the resonance and entrainment as well as the fusion effects, provide evidence for rod-dominated photic driving in the visual cortex.

  16. Rod Driven Frequency Entrainment and Resonance Phenomena

    PubMed Central

    Salchow, Christina; Strohmeier, Daniel; Klee, Sascha; Jannek, Dunja; Schiecke, Karin; Witte, Herbert; Nehorai, Arye; Haueisen, Jens

    2016-01-01

    A controversy exists on photic driving in the human visual cortex evoked by intermittent photic stimulation. Frequency entrainment and resonance phenomena are reported for frequencies higher than 12 Hz in some studies while missing in others. We hypothesized that this might be due to different experimental conditions, since both high and low intensity light stimulation were used. However, most studies do not report radiometric measurements, which makes it impossible to categorize the stimulation according to photopic, mesopic, and scotopic vision. Low intensity light stimulation might lead to scotopic vision, where rod perception dominates. In this study, we investigated photic driving for rod-dominated visual input under scotopic conditions. Twelve healthy volunteers were stimulated with low intensity light flashes at 20 stimulation frequencies, leading to rod activation only. The frequencies were multiples of the individual alpha frequency (α) of each volunteer in the range from 0.40 to 2.30∗α. Three hundred and six-channel whole head magnetoencephalography recordings were analyzed in time, frequency, and spatiotemporal domains with the Topographic Matching Pursuit algorithm. We found resonance phenomena and frequency entrainment for stimulations at or close to the individual alpha frequency (0.90–1.10∗α) and half of the alpha frequency (0.40–0.55∗α). No signs of resonance and frequency entrainment phenomena were revealed around 2.00∗α. Instead, on-responses at the beginning and off-responses at the end of each stimulation train were observed for the first time in a photic driving experiment at frequencies of 1.30–2.30∗α, indicating that the flicker fusion threshold was reached. All results, the resonance and entrainment as well as the fusion effects, provide evidence for rod-dominated photic driving in the visual cortex. PMID:27588002

  17. Fast Particle Methods for Multiscale Phenomena Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koumoutsakos, P.; Wray, A.; Shariff, K.; Pohorille, Andrew

    2000-01-01

    We are developing particle methods oriented at improving computational modeling capabilities of multiscale physical phenomena in : (i) high Reynolds number unsteady vortical flows, (ii) particle laden and interfacial flows, (iii)molecular dynamics studies of nanoscale droplets and studies of the structure, functions, and evolution of the earliest living cell. The unifying computational approach involves particle methods implemented in parallel computer architectures. The inherent adaptivity, robustness and efficiency of particle methods makes them a multidisciplinary computational tool capable of bridging the gap of micro-scale and continuum flow simulations. Using efficient tree data structures, multipole expansion algorithms, and improved particle-grid interpolation, particle methods allow for simulations using millions of computational elements, making possible the resolution of a wide range of length and time scales of these important physical phenomena.The current challenges in these simulations are in : [i] the proper formulation of particle methods in the molecular and continuous level for the discretization of the governing equations [ii] the resolution of the wide range of time and length scales governing the phenomena under investigation. [iii] the minimization of numerical artifacts that may interfere with the physics of the systems under consideration. [iv] the parallelization of processes such as tree traversal and grid-particle interpolations We are conducting simulations using vortex methods, molecular dynamics and smooth particle hydrodynamics, exploiting their unifying concepts such as : the solution of the N-body problem in parallel computers, highly accurate particle-particle and grid-particle interpolations, parallel FFT's and the formulation of processes such as diffusion in the context of particle methods. This approach enables us to transcend among seemingly unrelated areas of research.

  18. Shock Tunnel Studies of Scramjet Phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stalker, R. J.

    1996-01-01

    Work focussed on a large number of preliminary studies of supersonic combustion in a simple combustion duct - thrust nozzle combination, investigating effects of Mach number, equivalence ratio, combustor divergence, fuel injecting angle and other parameters with an influence on the combustion process. This phase lasted for some three or four years, during which strongest emphasis was placed on responding to the request for preliminary experimental information on high enthalpy effects, to support the technology maturation activities of the NASP program. As the need for preliminary data became less urgent, it was possible to conduct more systematic studies of high enthalpy combustion phenomena, and to initiate other projects aimed at improving the facilities and instrumentation used for studying scramjet phenomena at high enthalpies. The combustion studies were particularly directed towards hypersonic combustion, and to the effects of injecting fuel along the combustion chamber wall. A substantial effort was directed towards a study of the effect of scale on the supersonic combustion process. The influence of wave phenomena (both compression waves and expansion waves) on the realization of thrust from a supersonic combustion process was also investigated. The effect of chemical kinetics was looked into, particularly as it affected the composition of the test flow provided by a ground facility. The effect of injection of the fuel through wall orifices was compared with injection from a strut spanning the stream, and the effect of heating the fuel prior to injection was investigated. Studies of fuel-air mixing by shock impingement were also done, as well as mass spectrometer surveys of a combustion wake. The use of hypersonic nozzles with an expansion tube was investigated. A new method was developed for measuring the forces acting of a model in less than one millisecond. Also included in this report are listings of published journal papers and conference presentations.

  19. PREFACE: XX International School on Nuclear Physics, Neutron Physics and Applications (Varna2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoyanov, Chavdar; Dimitrova, Sevdalina

    2014-09-01

    The present volume contains the lectures and short talks given at the XX International School on Nuclear Physics, Neutron Physics and Applications. The School was held from 16-22 September 2013 in 'Club Hotel Bolero' located in 'Golden Sands' (Zlatni Pyasaci) Resort Complex on the Black Sea coast, near Varna, Bulgaria. The School was organized by the Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy of Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. Co-organizer of the School was the Bulgarian Nuclear Regulatory Agency and the Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics of Joint Institute for Nuclear Research - Dubna. Financial support was also provided by the Bulgarian Ministry of Education and Science. According to the long-standing tradition the School has been held every second year since 1973. The School's program has been restructured according to our enlarged new international links and today it is more similar to an international conference than to a classical nuclear physics school. This new image attracts many young scientists and students from around the world. This year, 2013, we had the pleasure to welcome more than sixty distinguished scientists as lecturers. Additionally, twenty young colleagues received the opportunity to present a short contribution. Ninety-four participants altogether enjoyed the scientific presentations and discussions as well as the relaxing atmosphere at the beach and during the pleasant evenings. The program of the School ranged from latest results in fundamental areas such as nuclear structure and reactions to the hot issues of application of nuclear methods, reactor physics and nuclear safety. The main topics have been the following: Nuclear excitations at various energies. Nuclei at high angular moments and temperature. Structure and reactions far from stability. Symmetries and collective phenomena. Methods for lifetime measurements. Astrophysical aspects of nuclear structure. Neutron nuclear physics. Nuclear data. Advanced methods in

  20. PREFACE: XIX International School on Nuclear Physics, Neutron Physics and Applications (VARNA 2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoyanov, Chavdar; Dimitrova, Sevdalina; Voronov, Victor

    2012-05-01

    This volume contains the lectures and short talks given at the XIX International School on Nuclear Physics, Neutron Physics and Applications. The School was held from 19-25 September 2011 in 'Club Hotel Bolero' located in the 'Golden Sands' (Zlatni Pyasaci) Resort Complex on the Black Sea coast, near Varna, Bulgaria. The School was organized by the Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. The co-organizer of the School was the Bulgarian Nuclear Regulatory Agency and the Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research - Dubna. According to long-standing tradition the School has been held every second year since 1973. The School's program has been restructured according to our enlarged new international links and today it is more similar to an international conference than to a classical nuclear physics school. This new image attracts many young scientists and students from around the world. This year - 2011, we had the pleasure of welcoming more than 50 distinguished scientists as lecturers. Additionally, 14 young colleagues received the opportunity to each present a short contribution. The program ranged from recent achievements in areas such as nuclear structure and reactions to the hot topics of the application of nuclear methods, reactor physics and nuclear safety. The 94 participants enjoyed the scientific presentations and discussions as well as the relaxing atmosphere at the beach and during the pleasant evenings. The main topics were as follows: Nuclear excitations at various energies Nuclei at high angular moments and temperature Structure and reactions far from stability Symmetries and collective phenomena Methods for lifetime measurements Astrophysical aspects of nuclear structure Neutron nuclear physics Nuclear data Advanced methods in nuclear waste treatment Nuclear methods for applications Several colleagues helped with the organization of the School. We would like

  1. Complex Synchronization Phenomena in Ecological Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, Lewi; Olinky, Ronen; Blasius, Bernd; Huppert, Amit; Cazelles, Bernard

    2002-07-01

    Ecological and biological systems provide us with many striking examples of synchronization phenomena. Here we discuss a number of intriguing cases and attempt to explain them taking advantage of a modelling framework. One main focus will concern synchronized ecological end epidemiological cycles which have Uniform Phase growth associated with their regular recurrence, and Chaotic Amplitudes - a feature we term UPCA. Examples come from different areas and include decadal cycles of small mammals, recurrent viral epidemics such as childhood infections (eg., measles), and seasonally driven phytoplankton blooms observed in lakes and the oceans. A more detailed theoretical analysis of seasonally synchronized chaotic population cycles is presented.

  2. Quenching phenomena in natural circulation loop

    SciTech Connect

    Umekawa, Hisashi; Ozawa, Mamoru; Ishida, Naoki

    1995-09-01

    Quenching phenomena has been investigated experimentally using circulation loop of liquid nitrogen. During the quenching under natural circulation, the heat transfer mode changes from film boiling to nucleate boiling, and at the same time flux changes with time depending on the vapor generation rate and related two-phase flow characteristics. Moreover, density wave oscillations occur under a certain operating condition, which is closely related to the dynamic behavior of the cooling curve. The experimental results indicates that the occurrence of the density wave oscillation induces the deterioration of effective cooling of the heat surface in the film and the transition boiling regions, which results in the decrease in the quenching velocity.

  3. Heavenly Bodies and Phenomena in Petroglyphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokhatyan, Karen

    2016-12-01

    In Armenian culture are amply reflected realities connected with Universe. Their figurative expressions are also petroglyphs in which there are representations of solar signs, swastika, Moon crescend, planets, stars, star groups, constellations, Milky Way, Earth. Among heavenly and atmospheric phenomena are: eclipce, meteor, comet, ligthning, cloud, rain and rainbow. There are many products of scientific thinking: stellar maps, calendars, compasses, astronomical records, Zodiac signs and ideograms. Thousands of the Armenian petroglyphs that were created millennia ago by an indigenous ethnos – Armenians, point to the significant place of celestial bodies and luminaries, especially the Sun, stars, and stellar constellations in our ancestors' cosmological perceptions.

  4. Electrodiffusion phenomena in neuroscience: a neglected companion.

    PubMed

    Savtchenko, Leonid P; Poo, Mu Ming; Rusakov, Dmitri A

    2017-09-19

    The emerging technological revolution in genetically encoded molecular sensors and super-resolution imaging provides neuroscientists with a pass to the real-time nano-world. On this small scale, however, classical principles of electrophysiology do not always apply. This is in large part because the nanoscopic heterogeneities in ionic concentrations and the local electric fields associated with individual ions and their movement can no longer be ignored. Here, we review basic principles of molecular electrodiffusion in the cellular environment of organized brain tissue. We argue that accurate interpretation of physiological observations on the nanoscale requires a better understanding of the underlying electrodiffusion phenomena.

  5. Relating Macroscopic Thermal Phenomena with Molecular Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laws, Priscilla W.

    2002-03-01

    A series of observations and activities have been developed to help students enrich their understanding of how physicists can use model building to construct self-consistent models of physical reality.* This talk will describe the instructional use of integrated microcomputer-based laboratory measurements of macroscopic phenomena and digital video analysis of simulated microscopic events to help students understand the ideal gas law, the first law of thermodynamics, and heat engines. *Workshop Physics Activity Guide (Module 3), P. Laws, (John Wiley and Sons, Inc., NY, 1997).

  6. On periodicity of solar wind phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verma, V. K.; Joshi, G. C.

    1995-01-01

    We have investigated the rate of occurrence of solar wind phenomena observed between 1972-1984 using power spectrum analysis. The data have been taken from the high speed solar wind (HSSW) streams catalogue published by Mavromichalaki et al. (1988). The power spectrum analysis of HSSW events indicate that HSSW stream events have a periodicity of 9 days. This periodicity of HSSW events is 1/3 of the 27 days period of coronal holes which are the major source of solar wind events. In our opinion the 9 days period may be the energy build up time to produce the HSSW stream events.

  7. Epileptic phenomena in bismuth toxic encephalopathy.

    PubMed Central

    Buge, A; Supino-Viterbo, V; Rancurel, G; Pontes, C

    1981-01-01

    Seventy patients admitted to hospital with bismuth encephalopathy had repeated clinical and EEG examinations. All the patients exhibited myoclonic jerks, but no paroxysmal features ever appeared on EEG. Computed tomography showed cortical hyperdensities. Seizures were observed in 22 patients, but epileptic EEG patterns appeared only when the bismuth blood level was below 1500 microgram/1. It is suggested that a high cortical intracellular bismuth concentration induces a "cortical inhibition" which causes suppression of physiological electrical brain activity, the absence of EEG paroxysmal phenomena during myoclonic jerks, and explains the rarity of epileptic seizures. Images PMID:7205307

  8. Generalized Bloch theorem and chiral transport phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Naoki

    2015-10-01

    Bloch theorem states the impossibility of persistent electric currents in the ground state of nonrelativistic fermion systems. We extend this theorem to generic systems based on the gauged particle number symmetry and study its consequences on the example of chiral transport phenomena. We show that the chiral magnetic effect can be understood as a generalization of the Bloch theorem to a nonequilibrium steady state, similarly to the integer quantum Hall effect. On the other hand, persistent axial currents are not prohibited by the Bloch theorem and they can be regarded as Pauli paramagnetism of relativistic matter. An application of the generalized Bloch theorem to quantum time crystals is also discussed.

  9. Prehistoric Phenomena and Self-referentiality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Junhua

    By terms-allowed-in-types capacity, the Logic of Proofs LP enjoys a system of advanced combinatory terms, while including types of the form t:φ(t), which have self-referential meanings. This paper suggests a research on possible S4 measures of self-referentiality introduced by this capacity. Specifically, we define "prehistoric phenomena" in G3s, a Gentzen-style formulation of modal logic S4. A special phenomenon, namely, "left prehistoric loop", is then shown to be necessary for self-referentiality in realizations of S4 theorems in LP.

  10. Visualizing Time-Dependent Quantum Phenomena With QMTools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moyer, Curt A.

    2001-11-01

    QMTools is both a collection of tools and a Java application designed to facilitate the creation of multimedia-enhanced, computer-based classroom materials for use in teaching introductory quantum physics. The Wavesolver tool animates time-dependent quantum wavefunctions in one dimension using the Crank-Nicholson method with discrete transparent boundary conditions described recently by Ehrhardt, and a fifth-order Numerov algorithm for the spatial integration. This produces the most accurate numerical simulations to date of quantum phenomena in one space dimension. We illustrate the power of this tool by simulating the decay of alpha particles from radioactive nuclei and resonance scattering of electrons in a three-layer GaAs-GaAlAs sandwich. The QMTools Project is funded by NSF under grant number DUE-9972322. QMTools is available to the academic community free of charge for non-commercial use from http://fluffah.phy.uncwil.edu/phy/moyer/QMTools/index.htm.

  11. 76 FR 63667 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-13

    ... Doc No: 2011-26462] NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket No. NRC-2011-0227] Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION... Budget (OMB) and solicitation of public comment. SUMMARY: The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission...

  12. 77 FR 54617 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-05

    ... controls at a nuclear reactor facility. This information is used to determine that each applicant or... Doc No: 2012-21832] NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket No. NRC-2012-0184] Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION...

  13. Spacecraft-induced plasma energization and its role in flow phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papadopoulos, K.; Smith, R. A.

    1985-01-01

    Plasma instabilities induced by orbiting vehicles can cause many important phenomena ranging from electron and ion heating and suprathermal electron tail energization, to enhanced ionization and optical emissions. We outline the basic collective processes leading to plasma energization near plasma sheaths and in regions of neutral gas streaming through plasma, and discuss the role of the induced collective effects in producing the optical emission spectra.

  14. Nuclear orientation and nuclear structure

    SciTech Connect

    Krane, K.S.

    1988-01-01

    The present generation of on-line nuclear orientation facilities promises to revolutionize the gathering of nuclear structure information, especially for the hitherto poorly known and understood nuclei far from stability. Following a brief review of the technological developments that have facilitated these experiments, the nuclear spectroscopic information that can be obtained is summarized. Applications to understanding nuclear structure are reviewed, and challenges for future studies are discussed. 14 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Novel QCD effects in nuclear collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, S.J.

    1991-12-01

    Heavy ion collisions can provide a novel environment for testing fundamental dynamical processes in QCD, including minijet formation and interactions, formation zone phenomena, color filtering, coherent co-mover interactions, and new higher twist mechanisms which could account for the observed excess production and anomalous nuclear target dependence of heavy flavor production. The possibility of using light-cone thermodynamics and a corresponding covariant temperature to describe the QCD phases of the nuclear fragmentation region is also briefly discussed.

  16. Nuclear networking.

    PubMed

    Xie, Wei; Burke, Brian

    2017-07-04

    Nuclear lamins are intermediate filament proteins that represent important structural components of metazoan nuclear envelopes (NEs). By combining proteomics and superresolution microscopy, we recently reported that both A- and B-type nuclear lamins form spatially distinct filament networks at the nuclear periphery of mouse fibroblasts. In particular, A-type lamins exhibit differential association with nuclear pore complexes (NPCs). Our studies reveal that the nuclear lamina network in mammalian somatic cells is less ordered and more complex than that of amphibian oocytes, the only other system in which the lamina has been visualized at high resolution. In addition, the NPC component Tpr likely links NPCs to the A-type lamin network, an association that appears to be regulated by C-terminal modification of various A-type lamin isoforms. Many questions remain, however, concerning the structure and assembly of lamin filaments, as well as with their mode of association with other nuclear components such as peripheral chromatin.

  17. Multiscale phenomena in the Earth's Magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surjalal Sharma, A.

    The multiscale phenomena in the Earth's magnetosphere have been studied using data from ground-based and space-borne measurements. The ground-based observations provide data over decades and are suitable for characterizing the inherent nature of the multiscale behavior and for studying the dynamical and statistical features. On the other hand, the spacecraft data provide in-situ observations of the processes. The multipoint measurements by Cluster have provided a new understanding of the plasma processes at microand meso-scales and the cross-scale coupling among them. The role of cross-scale coupling is evident in phenomena such as bursty bulk flows, flux ropes, and reconnection. The characteristic scales of the processes range from electron skin depth to MHD scales and the modeling of these processes need different physical models, such as kinetic, EMHD, Hall MHD, and MHD. The ground-based data have been used to develop models based on techniques of nonlinear science and yield predictive models which can be used for forecasting. These models characterize the magnetospheric dynaics and yield its global and multiscale aspects. The distribution of scales in the magnetosphere is studied using an extensive database of the solar wind and the magnetosphere. The distributions of the waiting times deviate significantly from a power law as well as stretched exponential distributions, and show a scaling with respect to the mean, indicating a limited role of long-term correlations in the magnetospheric dynamics.

  18. Animal network phenomena: insights from triadic games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mesterton-Gibbons, Mike; Sherratt, Tom N.

    Games of animal conflict in networks rely heavily on computer simulation because analysis is difficult, the degree of difficulty increasing sharply with the size of the network. For this reason, virtually the entire analytical literature on evolutionary game theory has assumed either dyadic interaction or a high degree of symmetry, or both. Yet we cannot rely exclusively on computer simulation in the study of any complex system. So the study of triadic interactions has an important role to play, because triads are both the simplest groups in which asymmetric network phenomena can be studied and the groups beyond dyads in which analysis of population games is most likely to be tractable, especially when allowing for intrinsic variation. Here we demonstrate how such analyses can illuminate a variety of behavioral phenomena within networks, including coalition formation, eavesdropping (the strategic observation of contests between neighbors) and victory displays (which are performed by the winners of contests but not by the losers). In particular, we show that eavesdropping acts to lower aggression thresholds compared to games without it, and that victory displays to bystanders will be most intense when there is little difference in payoff between dominating an opponent and not subordinating.

  19. Animal network phenomena: insights from triadic games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mesterton-Gibbons, Mike; Sherratt, Tom N.

    Games of animal conflict in networks rely heavily on computer simulation because analysis is difficult, the degree of difficulty increasing sharply with the size of the network. For this reason, virtually the entire analytical literature on evolutionary game theory has assumed either dyadic interaction or a high degree of symmetry, or both. Yet we cannot rely exclusively on computer simulation in the study of any complex system. So the study of triadic interactions has an important role to play, because triads are both the simplest groups in which asymmetric network phenomena can be studied and the groups beyond dyads in which analysis of population games is most likely to be tractable, especially when allowing for intrinsic variation. Here we demonstrate how such analyses can illuminate a variety of behavioral phenomena within networks, including coalition formation, eavesdropping (the strategic observation of contests between neighbors) and victory displays (which are performed by the winners of contests but not by the losers). In particular, we show that eavesdropping acts to lower aggression thresholds compared to games without it, and that victory displays to bystanders will be most intense when there is little difference in payoff between dominating an opponent and not subordinating.

  20. Nonlinear phenomena in Bose-Einstein condensates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carr, Lincoln D.

    2008-05-01

    We present a medley of results from the last three years on nonlinear phenomena in BECs [1]. These include exact dynamics of multi-component condensates in optical lattices [2], vortices and ring solitons [3], macroscopic quantum tunneling [4], nonlinear band theory [5], and a pulsed atomic soliton laser [6]. 1. Emergent Nonlinear Phenomena in Bose-Einstein Condensates: Theory and Experiment, ed. P. G. Kevrekidis, D. J. Frantzeskakis, and R. Carretero-Gonzalez (Springer-Verlag, 2008). 2. R. Mark Bradley, James E. Bernard, and L. D. Carr, e-print arXiv:0711.1896 (2007). 3. G. Herring, L. D. Carr, R. Carretero-Gonzalez, P. G. Kevrekidis, D. J. Frantzeskakis, Phys. Rev. A in press, e-print arXiv:0709.2193 (2007); L. D. Carr and C. W. Clark, Phys. Rev. A v. 74, p.043613 (2006); L. D. Carr and C. W. Clark, Phys. Rev. Lett. v. 97, p.010403 (2006). 4. L. D. Carr, M. J. Holland, and B. A. Malomed, J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys., v.38, p.3217 (2005) 5. B. T. Seaman, L. D. Carr, and M. J. Holland, Phys. Rev. A, v. 71, p.033622 (2005). 6. L. D. Carr and J. Brand, Phys. Rev. A, v.70, p.033607 (2004); L. D. Carr and J. Brand, Phys. Rev. Lett., v.92, p.040401 (2004).

  1. Physical phenomena and the microgravity response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Todd, Paul

    1989-01-01

    The living biological cell is not a sack of Newtonian fluid containing systems of chemical reactions at equilibrium. It is a kinetically driven system, not a thermodynamically driven system. While the cell as a whole might be considered isothermal, at the scale of individual macromolecular events there is heat generated, and presumably sharp thermal gradients exist at the submicron level. Basic physical phenomena to be considered when exploring the cell's response to inertial acceleration include particle sedimentation, solutal convection, motility electrokinetics, cytoskeletal work, and hydrostatic pressure. Protein crystal growth experiments, for example, illustrate the profound effects of convection currents on macromolecular assembly. Reaction kinetics in the cell vary all the way from diffusion-limited to life-time limited. Transport processes vary from free diffusion, to facilitated and active transmembrane transport, to contractile-protein-driven motility, to crystalline immobilization. At least four physical states of matter exist in the cell: aqueous, non-aqueous, immiscible-aqueous, and solid. Levels of order vary from crystalline to free solution. The relative volumes of these states profoundly influence the cell's response to inertial acceleration. Such subcellular phenomena as stretch-receptor activation, microtubule re-assembly, synaptic junction formation, chemotactic receptor activation, and statolith sedimentation were studied recently with respect to both their basic mechanisms and their responsiveness to inertial acceleration. From such studies a widespread role of cytoskeletal organization is becoming apparent.

  2. WHC natural phenomena hazards mitigation implementation plan

    SciTech Connect

    Conrads, T.J.

    1996-09-11

    Natural phenomena hazards (NPH) are unexpected acts of nature which pose a threat or danger to workers, the public or to the environment. Earthquakes, extreme winds (hurricane and tornado),snow, flooding, volcanic ashfall, and lightning strike are examples of NPH at Hanford. It is the policy of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to design, construct and operate DOE facilitiesso that workers, the public and the environment are protected from NPH and other hazards. During 1993 DOE, Richland Operations Office (RL) transmitted DOE Order 5480.28, ``Natural Phenomena Hazards Mitigation,`` to Westinghouse Hanford COmpany (WHC) for compliance. The Order includes rigorous new NPH criteria for the design of new DOE facilities as well as for the evaluation and upgrade of existing DOE facilities. In 1995 DOE issued Order 420.1, ``Facility Safety`` which contains the same NPH requirements and invokes the same applicable standards as Order 5480.28. It will supersede Order 5480.28 when an in-force date for Order 420.1 is established through contract revision. Activities will be planned and accomplished in four phases: Mobilization; Prioritization; Evaluation; and Upgrade. The basis for the graded approach is the designation of facilities/structures into one of five performance categories based upon safety function, mission and cost. This Implementation Plan develops the program for the Prioritization Phase, as well as an overall strategy for the implemention of DOE Order 5480.2B.

  3. EUV Dimmings: Formation Mechanisms and Associated Phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, B. J.; Mays, M. L.; West, M. J.

    2012-12-01

    Large-scale coronal EUV dimmings, developing on timescales of minutes to hours in association with a flare or filament eruption, are known to exhibit a high correlation with coronal mass ejections. While most observations indicate that the decrease in emission in a dimming is due, at least in part, to a density decrease, a complete understanding requires us to examine at least four mechanisms that have been observed to cause darkened regions in the corona: 1) mass loss, 2) cooling, 3) heating, and 4) absorption/obscuration. Recent advances in automatic detection, observations with improved cadence and resolution, multi-viewpoint imaging, and spectroscopic studies have continued to shed light on dimming formation, evolution, and recovery. However, there are still some outstanding questions, including 1) Why do some CMEs show dimming and some do not? 2) What determines the location of a dimming? 3) What determines the temporal evolution of a dimming? 4) How does the post-eruption dimming connect to the ICME? 5) What is the relationship between dimmings and other CME-associated phenomena? The talk will emphasize the different formation mechanisms of dimmings and their relationship to CMEs and CME-associated phenomena.

  4. Uncommon corrosion phenomena of archaeological bronze alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingo, G. M.; de Caro, T.; Riccucci, C.; Khosroff, S.

    2006-06-01

    In the framework of the EFESTUS project (funded by the European Commission, contract No. ICA3-CT-2002-10030) the corrosion products of a large number of archaeological bronze artefacts are investigated by means of the combined use of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and optical microscopy (OM) and tentative correlation of their nature with the chemical composition of the artefacts and the burial context is proposed. The results provide good insight into the corrosion layers and evidence in some bronze Roman coins and artefacts; the occurrence of uncommon corrosion phenomena that give rise to the formation of a yellowish-green complex chlorine-phosphate of lead (pyromorphite, (PbCl)Pb4(PO4)3) and of a gold-like thick layer of an iron and copper sulphide (chalcopyrite, CuFeS2). The micro-chemical and micro-structural results show that the coins were buried in a soil enriched in phosphorus for the accidental presence of a large amount of decomposing fragments of bones or in an anaerobic and humus rich soil where the chalcopyrite layer has been produced via the interaction between the iron of the soil, the copper of the coin and the sulphur produced by the decomposition of organic matter in an almost oxygen free environment. Finally, some unusual periodic corrosion phenomena occurring in high tin bronze mirrors found at Zama (Tunisia) are described.

  5. Emergent phenomena and partonic structure in hadrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Craig D.; Mezrag, Cédric

    2017-03-01

    Modern facilities are poised to tackle fundamental questions within the Standard Model, aiming to reveal the nature of confinement, its relationship to dynamical chiral symmetry breaking (DCSB) - the origin of visible mass - and the connection between these two, key emergent phenomena. There is strong evidence to suggest that they are intimately connected with the appearance of momentum-dependent masses for gluons and quarks in QCD, which are large in the infrared: mg 500MeV and Mq 350MeV. DCSB, expressed in the dynamical generation of a dressed-quark mass, has an enormous variety of verifiable consequences, including an enigmatic result that the properties of the (almost) massless pion are the cleanest expression of the mechanism which is responsible for almost all the visible mass in the Universe. This contribution explains that these emergent phenomena are expressed with particular force in the partonic structure of hadrons, e.g. in valence-quark parton distribution amplitudes and functions, and, consequently, in numerous hadronic observables, so that we are now in a position to exhibit the consequences of confinement and DCSB in a wide range of hadron observables, opening the way to empirical verification of their expression in the Standard Model.

  6. Sorting the nuclear proteome

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Denis C.; Willadsen, Kai; Buske, Fabian A.; Lê Cao, Kim-Anh; Bailey, Timothy L.; Dellaire, Graham; Bodén, Mikael

    2011-01-01

    Motivation: Quantitative experimental analyses of the nuclear interior reveal a morphologically structured yet dynamic mix of membraneless compartments. Major nuclear events depend on the functional integrity and timely assembly of these intra-nuclear compartments. Yet, unknown drivers of protein mobility ensure that they are in the right place at the time when they are needed. Results: This study investigates determinants of associations between eight intra-nuclear compartments and their proteins in heterogeneous genome-wide data. We develop a model based on a range of candidate determinants, capable of mapping the intra-nuclear organization of proteins. The model integrates protein interactions, protein domains, post-translational modification sites and protein sequence data. The predictions of our model are accurate with a mean AUC (over all compartments) of 0.71. We present a complete map of the association of 3567 mouse nuclear proteins with intra-nuclear compartments. Each decision is explained in terms of essential interactions and domains, and qualified with a false discovery assessment. Using this resource, we uncover the collective role of transcription factors in each of the compartments. We create diagrams illustrating the outcomes of a Gene Ontology enrichment analysis. Associated with an extensive range of transcription factors, the analysis suggests that PML bodies coordinate regulatory immune responses. Contact: m.boden@uq.edu.au Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:21685104

  7. Radioactive Decay: Audio Data Collection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Struthers, Allan

    2009-01-01

    Many phenomena generate interesting audible time series. This data can be collected and processed using audio software. The free software package "Audacity" is used to demonstrate the process by recording, processing, and extracting click times from an inexpensive radiation detector. The high quality of the data is demonstrated with a simple…

  8. Radioactive Decay: Audio Data Collection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Struthers, Allan

    2009-01-01

    Many phenomena generate interesting audible time series. This data can be collected and processed using audio software. The free software package "Audacity" is used to demonstrate the process by recording, processing, and extracting click times from an inexpensive radiation detector. The high quality of the data is demonstrated with a simple…

  9. Next-generation Nuclear Data Web Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonzogni, A. A.

    2005-07-01

    The National Nuclear Data Center collects, evaluates, and disseminates nuclear physics data for basic nuclear research and applied nuclear technologies. We have recently produced a nuclear data portal featuring modern and powerful servers, relational database software, Linux operating system, and Java programming language. The portal includes nuclear structure, decay and reaction data, as well as literature information. Data can be searched for using optimized query forms; results are presented in tables and interactive plots. Additionally, a number of nuclear science tools, codes, applications, and links are provided. A brief tutorial of the different databases and products will be provided.

  10. Novel Colloidal and Dynamic Interfacial Phenomena in Liquid Crystalline Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-13

    investigation supported by this grant moved beyond past studies of interfacial and colloidal phenomena involving isotropic liquids to explore and understand a...2010 20-May-2014 Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited Final Report: Novel Colloidal and Dynamic Interfacial Phenomena in Liquid...Army Research Office P.O. Box 12211 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 liquid crystals, interfacial phenomena, colloids , amphiphiles

  11. National Center for Nuclear Security: The Nuclear Forensics Project (F2012)

    SciTech Connect

    Klingensmith, A. L.

    2012-03-21

    These presentation visuals introduce the National Center for Nuclear Security. Its chartered mission is to enhance the Nation’s verification and detection capabilities in support of nuclear arms control and nonproliferation through R&D activities at the NNSS. It has three focus areas: Treaty Verification Technologies, Nonproliferation Technologies, and Technical Nuclear Forensics. The objectives of nuclear forensics are to reduce uncertainty in the nuclear forensics process & improve the scientific defensibility of nuclear forensics conclusions when applied to nearsurface nuclear detonations. Research is in four key areas: Nuclear Physics, Debris collection and analysis, Prompt diagnostics, and Radiochemistry.

  12. Fundamental investigation of Duct/ESP phenomena: 1. 7 MW pilot parametric testing results

    SciTech Connect

    McGuire, L.M.; Brown, C.A.

    1991-07-22

    Radian Corporation was contracted to investigate duct injection and electrostatic precipitator phenomena in a 1.7-MW pilot plant constructed for this test program. This study was an attempt to resolve previous problems and to answer remaining questions with the technology using an approach which concentrated on the fundamental mechanisms of the process. The goal of the study was to obtain a better understanding of the basic physical and chemical phenomena that control: (1) the desulfurization of flue gas by calcium-based reagent, and (2) the coupling of the duct injection process to an existing ESP particulate collection device. (VC)

  13. Nuclear Security Futures Scenarios.

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, Elizabeth James Kistin; Warren, Drake Edward; Hayden, Nancy Kay; Passell, Howard D.; Malczynski, Leonard A.; Backus, George A.

    2017-01-01

    This report provides an overview of the scenarios used in strategic futures workshops conducted at Sandia on September 21 and 29, 2016. The workshops, designed and facilitated by analysts in Center 100, used scenarios to enable thought leaders to think collectively about the changing aspects of global nuclear security and the potential implications for the US Government and Sandia National Laboratories.

  14. Scaling extreme astrophysical phenomena to the laboratory - a tutorial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remington, Bruce A.

    2007-11-01

    The ability to experimentally study scaled aspects of the explosion dynamics of core-collapse supernovae (massive stars that explode from the inside out) or the radiation kinetics of accreting neutron stars or black holes on high energy density (HED) facilities, such as high power lasers and magnetic pinch facilities, is an exciting scientific development over the last two decades. [1,2] Additional areas of research that become accessible on modern HED facilities are studies of fundamental properties of matter in conditions relevant to planetary and stellar interiors, protostellar jet dynamics, and with the added tool of thermonuclear ignition on the National Ignition Facility, excited state (``multi-hit'') nuclear physics, possibly relevant to nucleosynthesis. Techniques and methodologies for studying aspects of the physics of such extreme phenomena of the universe in millimeter scale parcels of plasma in the laboratory will be discussed. [1] ``Experimental astrophysics with high power lasers and Z pinches,'' B.A. Remington, R.P. Drake, D.D. Ryutov, Rev. Mod. Phys. 78, 755 (2006). [2] ``High energy density laboratory astrophysics,'' B.A. Remington, Plasma Phys. Cont. Fusion 47, A191 (2005).

  15. The Seismoacoustic Wavefield: A New Paradigm in Studying Geophysical Phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arrowsmith, Stephen J.; Johnson, Jeffrey B.; Drob, Douglas P.; Hedlin, Michael A. H.

    2010-12-01

    The field of seismoacoustics is emerging as an important discipline in its own right, owing to the value of colocated seismic and infrasound arrays that sample elastic energy propagating in both the solid Earth and the atmosphere. The fusion of seismic and infrasonic data provides unique constraints for studying a broad range of topics including the source physics of natural and man-made events, interaction of mechanical waves in Earth's crust and atmosphere, source location and characterization, and inversion of atmospheric and shallow subsurface properties. This review article traces the seismoacoustic wavefield from source to receiver. Beginning at the source, we review the latest insights into the physics of natural and anthropogenic sources that have arisen from the analysis of seismoacoustic data. Next, a comparative review of 3-D models of the atmosphere and solid Earth and the latest algorithms for modeling the propagation of mechanical waves through these media provides the framework for a discussion of the seismoacoustic path. The optimal measurement of seismic and acoustic waves, including a discussion of instrumentation, as well as of array configurations and regional networks, is then outlined. Finally, we focus on broad research applications where the analysis of seismoacoustic data is starting to yield important new results, such as in the field of nuclear explosion monitoring. This review is intended to provide a primer on the field of seismoacoustics for seismologists or acousticians, while also providing a more general review of what constraints seismoacoustics can uniquely provide for understanding geophysical phenomena.

  16. Thermal Aging Phenomena in Cast Duplex Stainless Steels

    SciTech Connect

    Byun, T. S.; Yang, Y.; Overman, N. R.; Busby, J. T.

    2015-11-12

    We used cast stainless steels (CASSs)for the large components of light water reactor (LWR) power plants such as primary coolant piping and pump casing. The thermal embrittlement of CASS components is one of the most serious concerns related to the extended-term operation of nuclear power plants. Many past researches have concluded that the formation of Cr-rich alpha-phase by Spinodal decomposition of delta-ferrite phase is the primary mechanism for the thermal embrittlement. Cracking mechanism in the thermally-embrittled duplex stainless steels consists of the formation of cleavage at ferrite and its propagation via separation of ferrite-austenite interphase. This article intends to provide an introductory overview on the thermal aging phenomena in LWR-relevant conditions. Firstly, the thermal aging effect on toughness is discussed in terms of the cause of embrittlement and influential parameters. Moreover, an approximate analysis of thermal reaction using Arrhenius equation was carried out to scope the aging temperatures for the accelerated aging experiments to simulate the 60 and 80 years of services. Further, an equilibrium precipitation calculation was performed for model CASS alloys using the CALPHAD program, and the results are used to describe the precipitation behaviors in duplex stainless steels. Our results are also to be used to guide an on-going research aiming to provide knowledge-based conclusive prediction for the integrity of the CASS components of LWR power plants during the service life extended up to and beyond 60 years.

  17. Thermal Aging Phenomena in Cast Duplex Stainless Steels

    SciTech Connect

    Byun, T. S.; Yang, Y.; Overman, N. R.; Busby, J. T.

    2016-02-28

    Cast stainless steels (CASSs) have been extensively used for the large components of light water reactor (LWR) power plants such as primary coolant piping and pump casing. The thermal embrittlement of CASS components is one of the most serious concerns related to the extended-term operation of nuclear power plants. Many past researches have concluded that the formation of Cr–rich α'-phase by Spinodal decomposition of δ-ferrite phase is the primary mechanism for the thermal embrittlement. Cracking mechanism in the thermally-embrittled duplex stainless steels consists of the formation of cleavage at ferrite and its propagation via separation of ferrite-austenite interphase. This article intends to provide an introductory overview on the thermal aging phenomena in LWR relevant conditions. Firstly, the thermal aging effect on toughness is discussed in terms of the cause of embrittlement and influential parameters. An approximate analysis of thermal reaction using Arrhenius equation was carried out to scope the aging temperatures for the accelerated aging experiments to simulate the 60 and 80 years of services. Further, equilibrium precipitation calculation was performed for model CASS alloys using the CALPHAD program and the results are used to describe the precipitation behaviors in duplex stainless steels. These results are also to be used to guide an on-going research aiming to provide knowledge-based conclusive prediction for the integrity of the CASS components of LWR power plants during the service life extended up to and beyond 60 years.

  18. Thermal Aging Phenomena in Cast Duplex Stainless Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byun, T. S.; Yang, Y.; Overman, N. R.; Busby, J. T.

    2016-02-01

    Cast stainless steels (CASSs) have been extensively used for the large components of light water reactor (LWR) power plants such as primary coolant piping and pump casing. The thermal embrittlement of CASS components is one of the most serious concerns related to the extended-term operation of nuclear power plants. Many past researches have concluded that the formation of Cr-rich α'-phase by Spinodal decomposition of δ-ferrite phase is the primary mechanism for the thermal embrittlement. Cracking mechanism in the thermally-embrittled duplex stainless steels consists of the formation of cleavage at ferrite and its propagation via separation of ferrite-austenite interphase. This article intends to provide an introductory overview on the thermal aging phenomena in LWR-relevant conditions. Firstly, the thermal aging effect on toughness is discussed in terms of the cause of embrittlement and influential parameters. An approximate analysis of thermal reaction using Arrhenius equation was carried out to scope the aging temperatures for the accelerated aging experiments to simulate the 60 and 80 years of services. Further, an equilibrium precipitation calculation was performed for model CASS alloys using the CALPHAD program, and the results are used to describe the precipitation behaviors in duplex stainless steels. These results are also to be used to guide an on-going research aiming to provide knowledge-based conclusive prediction for the integrity of the CASS components of LWR power plants during the service life extended up to and beyond 60 years.

  19. Mathematical methods of studying physical phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Man'ko, Margarita A.

    2013-03-01

    In recent decades, substantial theoretical and experimental progress was achieved in understanding the quantum nature of physical phenomena that serves as the foundation of present and future quantum technologies. Quantum correlations like the entanglement of the states of composite systems, the phenomenon of quantum discord, which captures other aspects of quantum correlations, quantum contextuality and, connected with these phenomena, uncertainty relations for conjugate variables and entropies, like Shannon and Rényi entropies, and the inequalities for spin states, like Bell inequalities, reflect the recently understood quantum properties of micro and macro systems. The mathematical methods needed to describe all quantum phenomena mentioned above were also the subject of intense studies in the end of the last, and beginning of the new, century. In this section of CAMOP 'Mathematical Methods of Studying Physical Phenomena' new results and new trends in the rapidly developing domain of quantum (and classical) physics are presented. Among the particular topics under discussion there are some reviews on the problems of dynamical invariants and their relations with symmetries of the physical systems. In fact, this is a very old problem of both classical and quantum systems, e.g. the systems of parametric oscillators with time-dependent parameters, like Ermakov systems, which have specific constants of motion depending linearly or quadratically on the oscillator positions and momenta. Such dynamical invariants play an important role in studying the dynamical Casimir effect, the essence of the effect being the creation of photons from the vacuum in a cavity with moving boundaries due to the presence of purely quantum fluctuations of the electromagnetic field in the vacuum. It is remarkable that this effect was recently observed experimentally. The other new direction in developing the mathematical approach in physics is quantum tomography that provides a new vision of

  20. Microgravity Transport Phenomena Experiment (MTPE) Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, Larry W.

    1999-01-01

    The Microgravity Transport Phenomena Experiment (MTPE) is a fluids experiment supported by the Fundamentals in Biotechnology program in association with the Human Exploration and Development of Space (BEDS) initiative. The MTP Experiment will investigate fluid transport phenomena both in ground based experiments and in the microgravity environment. Many fluid transport processes are affected by gravity. Osmotic flux kinetics in planar membrane systems have been shown to be influenced by gravimetric orientation, either through convective mixing caused by unstably stratified fluid layers, or through a stable fluid boundary layer structure that forms in association with the membrane. Coupled transport phenomena also show gravity related effects. Coefficients associated with coupled transport processes are defined in terms of a steady state condition. Buoyancy (gravity) driven convection interferes with the attainment of steady state, and the measurement of coupled processes. The MTP Experiment measures the kinetics of molecular migration that occurs in fluids, in response to the application of various driving potentials. Three separate driving potentials may be applied to the MTP Experiment fluids, either singly or in combination. The driving potentials include chemical potential, thermal potential, and electrical potential. Two separate fluid arrangements are used to study membrane mediated and bulk fluid transport phenomena. Transport processes of interest in membrane mediated systems include diffusion, osmosis, and streaming potential. Bulk fluid processes of interest include coupled phenomena such as the Soret Effect, Dufour Effect, Donnan Effect, and thermal diffusion potential. MTP Experiments are performed in the Microgravity Transport Apparatus (MTA), an instrument that has been developed specifically for precision measurement of transport processes. Experiment fluids are contained within the MTA fluid cells, designed to create a one dimensional flow geometry