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Sample records for nuclear electric plant

  1. 77 FR 24228 - Condition Monitoring Techniques for Electric Cables Used in Nuclear Power Plants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-23

    ... COMMISSION Condition Monitoring Techniques for Electric Cables Used in Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY: Nuclear... Techniques for Electric Cables Used in Nuclear Power Plants.'' This guide describes techniques that the staff of the NRC considers acceptable for condition monitoring of electric cables for nuclear power plants...

  2. Aging assessment of large electric motors in nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Villaran, M.; Subudhi, M.

    1996-03-01

    Large electric motors serve as the prime movers to drive high capacity pumps, fans, compressors, and generators in a variety of nuclear plant systems. This study examined the stressors that cause degradation and aging in large electric motors operating in various plant locations and environments. The operating history of these machines in nuclear plant service was studied by review and analysis of failure reports in the NPRDS and LER databases. This was supplemented by a review of motor designs, and their nuclear and balance of plant applications, in order to characterize the failure mechanisms that cause degradation, aging, and failure in large electric motors. A generic failure modes and effects analysis for large squirrel cage induction motors was performed to identify the degradation and aging mechanisms affecting various components of these large motors, the failure modes that result, and their effects upon the function of the motor. The effects of large motor failures upon the systems in which they are operating, and on the plant as a whole, were analyzed from failure reports in the databases. The effectiveness of the industry`s large motor maintenance programs was assessed based upon the failure reports in the databases and reviews of plant maintenance procedures and programs.

  3. Advanced design nuclear power plants: Competitive, economical electricity. An analysis of the cost of electricity from coal, gas and nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-06-01

    This report presents an updated analysis of the projected cost of electricity from new baseload power plants beginning operation around the year 2000. Included in the study are: (1) advanced-design, standardized nuclear power plants; (2) low emissions coal-fired power plants; (3) gasified coal-fired power plants; and (4) natural gas-fired power plants. This analysis shows that electricity from advanced-design, standardized nuclear power plants will be economically competitive with all other baseload electric generating system alternatives. This does not mean that any one source of electric power is always preferable to another. Rather, what this analysis indicates is that, as utilities and others begin planning for future baseload power plants, advanced-design nuclear plants should be considered an economically viable option to be included in their detailed studies of alternatives. Even with aggressive and successful conservation, efficiency and demand-side management programs, some new baseload electric supply will be needed during the 1990s and into the future. The baseload generating plants required in the 1990s are currently being designed and constructed. For those required shortly after 2000, the planning and alternatives assessment process must start now. It takes up to ten years to plan, design, license and construct a new coal-fired or nuclear fueled baseload electric generating plant and about six years for a natural gas-fired plant. This study indicates that for 600-megawatt blocks of capacity, advanced-design nuclear plants could supply electricity at an average of 4.5 cents per kilowatt-hour versus 4.8 cents per kilowatt-hour for an advanced pulverized-coal plant, 5.0 cents per kilowatt-hour for a gasified-coal combined cycle plant, and 4.3 cents per kilowatt-hour for a gas-fired combined cycle combustion turbine plant.

  4. 76 FR 50767 - Southern Nuclear Operating Co., et al.; Combined Licenses for Vogtle Electric Generating Plant...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-16

    ... COMMISSION Southern Nuclear Operating Co., et al.; Combined Licenses for Vogtle Electric Generating Plant... approval to construct and operate new nuclear power generation facilities at the Vogtle Electric Generating... (10 CFR) part 52 combined licenses (COLs), seeking approval to construct and operate new nuclear power...

  5. Nuclear-plant response to grid electrical disturbances. Final report. [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, G.A.; Winter, M.C.; Follen, S.M.; Anderson, P.M.

    1983-02-01

    Grid electrical disturbances (GEDs) are characterized by variances in grid voltage and frequencies that result from transient imbalances between generation and load. Nuclear plant response to GEDs is constrained by process system limitations and design limitations in power system hardware. This report includes discussions based upon selected past studies which provide an introductory background to GED phenomena and nuclear plant response. A system frequency response model is derived for estimating load-frequency relationships during transient conditions. The analysis of two recent industry surveys is included which relates actual nuclear plant experience with GEDs, identifies design changes and operating procedures which have been used to mitigate the effects of GEDs, and provides data on plant transient monitoring systems. A model plant analysis is included, illustrating application of System Sequence Analysis methodology to the analysis of nuclear plant response to GEDs.

  6. Source book for planning nuclear dual-purpose electric/distillation desalination plants

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, S.A.

    1981-02-01

    A source book on nuclear dual-purpose electric/distillation desalination plants was prepared to assist government and other planners in preparing broad evaluations of proposed applications of dual-purpose plants. The document is divided into five major sections. Section 1 presents general discussions relating to the benefits of dual-purpose plants, and spectrum for water-to-power ratios. Section 2 presents information on commercial nuclear plants manufactured by US manufacturers. Section 3 gives information on distillation desalting processes and equipment. Section 4 presents a discussion on feedwater pretreatment and scale control. Section 5 deals with methods for coupling the distillation and electrical generating plants to operate in the dual mode.

  7. 75 FR 3943 - Southern Nuclear Operating Company, Inc.; Vogtle Electric Generating Plant, Units 1 and 2...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-25

    ... workers and members of the public. Therefore, no changes or different types of radiological impacts are..., no changes to or different types of non-radiological environmental impacts are expected as a result... COMMISSION Southern Nuclear Operating Company, Inc.; Vogtle Electric Generating Plant, Units 1 and 2...

  8. Commercial Nuclear Steam-Electric Power Plants, Part II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shore, Ferdinand J.

    1974-01-01

    Presents the pros and cons of nuclear power systems. Includes a discussion of the institutional status of the AEC, AEC regulatory record, routine low-level radiation hazards, transport of radioactive materials, storage of wastes, and uranium resources and economics of supply. (GS)

  9. Commercial Nuclear Steam-Electric Power Plants, Part II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shore, Ferdinand J.

    1974-01-01

    Presents the pros and cons of nuclear power systems. Includes a discussion of the institutional status of the AEC, AEC regulatory record, routine low-level radiation hazards, transport of radioactive materials, storage of wastes, and uranium resources and economics of supply. (GS)

  10. 75 FR 75704 - Pacific Gas and Electric Company (Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant, Units 1 And 2); Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Pacific Gas and Electric Company (Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant, Units 1 And 2); Notice of... Dr. Tianqing Cao, Senior Seismologist, Office of Nuclear Material Safety and Safeguards, has...

  11. Nuclear Power Plants. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyerly, Ray L.; Mitchell, Walter, III

    This publication is one of a series of information booklets for the general public published by the United States Atomic Energy Commission. Among the topics discussed are: Why Use Nuclear Power?; From Atoms to Electricity; Reactor Types; Typical Plant Design Features; The Cost of Nuclear Power; Plants in the United States; Developments in Foreign…

  12. Electricity-market price and nuclear power plant shutdown: Evidence from California

    SciTech Connect

    Woo, C.K.; Ho, T.; Zarnikau, J.; Olson, A.; Jones, R.; Chait, M.; Horowitz, I.; Wang, J.

    2014-10-01

    Japan's Fukushima nuclear disaster, triggered by the March 11, 2011 earthquake, has led to calls for shutting down existing nuclear plants. To maintain resource adequacy for a grid's reliable operation, one option is to expand conventional generation, whose marginal unit is typically fueled by natural-gas. Two timely and relevant questions thus arise for a deregulated wholesale electricity market: (1) what is the likely price increase due to a nuclear plant shutdown? and (2) what can be done to mitigate the price increase? To answer these questions, we perform a regression analysis of a large sample of hourly real-time electricity-market price data from the California Independent System Operator (CAISO) for the 33-month sample period of April 2010-December 2012. Our analysis indicates that the 2013 shutdown of the state's San Onofre plant raised the CAISO real-time hourly market prices by $6/MWH to $9/MWH, and that the price increases could have been offset by a combination of demand reduction, increasing solar generation, and increasing wind generation.

  13. Ageing of polymers in electrical equipment used in nuclear power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clavreul, R.

    1999-05-01

    Ageing of polymers in electrical equipment used in nuclear power plants has been studied in (Electricité de France) EDF for several years. The objective of such studies is to predict the polymers lifetime in normal and accidental conditions. The prediction of polymers behaviour in normal conditions requires accelerated tests in order to get rapidly experimental results. Experimental conditions must carefully be chosen and representative of real ageing. Accelerated ageing is usually done by applying higher temperature, (dose) or dose rate. When such experiments are done, the effects of temperature, (dose) or dose rate are first determined. In a second step, experimental results are extrapolated to real conditions. To predict lifetime of polymers, the following recommendations have to be checked: in order to assume that accelerated tests are representative of normal ageing, the observed mechanisms in experiments must be the same as those in real conditions. For accidental conditions, the same tests as those described in standards can be applied to polymers. The simulation of any accident occurring just after the installation of electrical equipment in nuclear power plants is easy to manage: only the accidental test can be carried out on the electrical equipment. To determine whether polymers in electrical equipment would have a good behaviour or not when an accident would occur after a period of several years or decades in normal conditions in a nuclear power plant, the accidental test must be done on aged materials; their physical, mechanical and electrical characteristics must be relevant to aged polymers in normal conditions. In order to detect any evolution of properties during ageing, the electrical, mechanical or chemical tests have to be proceeded on polymers samples. The characterisation tests which are applied on non-aged and aged samples depend on the nature of the polymers, their application in electrical equipment and their environment. The IEC 544

  14. Aging Management Guideline for commercial nuclear power plants: Electrical switchgear. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Toman, G.; Gazdzinski, R.; Schuler, K.

    1993-07-01

    This Aging Management Guideline (AMG) provides recommended methods for effective detection and mitigation of age-related degradation mechanisms in BWR and PWR commercial nuclear power plant electrical switchgear important to license renewal. The latent of this AMG to assist plant maintenance and operations personnel in maximizing the safe, useful life of these components. It also supports the documentation of effective aging management programs required under the License Renewal Rule 10 CFR Part 54. This AMG is presented in a manner which allows personnel responsible for performance analysis and maintenance, to compare their plant-specific aging mechanisms (expected or already experienced) and aging management program activities to the more generic results and recommendations presented herein.

  15. LONG TERM OPERATION ISSUES FOR ELECTRICAL CABLE SYSTEMS IN NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Fifield, Dr Leonard S; Duckworth, Robert C; Glass III, Dr. Samuel W.

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear power plants contain hundreds of kilometers of electrical cables including cables used for power, for instrumentation, and for control. It is essential that safety-related cable systems continue to perform following a design-basis event. Wholesale replacement of electrical cables in existing plants facing licensing period renewal is both impractical and cost-prohibitive. It is therefore important to understand the long term aging of cable materials to have confidence that aged cables will perform when needed. It is equally important in support of cable aging management to develop methods to evaluate the health of installed cables and inform selective cable replacement decisions. The most common insulation materials for electrical cables in nuclear power plants are cross-linked polyethylene and ethylene-propylene rubber. The mechanical properties of these materials degrade over time in the presence of environmental stresses including heat, gamma irradiation, and moisture. Mechanical degradation of cable insulation beyond a certain threshold is unacceptable because it can lead to insulation cracking, exposure of energized conductors, arcing and burning or loss of the ability of the cable system to function during a design-basis accident. While thermal-, radiation-, and moisture-related degradation of polymer insulation materials has been extensively studied over the last few decades, questions remain regarding the long-term performance of cable materials in nuclear plant-specific environments. Identified knowledge gaps include an understanding of the temperature-dependence of activation energies for thermal damage and an understanding of the synergistic effects of radiation and thermal stress on polymer degradation. Many of the outstanding questions in the aging behavior of cable materials relate to the necessity of predicting long-term field degradation using accelerated aging results from the laboratory. Materials degrade faster under more extreme

  16. Aging and condition monitoring of electric cables in nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Lofaro, R.J.; Grove, E.; Soo, P.

    1998-05-01

    There are a variety of environmental stressors in nuclear power plants that can influence the aging rate of components; these include elevated temperatures, high radiation fields, and humid conditions. Exposure to these stressors over long periods of time can cause degradation of components that may go undetected unless the aging mechanisms are identified and monitored. In some cases the degradation may be mitigated by maintenance or replacement. However, some components receive neither and are thus more susceptible to aging degradation, which might lead to failure. One class of components that falls in this category is electric cables. Cables are very often overlooked in aging analyses since they are passive components that require no maintenance. However, they are very important components since they provide power to safety related equipment and transmit signals to and from instruments and controls. This paper will look at the various aging mechanisms and failure modes associated with electric cables. Condition monitoring techniques that may be useful for monitoring degradation of cables will also be discussed.

  17. Bulk Electrical Cable Non-Destructive Examination Methods for Nuclear Power Plant Cable Aging Management Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Glass, Samuel W.; Jones, Anthony M.; Fifield, Leonard S.; Hartman, Trenton S.

    2016-09-01

    This Pacific Northwest National Laboratory milestone report describes progress to date on the investigation of nondestructive test methods focusing particularly on bulk electrical test methods that provide key indicators of cable aging and damage. The work includes a review of relevant literature as well as hands-on experimental verification of inspection capabilities. As nuclear power plants consider applying for second, or subsequent, license renewal to extend their operating period from 60 years to 80 years, it is important to understand how the materials installed in plant systems and components will age during that time and develop aging management programs to assure continued safe operation under normal and design basis events (DBE). Normal component and system tests typically confirm the cables can perform their normal operational function. The focus of the cable test program, however, is directed toward the more demanding challenge of assuring the cable function under accident or DBE. The industry has adopted 50% elongation at break (EAB) relative to the un-aged cable condition as the acceptability standard. All tests are benchmarked against the cable EAB test. EAB, however, is a destructive test so the test programs must apply an array of other nondestructive examination (NDE) tests to assure or infer the overall set of cable’s system integrity. Assessment of cable integrity is further complicated in many cases by vendor’s use of dissimilar material for jacket and insulation. Frequently the jacket will degrade more rapidly than the underlying insulation. Although this can serve as an early alert to cable damage, direct test of the cable insulation without violating the protective jacket becomes problematic. This report addresses the range of bulk electrical NDE cable tests that are or could be practically implemented in a field-test situation with a particular focus on frequency domain reflectometry (FDR). The FDR test method offers numerous advantages

  18. Beloyarsk Nuclear Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    1997-08-01

    The Beloyarsk Nuclear Power Plant (BNPP) is located in Zarechny, approximately 60 km east of Ekaterinberg along the Trans-Siberian Highway. Zarechny, a small city of approximately 30,000 residents, was built to support BNPP operations. It is a closed city to unescorted visitors. Residents must show identification for entry. BNPP is one of the first and oldest commercial nuclear power plants in Russia and began operations in 1964. As for most nuclear power plants in the Russian Federation, BNPP is operated by Rosenergoatom, which is subordinated to the Ministry of Atomic Energy of the Russian Federation (Minatom). BNPP is the site of three nuclear reactors, Units 1, 2, and 3. Units 1 and 2, which have been shut-down and defueled, were graphite moderated reactors. The units were shut-down in 1981 and 1989. Unit 3, a BN-600 reactor, is a 600 MW(electric) sodium-cooled fast breeder reactor. Unit 3 went on-line in April 1980 and produces electric power which is fed into a distribution grid and thermal power which provides heat to Zarechny. The paper also discusses the SF NIKIET, the Sverdiovsk Branch of NIKIET, Moscow, which is the research and development branch of the parent NIKEIT and is primarily a design institute responsible for reactor design. Central to its operations is a 15 megawatt IVV research reactor. The paper discusses general security and fissile material control and accountability at these two facilities.

  19. 10 CFR 50.49 - Environmental qualification of electric equipment important to safety for nuclear power plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... important to safety for nuclear power plants. 50.49 Section 50.49 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION... nuclear power plants. (a) Each holder of or an applicant for an operating license issued under this part... nuclear power plant for which the certifications required under § 50.82(a)(1) or § 52.110(a)(1) of...

  20. 10 CFR 50.49 - Environmental qualification of electric equipment important to safety for nuclear power plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... important to safety for nuclear power plants. 50.49 Section 50.49 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION... nuclear power plants. (a) Each holder of or an applicant for an operating license issued under this part... nuclear power plant for which the certifications required under § 50.82(a)(1) or § 52.110(a)(1) of this...

  1. 10 CFR 50.49 - Environmental qualification of electric equipment important to safety for nuclear power plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... important to safety for nuclear power plants. 50.49 Section 50.49 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION... nuclear power plants. (a) Each holder of or an applicant for an operating license issued under this part... nuclear power plant for which the certifications required under § 50.82(a)(1) or § 52.110(a)(1) of this...

  2. 10 CFR 50.49 - Environmental qualification of electric equipment important to safety for nuclear power plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... important to safety for nuclear power plants. 50.49 Section 50.49 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION... nuclear power plants. (a) Each holder of or an applicant for an operating license issued under this part... nuclear power plant for which the certifications required under § 50.82(a)(1) or § 52.110(a)(1) of this...

  3. 10 CFR 50.49 - Environmental qualification of electric equipment important to safety for nuclear power plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... important to safety for nuclear power plants. 50.49 Section 50.49 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION... nuclear power plants. (a) Each holder of or an applicant for an operating license issued under this part... nuclear power plant for which the certifications required under § 50.82(a)(1) or § 52.110(a)(1) of this...

  4. Harmonic effects of solar geomagnetically induced currents on the electrical distribution system in nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, D.P.; Kasturi, S.; Subudhi, M.; Gunther, W.

    1992-12-31

    Most previous analysis on the effects of geomagnetically induced currents (GIC) on electric utility systems has steady-state phenomena, with the main interest in the generator step-up transformer and the off-site power system. This paper begins to investigate the possible effects that a GIC event might have on the power plant itself, by examining the harmonic distortion that could exist at various voltage levels in the on-site distribution system.

  5. Harmonic effects of solar geomagnetically induced currents on the electrical distribution system in nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, D.P. ); Kasturi, S. ); Subudhi, M.; Gunther, W. )

    1992-01-01

    Most previous analysis on the effects of geomagnetically induced currents (GIC) on electric utility systems has steady-state phenomena, with the main interest in the generator step-up transformer and the off-site power system. This paper begins to investigate the possible effects that a GIC event might have on the power plant itself, by examining the harmonic distortion that could exist at various voltage levels in the on-site distribution system.

  6. Nuclear power plant maintainability.

    PubMed

    Seminara, J L; Parsons, S O

    1982-09-01

    In the mid-1970s a general awareness of human factors engineering deficiencies associated with power plant control rooms took shape and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) awarded the Lockheed Corporation a contract to review the human factors aspects of five representative operational control rooms and their associated simulators. This investigation revealed a host of major and minor deficiencies that assumed unforeseen dimensions in the post- Three Mile Island accident period. In the course of examining operational problems (Seminara et al, 1976) and subsequently the methods for overcoming such problems (Seminara et al, 1979, 1980) indications surfaced that power plants were far from ideal in meeting the needs of maintenance personnel. Accordingly, EPRI sponsored an investigation of the human factors aspects of power plant maintainability (Seminara, 1981). This paper provides an overview of the maintainability problems and issues encountered in the course of reviewing five nuclear power plants.

  7. Participation of the Nuclear Power Plants in the New Brazilian Electric Energy Market

    SciTech Connect

    Mathias, S.G.

    2004-10-06

    A new regulation framework has been established for the Brazilian electric energy market by a law put into effect on March 15,2004. The main overall goals of this new regulation are: to allow the lowest possible tariffs for end users, while providing the necessary economic incentives for the operation of present installations (generating plants, transmission lines, distribution networks) and the expansion of the system; long-term planning of the extension of the installations required to meet the demand growth; separation of the generation, transmission and distribution activities by allocating them into different companies; new contracts between generating and distribution companies must result from bidding processes based on lowest-tariff criteria; and energy from new generating units required to meet the demand growth must be contracted by all distributing companies integrated to the National Interconnected Grid, in individual amounts proportional to their respective markets.

  8. Nuclear Electric Propulsion mission operations.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prickett, W. Z.; Spera, R. J.

    1972-01-01

    Mission operations are presented for comet rendezvous and outer planet exploration missions conducted by unmanned Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) system employing in-core thermionic reactors for electric power generation. The selected reference mission are Comet Halley rendezvous and a Jupiter orbiter at 5.9 planet radii, the orbit of the moon Io. Mission operations and options are defined from spacecraft assembly through mission completion. Pre-launch operations and related GSE requirements are identified. Shuttle launch and subsequent injection to earth escape by the Centaur d-1T are discussed, as well as power plant startup and heliocentric mission phases.

  9. Nuclear thermal/nuclear electric hybrids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, B. D.

    1991-01-01

    A description is given of the nuclear thermal and nuclear electric hybrid. The specifications are described along with its mission performance. Next, the technical status, development requirements, and some cost estimates are provided.

  10. Studying radiolytic ageing of nuclear power plant electric cables with FTIR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Levet, A; Colombani, J; Duponchel, L

    2017-09-01

    Due to the willingness to extend the nuclear power plants length of life, it is of prime importance to understand long term ageing effect on all constitutive materials. For this purpose gamma-irradiation effects on insulation of instrumentation and control cables are studied. Mid-infrared spectroscopy and principal components analysis (PCA) were used to highlight molecular modifications induced by gamma-irradiation under oxidizing conditions. In order to be closer to real world conditions, a low dose rate of 11Gyh(-1) was used to irradiate insulations in full cable or alone with a dose up to 58 kGy. Spectral differences according to irradiation dose were extracted using PCA. It was then possible to observe different behaviors of the insulation constitutive compounds i.e. ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA), ethylene propylene diene monomer (EPDM) and aluminium trihydrate (ATH). Irradiation of insulations led to the oxidation of their constitutive polymers and a modification of filler-polymer ratio. Moreover all these modifications were observed for insulations alone or in full cable indicating that oxygen easily diffuses into the material. Spectral contributions were discussed considering different degradation mechanisms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Nuclear power plant life extension

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, D.D.; Bustard, L.D.; Harrison, D.L.

    1986-01-01

    Nuclear plant life extension represents an opportunity to achieve additional productive years of operation from existing nuclear power facilities. This is particularly important since operating licenses for over 50 GW of nuclear capacity will expire by the year 2010. By the year 2015, 85% of the total planned nuclear electric capacity will face retirement due to license expirations. Achieving additional productive years of operation from the nation's existing light water reactors is the goal of ongoing utility, vendor, US Department of Energy, and Electric Power Research Institute programs. Identifying potential technical issues associated with extending plant life and scoping realistic solutions represent first steps toward the development of a coordinated national plant life extension strategy. This is a substantial effort that must consider the breadth of issues associated with nuclear power plant design, operation, and licensing, and the numerous potential plant life extension strategies that may be appropriate to different utilities. Such an effort must enlist the expertise of the full spectrum of organizations in the nuclear industry including utilities, vendors, consultants, national laboratories, and professional organizations. A primary focus of these efforts is to identify operational changes and improvements in record-keeping, which, if implemented now, could enhance and preserve the life extension option.

  12. The plant nuclear envelope.

    PubMed

    Rose, Annkatrin; Patel, Shalaka; Meier, Iris

    2004-01-01

    This review summarizes our present knowledge about the composition and function of the plant nuclear envelope. Compared with animals or yeast, our molecular understanding of the nuclear envelope in higher plants is in its infancy. However, fundamental differences in the structure and function of the plant and animal nuclear envelope have already been found. Here, we compare and contrast these differences with respect to nuclear pore complexes, targeting of Ran signaling to the nuclear envelope, inner nuclear envelope proteins, and the role and fate of the nuclear envelope during mitosis. Further investigation of the emerging fundamental differences as well as the similarities between kingdoms might illuminate why there appears to be more than one blueprint for building a nucleus.

  13. Nuclear electric propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keaton, Paul W.; Tubb, David J.

    1986-01-01

    The feasibility is investigated of using nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) for slow freighter ships traveling from a 500 km low Earth orbit (LEO) to the Moon's orbit about the Earth, and on to Mars. NEP is also shown to be feasible for transporting people to Mars on long conjunction-class missions lasting about nine months one way, and on short sprint missions lasting four months one way. Generally, it was not attempted to optimize ion exhaust velocities, but rather suitable parameters to demonstrate NEP feasibility were chosen. Various combinations of missions are compared with chemical and nuclear thermal propulsion (NTR) systems. Typically, NEP and NTR can accomplish the same lifting task with similar mass in LEO. When compared to chemical propulsion, NEP was found to accomplish the same missions with 40% less mass in LEO. These findings are sufficiently encouraging as to merit further studies with optimum systems.

  14. Nuclear Power Plant Module, NPP-1: Nuclear Power Cost Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitelaw, Robert L.

    The purpose of the Nuclear Power Plant Modules, NPP-1, is to determine the total cost of electricity from a nuclear power plant in terms of all the components contributing to cost. The plan of analysis is in five parts: (1) general formulation of the cost equation; (2) capital cost and fixed charges thereon; (3) operational cost for labor,…

  15. HTR-100 industrial nuclear power plant for generation of heat and electricity

    SciTech Connect

    Brandes, S.; Kohl, W.

    1987-11-01

    Based on their proven high-temperature reactor (HTR) with pebble-bed core, Brown, Boveri and Cie/Hochtemperatur-Reaktorbau have developed an HTR-100 plant that combines favorable capital costs and high availability. Due to the high HTR-specific standards and passive safety features, this plant is especially well suited for siting near the end user. The safety concept permits further operation of the plant or decay heat removal via the operational heat sinks in the event of maloperation and design basis accidents having a higher probability of occurrence. In the event of hypothetical accidents, the decay heat is removed from the reactor pressure vessel by radiation, conduction, and convection to a concrete cooling system operating in natural convection. As an example of the new HTR-100 plant concept, a twin-block plant design for extraction of industrial steam is presented.

  16. Nuclear Power Plant Technician

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randall, George A.

    1975-01-01

    The author recognizes a body of basic knowledge in nuclear power plant technoogy that can be taught in school programs, and lists the various courses, aiming to fill the anticipated need for nuclear-trained manpower--persons holding an associate degree in engineering technology. (Author/BP)

  17. Nuclear Power Plant Technician

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randall, George A.

    1975-01-01

    The author recognizes a body of basic knowledge in nuclear power plant technoogy that can be taught in school programs, and lists the various courses, aiming to fill the anticipated need for nuclear-trained manpower--persons holding an associate degree in engineering technology. (Author/BP)

  18. NUCLEAR POWER PLANT

    DOEpatents

    Carter, J.C.; Armstrong, R.H.; Janicke, M.J.

    1963-05-14

    A nuclear power plant for use in an airless environment or other environment in which cooling is difficult is described. The power plant includes a boiling mercury reactor, a mercury--vapor turbine in direct cycle therewith, and a radiator for condensing mercury vapor. (AEC)

  19. Dose-rate effects on the radiation-induced oxidation of electric cable used in nuclear power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, A. B.; Bell, R. M.; Bryson, N. M. N.; Doyle, T. E.; Hall, M. B.; Mason, L. R.; Quintric, L.; Terwilliger, P. L.

    1995-01-01

    Dose-rate effects were measured for typical ethylene propylene rubber (EPR) and crosslinked polyethylene (XLPE) electric cable used in nuclear power plants. The radiation source was the 60Co Irradiation Facility at the University of Virginia. Dose rates were varied from 5 Gy/h to 2500 Gy/h. It was found that there is little or no dose-rate effect at low doses for four of the five EPR cable products tested from 2500 Gy/h down to dose rates of 5 Gy/h but perhaps a small dose-rate effect at high doses for dose rates above 340 Gy/h. A small dose-rate exists for the fifth EPR above 340 Gy/h at all doses. A dose-rate effect exists above 40 Gy/h for two of the three XLPE cable products tested, but there is no dose-rate for these XLPE's between 40 Gy/h and 5 Gy/h. These results indicate that the dose-rate effects observed are due to oxygen diffusion effects during heterogeneous aging and suggest that there is no dose-rate effect for either EPR or XLPE during homogeneous aging.

  20. The Next Generation Nuclear Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. David A. Petti

    2009-01-01

    The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) will be a demonstration of the technical, licensing, operational, and commercial viability of High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) technology for the production of process heat, electricity, and hydrogen. This nuclear- based technology can provide high-temperature process heat (up to 950°C) that can be used as a substitute for the burning of fossil fuels for a wide range of commercial applications (see Figure 1). The substitution of the HTGR for burning fossil fuels conserves these hydrocarbon resources for other uses, reduces uncertainty in the cost and supply of natural gas and oil, and eliminates the emissions of greenhouse gases attendant with the burning of these fuels. The HTGR is a passively safe nuclear reactor concept with an easily understood safety basis that permits substantially reduced emergency planning requirements and improved siting flexibility compared to other nuclear technologies.

  1. Nuclear Power Plants | RadTown USA | US EPA

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2016-05-16

    Nuclear power plants produce electricity from the heat created by splitting uranium atoms. In the event of a nuclear power plant emergency, follow instructions from emergency responders and public officials.

  2. Nuclear Plant Inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Engineers from the Power Authority of the State of New York use a Crack Growth Analysis Program supplied by COSMIC (Computer Software Management and Information Center) in one stage of nuclear plant inspection. Welds of the nuclear steam supply system are checked for cracks; radiographs, dye penetration and visual inspections are performed to locate cracks in the metal structure and welds. The software package includes three separate crack growth analysis models and enables necessary repairs to be planned before serious problems develop.

  3. Nuclear power plants for mobile applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, J. L.

    1972-01-01

    Mobile nuclear powerplants for applications other than large ships and submarines will require compact, lightweight reactors with especially stringent impact-safety design. The technical and economic feasibility that the broadening role of civilian nuclear power, in general, (land-based nuclear electric generating plants and nuclear ships) can extend to lightweight, safe mobile nuclear powerplants are examined. The paper discusses technical experience, identifies potential sources of technology for advanced concepts, cites the results of economic studies of mobile nuclear powerplants, and surveys future technical capabilities needed by examining the current use and projected needs for vehicles, machines, and habitats that could effectively use mobile nuclear reactor powerplants.

  4. Plant electrical memory.

    PubMed

    Volkov, Alexander G; Carrell, Holly; Adesina, Tejumade; Markin, Vladislav S; Jovanov, Emil

    2008-07-01

    Electrical signaling, short-term memory and rapid closure of the carnivorous plant Dionaea muscipula Ellis (Venus flytrap) have been attracting the attention of researchers since the XIX century. We found that the electrical stimulus between a midrib and a lobe closes the Venus flytrap upper leaf without mechanical stimulation of trigger hairs. The closing time of Venus flytrap by electrical stimulation is the same as mechanically induced closing. Transmission of a single electrical charge between a lobe and the midrib causes closure of the trap and induces an electrical signal propagating between both lobes and midrib. The Venus flytrap can accumulate small subthreshold charges, and when the threshold value is reached, the trap closes. Repeated application of smaller charges demonstrates the summation of stimuli. The cumulative character of electrical stimuli points to the existence of short-term electrical memory in the Venus flytrap.

  5. Plant nuclear envelope proteins.

    PubMed

    Rose, Annkatrin; Patel, Shalaka; Meier, Iris

    2004-01-01

    Compared to research in the animal field, the plant NE has been clearly under-investigated. The available data so far indicate similarities as well as striking differences that raise interesting questions about the function and evolution of the NE in different kingdoms. Despite a seemingly similar structure and organization of the NE, many of the proteins that are integral components of the animal NE appear to lack homologues in plant cells. The sequencing of the Arabidopsis genome has not led to the identification of homologues of animal NE components, but has indicated that the plant NE must have a distinct protein composition different from that found in metazoan cells. Besides providing a selective barrier between the nucleoplasm and the cytoplasm, the plant NE functions as a scaffold for chromatin but the scaffolding components are not identical to those found in animal cells. The NE comprises an MTOC in higher plant cells, a striking difference to the organization of microtubule nucleation in other eukaryotic cells. Nuclear pores are present in the plant NE, but identifiable orthologues of most animal and yeast nucleoporins are presently lacking. The transport pathway through the nuclear pores via the action of karyopherins and the Ran cycle is conserved in plant cells. Interestingly, RanGAP is sequestered to the NE in plant cells and animal cells, yet the targeting domains and mechanisms of attachment are different between the two kingdoms. At present, only a few proteins localized at the plant NE have been identified molecularly. Future research will have to expand the list of known protein components involved in building a functional plant NE.

  6. Application of disturbance analysis methodology to safety related transients in the electrical systems of a nuclear power plant. Report UCLA-ENG-8056

    SciTech Connect

    Guarro, S.; Okrent, D.

    1981-08-01

    The present study tries to address the question of whether or not the computerized on-line procedures known under the name of DAS (Disturbance Analysis System) can be usefully and successfully applied to provide timely diagnostics and operational suggestions during the occurrence of a major electrical transient in the auxiliary systems of a nuclear power plant. The perspective of the study is from the plant-safety point of view. A short definition of DAS methodology features and capabilities is presented. A discussion of some of the problems of a general nature that are encountered in DAS safety-oriented applications are also included. The event insufficient power on both emergency buses, with reference to a particular plant dsign (San Onofre 1), is presented. Some transients that have recently occurred in the power supply systems of operating plants are examined. Whether or not a DAS could have successfully dealt with such occurrences is considered.

  7. Reactors for nuclear electric propulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Buden, D.; Angelo, J.A. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Propulsion is the key to space exploitation and power is the key to propulsion. This paper examines the role of nuclear fission reactors as the primary power source for high specific impulse electric propulsion systems for space missions of the 1980s and 1990s. Particular mission applications include transfer to and a reusable orbital transfer vehicle from low-Earth orbit to geosynchronous orbit, outer planet exploration and reconnaissance missions, and as a versatile space tug supporting lunar resource development. Nuclear electric propulsion is examined as an indispensable component in space activities of the next two decades.

  8. Nuclear electric power sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, J. J.

    1978-01-01

    Measurements on radioactive commercial p-n junction silicon cells show that these units are capable of delivering several hundred microwatts per curie of Am-241 alpha source, indicating their usefulness in such electronic devices as hearing aids, heart pacemakers, electronic watches, delay timers and nuclear dosimeter chargers. It is concluded that the Am-241 sources are superior to the beta sources used previously, because of higher alpha specific ionization and simultaneous production of low energy photons which are easily converted into photoelectrons for additional power.

  9. 78 FR 36277 - Vogtle Electric Generating Plant, Unit 3

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-17

    ... COMMISSION Vogtle Electric Generating Plant, Unit 3 AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION..., and Acceptance Criteria (ITAAC) E.2.5.04.05.05.01, for the Vogtle Electric Generating Plant, Unit 3... Vogtle Electric Generating Plant, Unit 3 ] (ADAMS Accession No. ML13032A592). This ITAAC was approved as...

  10. Nuclear Electricity. 5th Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hore-Lacy, Ian

    Educators must address the need for young people to be informed about both the scientific concepts and the reasons for controversy when dealing with controversial issues. Young people must be given the opportunity to form their own opinions when presented with evidence for conflicting arguments. Previous editions of "Nuclear Electricity" have…

  11. Nuclear Security for Floating Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Skiba, James M.; Scherer, Carolynn P.

    2015-10-13

    Recently there has been a lot of interest in small modular reactors. A specific type of these small modular reactors (SMR,) are marine based power plants called floating nuclear power plants (FNPP). These FNPPs are typically built by countries with extensive knowledge of nuclear energy, such as Russia, France, China and the US. These FNPPs are built in one country and then sent to countries in need of power and/or seawater desalination. Fifteen countries have expressed interest in acquiring such power stations. Some designs for such power stations are briefly summarized. Several different avenues for cooperation in FNPP technology are proposed, including IAEA nuclear security (i.e. safeguards), multilateral or bilateral agreements, and working with Russian design that incorporates nuclear safeguards for IAEA inspections in non-nuclear weapons states

  12. Operate a Nuclear Power Plant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frimpter, Bonnie J.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Describes classroom use of a computer program originally published in Creative Computing magazine. "The Nuclear Power Plant" (runs on Apple II with 48K memory) simulates the operating of a nuclear generating station, requiring students to make decisions as they assume the task of managing the plant. (JN)

  13. Operate a Nuclear Power Plant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frimpter, Bonnie J.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Describes classroom use of a computer program originally published in Creative Computing magazine. "The Nuclear Power Plant" (runs on Apple II with 48K memory) simulates the operating of a nuclear generating station, requiring students to make decisions as they assume the task of managing the plant. (JN)

  14. Carbon pricing, nuclear power and electricity markets

    SciTech Connect

    Cameron, R.; Keppler, J. H.

    2012-07-01

    In 2010, the NEA in conjunction with the International Energy Agency produced an analysis of the Projected Costs of Electricity for almost 200 power plants, covering nuclear, fossil fuel and renewable electricity generation. That analysis used lifetime costs to consider the merits of each technology. However, the lifetime cost analysis is less applicable in liberalised markets and does not look specifically at the viewpoint of the private investor. A follow-up NEA assessment of the competitiveness of nuclear energy against coal- and gas-fired generation under carbon pricing has considered just this question. The economic competition in electricity markets is today between nuclear energy and gas-fired power generation, with coal-fired power generation not being competitive as soon as even modest carbon pricing is introduced. Whether nuclear energy or natural gas comes out ahead in their competition depends on a number of assumptions, which, while all entirely reasonable, yield very different outcomes. The analysis in this study has been developed on the basis of daily data from European power markets over the last five-year period. Three different methodologies, a Profit Analysis looking at historic returns over the past five years, an Investment Analysis projecting the conditions of the past five years over the lifetime of plants and a Carbon Tax Analysis (differentiating the Investment Analysis for different carbon prices) look at the issue of competitiveness from different angles. They show that the competitiveness of nuclear energy depends on a number of variables which in different configurations determine whether electricity produced from nuclear power or from CCGTs generates higher profits for its investors. These are overnight costs, financing costs, gas prices, carbon prices, profit margins (or mark-ups), the amount of coal with carbon capture and electricity prices. This paper will present the outcomes of the analysis in the context of a liberalised

  15. Futuristic systems: Solar and nuclear electric propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byers, Dave

    1991-01-01

    The following topics are addressed: (1) in-space propulsion impacts; (2) electric propulsion; (3) mission impacts of electric propulsion; and (4) summaries of electric propulsion status and solar and nuclear propulsion.

  16. Owners of nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Hudson, C.R.; White, V.S.

    1996-11-01

    Commercial nuclear power plants in this country can be owned by a number of separate entities, each with varying ownership proportions. Each of these owners may, in turn, have a parent/subsidiary relationship to other companies. In addition, the operator of the plant may be a different entity as well. This report provides a compilation on the owners/operators for all commercial power reactors in the United States. While the utility industry is currently experiencing changes in organizational structure which may affect nuclear plant ownership, the data in this report is current as of July 1996. The report is divided into sections representing different aspects of nuclear plant ownership.

  17. Owners of Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, R.L.

    2000-01-12

    Commercial nuclear power plants in this country can be owned by a number of separate entities, each with varying ownership proportions. Each of these owners may, in turn, have a parent/subsidiary relationship to other companies. In addition, the operator of the plant may be a different entity as well. This report provides a compilation on the owners/operators for all commercial power reactors in the United States. While the utility industry is currently experiencing changes in organizational structure which may affect nuclear plant ownership, the data in this report is current as of November 1999. The report is divided into sections representing different aspects of nuclear plant ownership.

  18. Nuclear-electric power in space

    SciTech Connect

    Truscello, V.C.; Davis, H.S.

    1984-12-01

    Because direct-broadcast satellites, air-traffic-control radar satellites, industrial processing on subsequent versions of the space station, and long range excursions to other planets using nuclear-electric propulsion systems, all space missions for which current power-supply systems are not sufficient. NASA and the DOE therefore have formed a joint program to develop the technology required for nuclear-reactor space power plants. After investigating potential space missions in the given range, the project will develop the technology to build such systems. High temperatures pose problems, ''hot shoes'' and ''cold shoes'', a Stirling engine dynamic system, and critical heat-transfer problems are all discussed. The nuclear reactor system for space as now envisioned is schematicized.

  19. EXTENDING NUCLEAR ENERGY TO NON-ELECTRICAL APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    R. Boardman; M. McKellar; D. Ingersoll; Z. Houghton; , R. Bromm; C. Desportes

    2014-09-01

    Electricity represents less than half of all energy consumed in the United States and globally. Although a few commercial nuclear power plants world-wide provide energy to non-electrical applications such as district heating and water desalination, nuclear energy has been largely relegated to base-load electricity production. A new generation of smaller-sized nuclear power plants offers significant promise for extending nuclear energy to many non-electrical applications. The NuScale small modular reactor design is especially well suited for these non-traditional customers due to its small unit size, very robust reactor protection features and a highly flexible and scalable plant design. A series of technical and economic evaluation studies have been conducted to assess the practicality of using a NuScale plant to provide electricity and heat to a variety of non-electrical applications, including water desalination, oil refining, and hydrogen production. The studies serve to highlight the unique design features of the NuScale plant for these applications and provide encouraging conclusions regarding the technical and economic viability of extending clean nuclear energy to a broad range of non-electrical energy consumers.

  20. Electricity

    SciTech Connect

    Sims, B.

    1983-01-01

    Historical aspects of electricity are reviewed with individual articles on hydroelectric dams, coal-burning power plants, nuclear power plants, electricity distribution, and the energy future. A glossary is included. (PSB)

  1. Nuclear Power Plant Simulation Game.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Fran

    1979-01-01

    Presents a nuclear power plant simulation game which is designed to involve a class of 30 junior or senior high school students. Scientific, ecological, and social issues covered in the game are also presented. (HM)

  2. Nuclear Power Plant Simulation Game.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Fran

    1979-01-01

    Presents a nuclear power plant simulation game which is designed to involve a class of 30 junior or senior high school students. Scientific, ecological, and social issues covered in the game are also presented. (HM)

  3. 75 FR 13323 - James A. Fitzpatrick Nuclear Power Plant; Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-19

    ... (IEEE)-383, ``Standard for Qualifying Class 1E Electric Cable and Field Splices for Nuclear Power... the thermoset cables themselves (IEEE-383 qualified, or equivalent) and the absence of power cables in... COMMISSION James A. Fitzpatrick Nuclear Power Plant; Exemption 1.0 Background Entergy Nuclear Operations,...

  4. Managing nuclear waste from power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Keeney, R.L.; Winterfeldt, D. von

    1994-02-01

    National strategies to manage nuclear waste from commercial nuclear power plants are analyzed and compared. The current strategy is to try to operate a repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, to dispose storage at a centralized facility or next to nuclear power plants. If either of these is pursued now, the analysis assumes that a repository will be built in 2100 for waste not subsequently put to use. The analysis treats various uncertainties: whether a repository at Yucca Mountain would be licensed, possible theft and misuse of the waste, innovations in repository design and waste management, the potential availability of a cancer cure by 2100, and possible future uses of nuclear waste. The objectives used to compare alternatives include concerns for health and safety, environmental and socioeconomic impacts, and direct economic costs, as well as equity concerns (geographical, intergenerational, and procedural), indirect economic costs, as well as equity concerns (geographical, intergenerational, and procedural), indirect economic costs to electricity ratepayers, federal government responsibility to manage nuclear waste, and implications of theft and misuse of nuclear waste. The analysis shows that currently building an underground repository at Yucca Mountain is inferior to other available strategies by the equivalent of $10,000 million to $50,000 million. This strongly suggests that this policy should be reconsidered. A more detailed analysis using the framework presented would help to define a new national policy to manage nuclear waste. 36 refs., 3 figs., 17 tabs.

  5. ALARA at nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Baum, J.W.

    1990-01-01

    Implementation of the As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) principle at nuclear power plants presents a continuing challenge for health physicists at utility corporate and plant levels, for plant designers, and for regulatory agencies. The relatively large collective doses at some plants are being addressed though a variety of dose reduction techniques. It is planned that this report will include material on historical aspects, management, valuation of dose reduction, quantitative and qualitative aspects of optimization, design, operational considerations, and training. The status of this work is summarized in this report. 30 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs.

  6. The electrical response of plants under radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, Mohammad; Xi, Wenze; Feng, David J. Y.; Choa, Fow-Sen

    2014-05-01

    Plant electricity was discovered about 100 years ago. Until recent two decades, researchers started to notice that the electricity play a key role for plant's communications and defense. Recently, we have demonstrated a wound-generated electrical signal, up to a few hundred mV, can be produced and propagate through the whole plant. As plants defense reactions the wound signal will activate genes and induce subsequent molecular biology responses. In this study, we further investigate the electrical response of plants when they are under nuclear radiation. We discovered nuclear radiation could produce internal voltage gradient in living trees, resulting in measureable voltage and current signals. The results was measured by attaching one of electrodes to a lower branch, close to the roots and attaching the other one to an upper branch. During irradiating, trees were set up at 1-meter far from a NIST-certified 241AmBe neutron source (30 mCi). It will produce a neutron field of about 13 mrem/h, corresponding to an actual absorbed dose of ~ 1 mrad/h by assuming the tissue is primarily water content. Once the radioactive source is pulled up from a shielded container below the tree, the system potential starts to drop and in about 6-7 hours it drops down to -220mV, eventually stabilizing at around -250mV after 10 hours of radiation. We have further observed plant electricity changes caused by x-ray, gamma-ray, and beta-ray radiations. After the sources were removed, the terminal voltage recovered and eventually returned to the original value.

  7. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Project Evaluation of Siting a HTGR Co-generation Plant on an Operating Commercial Nuclear Power Plant Site

    SciTech Connect

    L.E. Demick

    2011-10-01

    This paper summarizes an evaluation by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project of siting a High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) plant on an existing nuclear plant site that is located in an area of significant industrial activity. This is a co-generation application in which the HTGR Plant will be supplying steam and electricity to one or more of the nearby industrial plants.

  8. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Project Evaluation of Siting a HTGR Co-generation Plant on an Operating Commercial Nuclear Power Plant Site

    SciTech Connect

    L.E. Demick

    2011-10-01

    This paper summarizes an evaluation by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project of siting a High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) plant on an existing nuclear plant site that is located in an area of significant industrial activity. This is a co-generation application in which the HTGR Plant will be supplying steam and electricity to one or more of the nearby industrial plants.

  9. Aging and service wear of electric motor-operated valves used in engineered safety-feature systems of nuclear power plants: Aging assessments and monitoring method evaluations

    SciTech Connect

    Haynes, H.D.

    1989-08-01

    Motor-operated valves (MOVs) are located in almost all plant fluid systems. Their failures have resulted in significant plant maintenance efforts. More important, the operational readiness if nuclear plant safety-related systems has often been affected by MOV degradation and failure. Thus, in recent years MOVs have received considerable attention by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the nuclear power industry and were identified as a component for study by the Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) Program. In support of the NPAR Program, a comprehensive Phase II aging assessment on MOVs was performed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and the results of this study are presented in this report. An evaluation of commercially available MOV monitoring methods was carried out, as well as an assessment of other potentially useful techniques. These assessments led to the identification of an effective, nonintrusive, and remote technique, namely, motor current signature analysis (MCSA). The capabilities of monitoring methods (especially MCSA) for detecting changes in operating conditions and MOV degradation were investigated in controlled laboratory tests at ORNL, in situ MOV tests at a neighboring nuclear power plant, and the Gate Valve Flow Interruption Blowdown test in Huntsville, Alabama. 17 refs., 121 figs., 10 tabs.

  10. Scoping Calculations of Power Sources for Nuclear Electric Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Difilippo, F. C.

    1994-01-01

    This technical memorandum describes models and calculational procedures to fully characterize the nuclear island of power sources for nuclear electric propulsion. Two computer codes were written: one for the gas-cooled NERVA derivative reactor and the other for liquid metal-cooled fuel pin reactors. These codes are going to be interfaced by NASA with the balance of plant in order to make scoping calculations for mission analysis.

  11. Scoping calculations of power sources for nuclear electric propulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Difilippo, F.C.

    1994-05-01

    This technical memorandum describes models and calculational procedures to fully characterize the nuclear island of power sources for nuclear electric propulsion. Two computer codes were written: one for the gas-cooled NERVA derivative reactor and the other for liquid metal-cooled fuel pin reactors. These codes are going to be interfaced by NASA with the balance of plant in order to making scoping calculations for mission analysis.

  12. Scoping calculations of power sources for nuclear electric propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Difilippo, F. C.

    1994-05-01

    This technical memorandum describes models and calculational procedures to fully characterize the nuclear island of power sources for nuclear electric propulsion. Two computer codes were written: one for the gas-cooled NERVA derivative reactor and the other for liquid metal-cooled fuel pin reactors. These codes are going to be interfaced by NASA with the balance of plant in order to make scoping calculations for mission analysis.

  13. Nuclear plants gain integrated information systems

    SciTech Connect

    Villavicencio-Ramirez, A.; Rodriquez-Alvarez, J.M.

    1994-10-01

    With the objective of simplifying the complex mesh of computing devices employed within nuclear power plants, modern technology and integration techniques are being used to form centralized (but backed up) databases and distributed processing and display networks. Benefits are immediate as a result of the integration and the use of standards. The use of a unique data acquisition and database subsystem optimizes the high costs of engineering, as this task is done only once for the life span of the system. This also contributes towards a uniform user interface and allows for graceful expansion and maintenance. This article features an integrated information system, Sistema Integral de Informacion de Proceso (SIIP). The development of this system enabled the Laguna Verde Nuclear Power plant to fully use the already existing universe of signals and its related engineering during all plant conditions, namely, start up, normal operation, transient analysis, and emergency operation. Integrated systems offer many advantages over segregated systems, and this experience should benefit similar development efforts in other electric power utilities, not only for nuclear but also for other types of generating plants.

  14. Advanced nuclear plant control complex

    DOEpatents

    Scarola, Kenneth; Jamison, David S.; Manazir, Richard M.; Rescorl, Robert L.; Harmon, Daryl L.

    1993-01-01

    An advanced control room complex for a nuclear power plant, including a discrete indicator and alarm system (72) which is nuclear qualified for rapid response to changes in plant parameters and a component control system (64) which together provide a discrete monitoring and control capability at a panel (14-22, 26, 28) in the control room (10). A separate data processing system (70), which need not be nuclear qualified, provides integrated and overview information to the control room and to each panel, through CRTs (84) and a large, overhead integrated process status overview board (24). The discrete indicator and alarm system (72) and the data processing system (70) receive inputs from common plant sensors and validate the sensor outputs to arrive at a representative value of the parameter for use by the operator during both normal and accident conditions, thereby avoiding the need for him to assimilate data from each sensor individually. The integrated process status board (24) is at the apex of an information hierarchy that extends through four levels and provides access at each panel to the full display hierarchy. The control room panels are preferably of a modular construction, permitting the definition of inputs and outputs, the man machine interface, and the plant specific algorithms, to proceed in parallel with the fabrication of the panels, the installation of the equipment and the generic testing thereof.

  15. Nuclear electric propulsion reactor control systems status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferg, D. A.

    1973-01-01

    The thermionic reactor control system design studies conducted over the past several years for a nuclear electric propulsion system are described and summarized. The relevant reactor control system studies are discussed in qualitative terms, pointing out the significant advantages and disadvantages including the impact that the various control systems would have on the nuclear electric propulsion system design. A recommendation for the reference control system is made, and a program for future work leading to an engineering model is described.

  16. Locating nuclear power plants underground.

    PubMed

    Scott, F M

    1975-01-01

    This paper reviews some of the questions that have been asked by experts and others as to why nuclear power plants are not located or placed underground. While the safeguards and present designs make such installations unnecessary, there are some definite advantages that warrant the additional cost involved. First of all, such an arrangement does satisfy the psychological concern of a number of people and, in so doing, might gain the acceptance of the public so that such plants could be constructed in urban areas of load centers. The results of these studies are presented and some of the requirements necessary for underground installations described, including rock conditions, depth of facilities, and economics.

  17. Sabotage at Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Purvis, James W.

    1999-07-21

    Recently there has been a noted worldwide increase in violent actions including attempted sabotage at nuclear power plants. Several organizations, such as the International Atomic Energy Agency and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, have guidelines, recommendations, and formal threat- and risk-assessment processes for the protection of nuclear assets. Other examples are the former Defense Special Weapons Agency, which used a risk-assessment model to evaluate force-protection security requirements for terrorist incidents at DOD military bases. The US DOE uses a graded approach to protect its assets based on risk and vulnerability assessments. The Federal Aviation Administration and Federal Bureau of Investigation conduct joint threat and vulnerability assessments on high-risk US airports. Several private companies under contract to government agencies use formal risk-assessment models and methods to identify security requirements. The purpose of this paper is to survey these methods and present an overview of all potential types of sabotage at nuclear power plants. The paper discusses emerging threats and current methods of choice for sabotage--especially vehicle bombs and chemical attacks. Potential consequences of sabotage acts, including economic and political; not just those that may result in unacceptable radiological exposure to the public, are also discussed. Applicability of risk-assessment methods and mitigation techniques are also presented.

  18. 78 FR 66785 - Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd., and Korea Electric Power Corporation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd., and Korea Electric Power Corporation AGENCY: Nuclear... APR1400 Standard Plant Design submitted by Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd. (KHNP) and Korea...

  19. Method for assigning sites to projected generic nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Holter, G.M.; Purcell, W.L.; Shutz, M.E.; Young, J.R.

    1986-07-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory developed a method for forecasting potential locations and startup sequences of nuclear power plants that will be required in the future but have not yet been specifically identified by electric utilities. Use of the method results in numerical ratings for potential nuclear power plant sites located in each of the 10 federal energy regions. The rating for each potential site is obtained from numerical factors assigned to each of 5 primary siting characteristics: (1) cooling water availability, (2) site land area, (3) power transmission land area, (4) proximity to metropolitan areas, and (5) utility plans for the site. The sequence of plant startups in each federal energy region is obtained by use of the numerical ratings and the forecasts of generic nuclear power plant startups obtained from the EIA Middle Case electricity forecast. Sites are assigned to generic plants in chronological order according to startup date.

  20. Global nuclear radiation monitoring using plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, Mohammad; Romero-Talamas, Carlos; Kostov, Dan; Wang, Wanpeng; Liu, Zhongchi; Hussey, Daniel S.; Baltic, Eli; Jacobson, David L.; Gu, Jerry; Choa, Fow-Sen

    2005-05-01

    Plants exhibit complex responses to changes in environmental conditions such as radiant heat flux, water quality, airborne pollutants, soil contents. We seek to utilize the natural chemical and electrophysiological response of plants to develop novel plant-based sensor networks. Our present work focuses on plant responses to high-energy radiation - with the goal of monitoring natural plant responses for use as benchmarks for detection and dosimetry. For our study, we selected a plants cactus, Arabidopsis, Dwarf mango (pine), Euymus and Azela. We demonstrated that the ratio of Chlorophyll a to Chlorophyll b of the leaves has changed due to the exposure gradually come back to the normal stage after the radiation die. We used blue laser-induced blue fluorescence-emission spectra to characterize the pigment status of the trees. Upon blue laser excitation (400 nm) leaves show a fluorescence emission in the red spectral region between 650 and 800nm (chlorophyll fluorescence with maxima near 690nm and 735 nm). Sample tree subjects were placed at a distance of 1m from NIST-certified 241AmBe neutron source (30 mCi), capable of producing a neutron field of about 13 mrem/h. This corresponds to an actual absorbed dose of ~ 1 mrad/h. Our results shows that all plants are sensitive to nuclear radiation and some take longer time to recover and take less. We can use their characteristics to do differential detection and extract nuclear activity information out of measurement results avoid false alarms produced environmental changes. Certainly the ultimate verification can be obtained from genetic information, which only need to be done when we have seen noticeable changes on plant optical spectra, mechanical strength and electrical characteristics.

  1. NASA program planning on nuclear electric propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, Gary L.; Miller, Thomas J.

    1992-01-01

    As part of the focused technology planning for future NASA space science and exploration missions, NASA has initiated a focused technology program to develop the technologies for nuclear electric propulsion and nuclear thermal propulsion. Beginning in 1990, NASA began a series of interagency planning workshops and meetings to identify key technologies and program priorities for nuclear propulsion. The high-priority, near-term technologies that must be developed to make NEP operational for space exploration include scaling thrusters to higher power, developing high-temperature power processing units, and developing high power, low-mass, long-lived nuclear reactors.

  2. NASA program planning on nuclear electric propulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, G.L.; Miller, T.J. NASA, Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, OH )

    1992-03-01

    As part of the focused technology planning for future NASA space science and exploration missions, NASA has initiated a focused technology program to develop the technologies for nuclear electric propulsion and nuclear thermal propulsion. Beginning in 1990, NASA began a series of interagency planning workshops and meetings to identify key technologies and program priorities for nuclear propulsion. The high-priority, near-term technologies that must be developed to make NEP operational for space exploration include scaling thrusters to higher power, developing high-temperature power processing units, and developing high power, low-mass, long-lived nuclear reactors. 28 refs.

  3. Balance of Plant Requirements for a Nuclear Hydrogen Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley Ward

    2006-04-01

    This document describes the requirements for the components and systems that support the hydrogen production portion of a 600 megawatt thermal (MWt) Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP). These systems, defined as the "balance-of-plant" (BOP), are essential to operate an effective hydrogen production plant. Examples of BOP items are: heat recovery and heat rejection equipment, process material transport systems (pumps, valves, piping, etc.), control systems, safety systems, waste collection and disposal systems, maintenance and repair equipment, heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC), electrical supply and distribution, and others. The requirements in this document are applicable to the two hydrogen production processes currently under consideration in the DOE Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative. These processes are the sulfur iodide (S-I) process and the high temperature electrolysis (HTE) process. At present, the other two hydrogen production process - the hybrid sulfur-iodide electrolytic process (SE) and the calcium-bromide process (Ca-Br) -are under flow sheet development and not included in this report. While some features of the balance-of-plant requirements are common to all hydrogen production processes, some details will apply only to the specific needs of individual processes.

  4. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Materials Research and Development Program Plan

    SciTech Connect

    G. O. Hayner; E.L. Shaber

    2004-09-01

    The U.S Department of Energy (DOE) has selected the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) design for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project. The NGNP will demonstrate the use of nuclear power for electricity and hydrogen production without greenhouse gas emissions. The reactor design will be a graphite moderated, helium-cooled, prismatic or pebble-bed, thermal neutron spectrum reactor that will produce electricity and hydrogen in a state-of-the-art thermodynamically efficient manner. The NGNP will use very high burn-up, low-enriched uranium, TRISO-coated fuel and have a projected plant design service life of 60 years.

  5. The Birth of Nuclear-Generated Electricity

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    1999-09-01

    The Experimental Breeder Reactor-I (EBR-I), built in Idaho in 1949, generated the first usable electricity from nuclear power on December 20, 1951. More importantly, the reactor was used to prove that it was possible to create more nuclear fuel in the reactor than it consumed during operation -- fuel breeding. The EBR-I facility is now a National Historic Landmark open to the public.

  6. The nuclear electric quadrupole moment of copper.

    PubMed

    Santiago, Régis Tadeu; Teodoro, Tiago Quevedo; Haiduke, Roberto Luiz Andrade

    2014-06-21

    The nuclear electric quadrupole moment (NQM) of the (63)Cu nucleus was determined from an indirect approach by combining accurate experimental nuclear quadrupole coupling constants (NQCCs) with relativistic Dirac-Coulomb coupled cluster calculations of the electric field gradient (EFG). The data obtained at the highest level of calculation, DC-CCSD-T, from 14 linear molecules containing the copper atom give rise to an indicated NQM of -198(10) mbarn. Such result slightly deviates from the previously accepted standard value given by the muonic method, -220(15) mbarn, although the error bars are superimposed.

  7. Exergoeconomic analysis of a nuclear power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, Roman Miguel

    Exergoeconomic analysis of a nuclear power plant is a focus of this dissertation. Specifically, the performance of the Palo Verde Nuclear Power Plant in Arizona is examined. The analysis combines thermodynamic second law exergy analysis with economics in order to assign costs to the loss and destruction of exergy. This work was done entirely with an interacting spreadsheets notebook. The procedures are to first determine conventional energy flow, where the thermodynamic stream state points are calculated automatically. Exergy flow is then evaluated along with destruction and losses. The capital cost and fixed investment rate used for the economics do not apply specifically to the Palo Verde Plant. Exergy costing is done next involving the solution of about 90 equations by matrix inversion. Finally, the analysis assigns cost to the exergy destruction and losses in each component. In this work, the cost of electricity (exergy), including capital cost, leaving the generator came to 38,400 /hr. The major exergy destruction occurs in the reactor where fission energy transfer is limited by the maxiμm permissible clad temperature. Exergy destruction costs were: reactor--18,207 hr, the low pressure turbine-2,000 /hr, the condenser--1,700 hr, the steam generator-1,200 $/hr. The inclusion of capital cost and O&M are important in new system design assessments. When investigating operational performance, however, these are sunk costs; only fuel cost needs to be considered. The application of a case study is included based on a real modification instituted at Palo Verde to reduce corrosion steam generator problems; the pressure in the steam generator was reduced from 1072 to 980 psi. Exergy destruction costs increased in the low pressure turbine and in the steam generator, but decreased in the reactor vessel and the condenser. The dissertation demonstrates the procedures and tools required for exergoeconomic analysis whether in the evaluation of a new nuclear reactor system

  8. Electromagnetic compatibility of nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Cabayan, H.S.

    1983-01-01

    Lately, there has been a mounting concern about the electromagnetic compatibility of nuclear-power-plant systems mainly because of the effects due to the nuclear electromagnetic pulse, and also because of the introduction of more-sophisticated and, therefore, more-susceptible solid-state devices into the plants. Questions have been raised about the adequacy of solid-state-device protection against plant electromagnetic-interference sources and transients due to the nuclear electromagnetic pulse. In this paper, the author briefly reviews the environment, and the coupling, susceptibility, and vulnerability assessment issues of commercial nuclear power plants.

  9. The Harnessed Atom: Nuclear Energy & Electricity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC. Nuclear Energy Office.

    This document is part of a nuclear energy curriculum designed for grades six through eight. The complete kit includes a written text, review exercises, activities for the students, and a teachers guide. The 19 lessons in the curriculum are divided into four units including: (1) "Energy and Electricity"; (2) "Understanding Atoms and Radiation"; (3)…

  10. NASA's nuclear electric propulsion technology project

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, J.R.; Sovey, J.S. )

    1992-07-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has initiated a program to establish the readiness of nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) technology for relatively near-term applications to outer planet robotic science missions with potential future evolution to system for piloted Mars vehicles. This program was initiated in 1991 with a very modest effort identified with nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP); however, NEP is also an integral part of this program and builds upon NASA's Base Research and Technology Program in power and electric propulsion as well as the SP-100 space nuclear power program. The NEP Program will establish the feasibility and practicality of electric propulsion for robotic and piloted solar system exploration. The performance objectives are high specific impulse (200 greater than I(sub sp) greater than 10000 s), high efficiency (over 0.50), and low specific mass. The planning for this program was initially focussed on piloted Mars missions, but has since been redirected to first focus on 100-kW class systems for relatively near-term robotic missions, with possible future evolution to megawatt-and multi-megawatt-class systems applicable to cargo vehicles supporting human missions as well as to the piloted vehicles. This paper reviews current plans and recent progress for the overall nuclear electric propulsion project and closely related activities. 33 refs.

  11. NASA's nuclear electric propulsion technology project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, James R.; Sovey, James S.

    1992-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has initiated a program to establish the readiness of nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) technology for relatively near-term applications to outer planet robotic science missions with potential future evolution to system for piloted Mars vehicles. This program was initiated in 1991 with a very modest effort identified with nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP); however, NEP is also an integral part of this program and builds upon NASA's Base Research and Technology Program in power and electric propulsion as well as the SP-100 space nuclear power program. The NEP Program will establish the feasibility and practicality of electric propulsion for robotic and piloted solar system exploration. The performance objectives are high specific impulse (200 greater than I(sub sp) greater than 10000 s), high efficiency (over 0.50), and low specific mass. The planning for this program was initially focussed on piloted Mars missions, but has since been redirected to first focus on 100-kW class systems for relatively near-term robotic missions, with possible future evolution to megawatt- and multi-megawatt-class systems applicable to cargo vehicles supporting human missions as well as to the piloted vehicles. This paper reviews current plans and recent progress for the overall nuclear electric propulsion project and closely related activities.

  12. NASA's nuclear electric propulsion technology project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, James R.; Sovey, James S.

    1992-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has initiated a program to establish the readiness of nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) technology for relatively near-term applications to outer planet robotic science missions with potential future evolution to system for piloted Mars vehicles. This program was initiated in 1991 with a very modest effort identified with nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP); however, NEP is also an integral part of this program and builds upon NASA's Base Research and Technology Program in power and electric propulsion as well as the SP-100 space nuclear power program. The NEP Program will establish the feasibility and practicality of electric propulsion for robotic and piloted solar system exploration. The performance objectives are high specific impulse (200 greater than I(sub sp) greater than 10000 s), high efficiency (over 0.50), and low specific mass. The planning for this program was initially focussed on piloted Mars missions, but has since been redirected to first focus on 100-kW class systems for relatively near-term robotic missions, with possible future evolution to megawatt-and multi-megawatt-class systems applicable to cargo vehicles supporting human missions as well as to the piloted vehicles. This paper reviews current plans and recent progress for the overall nuclear electric propulsion project and closely related activities.

  13. NASA's nuclear electric propulsion technology project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, James R.; Sovey, James S.

    1992-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has initiated a program to establish the readiness of nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) technology for relatively near-term applications to outer planet robotic science missions with potential future evolution to system for piloted Mars vehicles. This program was initiated in 1991 with a very modest effort identified with nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP); however, NEP is also an integral part of this program and builds upon NASA's Base Research and Technology Program in power and electric propulsion as well as the SP-100 space nuclear power program. The NEP Program will establish the feasibility and practicality of electric propulsion for robotic and piloted solar system exploration. The performance objectives are high specific impulse (200 greater than I(sub sp) greater than 10000 s), high efficiency (over 0.50), and low specific mass. The planning for this program was initially focussed on piloted Mars missions, but has since been redirected to first focus on 100-kW class systems for relatively near-term robotic missions, with possible future evolution to megawatt- and multi-megawatt-class systems applicable to cargo vehicles supporting human missions as well as to the piloted vehicles. This paper reviews current plans and recent progress for the overall nuclear electric propulsion project and closely related activities.

  14. NASA's nuclear electric propulsion technology project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, James R.; Sovey, James S.

    1992-07-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has initiated a program to establish the readiness of nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) technology for relatively near-term applications to outer planet robotic science missions with potential future evolution to system for piloted Mars vehicles. This program was initiated in 1991 with a very modest effort identified with nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP); however, NEP is also an integral part of this program and builds upon NASA's Base Research and Technology Program in power and electric propulsion as well as the SP-100 space nuclear power program. The NEP Program will establish the feasibility and practicality of electric propulsion for robotic and piloted solar system exploration. The performance objectives are high specific impulse (200 greater than I(sub sp) greater than 10000 s), high efficiency (over 0.50), and low specific mass. The planning for this program was initially focussed on piloted Mars missions, but has since been redirected to first focus on 100-kW class systems for relatively near-term robotic missions, with possible future evolution to megawatt- and multi-megawatt-class systems applicable to cargo vehicles supporting human missions as well as to the piloted vehicles. This paper reviews current plans and recent progress for the overall nuclear electric propulsion project and closely related activities.

  15. NASA's nuclear electric propulsion technology project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, James R.; Sovey, James S.

    1992-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has initiated a program to establish the readiness of nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) technology for relatively near-term applications to outer planet robotic science missions with potential future evolution to system for piloted Mars vehicles. This program was initiated in 1991 with a very modest effort identified with nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP); however, NEP is also an integral part of this program and builds upon NASA's Base Research and Technology Program in power and electric propulsion as well as the SP-100 space nuclear power program. The NEP Program will establish the feasibility and practicality of electric propulsion for robotic and piloted solar system exploration. The performance objectives are high specific impulse (200 greater than I(sub sp) greater than 10000 s), high efficiency (over 0.50), and low specific mass. The planning for this program was initially focussed on piloted Mars missions, but has since been redirected to first focus on 100-kW class systems for relatively near-term robotic missions, with possible future evolution to megawatt-and multi-megawatt-class systems applicable to cargo vehicles supporting human missions as well as to the piloted vehicles. This paper reviews current plans and recent progress for the overall nuclear electric propulsion project and closely related activities.

  16. NASA's nuclear electric propulsion technology project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, James R.; Sovey, James S.

    1992-07-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has initiated a program to establish the readiness of nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) technology for relatively near-term applications to outer planet robotic science missions with potential future evolution to system for piloted Mars vehicles. This program was initiated in 1991 with a very modest effort identified with nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP); however, NEP is also an integral part of this program and builds upon NASA's Base Research and Technology Program in power and electric propulsion as well as the SP-100 space nuclear power program. The NEP Program will establish the feasibility and practicality of electric propulsion for robotic and piloted solar system exploration. The performance objectives are high specific impulse (200 greater than I(sub sp) greater than 10000 s), high efficiency (over 0.50), and low specific mass. The planning for this program was initially focussed on piloted Mars missions, but has since been redirected to first focus on 100-kW class systems for relatively near-term robotic missions, with possible future evolution to megawatt-and multi-megawatt-class systems applicable to cargo vehicles supporting human missions as well as to the piloted vehicles. This paper reviews current plans and recent progress for the overall nuclear electric propulsion project and closely related activities.

  17. 77 FR 66875 - Brunswick Steam Electric Plant, Units 1 and 2

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Brunswick Steam Electric Plant, Units 1 and 2 AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION... to Brunswick Steam Electric Plant, Units 1 and 2 (Brunswick). The petition is included in the...

  18. Nuclear Electric Propulsion for Deep Space Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, G.

    Nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) holds considerable promise for deep space exploration in the future. Research and development of this technology is a key element of NASA's Nuclear Systems Initiative (NSI), which is a top priority in the President's FY03 NASA budget. The goal is to develop the subsystem technologies that will enable application of NEP for missions to the outer planets and beyond by the beginning of next decade. The high-performance offered by nuclear-powered electric thrusters will benefit future missions by (1) reducing or eliminating the launch window constraints associated with complex planetary swingbys, (2) providing the capability to perform large spacecraft velocity changes in deep space, (3) increasing the fraction of vehicle mass allocated to payload and other spacecraft systems, and, (3) in some cases, reducing trip times over other propulsion alternatives. Furthermore, the nuclear energy source will provide a power-rich environment that can support more sophisticated science experiments and higher- speed broadband data transmission than current deep space missions. This paper addresses NASA's plans for NEP, and discusses the subsystem technologies (i.e., nuclear reactors, power conversion and electric thrusters) and system concepts being considered for the first generation of NEP vehicles.

  19. Nuclear Electric Vehicle Optimization Toolset (NEVOT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tinker, Michael L.; Steincamp, James W.; Stewart, Eric T.; Patton, Bruce W.; Pannell, William P.; Newby, Ronald L.; Coffman, Mark E.; Kos, Larry D.; Qualls, A. Lou; Greene, Sherrell

    2004-01-01

    The Nuclear Electric Vehicle Optimization Toolset (NEVOT) optimizes the design of all major nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) vehicle subsystems for a defined mission within constraints and optimization parameters chosen by a user. The tool uses a genetic algorithm (GA) search technique to combine subsystem designs and evaluate the fitness of the integrated design to fulfill a mission. The fitness of an individual is used within the GA to determine its probability of survival through successive generations in which the designs with low fitness are eliminated and replaced with combinations or mutations of designs with higher fitness. The program can find optimal solutions for different sets of fitness metrics without modification and can create and evaluate vehicle designs that might never be considered through traditional design techniques. It is anticipated that the flexible optimization methodology will expand present knowledge of the design trade-offs inherent in designing nuclear powered space vehicles and lead to improved NEP designs.

  20. Effect of nuclear power on CO₂ emission from power plant sector in Iran.

    PubMed

    Kargari, Nargess; Mastouri, Reza

    2011-01-01

    It is predicted that demand for electricity in Islamic Republic of Iran will continue to increase dramatically in the future due to the rapid pace of economic development leading to construction of new power plants. At the present time, most of electricity is generated by burning fossil fuels which result in emission of great deal of pollutants and greenhouse gases (GHG) such as SO₂, NOx, and CO₂. The power industry is the largest contributor to these emissions. Due to minimal emission of GHG by renewable and nuclear power plants, they are most suitable replacements for the fossil-fueled power plants. However, the nuclear power plants are more suitable than renewable power plants in providing baseload electricity. The Bushehr Nuclear Power Plant, the only nuclear power plant of Iran, is expected to start operation in 2010. This paper attempts to interpret the role of Bushehr nuclear power plant (BNPP) in CO₂ emission trend of power plant sector in Iran. In order to calculate CO₂ emissions from power plants, National CO₂ coefficients have been used. The National CO₂ emission coefficients are according to different fuels (natural gas, fuels gas, fuel oil). By operating Bushehr Nuclear Power Plant in 2010, nominal capacity of electricity generation in Iran will increase by about 1,000 MW, which increases the electricity generation by almost 7,000 MWh/year (it is calculated according to availability factor and nominal capacity of BNPP). Bushehr Nuclear Power Plant will decrease the CO₂ emission in Iran power sector, by about 3% in 2010.

  1. Nuclear economics 2000: Deterministic and probabilistic projections of nuclear and coal electric power generation costs for the year 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, K.A.; Delene, J.G.; Fuller, L.C.; Bowers, H.I.

    1987-06-01

    The total busbar electric generating costs were estimated for locations in ten regions of the United States for base-load nuclear and coal-fired power plants with a startup date of January 2000. For the Midwest region a complete data set that specifies each parameter used to obtain the comparative results is supplied. When based on the reference set of input variables, the comparison of power generation costs is found to favor nuclear in most regions of the country. Nuclear power is most favored in the northeast and western regions where coal must be transported over long distances; however, coal-fired generation is most competitive in the north central region where large reserves of cheaply mineable coal exist. In several regions small changes in the reference variables could cause either option to be preferred. The reference data set reflects the better of recent electric utility construction cost experience (BE) for nuclear plants. This study assumes as its reference case a stable regulatory environment and improved planning and construction practices, resulting in nuclear plants typically built at the present BE costs. Today's BE nuclear-plant capital investment cost model is then being used as a surrogate for projected costs for the next generation of light-water reactor plants. An alternative analysis based on today's median experience (ME) nuclear-plant construction cost experience is also included. In this case, coal is favored in all ten regions, implying that typical nuclear capital investment costs must improve for nuclear to be competitive.

  2. Nuclear plant owners move closer to life extension

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.J.

    1991-10-01

    A major debate is now underway about the safety of 40-year-old nuclear power plants. Under the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 a nuclear power plant's license is limited to a maximum of 40 years. Although the act permits the renewal of an operating license, it does not outline any standards or procedures for determining when or under what conditions a plant's operating license should be renewed. This paper reports that the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) are co-sponsors of a program to demonstrate the license renewal process for two nuclear power plants - Yankee Atomic Electric's 175-MW Yankee PWR plant and Northern States Power's 536-MW Monticello BWR plant. The demonstration is known as the lead plant project. Yankee Atomic has already analyzed the plant's condition and evaluated aging using computer-based expert systems and the plant's operating experience. During these tests Yankee Atomic found embrittlement of the reactor vessel.

  3. Modelling of nuclear power plant decommissioning financing.

    PubMed

    Bemš, J; Knápek, J; Králík, T; Hejhal, M; Kubančák, J; Vašíček, J

    2015-06-01

    Costs related to the decommissioning of nuclear power plants create a significant financial burden for nuclear power plant operators. This article discusses the various methodologies employed by selected European countries for financing of the liabilities related to the nuclear power plant decommissioning. The article also presents methodology of allocation of future decommissioning costs to the running costs of nuclear power plant in the form of fee imposed on each megawatt hour generated. The application of the methodology is presented in the form of a case study on a new nuclear power plant with installed capacity 1000 MW. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Performance evaluation of fiber optic components in nuclear plant environments

    SciTech Connect

    Hastings, M.C.; Miller, D.W.; James, R.W.

    1996-03-01

    Over the past several years, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) has funded several projects to evaluate the performance of commercially available fiber optic cables, connective devices, light sources, and light detectors under environmental conditions representative of normal and abnormal nuclear power plant operating conditions. Future projects are planned to evaluate commercially available fiber optic sensors and to install and evaluate performance of instrument loops comprised of fiber optic components in operating nuclear power plant applications. The objective of this research is to assess the viability of fiber optic components for replacement and upgrade of nuclear power plant instrument systems. Fiber optic instrument channels offer many potential advantages: commercial availability of parts and technical support, small physical size and weight, immunity to electromagnetic interference, relatively low power requirements, and high bandwidth capabilities. As existing nuclear power plants continue to replace and upgrade I&C systems, fiber optics will offer a low-cost alternative technology which also provides additional information processing capabilities. Results to date indicate that fiber optics are a viable technology for many nuclear applications, both inside and outside of containments. This work is funded and manage& under the Operations & Maintenance Cost Control research target of EPRI`s Nuclear Power Group. The work is being performed by faculty and students in the Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering Departments and the staff of the Nuclear Reactor Laboratory of the Ohio State University.

  5. Nuclear plant operations: The U.S. experience

    SciTech Connect

    Lang, J.

    1996-12-31

    Over the past 20 years, electricity has taken on an increasingly important role in the U.S. energy mix and an increasing fraction of that electricity has been generated by nuclear power plants. However, producing electricity with nuclear energy is not an end in itself for electric utilities. Nuclear power is attractive only in so far as it is a safe and economical means of producing electricity. Safety has been and will remain a priority with the nuclear industry-it`s part of the culture. However, during the 1980`s, the economy of nuclear power was called into question. Nuclear production costs (operations, maintenance and fuel) grew at a rate greater than inflation, led by the costs of operations and maintenance. The production costs peaked in 1987 at which time several factors responding to competition from other forms of generation combined to bring them down. The decline in costs is continuing, yielding the positive experience discussed in this paper. 1 ref., 11 figs.

  6. Application of Nuclear Energy for Seawater Desalination: Design Concepts of Nuclear Desalination Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Faibish, R.S.; Konishi, T.; Gasparini, M.

    2002-07-01

    Nuclear energy is playing an important role in electricity generation, producing 16% of the world's electricity. However, most of the world's energy consumption is in the form of heat, in which case nuclear energy could also play an important role. In particular, process heat for seawater desalination using nuclear energy has been of growing interest to some Member States of the International Atomic Energy Agency over the past two decades. This growing interest stems from increasingly acute freshwater shortages in many arid and semi-arid zones around the world. Indeed, several national and international nuclear desalination demonstration programs are already under way or being planned. Of particular interest are projects for seawater nuclear desalination plants in coastal regions, where saline feed water can serve the dual purpose of cooling water for the nuclear reactor and as feed water for the desalination plant. In principle any nuclear reactor can provide energy (low-grade heat and/or electricity), as required by desalination processes. However, there are some additional requirements to be met under specific conditions in order to introduce nuclear desalination. Technical issues include meeting more stringent safety requirements (nuclear reactors themselves and nuclear-desalination integrated complexes in particular), and performance improvement of the integrated systems. Economic competitiveness is another important factor to be considered for a broader deployment of nuclear desalination. For technical robustness and economic competitiveness a number of design variants of coupling configurations of nuclear desalination integrated plant concepts are being evaluated. This paper identifies and discusses various factors, which support the attractiveness of nuclear desalination. It further summarizes some of the key approaches recommended for nuclear desalination complex design and gives an overview of various design concepts of nuclear desalination plants, which

  7. Nuclear Power Plant Concrete Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Basu, Prabir; Labbe, Pierre; Naus, Dan

    2013-01-01

    A nuclear power plant (NPP) involves complex engineering structures that are significant items of the structures, systems and components (SSC) important to the safe and reliable operation of the NPP. Concrete is the commonly used civil engineering construction material in the nuclear industry because of a number of advantageous properties. The NPP concrete structures underwent a great degree of evolution, since the commissioning of first NPP in early 1960. The increasing concern with time related to safety of the public and environment, and degradation of concrete structures due to ageing related phenomena are the driving forces for such evolution. The concrete technology underwent rapid development with the advent of chemical admixtures of plasticizer/super plasticizer category as well as viscosity modifiers and mineral admixtures like fly ash and silica fume. Application of high performance concrete (HPC) developed with chemical and mineral admixtures has been witnessed in the construction of NPP structures. Along with the beneficial effect, the use of admixtures in concrete has posed a number of challenges as well in design and construction. This along with the prospect of continuing operation beyond design life, especially after 60 years, the impact of extreme natural events ( as in the case of Fukushima NPP accident) and human induced events (e.g. commercial aircraft crash like the event of September 11th 2001) has led to further development in the area of NPP concrete structures. The present paper aims at providing an account of evolution of NPP concrete structures in last two decades by summarizing the development in the areas of concrete technology, design methodology and construction techniques, maintenance and ageing management of concrete structures.

  8. DOE`s nuclear energy plant optimization program

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, D.; Savage, C.D.; Singh, B.P.

    1999-09-01

    In December 1997, the United States agreed to the Kyoto Protocol on Climate Change that outlines specific greenhouse gas emissions reduction requirements. A key element of this protocol is binding emissions targets and timetables. The Protocol calls for the United States to reach emissions targets 7% below 1990 emissions levels over the 5-yr period from 2008 to 2012. A key element to achieving this goal will be the continued safe and economic operation of the Nation`s 104 nuclear power plants. These plants provide >20% of the Nation`s electricity, and nearly one-half of the 50 states receive >25% of their electricity from nuclear power. DOE`s current Strategic Plan specifies that the United States maintain its nuclear energy option and improve the efficiency of existing plants as part of its energy portfolio, in the interest of national security. As a result, DOE proposed two new nuclear energy R and D programs for fiscal year (FY) 1999: the Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (NERI), a peer-reviewed, competitively selected R and D program in advanced concepts, and the Nuclear Energy Plant Optimization Program (NEPO). NERI was authorized and received initial funding of $19 million for its first year. NEPO was not funded in 1999 but has been reintroduced in the FY 2000 budget request. NEPO will be a jointly funded R and D program with industry through the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and will address those issues that could hinder continued safe operation of the Nation`s operating nuclear power plants. The FY 2000 funding request to Congress for NEPO is $5 million.

  9. Nuclear power source for electric propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mondt, J. F.; Stapfer, G.; Hsieh, T.

    1979-01-01

    A low specific weight (20 to 40 Kg/Kwe), long life (6 to 10 year), 100 to 400 KWe nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) system can deliver 2,000 to 10,000 Kg payloads for intensive study of our solar system. The nuclear power source is about 80% of the NEP system mass, thus the NASA program is focused on developing the power source technology. Because of the long life requirements, direct thermal to electric energy conversion technology (thermionic and thermoelectric) is being pursued. In order to meet the low specific weight it is necessary to develop a 10 to 15% conversion module with a 875 K minimum heat rejection temperature and a 1675 K maximum input temperature. The thermoionic converter is about 9% efficient at these temperatures. The thermoelectric converter is limited to a 1300 K input temperature. So, the thermionic program is focused on improving the efficiency while the thermoelectric program is focused on increasing the temperature.

  10. Vogtle Electric Generating Plant ETE Analysis Review

    SciTech Connect

    Diediker, Nona H.; Jones, Joe A.

    2006-12-09

    Under contract with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), staff from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and Sandia National Laboratory (SNL)-Albuquerque reviewed the evacuation time estimate (ETE) analysis dated April 2006 prepared by IEM for the Vogtle Electric Generating Plant (VEGP). The ETE analysis was reviewed for consistency with federal regulations using the NRC guidelines in Review Standard (RS)-002, Supplement 2 and Appendix 4 to NUREG-0654, and NUREG/CR-4831. Additional sources of information referenced in the analysis and used in the review included NUREG/CR-6863 and NUREG/CR-6864. The PNNL report includes general comments, data needs or clarifications, and requests for additional information (RAI) resulting from review of the ETE analysis.

  11. Space nuclear power system and the design of the nuclear electric propulsion OTV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buden, D.; Garrison, P. W.

    1984-01-01

    Payload increases of three to five times that of the Shuttle/Centaur can be achieved using nuclear electric propulsion. Various nuclear power plant options being pursued by the SP-100 Program are described. These concepts can grow from 100 kWe to 1 MWe output. Spacecraft design aspects are addressed, including thermal interactions, plume interactions, and radiation fluences. A baseline configuration is described accounting for these issues. Safety aspects of starting the OTV transfer from an altitude of 300 km indicate no significant additional risk to the biosphere.

  12. Space nuclear power system and the design of the nuclear electric propulsion OTV

    SciTech Connect

    Buden, D.; Garrison, P.W.

    1984-01-01

    Payload increases of three to five times that of the Shuttle/Centaur can be achieved using nuclear electric propulsion. Various nuclear power plant options being pursued by the SP-100 Program are described. These concepts can grow from 100 kW/sub e/ to 1MW/sub e/ output. Spacecraft design aspects are addressed, including thermal interactions, plume interactions, and radiation fluences. A baseline configuration is described accounting for these issues. Safety aspects of starting the OTV transfer from an altitude of 300 km indicate no significant additional risk to the biosphere.

  13. Space nuclear power system and the design of the nuclear electric propulsion OTV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buden, D.; Garrison, P. W.

    1984-01-01

    Payload increases of three to five times that of the Shuttle/Centaur can be achieved using nuclear electric propulsion. Various nuclear power plant options being pursued by the SP-100 Program are described. These concepts can grow from 100 kWe to 1 MWe output. Spacecraft design aspects are addressed, including thermal interactions, plume interactions, and radiation fluences. A baseline configuration is described accounting for these issues. Safety aspects of starting the OTV transfer from an altitude of 300 km indicate no significant additional risk to the biosphere.

  14. Nuclear power plant cable materials :

    SciTech Connect

    Celina, Mathias C.; Gillen, Kenneth T; Lindgren, Eric Richard

    2013-05-01

    A selective literature review was conducted to assess whether currently available accelerated aging and original qualification data could be used to establish operational margins for the continued use of cable insulation and jacketing materials in nuclear power plant environments. The materials are subject to chemical and physical degradation under extended radiationthermal- oxidative conditions. Of particular interest were the circumstances under which existing aging data could be used to predict whether aged materials should pass loss of coolant accident (LOCA) performance requirements. Original LOCA qualification testing usually involved accelerated aging simulations of the 40-year expected ambient aging conditions followed by a LOCA simulation. The accelerated aging simulations were conducted under rapid accelerated aging conditions that did not account for many of the known limitations in accelerated polymer aging and therefore did not correctly simulate actual aging conditions. These highly accelerated aging conditions resulted in insulation materials with mostly inert aging processes as well as jacket materials where oxidative damage dropped quickly away from the air-exposed outside jacket surface. Therefore, for most LOCA performance predictions, testing appears to have relied upon heterogeneous aging behavior with oxidation often limited to the exterior of the cable cross-section a situation which is not comparable with the nearly homogenous oxidative aging that will occur over decades under low dose rate and low temperature plant conditions. The historical aging conditions are therefore insufficient to determine with reasonable confidence the remaining operational margins for these materials. This does not necessarily imply that the existing 40-year-old materials would fail if LOCA conditions occurred, but rather that unambiguous statements about the current aging state and anticipated LOCA performance cannot be provided based on

  15. Occupational exposures and practices in nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Baum, J.W.

    1989-01-01

    As the first generation of commercial nuclear power comes to a close, it is timely to consider the status of occupational exposure in the power generation industry, that is, the collective occupational radiation doses received by workers in nuclear power plants. The picture is surprising. One might have thought that as newer, larger, and more modern plants came on line, there would be a significant decrease in exposure per unit of electricity generated. There is some indication that this is now happening. One might also have thought that the United States, being a leader in the development of nuclear power, and in the knowledge, experience and technology of nuclear radiation protection, would have the greatest success in controlling exposure. This expectation has not been fulfilled. 32 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  16. Multimegawatt nuclear power systems for nuclear electric propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    George, Jeffrey A.

    1991-01-01

    Results from systems analysis studies of multimegawatt nuclear power systems are presented for application to nuclear electric propulsion. Specific mass estimates are presented for nearer term SP-100 reactor-based potassium Rankine and Brayton power systems for piloted and cargo missions. Growth SP-100/Rankine systems were found to range from roughly 7 to 10 kg/kWe specific mass depending on full power life requirements. The SP-100/Rankine systems were also found to result in a 4-kg/kWe savings in specific mass over SP-100/Brayton systems. The potential of advanced, higher temperature reactor and power conversion technologies for achieving reduced mass Rankine and Brayton systems was also investigated. A target goal of 5 kg/kWe specific mass was deemed reasonable given either 1400 K potassium Rankine with 1500 K lithium-cooled reactors or 2000 K gas cooled reactors with Brayton conversion.

  17. Nuclear electric propulsion technologies: Overview of the NASA/DOE/DOD nuclear electric propulsion workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnett, John W.

    1991-01-01

    Nuclear propulsion technology offers substantial benefits to the ambitious piloted and robotic solar system exploration missions of the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI). This paper summarizes a workshop jointly sponsored by NASA, DoE, DoD to assess candidate nuclear electric propulsion technologies. Twenty-one power and propulsion concepts are reviewed. Nuclear power concepts include solid and gaseous fuel concepts, with static and dynamic power conversion. Propulsion concepts include steady state and pulsed electromagnetic engines, a pulsed electrothermal engine, and a steady state electrostatic engine. The technologies vary widely in maturity. The workshop review panels concluded that compelling benefits would accrue from the development of nuclear electric propulsion systems, and that a focused, well-funded program is required to prepare the technologies for SEI missions.

  18. Questions and Answers About Nuclear Power Plants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    This pamphlet is designed to answer many of the questions that have arisen about nuclear power plants and the environment. It is organized into a question and answer format, with the questions taken from those most often asked by the public. Topics include regulation of nuclear power sources, potential dangers to people's health, whether nuclear…

  19. Fighting the Epidemic of Nuclear Plant Leaks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Udell, Richard A.

    1983-01-01

    The current epidemic of steam generator tube leaks alone should put to rest the rosy future once envisioned for nuclear power. It is impossible to regulate quality into a nuclear plant; it must be built and designed that way. The economic impact of the leaks is discussed. (RM)

  20. Evolutionary use of nuclear electric propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hack, K. J.; George, J. A.; Riehl, J. P.; Gilland, J. H.

    1990-01-01

    Evolving new propulsion technologies through a rational and conscious effort to minimize development costs and program risks while maximizing the performance benefits is intuitively practical. A phased approach to the evolution of nuclear electric propulsion from use on planetary probes, to lunar cargo vehicles, and finally to manned Mars missions with a concomitant growth in technology is considered. Technology levels and system component makeup are discussed for nuclear power systems and both ion and magnetoplasmadynamic thrusters. Mission scenarios are described, which include analysis of a probe to Pluto, a lunar cargo mission, Martian split, all-up, and quick-trip mission options. Evolutionary progression of the use of NEP in such missions is discussed.

  1. Electric thruster models for multimegawatt nuclear electric propulsion mission design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leifer, Stephanie D.; Blandino, John J.; Sercel, Joel C.

    1991-01-01

    Three types of electric thrusters currently under development at JPL have potential to support future missions which utilize multimegawatt nuclear electric propulsion. These electric thrusters are the electron bombardment ion thruster, the magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thruster, and the electron-cyclotron-resonance (ECR) thruster. The electron bombardment ion thruster is a relatively mature technology which has been developed for operation at kilowatt power levels but will require new development for application in the multimegawatt regime. The MPD engine represents a technology which may be very well suited to steady-state multimegawatt applications but which has been limited to sub-scale (100's of kW) and pulsed (MW) testing thus far. The ECR plasma engine represents a class of very promising new concepts which are still in the basic research phase of development, but which may possess important fundamental advantages over other electric thruster technologies. Models of these thrusters are described and used to make projections of thrusters specific mass, efficiency, and power handling capacity for operation in the multimegawatt regime.

  2. Electric thruster models for multimegawatt nuclear electric propulsion mission design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leifer, Stephanie D.; Blandino, John J.; Sercel, Joel C.

    1991-01-01

    Three types of electric thrusters currently under development at JPL have potential to support future missions which utilize multimegawatt nuclear electric propulsion. These electric thrusters are the electron bombardment ion thruster, the magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thruster, and the electron-cyclotron-resonance (ECR) thruster. The electron bombardment ion thruster is a relatively mature technology which has been developed for operation at kilowatt power levels but will require new development for application in the multimegawatt regime. The MPD engine represents a technology which may be very well suited to steady-state multimegawatt applications but which has been limited to sub-scale (100's of kW) and pulsed (MW) testing thus far. The ECR plasma engine represents a class of very promising new concepts which are still in the basic research phase of development, but which may possess important fundamental advantages over other electric thruster technologies. Models of these thrusters are described and used to make projections of thrusters specific mass, efficiency, and power handling capacity for operation in the multimegawatt regime.

  3. Insights into the Societal Risk of Nuclear Power Plant Accidents.

    PubMed

    Denning, Richard; Mubayi, Vinod

    2017-01-01

    The elements of societal risk from a nuclear power plant accident are clearly illustrated by the Fukushima accident: land contamination, long-term relocation of large numbers of people, loss of productive farm area, loss of industrial production, and significant loss of electric capacity. NUREG-1150 and other studies have provided compelling evidence that the individual health risk of nuclear power plant accidents is effectively negligible relative to other comparable risks, even for people living in close proximity to a plant. The objective of this study is to compare the societal risk of nuclear power plant accidents to that of other events to which the public is exposed. We have characterized the monetized societal risk in the United States from major societally disruptive events, such as hurricanes, in the form of a complementary cumulative distribution function. These risks are compared with nuclear power plant risks, based on NUREG-1150 analyses and new MACCS code calculations to account for differences in source terms determined in the more recent SOARCA study. A candidate quantitative societal objective is discussed for potential adoption by the NRC. The results are also interpreted with regard to the acceptability of nuclear power as a major source of future energy supply. © 2016 Society for Risk Analysis.

  4. Nuclear power plant security assessment technical manual.

    SciTech Connect

    O'Connor, Sharon L.; Whitehead, Donnie Wayne; Potter, Claude S., III

    2007-09-01

    This report (Nuclear Power Plant Security Assessment Technical Manual) is a revision to NUREG/CR-1345 (Nuclear Power Plant Design Concepts for Sabotage Protection) that was published in January 1981. It provides conceptual and specific technical guidance for U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission nuclear power plant design certification and combined operating license applicants as they: (1) develop the layout of a facility (i.e., how buildings are arranged on the site property and how they are arranged internally) to enhance protection against sabotage and facilitate the use of physical security features; (2) design the physical protection system to be used at the facility; and (3) analyze the effectiveness of the PPS against the design basis threat. It should be used as a technical manual in conjunction with the 'Nuclear Power Plant Security Assessment Format and Content Guide'. The opportunity to optimize physical protection in the design of a nuclear power plant is obtained when an applicant utilizes both documents when performing a security assessment. This document provides a set of best practices that incorporates knowledge gained from more than 30 years of physical protection system design and evaluation activities at Sandia National Laboratories and insights derived from U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission technical staff into a manual that describes a development and analysis process of physical protection systems suitable for future nuclear power plants. In addition, selected security system technologies that may be used in a physical protection system are discussed. The scope of this document is limited to the identification of a set of best practices associated with the design and evaluation of physical security at future nuclear power plants in general. As such, it does not provide specific recommendations for the design and evaluation of physical security for any specific reactor design. These best practices should be applicable to the design and

  5. 77 FR 28407 - Special Nuclear Material Control and Accounting Systems for Nuclear Power Plants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-14

    ... COMMISSION Special Nuclear Material Control and Accounting Systems for Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY: Nuclear...-5028, ``Special Nuclear Material Control and Accounting Systems for Nuclear Power Plants.'' In DG-5028... Control and Accounting Systems for Nuclear Power Plants.'' DATES: Submit comments by July 16, 2012...

  6. Electric heater for nuclear fuel rod simulators

    DOEpatents

    McCulloch, Reginald W.; Morgan, Jr., Chester S.; Dial, Ralph E.

    1982-01-01

    The present invention is directed to an electric cartridge-type heater for use as a simulator for a nuclear fuel pin in reactor studies. The heater comprises an elongated cylindrical housing containing a longitudinally extending helically wound heating element with the heating element radially inwardly separated from the housing. Crushed cold-pressed preforms of boron nitride electrically insulate the heating element from the housing while providing good thermal conductivity. Crushed cold-pressed preforms of magnesia or a magnesia-15 percent boron nitride mixture are disposed in the cavity of the helical heating element. The coefficient of thermal expansion of the magnesia or the magnesia-boron nitride mixture is higher than that of the boron nitride disposed about the heating element for urging the boron nitride radially outwardly against the housing during elevated temperatures to assure adequate thermal contact between the housing and the boron nitride.

  7. Uranium to Electricity: The Chemistry of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Settle, Frank A.

    2009-01-01

    The nuclear fuel cycle consists of a series of industrial processes that produce fuel for the production of electricity in nuclear reactors, use the fuel to generate electricity, and subsequently manage the spent reactor fuel. While the physics and engineering of controlled fission are central to the generation of nuclear power, chemistry…

  8. Uranium to Electricity: The Chemistry of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Settle, Frank A.

    2009-01-01

    The nuclear fuel cycle consists of a series of industrial processes that produce fuel for the production of electricity in nuclear reactors, use the fuel to generate electricity, and subsequently manage the spent reactor fuel. While the physics and engineering of controlled fission are central to the generation of nuclear power, chemistry…

  9. Transportable nuclear power plant TEC-M with two reactor plants of improved safety

    SciTech Connect

    Ogloblin, B.G.; Sazonov, A.G.; Svishchev, A.M.; Gromov, B.F.; Zelensky, V.N.; Komkova, O.I.; Sidorov, V.I.; Tolstopyatov, V.P.; Toshinsky, G.I.

    1993-12-31

    Liquid metals are the best to meet the requirements of inherently safety nuclear power plants among the coolants used. A great experience has been gained in lead coolant power plant development and operation as applied to transportable power set-ups. Low chemical activity of this coolant with respect to air-water interaction is a determining factor for this coolant. The transportable nuclear power plant is described. It is intended to generate electric power for populated areas placed a long distance from the main electric power supply sources where it is difficult or not economical to deliver the conventional types of fuel. There are several remote areas in Siberia, Kamchatka in need of this type of power plant.

  10. Nuclear-electric reusable orbital transfer vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaffe, Leonard D.

    1988-10-01

    To help determine the systems requirements for a 300-kWe space nuclear reactor power system, a mission and spacecraft have been examined that utilize electric propulsion supported by the nuclear reactor's power for multiple transfers of cargo between low earth orbit (LEO) and geosynchronous earth orbit (GEO). A propulsion system employing ion thrusters and xenon propellant was selected. Propellant and thrusters are replaced after each sortie to GEO. The mass of the orbital transfer vehicle (OTV), empty and dry, is 11,000 kg; nominal propellant load is 5000 kg. The OTV operates between a circular orbit at 925-km altitude, 28.5-deg inclination, and GEO. Cargo is brought to the OTV by Shuttle and an orbital maneuvering vehicle (OMV); the OTV then takes it to GEO. The OTV can also bring cargo back from GEO for transfer by OMV to the Shuttle. OTV propellant is resupplied, and the ion thrusters are replaced, by the OMV before each sortie to GEO. At the end of mission life, the OTV's electric propulsion is used to place it in a heliocentric orbit so that the reactor will not return to earth. The nominal cargo capability to GEO is 6000 kg, with a transit time of 120 days; 1350 kg can be transferred in 90 days, and 14,300 kg in 240 days. These capabilities can be considerably increased by using separate Shuttle launches to bring up propellant and cargo or by changing to mercury propellant.

  11. Nuclear-electric reusable orbital transfer vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaffe, Leonard D.

    1988-01-01

    To help determine the systems requirements for a 300-kWe space nuclear reactor power system, a mission and spacecraft have been examined that utilize electric propulsion supported by the nuclear reactor's power for multiple transfers of cargo between low earth orbit (LEO) and geosynchronous earth orbit (GEO). A propulsion system employing ion thrusters and xenon propellant was selected. Propellant and thrusters are replaced after each sortie to GEO. The mass of the orbital transfer vehicle (OTV), empty and dry, is 11,000 kg; nominal propellant load is 5000 kg. The OTV operates between a circular orbit at 925-km altitude, 28.5-deg inclination, and GEO. Cargo is brought to the OTV by Shuttle and an orbital maneuvering vehicle (OMV); the OTV then takes it to GEO. The OTV can also bring cargo back from GEO for transfer by OMV to the Shuttle. OTV propellant is resupplied, and the ion thrusters are replaced, by the OMV before each sortie to GEO. At the end of mission life, the OTV's electric propulsion is used to place it in a heliocentric orbit so that the reactor will not return to earth. The nominal cargo capability to GEO is 6000 kg, with a transit time of 120 days; 1350 kg can be transferred in 90 days, and 14,300 kg in 240 days. These capabilities can be considerably increased by using separate Shuttle launches to bring up propellant and cargo or by changing to mercury propellant.

  12. Nuclear spin squeezing via electric quadrupole interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aksu Korkmaz, Yaǧmur; Bulutay, Ceyhun

    2016-01-01

    Control over nuclear-spin fluctuations is essential for processes that rely on preserving the quantum state of an embedded system. For this purpose, squeezing is a viable alternative, so far that has not been properly exploited for the nuclear spins. Of particular relevance in solids is the electric quadrupole interaction (QI), which operates on nuclei having spin higher than 1/2. In its general form, QI involves an electric-field gradient (EFG) biaxiality term. Here, we show that as this EFG biaxiality increases, it enables continuous tuning of single-particle squeezing from the one-axis twisting to the two-axis countertwisting limits. A detailed analysis of QI squeezing is provided, exhibiting the intricate consequences of EFG biaxiality. The initial states over the Bloch sphere are mapped out to identify those favorable for fast initial squeezing, or for prolonged squeezings. Furthermore, the evolution of squeezing in the presence of a phase-damping channel and an external magnetic field are investigated. We observe that dephasing drives toward an antisqueezed terminal state, the degree of which increases with the spin angular momentum. Finally, QI squeezing in the limiting case of a two-dimensional EFG with a perpendicular magnetic field is discussed, which is of importance for two-dimensional materials, and the associated beat patterns in squeezing are revealed.

  13. Electric Power quality Analysis in research reactor: Impacts on nuclear safety assessment and electrical distribution reliability

    SciTech Connect

    Touati, Said; Chennai, Salim; Souli, Aissa

    2015-07-01

    The increased requirements on supervision, control, and performance in modern power systems make power quality monitoring a common practise for utilities. Large databases are created and automatic processing of the data is required for fast and effective use of the available information. Aim of the work presented in this paper is the development of tools for analysis of monitoring power quality data and in particular measurements of voltage and currents in various level of electrical power distribution. The study is extended to evaluate the reliability of the electrical system in nuclear plant. Power Quality is a measure of how well a system supports reliable operation of its loads. A power disturbance or event can involve voltage, current, or frequency. Power disturbances can originate in consumer power systems, consumer loads, or the utility. The effect of power quality problems is the loss power supply leading to severe damage to equipments. So, we try to track and improve system reliability. The assessment can be focused on the study of impact of short circuits on the system, harmonics distortion, power factor improvement and effects of transient disturbances on the Electrical System during motor starting and power system fault conditions. We focus also on the review of the Electrical System design against the Nuclear Directorate Safety Assessment principles, including those extended during the last Fukushima nuclear accident. The simplified configuration of the required system can be extended from this simple scheme. To achieve these studies, we have used a demo ETAP power station software for several simulations. (authors)

  14. Dose reduction at nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Baum, J.W.; Dionne, B.J.

    1983-01-01

    The collective dose equivalent at nuclear power plants increased from 1250 rem in 1969 to nearly 54,000 rem in 1980. This rise is attributable primarily to an increase in nuclear generated power from 1289 MW-y to 29,155 MW-y; and secondly, to increased average plant age. However, considerable variation in exposure occurs from plant to plant depending on plant type, refueling, maintenance, etc. In order to understand the factors influencing these differences, an investigation was initiated to study dose-reduction techniques and effectiveness of as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) planning at light water plants. Objectives are to: identify high-dose maintenance tasks and related dose-reduction techniques; investigate utilization of high-reliability, low-maintenance equipment; recommend improved radioactive waste handling equipment and procedures; examine incentives for dose reduction; and compile an ALARA handbook.

  15. Nuclear Plant Siting Study. Volume 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-06-01

    power plant outfalls. Most sensitive genera were Potomogeton, Chara, and Stellaria wlth Elodea and Frontinalis apparently somewhat less sensitive (Ref...ti :NUCLEAR POWER PLANT SITING STUDY for DEPARTENT OF THE ARMY OFFICE, CHIEF OF ENGINEERS . -,SHINGTON, D.C. VOLUME I OCT, Sbmitted by 0 D B $ k...MO1 (,L~ A SI~~.3 EII’S CATALOG N4UMBER 4. TITLE (and ubtltio) S. TYPE OF REPORT &PERIOD COVERED Final - Jul 75-Jun 76 (6Nuclear Plant Siting Study

  16. Cell fusion and nuclear fusion in plants.

    PubMed

    Maruyama, Daisuke; Ohtsu, Mina; Higashiyama, Tetsuya

    2016-12-01

    Eukaryotic cells are surrounded by a plasma membrane and have a large nucleus containing the genomic DNA, which is enclosed by a nuclear envelope consisting of the outer and inner nuclear membranes. Although these membranes maintain the identity of cells, they sometimes fuse to each other, such as to produce a zygote during sexual reproduction or to give rise to other characteristically polyploid tissues. Recent studies have demonstrated that the mechanisms of plasma membrane or nuclear membrane fusion in plants are shared to some extent with those of yeasts and animals, despite the unique features of plant cells including thick cell walls and intercellular connections. Here, we summarize the key factors in the fusion of these membranes during plant reproduction, and also focus on "non-gametic cell fusion," which was thought to be rare in plant tissue, in which each cell is separated by a cell wall. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Nuclear modules for space electric propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Difilippo, F. C.

    1998-01-01

    Analysis of interplanetary cargo and piloted missions requires calculations of the performances and masses of subsystems to be integrated in a final design. In a preliminary and scoping stage the designer needs to evaluate options iteratively by using fast computer simulations. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been involved in the development of models and calculational procedures for the analysis (neutronic and thermal hydraulic) of power sources for nuclear electric propulsion. The nuclear modules will be integrated into the whole simulation of the nuclear electric propulsion system. The vehicles use either a Brayton direct-conversion cycle, using the heated helium from a NERVA-type reactor, or a potassium Rankine cycle, with the working fluid heated on the secondary side of a heat exchanger and lithium on the primary side coming from a fast reactor. Given a set of input conditions, the codes calculate composition. dimensions, volumes, and masses of the core, reflector, control system, pressure vessel, neutron and gamma shields, as well as the thermal hydraulic conditions of the coolant, clad and fuel. Input conditions are power, core life, pressure and temperature of the coolant at the inlet of the core, either the temperature of the coolant at the outlet of the core or the coolant mass flow and the fluences and integrated doses at the cargo area. Using state-of-the-art neutron cross sections and transport codes, a database was created for the neutronic performance of both reactor designs. The free parameters of the models are the moderator/fuel mass ratio for the NERVA reactor and the enrichment and the pitch of the lattice for the fast reactor. Reactivity and energy balance equations are simultaneously solved to find the reactor design. Thermalhydraulic conditions are calculated by solving the one-dimensional versions of the equations of conservation of mass, energy, and momentum with compressible flow.

  18. Nuclear modules for space electric propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Difilippo, F. C.

    1998-01-01

    Analysis of interplanetary cargo and piloted missions requires calculations of the performances and masses of subsystems to be integrated in a final design. In a preliminary and scoping stage the designer needs to evaluate options iteratively by using fast computer simulations. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been involved in the development of models and calculational procedures for the analysis (neutronic and thermal hydraulic) of power sources for nuclear electric propulsion. The nuclear modules will be integrated into the whole simulation of the nuclear electric propulsion system. The vehicles use either a Brayton direct-conversion cycle, using the heated helium from a NERVA-type reactor, or a potassium Rankine cycle, with the working fluid heated on the secondary side of a heat exchanger and lithium on the primary side coming from a fast reactor. Given a set of input conditions, the codes calculate composition. dimensions, volumes, and masses of the core, reflector, control system, pressure vessel, neutron and gamma shields, as well as the thermal hydraulic conditions of the coolant, clad and fuel. Input conditions are power, core life, pressure and temperature of the coolant at the inlet of the core, either the temperature of the coolant at the outlet of the core or the coolant mass flow and the fluences and integrated doses at the cargo area. Using state-of-the-art neutron cross sections and transport codes, a database was created for the neutronic performance of both reactor designs. The free parameters of the models are the moderator/fuel mass ratio for the NERVA reactor and the enrichment and the pitch of the lattice for the fast reactor. Reactivity and energy balance equations are simultaneously solved to find the reactor design. Thermalhydraulic conditions are calculated by solving the one-dimensional versions of the equations of conservation of mass, energy, and momentum with compressible flow.

  19. Radiation protection performance indicators at the Nuclear Power Plant Krsko.

    PubMed

    Janzekovic, Helena

    2006-06-01

    Nuclear power plant safety performance indicators are developed "by nuclear operating organisations to monitor their own performance and progress, to set their own challenging goals for improvement, and to gain additional perspective on performance relative to that of other plants". In addition, performance indicators are widely used by regulatory authorities although the use is not harmonised. Two basic performance indicators related to good radiation protection practice are collective radiation exposure and volume of low-level radioactive waste. In 2000, Nuclear Power Plant Krsko, a Westinghouse pressurised water reactor with electrical output 700 MW, finished an extensive modernisation including the replacement of both steam generators. While the annual volume of low-level radioactive waste does not show a specific trend related to modernisation, the annual collective dose reached maximum, i.e. 2.60 man Sv, and dropped to 1.13 man Sv in 2001. During the replacement of the steam generators in 2000, the dose associated with this activity was 1.48 man Sv. The annual doses in 2002 and 2003 were 0.53 and 0.80 man Sv, respectively, nearing thus the goal set by the US Institute of Nuclear Power Operators, which is 0.65 man Sv. Therefore, inasmuch as collective dose as the radiation protection performance indicator are concerned, the modernisation of the Krsko nuclear power plant was a success.

  20. Electric power transmission for a Hanford Nuclear Energy Center (HNEC)

    SciTech Connect

    Harty, H.; Dowis, W.J.

    1983-06-01

    The original study of transmission for a Hanford Nuclear Energy Center (HNEC), which was completed in September 1975, was updated in June 1978. The present 1983 revision takes cognizance of recent changes in the electric power situation of the PNW with respect to: (1) forecasts of load growth, (2) the feasibility of early use of 1100 kV transmission, and (3) the narrowing opportunities for siting nuclear plants in the region. The purpose of this update is to explore and describe additions to the existing transmission system that would be necessary to accommodate three levels of generation at HNEC. Comparisons with a PNW system having new thermal generating capacity distributed throughout the marketing region are not made as was done in earlier versions.

  1. Table of nuclear electric quadrupole moments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, N. J.

    2016-09-01

    This Table is a compilation of experimental measurements of static electric quadrupole moments of ground states and excited states of atomic nuclei throughout the periodic table. To aid identification of the states, their excitation energy, half-life, spin and parity are given, along with a brief indication of the method and any reference standard used in the particular measurement. Experimental data from all quadrupole moment measurements actually provide a value of the product of the moment and the electric field gradient [EFG] acting at the nucleus. Knowledge of the EFG is thus necessary to extract the quadrupole moment. A single recommended moment value is given for each state, based, for each element, wherever possible, upon a standard reference moment for a nuclear state of that element studied in a situation in which the electric field gradient has been well calculated. For several elements one or more subsidiary EFG/moment reference is required and their use is specified. The literature search covers the period to mid-2015.

  2. Nuclear power and nuclear weapons

    SciTech Connect

    Vaughen, V.C.A.

    1983-01-01

    The proliferation of nuclear weapons and the expanded use of nuclear energy for the production of electricity and other peaceful uses are compared. The difference in technologies associated with nuclear weapons and nuclear power plants are described.

  3. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Materials Selection and Qualification Program Plan

    SciTech Connect

    R. Doug Hamelin; G. O. Hayner

    2004-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has selected the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) design for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project. The NGNP will demonstrate the use of nuclear power for electricity and hydrogen production without greenhouse gas emissions. The reactor design is a graphite-moderated, helium-cooled, prismatic or pebble bed thermal neutron spectrum reactor with an average reactor outlet temperature of at least 1000 C. The NGNP will use very high burn up, lowenriched uranium, TRISO-Coated fuel in a once-through fuel cycle. The design service life of the NGNP is 60 years.

  4. Cost estimating relationships for nuclear power plant operationa and maintenance

    SciTech Connect

    Bowers, H.I.; Fuller, L.C.; Myers, M.L.

    1987-11-01

    Revised cost estimating relationships for 1987 are presented for estimating annual nonfuel operation and maintenance (O and M) costs for light-water reactor (LWR) nuclear power plants, which update guidelines published previously in 1982. The purpose of these cost estimating relationships is for use in long range planning and evaluations of the economics of nuclear energy for electric power generation. A listing of a computer program, LWROM, implementing the cost estimating relationships and written in advanced BASIC for IBM personal computers, is included.

  5. Fukushima nuclear power plant accident was preventable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanoglu, Utku; Synolakis, Costas

    2015-04-01

    On 11 March 2011, the fourth largest earthquake in recorded history triggered a large tsunami, which will probably be remembered from the dramatic live pictures in a country, which is possibly the most tsunami-prepared in the world. The earthquake and tsunami caused a major nuclear power plant (NPP) accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi, owned by Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO). The accident was likely more severe than the 1979 Three Mile Island and less severe than the Chernobyl 1986 accidents. Yet, after the 26 December 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami had hit the Madras Atomic Power Station there had been renewed interest in the resilience of NPPs to tsunamis. The 11 March 2011 tsunami hit the Onagawa, Fukushima Dai-ichi, Fukushima Dai-ni, and Tokai Dai-ni NPPs, all located approximately in a 230km stretch along the east coast of Honshu. The Onagawa NPP was the closest to the source and was hit by an approximately height of 13m tsunami, of the same height as the one that hit the Fukushima Dai-ichi. Even though the Onagawa site also subsided by 1m, the tsunami did not reach to the main critical facilities. As the International Atomic Energy Agency put it, the Onagawa NPP survived the event "remarkably undamaged." At Fukushima Dai-ichi, the three reactors in operation were shut down due to strong ground shaking. The earthquake damaged all offsite electric transmission facilities. Emergency diesel generators (EDGs) provided back up power and started cooling down the reactors. However, the tsunami flooded the facilities damaging 12 of its 13 EDGs and caused a blackout. Among the consequences were hydrogen explosions that released radioactive material in the environment. It is unfortunately clear that TEPCO and Japan's principal regulator Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency (NISA) had failed in providing a professional hazard analysis for the plant, even though their last assessment had taken place only months before the accident. The main reasons are the following. One

  6. 75 FR 66802 - Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-29

    ... COMMISSION Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2... Regulatory Commission (the Commission) has granted the request of Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC... Operating License Nos. DPR-53 and DPR-69 for the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and...

  7. 78 FR 53483 - Inspections, Tests, Analyses, and Acceptance Criteria; Vogtle Electric Generating Plant, Unit 3

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-29

    ... COMMISSION Inspections, Tests, Analyses, and Acceptance Criteria; Vogtle Electric Generating Plant, Unit 3 AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Determination of inspections, tests, analyses, and..., tests, and analyses have been successfully completed, and that the specified acceptance criteria are...

  8. 78 FR 53484 - Inspections, Tests, Analyses, and Acceptance Criteria; Vogtle Electric Generating Plant, Unit 4

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-29

    ... COMMISSION Inspections, Tests, Analyses, and Acceptance Criteria; Vogtle Electric Generating Plant, Unit 4 AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Determination of inspections, tests, analyses, and..., tests, and analyses have been successfully completed, and that the specified acceptance criteria are...

  9. The Advanced BWR Nuclear Plant: Safe, economic nuclear energy

    SciTech Connect

    Redding, J.R.

    1994-12-31

    The safety and economics of Advanced BWR Nuclear Power Plants are outlined. The topics discussed include: ABWR Programs: status in US and Japan; ABWR competitiveness: safety and economics; SBWR status; combining ABWR and SBWR: the passive ABWR; and Korean/GE partnership.

  10. The renewable electric plant information system

    SciTech Connect

    Sinclair, K.

    1995-12-01

    This report explains the procedures used for creating the Renewable Electric Plant Information System (REPiS) database, describes the database fields, and summarizes the data. The REPiS database contains comprehensive information on grid-connected renewable electric generation plants in the United States. Originally designed in 1987 and updated in 1990, the database includes information through 1994. The report also illustrates ways of using the data for analysis is and describes how researchers validated the data.

  11. Nuclear driven water decomposition plant for hydrogen production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, G. H.; Brecher, L. E.; Farbman, G. H.

    1976-01-01

    The conceptual design of a hydrogen production plant using a very-high-temperature nuclear reactor (VHTR) to energize a hybrid electrolytic-thermochemical system for water decomposition has been prepared. A graphite-moderated helium-cooled VHTR is used to produce 1850 F gas for electric power generation and 1600 F process heat for the water-decomposition process which uses sulfur compounds and promises performance superior to normal water electrolysis or other published thermochemical processes. The combined cycle operates at an overall thermal efficiency in excess of 45%, and the overall economics of hydrogen production by this plant have been evaluated predicated on a consistent set of economic ground rules. The conceptual design and evaluation efforts have indicated that development of this type of nuclear-driven water-decomposition plant will permit large-scale economic generation of hydrogen in the 1990s.

  12. Nuclear driven water decomposition plant for hydrogen production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, G. H.; Brecher, L. E.; Farbman, G. H.

    1976-01-01

    The conceptual design of a hydrogen production plant using a very-high-temperature nuclear reactor (VHTR) to energize a hybrid electrolytic-thermochemical system for water decomposition has been prepared. A graphite-moderated helium-cooled VHTR is used to produce 1850 F gas for electric power generation and 1600 F process heat for the water-decomposition process which uses sulfur compounds and promises performance superior to normal water electrolysis or other published thermochemical processes. The combined cycle operates at an overall thermal efficiency in excess of 45%, and the overall economics of hydrogen production by this plant have been evaluated predicated on a consistent set of economic ground rules. The conceptual design and evaluation efforts have indicated that development of this type of nuclear-driven water-decomposition plant will permit large-scale economic generation of hydrogen in the 1990s.

  13. Nuclear electric propulsion stage requirements and description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mondt, J. F.; Peelgren, M. L.; Nakashima, A. M.; Nsieh, T. M.; Phillips, W. M.; Kikin, G. M.

    1974-01-01

    The application of a nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) stage in the exploration of near-earth, cometary, and planetary space was discussed. The NEP stage is powered by a liquid-metal-cooled, fast spectrum thermionic reactor capable of providing 120 kWe for 20,000 hours. This power is used to drive a number of mercury ion bombardment thrusters with specific impulse in the range of 4000-5000 seconds. The NEP description, characteristics, and functional requirements are discussed. These requirements are based on a set of five coordinate missions, which are described in detail. These five missions are a representative part of a larger set of missions used as a basic for an advanced propulsion comparison study. Additionally, the NEP stage development plan and test program is outlined and a schedule presented.

  14. NASA's progress in nuclear electric propulsion technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, James R.; Doherty, Michael P.; Peecook, Keith M.

    1993-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has established a requirement for Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) technology for robotic planetary science mission applications with potential future evolution to systems for piloted Mars vehicles. To advance the readiness of NEP for these challenging missions, a near-term flight demonstration on a meaningful robotic science mission is very desirable. The requirements for both near-term and outer planet science missions are briefly reviewed, and the near-term baseline system established under a recent study jointly conducted by the Lewis Research Center (LeRC) and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is described. Technology issues are identified where work is needed to establish the technology for the baseline system, and technology opportunities which could provide improvement beyond baseline capabilities are discussed. Finally, the plan to develop this promising technology is presented and discussed.

  15. NASA's progress in nuclear electric propulsion technology

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, J.R.; Doherty, M.P.; Peecook, K.M.

    1993-06-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has established a requirement for Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) technology for robotic planetary science mission applications with potential future evolution to systems for piloted Mars vehicles. To advance the readiness of NEP for these challenging missions, a near-term flight demonstration on a meaningful robotic science mission is very desirable. The requirements for both near-term and outer planet science missions are briefly reviewed, and the near-term baseline system established under a recent study jointly conducted by the Lewis Research Center (LeRC) and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is described. Technology issues are identified where work is needed to establish the technology for the baseline system, and technology opportunities which could provide improvement beyond baseline capabilities are discussed. Finally, the plan to develop this promising technology is presented and discussed.

  16. Nuclear plant emergency preparedness in Russia.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Randolph L

    2009-11-01

    An international team of experts conducted a detailed operational review at the Volgodonsk nuclear power plant. The review was the first mission by an International Atomic Energy Agency Operational Safety Review Team to Russia in over a decade. The author reviewed the emergency preparedness program in detail. Emergency preparedness professionals in the West are largely unfamiliar with Russian nuclear plant emergency preparedness programs, and the legacy of Chernobyl may leave some doubt as to their efficacy. This article describes the program in some detail and compares some elements to programs in the United States. The author was favorably impressed with the state of nuclear plant emergency preparedness in the Russian Federation and identified program elements that should be considered for implementation elsewhere.

  17. 78 FR 50458 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., James A. Fitzpatrick Nuclear Power Plant, Vermont Yankee...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-19

    ... COMMISSION Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., James A. Fitzpatrick Nuclear Power Plant, Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Station, Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station, Request for Action AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission... petitioners'') has requested that the NRC take action with regard to James A. Fitzpatrick Nuclear Power Plant...

  18. Recommendations for managing equipment aging in nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Gunther, W.E.; Subudhi, M. ); Aggarwal, S.K. )

    1992-01-01

    Research conducted under the auspices of the US NRC's Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) Program has resulted in a large database of component and system operating, maintenance, and testing information. This database has been used to determine the susceptibility to aging of selected components, and the potential for equipment aging to impact plant safety and availability. it has also identified methods for detecting and mitigating component and system aging. This paper describes the research recommendations on electrical components which could be applied to maintenance, testing, and inspection activities to detect and mitigate the effects of aging prior to equipment failures.

  19. Recommendations for managing equipment aging in nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Gunther, W.E.; Subudhi, M.; Aggarwal, S.K.

    1992-12-01

    Research conducted under the auspices of the US NRC`s Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) Program has resulted in a large database of component and system operating, maintenance, and testing information. This database has been used to determine the susceptibility to aging of selected components, and the potential for equipment aging to impact plant safety and availability. it has also identified methods for detecting and mitigating component and system aging. This paper describes the research recommendations on electrical components which could be applied to maintenance, testing, and inspection activities to detect and mitigate the effects of aging prior to equipment failures.

  20. Comparison of nuclear electric resonance and nuclear magnetic resonance in integer and fractional quantum Hall states

    SciTech Connect

    Tomimatsu, Toru Shirai, Shota; Hashimoto, Katsushi Sato, Ken; Hirayama, Yoshiro

    2015-08-15

    Electric-field-induced nuclear resonance (NER: nuclear electric resonance) involving quantum Hall states (QHSs) was studied at various filling factors by exploiting changes in nuclear spins polarized at quantum Hall breakdown. Distinct from the magnetic dipole interaction in nuclear magnetic resonance, the interaction of the electric-field gradient with the electric quadrupole moment plays the dominant role in the NER mechanism. The magnitude of the NER signal strongly depends on whether electronic states are localized or extended. This indicates that NER is sensitive to the screening capability of the electric field associated with QHSs.

  1. Virtual environments for nuclear power plant design

    SciTech Connect

    Brown-VanHoozer, S.A.; Singleterry, R.C. Jr.; King, R.W.

    1996-03-01

    In the design and operation of nuclear power plants, the visualization process inherent in virtual environments (VE) allows for abstract design concepts to be made concrete and simulated without using a physical mock-up. This helps reduce the time and effort required to design and understand the system, thus providing the design team with a less complicated arrangement. Also, the outcome of human interactions with the components and system can be minimized through various testing of scenarios in real-time without the threat of injury to the user or damage to the equipment. If implemented, this will lead to a minimal total design and construction effort for nuclear power plants (NPP).

  2. Nuclear modules for space electric propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Difilippo, F. C.

    1998-01-01

    The analysis of interplanetary cargo and piloted missions requires the calculations of the performances and masses of subsystems to be integrated in a final design. In a preliminary and scoping stage the designer needs to evaluate options in an iterative way by using simulations that run fast on a computer. As a consequence of a collaborative agreement between the National Aeronautic and Space Administration (NASA) and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), ORNL has been involved in the development of models and calculational procedures for the analysis (neutronic and thermal hydraulic) of power sources for nuclear electric propulsion. The nuclear modules will be integrated into the whole simulation of the nuclear electric propulsion system. The vehicles use either a Brayton direct-conversion cycle, using the heated helium from a NERVA-type reactor, or a potassium Rankine cycle, with the working fluid heated on the secondary side of a heat exchanger and lithium on the primary side coming from a fast reactor. Given a set of input conditions, the codes calculate composition, dimensions, volumes, and masses of the core, reflector, control system, pressure vessel, neutron and gamma shields, as well as the thermal hydraulic conditions of the coolant, clad and fuel. Input conditions are power, core life, pressure and temperature of the coolant at the inlet of the core, either the temperature of the coolant at the outlet of the core or the coolant mass flow and the fluences and integrated doses at the cargo area. Using state-of-the-art neutron cross sections and transport codes, a database was created for the neutronic performance of both reactor designs. The free parameters of the models are the moderator/fuel mass ratio for the NERVA reactor and the enrichment and the pitch of the lattice for the fast reactor. Reactivity and energy balance equations are simultaneously solved to find the reactor design. Thermalhydraulic conditions are calculated by solving the one

  3. 78 FR 55118 - Seismic Instrumentation for Nuclear Power Plants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-09

    ... COMMISSION Seismic Instrumentation for Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION..., ``Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants: LWR Edition... Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants: LWR Edition'' (SRP, from the current Revision 2 to...

  4. 75 FR 14473 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., Palisades Nuclear Plant; Environmental Assessment and Finding...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., Palisades Nuclear Plant; Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is considering issuance of...

  5. Modeling Tritium Life cycle in Nuclear Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Hussey, D.; Saunders, P.; Morey, D.; Pitt, N.; Wilson, J.; Claes, B.

    2006-07-01

    The mathematical development of a tritium model for nuclear power plants is presented. The model requires that the water and tritium material balance be satisfied throughout normal operations and shutdown. The model results obtained at the time of publishing include the system definitions and comparison of the model predictions of tritium generations compared to the observed plant data of the Braidwood station. A scenario that models using ion exchange resin to remove coolant boron demonstrates the tritium concentration levels are manageable. (authors)

  6. Holdup measurement for nuclear fuel manufacturing plants

    SciTech Connect

    Zucker, M.S.; Degen, M.; Cohen, I.; Gody, A.; Summers, R.; Bisset, P.; Shaub, E.; Holody, D.

    1981-07-13

    The assay of nuclear material holdup in fuel manufacturing plants is a laborious but often necessary part of completing the material balance. A range of instruments, standards, and a methodology for assaying holdup has been developed. The objectives of holdup measurement are ascertaining the amount, distribution, and how firmly fixed the SNM is. The purposes are reconciliation of material unbalance during or after a manufacturing campaign or plant decommissioning, to decide security requirements, or whether further recovery efforts are justified.

  7. Active Faults and Nuclear Power Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, Neil; Berryman, Kelvin; Villamor, Pilar; Epstein, Woody; Cluff, Lloyd; Kawamura, Hideki

    2014-01-01

    The destruction of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) following the March 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami brought into sharp focus the susceptibility of NPPs to natural hazards. This is not a new issue—seismic hazard has affected the development of plants in the United States, and volcanic hazard was among the reasons for not commissioning the Bataan NPP in the Philippines [Connor et al., 2009].

  8. Peach Bottom and Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    1992-12-31

    A dramatic and extraordinary instance of state and local government control of nuclear power, the purchase by New York of the Shoreham plant is nonetheless indicative of the political demands that some states confront for additional involvement in the regulation of the radiological hazards associated with commercial nuclear power plants. Although the Supreme Court has appeared to expand, in the eight years since PG&E and Silkwood, the acceptable extent of state regulation, some states, in addition to New York, have acquired, with the acquiescence of the NRC, a degree of involvement that exceeds the role for state and local governments provided by the Court. For example, the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania concluded with the Philadelphia Electric Company (PECO) in June 1989 an agreement that commits PECO to various initiatives, not otherwise required under NRC regulations, for the safe operation of the Peach Bottom nuclear power plant in Pennsylvania. In July 1991 the State of Vermont and Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Corporation (Vermont Yankee) concluded an agreement similar to that concluded between Pennsylvania and PECO. The agreement also commits Vermont Yankee to certain initiatives, not otherwise required under NRC regulations, related to its operation of the Vermont Yankee nuclear power plant in Vermont. The agreement was precipitated by a challenge to an application, submitted to the NRC by Vermont Yankee in April 1989, to amend the Vermont Yankee plant license to extend its expiration date from December 11, 2007 to March 21, 2012. The amendment would allow the Vermont Yankee plant to operate for forty full years.

  9. 34. SOUTH PLANT NORTHCENTER RAILROAD SPUR, WITH ELECTRICAL POWER PLANT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. SOUTH PLANT NORTH-CENTER RAILROAD SPUR, WITH ELECTRICAL POWER PLANT (BUILDING 325) AT LEFT AND CELL BUILDING (BUILDING 242) AT RIGHT. VIEW TO WEST - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Bounded by Ninety-sixth Avenue & Fifty-sixth Avenue, Buckley Road, Quebec Street & Colorado Highway 2, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  10. A PIP chart for nuclear plant safety

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, Tatsujiro; Yamaoka, Taiji )

    1992-01-01

    While it is known that social and political aspects of nuclear safety issues are important, little study has been done on identifying the breadth of stakeholders whose policies have important influences over nuclear plant safety in a comprehensive way. The objectives of this study are to develop a chart that visually identifies important stakeholders and their policies and illustrates these influences in a hierarchical representation so that the relationship between stakeholders and nuclear safety will be better understood. This study is based on a series of extensive interviews with major stakeholders, such as nuclear plant managers, corporate planning vice presidents, state regulators, news media, and public interest groups, and focuses on one US nuclear power plant. Based on the interview results, the authors developed a conceptual policy influence paths (PIP) chart. The PIP chart illustrates the hierarchy of influence among stakeholders. The PIP chart is also useful in identifying possible stakeholders who can be easily overlooked without the PIP chart. In addition, it shows that influence flow is circular rather than linear in one direction.

  11. 76 FR 4391 - Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC, Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-25

    ... COMMISSION Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC, Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2; Exemption 1.0 Background Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC, the licensee, is the holder of Facility Operating License Nos. DPR-53 and DPR-69 which authorizes operation of the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear...

  12. The effects of solar-geomagnetically induced currents on electrical systems in nuclear power stations

    SciTech Connect

    Subudhi, M.; Carroll, D.P.; Kasturi, S.

    1994-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study to evaluate the potential effects of geomagnetically induced currents (GICs) caused by the solar disturbances on the in-plant electrical distribution system and equipment in nuclear power stations. The plant-specific electrical distribution system for a typical nuclear plant is modeled using the ElectroMagnetic Transient Program (EMTP). The computer model simulates online equipment and loads from the station transformer in the switchyard of the power station to the safety-buses at 120 volts to which all electronic devices are connected for plant monitoring. The analytical model of the plant`s electrical distribution system is studied to identify the transient effects caused by the half-cycle saturation of the station transformers due to GIC. This study provides results of the voltage harmonics levels that have been noted at various electrical buses inside the plant. The emergency circuits appear to be more susceptible to high harmonics due to the normally light load conditions. In addition to steady-state analysis, this model was further analyzed simulating various plant transient conditions (e.g., loss of load or large motor start-up) occurring during GIC events. Detail models of the plant`s protective relaying system employed in bus transfer application were included in this model to study the effects of the harmonic distortion of the voltage input. Potential harmonic effects on the uniterruptable power system (UPS) are qualitatively discussed as well.

  13. (Nuclear power plant control and instrumentation technology)

    SciTech Connect

    White, J.D.

    1990-10-10

    While on vacation, the traveler attended the European Nuclear Conference in Lyon, France. This trip was part of an outside activity approved by DOE. The traveler is a consultant to Loyola College, serving as chairman of a panel to assess the state of the art in the controls and instrumentation technology in the European nuclear community. This study is being conducted by Loyola College under subcontract to the National Science Foundation. The traveler was surprised by the level of automation claimed (by the company Siemens AG KWU) to be present in the German Konvoi nuclear power plants. The claim was that this was done to improve the safety of the plant by keeping the operator out of the loop'' for the first 30 minutes of some transients or accidents.

  14. Structures and construction of nuclear power plants on lunar surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimizu, Katsunori; Kobatake, Masuhiko; Ogawa, Sachio; Kanamori, Hiroshi; Okada, Yasuhiko; Mano, Hideyuki; Takagi, Kenji

    1991-07-01

    The best structure and construction techniques of nuclear power plants in the severe environments on the lunar surface are studied. Facility construction types (functional conditions such as stable structure, shield thickness, maintainability, safety distances, and service life), construction conditions (such as construction methods, construction equipment, number of personnel, time required for construction, external power supply, and required transportation) and construction feasibility (construction method, reactor transportation between the moon and the earth, ground excavation for installation, loading and unloading, transportation, and installation, filling up the ground, electric power supply of plant S (300 kW class) and plant L (3000 kW class)) are outlined. Items to pay attention to in construction are (1) automation and robotization of construction; (2) cost reduction by multi functional robots; and (3) methods of supplying power to robots. A precast concrete block manufacturing plant is also outlined.

  15. Online Monitoring of Plant Assets in the Nuclear Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Nancy Lybeck; Vivek Agarwal; Binh Pham; Richard Rusaw; Randy Bickford

    2013-10-01

    Today’s online monitoring technologies provide opportunities to perform predictive and proactive health management of assets within many different industries, in particular the defense and aerospace industries. The nuclear industry can leverage these technologies to enhance safety, productivity, and reliability of the aging fleet of existing nuclear power plants. The U.S. Department of Energy’s Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program is collaborating with the Electric Power Research Institute’s (EPRI’s) Long-Term Operations program to implement online monitoring in existing nuclear power plants. Proactive online monitoring in the nuclear industry is being explored using EPRI’s Fleet-Wide Prognostic and Health Management (FW-PHM) Suite software, a set of web-based diagnostic and prognostic tools and databases that serves as an integrated health monitoring architecture. This paper focuses on development of asset fault signatures used to assess the health status of generator step-up transformers and emergency diesel generators in nuclear power plants. Asset fault signatures describe the distinctive features based on technical examinations that can be used to detect a specific fault type. Fault signatures are developed based on the results of detailed technical research and on the knowledge and experience of technical experts. The Diagnostic Advisor of the FW-PHM Suite software matches developed fault signatures with operational data to provide early identification of critical faults and troubleshooting advice that could be used to distinguish between faults with similar symptoms. This research is important as it will support the automation of predictive online monitoring techniques in nuclear power plants to diagnose incipient faults, perform proactive maintenance, and estimate the remaining useful life of assets.

  16. Nuclear Electric Propulsion for Outer Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barret, Chris

    2003-01-01

    Today we know of 66 moons in our very own Solar System, and many of these have atmospheres and oceans. In addition, the Hubble (optical) Space Telescope has helped us to discover a total of 100 extra-solar planets, i.e., planets going around other suns, including several solar systems. The Chandra (X-ray) Space Telescope has helped us to discover 33 Black Holes. There are some extremely fascinating things out there in our Universe to explore. In order to travel greater distances into our Universe, and to reach planetary bodies in our Solar System in much less time, new and innovative space propulsion systems must be developed. To this end NASA has created the Prometheus Program. When one considers space missions to the outer edges of our Solar System and far beyond, our Sun cannot be relied on to produce the required spacecraft (s/c) power. Solar energy diminishes as the square of the distance from the Sun. At Mars it is only 43% of that at Earth. At Jupiter, it falls off to only 3.6% of Earth's. By the time we get out to Pluto, solar energy is only .066% what it is on Earth. Therefore, beyond the orbit of Mars, it is not practical to depend on solar power for a s/c. However, the farther out we go the more power we need to heat the s/c and to transmit data back to Earth over the long distances. On Earth, knowledge is power. In the outer Solar System, power is knowledge. It is important that the public be made aware of the tremendous space benefits offered by Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) and the minimal risk it poses to our environment. This paper presents an overview of the reasons for NEP systems, along with their basic components including the reactor, power conversion units (both static and dynamic), electric thrusters, and the launch safety of the NEP system.

  17. Nuclear Electric Propulsion for Outer Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barret, Chris

    2003-01-01

    Today we know of 66 moons in our very own Solar System, and many of these have atmospheres and oceans. In addition, the Hubble (optical) Space Telescope has helped us to discover a total of 100 extra-solar planets, i.e., planets going around other suns, including several solar systems. The Chandra (X-ray) Space Telescope has helped us to discover 33 Black Holes. There are some extremely fascinating things out there in our Universe to explore. In order to travel greater distances into our Universe, and to reach planetary bodies in our Solar System in much less time, new and innovative space propulsion systems must be developed. To this end NASA has created the Prometheus Program. When one considers space missions to the outer edges of our Solar System and far beyond, our Sun cannot be relied on to produce the required spacecraft (s/c) power. Solar energy diminishes as the square of the distance from the Sun. At Mars it is only 43% of that at Earth. At Jupiter, it falls off to only 3.6% of Earth's. By the time we get out to Pluto, solar energy is only .066% what it is on Earth. Therefore, beyond the orbit of Mars, it is not practical to depend on solar power for a s/c. However, the farther out we go the more power we need to heat the s/c and to transmit data back to Earth over the long distances. On Earth, knowledge is power. In the outer Solar System, power is knowledge. It is important that the public be made aware of the tremendous space benefits offered by Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) and the minimal risk it poses to our environment. This paper presents an overview of the reasons for NEP systems, along with their basic components including the reactor, power conversion units (both static and dynamic), electric thrusters, and the launch safety of the NEP system.

  18. Rapporteur report: MHD electric power plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seikel, G. R.

    1980-01-01

    Five US papers from the Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on MHD Electrical Power Generation at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology are summarized. Results of the initial parametric phase of the US effort on the study of potential early commercial MHD plants are reported and aspects of the smaller commercial prototype plant termed the Engineering Test Facility are discussed. The alternative of using a disk geometry generator rather than a linear generator in baseload MHD plants is examined. Closed-cycle as well as open-cycle MHD plants are considered.

  19. Deployment of the Topaz-II space nuclear power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Standley, V.H.; Wyant, F.J.; Polansky, G.F. )

    1993-01-01

    The Topaz-II is a 5-kW(electric) Russian space nuclear power plant. The power plant resembles a shuttlecock standing 3.9 m high and is 1.4 m in diameter at the base. The reactor is at the top, the radiation shield is in the middle, and the radiator is at the bottom. The whole system weighs 1 tonne. The reactor core is 37.5 cm long and 26 cm in diameter. It contains 37 core-length, single-cell thermionic fuel elements embedded in a ZrH moderator. Each thermionic fuel cell is a cylindrical emitter inside a cylindrical collector. Nuclear fuel inside the emitter raises the emitter's temperature.

  20. Hydrogen Production from the Next Generation Nuclear Plant

    SciTech Connect

    M. Patterson; C. Park

    2008-03-01

    The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) is a high temperature gas-cooled reactor that will be capable of producing hydrogen, electricity and/or high temperature process heat for industrial use. The project has initiated the conceptual design phase and when completed will demonstrate the viability of hydrogen generation using nuclear produced process heat. This paper explains how industry and the U.S. Government are cooperating to advance nuclear hydrogen technology. It also describes the issues being explored and the results of recent R&D including materials development and testing, thermal-fluids research, and systems analysis. The paper also describes the hydrogen production technologies being considered (including various thermochemical processes and high-temperature electrolysis).

  1. 75 FR 16869 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, LLC; Palisades Nuclear Plant; Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Entergy Nuclear Operations, LLC; Palisades Nuclear Plant; Exemption 1.0 Background Entergy Nuclear... operation of Palisades Nuclear Plant (PNP). The license provides, among other things, that the facility...

  2. 78 FR 38739 - Special Nuclear Material Control and Accounting Systems for Nuclear Power Plants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-27

    ... COMMISSION Special Nuclear Material Control and Accounting Systems for Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY: Nuclear... Accounting Systems for Nuclear Power Plants.'' This regulatory guide provides guidance on recordkeeping and reporting requirements with respect to material control and accounting. This guide applies to all nuclear...

  3. World electric power plants database

    SciTech Connect

    2006-06-15

    This global database provides records for 104,000 generating units in over 220 countries. These units include installed and projected facilities, central stations and distributed plants operated by utilities, independent power companies and commercial and self-generators. Each record includes information on: geographic location and operating company; technology, fuel and boiler; generator manufacturers; steam conditions; unit capacity and age; turbine/engine; architect/engineer and constructor; and pollution control equipment. The database is issued quarterly.

  4. Nuclear electric propulsion development and qualification facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dutt, D. S.; Thomassen, K.; Sovey, J.; Fontana, Mario

    1991-01-01

    This paper summarizes the findings of a Tri-Agency panel consisting of members from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) that were charged with reviewing the status and availability of facilities to test components and subsystems for megawatt-class nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) systems. The facilities required to support development of NEP are available in NASA centers, DOE laboratories, and industry. However, several key facilities require significant and near-term modification in order to perform the testing required to meet a 2014 launch date. For the higher powered Mars cargo and piloted missions, the priority established for facility preparation is: (1) a thruster developmental testing facility, (2) a thruster lifetime testing facility, (3) a dynamic energy conversion development and demonstration facility, and (4) an advanced reactor testing facility (if required to demonstrate an advanced multiwatt power system). Facilities to support development of the power conditioning and heat rejection subsystems are available in industry, federal laboratories, and universities. In addition to the development facilities, a new preflight qualifications and acceptance testing facility will be required to support the deployment of NEP systems for precursor, cargo, or piloted Mars missions. Because the deployment strategy for NEP involves early demonstration missions, the demonstration of the SP-100 power system is needed by the early 2000's.

  5. Nuclear electric propulsion development and qualification facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutt, Dale; Thomassen, Keith; Sovey, Jim; Fontana, Mario

    1992-01-01

    This paper summarizes the findings of a Tri-Agency panel; consisting of members from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and U.S. Department of Defense (DOD); charged with reviewing the status and availability of facilities to test components and subsystems for megawatt-class nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) systems. The facilities required to support development of NEP are available in NASA centers, DOE laboratories, and industry. However, several key facilities require significant and near-term modification in order to perform the testing required to meet a 2014 launch date. For the higher powered Mars cargo and piloted missions, the priority established for facility preparation is: (1 thruster developmental testing facility, (2 thruster lifetime testing facility, (3 dynamic energy conversion development and demonstration facility, and (4 advanced reactor testing facility (if required to demonstrate an advanced multiwatt power system). Facilities to support development of the power conditioning and heat rejection subsystems are available in industry, federal laboratories, and universities. In addition to the development facilities, a new preflight qualification and acceptance testing facility will be required to support the deployment of NEP systems for precursor, cargo, or piloted Mars missions. Because the deployment strategy for NEP involves early demonstration missions, the demonstration of the SP-100 power system is needed by the early 2000s.

  6. Nuclear electric propulsion development and qualification facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutt, D. S.; Thomassen, K.; Sovey, J.; Fontana, Mario

    1991-11-01

    This paper summarizes the findings of a Tri-Agency panel consisting of members from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) that were charged with reviewing the status and availability of facilities to test components and subsystems for megawatt-class nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) systems. The facilities required to support development of NEP are available in NASA centers, DOE laboratories, and industry. However, several key facilities require significant and near-term modification in order to perform the testing required to meet a 2014 launch date. For the higher powered Mars cargo and piloted missions, the priority established for facility preparation is: (1) a thruster developmental testing facility, (2) a thruster lifetime testing facility, (3) a dynamic energy conversion development and demonstration facility, and (4) an advanced reactor testing facility (if required to demonstrate an advanced multiwatt power system). Facilities to support development of the power conditioning and heat rejection subsystems are available in industry, federal laboratories, and universities. In addition to the development facilities, a new preflight qualifications and acceptance testing facility will be required to support the deployment of NEP systems for precursor, cargo, or piloted Mars missions. Because the deployment strategy for NEP involves early demonstration missions, the demonstration of the SP-100 power system is needed by the early 2000's.

  7. Nuclear-Renewable Hybrid System Economic Basis for Electricity, Fuel, and Hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Charles Forsberg; Steven Aumeier

    2014-04-01

    Concerns about climate change and altering the ocean chemistry are likely to limit the use of fossil fuels. That implies a transition to a low-carbon nuclear-renewable electricity grid. Historically variable electricity demand was met using fossil plants with low capital costs, high operating costs, and substantial greenhouse gas emissions. However, the most easily scalable very-low-emissions generating options, nuclear and non-dispatchable renewables (solar and wind), are capital-intensive technologies with low operating costs that should operate at full capacities to minimize costs. No combination of fully-utilized nuclear and renewables can meet the variable electricity demand. This implies large quantities of expensive excess generating capacity much of the time. In a free market this results in near-zero electricity prices at times of high nuclear renewables output and low electricity demand with electricity revenue collapse. Capital deployment efficiency—the economic benefit derived from energy systems capital investment at a societal level—strongly favors high utilization of these capital-intensive systems, especially if low-carbon nuclear renewables are to replace fossil fuels. Hybrid energy systems are one option for better utilization of these systems that consumes excess energy at times of low prices to make some useful product.The economic basis for development of hybrid energy systems is described for a low-carbon nuclear renewable world where much of the time there are massivequantities of excess energy available from the electric sector.Examples include (1) high-temperature electrolysis to generate hydrogen for non-fossil liquid fuels, direct use as a transport fuel, metal reduction, etc. and (2) biorefineries.Nuclear energy with its concentrated constant heat output may become the enabling technology for economically-viable low-carbon electricity grids because hybrid nuclear systems may provide an economic way to produce dispatachable variable

  8. Summit on Improving the Economics of America's Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, John; Mason, Charles

    2016-09-01

    The Summit on Improving the Economics of America’s Nuclear Power Plants was convened May 19, 2016, by Secretary of Energy Ernest Moniz and co-sponsored by Idaho Senator Mike Crapo to stress the importance of existing nuclear reactors in meeting our nation’s energy goals. The summit was also designed to identify and discuss policy options that can be pursued at federal and state levels to address economic challenges, as well as technical options that utilities can use to improve the economic competitiveness of operating nuclear power plants (NPPs) and avoid early plant retirements that are driven by temporary market conditions. The owners of NPPs face difficult economic decisions and are working to improve the performance of existing NPPs. However, it soon became clear that some of the actions taken by states and regional markets have had an impact on the economic viability of existing power plants, including carbon free NPPs. Summit speakers identified concepts and actions that could be taken at state and federal levels to improve the economics of the existing fleet within these regulated and restructured electricity markets. This report summarizes the speeches, concepts, and actions taken.

  9. Nuclear power plant simulation facility evaluation methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Haas, P.M.; Carter, R.J.; Laughery, K.R. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    A methodology for evaluation of nuclear power plant simulation facilities with regard to their acceptability for use in the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) operator licensing exam is described. The evaluation is based primarily on simulator fidelity, but incorporates some aspects of direct operator/trainee performance measurement. The panel presentation and paper discuss data requirements, data collection, data analysis and criteria for conclusions regarding the fidelity evaluation, and summarize the proposed use of direct performance measurment. While field testing and refinement of the methodology are recommended, this initial effort provides a firm basis for NRC to fully develop the necessary methodology.

  10. Advanced nuclear plant control room complex

    DOEpatents

    Scarola, Kenneth; Jamison, David S.; Manazir, Richard M.; Rescorl, Robert L.; Harmon, Daryl L.

    1993-01-01

    An advanced control room complex for a nuclear power plant, including a discrete indicator and alarm system (72) which is nuclear qualified for rapid response to changes in plant parameters and a component control system (64) which together provide a discrete monitoring and control capability at a panel (14-22, 26, 28) in the control room (10). A separate data processing system (70), which need not be nuclear qualified, provides integrated and overview information to the control room and to each panel, through CRTs (84) and a large, overhead integrated process status overview board (24). The discrete indicator and alarm system (72) and the data processing system (70) receive inputs from common plant sensors and validate the sensor outputs to arrive at a representative value of the parameter for use by the operator during both normal and accident conditions, thereby avoiding the need for him to assimilate data from each sensor individually. The integrated process status board (24) is at the apex of an information hierarchy that extends through four levels and provides access at each panel to the full display hierarchy. The control room panels are preferably of a modular construction, permitting the definition of inputs and outputs, the man machine interface, and the plant specific algorithms, to proceed in parallel with the fabrication of the panels, the installation of the equipment and the generic testing thereof.

  11. Autonomous Control of Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Basher, H.

    2003-10-20

    A nuclear reactor is a complex system that requires highly sophisticated controllers to ensure that desired performance and safety can be achieved and maintained during its operations. Higher-demanding operational requirements such as reliability, lower environmental impacts, and improved performance under adverse conditions in nuclear power plants, coupled with the complexity and uncertainty of the models, necessitate the use of an increased level of autonomy in the control methods. In the opinion of many researchers, the tasks involved during nuclear reactor design and operation (e.g., design optimization, transient diagnosis, and core reload optimization) involve important human cognition and decisions that may be more easily achieved with intelligent methods such as expert systems, fuzzy logic, neural networks, and genetic algorithms. Many experts in the field of control systems share the idea that a higher degree of autonomy in control of complex systems such as nuclear plants is more easily achievable through the integration of conventional control systems and the intelligent components. Researchers have investigated the feasibility of the integration of fuzzy logic, neural networks, genetic algorithms, and expert systems with the conventional control methods to achieve higher degrees of autonomy in different aspects of reactor operations such as reactor startup, shutdown in emergency situations, fault detection and diagnosis, nuclear reactor alarm processing and diagnosis, and reactor load-following operations, to name a few. With the advancement of new technologies and computing power, it is feasible to automate most of the nuclear reactor control and operation, which will result in increased safety and economical benefits. This study surveys current status, practices, and recent advances made towards developing autonomous control systems for nuclear reactors.

  12. PEGASUS: a multi-megawatt nuclear electric propulsion system

    SciTech Connect

    Coomes, E.P.; Cuta, J.M.; Webb, B.J.; King, D.Q.

    1985-06-01

    With the Space Transportation System (STS), the advent of space station Columbus and the development of expertise at working in space that this will entail, the gateway is open to the final frontier. The exploration of this frontier is possible with state-of-the-art hydrogen/oxygen propulsion but would be greatly enhanced by the higher specific impulse of electric propulsion. This paper presents a concept that uses a multi-megawatt nuclear power plant to drive an electric propulsion system. The concept has been named PEGASUS, PowEr GenerAting System for Use in Space, and is intended as a ''work horse'' for general space transportation needs, both long- and short-haul missions. The recent efforts of the SP-100 program indicate that a power system capable of producing upwards of 1 megawatt of electric power should be available in the next decade. Additionally, efforts in other areas indicate that a power system with a constant power capability an order of magnitude greater could be available near the turn of the century. With the advances expected in megawatt-class space power systems, the high specific impulse propulsion systems must be reconsidered as potential propulsion systems. The power system is capable of meeting both the propulsion system and spacecraft power requirements.

  13. Polyphophoinositides components of plant nuclear membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrix, K.W.; Boss, W.F.

    1987-04-01

    The polyphosphoinositides, phosphatidylinositol monophosphate (PIP) and phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate (PIP/sub 2/), have been shown to be important components in signal transduction in many animal cells. Recently, these lipids have been found to be associated with plasma membrane but not microsomal membrane isolated from fusogenic wild carrot cells; however, in that study the lipids of the nuclear membrane were not analyzed. Since polyphosphoinositides had been shown to be associated with the nuclear membranes as well as the plasma membrane in some animal cells, it was important to determine whether they were associated with plant nuclear membranes as well. Cells were labeled for 18h with (/sup 3/H) inositol and the nuclei were isolated by a modification of the procedure of Saxena et al. Preliminary lipid analyses indicate lower amount of PIP and PIP/sub 2/ in nuclear membranes compared to whole protoplasts. This suggests that the nuclear membranes of carrot cells are not enriched in PIP and PIP/sub 2/; however, the Triton X-100 used during the nuclear isolation procedure may have affected the recovery of the lipids. Experiments are in progress to determine the effects of Triton X-100 on lipid extraction.

  14. 75 FR 16520 - James A. Fitzpatrick Nuclear Power Plant; Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-01

    ... COMMISSION James A. Fitzpatrick Nuclear Power Plant; Exemption 1.0 Background Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc... the James A. FitzPatrick Nuclear Power Plant (JAFNPP). The license provides, among other things, that... physical protection of licensed activities in nuclear power reactors against radiological...

  15. Recent Advances in Nuclear Powered Electric Propulsion for Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cassady, R. Joseph; Frisbee, Robert H.; Gilland, James H.; Houts, Michael G.; LaPointe, Michael R.; Maresse-Reading, Colleen M.; Oleson, Steven R.; Polk, James E.; Russell, Derrek; Sengupta, Anita

    2007-01-01

    Nuclear and radioisotope powered electric thrusters are being developed as primary in-space propulsion systems for potential future robotic and piloted space missions. Possible applications for high power nuclear electric propulsion include orbit raising and maneuvering of large space platforms, lunar and Mars cargo transport, asteroid rendezvous and sample return, and robotic and piloted planetary missions, while lower power radioisotope electric propulsion could significantly enhance or enable some future robotic deep space science missions. This paper provides an overview of recent U.S. high power electric thruster research programs, describing the operating principles, challenges, and status of each technology. Mission analysis is presented that compares the benefits and performance of each thruster type for high priority NASA missions. The status of space nuclear power systems for high power electric propulsion is presented. The paper concludes with a discussion of power and thruster development strategies for future radioisotope electric propulsion systems,

  16. Innovative applications of technology for nuclear power plant productivity improvements

    SciTech Connect

    Naser, J. A.

    2012-07-01

    The nuclear power industry in several countries is concerned about the ability to maintain high plant performance levels due to aging and obsolescence, knowledge drain, fewer plant staff, and new requirements and commitments. Current plant operations are labor-intensive due to the vast number of operational and support activities required by commonly used technology in most plants. These concerns increase as plants extend their operating life. In addition, there is the goal to further improve performance while reducing human errors and increasingly focus on reducing operations and maintenance costs. New plants are expected to perform more productively than current plants. In order to achieve and increase high productivity, it is necessary to look at innovative applications of modern technologies and new concepts of operation. The Electric Power Research Inst. is exploring and demonstrating modern technologies that enable cost-effectively maintaining current performance levels and shifts to even higher performance levels, as well as provide tools for high performance in new plants. Several modern technologies being explored can provide multiple benefits for a wide range of applications. Examples of these technologies include simulation, visualization, automation, human cognitive engineering, and information and communications technologies. Some applications using modern technologies are described. (authors)

  17. Nanosecond electric pulses trigger actin responses in plant cells

    SciTech Connect

    Berghoefer, Thomas; Eing, Christian; Flickinger, Bianca; Hohenberger, Petra; Wegner, Lars H.; Frey, Wolfgang; Nick, Peter

    2009-09-25

    We have analyzed the cellular effects of nanosecond pulsed electrical fields on plant cells using fluorescently tagged marker lines in the tobacco cell line BY-2 and confocal laser scanning microscopy. We observe a disintegration of the cytoskeleton in the cell cortex, followed by contraction of actin filaments towards the nucleus, and disintegration of the nuclear envelope. These responses are accompanied by irreversible permeabilization of the plasma membrane manifest as uptake of Trypan Blue. By pretreatment with the actin-stabilizing drug phalloidin, the detachment of transvacuolar actin from the cell periphery can be suppressed, and this treatment can also suppress the irreversible perforation of the plasma membrane. We discuss these findings in terms of a model, where nanosecond pulsed electric fields trigger actin responses that are key events in the plant-specific form of programmed cell death.

  18. Nanosecond electric pulses trigger actin responses in plant cells.

    PubMed

    Berghöfer, Thomas; Eing, Christian; Flickinger, Bianca; Hohenberger, Petra; Wegner, Lars H; Frey, Wolfgang; Nick, Peter

    2009-09-25

    We have analyzed the cellular effects of nanosecond pulsed electrical fields on plant cells using fluorescently tagged marker lines in the tobacco cell line BY-2 and confocal laser scanning microscopy. We observe a disintegration of the cytoskeleton in the cell cortex, followed by contraction of actin filaments towards the nucleus, and disintegration of the nuclear envelope. These responses are accompanied by irreversible permeabilization of the plasma membrane manifest as uptake of Trypan Blue. By pretreatment with the actin-stabilizing drug phalloidin, the detachment of transvacuolar actin from the cell periphery can be suppressed, and this treatment can also suppress the irreversible perforation of the plasma membrane. We discuss these findings in terms of a model, where nanosecond pulsed electric fields trigger actin responses that are key events in the plant-specific form of programmed cell death.

  19. Safety in nuclear power plants in India.

    PubMed

    Deolalikar, R

    2008-12-01

    Safety in nuclear power plants (NPPs) in India is a very important topic and it is necessary to dissipate correct information to all the readers and the public at large. In this article, I have briefly described how the safety in our NPPs is maintained. Safety is accorded overriding priority in all the activities. NPPs in India are not only safe but are also well regulated, have proper radiological protection of workers and the public, regular surveillance, dosimetry, approved standard operating and maintenance procedures, a well-defined waste management methodology, proper well documented and periodically rehearsed emergency preparedness and disaster management plans. The NPPs have occupational health policies covering periodic medical examinations, dosimetry and bioassay and are backed-up by fully equipped Personnel Decontamination Centers manned by doctors qualified in Occupational and Industrial Health. All the operating plants are ISO 14001 and IS 18001 certified plants. The Nuclear Power Corporation of India Limited today has 17 operating plants and five plants under construction, and our scientists and engineers are fully geared to take up many more in order to meet the national requirements.

  20. Safety in nuclear power plants in India

    PubMed Central

    Deolalikar, R.

    2008-01-01

    Safety in nuclear power plants (NPPs) in India is a very important topic and it is necessary to dissipate correct information to all the readers and the public at large. In this article, I have briefly described how the safety in our NPPs is maintained. Safety is accorded overriding priority in all the activities. NPPs in India are not only safe but are also well regulated, have proper radiological protection of workers and the public, regular surveillance, dosimetry, approved standard operating and maintenance procedures, a well-defined waste management methodology, proper well documented and periodically rehearsed emergency preparedness and disaster management plans. The NPPs have occupational health policies covering periodic medical examinations, dosimetry and bioassay and are backed-up by fully equipped Personnel Decontamination Centers manned by doctors qualified in Occupational and Industrial Health. All the operating plants are ISO 14001 and IS 18001 certified plants. The Nuclear Power Corporation of India Limited today has 17 operating plants and five plants under construction, and our scientists and engineers are fully geared to take up many more in order to meet the national requirements. PMID:20040970

  1. Taxonomy of the nuclear plant operator's role

    SciTech Connect

    Kisner, R.A.; Fullerton, A.M.; Frey, P.R.; Dougherty, E.M.

    1981-01-01

    A program is presently under way at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to define the functional design requirements of operational aids for nuclear power plant operators. A first and important step in defining these requirements is to develop an understanding of the operator's role or function. This paper describes a taxonomy of operator functions that applies during all operational modes and conditions of the plant. Other topics such as the influence of automation, role acceptance, and the operator's role during emergencies are also discussed. This systematic approach has revealed several areas which have potential for improving the operator's ability to perform his role.

  2. NEXT GENERATION NUCLEAR PLANT LICENSING BASIS EVENT SELECTION WHITE PAPER

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Holbrook

    2010-09-01

    The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) will be a licensed commercial high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) plant capable of producing the electricity and high temperature process heat for industrial markets supporting a range of end-user applications. The NGNP Project has adopted the 10 CFR 52 Combined License (COL) application process, as recommended in the Report to Congress, dated August 2008, as the foundation for the NGNP licensing strategy. NRC licensing of the NGNP plant utilizing this process will demonstrate the efficacy of licensing future HTGRs for commercial industrial applications. This white paper is one in a series of submittals that will address key generic issues of the COL priority licensing topics as part of the process for establishing HTGR regulatory requirements.

  3. Steam-Electric Power-Plant-Cooling Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Sonnichsen, J.C.; Carlson, H.A.; Charles, P.D.; Jacobson, L.D.; Tadlock, L.A.

    1982-02-01

    The Steam-Electric Power Plant Cooling Handbook provides summary data on steam-electric power plant capacity, generation and number of plants for each cooling means, by Electric Regions, Water Resource Regions and National Electric Reliability Council Areas. Water consumption by once-through cooling, cooling ponds and wet evaporative towers is discussed and a methodology for computation of water consumption is provided for a typical steam-electric plant which uses a wet evaporative tower or cooling pond for cooling.

  4. Managing nuclear power plant induced disasters.

    PubMed

    Kyne, Dean

    2015-01-01

    To understand the management process of nuclear power plant (NPP) induced disasters. The study shields light on phases and issues associated with the NPP induced disaster management. This study uses Palo Verde Nuclear Generation Station as study subject and Arizona State as study area. This study uses the Radiological Assessment System for Consequence Analysis (RASCAL) Source Term to Dose (STDose) of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, a computer software to project and assess the source term dose and release pathway. This study also uses ArcGIS, a geographic information system to analyze geospatial data. A detailed case study of Palo Verde Nuclear Power Generation (PVNPG) Plant was conducted. The findings reveal that the NPP induced disaster management process is conducted by various stakeholders. To save lives and to minimize the impacts, it is vital to relate planning and process of the disaster management. Number of people who expose to the radioactive plume pathway and level of radioactivity could vary depending on the speed and direction of wind on the day the event takes place. This study findings show that there is a need to address the burning issue of different racial and ethnic groups' unequal exposure and unequal protection to potential risks associated with the NPPs.

  5. Orbital transfer of large space structures with nuclear electric rockets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silva, T. H.; Byers, D. C.

    1980-01-01

    This paper discusses the potential application of electric propulsion for orbit transfer of a large spacecraft structure from low earth orbit to geosynchronous altitude in a deployed configuration. The electric power was provided by the spacecraft nuclear reactor space power system on a shared basis during transfer operations. Factors considered with respect to system effectiveness included nuclear power source sizing, electric propulsion thruster concept, spacecraft deployment constraints, and orbital operations and safety. It is shown that the favorable total impulse capability inherent in electric propulsion provides a potential economic advantage over chemical propulsion orbit transfer vehicles by reducing the number of Space Shuttle flights in ground-to-orbit transportation requirements.

  6. 77 FR 11171 - License Renewal Application for Callaway Plant, Unit 1, Union Electric Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-24

    ... COMMISSION License Renewal Application for Callaway Plant, Unit 1, Union Electric Company AGENCY: Nuclear.... SUMMARY: Union Electric Company, a subsidiary of Ameren Corporation and doing business as Ameren Missouri... (Callaway). Callaway is located in Callaway County, MO. The current operating license for Callaway...

  7. Occupational radiation exposure at nuclear power plants in Japan and the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Imahori, A.

    1983-01-01

    The annual statistical summaries of occupational exposures at nuclear power plants in Japan and the United States are compiled by reactor type for the years 1970 to 1980. The trends of occupational exposures at nuclear power plants in both countries are similar in many respects. Individual doses have been well controlled below the occupational dose limit (0.05 Sv/yr), but the collective doses (man-sieverts) have been increasing with plant age, especially in boiling-water reactors. Most of the occupational exposure at nuclear power plants is incurred during maintenance activities rather than routine operation; so the annual collective dose per unit of electric output is in inverse proportion to the annual plant capacity factor. An estimate of the cancer risk for the total number of workers exposed at commercial nuclear power plants in 1980 is fewer than ten hypothetical radiation-induced cancer deaths in the United States and fewer than three in Japan.

  8. Improved Economics of Nuclear Plant Life Management

    SciTech Connect

    Bond, Leonard J.; Doctor, Steven R.; Jarrell, Donald B.; Bond, Joseph W D.

    2007-07-31

    The adoption of new on-line monitoring, diagnostic and eventually prognostics technologies has the potential to impact the economics of the existing nuclear power plant fleet, new plants and future advanced designs. To move from periodic inspection to on-line monitoring for condition based maintenance and eventually prognostics will require advances in sensors, better understanding of what and how to measure within the plant; enhanced data interrogation, communication and integration; new predictive models for damage/aging evolution; system integration for real world deployments; quantification of uncertainties in what are inherently ill-posed problems and integration of enhanced condition based maintenance/prognostics philosophies into new plant designs, operation and O&M approaches. The move to digital systems in petrochemical, process and fossil fuel power plants is enabling major advances to occur in the instrumentation, controls and monitoring systems and approaches employed. The adoption within the nuclear power community of advanced on-line monitoring and advanced diagnostics has the potential for the reduction in costly periodic surveillance that requires plant shut-down , more accurate cost-benefit analysis, “just-in-time” maintenance, pre-staging of maintenance tasks, move towards true “operation without failures” and a jump start on advanced technologies for new plant concepts, such as those under the International Gen IV Program. There are significant opportunities to adopt condition-based maintenance when upgrades are implemented at existing facilities. The economic benefit from a predictive maintenance program based upon advanced on-line monitoring and advanced diagnostics can be demonstrated from a cost/benefit analysis. An analysis of the 104 US legacy systems has indicated potential savings at over $1B per year when applied to all key equipment; a summary of the supporting analysis is provided in this paper.

  9. Guidelines for producing commercial nuclear power plant decommissioning cost estimates

    SciTech Connect

    LaGuardia, T.S.

    1986-01-01

    Decommissioning cost estimates have been made for specific commercial nuclear power plants and for reference plants, utilities, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), the US Dept. of Energy, consultants, and others. The different technical, site-specific, and economic assumptions used have made it difficult to interpret these cost estimates during the process of developing rates and rate structures for the recovery of decommissioning expenses. The estimates made to date have not anticipated that form the bases for the variations in cost estimates. The perceived incompatibility among the economic and technical assumptions in these estimates has added to the difficulties regulators have in deciding rates and rate structures for the recovery of decommissioning costs by nuclear utilities. To assist the industry, the National Environmental Studies Project (NESP) of the Atomic Industrial Forum sponsored a study to produce guidelines for developing decommissioning cost estimates. This guideline document was developed by TLG Engineering for NESP under the direction of a task force made up of some of the top experts in the decommissioning field from nuclear utilities, manufacturers, architect/engineering firms, accounting firms, the NRC, the US Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, state regulatory bodies, the National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners, and the electric industry research community.

  10. Nuclear power plant status diagnostics using a neural network with dynamic node architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Basu, A.

    1992-12-31

    This thesis is part of an ongoing project at Iowa State University to develop ANN based fault diagnostic systems to detect and classify operational transients at nuclear power plants. The project envisages the deployment of such an advisor at Iowa Electric Light and Power Company`s Duane Arnold Energy Center nuclear power plant located at Palo, IA. This advisor is expected to make status diagnosis in real time, thus providing the operators with more time for corrective measures.

  11. Nuclear power plant status diagnostics using a neural network with dynamic node architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Basu, A.

    1992-01-01

    This thesis is part of an ongoing project at Iowa State University to develop ANN based fault diagnostic systems to detect and classify operational transients at nuclear power plants. The project envisages the deployment of such an advisor at Iowa Electric Light and Power Company's Duane Arnold Energy Center nuclear power plant located at Palo, IA. This advisor is expected to make status diagnosis in real time, thus providing the operators with more time for corrective measures.

  12. MTR BASEMENT. GENERAL ELECTRIC CONTROL CONSOLE FOR AIRCRAFT NUCLEAR PROPULSION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR BASEMENT. GENERAL ELECTRIC CONTROL CONSOLE FOR AIRCRAFT NUCLEAR PROPULSION EXPERIMENT NO. 1. INL NEGATIVE NO. 6510. Unknown Photographer, 9/29/1959 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  13. THE NEXT GENERATION NUCLEAR PLANT GRAPHITE PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    William E. Windes; Timothy D. Burchell; Robert L. Bratton

    2008-09-01

    Developing new nuclear grades of graphite used in the core of a High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) is one of the critical development activities being pursued within the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) program. Graphite’s thermal stability (in an inert gas environment), high compressive strength, fabricability, and cost effective price make it an ideal core structural material for the HTGR reactor design. While the general characteristics necessary for producing nuclear grade graphite are understood, historical “nuclear” grades no longer exist. New grades must be fabricated, characterized, and irradiated to demonstrate that current grades of graphite exhibit acceptable non-irradiated and irradiated properties upon which the thermo-mechanical design of the structural graphite in NGNP is based. The NGNP graphite R&D program has selected a handful of commercially available types for research and development activities necessary to qualify this nuclear grade graphite for use within the NGNP reactor. These activities fall within five primary areas; 1) material property characterization, 2) irradiated material property characterization, 3) modeling, and 4) ASTM test development, and 5) ASME code development efforts. Individual research and development activities within each area are being pursued with the ultimate goal of obtaining a commercial operating license for the nuclear graphite from the US NRC.

  14. From the first nuclear power plant to fourth-generation nuclear power installations [on the 60th anniversary of the World's First nuclear power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rachkov, V. I.; Kalyakin, S. G.; Kukharchuk, O. F.; Orlov, Yu. I.; Sorokin, A. P.

    2014-05-01

    Successful commissioning in the 1954 of the World's First nuclear power plant constructed at the Institute for Physics and Power Engineering (IPPE) in Obninsk signaled a turn from military programs to peaceful utilization of atomic energy. Up to the decommissioning of this plant, the AM reactor served as one of the main reactor bases on which neutron-physical investigations and investigations in solid state physics were carried out, fuel rods and electricity generating channels were tested, and isotope products were bred. The plant served as a center for training Soviet and foreign specialists on nuclear power plants, the personnel of the Lenin nuclear-powered icebreaker, and others. The IPPE development history is linked with the names of I.V. Kurchatov, A.I. Leipunskii, D.I. Blokhintsev, A.P. Aleksandrov, and E.P. Slavskii. More than 120 projects of various nuclear power installations were developed under the scientific leadership of the IPPE for submarine, terrestrial, and space applications, including two water-cooled power units at the Beloyarsk NPP in Ural, the Bilibino nuclear cogeneration station in Chukotka, crawler-mounted transportable TES-3 power station, the BN-350 reactor in Kazakhstan, and the BN-600 power unit at the Beloyarsk NPP. Owing to efforts taken on implementing the program for developing fast-neutron reactors, Russia occupied leading positions around the world in this field. All this time, IPPE specialists worked on elaborating the principles of energy supertechnologies of the 21st century. New large experimental installations have been put in operation, including the nuclear-laser setup B, the EGP-15 accelerator, the large physical setup BFS, the high-pressure setup SVD-2; scientific, engineering, and technological schools have been established in the field of high- and intermediate-energy nuclear physics, electrostatic accelerators of multicharge ions, plasma processes in thermionic converters and nuclear-pumped lasers, physics of compact

  15. Nuclear electric propulsion mission engineering study. Volume 2: Final report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Results of a mission engineering analysis of nuclear-thermionic electric propulsion spacecraft for unmanned interplanetary and geocentric missions are summarized. Critical technologies associated with the development of nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) are assessed, along with the impact of its availability on future space programs. Outer planet and comet rendezvous mission analysis, NEP stage design for geocentric and interplanetary missions, NEP system development cost and unit costs, and technology requirements for NEP stage development are studied.

  16. Fatigue monitoring in Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Ware, A.G.; Shah, V.N.

    1995-04-01

    This paper summarizes fatigue monitoring methods and surveys their application in the nuclear power industry. The paper is based on a review of the technical literature. Two main reasons for fatigue monitoring are more frequent occurrence of some transients than that assumed in the fatigue design analysis and the discovery of stressors that were not included in the fatigue design analysis but may cause significant fatigue damage at some locations. One fatigue monitoring method involves use of plant operating data and procedures to update the fatigue usage. Another method involves monitoring of plant operating parameters using existing, or if needed, supplementary plant instrumentation for online computation of fatigue usage. Use of fatigue monitoring has better defined the operational transients. Most operational transients have been found less severe and fewer in numbers than anticipated in the design fatigue analysis. Use of fatigue monitoring has assisted in quantifying newly discovered stressors and has helped in detecting the presence of thermal stratification of unsuspected locations.

  17. MARS, 600 MWth NUCLEAR POWER PLANT

    SciTech Connect

    Cumo, M.; Naviglio, A.; Sorabella, L.

    2004-10-06

    MARS (Multipurpose Advanced Reactor, inherently Safe) is a 600 MWth, single loop, pressurized light water reactor (PWR), developed at the Dept. of Nuclear Engineering and Energy Conversion of the University of Rome ''La Sapienza''. The design was focused to a multipurpose reactor to be used in high population density areas also for industrial heat production and, in particular, for water desalting. Using the well-proven technology and the operation experience of PWRs, the project introduces a lot of innovative features hugely improving the safety performance while keeping the cost of KWh competitive with traditional large power plants. Extensive use of passive safety, in depth plant simplification and decommissioning oriented design were the guidelines along the design development. The latest development in the plant design, in the decommissioning aspects and in the experimental activities supporting the project are shown in this paper.

  18. Tracing nuclear elements released by Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsujimura, M.; Onda, Y.; Abe, Y.; Hada, M.; Pun, I.

    2011-12-01

    Radioactive contamination has been detected in Fukushima and the neighboring regions due to the nuclear accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) following the earthquake and tsunami occurred on 11th March 2011. The small experimental catchments have been established in Yamakiya district, Kawamata Town, Fukushima Prefecture, located approximately 35 km west from the Fukushima NPP. The tritium (3H) concentration and stable isotopic compositions of deuterium and oxygen-18 have been determined on the water samples of precipitation, soil water at the depths of 10 to 30 cm, groundwater at the depths of 5 m to 50 m, spring water and stream water taken at the watersheds in the recharge and discharge zones from the view point of the groundwater flow system. The tritium concentration of the rain water fell just a few days after the earthquake showed a value of approximately 17 Tritium Unit (T.U.), whereas the average concentration of the tritium in the precipitation was less than 5 T.U. before the Fukushima accident. The spring water in the recharge zone showed a relatively high tritium concentration of approximately 12 T.U., whereas that of the discharge zone showed less than 5 T.U. Thus, the artificial tritium was apparently injected in the groundwater flow system due to the Fukushima NPP accident, whereas that has not reached at the discharge zone yet. The monitoring of the nuclear elements is now on going from the view points of the hydrological cycles and the drinking water security.

  19. The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project

    SciTech Connect

    F. H. Southworth; P. E. MacDonald

    2003-11-01

    The Next Generation Nuclear Power (NGNP) Project will demonstrate emissions-free nuclearassisted electricity and hydrogen production by 2015. The NGNP reactor will be a helium-cooled, graphite moderated, thermal neutron spectrum reactor with a design goal outlet temperature of 1000 C or higher. The reactor thermal power and core configuration will be designed to assure passive decay heat removal without fuel damage during hypothetical accidents. The fuel cycle will be a once-through very high burnup low-enriched uranium fuel cycle. This paper provides a description of the project to build the NGNP at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The NGNP Project includes an overall reactor design activity and four major supporting activities: materials selection and qualification, NRC licensing and regulatory support, fuel development and qualification, and the hydrogen production plant. Each of these activities is discussed in the paper. All the reactor design and construction activities will be managed under the DOE’s project management system as outlined in DOE Order 413.3. The key elements of the overall project management system discussed in this paper include the client and project management organization relationship, critical decisions (CDs), acquisition strategy, and the project logic and timeline. The major activities associated with the materials program include development of a plan for managing the selection and qualification of all component materials required for the NGNP; identification of specific materials alternatives for each system component; evaluation of the needed testing, code work, and analysis required to qualify each identified material; preliminary selection of component materials; irradiation of needed sample materials; physical, mechanical, and chemical testing of unirradiated and irradiated materials; and documentation of final materials selections. The NGNP will be licensed by the NRC under 10 CFR 50 or 10

  20. [Accidents of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plants and future].

    PubMed

    Hoshi, Masaharu

    2012-01-01

    A massive earthquake of magnitude 9 terribly happened far out at sea of Tohoku area on 11 March, 2011. After this earthquake the hugest tsunami in the history came to the hundreds km of the seashore of Tohoku area. Due to this tsunami all of the four nuclear power plants of Fukushima Daiichi lost every electric power and, soon after this, loss nuclear fuels from number 1 to 3 reactors melt through their power containers. According to this phenomena, large amount of the radio-activities have been released in the air. There were some releases but major contaminations happened at the time of the two releases in the morning of 15 March, 2011. Due to this, to the direction of the northwest until the Iitate Village over 30km zone was contaminated. In this paper I explain the time course of the accidents and that how contaminated.

  1. 1. GENERAL EXTERIOR VIEW OF THE ELECTRIC FURNACE STEELMAKING PLANT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. GENERAL EXTERIOR VIEW OF THE ELECTRIC FURNACE STEELMAKING PLANT LOOKING NORTHEAST. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Electric Furnace Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  2. Analysis of nuclear power plant construction costs

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    The objective of this report is to present the results of a statistical analysis of nuclear power plant construction costs and lead-times (where lead-time is defined as the duration of the construction period), using a sample of units that entered construction during the 1966-1977 period. For more than a decade, analysts have been attempting to understand the reasons for the divergence between predicted and actual construction costs and lead-times. More importantly, it is rapidly being recognized that the future of the nuclear power industry rests precariously on an improvement in the cost and lead-time situation. Thus, it is important to study the historical information on completed plants, not only to understand what has occurred to also to improve the ability to evaluate the economics of future plants. This requires an examination of the factors that have affected both the realized costs and lead-times and the expectations about these factors that have been formed during the construction process. 5 figs., 22 tabs.

  3. Analysis of failed nuclear plant components

    SciTech Connect

    Diercks, D.R.

    1992-07-01

    Argonne National Laboratory has conducted analyses of failed components from nuclear power generating stations since 1974. The considerations involved in working with and analyzing radioactive components are reviewed here, and the decontamination of these components is discussed. Analyses of four failed components from nuclear plants are then described to illustrate the kinds of failures seen in service. The failures discussed are (a) intergranular stress corrosion cracking of core spray injection piping in a boiling water reactor, (b) failure of canopy seal welds in adapter tube assemblies in the control rod drive head of a pressure water reactor, (c) thermal fatigue of a recirculation pump shaft in a boiling water reactor, and (d) failure of pump seal wear rings by nickel leaching in a boiling water reactor.

  4. Risk perception among nuclear power plant employees

    SciTech Connect

    Fields, C.D.

    1989-01-01

    Radiation protection training and general employee training within the nuclear industry are designed to reduce workers' concerns about radiation and to develop skills that will protect against unwarranted exposures. Inaccurate perceptions about radiation by workers can cause a lack of adequate concern or exaggerated fears, which in turn can result in unnecessary radiation exposure to the worker or co-workers. The purpose of the study is threefold: (a) to identify health and safety concerns among nuclear power plant employees, (b) to discover variables that influence the perception of risk among employees, and (c) to ascertain if attitudes of the family, community, and the media affect workers' perception of risk. Workers identified five areas of concern: shift work, radiation, industrial safety, stress, and sabotage.

  5. Nuclear Plant Analyzer: Installation manual. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Snider, D.M.; Wagner, K.L.; Grush, W.H.; Jones, K.R. |

    1995-01-01

    This report contains the installation instructions for the Nuclear Plant Analyzer (NPA) System. The NPA System consists of the Computer Visual System (CVS) program, the NPA libraries, the associated utility programs. The NPA was developed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory under the sponsorship of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to provide a highly flexible graphical user interface for displaying the results of these analysis codes. The NPA also provides the user with a convenient means of interactively controlling the host program through user-defined pop-up menus. The NPA was designed to serve primarily as an analysis tool. After a brief introduction to the Computer Visual System and the NPA, an analyst can quickly create a simple picture or set of pictures to aide in the study of a particular phenomenon. These pictures can range from simple collections of square boxes and straight lines to complex representations of emergency response information displays.

  6. Cesium Removal at Fukushima Nuclear Plant - 13215

    SciTech Connect

    Braun, James L.; Barker, Tracy A.

    2013-07-01

    The Great East Japan Earthquake that took place on March 11, 2011 created a number of technical challenges at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Plant. One of the primary challenges involved the treatment of highly contaminated radioactive wastewater. Avantech Inc. developed a unique patent pending treatment system that addressed the numerous technical issues in an efficient and safe manner. Our paper will address the development of the process from concept through detailed design, identify the lessons learned, and provide the updated results of the project. Specific design and operational parameters/benefits discussed in the paper include: - Selection of equipment to address radionuclide issues; - Unique method of solving the additional technical issues associated with Hydrogen Generation and Residual Heat; - Operational results, including chemistry, offsite discharges and waste generation. Results show that the customized process has enabled the utility to recycle the wastewater for cooling and reuse. This technology had a direct benefit to nuclear facilities worldwide. (authors)

  7. Interdisciplinary Team-Teaching Experience for a Computer and Nuclear Energy Course for Electrical and Computer Engineering Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Charles; Jackson, Deborah; Keiller, Peter

    2016-01-01

    A new, interdisciplinary, team-taught course has been designed to educate students in Electrical and Computer Engineering (ECE) so that they can respond to global and urgent issues concerning computer control systems in nuclear power plants. This paper discusses our experience and assessment of the interdisciplinary computer and nuclear energy…

  8. Nuclear Power Plant Security and Vulnerabilities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-18

    OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE 18 JAN 2008 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2008 to 00-00-2008 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Nuclear Power...three zones: an “owner- controlled ” buffer region, a “protected area,” and a “vital area.” Access to the protected area was restricted to a portion of...plant attempts to penetrate the plant’s vital area and damage or destroy key safety components. Participants in the tightly controlled exercises

  9. Probabilistic analysis of fires in nuclear plants

    SciTech Connect

    Unione, A.; Teichmann, T.

    1985-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe a multilevel (i.e., staged) probabilistic analysis of fire risks in nuclear plants (as part of a general PRA) which maximizes the benefits of the FRA (fire risk assessment) in a cost effective way. The approach uses several stages of screening, physical modeling of clearly dominant risk contributors, searches for direct (e.g., equipment dependences) and secondary (e.g., fire induced internal flooding) interactions, and relies on lessons learned and available data from and surrogate FRAs. The general methodology is outlined. 6 figs., 10 tabs.

  10. Nuclear Hydrogen for Peak Electricity Production and Spinning Reserve

    SciTech Connect

    Forsberg, C.W.

    2005-01-20

    Nuclear energy can be used to produce hydrogen. The key strategic question is this: ''What are the early markets for nuclear hydrogen?'' The answer determines (1) whether there are incentives to implement nuclear hydrogen technology today or whether the development of such a technology could be delayed by decades until a hydrogen economy has evolved, (2) the industrial partners required to develop such a technology, and (3) the technological requirements for the hydrogen production system (rate of production, steady-state or variable production, hydrogen purity, etc.). Understanding ''early'' markets for any new product is difficult because the customer may not even recognize that the product could exist. This study is an initial examination of how nuclear hydrogen could be used in two interconnected early markets: the production of electricity for peak and intermediate electrical loads and spinning reserve for the electrical grid. The study is intended to provide an initial description that can then be used to consult with potential customers (utilities, the Electric Power Research Institute, etc.) to better determine the potential real-world viability of this early market for nuclear hydrogen and provide the starting point for a more definitive assessment of the concept. If this set of applications is economically viable, it offers several unique advantages: (1) the market is approximately equivalent in size to the existing nuclear electric enterprise in the United States, (2) the entire market is within the utility industry and does not require development of an external market for hydrogen or a significant hydrogen infrastructure beyond the utility site, (3) the technology and scale match those of nuclear hydrogen production, (4) the market exists today, and (5) the market is sufficient in size to justify development of nuclear hydrogen production techniques independent of the development of any other market for hydrogen. These characteristics make it an ideal

  11. Affective imagery and acceptance of replacing nuclear power plants.

    PubMed

    Keller, Carmen; Visschers, Vivianne; Siegrist, Michael

    2012-03-01

    This study examined the relationship between the content of spontaneous associations with nuclear power plants and the acceptance of using new-generation nuclear power plants to replace old ones. The study also considered gender as a variable. A representative sample of the German- and French-speaking population of Switzerland (N= 1,221) was used. Log-linear models revealed significant two-way interactions between the association content and acceptance, association content and gender, and gender and acceptance. Correspondence analysis revealed that participants who were opposed to nuclear power plants mainly associated nuclear power plants with risk, negative feelings, accidents, radioactivity, waste disposal, military use, and negative consequences for health and environment; whereas participants favoring nuclear power plants mainly associated them with energy, appearance descriptions of nuclear power plants, and necessity. Thus, individuals opposing nuclear power plants had both more concrete and more diverse associations with them than people who were in favor of nuclear power plants. In addition, participants who were undecided often mentioned similar associations to those participants who were in favor. Males more often expressed associations with energy, waste disposal, and negative health effects. Females more often made associations with appearance descriptions, negative feelings, and negative environmental effects. The results further suggest that acceptance of replacing nuclear power plants was higher in the German-speaking part of the country, where all of the Swiss nuclear power plants are physically located. Practical implications for risk communication are discussed. © 2011 Society for Risk Analysis.

  12. Nuclear power plant control room operator control and monitoring tasks

    SciTech Connect

    Bovell, C.R.; Beck, M.G.; Carter, R.J.

    1998-07-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory is conducting a research project the purpose of which is to develop the technical bases for regulatory review criteria for use in evaluating the safety implications of human factors associated with the use of artificial intelligence and expert systems, and with advanced instrumentation and control (I and C) systems in nuclear power plants (NPP). This report documents the results from Task 8 of that project. The primary objectives of the task was to identify the scope and type of control and monitoring tasks now performed by control-room operators. Another purpose was to address the types of controls and safety systems needed to operate the nuclear plant. The final objective of Task 8 was to identify and categorize the type of information and displays/indicators required to monitor the performance of the control and safety systems. This report also discusses state-of-the-art controls and advanced display devices which will be available for use in control-room retrofits and in control room of future plants. The fundamental types of control and monitoring tasks currently conducted by operators can be divided into four classifications: function monitoring tasks, control manipulation tasks, fault diagnostic tasks, and administrative tasks. There are three general types of controls used in today`s NPPs, switches, pushbuttons, and analog controllers. Plant I and C systems include components to achieve a number of safety-related functions: measuring critical plant parameters, controlling critical plant parameters within safety limits, and automatically actuating protective devices if safe limits are exceeded. The types of information monitored by the control-room operators consist of the following parameters: pressure, fluid flow and level, neutron flux, temperature, component status, water chemistry, electrical, and process and area radiation. The basic types of monitoring devices common to nearly all NPP control rooms include: analog meters

  13. Power plant of high safety for underground nuclear power station

    SciTech Connect

    Dolgov, V.N.

    1993-12-31

    An ecologically pure, reliable, and economic nuclear power station is based on the use of nuclear power plants with the liquid-metal coolant. This plant with the inherent safety is protected from external influences due to the underground accommodations in geologically stable formations such as granites, cambrian clays, and salt deposits. The design features of this underground plant are described.

  14. Just In-Time Maintenance of Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    DR. Alexander G. Parlos

    2002-01-22

    The goal of this project has been to develop and demonstrate the feasibility of a new technology for maintenance engineering: a Just-In-Time Maintenance (JITM) system for rotating machines. The JITM system is based on several key developments at Texas A and M over the past ten years in emerging intelligent information technologies, which if integrated into a single system could provide a revolutionary approach in the way maintenance is performed. Rotating machines, such as induction motors, range from a few horse power (hp) to several thousand hp in size, and they are widely used in nuclear power plants and in other industries. Forced outages caused by induction motor failures are the reason for as much as 15% - 40% of production costs to be attributable to maintenance, whereas plant shutdowns caused by induction motor failures result in daily financial losses to the utility and process industries of $1 M or more. The basic components of the JITM system are the available machine sensors, that is electric current sensors and accelerometers, and the computational algorithms used in the analysis and interpretation of the occurring incipient failures. The JITM system can reduce the costs attributable to maintenance by about 40% and it can lower the maintenance budgets of power and process plants by about 35%, while requiring no additional sensor installation. As a result, the JITM system can improve the competitiveness of US nuclear utilities at minimal additional cost.

  15. Compiling Utility Requirements For New Nuclear Power Plant Project

    SciTech Connect

    Patrakka, Eero

    2002-07-01

    Teollisuuden Voima Oy (TVO) submitted in November 2000 to the Finnish Government an application for a Decision-in-Principle concerning the construction of a new nuclear power plant in Finland. The actual investment decision can be made first after a positive decision has been made by the Government and the Parliament. Parallel to the licensing process, technical preparedness has been upheld so that the procurement process can be commenced without delay, when needed. This includes the definition of requirements for the plant and preliminary preparation of bid inquiry specifications. The core of the technical requirements corresponds to the specifications presented in the European Utility Requirement (EUR) document, compiled by major European electricity producers. Quite naturally, an amount of modifications to the EUR document are needed that take into account the country- and site-specific conditions as well as the experiences gained in the operation of the existing NPP units. Along with the EUR-related requirements concerning the nuclear island and power generation plant, requirements are specified for scope of supply as well as for a variety of issues related to project implementation. (author)

  16. Electromagnetic Compatibility in Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Ewing, P.D.; Kercel, S.W.; Korsah, K.; Wood, R.T.

    1999-08-29

    Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) has long been a key element of qualification for mission critical instrumentation and control (I&C) systems used by the U.S. military. The potential for disruption of safety-related I&C systems by electromagnetic interference (EMI), radio-frequency interference (RFI), or power surges is also an issue of concern for the nuclear industry. Experimental investigations of the potential vulnerability of advanced safety systems to EMI/RFI, coupled with studies of reported events at nuclear power plants (NPPs) that are attributed to EMI/RFI, confirm the safety significance of EMC for both analog and digital technology. As a result, Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been engaged in the development of the technical basis for guidance that addresses EMC for safety-related I&C systems in NPPs. This research has involved the identification of engineering practices to minimize the potential impact of EMI/RFI and power surges and an evaluation of the ambient electromagnetic environment at NPPs to tailor those practices for use by the nuclear industry. Recommendations for EMC guidance have been derived from these research findings and are summarized in this paper.

  17. Future electricity production methods. Part 1: Nuclear energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nifenecker, Hervé

    2011-02-01

    The global warming challenge aims at stabilizing the concentrations of Green House Gas (GHG) in the atmosphere. Carbon dioxide is the most effective of the anthropogenic GHG and is essentially produced by consumption of fossil fuels. Electricity production is the dominant cause of CO2 emissions. It is, therefore, crucial that the share of 'carbon less' electricity production techniques increases at a fast pace. This is the more so, that 'clean' electricity would be useful to displace 'dirty' techniques in other fields such as heat production and transportation. Here we examine the extent to which nuclear energy could be operational in providing 'clean' electricity. A nuclear intensive scenario is shown to give the possibility to divide CO2 emissions by a factor of 2 worldwide, within 50 years. However, the corresponding sharp increase in nuclear power will put a heavy burden on uranium reserves and will necessitate the development of breeding reactors as soon as possible. A review of present and future reactors is given with special attention to the safety issues. The delicate question of nuclear fuel cycle is discussed concerning uranium reserves and management of used fuels. It is shown that dealing with nuclear wastes is more a socio-political problem than a technical one. The third difficult question associated with the development of nuclear energy is the proliferation risk. It is advocated that, while this is, indeed, a very important question, it is only weakly related to nuclear power development. Finally, the possibilities of nuclear fusion are discussed and it is asserted that, under no circumstances, could nuclear fusion give a significant contribution to the solution of the energy problem before 50 years, too late for dealing with the global warming challenge.

  18. Developing a Hierarchical Decision Model to Evaluate Nuclear Power Plant Alternative Siting Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lingga, Marwan Mossa

    A strong trend of returning to nuclear power is evident in different places in the world. Forty-five countries are planning to add nuclear power to their grids and more than 66 nuclear power plants are under construction. Nuclear power plants that generate electricity and steam need to improve safety to become more acceptable to governments and the public. One novel practical solution to increase nuclear power plants' safety factor is to build them away from urban areas, such as offshore or underground. To date, Land-Based siting is the dominant option for siting all commercial operational nuclear power plants. However, the literature reveals several options for building nuclear power plants in safer sitings than Land-Based sitings. The alternatives are several and each has advantages and disadvantages, and it is difficult to distinguish among them and choose the best for a specific project. In this research, we recall the old idea of using the alternatives of offshore and underground sitings for new nuclear power plants and propose a tool to help in choosing the best siting technology. This research involved the development of a decision model for evaluating several potential nuclear power plant siting technologies, both those that are currently available and future ones. The decision model was developed based on the Hierarchical Decision Modeling (HDM) methodology. The model considers five major dimensions, social, technical, economic, environmental, and political (STEEP), and their related criteria and sub-criteria. The model was designed and developed by the author, and its elements' validation and evaluation were done by a large number of experts in the field of nuclear energy. The decision model was applied in evaluating five potential siting technologies and ranked the Natural Island as the best in comparison to Land-Based, Floating Plant, Artificial Island, and Semi-Embedded plant.

  19. Communicating with stakeholders about nuclear power plant radiation.

    PubMed

    Bisconti, Ann Stouffer

    2011-01-01

    A national public opinion survey in 2008 measured public perceptions about radiation and specifically about radiation from nuclear power plants. The study also revealed effective messages for communicating with stakeholders about radiation from nuclear power plants. A comparison with a 1991 national survey on these topics shows that misperceptions about radiation persist, but fewer people now believe that those living near nuclear power plants are exposed to harmful levels of radiation.

  20. Development of Nuclear Renewable Oil Shale Systems for Flexible Electricity and Reduced Fossil Fuel Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel Curtis; Charles Forsberg; Humberto Garcia

    2015-05-01

    We propose the development of Nuclear Renewable Oil Shale Systems (NROSS) in northern Europe, China, and the western United States to provide large supplies of flexible, dispatchable, very-low-carbon electricity and fossil fuel production with reduced CO2 emissions. NROSS are a class of large hybrid energy systems in which base-load nuclear reactors provide the primary energy used to produce shale oil from kerogen deposits and simultaneously provide flexible, dispatchable, very-low-carbon electricity to the grid. Kerogen is solid organic matter trapped in sedimentary shale, and large reserves of this resource, called oil shale, are found in northern Europe, China, and the western United States. NROSS couples electricity generation and transportation fuel production in a single operation, reduces lifecycle carbon emissions from the fuel produced, improves revenue for the nuclear plant, and enables a major shift toward a very-low-carbon electricity grid. NROSS will require a significant development effort in the United States, where kerogen resources have never been developed on a large scale. In Europe, however, nuclear plants have been used for process heat delivery (district heating), and kerogen use is familiar in certain countries. Europe, China, and the United States all have the opportunity to use large scale NROSS development to enable major growth in renewable generation and either substantially reduce or eliminate their dependence on foreign fossil fuel supplies, accelerating their transitions to cleaner, more efficient, and more reliable energy systems.

  1. Nuclear power plant Severe Accident Research Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Larkins, J T; Cunningham, M A

    1983-01-01

    The Severe Accident Research Plan (SARP) will provide technical information necessary to support regulatory decisions in the severe accident area for existing or planned nuclear power plants, and covers research for the time period of January 1982 through January 1986. SARP will develop generic bases to determine how safe the plants are and where and how their level of safety ought to be improved. The analysis to address these issues will be performed using improved probabilistic risk assessment methodology, as benchmarked to more exact data and analysis. There are thirteen program elements in the plan and the work is phased in two parts, with the first phase being completed in early 1984, at which time an assessment will be made whether or not any major changes will be recommended to the Commission for operating plants to handle severe accidents. Additionally at this time, all of the thirteen program elements in Chapter 5 will be reviewed and assessed in terms of how much additional work is necessary and where major impacts in probabilistic risk assessment might be achieved. Confirmatory research will be carried out in phase II to provide additional assurance on the appropriateness of phase I decisions. Most of this work will be concluded by early 1986.

  2. 78 FR 25488 - Qualification Tests for Safety-Related Actuators in Nuclear Power Plants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-01

    ...The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is issuing for public comment draft regulatory guide (DG), DG-1235, ``Qualification Tests for Safety-Related Actuators in Nuclear Power Plants.'' DG-1235 is proposed Revision 1 of RG 1.73, dated January 1974. This revision endorses, with clarifications, the enhanced consensus practices for qualifying safety-related actuators, and actuator components, in Nuclear Power Generating Stations in order to demonstrate their ability to perform their intended safety functions under all required conditions as described in the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) standard 382-2006, ``Standard for Qualification of Safety-Related Actuators for Nuclear Power Generating Stations.''

  3. A nuclear wind/solar oil-shale system for variable electricity and liquid fuels production

    SciTech Connect

    Forsberg, C.

    2012-07-01

    The recoverable reserves of oil shale in the United States exceed the total quantity of oil produced to date worldwide. Oil shale contains no oil, rather it contains kerogen which when heated decomposes into oil, gases, and a carbon char. The energy required to heat the kerogen-containing rock to produce the oil is about a quarter of the energy value of the recovered products. If fossil fuels are burned to supply this energy, the greenhouse gas releases are large relative to producing gasoline and diesel from crude oil. The oil shale can be heated underground with steam from nuclear reactors leaving the carbon char underground - a form of carbon sequestration. Because the thermal conductivity of the oil shale is low, the heating process takes months to years. This process characteristic in a system where the reactor dominates the capital costs creates the option to operate the nuclear reactor at base load while providing variable electricity to meet peak electricity demand and heat for the shale oil at times of low electricity demand. This, in turn, may enable the large scale use of renewables such as wind and solar for electricity production because the base-load nuclear plants can provide lower-cost variable backup electricity. Nuclear shale oil may reduce the greenhouse gas releases from using gasoline and diesel in half relative to gasoline and diesel produced from conventional oil. The variable electricity replaces electricity that would have been produced by fossil plants. The carbon credits from replacing fossil fuels for variable electricity production, if assigned to shale oil production, results in a carbon footprint from burning gasoline or diesel from shale oil that may half that of conventional crude oil. The U.S. imports about 10 million barrels of oil per day at a cost of a billion dollars per day. It would require about 200 GW of high-temperature nuclear heat to recover this quantity of shale oil - about two-thirds the thermal output of existing

  4. Nuclear electric propulsion mission engineering study. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Results of a mission engineering analysis of nuclear-thermionic electric propulsion spacecraft for unmanned interplanetary and geocentric missions are summarized. Critical technologies associated with the development of nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) are assessed. Outer planet and comet rendezvous mission analysis, NEP stage design for geocentric and interplanetary missions, NEP system development cost and unit costs, and technology requirements for NEP stage development are studied. The NEP stage design provides both inherent reliability and high payload mass capability. The NEP stage and payload integration was found to be compatible with the space shuttle.

  5. Multimission nuclear electric propulsion system for outer planet exploration missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mondt, J. F.

    1981-01-01

    The conceptual design configuration of a nuclear electric propulsion system (NEP) with a multimission capability for both earth orbital and electric propulsion missions is discussed. Two basic types of space reactor power system concepts are analyzed emphasizing conduction coupled and radiation coupled systems, and a radiation coupled thermoelectric panel concept is schematically represented and described in detail. A nuclear-powered 100-kWe surveillance spacecraft concept is presented and the developmental phases are given including cost estimates. In addition, a system is described that seems to have the capability to perform all the outer planet missions.

  6. 75 FR 16524 - FirstEnergy Nuclear Operating Company, Perry Nuclear Power Plant; Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-01

    ... COMMISSION FirstEnergy Nuclear Operating Company, Perry Nuclear Power Plant; Exemption 1.0 Background FirstEnergy Nuclear Operating Company (FENOC, the licensee) is the holder of Facility Operating License No... compliance date (Reference: June 4, 2009, letter from R. W. Borchardt, NRC, to M. S. Fertel, Nuclear...

  7. Nuclear Energy Research Initiative. Risk Informed Assessment of Regulatory and Design Requirements for Future Nuclear Power Plants. Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Ritterbusch, S.E.

    2000-08-01

    The overall goal of this research project is to support innovation in new nuclear power plant designs. This project is examining the implications, for future reactors and future safety regulation, of utilizing a new risk-informed regulatory system as a replacement for the current system. This innovation will be made possible through development of a scientific, highly risk-informed approach for the design and regulation of nuclear power plants. This approach will include the development and.lor confirmation of corresponding regulatory requirements and industry standards. The major impediment to long term competitiveness of new nuclear plants in the U.S. is the capital cost component--which may need to be reduced on the order of 35% to 40% for Advanced Light Water Reactors (ALWRs) such as System 80+ and Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR). The required cost reduction for an ALWR such as AP600 or AP1000 would be expected to be less. Such reductions in capital cost will require a fundamental reevaluation of the industry standards and regulatory bases under which nuclear plants are designed and licensed. Fortunately, there is now an increasing awareness that many of the existing regulatory requirements and industry standards are not significantly contributing to safety and reliability and, therefore, are unnecessarily adding to nuclear plant costs. Not only does this degrade the economic competitiveness of nuclear energy, it results in unnecessary costs to the American electricity consumer. While addressing these concerns, this research project will be coordinated with current efforts of industry and NRC to develop risk-informed, performance-based regulations that affect the operation of the existing nuclear plants; however, this project will go farther by focusing on the design of new plants.

  8. Integrating Nuclear and Renewable Electricity in a Low-Carbon World: MIT-Japan Future of Nuclear Power Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Haratyk, Geoffrey; Komiyama, Ryoichi; Forsberg, Charles; Fujii, Yasumasa; Omoto, Akira; Taniguchi, Tomihiro; Curtis, Daniel; Sepulveda, Nestor

    2017-01-01

    Affordable reliable energy made possible a large middle class in the industrial world. Concerns about climate change require a transition to nuclear, wind, and solar—but these energy sources in current forms do not have the capability to meet the requirements for variable affordable energy. Researchers from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, the University of Tokyo, the Tokyo Institute of Technology and the Institute for Energy Economics are undertaking a series of studies to address how to make this transition to a low carbon world. Three areas are being investigated. The first area is the development of electricity grid models to understand the impacts of different choices of technologies and different limits on greenhouse gas emissions. The second area is the development of technologies to enable variable electricity to the grid while capital-intensive nuclear, wind and solar generating plants operate at full capacity to minimize costs. Technologies to enable meeting variable electricity demand while operating plants at high-capacity factors include use of heat and hydrogen storage. The third area is the development of electricity market rules to enable transition to a low-carbon grid.

  9. Thermionic topping of electric power plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britt, E. J.; Fitzpatrick, G. O.; Rasor, N. S.

    1975-01-01

    The most likely use of thermionic conversion is in the form of a topping cycle combined with a steam-turbogenerator plant. A specific reference system is chosen in which the thermionic topping cycle occurs in thermionic heat exchangers referred to as large, modular thermionic units to which heat is transferred from a separate heat source and which reject their heat to a conventional steam turboelectric system. Results of analysis show that the performance and cost criteria for practical thermionic topping of large electric power plants are well within the reach of demonstrated and foreseeable converter capabilities. Thermionic topping has many significant advantages over unconventional cycles proposed for topping applications, including level of demonstrated and projected performance and lifetime, development time, and design simplicity.

  10. Thermionic topping of electric power plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britt, E. J.; Fitzpatrick, G. O.; Rasor, N. S.

    1975-01-01

    The most likely use of thermionic conversion is in the form of a topping cycle combined with a steam-turbogenerator plant. A specific reference system is chosen in which the thermionic topping cycle occurs in thermionic heat exchangers referred to as large, modular thermionic units to which heat is transferred from a separate heat source and which reject their heat to a conventional steam turboelectric system. Results of analysis show that the performance and cost criteria for practical thermionic topping of large electric power plants are well within the reach of demonstrated and foreseeable converter capabilities. Thermionic topping has many significant advantages over unconventional cycles proposed for topping applications, including level of demonstrated and projected performance and lifetime, development time, and design simplicity.

  11. 75 FR 73135 - Southern Nuclear Operating Company, Inc. Joseph M. Farley Nuclear Plant, Environmental Assessment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-29

    ... effect radiation exposures to plant workers and members of the public. The proposed action does not... are needed. No effects on the aquatic or terrestrial habitat in the vicinity of the plant, or to... COMMISSION Southern Nuclear Operating Company, Inc. Joseph M. Farley Nuclear Plant, Environmental Assessment...

  12. 75 FR 14638 - FirstEnergy Nuclear Operating Company; Perry Nuclear Power Plant; Environmental Assessment and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-26

    ...). There will be no change to radioactive effluents that effect radiation exposures to plant workers and... would not significantly affect plant safety and would not have a significant adverse effect on the... COMMISSION FirstEnergy Nuclear Operating Company; Perry Nuclear Power Plant; Environmental Assessment and...

  13. Comparison of nuclear and solar power plants with turboelectric generators for application in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blumenberg, Jürgen; Ruppe, Harry O.

    The aim of the analysis is to determine and to compare the specific mass of nuclear and solar power plants for application in space depending on technological data as well as on data subject to the mission. On the basis of the known theory of Ruppe and Blumenberg[1-3], nuclear power plants with turboelectric generators as well as solar-thermal power plants with parabolic or spheric mirrors are being analysed. The following thermodynamic processes are applied: the Rankine process, the Brayton process and—as an ideal comparative process—the Carnot process. An important parameter of the analysis for nuclear power plants is the net electric power, for the solar-thermal power plant the distance to the sun is of importance.

  14. Improved Construction and Project Management for Future Nuclear Power Plants - Westinghouse Perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Matzie, Regis A.

    2002-07-01

    The economic competitiveness of future nuclear power plants is the key issue to the expansion of this vital technology. The challenge is greater today than it has been because of the worldwide trend of deregulation of the power market. Deregulation favors smaller investments with shorter payback times. However, the key economic parameter is the power generation cost and its competitiveness to other sources of electric generation, principally natural gas and coal. The relative competitiveness of these three fuel types today is largely dictated by the availability of domestic sources of both fuel and technology infrastructure. The competitiveness of new nuclear power plants can be improved in any power market environment first by the features of the design itself, second by the approach to construction, and finally by the project structure used to implement the plant, or more importantly, a series of plants. These three aspects form the cornerstone to a successful resurgence of new nuclear power plant construction. (author)

  15. Analysis on capability of load following for nuclear power plants abroad and its enlightenment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Kuan; Zhang, Fu-qiang; Deng, Ting-ting; Zhang, Jin-fang; Hao, Weihua

    2017-01-01

    With the acceleration adjustment of China’s energy structure, the development of nuclear power plants in China has been going back to the fast track. While as the trend of slowing electric power demand is now unmistakable, it enforces the power system to face much greater pressure in some coastal zones where the nuclear power plants are of a comparative big proportion, such as Fujian province and Liaoning province. In this paper, the capability of load following of nuclear power plants of some developed countries with high proportion of nuclear power generation such as France, US and Japan are analysed, also from the aspects including the safety, the economy and their practical operation experience is studied. The feasibility of nuclear power plants to participate in the peak regulation of system is also studied and summarized. The results of this paper could be of good reference value for the China’s nuclear power plants to participate in system load following, and also of great significance for the development of the nuclear power plants in China.

  16. Seismic analysis of nuclear power plant structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Go, J. C.

    1973-01-01

    Primary structures for nuclear power plants are designed to resist expected earthquakes of the site. Two intensities are referred to as Operating Basis Earthquake and Design Basis Earthquake. These structures are required to accommodate these seismic loadings without loss of their functional integrity. Thus, no plastic yield is allowed. The application of NASTRAN in analyzing some of these seismic induced structural dynamic problems is described. NASTRAN, with some modifications, can be used to analyze most structures that are subjected to seismic loads. A brief review of the formulation of seismic-induced structural dynamics is also presented. Two typical structural problems were selected to illustrate the application of the various methods of seismic structural analysis by the NASTRAN system.

  17. Detecting Cyber Attacks On Nuclear Power Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rrushi, Julian; Campbell, Roy

    This paper proposes an unconventional anomaly detection approach that provides digital instrumentation and control (I&C) systems in a nuclear power plant (NPP) with the capability to probabilistically discern between legitimate protocol frames and attack frames. The stochastic activity network (SAN) formalism is used to model the fusion of protocol activity in each digital I&C system and the operation of physical components of an NPP. SAN models are employed to analyze links between protocol frames as streams of bytes, their semantics in terms of NPP operations, control data as stored in the memory of I&C systems, the operations of I&C systems on NPP components, and NPP processes. Reward rates and impulse rewards are defined in the SAN models based on the activity-marking reward structure to estimate NPP operation profiles. These profiles are then used to probabilistically estimate the legitimacy of the semantics and payloads of protocol frames received by I&C systems.

  18. Potential growth of nuclear and coal electricity generation in the US

    SciTech Connect

    Bloomster, C.H.; Merrill, E.T.

    1989-08-01

    Electricity demand should continue to grow at about the same rate as GNP, creating a need for large amounts of new generating capacity over the next fifty years. Only coal and nuclear at this time have the abundant domestic resources and assured technology to meet this need. However, large increase in both coal and nuclear usage will require solutions to many of the problems that now deter their increased usage. For coal, the problems center around the safety and environmental impacts of increased coal mining and coal combustion. For nuclear, the problems center around reactor safety, radioactive waste disposal, financial risk, and nuclear materials safeguards. This report assesses the impacts associated with a range of projected growth rates in electricity demand over the next 50 years. The resource requirements and waste generation resulting from pursuing the coal and nuclear fuel options to meet the projected growth rates are estimated. The fuel requirements and waste generation for coal plants are orders of magnitude greater than for nuclear. Improvements in technology and waste management practices must be pursued to mitigate environmental and safety concerns about electricity generation from both options. 34 refs., 18 figs., 14 tabs.

  19. Reactor design for nuclear electric propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koenig, D. R.; Ranken, W. A.

    1979-01-01

    The paper analyzes the consequences of heat pipe failures, that resulted in modifications to the basic design of a heat-pipe cooled, fast spectrum nuclear reactor and led to consideration of an entirely different core design. The new design features an integral laminated core configuration consisting of alternating layers of UO2 and molybdenum sheets that span the diameter of the core. Design characteristics are presented and compared for two reactors. A conceptual design for a heat exchanger between the core and the thermionic converter assembly is described. This heat exchanger would provide design and fabrication decoupling of these two assemblies.

  20. Inspection of Nuclear Power Plant Containment Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Graves, H.L.; Naus, D.J.; Norris, W.E.

    1998-12-01

    Safety-related nuclear power plant (NPP) structures are designed to withstand loadings from a number of low-probability external and interval events, such as earthquakes, tornadoes, and loss-of-coolant accidents. Loadings incurred during normal plant operation therefore generally are not significant enough to cause appreciable degradation. However, these structures are susceptible to aging by various processes depending on the operating environment and service conditions. The effects of these processes may accumulate within these structures over time to cause failure under design conditions, or lead to costly repair. In the late 1980s and early 1990s several occurrences of degradation of NPP structures were discovered at various facilities (e.g., corrosion of pressure boundary components, freeze- thaw damage of concrete, and larger than anticipated loss of prestressing force). Despite these degradation occurrences and a trend for an increasing rate of occurrence, in-service inspection of the safety-related structures continued to be performed in a somewhat cursory manner. Starting in 1991, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) published the first of several new requirements to help ensure that adequate in-service inspection of these structures is performed. Current regulatory in-service inspection requirements are reviewed and a summary of degradation experience presented. Nondestructive examination techniques commonly used to inspect the NPP steel and concrete structures to identify and quantify the amount of damage present are reviewed. Finally, areas where nondestructive evaluation techniques require development (i.e., inaccessible portions of the containment pressure boundary, and thick heavily reinforced concrete sections are discussed.

  1. Emotional consequences of nuclear power plant disasters.

    PubMed

    Bromet, Evelyn J

    2014-02-01

    The emotional consequences of nuclear power plant disasters include depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, and medically unexplained somatic symptoms. These effects are often long term and associated with fears about developing cancer. Research on disasters involving radiation, particularly evidence from Chernobyl, indicates that mothers of young children and cleanup workers are the highest risk groups. The emotional consequences occur independently of the actual exposure received. In contrast, studies of children raised in the shadows of the Three Mile Island (TMI) and Chernobyl accidents suggest that although their self-rated health is less satisfactory than that of their peers, their emotional, academic, and psychosocial development is comparable. The importance of the psychological impact is underscored by its chronicity and by several studies showing that poor mental health is associated with physical health conditions, early mortality, disability, and overuse of medical services. Given the established increase in mental health problems following TMI and Chernobyl, it is likely that the same pattern will occur in residents and evacuees affected by the Fukushima meltdowns. Preliminary data from Fukushima indeed suggest that workers and mothers of young children are at risk of depression, anxiety, psychosomatic, and post-traumatic symptoms both as a direct result of their fears about radiation exposure and an indirect result of societal stigma. Thus, it is important that non-mental health providers learn to recognize and manage psychological symptoms and that medical programs be designed to reduce stigma and alleviate psychological suffering by integrating psychiatric and medical treatment within the walls of their clinics.Introduction of Emotional Consequences of Nuclear Power Plant Disasters (Video 2:15, http://links.lww.com/HP/A34).

  2. Nuclear Electric Propulsion Technology Panel findings and recommendations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doherty, Michael P.

    1992-01-01

    Summarized are the findings and recommendations of a triagency (NASA/DOE/DOD) panel on Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) Technology. NEP has been identified as a candidate nuclear propulsion technology for exploration of the Moon and Mars as part of the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI). The findings are stated in areas of system and subsystem considerations, technology readiness, and ground test facilities. Recommendations made by the panel are summarized concerning: (1) existing space nuclear power and propulsion programs, and (2) the proposed multiagency NEP technology development program.

  3. Total quality drives nuclear plant improvements

    SciTech Connect

    Richey, R.B. )

    1991-01-01

    Total quality (TQ) at Carolina Power and Light (CP and L) is fulfilling a 1985 vision of Sherwood H. Smith, Jr., CP and L's chairman, president, and chief executive officer. The TQ concept has provided a way for employees to align their creative energies toward meeting the business needs of the company. Throughout CP and L, TQ has been recognized as the vehicle for reducing operating costs and improving customer satisfaction. Within the nuclear organization, application of the TQ process has helped to improve communications, resolve challenges, and provide more consistent work practices among CP and L's three nuclear plants. Total quality was introduced from the top down, with initial benefits coming from team interactions. Senior management at CP and L defined the corporate expectations and outlined the training requirements for implementing TQ. Management staffs at each organizational level became steering committees for TQ team activities within their departments. Teams of employees most knowledgeable about a given work area were empowered to solve problems or overcome obstacles related to that work area. Employees learned to become better team players and to appreciate the quality of decisions reached through group consensus. Now, formalized methods that started TQ are becoming part of the day-to-day work ethic.

  4. Nuclear electric propulsion technologies - Overview of the NASA/DoE/DoD Nuclear Electric Propulsion Workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnett, John W.

    Nuclear propulsion technology offers substantial benefits to the ambitious piloted and robotic solar system exploration missions of the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI). This paper summarizes a workshop jointly sponsored by NASA, DoE, and DoD to assess candidate nuclear electric propulsion technologies. Twenty-one power and propulsion concepts are reviewed. Nuclear power concepts include solid and gaseous fuel concepts, with static and dynamic power conversion. Propulsion concepts include steady state and pulsed electromagnetic engines, a pulsed electrothermal engine, and a steady state electrostatic engine. The technologies vary widely in maturity. The workshop review panels concluded that compelling benefits would accrue from the development of nuclear electric propulsion systems, and that a focused, well-funded program is required to prepare the technologies for SEI missions.

  5. Nuclear electric propulsion technologies - Overview of the NASA/DoE/DoD Nuclear Electric Propulsion Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnett, John W.

    1991-01-01

    Nuclear propulsion technology offers substantial benefits to the ambitious piloted and robotic solar system exploration missions of the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI). This paper summarizes a workshop jointly sponsored by NASA, DoE, and DoD to assess candidate nuclear electric propulsion technologies. Twenty-one power and propulsion concepts are reviewed. Nuclear power concepts include solid and gaseous fuel concepts, with static and dynamic power conversion. Propulsion concepts include steady state and pulsed electromagnetic engines, a pulsed electrothermal engine, and a steady state electrostatic engine. The technologies vary widely in maturity. The workshop review panels concluded that compelling benefits would accrue from the development of nuclear electric propulsion systems, and that a focused, well-funded program is required to prepare the technologies for SEI missions.

  6. Feasibility Study of Hydrogen Production at Existing Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Stephen Schey

    2009-07-01

    Cooperative Agreement DE-FC07-06ID14788 was executed between the U.S. Department of Energy, Electric Transportation Applications, and Idaho National Laboratory to investigate the economics of producing hydrogen by electrolysis using electricity generated by nuclear power. The work under this agreement is divided into the following four tasks: Task 1 – Produce Data and Analyses Task 2 – Economic Analysis of Large-Scale Alkaline Electrolysis Task 3 – Commercial-Scale Hydrogen Production Task 4 – Disseminate Data and Analyses. Reports exist on the prospect that utility companies may benefit from having the option to produce electricity or produce hydrogen, depending on market conditions for both. This study advances that discussion in the affirmative by providing data and suggesting further areas of study. While some reports have identified issues related to licensing hydrogen plants with nuclear plants, this study provides more specifics and could be a resource guide for further study and clarifications. At the same time, this report identifies other area of risks and uncertainties associated with hydrogen production on this scale. Suggestions for further study in some of these topics, including water availability, are included in the report. The goals and objectives of the original project description have been met. Lack of industry design for proton exchange membrane electrolysis hydrogen production facilities of this magnitude was a roadblock for a significant period. However, recent design breakthroughs have made costing this facility much more accurate. In fact, the new design information on proton exchange membrane electrolyzers scaled to the 1 kg of hydrogen per second electrolyzer reduced the model costs from $500 to $100 million. Task 1 was delayed when the original electrolyzer failed at the end of its economic life. However, additional valuable information was obtained when the new electrolyzer was installed. Products developed during this study

  7. Aging of concrete components and its significance relative to life extension of nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Naus, D.J.

    1987-01-01

    Nuclear power currently supplies about 16% of the US electricity requirements, with the percentage expected to rise to 20% by 1990. Despite the increasing role of nuclear power in energy production, cessation of orders for new nuclear plants in combination with expiration of operating licenses for several plants in the next 15 to 20 years results in a potential loss of electrical generating capacity of 50 to 60 gigawatts during the time period 2005 to 2020. A potential timely and cost-effective solution to the problem of meeting future energy demand is available through extension of the service life of existing nuclear plants. Any consideration of plant life extension, however, must consider the concrete components in these plants, since they play a vital safety role. Under the USNRC Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) Program, a study was conducted to review operating experience and to provide background that will lead to subsequent development of a methodology for assessing and predicting the effects of aging on the performance of concrete-based structures. The approach followed was in conformance with the NPAR strategy.

  8. Trial application of guidelines for nuclear plant response to an earthquake. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, W.; Oliver, R.; O`Connor, W.

    1993-09-01

    Guidelines have been developed to assist nuclear plant personnel in the preparation of earthquake response procedures for nuclear power plants. These guidelines are published in EPRI report NP-6695, ``Guidelines for Nuclear Plant Response to an Earthquake,`` dated December 1989. This report includes two sets of nuclear plant procedures which were prepared to implement the guidelines of EPRI report NP-6695. The first set were developed by the Toledo Edison Company Davis-Besse plant. Davis-Besse is a pressurized water reactor (PWR) and contains relatively standard seismic monitoring instrumentation typical of many domestic nuclear plants. The second set of procedures were prepared by Yankee Atomic Electric Company for the Vermont Yankee facility. This plant is a boiling water reactor (BWR) with state-of-the-art seismic monitoring and PC-based data processing equipment, software developed specifically to implement the OBE Exceedance Criterion presented in EPRI report NP-5930, ``A Criterion for Determining Exceedance of the operating Basis Earthquake.`` The two sets of procedures are intended to demonstrate how two different nuclear utilities have interpreted and applied the EPRI guidance given in report NP-6695.

  9. Nuclear power plant Generic Aging Lessons Learned (GALL). Appendix B

    SciTech Connect

    Kasza, K.E.; Diercks, D.R.; Holland, J.W.; Choi, S.U.

    1996-12-01

    The purpose of this generic aging lessons learned (GALL) review is to provide a systematic review of plant aging information in order to assess materials and component aging issues related to continued operation and license renewal of operating reactors. Literature on mechanical, structural, and thermal-hydraulic components and systems reviewed consisted of 97 Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) reports, 23 NRC Generic Letters, 154 Information Notices, 29 Licensee Event Reports (LERs), 4 Bulletins, and 9 Nuclear Management and Resources Council Industry Reports (NUMARC IRs) and literature on electrical components and systems reviewed consisted of 66 NPAR reports, 8 NRC Generic Letters, 111 Information Notices, 53 LERs, 1 Bulletin, and 1 NUMARC IR. More than 550 documents were reviewed. The results of these reviews were systematized using a standardized GALL tabular format and standardized definitions of aging-related degradation mechanisms and effects. The tables are included in volume s 1 and 2 of this report. A computerized data base has also been developed for all review tables and can be used to expedite the search for desired information on structures, components, and relevant aging effects. A survey of the GALL tables reveals that all ongoing significant component aging issues are currently being addressed by the regulatory process. However, the aging of what are termed passive components has been highlighted for continued scrutiny. This report consists of Volume 2, which consists of the GALL literature review tables for the NUMARC Industry Reports reviewed for the report.

  10. [Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident and Tokaimura criticality accident].

    PubMed

    Takada, Jun

    2012-03-01

    It is clear from inspection of historical incidents that the scale of disasters in a nuclear power plant accident is quite low level overwhelmingly compared with a nuclear explosion in nuclear war. Two cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki were destroyed by nuclear blast with about 20 kt TNT equivalent and then approximately 100,000 people have died respectively. On the other hand, the number of acute death is 30 in the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident. In this chapter, we review health hazards and doses in two historical nuclear incidents of Chernobyl and Tokaimura criticality accident and then understand the feature of the radiation accident in peaceful utilization of nuclear power.

  11. Space nuclear power applied to electric propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vicente, F. A.; Karras, T.; Darooka, D.; Isenberg, L.

    1989-01-01

    Space reactor power systems with characteristics ideal for advanced spacecraft systems applications are discussed. These characteristics are: high power-to-weight ratio (15 to 33 W/kg); high volume density (high ballistic coefficient); no preferential orientation in orbit; long operational life; high reliability; and total launch and operational safety. These characteristics allow the use of electric propulsion to raise spacecraft from low earth parking orbits to operational orbits, greatly increasing the useful orbit payload for a given launch vehicle by eliminating the need for a separation injection stage. A proposed demonstration mission is described.

  12. Nuclear electric propulsion: An integral part of NASA's nuclear propulsion project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, James R.

    1992-01-01

    NASA has initiated a technology program to establish the readiness of nuclear propulsion technology for the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI). This program was initiated with a very modest effort identified with nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP); however, nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) is also an integral part of this program and builds upon NASA's Base Research and Technology Program in power and electric propulsion as well as the SP-100 space nuclear power program. Although the Synthesis Group On America's SEI has identified NEP only as an option for cargo missions, recent studies conducted by NASA-Lewis show that NEP offers the potential for early manned Mars missions as well. Lower power NEP is also of current interest for outer planetary robotic missions. Current plans are reviewed for the overall nuclear propulsion project, with emphasis on NEP and those elements of NTP program which have synergism with NEP.

  13. Electrical signals and their physiological significance in plants.

    PubMed

    Fromm, Jörg; Lautner, Silke

    2007-03-01

    Electrical excitability and signalling, frequently associated with rapid responses to environmental stimuli, are well known in some algae and higher plants. The presence of electrical signals, such as action potentials (AP), in both animal and plant cells suggested that plant cells, too, make use of ion channels to transmit information over long distances. In the light of rapid progress in plant biology during the past decade, the assumption that electrical signals do not only trigger rapid leaf movements in 'sensitive' plants such as Mimosa pudica or Dionaea muscipula, but also physiological processes in ordinary plants proved to be correct. Summarizing recent progress in the field of electrical signalling in plants, the present review will focus on the generation and propagation of various electrical signals, their ways of transmission within the plant body and various physiological effects.

  14. Proceedings of the international conference on nuclear power plant aging, availability factor and reliability analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Goel, V.S.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a conference on nuclear power plant life extension. Topics considered at the conference included availability, accelerated aging techniques, the qualification of electrical equipment, probabilistic risk assessment, reactor maintenance, outages, reliability, computer-aided design, seismic effects, mechanical vibrations, fatigue monitoring, steam generators, and materials degradation by aging and embrittlement.

  15. Method and apparatus for steam mixing a nuclear fueled electricity generation system

    DOEpatents

    Tsiklauri, Georgi V.; Durst, Bruce M.

    1996-01-01

    A method and apparatus for improving the efficiency and performance of a nuclear electrical generation system that comprises the addition of steam handling equipment to an existing plant that results in a surprising increase in plant performance. More particularly, a gas turbine electrical generation system with heat recovery boiler is installed along with a micro-jet high pressure and a low pressure mixer superheater. Depending upon plant characteristics, the existing moisture separator reheater (MSR) can be either augmented or done away with. The instant invention enables a reduction in T.sub.hot without a derating of the reactor unit, and improves efficiency of the plant's electrical conversion cycle. Coupled with this advantage is a possible extension of the plant's fuel cycle length due to an increased electrical conversion efficiency. The reduction in T.sub.hot further allows for a surprising extension of steam generator life. An additional advantage is the reduction in erosion/corrosion of secondary system components including turbine blades and diaphragms. The gas turbine generator used in the instant invention can also replace or augment existing peak or emergency power needs. Another benefit of the instant invention is the extension of plant life and the reduction of downtime due to refueling.

  16. Next Generation Nuclear Plant GAP Analysis Report

    SciTech Connect

    Ball, Sydney J; Burchell, Timothy D; Corwin, William R; Fisher, Stephen Eugene; Forsberg, Charles W.; Morris, Robert Noel; Moses, David Lewis

    2008-12-01

    As a follow-up to the phenomena identification and ranking table (PIRT) studies conducted recently by NRC on next generation nuclear plant (NGNP) safety, a study was conducted to identify the significant 'gaps' between what is needed and what is already available to adequately assess NGNP safety characteristics. The PIRT studies focused on identifying important phenomena affecting NGNP plant behavior, while the gap study gives more attention to off-normal behavior, uncertainties, and event probabilities under both normal operation and postulated accident conditions. Hence, this process also involved incorporating more detailed evaluations of accident sequences and risk assessments. This study considers thermal-fluid and neutronic behavior under both normal and postulated accident conditions, fission product transport (FPT), high-temperature metals, and graphite behavior and their effects on safety. In addition, safety issues related to coupling process heat (hydrogen production) systems to the reactor are addressed, given the limited design information currently available. Recommendations for further study, including analytical methods development and experimental needs, are presented as appropriate in each of these areas.

  17. Seismic stops for nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Cloud, R.L.; Leung, J.S.M.; Anderson, P.H. )

    1989-10-01

    In the regulated world of nuclear power, the need to have analytical proof of performance in hypothetical design-basis events such as earth quakes has placed a premium on design configurations that are mathematically tractable and easily analyzed. This is particularly true for the piping design. Depending on how the piping analyses are organized and on how old the plant is, there may be from 200 to 1000 separate piping runs to be designed, analyzed, and qualified. In this situation, the development of snubbers seemed like the answer to a piping engineer's prayer. At any place where seismic support was required but thermal motion had to be accommodated, a snubber could be specified. But, as experience has now shown, the program was solved only on paper. This article presents an alternative to conventional snubbers. These new devices, termed Seismic Stops are designed to replace snubbers directly and look like snubbers on the outside. But their design is based on a completely different principle. The original concept has adapted from early seismic-resistant pipe support designs used on fossil power plants in California. The fundamental idea is to provide a space envelope in which the pipe can expand freely between the hot and cold positions, but cannot move outside the envelope. Seismic Stops are designed to transmit any possible impact load, as would occur in an earthquake, away from the pipe itself to the Seismic Stop. The Seismic Stop pipe support is shown.

  18. NASA-OAST/JPL high efficiency thermionic conversion studies. [nuclear electric propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Efforts were made to develop a thermionic energy conversion TEC technology appropriate for nuclear electric propulsion missions. This space TEC effort was complementary to the terrestrial TEC studies sponsored by the Department of Energy which had the goal of topping fossil fuel power plants. Thermionic energy conversion was a primary conversion option for space reactors because of its: (1) high operating temperature; (2) lack of moving parts; (3) modularity; (4) established technology; and (5) development potential.

  19. Nondestructive Examination for Nuclear Power Plant Cable Aging Management Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Glass, Samuel W.; Fifield, Leonard S.

    2016-01-01

    Degradation of the cable jacket, electrical insulation, and other cable components of installed cables within nuclear power plants (NPPs) is known to occur as a function of age, temperature, radiation, and other environmental factors. System tests verify cable function under normal loads; however, the concern is over cable performance under exceptional loads associated with design-basis events (DBEs). The cable’s ability to perform safely over the initial 40 year planned and licensed life has generally been demonstrated and there have been very few age-related cable failures. With greater than 1000 km of power, control, instrumentation, and other cables typically found in an NPP, replacing all the cables would be a severe cost burden. Justification for life extension to 60 and 80 years requires a cable aging management program (AMP) to justify cable performance under normal operation as well as accident conditions. This paper addresses various NDE technologies that constitute the essence of an acceptable aging management program.

  20. Using a Genetic Algorithm to Design Nuclear Electric Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pannell, William P.

    2003-01-01

    The basic approach to to design nuclear electric spacecraft is to generate a group of candidate designs, see how "fit" the design are, and carry best design forward to the next generation. Some designs eliminated, some randomly modified and carried forward.

  1. The Environmental Impact of Electrical Generation: Nuclear vs. Conventional.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDermott, John J., Ed.

    This minicourse, partially supported by the Division of Nuclear Education and Training of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, is an effort to describe the benefit-to-risk ratio of various methods of generating electrical power. It attempts to present an unbiased, straightforward, and objective view of the advantages and disadvantages of nuclear…

  2. The Harnessed Atom. Nuclear Energy & Electricity. Teacher Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC. Nuclear Energy Office.

    This document is part of a nuclear energy curriculum designed for grades six through eight. The complete kit includes a written text, filmstrip, review exercises, activities for the students, and this teachers guide. The 19 lessons in the curriculum are divided into four units including: (1) "Energy and Electricity"; (2) "Understanding Atoms and…

  3. Overview of United States Department of Energy activities to support life extension of nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, D.L.; Rosinski, S.T.

    1993-11-01

    Today, 109 nuclear power plants provide over 20 percent of the electrical energy generated in the US The operating license of the first of these plants will expire in the year 2000; one-third of the operating licenses will expire by 2010 and the remaining plant licenses are scheduled to expire by 2033. The National Energy Strategy assumes that 70 percent of these plants will continue to operate beyond their current license expiration to assist in ensuring an adequate, diverse, and environmentally acceptable energy supply for economic growth. In order to preserve this energy resource in the US three major tasks must be successfully completed: establishment of regulations, technical standards, and procedures for the preparation and review of a license renewal application; development, verification, and validation of technical criteria and bases for monitoring, refurbishing, and/or replacing plant equipment; and demonstration of the regulatory process. Since 1985, the US Department of Energy (DOE) has been working with the nuclear industry and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to establish and demonstrate the option to extend the life of nuclear power plants through the renewal of operating licenses. This paper focuses primarily on DOE`s Plant Lifetime Improvement (PLIM) Program efforts to develop the technical criteria and bases for effective aging management and lifetime improvement for continued operation of nuclear power plants. This paper describes current projects to resolve generic technical issues in the principal areas of reactor pressure vessel (RPV) integrity, fatigue, and environmental qualification (EQ).

  4. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Intermediate Heat Exchanger Acquisition Strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Mizia, Ronald Eugene

    2008-04-01

    DOE has selected the High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) design for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project. The NGNP will demonstrate the use of nuclear power for electricity and hydrogen production. It will have an outlet gas temperature in the range of 900°C to 950°C and a plant design service life of 60 years. The reactor design will be a graphite moderated, helium cooled, prismatic or pebble-bed reactor, and use low-enriched uranium, TRISO-coated fuel. The plant size, reactor thermal power, and core configuration will ensure passive decay heat removal without fuel damage or radioactive material releases during accidents. The NGNP Materials Research and Development (R&D) Program is responsible for performing R&D on likely NGNP materials in support of the NGNP design, licensing, and construction activities. Selection of the technology and design configuration for the NGNP must consider both the cost and risk profiles to ensure that the demonstration plant establishes a sound foundation for future commercial deployments. The NGNP challenge is to achieve a significant advancement in nuclear technology while at the same time setting the stage for an economically viable deployment of the new technology in the commercial sector soon after 2020. The purpose of this report is to address the acquisition strategy for the NGNP Intermediate Heat Exchanger (IHX).This component will be operated in flowing, impure helium on the primary and secondary side at temperatures up to 950°C. There are major high temperature design, materials availability, and fabrication issues that need to be addressed. The prospective materials are Alloys 617, 230, 800H and X, with Alloy 617 being the leading candidate for the use at 950°C. The material delivery schedule for these materials does not pose a problem for a 2018 start up as the vendors can quote reasonable delivery times at the moment. The product forms and amount needed must be finalized as soon as possible. An

  5. THEORETICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF AVAILABILITY IN NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The method of generating functions is used to calculate the probability of successful operation of a nuclear power plant for given fractions of the...repair data obtained are used in the computing code for illustration. The outline of a proposed Nuclear Power Plant Availability Handbook is included to illustrate the topics which would be covered and their arrangement. (Author)

  6. Nuclear electric dipole moment of 3He

    SciTech Connect

    Stetcu, Ionel; Friar, J L; Hayes, A C; Liu, C P; Navratil, P

    2008-01-01

    In the no-core shell model (NCSM) framework, we calculate the {sup 3}He electric dipole moment (EDM) generated by parity- and time-reversal violation in the nucleon-nucleon interaction. While the results are somehow sensitive to the interaction model chosen for the strong two- and three-body interactions, we demonstrate the pion-exchange dominance to the EDM of {sup 3}He, if the coupling constants for {pi}, {rho} and {omega}-exchanges are of comparable magnitude, as expected. Finally, our results suggest that a measurement of {sup 3}He EDM would be complementary to the currently planned neutron and deuteron experiments, and would constitute a powerful constraint to the models of the pion P- and T-violating interactions.

  7. YAEC's view of the cause and control of escalating nuclear plant O and M costs

    SciTech Connect

    Haseltine, J.D.; Lessard, L.P.

    1990-01-01

    This paper provides insights on this issue in terms of both the genesis and effective long-term control of O and M costs. Yankee Atomic Electric Company's (YAEC's) insights stem not only from an analysis of certain industry data, but also from its unique position within the nuclear industry in terms of its age, plant size, and organization. First, at 30 yr of age, the YAEC plant has endured the full swing of the regulatory/institutional pendulum and the associated impact on O and M costs. Second, with a size of only 185 MW(electric), YAEC's imperative since start-up has been the strict control of O and M costs while still achieving operational excellence. Finally, YAEC is an organization strictly focused on nuclear power operations and has not been distracted by fossil plant operations or other utility requirements like distribution, retail sales, etc., that may have plagued other plant operators.

  8. Some aspects of the decommissioning of nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Khvostova, M. S.

    2012-03-15

    The major factors influencing the choice of a national concept for the decommissioning of nuclear power plants are examined. The operating lifetimes of power generating units with nuclear reactors of various types (VVER-1000, VVER-440, RBMK-1000, EGP-6, and BN-600) are analyzed. The basic approaches to decommissioning Russian nuclear power plants and the treatment of radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel are discussed. Major aspects of the ecological and radiation safety of personnel, surrounding populations, and the environment during decommissioning of nuclear installations are identified.

  9. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Materials Research and Development Program Plan

    SciTech Connect

    G.O. Hayner; R.L. Bratton; R.N. Wright

    2005-09-01

    The U.S Department of Energy (DOE) has selected the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) design for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project. The NGNP will demonstrate the use of nuclear power for electricity and hydrogen production without greenhouse gas emissions. The reactor design will be a graphite moderated, helium-cooled, prismatic or pebble-bed, thermal neutron spectrum reactor that will produce electricity and hydrogen in a state-of-the-art thermodynamically efficient manner. The NGNP will use very high burn-up, low-enriched uranium, TRISO-coated fuel and have a projected plant design service life of 60 years. The VHTR concept is considered to be the nearest-term reactor design that has the capability to efficiently produce hydrogen. The plant size, reactor thermal power, and core configuration will ensure passive decay heat removal without fuel damage or radioactive material releases during accidents. The NGNP Project is envisioned to demonstrate the following: (1) A full-scale prototype VHTR by about 2021; (2) High-temperature Brayton Cycle electric power production at full scale with a focus on economic performance; (3) Nuclear-assisted production of hydrogen (with about 10% of the heat) with a focus on economic performance; and (4) By test, the exceptional safety capabilities of the advanced gas-cooled reactors. Further, the NGNP program will: (1) Obtain a Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) License to construct and operate the NGNP, this process will provide a basis for future performance based, risk-informed licensing; and (2) Support the development, testing, and prototyping of hydrogen infrastructures. The NGNP Materials Research and Development (R&D) Program is responsible for performing R&D on likely NGNP materials in support of the NGNP design, licensing, and construction activities. The NGNP Materials R&D Program includes the following elements: (1) Developing a specific approach, program plan and other project management tools for

  10. A novel scheme for making cheap electricity with nuclear energy

    SciTech Connect

    Pettibone, J.S.

    1991-04-01

    Nuclear fuels should produce cheaper electricity than coal, considering their high specific energy and low cost. To exploit these properties, the scheme proposed here replaces the expensive reactor/steam-turbine system with an engine in which the expansion of a gas heated by a nuclear explosion raises a mass of liquid, thereby producing stored hydraulic energy. This energy could be converted to electricity by hydroelectric generation with water as the working fluid or by magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) generation with molten metal. A rough cost analysis suggests the hydroelectric system could reduce the present cost of electricity by two-thirds, and the MHD system by even more. Such cheap power would make feasible large-scale electrolysis to produce hydrogen and other fuels and chemical raw materials. 2 refs., 1 fig.

  11. A review of nuclear electric propulsion spacecraft system concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deininger, W. D.; Nock, K. T.

    1990-01-01

    The last 25-30 years of system concepts and design philosophies for spacecraft employing nuclear-electric propulsion (NEP) are reviewed. NEP spacecraft-system design constraints and criteria are identified, including radiation exposure of humans and electronics, thermal control requirements, effluent contamination of spacecraft surfaces, surface erosion, launch-vehicle integration, operations and safety requirements, attitude control, EM interference, and power control and distribution. The impact on spacecraft design philosophy of these constraints and criteria is explored. Several NEP spacecraft are characterized and discussed with respect to the propulsion system used. The electric propulsion system catagories are electrothermal (arcjet), EM (magnetoplasmadynamic and pulsed-inductive thruster) and electrostatic (ion engine). A brief summary of the mission, nuclear power source, electric propulsion system, and spacecraft configuration are provided for each NEP spacecraft concept.

  12. Survey of ambient electromagnetic and radio-frequency interference levels in nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Kercel, S.W.; Moore, M.R.; Blakeman, E.D.; Ewing, P.D.; Wood, R.T.

    1996-11-01

    This document reports the results of a survey of ambient electromagnetic conditions in representative nuclear power plants. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research engaged the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to perform these measurements to characterize the electromagnetic interference (EMI) and radio-frequency interference (RFI) levels that can be expected in nuclear power plant environments. This survey is the first of its kind, being based on long-term unattended observations. The data presented in this report were measured at eight different nuclear units and required 14 months to collect. A representative sampling of power plant conditions (reactor type, operating mode, site location) monitored over extended observation periods (up to 5 weeks) were selected to more completely determine the characteristic electromagnetic environment for nuclear power plants. Radiated electric fields were measured over the frequency range of 5 MHz to 8 GHz. Radiated magnetic fields and conducted EMI events were measured over the frequency range of 305 Hz to 5 MHz. Highest strength observations of the electromagnetic ambient environment across all measurement conditions at each site provide frequency-dependent profiles for EMI/RFI levels in nuclear power plants.

  13. 75 FR 16871 - Carolina Power & Light Company, Brunswick Steam Electric Plant, Units 1 and 2; Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Carolina Power & Light Company, Brunswick Steam Electric Plant, Units 1 and 2; Exemption 1.0 Background Carolina Power & Light Company (CP&L, the licensee) is the holder of Facility Operating...

  14. 76 FR 68512 - Carolina Power & Light Company; H. B. Robinson Steam Electric Plant, Unit 2; Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-04

    ... COMMISSION Carolina Power & Light Company; H. B. Robinson Steam Electric Plant, Unit 2; Exemption 1.0 Background Carolina Power & Light Company (the licensee) is the holder of Renewed Facility Operating License... cooling systems for light- water nuclear power reactors,'' paragraph (a)(1)(i) provides requirements...

  15. 78 FR 38411 - Vogtle Electric Generating Plant, Unit 4; Inspections, Tests, Analyses, and Acceptance Criteria

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-26

    ... acceptance criteria are met for Inspections, Tests, Analyses, and Acceptance Criteria (ITAAC) E.2.5.04.05.05... COMMISSION Vogtle Electric Generating Plant, Unit 4; Inspections, Tests, Analyses, and Acceptance Criteria AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Determination of inspections, tests, analyses, and...

  16. 78 FR 65007 - Inspections, Tests, Analyses, and Acceptance Criteria; Vogtle Electric Generating Plant, Unit 3

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-30

    ...The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff has determined that the inspections, tests, and analyses have been successfully completed, and that the specified acceptance criteria are met for Inspections, Tests, Analyses, and Acceptance Criteria (ITAAC), 2.1.03.11 for the Vogtle Electric Generating Plant, Unit 3.

  17. Cost and quality of fuels for electric plants 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    The Cost and Quality of Fuels for Electric Utility Plants (C&Q) presents an annual summary of statistics at the national, Census division, State, electric utility, and plant levels regarding the quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels used to produce electricity. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decision-makers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on issues regarding electric power.

  18. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Research and Development Program Plan

    SciTech Connect

    2005-01-01

    The U.S Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting research and development (R&D) on the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) design concept for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project. The reactor design will be a graphite moderated, thermal neutron spectrum reactor that will produce electricity and hydrogen in a highly efficient manner. The NGNP reactor core could be either a prismatic graphite block type core or a pebble bed core. Use of a liquid salt coolant is also being evaluated. The NGNP will use very high-burnup, low-enriched uranium, TRISO-coated fuel, and have a projected plant design service life of 60 years. The VHTR concept is considered to be the nearest-term reactor design that has the capability to efficiently produce hydrogen. The plant size, reactor thermal power, and core configuration will ensure passive decay heat removal without fuel damage or radioactive material releases during accidents. The objectives of the NGNP Project are to: (1) Demonstrate a full-scale prototype VHTR that is commercially licensed by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (2) Demonstrate safe and economical nuclear-assisted production of hydrogen and electricity. The DOE laboratories, led by the INL, will perform R&D that will be critical to the success of the NGNP, primarily in the areas of: (1) High temperature gas reactor fuels behavior; (2) High temperature materials qualification; (3) Design methods development and validation; (4) Hydrogen production technologies; and (5) Energy conversion. The current R&D work is addressing fundamental issues that are relevant to a variety of possible NGNP designs. This document describes the NGNP R&D planned and currently underway in the first three topic areas listed above. The NGNP Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development and Qualification Program is presented in Section 2, the NGNP Materials R&D Program Plan is presented in Section 3, and the NGNP Design Methods Development and Validation R&D Program is presented

  19. Fresh nuclear fuel measurements at Ukrainian nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Kuzminski, Jozef; Ewing, Tom; Dickman, Debbie; Gavrilyuk, Victor; Drapey, Sergey; Kirischuk, Vladimir; Strilchuk, Nikolay

    2009-01-01

    In 2005, the Provisions on Nuclear Material Measurement System was enacted in Ukraine as an important regulatory driver to support international obligations in nuclear safeguards and nonproliferation. It defines key provisions and requirements for material measurement and measurement control programs to ensure the quality and reliability of measurement data within the framework of the State MC&A System. Implementing the Provisions requires establishing a number of measurement techniques for both fresh and spent nuclear fuel for various types of Ukrainian reactors. Our first efforts focused on measurements of fresh nuclear fuel from a WWR-1000 power reactor.

  20. Electric utility power plant choice under investment regulation

    SciTech Connect

    Rothwell, G.S.

    1985-01-01

    Economists have examined electric utility behavior under an allowed rate of return (ARoR), but little attention has been given to the regulation of generation technology choice. Two financial methods for regulating this investment decision are Allowance for Funds Used During Construction (AFUDC) and Construction Work in Progress (CWIP). The switch from AFUDC to CWIP by federal and state commissions has sparked a national debate. One issue addressed in this study is whether AFUDC or CWIP influenced technology choice. The first chapter reviews policy and compares the present value of returns to the firm under AFUDC with returns under CWIP. Chapter 2 discusses previous studied of electric utility behavior. In the third chapter, a general model is developed in which profit and revenue maximization, and cost minimization, are nested. It incorporates cost uncertainty, as well as AFUDC and CWIP. Chapter 4 estimates cost functions for coal and nuclear capacity with data on 350 units completed between 1965 and 1980. These estimates are used to forecast firm expectations on the mean and variance of power plant costs. Results suggest that while rate-of-return and investment regulation may not have had a great influence on plant choice, policies that change perceived cost uncertainties will have a significant impact on firm behavior.

  1. Overview of economy, electricity and nuclear energy in Taiwan

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, E.

    1994-12-31

    The annual electricity demand shows an even higher rate than that of the national Gross Domestic Product (GAP) in Taiwan over the past 40 years. Taipower has selected nuclear energy as one of its major power generation fuels, and there having been six nuclear units with a total installed capacity of 5144 We in operation since 1985. In order to meet the national energy policy of diversification, the share of nuclear power generation in energy mix is preferably maintained at least one-third of Taipower`s generation output by 2010. It is hoped that the wide utilization of nuclear energy is strictly a technical rather than a political issue in order to solve both energy shortage and environmental pollution problems.

  2. Department of Energy interest and involvement in nuclear plant license renewal activities

    SciTech Connect

    Bustard, L.D. ); Harrison, D.L. . Office of LWR Safety and Technology)

    1991-01-01

    Recognizing the importance of nuclear license renewal to the nation's energy strategy, the Department of Energy (DOE) initiated a plant lifetime improvement program during 1985 to determine the feasibility of the license renewal option for US nuclear plants. Initial activities of the DOE program focused on determining whether there were technical and economic obstacles that might preclude or limit the successful implementation of the license renewal option. To make this determination, DOE cosponsored with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) pilot-plant efforts by Virginia Electric Power and Northern States Power. Both pilot-plant efforts concluded that life extension is technically and economically feasible. In parallel with the pilot-plant activities, DOE performed national economic studies that demonstrated the economic desirability of life extension. Having demonstrated the feasibility of life extension, DOE, in conjunction with EPRI, selected two lead plants to demonstrate the license renewal process. These lead plants are Yankee Atomic's Yankee Rowe facility and Northern States Power's Monticello facility. DOE also initiated activities to develop the technical and regulatory bases to support the license renewal process in the United States. DOE has recently identified nuclear plant license renewal to be an important element of its National Energy Strategy. This paper summarizes the significant results, conclusions, and ongoing activities of the DOE effort. 18 refs.

  3. 75 FR 61779 - R.E. Ginna Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; R.E. Ginna Nuclear Power Plant Environmental Assessment and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-06

    ... COMMISSION R.E. Ginna Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; R.E. Ginna Nuclear Power Plant Environmental Assessment and... Operating License No. DPR-18, issued to R.E. Ginna Nuclear Power Plant, LLC (the licensee), for operation of the R.E. Ginna Nuclear Power Plant (Ginna), located in Ontario, New York. In accordance with 10 CFR 51...

  4. Public health hazards from electricity-producing plants.

    PubMed

    Neyman, J

    1977-02-25

    When a new electricity-producing plant is to be built in a given locality it is natural to take into account the public health consequences of the normal operation of each type of plant contemplated. Here, the fossil-burning plants and nuclear facilities come under consideration. I have attempted to show that, in spite of the many important studies performed, there is currently no reliable methodology to estimate how many more cancer cases, and how many more heart attacks and other diseases have to be anticipated as a consequence of the normal operation of this or that type of electric generator. In part, this is because the currently available estimates of radiation effects on humans are based on extrapolations from studies of two kinds. Those of one kind may be exemplified by studies of atomic bomb casualties in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The other kind are laboratory experiments with lower animals, frequently mice. The unreliability of both kinds of extrapolations is connected with the following circumstances: (i) The omnipresent troublesome phenomenon of competing risks. (ii) The dependence of health effects of a given noxious agent on the preexisting local pollution. (iii) The dependence of health effects not only on the "dose" of an agent, but also on the rate at which the agent is administered. (iv) The noted difficulties of making extrapolations from one mammal to another. Our obtaining reliable estimates of the public health effects of extra pollution from new industrial plants would seem to depend on a large multipollutant and multilocality epidemiological study being conducted--one requiring the cooperative effort of several governmental agencies. However, a much easier study of certain developments in the vicinity of Rocky Flats, Colorado, might provide important direct information on health phenomena as they occur in real life.

  5. Method and apparatus for improving the performance of a nuclear power electrical generation system

    DOEpatents

    Tsiklauri, Georgi V.; Durst, Bruce M.

    1995-01-01

    A method and apparatus for improving the efficiency and performance a of nuclear electrical generation system that comprises the addition of steam handling equipment to an existing plant that results in a surprising increase in plant performance. More particularly, a gas turbine electrical generation system with heat recovery boiler is installed along with a high pressure and a low pressure mixer superheater. Depending upon plant characteristics, the existing moisture separator reheater (MSR) can be either augmented or done away with. The instant invention enables a reduction in T.sub.hot without a derating of the reactor unit, and improves efficiency of the plant's electrical conversion cycle. Coupled with this advantage is a possible extension of the plant's fuel cycle length due to an increased electrical conversion efficiency. The reduction in T.sub.hot further allows for a surprising extension of steam generator life. An additional advantage is the reduction in erosion/corrosion of secondary system components including turbine blades and diaphragms. The gas turbine generator used in the instant invention can also replace or augment existing peak or emergency power needs.

  6. 9. Interior view, west side of power plant, electrical panels ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Interior view, west side of power plant, electrical panels in place in center of photograph, looking northwest - Naval Air Station Fallon, Power Plant, 800 Complex, off Carson Road near intersection of Pasture & Berney Roads, Fallon, Churchill County, NV

  7. 14. INTERIOR OF POWER PLANT LOOKING SOUTHEAST AT ELECTRICAL PANEL. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. INTERIOR OF POWER PLANT LOOKING SOUTHEAST AT ELECTRICAL PANEL. - Potomac Power Plant, On West Virginia Shore of Potomac River, about 1 mile upriver from confluence with Shenandoah River, Harpers Ferry, Jefferson County, WV

  8. Risk-informed assessment of regulatory and design requirements for future nuclear power plants. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    2000-08-01

    OAK B188 Risk-informed assessment of regulatory and design requirements for future nuclear power plants. Annual report. The overall goal of this research project is to support innovation in new nuclear power plant designs. This project is examining the implications, for future reactors and future safety regulation, of utilizing a new risk-informed regulatory system as a replacement for the current system. This innovation will be made possible through development of a scientific, highly risk-formed approach for the design and regulation of nuclear power plants. This approach will include the development and/or confirmation of corresponding regulatory requirements and industry standards. The major impediment to long term competitiveness of new nuclear plants in the U.S. is the capital cost component--which may need to be reduced on the order of 35% to 40% for Advanced Light Water Reactors (ALWRS) such as System 80+ and Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR). The required cost reduction for an ALWR such as AP600 or AP1000 would be expected to be less. Such reductions in capital cost will require a fundamental reevaluation of the industry standards and regulatory bases under which nuclear plants are designed and licensed. Fortunately, there is now an increasing awareness that many of the existing regulatory requirements and industry standards are not significantly contributing to safety and reliability and, therefore, are unnecessarily adding to nuclear plant costs. Not only does this degrade the economic competitiveness of nuclear energy, it results in unnecessary costs to the American electricity consumer. While addressing these concerns, this research project will be coordinated with current efforts of industry and NRC to develop risk-informed, performance-based regulations that affect the operation of the existing nuclear plants; however, this project will go further by focusing on the design of new plants.

  9. Macrofouling control in nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Ekis, E.W. Jr.; Keoplin-Gall, S.M.; McCarthy, R.E.

    1991-11-01

    Macrofouling of cooling-water systems is one of the more significant and costly problems encountered in the nuclear power industry. Both marine and freshwater macroinvertebrates can be responsible for losses in plant availability because of plugged intakes and heat transfer equipment. There is a greater diversity of macrofouling organisms in marine waters than in fresh waters. Marine macrofouling organisms include barnacles, mollusks, bryozoans, and hydroids. Barnacles are crustaceans with feathery appendages, which allow them to attach to a variety of surfaces. They are a major cause of severe macrofouling because they can remain attached even after death. The major freshwater macrofouling organisms include the Asiatic Clam (Corbicula fluminea) and the newest freshwater macrofouler, the Zebra Mussel (Dreissena polymorpha). The introduction of the Zebra Mussel into the Great Lakes has created economic and ecological problems that will not easily be solved. The threat of intercontinental dispersal of the Zebra Mussel in America is serious. Research programs have been initiated around the country to develop control methods for this macrofouling problem. The various control methodologies can be classified in the following categories: biological, chemical, physical, and mechanical. Laboratory experiments were performed to evaluate the efficacy of Actibrom against mature Zebra Mussels.

  10. Nuclear thiol redox systems in plants.

    PubMed

    Delorme-Hinoux, Valérie; Bangash, Sajid A K; Meyer, Andreas J; Reichheld, Jean-Philippe

    2016-02-01

    Thiol-disulfide redox regulation is essential for many cellular functions in plants. It has major roles in defense mechanisms, maintains the redox status of the cell and plays structural, with regulatory roles for many proteins. Although thiol-based redox regulation has been extensively studied in subcellular organelles such as chloroplasts, it has been much less studied in the nucleus. Thiol-disulfide redox regulation is dependent on the conserved redox proteins, glutathione/glutaredoxin (GRX) and thioredoxin (TRX) systems. We first focus on the functions of glutathione in the nucleus and discuss recent data concerning accumulation of glutathione in the nucleus. We also provide evidence that glutathione reduction is potentially active in the nucleus. Recent data suggests that the nucleus is enriched in specific GRX and TRX isoforms. We discuss the biochemical and molecular characteristics of these isoforms and focus on genetic evidences for their potential nuclear functions. Finally, we make an overview of the different thiol-based redox regulated proteins in the nucleus. These proteins are involved in various pathways including transcriptional regulation, metabolism and signaling. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Nuclear Technology Series. Nuclear Reactor (Plant) Operator Trainee. A Suggested Program Planning Guide. Revised June 80.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This program planning guide for a two-year postsecondary nuclear reactor (plant) operator trainee program is designed for use with courses 1-16 of thirty-five in the Nuclear Technology Series. The purpose of the guide is to describe the nuclear power field and its job categories for specialists, technicians and operators; and to assist planners,…

  12. Nuclear Technology Series. Nuclear Reactor (Plant) Operator Trainee. A Suggested Program Planning Guide. Revised June 80.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This program planning guide for a two-year postsecondary nuclear reactor (plant) operator trainee program is designed for use with courses 1-16 of thirty-five in the Nuclear Technology Series. The purpose of the guide is to describe the nuclear power field and its job categories for specialists, technicians and operators; and to assist planners,…

  13. Use of neurals networks in nuclear power plant diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Uhrig, R.E. . Dept. of Nuclear Engineering Oak Ridge National Lab., TN )

    1989-01-01

    A technique using neural networks as a means of diagnosing transients or abnormal conditions in nuclear power plants is investigated and found to be feasible. The technique is based on the fact that each physical state of the plant can be represented by a unique pattern of sensor outputs or instrument readings that can be related to the condition of the plant. Neural networks are used to relate this pattern to the fault, problem, or transient condition of the plant. A demonstration of the ability of this technique to identify causes of perturbations in the steam generator of a nuclear plant is presented. 3 refs., 4 figs.

  14. Hydrogen-or-Fossil-Combustion Nuclear Combined-Cycle Systems for Base- and Peak-Load Electricity Production

    SciTech Connect

    Forsberg, Charles W; Conklin, Jim

    2007-09-01

    A combined-cycle power plant is described that uses (1) heat from a high-temperature nuclear reactor to meet base-load electrical demands and (2) heat from the same high-temperature reactor and burning natural gas, jet fuel, or hydrogen to meet peak-load electrical demands. For base-load electricity production, fresh air is compressed; then flows through a heat exchanger, where it is heated to between 700 and 900 C by heat provided by a high-temperature nuclear reactor via an intermediate heat-transport loop; and finally exits through a high-temperature gas turbine to produce electricity. The hot exhaust from the Brayton-cycle gas turbine is then fed to a heat recovery steam generator that provides steam to a steam turbine for added electrical power production. To meet peak electricity demand, the air is first compressed and then heated with the heat from a high-temperature reactor. Natural gas, jet fuel, or hydrogen is then injected into the hot air in a combustion chamber, combusts, and heats the air to 1300 C-the operating conditions for a standard natural-gas-fired combined-cycle plant. The hot gas then flows through a gas turbine and a heat recovery steam generator before being sent to the exhaust stack. The higher temperatures increase the plant efficiency and power output. If hydrogen is used, it can be produced at night using energy from the nuclear reactor and stored until needed. With hydrogen serving as the auxiliary fuel for peak power production, the electricity output to the electric grid can vary from zero (i.e., when hydrogen is being produced) to the maximum peak power while the nuclear reactor operates at constant load. Because nuclear heat raises air temperatures above the auto-ignition temperatures of the various fuels and powers the air compressor, the power output can be varied rapidly (compared with the capabilities of fossil-fired turbines) to meet spinning reserve requirements and stabilize the electric grid. This combined cycle uses the

  15. Efficient plant male fertility depends on vegetative nuclear movement mediated by two families of plant outer nuclear membrane proteins

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xiao; Meier, Iris

    2014-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that nuclear migration is important for eukaryotic development. Although nuclear migration is conserved in plants, its importance for plant development has not yet been established. The most extraordinary plant nuclear migration events involve plant fertilization, which is starkly different from that of animals. Instead of evolving self-propelled sperm cells (SCs), plants use pollen tubes to deliver SCs, in which the pollen vegetative nucleus (VN) and the SCs migrate as a unit toward the ovules, a fundamental but barely understood process. Here, we report that WPP domain-interacting proteins (WIPs) and their binding partners the WPP domain-interacting tail-anchored proteins (WITs) are essential for pollen nuclear migration. Loss-of-function mutations in WIT and/or WIP gene families resulted in impaired VN movement, inefficient SC delivery, and defects in pollen tube reception. WIPs are Klarsicht/ANC-1/Syne-1 Homology (KASH) analogs in plants. KASH proteins are key players in animal nuclear migration. Thus, this study not only reveals an important nuclear migration mechanism in plant fertilization but also, suggests that similar nuclear migration machinery is conserved between plants and animals. PMID:25074908

  16. [Risk communication in construction of new nuclear power plant].

    PubMed

    He, Gui-Zhen; Lü, Yong-Long

    2013-03-01

    Accompanied by construction of new nuclear power plants in the coming decades in China, risk management has become increasingly politicized and contentious. Nuclear risk communication is a critical component in helping individuals prepare for, respond to, and recover from nuclear power emergencies. It was discussed that awareness of trust and public attitudes are important determinants in nuclear power risk communication and management. However, there is limited knowledge about how to best communicate with at-risk populations around nuclear power plant in China. To bridge this gap, this study presented the attitudinal data from a field survey in under-building Haiyang nuclear power plant, Shandong Province to measure public support for and opposition to the local construction of nuclear power plant. The paper discussed the structure of the communication process from a descriptive point of view, recognizing the importance of trust and understanding the information openness. The results showed that decision-making on nuclear power was dominated by a closed "iron nuclear triangle" of national governmental agencies, state-owned nuclear enterprises and scientific experts. Public participation and public access to information on nuclear constructions and assessments have been marginal and media was a key information source. As information on nuclear power and related risks is very restricted in China, Chinese citizens (51%) tend to choose the government as the most trustworthy source. More respondents took the negative attitudes toward nuclear power plant construction around home. It drew on studies about risk communication to develop some guidelines for successful risk communication. The conclusions have vast implications for how we approach risk management in the future. The findings should be of interest to state and local emergency managers, community-based organizations, public health researchers, and policy makers.

  17. Nuclear power plant status diagnostics using artificial neural networks

    SciTech Connect

    Bartlett, E.B. . Dept. of Mechanical Engineering); Uhrig, R.E. . Dept. of Nuclear Engineering)

    1991-01-01

    In this work, the nuclear power plant operating status recognition issue is investigated using artificial neural networks (ANNs). The objective is to train an ANN to classify nuclear power plant accident conditions and to assess the potential of future work in the area of plant diagnostics with ANNS. To this end, an ANN was trained to recognize normal operating conditions as well as potentially unsafe conditions based on nuclear power plant training simulator generated accident scenarios. These scenarios include; hot and cold leg loss of coolant, control rod ejection, loss of offsite power, main steam line break, main feedwater line break and steam generator tube leak accidents. Findings show that ANNs can be used to diagnose and classify nuclear power plant conditions with good results.

  18. Nuclear power plant status diagnostics using artificial neural networks

    SciTech Connect

    Bartlett, E.B.; Uhrig, R.E.

    1991-12-31

    In this work, the nuclear power plant operating status recognition issue is investigated using artificial neural networks (ANNs). The objective is to train an ANN to classify nuclear power plant accident conditions and to assess the potential of future work in the area of plant diagnostics with ANNS. To this end, an ANN was trained to recognize normal operating conditions as well as potentially unsafe conditions based on nuclear power plant training simulator generated accident scenarios. These scenarios include; hot and cold leg loss of coolant, control rod ejection, loss of offsite power, main steam line break, main feedwater line break and steam generator tube leak accidents. Findings show that ANNs can be used to diagnose and classify nuclear power plant conditions with good results.

  19. Mesoscale to plant-scale models of nuclear waste reprocessing.

    SciTech Connect

    Noble, David Frederick; O'Hern, Timothy John; Moffat, Harry K.; Nemer, Martin B.; Domino, Stefan Paul; Rao, Rekha Ranjana; Cipiti, Benjamin B.; Brotherton, Christopher M.; Jove-Colon, Carlos F.; Pawlowski, Roger Patrick

    2010-09-01

    Imported oil exacerabates our trade deficit and funds anti-American regimes. Nuclear Energy (NE) is a demonstrated technology with high efficiency. NE's two biggest political detriments are possible accidents and nuclear waste disposal. For NE policy, proliferation is the biggest obstacle. Nuclear waste can be reduced through reprocessing, where fuel rods are separated into various streams, some of which can be reused in reactors. Current process developed in the 1950s is dirty and expensive, U/Pu separation is the most critical. Fuel rods are sheared and dissolved in acid to extract fissile material in a centrifugal contactor. Plants have many contacts in series with other separations. We have taken a science and simulation-based approach to develop a modern reprocessing plant. Models of reprocessing plants are needed to support nuclear materials accountancy, nonproliferation, plant design, and plant scale-up.

  20. Application of PSA to review and define technical specifications for advanced nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, I.S.; Samanta, P.K.; Reinhart, F.M.; Wohl, M.L.

    1995-11-01

    As part of the design certification process, probabilistic safety assessments (PSAS) are performed at the design stage for each advanced nuclear power plant. Among other usages, these PSAs are important inputs in defining the Technical Specifications (TSs) for these plants. Knowledge gained from their use in improving the TSs for operating nuclear power plants is providing methods and insights for using PSAs at this early stage. Evaluating the safety or the risk significance of the TSs to be defined for an advanced plant encompasses diverse aspects: (a) determining the basic limiting condition for operation (LCO); (b) structuring conditions associated with the LCO; (c) defining completion times (equivalent to allowed outage times in the TS for conventional plants); and, (d) prescribing required actions to be taken within the specified completion times. In this paper, we consider the use of PSA in defining the TSs for an advanced nuclear plant, namely General Electric`s Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR). Similar approaches are being taken for ABB-CE`s System 80+ and Westinghouse`s AP-600. We discuss the general features of an advanced reactor`s TS, how PSA is being used in reviewing the TSs, and we give an example where the TS submittal was reviewed using a PSA-based analysis to arrive at the requirements for the plant.

  1. Multi-mission nuclear electric propulsion stage design.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prickett, W. Z.; Stearns, J. W.

    1973-01-01

    Results of a mission engineering analysis of nuclear-thermionic electric propulsion spacecraft for unmanned interplanetary and geocentric missions. Critical technologies assessed are associated with the development of nuclear electric propulsion (NEP), and the impact of its availability on future space programs. Specific areas of investigation include outer planet and comet rendezvous mission analysis, NEP stage design for geocentric and interplanetary missions, and technology requirements for NEP stage development. A multimission NEP stage can be developed to perform both multiple geocentric and interplanetary missions for a 1983 launch. Identified pacing NEP technology requirements are the development of 20,000 full power hour ion thrustors and thermionic reactor and the development of related power conditioning. The resulting NEP stage design provides both inherent reliability and high payload mass capability.

  2. "Life without nuclear power": A nuclear plant retirement formulation model and guide based on economics. San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station case: Economic impacts and reliability considerations leading to plant retirement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wasko, Frank

    Traditionally, electric utilities have been slow to change and very bureaucratic in nature. This culture, in and of itself, has now contributed to a high percentage of United States electric utilities operating uneconomical nuclear plants (Crooks, 2014). The economic picture behind owning and operating United States nuclear plants is less than favorable for many reasons including rising fuel, capital and operating costs (EUCG, 2012). This doctoral dissertation is specifically focused on life without nuclear power. The purpose of this dissertation is to create a model and guide that will provide electric utilities who currently operate or will operate uneconomical nuclear plants the opportunity to economically assess whether or not their nuclear plant should be retired. This economic assessment and stakeholder analysis will provide local government, academia and communities the opportunity to understand how Southern California Edison (SCE) embraced system upgrade import and "voltage support" opportunities to replace "base load" generation from San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station (SONGS) versus building new replacement generation facilities. This model and guide will help eliminate the need to build large replacement generation units as demonstrated in the SONGS case analysis. The application of The Nuclear Power Retirement Model and Guide will provide electric utilities with economic assessment parameters and an evaluation assessment progression needed to better evaluate when an uneconomical nuclear plant should be retired. It will provide electric utilities the opportunity to utilize sound policy, planning and development skill sets when making this difficult decision. There are currently 62 nuclear power plants (with 100 nuclear reactors) operating in the United States (EIA, 2014). From this group, 38 are at risk of early retirement based on the work of Cooper (2013). As demonstrated in my model, 35 of the 38 nuclear power plants qualify to move to the economic

  3. 7 CFR 1767.16 - Electric plant instructions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... unit or system. The difference between the original cost, as above, and the cost to the utility of... with respect to electric plant previously acquired as operating units or systems and the difference... entered in Account 114, Electric Plant Acquisition Adjustments. Any difference between the cost...

  4. 7 CFR 1767.16 - Electric plant instructions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... unit or system. The difference between the original cost, as above, and the cost to the utility of... with respect to electric plant previously acquired as operating units or systems and the difference... entered in Account 114, Electric Plant Acquisition Adjustments. Any difference between the cost...

  5. 7 CFR 1767.16 - Electric plant instructions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... unit or system. The difference between the original cost, as above, and the cost to the utility of... with respect to electric plant previously acquired as operating units or systems and the difference... entered in Account 114, Electric Plant Acquisition Adjustments. Any difference between the cost...

  6. Levelized Costs for Nuclear, Gas and Coal for Electricity, under the Mexican Scenario

    SciTech Connect

    Palacios, J.C.; Alonso, G.; Ramirez, R.; Gomez, A.; Ortiz, J.; Longoria, L.C.

    2004-10-06

    In the case of new nuclear power stations, it is necessary to pay special attention to the financial strategy that will be applied, time of construction, investment cost, and the discount and return rate. The levelized cost quantifies the unitary cost of the electricity (the kWh) generated during the lifetime of the nuclear power plant; and allows the immediate comparison with the cost of other alternative technologies. The present paper shows levelized cost for different nuclear technologies and it provides comparison among them as well as with gas and coal electricity plants. For the calculations we applied our own methodology to evaluate the levelized cost considering investment, fuel and operation and maintenance costs, making assumptions for the Mexican market, and taking into account the gas prices projections. The study also shows comparisons using different discount rates (5% and 10%), and some comparisons between our results and an OECD 1998 study. The results are i n good agreement and shows that nuclear option is cost competitive in Mexico on the basis of levelized costs.

  7. Seismic fragility of nuclear power plant components. Phase I

    SciTech Connect

    Bandyopadhyay, K.K.; Hofmayer, C.H.

    1986-06-01

    As part of the Component Fragility Research Program, sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, BNL is involved in establishing seismic fragility levels for various nuclear power plant equipment by identifying, collecting and analyzing existing test data from various sources. In Phase I of this program, BNL has reviewed approximately seventy test reports to collect fragility or high level test data for switchgears, motor control centers and similar electrical cabinets, valve actuators and numerous electrical devices of various manufacturers and models. This report provides an assessment and evaluation of the data collected in Phase I. The fragility data for medium voltage and low voltage switchgears and motor control centers are analyzed using the test response spectra (TRS) as a measure of the fragility level. The analysis reveals that fragility levels can best be described by a group of TRS curves corresponding to various failure modes. The lower-bound curve indicates the initiation of malfunctioning or structural damage; whereas, the upper-bound curve corresponds to overall failure of the equipment based on known failure modes. High level test data for some components are included in the report. These data indicate that some components are inherently strong and do not exhibit any failure mode even when tested at the vibration limit of a shake table. The common failure modes are identified in the report. The fragility levels determined in this report have been compared with those used in the PRA and Seismic Margin Studies. It appears that the BNL data better correlate with the HCLPF (High Confidence of a Low Probability of Failure) level used in Seismic Margin Studies and can improve this level as high as 60% for certain applications. Specific recommendations are provided for proper application of BNL fragility data to other studies.

  8. High Efficiency Nuclear Power Plants using Liquid Fluoride Thorium Reactor Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juhasz, Albert J.; Rarick, Richard A.; Rangarajan, Rajmohan

    2009-01-01

    An overall system analysis approach is used to propose potential conceptual designs of advanced terrestrial nuclear power plants based on Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) experience and utilizing Closed Cycle Gas Turbine (CCGT) thermal-to-electric energy conversion technology. In particular conceptual designs for an advanced 1 GWe power plant with turbine reheat and compressor intercooling at a 950 K turbine inlet temperature (TIT), as well as near term 100 MWe demonstration plants with TITS of 950 K and 1200 K are presented. Power plant performance data were obtained for TITS ranging from 650 to 1300 K by use of a Closed Brayton Cycle (CBC) systems code which considered the interaction between major sub-systems, including the Liquid Fluoride Thorium Reactor (LFTR), heat source and heat sink heat exchangers, turbo -generator machinery, and an electric power generation and transmission system. Optional off-shore submarine installation of the power plant is a major consideration.

  9. High Efficiency Nuclear Power Plants Using Liquid Fluoride Thorium Reactor Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juhasz, Albert J.; Rarick, Richard A.; Rangarajan, Rajmohan

    2009-01-01

    An overall system analysis approach is used to propose potential conceptual designs of advanced terrestrial nuclear power plants based on Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) experience and utilizing Closed Cycle Gas Turbine (CCGT) thermal-to-electric energy conversion technology. In particular conceptual designs for an advanced 1 GWe power plant with turbine reheat and compressor intercooling at a 950 K turbine inlet temperature (TIT), as well as near term 100 MWe demonstration plants with TITs of 950 and 1200 K are presented. Power plant performance data were obtained for TITs ranging from 650 to 1300 K by use of a Closed Brayton Cycle (CBC) systems code which considered the interaction between major sub-systems, including the Liquid Fluoride Thorium Reactor (LFTR), heat source and heat sink heat exchangers, turbo-generator machinery, and an electric power generation and transmission system. Optional off-shore submarine installation of the power plant is a major consideration.

  10. Static and dynamic high power, space nuclear electric generating systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wetch, J. R.; Begg, L. L.; Koester, J. K.

    1985-01-01

    Space nuclear electric generating systems concepts have been assessed for their potential in satisfying future spacecraft high power (several megawatt) requirements. Conceptual designs have been prepared for reactor power systems using the most promising static (thermionic) and the most promising dynamic conversion processes. Component and system layouts, along with system mass and envelope requirements have been made. Key development problems have been identified and the impact of the conversion process selection upon thermal management and upon system and vehicle configuration is addressed.

  11. Nuclear electric quadrupole interactions in liquids entrapped in cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furman, Gregory B.; Meerovich, Victor M.; Sokolovsky, Vladimir L.

    2016-12-01

    Liquids entrapped in cavities and containing quadrupole nuclei are considered. The interaction of the quadrupole moment of a nucleus with the electric field gradient is studied. In such a system, molecules are in both rotational and translational Brownian motions which are described by the diffusion equation. Solving this equation, we show that the intra- and intermolecular nuclear quadrupole interactions are averaged to zero in cavities with the size larger than several angstroms.

  12. [Electric pulse duration and windows effect of nuclear envelope].

    PubMed

    Wu, Minghe; Yang, Hongchun; Zhang, Yi; Zheng, Xlaoming; Zeng, Gang; Tan, Yafang; Sun, Yunqing; Zou, Heng

    2011-06-01

    Nuclear envelope voltages of T cells were analyzed with a lumped circuitry for cells in combination with frequency domain power density of Gaussian pulses and monocycle pulses. According to the differences in geometric and electric parameters between normal and malignant T cells, circuitry analysis was performed. Theoretical evaluations indicated that apoptosis of malignant T cells was of feasibility, which could be applied in cancer therapy. The evaluations were in accord with the published experimental findings.

  13. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Research and Development Program Plan

    SciTech Connect

    P. E. MacDonald

    2005-01-01

    The U.S Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting research and development (R&D) on the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) design concept for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project. The reactor design will be a graphite moderated, thermal neutron spectrum reactor that will produce electricity and hydrogen in a highly efficient manner. The NGNP reactor core could be either a prismatic graphite block type core or a pebble bed core. Use of a liquid salt coolant is also being evaluated. The NGNP will use very high-burnup, low-enriched uranium, TRISO-coated fuel, and have a projected plant design service life of 60 years. The VHTR concept is considered to be the nearest-term reactor design that has the capability to efficiently produce hydrogen. The plant size, reactor thermal power, and core configuration will ensure passive decay heat removal without fuel damage or radioactive material releases during accidents. The objectives of the NGNP Project are to: Demonstrate a full-scale prototype VHTR that is commercially licensed by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Demonstrate safe and economical nuclearassisted production of hydrogen and electricity. The DOE laboratories, led by the INL, will perform R&D that will be critical to the success of the NGNP, primarily in the areas of: High temperature gas reactor fuels behavior High temperature materials qualification Design methods development and validation Hydrogen production technologies Energy conversion. The current R&D work is addressing fundamental issues that are relevant to a variety of possible NGNP designs. This document describes the NGNP R&D planned and currently underway in the first three topic areas listed above. The NGNP Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development and Qualification Program is presented in Section 2, the NGNP Materials R&D Program Plan is presented in Section 3, and the NGNP Design Methods Development and Validation R&D Program is presented in Section 4. The DOE-funded hydrogen

  14. Potential Applications for Nuclear Energy besides Electricity Generation: AREVA Global Perspective of HTR Potential Market

    SciTech Connect

    Soutworth, Finis; Gauthier, Jean-Claude; Lecomte, Michel; Carre, Franck

    2007-07-01

    Energy supply is increasingly showing up as a major issue for electricity supply, transportation, settlement, and process heat industrial supply including hydrogen production. Nuclear power is part of the solution. For electricity supply, as exemplified in Finland and France, the EPR brings an immediate answer; HTR could bring another solution in some specific cases. For other supply, mostly heat, the HTR brings a solution inaccessible to conventional nuclear power plants for very high or even high temperature. As fossil fuels costs increase and efforts to avoid generation of Greenhouse gases are implemented, a market for nuclear generated process heat will develop. Following active developments in the 80's, HTR have been put on the back burner up to 5 years ago. Light water reactors are widely dominating the nuclear production field today. However, interest in the HTR technology was renewed in the past few years. Several commercial projects are actively promoted, most of them aiming at electricity production. ANTARES is today AREVA's response to the cogeneration market. It distinguishes itself from other concepts with its indirect cycle design powering a combined cycle power plant. Several reasons support this design choice, one of the most important of which is the design flexibility to adapt readily to combined heat and power applications. From the start, AREVA made the choice of such flexibility with the belief that the HTR market is not so much in competition with LWR in the sole electricity market but in the specific added value market of cogeneration and process heat. In view of the volatility of the costs of fossil fuels, AREVA's choice brings to the large industrial heat applications the fuel cost predictability of nuclear fuel with the efficiency of a high temperature heat source free of greenhouse gases emissions. The ANTARES module produces 600 MWth which can be split into the required process heat, the remaining power drives an adapted prorated

  15. EMOTIONAL CONSEQUENCES OF NUCLEAR POWER PLANT DISASTERS

    PubMed Central

    Bromet, Evelyn J.

    2014-01-01

    The emotional consequences of nuclear power plant disasters include depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, and medically unexplained somatic symptoms. These effects are often long term and associated with fears about developing cancer. Research on disasters involving radiation, particularly evidence from Chernobyl, indicates that mothers of young children and cleanup workers are the highest risk groups. The emotional consequences occur independently of the actual exposure received. In contrast, studies of children raised in the shadows of the Three Mile Island (TMI) and Chernobyl accidents suggest that although their self-rated health is less satisfactory than that of their peers, their emotional, academic, and psychosocial development is comparable. The importance of the psychological impact is underscored by its chronicity and by several studies showing that poor mental health is associated with physical health conditions, early mortality, disability, and over-utilization of medical services. Given the established increase in mental health problems following TMI and Chernobyl, it is likely that the same pattern will occur in residents and evacuees affected by the Fukushima meltdowns. Preliminary data from Fukushima indeed suggest that workers and mothers of young children are at risk of depression, anxiety, psychosomatic, and post-traumatic symptoms both as a direct result of their fears about radiation exposure and an indirect result of societal stigma. Thus, it is important that nonmental health providers learn to recognize and manage psychological symptoms and that medical programs be designed to reduce stigma and alleviate psychological suffering by integrating psychiatric and medical treatment within the walls of their clinics. PMID:24378494

  16. Lightweight Radiator for in Space Nuclear Electric Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craven, Paul; Tomboulian, Briana; SanSoucie, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) is a promising option for high-speed in-space travel due to the high energy density of nuclear fission power sources and efficient electric thrusters. Advanced power conversion technologies may require high operating temperatures and would benefit from lightweight radiator materials. Radiator performance dictates power output for nuclear electric propulsion systems. Game-changing propulsion systems are often enabled by novel designs using advanced materials. Pitch-based carbon fiber materials have the potential to offer significant improvements in operating temperature, thermal conductivity, and mass. These properties combine to allow advances in operational efficiency and high temperature feasibility. An effort at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center to show that woven high thermal conductivity carbon fiber mats can be used to replace standard metal and composite radiator fins to dissipate waste heat from NEP systems is ongoing. The goals of this effort are to demonstrate a proof of concept, to show that a significant improvement of specific power (power/mass) can be achieved, and to develop a thermal model with predictive capabilities making use of constrained input parameter space. A description of this effort is presented.

  17. Cost and quality of fuels for electric utility plants, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-14

    This document presents an annual summary of statistics at the national, Census division, State, electric utility, and plant levels regarding the quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels used to produce electricity. Purpose of this publication is to provide energy decision-makers with accurate, timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on issues regarding electric power.

  18. Cost and quality of fuels for electric utility plants, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-02

    This publication presents an annual summary of statistics at the national, Census division, State, electric utility, and plant levels regarding the quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels used to produce electricity. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decision-makers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on issues regarding electric power.

  19. EPRI/NRC workshop on nuclear power plant reevaluation to quantify seismic margins: proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-08-01

    A three-day workshop on nuclear power plant reevaluation to quantify seismic margins was held in San Francisco on October 15-17, 1984. The workshop was cosponsored by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Electric Power Research Institute. The primary objective of the workshop was to develop technical strategies by which utilities could demonstrate and the NRC could evaluate seismic margins for existing nuclear plants. These proceedings contain the text of the formal technical presentations as well as summaries of the working group sessions. Thirteen technical papers as well as NRC and EPRI reserach programs were presented at the technical sessions. Four working group discussion sessions were then held in the geotechnical/structural, piping, and equipment areas. Each group provided a forum for participants to exchange ideas and to discuss in more depth the criteria, methods and needs for plant seismic reevaluation. Recommendations from the working groups were summarized and presented at the end of the workshop.

  20. Results of the USI A-46 seismic walkdown program at the Kewaunee Nuclear Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Ridder, G.C.; Djordjevic, W.

    1995-12-31

    Seismic verification walkdowns of selected mechanical and electrical equipment, cable trays, tanks and heat exchangers were performed at the Kewaunee Nuclear Power Plant in 1993 to address the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission Unresolved Safety Issue (USI) A-46. This paper discusses the walkdown program at Kewaunee, including the systems and equipment evaluated during the walkdowns and a detailed discussion of the walkdown findings. Wisconsin Public Service Corporation (WPSC) operates the Kewaunee plant and is a member of the Seismic Qualification utility Group (SQUG) which developed the Generic Implementation Procedure (GIP) to resolve USI A-46. Kewaunee is a single unit, 535 MWe pressurized water reactor (PWR) with a Westinghouse nuclear steam supply system and turbine. The plant is located on the western shore of Lake Michigan and began commercial operation in 1974.

  1. Knowledge elicitation techniques and application to nuclear plant maintenance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doyle, E. Kevin

    The new millennium has brought with it the opportunity of global trade which in turn requires the utmost in efficiency from each individual industry. This includes the nuclear power industry, a point which was emphasized when the electrical generation industry began to be de regulated across North America the late 1990s and re-emphasized when the northeast power grid of North America collapsed in the summer of 2003. This dissertation deals with reducing the cost of the maintenance function of Candu nuclear power plants and initiating a strong link between universities and the Canadian nuclear industry. Various forms of RCM (reliability-centred maintenance) have been the tools of choice in industry for improving the maintenance function during the last 20 years. In this project, pilot studies, conducted at Bruce Power between 1999 and 2005, and reported on in this dissertation, lay out a path to implement statistical improvements as the next step after RCM in reducing the cost of the maintenance. Elicitation protocols, designed for the age group being elicited, address the much-documented issue of a lack of data. Clear, graphical, inferential statistical interfaces are accentuated and developed to aid in building the teams required to implement the various methodologies and to help in achieving funding targets. Graphical analysis and Crow/AMSAA (army materials systems analysis activity) plots are developed and demonstrated from the point of view of justifying the expenditures of cost reduction efforts. This dissertation ultimately speaks to the great opportunity being presented by this approach at this time: of capturing the baby-boom generation's huge pool of knowledge before those people retire. It is expected that the protocols and procedures referenced here will have applicability across the many disciplines where collecting expert information from a similar age group is required.

  2. PEGASUS: A multi-megawatt nuclear electric propulsion system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coomes, Edmund P.; Cuta, Judith M.; Webb, Brent J.; King, David Q.; Patterson, Mike J.; Berkopec, Frank

    1986-01-01

    A propulsion system (PEGASUS) consisting of an electric thruster driven by a multimegawatt nuclear power system is proposed for a manned Mars mission. Magnetoplasmadynamic and mercury-ion thrusters are considered, based on a mission profile containing a 510-day burn time (for a mission time of approximately 1000 days). Both thrusters are capable of meeting the mission parameters. Electric propulsion systems have significant advantages over chemical systems, because of high specific impulse, lower propellant requirements, and lower system mass. The power for the PEGASUS system is supplied by a boiling liquid-metal fast reactor. The power system consists of the reactor, reactor shielding, power conditioning subsystems, and heat rejection subsystems. It is capable of providing a maximum of 8.5 megawatts of electrical power of which 6 megawatts is needed for the thruster system, leaving 1.5 megawatts available for inflight mission applications.

  3. Secured electrical supply at least cost: Coal, gas, nuclear, hydro

    SciTech Connect

    Gavor, J.; Stary, O.; Vasicek, J.

    1995-12-01

    Electric power sector in East Central European countries finds in a difficult period. In the situation of demand stagnation, enormous investments must be realized in a very short time. Today`s decisions in the development strategy will influence the long term future of the industry. The optimal structure of the sources is one of the most important problem to be solved. Paper describes the current structure of the sources in electric power sector in the Czech Republic. The importance of coal, oil and gas, nuclear and hydro in electric power generation is compared. Taking into account the different position in the load coverage, economy of individual sources is evaluated and basic results of discounted cash flow calculations are presented. Information on specific investment programs and projects are included and further trends are estimated.

  4. Nuclear power plant status diagnostics using an artificial neural network

    SciTech Connect

    Bartlett, E.B.; Uhrig, R.E. )

    1992-03-01

    In this paper, nuclear power plant operating status recognition is investigated using a self-optimizing stochastic learning algorithm artificial neutral network (ANN) with dynamic node architecture learning. The objective is to train the ANN to classify selected nuclear power plant accident conditions and assess the potential for future success in this area. The network is trained on normal operating conditions as well as on potentially unsafe conditions based on nuclear power plant training simulator-generated accident scenarios. These scenarios include hot-and cold-leg loss of coolant, control rod ejection, total loss of off-site power, main streamline break, main feedwater line break, and steam generator tube leak accidents as well as the normal operating condition. Findings show that ANNs can be used to diagnose and classify nuclear power plant conditions with good results. continued research work indicated.

  5. Reliability of emergency ac power systems at nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Battle, R E; Campbell, D J

    1983-07-01

    Reliability of emergency onsite ac power systems at nuclear power plants has been questioned within the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) because of the number of diesel generator failures reported by nuclear plant licensees and the reactor core damage that could result from diesel failure during an emergency. This report contains the results of a reliability analysis of the onsite ac power system, and it uses the results of a separate analysis of offsite power systems to calculate the expected frequency of station blackout. Included is a design and operating experience review. Eighteen plants representative of typical onsite ac power systems and ten generic designs were selected to be modeled by fault trees. Operating experience data were collected from the NRC files and from nuclear plant licensee responses to a questionnaire sent out for this project.

  6. 10 CFR Appendix B to Part 50 - Quality Assurance Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants and Fuel Reprocessing Plants

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Quality Assurance Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants and... Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants and Fuel Reprocessing Plants Introduction. Every applicant for a..., and components of the reactor. Nuclear power plants and fuel reprocessing plants include...

  7. 10 CFR Appendix B to Part 50 - Quality Assurance Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants and Fuel Reprocessing Plants

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Quality Assurance Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants and... Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants and Fuel Reprocessing Plants Introduction. Every applicant for a..., and components of the reactor. Nuclear power plants and fuel reprocessing plants include...

  8. 10 CFR Appendix B to Part 50 - Quality Assurance Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants and Fuel Reprocessing Plants

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Quality Assurance Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants and... Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants and Fuel Reprocessing Plants Introduction. Every applicant for a..., and components of the reactor. Nuclear power plants and fuel reprocessing plants include...

  9. 10 CFR Appendix B to Part 50 - Quality Assurance Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants and Fuel Reprocessing Plants

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Quality Assurance Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants and... Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants and Fuel Reprocessing Plants Introduction. Every applicant for a..., and components of the reactor. Nuclear power plants and fuel reprocessing plants include...

  10. 10 CFR Appendix B to Part 50 - Quality Assurance Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants and Fuel Reprocessing Plants

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Quality Assurance Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants and... Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants and Fuel Reprocessing Plants Introduction. Every applicant for a..., and components of the reactor. Nuclear power plants and fuel reprocessing plants include...

  11. Using nuclear gene data for plant phylogenetics: progress and prospects.

    PubMed

    Zimmer, Elizabeth A; Wen, Jun

    2012-11-01

    The paper reviews the current state of low and single copy nuclear markers that have been applied successfully in plant phylogenetics to date, and discusses case studies highlighting the potential of massively parallel high throughput or next-generation sequencing (NGS) approaches for molecular phylogenetic and evolutionary investigations. The current state, prospects and challenges of specific single- or low-copy plant nuclear markers as well as phylogenomic case studies are presented and evaluated. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Prediction of Technological Failures in Nuclear Power Plant Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Salnykov, A. A.

    2015-01-15

    A method for predicting operating technological failures in nuclear power plants which makes it possible to reduce the unloading of the generator unit during the onset and development of an anomalous engineering state of the equipment by detecting a change in state earlier and taking suitable measures. With the circulating water supply loop of a nuclear power plant as an example, scenarios and algorithms for predicting technological failures in the operation of equipment long before their actual occurrence are discussed.

  13. Biomedical Lessons from the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Accident

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-10-01

    Lessons From the Lt Col Doris Browne, MC Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Accident The Chernobyl nuclear accident afforded the treating physicians a...radiation accident posited on the skin and mucous mem- A Lt Col Dori Browne, MC, is Chief, Medicaloccurred at the Chernobyl nuclear branes from the molten...Conclusion ulcers of oral mucosa, which required irradiation. He also had persistent The consequences ot the Chernobyl sterile saline irrigation and

  14. Children's reactions to the threat of nuclear plant accidents

    SciTech Connect

    Schwebel, M.; Schwebel, B.

    1981-04-01

    In the wake of Three Mile Island nuclear plant accident, questionnaire and interview responses of children in elementary and secondary schools revealed their perceptions of the dangers entailed in the continued use of nuclear reactors. Results are compared with a parallel study conducted close to 20 years ago, and implications for mental health are examined.

  15. Characterization of in-containment cables for nuclear plant life extension

    SciTech Connect

    DuCharme, A.R.; Bustard, L.D.

    1988-01-01

    Electrical cable is made by a large number of manufacturers and used for a variety of applications in nuclear plants. cables have been identified in the Monticello and Surry Pilot Plant life extension studies and the NRC Nuclear Plant Aging Research Program as components important to the economic and safety aspects of life extension. Currently, fitness for service is largely determined by preoperational testing. The US Department of Energy is supporting work at Sandia National Laboratories to assess the technical basis for the life extension of cables found inside containment at US nuclear plants. The work is being performed in coordination with the Nuclear Management and Resource Council's (NUMARC) NUPLEX Working Group. The initial task of this effort is to characterize the design attributes of in-containment cables. This has been completed via development of a data base depicting the manufacturer, type, material composition, use, qualification, and relative popularity of cables installed in containment. Other ongoing work is focused on a review of cable operational experience and assessment of the issues affecting cable life extension. In the long term, the work aims to identify the technical criteria and life extension strategies needed to support continued cable qualification by nuclear plant owner/operators. 7 refs., 4 tabs.

  16. Electricity: From Tabletop to Power Plant

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moran, Timothy

    2009-01-01

    While electricity is central to our daily lives, it remains "black box" technology to most students. They know that electricity is produced somewhere and that it costs money, but they do not have personal experience with the operation and scale of the machines that provide it. Fortunately, electricity generation can be added to the more basic…

  17. Electricity: From Tabletop to Power Plant

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moran, Timothy

    2009-01-01

    While electricity is central to our daily lives, it remains "black box" technology to most students. They know that electricity is produced somewhere and that it costs money, but they do not have personal experience with the operation and scale of the machines that provide it. Fortunately, electricity generation can be added to the more basic…

  18. Coping with nuclear power risks: the electric utility incentives

    SciTech Connect

    Starr, C.; Whipple, C.

    1982-01-01

    The financial risks associated with nuclear power accidents are estimated by interpolating between frequency-vs.-severity data from routine outages and the frequency-vs.-severity estimates from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) Reactor Safety Study (WASH-1400). This analysis indicates that the expected costs of plant damage and lost power production are large compared to the public risks estimated in WASH-1400, using values from An Approach to Quantitative Safety Goals for Nuclear Power Plants (NUREG-0739), prepared by the NRC Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards. Analyses of the cost-effectiveness of accident-prevention investments that include only anticipated public safety benefits will underestimate the value of such investments if reductions in power plant damage risk are not included. The analysis also suggests that utility self-interest and the public interest in safety are generally coincident. It is argued that greater use could be made of this self-interest in regulation if the relationship between the NRC and the industry were more cooperative, less adversary in nature.

  19. Effects of knowledge and persuasion on high-school students' attitudes toward nuclear power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showers, Dennis E.; Shrigley, Robert L.

    Researchers report finding correlational data to identify a positive relationship between nuclear knowledge and positive attitudes toward the use of nuclear energy. This study investigated the relationship between nuclear knowledge and nuclear attitudes and to the understanding of Science-Technology-Society attitudes involving technological attitude objects. This quasi-experimental study tested the causal relationship between knowledge about nuclear power plants and attitudes toward their use in electrical generation. Subjects were presented with systematically designed communications developed to change either their knowledge about or attitude toward nuclear plants. The Standard Events of Instruction was the basis of the knowledge instruction, whereas the Learning Theory Approach and the Theory of Reasoned Action were the theoretical bases of the persuasive communication. The principal finding was that nuclear knowledge and nuclear attitude each can be changed independently of the other. Although knowledge and attitudes are correlationally linked, this study shows no evidence of a cause-effect relationship.Received: 4 May 1994; Revised: 14 July 1994;

  20. Nuclear electromagnetic pulse and the electric power system

    SciTech Connect

    Legro, J.R.; Reed, T.J.

    1985-01-01

    A single, high-altitude nuclear detonation over the continental United States can expose large geographic areas to transient, electromagnetic pulse (EMP). The initial electromagnetic fields produced by this event have been defined as high-altitude electromagnetic pulse (HEMP). Later-time, low frequency fields have been defined as magnetohydrodynamic-electromagnetic pulse (MHD-EMP). Nuclear detonations at, or near the surface of the earth can also produce transient EMP. These electromagnetic phenomena have been defined as source region electromagnetic pulse (SREMP). The Division of Electric Energy Systems (EES) of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) has formulated and implemented a Program Plan to assess the possible effects of the above nuclear EMP on civilian electric power systems. This unclassified research effort is under the technical leadership of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This paper presents a brief perspective of EMP phenomenology and important interaction issues for power systems based on research performed by Westinghouse Advanced Systems Technology as a principal subcontractor in the research effort.

  1. 76 FR 39908 - Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-07

    .... Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC is owned by Constellation Energy Nuclear Group, LLC (CENG). The... one of CENG's parent companies, Constellation Energy Group, Inc (CEG). According to the application... Generation; and Throughout the transaction, the direct ownership by CEG of 100 percent of...

  2. 77 FR 47121 - Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Units 1 and 2...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-07

    ... control of work hours and management of worker fatigue does not impede the ability to use available staff... Regulations (10 CFR) Part 26, Subpart I requires licensees to establish a policy for the management of fatigue..., ``Fatigue Management for Nuclear Power Plant Personnel,'' endorses the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI)...

  3. Standard technical specifications: General Electric plants, BWR/4. Volume 1, Revision 1: Specifications

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    This report documents the results of the combined effort of the NRC and the industry to produce improved Standard Technical Specifications (STS), Revision 1 for General Electric BWR/4 Plants. The changes reflected in Revision 1 resulted from the experience gained from license amendment applications to convert to these improved STS or to adopt partial improvements to existing technical specifications. This NUREG is the result of extensive public technical meetings and discussions between the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff and various nuclear power plant licensees, Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS) Owners Groups, NSSS vendors, and the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI). The improved STS were developed based on the criteria in the Final Commission Policy Statement on Technical Specifications Improvements for Nuclear Power Reactors, dated July 22, 1993. The improved STS will be used as the basis for individual nuclear power plant licensees to develop improved plant-specific technical specifications. This report contains three volumes. Volume 1 contains the Specifications for all chapters and sections of the improved STS. Volume 2 contains the Bases for Chapters 2.0 and 3.0, and Sections 3.1--3.3 of the improved STS. Volume 3 contains the Bases for Sections 3.4--3.10 of the improved STS.

  4. Standard technical specifications General Electric plants, BWR/6. Volume 1, Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    This report documents the results of the combined effort of the NRC and the industry to produce improved Standard Technical Specifications (STS), Revision 1 for General Electric BWR/6 Plants. The changes reflected in Revision 1 resulted from the experience gained from license amendment applications to convert to these improved STS or to adopt partial improvements to existing technical specifications. This NUREG is the result of extensive public technical meetings and discussions between the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff and various nuclear power plant licensees, Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS) Owners Groups, NSSS vendors, and the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI). The improved STS were developed based on the criteria in the Final Commission Policy Statement on Technical Specifications Improvements for Nuclear Power Reactors, dated July 22, 1993. The improved STS will be used as the basis for individual nuclear power plant licensees to develop improved plant-specific technical specifications. This report contains three volumes. Volume 1 contains the Specifications for all chapters and sections of the improved STS. Volume 2 contains the Bases for Chapters 2.0 and 3.0, and Sections 3.1--3.3 of the improved STS. Volume 3 contains the Bases for Sections 3.4--3.10 of the improved STS.

  5. Nuclear electric dipole moments for the lowest 1/2+ states in Xe and Ba isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshinaga, N.; Higashiyama, K.; Arai, R.; Teruya, E.

    2014-04-01

    The electric dipole moments for the lowest 1/2+ states of Xe and Ba isotopes are calculated in terms of the nuclear shell model, which includes two-body nucleon interactions violating parity and time-reversal invariance. Using the wave functions thus obtained, the nuclear electric dipole moments arising from the intrinsic nucleon electric dipole moments and also from asymmetric charge distribution are calculated. The upper limits for the nuclear electric dipole moments of Xe and Ba isotopes are estimated.

  6. The Decommissioning of the Trino Nuclear Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Brusa, L.; DeSantis, R.; Nurden, P. L.; Walkden, P.; Watson, B.

    2002-02-27

    Following a referendum in Italy in 1987, the four Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) owned and operated by the state utility ENEL were closed. After closing the NPPs, ENEL selected a ''safestore'' decommissioning strategy; anticipating a safestore period of some 40-50 years. This approach was consistent with the funds collected during plant operation, and was reinforced by the lack of both a waste repository and a set of national free release limits for contaminated materials in Italy. During 1999, twin decisions were made to privatize ENEL and to transform the nuclear division into a separate subsidiary of the ENEL group. This group was renamed Sogin and during the following year, ownership of the company was transferred to the Italian Treasury. On formation, Sogin was asked by the Italian government to review the national decommissioning strategy. The objective of the review was to move from a safestore strategy to a prompt decommissioning strategy, with the target of releasing all of the nuclear sites by 2020. It was recognized that this target was conditional upon the availability of a national LLW repository together with interim stores for both spent fuel and HLW by 2009. The government also agreed that additional costs caused by the acceleration of the decommissioning program would be considered as stranded costs. These costs will be recovered by a levy on the kWh price of electricity, a process established and controlled by the Regulator of the Italian energy sector. Building on the successful collaboration to develop a prompt decommissioning strategy for the Latina Magnox reactor (1), BNFL and Sogin agreed to collaborate on an in depth study for the prompt decommissioning of the Sogin PWR at Trino. BNFL is currently decommissioning six NPPs and is at an advanced stage of planning for two further units, having completed a full and rigorous exercise to develop Baseline Decommissioning Plans (BDP's) for these stations. The BDP exercise utilizes the full range of

  7. Analysis of nuclear power plant component failures

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    Items are shown that have caused 90% of the nuclear unit outages and/or deratings between 1971 and 1980 and the magnitude of the problem indicated by an estimate of power replacement cost when the units are out of service or derated. The funding EPRI has provided on these specific items for R and D and technology transfer in the past and the funding planned in the future (1982 to 1986) are shown. EPRI's R and D may help the utilities on only a small part of their nuclear unit outage problems. For example, refueling is the major cause for nuclear unit outages or deratings and the steam turbine is the second major cause for nuclear unit outages; however, these two items have been ranked fairly low on the EPRI priority list for R and D funding. Other items such as nuclear safety (NRC requirements), reactor general, reactor and safety valves and piping, and reactor fuel appear to be receiving more priority than is necessary as determined by analysis of nuclear unit outage causes.

  8. More on duel purpose solar-electric power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, F. F.

    Rationale for such plants is reviewed and plant elements are listed. Dual purpose solar-electric plants would generate both electricity and hydrogen gas for conversion to ammonia or methanol or direct use as a fuel of unsurpassed specific power and cleanliness. By-product oxygen would also be sold to owners of hydrogen age equipment. Evolved gasses at high pressure could be fired in compressorless gas turbines, boilerless steam-turbines or fuel-cell-inverter hydrogen-electric power drives of high thermal efficiency as well as in conventional internal combustion engines.

  9. Evaluation of High-Performance Space Nuclear Electric Generators for Electric Propulsion Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodcock, Gordon; Kross, Dennis A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Electric propulsion applications are enhanced by high power-to-mass ratios for their electric power sources. At multi-megawatt levels, we can expect thrust production systems to be less than 5 kg/kWe. Application of nuclear electric propulsion to human Mars missions becomes an attractive alternative to nuclear thermal propulsion if the propulsion system is less than about 10 kg/kWe. Recent references have projected megawatt-plus nuclear electric sources at specific mass values from less than 1 kg/kWe to about 5 kg/kWe. Various assumptions are made regarding power generation cycle (turbogenerator; MHD (magnetohydrodynamics)) and reactor heat source design. The present paper compares heat source and power generation options on the basis of a parametric model that emphasizes heat transfer design and realizable hardware concept. Pressure drop (important!) is included in the power cycle analysis, and MHD and turbogenerator cycles are compared. Results indicate that power source specific mass less than 5 kg/kWe is attainable, even if peak temperatures achievable are limited to 1500 K. Projections of specific mass less than 1 kg/kWe are unrealistic, even at the highest peak temperatures considered.

  10. Aging management of containment structures in nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Naus, D.J.; Oland, C.B.; Ellingwood, B.R.; Graves, H.L. III; Norris, W.E.

    1994-12-31

    Research is being conducted by ORNL under US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) sponsorship to address aging management of nuclear power plant containment and other safety-related structures. Documentation is being prepared to provide the USNRC with potential structural safety issues and acceptance criteria for use in continued service evaluations of nuclear power plants. Accomplishments include development of a Structural Materials Information Center containing data and information on the time variation of 144 material properties under the influence of pertinent environmental stressors or aging factors, evaluation of models for potential concrete containment degradation factors, development of a procedure to identify critical structures and degradation factors important to aging management, evaluations of nondestructive evaluation techniques. assessments of European and North American repair practices for concrete, review of parameters affecting corrosion of metals embedded in concrete, and development of methodologies for making current condition assessments and service life predictions of new or existing reinforced concrete structures in nuclear power plants.

  11. Regulatory Guidance for Lightning Protection in Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Kisner, Roger A; Wilgen, John B; Ewing, Paul D; Korsah, Kofi; Antonescu, Christina E

    2006-01-01

    Abstract - Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was engaged by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research (RES) to develop the technical basis for regulatory guidance to address design and implementation practices for lightning protection systems in nuclear power plants (NPPs). Lightning protection is becoming increasingly important with the advent of digital and low-voltage analog systems in NPPs. These systems have the potential to be more vulnerable than older analog systems to the resulting power surges and electromagnetic interference (EMI) when lightning strikes facilities or power lines. This paper discusses the technical basis for guidance to licensees and applicants covered in Regulatory Guide (RG) 1.204, Guidelines for Lightning Protection of Nuclear Power Plants, issued August 2005. RG 1.204 describes guidance for practices that are acceptable to the NRC staff for protecting nuclear power structures and systems from direct lightning strikes and the resulting secondary effects.

  12. Design issues concerning Iran`s Bushehr nuclear power plant VVER-1000 conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Carson, C.F.

    1996-12-31

    On January 8, 1995, the Atomic Energy Organization of Iran (AEOI) signed a contract for $800 million with the Russian Federation Ministry for Atomic Energy (Minatom) to complete Bushehr nuclear power plant (BNPP) unit 1. The agreement called for a Russian VVER-1000/320 pressurized water reactor (PWR) to be successfully installed into the existing German-built BNPP facilities in 5 yr. System design differences, bomb damage, and environmental exposure are key issues with which Minatom must contend in order to fulfill the contract. The AEOI under the Shah of Iran envisioned Bushehr as the first of many nuclear power plants, with Iran achieving 24 GW(electric) by 1993 and 34 GW(electric) by 2000. Kraftwerk Union AG (KWU) began construction of the two-unit plant near the Persian Gulf town of Halileh in 1975. Unit 1 was {approx}80% complete and unit 2 was {approx}50% complete when construction was interrupted by the 1979 Iranian Islamic revolution. Despite repeated AEOI attempts to lure KWU and other companies back to Iran to complete the plant, Western concerns about nuclear proliferation in Iran and repeated bombings of the plant during the 1980-1988 Iran-Iraq war dissuaded Germany from resuming construction.

  13. Functions and operations of nuclear power plant crews

    SciTech Connect

    Kisner, R.A.; Frey, P.R.

    1982-04-01

    This report summarizes the results of work performed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and its subcontractors to define the functions, operations, and organization of nuclear power plant operating crews. The primary information sources used were ANS and IEEE standards, normal and emergency operating procedures from nuclear power plants, interviews, and literature reviews. The function and organization of operating crews for several plants are discussed genericly. The report covers a wide spectrum of topics including review of standards affecting human factors in the control room, influence of automation on operator functions, classification of operator functions, function of operator at onset of emergency, crew organization, work-induced stress, and operator acceptance of his role.

  14. Use of expert systems in nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Uhrig, R.E.

    1989-01-01

    The application of technologies, particularly expert systems, to the control room activities in a nuclear power plant has the potential to reduce operator error and increase plant safety, reliability, and efficiency. Furthermore, there are a large number of nonoperating activities (testing, routine maintenance, outage planning, equipment diagnostics, and fuel management) in which expert systems can increase the efficiency and effectiveness of overall plant and corporate operations. This document presents a number of potential applications of expert systems in the nuclear power field. 36 refs., 2 tabs.

  15. Electric-dipole sum rule in nuclear matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabrocini, A.; Fantoni, S.

    1985-03-01

    The enhancement factor K in the electric-dipole sum rule for some realistic models of symmetrical nuclear matter is calculated using variational theory. The nuclear-matter wave function used contains central, spin, isospin, tensor and spin-orbit pair correlations. The non-central correlations, particularly the tensor one, give the major contribution to K. At experimental equilibrium density K. turns out to be ≈ 1.8, of which 65% comes from OPEP and 30% from the short-range part of the interaction. The two-pion-exchange three-nucleon interaction contributes ≈ 0.2% and is cancelled, to a large extent, by the contribution due to the intermediate-range two-body potential. The relationship of the summed oscillator strength with the effective mass is also discussed.

  16. A potassium Rankine multimegawatt nuclear electric propulsion concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumeister, E.; Rovang, R.; Mills, J.; Sercel, J.; Frisbee, R.

    1990-01-01

    Multimegawatt nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) has been identified as a potentially attractive option for future space exploratory missions. A liquid-metal-cooled reactor, potassium Rankine power system that is being developed is suited to fulfill this application. The key features of the nuclear power system are described, and system characteristics are provided for various potential NEP power ranges and operational lifetimes. The results of recent mission studies are presented to illustrate some of the potential benefits to future space exploration to be gained from high-power NEP. Specifically, mission analyses have been performed to assess the mass and trip time performance of advanced NEP for both cargo and piloted missions to Mars.

  17. A potassium Rankine multimegawatt nuclear electric propulsion concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumeister, E.; Rovang, R.; Mills, J.; Sercel, J.; Frisbee, R.

    1990-01-01

    Multimegawatt nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) has been identified as a potentially attractive option for future space exploratory missions. A liquid-metal-cooled reactor, potassium Rankine power system that is being developed is suited to fulfill this application. The key features of the nuclear power system are described, and system characteristics are provided for various potential NEP power ranges and operational lifetimes. The results of recent mission studies are presented to illustrate some of the potential benefits to future space exploration to be gained from high-power NEP. Specifically, mission analyses have been performed to assess the mass and trip time performance of advanced NEP for both cargo and piloted missions to Mars.

  18. Reactor design and integration into a nuclear electric spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, W. M.; Koenig, D. R.

    1978-01-01

    One of the well-defined applications for nuclear power in space is nuclear electric propulsion (NEP). Mission studies have identified the optimum power level (400 kWe). A single Shuttle launch requirement and science-package integration have added additional constraints to the design. A reactor design which will meet these constraints has been studied. The reactor employs 90 fuel elements, each heat pipe cooled. Reactor control is obtained with BeO/B4C drums in a BeO reflector. The balance of the spacecraft is shielded from the reactor with LiH. Power conditioning and reactor control drum drives are located behind the LiH with the power conditioning. Launch safety, mechanical design and integration with the power conversion subsystem are discussed.

  19. Nuclear Electric Propulsion for the Exploration of the Outer Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noca, M.; Polk, J. E.; Lenard, R.

    2001-01-01

    New power and propulsion technology efforts such as the DS-1 ion propulsion system demonstration and renewed interest in space nuclear power sources call for a reassessment of the mission benefits of Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP). In this study, a large emphasis has been placed in defining the NEP vehicle configuration and corresponding subsystem elements in order to produce an estimate of the vehicle's payload delivery capability which is as credible as possible. Both a 100 kWe and a 1 MWe system are defined. Various Outer Planet missions are evaluated using NEP, such as a Pluto Orbiter, a Europa Lander and Sample Return, attain/Saturn Sample Return and a Neptune Orbiter. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  20. Reactor design and integration into a nuclear electric spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, W. M.; Koenig, D. R.

    1978-01-01

    One of the well-defined applications for nuclear power in space is nuclear electric propulsion (NEP). Mission studies have identified the optimum power level (400 kWe). A single Shuttle launch requirement and science-package integration have added additional constraints to the design. A reactor design which will meet these constraints has been studied. The reactor employs 90 fuel elements, each heat pipe cooled. Reactor control is obtained with BeO/B4C drums in a BeO reflector. The balance of the spacecraft is shielded from the reactor with LiH. Power conditioning and reactor control drum drives are located behind the LiH with the power conditioning. Launch safety, mechanical design and integration with the power conversion subsystem are discussed.

  1. Electricity: From Tabletop to Power Plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moran, Timothy

    2009-01-01

    While electricity is central to our daily lives, it remains "black box" technology to most students. They know that electricity is produced somewhere and that it costs money, but they do not have personal experience with the operation and scale of the machines that provide it. Fortunately, electricity generation can be added to the more basic circuit topics (series, parallel, current, voltage, etc.) with only a small investment in equipment. Providing students with hands-on experience with small power sources will help them make wise decisions about electricity.

  2. Use of plant woody species electrical potential for irrigation scheduling

    PubMed Central

    Ríos-Rojas, Liliana; Morales-Moraga, David; Alcalde, José A; Gurovich, Luis A

    2015-01-01

    The electrical response of plants to environmental stimuli can be measured and quantitatively related to the intensity of several stimulating sources, like temperature, solar radiation, soil water content, evapotranspiration rates, sap flow and dendrometric cycles. These relations can be used to assess the influence of different environmental situations on soil water availability to plants, defined as a steady state condition between leaf transpirative flow and soil water flow to plant roots. A restricted soil water flow due to soil dryness can trigger water stress in plants, if the atmospheric evaporative demand is high, causing partial stomata closure as a physiological response to avoid plant dehydration; water stressed and unstressed plants manifest a differential electrical response. Real time plant electrical response measurements can anticipate actions that prevent the plant reaching actual stress conditions, optimizing stomata gas exchange and photosynthetic rates. An electrophysiological sensor developed in this work, allows remote real-time recording information on plant electrical potential (EP) in the field, which is highly related to EP measurements obtained with a laboratory Keithley voltmeter sensor used in an highly controlled experimental setup. Our electrophysiological sensor is a wireless, autonomous devise, which transmits EP information via Internet to a data server. Using both types of sensors (EP electrodes with a Keithley voltmeter and the electrophysiological sensor), we measured in real time the electrical responses of Persea americana and Prunus domestica plants, to induced water deficits. The differential response for 2 scenarios: irrigation and water restriction is identified by a progressive change in slope on the daily maximal and minimal electric signal values in stressed plants, and a zero-slope for similar signals for well-watered plants. Results show a correspondence between measured signals obtained by our electrophysiological

  3. Use of plant woody species electrical potential for irrigation scheduling.

    PubMed

    Ríos-Rojas, Liliana; Morales-Moraga, David; Alcalde, José A; Gurovich, Luis A

    2015-01-01

    The electrical response of plants to environmental stimuli can be measured and quantitatively related to the intensity of several stimulating sources, like temperature, solar radiation, soil water content, evapotranspiration rates, sap flow and dendrometric cycles. These relations can be used to assess the influence of different environmental situations on soil water availability to plants, defined as a steady state condition between leaf transpirative flow and soil water flow to plant roots. A restricted soil water flow due to soil dryness can trigger water stress in plants, if the atmospheric evaporative demand is high, causing partial stomata closure as a physiological response to avoid plant dehydration; water stressed and unstressed plants manifest a differential electrical response. Real time plant electrical response measurements can anticipate actions that prevent the plant reaching actual stress conditions, optimizing stomata gas exchange and photosynthetic rates. An electrophysiological sensor developed in this work, allows remote real-time recording information on plant electrical potential (EP) in the field, which is highly related to EP measurements obtained with a laboratory Keithley voltmeter sensor used in an highly controlled experimental setup. Our electrophysiological sensor is a wireless, autonomous devise, which transmits EP information via Internet to a data server. Using both types of sensors (EP electrodes with a Keithley voltmeter and the electrophysiological sensor), we measured in real time the electrical responses of Persea americana and Prunus domestica plants, to induced water deficits. The differential response for 2 scenarios: irrigation and water restriction is identified by a progressive change in slope on the daily maximal and minimal electric signal values in stressed plants, and a zero-slope for similar signals for well-watered plants. Results show a correspondence between measured signals obtained by our electrophysiological

  4. Cyber Norms for Civilian Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Spirito, Christopher

    2016-11-01

    The international community agrees that the safe operation of civilian nuclear infrastructure is in every population’s best interest. One challenge each government must address is defining and agreeing to a set of acceptable norms of behavior in cyberspace as they relate to these facilities. The introduction of digital systems and networking technologies into these environments has led to the possibility that control and supporting computer systems are now accessible and exploitable, especially where interconnections to global information and communications technology (ICT) networks exist. The need for norms of behavior in cyberspace includes what is expected of system architects and cyber defenders as well as adversaries who should abide by rules of engagement even while conducting acts that violate national and international laws. The goal of this paper is to offer three behavioral cyber norms to improve the overall security of the ICT and Operational Technology (OT) networks and systems that underlie the operations of nuclear facilities. These norms of behavior will be specifically defined with the goals of reducing the threats associated to the theft of nuclear materials, accidental release of radiation and sabotage of nuclear processes. These norms would also include instances where an unwitting attacker or intelligence collection entity inadvertently makes their way into a nuclear facility network or system and can recognize they are in a protected zone and an approach to ensuring that these zones are not exploitable by bad actors to place their sensitive cyber effect delivery systems.

  5. Intelligent Component Monitoring for Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Lefteri Tsoukalas

    2010-07-30

    Reliability and economy are two major concerns for a nuclear power generation system. Next generation nuclear power reactors are being developed to be more reliable and economic. An effective and efficient surveillance system can generously contribute toward this goal. Recent progress in computer systems and computational tools has made it necessary and possible to upgrade current surveillance/monitoring strategy for better performance. For example, intelligent computing techniques can be applied to develop algorithm that help people better understand the information collected from sensors and thus reduce human error to a new low level. Incidents incurred from human error in nuclear industry are not rare and have been proven costly. The goal of this project is to develop and test an intelligent prognostics methodology for predicting aging effects impacting long-term performance of nuclear components and systems. The approach is particularly suitable for predicting the performance of nuclear reactor systems which have low failure probabilities (e.g., less than 10-6 year-). Such components and systems are often perceived as peripheral to the reactor and are left somewhat unattended. That is, even when inspected, if they are not perceived to be causing some immediate problem, they may not be paid due attention. Attention to such systems normally involves long term monitoring and possibly reasoning with multiple features and evidence, requirements that are not best suited for humans.

  6. A Closed Brayton Power Conversion Unit Concept for Nuclear Electric Propulsion for Deep Space Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joyner, Claude Russell; Fowler, Bruce; Matthews, John

    2003-01-01

    In space, whether in a stable satellite orbit around a planetary body or traveling as a deep space exploration craft, power is just as important as the propulsion. The need for power is especially important for in-space vehicles that use Electric Propulsion. Using nuclear power with electric propulsion has the potential to provide increased payload fractions and reduced mission times to the outer planets. One of the critical engineering and design aspects of nuclear electric propulsion at required mission optimized power levels is the mechanism that is used to convert the thermal energy of the reactor to electrical power. The use of closed Brayton cycles has been studied over the past 30 or years and shown to be the optimum approach for power requirements that range from ten to hundreds of kilowatts of power. It also has been found to be scalable to higher power levels. The Closed Brayton Cycle (CBC) engine power conversion unit (PCU) is the most flexible for a wide range of power conversion needs and uses state-of-the-art, demonstrated engineering approaches. It also is in use with many commercial power plants today. The long life requirements and need for uninterrupted operation for nuclear electric propulsion demands high reliability from a CBC engine. A CBC engine design for use with a Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) system has been defined based on Pratt & Whitney's data from designing long-life turbo-machines such as the Space Shuttle turbopumps and military gas turbines and the use of proven integrated control/health management systems (EHMS). An integrated CBC and EHMS design that is focused on using low-risk and proven technologies will over come many of the life-related design issues. This paper will discuss the use of a CBC engine as the power conversion unit coupled to a gas-cooled nuclear reactor and the design trends relative to its use for powering electric thrusters in the 25 kWe to 100kWe power level.

  7. 78 FR 45573 - Compensatory and Alternative Regulatory Measures for Nuclear Power Plant Fire Protection (CARMEN...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-29

    ... COMMISSION Compensatory and Alternative Regulatory Measures for Nuclear Power Plant Fire Protection (CARMEN-FIRE) AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice of availability; request for public comment.../CR-7135, ``Compensatory and Alternative Regulatory Measures for Nuclear Power Plant Fire...

  8. 75 FR 69711 - STP Nuclear Operating Company, South Texas Project Nuclear Power Plant, Units 3 and 4; Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-15

    ...] STP Nuclear Operating Company, South Texas Project Nuclear Power Plant, Units 3 and 4; Exemption 1.0...: 1. RG 1.132, ``Site Investigations for Foundations of Nuclear Power Plants.'' 2. RG 1.138 ``Laboratory Investigations of Soils and Rocks for Engineering Analysis and Design of Nuclear Power...

  9. A nuclear electric propulsion vehicle for planetary exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pawlik, E. V.; Phillips, W. M.

    1976-01-01

    A study is currently underway at JPL to design a nuclear electric-propulsion vehicle capable of performing detailed exploration of the outer planets. Evaluation of the design indicates that it is also applicable to orbit raising. Primary emphasis is on the power subsystem. Work on the design of the power system, the mission rationale, and preliminary spacecraft design are summarized. A propulsion system at a 400-kWe power level with a specific weight goal of no more than 25-kg/kW was selected for this study. The results indicate that this goal can be realized along with compatibility with the shuttle launch-vehicle constraints.

  10. Nuclear electric propulsion options for piloted Mars missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    George, Jeffrey A.

    1993-01-01

    Three nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) systems are discussed. The three systems are as follows: a system based on current SP-100 technology; a potassium Rankine-cycle based power conversion system, and an argon ion thruster system. The system will be researched for implementation in several possible vehicle configurations. The following are among the possible Mars vehicle configurations: a piloted 15 MWe multi-reactor vehicle; a piloted 10 MWe vehicle with ECCV; a piloted 10 MWe modular vehicle; piloted 10 and 15 MWe vehicles with ECCV and MEV; a piloted 5 MWe vehicle with ECCV; a 5 MWe cargo vehicle with 2 MEV's; and a 2.5 MWe vehicle with MEV.

  11. Nuclear electric propulsion mission performance for fast piloted Mars missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hack, K. J.; George, J. A.; Dudzinski, L. A.

    1991-01-01

    A mission study aimed at minimizing the time humans would spend in the space environment is presented. The use of nuclear electric propulsion (NEP), when combined with a suitable mission profile, can reduce the trip time to durations competitive with other propulsion systems. Specifically, a split mission profile utilizing an earth crew capture vehicle accounts for a significant portion of the trip time reduction compared to previous studies. NEP is shown to be capable of performing fast piloted missions to Mars at low power levels using near-term technology and is considered to be a viable candidate for these missions.

  12. Nuclear electric propulsion options for piloted Mars missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, Jeffrey A.

    Three nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) systems are discussed. The three systems are as follows: a system based on current SP-100 technology; a potassium Rankine-cycle based power conversion system, and an argon ion thruster system. The system will be researched for implementation in several possible vehicle configurations. The following are among the possible Mars vehicle configurations: a piloted 15 MWe multi-reactor vehicle; a piloted 10 MWe vehicle with ECCV; a piloted 10 MWe modular vehicle; piloted 10 and 15 MWe vehicles with ECCV and MEV; a piloted 5 MWe vehicle with ECCV; a 5 MWe cargo vehicle with 2 MEV's; and a 2.5 MWe vehicle with MEV.

  13. Innovation on Energy Power Technology (18)Islanding Operation of the First Japanese-Made Nuclear Power Plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibata, Yoshiaki

    Shimane Nuclear Power Station Unit 1 (Shimane-1) of Chugoku Electric known as the first Japanese-made nuclear power plant scrammed automatically before dawn 12th September 1985 due to a power transmission grid trip result from thunderstroke. Until then, Shimane-1 was believed to be able to continue operation regardless of such power transmission grid trouble because the turbine bypass system had sufficient capacity to process total rated steam flow generated in the reactor. This paper describes the concerted efforts to achieving islanding operation of Shimane-1 by plant fabricator Hitachi, CRIEPI and Chugoku Electric with this incident as a start.

  14. Electrical detection of coherent nuclear spin oscillations in phosphorus-doped silicon using pulsed ENDOR.

    PubMed

    Hoehne, Felix; Dreher, Lukas; Huebl, Hans; Stutzmann, Martin; Brandt, Martin S

    2011-05-06

    We demonstrate the electrical detection of pulsed X-band electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) in phosphorus-doped silicon at 5 K. A pulse sequence analogous to Davies ENDOR in conventional electron spin resonance is used to measure the nuclear spin transition frequencies of the (31)P nuclear spins, where the (31)P electron spins are detected electrically via spin-dependent transitions through Si/SiO(2) interface states, thus not relying on a polarization of the electron spin system. In addition, the electrical detection of coherent nuclear spin oscillations is shown, demonstrating the feasibility to electrically read out the spin states of possible nuclear spin qubits.

  15. PEGASUS - A multi-megawatt nuclear electric propulsion system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coomes, E. P.; Cuta, J. M.; Webb, B. J.; King, D. Q.

    1986-01-01

    A propulsion system (The PEGASUS Drive) consisting of a magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thruster driven by a multimegawatt nuclear power system is proposed as the propulsion system for a manned Mars mission. The propulsion system described is based on a mission profile containing a 510-day burn time (for a mission time of approximately 1000 days). Electric propulsion systems have significant advantages over chemical systems, because of high specific impulse, lower propellant requirements, and lower system mass. The thermal power for the PEGASUS Drive is supplied by a boiling liquid-metal fast reactor. The system consists of the reactor, reactor shielding, power conditioning, heat rejection, and MPD thruster subsystems. It is capable of providing a maximum of 8.5 megawatts of electrical power of which 6 megawatts is needed for the thruster system, 1.5 megawatts is available for spacecraft system operations and inflight mission applications, leaving the balance for power system operation.

  16. POPCYCLE: a computer code for calculating nuclear and fossil plant levelized life-cycle power costs

    SciTech Connect

    Hardie, R.W.

    1982-02-01

    POPCYCLE, a computer code designed to calculate levelized life-cycle power costs for nuclear and fossil electrical generating plants is described. Included are (1) derivations of the equations and a discussion of the methodology used by POPCYCLE, (2) a description of the input required by the code, (3) a listing of the input for a sample case, and (4) the output for a sample case.

  17. Trends and problems in development of the power plants electrical part

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusev, Yu. P.

    2015-03-01

    The article discusses some problems relating to development of the electrical part of modern nuclear and thermal power plants, which are stemming from the use of new process and electrical equipment, such as gas turbine units, power converters, and intellectual microprocessor devices in relay protection and automated control systems. It is pointed out that the failure rates of electrical equipment at Russian and foreign power plants tend to increase. The ongoing power plant technical refitting and innovative development processes generate the need to significantly widen the scope of research works on the electrical part of power plants and rendering scientific support to works on putting in use innovative equipment. It is indicated that one of main factors causing the growth of electrical equipment failures is that some of components of this equipment have insufficiently compatible dynamic characteristics. This, in turn may be due to lack or obsolescence of regulatory documents specifying the requirements for design solutions and operation of electric power equipment that incorporates electronic and microprocessor control and protection devices. It is proposed to restore the system of developing new and updating existing departmental regulatory technical documents that existed in the 1970s, one of the fundamental principles of which was placing long-term responsibility on higher schools and leading design institutions for rendering scientific-technical support to innovative development of components and systems forming the electrical part of power plants. This will make it possible to achieve lower failure rates of electrical equipment and to steadily improve the competitiveness of the Russian electric power industry and energy efficiency of generating companies.

  18. Aging assessment of surge protective devices in nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, J.F.; Subudhi, M.; Carroll, D.P.

    1996-01-01

    An assessment was performed to determine the effects of aging on the performance and availability of surge protective devices (SPDs), used in electrical power and control systems in nuclear power plants. Although SPDs have not been classified as safety-related, they are risk-important because they can minimize the initiating event frequencies associated with loss of offsite power and reactor trips. Conversely, their failure due to age might cause some of those initiating events, e.g., through short circuit failure modes, or by allowing deterioration of the safety-related component(s) they are protecting from overvoltages, perhaps preventing a reactor trip, from an open circuit failure mode. From the data evaluated during 1980--1994, it was found that failures of surge arresters and suppressers by short circuits were neither a significant risk nor safety concern, and there were no failures of surge suppressers preventing a reactor trip. Simulations, using the ElectroMagnetic Transients Program (EMTP) were performed to determine the adequacy of high voltage surge arresters.

  19. 78 FR 45984 - Yankee Atomic Electric Company, Yankee Nuclear Power Station

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-30

    ... COMMISSION Yankee Atomic Electric Company, Yankee Nuclear Power Station AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission... Atomic Electric Company (YAEC) is the holder of Possession-Only License DPR-3 for the Yankee Nuclear Power Station (YNPS) facility. The license, issued pursuant to the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended...

  20. Main electrical switch banks, plant switch house, looking to the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Main electrical switch banks, plant switch house, looking to the North - Bureau of Mines Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Original Building, Date Street north of U.S. Highway 93, Boulder City, Clark County, NV

  1. Guidance for Deployment of Mobile Technologies for Nuclear Power Plant Field Workers

    SciTech Connect

    Heather D. Medema; Ronald K. Farris

    2012-09-01

    This report is a guidance document prepared for the benefit of commercial nuclear power plants’ (NPPs) supporting organizations and personnel who are considering or undertaking deployment of mobile technology for the purpose of improving human performance and plant status control (PSC) for field workers in an NPP setting. This document especially is directed at NPP business managers, Electric Power Research Institute, Institute of Nuclear Power Operations, and other non-Information Technology personnel. This information is not intended to replace basic project management practices or reiterate these processes, but is to support decision-making, planning, and preparation of a business case.

  2. A confirmatory research approach to the measurement of EMI/RFI in commercial nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Kercel, S.W.

    1995-02-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is conducting confirmatory research on the measurement of electromagnetic/radio frequency interference (EMI/RFI) in nuclear power plants while it makes a good beginning, the currently available research data are not sufficient to characterize the EMI/RFI environment of the typical nuclear plant. Data collected over several weeks at each of several observation points are required to meet this need. To collect the required data, several approaches are examined, the most promising of which is the relatively new technology of application specific spectral receivers. While several spectral receiver designs have been described in the literature, none is well suited for nuclear power plant EMI/RFI surveys. This paper describes the development of two receivers specifically designed for nuclear power plant EMI/RFI surveys. One receiver surveys electric fields between 5 MHz and 8 GHz, while the other surveys magnetic fields between 305 Hz and 5 MHz. The results of field tests at TVA`s Bull Run Fossil Plant are reported.

  3. A confirmatory research approach to the measurement of EMI/RFI in commercial nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Kercel, S.W.

    1995-04-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is conducting confirmatory research on the measurement of electromagnetic/radio frequency interference (EMI/RFI) in nuclear power plants. While it makes a good beginning, the currently available research data are not sufficient to characterize the EMI/RFI environment of the typical nuclear plant. Data collected over several weeks at each of several observation points are required to meet this need. To collect the required data, several approaches are examined, the most promising of which is the relatively new technology of application specific spectral receivers. While several spectral receiver designs have been described in the literature, none is well suited for nuclear power plant EMI/RFI surveys. This paper describes the development of two receivers specifically designed for nuclear power plant EMI/RFI surveys. One receiver surveys electric fields between 5 MHz and 8 GHz, while the other surveys magnetic fields between 305 Hz and 5 MHz. The results of field tests at TVA`s Bull Run Fossil Plant are reported.

  4. Nuclear-electric magnetohydrodynamic propulsion for submarine. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Bednarczyk, A.A.

    1989-05-01

    The thesis analyzes the superconducting technology for a shipboard magnetohydrodynamic propulsion system. Based on the the principles of magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), the concept of open-water efficiency was used to optimize the preliminary design of the MHD thruster. After the baseline submarine hull modeled after the Los Angeles class submarine was selected, propulsive efficiency and the top speed for four variant MHD submarines were evaluated. The design criteria were set at a 100-MWt nuclear reactor power upper limit and a requirement of 30 knots for the top speed. This required advanced reactor plants and advanced energy conversion systems. The selection of High Temperature Gas Reactor (HTGR) and Liquid-Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) was based on the combined merits of safety, environmental impact, high source temperature and maximum-volume power density (KW/L). With the reactor outlet temperatures of 2000 K, direct-cycle energy conversion-systems gave the best results in terms of thermal efficiency and propulsion plant power density. Two energy conversion systems selected were closed-cycle gas turbine geared to a superconducting generator, and closed-cycle liquid-metal MHD generator. Based on submarine reliability and safety, the option of using an intermediate heat exchanger was also considered. Finally, non-nuclear support systems affected by the advanced power plant and MHD propulsion, stressing submarine safety, are proposed.

  5. US nuclear power plant operating cost and experience summaries

    SciTech Connect

    Kohn, W.E.; Reid, R.L.; White, V.S.

    1998-02-01

    NUREG/CR-6577, U.S. Nuclear Power Plant Operating Cost and Experience Summaries, has been prepared to provide historical operating cost and experience information on U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. Cost incurred after initial construction are characterized as annual production costs, representing fuel and plant operating and maintenance expenses, and capital expenditures related to facility additions/modifications which are included in the plant capital asset base. As discussed in the report, annual data for these two cost categories were obtained from publicly available reports and must be accepted as having different degrees of accuracy and completeness. Treatment of inconclusive and incomplete data is discussed. As an aid to understanding the fluctuations in the cost histories, operating summaries for each nuclear unit are provided. The intent of these summaries is to identify important operating events; refueling, major maintenance, and other significant outages; operating milestones; and significant licensing or enforcement actions. Information used in the summaries is condensed from annual operating reports submitted by the licensees, plant histories contained in Nuclear Power Experience, trade press articles, and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) web site (www.nrc.gov).

  6. Safety system augmentation at Russian Nuclear Power Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scerbo, J. A.; Satpute, S. N.; Donkin, J. Y.; Reister, R. A.

    1997-06-01

    This paper describes the design and procurement of a Class 1E DC power supply system to upgrade plant safety at the Kola Nuclear Power Plant (NPP). Kola NPP is located above the Arctic circle at Polyanie Zprie, Murmansk, Russia. Kola NPP consists of four units. Units 1 and 2 have VVER-440/230 type reactors: Units 3 and 4 have VVER-440/213 type reactors. The VVER 440 reactor design is similar to the pressurized water reactor design used in the US. This project provided redundant Class 1E DC station batteries and DC switchboards for Kola NPP, Units 1 and 2. The new DC power supply system was designed and procured in compliance with current nuclear design practices and requirements. Technical issues that needed to be addressed included reconciling the requirements in both US and Russian codes and satisfying the requirements of the Russian nuclear regulatory authority. Close interface with ATOMENERGOPROEKT (AEP), the Russian design organization, KOLA NPP plant personnel, and GOSATOMNASZOR (GAN), the Russian Version of US Nuclear Regulatory Commission was necessary to develop a design that would assure compliance with current Russian design requirements. Hence, this project was expected to serve as an example for plant upgrades at other similar VVER-440 nuclear plants. In addition to technical issues, the project needed to address language barriers and the logistics of shipping equipment to a remote section of the Former Soviet Union.

  7. 78 FR 47805 - Test Documentation for Digital Computer Software Used in Safety Systems of Nuclear Power Plants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-06

    ...The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is issuing a revised regulatory guide (RG), Revision 1 of RG 1.170, ``Test Documentation for Digital Computer Software Used in Safety Systems of Nuclear Power Plants.'' This RG endorses the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) Standard 829-2008, ``IEEE Standard for Software and System Test Documentation'' with the clarifications and exceptions stated in Section C, ``Staff Regulatory Guidance'' of the RG. IEEE Std. 829-2008 describes methods that the NRC considers acceptable for use in complying with NRC regulations for developing test documentation and design quality in the software used in safety systems of nuclear power plants.

  8. A novel family of plant nuclear envelope-associated proteins.

    PubMed

    Pawar, Vidya; Poulet, Axel; Détourné, Gwénaëlle; Tatout, Christophe; Vanrobays, Emmanuel; Evans, David E; Graumann, Katja

    2016-10-01

    This paper describes the characterisation of a new family of higher plant nuclear envelope-associated proteins (NEAPs) that interact with other proteins of the nuclear envelope. In the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, the family consists of three genes expressed ubiquitously (AtNEAP1-3) and a pseudogene (AtNEAP4). NEAPs consist of extensive coiled-coil domains, followed by a nuclear localisation signal and a C-terminal predicted transmembrane domain. Domain deletion mutants confirm the presence of a functional nuclear localisation signal and transmembrane domain. AtNEAP proteins localise to the nuclear periphery as part of stable protein complexes, are able to form homo- and heteromers, and interact with the SUN domain proteins AtSUN1 and AtSUN2, involved in the linker of nucleoskeleton and cytoskeleton (LINC) complex. An A. thaliana cDNA library screen identified a putative transcription factor called AtbZIP18 as a novel interactor of AtNEAP1, which suggest a connection between NEAP and chromatin. An Atneap1 Atneap3 double-knockout mutant showed reduced root growth, and altered nuclear morphology and chromatin structure. Thus AtNEAPs are suggested as inner nuclear membrane-anchored coiled-coil proteins with roles in maintaining nuclear morphology and chromatin structure.

  9. Nuclear reactor power for an electrically powered orbital transfer vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaffe, L.; Beatty, R.; Bhandari, P.; Chow, E.; Deininger, W.; Ewell, R.; Fujita, T.; Grossman, M.; Kia, T.; Nesmith, B.

    1987-01-01

    To help determine the systems requirements for a 300-kWe space nuclear reactor power system, a mission and spacecraft have been examined which utilize electric propulsion and this nuclear reactor power for multiple transfers of cargo between low earth orbit (LEO) and geosynchronous earth orbit (GEO). A propulsion system employing ion thrusters and xenon propellant was selected. Propellant and thrusters are replaced after each sortie to GEO. The mass of the Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OTV), empty and dry, is 11,000 kg; nominal propellant load is 5000 kg. The OTV operates between a circular orbit at 925 km altitude, 28.5 deg inclination, and GEO. Cargo is brought to the OTV by Shuttle and an Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV); the OTV then takes it to GEO. The OTV can also bring cargo back from GEO, for transfer by OMV to the Shuttle. OTV propellant is resupplied and the ion thrusters are replaced by the OMV before each trip to GEO. At the end of mission life, the OTV's electric propulsion is used to place it in a heliocentric orbit so that the reactor will not return to earth. The nominal cargo capability to GEO is 6000 kg with a transit time of 120 days; 1350 kg can be transferred in 90 days, and 14,300 kg in 240 days. These capabilities can be considerably increased by using separate Shuttle launches to bring up propellant and cargo, or by changing to mercury propellant.

  10. Nuclear reactor power for an electrically powered orbital transfer vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaffe, L.; Beatty, R.; Bhandari, P.; Chow, E.; Deininger, W.; Ewell, R.; Fujita, T.; Grossman, M.; Kia, T.; Nesmith, B.

    1987-01-01

    To help determine the systems requirements for a 300-kWe space nuclear reactor power system, a mission and spacecraft have been examined which utilize electric propulsion and this nuclear reactor power for multiple transfers of cargo between low earth orbit (LEO) and geosynchronous earth orbit (GEO). A propulsion system employing ion thrusters and xenon propellant was selected. Propellant and thrusters are replaced after each sortie to GEO. The mass of the Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OTV), empty and dry, is 11,000 kg; nominal propellant load is 5000 kg. The OTV operates between a circular orbit at 925 km altitude, 28.5 deg inclination, and GEO. Cargo is brought to the OTV by Shuttle and an Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV); the OTV then takes it to GEO. The OTV can also bring cargo back from GEO, for transfer by OMV to the Shuttle. OTV propellant is resupplied and the ion thrusters are replaced by the OMV before each trip to GEO. At the end of mission life, the OTV's electric propulsion is used to place it in a heliocentric orbit so that the reactor will not return to earth. The nominal cargo capability to GEO is 6000 kg with a transit time of 120 days; 1350 kg can be transferred in 90 days, and 14,300 kg in 240 days. These capabilities can be considerably increased by using separate Shuttle launches to bring up propellant and cargo, or by changing to mercury propellant.

  11. 76 FR 81994 - UniStar Nuclear Energy; Combined License Application for Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION UniStar Nuclear Energy; Combined License Application for Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 3; Exemption 1.0 Background: UniStar Nuclear Energy (UNE) submitted to the U.S. Nuclear...

  12. Nuclear Power Plant NDE Challenges - Past, Present, and Future

    SciTech Connect

    Doctor, S. R.

    2007-03-21

    The operating fleet of U.S. nuclear power plants was built to fossil plant standards (of workmanship, not fitness for service) and with good engineering judgment. Fortuitously, those nuclear power plants were designed using defense-in-depth concepts, with nondestructive examination (NDE) an important layer, so they can tolerate almost any component failure and still continue to operate safely. In the 30+ years of reactor operation, many material failures have occurred. Unfortunately, NDE has not provided the reliability to detect degradation prior to initial failure (breaching the pressure boundary). However, NDE programs have been improved by moving from prescriptive procedures to performance demonstrations that quantify inspection effectiveness for flaw detection probability and sizing accuracy. Other improvements include the use of risk-informed strategies to ensure that reactor components contributing the most risk receive the best and most frequent inspections. Another challenge is the recent surge of interest in building new nuclear power plants in the United States to meet increasing domestic energy demand. New construction will increase the demand for NDE but also offers the opportunity for more proactive inspections. This paper reviews the inception and evolution of NDE for nuclear power plants over the past 40 years, recounts lessons learned, and describes the needs remaining as existing plants continue operation and new construction is contemplated.

  13. Development of Northeast Asia Nuclear Power Plant Accident Simulator.

    PubMed

    Kim, Juyub; Kim, Juyoul; Po, Li-Chi Cliff

    2016-11-24

    A conclusion from the lessons learned after the March 2011 Fukushima Daiichi accident was that Korea needs a tool to estimate consequences from a major accident that could occur at a nuclear power plant located in a neighboring country. This paper describes a suite of computer-based codes to be used by Korea's nuclear emergency response staff for training and potentially operational support in Korea's national emergency preparedness and response program. The systems of codes, Northeast Asia Nuclear Accident Simulator (NANAS), consist of three modules: source-term estimation, atmospheric dispersion prediction and dose assessment. To quickly assess potential doses to the public in Korea, NANAS includes specific reactor data from the nuclear power plants in China, Japan and Taiwan. The completed simulator is demonstrated using data for a hypothetical release.

  14. Radioactive materials released from nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Tichler, J.; Norden, K.; Congemi, J. )

    1991-05-01

    Releases of radioactive materials in airborne and liquid effluents from commercial light water reactors during 1988 have been compiled and reported. Data on solid waste shipments as well as selected operating information have been included. This report supplements earlier annual reports issued by the former Atomic Energy Commission and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The 1988 release data are summarized in tabular form. Data covering specific radionuclides are summarized. 16 tabs.

  15. Radioactive materials released from nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Tichler, J.; Norden, K.; Congemi, J. )

    1989-10-01

    Releases of radioactive materials in airborne and liquid effluents from commercial light water reactors during 1987 have been compiled and reported. Data on solid waste shipments as well as selected operating information have been included. This report supplements earlier annual reports issued by the former Atomic Energy Commission and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The 1987 release data are summarized in tabular form. Data covering specific radionuclides are summarized. 16 tabs.

  16. Liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor plant system

    DOEpatents

    Hunsbedt, Anstein; Boardman, Charles E.

    1993-01-01

    A liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor having a passive cooling system for removing residual heat resulting for fuel decay during reactor shutdown, or heat produced during a mishap. The reactor system is enhanced with sealing means for excluding external air from contact with the liquid metal coolant leaking from the reactor vessel during an accident. The invention also includes a silo structure which resists attack by leaking liquid metal coolant, and an added unique cooling means.

  17. Heterogonous Nanofluids for Nuclear Power Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alammar, Khalid

    2014-09-01

    Nuclear reactions can be associated with high heat energy release. Extracting such energy efficiently requires the use of high-rate heat exchangers. Conventional heat transfer fluids, such as water and oils are limited in their thermal conductivity, and hence nanofluids have been introduced lately to overcome such limitation. By suspending metal nanoparticles with high thermal conductivity in conventional heat transfer fluids, thermal conductivity of the resulting homogeneous nanofluid is increased. Heterogeneous nanofluids offer yet more potential for heat transfer enhancement. By stratifying nanoparticles within the boundary layer, thermal conductivity is increased where temperature gradients are highest, thereby increasing overall heat transfer of a flowing fluid. In order to test the merit of this novel technique, a numerical study of a laminar pipe flow of a heterogeneous nanofluid was conducted. Effect of Iron-Oxide distribution on flow and heat transfer characteristics was investigated. With Iron-Oxide volume concentration of 0.009 in water, up to 50% local heat transfer enhancement was predicted for the heterogeneous compared to homogeneous nanofluids. Increasing the Reynolds number is shown to increase enhancement while having negligible effect on pressure drop. Using permanent magnets attached externally to the pipe, an experimental investigation conducted at MIT nuclear reactor laboratory for similar flow characteristics of a heterogeneous nanofluid have shown upto 160% enhancement in heat transfer. Such results show that heterogeneous nanofluids are promising for augmenting heat transfer rates in nuclear power heat exchanger systems.

  18. Disposal of slightly contaminated radioactive wastes from nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Minns, J.L.

    1995-02-01

    With regard to the disposal of solid wastes, nuclear power plants basically have two options, disposal in a Part 61 licensed low-level waste site, or receive approval pursuant to 20.2002 for disposal in a manner not otherwise authorized by the NRC. Since 1981, the staff has reviewed and approved 30 requests for disposal of slightly contaminated radioactive materials pursuant to Section 20.2002 (formerly 20.302) for nuclear power plants located in non-Agreement States. NRC Agreement States have been delegated the authority for reviewing and approving such disposals (whether onsite or offsite) for nuclear power plants within their borders. This paper describes the characteristics of the waste disposed of, the review process, and the staff`s guidelines.

  19. Managing aging in nuclear power plants: Insights from NRC maintenance team inspection reports

    SciTech Connect

    Fresco, A.; Subudhi, M.; Gunther, W.; Grove, E.; Taylor, J.

    1993-12-01

    A plant`s maintenance program is the principal vehicle through which age-related degradation is managed. From 1988 to 1991, the NRC evaluated the maintenance program of every nuclear power plant in the United States. Forty-four out of a total of 67 of the reports issued on these in-depth team inspections were reviewed for insights into the strengths and weaknesses of the programs as related to the need to understand and manage the effects of aging on nuclear plant systems, structures, and components. Relevant information was extracted from these inspection reports and sorted into several categories, including Specific Aging Insights, Preventive Maintenance, Predictive Maintenance and Condition Monitoring, Post Maintenance Testing, Failure Trending, Root Cause Analysis and Usage of Probabilistic Risk Assessment in the Maintenance Process. Specific examples of inspection and monitoring techniques successfully used by utilities to detect degradation due to aging have been identified. The information also was sorted according to systems and components, including: Auxiliary Feedwater, Main Feedwater, High Pressure Injection for both BWRs and PWRs, Service Water, Instrument Air, and Emergency Diesel Generator Air Start Systems, and Emergency Diesel Generators Air Start Systems, emergency diesel generators, electrical components such as switchgear, breakers, relays, and motor control centers, motor operated valves and check valves. This information was compared to insights gained from the Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) Program. Attributes of plant maintenance programs where the NRC inspectors felt that improvement was needed to properly address the aging issue also are discussed.

  20. Safety system augmentation at Russian nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Scerbo, J.A.; Satpute, S.N.; Donkin, J.Y.; Reister, R.A. |

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes the design and procurement of a Class IE DC power supply system to upgrade plant safety at the Kola Nuclear Power Plant (NPP). Kola NPP is located above the Arctic circle at Polyarnie Zorie, Murmansk, Russia. Kola NPP consists of four units. Units 1 and 2 have VVER-440/230 type reactors: Units 3 and 4 have VVER-440/213 type reactors. The VVER-440 reactor design is similar to the pressurized water reactor design used in the US. This project provided redundant, Class 1E DC station batteries and DC switchboards for Kola NPP, Units 1 and 2. The new DC power supply system was designed and procured in compliance with current nuclear design practices and requirements. Technical issues that needed to be addressed included reconciling the requirements in both US and Russian codes and satisfying the requirements of the Russian nuclear regulatory authority. Close interface with ATOMENERGOPROEKT (AEP), the Russian design organization, KOLA NPP plant personnel, and GOSATOMNADZOR (GAN), the Russian version of US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, was necessary to develop a design that would assure compliance with current Russian design requirements. Hence, this project was expected to serve as an example for plant upgrades at other similar VVER-440 nuclear plants. In addition to technical issues, the project needed to address language barriers and the logistics of shipping equipment to a remote section of the Former Soviet Union (FSU). This project was executed by Burns and Roe under the sponsorship of the US DOE as part of the International Safety Program (INSP). The INSP is a comprehensive effort, in cooperation with partners in other countries, to improve nuclear safety worldwide. A major element within the INSP is the improvement of the safety of Soviet-designed nuclear reactors.

  1. Nuclear Power Plant Containment Pressure Boundary Research

    SciTech Connect

    Cherry, J.L.; Chokshi, N.C.; Costello, J.F.; Ellingwood, B.R.; Naus, D.J.

    1999-09-15

    Research to address aging of the containment pressure boundary in light-water reactor plants is summarized. This research is aimed at understanding the significant factors relating occurrence of corrosion, efficacy of inspection, and structural capacity reduction of steel containment and liners of concrete containment. This understanding will lead to improvements in risk-informed regulatory decision making. Containment pressure boundary components are described and potential aging factors identified. Quantitative tools for condition assessments of aging structures to maintain an acceptable level of reliability over the service life of the plant are discussed. Finally, the impact of aging (i.e., loss of shell thickness due to corrosion) on steel containment fragility for a pressurized water reactor ice-condenser plant is presented.

  2. Competitiveness of biomass-fueled electrical power plants.

    Treesearch

    Bruce A. McCarl; Darius M. Adams; Ralph J. Alig; John T. Chmelik

    2000-01-01

    One way countries like the United States can comply with suggested rollbacks in greenhouse gas emissions is by employing power plants fueled with biomass. We examine the competitiveness of biomass-based fuel for electrical power as opposed to coal using a mathematical programming structure. We consider fueling power plants from milling residues, whole trees, logging...

  3. Trial application of reliability technology to emergency diesel generators at the Trojan Nuclear Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, S.M.; Boccio, J.L.; Karimian, S.; Azarm, M.A.; Carbonaro, J.; DeMoss, G.

    1986-01-01

    In this paper, a trial application of reliability technology to the emergency diesel generator system at the Trojan Nuclear Power Plant is presented. An approach for formulating a reliability program plan for this system is being developed. The trial application has shown that a reliability program process, using risk- and reliability-based techniques, can be interwoven into current plant operational activities to help in controlling, analyzing, and predicting faults that can challenge safety systems. With the cooperation of the utility, Portland General Electric Co., this reliability program can eventually be implemented at Trojan to track its effectiveness.

  4. Report on aging of nuclear power plant reinforced concrete structures

    SciTech Connect

    Naus, D.J.; Oland, C.B.; Ellingwood, B.R.

    1996-03-01

    The Structural Aging Program provides the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission with potential structural safety issues and acceptance criteria for use in continued service assessments of nuclear power plant safety-related concrete structures. The program was organized under four task areas: Program Management, Materials Property Data Base, Structural Component Assessment/Repair Technology, and Quantitative Methodology for Continued Service Determinations. Under these tasks, over 90 papers and reports were prepared addressing pertinent aspects associated with aging management of nuclear power plant reinforced concrete structures. Contained in this report is a summary of program results in the form of information related to longevity of nuclear power plant reinforced concrete structures, a Structural Materials Information Center presenting data and information on the time variation of concrete materials under the influence of environmental stressors and aging factors, in-service inspection and condition assessments techniques, repair materials and methods, evaluation of nuclear power plant reinforced concrete structures, and a reliability-based methodology for current and future condition assessments. Recommendations for future activities are also provided. 308 refs., 61 figs., 50 tabs.

  5. Risk perception of nuclear power plants among university students in Northeast Asia after the Fukushima nuclear disaster.

    PubMed

    Ieong, Marco Chi Fong; Ho, Jung-Chun; Lee, Patricia Chiao-Tze; Hokama, Tomiko; Gima, Tsugiko; Luo, Lingling; Sohn, Myongsei; Kim, So Yoon; Kao, Shu-Fen; Hsieh, Wanhwa Annie; Chang, Hung-Lun; Chang, Peter Wu-Shou

    2014-11-01

    To examine the perception of nuclear energy risks among Asian university students following the Fukushima nuclear disaster, a standardized questionnaire survey was conducted since July 2011 after the Fukushima disaster. A total of 1814 respondents from 18 universities in China, Japan, Korea, and Taiwan participated in this survey. It showed that students with the following characteristics had a higher preference for "a clear schedule to phase out nuclear power plant (NPP)": females (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.84, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.44-2.34), in Japan (aOR = 2.81, 95% CI = 2.02-3.90), in China (aOR = 1.48, 95% CI = 1.04-2.09), and with perceived relative risks of cancer incidence greaterthan 1 (aOR = 1.42, 95% CI = 1.07-1.88). "If nuclear energy were phased out," the opinions on potential electricity shortage were as follows: Japan, aOR = 0.53, 95% CI = 0.40-0.69; China, aOR = 2.46, 95% CI = 1.75-3.45; and associated with academic majors (science/technology, aOR = 0.43, 95% CI = 0.31-0.59; medicine/health science, aOR = 0.64, 95% CI = 0.49-0.84). The results carried essential messages for nuclear energy policy in East Asia.

  6. A dynamical systems model for nuclear power plant risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hess, Stephen Michael

    The recent transition to an open access generation marketplace has forced nuclear plant operators to become much more cost conscious and focused on plant performance. Coincidentally, the regulatory perspective also is in a state of transition from a command and control framework to one that is risk-informed and performance-based. Due to these structural changes in the economics and regulatory system associated with commercial nuclear power plant operation, there is an increased need for plant management to explicitly manage nuclear safety risk. Application of probabilistic risk assessment techniques to model plant hardware has provided a significant contribution to understanding the potential initiating events and equipment failures that can lead to core damage accidents. Application of the lessons learned from these analyses has supported improved plant operation and safety over the previous decade. However, this analytical approach has not been nearly as successful in addressing the impact of plant processes and management effectiveness on the risks of plant operation. Thus, the research described in this dissertation presents a different approach to address this issue. Here we propose a dynamical model that describes the interaction of important plant processes among themselves and their overall impact on nuclear safety risk. We first provide a review of the techniques that are applied in a conventional probabilistic risk assessment of commercially operating nuclear power plants and summarize the typical results obtained. The limitations of the conventional approach and the status of research previously performed to address these limitations also are presented. Next, we present the case for the application of an alternative approach using dynamical systems theory. This includes a discussion of previous applications of dynamical models to study other important socio-economic issues. Next, we review the analytical techniques that are applicable to analysis of

  7. Fire models for assessment of nuclear power plant fires

    SciTech Connect

    Nicolette, V.F.; Nowlen, S.P.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reviews the state-of-the-art in available fire models for the assessment of nuclear power plants fires. The advantages and disadvantages of three basic types of fire models (zone, field, and control volume) and Sandia's experience with these models will be discussed. It is shown that the type of fire model selected to solve a particular problem should be based on the information that is required. Areas of concern which relate to all nuclear power plant fire models are identified. 17 refs., 6 figs.

  8. Nuclear power plant alarm systems: Problems and issues

    SciTech Connect

    O'Hara, J.M.; Brown, W.S.

    1991-01-01

    Despite the incorporation of advanced technology into nuclear power plant alarm systems, human factors problems remain. This paper identifies to be addressed in order to allow advanced technology to be used effectively in the design of nuclear power plant alarm systems. The operator's use and processing of alarm system information will be considered. Based upon a review of alarm system research, issues related to general system design, alarm processing, display and control are discussed. It is concluded that the design of effective alarm systems depends on an understanding of the information processing capabilities and limitations of the operator. 39 refs.

  9. Nuclear power plant fire protection: philosophy and analysis. [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, D. L.

    1980-05-01

    This report combines a fire severity analysis technique with a fault tree methodology for assessing the importance to nuclear power plant safety of certain combinations of components and systems. Characteristics unique to fire, such as propagation induced by the failure of barriers, have been incorporated into the methodology. By applying the resulting fire analysis technique to actual conditions found in a representative nuclear power plant, it is found that some safety and nonsafety areas are both highly vulnerable to fire spread and impotant to overall safety, while other areas prove to be of marginal importance. Suggestions are made for further experimental and analytical work to supplement the fire analysis method.

  10. Neural networks and their application to nuclear power plant diagnosis

    SciTech Connect

    Reifman, J.

    1997-10-01

    The authors present a survey of artificial neural network-based computer systems that have been proposed over the last decade for the detection and identification of component faults in thermal-hydraulic systems of nuclear power plants. The capabilities and advantages of applying neural networks as decision support systems for nuclear power plant operators and their inherent characteristics are discussed along with their limitations and drawbacks. The types of neural network structures used and their applications are described and the issues of process diagnosis and neural network-based diagnostic systems are identified. A total of thirty-four publications are reviewed.

  11. A methodology for evaluating ``new`` technologies in nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Korsah, K.; Clark, R.L.; Holcomb, D.E.

    1994-06-01

    As obsolescence and spare parts issues drive nuclear power plants to upgrade with new technology (such as optical fiber communication systems), the ability of the new technology to withstand stressors present where it is installed needs to be determined. In particular, new standards may be required to address qualification criteria and their application to the nuclear power plants of tomorrow. This paper discusses the failure modes and age-related degradation mechanisms of fiber optic communication systems, and suggests a methodology for identifying when accelerated aging should be performed during qualification testing.

  12. Seismic risk management solution for nuclear power plants

    DOE PAGES

    Coleman, Justin; Sabharwall, Piyush

    2014-12-01

    Nuclear power plants should safely operate during normal operations and maintain core-cooling capabilities during off-normal events, including external hazards (such as flooding and earthquakes). Management of external hazards to expectable levels of risk is critical to maintaining nuclear facility and nuclear power plant safety. Seismic risk is determined by convolving the seismic hazard with seismic fragilities (capacity of systems, structures, and components). Seismic isolation (SI) is one protective measure showing promise to minimize seismic risk. Current SI designs (used in commercial industry) reduce horizontal earthquake loads and protect critical infrastructure from the potentially destructive effects of large earthquakes. The benefitmore » of SI application in the nuclear industry is being recognized and SI systems have been proposed in American Society of Civil Engineer Standard 4, ASCE-4, to be released in the winter of 2014, for light water reactors facilities using commercially available technology. The intent of ASCE-4 is to provide criteria for seismic analysis of safety related nuclear structures such that the responses to design basis seismic events, computed in accordance with this standard, will have a small likelihood of being exceeded. The U.S. nuclear industry has not implemented SI to date; a seismic isolation gap analysis meeting was convened on August 19, 2014, to determine progress on implementing SI in the U.S. nuclear industry. The meeting focused on the systems and components that could benefit from SI. As a result, this article highlights the gaps identified at this meeting.« less

  13. Seismic risk management solution for nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, Justin; Sabharwall, Piyush

    2014-12-01

    Nuclear power plants should safely operate during normal operations and maintain core-cooling capabilities during off-normal events, including external hazards (such as flooding and earthquakes). Management of external hazards to expectable levels of risk is critical to maintaining nuclear facility and nuclear power plant safety. Seismic risk is determined by convolving the seismic hazard with seismic fragilities (capacity of systems, structures, and components). Seismic isolation (SI) is one protective measure showing promise to minimize seismic risk. Current SI designs (used in commercial industry) reduce horizontal earthquake loads and protect critical infrastructure from the potentially destructive effects of large earthquakes. The benefit of SI application in the nuclear industry is being recognized and SI systems have been proposed in American Society of Civil Engineer Standard 4, ASCE-4, to be released in the winter of 2014, for light water reactors facilities using commercially available technology. The intent of ASCE-4 is to provide criteria for seismic analysis of safety related nuclear structures such that the responses to design basis seismic events, computed in accordance with this standard, will have a small likelihood of being exceeded. The U.S. nuclear industry has not implemented SI to date; a seismic isolation gap analysis meeting was convened on August 19, 2014, to determine progress on implementing SI in the U.S. nuclear industry. The meeting focused on the systems and components that could benefit from SI. As a result, this article highlights the gaps identified at this meeting.

  14. Atmospheric electricity by the radioactive aerosol after the Fukushima nuclear accident: an overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamauchi, Masatoshi; Takeda, Masahiko; Makino, Masahiko; Nagamachi, Shingo

    2017-04-01

    The vertical (downward) component of the DC atmospheric electric field, or potential gradient (PG) at Kakioka, that is located 150 km southwest of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP1), was highly affected by the radionuclides from the FNPP1 accident. We summarize the observed effects both under clear sky and under electrified clouds. The effect by floating radionuclide (including re-suspension) continued first 40-50 days for both weather conditions, while the effect by the settled radionuclide continued a longer period. The unique features on this event that have not been detected in previous accidents/experiments are: (a) PG value recovered shortly after the initial deposition, indicating a dry deposition and blow up; (b) daily variation after the wet deposition, indicating re-suspension, and (c) short time scale for PG peaks that are relevant to cloud electricity, indicating electrostatic shielding effect by extra ions.

  15. European utility requirements: common rules to design next LWR plants in an open electricity market

    SciTech Connect

    Berbey, Pierre

    2004-07-01

    The major European electricity producers want to keep able to build new nuclear power plants and they believe 3. generation LWRs would be the most adapted response to their needs in the first decades of this century. Producing a common European Utility Requirement (EUR) document has been one of the basic tasks towards this objective. In this common frame, standardized and competitive LWR NPPs could be developed and offered to the investors. This idea is now well supported by all the other actors on the European electricity market: vendors, regulators, grid managers, administrations although in the competitive and unified European electricity market that is emerging, the electricity producers' stakes are more and more different from the other electricity business actors'. The next term objectives of the electricity producers involved in EUR are focused on negotiating common rules of the game together with the regulators. This covers the nuclear safety approaches, the conditions requested to connect a plant to a HV grid, as well as the design standards. Discussions are going on between the EUR organization and all the corresponding bodies to develop stabilized and predictable design rules that would meet the constraints of nuclear electricity generation in this new environment. Finally there cannot be competition without competitors. The EUR organization has proven to be the right place to establish trustful relationship between the vendors and their potential customers, through fair assessment of the proposed designs performance vs. the utility needs. This will be continued and developed with the main vendors present in Europe, so as to keep alive a list of 4 to 6 designs 'qualified', i.e. showing an acceptable score of non-compliance vs. EUR. (authors)

  16. Small solar thermal electric power plants with early commercial potential

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, H. E.; Bisantz, D. J.; Clayton, R. N.; Heiges, H. H.; Ku, A. C.

    1979-01-01

    Cost-effective small solar thermal electric power plants (1- to 10-MW nominal size) offer an attractive way of helping the world meet its future energy needs. The paper describes the characteristics of a conceptual near-term plant (about 1 MW) and a potential 1990 commercial version. The basic system concept is one in which steam is generated using two-axis tracking, parabolic dish, and point-focusing collectors. The steam is transported through low-loss piping to a central steam turbine generator unit where it is converted to electricity. The plants have no energy storage and their output power level varies with the solar insolation level. This system concept, which is firmly based on state-of-the-art technology, is projected to offer one of the fastest paths for U.S. commercialization of solar thermal electric power plants through moderate technology advances and mass production.

  17. Small solar thermal electric power plants with early commercial potential

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, H. E.; Bisantz, D. J.; Clayton, R. N.; Heiges, H. H.; Ku, A. C.

    1979-01-01

    Cost-effective small solar thermal electric power plants (1- to 10-MW nominal size) offer an attractive way of helping the world meet its future energy needs. The paper describes the characteristics of a conceptual near-term plant (about 1 MW) and a potential 1990 commercial version. The basic system concept is one in which steam is generated using two-axis tracking, parabolic dish, and point-focusing collectors. The steam is transported through low-loss piping to a central steam turbine generator unit where it is converted to electricity. The plants have no energy storage and their output power level varies with the solar insolation level. This system concept, which is firmly based on state-of-the-art technology, is projected to offer one of the fastest paths for U.S. commercialization of solar thermal electric power plants through moderate technology advances and mass production.

  18. 75 FR 3942 - Carolina Power & Light Company Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1 Environmental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-25

    ... COMMISSION Carolina Power & Light Company Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1 Environmental Assessment...), for operation of the Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1 (HNP), located in New Hill, North... Environmental Impact Statement for License Renewal of Nuclear Plants: Regarding Shearon Harris Nuclear......

  19. 77 FR 34093 - License Renewal for Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC's

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-08

    ... COMMISSION License Renewal for Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC's AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory... Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant site near Lusby, Maryland. The NRC has prepared an Environmental Assessment... dated September 17, 2010, Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC (CCNPP) submitted an application...

  20. 76 FR 46856 - Qualification of Connection Assemblies for Nuclear Power Plants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-03

    ... COMMISSION Qualification of Connection Assemblies for Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory... for Nuclear Power Plants.'' This guide describes a method that the NRC considers acceptable for... environmental seals in combination with cables or wires as assemblies for service in nuclear power plants....

  1. 76 FR 63541 - Design-Basis Hurricane and Hurricane Missiles for Nuclear Power Plants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-13

    ...-2010-0288] Design-Basis Hurricane and Hurricane Missiles for Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY: Nuclear... Hurricane Missiles for Nuclear Power Plants.'' This regulatory guide provides licensees and applicants with... hurricane and design-basis hurricane-generated missiles that a nuclear power plant should be designed...

  2. 78 FR 35330 - Initial Test Programs for Water-Cooled Nuclear Power Plants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-12

    ... COMMISSION Initial Test Programs for Water-Cooled Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission... revision to Regulatory Guide (RG), 1.68, ``Initial Test Programs for Water-Cooled Nuclear Power Plants... Initial Test Programs (ITPs) for light water cooled nuclear power plants. ADDRESSES: Please refer to...

  3. 78 FR 55117 - Ultimate Heat Sink for Nuclear Power Plants; Draft Regulatory Guide

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-09

    ... COMMISSION Ultimate Heat Sink for Nuclear Power Plants; Draft Regulatory Guide AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory... Nuclear Power Plants.'' This regulatory guide (RG) describes methods and procedures acceptable to the NRC staff that nuclear power plant facility licensees and applicants may use to implement general design...

  4. 76 FR 55137 - Monitoring the Effectiveness of Maintenance at Nuclear Power Plants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-06

    ... COMMISSION Monitoring the Effectiveness of Maintenance at Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory..., ``Monitoring the Effectiveness of Maintenance at Nuclear Power Plants.'' This guide endorses Revision 4A to... Effectiveness of Maintenance at Nuclear Power Plants,'' which provides methods that are acceptable to the NRC...

  5. COOLING WATER ISSUES AND OPPORTUNITIES AT U.S. NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Gary Vine

    2010-12-01

    This report has been prepared for the Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE), for the purpose of providing a status report on the challenges and opportunities facing the U.S. commercial nuclear energy industry in the area of plant cooling water supply. The report was prompted in part by recent Second Circuit and Supreme Court decisions regarding cooling water system designs at existing thermo-electric power generating facilities in the U.S. (primarily fossil and nuclear plants). At issue in the courts have been Environmental Protection Agency regulations that define what constitutes “Best Technology Available” for intake structures that withdraw cooling water that is used to transfer and reject heat from the plant’s steam turbine via cooling water systems, while minimizing environmental impacts on aquatic life in nearby water bodies used to supply that cooling water. The report was also prompted by a growing recognition that cooling water availability and societal use conflicts are emerging as strategic energy and environmental issues, and that research and development (R&D) solutions to emerging water shortage issues are needed. In particular, cooling water availability is an important consideration in siting decisions for new nuclear power plants, and is an under-acknowledged issue in evaluating the pros and cons of retrofitting cooling towers at existing nuclear plants. Because of the significant ongoing research on water issues already being performed by industry, the national laboratories and other entities, this report relies heavily on ongoing work. In particular, this report has relied on collaboration with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), including its recent work in the area of EPA regulations governing intake structures in thermoelectric cooling water systems.

  6. 77 FR 30030 - Monitoring the Effectiveness of Maintenance at Nuclear Power Plants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-21

    ... COMMISSION Monitoring the Effectiveness of Maintenance at Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory... Maintenance at Nuclear Power Plants.'' This guide endorses Revision 4A to Nuclear Management and Resources Council (NUMARC) 93-01, ``Industry Guideline for Monitoring the Effectiveness of Maintenance at Nuclear...

  7. Ice Thermal Storage Systems for Nuclear Power Plant Supplemental Cooling and Peak Power Shifting

    SciTech Connect

    Haihua Zhao; Hongbin Zhang; Phil Sharpe; Blaise Hamanaka; Wei Yan; WoonSeong Jeong

    2013-03-01

    Availability of cooling water has been one of the major issues for the nuclear power plant site selection. Cooling water issues have frequently disrupted the normal operation at some nuclear power plants during heat waves and long draught. One potential solution is to use ice thermal storage (ITS) systems that reduce cooling water requirements and boost the plant’s thermal efficiency in hot hours. ITS uses cheap off-peak electricity to make ice and uses the ice for supplemental cooling during peak demand time. ITS also provides a way to shift a large amount of electricity from off peak time to peak time. For once-through cooling plants near a limited water body, adding ITS can bring significant economic benefits and avoid forced derating and shutdown during extremely hot weather. For the new plants using dry cooling towers, adding the ITS systems can effectively reduce the efficiency loss during hot weather so that new plants could be considered in regions lack of cooling water. This paper will review light water reactor cooling issues and present the feasibility study results.

  8. PSF Analysis Support System for Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Satoko Sakajo; Takashi Nakagawa; Naotaka Terashita

    2002-07-01

    Research during recent years has revealed that human errors tend to reflect the quality of performance shaping factors (PSFs). Therefore, from the viewpoint of reducing human error, PSFs, which include error-likely equipment design, written procedures, and other factors, must be analyzed and improved. This paper provides methodologies to identify and qualify the potential PSFs included in tasks at a nuclear power plant (NPP). The methodologies were applied to actual plants. (authors)

  9. Growing the Space Station's electrical power plant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sundberg, Gale R.

    1990-01-01

    For over a decade NASA LeRC has been defining, demonstrating, and evaluating power electronic components and multi-kilowatt, multiply redundant, electrical power systems as part of OAST charter. Whether one considers aircraft (commercial transport/military), Space Station Freedom, growth station, launch vehicles, or the new Human Exploration Initiative, the conclusions remain the same: high frequency AC power distribution and control is superior to all other approaches for achieving a fast, smart, safe, versatile, and growable electrical power system that will meet a wide range of mission options. To meet the cost and operability goals of future aerospace missions that require significantly higher electrical power and longer durations, we must learn to integrate multiple technologies in ways that enhance overall system synergisms. The way NASA is doing business in space electric power is challenged and some approaches for evolving large space vehicles and platforms in well constructed steps to provide safe, ground testable, growable, smart systems that provide simple, replicative logic structures, which enable hardware and software verification, validation, and implementation are proposed. Viewgraphs are included.

  10. Growing the Space Station's electrical power plant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sundberg, Gale R.

    1990-01-01

    For over a decade NASA LeRC has been defining, demonstrating, and evaluating power electronic components and multi-kilowatt, multiply redundant, electrical power systems as part of OAST charter. Whether one considers aircraft (commercial transport/military), Space Station Freedom, growth station, launch vehicles, or the new Human Exploration Initiative, the conclusions remain the same: high frequency AC power distribution and control is superior to all other approaches for achieving a fast, smart, safe, versatile, and growable electrical power system that will meet a wide range of mission options. To meet the cost and operability goals of future aerospace missions that require significantly higher electrical power and longer durations, we must learn to integrate multiple technologies in ways that enhance overall system synergisms. The way NASA is doing business in space electric power is challenged and some approaches for evolving large space vehicles and platforms in well constructed steps to provide safe, ground testable, growable, smart systems that provide simple, replicative logic structures, which enable hardware and software verification, validation, and implementation are proposed. Viewgraphs are included.

  11. Supporting Our Nation's Nuclear Industry

    ScienceCinema

    Lyons, Peter

    2016-07-12

    On the 60th anniversary of the world's first nuclear power plant to produce electricity, Assistant Secretary for Nuclear Energy Peter Lyons discusses the Energy Department's and the Administration's commitment to promoting a nuclear renaissance in the United States.

  12. Supporting Our Nation's Nuclear Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Lyons, Peter

    2011-01-01

    On the 60th anniversary of the world's first nuclear power plant to produce electricity, Assistant Secretary for Nuclear Energy Peter Lyons discusses the Energy Department's and the Administration's commitment to promoting a nuclear renaissance in the United States.

  13. Nuclear electric propulsion for future NASA space science missions

    SciTech Connect

    Yen, Chen-wan L.

    1993-07-20

    This study has been made to assess the needs, potential benefits and the applicability of early (circa year 2000) Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) technology in conducting NASA science missions. The study goals are: to obtain the performance characteristics of near term NEP technologies; to measure the performance potential of NEP for important OSSA missions; to compare NEP performance with that of conventional chemical propulsion; to identify key NEP system requirements; to clarify and depict the degree of importance NEP might have in advancing NASA space science goals; and to disseminate the results in a format useful to both NEP users and technology developers. This is a mission performance study and precludes investigations of multitudes of new mission operation and systems design issues attendant in a NEP flight.

  14. Nuclear Electric Propulsion Application: RASC Mission Robotic Exploration of Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGuire, Melissa L.; Borowski, Stanley K.; Packard, Thomas W.

    2004-01-01

    The following paper documents the mission and systems analysis portion of a study in which Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) is used as the in-space transportation system to send a series of robotic rovers and atmospheric science airplanes to Venus in the 2020 to 2030 timeframe. As part of the NASA RASC (Revolutionary Aerospace Systems Concepts) program, this mission analysis is meant to identify future technologies and their application to far reaching NASA missions. The NEP systems and mission analysis is based largely on current technology state of the art assumptions. This study looks specifically at the performance of the NEP transfer stage when sending a series of different payload package point design options to Venus orbit.

  15. Study of reactor Brayton power systems for nuclear electric spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The feasibility of using Brayton power systems for nuclear electric spacecraft was investigated. The primary performance parameters of systems mass and radiator area were determined for systems from 100 to 1000 kW sub e. Mathematical models of all system components were used to determine masses and volumes. Two completely independent systems provide propulsion power so that no single-point failure can jeopardize a mission. The waste heat radiators utilize armored heat pipes to limit meteorite puncture. The armor thickness was statistically determined to achieve the required probability of survival. A 400 kW sub e reference system received primary attention as required by the contract. The components of this system were defined and a conceptual layout was developed with encouraging results. An arrangement with redundant Brayton power systems having a 1500 K (2240 F) turbine inlet temperature was shown to be compatible with the dimensions of the space shuttle orbiter payload bay.

  16. Design consideration for a nuclear electric propulsion system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, W. M.; Pawlik, E. V.

    1978-01-01

    A study is currently underway to design a nuclear electric propulsion vehicle capable of performing detailed exploration of the outer-planets. Primary emphasis is on the power subsystem. Secondary emphasis includes integration into a spacecraft, and integration with the thrust subsystem and science package or payload. The results of several design iterations indicate an all-heat-pipe system offers greater reliability, elimination of many technology development areas and a specific weight of under 20 kg/kWe at the 400 kWe power level. The system is compatible with a single Shuttle launch and provides greater safety than could be obtained with designs using pumped liquid metal cooling. Two configurations, one with the reactor and power conversion forward on the spacecraft with the ion engines aft and the other with reactor, power conversion and ion engines aft were selected as dual baseline designs based on minimum weight, minimum required technology development and maximum growth potential and flexibility.

  17. Reprocessing of nuclear fuels at the Savannah River Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, L.W.

    1986-10-04

    For more than 30 years, the Savannah River Plant (SRP) has been a major supplier of nuclear materials such as plutonium-239 and tritium-3 for nuclear and thermonuclear weapons, plutonium-238 for space exploration, and isotopes of americium, curium, and californium for use in the nuclear research community. SRP is a complete nuclear park, providing most of the processes in the nuclear fuel cycle. Key processes involve fabrication and cladding of the nuclear fuel, target, and control assemblies; rework of heavy water for use as reactor moderator; reactor loading, operation, and unloading; chemical recovery of the reactor transmutation products and spent fuels; and management of the gaseous, liquid, and solid nuclear and chemical wastes; plus a host of support operations. The site's history and the key processes from fabrication of reactor fuels and targets to finishing of virgin plutonium for use in the nuclear weapons complex are reviewed. Emphasis has been given to the chemistry of the recovery and purification of weapons grade plutonium from irradiated reactor targets.

  18. [The role of the operator of nuclear power plants in disposal of nuclear waste].

    PubMed

    Chaussade, J P

    1995-03-15

    Public opinion polls show that the French have largely understood the importance of our nuclear programme in maintaining French independence with regard to power supply and its security and that they have confidence in the technicians for the proper construction and operation of these power plants, but that they retain many questions concerning the disposal of nuclear waste. They have the impression that solutions remain to be found, and especially that the Electricité de France (EDF) devised the nuclear power programme without concern for the disposal of waste. This lack of information is fortunately far from reality. EDF, under the supervision of the security authorities, manages the waste produced in the nuclear power plants. Final stocking of waste is handled by a body that is independent of the waste producer, the "Agence nationale pour la gestion des déchets radioadctifs" (Andra) (National Agency for the Management of Radioactive Waste).

  19. Impacts of nuclear plant shutdown on coal-fired power generation and infant health in the Tennessee Valley in the 1980s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Severnini, Edson

    2017-04-01

    The Fukushima nuclear accident in March 2011 generated deep public anxiety and uncertainty about the future of nuclear energy. However, differently to fossil fuel plants, nuclear plants produce virtually no greenhouse gas emissions or air pollutants during power generation. Here we show the effect on air pollution and infant health in the context of the temporary closure of nuclear plants by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) in the 1980s. After the Three Mile Island accident in 1979, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission intensified inspections throughout the nation, leading to the shutdown of two large nuclear power plants in the TVA area. In response to that shutdown, electricity generation shifted one to one to coal-fired power plants within TVA, increasing particle pollution in counties where they were located. Consequently, infant health may have deteriorated in the most affected places, indicating deleterious effects to public health.

  20. Electrical coagulation: a new process for preparation plant water treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Nickeson, F.H.

    1982-09-01

    The paper describes an electric coagulation process developed by Westinghouse Electric Corp. for the treatment of coal preparation plant water. There are many claims for the system, including improved settling rates of colloidal clays and fines, decreased use of chemicals and no reversion of precipitates to colloidal suspension when disturbed. Other benefits include improved fine coal recovery, reduced filtration time, reduced build-up of fines and clays on dewatering screens, removal of heavy metals and organic carbon from water, increased plant availability and reduced plant maintenance. The treatment process depends on the passage of an AC current through the flow of plant water through a coagulator box. Examples of its use are quoted, in particular at a plant installed for the evaluation of the process.

  1. The Acceptance Strategy for Nuclear Power Plant In Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suhaemi, Tjipta; Syaukat, Achmad

    2010-06-01

    THE ACCEPTANCE STRATEGY FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANT IN INDONESIA. Indonesia has planned to build nuclear power plants. Some feasibility studies have been conducted intensively. However, the processes of NPP introduction are still uncertain. National Energy Plan in Indonesia, which has been made by some governmental agencies, does not yet give positive impact to the government decision to construct the nuclear power plant (NPP). This paper discusses the process of NPP introduction in Indonesia, which has been colored with debate of stakeholder and has delayed decision for go-nuclear. The technology paradigm is used to promote NPP as an alternative of reliable energy resources. This paradigm should be complemented with international politic-economic point of view. The international politic-economic point of view shows that structural powers, consisting of security, production, finance, and knowledge structures, within which the NPP is introduced, have dynamic characteristics. The process of NPP introduction in Indonesia contains some infrastructure development (R&D, legislation, regulation, energy planning, site study, public acceptance efforts, etc), but they need a better coherent NPP implementation program and NPP Acceptance Program. Strategic patterns for NPP acceptance described in this paper are made by considering nuclear regulation development and the interest of basic domestic participation. The first NPP program in Indonesia having proven technology and basic domestic participation is and important milestone toward and optimal national energy-mix.

  2. Monitoring thermal discharge from a nuclear plant through Landsat 8

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Difeng; Pan, Delu; Wei, Ji-An; Gong, Fang; Zhu, Qiankun; Chen, Peng

    2016-10-01

    The National Development and Reform Commission of China has approved a large number of nuclear power projects, with a total capacity of 23,000 MW. However, concomitant with the accelerated development of nuclear power stations, the environmental effects of thermal discharge will become a problem that cannot be avoided. Real-time monitoring of water temperature needs to be installed following station construction in order to measure its variation with time and to ensure that the operation of the nuclear plant does not result in adverse environmental damage. Landsat is the world's oldest, continuously acquired collection of space-based, moderate-resolution, land remote sensing data. On May 30, 2013, data from the Landsat 8 satellite became available, and the data quality and radiometric quantization of the thermal infrared sensor (TIRS) are significantly greater than those of previous Landsat instruments. The analysis of sea surface temperature (SST) obtained from Landsat 8's TIRS data was used to enhance information about the plume shape, dimensions, and direction of dispersion of the thermal discharge from the Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant in Hangzhou Bay on the East China Sea coast. Both single-channel and split-window algorithms were used and focused. The detection of temperature increases through split-window algorithms is considered a preferable method for warm discharge monitoring. Recent results showed that the thermal discharge from the nuclear plant was controlled over a small area, and that it never breached national water quality standards.

  3. Total quality control: the deming management philosophy applied to nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Heising, C.D.; Wetherell, D.L.; Melhem, S.A.; Sato, M.

    1987-01-01

    In recent years, a call has come for the development of inherently safe nuclear reactor systems that cannot have large-scale accidents. In the search for the perfect inherently safe reactor system, some are calling for the institution of computerized automated control of reactors eliminating most human operators from the control room. A different approach to the problem of the control of inherently safe reactors is that both future and present nuclear power plants need to institute total quality control (TQC) to plant operations and management. The Deming management philosophy of TQC has been implemented in a wide range of industries - particularly in Japan and the US. Specific attention is given, however, to TQC implementation in the electric power industry as applied to nuclear plants. The Kansai Electric Power Company and Florida Power and Light Company have recently implemented TQC. Statistical quality control methods have been applied to monitor and control reactor variables (for example, to the steam generator water level important to start-up operations of pressurized water reactors).

  4. Nuclear Power Plants: Vulnerability to Terrorist Attack

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-08-08

    comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE 08 AUG 2007 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3...zones: an “owner- controlled ” buffer region, a “protected area,” and a “vital area.” Access to the protected area is restricted to a portion of plant...to penetrate the plant’s vital area and damage or destroy key safety components. Participants in the tightly controlled exercises carry weapons

  5. Working fluids for electrical generating plants

    SciTech Connect

    Loomis, R.G.

    1984-08-28

    Halides of tungsten and molybdenum are described for use as working fluids in power plants. Specifically, tungsten pentachloride, tungsten hexachloride, molybdenum hexafluoride and molybdenum hexachloride are used as working fluids in power plants. These working fluids can be used alone in a single cycle. However, they are preferably used in one or two loops of a binary system. The working fluids can be used in combination with other known working fluids in a binary system. Specifically useful, working fluids would include water-Hg, aluminum iodide, water, and nitrogen tetroxide. The use of the novel boiler fluids of the present invention provide numerous advantages, particularly, improved efficiency.

  6. Scenarios for low carbon and low water electric power plant ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    In the water-energy nexus, water use for the electric power sector is critical. Currently, the operational phase of electric power production dominates the electric sector's life cycle withdrawal and consumption of fresh water resources. Water use associated with the fuel cycle and power plant equipment manufacturing phase is substantially lower on a life cycle basis. An outstanding question is: how do regional shifts to lower carbon electric power mixes affect the relative contribution of the upstream life cycle water use? To test this, we examine a range of scenarios comparing a baseline with scenarios of carbon reduction and water use constraints using the MARKet ALlocation (MARKAL) energy systems model with ORD's 2014 U.S. 9-region database (EPAUS9r). The results suggest that moving toward a low carbon and low water electric power mix may increase the non-operational water use. In particular, power plant manufacturing water use for concentrating solar power, and fuel cycle water use for biomass feedstock, could see sharp increases under scenarios of high deployment of these low carbon options. Our analysis addresses the following questions. First, how does moving to a lower carbon electricity generation mix affect the overall regional electric power water use from a life cycle perspective? Second, how does constraining the operational water use for power plants affect the mix, if at all? Third, how does the life cycle water use differ among regions under

  7. Off-Site Monitoring of Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing Plants for Nuclear Weapons Proliferation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-01-01

    weapons proliferation.Countries which cotild not previouwly develop or construct the uranium enrichment facilities required to produce weapon grade U...essentially unusable in a weapon;mormover, the phy- "cical separation of these isotopes is even more difficult than the enrich - Ur• fnt of uranium (ref 2...natural Uranium (ref 5:2),The Kr-85 releases from nuclear reac- "tore are insignificant compared to the releases from nuclear fuel repro- cessing plants

  8. Radioactive Effluents from Nuclear Power Plants Annual Report 2008

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation

    2010-12-10

    This report describes radioactive effluents from commercial nuclear power plants (NPPs) in the United States. This information was reported by the licensees for radioactive discharges that occurred in 2008. The report provides information relevant to the potential impact of NPPs on the environment and on public health.

  9. Radioactive Effluents from Nuclear Power Plants Annual Report 2007

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation

    2010-12-10

    This report describes radioactive effluents from commercial nuclear power plants (NPPs) in the United States. This information was reported by the licensees for radioactive discharges that occurred in 2007. The report provides information relevant to the potential impact of NPPs on the environment and on public health.

  10. New Generation Nuclear Plant -- High Level Functions and Requirements

    SciTech Connect

    J. M. Ryskamp; E. J. Gorski; E. A. Harvego; S. T. Khericha; G. A. Beitel

    2003-09-01

    This functions and requirements (F&R) document was prepared for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project. The highest-level functions and requirements for the NGNP preconceptual design are identified in this document, which establishes performance definitions for what the NGNP will achieve. NGNP designs will be developed based on these requirements by commercial vendor(s).

  11. 76 FR 75771 - Emergency Planning Guidance for Nuclear Power Plants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-05

    ... Regulatory Commission (NRC) is issuing Supplement 3, ``Guidance for Protective Action Strategies,'' to NUREG... Evacuation Time Estimate Studies;'' all dated November, 2011. These documents update implementation guidance...) studies. This document provides guidance for addressing new EP requirements for nuclear power plants based...

  12. Assessment of control rooms of nuclear power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norros, L.; Ranta, J.; Wahlstroem, B.

    1983-05-01

    The NUREG 0700 recommendations were assessed for implementation in the control rooms of Finnish nuclear power plants. Direct conclusions drawn from the American situation are misleading, because of differences in, for example, procurement of instruments or personnel training. If the review is limited to control room details, the NRC program (checklist) is successful. It can also be used during planning to observe small discrepancies.

  13. Is natural background or radiation from nuclear power plants leukemogenic

    SciTech Connect

    Cronkite, E.P.

    1989-01-01

    The objective in this review is to provide some facts about normal hemopoietic cell proliferation relevant to leukemogenesis, physical, chemical, and biological facts about radiation effects with the hope that each person will be able to decide for themselves whether background radiation or emissions from nuclear power plants and facilities significantly add to the spontaneous leukemia incidence. 23 refs., 1 tab.

  14. Nuclear electric quadrupole moment of potassium from the molecular method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teodoro, Tiago Quevedo; Haiduke, Roberto Luiz Andrade; Visscher, Lucas

    2015-03-01

    The current standard nuclear quadrupole moments (NQMs) of the 39K , 40K , and 41K isotopes have recently been contested by Singh and co-workers on the basis of their atomic computational data [Singh et al., Phys. Rev. A 86, 032509 (2012), 10.1103/PhysRevA.86.032509]. Thus we performed relativistic calculations of electric field gradients at the potassium nuclei in three diatomic molecules (KF, KCl, and KBr) and combined these values with accurate experimental nuclear quadrupole coupling constants to provide an independent assessment of these NQMs. Our most accurate results, obtained by treating electron correlation with coupled cluster theory, employing a four-component Hamiltonian that includes the Gaunt two-electron correction, and with an incremented relativistic basis set of quadruple-ζ quality, yield Q (39K)=60.3 (6 ) , Q (40K)=-75.0 (8 ) , and Q (41K)=73.4 (7 ) mb . These values are in better agreement with the results obtained by Singh et al. and indicate that the standard NQMs should be revised.

  15. Investigation of nuclear electric powered interstellar precursor missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simone, Domenico; Bruno, Claudio; Czysz, Paul A.

    2011-04-01

    Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) is a technology conceptually proposed since the 1940s by E. Stuhlinger in Germany. The JIMO mission originally planned by NASA in the early 2000s produced at least two designs of ion thrusters fed by a 20-30 kW nuclear powerplant. When compared to conventional (chemical) propulsion, the major advantage of NEP in the JIMO context was recognized to be the much higher Isp (lab-tested at up to 15,000 s) and the capability for sustained power generation, up to 8-10 years when derated to Isp about 8000 s. The goal of this paper is to show that current or near term NEP technology enables missions far beyond our immediate interplanetary backyard. In fact, by extending the semi-analytical approach used by Stuhlinger, with reasonable ratios α≡power/mass of the propulsion system (i.e., 0.1- 0.4 kW/kg), missions to the Kuiper Belt (40 AU and beyond) and even the so-called FOCAL mission (at 540 AU) become feasible with an attractive payload fraction and in times of order 10-15 years. Further results regarding missions to Sedna's perihelion/aphelion, and to Oort's cloud will also be presented, showing the constraints affecting their feasibility and mass budget.

  16. Electric power plant emissions and public health

    SciTech Connect

    O'Connor, A.B.; Roy, C.

    2008-02-15

    The generation of electric power is one important source of pollutants such as mercury, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and fine particulate matter that can affect the respiratory, cardiovascular, and central nervous systems and cause pregnancy complications. But protecting people from environmental health hazards has become increasingly complex. Air pollutants are often invisible and travel many miles virtually undetected. Nurses can play a critical role in preventive strategies, as well as in the national debate on energy production and dependence on fossil fuels.

  17. European standards and approaches to EMC in nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Bardsley, D.J.; Dillingham, S.R.; McMinn, K.

    1995-04-01

    Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) arising from a wide range of sources can threaten nuclear power plant operation. The need for measures to mitigate its effects have long been recognised although there are difference in approaches worldwide. The US industry approaches the problem by comprehensive site surveys defining an envelope of emissions for the environmental whilst the UK nuclear industry defined many years ago generic levels which cover power station environments. Moves to standardisation within the European community have led to slight changes in UK approach, in particular how large systems can be tested. The tests undertaken on UK nuclear plant include tests for immunity to conducted as well as radiated interference. Similar tests are also performed elsewhere in Europe but are not, to the authors` knowledge, commonly undertaken in the USA. Currently work is proceeding on draft international standards under the auspices of the IEC.

  18. Summary of the financial and ratepayer impacts of nuclear power plant regulatory reform

    SciTech Connect

    Turpin, A.Y.

    1985-05-01

    This report estimates the financial impact on utilities and ratepayers of nuclear power plant regulatory reforms. Three situations are investigated: (1) no reform, (2) combined early-site-permit and preapproval-of-design reforms, and (3) total reform. Also, two types of capacity additions are evaluated using two utility companies as case studies: (1) nuclear plus generic capacity, and (2) all-nuclear capacity. Results indicate that both the shorter construction lead-time afforded by nuclear regulatory reform and the timing of new capacity additions are extremely important in enabling a utility to remain in a healthy financial position while adding capacity to meet future demand and at the same time reducing the price of electricity to the ratepayers. The lower added capital costs and fuel cost savings obtained from reformed nuclear units allow a utility dependent on oil and gas steam generation to experience price decreases as these new units begin commercial operation. The study also points out that in simulations excluding the shorter lead-time generic capacity, price increases were greater and financial performance was worse for both utilities. These facts indicate the importance of shortening the construction lead-time through nuclear regulatory reform so that nuclear power will be more competitive with coal. 19 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Interactive nuclear plant analyzer for VVER-440 reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Shier, W.; Horak, W.; Kennett, R.

    1992-05-01

    This document discusses an interactive nuclear plant analyzer (NPA) which has been developed for a VVER-440, Model 213 reactor for use in the training of plant personnel, the development and verification of plant operating procedures, and in the analysis of various anticipated operational occurrences and accident scenarios. This NPA is operational on an IBM RISC-6000 workstation and utilizes the RELAP5/MOD2 computer code for the calculation of the VVER-440 reactor response to the interactive commands initiated by the NPA operator.

  20. Aging management guideline for commercial nuclear power plants - heat exchangers

    SciTech Connect

    Booker, S.; Lehnert, D.; Daavettila, N.; Palop, E.

    1994-06-01

    This Aging Management Guideline (AMG) describes recommended methods for effective detection and mitigation of age-related degradation mechanisms in commercial nuclear power plant heat exchangers important to license renewal. The intent of this AMG is to assist plant maintenance and operations personnel in maximizing the safe, useful life of these components. It also supports the documentation of effective aging management programs required under the License Renewal Rule 10 CFR 54. This AMG is presented in a manner that allows personnel responsible for performance analysis and maintenance to compare their plant-specific aging mechanisms (expected or already experienced) and aging management program activities to the more generic results and recommendations presented herein.

  1. Loss of Load Probability Calculation for West Java Power System with Nuclear Power Plant Scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azizah, I. D.; Abdullah, A. G.; Purnama, W.; Nandiyanto, A. B. D.; Shafii, M. A.

    2017-03-01

    Loss of Load Probability (LOLP) index showing the quality and performance of an electrical system. LOLP value is affected by load growth, the load duration curve, forced outage rate of the plant, number and capacity of generating units. This reliability index calculation begins with load forecasting to 2018 using multiple regression method. Scenario 1 with compositions of conventional plants produce the largest LOLP in 2017 amounted to 71.609 days / year. While the best reliability index generated in scenario 2 with the NPP amounted to 6.941 days / year in 2015. Improved reliability of systems using nuclear power more efficiently when compared to conventional plants because it also has advantages such as emission-free, inexpensive fuel costs, as well as high level of plant availability.

  2. SP-100 nuclear electric propulsion for Mars cargo missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frisbee, Robert H.; Hoffman, Nathan J.

    1993-01-01

    This paper summarizes an evaluation of mission performance (in terms of vehicle mass and trip time) of the use of the near-term SP-100 reactor technology for nuclear electric propulsion for Mars cargo missions, and of the technology requirements for the propulsion and dynamic power conversion systems of the vehicle. The reactor power system uses dynamic power conversion (Rankine), and the propulsion system uses lithium-propellant magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thrusters. Three reactor power modules are used to give a total 'bus' power of 1.7 MWe. The total power, power conditioning, and propulsion systems specific mass is 24.8 kg/kWe; the propellant tankage factor is 2.8 percent. The power conditioning system has an efficiency of 90.2 percent and the MPD thrusters an efficiency (electric-to-jet) of 60 percent at a nominal specific impulse of 5000 lb(f)-s/lb(m). Rankine, Brayton, and Stirling dynamic power conversion systems were compared, and the Rankine was found to give the best performance in terms of smallest specific mass and volume; however, it has the longest development time requirement.

  3. Benefits of Nuclear Electric Propulsion for Outer Planet Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kos, Larry; Johnson, Les; Jones, Jonathan; Trausch, Ann; Eberle, Bill; Woodcock, Gordon; Brady, Hugh J. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) offers significant benefits to missions for outer planet exploration. Reaching outer planet destinations, especially beyond Jupiter, is a struggle against time and distance. For relatively near missions, such as a Europa lander, conventional chemical propulsion and NEP offer similar performance and capabilities. For challenging missions such as a Pluto orbiter, neither chemical nor solar electric propulsion are capable while NEP offers acceptable performance. Three missions are compared in this paper: Europa lander, Pluto orbiter, and Titan sample return, illustrating how performance of conventional and advanced propulsion systems vary with increasing difficulty. The paper presents parametric trajectory performance data for NEP. Preliminary mass/performance estimates are provided for a Europa lander and a Titan sample return system, to derive net payloads for NEP. The NEP system delivers payloads and ascent/descent spacecraft to orbit around the target body, and for sample return, delivers the sample carrier system from Titan orbit to an Earth transfer trajectory. A representative scientific payload 500 kg was assumed, typical for a robotic mission. The resulting NEP systems are 100-kWe class, with specific impulse from 6000 to 9000 seconds.

  4. SP-100 nuclear electric propulsion for Mars cargo missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frisbee, Robert H.; Hoffman, Nathan J.

    1993-06-01

    This paper summarizes an evaluation of mission performance (in terms of vehicle mass and trip time) of the use of the near-term SP-100 reactor technology for nuclear electric propulsion for Mars cargo missions, and of the technology requirements for the propulsion and dynamic power conversion systems of the vehicle. The reactor power system uses dynamic power conversion (Rankine), and the propulsion system uses lithium-propellant magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thrusters. Three reactor power modules are used to give a total 'bus' power of 1.7 MWe. The total power, power conditioning, and propulsion systems specific mass is 24.8 kg/kWe; the propellant tankage factor is 2.8 percent. The power conditioning system has an efficiency of 90.2 percent and the MPD thrusters an efficiency (electric-to-jet) of 60 percent at a nominal specific impulse of 5000 lb(f)-s/lb(m). Rankine, Brayton, and Stirling dynamic power conversion systems were compared, and the Rankine was found to give the best performance in terms of smallest specific mass and volume; however, it has the longest development time requirement.

  5. Enhancement of NRC station blackout requirements for nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    McConnell, M. W.

    2012-07-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) established a Near-Term Task Force (NTTF) in response to Commission direction to conduct a systematic and methodical review of NRC processes and regulations to determine whether the agency should make additional improvements to its regulatory system and to make recommendations to the Commission for its policy direction, in light of the accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant. The NTTF's review resulted in a set of recommendations that took a balanced approach to defense-in-depth as applied to low-likelihood, high-consequence events such as prolonged station blackout (SBO) resulting from severe natural phenomena. Part 50, Section 63, of Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), 'Loss of All Alternating Current Power,' currently requires that each nuclear power plant must be able to cool the reactor core and maintain containment integrity for a specified duration of an SBO. The SBO duration and mitigation strategy for each nuclear power plant is site specific and is based on the robustness of the local transmission system and the transmission system operator's capability to restore offsite power to the nuclear power plant. With regard to SBO, the NTTF recommended that the NRC strengthen SBO mitigation capability at all operating and new reactors for design-basis and beyond-design-basis external events. The NTTF also recommended strengthening emergency preparedness for prolonged SBO and multi-unit events. These recommendations, taken together, are intended to clarify and strengthen US nuclear reactor safety regarding protection against and mitigation of the consequences of natural disasters and emergency preparedness during SBO. The focus of this paper is on the existing SBO requirements and NRC initiatives to strengthen SBO capability at all operating and new reactors to address prolonged SBO stemming from design-basis and beyond-design-basis external events. The NRC initiatives are intended to

  6. Assessment of next generation nuclear plant intermediate heat exchanger design.

    SciTech Connect

    Majumdar, S.; Moisseytsev, A.; Natesan, K.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2008-10-17

    The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP), which is an advanced high temperature gas reactor (HTGR) concept with emphasis on production of both electricity and hydrogen, involves helium as the coolant and a closed-cycle gas turbine for power generation with a core outlet/gas turbine inlet temperature of 900-1000 C. In the indirect cycle system, an intermediate heat exchanger is used to transfer the heat from primary helium from the core to the secondary fluid, which can be helium, nitrogen/helium mixture, or a molten salt. The system concept for the vary high temperature reactor (VHTR) can be a reactor based on the prismatic block of the GT-MHR developed by a consortium led by General Atomics in the U.S. or based on the PBMR design developed by ESKOM of South Africa and British Nuclear Fuels of U.K. This report has made an assessment on the issues pertaining to the intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) for the NGNP. A detailed thermal hydraulic analysis, using models developed at ANL, was performed to calculate heat transfer, temperature distribution, and pressure drop. Two IHX designs namely, shell and straight tube and compact heat exchangers were considered in an earlier assessment. Helical coil heat exchangers were analyzed in the current report and the results were compared with the performance features of designs from industry. In addition, a comparative analysis is presented between the shell and straight tube, helical, and printed circuit heat exchangers from the standpoint of heat exchanger volume, primary and secondary sides pressure drop, and number of tubes. The IHX being a high temperature component, probably needs to be designed using ASME Code Section III, Subsection NH, assuming that the IHX will be classified as a class 1 component. With input from thermal hydraulic calculations performed at ANL, thermal conduction and stress analyses were performed for the helical heat exchanger design and the results were compared with earlier-developed results on

  7. Lifting device for nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Krieger, F.

    1984-07-17

    A lifting device for lifting and transporting nuclear fuel elements. This device comprises a mast-like support on the lower end of which automatically operated and locked gripping pawls are provided. The support has a considerable height and may be referred to as lifting mast. The gripping pawls and their operating mechanism are referred to as gripping-head. The gripping-head and the lifting mast are telescopically movable relative to each other. To this end guide rods and compression springs are interposed between the lower end of the lifting mast and the gripping-head. The gripping-head comprises two concentric annular members which are relatively movable or rotatable about their common geometrical axis. One of the annular members supports the gripping pawls are T-shaped. One of their transverse ends is adapted to engage the fuel rods, and the other of their transverse ends is adapted to engage curved grooves in the other annular member. The rotary motion of one annular member relative to the other gripping pawls. In their limit positions the two annular members are blocked by a safety lever engaging slits or slots.

  8. Nuclear power plant safety related pump issues

    SciTech Connect

    Colaccino, J.

    1996-12-01

    This paper summarizes of a number of pump issues raised since the Third NRC/ASME Symposium on Valve and Pump Testing in 1994. General issues discussed include revision of NRC Inspection Procedure 73756, issuance of NRC Information Notice 95-08 on ultrasonic flow meter uncertainties, relief requests for tests that are determined by the licensee to be impractical, and items in the ASME OM-1995 Code, Subsection ISTB, for pumps. The paper also discusses current pump vibration issues encountered in relief requests and plant inspections - which include smooth running pumps, absolute vibration limits, and vertical centrifugal pump vibration measurement requirements. Two pump scope issues involving boiling water reactor waterlog and reactor core isolation cooling pumps are also discussed. Where appropriate, NRC guidance is discussed.

  9. Nuclear physics detector technology applied to plant biology research

    SciTech Connect

    Weisenberger, Andrew G.; Kross, Brian J.; Lee, Seung Joo; McKisson, John E.; Xi, Wenze; Zorn, Carl J.; Howell, Calvin; Crowell, A.S.; Reid, C.D.; Smith, Mark

    2013-08-01

    The ability to detect the emissions of radioactive isotopes through radioactive decay (e.g. beta particles, x-rays and gamma-rays) has been used for over 80 years as a tracer method for studying natural phenomena. More recently a positron emitting radioisotope of carbon: {sup 11}C has been utilized as a {sup 11}CO{sub 2} tracer for plant ecophysiology research. Because of its ease of incorporation into the plant via photosynthesis, the {sup 11}CO{sub 2} radiotracer is a powerful tool for use in plant biology research. Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging has been used to study carbon transport in live plants using {sup 11}CO{sub 2}. Presently there are several groups developing and using new PET instrumentation for plant based studies. Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Lab) in collaboration with the Duke University Phytotron and the Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory (TUNL) is involved in PET detector development for plant imaging utilizing technologies developed for nuclear physics research. The latest developments of the use of a LYSO scintillator based PET detector system for {sup 11}CO{sub 2} tracer studies in plants will be briefly outlined.

  10. Nuclear physics detector technology applied to plant biology research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weisenberger, A. G.; Kross, B.; Lee, S. J.; McKisson, J.; McKisson, J. E.; Xi, W.; Zorn, C.; Howell, C. R.; Crowell, A. S.; Reid, C. D.; Smith, M.

    2013-08-01

    The ability to detect the emissions of radioactive isotopes through radioactive decay (e.g. beta particles, x-rays and gamma-rays) has been used for over 80 years as a tracer method for studying natural phenomena. More recently a positron emitting radioisotope of carbon: 11C has been utilized as a 11CO2 tracer for plant ecophysiology research. Because of its ease of incorporation into the plant via photosynthesis, the 11CO2 radiotracer is a powerful tool for use in plant biology research. Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging has been used to study carbon transport in live plants using 11CO2. Presently there are several groups developing and using new PET instrumentation for plant based studies. Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Lab) in collaboration with the Duke University Phytotron and the Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory (TUNL) is involved in PET detector development for plant imaging utilizing technologies developed for nuclear physics research. The latest developments of the use of a LYSO scintillator based PET detector system for 11CO2 tracer studies in plants will be briefly outlined.

  11. 78 FR 49784 - Pacific Gas and Electric Company, Humboldt Bay Power Plant, Unit 3, Notice of Public Meeting on...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-15

    ... COMMISSION Pacific Gas and Electric Company, Humboldt Bay Power Plant, Unit 3, Notice of Public Meeting on... for license amendment; public meeting; correction. SUMMARY: The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission...), that provided notice that the NRC staff will conduct a public meeting to discuss and accept public...

  12. 75 FR 11579 - Carolina Power & Light Company H. B. Robinson Steam Electric Plant, Unit No. 2; Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Carolina Power & Light Company H. B. Robinson Steam Electric Plant, Unit No. 2; Exemption 1.0 Background Carolina Power & Light Company (the licensee) is the holder of Facility Operating License No....

  13. 75 FR 82414 - Carolina Power & Light Company; H. B. Robinson Steam Electric Plant, Unit No. 2; Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Carolina Power & Light Company; H. B. Robinson Steam Electric Plant, Unit No. 2; Exemption 1.0 Background Carolina Power & Light Company (CP&L, the licensee) is the holder of Renewed Facility...

  14. Tritium release from nuclear power plants in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chi Chang; Chao, Jiunn-Hsing; Lin, Chien C

    2003-03-01

    Tritium is produced in light water reactors from various sources and the design source terms for both BWR and PWR plants are reviewed. The chemical forms of tritium produced in the coolant are discussed in terms of water radiolysis and free radical reactions in the reactor core regions, and the major form of tritium released from the coolant systems is confirmed to be tritiated water. The tritium activity concentrations and inventories in various coolant systems have been measured, and the release pathways of tritium from nuclear power plants are also reviewed in this paper. Decreasing trends of tritium release from nuclear power plants in both liquid waste and ventilation sources have been observed in Taiwan. The impact of tritium release on environmental radiation is estimated with well-established screening models, and the results confirm that the impact is less than 1% of the regulatory limits and less than 0.1% of the natural radiation background.

  15. 75 FR 9620 - Southern Nuclear Operating Company, Inc.; Edwin I. Hatch Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2; Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Southern Nuclear Operating Company, Inc.; Edwin I. Hatch Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2; Exemption 1.0 Background Southern Nuclear Operating Company, Inc. (SNC, the licensee), is the holder of Renewed...

  16. A feature-based approach to monitor motor-operated valves used in nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Mukhopadhyay, S.; Chaudhuri, S.

    1995-12-01

    Degradation and failure of motor-operated valves (MOV) compromise operational readiness of the safety related systems of a nuclear power plant. Motor current signature analysis has been found to be a selective and early indicator of a number of mechanical and electrical failures/abnormalities related to the MOV. The authors present an unsupervised and fully automated method for the extraction of the motor current signature and an analysis to diagnose possible failures in MOV`s. The reference line frequency is obtained by sampling the line voltage, and is used to demodulate the current waveform. Having obtained the current signature, a set of features are extracted from the signature. A discriminant analysis is performed on these primitives to detect and classify various types of failures. The proposed method is nonintrusive, computationally efficient and yields good results. It can be easily installed as a part of an expert system for preventive maintenance of MOV`s in nuclear power plants.

  17. LANDSAT-4 image data quality analysis for energy related applications. [nuclear power plant sites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wukelic, G. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1983-01-01

    No useable LANDSAT 4 TM data were obtained for the Hanford site in the Columbia Plateau region, but TM simulator data for a Virginia Electric Company nuclear power plant was used to test image processing algorithms. Principal component analyses of this data set clearly indicated that thermal plumes in surface waters used for reactor cooling would be discrenible. Image processing and analysis programs were successfully testing using the 7 band Arkansas test scene and preliminary analysis of TM data for the Savanah River Plant shows that current interactive, image enhancement, analysis and integration techniques can be effectively used for LANDSAT 4 data. Thermal band data appear adequate for gross estimates of thermal changes occurring near operating nuclear facilities especially in surface water bodies being used for reactor cooling purposes. Additional image processing software was written and tested which provides for more rapid and effective analysis of the 7 band TM data.

  18. Detection of Endogenous Nuclear Proteins in Plant Cells: Localizing Nuclear Matrix Constituent Proteins (NMCPs), the Plant Analogs of Lamins.

    PubMed

    Ciska, Malgorzata; de la Espina, Susana Moreno Díaz

    2017-01-01

    At present, two complementary approaches are used for in situ protein visualization in plant nuclei. Imaging of transformed fluorescent proteins is the election tool for the analysis of protein movement and interaction. However, this methodology presents several drawbacks for the identification/localization of endogenous nuclear factors, such as over-expression or mislocalization of transformed proteins. In contrast, immunocytochemistry with specific antibodies represents a powerful tool for the localization of endogenous nuclear proteins at their "native" nuclear sub-compartments. In plant cells, the cell wall hampers antibody accessibility during immunocytochemical analysis thereby reducing the effectivity of the technique, particularly in the case of lowly expressed proteins. To overcome this problem in nuclear protein immunodetection, we developed a method based on the in vitro incubation of isolated nuclei with specific antibodies followed by imaging by confocal fluorescence or electron microscopy. Here we describe the application of this methodology to the localization of Nuclear Matrix Constituent Proteins (NMCP), the plant analogs of lamins, of the monocot Allium cepa, using antibodies raised against highly conserved regions of the proteins.

  19. 75 FR 69137 - Southern Nuclear Operating Company Inc. Edwin I. Hatch Nuclear Plant, Unit No. 2 Environmental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-10

    .... There will be no change to radioactive effluents that affect radiation exposures to plant workers and... permit are needed. No effects on the aquatic or terrestrial habitat in the vicinity of the plant, or to... COMMISSION Southern Nuclear Operating Company Inc. Edwin I. Hatch Nuclear Plant, Unit No. 2 Environmental...

  20. Robotic applications in PSE and G's nuclear and fossil power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Roman, H.T. )

    1993-09-01

    Robots are rapidly becoming a strategic technology in the electric utility industry. Since 1983, over 200 applications of these devices have been documented, often resulting in significant time and manpower savings. In nuclear plants, these devices have reduced radiation exposure to human workers and also reduced radiation exposure to human workers and also reduced plant downtime. Public Service Electric and Gas (PSE and G) Company is a nationally recognized leader in this technology. Since 1987, the company has spent $1.6 million on robotic hardware and development projects for use at its Salem (2 PWRS) and Hope Creek (1 BWR) nuclear plants. Savings to date from these investments has exceeded $5 million. Recently, PSE and G has expanded its robotic application efforts to include fossil plants, with many exciting new concepts. This paper will discuss the state-of-the-art mobile robots in the utility industry, and use of PSE and G's pioneering work in this area as a case study; discussing the cost, performance and benefits of specific applications.