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Sample records for nuclear engineering problems

  1. Teaching Problem-Solving Skills to Nuclear Engineering Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waller, E.; Kaye, M. H.

    2012-01-01

    Problem solving is an essential skill for nuclear engineering graduates entering the workforce. Training in qualitative and quantitative aspects of problem solving allows students to conceptualise and execute solutions to complex problems. Solutions to problems in high consequence fields of study such as nuclear engineering require rapid and…

  2. Teaching problem-solving skills to nuclear engineering students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waller, E.; Kaye, M. H.

    2012-08-01

    Problem solving is an essential skill for nuclear engineering graduates entering the workforce. Training in qualitative and quantitative aspects of problem solving allows students to conceptualise and execute solutions to complex problems. Solutions to problems in high consequence fields of study such as nuclear engineering require rapid and accurate analysis of the problems, design of solutions (focusing on public safety, environmental stewardship and ethics), solution execution and monitoring results. A three-month course in problem solving, modelling and simulation was designed and a collaborative approach was undertaken with instructors from both industry and academia. Training was optimised for the laptop-based pedagogy, which provided unique advantages for a course that includes modelling and simulation components. The concepts and tools learned as part of the training were observed to be utilised throughout the duration of student university studies and interviews with students who have entered the workforce indicate that the approaches learned and practised are retained long term.

  3. Dictionary of nuclear engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Sube, R.

    1985-01-01

    Ralf Sube, an experienced compiler of three wellknown four-language reference works has now prepared this glossary of nuclear engineering terms in English, German, French and Russian. Based on the proven lexicography of the Technik-Worterbuch series, it comprises about 30,000 terms in each language covering the following: Nuclear and Atomic Physics; Nuclear Radiation and Isotopes; Nuclear Materials; Nuclear Facilties; Nuclear Power Industry; Nuclear Weapons.

  4. Nuclear propulsion systems engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Madsen, W.W.; Neuman, J.E.: Van Haaften, D.H.

    1992-01-01

    The Nuclear Energy for Rocket Vehicle Application (NERVA) program of the 1960's and early 1970's was dramatically successful, with no major failures during the entire testing program. This success was due in large part to the successful development of a systems engineering process. Systems engineering, properly implemented, involves all aspects of the system design and operation, and leads to optimization of theentire system: cost, schedule, performance, safety, reliability, function, requirements, etc. The process must be incorporated from the very first and continued to project completion. This paper will discuss major aspects of the NERVA systems engineering effort, and consider the implications for current nuclear propulsion efforts.

  5. Nuclear propulsion systems engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Madsen, W.W.; Neuman, J.E.: Van Haaften, D.H.

    1992-12-31

    The Nuclear Energy for Rocket Vehicle Application (NERVA) program of the 1960`s and early 1970`s was dramatically successful, with no major failures during the entire testing program. This success was due in large part to the successful development of a systems engineering process. Systems engineering, properly implemented, involves all aspects of the system design and operation, and leads to optimization of theentire system: cost, schedule, performance, safety, reliability, function, requirements, etc. The process must be incorporated from the very first and continued to project completion. This paper will discuss major aspects of the NERVA systems engineering effort, and consider the implications for current nuclear propulsion efforts.

  6. Job Prospects for Nuclear Engineers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basta, Nicholas

    1985-01-01

    As the debate over nuclear safety continues, the job market remains healthy for nuclear engineers. The average salary offered to new nuclear engineers with bachelor's degrees is $27,400. Salary averages and increases compare favorably with other engineering disciplines. Various job sources in the field are noted. (JN)

  7. Space Power Engineering Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senkevich, V. P.

    2002-01-01

    Development of space power engineering in the first half of XXI century shall be aimed at preventing the forthcoming energy crisis and ecological catastrophes. The problem can be solved through using solar energy being perpetual, endless, and ecologically safe. As of now, issues on the development and employment of solar power stations and its beaming to the ground stations in the SHF band are put on the agenda. The most pressing problem is to develop orbital solar reflectors to illuminate towns in the polar regions, agricultural regions, and areas of processing sea products. Space-based technologies can be used to deal with typhoons, green house effects, and "ozone holes". Recently, large, frameless film structures formed by centrifugal forces offer the promise of structures for orbital power plants, reflectors, and solar sails. A big success is achieved in the development of power generating solar array elements of amorphous silicon. These innovations would make the development of orbital solar power plants dozens of times cheaper. Such solar arrays shall be used in the nearest future on heavy communication satellites and the Earth remote sensing platforms for generation of 140-160 kW at a specific power beyond 300 W/kg. The cargo traffic needed to develop and maintain the orbital power plants and reflector systems could be equipped with solar sails as the future low thrust propulsion. In 2000, the mankind witnessed an unexpected beginning of energy crisis along with strong hydro- meteorological events (typhoons, floods) that shocked the USA, the Western Europe, England, Japan, and other countries. The total damage is estimated as 90 billions of dollars. The mankind is approaching a boundary beyond which its further existence would depend on how people would learn to control weather and use ecologically safe power sources. Space technology base on the research potential accumulated in the previous century could serve for the solution of this problem.

  8. Job Prospects for Nuclear Engineers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basta, Nicholas

    1987-01-01

    Discusses trends in job opportunities for nuclear engineers. Lists some of the factors influencing increases and decreases in the demand for nuclear engineers. Describes the effects on career opportunities from recent nuclear accidents, military research and development, and projected increases of demand for electricity. (TW)

  9. The nuclear matter problem

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, J. A.; Cowell, S.; Morales, J.; Ravenhall, D. G.; Pandharipande, V. R.

    2002-01-01

    We review the present statiis of the many-body theory of nuclear and pure neutron matter based on realistic models of nuclear forces, The current models of two- and three-nucleon interactions are discussed along with recent results obtained with the Brueckner and variatioual methods. New initiatives in the variational method and quantuni Monte Carlo nicthods to study pure neutron matter are described, and finally, the analytic behavior of the energy of piire neutron matter at low densities is cliscussed.

  10. ABB Combustion Engineering nuclear technology

    SciTech Connect

    Matzie, R.A.

    1994-12-31

    The activities of ABB Combustion Engineering in the design and construction of nuclear systems and components are briefly reviewed. ABB Construction Engineering continues to improve the design and design process for nuclear generating stations. Potential improvements are evaluated to meet new requirements both of the public and the regulator, so that the designs meet the highest standards worldwide. Advancements necessary to meet market needs and to ensure the highest level of performance in the future will be made.

  11. Nuclear industry will be short of engineers

    SciTech Connect

    Yates, M.

    1990-09-13

    This article discusses the potential shortage of nuclear engineers due to reduction of educational and training facilities and difficulty in attracting minorities into nuclear engineering. The article reports on recommendations from the National Research Council Nuclear Education Study Committee on attracting minorities to nuclear engineering, increasing DOE fellowships, funding for research and development, involvement of utilities and vendors, and support of the American Nuclear Society's advocacy of nuclear engineering education.

  12. Corrosion Engineers and Nuclear Waste Disposition

    SciTech Connect

    Rebak, R B

    2006-07-13

    More and more articles appear in the press daily about the renaissance of nuclear energy. Even many former opponents of nuclear energy are now convinced that nuclear energy is more environmentally friendly than burning fossil fuels. Nuclear energy does not release carbon dioxide to the atmosphere and therefore does not contribute to the global warming problem. But nuclear energy produces spent fuel or nuclear waste. Spent fuel is radioactive and requires thousands of years of isolation from plants, animals and humans. Every country currently studying the option for disposing of high-level nuclear waste has selected deep geologic formations to be the primary barrier for accomplishing this isolation. It is postulated that by the very nature of these geological sites, they will contain the waste for long time, limiting the spread of radionuclides, for example, through water flow. The release of radionuclides to the environment can also be delayed by the construction of engineered barrier systems between the waste and the geologic formation. Corrosion engineers are participating in the design and the performance prediction of the engineered barriers. The principal engineered component in this multibarrier approach is the container for the waste. Beyond the metallic containers, other engineered barriers could be added to attenuate the impact of the emplacement environment on the containers. The containers will probably be concentric double walled vessels of dissimilar metals. Each vessel would have a specific function. For example, the inner container may be designed to shield radiation and provide structural support to facilitate the safe handling and emplacement operations. This inner container may be over-packed with a corrosion-resistant outer layer. The design of the different containers for nuclear waste would vary according to the nature of the geologic formation at the site of the repository. The most common host rocks for nuclear waste repositories in the world

  13. (Nuclear power engineering in space)

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, R.H. Jr.

    1990-06-18

    The principal purpose of this trip was to participate in the Anniversary Specialist Conference on Nuclear Power Engineering in Space hosted by the USSR Ministry of Atomic Power Engineering and Industry. The conference was held in Obninsk, USSR. A secondary purpose of the trip was to meet with the French Commissariat A L'Energie Atomique in Paris regarding the status of their space power program.

  14. Group Design Problems in Engineering Design Graphics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, David

    2001-01-01

    Describes group design techniques used within the engineering design graphics sequence at Western Washington University. Engineering and design philosophies such as concurrent engineering place an emphasis on group collaboration for the solving of design problems. (Author/DDR)

  15. Comparison: Direct thrust nuclear engine, nuclear electric engine, and a chemical engine for future space missions

    SciTech Connect

    Ramsthaler, J.H.; Sulmeisters, T.K.

    1988-01-01

    The need for an advanced direct thrust nuclear rocket propulsion engine has been identified in Project Forecast 2, Air Force Systems Command report which looks into future Air Force needs. The Air Force Astronautical Laboratory (AFAL) has been assigned responsibility for developing the nuclear engine, and they in turn have requested support from teams of contractors who have the full capability to assist in the development of the nuclear engine. The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) has formed a team of experts with Martin Marietta for mission analysis. Science Applications International (SAIC) for flight safety analysis, Westinghouse for the nuclear subsystem, and Rocketdyne for the engine system. INEL is the overall program manager and manager for test facility design, construction and operation. The INEL team has produced plans for both the engine system and the ground test facility. AFAL has funded the INEL team to perform mission analyses to evaluate the cost, performance and operational advantages for a nuclear rocket engine in performing Air Force Space Missions. For those studies, the Advanced Nuclear Rocket Engine (ANRE), a scaled down NERVA derivative, was used as the baseline nuclear engine to compare against chemical engines and nuclear electric engines for performance of orbital transfer and maneuvering missions. 3 tabs.

  16. Final Technical Report; NUCLEAR ENGINEERING RECRUITMENT EFFORT

    SciTech Connect

    Kerrick, Sharon S.; Vincent, Charles D.

    2007-07-02

    This report provides the summary of a project whose purpose was to support the costs of developing a nuclear engineering awareness program, an instruction program for teachers to integrate lessons on nuclear science and technology into their existing curricula, and web sites for the exchange of nuclear engineering career information and classroom materials. The specific objectives of the program were as follows: OBJECTIVE 1: INCREASE AWARENESS AND INTEREST OF NUCLEAR ENGINEERING; OBJECTIVE 2: INSTRUCT TEACHERS ON NUCLEAR TOPICS; OBJECTIVE 3: NUCLEAR EDUCATION PROGRAMS WEB-SITE; OBJECTIVE 4: SUPPORT TO UNIVERSITY/INDUSTRY MATCHING GRANTS AND REACTOR SHARING; OBJECTIVE 5: PILOT PROJECT; OBJECTIVE 6: NUCLEAR ENGINEERING ENROLLMENT SURVEY AT UNIVERSITIES

  17. Nuclear Engineering Academic Programs Survey, 2004

    SciTech Connect

    Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education

    2005-03-01

    This annual report details the number of nuclear engineering bachelor's, master's, and doctoral degrees awarded at a sampling of academic programs from 1998-2004. It also looks at nuclear engineering degrees by curriculum and the number of students enrolled in nuclear engineering degree programs at 31 U.S. universities in 2004.

  18. Applications of NASTRAN to nuclear problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spreeuw, E.

    1972-01-01

    The extent to which suitable solutions may be obtained for one physics problem and two engineering type problems is traced. NASTRAN appears to be a practical tool to solve one-group steady-state neutron diffusion equations. Transient diffusion analysis may be performed after new levels that allow time-dependent temperature calculations are developed. NASTRAN piecewise linear anlaysis may be applied to solve those plasticity problems for which a smooth stress-strain curve can be used to describe the nonlinear material behavior. The accuracy decreases when sharp transitions in the stress-strain relations are involved. Improved NASTRAN usefulness will be obtained when nonlinear material capabilities are extended to axisymmetric elements and to include provisions for time-dependent material properties and creep analysis. Rigid formats 3 and 5 proved to be very convenient for the buckling and normal-mode analysis of a nuclear fuel element.

  19. Nuclear engineering enrollments and degrees, 1994: Appendixes

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    This survey is designed to include those programs sponsored by the Department of Energy. The survey is designed to include those programs offering a major in nuclear engineering or course work equivalent to a major in other engineering disciplines that prepare the graduates to perform as nuclear engineers. This survey provides data on nuclear engineering enrollments and degrees for use in labor market analyses, information on education programs for students, and information on new graduates to employers, government agencies, academia and professional societies.

  20. Program For Optimization Of Nuclear Rocket Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plebuch, R. K.; Mcdougall, J. K.; Ridolphi, F.; Walton, James T.

    1994-01-01

    NOP is versatile digital-computer program devoloped for parametric analysis of beryllium-reflected, graphite-moderated nuclear rocket engines. Facilitates analysis of performance of engine with respect to such considerations as specific impulse, engine power, type of engine cycle, and engine-design constraints arising from complications of fuel loading and internal gradients of temperature. Predicts minimum weight for specified performance.

  1. People Interview: Engineering beats Pisa's problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-05-01

    INTERVIEW Engineering beats Pisa's problem John Burland has been professor of soil mechanics at Imperial College London for 20 years and is recognized as a distinguished figure in geotechnical engineering. David Smith talks to him about his work.

  2. Unique nuclear thermal rocket engine

    SciTech Connect

    Culver, D.W.; Rochow, R.

    1993-06-01

    In January, 1992, a new, advanced nuclear thermal rocket engine (NTRE) concept intended for manned missions to the moon and to Mars was introduced (Culver, 1992). This NTRE promises to be both shorter and lighter in weight than conventionally designed engines, because its forward flowing reactor is located within an expansion-deflection rocket nozzle. The concept has matured during the year, and this paper discusses a nearer term version that resolves four open issues identified in the initial concept: (1) the reactor design and cooling scheme simplification while retaining a high pressure power balance option; (2) elimination need for a new, uncooled nozzle throat material suitable for long life application; (3) a practical provision for reactor power control; and (4) use of near-term, long-life turbopumps.

  3. Unique nuclear thermal rocket engine

    SciTech Connect

    Culver, D.W. ); Rochow, R. )

    1993-01-15

    Earlier this year Aerojet Propulsion Division (APD) introduced a new, advanced nuclear thermal rocket engine (NTRE) concept intended for manned missions to the moon and to Mars. This NTRE promises to be both shorter and lighter in weight than conventionally designed engines, because its forward flowing reactor is located within an expansion-deflection (E-D) rocket nozzle. The concept has matured during the year, and this paper discusses a nearer term version that resolves four open issues identified in the initial concept: (1)Reactor design and cooling scheme simplification while retaining a high pressure power balance option; (2)Eliminate need for a new, uncooled nozzle throat material suitable for long life application; (3)Practical provision for reactor power control; and (4)Use near term, long life turbopumps.

  4. Estimates of the radiation environment for a nuclear rocket engine

    SciTech Connect

    Courtney, J.C.; Manohara, H.M.; Williams, M.L.

    1992-12-31

    Ambitious missions in deep space, such as manned expeditions to Mars, require nuclear propulsion if they are to be accomplished in a reasonable length of time. Current technology is adequate to support the use of nuclear fission as a source of energy for propulsion; however, problems associated with neutrons and gammas leaking from the rocket engine must be addressed. Before manned or unmanned space flights are attempted, an extensive ground test program on the rocket engine must be completed. This paper compares estimated radiation levels and nuclear heating rates in and around the rocket engine for both a ground test and space environments.

  5. US nuclear engineering education: Status and prospects

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    This study, conducted under the auspices of the Energy Engineering Board of the National Research Council, examines the status of and outlook for nuclear engineering education in the United States. The study resulted from a widely felt concern about the downward trends in student enrollments in nuclear engineering, in both graduate and undergraduate programs. Concerns have also been expressed about the declining number of US university nuclear engineering departments and programs, the aging of their faculties, the appropriateness of their curricula and research funding for industry and government needs, the availability of scholarships and research funding, and the increasing ratio of foreign to US graduate students. A fundamental issue is whether the supply of nuclear engineering graduates will be adequate for the future. Although such issues are more general, pertaining to all areas of US science and engineering education, they are especially acute for nuclear engineering education. 30 refs., 12 figs., 20 tabs.

  6. US Nuclear Engineering Education: Status and prospects

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    This study, conducted under the auspices of the Energy Engineering Board of the National Research Council, examines the status of and outlook for nuclear engineering education in the United States. The study, as described in this report resulted from a widely felt concern about the downward trends in student enrollments in nuclear engineering, in both graduate and undergraduate programs. Concerns have also been expressed about the declining number of US university nuclear engineering departments and programs, the ageing of their faculties, the appropriateness of their curricula and research funding for industry and government needs, the availability of scholarships and research funding, and the increasing ratio of foreign to US graduate students. A fundamental issue is whether the supply of nuclear engineering graduates will be adequate for the future. Although such issues are more general, pertaining to all areas of US science and engineering education, they are especially acute for nuclear engineering education. 30 refs., 24 figs., 49 tabs.

  7. Engineers call for US nuclear safety fix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwynne, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Seven Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) engineers have called on the commission to force the owners of US nuclear reactors to repair a design flaw that could affect the safe operation of emergency core cooling systems.

  8. Nuclear Engineering Enrollments and Degrees, 1982.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweeney, Deborah H.; And Others

    This report presents data on the number of students enrolled and the number of bachelor's, master's, and doctoral degrees awarded in academic year 1981-82 from 72 United States institutions offering degree programs in nuclear engineering or nuclear options within other engineering fields. Presented as well are historical data for the last decade…

  9. Sanitary engineering aspects of nuclear energy developments*

    PubMed Central

    Kenny, A. W.

    1962-01-01

    So many developments have taken place in the field of nuclear energy since 1956, when the author's previous paper on radioactive waste disposal was published in the Bulletin of the World Health Organization, that a fresh review of the subject is now appropriate. The present paper deals with those aspects of the problem which are of most interest to the sanitary engineer. It considers specific points in the latest recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection in relation to public drinking-water supplies, and examines the problem of fall-out, with special reference to the presence and significance of strontium-90 in drinking-water. A general survey of the various uses of radioactive materials is followed by a discussion of the legislative and control measures necessary to ensure safe disposal of wastes. The methods of waste disposal adopted in a number of nuclear energy establishments are described in detail. The paper concludes with some remarks on solid waste disposal, siting of nuclear energy industries and area monitoring. PMID:14455214

  10. Applying optimization software libraries to engineering problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Healy, M. J.

    1984-01-01

    Nonlinear programming, preliminary design problems, performance simulation problems trajectory optimization, flight computer optimization, and linear least squares problems are among the topics covered. The nonlinear programming applications encountered in a large aerospace company are a real challenge to those who provide mathematical software libraries and consultation services. Typical applications include preliminary design studies, data fitting and filtering, jet engine simulations, control system analysis, and trajectory optimization and optimal control. Problem sizes range from single-variable unconstrained minimization to constrained problems with highly nonlinear functions and hundreds of variables. Most of the applications can be posed as nonlinearly constrained minimization problems. Highly complex optimization problems with many variables were formulated in the early days of computing. At the time, many problems had to be reformulated or bypassed entirely, and solution methods often relied on problem-specific strategies. Problems with more than ten variables usually went unsolved.

  11. ABB Combustion Engineering`s nuclear experience and technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Matzie, R.A.

    1994-12-31

    ABB Combustion Engineering`s nuclear experience and technologies are outlined. The following topics are discussed: evolutionary approach using proven technology, substantial improvement to plant safety, utility perspective up front in developing design, integrated design, competitive plant cost, operability and maintainability, standardization, and completion of US NRC technical review.

  12. Nuclear Engineering Technologists in the Nuclear Power Era

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, C. H.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    Describes manpower needs in nuclear engineering in the areas of research and development, architectural engineering and construction supervision, power reactor operations, and regulatory tasks. Outlines a suitable curriculum to prepare students for the tasks related to construction and operation of power reactors. (GS)

  13. Selecting and using materials for a nuclear rocket engine reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanin, Anatolii G.; Fedik, Ivan I.

    2011-03-01

    This paper provides a historical account of how the nuclear rocket engine reactor was created and discusses the problem of selecting materials for a gas environment at a temperature of up to 3100 K and energy release of 30 MW per liter.

  14. Nuclear Engineering at Colleges and Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffey, Dick

    1973-01-01

    Presents five statistical tables relating to nuclear engineering education, namely, course offerings by U.S. and Canadian schools; degrees and enrollment; enrollment, courses, and staff by schools; degrees granted by schools; and research contributions to the American Nuclear Society meetings. (CC)

  15. Problem Decomposition and Recomposition in Engineering Design: A Comparison of Design Behavior between Professional Engineers, Engineering Seniors, and Engineering Freshmen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Ting; Becker, Kurt; Gero, John; DeBerard, Scott; DeBerard, Oenardi; Reeve, Edward

    2016-01-01

    The authors investigated the differences in using problem decomposition and problem recomposition between dyads of engineering experts, engineering seniors, and engineering freshmen. Participants worked in dyads to complete an engineering design challenge within 1 hour. The entire design process was video and audio recorded. After the design…

  16. Nuclear engineering enrollments and degrees, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Little, J R; Shirley, D L

    1982-05-01

    This report presents data on the number of students enrolled and the degrees awarded in academic year 1980-81 from 73 US institutions offering degree programs in nuclear engineering or nuclear options within other engineering fields. Presented here are historical data for the last decade, which provide information such as trends by degree level, foreign national student participation, female and minority student participation, and placement of graduates. Also included is a listing of the universities by type of program and number of students.

  17. Nuclear Power: Problems in Information Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaver, William

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the problems encountered at the Duquesne Light Company of Pittsburgh's nuclear power plant as the result of an inability to process information effectively and keep pace with technological change. The creation of a separate division trained and directed to manage the plant's information flows is described and evaluated. (CLB)

  18. The Problem of Whistleblowing in Engineering Ethics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohishi, Toshihiro

    The purpose of this paper is to clarify the features of whistleblowing by considering the arguments about whistleblowing in engineering ethics. First, I analyze the concept of ‘whistleblowing’ by defining the word as clearly as possible. Second, I examine the standard justification theory of whistleblowing by showing the problems of the theory. Finally, I analyze the dilemma about whistleblowing by revealing a prospective whistleblower‧s struggle to choose moral value or non-moral value.

  19. Eugene Wigner, The First Nuclear Reactor Engineer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinberg, Alvin M.

    2002-04-01

    All physicists recognize Eugene Wigner as a theoretical physicist of the very first rank. Yet Wigner's only advanced degree was in Chemical Engineering. His physics was largely self-taught. During WWII, Wigner brilliantly returned to his original occupation as an engineer. He led the small team of theoretical physicists and engineers who designed, in remarkable detail, the original graphite-moderated, water-cooled Hanford reactor, which produced the Pu239 of the Trinity and Nagasaki bombs. With his unparalleled understanding of chain reactors (matched only by Fermi) and his skill and liking for engineering, Wigner can properly be called the Founder of Nuclear Engineering. The evidence for this is demonstrated by a summary of his 37 Patents on various chain reacting systems.

  20. Heat transfer in a nuclear rocket engine

    SciTech Connect

    Konyukhov, G.V.; Petrov, A.I.

    1995-02-01

    Special features of heat transfer in the reactor of a nuclear rocket engine (NRE) are dealt with. It is shown that the design of the cooling system of the NRE reactor is governed by its stability to small deviations of the parameters from the corresponding calculated values and the possibility of compensating for effects due to nonuniformities and distrubances of various types and scales.

  1. Midwest Nuclear Science and Engineering Consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Wynn Volkert; Dr. Arvind Kumar; Dr. Bryan Becker; Dr. Victor Schwinke; Dr. Angel Gonzalez; Dr. DOuglas McGregor

    2010-12-08

    The objective of the Midwest Nuclear Science and Engineering Consortium (MNSEC) is to enhance the scope, quality and integration of educational and research capabilities of nuclear sciences and engineering (NS/E) programs at partner schools in support of the U.S. nuclear industry (including DOE laboratories). With INIE support, MNSEC had a productive seven years and made impressive progress in achieving these goals. Since the past three years have been no-cost-extension periods, limited -- but notable -- progress has been made in FY10. Existing programs continue to be strengthened and broadened at Consortium partner institutions. The enthusiasm generated by the academic, state, federal, and industrial communities for the MNSEC activities is reflected in the significant leveraging that has occurred for our programs.

  2. Medical problems of survivors of nuclear war

    SciTech Connect

    Abrams, H.L.; Von Kaenel, W.E.

    1981-11-01

    The nature of the medical problems that may confront survivors of a nuclear war are discussed with emphasis on infection and the spread of communicable disease. Factors which will increase the risk and severity of infection include: radiation, trauma and burns, malnutrition and starvation, dehydration, exposure, and hardship. Factors which will increase the spread of disease include: crowded shelter conditions, poor sanitation, insects, corpses, free-roaming diseased animals. Shortages of physicians, the destruction of laboratories, and the general disorganization sure to follow the attack will also contribute to the problems. The authors recommend further study in this area. (JMT)

  3. 2009 UK/US Nuclear Engineering Workshop Report

    SciTech Connect

    Richard Rankin

    2009-04-01

    This report summarizes the 2009 UK/US Nuclear Engineering Workshop held April 20-21, 2010, in Washington, D.C. to discuss opportunities for nuclear engineering collaboration between researchers in the United States and the United Kingdom.

  4. Chemistry and the Internal Combustion Engine II: Pollution Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, C. B.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses pollution problems which arise from the use of internal combustion (IC) engines in the United Kingdom (UK). The IC engine exhaust emissions, controlling IC engine pollution in the UK, and some future developments are also included. (HM)

  5. Status of nuclear light bulb engine design and performance analyses.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, H. E.

    1971-01-01

    The dynamic response is discussed of a nuclear light bulb engine to perturbations at full-power operating conditions, both with and without control systems. Start-up and shutdown procedures are described, along with the provisions for residual afterheat removal. Problems associated with uprated engine designs are examined. The results of some analytical studies indicate that satisfactory control can be obtained by varying the fuel injection rate by means of a control valve which responds to the rate of change of neutron flux, or to the difference between the instantaneous and steady-state neutron fluxes.

  6. Examining Young Students' Problem Scoping in Engineering Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Jessica; Spencer, Kathleen; Hammer, David

    2014-01-01

    Problem scoping--determining the nature and boundaries of a problem--is an essential aspect of the engineering design process. Some studies from engineering education suggest that beginning students tend to skip problem scoping or oversimplify a problem. However, the ways these studies often characterize students' problem scoping often do not…

  7. Application of nuclear photon engines for deep-space exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulevich, Andrey V.; Ivanov, Eugeny A.; Kukharchuk, Oleg F.; Poupko, Victor Ya.; Zrodnikov, Anatoly V.

    2001-02-01

    Conception of using the nuclear photon rocket engines for deep space exploration is proposed. Some analytical estimations have been made to illustrate the possibility to travel to 100-10000 AU using a small thrust photon engine. Concepts of high temperature nuclear reactors for the nuclear photon engines are also discussed. .

  8. Nuclear Engineering Enrollments and Degrees Survey, 2005 Data

    SciTech Connect

    Oak RIdge Institute for Science and Education

    2006-03-01

    This annual report details the number of nuclear engineering bachelor's, master's, and doctoral degrees awarded at a sampling of academic programs from 1998-2005. it also looks at nuclear engineering degrees by curriculum and the number of students enrolled in nuclear engineering degree programs at 30 U.S. universities in 2005.

  9. A TAPS Interactive Multimedia Package to Solve Engineering Dynamics Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sidhu, S. Manjit; Selvanathan, N.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To expose engineering students to using modern technologies, such as multimedia packages, to learn, visualize and solve engineering problems, such as in mechanics dynamics. Design/methodology/approach: A multimedia problem-solving prototype package is developed to help students solve an engineering problem in a step-by-step approach. A…

  10. Engineering problems of tandem-mirror reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Moir, R.W.; Barr, W.L.; Boghosian, B.M.

    1981-10-22

    We have completed a comparative evaluation of several end plug configurations for tandem mirror fusion reactors with thermal barriers. The axi-cell configuration has been selected for further study and will be the basis for a detailed conceptual design study to be carried out over the next two years. The axi-cell end plug has a simple mirror cell produced by two circular coils followed by a transition coil and a yin-yang pair, which provides for MHD stability. This paper discusses some of the many engineering problems facing the designer. We estimated the direct cost to be 2$/W/sub e/. Assuming total (direct and indirect) costs to be twice this number, we need to reduce total costs by factors between 1.7 and 2.3 to compete with future LWRs levelized cost of electricity. These reductions may be possible by designing magnets producing over 20T made possible by use of combinations of superconducting and normal conducting coils as well as improvements in performance and cost of neutral beam and microwave power systems. Scientific and technological understanding and innovation are needed in the area of thermal barrier pumping - a process by which unwanted particles are removed (pumped) from certain regions of velocity and real space in the end plug. Removal of exhaust fuel ions, fusion ash and impurities by action of a halo plasma and plasma dump in the mirror end region is another challenging engineering problem discussed in this paper.

  11. Development of nuclear rocket engine technology

    SciTech Connect

    Gunn, S.V.

    1989-01-01

    Research sponsored by the Atomic Energy Commission, the USAF, and NASA (later on) in the area of nuclear rocket propulsion is discussed. It was found that a graphite reactor, loaded with highly concentrated Uranium 235, can be used to heat high pressure liquid hydrogen to temperatures of about 4500 R, and to expand the hydrogen through a high expansion ratio rocket nozzle assembly. The results of 20 reactor tests conducted at the Nevada Test Site between July 1959 and June 1969 are analyzed. On the basis of these results, the feasibility of solid graphite reactor/nuclear rocket engines is revealed. It is maintained that this technology will support future space propulsion requirements, using liquid hydrogen as the propellant, for thrust requirements ranging from 25,000 lbs to 250,000 lbs, with vacuum specific impulses of at least 850 sec and with full engine throttle capability. 12 refs.

  12. Nuclear Engineering Academic Programs Survey, 2003

    SciTech Connect

    Science and Engineering Education, Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education

    2004-03-01

    The survey includes degrees granted between September 1, 2002 and August 31, 2003. Thirty-three academic programs reported having nuclear engineering programs during the survey time period and all responded (100% response rate). Three of the programs included in last year's report were discontinued or out-of-scope in 2003. One new program has been added to the list. This year the survey data include U.S. citizenship, gender, and race/ethnicity by degree level.

  13. Nuclear thermal propulsion engine cost trade studies

    SciTech Connect

    Paschall, R.K. )

    1993-01-10

    The NASA transportation strategy for the Mars Exploration architecture includes the use of nuclear thermal propulsion as the primary propulsion system for Mars transits. It is anticipated that the outgrowth of the NERVA/ROVER programs will be a nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) system capable of providing the propulsion for missions to Mars. The specific impulse (Isp) for such a system is expected to be in the 870 s range. Trade studies were conducted to investigate whether or not it may be cost effective to invest in a higher performance (Isp[gt]870 s) engine for nuclear thermal propulsion for missions to Mars. The basic cost trades revolved around the amount of mass that must be transported to low-earth orbit prior to each Mars flight and the cost to launch that mass. The mass required depended on the assumptions made for Mars missions scenarios including piloted/cargo flights, number of Mars missions, and transit time to Mars. Cost parameters included launch cost, program schedule for development and operations, and net discount rate. The results were very dependent on the assumptions that were made. Under some assumptions, higher performance engines showed cost savings in the billions of dollars; under other assumptions, the additional cost to develop higher performance engines was not justified.

  14. Advanced nuclear rocket engine mission analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ramsthaler, J.; Farbman, G.; Sulmeisters, T.; Buden, D.; Harris, P.

    1987-12-01

    The use of a derivative of the NERVA engine developed from 1955 to 1973 was evluated for potential application to Air Force orbital transfer and maneuvering missions in the time period 1995 to 2020. The NERVA stge was found to have lower life cycle costs (LCC) than an advanced chemical stage for performing low earth orbit (LEO) to geosynchronous orbit (GEO0 missions at any level of activity greater than three missions per year. It had lower life cycle costs than a high performance nuclear electric engine at any level of LEO to GEO mission activity. An examination of all unmanned orbital transfer and maneuvering missions from the Space Transportation Architecture study (STAS 111-3) indicated a LCC advantage for the NERVA stage over the advanced chemical stage of fifteen million dollars. The cost advanced accured from both the orbital transfer and maneuvering missions. Parametric analyses showed that the specific impulse of the NERVA stage and the cost of delivering material to low earth orbit were the most significant factors in the LCC advantage over the chemical stage. Lower development costs and a higher thrust gave the NERVA engine an LCC advantage over the nuclear electric stage. An examination of technical data from the Rover/NERVA program indicated that development of the NERVA stage has a low technical risk, and the potential for high reliability and safe operation. The data indicated the NERVA engine had a great flexibility which would permit a single stage to perform all Air Force missions.

  15. Mathematical Optimization for Engineering Design Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dandurand, Brian C.

    Applications in engineering design and the material sciences motivate the development of optimization theory in a manner that additionally draws from other branches of mathematics including the functional, complex, and numerical analyses. The first contribution, motivated by an automotive design application, extends multiobjective optimization theory under the assumption that the problem information is not available in its entirety to a single decision maker as traditionally assumed in the multiobjective optimization literature. Rather, the problem information and the design control are distributed among different decision makers. This requirement appears in the design of an automotive system whose subsystem components themselves correspond to highly involved design subproblems each of whose performance is measured by multiple criteria. This leads to a system/subsystem interaction requiring a coordination whose algorithmic foundation is developed and rigorously examined mathematically. The second contribution develops and analyzes a parameter estimation approach motivated from a time domain modeling problem in the material sciences. In addition to drawing from the theory of least-squares optimization and numerical analysis, the development of a mathematical foundation for comparing a baseline parameter estimation approach with an alternative parameter estimation approach relies on theory from both the functional and complex analyses. The application of the developed theory and algorithms associated with both contributions is also discussed.

  16. Summary of aerospace and nuclear engineering activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The Texas A&M Nuclear and Aerospace engineering departments have worked on five different projects for the NASA/USRA Advanced Design Program during the 1987/88 year. The aerospace department worked on two types of lunar tunnelers that would create habitable space. The first design used a heated cone to melt the lunar regolith, and the second used a conventional drill to bore its way through the crust. Both used a dump truck to get rid of waste heat from the reactor as well as excess regolith from the tunneling operation. The nuclear engineering department worked on three separate projects. The NEPTUNE system is a manned, outer-planetary explorer designed with Jupiter exploration as the baseline mission. The lifetime requirement for both reactor and power-conversion systems was twenty years. The second project undertaken for the power supply was a Mars Sample Return Mission power supply. This was designed to produce 2 kW of electrical power for seven years. The design consisted of a General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) utilizing a Stirling engine as the power conversion unit. A mass optimization was performed to aid in overall design. The last design was a reactor to provide power for propulsion to Mars and power on the surface. The requirements of 300 kW of electrical power output and a mass of less than 10,000 Rg were set. This allowed the reactor and power conversion unit to fit within the Space Shuttle cargo bay.

  17. Quantity and quality in nuclear engineering professional skills needed by the nuclear power industry

    SciTech Connect

    Slember, R.J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper examines the challenge of work force requirements in the context of the full range of issues facing the nuclear power industry. The supply of skilled managers and workers may be a more serious problem if nuclear power fades away than if it is reborn in a new generation. An even greater concern, however, is the quality of education that the industry needs in all its future professionals. Both government and industry should be helping universities adapt their curricula to the needs of the future. This means building a closer relationship with schools that educate nuclear professionals, that is, providing adequate scholarships and funding for research and development programs, offering in-kind services, and encouraging internships and other opportunities for hands-on experience. The goal should not be just state-of-the-art engineering practices, but the broad range of knowledge, issues, and skills that will be required of the nuclear leadership of the twenty-first century.

  18. Hybrid intelligent optimization methods for engineering problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pehlivanoglu, Yasin Volkan

    The purpose of optimization is to obtain the best solution under certain conditions. There are numerous optimization methods because different problems need different solution methodologies; therefore, it is difficult to construct patterns. Also mathematical modeling of a natural phenomenon is almost based on differentials. Differential equations are constructed with relative increments among the factors related to yield. Therefore, the gradients of these increments are essential to search the yield space. However, the landscape of yield is not a simple one and mostly multi-modal. Another issue is differentiability. Engineering design problems are usually nonlinear and they sometimes exhibit discontinuous derivatives for the objective and constraint functions. Due to these difficulties, non-gradient-based algorithms have become more popular in recent decades. Genetic algorithms (GA) and particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithms are popular, non-gradient based algorithms. Both are population-based search algorithms and have multiple points for initiation. A significant difference from a gradient-based method is the nature of the search methodologies. For example, randomness is essential for the search in GA or PSO. Hence, they are also called stochastic optimization methods. These algorithms are simple, robust, and have high fidelity. However, they suffer from similar defects, such as, premature convergence, less accuracy, or large computational time. The premature convergence is sometimes inevitable due to the lack of diversity. As the generations of particles or individuals in the population evolve, they may lose their diversity and become similar to each other. To overcome this issue, we studied the diversity concept in GA and PSO algorithms. Diversity is essential for a healthy search, and mutations are the basic operators to provide the necessary variety within a population. After having a close scrutiny of the diversity concept based on qualification and

  19. Nuclear engine flow reactivity shim control

    DOEpatents

    Walsh, J.M.

    1973-12-11

    A nuclear engine control system is provided which automatically compensates for reactor reactivity uncertainties at the start of life and reactivity losses due to core corrosion during the reactor life in gas-cooled reactors. The coolant gas flow is varied automatically by means of specially provided control apparatus so that the reactor control drums maintain a predetermined steady state position throughout the reactor life. This permits the reactor to be designed for a constant drum position and results in a desirable, relatively flat temperature profile across the core. (Official Gazette)

  20. Systems engineering: A problem of perception

    SciTech Connect

    Senglaub, M.

    1995-08-01

    The characterization of systems engineering as a discipline, process, procedure or a set of heuristics will have an impact on the implementation strategy, the training methodology, and operational environment. The systems engineering upgrade activities in the New Mexico Weapons Development Center and a search of systems engineering related information provides evidence of a degree of ambiguity in this characterization of systems engineering. A case is made in this article for systems engineering being the engineering discipline applied to the science of complexity. Implications of this characterization and some generic issues are delineated with the goal of providing an enterprise with a starting point for developing its business environment.

  1. Laser Atrial Septostomy: An Engineering Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben-Shachar, Giora; Cohen, Mark H.; Riemenschneider, Thomas A.; Beder, Stanley D.

    1987-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a reproducible method for atrial septostomy in live animals, which would be independent of both atrial septal thickness and left atrial size. Seven mongrel dogs monitored electrocardiographically were anesthetized and instrumented with systemic and pulmonary arterial lines. A modified Mullin's transseptal sheath was advanced under fluoroscopic control to interrogate the left atrium and atrial septum. A 400 micron regular quartz or a laser heated metallic tip fiber was passed through the sheath up to the atrial septum. Lasing of the atrial septum was done with an Argon laser at power output of 5 watts. In three dogs, an atrial septosomy catheter was passed to the left atrium through the laser atrial septostomy and balloon atrial septostomy was performed. The laser atrial septostomy measured 3 x 5 mm in diameter. This interatrial communication could be enlarged with a balloon septostomy to over one cm in diameter. Hemodynamic and electrocardiographic monitoring were stable during the procedure. Engineering problems included: 1) radioluscency of the laser fibers thus preventing fluoroscopic localization of the fiber course; and 2) the inability to increase lateral vaporization of the atrial septum. It is concluded that further changes in the lasing fibers need to be made before the method can be considered for clinical use.

  2. Engineering students' experiences and perceptions of workplace problem solving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Rui

    In this study, I interviewed 22 engineering Co-Op students about their workplace problem solving experiences and reflections and explored: 1) Of Co-Op students who experienced workplace problem solving, what are the different ways in which students experience workplace problem solving? 2) How do students perceive a) the differences between workplace problem solving and classroom problem solving and b) in what areas are they prepared by their college education to solve workplace problems? To answer my first research question, I analyzed data through the lens of phenomenography and I conducted thematic analysis to answer my second research question. The results of this study have implications for engineering education and engineering practice. Specifically, the results reveal the different ways students experience workplace problem solving, which provide engineering educators and practicing engineers a better understanding of the nature of workplace engineering. In addition, the results indicate that there is still a gap between classroom engineering and workplace engineering. For engineering educators who aspire to prepare students to be future engineers, it is imperative to design problem solving experiences that can better prepare students with workplace competency.

  3. Engineer and technical training at GPUN's nuclear generating stations

    SciTech Connect

    Coe, R.P. )

    1993-01-01

    GPU Nuclear (GPUN) owns and operates the Oyster Creek and Three Mile Island (TMI) unit I nuclear generating stations. They also continue the recovery efforts of the damaged reactor at TMI-2. Technical training for engineers and support staff is managed by the GPUN Corporate Training Department. The group also manages the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO)-accredited Engineering Support Personnel (ESP) Training Program and the GPUN New Engineer Training Program. The New Engineer Training Program has been in existence since 1982 and has trained and oriented [approximately]100 new college graduates to the nuclear industry.

  4. Role of the biomedical engineer in nuclear medicine.

    PubMed

    Llaurado, J G

    1981-01-01

    Throughout the short history of the development of radioactivity applied in the biomedical field, there have been many contributions made by engineers. With the advent of Nuclear Medicine as a well systematized specialty and its mushrooming in hospitals, the opportunities for biomedical engineers have increased. This article is written from the viewpoint of historic perspective in order to display the different aspects and situations where engineers, and particularly biomedical and clinical engineers, can participate in Nuclear Medicine. Finally, a more detailed survey is made of the activities of biomedical engineers in the nuclear medicine department.

  5. Nuclear Engine System Simulation (NESS). Volume 1: Program user's guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pelaccio, Dennis G.; Scheil, Christine M.; Petrosky, Lyman J.

    1993-01-01

    A Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) engine system design analysis tool is required to support current and future Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) propulsion and vehicle design studies. Currently available NTP engine design models are those developed during the NERVA program in the 1960's and early 1970's and are highly unique to that design or are modifications of current liquid propulsion system design models. To date, NTP engine-based liquid design models lack integrated design of key NTP engine design features in the areas of reactor, shielding, multi-propellant capability, and multi-redundant pump feed fuel systems. Additionally, since the SEI effort is in the initial development stage, a robust, verified NTP analysis design tool could be of great use to the community. This effort developed an NTP engine system design analysis program (tool), known as the Nuclear Engine System Simulation (NESS) program, to support ongoing and future engine system and stage design study efforts. In this effort, Science Applications International Corporation's (SAIC) NTP version of the Expanded Liquid Engine Simulation (ELES) program was modified extensively to include Westinghouse Electric Corporation's near-term solid-core reactor design model. The ELES program has extensive capability to conduct preliminary system design analysis of liquid rocket systems and vehicles. The program is modular in nature and is versatile in terms of modeling state-of-the-art component and system options as discussed. The Westinghouse reactor design model, which was integrated in the NESS program, is based on the near-term solid-core ENABLER NTP reactor design concept. This program is now capable of accurately modeling (characterizing) a complete near-term solid-core NTP engine system in great detail, for a number of design options, in an efficient manner. The following discussion summarizes the overall analysis methodology, key assumptions, and capabilities associated with the NESS presents an

  6. Expert vs. novice: Problem decomposition/recomposition in engineering design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Ting

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the differences of using problem decomposition and problem recomposition among dyads of engineering experts, dyads of engineering seniors, and dyads of engineering freshmen. Fifty participants took part in this study. Ten were engineering design experts, 20 were engineering seniors, and 20 were engineering freshmen. Participants worked in dyads to complete an engineering design challenge within an hour. The entire design process was video and audio recorded. After the design session, members participated in a group interview. This study used protocol analysis as the methodology. Video and audio data were transcribed, segmented, and coded. Two coding systems including the FBS ontology and "levels of the problem" were used in this study. A series of statistical techniques were used to analyze data. Interview data and participants' design sketches also worked as supplemental data to help answer the research questions. By analyzing the quantitative and qualitative data, it was found that students used less problem decomposition and problem recomposition than engineer experts in engineering design. This result implies that engineering education should place more importance on teaching problem decomposition and problem recomposition. Students were found to spend less cognitive effort when considering the problem as a whole and interactions between subsystems than engineer experts. In addition, students were also found to spend more cognitive effort when considering details of subsystems. These results showed that students tended to use dept-first decomposition and experts tended to use breadth-first decomposition in engineering design. The use of Function (F), Behavior (B), and Structure (S) among engineering experts, engineering seniors, and engineering freshmen was compared on three levels. Level 1 represents designers consider the problem as an integral whole, Level 2 represents designers consider interactions between

  7. The Problem of Engineering Creativity in Russia: A Critical Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kukushkin, Sergey; Churlyaeva, Natalya

    2012-01-01

    The problem of technological creativity in Russia is briefly discussed. Special attention is paid to the development of indigenous engineering corpus in unfavourable conditions and some reasons for engineers' low creativity are revealed. The Soviet system of engineering higher education (HE) is criticised as not focused on fostering creative…

  8. Introductory Level Problems Illustrating Concepts in Pharmaceutical Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIver, Keith; Whitaker, Kathryn; De Delva, Vladimir; Farrell, Stephanie; Savelski, Mariano J.; Slater, C. Stewart

    2012-01-01

    Textbook style problems including detailed solutions introducing pharmaceutical topics at the level of an introductory chemical engineering course have been created. The problems illustrate and teach subjects which students would learn if they were to pursue a career in pharmaceutical engineering, including the unique terminology of the field,…

  9. Statistical problems in the assessment of nuclear risks

    SciTech Connect

    Easterling, R. G.

    1980-01-01

    Information on nuclear power plant risk assessment is presented concerning attitudinal problems; and methodological problems involving expert opinions, human error probabilities, nonindependent events, uncertainty analysis, and acceptable risk criteria.

  10. Matching DOE grant program for university nuclear engineering. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Albert B. Reynolds

    1996-02-01

    The matching grant from DOE for university nuclear engineering at the University of Virginia was used primarily for student support and enhancement of the Nuclear Engineering Department's computer capabilities. This DOE grant, during this 1992-96 period, was matched by funds from Duke Power Company.

  11. Problem Solving and Engineering Design, Introducing Bachelor Students to Engineering Practice at K. U. Leuven

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heylen, Christel; Smet, Marc; Buelens, Hermans; Sloten, Jos Vander

    2007-01-01

    A present-day engineer has a large scientific knowledge; he is a team-player, eloquent communicator and life-long learner. At the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, the course "Problem Solving and Engineering Design" introduces engineering students from the first semester onwards into real engineering practice and teamwork. Working in small groups,…

  12. PREFACE: Open Problems in Nuclear Structure Theory: Introduction Open Problems in Nuclear Structure Theory: Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobaczewski, Jacek

    2010-06-01

    Nuclear structure theory is a domain of physics faced at present with great challenges and opportunities. A larger and larger body of high-precision experimental data has been and continues to be accumulated. Experiments on very exotic short-lived isotopes are the backbone of activity at numerous large-scale facilities. Over the years, tremendous progress has been made in understanding the basic features of nuclei. However, the theoretical description of nuclear systems is still far from being complete and is often not very precise. Many questions, both basic and practical, remain unanswered. The goal of publishing this special focus issue of Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle Physics on Open Problems in Nuclear Structure Theory (OPeNST) is to construct a fundamental inventory thereof, so that the tasks and available options become more clearly exposed and that this will help to stimulate a boost in theoretical activity, commensurate with the experimental progress. The requested format and scope of the articles on OPeNST was quite flexible. The journal simply offered the possibility to provide a forum for the material, which is very often discussed at conferences during the coffee breaks but does not normally have sufficient substance to form regular publications. Nonetheless, very often formulating a problem provides a major step towards its solution, and it may constitute a scientific achievement on its own. Prospective authors were therefore invited to find their own balance between the two extremes of very general problems on the one hand (for example, to solve exactly the many-body equations for a hundred particles) and very specific problems on the other hand (for example, those that one could put in one's own grant proposal). The authors were also asked not to cover results already obtained, nor to limit their presentations to giving a review of the subject, although some elements of those could be included to properly introduce the subject matter

  13. Inherently safe nuclear-driven internal combustion engines

    SciTech Connect

    Alesso, P.; Chow, Tze-Show; Condit, R.; Heidrich, J.; Pettibone, J.; Streit, R.

    1991-06-14

    A family of nuclear driven engines is described in which nuclear energy released by fissioning of uranium or plutonium in a prompt critical assembly is used to heat a working gas. Engine performance is modeled using a code that calculates hydrodynamics, fission energy production, and neutron transport self-consistently. Results are given demonstrating a large negative temperature coefficient that produces self-shutoff of energy production. Reduced fission product inventory and the self-shutoff provide inherent nuclear safety. It is expected that nuclear engine reactor units could be scaled from 100 MW on up. 7 refs., 3 figs.

  14. LDRD Final Report: Global Optimization for Engineering Science Problems

    SciTech Connect

    HART,WILLIAM E.

    1999-12-01

    For a wide variety of scientific and engineering problems the desired solution corresponds to an optimal set of objective function parameters, where the objective function measures a solution's quality. The main goal of the LDRD ''Global Optimization for Engineering Science Problems'' was the development of new robust and efficient optimization algorithms that can be used to find globally optimal solutions to complex optimization problems. This SAND report summarizes the technical accomplishments of this LDRD, discusses lessons learned and describes open research issues.

  15. Rocketdyne/Westinghouse nuclear thermal rocket engine modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glass, James F.

    1993-01-01

    The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: systems approach needed for nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) design optimization; generic NTR engine power balance codes; rocketdyne nuclear thermal system code; software capabilities; steady state model; NTR engine optimizer code-logic; reactor power calculation logic; sample multi-component configuration; NTR design code output; generic NTR code at Rocketdyne; Rocketdyne NTR model; and nuclear thermal rocket modeling directions.

  16. Low-power nuclear engineering for heat production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kursky, A. S.; Kalygin, V. V.; Semidotsky, I. I.

    2012-05-01

    The paper shows the expediency and importance of the development of low-power nuclear engineering as well as feasibility indices of an up-to-date nuclear power plant intended for regional energy production. A high reliability of the vessel-type boiling reactor with a natural coolant circulation is shown under various operating conditions of a nuclear heat production plant.

  17. Hurricanes as Heat Engines: Two Undergraduate Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pyykko, Pekka

    2007-01-01

    Hurricanes can be regarded as Carnot heat engines. One reason that they can be so violent is that thermodynamically, they demonstrate large efficiency, [epsilon] = (T[subscript h] - T[subscript c]) / T[subscript h], which is of the order of 0.3. Evaporation of water vapor from the ocean and its subsequent condensation is the main heat transfer…

  18. Nuclear-spectroscopy problems studied with neutrons

    SciTech Connect

    Raman, S.

    1982-01-01

    Nuclear spectroscopy with neutrons continues to have a major impact on the progress of nuclear science. Neutrons, being uncharged, are particularly useful for the study of low energy reactions. Recent advances in time-of-flight spectroscopy, as well as in the gamma ray spectroscopy following neutron capture, have permitted precision studies of unbound and bound nuclear levels and related phenomena. By going to new energy domains, by using polarized beams and targets, through the invention of new kinds of detectors, and through the general improvement in beam quantity and quality, new features of nuclear structure and reactions have been obtained that are not ony interesting per se but are also grist for old and new theory mills. The above technical advances have opened up new opportunities for further discoveries.

  19. A Process Analysis of Engineering Problem Solving and Assessment of Problem Solving Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grigg, Sarah J.

    2012-01-01

    In the engineering profession, one of the most critical skills to possess is accurate and efficient problem solving. Thus, engineering educators should strive to help students develop skills needed to become competent problem solvers. In order to measure the development of skills, it is necessary to assess student performance, identify any…

  20. Nuclear Engine System Simulation (NESS) version 2.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pelaccio, Dennis G.; Scheil, Christine M.; Petrosky, Lyman J.

    1993-01-01

    The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following; nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) engine system analysis program development; nuclear thermal propulsion engine analysis capability requirements; team resources used to support NESS development; expanded liquid engine simulations (ELES) computer model; ELES verification examples; NESS program development evolution; past NTP ELES analysis code modifications and verifications; general NTP engine system features modeled by NESS; representative NTP expander, gas generator, and bleed engine system cycles modeled by NESS; NESS program overview; NESS program flow logic; enabler (NERVA type) nuclear thermal rocket engine; prismatic fuel elements and supports; reactor fuel and support element parameters; reactor parameters as a function of thrust level; internal shield sizing; and reactor thermal model.

  1. Brief 74 Nuclear Engineering Enrollments and Degrees Survey, 2014 Data

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2015-03-15

    The 2014 survey includes degrees granted between September 1, 2013 and August 31, 2014, and enrollments for fall 2014. There are three academic programs new to this year's survey. Thirty-five academic programs reported having nuclear engineering programs during 2014, and data were provided by all thirty-five. The enrollments and degrees data include students majoring in nuclear engineering or in an option program equivalent to a major. Two nuclear engineering programs have indicated that health physics option enrollments and degrees are also reported in the health physics enrollments and degrees survey.

  2. Updated solid-core nuclear thermal propulsion engine trades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pelaccio, Dennis G.; Scheil, Christine M.; Livingston, Julie M.

    1991-01-01

    This study examined the application of state-of-the-art propulsion and reactor technologies to a near-term solid-core NERVA-based nuclear thermal propulsion system. Updated reactor performance and weight scaling laws were initially derived and input into a nuclear rocket engine system cycle design analysis code. Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) engine system weight, size, and performance are presented here for a large range of chamber pressures, nozzle area ratios, and thrust levels for three reactor fuel types operating at their corresponding temperatures. Operational characteristics and design features of representative NTP engine concepts are also presented.

  3. Brief 70 Nuclear Engineering Enrollments and Degrees, 2011 Summary Information

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Don Johnson

    2012-10-31

    The survey includes degrees granted between September 1, 2010 and August 31, 2011. Enrollment information refers to the fall term 2011. The enrollment and degree data include students majoring in nuclear engineering or in an option program equivalent to a major. Thirty-two academic programs reported having nuclear engineering programs during 2011, and data was received from all thirty-two programs. The data for two nuclear engineering programs include enrollments and degrees in health physics options that are also reported in the health physics enrollments and degrees data.

  4. Teaching Foreign Languages to Engineering Students: Challenges and Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinze, Karin U.

    The University of Rhode Island's International Engineering Program leads to two degrees: a B.A. in German and a B.S. in engineering. A major problem in program development was lack of appropriate instructional materials and recommended methodology for technical German courses. An instructional unit on the diesel motor illustrates how materials…

  5. NTP system simulation and detailed nuclear engine modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anghaie, Samim

    1993-01-01

    The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) & detailed nuclear engine modeling; modeling and engineering simulation of nuclear thermal rocket systems; nuclear thermal rocket simulation system; INSPI-NTVR core axial flow profiles; INSPI-NTRV core axial flow profiles; specific impulse vs. chamber pressure; turbine pressure ratio vs. chamber pressure; NERVA core axial flow profiles; P&W XNR2000 core axial flow profiles; pump pressure rise vs. chamber pressure; streamline of jet-induced flow in cylindrical chamber; flow pattern of a jet-induced flow in a chamber; and radiative heat transfer models.

  6. Engine cycle design considerations for nuclear thermal propulsion systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelaccio, Dennis G.; Scheil, Christine M.; Collins, John T.

    1993-01-01

    A top-level study was performed which addresses nuclear thermal propulsion system engine cycle options and their applicability to support future Space Exploration Initiative manned lunar and Mars missions. Technical and development issues associated with expander, gas generator, and bleed cycle near-term, solid core nuclear thermal propulsion engines are identified and examined. In addition to performance and weight the influence of the engine cycle type on key design selection parameters such as design complexity, reliability, development time, and cost are discussed. Representative engine designs are presented and compared. Their applicability and performance impact on typical near-term lunar and Mars missions are shown.

  7. Engineering and the problem of moral overload.

    PubMed

    Van den Hoven, Jeroen; Lokhorst, Gert-Jan; Van de Poel, Ibo

    2012-03-01

    When thinking about ethics, technology is often only mentioned as the source of our problems, not as a potential solution to our moral dilemmas. When thinking about technology, ethics is often only mentioned as a constraint on developments, not as a source and spring of innovation. In this paper, we argue that ethics can be the source of technological development rather than just a constraint and technological progress can create moral progress rather than just moral problems. We show this by an analysis of how technology can contribute to the solution of so-called moral overload or moral dilemmas. Such dilemmas typically create a moral residue that is the basis of a second-order principle that tells us to reshape the world so that we can meet all our moral obligations. We can do so, among other things, through guided technological innovation. PMID:21533834

  8. Nuclear Engineering Enrollments and Degrees Survey, 2008 Data

    SciTech Connect

    Analysis and Evaluation, Science Education Programs

    2009-03-30

    The survey includes degrees granted between September 1, 2007, and August 31, 2008, and fall 2008 enrollments. Thirty-one academic programs reported having nuclear engineering programs during 2008, and data was provided by all thirty-one programs.

  9. Nuclear Engineering Enrollments and Degrees Survey, 2007 Data

    SciTech Connect

    Analysis and Evaluation, Science Education Programs

    2008-03-01

    The survey includes degrees granted between September 1, 2006, and August 1, 2007, and fall 2007 enrollments. Thirty-one academic programs reported having nuclear engineering programs during 2007, and data was obtained for all thirty-one.

  10. Brief 66 Nuclear Engineering Enrollments and Degrees Survey, 2009 Data

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Larry M. Blair, Analysis and Evaluation, Science Education Programs

    2010-03-01

    The survey includes degrees granted between September 1, 2008 and August 31, 2009, and fall 2009 enrollments. Thirty-two academic programs reported having nuclear engineering programs during 2009, and data was obtained from all thirty-two.

  11. Introducing Future Engineers to Sustainable Ecology Problems: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filipkowski, A.

    2011-01-01

    The problem of Earth environmental destruction by human activities is becoming dangerous. Engineers responsible for the production of any goods should be well aware of the negative influence of their activities on the state of the planet. This is why the understanding of ecological problems is essential for people responsible for production and…

  12. Problem free nuclear power and global change

    SciTech Connect

    Teller, E.; Wood, L.; Nuckolls, J.; Ishikawa, M.; Hyde, R.

    1997-08-15

    Nuclear fission power reactors represent a solution-in-principle to all aspects of global change possibly induced by inputting of either particulate or carbon or sulfur oxides into the Earth`s atmosphere. Of proven technological feasibility, they presently produce high- grade heat for electricity generation, space heating and industrial process-driving around the world, without emitting greenhouse gases or atmospheric particulates. However, a substantial number of major issues currently stand between nuclear power implemented with light- water reactors and widespread substitution for large stationary fossil fuel-fired systems, including long-term fuel supply, adverse public perceptions regarding both long-term and acute operational safety, plant decommissioning, fuel reprocessing, radwaste disposal, fissile materials diversion to military purposes and - perhaps more seriously - cost. We describe a GW-scale, high-temperature nuclear reactor heat source that can operate with no human intervention for a few decades and that may be widely acceptable, since its safety features are simple, inexpensive and easily understood. We provide first-level details of a reactor system designed to satisfy these requirements. Such a back-solving approach to realizing large-scale nuclear fission power systems potentially leads to an energy source capable of meeting all large-scale stationary demands for high- temperature heat. If widely employed to support such demands, it could, for example, directly reduce present-day world-wide CO{sub 2} emissions by two-fold; by using it to produce non-carbonaceous fuels for small mobile demands, a second two-fold reduction could be attained. Even the first such reduction would permit continued slow power-demand growth in the First World and rapid development of the Third World, both without any governmental suppression of fossil fuel usage.

  13. Recommendations to the NRC on human engineering guidelines for nuclear power plant maintainability

    SciTech Connect

    Badalamente, R.V.; Fecht, B.A.; Blahnik, D.E.; Eklund, J.D.; Hartley, C.S.

    1986-03-01

    This document contains human engineering guidelines which can enhance the maintainability of nuclear power plants. The guidelines have been derived from general human engineering design principles, criteria, and data. The guidelines may be applied to existing plants as well as to plants under construction. They apply to nuclear power plant systems, equipment and facilities, as well as to maintenance tools and equipment. The guidelines are grouped into seven categories: accessibility and workspace, physical environment, loads and forces, maintenance facilities, maintenance tools and equipment, operating equipment design, and information needs. Each chapter of the document details specific maintainability problems encountered at nuclear power plants, the safety impact of these problems, and the specific maintainability design guidelines whose application can serve to avoid these problems in new or existing plants.

  14. Problem-Solving Methods in Agent-Oriented Software Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogg, Paul; Beydoun, Ghassan; Low, Graham

    Problem-solving methods (PSM) are abstract structures that describe specific reasoning processes employed to solve a set of similar problems. We envisage that off-the-shelf PSMs can assist in the development of agent-oriented solutions, not only as reusable and extensible components that software engineers employ for designing agent architecture solutions, but just as importantly as a set of runtime capabilities that agents themselves dynamically employ in order to solve problems. This chapter describes PSMs for agent-oriented software engineering (AOSE) that address interaction-dependent problem-solving such as negotiation or cooperation. An extension to an AOSE methodology MOBMAS is proposed whereby PSMs are integrated in the software development phases of MAS Organization Design, Internal Design, and Interaction Design. In this way, knowledge engineering drives the development of agent-oriented systems.

  15. Problem of technological inheritance in machine engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blumenstein, Valery; Rakhimyanov, Kharis; Heifetz, Mikhail; Kleptzov, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    This article demonstrates the importance of the research study with regard to the technological inheritance of the properties, which characterize the surface layer, at different stages of a part's life cycle. It looks back at the major achievements and gives the findings relating to the technological inheritance of the parameters of the surface layer strength and quality as well as to how they affect the performance properties of machine parts. It demonstrates that high rates of machine engineering development, occurrence of new materials and more complicated machine operation environment require a shorter period for design-to-manufacture facility by reducing experiments and increasing design work. That, in its turn, generates the necessity in more complex but also more accurate models of metal behavior under stressing. It is especially critical for strengthening treatment. Among them are the models developed within the mechanics of technological inheritance. It is assumed that at the stages of a part's life cycle deformation accumulates on a continuous basis and the plasticity reserve of the metal, which the surface layer is made of, depletes. The research study of technological inheritance and the discovery of physical patterns of the evolution and degradation of the structures in a thin surface layer, which occur during machining and operational stressing of parts made from existing and unique including nanopatterned metals, is a crucial scientific challenge. This leads to the acquisition of new knowledge in the plasticity of state-of-the-art metals in the conditions of complex non monotonous stressing and to the development of efficient integrated and combined methods of technological impact.

  16. Rover nuclear rocket engine program: Overview of rover engine tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finseth, J. L.

    1991-01-01

    The results of nuclear rocket development activities from the inception of the ROVER program in 1955 through the termination of activities on January 5, 1973 are summarized. This report discusses the nuclear reactor test configurations (non cold flow) along with the nuclear furnace demonstrated during this time frame. Included in the report are brief descriptions of the propulsion systems, test objectives, accomplishments, technical issues, and relevant test results for the various reactor tests. Additionally, this document is specifically aimed at reporting performance data and their relationship to fuel element development with little or no emphasis on other (important) items.

  17. Computational nuclear quantum many-body problem: The UNEDF project

    SciTech Connect

    Fann, George I

    2013-01-01

    The UNEDF project was a large-scale collaborative effort that applied high-performance computing to the nuclear quantum many-body problem. The primary focus of the project was on constructing, validating, and applying an optimized nuclear energy density functional, which entailed a wide range of pioneering developments in microscopic nuclear structure and reactions, algorithms, high-performance computing, and uncertainty quantification. UNEDF demonstrated that close associations among nuclear physicists, mathematicians, and computer scientists can lead to novel physics outcomes built on algorithmic innovations and computational developments. This review showcases a wide range of UNEDF science results to illustrate this interplay.

  18. Paralel Multiphysics Algorithms and Software for Computational Nuclear Engineering

    SciTech Connect

    D. Gaston; G. Hansen; S. Kadioglu; D. A. Knoll; C. Newman; H. Park; C. Permann; W. Taitano

    2009-08-01

    There is a growing trend in nuclear reactor simulation to consider multiphysics problems. This can be seen in reactor analysis where analysts are interested in coupled flow, heat transfer and neutronics, and in fuel performance simulation where analysts are interested in thermomechanics with contact coupled to species transport and chemistry. These more ambitious simulations usually motivate some level of parallel computing. Many of the coupling efforts to date utilize simple 'code coupling' or first-order operator splitting, often referred to as loose coupling. While these approaches can produce answers, they usually leave questions of accuracy and stability unanswered. Additionally, the different physics often reside on separate grids which are coupled via simple interpolation, again leaving open questions of stability and accuracy. Utilizing state of the art mathematics and software development techniques we are deploying next generation tools for nuclear engineering applications. The Jacobian-free Newton-Krylov (JFNK) method combined with physics-based preconditioning provide the underlying mathematical structure for our tools. JFNK is understood to be a modern multiphysics algorithm, but we are also utilizing its unique properties as a scale bridging algorithm. To facilitate rapid development of multiphysics applications we have developed the Multiphysics Object-Oriented Simulation Environment (MOOSE). Examples from two MOOSE based applications: PRONGHORN, our multiphysics gas cooled reactor simulation tool and BISON, our multiphysics, multiscale fuel performance simulation tool will be presented.

  19. Parallel multiphysics algorithms and software for computational nuclear engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaston, D.; Hansen, G.; Kadioglu, S.; Knoll, D. A.; Newman, C.; Park, H.; Permann, C.; Taitano, W.

    2009-07-01

    There is a growing trend in nuclear reactor simulation to consider multiphysics problems. This can be seen in reactor analysis where analysts are interested in coupled flow, heat transfer and neutronics, and in fuel performance simulation where analysts are interested in thermomechanics with contact coupled to species transport and chemistry. These more ambitious simulations usually motivate some level of parallel computing. Many of the coupling efforts to date utilize simple code coupling or first-order operator splitting, often referred to as loose coupling. While these approaches can produce answers, they usually leave questions of accuracy and stability unanswered. Additionally, the different physics often reside on separate grids which are coupled via simple interpolation, again leaving open questions of stability and accuracy. Utilizing state of the art mathematics and software development techniques we are deploying next generation tools for nuclear engineering applications. The Jacobian-free Newton-Krylov (JFNK) method combined with physics-based preconditioning provide the underlying mathematical structure for our tools. JFNK is understood to be a modern multiphysics algorithm, but we are also utilizing its unique properties as a scale bridging algorithm. To facilitate rapid development of multiphysics applications we have developed the Multiphysics Object-Oriented Simulation Environment (MOOSE). Examples from two MOOSE-based applications: PRONGHORN, our multiphysics gas cooled reactor simulation tool and BISON, our multiphysics, multiscale fuel performance simulation tool will be presented.

  20. Ground test facility for SEI nuclear rocket engines

    SciTech Connect

    Harmon, C.D.; Ottinger, C.A.; Sanchez, L.C.; Shipers, L.R.

    1992-08-01

    Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) has been identified as a critical technology in support of the NASA Space Exploration Initiative (SEI). In order to safely develop a reliable, reusable, long-lived flight engine, facilities are required that will support ground tests to qualify the nuclear rocket engine design. Initial nuclear fuel element testing will need to be performed in a facility that supports a realistic thermal and neutronic environment in which the fuel elements will operate at a fraction of the power of a flight weight reactor/engine. Ground testing of nuclear rocket engines is not new. New restrictions mandated by the National Environmental Protection Act of 1970, however, now require major changes to be made in the manner in which reactor engines are now tested. These new restrictions now preclude the types of nuclear rocket engine tests that were performed in the past from being done today. A major attribute of a safely operating ground test facility is its ability to prevent fission products from being released in appreciable amounts to the environment. Details of the intricacies and complications involved with the design of a fuel element ground test facility are presented in this report with a strong emphasis on safety and economy.

  1. MIMD massively parallel methods for engineering and science problems

    SciTech Connect

    Camp, W.J.; Plimpton, S.J.

    1993-08-01

    MIMD massively parallel computers promise unique power and flexibility for engineering and scientific simulations. In this paper we review the development of a number of software methods and algorithms for scientific and engineering problems which are helping to realize that promise. We discuss new domain decomposition, load balancing, data layout and communications methods applicable to simulations in a broad range of technical field including signal processing, multi-dimensional structural and fluid mechanics, materials science, and chemical and biological systems.

  2. Gas core nuclear thermal rocket engine research and development in the former USSR

    SciTech Connect

    Koehlinger, M.W.; Bennett, R.G.; Motloch, C.G.; Gurfink, M.M.

    1992-09-01

    Beginning in 1957 and continuing into the mid 1970s, the USSR conducted an extensive investigation into the use of both solid and gas core nuclear thermal rocket engines for space missions. During this time the scientific and engineering. problems associated with the development of a solid core engine were resolved. At the same time research was undertaken on a gas core engine, and some of the basic engineering problems associated with the concept were investigated. At the conclusion of the program, the basic principles of the solid core concept were established. However, a prototype solid core engine was not built because no established mission required such an engine. For the gas core concept, some of the basic physical processes involved were studied both theoretically and experimentally. However, no simple method of conducting proof-of-principle tests in a neutron flux was devised. This report focuses primarily on the development of the. gas core concept in the former USSR. A variety of gas core engine system parameters and designs are presented, along with a summary discussion of the basic physical principles and limitations involved in their design. The parallel development of the solid core concept is briefly described to provide an overall perspective of the magnitude of the nuclear thermal propulsion program and a technical comparison with the gas core concept.

  3. Conceptual Comparison of Population Based Metaheuristics for Engineering Problems

    PubMed Central

    Green, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Metaheuristic algorithms are well-known optimization tools which have been employed for solving a wide range of optimization problems. Several extensions of differential evolution have been adopted in solving constrained and nonconstrained multiobjective optimization problems, but in this study, the third version of generalized differential evolution (GDE) is used for solving practical engineering problems. GDE3 metaheuristic modifies the selection process of the basic differential evolution and extends DE/rand/1/bin strategy in solving practical applications. The performance of the metaheuristic is investigated through engineering design optimization problems and the results are reported. The comparison of the numerical results with those of other metaheuristic techniques demonstrates the promising performance of the algorithm as a robust optimization tool for practical purposes. PMID:25874265

  4. The open-cycle gas-core nuclear rocket engine - Some engineering considerations.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, M. F.; Whitmarsh, C. L., Jr.; Sirocky, P. J., Jr.; Iwanczyk, L. C.

    1971-01-01

    A preliminary design study of a conceptual 6000-MW open-cycle gas-core nuclear rocket engine system was made. The engine has a thrust of 44,200 lb and a specific impulse of 4400 sec. The nuclear fuel is uranium-235 and the propellant is hydrogen. Critical fuel mass was calculated for several reactor configurations. Major components of the reactor (reflector, pressure vessel) and the waste heat rejection system were considered conceptually and were sized.

  5. Risk analysis and solving the nuclear waste siting problem

    SciTech Connect

    Inhaber, H.

    1993-12-01

    In spite of millions of dollars and countless human resources being expended on finding nuclear wastes sites, the search has proved extremely difficult for the nuclear industry. This may be due to the approach followed, rather than inadequacies in research or funding. A new approach to the problem, the reverse Dutch auction, is suggested. It retains some of the useful elements of the present system, but it also adds new ones.

  6. Lattice gauge theory as a nuclear many-body problem

    SciTech Connect

    Mathews, G.J.; Bloom, S.D.; Snyderman, N.J.

    1986-10-15

    We discuss the conceptual connection between lattice quantum chromodynamics and a nuclear many-body problem. We begin with an illustrative example of how the 0(3) nonlinear sigma model in (1+1) dimensions can be computed with a nuclear shell-model code with a speed which is competitive with other approaches. We then describe progress toward the implementation of this technology in lattice SU(2) Yang-Mills gauge theory.

  7. Lattice gauge theory as a nuclear many-body problem

    SciTech Connect

    Mathews, G.J.; Bloom, S.D.; Snyderman, N.J.

    1986-05-01

    The conceptual connection between lattice quantum chromodynamics and a nuclear many-body problem is discussed. An illustrative example is given now the 0(3) nonlinear sigma model in (1 + 1) dimensions can be computered with a nuclear shell-model code with a speed which is competitive with other approaches. Progress toward the implementation of this technology in lattice SU(2) Yang-Mills gauge theory is described. 8 refs., 1 fig.

  8. Examining the Critical Thinking Dispositions and the Problem Solving Skills of Computer Engineering Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Özyurt, Özcan

    2015-01-01

    Problem solving is an indispensable part of engineering. Improving critical thinking dispositions for solving engineering problems is one of the objectives of engineering education. In this sense, knowing critical thinking and problem solving skills of engineering students is of importance for engineering education. This study aims to determine…

  9. Numerical Problem Solving Using Mathcad in Undergraduate Reaction Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parulekar, Satish J.

    2006-01-01

    Experience in using a user-friendly software, Mathcad, in the undergraduate chemical reaction engineering course is discussed. Example problems considered for illustration deal with simultaneous solution of linear algebraic equations (kinetic parameter estimation), nonlinear algebraic equations (equilibrium calculations for multiple reactions and…

  10. Educational Activities At The Nuclear Engineering Teaching Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tipping, Tracy N.

    2011-06-01

    The Nuclear Engineering Teaching Laboratory (NETL) at the University of Texas at Austin performs a wide variety of educational activities for students at various levels. Regular on-site courses in the areas of health physics, radiochemistry, and reactor operations are offered for university credit. Along with on-site courses, access to the reactor facility via a remote console connection allows students in an off-site classroom to conduct experiments via a "virtual" control console. In addition to the regularly scheduled courses, other programs, such as the Nuclear Regulatory Commission Summer Nuclear Engineering Institute and Office of Naval Research partnerships with Historically Black Colleges and Universities, provide access to the facility for students from other universities both domestic and foreign. And NETL hosts professional development programs such as training programs for Nuclear Regulatory Commission personnel and International Atomic Energy Agency fellowships.

  11. Grooved Fuel Rings for Nuclear Thermal Rocket Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emrich, William

    2009-01-01

    An alternative design concept for nuclear thermal rocket engines for interplanetary spacecraft calls for the use of grooved-ring fuel elements. Beyond spacecraft rocket engines, this concept also has potential for the design of terrestrial and spacecraft nuclear electric-power plants. The grooved ring fuel design attempts to retain the best features of the particle bed fuel element while eliminating most of its design deficiencies. In the grooved ring design, the hydrogen propellant enters the fuel element in a manner similar to that of the Particle Bed Reactor (PBR) fuel element.

  12. Nuclear electric propulsion mission engineering study. Volume 2: Final report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Results of a mission engineering analysis of nuclear-thermionic electric propulsion spacecraft for unmanned interplanetary and geocentric missions are summarized. Critical technologies associated with the development of nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) are assessed, along with the impact of its availability on future space programs. Outer planet and comet rendezvous mission analysis, NEP stage design for geocentric and interplanetary missions, NEP system development cost and unit costs, and technology requirements for NEP stage development are studied.

  13. NASA Engineering and Safety Center NDE Super Problem Resolution Team

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prosser, W. H.

    2007-03-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) is an independent organization, which was charted in the wake of the Space Shuttle Columbia accident to serve as an Agency-wide technical resource focused on engineering excellence. The objective of the NESC is to improve safety by performing in-depth independent engineering assessments, testing, and analysis to uncover technical vulnerabilities and to determine appropriate preventative and corrective actions for problems, trends or issues within NASA's programs, projects and institutions. Critical to the NESC are teams of experts in a number of core disciplines including nondestructive evaluation (NDE). These teams, designated Super Problem Resolution Teams (SPRTs), draw upon the best engineering expertise from across the Agency and include partnerships with other government agencies, national laboratories, universities and industry. The NESC NDE SPRT provides a ready resource of NDE technical expertise to support NESC Independent Technical Assessments and Investigations. The purpose of this session will be to provide an overview of the NESC and the NDE SPRT along with a few examples of NDE related problems that the team has addressed for NASA Programs. It is hoped that this session will be of interest to the general NDE community and will foster contacts with additional NDE experts that might provide future support to the NASA NESC NDE SPRT.

  14. Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Research and Engineering Program - Strategic Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Casey, Leslie A.

    2004-09-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Research and Engineering (NEM R&E) Program is dedicated to providing knowledge, technical expertise, and products to US agencies responsible for monitoring nuclear explosions in all environments and is successful in turning scientific breakthroughs into tools for use by operational monitoring agencies. To effectively address the rapidly evolving state of affairs, the NNSA NEM R&E program is structured around three program elements described within this strategic plan: Integration of New Monitoring Assets, Advanced Event Characterization, and Next-Generation Monitoring Systems. How the Program fits into the National effort and historical accomplishments are also addressed.

  15. Hyperthermal Environments Simulator for Nuclear Rocket Engine Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litchford, Ron J.; Foote, John P.; Clifton, W. B.; Hickman, Robert R.; Wang, Ten-See; Dobson, Christopher C.

    2011-01-01

    An arc-heater driven hyperthermal convective environments simulator was recently developed and commissioned for long duration hot hydrogen exposure of nuclear thermal rocket materials. This newly established non-nuclear testing capability uses a high-power, multi-gas, wall-stabilized constricted arc-heater to produce hightemperature pressurized hydrogen flows representative of nuclear reactor core environments, excepting radiation effects, and is intended to serve as a low-cost facility for supporting non-nuclear developmental testing of hightemperature fissile fuels and structural materials. The resulting reactor environments simulator represents a valuable addition to the available inventory of non-nuclear test facilities and is uniquely capable of investigating and characterizing candidate fuel/structural materials, improving associated processing/fabrication techniques, and simulating reactor thermal hydraulics. This paper summarizes facility design and engineering development efforts and reports baseline operational characteristics as determined from a series of performance mapping and long duration capability demonstration tests. Potential follow-on developmental strategies are also suggested in view of the technical and policy challenges ahead. Keywords: Nuclear Rocket Engine, Reactor Environments, Non-Nuclear Testing, Fissile Fuel Development.

  16. Gaseous core nuclear-driven engines featuring a self-shutoff mechanism to provide nuclear safety

    SciTech Connect

    Heidrich, J.; Pettibone, J.; Chow, Tze-Show; Condit, R.; Zimmerman, G.

    1991-11-01

    Nuclear driven engines are described that could be run in either pulsed or steady state modes. In the pulsed mode nuclear energy is released by fissioning of uranium or plutonium in a supercritical assembly of fuel and working gas. In a steady state mode a fuel-gas mixture is injected into a magnetic nozzle where it is compressed into a critical state and produces energy. Engine performance is modeled using a code that calculates hydrodynamics, fission energy production, and neutron transport self-consistently. Results are given demonstrating a large negative temperature coefficient that produces self-shutoff or control of energy production. Reduced fission product inventory and the self-shutoff provide inherent nuclear safety. It is expected that nuclear engine reactor units could be scaled up from about 100 MW{sub e}.

  17. Satellite nuclear power station: An engineering analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, J. R.; Clement, J. D.; Rosa, R. J.; Kirby, K. D.; Yang, Y. Y.

    1973-01-01

    A nuclear-MHD power plant system which uses a compact non-breeder reactor to produce power in the multimegawatt range is analyzed. It is shown that, operated in synchronous orbit, the plant would transmit power safely to the ground by a microwave beam. Fuel reprocessing would take place in space, and no radioactive material would be returned to earth. Even the effect of a disastrous accident would have negligible effect on earth. A hydrogen moderated gas core reactor, or a colloid-core, or NERVA type reactor could also be used. The system is shown to approach closely the ideal of economical power without pollution.

  18. Training of nuclear criticality safety engineers

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, R.G.

    1997-06-01

    The site specific analysis of nuclear criticality training needs is very briefly described. Analysis indicated that the four major components required were analysis, surveillance, business practices or administration, and emergency preparedness. The analysis component was further divided into process analysis, accident analysis, and transportation analysis. Ten subject matter areas for the process analysis component were identified as candidates for class development. Training classes developed from the job content analysis have demonstrated that the specialized information can be successfully delivered to new entrants. 1 fig.

  19. U.S. Nuclear Engineering Education: Status and Prospects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems.

    This study examines the status of and outlook for nuclear engineering (NE) in the United States. The study resulted from a concern about the downward trends in student enrollments in NE, in both graduate and undergraduate programs. Concerns have also been expressed about the declining number of U.S. university NE departments and programs, the…

  20. Iterative methods for solving nonlinear problems of nuclear reactor criticality

    SciTech Connect

    Kuz'min, A. M.

    2012-12-15

    The paper presents iterative methods for calculating the neutron flux distribution in nonlinear problems of nuclear reactor criticality. Algorithms for solving equations for variations in the neutron flux are considered. Convergence of the iterative processes is studied for two nonlinear problems in which macroscopic interaction cross sections are functionals of the spatial neutron distribution. In the first problem, the neutron flux distribution depends on the water coolant density, and in the second one, it depends on the fuel temperature. Simple relationships connecting the vapor content and the temperature with the neutron flux are used.

  1. Nuclear Methods for Transmutation of Nuclear Waste: Problems, Perspextives, Cooperative Research - Proceedings of the International Workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khankhasayev, Zhanat B.; Kurmanov, Hans; Plendl, Mikhail Kh.

    1996-12-01

    The Table of Contents for the full book PDF is as follows: * Preface * I. Review of Current Status of Nuclear Transmutation Projects * Accelerator-Driven Systems — Survey of the Research Programs in the World * The Los Alamos Accelerator-Driven Transmutation of Nuclear Waste Concept * Nuclear Waste Transmutation Program in the Czech Republic * Tentative Results of the ISTC Supported Study of the ADTT Plutonium Disposition * Recent Neutron Physics Investigations for the Back End of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle * Optimisation of Accelerator Systems for Transmutation of Nuclear Waste * Proton Linac of the Moscow Meson Factory for the ADTT Experiments * II. Computer Modeling of Nuclear Waste Transmutation Methods and Systems * Transmutation of Minor Actinides in Different Nuclear Facilities * Monte Carlo Modeling of Electro-nuclear Processes with Nonlinear Effects * Simulation of Hybrid Systems with a GEANT Based Program * Computer Study of 90Sr and 137Cs Transmutation by Proton Beam * Methods and Computer Codes for Burn-Up and Fast Transients Calculations in Subcritical Systems with External Sources * New Model of Calculation of Fission Product Yields for the ADTT Problem * Monte Carlo Simulation of Accelerator-Reactor Systems * III. Data Basis for Transmutation of Actinides and Fission Products * Nuclear Data in the Accelerator Driven Transmutation Problem * Nuclear Data to Study Radiation Damage, Activation, and Transmutation of Materials Irradiated by Particles of Intermediate and High Energies * Radium Institute Investigations on the Intermediate Energy Nuclear Data on Hybrid Nuclear Technologies * Nuclear Data Requirements in Intermediate Energy Range for Improvement of Calculations of ADTT Target Processes * IV. Experimental Studies and Projects * ADTT Experiments at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center * Neutron Multiplicity Distributions for GeV Proton Induced Spallation Reactions on Thin and Thick Targets of Pb and U * Solid State Nuclear Track Detector and

  2. Injection of Nuclear Rocket Engine Exhaust into Deep Unsaturated Zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, C. A.; Decker, D.

    2008-05-01

    Nuclear rocket engine technology is being considered as a means of interplanetary vehicle propulsion for a manned mission to Mars. To achieve this, a test and development facility must be constructed to safely run nuclear engines. The testing of nuclear engines in the 1950's and 1960's was accomplished by exhausting the engine gases into the atmosphere, a practice that is no longer acceptable. Injection into deep unsaturated zones of radioactive exhaust gases and water vapor associated with the testing of nuclear rocket engines is being considered as a way of sequestering radionuclides from the environment. Numerical simulations were conducted to determine the ability of an unsaturated zone with the hydraulic properties of Frenchman Flat alluvium at the Nevada Test Site to contain gas-phase radionuclides. Gas and water vapor were injected for two hours at rates of 14.5 kg s-1 and 15 kg s-1, respectively, in an interval between 100 and 430 m below the land surface into alluvium with an intrinsic permeability of 10-11 m2 and porosity of 0.35. The results show that during a test of an engine, radionuclides with at least greater than 10-year half-lives may reach the land surface within several years after injection. Radionuclide transport is primarily controlled by the upward pressure gradient from the point of injection to the lower (atmospheric) pressure boundary condition at the land surface. Radionuclides with half-lives on the order of days should undergo enough decay prior to reaching the land surface. A cooling water vapor injected into the unsaturated zone simultaneously with the exhaust gas will condense within several meters of the injection point and drain downward toward the water table. However, the nearly horizontal hydraulic groundwater gradient present in several of the basins at NTS should limit lateral migration of radionuclides away from the vicinity of injection.

  3. Class and Home Problems: Humidification, a True "Home" Problem for p. Chemical Engineer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Condoret, Jean-Stephane

    2012-01-01

    The problem of maintaining hygrothermal comfort in a house is addressed using the chemical engineer's toolbox. A simple dynamic modelling proved to give a good description of the humidification of the house in winter, using a domestic humidifier. Parameters of the model were identified from a simple experiment. Surprising results, especially…

  4. Global climatic effects of a nuclear war: An interdisciplinary problem

    SciTech Connect

    Ghan, S.J.

    1988-05-01

    In summary, an elucidation of the global-scale response to a nuclear war is a problem of great breadth, involving many of the sub-disciplines of aerosol physics, meteorology, oceanography, atmospheric chemistry and ecology. As diverse as these fields are, communication between the sub-disciplines has been remarkably effective, with two major interdisciplinary reports published in the last few years. It is my belief that, in addition to addressing the global-scale implications of a nuclear war, the global effects effort also serves as an excellent example of an interdisciplinary research program. 23 refs.

  5. Nuclear power plant alarm systems: Problems and issues

    SciTech Connect

    O'Hara, J.M.; Brown, W.S.

    1991-01-01

    Despite the incorporation of advanced technology into nuclear power plant alarm systems, human factors problems remain. This paper identifies to be addressed in order to allow advanced technology to be used effectively in the design of nuclear power plant alarm systems. The operator's use and processing of alarm system information will be considered. Based upon a review of alarm system research, issues related to general system design, alarm processing, display and control are discussed. It is concluded that the design of effective alarm systems depends on an understanding of the information processing capabilities and limitations of the operator. 39 refs.

  6. Engine System Model Development for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Karl W.; Simpson, Steven P.

    2006-01-01

    In order to design, analyze, and evaluate conceptual Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) engine systems, an improved NTP design and analysis tool has been developed. The NTP tool utilizes the Rocket Engine Transient Simulation (ROCETS) system tool and many of the routines from the Enabler reactor model found in Nuclear Engine System Simulation (NESS). Improved non-nuclear component models and an external shield model were added to the tool. With the addition of a nearly complete system reliability model, the tool will provide performance, sizing, and reliability data for NERVA-Derived NTP engine systems. A new detailed reactor model is also being developed and will replace Enabler. The new model will allow more flexibility in reactor geometry and include detailed thermal hydraulics and neutronics models. A description of the reactor, component, and reliability models is provided. Another key feature of the modeling process is the use of comprehensive spreadsheets for each engine case. The spreadsheets include individual worksheets for each subsystem with data, plots, and scaled figures, making the output very useful to each engineering discipline. Sample performance and sizing results with the Enabler reactor model are provided including sensitivities. Before selecting an engine design, all figures of merit must be considered including the overall impacts on the vehicle and mission. Evaluations based on key figures of merit of these results and results with the new reactor model will be performed. The impacts of clustering and external shielding will also be addressed. Over time, the reactor model will be upgraded to design and analyze other NTP concepts with CERMET and carbide fuel cores.

  7. Enrichment Zoning Options for the Small Nuclear Rocket Engine (SNRE)

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce G. Schnitzler; Stanley K. Borowski

    2010-07-01

    Advancement of U.S. scientific, security, and economic interests through a robust space exploration program requires high performance propulsion systems to support a variety of robotic and crewed missions beyond low Earth orbit. In NASA’s recent Mars Design Reference Architecture (DRA) 5.0 study (NASA-SP-2009-566, July 2009), nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) was again selected over chemical propulsion as the preferred in-space transportation system option because of its high thrust and high specific impulse (-900 s) capability, increased tolerance to payload mass growth and architecture changes, and lower total initial mass in low Earth orbit. An extensive nuclear thermal rocket technology development effort was conducted from 1955-1973 under the Rover/NERVA Program. The Small Nuclear Rocket Engine (SNRE) was the last engine design studied by the Los Alamos National Laboratory during the program. At the time, this engine was a state-of-the-art design incorporating lessons learned from the very successful technology development program. Past activities at the NASA Glenn Research Center have included development of highly detailed MCNP Monte Carlo transport models of the SNRE and other small engine designs. Preliminary core configurations typically employ fuel elements with fixed fuel composition and fissile material enrichment. Uniform fuel loadings result in undesirable radial power and temperature profiles in the engines. Engine performance can be improved by some combination of propellant flow control at the fuel element level and by varying the fuel composition. Enrichment zoning at the fuel element level with lower enrichments in the higher power elements at the core center and on the core periphery is particularly effective. Power flattening by enrichment zoning typically results in more uniform propellant exit temperatures and improved engine performance. For the SNRE, element enrichment zoning provided very flat radial power profiles with 551 of the 564

  8. Introducing future engineers to sustainable ecology problems: a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filipkowski, A.

    2011-12-01

    The problem of Earth environmental destruction by human activities is becoming dangerous. Engineers responsible for the production of any goods should be well aware of the negative influence of their activities on the state of the planet. This is why the understanding of ecological problems is essential for people responsible for production and industrial design. The energy, which they consume, is increasing the greenhouse effect and the waste poisons the environment. So far, most courses on ecology are offered to specialists in environmental engineering. These courses are filled with many details. The Warsaw Academy of Computer Science, Management and Administration teaches students in the direction of management and production engineering. Upon completion, the students receive the degree of 'engineer'. Their future work will mainly concern management of different types of industrial enterprises and they will be responsible for organising it in such a way as to avoid a dangerous contribution to environmental pollution and climate change. This is why it was decided to introduce a new course entitled 'Principles of Ecology and Environmental Management'. This course is quite broad, concerning almost all technical, law and organisational aspects of the problem. The presentation is made in a spectacular way, aiming to convince students that their future activity must be environmentally friendly. It contains information about international activities in ecology, legal aspects concerning pollution, technical and information methods of monitoring and, finally, the description of 'green' solutions. Altogether, 27 hours of lectures and 15 hours of discussions and students' presentations complete the course. Details of this course are described in this paper.

  9. Structured system engineering methodologies used to develop a nuclear thermal propulsion engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corban, R.; Wagner, R.

    1993-01-01

    To facilitate the development of a space nuclear thermal propulsion engine for manned flights to Mars, requirements must be established early in the technology development cycle. The long lead times for the acquisition of the engine system and nuclear test facilities demands that the engine system size, performance and safety goals be defined at the earliest possible time. These systems are highly complex and require a large multidisciplinary systems engineering team to develop and track requirements, and to ensure that the as-built system reflects the intent of the mission. A methodology has been devised which uses sophisticated computer tools to effectively develop and interpret functional requirements, and furnish these to the specification level for implementation.

  10. Engineering neural systems for high-level problem solving.

    PubMed

    Sylvester, Jared; Reggia, James

    2016-07-01

    There is a long-standing, sometimes contentious debate in AI concerning the relative merits of a symbolic, top-down approach vs. a neural, bottom-up approach to engineering intelligent machine behaviors. While neurocomputational methods excel at lower-level cognitive tasks (incremental learning for pattern classification, low-level sensorimotor control, fault tolerance and processing of noisy data, etc.), they are largely non-competitive with top-down symbolic methods for tasks involving high-level cognitive problem solving (goal-directed reasoning, metacognition, planning, etc.). Here we take a step towards addressing this limitation by developing a purely neural framework named galis. Our goal in this work is to integrate top-down (non-symbolic) control of a neural network system with more traditional bottom-up neural computations. galis is based on attractor networks that can be "programmed" with temporal sequences of hand-crafted instructions that control problem solving by gating the activity retention of, communication between, and learning done by other neural networks. We demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach by showing that it can be applied successfully to solve sequential card matching problems, using both human performance and a top-down symbolic algorithm as experimental controls. Solving this kind of problem makes use of top-down attention control and the binding together of visual features in ways that are easy for symbolic AI systems but not for neural networks to achieve. Our model can not only be instructed on how to solve card matching problems successfully, but its performance also qualitatively (and sometimes quantitatively) matches the performance of both human subjects that we had perform the same task and the top-down symbolic algorithm that we used as an experimental control. We conclude that the core principles underlying the galis framework provide a promising approach to engineering purely neurocomputational systems for problem

  11. Engineering neural systems for high-level problem solving.

    PubMed

    Sylvester, Jared; Reggia, James

    2016-07-01

    There is a long-standing, sometimes contentious debate in AI concerning the relative merits of a symbolic, top-down approach vs. a neural, bottom-up approach to engineering intelligent machine behaviors. While neurocomputational methods excel at lower-level cognitive tasks (incremental learning for pattern classification, low-level sensorimotor control, fault tolerance and processing of noisy data, etc.), they are largely non-competitive with top-down symbolic methods for tasks involving high-level cognitive problem solving (goal-directed reasoning, metacognition, planning, etc.). Here we take a step towards addressing this limitation by developing a purely neural framework named galis. Our goal in this work is to integrate top-down (non-symbolic) control of a neural network system with more traditional bottom-up neural computations. galis is based on attractor networks that can be "programmed" with temporal sequences of hand-crafted instructions that control problem solving by gating the activity retention of, communication between, and learning done by other neural networks. We demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach by showing that it can be applied successfully to solve sequential card matching problems, using both human performance and a top-down symbolic algorithm as experimental controls. Solving this kind of problem makes use of top-down attention control and the binding together of visual features in ways that are easy for symbolic AI systems but not for neural networks to achieve. Our model can not only be instructed on how to solve card matching problems successfully, but its performance also qualitatively (and sometimes quantitatively) matches the performance of both human subjects that we had perform the same task and the top-down symbolic algorithm that we used as an experimental control. We conclude that the core principles underlying the galis framework provide a promising approach to engineering purely neurocomputational systems for problem

  12. Nuclear Morphology and Deformation in Engineered Cardiac Myocytes and Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Bray, Mark-Anthony; Adams, William J.; Geisse, Nicholas A.; Feinberg, Adam W.; Sheehy, Sean P.; Parker, Kevin Kit

    2010-01-01

    Cardiac tissue engineering requires finely-tuned manipulation of the extracellular matrix (ECM) microenvironment to optimize internal myocardial organization. The myocyte nucleus is mechanically connected to the cell membrane via cytoskeletal elements, making it a target for the cellular response to perturbation of the ECM. However, the role of ECM spatial configuration and myocyte shape on nuclear location and morphology is unknown. In this study, printed ECM proteins were used to configure the geometry of cultured neonatal rat ventricular myocytes. Engineered one- and two-dimensional tissue constructs and single-myocyte islands were assayed using live fluorescence imaging to examine nuclear position, morphology and motion as a function of the imposed ECM geometry during diastolic relaxation and systolic contraction. Image analysis showed that anisotropic tissue constructs cultured on microfabricated ECM lines possessed a high degree of nuclear alignment similar to that found in vivo; nuclei in isotropic tissues were polymorphic in shape with an apparently random orientation. Nuclear eccentricity was also increased for the anisotropic tissues, suggesting that intracellular forces deform the nucleus as the cell is spatially confined. During systole, nuclei experienced increasing spatial confinement in magnitude and direction of displacement as tissue anisotropy increased, yielding anisotropic deformation. Thus, the nature of nuclear displacement and deformation during systole appears to rely on a combination of the passive myofibril spatial organization and the active stress fields induced by contraction. Such findings have implications in understanding the genomic consequences and functional response of cardiac myocytes to their ECM surroundings under conditions of disease. PMID:20382423

  13. Detectors for high energy nuclear collisions: problems, progress and promise

    SciTech Connect

    Ludlam, T.W.

    1986-01-01

    Some perspective of the main issues in high energy nuclear collision physics is offered. How to identify and measure a quark-gluon plasma is considered to still be an open question. The types of detector configurations to be used in high-energy nucleus-nucleus experiments are discussed. Particular issues covered are measurements of lepton pair spectra, tracking systems and multitrack resolution, event-rate capabilities, backgrounds and other problems close to the beam, and calorimetry. 2 refs. (LEW)

  14. Educational Innovation in the Design of an Online Nuclear Engineering Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Simin; Jones, Brett D.; Amelink, Catherine; Hu, Deyu

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the development and implementation phases of online graduate nuclear engineering courses that are part of the Graduate Nuclear Engineering Certificate program at Virginia Tech. Virginia Tech restarted its nuclear engineering program in the Fall of 2007 with 60 students, and by 2009, the enrollment had grown…

  15. Nuclear electric propulsion mission engineering study. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Results of a mission engineering analysis of nuclear-thermionic electric propulsion spacecraft for unmanned interplanetary and geocentric missions are summarized. Critical technologies associated with the development of nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) are assessed. Outer planet and comet rendezvous mission analysis, NEP stage design for geocentric and interplanetary missions, NEP system development cost and unit costs, and technology requirements for NEP stage development are studied. The NEP stage design provides both inherent reliability and high payload mass capability. The NEP stage and payload integration was found to be compatible with the space shuttle.

  16. Engineering problems in ensuring the strength and reliability of the new generation of aircraft engines

    SciTech Connect

    Boguslaev, V.A.

    1995-11-01

    The {open_quotes}Motor Sich{close_quotes} plant - formerly the Zaporozh`e Engine Plant - has been a major contributor to the genesis and development of the domestic aviation industry. More than 20,000 engines made at the plant are currently operating in 18 domestic models of airplanes and helicopters, while roughly 4000 of the factory`s engines are in use abroad. Also, 998 mobile gas-turbine power plants of the PAES-2500 type are presently in service in and outside the CIS. Successes such as these are the result of the tremendous effort put forth by plant personnel and close collaboration with aircraft designers and buyers and scientific-research institutes on engine manufacture, operation, and servicing. Their contributions have made it possible to improve the strength and reliability of engines AI-20, AI-241 AI-25, AI-25TL, and TVZ-117. These models are renowned most of all for their durability, surpassing comparable foreign makes with respect to length of service. Engines AI-20, AI-24, and AI-25 have an average service life of 200,000 h, versus the 50,000 h life of foreign counterparts {open_quotes}Tyne,{close_quotes} {open_quotes}Dart,{close_quotes} and TE.731. At present, engine model D-18T is still not the equal of comparable foreign-made engines in terms of reliability and service life. This can be attributed to both to the problems associated with designing high-thrust engines and to the lack of adequate diagnostic systems. After several problems are resolved, new-generation engines D-36, D-136, and D-18 will provide new levels of reliability and durability. The durability of the D-36 is presently limited by the life of the casing of the combustor (6053 cycles) and the disks of the low- and high-pressure compressors (6500-7000 cycles). The life of the D-18T is restricted mainly by the life of the rotor blades in the high-pressure turbine, defects in the disks of the high-pressure compressor, and other problems.

  17. Nuclear magnetic resonance in environmental engineering: principles and applications.

    PubMed

    Lens, P N; Hemminga, M A

    1998-01-01

    This paper gives an introduction to nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in relation to applications in the field of environmental science and engineering. The underlying principles of high resolution solution and solid state NMR, relaxation time measurements and imaging are presented. Then, the use of NMR is illustrated and reviewed in studies of biodegradation and biotransformation of soluble and solid organic matter, removal of nutrients and xenobiotics, fate of heavy metal ions, and transport processes in bioreactor systems.

  18. Engineering thinking in emergency situations: A new nuclear safety concept.

    PubMed

    Guarnieri, Franck; Travadel, Sébastien

    2014-11-01

    The lessons learned from the Fukushima Daiichi accident have focused on preventive measures designed to protect nuclear reactors, and crisis management plans. Although there is still no end in sight to the accident that occurred on March 11, 2011, how engineers have handled the aftermath offers new insight into the capacity of organizations to adapt in situations that far exceed the scope of safety standards based on probabilistic risk assessment and on the comprehensive identification of disaster scenarios. Ongoing crises in which conventional resources are lacking, but societal expectations are high, call for "engineering thinking in emergency situations." This is a new concept that emphasizes adaptability and resilience within organizations-such as the ability to create temporary new organizational structures; to quickly switch from a normal state to an innovative mode; and to integrate a social dimension into engineering activities. In the future, nuclear safety oversight authorities should assess the ability of plant operators to create and implement effective engineering strategies on the fly, and should require that operators demonstrate the capability for resilience in the aftermath of an accident.

  19. Engineering thinking in emergency situations: A new nuclear safety concept

    PubMed Central

    Guarnieri, Franck; Travadel, Sébastien

    2014-01-01

    The lessons learned from the Fukushima Daiichi accident have focused on preventive measures designed to protect nuclear reactors, and crisis management plans. Although there is still no end in sight to the accident that occurred on March 11, 2011, how engineers have handled the aftermath offers new insight into the capacity of organizations to adapt in situations that far exceed the scope of safety standards based on probabilistic risk assessment and on the comprehensive identification of disaster scenarios. Ongoing crises in which conventional resources are lacking, but societal expectations are high, call for “engineering thinking in emergency situations.” This is a new concept that emphasizes adaptability and resilience within organizations—such as the ability to create temporary new organizational structures; to quickly switch from a normal state to an innovative mode; and to integrate a social dimension into engineering activities. In the future, nuclear safety oversight authorities should assess the ability of plant operators to create and implement effective engineering strategies on the fly, and should require that operators demonstrate the capability for resilience in the aftermath of an accident. PMID:25419015

  20. Engineering thinking in emergency situations: A new nuclear safety concept.

    PubMed

    Guarnieri, Franck; Travadel, Sébastien

    2014-11-01

    The lessons learned from the Fukushima Daiichi accident have focused on preventive measures designed to protect nuclear reactors, and crisis management plans. Although there is still no end in sight to the accident that occurred on March 11, 2011, how engineers have handled the aftermath offers new insight into the capacity of organizations to adapt in situations that far exceed the scope of safety standards based on probabilistic risk assessment and on the comprehensive identification of disaster scenarios. Ongoing crises in which conventional resources are lacking, but societal expectations are high, call for "engineering thinking in emergency situations." This is a new concept that emphasizes adaptability and resilience within organizations-such as the ability to create temporary new organizational structures; to quickly switch from a normal state to an innovative mode; and to integrate a social dimension into engineering activities. In the future, nuclear safety oversight authorities should assess the ability of plant operators to create and implement effective engineering strategies on the fly, and should require that operators demonstrate the capability for resilience in the aftermath of an accident. PMID:25419015

  1. A proposed benchmark problem for cargo nuclear threat monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wesley Holmes, Thomas; Calderon, Adan; Peeples, Cody R.; Gardner, Robin P.

    2011-10-01

    There is currently a great deal of technical and political effort focused on reducing the risk of potential attacks on the United States involving radiological dispersal devices or nuclear weapons. This paper proposes a benchmark problem for gamma-ray and X-ray cargo monitoring with results calculated using MCNP5, v1.51. The primary goal is to provide a benchmark problem that will allow researchers in this area to evaluate Monte Carlo models for both speed and accuracy in both forward and inverse calculational codes and approaches for nuclear security applications. A previous benchmark problem was developed by one of the authors (RPG) for two similar oil well logging problems (Gardner and Verghese, 1991, [1]). One of those benchmarks has recently been used by at least two researchers in the nuclear threat area to evaluate the speed and accuracy of Monte Carlo codes combined with variance reduction techniques. This apparent need has prompted us to design this benchmark problem specifically for the nuclear threat researcher. This benchmark consists of conceptual design and preliminary calculational results using gamma-ray interactions on a system containing three thicknesses of three different shielding materials. A point source is placed inside the three materials lead, aluminum, and plywood. The first two materials are in right circular cylindrical form while the third is a cube. The entire system rests on a sufficiently thick lead base so as to reduce undesired scattering events. The configuration was arranged in such a manner that as gamma-ray moves from the source outward it first passes through the lead circular cylinder, then the aluminum circular cylinder, and finally the wooden cube before reaching the detector. A 2 in.×4 in.×16 in. box style NaI (Tl) detector was placed 1 m from the point source located in the center with the 4 in.×16 in. side facing the system. The two sources used in the benchmark are 137Cs and 235U.

  2. Calculated concentrations of any radionuclide deposited on the ground by release from underground nuclear detonations, tests of nuclear rockets, and tests of nuclear ramjet engines

    SciTech Connect

    Hicks, H.G.

    1981-11-01

    This report presents calculated gamma radiation exposure rates and ground deposition of related radionuclides resulting from three types of event that deposited detectable radioactivity outside the Nevada Test Site complex, namely, underground nuclear detonations, tests of nuclear rocket engines and tests of nuclear ramjet engines.

  3. Hyperthermal Environments Simulator for Nuclear Rocket Engine Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litchford, R. J.; Foote, J. P.; Clifton, W. B.; Hickman, R. R.; Wang, T.-S.; Dobson, C. C.

    An arc-heater driven hyperthermal convective environments simulator was recently developed and commissioned for long duration hot hydrogen exposure of nuclear thermal rocket materials. This newly established non-nuclear testing capability uses a high-power, multi-gas, wall-stabilised constricted arc-heater to produce high-temperature pressurised hydrogen flows representative of nuclear reactor core environments, excepting radiation effects, and is intended to serve as a low-cost facility for supporting non-nuclear developmental testing of high-temperature fissile fuels and structural materials. The resulting reactor environments simulator represents a valuable addition to the available inventory of non-nuclear test facilities and is uniquely capable of investigating and characterising candidate fuel/structural materials, improving associated processing/ fabrication techniques, and simulating reactor thermal hydraulics. This paper summarizes facility design and engineering development efforts and reports baseline operational characteristics as determined from a series of performance mapping and long duration capability demonstration tests. Potential follow-on developmental strategies are also suggested in view of the technical and policy challenges ahead.

  4. Progress of teaching and learning of nuclear engineering courses at College of Engineering, Universiti Tenaga Nasional (UNITEN)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamid, Nasri A.; Mohamed, Abdul Aziz; Yusoff, Mohd. Zamri

    2015-04-01

    Developing human capital in nuclear with required nuclear background and professional qualifications is necessary to support the implementation of nuclear power projects in the near future. Sufficient educational and training skills are required to ensure that the human resources needed by the nuclear power industry meets its high standard. The Government of Malaysia has made the decision to include nuclear as one of the electricity generation option for the country, post 2020 in order to cater for the increasing energy demands of the country as well as to reduce CO2 emission. The commitment by the government has been made clearer with the inclusion of the development of first NPP by 2021 in the Economic Transformation Program (ETP) which was launched by the government in October 2010. The In tandem with the government initiative to promote nuclear energy, Center for Nuclear Energy, College of Engineering, Universiti Tenaga Nasional (UNITEN) is taking the responsibility in developing human capital in the area of nuclear power and technology. In the beginning, the College of Engineering has offered the Introduction to Nuclear Technology course as a technical elective course for all undergraduate engineering students. Gradually, other nuclear technical elective courses are offered such as Nuclear Policy, Security and Safeguards, Introduction to Nuclear Engineering, Radiation Detection and Nuclear Instrumentation, Introduction to Reactor Physics, Radiation Safety and Waste Management, and Nuclear Thermal-hydraulics. In addition, another course Advancement in Nuclear Energy is offered as one of the postgraduate elective courses. To enhance the capability of teaching staffs in nuclear areas at UNITEN, several junior lecturers are sent to pursue their postgraduate studies in the Republic of Korea, United States and the United Kingdom, while the others are participating in short courses and workshops in nuclear that are conducted locally and abroad. This paper describes

  5. Progress of teaching and learning of nuclear engineering courses at College of Engineering, Universiti Tenaga Nasional (UNITEN)

    SciTech Connect

    Hamid, Nasri A. Mohamed, Abdul Aziz; Yusoff, Mohd. Zamri

    2015-04-29

    Developing human capital in nuclear with required nuclear background and professional qualifications is necessary to support the implementation of nuclear power projects in the near future. Sufficient educational and training skills are required to ensure that the human resources needed by the nuclear power industry meets its high standard. The Government of Malaysia has made the decision to include nuclear as one of the electricity generation option for the country, post 2020 in order to cater for the increasing energy demands of the country as well as to reduce CO{sub 2} emission. The commitment by the government has been made clearer with the inclusion of the development of first NPP by 2021 in the Economic Transformation Program (ETP) which was launched by the government in October 2010. The In tandem with the government initiative to promote nuclear energy, Center for Nuclear Energy, College of Engineering, Universiti Tenaga Nasional (UNITEN) is taking the responsibility in developing human capital in the area of nuclear power and technology. In the beginning, the College of Engineering has offered the Introduction to Nuclear Technology course as a technical elective course for all undergraduate engineering students. Gradually, other nuclear technical elective courses are offered such as Nuclear Policy, Security and Safeguards, Introduction to Nuclear Engineering, Radiation Detection and Nuclear Instrumentation, Introduction to Reactor Physics, Radiation Safety and Waste Management, and Nuclear Thermal-hydraulics. In addition, another course Advancement in Nuclear Energy is offered as one of the postgraduate elective courses. To enhance the capability of teaching staffs in nuclear areas at UNITEN, several junior lecturers are sent to pursue their postgraduate studies in the Republic of Korea, United States and the United Kingdom, while the others are participating in short courses and workshops in nuclear that are conducted locally and abroad. This paper

  6. CAE - nuclear engineering analysis on work-station computers

    SciTech Connect

    Wessol, D.E.; Liebelt, K.H.; Merrill, B.J.; Nigg, D.W.; Wheeler, F.J.

    1986-01-01

    Emergence of the inexpensive and widely available 32-bit-work-station computer is revolutionizing the scientific and engineering computing environment. These systems reach or exceed threshold for many midscale nuclear applications and bridge the gap between the era of expensive computing: cheap people and the era of cheap computing: expensive people. Experience at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) has demonstrated the efficacy of this new computer technology. For the past 1 1/2 yr, a Hewlett-Packard 9000/540 32-bit multi-user microcomputer has been used to perform many calculations typical of a nuclear design effort. This system is similar with respect to performance and memory to such work stations as the SUN-3, HP-9000/32, or the Apollo DN-3000 that are available for under $20,000 for a fully configured single-user station. The system is being used for code development, model setup and checkout, and a full range of nuclear applications. Various one- and two-dimensional discrete ordinates transport codes are used on a routine basis. These include the well-known ANISN code as well as locally developed transport models. Typical one-dimensional multigroup calculations can be executed in clock times <10 min.

  7. Nuclear Power Engineering Education Program, University of Illinois

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, B.G.

    1993-01-01

    The DOE/CECo Nuclear Power Engineering Education Program at the University of Illinois in its first year has significantly impacted the quality of the power education which our students receive. It has contributed to: the recently completed upgrade of the console of our Advanced TRIGA reactor which increases the reactor's utility for training, the procurement of new equipment to upgrade and refurbish several of the undergraduate laboratory set-ups, and the procurement of computational workstations in support of the instructional computing laboratory. In addition, smaller amounts of funds were used for the recruitment and retention of top quality graduate students, the support of faculty to visit other institutions to attract top students into the discipline, and to provide funds for faculty to participate in short courses to improve their skills and background in the power area. These items and activities have helped elevate in the student's perspective the role of nuclear power in the discipline. We feel this is having a favorable impact on student career selection and on ensuring the continued supply of well educated nuclear engineering graduates.

  8. Multi-physics nuclear reactor simulator for advanced nuclear engineering education

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, A.

    2012-07-01

    Multi-physics nuclear reactor simulator, which aims to utilize for advanced nuclear engineering education, is being introduced to Nagoya Univ.. The simulator consists of the 'macroscopic' physics simulator and the 'microscopic' physics simulator. The former performs real time simulation of a whole nuclear power plant. The latter is responsible to more detail numerical simulations based on the sophisticated and precise numerical models, while taking into account the plant conditions obtained in the macroscopic physics simulator. Steady-state and kinetics core analyses, fuel mechanical analysis, fluid dynamics analysis, and sub-channel analysis can be carried out in the microscopic physics simulator. Simulation calculations are carried out through dedicated graphical user interface and the simulation results, i.e., spatial and temporal behaviors of major plant parameters are graphically shown. The simulator will provide a bridge between the 'theories' studied with textbooks and the 'physical behaviors' of actual nuclear power plants. (authors)

  9. Closing nuclear fuel cycle with fast reactors: problems and prospects

    SciTech Connect

    Shadrin, A.; Dvoeglazov, K.; Ivanov, V.

    2013-07-01

    The closed nuclear fuel cycle (CNFC) with fast reactors (FR) is the most promising way of nuclear energetics development because it prevents spent nuclear fuel (SNF) accumulation and minimizes radwaste volume due to minor actinides (MA) transmutation. CNFC with FR requires the elaboration of safety, environmentally acceptable and economically effective methods of treatment of SNF with high burn-up and low cooling time. The up-to-date industrially implemented SNF reprocessing technologies based on hydrometallurgical methods are not suitable for the reprocessing of SNF with high burn-up and low cooling time. The alternative dry methods (such as electrorefining in molten salts or fluoride technologies) applicable for such SNF reprocessing have not found implementation at industrial scale. So the cost of SNF reprocessing by means of dry technologies can hardly be estimated. Another problem of dry technologies is the recovery of fissionable materials pure enough for dense fuel fabrication. A combination of technical solutions performed with hydrometallurgical and dry technologies (pyro-technology) is proposed and it appears to be a promising way for the elaboration of economically, ecologically and socially accepted technology of FR SNF management. This paper deals with discussion of main principle of dry and aqueous operations combination that probably would provide safety and economic efficiency of the FR SNF reprocessing. (authors)

  10. Communication Problems in Requirements Engineering: A Field Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Al-Rawas, Amer; Easterbrook, Steve

    1996-01-01

    The requirements engineering phase of software development projects is characterized by the intensity and importance of communication activities. During this phase, the various stakeholders must be able to communicate their requirements to the analysts, and the analysts need to be able to communicate the specifications they generate back to the stakeholders for validation. This paper describes a field investigation into the problems of communication between disparate communities involved in the requirements specification activities. The results of this study are discussed in terms of their relation to three major communication barriers: (1) ineffectiveness of the current communication channels; (2) restrictions on expressiveness imposed by notations; and (3) social and organizational barriers. The results confirm that organizational and social issues have great influence on the effectiveness of communication. They also show that in general, end-users find the notations used by software practitioners to model their requirements difficult to understand and validate.

  11. An algorithm for computationally expensive engineering optimization problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoel, Tenne

    2013-07-01

    Modern engineering design often relies on computer simulations to evaluate candidate designs, a scenario which results in an optimization of a computationally expensive black-box function. In these settings, there will often exist candidate designs which cause the simulation to fail, and can therefore degrade the search effectiveness. To address this issue, this paper proposes a new metamodel-assisted computational intelligence optimization algorithm which incorporates classifiers into the optimization search. The classifiers predict which candidate designs are expected to cause the simulation to fail, and this prediction is used to bias the search towards designs predicted to be valid. To enhance the search effectiveness, the proposed algorithm uses an ensemble approach which concurrently employs several metamodels and classifiers. A rigorous performance analysis based on a set of simulation-driven design optimization problems shows the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  12. A brief history of graduate distance education in nuclear engineering at Penn State Univ

    SciTech Connect

    Hochreiter, L. E.; Zimmerman, D. L.; Brenizer Jr, J. S.; Stark, M. A.

    2006-07-01

    The Pennsylvania State University Nuclear Engineering Distance Education Program has a twenty year history of providing graduate level distance education in Nuclear Engineering. The Distance Education Program was initiated as a specific program which was developed for the Westinghouse Energy Systems Divisions in Pittsburgh. In 1983, Carnegie-Mellon University (CMU) decided to terminate its small Nuclear Engineering Program. Up until that time, Westinghouse employees could enroll at CMU for graduate classes in Nuclear Engineering as well as other engineering disciplines and could obtain a masters degree or if desired, could continue for a Ph.D. degree. (authors)

  13. The cosmological 7Li problem from a nuclear physics perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broggini, C.; Canton, L.; Fiorentini, G.; Villante, F. L.

    2012-06-01

    The primordial abundance of 7Li as predicted by Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN) is more than a factor 2 larger than what has been observed in metal-poor halo stars. Herein, we analyze the possibility that this discrepancy originates from incorrect assumptions about the nuclear reaction cross sections relevant for BBN. To do this, we introduce an efficient method to calculate the changes in the 7Li abundance produced by arbitrary (temperature dependent) modifications of the nuclear reaction rates. Then, considering that 7Li is mainly produced from 7Be via the electron capture process 7Be+e- → 7Li+νe, we assess the impact of the various channels of 7Be destruction. Differently from previous analysis, we consider the role of unknown resonances by using a complete formalism which takes into account the effect of Coulomb and centrifugal barrier penetration and that does not rely on the use of the narrow-resonance approximation. As a result of this, the possibility of a nuclear physics solution to the 7Li problem is significantly suppressed. Given the present experimental and theoretical constraints, it is unlikely that the 7Be+n destruction rate is underestimated by the 2.5 factor required to solve the problem. We exclude, moreover, that resonant destruction in the channels 7Be+t and 7Be+3He can explain the 7Li puzzle. New unknown resonances in 7Be+d and 7Be+α could potentially produce significant effects. Recent experimental results have ruled out such a possibility for 7Be+d. On the other hand, for the 7Be+α channel very favorable conditions are required. The possible existence of a partially suitable resonant level in 11C is studied in the framework of a coupled-channel model and the possibility of a direct measurement is considered.

  14. Three Problems: Nuclear Energy, National Defense and International Cooperation

    SciTech Connect

    Teller, E.

    1999-09-06

    A little more than half a century into the Nuclear Age, we cannot look back on a peaceful period, but we can say that the second (nuclear) half of the century has seen much less violence than the first half with its two violent wars. Also the second half of the century has seen the fortunate ending of the Cold War. But as to the future, we are left with three great questions. (1) How can the world be provided with ample energy? (2) How can we avoid the potentially devastating sudden applications of new destructive technologies? And finally, (3) How can we preserve the development of the world's new potentialities without producing a continuation of violent conflicts? The development of nuclear reactors appears to provide a most interesting new initiative to make energy available to every one. The reality of this promise is at least indicated by progress in France where electricity now is 80% ''nuclear.'' Unfortunately, fear of radioactivity and fear of weapons proliferation has turned public opinion in many parts of the world against nuclear energy. The fear of radioactivity seems to be exaggerated, as indicated, for instance, in the recent international conference in Vienna on the consequences of Chernobyl. The conference concluded that most of the anticipated difficulties (cancer and congenital malformation) have been grossly exaggerated. In my opinion, both the worry about radioactivity and the worry about massive military use of reactor products can be solved. There remain further real difficulties connected with expense and the availability of expertise that may be needed to handle nuclear reactors that may be absent in many parts of the world. I believe that all these problems can be solved. The three major accidents, Windscale in England in 1957, Three-Mile Island in Pennsylvania in 1979, and Chernobyl in Russia in 1986, could have been avoided by proper handling of reactors. The obvious answer seems to be more strict education of the reactor operators. In

  15. Upgrades to the NESS (Nuclear Engine System Simulation) Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fittje, James E.

    2007-01-01

    In support of the President's Vision for Space Exploration, the Nuclear Thermal Rocket (NTR) concept is being evaluated as a potential propulsion technology for human expeditions to the moon and Mars. The need for exceptional propulsion system performance in these missions has been documented in numerous studies, and was the primary focus of a considerable effort undertaken during the 1960's and 1970's. The NASA Glenn Research Center is leveraging this past NTR investment in their vehicle concepts and mission analysis studies with the aid of the Nuclear Engine System Simulation (NESS) code. This paper presents the additional capabilities and upgrades made to this code in order to perform higher fidelity NTR propulsion system analysis and design.

  16. Performance-based development of a basic nuclear engineering course

    SciTech Connect

    Knief, R.A. )

    1993-01-01

    Over the past 19 yr, a basic nuclear engineering course has been developed with methods traditionally applied to training programs. The performance-based approach uses elements classified roughly as analysis, design/development, implementation, and evaluation/feedback. Prior to the accident at Three Mile Island unit 2 (TMI-2), performance-based training applications were rare in the nuclear community. An exception was at Sandia Laboratories (SNL). American Telephone Telegraph (AT T) - holder of the SNL contract with what is now the US Department of Energy - and its Bell Laboratories subsidiary had for some time emphasized in-hours technical education and training using performance-based methods to ensure that in-house and contracted instructors focused on course outcomes rather than merely subject matter.

  17. Implanting a Discipline: The Academic Trajectory of Nuclear Engineering in the USA and UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Sean F.

    2009-01-01

    The nuclear engineer emerged as a new form of recognised technical professional between 1940 and the early 1960s as nuclear fission, the chain reaction and their applications were explored. The institutionalization of nuclear engineering--channelled into new national laboratories and corporate design offices during the decade after the war, and…

  18. Ground test facilities for evaluating nuclear thermal propulsion engines and fuel elements

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, G.C.; Beck, D.F.; Harmon, C.D.; Shipers, L.R.

    1992-08-01

    Interagency panels evaluating nuclear thermal propulsion development options have consistently recognized the need for constructing a major new ground test facility to support fuel element and engine testing. This paper summarizes the requirements, configuration, and design issues of a proposed ground test complex for evaluating nuclear thermal propulsion engines and fuel elements being developed for the Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (SNTP) program. 2 refs.

  19. Grain boundary engineering for structure materials of nuclear reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, L.; Allen, T. R.; Busby, J. T.

    2013-10-01

    Grain boundary engineering (GBE), primarily implemented by thermomechanical processing, is an effective and economical method of enhancing the properties of polycrystalline materials. Among the factors affecting grain boundary character distribution, literature data showed definitive effect of grain size and texture. GBE is more effective for austenitic stainless steels and Ni-base alloys compared to other structural materials of nuclear reactors, such as refractory metals, ferritic and ferritic-martensitic steels, and Zr alloys. GBE has shown beneficial effects on improving the strength, creep strength, and resistance to stress corrosion cracking and oxidation of austenitic stainless steels and Ni-base alloys.

  20. Complex composite engineering architectures for nuclear and high-radiation environments

    SciTech Connect

    Kornreich, Drew E; Vaidya, Rajendra U; Ammerman, Curtt N

    2010-01-01

    Integrated Computational Materials Engineering (ICME) is a novel overarching approach to bridge length and time scales in computational materials science and engineering. This approach integrates all elements of multi-scale modeling (including various empirical and science-based models) with materials informatics to provide users the opportunity to tailor material selections based on stringent application needs. Typically, materials engineering has focused on structural requirements (stress, strain, modulus, fracture toughness etc.) while multi-scale modeling has been science focused (mechanical threshold strength model, grain-size models, solid-solution strengthening models etc.). Materials informatics (mechanical property inventories) on the other hand, is extensively data focused. All of these elements are combined within the framework of ICME to create architecture for the development, selection and design new composite materials for challenging environments. We propose development of the foundations for applying ICME to composite materials development for nuclear and high-radiation environments (including nuclear-fusion energy reactors, nuclear-fission reactors, and accelerators). We expect to combine all elements of current material models (including thermo-mechanical and finite-element models) into the ICME framework. This will be accomplished through the use of a various mathematical modeling constructs. These constructs will allow the integration of constituent models, which in tum would allow us to use the adaptive strengths of using a combinatorial scheme (fabrication and computational) for creating new composite materials. A sample problem where these concepts are used is provided in this summary.

  1. Engineering Risk Assessment of Space Thruster Challenge Problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathias, Donovan L.; Mattenberger, Christopher J.; Go, Susie

    2014-01-01

    The Engineering Risk Assessment (ERA) team at NASA Ames Research Center utilizes dynamic models with linked physics-of-failure analyses to produce quantitative risk assessments of space exploration missions. This paper applies the ERA approach to the baseline and extended versions of the PSAM Space Thruster Challenge Problem, which investigates mission risk for a deep space ion propulsion system with time-varying thruster requirements and operations schedules. The dynamic mission is modeled using a combination of discrete and continuous-time reliability elements within the commercially available GoldSim software. Loss-of-mission (LOM) probability results are generated via Monte Carlo sampling performed by the integrated model. Model convergence studies are presented to illustrate the sensitivity of integrated LOM results to the number of Monte Carlo trials. A deterministic risk model was also built for the three baseline and extended missions using the Ames Reliability Tool (ART), and results are compared to the simulation results to evaluate the relative importance of mission dynamics. The ART model did a reasonable job of matching the simulation models for the baseline case, while a hybrid approach using offline dynamic models was required for the extended missions. This study highlighted that state-of-the-art techniques can adequately adapt to a range of dynamic problems.

  2. Three CLIPS-based expert systems for solving engineering problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parkinson, W. J.; Luger, G. F.; Bretz, R. E.

    1990-01-01

    We have written three expert systems, using the CLIPS PC-based expert system shell. These three expert systems are rule based and are relatively small, with the largest containing slightly less than 200 rules. The first expert system is an expert assistant that was written to help users of the ASPEN computer code choose the proper thermodynamic package to use with their particular vapor-liquid equilibrium problem. The second expert system was designed to help petroleum engineers choose the proper enhanced oil recovery method to be used with a given reservoir. The effectiveness of each technique is highly dependent upon the reservoir conditions. The third expert system is a combination consultant and control system. This system was designed specifically for silicon carbide whisker growth. Silicon carbide whiskers are an extremely strong product used to make ceramic and metal composites. The manufacture of whiskers is a very complicated process. which to date. has defied a good mathematical model. The process was run by experts who had gained their expertise by trial and error. A system of rules was devised by these experts both for procedure setup and for the process control. In this paper we discuss the three problem areas of the design, development and evaluation of the CLIPS-based programs.

  3. Environmental and engineering problems of karst geology in China

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan Daoxian )

    1988-10-01

    Karst terrane is generally regarded as a fragile and vulnerable environment. Its underground drainage system can aggravate both drought and flood problems; the lack of filtration in an underground conduit makes waste disposal more difficult; and the lack of soil cover in bare karstland can enhance deforestation. Moreover, karst terranes are quite often haunted by a series of engineering problems, such as water gushing into mines or transportation tunnels; leakage from reservoirs; and failure of building foundations. In China, there are more than 200 cases of karst collapse, which include many thousands of individual collapse points. Some of these are paleo and natural collapses, but most of them are modern collapses induced by human activities and they have caused serious damage. Many factors such as geologic structure, overburden thickness and character, lithologic features of karstified rock, and intensity of karstification are related to development and distribution of modern collapses. However, China's karst is mainly developed in pre-Triassic, old phase, hard, compact, carbonate rock. Consequently most modern collapses have occurred only in the overlying soil. So it is understandable that the fluctuation of the water table in the underlying karstified strata plays an important role in the process of collapse. Nevertheless, there are different explanations as to how the groundwater activities can induce collapse.

  4. Nuclear Engineering Computer Models for In-Core Fuel Management Analysis.

    1992-06-12

    Version 00 VPI-NECM is a nuclear engineering computer system of modules for in-core fuel management analysis. The system consists of 6 independent programs designed to calculate: (1) FARCON - neutron slowing down and epithermal group constants, (2) SLOCON - thermal neutron spectrum and group constants, (3) DISFAC - slow neutron disadvantage factors, (4) ODOG - solution of a one group neutron diffusion equation, (5) ODMUG - three group criticality problem, (6) FUELBURN - fuel burnupmore » in slow neutron fission reactors.« less

  5. Development of Nuclear Engineering Educational Program at Ibaraki University with Regional Collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumura, Kunihito; Kaminaga, Fumito; Kanto, Yasuhiro; Tanaka, Nobuatsu; Saigusa, Mikio; Kikuchi, Kenji; Kurumada, Akira

    The College of Engineering, Ibaraki University is located at the Hitachi city, in the north part of Ibaraki prefecture. Hitachi and Tokai areas are well known as concentration of advanced technology center of nuclear power research organizations. By considering these regional advantages, we developed a new nuclear engineering educational program for students in the Collage of Engineering and The Graduate School of Science and Engineering of Ibaraki University. The program is consisted of the fundamental lectures of nuclear engineering and nuclear engineering experiments. In addition, several observation learning programs by visiting cooperative organizations are also included in the curriculum. In this paper, we report about the progress of the new educational program for nuclear engineering in Ibaraki University.

  6. Newsprint smearing - an industrial problem studied with the nuclear microprobe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kristiansson, P.; Larsson, T.; Malmberg, S.; Malmqvist, L.; Elfman, M.; Malmqvist, K.; Pallon, J.

    1999-10-01

    Six newsprint samples, selected with respect to their different smearing properties, have been investigated with the PIXE-technique with a nuclear microprobe. In addition, local basis weight was simultaneously measured with the off-axis STIM technique. The newsprint samples were all printed nominally with the same amount of cyan ink (≈2% Cu). The normalised Cu-yield distributions differ both with respect to spread and slope of the tail. Correlations have been found between the spread and global paper parameters like surface roughness and porosity. Of major interest for the smearing problem is the correlation found between the momentary smearing parameter, set-off and the micro distribution parameters. Correlations between basis weight and ink distributions are discussed and a possibility to measure the different penetrations of pigment particles and oil in the paper structure is pointed out.

  7. Problems in detection and measurement in nuclear medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aysun Ugur, Fatma

    2015-07-01

    Nuclear Medicine studies are performed with a variety of types of radiation measurement instruments, depending on the kind of radiation source that is being measured and the type of information sought. For example, some instruments are designed for in vitro measurements on blood samples, urine specimens, and so forth. Others are designed for in vivo measurements of radioactivity in patients. All these instruments have special design characteristics to optimize them for their specific tasks, as described in this study; however, some considerations of design characteristics and performance limitations are common to all of them. An important consideration for any radiation measurement instrument is its detection efficiency. Maximum detection efficiency is desirable because one thus obtains maximum information with a minimum amount of radioactivity. Also important are instrument's counting rate limitations. There are finite counting rate limits for all counting and imaging instruments used in nuclear medicine, above which accurate results are obtained because of data losses and other data distortions. Non penetrating radiations, such as ß particles, have special detection and measurement problems. In this study, some of these general considerations have been discussed.

  8. Isotopic Effects in Nuclear Fragmentation and GCR Transport Problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2002-01-01

    Improving the accuracy of the galactic cosmic ray (GCR) environment and transport models is an important goal in preparing for studies of the projected risks and the efficiency of potential mitigations methods for space exploration. In this paper we consider the effects of the isotopic composition of the primary cosmic rays and the isotopic dependence of nuclear fragmentation cross sections on GCR transport models. Measurements are used to describe the isotopic composition of the GCR including their modulation throughout the solar cycle. The quantum multiple-scattering approach to nuclear fragmentation (QMSFRG) is used as the data base generator in order to accurately describe the odd-even effect in fragment production. Using the Badhwar and O'Neill GCR model, the QMSFRG model and the HZETRN transport code, the effects of the isotopic dependence of the primary GCR composition and on fragment production for transport problems is described for a complete GCR isotopic-grid. The principle finding of this study is that large errors ( 100%) will occur in the mass-flux spectra when comparing the complete isotopic-grid (141 ions) to a reduced isotopic-grid (59 ions), however less significant errors 30%) occur in the elemental-flux spectra. Because the full isotopic-grid is readily handled on small computer work-stations, it is recommended that they be used for future GCR studies.

  9. Geological aspects of the nuclear waste disposal problem

    SciTech Connect

    Laverov, N.P.; Omelianenko, B.L.; Velichkin, V.I.

    1994-06-01

    For the successful solution of the high-level waste (HLW) problem in Russia one must take into account such factors as the existence of the great volume of accumulated HLW, the large size and variety of geological conditions in the country, and the difficult economic conditions. The most efficient method of HLW disposal consists in the maximum use of protective capacities of the geological environment and in using inexpensive natural minerals for engineered barrier construction. In this paper, the principal trends of geological investigation directed toward the solution of HLW disposal are considered. One urgent practical aim is the selection of sites in deep wells in regions where the HLW is now held in temporary storage. The aim of long-term investigations into HLW disposal is to evaluate geological prerequisites for regional HLW repositories.

  10. Lecture notes for introduction to nuclear engineering 101

    SciTech Connect

    Fullwood, R.; Cadwell, J.

    1992-03-01

    The lecture notes for introductory nuclear engineering are provided for Department of Energy personnel that are recent graduates, transfers from non-nuclear industries, and people with minimum engineering training. The material assumes a knowledge of algebra and elementary calculus. These notes support and supplement a three-hour lecture. The reader is led into the subject from the familiar macroscopic world to the microscopic world of atoms and the parts of atoms called elementary particles. Only a passing reference is made to the very extensive world of quarks and tansitory particles to concentrate on those associated with radioactivity and fission. The Einsteinian truth of mass-energy equivalence provides an understanding of the forces binding a nucleus with a resulting mass defect that results in fusion at one end of the mass spectrum and fission at the other. Exercises are provided in calculating the energy released in isotopic transformation, reading and understanding the chart of the nuclides. The periodic table is reviewed to appreciate that the noble elements are produced by quantum mechanical shell closings. Radioactive decay is calculated as well as nuclear penetration and shielding. The geometric attenuation of radiation is studied for personal protection; the use of shielding materials for radiation protection is presented along with the buildup factor that renders the shielding less effective than might be supposed. The process of fission is presented along with the fission products and energies produced by fission. The requirements for producing a sustained chain reactor are discussed. The lecture ends with discussions of how radiation and dose is measured and how dose is converted to measures of the damage of radiation to our bodies.

  11. Moving beyond Formulas and Fixations: Solving Open-Ended Engineering Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglas, Elliot P.; Koro-Ljungberg, Mirka; McNeill, Nathan J.; Malcolm, Zaria T.; Therriault, David J.

    2012-01-01

    Open-ended problem solving is a central skill in engineering practice; consequently, it is imperative for engineering students to develop expertise in solving these types of problems. The complexity of open-ended problems requires a unique set of skills. The purpose of this qualitative study was to investigate the approaches used by engineering…

  12. Texas A and M University student/professional nuclear science and engineering conference

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-03-12

    Abstracts of papers presented at the meeting are included. Topics discussed include: reactor engineering; space nuclear power systems; health physics and dosimetry; fusion engineering and physics; and reactor physics and theory.

  13. Nuclear instrumentation, process instrumentation and control, and engineered safety features. Volume nine

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    Volume nine covers nuclear instrumentation (detection of nuclear radiation, gas-filled detectors, measuring neutron population, BWR/PWR nuclear instrumentation), process instrumentation and control (what is process instrumentation, pressure detectors and transducers, temperature detectors and transducers, level detectors and transducers, flow detectors and transducers, mechanical position detectors and transducers, what are the major processes controlled, BWR and PWR process instrumentation and control), engineered safety features (why are engineered safety features provided, the design basis accident, engineered safety feature operation, PWR engineered safety feature systems, BWR engineered safety feature systems).

  14. Projection techniques to approach the nuclear many-body problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yang

    2016-04-01

    Our understanding of angular-momentum-projection goes beyond quantum-number restoration for symmetry-violated states. The angular-momentum-projection method can be viewed as an efficient way of truncating the shell-model space which is otherwise too large to handle. It defines a transformation from the intrinsic system, where dominant excitation modes in the low-energy region are identified with the concept of spontaneous symmetry breaking, to the laboratory frame with well-organized configuration states according to excitations. An energy-dictated, physically-guided shell-model truncation can then be carried out within the projected space and the Hamiltonian is thereby diagonalized in a compact basis. The present article reviews the theory of angular-momentum-projection applied in the nuclear many-body problem. Angular momentum projection emerges naturally if a deformed state is treated quantum-mechanically. To demonstrate how different physical problems in heavy, deformed nuclei can be efficiently described with different truncation schemes, we introduce the projected shell model and show examples of calculation in a basis with axial symmetry, a basis with triaxiality, and a basis with both quasiparticle and phonon excitations. Technical details of how to calculate the projected matrix elements and how to build a workable model with the projection techniques are given in the appendix.

  15. A Program for Cultivating Nuclear Talent at Engineering Educational Institute in a Remote Area from Nuclear Power Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Tsuyoshi

    Recently, in Japan, the number of students who hope for finding employment at the nuclear power company has decreased as students‧ concern for the nuclear power industry decreases. To improve the situation, Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology launched the program of cultivating talent for nuclear power which supports research and education of nuclear power in the academic year of 2007. Supported by the program, Kushiro College of Technology conducted several activities concerning nuclear power for about a year. The students came to be interested in nuclear engineering through these activities and its results.

  16. Remote machine engineering applications for nuclear facilities decommissioning

    SciTech Connect

    Toto, G.; Wyle, H.R.

    1983-01-01

    Decontamination and decommissioning of a nuclear facility require the application of techniques that protect the worker and the enviroment from radiological contamination and radiation. Remotely operated portable robotic arms, machines, and devices can be applied. The use of advanced systems should enhance the productivity, safety, and cost facets of the efforts; remote automatic tooling and systems may be used on any job where job hazard and other factors justify application. Many problems based on costs, enviromental impact, health, waste generation, and political issues may be mitigated by use of remotely operated machines. The work that man can not do or should not do will have to be done by machines.

  17. Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings: Phillips/United Nuclear site, Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    1981-10-01

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah, Inc., has reevaluated the Phillips/United Nuclear site in order to revise the December 1977 engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from 2.6 million dry tons of tailings at the Phillips/United Nuclear site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation also are factors. The four alternative actions presented in this engineering assessment range from millsite decontamination with the addition of 3 m of stabilization cover material, to removal of the tailings to remote disposal sites and decontamination of the tailings site. Cost estimates for the four options range from about $21,500,000 for stabilization in-place, to about $45,200,000 for disposal at a distance of about 15 mi. Three principal alternatives for the reprocessing of the Phillips/United Nuclear tailings were examined: heap leaching; treatment at an existing mill; and reprocessing at a new conventional mill constructed for tailings reprocessing.The cost of the uranium recovered would be about $87/lb of U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ by either heap leach or conventional plant process. The spot market price for uranium was $25/lb early in 1981. Reprocessing the Phillips/United Nuclear tailings for uranium recovery does not appear to be economically attractive under present or foreseeable market conditions.

  18. A Hydrogen Containment Process For Nuclear Thermal Engine Ground Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Ten-See; Stewart, Eric; Canabal, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    A hydrogen containment process was proposed for ground testing of a nuclear thermal engine. The hydrogen exhaust from the engine is contained in two unit operations: an oxygen-rich burner and a tubular heat exchanger. The burner burns off the majority of the hydrogen, and the remaining hydrogen is removed in the tubular heat exchanger through the species recombination mechanism. A multi-dimensional, pressure-based multiphase computational fluid dynamics methodology was used to conceptually sizing the oxygen-rich burner, while a one-dimensional thermal analysis methodology was used to conceptually sizing the heat exchanger. Subsequently, a steady-state operation of the entire hydrogen containment process, from pressure vessel, through nozzle, diffuser, burner and heat exchanger, was simulated numerically, with the afore-mentioned computational fluid dynamics methodology. The computational results show that 99% of hydrogen reduction is achieved at the end of the burner, and the rest of the hydrogen is removed to a trivial level in the heat exchanger. The computed flammability at the exit of the heat exchanger is less than the lower flammability limit, confirming the hydrogen containment capability of the proposed process.

  19. Another Educational Problem: Shortages of University Scientific and Engineering Faculty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Paul W.

    It is pointed out that there is a desperate need for engineering and computer science doctoral faculty, a need recognized by various schools of science and engineering and by the Federal government. Although the National Science Foundation and other agencies do not see a shortage of college faculty in the other sciences, faculty in some of these…

  20. KINETIC: A system code for analyzing Nuclear thermal propulsion rocket engine transients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, E.; Lazareth, O.; Ludewig, H.

    1993-07-01

    A system code suitable for analyzing Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) rocket engines is described in this paper. The code consists of a point reactor model and nodes to describe the fluid dynamics and heat transfer mechanism. Feedback from the fuel coolant, moderator and reflector are allowed for, and the control of the reactor is by motion of control elements (drums or rods). The worth of the control clement and feedback coefficients are predetermined. Separate models for the turbo-pump assembly (TPA) and nozzle are also included. The model to be described in this paper is specific for the Particle Bed Reactor (PBR). An illustrative problem is solved. This problem consists of a PBR operating in a blowdown mode.

  1. KINETIC -- a system code for analyzing Nuclear Thermal Propulsion rocket engine transients

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, E.; Lazareth, O.; Ludewig, H.

    1993-07-01

    A system code suitable for analyzing Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) rocket engines is described in this paper. The code consists of a point reactor model and nodes to describe the fluid dynamics and heat transfer mechanism. Feedback from the fuel coolant, moderator and reflector are allowed for, and the control of the reactor is by motion of control elements (drums or rods). The worth of the control clement and feedback coefficients are predetermined. Separate models for the turbo-pump assembly (TPA) and nozzle are also included. The model to be described in this paper is specific for the Particle Bed Reactor (PBR). An illustrative problem is solved. This problem consists of a PBR operating in a blowdown mode.

  2. Kinetic---a system code for analyzing nuclear thermal propulsion rocket engine transients

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, E.; Lazareth, O.; Ludewig, H. )

    1993-01-20

    A system code suitable for analyzing Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) rocket engines is described in this paper. The code consists of a point reactor model and nodes to describe the fluid dynamics and heat transfer mechanism. Feedback from the fuel, coolant, moderator and reflector are allowed for, and the control of the reactor is by motion of controls element (drums or rods). The worth of the control element and feedback coefficients are predetermined. Separate models for the turbo-pump assembly (TPA) and nozzle are also included. The model to be described in this paper is specific for the Particle Bed Reactor (PBR). An illustrative problem is solved. This problem consists of a PBR operating in a blowdown mode.

  3. A Case Study: Problem-Based Learning for Civil Engineering Students in Transportation Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahern, A. A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes two case studies where problem-based learning (PBL) has been introduced to undergraduate civil engineering students in University College Dublin. PBL has recently been put in place in the penultimate and final year transport engineering classes in the civil engineering degree in University College Dublin. In this case study,…

  4. Using Ontological Engineering to Overcome AI-ED Problems: Contribution, Impact and Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mizoguchi, Riichiro; Bourdeau, Jacqueline

    2016-01-01

    This article reflects on the ontology engineering methodology discussed by the paper entitled "Using Ontological Engineering to Overcome AI-ED Problems" published in this journal in 2000. We discuss the achievements obtained in the last 10 years, the impact of our work as well as recent trends and perspectives in ontology engineering for…

  5. Lessons Learned on University Education Programs of Chemical Engineering Principles for Nuclear Plant Operations - 13588

    SciTech Connect

    Ryu, Jun-hyung

    2013-07-01

    University education aims to supply qualified human resources for industries. In complex large scale engineering systems such as nuclear power plants, the importance of qualified human resources cannot be underestimated. The corresponding education program should involve many topics systematically. Recently a nuclear engineering program has been initiated in Dongguk University, South Korea. The current education program focuses on undergraduate level nuclear engineering students. Our main objective is to provide industries fresh engineers with the understanding on the interconnection of local parts and the entire systems of nuclear power plants and the associated systems. From the experience there is a huge opportunity for chemical engineering disciple in the context of giving macroscopic overview on nuclear power plant and waste treatment management by strengthening the analyzing capability of fundamental situations. (authors)

  6. Promoting Collaborative Problem-Solving Skills in a Course on Engineering Grand Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zou, Tracy X. P.; Mickleborough, Neil C.

    2015-01-01

    The ability to solve problems with people of diverse backgrounds is essential for engineering graduates. A course on engineering grand challenges was designed to promote collaborative problem-solving (CPS) skills. One unique component is that students need to work both within their own team and collaborate with the other team to tackle engineering…

  7. 2002-2003 Engineering Accomplishments: Unconventional Nuclear Weapons Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Hernandez, J E; Valentine, J

    2004-04-09

    The Defense Threat Reduction Agency, DTRA, is a federal agency charged with safeguarding the nation from weapons of mass destruction, in particular nuclear weapons such as crude devices, and radiological dispersal devices (RDD), also known as dirty bombs. Both of which could be delivered using unconventional means such as by transporting them by a car or boat. Two years ago DTRA partnered with NNSA to evaluate commercially available technologies that could be deployed quickly to defend against threats posed by unconventional nuclear weapons under a program called the Unconventional Nuclear Warfare Defense (UNWD) Program. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) was one of several National laboratories that participated in this program, which consisted in developing, deploying, and demonstrating detection systems suitable for military base protection. Two key contributions to this program by the LLNL team were the development of two Radiation Detection Buoys (RDB) deployed at Naval Base in Kings Bay in Georgia, and the Detection and Tracking System (DTS) demonstrated at Fort Leonard Wood Missouri, headquarters for the Total Force's Maneuver Support Center (MANSCEN). The RDB's were designed to detect the potential transportation of an unconventional nuclear or radiological weapon by a boat. The RDB's consisted of two commercial marine buoys instrumented with several types of detectors sensitive to gamma rays and neutrons, two key modes of energy emitted by radioactive materials. The engineering team selected a standard marine buoy as the overall system platform for this deployment since buoys are already designed to sustain the harsh marine environment, and also for their covertness, since once deployed, they look just like any other buoy on the water. Since this was the first time such a system was ever deployed, the team choose to instrument the buoys with a suite of different types of detectors with the goal to learn which detectors would be best suited for

  8. New Developments of Computational Fluid Dynamics and Their Applications to Practical Engineering Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hudong

    2001-06-01

    There have been considerable advances in Lattice Boltzmann (LB) based methods in the last decade. By now, the fundamental concept of using the approach as an alternative tool for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has been substantially appreciated and validated in mainstream scientific research and in industrial engineering communities. Lattice Boltzmann based methods possess several major advantages: a) less numerical dissipation due to the linear Lagrange type advection operator in the Boltzmann equation; b) local dynamic interactions suitable for highly parallel processing; c) physical handling of boundary conditions for complicated geometries and accurate control of fluxes; d) microscopically consistent modeling of thermodynamics and of interface properties in complex multiphase flows. It provides a great opportunity to apply the method to practical engineering problems encountered in a wide range of industries from automotive, aerospace to chemical, biomedical, petroleum, nuclear, and others. One of the key challenges is to extend the applicability of this alternative approach to regimes of highly turbulent flows commonly encountered in practical engineering situations involving high Reynolds numbers. Over the past ten years, significant efforts have been made on this front at Exa Corporation in developing a lattice Boltzmann based commercial CFD software, PowerFLOW. It has become a useful computational tool for the simulation of turbulent aerodynamics in practical engineering problems involving extremely complex geometries and flow situations, such as in new automotive vehicle designs world wide. In this talk, we present an overall LB based algorithm concept along with certain key extensions in order to accurately handle turbulent flows involving extremely complex geometries. To demonstrate the accuracy of turbulent flow simulations, we provide a set of validation results for some well known academic benchmarks. These include straight channels, backward

  9. Investigation of the Muffling Problem for Airplane Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Upton, G B; Gage, V R

    1920-01-01

    The experimentation presented in this report falls in two divisions: first, the determination of the relation between back pressure in the exhaust line and consequent power loss, for various combinations of speed and throttle positions of the engine; second, the construction and trial of muffler designs covering both type and size. Report deals with experiments in the development of a muffler designed on the principle which will give the maximum muffling effect with a minimum loss of power. The main body of the work has been done on a Curtiss OX eight-cylinder airplane engine, 4 by 5 inches, rated 70 horsepower at 1,200 revolutions per minute. For estimation of the muffling ability and suppression of "bark" of individual exhausts, the "Ingeco" stationary, single cylinder, 5 1/2 by 10 inch, throttling governed gasoline engine, and occasionally other engines were used.

  10. STEM Leader from the Roeper School: An Interview with Nuclear Engineer Clair J. Sullivan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ambrose, Don

    2016-01-01

    Clair J. Sullivan is an assistant professor in the Department of Nuclear, Plasma and Radiological Engineering at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC). Her research interests include radiation detection and measurements; gamma-ray spectroscopy; automated isotope identification algorithms; nuclear forensics; nuclear security;…

  11. Applications of nuclear magnetic resonance imaging in process engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gladden, Lynn F.; Alexander, Paul

    1996-03-01

    During the past decade, the application of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging techniques to problems of relevance to the process industries has been identified. The particular strengths of NMR techniques are their ability to distinguish between different chemical species and to yield information simultaneously on the structure, concentration distribution and flow processes occurring within a given process unit. In this paper, examples of specific applications in the areas of materials and food processing, transport in reactors and two-phase flow are discussed. One specific study, that of the internal structure of a packed column, is considered in detail. This example is reported to illustrate the extent of new, quantitative information of generic importance to many processing operations that can be obtained using NMR imaging in combination with image analysis.

  12. Psychological effects following the Iran nuclear deal: Iranian nuclear threat salience moderates the relationship between PTSD symptoms and sleep problems.

    PubMed

    Grossman, Ephraim S; Hoffman, Yaakov; Bodner, Ehud; Palgi, Yuval; Gottlieb, Merav; Mesika, Ofra; Ben-Ezra, Menachem; Shrira, Amit

    2016-09-30

    Following the July-14th, 2015 Iranian agreement, we examined if preoccupation with the threat of a nuclear Iran moderates the relationship between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and reported sleep problems in individuals exposed to the 2014 Israel-Gaza conflict. While sleep problems were evident in individuals suffering from PTSD symptoms, they were especially pronounced when PTSD symptoms were coupled with increased Iranian nuclear threat salience. Preoccupation with future national threats may increase PTSD-related sleep problems. Therefore, it may be useful if such threats are accounted for in interventions aiming to ameliorate trauma-related sleep problems arising in the context of security situation.

  13. Psychological effects following the Iran nuclear deal: Iranian nuclear threat salience moderates the relationship between PTSD symptoms and sleep problems.

    PubMed

    Grossman, Ephraim S; Hoffman, Yaakov; Bodner, Ehud; Palgi, Yuval; Gottlieb, Merav; Mesika, Ofra; Ben-Ezra, Menachem; Shrira, Amit

    2016-09-30

    Following the July-14th, 2015 Iranian agreement, we examined if preoccupation with the threat of a nuclear Iran moderates the relationship between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and reported sleep problems in individuals exposed to the 2014 Israel-Gaza conflict. While sleep problems were evident in individuals suffering from PTSD symptoms, they were especially pronounced when PTSD symptoms were coupled with increased Iranian nuclear threat salience. Preoccupation with future national threats may increase PTSD-related sleep problems. Therefore, it may be useful if such threats are accounted for in interventions aiming to ameliorate trauma-related sleep problems arising in the context of security situation. PMID:27428082

  14. Current state of nuclear fuel cycles in nuclear engineering and trends in their development according to the environmental safety requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vislov, I. S.; Pischulin, V. P.; Kladiev, S. N.; Slobodyan, S. M.

    2016-08-01

    The state and trends in the development of nuclear fuel cycles in nuclear engineering, taking into account the ecological aspects of using nuclear power plants, are considered. An analysis of advantages and disadvantages of nuclear engineering, compared with thermal engineering based on organic fuel types, was carried out. Spent nuclear fuel (SNF) reprocessing is an important task in the nuclear industry, since fuel unloaded from modern reactors of any type contains a large amount of radioactive elements that are harmful to the environment. On the other hand, the newly generated isotopes of uranium and plutonium should be reused to fabricate new nuclear fuel. The spent nuclear fuel also includes other types of fission products. Conditions for SNF handling are determined by ecological and economic factors. When choosing a certain handling method, one should assess these factors at all stages of its implementation. There are two main methods of SNF handling: open nuclear fuel cycle, with spent nuclear fuel assemblies (NFAs) that are held in storage facilities with their consequent disposal, and closed nuclear fuel cycle, with separation of uranium and plutonium, their purification from fission products, and use for producing new fuel batches. The development of effective closed fuel cycles using mixed uranium-plutonium fuel can provide a successful development of the nuclear industry only under the conditions of implementation of novel effective technological treatment processes that meet strict requirements of environmental safety and reliability of process equipment being applied. The diversity of technological processes is determined by different types of NFA devices and construction materials being used, as well as by the composition that depends on nuclear fuel components and operational conditions for assemblies in the nuclear power reactor. This work provides an overview of technological processes of SNF treatment and methods of handling of nuclear fuel

  15. Collaborative Systems Thinking: A Response to the Problems Faced by Systems Engineering's 'Middle Tier'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phfarr, Barbara B.; So, Maria M.; Lamb, Caroline Twomey; Rhodes, Donna H.

    2009-01-01

    Experienced systems engineers are adept at more than implementing systems engineering processes: they utilize systems thinking to solve complex engineering problems. Within the space industry demographics and economic pressures are reducing the number of experienced systems engineers that will be available in the future. Collaborative systems thinking within systems engineering teams is proposed as a way to integrate systems engineers of various experience levels to handle complex systems engineering challenges. This paper uses the GOES-R Program Systems Engineering team to illustrate the enablers and barriers to team level systems thinking and to identify ways in which performance could be improved. Ways NASA could expand its engineering training to promote team-level systems thinking are proposed.

  16. Parameter Study of the LIFE Engine Nuclear Design

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, K J; Meier, W R; Latkowski, J F; Abbott, R P

    2009-07-10

    LLNL is developing the nuclear fusion based Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE) power plant concept. The baseline design uses a depleted uranium (DU) fission fuel blanket with a flowing molten salt coolant (flibe) that also breeds the tritium needed to sustain the fusion energy source. Indirect drive targets, similar to those that will be demonstrated on the National Ignition Facility (NIF), are ignited at {approx}13 Hz providing a 500 MW fusion source. The DU is in the form of a uranium oxycarbide kernel in modified TRISO-like fuel particles distributed in a carbon matrix forming 2-cm-diameter pebbles. The thermal power is held at 2000 MW by continuously varying the 6Li enrichment in the coolants. There are many options to be considered in the engine design including target yield, U-to-C ratio in the fuel, fission blanket thickness, etc. Here we report results of design variations and compare them in terms of various figures of merit such as time to reach a desired burnup, full-power years of operation, time and maximum burnup at power ramp down and the overall balance of plant utilization.

  17. Transdisciplinary Variation in Engineering Curricula. Problems and Means for Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jakobsen, Arne; Bucciarelli, Louis L.

    2007-01-01

    An essential difficulty in solving practical problems that are not like the ones a student has solved before is discerning the core of the problem. It is claimed that discernment has to be trained by variation--by varying the context of the assignments in which students have to identify and grasp their "underlying form". A decisive challenge in…

  18. Frost Formation Problem in the Development of a Hypersonic Turbojet Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukiba, Katsuyoshi; Sato, Tetsuya; Kobayashi, Hiroaki; Ohkubo, Hidetoshi

    The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency has developed a hypersonic aircraft flying at Mach 5. A precooled turbojet engine is the candidate of the engine for the hypersonic aircraft. The precooled turbojet engine has a heat exchanger(precooler) which cools the breathed air by using cryogenic propellant, such as liquid hydrogen. The precooler has a problem that frost forms on the cooling tubes of the precooler, and the frost decrease the engine performance. Some approaches to deal with the frost formation problem have employed in the development. In this paper, those approaches are introduced and the results of some fundamental studies about frost are also shown.

  19. Implementing Problem Based Learning through Engineers without Borders Student Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wittig, Ann

    2013-01-01

    Engineers Without Borders USA (EWB) is a nonprofit organization that partners student chapters with communities in fundamental need of potable water, clean air, sanitation, irrigation, energy, basic structures for schools and clinics, roads and bridges, etc. While EWB projects may vary in complexity, they are all realistic, ill-structured and…

  20. Problem Solving and Report Writing for Second Language Engineering Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotecha, Piyushi

    1991-01-01

    Describes a report writing unit that is part of a three-year language/communication course for second language engineering students at the University of the Witwatersrand in South Africa. States that the tasks motivated the students to develop their report writing and oral skills. (RS)

  1. The growing problem of stranded used nuclear fuel.

    PubMed

    Alley, William M; Alley, Rosemarie

    2014-02-18

    By 2050, almost all U.S. nuclear reactors will have reached their 60 year maximum expected life. Many will shut down sooner. With no assurance that the current approach for finding a geologic repository or interim storage sites will succeed, used nuclear fuel could be stranded indefinitely at more than 70 sites in 35 states. Societal discussions about the future of nuclear waste should be framed in terms of the relative risks of all alternatives. We review and compare onsite storage, interim storage, and a geologic repository, as well as how these alternatives are presented to the public.

  2. The growing problem of stranded used nuclear fuel.

    PubMed

    Alley, William M; Alley, Rosemarie

    2014-02-18

    By 2050, almost all U.S. nuclear reactors will have reached their 60 year maximum expected life. Many will shut down sooner. With no assurance that the current approach for finding a geologic repository or interim storage sites will succeed, used nuclear fuel could be stranded indefinitely at more than 70 sites in 35 states. Societal discussions about the future of nuclear waste should be framed in terms of the relative risks of all alternatives. We review and compare onsite storage, interim storage, and a geologic repository, as well as how these alternatives are presented to the public. PMID:24437358

  3. Chemical Engineers Go to the Movies (Stimulating Problems for the Contemporary Undergraduate Student)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smart, Jimmy L.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author presents five problems that are representative of some of the "movie problems" that he has used on tests in various courses, including reactor design, heat transfer, mass transfer, engineering economics, and fluid mechanics. These problems tend to be open-ended. They can be challenging and can often be worked a variety…

  4. Investigating and Developing Engineering Students' Mathematical Modelling and Problem-Solving Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wedelin, Dag; Adawi, Tom; Jahan, Tabassum; Andersson, Sven

    2015-01-01

    How do engineering students approach mathematical modelling problems and how can they learn to deal with such problems? In the context of a course in mathematical modelling and problem solving, and using a qualitative case study approach, we found that the students had little prior experience of mathematical modelling. They were also inexperienced…

  5. Complex Problem Exercises in Developing Engineering Students' Conceptual and Procedural Knowledge of Electromagnetics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leppavirta, J.; Kettunen, H.; Sihvola, A.

    2011-01-01

    Complex multistep problem exercises are one way to enhance engineering students' learning of electromagnetics (EM). This study investigates whether exposure to complex problem exercises during an introductory EM course improves students' conceptual and procedural knowledge. The performance in complex problem exercises is compared to prior success…

  6. A Coding Scheme for Analysing Problem-Solving Processes of First-Year Engineering Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grigg, Sarah J.; Benson, Lisa C.

    2014-01-01

    This study describes the development and structure of a coding scheme for analysing solutions to well-structured problems in terms of cognitive processes and problem-solving deficiencies for first-year engineering students. A task analysis approach was used to assess students' problem solutions using the hierarchical structure from a…

  7. Process Inquiry: Analysis of Oral Problem-Solving Skills in Mathematics of Engineering Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trance, Naci John C.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents another effort in determining the difficulty of engineering students in terms of solving word problems. Students were presented with word problems in algebra. Then, they were asked to solve the word problems orally; that is, before they presented their written solutions, they were required to explain how they understood the…

  8. Brief 72 Nuclear Engineering Enrollments and Degrees Survey, 2013 Data (2-14)

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2014-02-15

    The survey includes degrees granted between September 1, 2012 and August 31, 2013. Enrollment information refers to the fall term 2013. The enrollments and degrees data include students majoring in nuclear engineering or in an option program equivalent to a major. Thirty-two academic programs reported having nuclear engineering programs during 2013, and data was received from all thirty-two programs. The data for two nuclear engineering programs include enrollments and degrees in health physics options that are also reported in the health physics enrollments and degrees data.

  9. Problems and prospects for nuclear waste disposal policy

    SciTech Connect

    Herzik, E.B.; Mushkatel, A.H.

    1996-07-01

    This book is a collection of articles examining legal, organizational, and public-interest issues involving the transportation, storage, treatment, and disposal of radioactive wastes. The introductions examines the unresolved issues of nuclear-waste policy-making in the USA and then presents essays covering the disposal of commercial power plant fuel, low level radioactive wastes, the by-products of nuclear weapons production, and the challenges of transporting radiological materials.

  10. Consolidated View on Space Software Engineering Problems - An Empirical Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, N.; Vieira, M.; Ricci, D.; Cotroneo, D.

    2015-09-01

    Independent software verification and validation (ISVV) has been a key process for engineering quality assessment for decades, and is considered in several international standards. The “European Space Agency (ESA) ISVV Guide” is used for the European Space market to drive the ISVV tasks and plans, and to select applicable tasks and techniques. Software artefacts have room for improvement due to the amount if issues found during ISVV tasks. This article presents the analysis of the results of a large set of ISVV issues originated from three different ESA missions-amounting to more than 1000 issues. The study presents the main types, triggers and impacts related to the ISVV issues found and sets the path for a global software engineering improvement based on the most common deficiencies identified for space projects.

  11. Problems and outlooks for petrothermal power engineering ( review)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alekseenko, S. V.; Borodulin, V. Yu.; Gnatus, N. A.; Nizovtsev, M. I.; Smirnova, N. N.

    2016-01-01

    A review is given for the state of the art and future development of the geothermal power engineering. Different diagrams of GeoPP are shown for different levels of geofluid temperature. A special focus is made on challenges for petrothermal power production. The huge amount of heat from petrothermal resources can be harnessed through creating geothermal circulation systems within the dry rocks. Estimates for system lifetime and heat production capacity of circulation systems are given for different flow rates of coolant.

  12. Wildland fire management. Volume 1: Prevention methods and analysis. [systems engineering approach to California fire problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weissenberger, S. (Editor)

    1973-01-01

    A systems engineering approach is reported for the problem of reducing the number and severity of California's wildlife fires. Prevention methodologies are reviewed and cost benefit models are developed for making preignition decisions.

  13. Engineering calculations for solving the orbital allotment problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reilly, C.; Walton, E. K.; Mount-Campbell, C.; Caldecott, R.; Aebker, E.; Mata, F.

    1988-01-01

    Four approaches for calculating downlink interferences for shaped-beam antennas are described. An investigation of alternative mixed-integer programming models for satellite synthesis is summarized. Plans for coordinating the various programs developed under this grant are outlined. Two procedures for ordering satellites to initialize the k-permutation algorithm are proposed. Results are presented for the k-permutation algorithms. Feasible solutions are found for 5 of the 6 problems considered. Finally, it is demonstrated that the k-permutation algorithm can be used to solve arc allotment problems.

  14. Nuclear DNA Amounts in Angiosperms: Progress, Problems and Prospects

    PubMed Central

    BENNETT, M. D.; LEITCH, I. J.

    2005-01-01

    CONTENTSINTRODUCTION45PROGRESS46    Improved systematic representation (species and families)46        (i) First estimates for species46        (ii) First estimates for families47PROBLEMS48    Geographical representation and distribution48    Plant life form48    Obsolescence time bomb49    Errors and inexactitudes49    Genome size, ‘complete’ genome sequencing, and, the euchromatic genome50    The completely sequenced genome50    Weeding out erroneous data52    What is the smallest reliable C-value for an angiosperm?52    What is the minimum C-value for a free-living angiosperm and other free-living organisms?53PROSPECTS FOR THE NEXT TEN YEARS54    Holistic genomics55LITERATURE CITED56APPENDIX59    Notes to the Appendix59    Original references for DNA values89 • Background The nuclear DNA amount in an unreplicated haploid chromosome complement (1C-value) is a key diversity character with many uses. Angiosperm C-values have been listed for reference purposes since 1976, and pooled in an electronic database since 1997 (http://www.kew.org/cval/homepage). Such lists are cited frequently and provide data for many comparative studies. The last compilation was published in 2000, so a further supplementary list is timely to monitor progress against targets set at the first plant genome size workshop in 1997 and to facilitate new goal setting. • Scope The present work lists DNA C-values for 804 species including first values for 628 species from 88 original sources, not included in any previous compilation, plus additional values for 176 species included in a previous compilation. • Conclusions 1998–2002 saw striking progress in our knowledge of angiosperm C-values. At least 1700 first values for species were measured (the most in any five-year period) and familial representation rose from 30 % to 50 %. The loss of many

  15. Brief 68.1 Nuclear Engineering Enrollments and Degrees Survey, 2010 Data

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Don Johnson, Analysis and Evaluation, Science Education Programs

    2011-07-28

    The survey includes degrees granted between September 1, 2009 and August 31, 2010, and fall 2010 enrollments. Thirty-two academic programs reported having nuclear engineering programs during 2010, and data was obtained from all thirty-two.

  16. A Report of the Nuclear Engineering Division Sessions at the 1971 ASEE Annual Conference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckley, Wayne; Nelson, George W.

    1972-01-01

    Summarizes the discussions at the conference under the topics, Objective Criteria for the Future" and Teaching Concepts Basic to Nuclear Engineering." Includes comments from personnel representing universities, industries, and government laboratories. (TS)

  17. Crankshaft and component adequacy: Update of analysis and testing developed for nuclear standby engines

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    This book contains eight selections. Some of the topics are: reliability improvement of diesels in nuclear standby applications, diesel engine crankshaft torsional vibrations, pendulum dampers, transportation fatalities,and diesel component life predictions.

  18. Hydrostatic Pressure Project: Linked-Class Problem-Based Learning in Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Freddie J.; Lockwood-Cooke, Pamela; Hunt, Emily M.

    2011-01-01

    Over the last few years, WTAMU Mathematics, Engineering and Science faculty has used interdisciplinary projects as the basis for implementation of a linked-class approach to Problem-Based Learning (PBL). A project that has significant relevance to engineering statics, fluid mechanics, and calculus is the Hydrostatic Pressure Project. This project…

  19. Engineering-Based Problem Solving in the Middle School: Design and Construction with Simple Machines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English, Lyn D.; Hudson, Peter; Dawes, Les

    2013-01-01

    Incorporating engineering concepts into middle school curriculum is seen as an effective way to improve students' problem-solving skills. A selection of findings is reported from a science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM)-based unit in which students in the second year (grade 8) of a three-year longitudinal study explored…

  20. Exploring How Experience with Planning Impacts First Grade Students' Planning and Solutions to Engineering Design Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portsmore, Merredith D.

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation presents research that investigated how first grade students' ability to construct solutions and to plan through drawing for engineering design problems is related to their participation in a LEGO-based engineering curriculum with two variations on the instruction for planning. The quasi-experimental design engaged two first…

  1. Gendered Practices of Constructing an Engineering Identity in a Problem-Based Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Du, Xiang-Yun

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the learning experiences of engineering students of both genders in a problem-based and project-organized learning environment (PBL) at a Danish university. This study relates an amalgam of theories on learning and gender to the context of engineering education. Based on data from a qualitative study of an electrical and…

  2. Perceptions and Problems of English Language and Communication Abilities: A Final Check on Thai Engineering Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rajprasit, Krich; Pratoomrat, Panadda; Wang, Tuntiga

    2015-01-01

    English language and communication abilities are an essential part of the global engineering community. However, non-native English speaking engineers and students tend to be unable to master these skills. This study aims to gauge the perceived levels of their general English language proficiency, to explore their English communicative problems,…

  3. UMCP-BG and E collaboration in nuclear power engineering in the framework of DOE-Utility Nuclear Power Engineering Education Matching Grant Program

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfe, Lothar PhD

    2000-03-01

    The DOE-Utility Nuclear Power Engineering Education Matching Grant Program has been established to support the education of students in Nuclear Engineering Programs to maintain a knowledgeable workforce in the United States in order to keep nuclear power as a viable component in a mix of energy sources for the country. The involvement of the utility industry ensures that this grant program satisfies the needs and requirements of local nuclear energy producers and at the same time establishes a strong linkage between education and day-to-day nuclear power generation. As of 1997, seventeen pairs of university-utility partners existed. UMCP was never a member of that group of universities, but applied for the first time with a proposal to Baltimore Gas and Electric Company in January 1999 [1]. This proposal was generously granted by BG&E [2,3] in the form of a gift in the amount of $25,000 from BG&E's Corporate Contribution Program. Upon the arrival of a newly appointed Director of Administration in the Department of Materials and Nuclear Engineering, the BG&E check was deposited into the University's Maryland Foundation Fund. The receipt of the letter and the check enabled UMCP to apply for DOE's matching funds in the same amount by a proposal.

  4. Nuclear science and engineering workshop for secondary science teachers

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, W.H.; Neumeyer, G.M.; Langhorst, S.M. )

    1992-01-01

    A 2-week workshop has been held for the past 10 yr at the University of Missouri-Columbia for secondary science teachers to increase their knowledge of nuclear science and its applications. It is sponsored jointly by Union Electric Company (St. Louis, Missouri), the University of Missouri-Columbia, the American Nuclear Society (ANS) student branch at the University of Missouri-Columbia, and the Central/Eastern Section of the ANS. The workshop focuses on two principal educational areas: basic nuclear science and its applications and nuclear energy systems. The philosophy of the workshop is to provide factual information without emphasis on the political issues of the use of nuclear without emphasis on the political issues of the use of nuclear science in the modern society, allowing the participants to form their own perceptions of the risks and benefits of nuclear technology. The paper describes the workshop organization, curriculum, and evaluation.

  5. Designing Online Problem Representation Engine for Conceptual Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Chwee Beng; Ling, Keck Voon

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to describe the web-based scaffold dynamic simulation system (PRES-on) designed for pre-service teachers. Design/methodology/approach: The paper describes the initial design of a web-based scaffold dynamic simulation system (PRES-on) as a cognitive tool for learners to represent problems. For the widespread use of the…

  6. Reactor engineering support of operations at Three Mile Island nuclear station

    SciTech Connect

    Tropasso, R.T.

    1995-12-31

    The purpose of this paper is to detail the activities in which plant nuclear engineering personnel provide direct support to plant operations. The specific activities include steady-state, transient, and shutdown/refueling operation support as well as special project involvement. The paper is intended to describe the experiences at Three Mile Island (TMI) in which significant benefit to the success of the activity is achieved through the support of the nuclear engineers.

  7. A High Intensity Multi-Purpose D-D Neutron Generator for Nuclear Engineering Laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    Ka-Ngo Leung; Jasmina L. Vujic; Edward C. Morse; Per F. Peterson

    2005-11-29

    This NEER project involves the design, construction and testing of a low-cost high intensity D-D neutron generator for teaching nuclear engineering students in a laboratory environment without radioisotopes or a nuclear reactor. The neutron generator was designed, fabricated and tested at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL).

  8. Calcined Waste Storage at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center

    SciTech Connect

    M. D. Staiger M. C. Swenson

    2007-06-01

    This report provides a quantitative inventory and composition (chemical and radioactivity) of calcined waste stored at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center. From December 1963 through May 2000, liquid radioactive wastes generated by spent nuclear fuel reprocessing were converted into a solid, granular form called calcine. This report also contains a description of the calcine storage bins.

  9. Your Career and Nuclear Weapons: A Guide for Young Scientists and Engineers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albrecht, Andreas; And Others

    This four-part booklet examines various issues related to nuclear weapons and how they will affect an individual working as a scientist or engineer. It provides information about the history of nuclear weapons, about the weapons industry which produces them, and about new weapons programs. Issues are raised so that new or future graduates may make…

  10. MITEE: A new nuclear engine concept for ultra fast, lightweight solar system exploration missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, James; Paniagua, John; Ludewig, Hans; Maise, George; Todosow, Michael

    1998-01-01

    A new ultra compact nuclear engine concept, MITEE (MIniature R_eactor E_nginE_), is described, and its performance evaluated for various solar system exploration missions. The MITEE concept is based on the Particle Bed Reactor (PBR), with modifications that enable a smaller, lighter nuclear engine. A range of MITEE Engine designs is described. Representative design parameters for the baseline MITEE reactor are: 75MW(th) power level, 1000 second Isp, 100 kilogram mass, 10 MW/Liter fuel element power density, 39 cm core diameter/height. Total engine mass, including turbo pump assembly, nozzles, controls, and contingency, is estimated to be 200 kilograms. Using the MITEE engine, ultra fast, lightweight solar system exploration missions are enabled. A range of such missions has been analyzed using the MULIMP code, and are described.

  11. Framing ethical acceptability: a problem with nuclear waste in Canada.

    PubMed

    Wilding, Ethan T

    2012-06-01

    Ethical frameworks are often used in professional fields as a means of providing explicit ethical guidance for individuals and institutions when confronted with ethically important decisions. The notion of an ethical framework has received little critical attention, however, and the concept subsequently lends itself easily to misuse and ambiguous application. This is the case with the 'ethical framework' offered by Canada's Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO), the crown-corporation which owns and is responsible for the long-term management of Canada's high-level nuclear fuel waste. It makes a very specific claim, namely that it is managing Canada's long-lived radioactive nuclear fuel waste in an ethically responsible manner. According to this organization, what it means to behave in an ethically responsible manner is to act and develop policy in accordance with its ethical framework. What, then, is its ethical framework, and can it be satisfied? In this paper I will show that the NWMO's ethical and social framework is deeply flawed in two respects: (a) it fails to meet the minimum requirements of a code of ethic or ethical framework by offering only questions, and no principles or rules of conduct; and (b) if posed as principles or rules of conduct, some of its questions are unsatisfiable. In particular, I will show that one of its claims, namely that it seek informed consent from individuals exposed to risk of harm from nuclear waste, cannot be satisfied as formulated. The result is that the NWMO's ethical framework is not, at present, ethically acceptable.

  12. Framing ethical acceptability: a problem with nuclear waste in Canada.

    PubMed

    Wilding, Ethan T

    2012-06-01

    Ethical frameworks are often used in professional fields as a means of providing explicit ethical guidance for individuals and institutions when confronted with ethically important decisions. The notion of an ethical framework has received little critical attention, however, and the concept subsequently lends itself easily to misuse and ambiguous application. This is the case with the 'ethical framework' offered by Canada's Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO), the crown-corporation which owns and is responsible for the long-term management of Canada's high-level nuclear fuel waste. It makes a very specific claim, namely that it is managing Canada's long-lived radioactive nuclear fuel waste in an ethically responsible manner. According to this organization, what it means to behave in an ethically responsible manner is to act and develop policy in accordance with its ethical framework. What, then, is its ethical framework, and can it be satisfied? In this paper I will show that the NWMO's ethical and social framework is deeply flawed in two respects: (a) it fails to meet the minimum requirements of a code of ethic or ethical framework by offering only questions, and no principles or rules of conduct; and (b) if posed as principles or rules of conduct, some of its questions are unsatisfiable. In particular, I will show that one of its claims, namely that it seek informed consent from individuals exposed to risk of harm from nuclear waste, cannot be satisfied as formulated. The result is that the NWMO's ethical framework is not, at present, ethically acceptable. PMID:21318321

  13. Overview of the 1995 NATO ARW on nuclear submarine decommissioning and related problems

    SciTech Connect

    LeSage, L.G.

    1997-10-01

    The NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Nuclear Submarine Decommissioning and Related Problems was held in Moscow June 19--22, 1995. It was preceded by a visit to the Zvezdotchka Shipyard at Severodvinsk, a repair and maintenance yard for Russian nuclear submarines, for a subgroup of the workshop attendees. Most of the material in this paper is drawn directly form the workshop proceedings. Slightly less than 500 nuclear ships and submarines (the vast majority are submarines) have been constructed by the countries with nuclear navies. This includes approximately 250 by Russia, 195 by the United States, 23 by the United Kingdom, 11 by France and 6 by China. By the year 2000 it is expected that approximately one-half of these nuclear vessels will be removed from service and in various states of decommissioning. A newspaper account in June 1997 indicated that 156 Russian nuclear submarines had been removed from service. In August 1996 it was reported that 55 reactor compartment sections from US nuclear submarines were already in long-term storage at Hanford. Overall the dismantlement of nuclear submarines and the processing, storage and disposal of nuclear fuel, activated components and section of the hulls, and the liquid and solid radioactive and hazardous wastes is an enormous problem. This problem has been exacerbated by the accelerated decommissioning schedule associated with treaty obligations.

  14. Problem Solving Method Based on E-Learning System for Engineering Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khazaal, Hasan F.

    2015-01-01

    Encouraging engineering students to handle advanced technology with multimedia, as well as motivate them to have the skills of solving the problem, are the missions of the teacher in preparing students for a modern professional career. This research proposes a scenario of problem solving in basic electrical circuits based on an e-learning system…

  15. Toward Teaching Methods that Develop Learning and Enhance Problem Solving Skills in Engineering Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loji, K.

    2012-01-01

    Problem solving skills and abilities are critical in life and more specifically in the engineering field. Unfortunately, significant numbers of South African students who are accessing higher education lack problem solving skills and this results in poor academic performance jeopardizing their progress especially from first to second year. On the…

  16. Results in Developing an Engineering Degree Program in Safeguards and Security of Nuclear Materials at Moscow Engineering Physics Institute

    SciTech Connect

    Kryuchkov, Eduard F.; Geraskin, Nikolay I.; Killinger, Mark H.; Goodey, Kent O.; Butler, Gilbert W.; Duncan, Cristen L.

    2007-07-01

    The world’s first master’s degree program in nuclear safeguards and security, established at Moscow Engineering Physics Institute (MEPhI), has now graduated nine classes of students. Most of the graduates have gone on to work at government agencies, research organizations, or obtain their PhD. In order to meet the demand for safeguards and security specialists at nuclear facilities, MEPhI established a 5½ year engineering degree program that provides more hands-on training desired by facilities. In February 2004, the first students began their studies in the new discipline Nuclear Material Safeguards and Nonproliferation. This class, as well as other subsequent classes, included students who started the program in their third year of studies, as the first 2½ years consists of general engineering curriculum. Fourteen students made up the first graduating class, receiving their engineering degrees in February 2007. The topics addressed in this paper include specific features of the program caused by peculiarities of Russian education legislation and government quality control of academic education. This paper summarizes the main joint actions undertaken by MEPhI and the US National Laboratories in conjunction with the U.S. Department of Energy, to develop the engineering degree program. Also discussed are the program’s specific training requirements, student internships, and job placement. The paper concludes with recommendations from a recent international seminar on nonproliferation education and training.

  17. The problems of piston skirt microgeometry in combustion engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iskra, A.; Babiak, M.; Wróblewski, E.

    2016-09-01

    Geometry of the slot between piston bearing surface and cylinder bore affects the friction losses of the IC engine to the far extent. It appears that these losses depend more on the area covered with oil than the thickness of oil layer separating collaborating parts. Barrel-shaped or stepwise piston bearing surface is the way to reduce the oil covered area. Turns out that the referred to friction losses contributes more to area covered by the oil film than the film thickness of the separation elements cooperating. The method to reduce the area covered by the oil film is a modification of the bearing surface of the piston by adjusting the profile. This paper presents the results of simulation leading to the reduction in friction losses and abrasive wear of piston bearing surface and cylinder bore. Covering the piston bearing surface with a thin layer of graphite one can get an extremely advantageous tribological properties of the piston assembly which means the expected parameters of oil film and in a case of film rupture-an ignorable abrasive wear of the graphite layer and/or cylinder bore.

  18. Investigating and developing engineering students' mathematical modelling and problem-solving skills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wedelin, Dag; Adawi, Tom; Jahan, Tabassum; Andersson, Sven

    2015-09-01

    How do engineering students approach mathematical modelling problems and how can they learn to deal with such problems? In the context of a course in mathematical modelling and problem solving, and using a qualitative case study approach, we found that the students had little prior experience of mathematical modelling. They were also inexperienced problem solvers, unaware of the importance of understanding the problem and exploring alternatives, and impeded by inappropriate beliefs, attitudes and expectations. Important impacts of the course belong to the metacognitive domain. The nature of the problems, the supervision and the follow-up lectures were emphasised as contributing to the impacts of the course, where students show major development. We discuss these empirical results in relation to a framework for mathematical thinking and the notion of cognitive apprenticeship. Based on the results, we argue that this kind of teaching should be considered in the education of all engineers.

  19. A Programmatic and Engineering Approach to the Development of a Nuclear Thermal Rocket for Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bordelon, Wayne J., Jr.; Ballard, Rick O.; Gerrish, Harold P., Jr.

    2006-01-01

    With the announcement of the Vision for Space Exploration on January 14, 2004, there has been a renewed interest in nuclear thermal propulsion. Nuclear thermal propulsion is a leading candidate for in-space propulsion for human Mars missions; however, the cost to develop a nuclear thermal rocket engine system is uncertain. Key to determining the engine development cost will be the engine requirements, the technology used in the development and the development approach. The engine requirements and technology selection have not been defined and are awaiting definition of the Mars architecture and vehicle definitions. The paper discusses an engine development approach in light of top-level strategic questions and considerations for nuclear thermal propulsion and provides a suggested approach based on work conducted at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center to support planning and requirements for the Prometheus Power and Propulsion Office. This work is intended to help support the development of a comprehensive strategy for nuclear thermal propulsion, to help reduce the uncertainty in the development cost estimate, and to help assess the potential value of and need for nuclear thermal propulsion for a human Mars mission.

  20. An Historical Perspective of the NERVA Nuclear Rocket Engine Technology Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robbins, W. H.; Finger, H. B.

    1991-01-01

    Nuclear rocket research and development was initiated in the United States in 1955 and is still being pursued to a limited extent. The major technology emphasis occurred in the decade of the 1960s and was primarily associated with the Rover/NERVA Program where the technology for a nuclear rocket engine system for space application was developed and demonstrated. The NERVA (Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Application) technology developed twenty years ago provides a comprehensive and viable propulsion technology base that can be applied and will prove to be valuable for application to the NASA Space Exploration Initiative (SEI). This paper, which is historical in scope, provides an overview of the conduct of the NERVA Engine Program, its organization and management, development philosophy, the engine configuration, and significant accomplishments.

  1. Inverse problems in the design, modeling and testing of engineering systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alifanov, Oleg M.

    1991-01-01

    Formulations, classification, areas of application, and approaches to solving different inverse problems are considered for the design of structures, modeling, and experimental data processing. Problems in the practical implementation of theoretical-experimental methods based on solving inverse problems are analyzed in order to identify mathematical models of physical processes, aid in input data preparation for design parameter optimization, help in design parameter optimization itself, and to model experiments, large-scale tests, and real tests of engineering systems.

  2. Spent nuclear fuel project systems engineering management plan

    SciTech Connect

    Womack, J.C., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-19

    The purpose of this document is to describe the systems engineering approach and methods that will be integrated with established WHC engineering practices. The methodology promotes and ensures sound management of the SNF Project. The scope of the document encompasses the efforts needed to manage the WHC implementation of systems engineering on the SNF Project including risk management process, design authority/design agent concept, and documentation responsibilities. This implementation applies to, and is tailored to the needs of the SNF Project and all its Subprojects, including all current and future Subprojects.

  3. Happy software developers solve problems better: psychological measurements in empirical software engineering.

    PubMed

    Graziotin, Daniel; Wang, Xiaofeng; Abrahamsson, Pekka

    2014-01-01

    For more than thirty years, it has been claimed that a way to improve software developers' productivity and software quality is to focus on people and to provide incentives to make developers satisfied and happy. This claim has rarely been verified in software engineering research, which faces an additional challenge in comparison to more traditional engineering fields: software development is an intellectual activity and is dominated by often-neglected human factors (called human aspects in software engineering research). Among the many skills required for software development, developers must possess high analytical problem-solving skills and creativity for the software construction process. According to psychology research, affective states-emotions and moods-deeply influence the cognitive processing abilities and performance of workers, including creativity and analytical problem solving. Nonetheless, little research has investigated the correlation between the affective states, creativity, and analytical problem-solving performance of programmers. This article echoes the call to employ psychological measurements in software engineering research. We report a study with 42 participants to investigate the relationship between the affective states, creativity, and analytical problem-solving skills of software developers. The results offer support for the claim that happy developers are indeed better problem solvers in terms of their analytical abilities. The following contributions are made by this study: (1) providing a better understanding of the impact of affective states on the creativity and analytical problem-solving capacities of developers, (2) introducing and validating psychological measurements, theories, and concepts of affective states, creativity, and analytical-problem-solving skills in empirical software engineering, and (3) raising the need for studying the human factors of software engineering by employing a multidisciplinary viewpoint.

  4. Happy software developers solve problems better: psychological measurements in empirical software engineering

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaofeng; Abrahamsson, Pekka

    2014-01-01

    For more than thirty years, it has been claimed that a way to improve software developers’ productivity and software quality is to focus on people and to provide incentives to make developers satisfied and happy. This claim has rarely been verified in software engineering research, which faces an additional challenge in comparison to more traditional engineering fields: software development is an intellectual activity and is dominated by often-neglected human factors (called human aspects in software engineering research). Among the many skills required for software development, developers must possess high analytical problem-solving skills and creativity for the software construction process. According to psychology research, affective states—emotions and moods—deeply influence the cognitive processing abilities and performance of workers, including creativity and analytical problem solving. Nonetheless, little research has investigated the correlation between the affective states, creativity, and analytical problem-solving performance of programmers. This article echoes the call to employ psychological measurements in software engineering research. We report a study with 42 participants to investigate the relationship between the affective states, creativity, and analytical problem-solving skills of software developers. The results offer support for the claim that happy developers are indeed better problem solvers in terms of their analytical abilities. The following contributions are made by this study: (1) providing a better understanding of the impact of affective states on the creativity and analytical problem-solving capacities of developers, (2) introducing and validating psychological measurements, theories, and concepts of affective states, creativity, and analytical-problem-solving skills in empirical software engineering, and (3) raising the need for studying the human factors of software engineering by employing a multidisciplinary viewpoint

  5. A Hydrogen Containment Process for Nuclear Thermal Engine Ground testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Ten-See; Stewart, Eric; Canabal, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to propose a new total hydrogen containment process to enable the testing required for NTP engine development. This H2 removal process comprises of two unit operations: an oxygen-rich burner and a shell-and-tube type of heat exchanger. This new process is demonstrated by simulation of the steady state operation of the engine firing at nominal conditions.

  6. Ground Test Facility for Propulsion and Power Modes of Nuclear Engine Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Michael, WILLIAMS

    2004-11-22

    Existing DOE Ground Test Facilities have not been used to support nuclear propulsion testing since the Rover/NERVA programs of the 1960's. Unlike the Rover/NERVA programs, DOE Ground Test facilities for space exploration enabling nuclear technologies can no longer be vented to the open atmosphere. The optimal selection of DOE facilities and accompanying modifications for confinement and treatment of exhaust gases will permit the safe testing of NASA Nuclear Propulsion and Power devices involving variable size and source nuclear engines for NASA Jupiter Icy Moon Orbiter (JIMO) and Commercial Space Exploration Missions with minimal cost, schedule and environmental impact. NASA site selection criteria and testing requirements are presented.

  7. Report to DOE and Exelon Corporation: Matching Grant Program for the Nuclear Engineering Program at University of Wisconsin, Madison

    SciTech Connect

    Corradini, Michael L.

    2002-02-18

    The DOE Industry Matching Grant Program, which began in 1992, is designed to encourage collaborative support for nuclear engineering education as well as research between the nation's nuclear industry and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Over the past two decades nuclear engineering programs in the United States have witnessed a serious decline in student enrollments, number of faculty members and support from their host universities. Despite this decline, the discipline of nuclear engineering remains important to the advancement of the mission goals of the U.S. Department of Energy. These academic programs are also critically important in maintaining a viable workforce for the nation's nuclear industry. As conceived by Commonwealth Edison, this program has focused on creating a partnership between DOE and private sector businesses, which employ nuclear engineers. The program is designed to ensure that academic programs in nuclear engineering are maintained and enhanced in universities throughout the United States.

  8. A phenomenographic analysis of first-year engineering students' experiences with problems involving multiple possible solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dringenberg, Emily A.

    Engineers are expected to solve problems that are ill-structured. These problems are presented with a lack of necessary information and allow for different ways of engaging with the problem; they are open-ended and involve multiple possible solutions with multiple means of evaluation. In order to allow maximum time for students to develop skills for solving such problems, undergraduate engineering programs can introduce such problems during the first year of students' education, in the form of cornerstone design tasks. This provides students with more opportunities to develop their ability to engage with ill-structured problems, which are characteristic of engineering work. Researchers have documented variation within both the behavior and perceptions of students' early experiences with design problems. General themes include novice-like design behavior, discomfort with lack of information, difficulty with problem scoping, and resistance to ambiguity. To build on these generalizations of students' experiences, a more thorough understanding of the variation in how students experience this phenomenon of engaging with ill-structured problems is needed to design effective learning environments. This work presents the qualitatively different ways that engineering students experience problems with multiple possible solutions during their first year of engineering studies. Using phenomenography as the methodological framework, data were collected through in-depth, semi-structured interviews with 27 first-year engineering students. The iterative, phenomenographic analysis resulted in seven descriptive categories for the ways participants experienced problems involving multiple possible solutions. The names of these categories represent the different foci of the students' experiences: completion, transition, iteration, organization, collaboration, reasoning, and growth. These categories are organized along two crucial dimensions of variation: reaction to ambiguity and role

  9. Interspecies Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer: Advancements and Problems

    PubMed Central

    Lagutina, Irina; Fulka, Helena; Lazzari, Giovanna

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Embryologists working with livestock species were the pioneers in the field of reprogramming by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). Without the “Dolly experiment,” the field of cellular reprogramming would have been slow and induced plutipotent cells (iPSCs) would not have been conceived. The major drive of the work in mammalian cloning was the interest of the breeding industry to propagate superior genotypes. Soon it was realized that the properties of oocytes could be used also to clone endangered mammalian species or to reprogram the genomes of unrelated species through what is known as interspecies (i) SCNT, using easily available oocytes of livestock species. iSCNT for cloning animals works only for species that can interbreed, and experiments with taxonomically distant species have not been successful in obtaining live births or deriving embryonic stem cell (ESC) lines to be used for regenerative medicine. There are controversial reports in the literature, but in most cases these experiments have underlined some of the cellular and molecular mechanisms that are incomplete during cell nucleus reprogramming, including the failure to organize nucleoli, silence somatic cell genes, activate the embryonic genome, and resume mitochondrial replication and function, thus indicating nucleus–cytoplasmic incompatibility. PMID:24033141

  10. The problem of cooling an air-cooled cylinder on an aircraft engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brevoort, M J; Joyner, U T

    1941-01-01

    An analysis of the cooling problem has been to show by what means the cooling of an air-cooled aircraft engine may be improved. Each means of improving cooling is analyzed on the basis of effectiveness in cooling with respect to power for cooling. The altitude problem is analyzed for both supercharged and unsupercharged engines. The case of ground cooling is also discussed. The heat-transfer process from the hot gases to the cylinder wall is discussed on the basis of the fundamentals of heat transfer and thermodynamics. Adiabatic air-temperature rise at a stagnation point in compressible flow is shown to depend only on the velocity of flow.

  11. Use of computer simulations for the early introduction of nuclear engineering concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Ougouag, A.M.; Zerguini, T.H.

    1985-11-01

    A sophomore level nuclear engineering (NE) course is being introduced at the University of Illinois. Via computer simulations, this course presents materials covering the most important aspects of the field. It is noted that computer simulations in nuclear engineering are cheaper and safer than experiments yet they provide an effective teaching tool for the early introduction of advanced concepts. The new course material can be used as a tutorial and for remedial learning. The use of computer simulation motivates learning since students associate computer activities with games. Such a course can help in the dissemination of the proper information to students from different fields, including liberal arts, and eventually increase undergraduate student enrollment in nuclear engineering.

  12. Testing foreign language impact on engineering students' scientific problem-solving performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tatzl, Dietmar; Messnarz, Bernd

    2013-12-01

    This article investigates the influence of English as the examination language on the solution of physics and science problems by non-native speakers in tertiary engineering education. For that purpose, a statistically significant total number of 96 students in four year groups from freshman to senior level participated in a testing experiment in the Degree Programme of Aviation at the FH JOANNEUM University of Applied Sciences, Graz, Austria. Half of each test group were given a set of 12 physics problems described in German, the other half received the same set of problems described in English. It was the goal to test linguistic reading comprehension necessary for scientific problem solving instead of physics knowledge as such. The results imply that written undergraduate English-medium engineering tests and examinations may not require additional examination time or language-specific aids for students who have reached university-entrance proficiency in English as a foreign language.

  13. High-Fidelity Space-Time Adaptive Multiphysics Simulations in Nuclear Engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Solin, Pavel; Ragusa, Jean

    2014-03-09

    We delivered a series of fundamentally new computational technologies that have the potential to significantly advance the state-of-the-art of computer simulations of transient multiphysics nuclear reactor processes. These methods were implemented in the form of a C++ library, and applied to a number of multiphysics coupled problems relevant to nuclear reactor simulations.

  14. Educating Next Generation Nuclear Criticality Safety Engineers at the Idaho National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    J. D. Bess; J. B. Briggs; A. S. Garcia

    2011-09-01

    One of the challenges in educating our next generation of nuclear safety engineers is the limitation of opportunities to receive significant experience or hands-on training prior to graduation. Such training is generally restricted to on-the-job-training before this new engineering workforce can adequately provide assessment of nuclear systems and establish safety guidelines. Participation in the International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP) and the International Reactor Physics Experiment Evaluation Project (IRPhEP) can provide students and young professionals the opportunity to gain experience and enhance critical engineering skills. The ICSBEP and IRPhEP publish annual handbooks that contain evaluations of experiments along with summarized experimental data and peer-reviewed benchmark specifications to support the validation of neutronics codes, nuclear cross-section data, and the validation of reactor designs. Participation in the benchmark process not only benefits those who use these Handbooks within the international community, but provides the individual with opportunities for professional development, networking with an international community of experts, and valuable experience to be used in future employment. Traditionally students have participated in benchmarking activities via internships at national laboratories, universities, or companies involved with the ICSBEP and IRPhEP programs. Additional programs have been developed to facilitate the nuclear education of students while participating in the benchmark projects. These programs include coordination with the Center for Space Nuclear Research (CSNR) Next Degree Program, the Collaboration with the Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office to train nuclear and criticality safety engineers, and student evaluations as the basis for their Master's thesis in nuclear engineering.

  15. Investigation of an online, problem-based introduction to nuclear sciences: A case study

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, M.; Easter, M.; Jiazhen, W.; Jonassen, D.

    2006-07-01

    An online, grant-funded course on nuclear engineering in society was developed at a large Midwestern university with the goal of providing non-majors a meaningful introduction to the many applications of nuclear science in a modern society and to stimulate learner interest in academic studies and/or professional involvement in nuclear science. Using a within-site case study approach, the current study focused on the efficacy of the online learning environment's support of learners' acquisition of knowledge and the impact of the environment on learners' interest in and beliefs about nuclear sciences in society. Findings suggest the environment successfully promoted learning and had a positive impact on learners' interests and beliefs. (authors)

  16. Lightweight aircraft engines, the potential and problems for use of automotive fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, D. J.

    1983-01-01

    A comprehensive data research and analysis for evaluating the use of automotive fuels as a substitute for aviation grade fuel by piston-type general aviation aircraft engines is presented. Historically known problems and potential problems with fuels were reviewed for possible impact relative to application to an aircraft operational environment. This report reviews areas such as: fuel specification requirements, combustion knock, preignition, vapor lock, spark plug fouling, additives for fuel and oil, and storage stability.

  17. Engineering Virus Capsids Into Biomedical Delivery Vehicles: Structural Engineering Problems in Nanoscale.

    PubMed

    Bajaj, Saumya; Banerjee, Manidipa

    2015-01-01

    Virus capsids have evolved to protect the genome sequestered in their interior from harsh environmental conditions, and to deliver it safely and precisely to the host cell of choice. This characteristic makes them naturally perfect containers for delivering therapeutic molecules to specific locations. Development of an ideal virus-based nano-container for medical usage requires that the capsid be converted into a targetable protein cage which retains the original stability, flexibility and host cell penetrating properties of the native particles, without the associated immunogenicity, and is able to encapsulate large quantities of therapeutic or diagnostic material. In the last few years, several icosahedral, non-enveloped viruses, with a diameter of 25-90 nm-a size which conveniently falls within the 10-100 nm range desirable for biomedical nanoparticles-have been chemically or genetically engineered towards partial fulfilment of the above criteria. This review summarizes the approaches taken towards engineering viruses into biomedical delivery devices and discusses the challenges involved in achieving this goal. PMID:26301300

  18. Engineering Virus Capsids Into Biomedical Delivery Vehicles: Structural Engineering Problems in Nanoscale.

    PubMed

    Bajaj, Saumya; Banerjee, Manidipa

    2015-01-01

    Virus capsids have evolved to protect the genome sequestered in their interior from harsh environmental conditions, and to deliver it safely and precisely to the host cell of choice. This characteristic makes them naturally perfect containers for delivering therapeutic molecules to specific locations. Development of an ideal virus-based nano-container for medical usage requires that the capsid be converted into a targetable protein cage which retains the original stability, flexibility and host cell penetrating properties of the native particles, without the associated immunogenicity, and is able to encapsulate large quantities of therapeutic or diagnostic material. In the last few years, several icosahedral, non-enveloped viruses, with a diameter of 25-90 nm-a size which conveniently falls within the 10-100 nm range desirable for biomedical nanoparticles-have been chemically or genetically engineered towards partial fulfilment of the above criteria. This review summarizes the approaches taken towards engineering viruses into biomedical delivery devices and discusses the challenges involved in achieving this goal.

  19. Challenge problem and milestones for : Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) waste Integrated Performance and Safety Codes (IPSC).

    SciTech Connect

    Freeze, Geoffrey A.; Wang, Yifeng; Howard, Robert; McNeish, Jerry A.; Schultz, Peter Andrew; Arguello, Jose Guadalupe, Jr.

    2010-09-01

    This report describes the specification of a challenge problem and associated challenge milestones for the Waste Integrated Performance and Safety Codes (IPSC) supporting the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) Campaign. The NEAMS challenge problems are designed to demonstrate proof of concept and progress towards IPSC goals. The goal of the Waste IPSC is to develop an integrated suite of modeling and simulation capabilities to quantitatively assess the long-term performance of waste forms in the engineered and geologic environments of a radioactive waste storage or disposal system. The Waste IPSC will provide this simulation capability (1) for a range of disposal concepts, waste form types, engineered repository designs, and geologic settings, (2) for a range of time scales and distances, (3) with appropriate consideration of the inherent uncertainties, and (4) in accordance with robust verification, validation, and software quality requirements. To demonstrate proof of concept and progress towards these goals and requirements, a Waste IPSC challenge problem is specified that includes coupled thermal-hydrologic-chemical-mechanical (THCM) processes that describe (1) the degradation of a borosilicate glass waste form and the corresponding mobilization of radionuclides (i.e., the processes that produce the radionuclide source term), (2) the associated near-field physical and chemical environment for waste emplacement within a salt formation, and (3) radionuclide transport in the near field (i.e., through the engineered components - waste form, waste package, and backfill - and the immediately adjacent salt). The initial details of a set of challenge milestones that collectively comprise the full challenge problem are also specified.

  20. Final report to DOE: Matching Grant Program for the Penn State University Nuclear Engineering Program

    SciTech Connect

    Jack S. Brenizer, Jr.

    2003-01-17

    The DOE/Industry Matching Grant Program is designed to encourage collaborative support for nuclear engineering education as well as research between the nation's nuclear industry and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Despite a serious decline in student enrollments in the 1980s and 1990s, the discipline of nuclear engineering remained important to the advancement of the mission goals of DOE. The program is designed to ensure that academic programs in nuclear engineering are maintained and enhanced in universities throughout the U.S. At Penn State, the Matching Grant Program played a critical role in the survival of the Nuclear Engineering degree programs. Funds were used in a variety of ways to support both undergraduate and graduate students directly. Some of these included providing seed funding for new graduate research initiatives, funding the development of new course materials, supporting new teaching facilities, maintenance and purchase of teaching laboratory equipment, and providing undergraduate scholarships, graduate fellowships, and wage payroll positions for students.

  1. Summary of the engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings: Phillips/United Nuclear site, Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    1981-10-01

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah, Inc., has reevaluated the Phillips/United Nuclear site in order to revise the December 1977 engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from the 2.6 million dry tons of tailings at the Phillips/United Nuclear site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation also are factors. The four alternative actions presented in this engineering assessment range from millsite decontamination with the addition of 3 m of stabilization cover material, to removal of the tailings to remote disposal sites and decontamination of the tailings site. Cost estimates for the four options range from about $21,500,000 for stabilization in-place, to about $45,200,000 for disposal at a distance of about 15 mi. Three principal alternatives for the reprocessing of the Phillips/United Nuclear tailings were examined: heap leaching; treatment at an existing mill; reprocessing at a new conventional mill constructed for tailings reprocessing. The cost of the uranium recovered would be about $87/lb of U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ by either heap leach or conventional plant process. The spot market price for uranium was $25/lb early in 1981. Reprocessing the Phillips/United Nuclear tailings for uranium recovery does not appear to be economically attractive under present or foreseeable market conditions.

  2. Analysis of Arguments Constructed by First-Year Engineering Students Addressing Electromagnetic Induction Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almudi, Jose Manuel; Ceberio, Mikel

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the quality of arguments used by first-year engineering university students enrolled in a traditional physics course dealing with electromagnetic induction and related problem solving where they had to assess whether the electromagnetic induction phenomenon would occur. Their conclusions were analyzed for the relevance of the…

  3. Testing Foreign Language Impact on Engineering Students' Scientific Problem-Solving Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tatzl, Dietmar; Messnarz, Bernd

    2013-01-01

    This article investigates the influence of English as the examination language on the solution of physics and science problems by non-native speakers in tertiary engineering education. For that purpose, a statistically significant total number of 96 students in four year groups from freshman to senior level participated in a testing experiment in…

  4. Problem-Based Learning: A Student Evaluation of an Implementation in Postgraduate Engineering Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ribeiro, Luis Roberto C.; Mizukami, Maria Da Graca N.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the student evaluation of a problem-based learning (PBL) implementation in the postgraduate engineering curriculum of a public university in Brazil. This investigation adopts a qualitative and collaborative design, as suggested when the research objective is to study phenomena in their natural settings in terms of the meanings…

  5. Learning Probabilities in Computer Engineering by Using a Competency- and Problem-Based Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khoumsi, Ahmed; Hadjou, Brahim

    2005-01-01

    Our department has redesigned its electrical and computer engineering programs by adopting a learning methodology based on competence development, problem solving, and the realization of design projects. In this article, we show how this pedagogical approach has been successfully used for learning probabilities and their application to computer…

  6. Comparison of Example-Based Learning and Problem-Based Learning in Engineering Domain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sern, Lai Chee; Salleh, Kahirol Mohd; Sulaiman, Nor lisa; Mohamad, Mimi Mohaffyza; Yunos, Jailani Md

    2015-01-01

    The research was conducted to compare the impacts of problem-based learning (PBL) and example-based learning (EBL) on the learning performance in an engineering domain. The research was implemented by means of experimental design. Specifically, a two-group experiment with a pre- and post-test design was used in this research. A total of 37…

  7. Learning on the Job: Cooperative Education, Internships and Engineering Problem-Solving Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yin, Alexander C.

    2009-01-01

    Cooperative education (co-op) and internships are forms of experiential education that allow students to complement their classroom experiences with work experience. This study examines the influence of co-op and internships on engineering problem-solving skills by answering the following research questions: (1) Does experience in cooperative…

  8. Impact Assessment of Problem-Based Learning in an Engineering Science Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nasr, Karim J.; Ramadan, Bassem H.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the development and implementation of Problem-Based Learning (PBL) in an engineering thermodynamics course at Kettering University. In this project, the thermodynamics course was restructured as modules presenting practical applications first, whereas principles were introduced just-in-time and as encountered. Theoretical…

  9. Factors Affecting Perceived Learning of Engineering Students in Problem Based Learning Supported by Business Simulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaparro-Pelaez, Julian; Iglesias-Pradas, Santiago; Pascual-Miguel, Felix J.; Hernandez-Garcia, Angel

    2013-01-01

    Although literature about problem based learning (PBL) is not scarce, there is little research on experiences about learning methodologies that combine PBL and the use of simulation tools. This lack of studies is even more notable in the case of engineering courses. The motivation for this study is to show how such a combination of PBL and…

  10. Future Critical Issues and Problems Facing Technology and Engineering Education in the Commonwealth of Virginia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katsioloudis, Petros; Moye, Johnny J.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to determine the future critical issues and problems facing the K-12 technology and engineering education profession in the Commonwealth of Virginia. This study was based on the Wicklein nationwide studies (1993a, 2005). Even though this study did not exactly replicate the Wicklein studies--since it was limited to…

  11. Radwaste assessment program for nuclear station modifications by design engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Eble, R.G.

    1988-01-01

    Radwaste burial for Duke Power Company's (DPC's) seven nuclear units has become a complicated and costly process. Burial costs are based on overall volume, surcharges for radioactivity content and weight of containers, truck and cask rental, driver fees, and state fees and taxes. Frequently, radwaste costs can be as high as $500 per drum. Additionally, DPC is limited on the total burial space allocated for each plant each year. The thrust of this program is to reduce radwaste volumes needing burial at either Barnwell, South Carolina, or Richland, Washington. A limited number of options are available at our sites: (a) minimization of radwaste volume production, (b) segregation of contamination and noncontaminated trash, (c) decontamination of small hardware, (d) volume reduction of compatible trash, (e) incineration of combustible trash (available at Oconee in near future), and (f) burial of below-regulatory-concern very low level waste on site. Frequently, costs can be reduced by contracting services outside the company, i.e., supercompaction, decontamination, etc. Information about radwaste volumes, activities, and weight, however, must be provided to the nuclear production department (NPD) radwaste group early in the nuclear station modification (NSM) process to determine the most cost-effective method of processing radwaste. In addition, NSM radwaste costs are needed for the NPD NSM project budget. Due to the advanced planning scope of this budget, NSM construction costs must be estimated during the design-phase proposal.

  12. Reactor physics teaching and research in the Swiss nuclear engineering master

    SciTech Connect

    Chawla, R.

    2012-07-01

    Since 2008, a Master of Science program in Nuclear Engineering (NE) has been running in Switzerland, thanks to the combined efforts of the country's key players in nuclear teaching and research, viz. the Swiss Federal Inst.s of Technology at Lausanne (EPFL) and at Zurich (ETHZ), the Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI) at Villigen and the Swiss Nuclear Utilities (Swissnuclear). The present paper, while outlining the academic program as a whole, lays emphasis on the reactor physics teaching and research training accorded to the students in the framework of the developed curriculum. (authors)

  13. Instrumentation Requirements for the Engineering Evaluation of Nuclear-Electric Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Apel, W. C.

    1961-01-01

    Spacecraft employing nuclear-electric propulsion are being proposed for missions to Venus and distances beyond. These spacecraft utilize a nuclear reactor to provide thermal energy to a turboalternator which generates electric power for an ion motor and the other spacecraft systems. This Report discusses the instrumentation and communications system needed to evaluate a nuclear-electric spacecraft in flight, along with the problems expected. A representative spacecraft design is presented, which leads to a discussion of the instrumentation needed to evaluate such a spacecraft. A basic communications system is considered for transmitting the spacecraft data to Earth. The instrumentation and communications system, as well as all electronic systems on a nuclear-electric spacecraft, will be operating in high temperature and nuclear-radiation environments. The problems caused by these environments are discussed, and possible solutions are offered.

  14. Avoid, Control, Succumb, or Balance: Engineering Students' Approaches to a Wicked Sustainability Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lönngren, Johanna; Ingerman, Åke; Svanström, Magdalena

    2016-07-01

    Wicked sustainability problems (WSPs) are an important and particularly challenging type of problem. Science and engineering education can play an important role in preparing students to deal with such problems, but current educational practice may not adequately prepare students to do so. We address this gap by providing insights related to students' abilities to address WSPs. Specifically, we aim to (I) describe key constituents of engineering students' approaches to a WSP, (II) evaluate these approaches in relation to the normative context of education for sustainable development (ESD), and (III) identify relevant aspects of learning related to WSPs. Aim I is addressed through a phenomenographic study, while aims II and III are addressed by relating the results to research literature about human problem solving, sustainable development, and ESD. We describe four qualitatively different ways of approaching a specific WSP, as the outcome of the phenomenographic study: A. Simplify and avoid, B. Divide and control, C. Isolate and succumb, and D. Integrate and balance. We identify approach D as the most appropriate approach in the context of ESD, while A and C are not. On this basis, we identify three learning objectives related to students' abilities to address WSPs: learn to use a fully integrative approach, distinguish WSPs from tame and well-structured problems, and understand and consider the normative context of SD. Finally, we provide recommendations for how these learning objectives can be used to guide the design of science and engineering educational activities.

  15. Nuclear Deterrence in the 21st Century: The Role of Science and Engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Martz, Joseph C; Ventura, Jonathan S

    2008-01-01

    Twenty-first century security challenges are multi-polar and asymmetric. A few nations have substantial nuclear arsenals and active nuclear weapons programs that still threaten vital US national security directly or by supporting proliferation. Maintaining a credible US nuclear deterrent and containing further proliferation will continue to be critical to US national security. Overlaid against this security backdrop, the rising worldwide population and its effects on global climate, food, and energy resources are greatly complicating the degree and number of security challenges before policy makers.This new paradigm requires new ways to assure allies that the United States remains a trusted security partner and to deter potential adversaries from aggressive actions that threaten global stability. Every U.S. President since Truman has affirmed the role of nuclear weapons as a supreme deterrent and protector of last resort of U.S. national security interests. Recently, President Bush called for a nuclear deterrent consistent with the 'lowest number of nuclear weapons' that still protects U.S. interests. How can this be achieved? And how can we continue on a path of nuclear reductions while retaining the security benefits of nuclear deterrence? Science and engineering have a key role to play in a potential new paradigm for nuclear deterrence, a concept known as 'capability-based deterrence.'

  16. Radiological effluents released from nuclear rocket and ramjet engine tests at the Nevada Test Site 1959 through 1969: Fact Book

    SciTech Connect

    Friesen, H.N.

    1995-06-01

    Nuclear rocket and ramjet engine tests were conducted on the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in Area 25 and Area 26, about 80 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada, from July 1959 through September 1969. This document presents a brief history of the nuclear rocket engine tests, information on the off-site radiological monitoring, and descriptions of the tests.

  17. How useful is neutron diffusion theory for nuclear rocket engine design

    SciTech Connect

    Hilsmeier, T.A.; Aithal, S.M.; Aldemir, T. )

    1992-01-01

    Correct modeling of neutron leakage and geometry effects is important in the design of a nuclear rocket engine because of the need for small reactor cores in space applications. In principle, there are generalized procedures that can account for these effects in a reliable manner (e.g., a three-dimensional, continuous-energy Monte Carlo calculation with all core components explicitly modeled). However, these generalized procedures are not usually suitable for parametric design studies because of the long computational times required, and the feasibility of using faster running, more approrimate neutronic modeling approaches needs to be investigated. Faster running neutronic models are also needed for simulator development to assess the engine performance during startup and power level changes. This paper investigates the potential of the few-group diffusion approach for nuclear rocket engine core design and optimization by comparing the k[sub eff] and power distributions obtained by the MCNP code against those obtained from the LEOPARD and 2DB codes for the particle bed reactor (PBR) concept described. The PBRs have been identified as one of the two near-term options for nuclear thermal propulsion by the joint National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)/US Department of Energy/US Department of Defense program that was recently set up at the NASA Lewis Research Center to develop a flight-rated nuclear rocket engine by the 2020s.

  18. Enhancement of Teaching and Learning of the Fundamentals of Nuclear Engineering Using Multimedia Courseware.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keyvan, Shahla A.; Pickard, Rodney; Song, Xiaolong

    1997-01-01

    Computer-aided instruction incorporating interactive multimedia and network technologies can boost teaching effectiveness and student learning. This article describes the development and implementation of network server-based interactive multimedia courseware for a fundamental course in nuclear engineering. A student survey determined that 80% of…

  19. Nuclear Engineering Enrollment and Degree Survey: Enrollments - Fall 1972; Degrees Granted - July 1965-June 1972.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chewning, June S.

    The Atomic Energy Commission's survey of nuclear engineering degrees granted during the 1971-72 academic year shows a continuing increase in bachelor's recipients, a slight increase in the number of master's, but a continuing decline in new Ph.D.'s. If the present rate of decline persists, by 1974 the number of new Ph.D.'s in the field will be…

  20. Nuclear science and engineering and health physics fellowships: 1984 description. Research areas for the practicum

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    This booklet describes available research areas at participating centers where a practicum may be held under the Nuclear Science and Engineering and Health Physics Fellowship program. After a year of graduate study each fellow is expected to arrange for a practicum period at one of the participating centers.

  1. Management of Spent Nuclear Fuel of Nuclear Research Reactor VVR-S at the National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest, Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biro, Lucian

    2009-05-01

    The Nuclear Research Reactor VVR-S (RR-VVR-S) located in Magurele-Bucharest, Romania, was designed for research and radioisotope production. It was commissioned in 1957 and operated without any event or accident for forty years until shut down in 1997. In 2002, by government decree, it was permanently shutdown for decommissioning. The National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering (IFIN-HH) is responsible for decommissioning the RR-VVR-S, the first nuclear decommissioning project in Romania. In this context, IFIN-HH prepared and obtained approval from the Romanian Nuclear Regulatory Body for the Decommissioning Plan. One of the most important aspects for decommissioning the RR-VVR-S is solving the issue of the fresh and spent nuclear fuel (SNF) stored on site in wet storage pools. In the framework of the Russian Research Reactor Fuel Return Program (RRRFR), managed by the U.S. Department of Energy and in cooperation with the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Rosatom State Corporation, Romania repatriated all fresh HEU fuel to the Russian Federation in 2003 and the HEU SNF will be repatriated to Russia in 2009. With the experience and lessons learned from this action and with the financial support of the Romanian Government it will be possible for Romania to also repatriate the LEU SNF to the Russian Federation before starting the dismantling and decontamination of the nuclear facility. [4pt] In collaboration with K. Allen, Idaho National Laboratory, USA; L. Biro, National Commission for Nuclear Activities Control, Romania; and M. Dragusin, National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest-Magurele, Romania.

  2. The spatial isomorphism problem for close separable nuclear C*-algebras

    PubMed Central

    Christensen, Erik; Sinclair, Allan M.; Smith, Roger R.; White, Stuart A.; Winter, Wilhelm

    2010-01-01

    The Kadison–Kastler problem asks whether close C*-algebras on a Hilbert space must be spatially isomorphic. We establish this when one of the algebras is separable and nuclear. We also apply our methods to the study of near inclusions of C*-algebras. PMID:20080723

  3. Evaluation of Recent Upgrades to the NESS (Nuclear Engine System Simulation) Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fittje, James E.; Schnitzler, Bruce G.

    2008-01-01

    The Nuclear Thermal Rocket (NTR) concept is being evaluated as a potential propulsion technology for exploratory expeditions to the moon, Mars, and beyond. The need for exceptional propulsion system performance in these missions has been documented in numerous studies, and was the primary focus of a considerable effort undertaken during the Rover/NERVA program from 1955 to 1973. The NASA Glenn Research Center is leveraging this past NTR investment in their vehicle concepts and mission analysis studies with the aid of the Nuclear Engine System Simulation (NESS) code. This paper presents the additional capabilities and upgrades made to this code in order to perform higher fidelity NTR propulsion system analysis and design, and a comparison of its results to the Small Nuclear Rocket Engine (SNRE) design.

  4. Pricing Theory of Derivatives in Financial Engineering and the Problems on the Application to Electricity Markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misawa, Tetsuya

    Recently, the wholesale electric power exchange has been founded in Japan. With the progress of the electricity market, some management schemes of electricity price risk will be necessary. In financial markets or the preceding electricity markets, various “derivatives" on assets in the markets are often used as management tools to hedge the price risk. This paper gives a short commentary on some fundamental concepts of the derivatives and the pricing theory in the financial engineering, and discusses the problems on the financial engineering approach to electricity derivatives.

  5. Calcine Waste Storage at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center

    SciTech Connect

    Staiger, Merle Daniel; M. C. Swenson

    2005-01-01

    This report documents an inventory of calcined waste produced at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center during the period from December 1963 to May 2000. The report was prepared based on calciner runs, operation of the calcined solids storage facilities, and miscellaneous operational information that establishes the range of chemical compositions of calcined waste stored at Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center. The report will be used to support obtaining permits for the calcined solids storage facilities, possible treatment of the calcined waste at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, and to ship the waste to an off-site facility including a geologic repository. The information in this report was compiled from calciner operating data, waste solution analyses and volumes calcined, calciner operating schedules, calcine temperature monitoring records, and facility design of the calcined solids storage facilities. A compact disk copy of this report is provided to facilitate future data manipulations and analysis.

  6. Environmental Degradation of Materials for Nuclear Waste Repositories Engineered Barriers

    SciTech Connect

    Rebak, R B

    2006-12-24

    Several countries are considering geological repositories for the storage of nuclear waste. Most of the environments for these repositories will be reducing in nature, except for the repository in the US, which is going to be oxidizing. For the reducing repositories, alloys such as carbon steel, copper, stainless steels and titanium are being evaluated. For the repository in the US, some of the most corrosion resistant commercially available alloys are being investigated. This paper presents a summary of the behavior of the different materials under consideration for the repositories and the current understanding of the degradation modes of the proposed alloys in ground water environments from the point of view of general corrosion, localized corrosion and environmentally assisted cracking.

  7. Automatic differentiation of codes in nuclear engineering applications.

    SciTech Connect

    Alexe, M.; Roderick, O.; Utke, J.; Anitescu, M.; Hovland, P.; Fanning, T.; Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ.; Unv. of Chicago

    2009-12-01

    We discuss our experience in applying automatic differentiation (AD) to calculations in nuclear reactor applications. The document is intended as a guideline on how to apply AD to Fortran codes with significant legacy components; it is also a part of a larger research effort in uncertainty quantification using sampling methods augmented with derivative information. We provide a brief theoretical description of the concept of AD, explain the necessary changes in the code structure, and remark on possible ways to deal with non-differentiability. Numerical experiments were carried out where the derivative of a functional subset of the SAS4A/SASSYS code was computed in forward mode with several AD tools. The results are in good agreement with both the real and complex finite-difference approximations of the derivative.

  8. Application of desktop computers in nuclear engineering education

    SciTech Connect

    Graves, H.W. Jr. )

    1990-01-01

    Utilization of desktop computers in the academic environment is based on the same objectives as in the industrial environment - increased quality and efficiency. Desktop computers can be extremely useful teaching tools in two general areas: classroom demonstrations and homework assignments. Although differences in emphasis exist, tutorial programs share many characteristics with interactive software developed for the industrial environment. In the Reactor Design and Fuel Management course at the University of Maryland, several interactive tutorial programs provided by Energy analysis Software Service have been utilized. These programs have been designed to be sufficiently structured to permit an orderly, disciplined solution to the problem being solved, and yet be flexible enough to accommodate most problem solution options.

  9. The Problem-Solving Process in Physics as Observed When Engineering Students at University Level Work in Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gustafsson, Peter; Jonsson, Gunnar; Enghag, Margareta

    2015-01-01

    The problem-solving process is investigated for five groups of students when solving context-rich problems in an introductory physics course included in an engineering programme. Through transcripts of their conversation, the paths in the problem-solving process have been traced and related to a general problem-solving model. All groups exhibit…

  10. The main problems in the mechanical engineering sector and some possible directions of their solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strizhakova, E.

    2016-04-01

    The article shows the problems of the sector of mechanical engineering in the industrial system in Russia. The author's method of estimating the relative level of risk and the method of determining the de-industrialization degree of the sector based on the aggregated level of adaptability are given. According to them we have analysed the key indicators, such as basic, developed and advanced technologies, and investments in an old or new technology of industrial sectors. The main directions of the impact of industrial policy allowing a change in the current situation in mechanical engineering are given. The results can be applied in practice in formation of directions and actual control actions to improve the overall efficiency of mechanical engineering industry.

  11. Research on Life Science and Life Support Engineering Problems of Manned Deep Space Exploration Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Bin; Guo, Linli; Zhang, Zhixian

    2016-07-01

    Space life science and life support engineering are prominent problems in manned deep space exploration mission. Some typical problems are discussed in this paper, including long-term life support problem, physiological effect and defense of varying extraterrestrial environment. The causes of these problems are developed for these problems. To solve these problems, research on space life science and space medical-engineering should be conducted. In the aspect of space life science, the study of space gravity biology should focus on character of physiological effect in long term zero gravity, co-regulation of physiological systems, impact on stem cells in space, etc. The study of space radiation biology should focus on target effect and non-target effect of radiation, carcinogenicity of radiation, spread of radiation damage in life system, etc. The study of basic biology of space life support system should focus on theoretical basis and simulating mode of constructing the life support system, filtration and combination of species, regulation and optimization method of life support system, etc. In the aspect of space medical-engineering, the study of bio-regenerative life support technology should focus on plants cultivation technology, animal-protein production technology, waste treatment technology, etc. The study of varying gravity defense technology should focus on biological and medical measures to defend varying gravity effect, generation and evaluation of artificial gravity, etc. The study of extraterrestrial environment defense technology should focus on risk evaluation of radiation, monitoring and defending of radiation, compound prevention and removal technology of dust, etc. At last, a case of manned lunar base is analyzed, in which the effective schemes of life support system, defense of varying gravity, defense of extraterrestrial environment are advanced respectively. The points in this paper can be used as references for intensive study on key

  12. Preface to foundations of information/decision fusion with applications to engineering problems

    SciTech Connect

    Madan, R.N.; Rao, N.S.V.

    1996-10-01

    In engineering design, it was shown by von Neumann that a reliable system can be built using unreliable components by employing simple majority rule fusers. If error densities are known for individual pattern recognizers then an optimal fuser was shown to be implementable as a threshold function. Many applications have been developed for distributed sensor systems, sensor-based robotics, face recognition, decision fusion, recognition of handwritten characters, and automatic target recognition. Recently, information/decision fusion has been recognized as an independently growing field with its own principles and methods. While some of the fusion problems in engineering systems could be solved by applying existing results from other domains, many others require original approaches and solutions. In turn, these new approaches would lead to new applications in other areas. There are two paradigms at the extrema of the spectrum of the information/decision methods: (i) Fusion as Problem: In certain applications, fusion is explicitly specified in the problem statement. Particularly in robotics applications, many researchers realized the fundamental limitations of single sensor systems, thereby motivating the deployment of multiple sensors. In more general engineering applications, similar sensors are employed for fault tolerance, while in several others, different sensor modalities are required to achieve the given task. In these scenarios, fusion methods have to be first designed to solve the problem at hand. (ii) Fusion as Solution: In many instances (e.g., DNA analysis), a number of different solutions to a particular problem already exist. Often these solutions can be combined to obtain solutions that outperform any individual one. The area of forecasting is a good example of such paradigm. Although fusion is not explicitly specified in these problems, it is used as an ingredient of the solution.

  13. Optical Detection of the Hidden Nuclear Engine in NGC 4258

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkes, Belinda J.; Schmidt, Gary D.; Smith, Paul S.; Mathur, Smita; McLeod, Kim K.

    1997-01-01

    The subparsec masing disk recently found to be orbiting a central mass of approx. 3.6 x 10(exp 7) Ms in the Seyfert/LINER galaxy NGC 4258 (Miyoshi and coworkers) provides the most compelling evidence to date for the existence of a massive black hole in the nucleus of a galaxy. The disk is oriented nearly edge-on, and the X-ray spectrum is heavily absorbed. Therefore, in this galaxy, the optical emission-line spectrum generally exhibited by an active galactic nucleus is perhaps best sought using polarized light: probing for light scattered off material surrounding the central source. New polarimetry of NGC 4258 has uncovered a compact polarized nucleus whose spectrum consists of a faint blue continuum similar to those of unobscured quasars (F(sub upsilon) proportional to upsilon(sup -1.1)), plus broadened (approx. 1000 km/s) emission lines. The lines are strongly linearly polarized (5%-10%) at a position angle (85 deg +/- 2 deg) coincident with the plane of the maser disk. This result provides substantiating evidence for a weakly active central engine in NGC 4258 and for the existence of obscuring, orbiting tori, which impart many of the perceived distinctions between various types of active galaxies.

  14. Simulations for Complex Fluid Flow Problems from Berkeley Lab's Center for Computational Sciences and Engineering (CCSE)

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Center for Computational Sciences and Engineering (CCSE) develops and applies advanced computational methodologies to solve large-scale scientific and engineering problems arising in the Department of Energy (DOE) mission areas involving energy, environmental, and industrial technology. The primary focus is in the application of structured-grid finite difference methods on adaptive grid hierarchies for compressible, incompressible, and low Mach number flows. The diverse range of scientific applications that drive the research typically involve a large range of spatial and temporal scales (e.g. turbulent reacting flows) and require the use of extremely large computing hardware, such as the 153,000-core computer, Hopper, at NERSC. The CCSE approach to these problems centers on the development and application of advanced algorithms that exploit known separations in scale; for many of the application areas this results in algorithms are several orders of magnitude more efficient than traditional simulation approaches.

  15. Finite element analysis of structural engineering problems using a viscoplastic model incorporating two back stresses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arya, Vinod K.; Halford, Gary R.

    1993-01-01

    The feasibility of a viscoplastic model incorporating two back stresses and a drag strength is investigated for performing nonlinear finite element analyses of structural engineering problems. To demonstrate suitability for nonlinear structural analyses, the model is implemented into a finite element program and analyses for several uniaxial and multiaxial problems are performed. Good agreement is shown between the results obtained using the finite element implementation and those obtained experimentally. The advantages of using advanced viscoplastic models for performing nonlinear finite element analyses of structural components are indicated.

  16. Case study of a problem-based learning course of physics in a telecommunications engineering degree

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macho-Stadler, Erica; Jesús Elejalde-García, Maria

    2013-08-01

    Active learning methods can be appropriate in engineering, as their methodology promotes meta-cognition, independent learning and problem-solving skills. Problem-based learning is the educational process by which problem-solving activities and instructor's guidance facilitate learning. Its key characteristic involves posing a 'concrete problem' to initiate the learning process, generally implemented by small groups of students. Many universities have developed and used active methodologies successfully in the teaching-learning process. During the past few years, the University of the Basque Country has promoted the use of active methodologies through several teacher training programmes. In this paper, we describe and analyse the results of the educational experience using the problem-based learning (PBL) method in a physics course for undergraduates enrolled in the technical telecommunications engineering degree programme. From an instructors' perspective, PBL strengths include better student attitude in class and increased instructor-student and student-student interactions. The students emphasised developing teamwork and communication skills in a good learning atmosphere as positive aspects.

  17. Environmental Problems Associated With Decommissioning The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Cooling Pond

    SciTech Connect

    Farfan, E. B.; Jannik, G. T.; Marra, J. C.; Oskolkov, B. Ya.; Bondarkov, M. D.; Gaschak, S. P.; Maksymenko, A. M.; Maksymenko, V. M.; Martynenko, V. I.

    2009-11-09

    Decommissioning of nuclear power plants and other nuclear fuel cycle facilities has been an imperative issue lately. There exist significant experience and generally accepted recommendations on remediation of lands with residual radioactive contamination; however, there are hardly any such recommendations on remediation of cooling ponds that, in most cases, are fairly large water reservoirs. The literature only describes remediation of minor reservoirs containing radioactive silt (a complete closure followed by preservation) or small water reservoirs resulting in reestablishing natural water flows. Problems associated with remediation of river reservoirs resulting in flooding of vast agricultural areas also have been described. In addition, the severity of environmental and economic problems related to the remedial activities is shown to exceed any potential benefits of these activities. One of the large, highly contaminated water reservoirs that require either remediation or closure is Karachay Lake near the MAYAK Production Association in the Chelyabinsk Region of Russia where liquid radioactive waste had been deep well injected for a long period of time. Backfilling of Karachay Lake is currently in progress. It should be noted that secondary environmental problems associated with its closure are considered to be of less importance since sustaining Karachay Lake would have presented a much higher radiological risk. Another well-known highly contaminated water reservoir is the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) Cooling Pond, decommissioning of which is planned for the near future. This study summarizes the environmental problems associated with the ChNPP Cooling Pond decommissioning.

  18. ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH DECOMMISSIONING THE CHERNOBYL NUCLEAR POWER PLANT COOLING POND

    SciTech Connect

    Farfan, E.

    2009-09-30

    Decommissioning of nuclear power plants and other nuclear fuel cycle facilities has been an imperative issue lately. There exist significant experience and generally accepted recommendations on remediation of lands with residual radioactive contamination; however, there are hardly any such recommendations on remediation of cooling ponds that, in most cases, are fairly large water reservoirs. The literature only describes remediation of minor reservoirs containing radioactive silt (a complete closure followed by preservation) or small water reservoirs resulting in reestablishing natural water flows. Problems associated with remediation of river reservoirs resulting in flooding of vast agricultural areas also have been described. In addition, the severity of environmental and economic problems related to the remedial activities is shown to exceed any potential benefits of these activities. One of the large, highly contaminated water reservoirs that require either remediation or closure is Karachay Lake near the MAYAK Production Association in the Chelyabinsk Region of Russia where liquid radioactive waste had been deep well injected for a long period of time. Backfilling of Karachay Lake is currently in progress. It should be noted that secondary environmental problems associated with its closure are considered to be of less importance since sustaining Karachay Lake would have presented a much higher radiological risk. Another well-known highly contaminated water reservoir is the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) Cooling Pond, decommissioning of which is planned for the near future. This study summarizes the environmental problems associated with the ChNPP Cooling Pond decommissioning.

  19. Understanding ill-structured engineering ethics problems through a collaborative learning and argument visualization approach.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Michael; Borenstein, Jason

    2014-03-01

    As a committee of the National Academy of Engineering recognized, ethics education should foster the ability of students to analyze complex decision situations and ill-structured problems. Building on the NAE's insights, we report about an innovative teaching approach that has two main features: first, it places the emphasis on deliberation and on self-directed, problem-based learning in small groups of students; and second, it focuses on understanding ill-structured problems. The first innovation is motivated by an abundance of scholarly research that supports the value of deliberative learning practices. The second results from a critique of the traditional case-study approach in engineering ethics. A key problem with standard cases is that they are usually described in such a fashion that renders the ethical problem as being too obvious and simplistic. The practitioner, by contrast, may face problems that are ill-structured. In the collaborative learning environment described here, groups of students use interactive and web-based argument visualization software called "AGORA-net: Participate - Deliberate!". The function of the software is to structure communication and problem solving in small groups. Students are confronted with the task of identifying possible stakeholder positions and reconstructing their legitimacy by constructing justifications for these positions in the form of graphically represented argument maps. The argument maps are then presented in class so that these stakeholder positions and their respective justifications become visible and can be brought into a reasoned dialogue. Argument mapping provides an opportunity for students to collaborate in teams and to develop critical thinking and argumentation skills.

  20. Strengthening the fission reactor nuclear science and engineering program at UCLA. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Okrent, D.

    1997-06-23

    This is the final report on DOE Award No. DE-FG03-92ER75838 A000, a three year matching grant program with Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG and E) to support strengthening of the fission reactor nuclear science and engineering program at UCLA. The program began on September 30, 1992. The program has enabled UCLA to use its strong existing background to train students in technological problems which simultaneously are of interest to the industry and of specific interest to PG and E. The program included undergraduate scholarships, graduate traineeships and distinguished lecturers. Four topics were selected for research the first year, with the benefit of active collaboration with personnel from PG and E. These topics remained the same during the second year of this program. During the third year, two topics ended with the departure o the students involved (reflux cooling in a PWR during a shutdown and erosion/corrosion of carbon steel piping). Two new topics (long-term risk and fuel relocation within the reactor vessel) were added; hence, the topics during the third year award were the following: reflux condensation and the effect of non-condensable gases; erosion/corrosion of carbon steel piping; use of artificial intelligence in severe accident diagnosis for PWRs (diagnosis of plant status during a PWR station blackout scenario); the influence on risk of organization and management quality; considerations of long term risk from the disposal of hazardous wastes; and a probabilistic treatment of fuel motion and fuel relocation within the reactor vessel during a severe core damage accident.

  1. Advanced Nuclear Measurements - Sensitivity Analysis Emerging Safeguards, Problems and Proliferation Risk

    SciTech Connect

    Dreicer, J.S.

    1999-07-15

    During the past year this component of the Advanced Nuclear Measurements LDRD-DR has focused on emerging safeguards problems and proliferation risk by investigating problems in two domains. The first is related to the analysis, quantification, and characterization of existing inventories of fissile materials, in particular, the minor actinides (MA) formed in the commercial fuel cycle. Understanding material forms and quantities helps identify and define future measurement problems, instrument requirements, and assists in prioritizing safeguards technology development. The second problem (dissertation research) has focused on the development of a theoretical foundation for sensor array anomaly detection. Remote and unattended monitoring or verification of safeguards activities is becoming a necessity due to domestic and international budgetary constraints. However, the ability to assess the trustworthiness of a sensor array has not been investigated. This research is developing an anomaly detection methodology to assess the sensor array.

  2. The role of failure/problems in engineering: A commentary of failures experienced - lessons learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, R. S.

    1992-01-01

    The written version of a series of seminars given to several aerospace companies and three NASA centers are presented. The results are lessons learned through a study of the problems experienced in 35 years of engineering. The basic conclusion is that the primary cause of problems has not been mission technologies, as important as technology is, but the neglect of basic principles. Undergirding this is the lack of a systems focus from determining requirements through design, verification, and operations phases. Many of the concepts discussed are fundamental to total quality management (TQM) and can be used to augment this product enhanced philosophy. Fourteen principles are addressed with problems experienced and are used as examples. Included is a discussion of the implication of constraints, poorly defined requirements, and schedules. Design guidelines, lessons learned, and future tasks are listed. Two additional sections are included that deal with personal lessons learned and thoughts on future thrusts (TQM).

  3. Improved solution methods for an inverse problem related to a population balance model in chemical engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groh, Andreas; Krebs, Jochen

    2012-08-01

    In this paper, a population balance equation, originating from applications in chemical engineering, is considered and novel solution techniques for a related inverse problem are presented. This problem consists in the determination of the breakage rate and the daughter drop distribution of an evolving drop size distribution from time-dependent measurements under the assumption of self-similarity. We analyze two established solution methods for this ill-posed problem and improve the two procedures by adapting suitable data fitting and inversion algorithms to the specific situation. In addition, we introduce a novel technique that, compared to the former, does not require certain a priori information. The improved stability properties of the resulting algorithms are substantiated with numerical examples.

  4. The role of failure/problems in engineering: A commentary of failures experienced - lessons learned

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, R. S.

    1992-03-01

    The written version of a series of seminars given to several aerospace companies and three NASA centers are presented. The results are lessons learned through a study of the problems experienced in 35 years of engineering. The basic conclusion is that the primary cause of problems has not been mission technologies, as important as technology is, but the neglect of basic principles. Undergirding this is the lack of a systems focus from determining requirements through design, verification, and operations phases. Many of the concepts discussed are fundamental to total quality management (TQM) and can be used to augment this product enhanced philosophy. Fourteen principles are addressed with problems experienced and are used as examples. Included is a discussion of the implication of constraints, poorly defined requirements, and schedules. Design guidelines, lessons learned, and future tasks are listed. Two additional sections are included that deal with personal lessons learned and thoughts on future thrusts (TQM).

  5. Nuclear engineering 24/7 via distance learning: Course development and management experiences

    SciTech Connect

    Maldonado, G. I.; Christenson, J.; Spitz, H.; Rutz, E.; Todd, A.

    2006-07-01

    This article summarizes a few lessons learned in our early experiences in developing, delivering and implementing a series of distance learning classes for full-time undergraduate students enrolled in the combined-degree BS Mechanical + MS Nuclear Engineering 5-year and co-op based 'MNE- ACCEND' program at the Univ. of Cincinnati. This program is in its third year since inception and currently hosts approximately 35 undergraduate students enrolled in the graduating classes of 2008, 2009, and 2010, which is when these students are expected to complete their BS Mechanical and MS Nuclear Engineering degrees. In addition, 20+ newly confirmed students are expected to enter this program in the fall quarter of 2006 to become our Class of 2011. Therefore, the successful 'follow through' of the DL component of this program continues to be increasingly crucial as this student pipeline reaches a targeted steady-state of about 10 to 15 graduates per class. (authors)

  6. An improved heat transfer configuration for a solid-core nuclear thermal rocket engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, John S.; Walton, James T.; Mcguire, Melissa L.

    1992-01-01

    Interrupted flow, impingement cooling, and axial power distribution are employed to enhance the heat-transfer configuration of a solid-core nuclear thermal rocket engine. Impingement cooling is introduced to increase the local heat-transfer coefficients between the reactor material and the coolants. Increased fuel loading is used at the inlet end of the reactor to enhance heat-transfer capability where the temperature differences are the greatest. A thermal-hydraulics computer program for an unfueled NERVA reactor core is employed to analyze the proposed configuration with attention given to uniform fuel loading, number of channels through the impingement wafers, fuel-element length, mass-flow rate, and wafer gap. The impingement wafer concept (IWC) is shown to have heat-transfer characteristics that are better than those of the NERVA-derived reactor at 2500 K. The IWC concept is argued to be an effective heat-transfer configuration for solid-core nuclear thermal rocket engines.

  7. Pyroelectric Crystal Accelerator In The Department Of Physics And Nuclear Engineering At West Point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillich, Don; Shannon, Mike; Kovanen, Andrew; Anderson, Tom; Bright, Kevin; Edwards, Ronald; Danon, Yaron; Moretti, Brian; Musk, Jeffrey

    2011-06-01

    The Nuclear Science and Engineering Research Center (NSERC), a Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA) office located at the United States Military Academy (USMA), sponsors and manages cadet and faculty research in support of DTRA objectives. The NSERC has created an experimental pyroelectric crystal accelerator program to enhance undergraduate education at USMA in the Department of Physics and Nuclear Engineering. This program provides cadets with hands-on experience in designing their own experiments using an inexpensive tabletop accelerator. This device uses pyroelectric crystals to ionize and accelerate gas ions to energies of ˜100 keV. Within the next year, cadets and faculty at USMA will use this device to create neutrons through the deuterium-deuterium (D-D) fusion process, effectively creating a compact, portable neutron generator. The double crystal pyroelectric accelerator will also be used by students to investigate neutron, x-ray, and ion spectroscopy.

  8. Experimental challenge to nuclear physics problems in the {nu}p-process

    SciTech Connect

    Kubono, S.; Binh, Dam N.; Hayakawa, S.; Hashimoto, T.; Kahl, D. M.; Yamaguchi, H.; Wakabayashi, Y.; Teranishi, T.; Iwasa, N.; Komatsubara, T.; Kato, S.; Chen, A.; Cherubini, S.; Choi, S. H.; Hahn, I. S.; He, J. J.; Khiem, Le H.; Lee, C. S.; Kwon, Y. K.; Wanajo, S.; and others

    2012-11-12

    Astrophysical stellar reactions at extremely high temperatures involve a variety of problems both in nuclear reactions and nuclear structures. Specifically, the problems in the {nu}pprocess were discussed in this talk based on our recent experimental results with low-energy RI beams and a simulation study. The {nu}p-process is one of the key processes for investigating the mechanism of type II supernovae, and the process could be possibly responsible for 'the excess production' of p-nuclei around mass 90-100. Alpha cluster resonances have been discovered experimentally to play a crucial role for the stellar ({alpha}, p) reactions just above the alpha threshold. Neutron induced reactions in the proton-rich nuclear regions in the {nu}p-process are also suggested to play an important role, which involve nuclear structures of high level density at high excitation energies, probably giant resonances. The discussion also covered the p-nuclei production through the {nu}p-process at around mass 100.

  9. Nuclear Engineering: Enrollments and Degrees. Enrollments-Fall 1973, Degrees Granted-July 1965-June 1973.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atomic Energy Commission, Washington, DC. Office of Industrial Relations.

    This document presents statistical data concerning enrollments for fall 1973 and degrees granted 1965-June 1973 in nuclear engineering. Highlights of this survey of educational institutions indicated: (1) Ph.D.'s decreased to 126 from 149 in 1971-72 and from 181 in 1969-70. (2) MS's increased to 442 from 428 in 1971-72. (3) BS's increased to 551…

  10. Engineered barrier development for a nuclear waste repository in basalt: an integration of current knowledge

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M.J.

    1980-05-01

    This document represents a compilation of data and interpretive studies conducted as part of the engineered barriers program of the Basalt Waste Isolation Project. The overall objective of these studies is to provide information on barrier system designs, emplacement and isolation techniques, and chemical reactions expected in a nuclear waste repository located in the basalts underlying the Hanford Site within the state of Washington. Backfills, waste-basalt interactions, sorption, borehole plugging, etc., are among the topics discussed.

  11. A configuration space Monte Carlo algorithm for solving the nuclear pairing problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lingle, Mark

    Nuclear pairing correlations using Quantum Monte Carlo are studied in this dissertation. We start by defining the nuclear pairing problem and discussing several historical methods developed to solve this problem, paying special attention to the applicability of such methods. A numerical example discussing pairing correlations in several calcium isotopes using the BCS and Exact Pairing solutions are presented. The ground state energies, correlation energies, and occupation numbers are compared to determine the applicability of each approach to realistic cases. Next we discuss some generalities related to the theory of Markov Chains and Quantum Monte Carlo in regards to nuclear structure. Finally we present our configuration space Monte Carlo algorithm starting from a discussion of a path integral approach by the authors. Some general features of the Pairing Hamiltonian that boost the effectiveness of a configuration space Monte Carlo approach are mentioned. The full details of our method are presented and special attention is paid to convergence and error control. We present a series of examples illustrating the effectiveness of our approach. These include situations with non-constant pairing strengths, limits when pairing correlations are weak, the computation of excited states, and problems when the relevant configuration space is large. We conclude with a chapter examining some of the effects of continuum states in 24O.

  12. Thermal hydraulic design analysis of ternary carbide fueled square-lattice honeycomb nuclear rocket engine

    SciTech Connect

    Furman, Eric M.; Anghaie, Samim

    1999-01-22

    A computational analysis is conducted to determine the optimum thermal-hydraulic design parameters for a square-lattice honeycomb nuclear rocket engine core that will incorporate ternary carbide based uranium fuels. Recent studies at the Innovative Nuclear Space Power and Propulsion Institute (INSPI) have demonstrated the feasibility of processing solid solution, ternary carbide fuels such as (U, Zr, Nb)C, (U, Zr, Ta)C, (U, Zr, Hf)C and (U, Zr, W)C. The square-lattice honeycomb design provides high strength and is amenable to the processing complexities of these ultrahigh temperature fuels. A parametric analysis is conducted to examine how core geometry, fuel thickness and the propellant flow area effect the thermal performance of the nuclear rocket engine. The principal variables include core size (length and diameter) and fuel element dimensions. The optimum core configuration requires a balance between high specific impulse and thrust level performance, and maintaining the temperature and strength limits of the fuel. A nuclear rocket engine simulation code is developed and used to examine the system performance as well as the performance of the main reactor core components. The system simulation code was originally developed for analysis of NERVA-Derivative and Pratt and Whitney XNR-2000 nuclear thermal rockets. The code is modified and adopted to the square-lattice geometry of the new fuel design. Thrust levels ranging from 44,500 to 222,400 N (10,000 to 50,000 lbf) are considered. The average hydrogen exit temperature is kept at 2800 K, which is well below the melting point of these fuels. For a nozzle area ratio of 300 and a thrust chamber pressure of 4.8 Mpa (700 psi), the specific impulse is 930 s. Hydrogen temperature and pressure distributions in the core and the fuel maximum temperatures are calculated.

  13. A Systems Engineering Framework for Design, Construction and Operation of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Edward J. Gorski; Charles V. Park; Finis H. Southworth

    2004-06-01

    Not since the International Space Station has a project of such wide participation been proposed for the United States. Ten countries, the European Union, universities, Department of Energy (DOE) laboratories, and industry will participate in the research and development, design, construction and/or operation of the fourth generation of nuclear power plants with a demonstration reactor to be built at a DOE site and operational by the middle of the next decade. This reactor will be like no other. The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) will be passively safe, economical, highly efficient, modular, proliferation resistant, and sustainable. In addition to electrical generation, the NGNP will demonstrate efficient and cost effective generation of hydrogen to support the President’s Hydrogen Initiative. To effectively manage this multi-organizational and technologically complex project, systems engineering techniques and processes will be used extensively to ensure delivery of the final product. The technological and organizational challenges are complex. Research and development activities are required, material standards require development, hydrogen production, storage and infrastructure requirements are not well developed, and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission may further define risk-informed/performance-based approach to licensing. Detailed design and development will be challenged by the vast cultural and institutional differences across the participants. Systems engineering processes must bring the technological and organizational complexity together to ensure successful product delivery. This paper will define the framework for application of systems engineering to this $1.5B - $1.9B project.

  14. Pluronic F127 nanomicelles engineered with nuclear localized functionality for targeted drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Li, Yong-Yong; Li, Lan; Dong, Hai-Qing; Cai, Xiao-Jun; Ren, Tian-Bin

    2013-07-01

    PKKKRKV (Pro-Lys-Lys-Lys-Arg-Lys-Val, PV7), a seven amino acid peptide, has emerged as one of the primary nuclear localization signals that can be targeted into cell nucleus via the nuclear import machinery. Taking advantage of chemical diversity and biological activities of this short peptide sequence, in this study, Pluronic F127 nanomicelles engineered with nuclear localized functionality were successfully developed for intracellular drug delivery. These nanomicelles with the size ~100 nm were self-assembled from F127 polymer that was flanked with two PV7 sequences at its both terminal ends. Hydrophobic anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOX) with inherent fluorescence was chosen as the model drug, which was found to be efficiently encapsulated into nanomicelles with the encapsulation efficiency at 72.68%. In comparison with the non-functionalized namomicelles, the microscopic observation reveals that PV7 functionalized nanomicelles display a higher cellular uptake, especially into the nucleus of HepG2 cells, due to the nuclear localization signal effects. Both cytotoxicity and apoptosis studies show that the DOX-loaded nanomicelles were more potent than drug nanomicelles without nuclear targeting functionality. It was thus concluded that PV7 functionalized nanomicelles could be a potentially alternative vehicle for nuclear targeting drug delivery.

  15. Instabilities in fissioning plasmas as applied to the gas-core nuclear rocket-engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The compressional wave spectrum excited in a fissioning uranium plasma confined in a cavity such as a gas cored nuclear reactor, is studied. Computer results are presented that solve the fluid equations for this problem including the effects of spatial gradients, nonlinearities, and neutron density gradients in the reactor. Typically the asymptotic fluctuation level for the plasma pressure is of order 1 percent.

  16. [Prospects of systemic radioecology in solving innovative tasks of nuclear power engineering].

    PubMed

    Spiridonov, S I

    2014-01-01

    A need of systemic radioecological studies in the strategy developed by the atomic industry in Russia in the XXI century has been justified. The priorities in the radioecology of nuclear power engineering of natural safety associated with the development of the radiation-migration equivalence concept, comparative evaluation of innovative nuclear technologies and forecasting methods of various emergencies have been identified. Also described is an algorithm for the integrated solution of these tasks that includes elaboration of methodological approaches, methods and software allowing dose burdens to humans and biota to be estimated. The rationale of using radioecological risks for the analysis of uncertainties in the environmental contamination impacts,at different stages of the existing and innovative nuclear fuel cycles is shown.

  17. UC Berkeley Nuclear Engineering Curriculum and Research Enhancement. Final report, February 14, 1993--February 14, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, T.K.; Peterson, P.F.

    1995-05-11

    This is a report for the 2/14/93 to 2/14/95 period of the five-year program proposed and initiated in 1992, for curriculum and research enhancement for the Department of Nuclear Engineering at the University of California, Berkeley. The program is designed to strengthen the departmental academic infrastructure and improve the education breadth of nuclear engineering students. The DOE funds have supported scholarships and a novel educational program which includes summer coursework at the Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant. The summer course provides an important introduction to reactor safety and operations to students who will in the future be responsible for running many of our existing nuclear power plants. The work was funded under DOE contract DE-FG0393ER75856, with a matching gift to the Department from the Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG&E). The program described in the original grant proposal has been successful implemented with an enthusiastic response from our students and faculty. The program consisted of two parts, one for innovative additions to our curriculum funded by the DOE, and the other for distinguished lectureships and support for basic research funded by gifts from PG&E.

  18. Nuclear Engine System Simulation (NESS). Version 2.0: Program user's guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pelaccio, Dennis G.; Scheil, Christine M.; Petrosky, Lyman

    1993-01-01

    This Program User's Guide discusses the Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) engine system design features and capabilities modeled in the Nuclear Engine System Simulation (NESS): Version 2.0 program (referred to as NESS throughout the remainder of this document), as well as its operation. NESS was upgraded to include many new modeling capabilities not available in the original version delivered to NASA LeRC in Dec. 1991, NESS's new features include the following: (1) an improved input format; (2) an advanced solid-core NERVA-type reactor system model (ENABLER 2); (3) a bleed-cycle engine system option; (4) an axial-turbopump design option; (5) an automated pump-out turbopump assembly sizing option; (6) an off-design gas generator engine cycle design option; (7) updated hydrogen properties; (8) an improved output format; and (9) personal computer operation capability. Sample design cases are presented in the user's guide that demonstrate many of the new features associated with this upgraded version of NESS, as well as design modeling features associated with the original version of NESS.

  19. Fuel/propellant mixing in an open-cycle gas core nuclear rocket engine

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, X.; Wehrmeyer, J.A.

    1997-01-01

    A numerical investigation of the mixing of gaseous uranium and hydrogen inside an open-cycle gas core nuclear rocket engine (spherical geometry) is presented. The gaseous uranium fuel is injected near the centerline of the spherical engine cavity at a constant mass flow rate, and the hydrogen propellant is injected around the periphery of the engine at a five degree angle to the wall, at a constant mass flow rate. The main objective is to seek ways to minimize the mixing of uranium and hydrogen by choosing a suitable injector geometry for the mixing of light and heavy gas streams. Three different uranium inlet areas are presented, and also three different turbulent models (k-{var_epsilon} model, RNG k-{var_epsilon} model, and RSM model) are investigated. The commercial CFD code, FLUENT, is used to model the flow field. Uranium mole fraction, axial mass flux, and radial mass flux contours are obtained. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  20. Improved Finite Element Modeling of the Turbofan Engine Inlet Radiation Problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roy, Indranil Danda; Eversman, Walter; Meyer, H. D.

    1993-01-01

    Improvements have been made in the finite element model of the acoustic radiated field from a turbofan engine inlet in the presence of a mean flow. The problem of acoustic radiation from a turbofan engine inlet is difficult to model numerically because of the large domain and high frequencies involved. A numerical model with conventional finite elements in the near field and wave envelope elements in the far field has been constructed. By employing an irrotational mean flow assumption, both the mean flow and the acoustic perturbation problem have been posed in an axisymmetric formulation in terms of the velocity potential; thereby minimizing computer storage and time requirements. The finite element mesh has been altered in search of an improved solution. The mean flow problem has been reformulated with new boundary conditions to make it theoretically rigorous. The sound source at the fan face has been modeled as a combination of positive and negative propagating duct eigenfunctions. Therefore, a finite element duct eigenvalue problem has been solved on the fan face and the resulting modal matrix has been used to implement a source boundary condition on the fan face in the acoustic radiation problem. In the post processing of the solution, the acoustic pressure has been evaluated at Gauss points inside the elements and the nodal pressure values have been interpolated from them. This has significantly improved the results. The effect of the geometric position of the transition circle between conventional finite elements and wave envelope elements has been studied and it has been found that the transition can be made nearer to the inlet than previously assumed.

  1. Fuzzy-decision-making problems of fuel ethanol production using a genetically engineered yeast

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, F.S.; Jing, C.H.; Tsao, G.T.

    1998-08-01

    A fuzzy-decision-making procedure is applied to find the optimal feed policy of a fed-batch fermentation process for fuel ethanol production using a genetically engineered Saccharomyces yeast 1400 (pLNH33). The policy consisted of feed flow rate, feed concentration, and fermentation time. The recombinant yeast 1400 (pLNH33) can utilize glucose and xylose simultaneously to produce ethanol. However, the parent yeast utilizes glucose only. A partially selective model is used to describe the kinetic behavior of the process. In this study, this partially selective fermentation process is formulated as a general multiple-objective optimal control problem. By using an assigned membership function for each of the objectives, the general multiple-objective optimization problem can be converted into a maximizing decision problem. In order to obtain a global solution, a hybrid method of differential evolution is introduced to solve the maximizing decision problem. A simple guideline is introduced in the interactive programming procedures to find a satisfactory solution to the general multiple-objective optimization problem.

  2. Evaluating minority retention programs: problems encountered and lessons learned from the Ohio science and engineering alliance.

    PubMed

    White, Jeffry L; Altschuld, James W; Lee, Yi-Fang

    2008-08-01

    The retention rates for African-Americans, Hispanics, and Native-Americans in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) are lower than those of White or Asian college students. In response, the National Science Foundation formed statewide partnerships of universities to develop programs to address this disparity. The deliberations and experiences in evaluating one such partnership are retrospectively reviewed. Problems and issues encountered during conceptualization and implementation are presented. Lessons learned from this endeavor should generalize to similar situations and provide guidance for others new to or interested in evaluating STEM retention programs as well as those evaluating collaborative endeavors.

  3. Working towards a scalable model of problem-based learning instruction in undergraduate engineering education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mantri, Archana

    2014-05-01

    The intent of the study presented in this paper is to show that the model of problem-based learning (PBL) can be made scalable by designing curriculum around a set of open-ended problems (OEPs). The detailed statistical analysis of the data collected to measure the effects of traditional and PBL instructions for three courses in Electronics and Communication Engineering, namely Analog Electronics, Digital Electronics and Pulse, Digital & Switching Circuits is presented here. It measures the effects of pedagogy, gender and cognitive styles on the knowledge, skill and attitude of the students. The study was conducted two times with content designed around same set of OEPs but with two different trained facilitators for all the three courses. The repeatability of results for effects of the independent parameters on dependent parameters is studied and inferences are drawn.

  4. Team Problem Solving Strategies with a Survey of These Methods Used by Faculty Members in Engineering Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcus, Michael L.; Winters, Dixie L.

    2004-01-01

    Students from science, engineering, and technology programs should be able to work together as members of project teams to find solutions to technical problems. The exercise in this paper describes the methods actually used by a project team from a Biomedical Instrumentation Corporation in which scientists, technicians, and engineers from various…

  5. The Effect on Pupils' Science Performance and Problem-Solving Ability through Lego: An Engineering Design-Based Modeling Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Yanyan; Huang, Zhinan; Jiang, Menglu; Chang, Ting-Wen

    2016-01-01

    Incorporating scientific fundamentals via engineering through a design-based methodology has proven to be highly effective for STEM education. Engineering design can be instantiated for learning as they involve mental and physical stimulation and develop practical skills especially in solving problems. Lego bricks, as a set of toys based on design…

  6. Efficacy of an Online Resource for Teaching Interpersonal Problem Solving Skills to Women Graduate Students in Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bekki, Jennifer M.; Bernstein, Bianca; Fabert, Natalie; Gildar, Natalie; Way, Amy

    2014-01-01

    Interpersonal problem solving skills allow engineers to prevent interpersonal difficulties more effectively and to manage conflict, both of which are critical to successful participation on teams. This research provides evidence that the "Career"WISE online learning environment can improve those skills among women in engineering graduate…

  7. Automation of reverse engineering process in aircraft modeling and related optimization problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, W.; Swetits, J.

    1994-01-01

    During the year of 1994, the engineering problems in aircraft modeling were studied. The initial concern was to obtain a surface model with desirable geometric characteristics. Much of the effort during the first half of the year was to find an efficient way of solving a computationally difficult optimization model. Since the smoothing technique in the proposal 'Surface Modeling and Optimization Studies of Aerodynamic Configurations' requires solutions of a sequence of large-scale quadratic programming problems, it is important to design algorithms that can solve each quadratic program in a few interactions. This research led to three papers by Dr. W. Li, which were submitted to SIAM Journal on Optimization and Mathematical Programming. Two of these papers have been accepted for publication. Even though significant progress has been made during this phase of research and computation times was reduced from 30 min. to 2 min. for a sample problem, it was not good enough for on-line processing of digitized data points. After discussion with Dr. Robert E. Smith Jr., it was decided not to enforce shape constraints in order in order to simplify the model. As a consequence, P. Dierckx's nonparametric spline fitting approach was adopted, where one has only one control parameter for the fitting process - the error tolerance. At the same time the surface modeling software developed by Imageware was tested. Research indicated a substantially improved fitting of digitalized data points can be achieved if a proper parameterization of the spline surface is chosen. A winning strategy is to incorporate Dierckx's surface fitting with a natural parameterization for aircraft parts. The report consists of 4 chapters. Chapter 1 provides an overview of reverse engineering related to aircraft modeling and some preliminary findings of the effort in the second half of the year. Chapters 2-4 are the research results by Dr. W. Li on penalty functions and conjugate gradient methods for

  8. Use of liquid metals in nuclear and thermonuclear engineering, and in other innovative technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rachkov, V. I.; Arnol'dov, M. N.; Efanov, A. D.; Kalyakin, S. G.; Kozlov, F. A.; Loginov, N. I.; Orlov, Yu. I.; Sorokin, A. P.

    2014-05-01

    By now, a good deal of experience has been gained with using liquid metals as coolants in nuclear power installations; extensive knowledge has been gained about the physical, thermophysical, and physicochemical properties of these coolants; and the scientific principles and a set of methods and means for handling liquid metals as coolants for nuclear power installations have been elaborated. Prototype and commercialgrade sodium-cooled NPP power units have been developed, including the BOR-60, BN-350, and BN-600 power units (the Soviet Union); the Rapsodie, Phenix, and Superphenix power units (France), the EBR-II power unit (the United States); and the PFR power unit (the United Kingdom). In Russia, dedicated nuclear power installations have been constructed, including those with a lead-bismuth coolant for nuclear submarines and with sodium-potassium alloy for spacecraft (the Buk and Topol installations), which have no analogs around the world. Liquid metals (primarily lithium and its alloy with lead) hold promise for use in thermonuclear power engineering, where they can serve not only as a coolant, but also as tritium-producing medium. In this article, the physicochemical properties of liquid metal coolants, as well as practical experience gained from using them in nuclear and thermonuclear power engineering and in innovative technologies are considered, and the lines of further research works are formulated. New results obtained from investigations carried out on the Pb-Bi and Pb for the SVBR and BREST fast-neutron reactors (referred to henceforth as fast reactors) and for controlled accelerator systems are described.

  9. On one modification of traveling salesman problem oriented on application in atomic engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Chentsov, A. G.; Sesekin, A. N.; Shcheklein, S. E.; Tashlykov, O. L.

    2010-10-25

    The mathematical model of a problem of minimization of a dose of an irradiation of the personnel which is carrying out dismantling of the completing block of a nuclear power plant is considered. Dismantling of elements of the block is carried out consistently. A brigade of workers having carried out dismantling of the next element of the block passes to similar work on other element of the block. Thus it is supposed that on the sequence of performance of works restrictions are imposed. These restrictions assume that on a number of pairs of works the condition is imposed: the second work cannot be executed before the first. This problem is similar to a known traveling salesman problem with the difference that expenses function depends on the list of outstanding works, and on sequence of performance of works and corresponding motions the constraints in the form of antecedence are imposed. The variant of the dynamic programming method is developed for such problem and the corresponding software is created.

  10. Interdisciplinary Team-Teaching Experience for a Computer and Nuclear Energy Course for Electrical and Computer Engineering Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Charles; Jackson, Deborah; Keiller, Peter

    2016-01-01

    A new, interdisciplinary, team-taught course has been designed to educate students in Electrical and Computer Engineering (ECE) so that they can respond to global and urgent issues concerning computer control systems in nuclear power plants. This paper discusses our experience and assessment of the interdisciplinary computer and nuclear energy…

  11. Eco-innovative design approach: Integrating quality and environmental aspects in prioritizing and solving engineering problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakroun, Mahmoud; Gogu, Grigore; Pacaud, Thomas; Thirion, François

    2014-09-01

    This study proposes an eco-innovative design process taking into consideration quality and environmental aspects in prioritizing and solving technical engineering problems. This approach provides a synergy between the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), the nonquality matrix, the Theory of Inventive Problem Solving (TRIZ), morphological analysis and the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP). In the sequence of these tools, LCA assesses the environmental impacts generated by the system. Then, for a better consideration of environmental aspects, a new tool is developed, the non-quality matrix, which defines the problem to be solved first from an environmental point of view. The TRIZ method allows the generation of new concepts and contradiction resolution. Then, the morphological analysis offers the possibility of extending the search space of solutions in a design problem in a systematic way. Finally, the AHP identifies the promising solution(s) by providing a clear logic for the choice made. Their usefulness has been demonstrated through their application to a case study involving a centrifugal spreader with spinning discs.

  12. Knowing What Engineering and Technology Teachers Need to Know: An Analysis of Pre-Service Teachers Engineering Design Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fantz, Todd D.; De Miranda, Michael A.; Siller, Thomas J.

    2011-01-01

    With the rapid advances in civilization, technological breakthroughs, and a globally growing workforce, there is a strong need for engineers capable of working in the 21st century environment (Galloway, "The 21st century engineer: A proposal for engineering education reform." ASCE, Washington DC 2008). To help increase the quality and quantity of…

  13. Nuclear Power Engineering Education Program, University of Illinois. Progress report, May 15, 1992--March 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, B.G.

    1993-05-01

    The DOE/CECo Nuclear Power Engineering Education Program at the University of Illinois in its first year has significantly impacted the quality of the power education which our students receive. It has contributed to: the recently completed upgrade of the console of our Advanced TRIGA reactor which increases the reactor`s utility for training, the procurement of new equipment to upgrade and refurbish several of the undergraduate laboratory set-ups, and the procurement of computational workstations in support of the instructional computing laboratory. In addition, smaller amounts of funds were used for the recruitment and retention of top quality graduate students, the support of faculty to visit other institutions to attract top students into the discipline, and to provide funds for faculty to participate in short courses to improve their skills and background in the power area. These items and activities have helped elevate in the student`s perspective the role of nuclear power in the discipline. We feel this is having a favorable impact on student career selection and on ensuring the continued supply of well educated nuclear engineering graduates.

  14. Nuclear reaction uncertainties, massive gravitino decays and the cosmological lithium problem

    SciTech Connect

    Cyburt, Richard H.; Ellis, John; Fields, Brian D.; Luo, Feng; Olive, Keith A.; Spanos, Vassilis C. E-mail: john.ellis@cern.ch E-mail: fluo@physics.umn.edu E-mail: spanos@physics.umn.edu

    2010-10-01

    We consider the effects of uncertainties in nuclear reaction rates on the cosmological constraints on the decays of unstable particles during or after Big-Bang nucleosynthesis (BBN). We identify the nuclear reactions due to non-thermal hadrons that are the most important in perturbing standard BBN, then quantify the uncertainties in these reactions and in the resulting light-element abundances. These results also indicate the key nuclear processes for which improved cross section data would allow different light-element abundances to be determined more accurately, thereby making possible more precise probes of BBN and evaluations of the cosmological constraints on unstable particles. Applying this analysis to models with unstable gravitinos decaying into neutralinos, we calculate the likelihood function for the light-element abundances measured currently, taking into account the current experimental errors in the determinations of the relevant nuclear reaction rates. We find a region of the gravitino mass and abundance in which the abundances of deuterium, {sup 4}He and {sup 7}Li may be fit with χ{sup 2} = 5.5, compared with χ{sup 2} = 31.7 if the effects of gravitino decays are unimportant. The best-fit solution is improved to χ{sup 2} ∼ 2.0 when the lithium abundance is taken from globular cluster data. Some such re-evaluation of the observed light-element abundances and/or nuclear reaction rates would be needed if this region of gravitino parameters is to provide a complete solution to the cosmological {sup 7}Li problem.

  15. An R-matrix package for coupled-channel problems in nuclear physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Descouvemont, P.

    2016-03-01

    We present an R-matrix Fortran package to solve coupled-channel problems in nuclear physics. The basis functions are chosen as Lagrange functions, which permits simple calculations of the matrix elements. The main input is the coupling potentials at some nucleus-nucleus distances, specified by the program. The program provides the collision matrix and, optionally, the associated wave function. The present method deals with open and closed channels simultaneously, without numerical instability associated with closed channels. It can also solve coupled-channel problems for non-local potentials. Long-range potentials can be treated with propagation techniques, which significantly speed up the calculations. We first present an overview of the R-matrix theory, and of the Lagrange-mesh method. A description of the package and its installation on a UNIX machine is then provided. Finally, five typical examples are discussed.

  16. An investigation of dual-mode operation of a nuclear-thermal rocket engine

    SciTech Connect

    Kirk, W.L.; Hedstrom, J.C.; Moore, S.W.; McFarland, R.D.; Merrigan, M.A.; Buksa, J.J.; Cappiello, M.W.; Hanson, D.L.; Woloshun, K.A.

    1991-06-01

    A preliminary assessment of the technical feasibility and mass competitiveness of a dual-mode nuclear propulsion and power system based on Rover-type reactors has been completed. Earlier studies have indicated that dual-mode systems appear attractive for electrical power levels of a few kilowatts. However, at the megawatt electrical power level considered in this study, it appears that extensive modifications to the nuclear-thermal engines would be required, the feasibility of which is unclear. Mass competitiveness at high electrical power levels is also uncertain. Further study of reactor and shield design in conjuction with mission and vehicle studies is necessary in order to determine a useful dual-mode power range. 9 refs., 20 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. The Australian Institute of Nuclear Science & Engineering - a model for University-National Laboratory collaboration

    SciTech Connect

    Gammon, R.B.

    1994-12-31

    This paper describes the aims and activities of the Australian Institute of Nuclear Science and Engineering (AINSE), from its foundation in 1958 through to 1993. The philosophy, structure and funding of the Institute are briefly reviewed, followed by an account of the development of national research facilities at the Lucas Heights Research Laboratories, with particular emphasis on nuclear techniques of analysis using neutron scattering instruments and particle accelerators. AINSE`s program of Grants, Fellowships and Studentships are explained with many examples given of projects having significance in the context of Australia`s national goals. Conference and training programs are also included. The achievements during these years demonstrate that AINSE has been an efficient and cost- effective model for collaboration between universities and a major national laboratory. In recent years, industry, government organisations and the tertiary education system have undergone major re-structuring and rationalization. A new operational structure for AINSE has evolved in response to these changes and is described.

  18. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Nuclear Science Symposium, 18th, and Nuclear Power Systems Symposium, 3rd, San Francisco, Calif., November 3-5, 1971, Proceedings.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Potential advantages of fusion power reactors are discussed together with the protection of the public from radioactivity produced in nuclear power reactors, and the significance of tritium releases to the environment. Other subjects considered are biomedical instrumentation, radiation damage problems, low level environmental radionuclide analysis systems, nuclear techniques in environmental research, nuclear instrumentation, and space and plasma instrumentation. Individual items are abstracted in this issue.

  19. Bleed cycle propellant pumping in a gas-core nuclear rocket engine system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kascak, A. F.; Easley, A. J.

    1972-01-01

    The performance of ideal and real staged primary propellant pumps and bleed-powered turbines was calculated for gas-core nuclear rocket engines over a range of operating pressures from 500 to 5000 atm. This study showed that for a required engine operating pressure of 1000 atm the pump work was about 0.8 hp/(lb/sec), the specific impulse penalty resulting from the turbine propellant bleed flow as about 10 percent; and the heat required to preheat the propellant was about 7.8 MN/(lb/sec). For a specific impulse above 2400 sec, there is an excess of energy available in the moderator due to the gamma and neutron heating that occurs there. Possible alternative pumping cycles are the Rankine or Brayton cycles.

  20. Engineering of Deinococcus radiodurans R1 for bioprecipitation of uranium from dilute nuclear waste.

    PubMed

    Appukuttan, Deepti; Rao, Amara Sambasiva; Apte, Shree Kumar

    2006-12-01

    Genetic engineering of radiation-resistant organisms to recover radionuclides/heavy metals from radioactive wastes is an attractive proposition. We have constructed a Deinococcus radiodurans strain harboring phoN, a gene encoding a nonspecific acid phosphatase, obtained from a local isolate of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi. The recombinant strain expressed an approximately 27-kDa active PhoN protein and efficiently precipitated over 90% of the uranium from a 0.8 mM uranyl nitrate solution in 6 h. The engineered strain retained uranium bioprecipitation ability even after exposure to 6 kGy of 60Co gamma rays. The PhoN-expressing D. radiodurans offers an effective and eco-friendly in situ approach to biorecovery of uranium from dilute nuclear waste.

  1. Calcine Waste Storage at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center

    SciTech Connect

    M. D. Staiger

    1999-06-01

    A potential option in the program for long-term management of high-level wastes at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC), at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, calls for retrieving calcine waste and converting it to a more stable and less dispersible form. An inventory of calcine produced during the period December 1963 to May 1999 has been prepared based on calciner run, solids storage facilities operating, and miscellaneous operational information, which gives the range of chemical compositions of calcine waste stored at INTEC. Information researched includes calciner startup data, waste solution analyses and volumes calcined, calciner operating schedules, solids storage bin capacities, calcine storage bin distributor systems, and solids storage bin design and temperature monitoring records. Unique information on calcine solids storage facilities design of potential interest to remote retrieval operators is given.

  2. Engineering of Deinococcus radiodurans R1 for Bioprecipitation of Uranium from Dilute Nuclear Waste▿

    PubMed Central

    Appukuttan, Deepti; Rao, Amara Sambasiva; Apte, Shree Kumar

    2006-01-01

    Genetic engineering of radiation-resistant organisms to recover radionuclides/heavy metals from radioactive wastes is an attractive proposition. We have constructed a Deinococcus radiodurans strain harboring phoN, a gene encoding a nonspecific acid phosphatase, obtained from a local isolate of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi. The recombinant strain expressed an ∼27-kDa active PhoN protein and efficiently precipitated over 90% of the uranium from a 0.8 mM uranyl nitrate solution in 6 h. The engineered strain retained uranium bioprecipitation ability even after exposure to 6 kGy of 60Co gamma rays. The PhoN-expressing D. radiodurans offers an effective and eco-friendly in situ approach to biorecovery of uranium from dilute nuclear waste. PMID:17056698

  3. USNRC's Nuclear Plant Analyzer: Engineering simulation capabilities into the 1990's

    SciTech Connect

    Laats, E.T.

    1987-01-01

    The Nuclear Plant Analyzer (NPA) is the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) state-of-the-art nuclear reactor simulation capability. This computer software package integrates high fidelity nuclear reactor simulation codes such as the TRAC and RELAP5 series of codes with color graphics display techniques and advanced workstation hardware. The NPA first became operational at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) in 1983. Since then, the NPA system has been used for a number of key reactor safety-related tasks ranging from plant operator guidelines evaluation to emergency preparedness training. The NPA system is seen by the NRC as their vehicle to maintain modern, state-of-the-art simulation capabilities for use into the 1990s. System advancements are envisioned in two areas: first, software improvements to existing and evolving plant simulation codes utilized by the NPA through the use of such techniques as parallel and vector processing and artificial intelligence expert systems, and second, advanced hardware implementations using combinations of super-, minisuper-, supermini-, and supermicrocomputer system and satellite data communications networks for high flexibilty and greatly increased NPA system performance. 23 refs., 2 figs.

  4. Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center Newly Generated Liquid Waste Demonstration Project Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect

    Herbst, A.K.

    2000-02-01

    A research, development, and demonstration project for the grouting of newly generated liquid waste (NGLW) at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center is considered feasible. NGLW is expected from process equipment waste, decontamination waste, analytical laboratory waste, fuel storage basin waste water, and high-level liquid waste evaporator condensate. The potential grouted waste would be classed as mixed low-level waste, stabilized and immobilized to meet RCRA LDR disposal in a grouting process in the CPP-604 facility, and then transported to the state.

  5. [Basic problems of staff training in medical engineering management at the N.E, Bauman Moscow State Engineering University].

    PubMed

    Zharov, V P; Kalinin, S A

    2000-01-01

    The topicality of staff training in medical engineering management in the sphere of medicine and medical engineering is dictated by that the substantiated and flexible strategy in purchasing foreign medical equipment and drugs and supporting purely Russian biomedical technologies must be one of the first steps of health public reforms in Russia. As early as 1992, the N. E. Bauman Moscow State Engineering University was the first that organize to train staff in business and management in biomedical engineering and health public. The accumulated experiment was put in the development of new curricula by the supplementary education system. Interdisciplinary training in medical engineering marketing and management was organized, thus providing both additional education for specialists having complete and incomplete higher education who received diplomas of a management bachelor or master and through training of students who got diplomas of an engineer and diplomas of a management bachelor at the international level.

  6. Nuclear EMP simulation for large-scale urban environments. FDTD for electrically large problems.

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, William S.; Bull, Jeffrey S.; Wilcox, Trevor; Bos, Randall J.; Shao, Xuan-Min; Goorley, John T.; Costigan, Keeley R.

    2012-08-13

    In case of a terrorist nuclear attack in a metropolitan area, EMP measurement could provide: (1) a prompt confirmation of the nature of the explosion (chemical or nuclear) for emergency response; and (2) and characterization parameters of the device (reaction history, yield) for technical forensics. However, urban environment could affect the fidelity of the prompt EMP measurement (as well as all other types of prompt measurement): (1) Nuclear EMP wavefront would no longer be coherent, due to incoherent production, attenuation, and propagation of gamma and electrons; and (2) EMP propagation from source region outward would undergo complicated transmission, reflection, and diffraction processes. EMP simulation for electrically-large urban environment: (1) Coupled MCNP/FDTD (Finite-difference time domain Maxwell solver) approach; and (2) FDTD tends to be limited to problems that are not 'too' large compared to the wavelengths of interest because of numerical dispersion and anisotropy. We use a higher-order low-dispersion, isotropic FDTD algorithm for EMP propagation.

  7. Physics and nuclear power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buttery, N. E.

    2008-03-01

    Nuclear power owes its origin to physicists. Fission was demonstrated by physicists and chemists and the first nuclear reactor project was led by physicists. However as nuclear power was harnessed to produce electricity the role of the engineer became stronger. Modern nuclear power reactors bring together the skills of physicists, chemists, chemical engineers, electrical engineers, mechanical engineers and civil engineers. The paper illustrates this by considering the Sizewell B project and the role played by physicists in this. This covers not only the roles in design and analysis but in problem solving during the commissioning of first of a kind plant. Looking forward to the challenges to provide sustainable and environmentally acceptable energy sources for the future illustrates the need for a continuing synergy between physics and engineering. This will be discussed in the context of the challenges posed by Generation IV reactors.

  8. Using powerful vibrators for calibration of seismic traces in nuclear explosion monitoring problems.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glinsky, B.; Kovalevsky, V.; Seleznev, V.; Emanov, A.; Soloviev, V.

    2009-04-01

    The efficiency of functioning of the International Seismic Monitoring System (ISMS) is connected with the accuracy of the location and identification of a source of seismic waves which can be nuclear explosion. The errors in the determination of the location are caused by local and regional variations of wave hodographs. Empirical approach to solving these problems is to use events for which the locations and times are known, in order to determine a set of corrections to the regional model of wave propagation. The using of powerful vibrators for calibration of seismic traces is a new way in nuclear explosion monitoring problems. Now the 60-100 tons force vibrator can radiate the signals which can be recorded at the distances up to 500 km and can be used for regional calibration of seismic traces. The comparison of the seismic wave fields of powerful vibrators and 100-ton chemical explosion "Omega-3" at the 630-km profile, quarry explosions of the Kuznetsk basin with power from 50 to 700 tons at the distances up to 355 km showed their equivalence in the main types of waves. The paper presents the results of experiments of long-distance recording of seismic signals of powerful vibrators and detailed investigation of the velocity characteristics of the Earth's crust in West Siberia and Altay-Sayan region.

  9. Using powerful vibrators for calibration of seismic traces in nuclear explosion monitoring problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glinsky, B.; Kovalevsky, V.; Seleznev, V.; Emanov, A.; Soloviev, V.

    2009-04-01

    The efficiency of functioning of the International Seismic Monitoring System (ISMS) is connected with the accuracy of the location and identification of a source of seismic waves which can be nuclear explosion. The errors in the determination of the location are caused by local and regional variations of wave hodographs. Empirical approach to solving these problems is to use events for which the locations and times are known, in order to determine a set of corrections to the regional model of wave propagation. The using of powerful vibrators for calibration of seismic traces is a new way in nuclear explosion monitoring problems. Now the 60-100 tons force vibrator can radiate the signals which can be recorded at the distances up to 500 km and can be used for regional calibration of seismic traces. The comparison of the seismic wave fields of powerful vibrators and 100-ton chemical explosion "Omega-3" at the 630-km profile, quarry explosions of the Kuznetsk basin with power from 50 to 700 tons at the distances up to 355 km showed their equivalence in the main types of waves. The paper presents the results of experiments of long-distance recording of seismic signals of powerful vibrators and detailed investigation of the velocity characteristics of the Earth's crust in West Siberia and Altay-Sayan region.

  10. Engineering-Based Problem Solving Strategies in AP Calculus: An Investigation into High School Student Performance on Related Rate Free-Response Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thieken, John

    2012-01-01

    A sample of 127 high school Advanced Placement (AP) Calculus students from two schools was utilized to study the effects of an engineering design-based problem solving strategy on student performance with AP style Related Rate questions and changes in conceptions, beliefs, and influences. The research design followed a treatment-control multiple…

  11. DAPI-fluorescent fading: a problem in microscopy or a way to measure nuclear DNA content?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallardo-Escárate, Cristian; Álvarez-Borrego, Josué; Kober, V.; del Río-Portilla, Miguel Á.

    2006-01-01

    In observation by confocal or conventional fluorescence microscopy, the retardation of the lost in fluorescence, from highest signal of fluorescence to lowest intensity are important factors in order to obtain accurate images. This problem is very common in fluorochromes for nuclear DNA and especially for DAPI stain. The fluorescence of DAPI is rapidly lost when it is exposure to excitation by ultra violet (UV) light, and especially under optimal condition of observation. Although the fading process could be retardate by using of mounting medium with antifading solutions, the photochemical process underlying the fluorescence decay has not yet been fully explained. In addiction, neither relationship has been tested between the fluorescence fading and nuclear DNA content. However, the capacity of the DNA to absorb UV light is knows. In order to test this relationship we measured by means of image analysis the fluorescence intensity in several nuclei types during a fading period. The analysis was performed by an algorithm specifically built in MATLAB software. The relationship between nuclear DNA content and DAPI-fluorescence fading was found equal to 99%. This study demonstrates the feasibility for estimates genome size by quantification of fluorescence fading. In this context, the present method allows to measure nuclear DNA content in several medical applications (cancer, HIV, organ transplants, etc). Nowadays, for measuring DNA content, flow cytometry is widely used; however, with the flow cytometry method it is not possible to select a specific group of cells, such as from a specific region of a tumor. Moreover, the using of image analysis allows automatizing diagnostics procedures.

  12. Nuclear three-body problem in the complex energy plane: Complex-scaling Slater method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruppa, A. T.; Papadimitriou, G.; Nazarewicz, W.; Michel, N.

    2014-01-01

    parameter of the Tikhonov regularization. Conclusions: The combined suite of CS-Slater and GSM techniques has many attractive features when applied to nuclear problems involving weakly bound and unbound states. While both methods can describe energies, total widths, and wave functions of nuclear states, the CS-Slater method—if it can be applied—can provide additional information about partial energy widths associated with individual thresholds.

  13. Problems and solutions in measurements of engineering objects by means of digital image correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malesa, Marcin; Kujawińska, Małgorzata

    2015-05-01

    In the paper we present different problems which may occur during measurements of displacements/strains and shape of engineering objects including the necessity of recalculating of coordinates of measurement results and performing measurements in climate chambers. The first example refers to metal plates segments that are objects of complex geometry and are di cult to be measured with a single 3D DIC setup from only one direction, the second one is a composite cylindrical container with programmed faults, while the third one is a mirror subjected to thermal load in a climate chamber. Presented applications shows a flexibility of the method in different measurements tasks, however in each of these cases, an individual approach to experiment preparation and planning was required.

  14. Overview of heat transfer and fluid flow problem areas encountered in Stirling engine modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tew, Roy C., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    NASA Lewis Research Center has been managing Stirling engine development programs for over a decade. In addition to contractual programs, this work has included in-house engine testing and development of engine computer models. Attempts to validate Stirling engine computer models with test data have demonstrated that engine thermodynamic losses need better characterization. Various Stirling engine thermodynamic losses and efforts that are underway to characterize these losses are discussed.

  15. Overview of heat transfer and fluid flow problem areas encountered in stirling engine modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Tew, R.C. Jr.

    1988-02-01

    NASA Lewis Research Center has been managing Stirling engine development programs for over a decade. In addition to contractual programs, this work has included in-house engine testing and development of engine computer models. Attempts to validate Stirling engine computer models with test data have demonstrated that engine thermodynamic losses need better characterization. Various Stirling engine thermodynamic losses and efforts that are underway to characterize these losses are discussed.

  16. Educating American youth on nuclear technology

    SciTech Connect

    Hechanova, T.E.

    1993-12-31

    A grave problem facing the American nuclear technology field is the non-education of American youth in nuclear sciences which produces an uneducated populace. This presentation addresses first hand efforts of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology`s ANS Student Branch at educating mainly high school students in nuclear science, and recruiting college students into the Nuclear Engineering Department.

  17. Spent nuclear fuel project, Cold Vacuum Drying Facility human factors engineering (HFE) analysis: Results and findings

    SciTech Connect

    Garvin, L.J.

    1998-07-17

    This report presents the background, methodology, and findings of a human factors engineering (HFE) analysis performed in May, 1998, of the Spent Nuclear Fuels (SNF) Project Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF), to support its Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSAR), in responding to the requirements of Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5480.23 (DOE 1992a) and drafted to DOE-STD-3009-94 format. This HFE analysis focused on general environment, physical and computer workstations, and handling devices involved in or directly supporting the technical operations of the facility. This report makes no attempt to interpret or evaluate the safety significance of the HFE analysis findings. The HFE findings presented in this report, along with the results of the CVDF PSAR Chapter 3, Hazards and Accident Analyses, provide the technical basis for preparing the CVDF PSAR Chapter 13, Human Factors Engineering, including interpretation and disposition of findings. The findings presented in this report allow the PSAR Chapter 13 to fully respond to HFE requirements established in DOE Order 5480.23. DOE 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports, Section 8b(3)(n) and Attachment 1, Section-M, require that HFE be analyzed in the PSAR for the adequacy of the current design and planned construction for internal and external communications, operational aids, instrumentation and controls, environmental factors such as heat, light, and noise and that an assessment of human performance under abnormal and emergency conditions be performed (DOE 1992a).

  18. An improved heat transfer configuration for a solid-core nuclear thermal rocket engine

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, J.S.; Walton, J.T.; Mcguire, M.L. Cincinnati, University, OH )

    1992-07-01

    Interrupted flow, impingement cooling, and axial power distribution are employed to enhance the heat-transfer configuration of a solid-core nuclear thermal rocket engine. Impingement cooling is introduced to increase the local heat-transfer coefficients between the reactor material and the coolants. Increased fuel loading is used at the inlet end of the reactor to enhance heat-transfer capability where the temperature differences are the greatest. A thermal-hydraulics computer program for an unfueled NERVA reactor core is employed to analyze the proposed configuration with attention given to uniform fuel loading, number of channels through the impingement wafers, fuel-element length, mass-flow rate, and wafer gap. The impingement wafer concept (IWC) is shown to have heat-transfer characteristics that are better than those of the NERVA-derived reactor at 2500 K. The IWC concept is argued to be an effective heat-transfer configuration for solid-core nuclear thermal rocket engines. 11 refs.

  19. GPU Based General-Purpose Parallel computing to Solve Nuclear Reactor In-Core fuel Management Design and Operation Problem

    SciTech Connect

    Prayudhatama, D.; Waris, A.; Kurniasih, N.; Kurniadi, R.

    2010-06-22

    In-core fuel management study is a crucial activity in nuclear power plant design and operation. Its common problem is to find an optimum arrangement of fuel assemblies inside the reactor core. Main objective for this activity is to reduce the cost of generating electricity, which can be done by altering several physical properties of the nuclear reactor without violating any of the constraints imposed by operational and safety considerations. This research try to address the problem of nuclear fuel arrangement problem, which is, leads to the multi-objective optimization problem. However, the calculation of the reactor core physical properties itself is a heavy computation, which became obstacle in solving the optimization problem by using genetic algorithm optimization.This research tends to address that problem by using the emerging General Purpose Computation on Graphics Processing Units (GPGPU) techniques implemented by C language for CUDA (Compute Unified Device Architecture) parallel programming. By using this parallel programming technique, we develop parallelized nuclear reactor fitness calculation, which is involving numerical finite difference computation. This paper describes current prototype of the parallel algorithm code we have developed on CUDA, that performs one hundreds finite difference calculation for nuclear reactor fitness evaluation in parallel by using GPU G9 Hardware Series developed by NVIDIA.

  20. Design and Development of the MITEE-B Bi-Modal Nuclear Propulsion Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paniagua, John C.; Powell, James R.; Maise, George

    2003-01-01

    Previous studies of compact, ultra-lightweight high performance nuclear thermal propulsion engines have concentrated on systems that only deliver high thrust. However, many potential missions also require substantial amounts of electric power. Studies of a new, very compact and lightweight bi-modal nuclear engine that provides both high propulsive thrust and high electric power for planetary science missions are described. The design is a modification of the MITEE nuclear thermal engine concept that provided only high propulsive thrust. In the new design, MITEE-B, separate closed cooling circuits are incorporated into the reactor, which transfers useful amounts of thermal energy to a small power conversion system that generates continuous electric power over the full life of the mission, even when the engine is not delivering propulsive thrust. Two versions of the MITEE-B design are described and analyzed. Version 1 generates 1 kW(e) of continuous power for control of the spacecraft, sensors, data transmission, etc. This power level eliminates the need for RTG's on missions to the outer planets, and allowing considerably greater operational capability for the spacecraft. This, plus its high thrust and high specific impulse propulsive capabilities, makes MITEE-B very attractive for such missions. In Version 2, of MITEE-B, a total of 20 kW(e) is generated, enabling the use of electric propulsion. The combination of high open cycle propulsion thrust (20,000 Newtons) with a specific impulse of ~1000 seconds for short impulse burns, and long term (months to years), electric propulsion greatly increases MITEE's ΔV capability. Version 2 of MITEE-B also enables the production and replenishment of H2 propellant using in-situ resources, such as electrolysis of water from the ice sheet on Europa and other Jovian moons. This capability would greatly increase the ΔV available for certain planetary science missions. The modifications to the MITEE multiple pressure tube

  1. Core gas dynamics and heat transfer analyses of the COMET nuclear thermal rocket engine

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, R.L.; Bennett, R.G. )

    1992-01-01

    There has been a renewed interest in nuclear space propulsion for both the Space Exploration Initiative and military missions. The conical multiple element thruster (COMET) nuclear-thermal rocket engine discussed in this paper is one of several designs that have been proposed as an alternative to the pellet-bed reactor, which the US Air Force has been developing for various military space missions. COMET was designed to have a thrust of 75,000 lb[sub f] and a specific impulse of 900 to 1000 s. The nuclear reactor subsystem consists of 37 fuel assemblies. The core geometry is conical, as is the shape of each individual assembly. A typical fuel assembly, consists of a conical hot flow channel surrounded by a conical fueled region. The fuel region contains [approx] 500 conical fuel wafers, which are each 0.5 mm thick. Each wafer is separated from the adjacent wafers by a 0.1-mm coolant channel, resulting in a fueled region porosity of 20%. Surrounding the fuel region is an annular inlet flow channel. The hydrogen propellant enters the inlet flow channel at the upper end of the fuel assembly at a temperature of [approx] 300 K. As the hydrogen flows down the inlet channel, it is diverted into the narrow fuel coolant channels and heated to [approx] 3150 K as it exits the fuel. The work reported here involved modeling the flow through the conical coolant channels and the hot flow duct of COMET fuel assemblies.

  2. Highly sensitive detection of protein biomarkers via nuclear magnetic resonance biosensor with magnetically engineered nanoferrite particles

    PubMed Central

    Jeun, Minhong; Park, Sungwook; Lee, Hakho; Lee, Kwan Hyi

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic-based biosensors are attractive for on-site detection of biomarkers due to the low magnetic susceptibility of biological samples. Here, we report a highly sensitive magnetic-based biosensing system that is composed of a miniaturized nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) device and magnetically engineered nanoferrite particles (NFPs). The sensing performance, also identified as the transverse relaxation (R2) rate, of the NMR device is directly related to the magnetic properties of the NFPs. Therefore, we developed magnetically engineered NFPs (MnMg-NFP) and used them as NMR agents to exhibit a significantly improved R2 rate. The magnetization of the MnMg-NFPs was increased by controlling the Mn and Mg cation concentration and distribution during the synthesis process. This modification of the Mn and Mg cation directly contributed to improving the R2 rate. The miniaturized NMR system, combined with the magnetically engineered MnMg-NFPs, successfully detected a small amount of infectious influenza A H1N1 nucleoprotein with high sensitivity and stability. PMID:27799772

  3. Multiphysics Computational Analysis of a Solid-Core Nuclear Thermal Engine Thrust Chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Ten-See; Canabal, Francisco; Cheng, Gary; Chen, Yen-Sen

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this effort is to develop an efficient and accurate computational heat transfer methodology to predict thermal, fluid, and hydrogen environments for a hypothetical solid-core, nuclear thermal engine - the Small Engine. In addition, the effects of power profile and hydrogen conversion on heat transfer efficiency and thrust performance were also investigated. The computational methodology is based on an unstructured-grid, pressure-based, all speeds, chemically reacting, computational fluid dynamics platform, while formulations of conjugate heat transfer were implemented to describe the heat transfer from solid to hydrogen inside the solid-core reactor. The computational domain covers the entire thrust chamber so that the afore-mentioned heat transfer effects impact the thrust performance directly. The result shows that the computed core-exit gas temperature, specific impulse, and core pressure drop agree well with those of design data for the Small Engine. Finite-rate chemistry is very important in predicting the proper energy balance as naturally occurring hydrogen decomposition is endothermic. Locally strong hydrogen conversion associated with centralized power profile gives poor heat transfer efficiency and lower thrust performance. On the other hand, uniform hydrogen conversion associated with a more uniform radial power profile achieves higher heat transfer efficiency, and higher thrust performance.

  4. High-resolution coupled physics solvers for analysing fine-scale nuclear reactor design problems

    PubMed Central

    Mahadevan, Vijay S.; Merzari, Elia; Tautges, Timothy; Jain, Rajeev; Obabko, Aleksandr; Smith, Michael; Fischer, Paul

    2014-01-01

    An integrated multi-physics simulation capability for the design and analysis of current and future nuclear reactor models is being investigated, to tightly couple neutron transport and thermal-hydraulics physics under the SHARP framework. Over several years, high-fidelity, validated mono-physics solvers with proven scalability on petascale architectures have been developed independently. Based on a unified component-based architecture, these existing codes can be coupled with a mesh-data backplane and a flexible coupling-strategy-based driver suite to produce a viable tool for analysts. The goal of the SHARP framework is to perform fully resolved coupled physics analysis of a reactor on heterogeneous geometry, in order to reduce the overall numerical uncertainty while leveraging available computational resources. The coupling methodology and software interfaces of the framework are presented, along with verification studies on two representative fast sodium-cooled reactor demonstration problems to prove the usability of the SHARP framework. PMID:24982250

  5. High-resolution coupled physics solvers for analysing fine-scale nuclear reactor design problems.

    PubMed

    Mahadevan, Vijay S; Merzari, Elia; Tautges, Timothy; Jain, Rajeev; Obabko, Aleksandr; Smith, Michael; Fischer, Paul

    2014-08-01

    An integrated multi-physics simulation capability for the design and analysis of current and future nuclear reactor models is being investigated, to tightly couple neutron transport and thermal-hydraulics physics under the SHARP framework. Over several years, high-fidelity, validated mono-physics solvers with proven scalability on petascale architectures have been developed independently. Based on a unified component-based architecture, these existing codes can be coupled with a mesh-data backplane and a flexible coupling-strategy-based driver suite to produce a viable tool for analysts. The goal of the SHARP framework is to perform fully resolved coupled physics analysis of a reactor on heterogeneous geometry, in order to reduce the overall numerical uncertainty while leveraging available computational resources. The coupling methodology and software interfaces of the framework are presented, along with verification studies on two representative fast sodium-cooled reactor demonstration problems to prove the usability of the SHARP framework. PMID:24982250

  6. High-resolution coupled physics solvers for analysing fine-scale nuclear reactor design problems.

    PubMed

    Mahadevan, Vijay S; Merzari, Elia; Tautges, Timothy; Jain, Rajeev; Obabko, Aleksandr; Smith, Michael; Fischer, Paul

    2014-08-01

    An integrated multi-physics simulation capability for the design and analysis of current and future nuclear reactor models is being investigated, to tightly couple neutron transport and thermal-hydraulics physics under the SHARP framework. Over several years, high-fidelity, validated mono-physics solvers with proven scalability on petascale architectures have been developed independently. Based on a unified component-based architecture, these existing codes can be coupled with a mesh-data backplane and a flexible coupling-strategy-based driver suite to produce a viable tool for analysts. The goal of the SHARP framework is to perform fully resolved coupled physics analysis of a reactor on heterogeneous geometry, in order to reduce the overall numerical uncertainty while leveraging available computational resources. The coupling methodology and software interfaces of the framework are presented, along with verification studies on two representative fast sodium-cooled reactor demonstration problems to prove the usability of the SHARP framework.

  7. NASTRAN thermal analyzer: Theory and application including a guide to modeling engineering problems, volume 2. [sample problem library guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, C. E., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    A sample problem library containing 20 problems covering most facets of Nastran Thermal Analyzer modeling is presented. Areas discussed include radiative interchange, arbitrary nonlinear loads, transient temperature and steady-state structural plots, temperature-dependent conductivities, simulated multi-layer insulation, and constraint techniques. The use of the major control options and important DMAP alters is demonstrated.

  8. Application of Effective Field Theories to Problems in Nuclear and Hadronic Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mereghetti, Emanuele

    The Effective Field Theory formalism is applied to the study of problems in hadronic and nuclear physics. We develop a framework to study the exclusive two-body decays of bottomonium into two charmed mesons and apply it to study the decays of the C-even bottomonia. Using a sequence of effective field theories, we take advantage of the separation between the scales contributing to the decay processes, 2mb >> mc >> ΛQCD. We prove that, at leading order in the EFT power counting, the decay rate factorizes into the convolution of two perturbative matching coefficients and three non-perturbative matrix elements, one for each hadron. We calculate the relations between the decay rate and non-perturbative bottomonium and D-meson matrix elements at leading order, with next-to-leading log resummation. The phenomenological implications of these relations are discussed. At lower energies, we use Chiral Perturbation Theory and nuclear EFTs to set up a framework for the study of time reversal (T) symmetry in one- and few-nucleon problems. We consider T violation from the QCD theta term and from all the possible dimension 6 operators, expressed in terms of light quarks, gluons and photons, that can be added to the Standard Model Lagrangian. We construct the low energy chiral Lagrangian stemming from different TV sources, and derive the implications for the nucleon Electric Dipole Form Factor and the deuteron T violating electromagnetic Form Factors. Finally, with an eye to applications to nuclei with A ≥ 2, we construct the T violating nucleon-nucleon potential from different sources of T violation.

  9. The cosmological {sup 7}Li problem from a nuclear physics perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Broggini, C.; Canton, L.; Fiorentini, G.; Villante, F.L. E-mail: luciano.canton@pd.infn.it E-mail: francesco.villante@lngs.infn.it

    2012-06-01

    The primordial abundance of {sup 7}Li as predicted by Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN) is more than a factor 2 larger than what has been observed in metal-poor halo stars. Herein, we analyze the possibility that this discrepancy originates from incorrect assumptions about the nuclear reaction cross sections relevant for BBN. To do this, we introduce an efficient method to calculate the changes in the {sup 7}Li abundance produced by arbitrary (temperature dependent) modifications of the nuclear reaction rates. Then, considering that {sup 7}Li is mainly produced from {sup 7}Be via the electron capture process {sup 7}Be+e{sup −} → {sup 7}Li+ν{sub e}, we assess the impact of the various channels of {sup 7}Be destruction. Differently from previous analysis, we consider the role of unknown resonances by using a complete formalism which takes into account the effect of Coulomb and centrifugal barrier penetration and that does not rely on the use of the narrow-resonance approximation. As a result of this, the possibility of a nuclear physics solution to the {sup 7}Li problem is significantly suppressed. Given the present experimental and theoretical constraints, it is unlikely that the {sup 7}Be+n destruction rate is underestimated by the 2.5 factor required to solve the problem. We exclude, moreover, that resonant destruction in the channels {sup 7}Be+t and {sup 7}Be+{sup 3}He can explain the {sup 7}Li puzzle. New unknown resonances in {sup 7}Be+d and {sup 7}Be+α could potentially produce significant effects. Recent experimental results have ruled out such a possibility for {sup 7}Be+d. On the other hand, for the {sup 7}Be+α channel very favorable conditions are required. The possible existence of a partially suitable resonant level in {sup 11}C is studied in the framework of a coupled-channel model and the possibility of a direct measurement is considered.

  10. Environmental problems associated with decommissioning the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Cooling Pond.

    PubMed

    Oskolkov, B Ya; Bondarkov, M D; Gaschak, S P; Maksymenko, A M; Maksymenko, V M; Martynenko, V I; Farfán, E B; Jannik, G T; Marra, J C

    2010-11-01

    Decommissioning of nuclear power plants and other nuclear fuel cycle facilities associated with residual radioactive contamination of their territories is an imperative issue. Significant problems may result from decommissioning of cooling ponds with residual radioactive contamination. The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) Cooling Pond is one of the largest self-contained water reservoirs in the Chernobyl region and Ukrainian and Belorussian Polesye region. The 1986 ChNPP Reactor Unit Number Four significantly contaminated the ChNPP Cooling Pond. The total radionuclide inventory in the ChNPP Cooling Pond bottom deposits are as follows: ¹³⁷Cs: 16.28 ± 2.59 TBq; ⁹⁰Sr: 2.4 ± 0.48 TBq; and ²³⁹+²⁴⁰Pu: 0.00518 ± 0.00148 TBq. The ChNPP Cooling Pond is inhabited by over 500 algae species and subspecies, over 200 invertebrate species, and 36 fish species. The total mass of the living organisms in the ChNPP Cooling Pond is estimated to range from about 60,000 to 100,000 tons. The territory adjacent to the ChNPP Cooling Pond attracts many birds and mammals (178 bird species and 47 mammal species were recorded in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone). This article describes several options for the ChNPP Cooling Pond decommissioning and environmental problems associated with its decommissioning. The article also provides assessments of the existing and potential exposure doses for the shoreline biota. For the 2008 conditions, the estimated total dose rate values were 11.4 40 μGy h⁻¹ for amphibians, 6.3 μGy h⁻¹ for birds, 15.1 μGy h⁻¹ for mammals, and 10.3 μGy h⁻¹ for reptiles, with the recommended maximum dose rate being equal to 40 μGy h⁻¹. However, drying the ChNPP Cooling Pond may increase the exposure doses to 94.5 μGy h⁻¹ for amphibians, 95.2 μGy h⁻¹ for birds, 284.0 μGy h⁻¹ for mammals, and 847.0 μGy h⁻¹ for reptiles. All of these anticipated dose rates exceed the recommended values.

  11. Environmental problems associated with decommissioning the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Cooling Pond.

    PubMed

    Oskolkov, B Ya; Bondarkov, M D; Gaschak, S P; Maksymenko, A M; Maksymenko, V M; Martynenko, V I; Farfán, E B; Jannik, G T; Marra, J C

    2010-11-01

    Decommissioning of nuclear power plants and other nuclear fuel cycle facilities associated with residual radioactive contamination of their territories is an imperative issue. Significant problems may result from decommissioning of cooling ponds with residual radioactive contamination. The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) Cooling Pond is one of the largest self-contained water reservoirs in the Chernobyl region and Ukrainian and Belorussian Polesye region. The 1986 ChNPP Reactor Unit Number Four significantly contaminated the ChNPP Cooling Pond. The total radionuclide inventory in the ChNPP Cooling Pond bottom deposits are as follows: ¹³⁷Cs: 16.28 ± 2.59 TBq; ⁹⁰Sr: 2.4 ± 0.48 TBq; and ²³⁹+²⁴⁰Pu: 0.00518 ± 0.00148 TBq. The ChNPP Cooling Pond is inhabited by over 500 algae species and subspecies, over 200 invertebrate species, and 36 fish species. The total mass of the living organisms in the ChNPP Cooling Pond is estimated to range from about 60,000 to 100,000 tons. The territory adjacent to the ChNPP Cooling Pond attracts many birds and mammals (178 bird species and 47 mammal species were recorded in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone). This article describes several options for the ChNPP Cooling Pond decommissioning and environmental problems associated with its decommissioning. The article also provides assessments of the existing and potential exposure doses for the shoreline biota. For the 2008 conditions, the estimated total dose rate values were 11.4 40 μGy h⁻¹ for amphibians, 6.3 μGy h⁻¹ for birds, 15.1 μGy h⁻¹ for mammals, and 10.3 μGy h⁻¹ for reptiles, with the recommended maximum dose rate being equal to 40 μGy h⁻¹. However, drying the ChNPP Cooling Pond may increase the exposure doses to 94.5 μGy h⁻¹ for amphibians, 95.2 μGy h⁻¹ for birds, 284.0 μGy h⁻¹ for mammals, and 847.0 μGy h⁻¹ for reptiles. All of these anticipated dose rates exceed the recommended values. PMID:20938234

  12. MHTGR-Nuclear Island Engineering: Final summary report for the period November 30, 1987 through December 1, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    1988-12-01

    This report summarizes the Modular High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (MHTGR) - Nuclear Island Engineering (NIE) design and development work performed by General Atomics (GA) for the period November 30, 1987 through December 1, 1988, under the Department of Energy (DOE) Contract AC03-88SF17367. The scope of the report includes work performed by Bechtel National Inc. (BNI), Combustion Engineering Inc. (C-E), and James Howden Company, as major subcontractors to GA.

  13. Matching Grant to Support Nuclear Engineering Education at Georgia Tech, September 1, 1999 - September 30, 2001

    SciTech Connect

    Valentine, John

    2002-05-10

    During the 2001 Fiscal year, funds from the DOE Matching Grant Program, along with matching funds from the industrial sponsors have been used to support both research (in the area of thermal-hydraulics) and educational missions. Experimental research has been performed in the area of axial offset anomaly in pressurized water reactors. Numerical research has also been performed in the area of multi-fluid modeling of two-phase flow. Details of activities in these two areas are given below. As for the educational component, funds were used to support the Georgia Tech Nuclear and Radiological Engineering (NRE) Scholarship Program. This Scholarship Program has allowed Georgia Tech to substantially increase the freshman class size and to populate it with outstanding students.

  14. Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) Sodium Bearing Waste - Waste Incidental to Reprocessing Determination

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, Victor Levon

    2002-08-01

    U.S. Department of Energy Manual 435.1-1, Radioactive Waste Management, Section I.1.C, requires that all radioactive waste subject to Department of Energy Order 435.1 be managed as high-level radioactive waste, transuranic waste, or low-level radioactive waste. Determining the radiological classification of the sodium-bearing waste currently in the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center Tank Farm Facility inventory is important to its proper treatment and disposition. This report presents the technical basis for making the determination that the sodium-bearing waste is waste incidental to spent fuel reprocessing and should be managed as mixed transuranic waste. This report focuses on the radiological characteristics of the sodiumbearing waste. The report does not address characterization of the nonradiological, hazardous constituents of the waste in accordance with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act requirements.

  15. Multiphysics Analysis of a Solid-Core Nuclear Thermal Engine Thrust Chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Ten-See; Canabal, Francisco; Cheng, Gary; Chen, Yen-Sen

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this effort is to develop an efficient and accurate thermo-fluid computational methodology to predict environments for a hypothetical solid-core, nuclear thermal engine thrust chamber. The computational methodology is based on an unstructured-grid, pressure-based computational fluid dynamics methodology. Formulations for heat transfer in solids and porous media were implemented and anchored. A two-pronged approach was employed in this effort: A detailed thermo-fluid analysis on a multi-channel flow element for mid-section corrosion investigation; and a global modeling of the thrust chamber to understand the effect of hydrogen dissociation and recombination on heat transfer and thrust performance. The formulations and preliminary results on both aspects are presented.

  16. The problem of carrying out a diagnosis of an internal combustion engine by vibroacoustical parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lukanin, V. N.; Sidorov, V. I.

    1973-01-01

    The physics of noise formation in an internal combustion engine is discussed. A dependence of the acoustical radiation on the engine operating process, its construction, and operational parameters, as well as on the degree of wear on its parts, has been established. An example of tests conducted on an internal combustion engine is provided. A system for cybernetic diagnostics for internal combustion engines by vibroacoustical parameters is diagrammed.

  17. A Module to Foster Engineering Creativity: An Interpolative Design Problem and an Extrapolative Research Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forbes, Neil S.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes a teaching module designed to enhance engineering creativity in an introductory chemical engineering course. The module includes an exercise to design column packing material, and an open-ended research project to describe the societal impact of chemical engineering. These assignments were created to illustrate the benefit…

  18. Problems Associated with a Lack of Cohesive Policy in K-12 Pre-College Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandler, John; Fontenot, A. Dean; Tate, Derrick

    2011-01-01

    This article identifies a number of issues associated with current STEM education reform efforts, especially with regard to efforts to integrate engineering education into the K-12 curriculum. Precollege engineering is especially problematic in STEM reform since there is no well-established tradition of engineering in the K-12 curriculum. This…

  19. Cross-disciplinary problem-solving workshop: a pedagogical approach to anticipate ergonomist engineering design collaboration.

    PubMed

    Brunier, Elisabeth; Le Chapellier, Michel; Dejean, Pierre Henri

    2012-01-01

    The aims of this paper are to present concept and results of an innovative educational model approach based on ergonomics involvement in industrial project. First we present Cross disciplinary Problem solving Workshop by answering three questions:1) What is a CPW: A partnership between Universities and one or several companies, purposes of it are first to increase health, well being, companies teams competencies, and competitiveness, second to train the "IPOD generation" to include risks prevention in design. 2) How does it work? CPW allows cooperation between experience and new insight through inductive methods. This model follows the Piaget (1) philosophy linking concrete world to abstraction by a learning system associating realization and abstraction. 3) Is it successful? In order to answer this third question we will show examples of studies and models performed during CPWs.It appears that the CPWs produce visible results in companies such as new process designs, new methods, and also changes in lectures. However some less visible results remain unclear: How the company personnel evolve during and after CPW? Does CPW motivate our future engineers enough to continuously improve their skills in risk prevention and innovative design? PMID:22317281

  20. Vibration Sources For Geophysical Monitoring of A Medium and Solving of Engineering-geophysical Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seleznev, V. S.; Emanov, A. F.; Soloviev, V. M.; Kashun, V. N.; Salnikov, A. S.

    Various vibration sources (powerful stationary, movable and portable) have been de- veloped and are recently used in the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences. These vibrators provide the seismic wave excitation with high stability of radiation. The module design of vibrosources includes the following main elements: the power chamber with a set of centrifugal debalances, the radiating platform and the load, and permits easy to move vibrosources at any necessary distances. The fre- quency of sounding signals varies from a few to 100 Hz. The radiation force changes from 50 kg to 100 tons. The both parameters depend on design of vibrosources. As a result of experimental and methodical studies, carried out in different regions of the Siberia, the monochromatic signals from powerful vibrosources have been recorded in distances to 1500 km, and the high-quality vibroseismic records have been obtained at distances to 350 km. The conducted experimental researches with vibrosources of various design operating in different modes of radiation (sweep and monochromatic signal) at different frequency ranges evidently show an efficiency of application of the powerful stationary, movable and portable vibrosources to vibroseismic studying of earthquake focal zones in seismically active regions, studying the variations of stress- strain condition of a medium, studying of a deep structure as well as at solution of a number of engineering and applied problems, such as: increase of oilfield recovery, detail seismic zoning of territory, investigation of earthquake resistance of buildings and structures.

  1. Cross-disciplinary problem-solving workshop: a pedagogical approach to anticipate ergonomist engineering design collaboration.

    PubMed

    Brunier, Elisabeth; Le Chapellier, Michel; Dejean, Pierre Henri

    2012-01-01

    The aims of this paper are to present concept and results of an innovative educational model approach based on ergonomics involvement in industrial project. First we present Cross disciplinary Problem solving Workshop by answering three questions:1) What is a CPW: A partnership between Universities and one or several companies, purposes of it are first to increase health, well being, companies teams competencies, and competitiveness, second to train the "IPOD generation" to include risks prevention in design. 2) How does it work? CPW allows cooperation between experience and new insight through inductive methods. This model follows the Piaget (1) philosophy linking concrete world to abstraction by a learning system associating realization and abstraction. 3) Is it successful? In order to answer this third question we will show examples of studies and models performed during CPWs.It appears that the CPWs produce visible results in companies such as new process designs, new methods, and also changes in lectures. However some less visible results remain unclear: How the company personnel evolve during and after CPW? Does CPW motivate our future engineers enough to continuously improve their skills in risk prevention and innovative design?

  2. Coherent lidar solution for the HSCT supersonic engine inlet unstart problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogue, Rodney K.; Bagley, Harold R.; Soreide, David C.; Bowdle, David A.

    1995-06-01

    Atmospheric turbulence environments can adversely affect the operation of both commercial and military supersonic aircraft. Future aircraft designs, such as the High Speed Civil Transport will aim to alleviate the effects of supersonic engine inlet unstart. Fluctuations in air temperature, longitudinal and transverse velocity all can trigger inlet unstarts. With fore- knowledge of the turbulence, a feed-forward control system can be used to re-configure the propulsion systems to avoid unstarts. The same technology can be used to counteract gust effects to improve ride quality and reduce gust loads. A coherent lidar sensor is being developed to demonstrate that the atmospheric turbulence can be measured with sufficient reliability, fidelity, and pre-encounter time for these feed-forward control solutions. The NASA Airborne Coherent Lidar for Advanced In-flight Measurements (ACLAIM) program will develop and flight test a sensor on NASA research aircraft, including the SR-71, and investigate the atmospheric environment to establish the feasibility of a lidar sensor. The paper will present an overview of the ACLAIM program including: the scope and content of the program, lidar measurement challenges, atmospheric environment, technology choices, and anticipated problem areas.

  3. Effect of buoyancy on fuel containment in an open-cycle gas-core nuclear rocket engine.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Putre, H. A.

    1971-01-01

    Analysis aimed at determining the scaling laws for the buoyancy effect on fuel containment in an open-cycle gas-core nuclear rocket engine, so conducted that experimental conditions can be related to engine conditions. The fuel volume fraction in a short coaxial flow cavity is calculated with a programmed numerical solution of the steady Navier-Stokes equations for isothermal, variable density fluid mixing. A dimensionless parameter B, called the Buoyancy number, was found to correlate the fuel volume fraction for large accelerations and various density ratios. This parameter has the value B = 0 for zero acceleration, and B = 350 for typical engine conditions.

  4. Delivering Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes to the Nucleus Using Engineered Nuclear Protein Domains.

    PubMed

    Boyer, Patrick D; Ganesh, Sairaam; Qin, Zhao; Holt, Brian D; Buehler, Markus J; Islam, Mohammad F; Dahl, Kris Noel

    2016-02-10

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) have great potential for cell-based therapies due to their unique intrinsic optical and physical characteristics. Consequently, broad classes of dispersants have been identified that individually suspend SWCNTs in water and cell media in addition to reducing nanotube toxicity to cells. Unambiguous control and verification of the localization and distribution of SWCNTs within cells, particularly to the nucleus, is needed to advance subcellular technologies utilizing nanotubes. Here we report delivery of SWCNTs to the nucleus by noncovalently attaching the tail domain of the nuclear protein lamin B1 (LB1), which we engineer from the full-length LMNB1 cDNA. More than half of this low molecular weight globular protein is intrinsically disordered but has an immunoglobulin-fold composed of a central hydrophobic core, which is highly suitable for associating with SWCNTs, stably suspending SWCNTs in water and cell media. In addition, LB1 has an exposed nuclear localization sequence to promote active nuclear import of SWCNTs. These SWCNTs-LB1 dispersions in water and cell media display near-infrared (NIR) absorption spectra with sharp van Hove peaks and an NIR fluorescence spectra, suggesting that LB1 individually disperses nanotubes. The dispersing capability of SWCNTs by LB1 is similar to that by albumin proteins. The SWCNTs-LB1 dispersions with concentrations ≥150 μg/mL (≥30 μg/mL) in water (cell media) remain stable for ≥75 days (≥3 days) at 4 °C (37 °C). Further, molecular dynamics modeling of association of LB1 with SWCNTs reveal that the exposure of the nuclear localization sequence is independent of LB1 binding conformation. Measurements from confocal Raman spectroscopy and microscopy, NIR fluorescence imaging of SWCNTs, and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy show that millions of these SWCNTs-LB1 complexes enter HeLa cells, localize to the nucleus of cells, and interact with DNA. We postulate that the

  5. Delivering Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes to the Nucleus Using Engineered Nuclear Protein Domains.

    PubMed

    Boyer, Patrick D; Ganesh, Sairaam; Qin, Zhao; Holt, Brian D; Buehler, Markus J; Islam, Mohammad F; Dahl, Kris Noel

    2016-02-10

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) have great potential for cell-based therapies due to their unique intrinsic optical and physical characteristics. Consequently, broad classes of dispersants have been identified that individually suspend SWCNTs in water and cell media in addition to reducing nanotube toxicity to cells. Unambiguous control and verification of the localization and distribution of SWCNTs within cells, particularly to the nucleus, is needed to advance subcellular technologies utilizing nanotubes. Here we report delivery of SWCNTs to the nucleus by noncovalently attaching the tail domain of the nuclear protein lamin B1 (LB1), which we engineer from the full-length LMNB1 cDNA. More than half of this low molecular weight globular protein is intrinsically disordered but has an immunoglobulin-fold composed of a central hydrophobic core, which is highly suitable for associating with SWCNTs, stably suspending SWCNTs in water and cell media. In addition, LB1 has an exposed nuclear localization sequence to promote active nuclear import of SWCNTs. These SWCNTs-LB1 dispersions in water and cell media display near-infrared (NIR) absorption spectra with sharp van Hove peaks and an NIR fluorescence spectra, suggesting that LB1 individually disperses nanotubes. The dispersing capability of SWCNTs by LB1 is similar to that by albumin proteins. The SWCNTs-LB1 dispersions with concentrations ≥150 μg/mL (≥30 μg/mL) in water (cell media) remain stable for ≥75 days (≥3 days) at 4 °C (37 °C). Further, molecular dynamics modeling of association of LB1 with SWCNTs reveal that the exposure of the nuclear localization sequence is independent of LB1 binding conformation. Measurements from confocal Raman spectroscopy and microscopy, NIR fluorescence imaging of SWCNTs, and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy show that millions of these SWCNTs-LB1 complexes enter HeLa cells, localize to the nucleus of cells, and interact with DNA. We postulate that the

  6. Can Engineering Education in South Africa Afford to Avoid Problem-Based Learning as a Didactic Approach?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veldman, F. J.; De Wet, M. A.; Mokhele, N. E. Ike; Bouwer, Willem Adriaan Johannes

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the authors support problem-based learning (PBL) based on its high level of alignment in addition to providing learners in engineering with an additional opportunity in learning process competencies, as contained within the South African National Critical Cross-field and Developmental Outcomes (COs). Constructive alignment…

  7. Problem-Based and Project-Based Learning in Engineering and Medicine: Determinants of Students' Engagement and Persistence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bédard, Denis; Lison, Christelle; Dalle, Daniel; Côté, Daniel; Boutin, Noël

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents results of a study conducted with undergraduate students involved in either problem- or project-based curricula (Medicine and Engineering, respectively) at the Université de Sherbrooke, Canada. The objective of the present research was to measure the impact of these innovative curricula on students' engagement and persistence…

  8. The Effects of a Collaborative Problem-Based Learning Experience on Students' Motivation in Engineering Capstone Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Brett D.; Epler, Cory M.; Mokri, Parastou; Bryant, Lauren H.; Paretti, Marie C.

    2013-01-01

    We identified and examined how the instructional elements of problem-based learning capstone engineering courses affected students' motivation to engage in the courses. We employed a two-phase, sequential, explanatory, mixed methods research design. For the quantitative phase, 47 undergraduate students at a large public university completed a…

  9. Problem-Oriented and Project-Based Learning (POPBL) as an Innovative Learning Strategy for Sustainable Development in Engineering Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehmann, M.; Christensen, P.; Du, X.; Thrane, M.

    2008-01-01

    In a world where systems are increasingly larger, where their boundaries are often difficult to identify, and where societal rather than technical issues play increasingly bigger roles, problems cannot be solved by applying a technical solution alone. It thus becomes important for engineers to be skilled not only in terms of their particular…

  10. Identifying Opportunities for Collaborations in International Engineering Education Research on Problem-and Project-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beddoes, Kacey D.; Jesiek, Brent K.; Borrego, Maura

    2010-01-01

    We report on the results of a study to examine the global state of engineering education research on problem-and project-based learning (PBL). This paper has two major aims. First, we analyze a large collection of conference papers and journal articles to report on research trends in PBL, including in specific, leading countries. Second, based…

  11. The Impact of Problem-Based Learning on Engineering Students' Beliefs about Physics and Conceptual Understanding of Energy and Momentum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahin, Mehmet

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of problem-based learning (PBL) on freshmen engineering students' beliefs about physics and physics learning (referred to as epistemological beliefs) and conceptual understanding of physics. The multiple-choice test of energy and momentum concepts and the Colorado learning attitudes about…

  12. Effects of a Problem-Based Learning Program on Engineering Students' Academic Achievements in a Mexican University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polanco, Rodrigo; Calderon, Patricia; Delgado, Francisco

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to report on a three-year follow-up evaluation of an experimental problem-based learning (PBL) integrated curriculum directed to second-year engineering students. The PBL curriculum brought together the contents of physics, mathematics and computer science courses into a single course. Instead of the students having to…

  13. Concept Development and Meaningful Learning among Electrical Engineering Students Engaged in a Problem-Based Laboratory Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bledsoe, Karen E.; Flick, Lawrence

    2012-01-01

    This phenomenographic study documented changes in student-held electrical concepts the development of meaningful learning among students with both low and high prior knowledge within a problem-based learning (PBL) undergraduate electrical engineering course. This paper reports on four subjects: two with high prior knowledge and two with low prior…

  14. Updating Human Factors Engineering Guidelines for Conducting Safety Reviews of Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    O, J.M.; Higgins, J.; Stephen Fleger - NRC

    2011-09-19

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) reviews the human factors engineering (HFE) programs of applicants for nuclear power plant construction permits, operating licenses, standard design certifications, and combined operating licenses. The purpose of these safety reviews is to help ensure that personnel performance and reliability are appropriately supported. Detailed design review procedures and guidance for the evaluations is provided in three key documents: the Standard Review Plan (NUREG-0800), the HFE Program Review Model (NUREG-0711), and the Human-System Interface Design Review Guidelines (NUREG-0700). These documents were last revised in 2007, 2004 and 2002, respectively. The NRC is committed to the periodic update and improvement of the guidance to ensure that it remains a state-of-the-art design evaluation tool. To this end, the NRC is updating its guidance to stay current with recent research on human performance, advances in HFE methods and tools, and new technology being employed in plant and control room design. This paper describes the role of HFE guidelines in the safety review process and the content of the key HFE guidelines used. Then we will present the methodology used to develop HFE guidance and update these documents, and describe the current status of the update program.

  15. The engineering of a nuclear thermal landing and ascent vehicle utilizing indigenous Martian propellant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zubrin, Robert M.

    1991-01-01

    The following paper reports on a design study of a novel space transportation concept known as a 'NIMF' (Nuclear rocket using Indigenous Martian Fuel). The NIMF is a ballistic vehicle which obtains its propellant out of the Martian air by compression and liquefaction of atmospheric CO2. This propellant is subsequently used to generate rocket thrust at a specific impulse of 264 s by being heated to high temperature (2800 K) gas in the NIMFs' nuclear thermal rocket engines. The vehicle is designed to provide surface to orbit and surface to surface transportation, as well as housing, for a crew of three astronauts. It is capable of refueling itself for a flight to its maximum orbit in less than 50 days. The ballistic NIMF has a mass of 44.7 tonnes and, with the assumed 2800 K propellant temperature, is capable of attaining highly energetic (250 km by 34,000 km elliptical) orbits. This allows it to rendezvous with interplanetary transfer vehicles which are only very loosely bound into orbit around Mars. If a propellant temperature of 2000 K is assumed, then low Mars orbit can be attained; while if 3100 K is assumed, then the ballistic NIMF is capable of injecting itself onto a minimum energy transfer orbit to Earth in a direct ascent from the Martian surface.

  16. Anticipated Degradation Modes of Metallic Engineered Barriers for High-Level Nuclear Waste Repositories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez, Martín A.

    2014-03-01

    Metallic engineered barriers must provide a period of absolute containment to high-level radioactive waste in geological repositories. Candidate materials include copper alloys, carbon steels, stainless steels, nickel alloys, and titanium alloys. The national programs of nuclear waste management have to identify and assess the anticipated degradation modes of the selected materials in the corresponding repository environment, which evolves in time. Commonly assessed degradation modes include general corrosion, localized corrosion, stress-corrosion cracking, hydrogen-assisted cracking, and microbiologically influenced corrosion. Laboratory testing and modeling in metallurgical and environmental conditions of similar and higher aggressiveness than those expected in service conditions are used to evaluate the corrosion resistance of the materials. This review focuses on the anticipated degradation modes of the selected or reference materials as corrosion-resistant barriers in nuclear repositories. These degradation modes depend not only on the selected alloy but also on the near-field environment. The evolution of the near-field environment varies for saturated and unsaturated repositories considering backfilled and unbackfilled conditions. In saturated repositories, localized corrosion and stress-corrosion cracking may occur in the initial aerobic stage, while general corrosion and hydrogen-assisted cracking are the main degradation modes in the anaerobic stage. Unsaturated repositories would provide an oxidizing environment during the entire repository lifetime. Microbiologically influenced corrosion may be avoided or minimized by selecting an appropriate backfill material. Radiation effects are negligible provided that a thick-walled container or an inner shielding container is used.

  17. Research and education on innovative nuclear engineering in 21. century COE program in Japan (COE-INES)

    SciTech Connect

    Hiroshi Sekimoto

    2004-07-01

    -In the year 2002 and 2003 the Japanese Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) started the 'Priority Assistance for the Formation of Worldwide Renowned Centers of Research - The 21. Century Center of Excellence (COE) Program'. A program proposed by Tokyo Institute of Technology (TITech) 'Innovative Nuclear Energy Systems for Sustainable Development of the World (COE-INES)' was selected as the only one program in nuclear engineering. Here the innovative nuclear energy systems include innovative nuclear reactors and innovative separation and transmutation technologies. This program is planned to continue for 5 years, and the monetary support for the first year (2003-4) is already fixed to be 196 M yens. International collaboration will be promoted for research and education on innovative nuclear energy systems. Several international meetings and intensive personnel exchanges will be performed. (author)

  18. Investigation of metallic, ceramic, and polymeric materials for engineered barrier applications in nuclear-waste packages

    SciTech Connect

    Westerman, R.E.

    1980-10-01

    An effort to develop licensable engineered barrier systems for the long-term (about 1000 yr) containment of nuclear wastes under conditions of deep continental geologic disposal has been underway at Pacific Northwest Laboratory since January 1979, under the auspices of the High-Level Waste Immobilization Program. In the present work, the barrier system comprises the hard or structural elements of the package: the canister, the overpack(s), and the hole sleeve. A number of candidate metallic, ceramic, and polymeric materials were put through mechanical, corrosion, and leaching screening tests to determine their potential usefulness in barrier-system applications. Materials demonstrating adequate properties in the screening tests will be subjected to more detailed property tests, and, eventually, cost/benefit analyses, to determine their ultimate applicability to barrier-system design concepts. The following materials were investigated: two titanium alloys of Grade 2 and Grade 12; 300 and 400 series stainless steels, Inconels, Hastelloy C-276, titanium, Zircoloy, copper-nickel alloys and cast irons; total of 14 ceramic materials, including two grades of alumina, plus graphite and basalt; and polymers such as polyamide-imide, polyarylene, polyimide, polyolefin, polyphenylene sulfide, polysulfone, fluoropolymer, epoxy, furan, silicone, and ethylene-propylene terpolymer (EPDM) rubber. The most promising candidates for further study and potential use in engineered barrier systems were found to be rubber, filled polyphenylene sulfide, fluoropolymer, and furan derivatives.

  19. Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) (formerly ICPP) ash reutilization study

    SciTech Connect

    Langenwalter, T.; Pettet, M.; Ochoa, R.; Jensen, S.

    1998-05-01

    Since 1984, the coal-fired plant at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC, formerly Idaho Chemical Processing Plant) has been generating fly ash at a rate of approximately 1,000 tons per year. This ash is hydrated and placed in an ash bury pit near the coal-fired plant. The existing ash bury pit will be full in less than 1 year at its present rate of use. A conceptual design to build a new ash bury pit was completed, and the new pit is estimated to cost $1.7 million. This report evaluates ash reutilization alternatives that propose to eliminate this waste stream and save the $1.7 million required to build a new pit. The alternatives include using ash for landfill day cover, concrete admixture, flowable fill, soil stabilization, waste remediation, and carbon recovery technology. Both physical and chemical testing, under the guidance of the American Society for Testing and Materials, have been performed on ash from the existing pit and from different steps within the facility`s processes. The test results have been evaluated, compared to commercial ash, and are discussed as they relate to reutilization alternatives. This study recommends that the ash be used in flowable fill concrete for Deactivation and Demolition work at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory.

  20. Calcined Waste Storage at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center

    SciTech Connect

    Staiger, M. Daniel, Swenson, Michael C.

    2011-09-01

    This comprehensive report provides definitive volume, mass, and composition (chemical and radioactivity) of calcined waste stored at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center. Calcine composition data are required for regulatory compliance (such as permitting and waste disposal), future treatment of the caline, and shipping the calcine to an off-Site-facility (such as a geologic repository). This report also contains a description of the calcine storage bins. The Calcined Solids Storage Facilities (CSSFs) were designed by different architectural engineering firms and built at different times. Each CSSF has a unique design, reflecting varying design criteria and lessons learned from historical CSSF operation. The varying CSSF design will affect future calcine retrieval processes and equipment. Revision 4 of this report presents refinements and enhancements of calculations concerning the composition, volume, mass, chemical content, and radioactivity of calcined waste produced and stored within the CSSFs. The historical calcine samples are insufficient in number and scope of analysis to fully characterize the entire inventory of calcine in the CSSFs. Sample data exist for all the liquid wastes that were calcined. This report provides calcine composition data based on liquid waste sample analyses, volume of liquid waste calcined, calciner operating data, and CSSF operating data using several large Microsoft Excel (Microsoft 2003) databases and spreadsheets that are collectively called the Historical Processing Model. The calcine composition determined by this method compares favorably with historical calcine sample data.

  1. Nuclear gene targeting in Chlamydomonas using engineered zinc-finger nucleases.

    PubMed

    Sizova, Irina; Greiner, Andre; Awasthi, Mayanka; Kateriya, Suneel; Hegemann, Peter

    2013-03-01

    The unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is a versatile model for fundamental and biotechnological research. A wide range of tools for genetic manipulation have been developed for this alga, but specific modification of nuclear genes is still not routinely possible. Here, we present a nuclear gene targeting strategy for Chlamydomonas that is based on the application of zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs). Our approach includes (i) design of gene-specific ZFNs using available online tools, (ii) evaluation of the designed ZFNs in a Chlamydomonas in situ model system, (iii) optimization of ZFN activity by modification of the nuclease domain, and (iv) application of the most suitable enzymes for mutagenesis of an endogenous gene. Initially, we designed a set of ZFNs to target the COP3 gene that encodes the light-activated ion channel channelrhodopsin-1. To evaluate the designed ZFNs, we constructed a model strain by inserting a non-functional aminoglycoside 3'-phosphotransferase VIII (aphVIII) selection marker interspaced with a short COP3 target sequence into the nuclear genome. Upon co-transformation of this recipient strain with the engineered ZFNs and an aphVIII DNA template, we were able to restore marker activity and select paromomycin-resistant (Pm-R) clones with expressing nucleases. Of these Pm-R clones, 1% also contained a modified COP3 locus. In cases where cells were co-transformed with a modified COP3 template, the COP3 locus was specifically modified by homologous recombination between COP3 and the supplied template DNA. We anticipate that this ZFN technology will be useful for studying the functions of individual genes in Chlamydomonas.

  2. Conceptual Engine System Design for NERVA derived 66.7KN and 111.2KN Thrust Nuclear Thermal Rockets

    SciTech Connect

    Fittje, James E.; Buehrle, Robert J.

    2006-01-20

    The Nuclear Thermal Rocket concept is being evaluated as an advanced propulsion concept for missions to the moon and Mars. A tremendous effort was undertaken during the 1960's and 1970's to develop and test NERVA derived Nuclear Thermal Rockets in the 111.2 KN to 1112 KN pound thrust class. NASA GRC is leveraging this past NTR investment in their vehicle concepts and mission analysis studies, and has been evaluating NERVA derived engines in the 66.7 KN to the 111.2 KN thrust range. The liquid hydrogen propellant feed system, including the turbopumps, is an essential component of the overall operation of this system. The NASA GRC team is evaluating numerous propellant feed system designs with both single and twin turbopumps. The Nuclear Engine System Simulation code is being exercised to analyze thermodynamic cycle points for these selected concepts. This paper will present propellant feed system concepts and the corresponding thermodynamic cycle points for 66.7 KN and 111.2 KN thrust NTR engine systems. A pump out condition for a twin turbopump concept will also be evaluated, and the NESS code will be assessed against the Small Nuclear Rocket Engine preliminary thermodynamic data.

  3. Department of Energy Programmatic Spent Nuclear Fuel Management and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programs draft environmental impact statement. Volume 1, Appendix B: Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Spent Nuclear Fuel Management Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared this report to assist its management in making two decisions. The first decision, which is programmatic, is to determine the management program for DOE spent nuclear fuel. The second decision is on the future direction of environmental restoration, waste management, and spent nuclear fuel management activities at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Volume 1 of the EIS, which supports the programmatic decision, considers the effects of spent nuclear fuel management on the quality of the human and natural environment for planning years 1995 through 2035. DOE has derived the information and analysis results in Volume 1 from several site-specific appendixes. Volume 2 of the EIS, which supports the INEL-specific decision, describes environmental impacts for various environmental restoration, waste management, and spent nuclear fuel management alternatives for planning years 1995 through 2005. This Appendix B to Volume 1 considers the impacts on the INEL environment of the implementation of various DOE-wide spent nuclear fuel management alternatives. The Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program, which is a joint Navy/DOE program, is responsible for spent naval nuclear fuel examination at the INEL. For this appendix, naval fuel that has been examined at the Naval Reactors Facility and turned over to DOE for storage is termed naval-type fuel. This appendix evaluates the management of DOE spent nuclear fuel including naval-type fuel.

  4. The Primary Experiments of an Analysis of Pareto Solutions for Conceptual Design Optimization Problem of Hybrid Rocket Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudo, Fumiya; Yoshikawa, Tomohiro; Furuhashi, Takeshi

    Recentry, Multi-objective Genetic Algorithm, which is the application of Genetic Algorithm to Multi-objective Optimization Problems is focused on in the engineering design field. In this field, the analysis of design variables in the acquired Pareto solutions, which gives the designers useful knowledge in the applied problem, is important as well as the acquisition of advanced solutions. This paper proposes a new visualization method using Isomap which visualizes the geometric distances of solutions in the design variable space considering their distances in the objective space. The proposed method enables a user to analyze the design variables of the acquired solutions considering their relationship in the objective space. This paper applies the proposed method to the conceptual design optimization problem of hybrid rocket engine and studies the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  5. Problem formulation and option assessment (PFOA) linking governance and environmental risk assessment for technologies: a methodology for problem analysis of nanotechnologies and genetically engineered organisms.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Kristen C; Andow, David A; Banker, Michael J

    2009-01-01

    Societal evaluation of new technologies, specifically nanotechnology and genetically engineered organisms (GEOs), challenges current practices of governance and science. Employing environmental risk assessment (ERA) for governance and oversight assumes we have a reasonable ability to understand consequences and predict adverse effects. However, traditional ERA has come under considerable criticism for its many shortcomings and current governance institutions have demonstrated limitations in transparency, public input, and capacity. Problem Formulation and Options Assessment (PFOA) is a methodology founded on three key concepts in risk assessment (science-based consideration, deliberation, and multi-criteria analysis) and three in governance (participation, transparency, and accountability). Developed through a series of international workshops, the PFOA process emphasizes engagement with stakeholders in iterative stages, from identification of the problem(s) through comparison of multiple technology solutions that could be used in the future with their relative benefits, harms, and risk. It provides "upstream public engagement" in a deliberation informed by science that identifies values for improved decision making.

  6. Biomedical engineers and participation in judicial executions: capital punishment as a technical problem.

    PubMed

    Doyle, John

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses the topic of judicial execution from the perspective of the intersection of the technological issues and the professional ethics issues. Although physicians are generally ethically forbidden from any involvement in the judicial execution process, this does not appear to be the case for engineering professionals. This creates an interesting but controversial opportunity for the engineering community (especially biomedical engineers) to improve the humaneness and reliability of the judicial execution process.

  7. IAEA advisory group meeting on basic and applied problems of nuclear level densities

    SciTech Connect

    Bhat, M.R.

    1983-06-01

    Separate entries were made in the data base for 17 of the 19 papers included. Two papers were previously included in the data base. Workshop reports are included on (1) nuclear level density theories and nuclear model reaction cross-section calculations and (2) extraction of nuclear level density information from experimental data. (WHK)

  8. Software-engineering challenges of building and deploying reusable problem solvers

    PubMed Central

    O’CONNOR, MARTIN J.; NYULAS, CSONGOR; TU, SAMSON; BUCKERIDGE, DAVID L.; OKHMATOVSKAIA, ANNA; MUSEN, MARK A.

    2012-01-01

    Problem solving methods (PSMs) are software components that represent and encode reusable algorithms. They can be combined with representations of domain knowledge to produce intelligent application systems. A goal of research on PSMs is to provide principled methods and tools for composing and reusing algorithms in knowledge-based systems. The ultimate objective is to produce libraries of methods that can be easily adapted for use in these systems. Despite the intuitive appeal of PSMs as conceptual building blocks, in practice, these goals are largely unmet. There are no widely available tools for building applications using PSMs and no public libraries of PSMs available for reuse. This paper analyzes some of the reasons for the lack of widespread adoptions of PSM techniques and illustrate our analysis by describing our experiences developing a complex, high-throughput software system based on PSM principles. We conclude that many fundamental principles in PSM research are useful for building knowledge-based systems. In particular, the task–method decomposition process, which provides a means for structuring knowledge-based tasks, is a powerful abstraction for building systems of analytic methods. However, despite the power of PSMs in the conceptual modeling of knowledge-based systems, software engineering challenges have been seriously underestimated. The complexity of integrating control knowledge modeled by developers using PSMs with the domain knowledge that they model using ontologies creates a barrier to widespread use of PSM-based systems. Nevertheless, the surge of recent interest in ontologies has led to the production of comprehensive domain ontologies and of robust ontology-authoring tools. These developments present new opportunities to leverage the PSM approach. PMID:23565031

  9. Development And Application Of Non-Hydrostatic Model To The Coastal Engineering Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maderych, V.; Brovchenko, I.; Fenical, S.; Nikishov, V.; Terletska, K.

    2007-12-01

    The 3D non-hydrostatic free surface model developed by Kanarska and Maderich (2003) for stratified flows was further improved and has been used to simulate coastal processes. In the model the surface elevation, hydrostatic and non-hydrostatic components of pressure and velocity are calculated at sequential stages. Unlike most non-hydrostatic models, the 2-D depth-averaged momentum and continuity equations were integrated explicitly, whereas the 3-D equations were solved semi-implicitly at subsequent stages. The RANS and subgrid- scale eddy viscosity and diffusivity parameterization were implemented in the model to parameterize small-scale mixing. The model was applied to three coastal engineering problems. First, we used the model coupled with a 3D Lagrangian sediment transport model to predict scour caused by propeller jets of slowly maneuvering ships. The results of the simulations show good agreement with laboratory experiments and field ADCP measurements with tug boats. Second, the model was applied, while nested into the hydrostatic far-field counterpart model, for near-field simulation of cooling water discharge through submerged outfalls. Third, laboratory experiments and simulations were performed to estimate effects of large-amplitude internal solitary waves (ISW) on submerged structures and coastal bottom sediments. In the first series of experiments and simulations, the interaction of ISW-depressions with a rectangular bottom obstacle was investigated. In the second series, the ISW-depression was studied passing through a smooth local lateral constriction. The third series of laboratory experiments and simulations was conducted to investigate the dynamics of ISW of depressions reflecting from a steep slope. Contribution of V. Maderych in this work was supported by Hankuk University of Foreign Studies Research Fund of 2007.

  10. Software-engineering challenges of building and deploying reusable problem solvers.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Martin J; Nyulas, Csongor; Tu, Samson; Buckeridge, David L; Okhmatovskaia, Anna; Musen, Mark A

    2009-11-01

    Problem solving methods (PSMs) are software components that represent and encode reusable algorithms. They can be combined with representations of domain knowledge to produce intelligent application systems. A goal of research on PSMs is to provide principled methods and tools for composing and reusing algorithms in knowledge-based systems. The ultimate objective is to produce libraries of methods that can be easily adapted for use in these systems. Despite the intuitive appeal of PSMs as conceptual building blocks, in practice, these goals are largely unmet. There are no widely available tools for building applications using PSMs and no public libraries of PSMs available for reuse. This paper analyzes some of the reasons for the lack of widespread adoptions of PSM techniques and illustrate our analysis by describing our experiences developing a complex, high-throughput software system based on PSM principles. We conclude that many fundamental principles in PSM research are useful for building knowledge-based systems. In particular, the task-method decomposition process, which provides a means for structuring knowledge-based tasks, is a powerful abstraction for building systems of analytic methods. However, despite the power of PSMs in the conceptual modeling of knowledge-based systems, software engineering challenges have been seriously underestimated. The complexity of integrating control knowledge modeled by developers using PSMs with the domain knowledge that they model using ontologies creates a barrier to widespread use of PSM-based systems. Nevertheless, the surge of recent interest in ontologies has led to the production of comprehensive domain ontologies and of robust ontology-authoring tools. These developments present new opportunities to leverage the PSM approach.

  11. MC21 analysis of the nuclear energy agency Monte Carlo performance benchmark problem

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, D. J.; Sutton, T. M.; Wilson, S. C.

    2012-07-01

    Due to the steadily decreasing cost and wider availability of large scale computing platforms, there is growing interest in the prospects for the use of Monte Carlo for reactor design calculations that are currently performed using few-group diffusion theory or other low-order methods. To facilitate the monitoring of the progress being made toward the goal of practical full-core reactor design calculations using Monte Carlo, a performance benchmark has been developed and made available through the Nuclear Energy Agency. A first analysis of this benchmark using the MC21 Monte Carlo code was reported on in 2010, and several practical difficulties were highlighted. In this paper, a newer version of MC21 that addresses some of these difficulties has been applied to the benchmark. In particular, the confidence-interval-determination method has been improved to eliminate source correlation bias, and a fission-source-weighting method has been implemented to provide a more uniform distribution of statistical uncertainties. In addition, the Forward-Weighted, Consistent-Adjoint-Driven Importance Sampling methodology has been applied to the benchmark problem. Results of several analyses using these methods are presented, as well as results from a very large calculation with statistical uncertainties that approach what is needed for design applications. (authors)

  12. Engineering development of a digital replacement protection system at an operating US PWR nuclear power plant: Installation and operational experiences

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, M.H.

    1995-04-01

    The existing Reactor Protection Systems (RPSs) at most US PWRs are systems which reflect 25 to 30 year-old designs, components and manufacturing techniques. Technological improvements, especially in relation to modern digital systems, offer improvements in functionality, performance, and reliability, as well as reductions in maintenance and operational burden. The Nuclear power industry and the US nuclear regulators are poised to move forward with the issues that have slowed the transition to modern digital replacements for nuclear power plant safety systems. The electric utility industry is now more than ever being driven by cost versus benefit decisions. Properly designed, engineered, and installed digital systems can provide adequate cost-benefit and allow continued nuclear generated electricity. This paper describes various issues and areas related to an ongoing RPS replacement demonstration project which are pertinant for a typical US nuclear plant to consider cost-effective replacement of an aging analog RPS with a modern digital RPS. The following subject areas relative to the Oconee Nuclear Station ISAT{trademark} Demonstrator project are discussed: Operator Interface Development; Equipment Qualification; Validation and Verification of Software; Factory Testing; Field Changes and Verification Testing; Utility Operational, Engineering and Maintenance; Experiences with Demonstration System; and Ability to operate in parallel with the existing Analog RPS.

  13. Research on inverse, hybrid and optimization problems in engineering sciences with emphasis on turbomachine aerodynamics: Review of Chinese advances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Gao-Lian

    1991-01-01

    Advances in inverse design and optimization theory in engineering fields in China are presented. Two original approaches, the image-space approach and the variational approach, are discussed in terms of turbomachine aerodynamic inverse design. Other areas of research in turbomachine aerodynamic inverse design include the improved mean-streamline (stream surface) method and optimization theory based on optimal control. Among the additional engineering fields discussed are the following: the inverse problem of heat conduction, free-surface flow, variational cogeneration of optimal grid and flow field, and optimal meshing theory of gears.

  14. Preoperational Subsurface Conditions at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center Service Wastewater Discharge Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Ansley, Shannon L.

    2002-02-20

    The Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) Service Wastewater Discharge Facility replaces the existing percolation ponds as a disposal facility for the INTEC Service Waste Stream. A preferred alternative for helping decrease water content in the subsurface near INTEC, closure of the existing ponds is required by the INTEC Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Record of Decision (ROD) for Waste Area Group 3 Operable Unit 3-13 (DOE-ID 1999a). By August 2002, the replacement facility was constructed approximately 2 miles southwest of INTEC, near the Big Lost River channel. Because groundwater beneath the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is protected under Federal and State of Idaho regulations from degradation due to INEEL activities, preoperational data required by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1 were collected. These data include preexisting physical, chemical, and biological conditions that could be affected by the discharge; background levels of radioactive and chemical components; pertinent environmental and ecological parameters; and potential pathways for human exposure or environmental impact. This document presents specific data collected in support of DOE Order 5400.1, including: four quarters of groundwater sampling and analysis of chemical and radiological parameters; general facility description; site specific geology, stratigraphy, soils, and hydrology; perched water discussions; and general regulatory requirements. However, in order to avoid duplication of previous information, the reader is directed to other referenced publications for more detailed information. Documents that are not readily available are compiled in this publication as appendices. These documents include well and borehole completion reports, a perched water evaluation letter report, the draft INEEL Wellhead Protection Program Plan, and the Environmental Checklist.

  15. Preoperational Subsurface Conditions at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center Service Waste Disposal Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Ansley, Shannon Leigh

    2002-02-01

    The Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) Service Wastewater Discharge Facility replaces the existing percolation ponds as a disposal facility for the INTEC Service Waste Stream. A preferred alternative for helping decrease water content in the subsurface near INTEC, closure of the existing ponds is required by the INTEC Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Record of Decision (ROD) for Waste Area Group 3 Operable Unit 3-13 (DOE-ID 1999a). By August 2002, the replacement facility was constructed approximately 2 miles southwest of INTEC, near the Big Lost River channel. Because groundwater beneath the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is protected under Federal and State of Idaho regulations from degradation due to INEEL activities, preoperational data required by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1 were collected. These data include preexisting physical, chemical, and biological conditions that could be affected by the discharge; background levels of radioactive and chemical components; pertinent environmental and ecological parameters; and potential pathways for human exposure or environmental impact. This document presents specific data collected in support of DOE Order 5400.1, including: four quarters of groundwater sampling and analysis of chemical and radiological parameters; general facility description; site specific geology, stratigraphy, soils, and hydrology; perched water discussions; and general regulatory requirements. However, in order to avoid duplication of previous information, the reader is directed to other referenced publications for more detailed information. Documents that are not readily available are compiled in this publication as appendices. These documents include well and borehole completion reports, a perched water evaluation letter report, the draft INEEL Wellhead Protection Program Plan, and the Environmental Checklist.

  16. Five Lectures on Nuclear Reactors Presented at Cal Tech

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Weinberg, Alvin M.

    1956-02-10

    The basic issues involved in the physics and engineering of nuclear reactors are summarized. Topics discussed include theory of reactor design, technical problems in power reactors, physical problems in nuclear power production, and future developments in nuclear power. (C.H.)

  17. Applications of decision analysis and related techniques to industrial engineering problems at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Gerald W.

    1995-01-01

    This report provides: (1) a discussion of the origination of decision analysis problems (well-structured problems) from ill-structured problems; (2) a review of the various methodologies and software packages for decision analysis and related problem areas; (3) a discussion of how the characteristics of a decision analysis problem affect the choice of modeling methodologies, thus providing a guide as to when to choose a particular methodology; and (4) examples of applications of decision analysis to particular problems encountered by the IE Group at KSC. With respect to the specific applications at KSC, particular emphasis is placed on the use of the Demos software package (Lumina Decision Systems, 1993).

  18. Theoretical-physics approach to selected problems in engineering electromagnetics: Evolutionary optimization and low-dimensional nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikki, Said M.

    Although electromagnetism was developed originally as a branch of theoretical physics, the wide spread proliferation of wireless communications and other applications since the turn of the 20th century quickly transformed the field into a well-defined discipline standing by itself as an autonomous part of engineering. This in turn accelerated the growth of both numerical techniques and practical designs aiming all to improve technology. However, one negative drawback was the increasing isolation between the practicality of engineering electromagnetism and the depth and sophistication of the tools that had been developed solely within electromagnetic theory as a branch of theoretical physics. In this dissertation, we propose a new look to engineering electromagnetism from the perspective of theoretical physics. We show that techniques usually associated with abstract physical models in theoretical physics can be successfully employed to enhance our understanding of problems in engineering electromagnetism. Also, such adaptations of theoretical methods allow for new kinds of applications to be invented. This dissertation is organized in two main parts. Part I is concerned with the particle swarm optimization (PSO) method. We first construct a physical theory for the particle swarm optimization and show how this could open the door not just for deeper understanding of the algorithm itself, but also for new techniques to improve the performance of the method when applied to engineering electromagnetics problems. Inspired by the wider perspective derived from physics, we apply quantum effects to the basic (classical) PSO and derive a new general quantum PSO (QPSO) algorithm suitable for engineering electromagnetism. The new method will be shown to be superior to the classical counterpart when applied to some practical problems. A detailed case study that was formulated extensively in our work is the infinitesimal dipole model (IDM), which can simulate arbitrary antennas

  19. Adapting Experiential Learning to Develop Problem-Solving Skills in Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Engineering Students.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Matthew M; Carrano, Andres L; Dannels, Wendy A

    2016-10-01

    Individuals who are deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) are underrepresented in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) professions, and this may be due in part to their level of preparation in the development and retention of mathematical and problem-solving skills. An approach was developed that incorporates experiential learning and best practices of STEM instruction to give first-year DHH students enrolled in a postsecondary STEM program the opportunity to develop problem-solving skills in real-world scenarios. Using an industrial engineering laboratory that provides manufacturing and warehousing environments, students were immersed in real-world scenarios in which they worked on teams to address prescribed problems encountered during the activities. The highly structured, Plan-Do-Check-Act approach commonly used in industry was adapted for the DHH student participants to document and communicate the problem-solving steps. Students who experienced the intervention realized a 14.6% improvement in problem-solving proficiency compared with a control group, and this gain was retained at 6 and 12 months, post-intervention.

  20. Adapting Experiential Learning to Develop Problem-Solving Skills in Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Engineering Students.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Matthew M; Carrano, Andres L; Dannels, Wendy A

    2016-10-01

    Individuals who are deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) are underrepresented in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) professions, and this may be due in part to their level of preparation in the development and retention of mathematical and problem-solving skills. An approach was developed that incorporates experiential learning and best practices of STEM instruction to give first-year DHH students enrolled in a postsecondary STEM program the opportunity to develop problem-solving skills in real-world scenarios. Using an industrial engineering laboratory that provides manufacturing and warehousing environments, students were immersed in real-world scenarios in which they worked on teams to address prescribed problems encountered during the activities. The highly structured, Plan-Do-Check-Act approach commonly used in industry was adapted for the DHH student participants to document and communicate the problem-solving steps. Students who experienced the intervention realized a 14.6% improvement in problem-solving proficiency compared with a control group, and this gain was retained at 6 and 12 months, post-intervention. PMID:27559078

  1. The effects of direct and problem-based learning instruction in an undergraduate introductory engineering graphics course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, Brian

    In this study, the researcher examined the effects of problem-based learning and compared any statistical gain in knowledge, skill, and attitude to traditional teaching of engineering graphics. Problem-based learning was hypothesized to have a positive effect on knowledge, skills, and attitude of students in a traditional engineering graphics course. The study sample was forty-eight (N = 48) students in a Foundation of Graphics course at North Carolina State University. The quasi-experimental study involved a pre-test/post-test control group, using a single control and single treatment group consisting of 24 persons per group. The independent variable was pedagogical strategy, and the dependent variables of knowledge pre-test and knowledge post-test measured graphic content knowledge, allowing for direct gain comparisons of engineering graphics to the control and treatment groups. Other dependent variables comprised a CAD skill evaluation that measured students' skill in creating a three-dimensional CAD model and an attitude survey (MSLQ) to compare attitude associated with traditional versus problem-based learning. The pedagogical PBL treatment was a series of 20 in-class exercises, where students worked in small groups to complete small-problem scenarios, including reverse engineering of parts. To determine whether groups differed on more than one dependent variable, an ANOVA was used to analyze data and investigate difference and gain between traditional instruction and problem-based learning for knowledge, skills, and attitude. Each ANOVA investigated if any significant difference or gain (p < 0.5) existed between groups and was used to determine gain between dependent variables. The means on the pre- and post-tests measured if the two groups were significantly different in their prior knowledge and skill. The comparison of means and ANOVA of the MSLQ survey score revealed no significant differences in attitude. The result of hypothesis #1 (knowledge), F(19, 23

  2. Roadmap to an Engineering-Scale Nuclear Fuel Performance & Safety Code

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, John A; Clarno, Kevin T; Hansen, Glen A

    2009-09-01

    Developing new fuels and qualifying them for large-scale deployment in power reactors is a lengthy and expensive process, typically spanning a period of two decades from concept to licensing. Nuclear fuel designers serve an indispensable role in the process, at the initial exploratory phase as well as in analysis of the testing results. In recent years fuel performance capabilities based on first principles have been playing more of a role in what has traditionally been an empirically dominated process. Nonetheless, nuclear fuel behavior is based on the interaction of multiple complex phenomena, and recent evolutionary approaches are being applied more on a phenomenon-by-phenomenon basis, targeting localized problems, as opposed to a systematic approach based on a fundamental understanding of all interacting parameters. Advanced nuclear fuels are generally more complex, and less understood, than the traditional fuels used in existing reactors (ceramic UO{sub 2} with burnable poisons and other minor additives). The added challenges are primarily caused by a less complete empirical database and, in the case of recycled fuel, the inherent variability in fuel compositions. It is clear that using the traditional approach to develop and qualify fuels over the entire range of variables pertinent to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy on a timely basis with available funds would be very challenging, if not impossible. As a result the DOE Office of Nuclear Energy has launched the Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) approach to revolutionize fuel development. This new approach is predicated upon transferring the recent advances in computational sciences and computer technologies into the fuel development program. The effort will couple computational science with recent advances in the fundamental understanding of physical phenomena through ab initio modeling and targeted phenomenological testing to leapfrog many fuel

  3. A general optimality criteria algorithm for a class of engineering optimization problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belegundu, Ashok D.

    2015-05-01

    An optimality criteria (OC)-based algorithm for optimization of a general class of nonlinear programming (NLP) problems is presented. The algorithm is only applicable to problems where the objective and constraint functions satisfy certain monotonicity properties. For multiply constrained problems which satisfy these assumptions, the algorithm is attractive compared with existing NLP methods as well as prevalent OC methods, as the latter involve computationally expensive active set and step-size control strategies. The fixed point algorithm presented here is applicable not only to structural optimization problems but also to certain problems as occur in resource allocation and inventory models. Convergence aspects are discussed. The fixed point update or resizing formula is given physical significance, which brings out a strength and trim feature. The number of function evaluations remains independent of the number of variables, allowing the efficient solution of problems with large number of variables.

  4. Structural Integrity Program for the Calcined Solids Storage Facilities at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center

    SciTech Connect

    Bryant, J.W.; Nenni, J.A.

    2003-05-22

    This report documents the activities of the structural integrity program at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center relevant to the high-level waste Calcined Solids Storage Facilities and associated equipment, as required by DOE M 435.1-1, ''Radioactive Waste Management Manual.'' Based on the evaluation documented in this report, the Calcined Solids Storage Facilities are not leaking and are structurally sound for continued service. Recommendations are provided for continued monitoring of the Calcined Solids Storage Facilities.

  5. Engineering the path to higher-order thinking in elementary education: A problem-based learning approach for STEM integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehmat, Abeera Parvaiz

    As we progress into the 21st century, higher-order thinking skills and achievement in science and math are essential to meet the educational requirement of STEM careers. Educators need to think of innovative ways to engage and prepare students for current and future challenges while cultivating an interest among students in STEM disciplines. An instructional pedagogy that can capture students' attention, support interdisciplinary STEM practices, and foster higher-order thinking skills is problem-based learning. Problem-based learning embedded in the social constructivist view of teaching and learning (Savery & Duffy, 1995) promotes self-regulated learning that is enhanced through exploration, cooperative social activity, and discourse (Fosnot, 1996). This quasi-experimental mixed methods study was conducted with 98 fourth grade students. The study utilized STEM content assessments, a standardized critical thinking test, STEM attitude survey, PBL questionnaire, and field notes from classroom observations to investigate the impact of problem-based learning on students' content knowledge, critical thinking, and their attitude towards STEM. Subsequently, it explored students' experiences of STEM integration in a PBL environment. The quantitative results revealed a significant difference between groups in regards to their content knowledge, critical thinking skills, and STEM attitude. From the qualitative results, three themes emerged: learning approaches, increased interaction, and design and engineering implementation. From the overall data set, students described the PBL environment to be highly interactive that prompted them to employ multiple approaches, including design and engineering to solve the problem.

  6. Health effects of radiation and other health problems in the aftermath of nuclear accidents, with an emphasis on Fukushima.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Arifumi; Tanigawa, Koichi; Ohtsuru, Akira; Yabe, Hirooki; Maeda, Masaharu; Shigemura, Jun; Ohira, Tetsuya; Tominaga, Takako; Akashi, Makoto; Hirohashi, Nobuyuki; Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Kamiya, Kenji; Shibuya, Kenji; Yamashita, Shunichi; Chhem, Rethy K

    2015-08-01

    437 nuclear power plants are in operation at present around the world to meet increasing energy demands. Unfortunately, five major nuclear accidents have occurred in the past--ie, at Kyshtym (Russia [then USSR], 1957), Windscale Piles (UK, 1957), Three Mile Island (USA, 1979), Chernobyl (Ukraine [then USSR], 1986), and Fukushima (Japan, 2011). The effects of these accidents on individuals and societies are diverse and enduring. Accumulated evidence about radiation health effects on atomic bomb survivors and other radiation-exposed people has formed the basis for national and international regulations about radiation protection. However, past experiences suggest that common issues were not necessarily physical health problems directly attributable to radiation exposure, but rather psychological and social effects. Additionally, evacuation and long-term displacement created severe health-care problems for the most vulnerable people, such as hospital inpatients and elderly people.

  7. Health effects of radiation and other health problems in the aftermath of nuclear accidents, with an emphasis on Fukushima.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Arifumi; Tanigawa, Koichi; Ohtsuru, Akira; Yabe, Hirooki; Maeda, Masaharu; Shigemura, Jun; Ohira, Tetsuya; Tominaga, Takako; Akashi, Makoto; Hirohashi, Nobuyuki; Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Kamiya, Kenji; Shibuya, Kenji; Yamashita, Shunichi; Chhem, Rethy K

    2015-08-01

    437 nuclear power plants are in operation at present around the world to meet increasing energy demands. Unfortunately, five major nuclear accidents have occurred in the past--ie, at Kyshtym (Russia [then USSR], 1957), Windscale Piles (UK, 1957), Three Mile Island (USA, 1979), Chernobyl (Ukraine [then USSR], 1986), and Fukushima (Japan, 2011). The effects of these accidents on individuals and societies are diverse and enduring. Accumulated evidence about radiation health effects on atomic bomb survivors and other radiation-exposed people has formed the basis for national and international regulations about radiation protection. However, past experiences suggest that common issues were not necessarily physical health problems directly attributable to radiation exposure, but rather psychological and social effects. Additionally, evacuation and long-term displacement created severe health-care problems for the most vulnerable people, such as hospital inpatients and elderly people. PMID:26251393

  8. Nonadiabatic Evolution of Electronic States by Electron Nuclear Dynamics Theory: Application to Atom-Molecule Scattering Problems.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagelberg, Frank

    2004-03-01

    In this contribution, we address the problem how to determine accurately the nonadiabatic content of any given dynamic process involving molecular motion. More specifically, we generate a dynamic electronic wave function using Electron Nuclear Dynamics (END) theory^2 and cast this wave function into the language of electronic excitations. This is achieved by adiabatic transport of an electronic basis along the classical nuclear trajectories of the studied molecular system. This basis is chosen as the static UHF molecular ground state determinant of the system in conjunction with all determinants that arise from the ground state by single, double and triple substitutions. Projecting the dynamic wave function into this basis, we arrive at a natural distinction between adiabatic and nonadiabatic components of the motion considered. We will discuss this concept by the examples of various scattering problems, among them the interaction of proton projectiles with methylene targets. ^2E. Deumens et al., Rev. Mod. Phys. 1994, 66, 917.

  9. An improved ARS2-derived nuclear reporter enhances the efficiency and ease of genetic engineering in Chlamydomonas.

    PubMed

    Specht, Elizabeth A; Nour-Eldin, Hussam Hassan; Hoang, Kevin T D; Mayfield, Stephen P

    2015-03-01

    The model alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii has been used to pioneer genetic engineering techniques for high-value protein and biofuel production from algae. To date, most studies of transgenic Chlamydomonas have utilized the chloroplast genome due to its ease of engineering, with a sizeable suite of reporters and well-characterized expression constructs. The advanced manipulation of algal nuclear genomes has been hampered by limited strong expression cassettes, and a lack of high-throughput reporters. We have improved upon an endogenous reporter gene - the ARS2 gene encoding an arylsulfatase enzyme - that was first cloned and characterized decades ago but has not been used extensively. The new construct, derived from ARS2 cDNA, expresses significantly higher levels of reporter protein and transforms more efficiently, allowing qualitative and quantitative screening using a rapid, inexpensive 96-well assay. The improved arylsulfatase expression cassette was used to screen a new transgene promoter from the ARG7 gene, and found that the ARG7 promoter can express the ARS2 reporter as strongly as the HSP70-RBCS2 chimeric promoter that currently ranks as the best available promoter, thus adding to the list of useful nuclear promoters. This enhanced arylsulfatase reporter construct improves the efficiency and ease of genetic engineering within the Chlamydomonas nuclear genome, with potential application to other algal strains.

  10. Thermal Hydraulics Design and Analysis Methodology for a Solid-Core Nuclear Thermal Rocket Engine Thrust Chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Ten-See; Canabal, Francisco; Chen, Yen-Sen; Cheng, Gary; Ito, Yasushi

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear thermal propulsion is a leading candidate for in-space propulsion for human Mars missions. This chapter describes a thermal hydraulics design and analysis methodology developed at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, in support of the nuclear thermal propulsion development effort. The objective of this campaign is to bridge the design methods in the Rover/NERVA era, with a modern computational fluid dynamics and heat transfer methodology, to predict thermal, fluid, and hydrogen environments of a hypothetical solid-core, nuclear thermal engine the Small Engine, designed in the 1960s. The computational methodology is based on an unstructured-grid, pressure-based, all speeds, chemically reacting, computational fluid dynamics and heat transfer platform, while formulations of flow and heat transfer through porous and solid media were implemented to describe those of hydrogen flow channels inside the solid24 core. Design analyses of a single flow element and the entire solid-core thrust chamber of the Small Engine were performed and the results are presented herein

  11. Engineering Infrastructures: Problems of Safety and Security in the Russian Federation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makhutov, Nikolay A.; Reznikov, Dmitry O.; Petrov, Vitaly P.

    Modern society cannot exist without stable and reliable engineering infrastructures (EI), whose operation is vital for any national economy. These infrastructures include energy, transportation, water and gas supply systems, telecommunication and cyber systems, etc. Their performance is commensurate with storing and processing huge amounts of information, energy and hazardous substances. Ageing infrastructures are deteriorating — with operating conditions declining from normal to emergency and catastrophic. The complexity of engineering infrastructures and their interdependence with other technical systems makes them vulnerable to emergency situations triggered by natural and manmade catastrophes or terrorist attacks.

  12. Biology versus engineering: the TMI accident as a case study in problems of dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Aamodt, N O

    2000-01-01

    Official investigations concluded that no environmental damage was caused by the 1979 accident at the Three Mile Island nuclear generation plant, Unit 2 (TMI). Years later, highly-exposed populations were discovered through investigation of anecdotal information. Absorbed doses in the order of 1 Gy were confirmed by cytogenic and immune status tests. PMID:11130947

  13. Investigating Problem-Based Learning Tutorship in Medical and Engineering Programs in Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Servant, Virginie F. C.; Dewar, Eleanor F. A.

    2015-01-01

    Although Malaysia was the first country in Asia to adopt problem-based learning (PBL), the impact that this has had on its tutors remains largely unexplored. This paper details a qualitative study of the changing perceptions of teaching roles in two groups of problem-based learning tutors in two institutional contexts--one in medicine located in…

  14. Working Towards a Scalable Model of Problem-Based Learning Instruction in Undergraduate Engineering Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mantri, Archana

    2014-01-01

    The intent of the study presented in this paper is to show that the model of problem-based learning (PBL) can be made scalable by designing curriculum around a set of open-ended problems (OEPs). The detailed statistical analysis of the data collected to measure the effects of traditional and PBL instructions for three courses in Electronics and…

  15. The Chemical Engineer's Toolbox: A Glass Box Approach to Numerical Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coronell, Daniel G.; Hariri, M. Hossein

    2009-01-01

    Computer programming in undergraduate engineering education all too often begins and ends with the freshman programming course. Improvements in computer technology and curriculum revision have improved this situation, but often at the expense of the students' learning due to the use of commercial "black box" software. This paper describes the…

  16. Current Progress in Tissue Engineering of Heart Valves: Multiscale Problems, Multiscale Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Daniel Y; Duan, Bin; Butcher, Jonathan T.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Heart valve disease is an increasingly prevalent and clinically serious condition. There are no clinically effective biological diagnostics or treatment strategies. The only recourse available is replacement with a prosthetic valve, but the inability of these devices to grow or respond biologically to their environments necessitates multiple resizing surgeries and life-long coagulation treatment, especially in children. Tissue engineering has a unique opportunity to impact heart valve disease by providing a living valve conduit, capable of growth and biological integration. Areas covered This review will cover current tissue engineering strategies in fabricating heart valves and their progress towards the clinic, including molded scaffolds using naturally-derived or synthetic polymers, decellularization, electrospinning, 3D bioprinting, hybrid techniques, and in vivo engineering. Expert opinion While much progress has been made to create functional living heart valves, a clinically viable product is not yet realized. The next leap in engineered living heart valves will require a deeper understanding of how the natural multi-scale structural and biological heterogeneity of the tissue ensures its efficient function. Related, improved fabrication strategies must be developed that can replicate this de novo complexity, which is likely instructive for appropriate cell differentiation and remodeling whether seeded with autologous stem cells in vitro or endogenously recruited cells. PMID:26027436

  17. Engineering Design: Diverse Design Teams to Solve Real-World Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McSpadden, Moira; Kelley, Todd R.

    2012-01-01

    It is well documented that there is a disproportionate number of males pursuing engineering and technology careers when compared to their female counterparts (Milgram, 2011). Some recent articles have proposed methods to recruit more females into technology education (Milgram, 2011; Zywno, Gilbride, Hiscodes, Waalen, and Kennedy, 1999). However,…

  18. Distributed Collaborative Homework Activities in a Problem-Based Usability Engineering Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, John M.; Jiang, Hao; Borge, Marcela

    2015-01-01

    Teams of students in an upper-division undergraduate Usability Engineering course used a collaborative environment to carry out a series of three distributed collaborative homework assignments. Assignments were case-based analyses structured using a jigsaw design; students were provided a collaborative software environment and introduced to a…

  19. Summary engineering description of underwater fuel storage facility for foreign research reactor spent nuclear fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Dahlke, H.J.; Johnson, D.A.; Rawlins, J.K.; Searle, D.K.; Wachs, G.W.

    1994-10-01

    This document is a summary description for an Underwater Fuel Storage Facility (UFSF) for foreign research reactor (FRR) spent nuclear fuel (SNF). A FRR SNF environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is being prepared and will include both wet and dry storage facilities as storage alternatives. For the UFSF presented in this document, a specific site is not chosen. This facility can be sited at any one of the five locations under consideration in the EIS. These locations are the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Savannah River Site, Hanford, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Nevada Test Site. Generic facility environmental impacts and emissions are provided in this report. A baseline fuel element is defined in Section 2.2, and the results of a fission product analysis are presented. Requirements for a storage facility have been researched and are summarized in Section 3. Section 4 describes three facility options: (1) the Centralized-UFSF, which would store the entire fuel element quantity in a single facility at a single location, (2) the Regionalized Large-UFSF, which would store 75% of the fuel element quantity in some region of the country, and (3) the Regionalized Small-UFSF, which would store 25% of the fuel element quantity, with the possibility of a number of these facilities in various regions throughout the country. The operational philosophy is presented in Section 5, and Section 6 contains a description of the equipment. Section 7 defines the utilities required for the facility. Cost estimates are discussed in Section 8, and detailed cost estimates are included. Impacts to worker safety, public safety, and the environment are discussed in Section 9. Accidental releases are presented in Section 10. Standard Environmental Impact Forms are included in Section 11.

  20. Student Engagement in a Structured Problem-Based Approach to Learning: A First-Year Electronic Engineering Study Module on Heat Transfer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montero, E.; Gonzalez, M. J.

    2009-01-01

    Problem-based learning has been at the core of significant developments in engineering education in recent years. This term refers to any learning environment in which the problem drives the learning, because it is posed in such a way that students realize they need to acquire new knowledge before the problem can be solved. This paper presents the…

  1. MITEE-B: A Compact Ultra Lightweight Bi-Modal Nuclear Propulsion Engine for Robotic Planetary Science Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, James; Maise, George; Paniagua, John; Borowski, Stanley

    2003-01-01

    Nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) enables unique new robotic planetary science missions that are impossible with chemical or nuclear electric propulsion systems. A compact and ultra lightweight bi-modal nuclear engine, termed MITEE-B (MInature ReacTor EnginE - Bi-Modal) can deliver 1000's of kilograms of propulsive thrust when it operates in the NTP mode, and many kilowatts of continuous electric power when it operates in the electric generation mode. The high propulsive thrust NTP mode enables spacecraft to land and takeoff from the surface of a planet or moon, to hop to multiple widely separated sites on the surface, and virtually unlimited flight in planetary atmospheres. The continuous electric generation mode enables a spacecraft to replenish its propellant by processing in-situ resources, provide power for controls, instruments, and communications while in space and on the surface, and operate electric propulsion units. Six examples of unique and important missions enabled by the MITEE-B engine are described, including: (1) Pluto lander and sample return; (2) Europa lander and ocean explorer; (3) Mars Hopper; (4) Jupiter atmospheric flyer; (5) SunBurn hypervelocity spacecraft; and (6) He3 mining from Uranus. Many additional important missions are enabled by MITEE-B. A strong technology base for MITEE-B already exists. With a vigorous development program, it could be ready for initial robotic science and exploration missions by 2010 AD. Potential mission benefits include much shorter in-space times, reduced IMLEO requirements, and replenishment of supplies from in-situ resources.

  2. PREFACE: 6th International Conference on Inverse Problems in Engineering: Theory and Practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnet, Marc

    2008-07-01

    The 6th International Conference on Inverse Problems in Engineering: Theory and Practice (ICIPE 2008) belongs to a successful series of conferences held up to now following a three-year cycle. Previous conferences took place in Palm Coast, Florida, USA (1993), Le Croisic, France (1996), Port Ludlow, Washington, USA (1999), Angra dos Reis, Brazil (2002), and Cambridge, UK (2005). The conference has its roots on the informal seminars organized by Professor J V Beck at Michigan State University, which were initiated in 1987. The organization of this Conference, which took place in Dourdan (Paris) France, 15-19 June 2008, was made possible through a joint effort by four research departments from four different universities: LEMTA (Laboratoire de Mécanique Théorique et Appliquée, Nancy-Université) LMS (Laboratoire de Mécanique des Solides, Ecole Polytechnique, Paris) LMAC (Laboratoire de Mathématiques Appliquées, UTC Compiègne) LTN (Laboratoire de Thermocinétique, Université de Nantes) It received support from three organizations: SFT (Société Française de Thermique: French Heat Transfer Association) ACSM (Association Calcul de Structures et Simulation : Computational Structural Mechanics Association) GdR Ondes - CNRS (`Waves' Network, French National Center for Scientific Research) The objective of the conference was to provide the opportunity for interaction and cross-fertilization between designers of inverse methods and practitioners. The delegates came from very different fields, such as applied mathematics, heat transfer, solid mechanics, tomography.... Consequently the sessions were organised along mostly methodological topics in order to facilitate interaction among participants who might not meet otherwise. The present proceedings, published in the Journal of Physics: Conference Series, gathers the four plenary invited lectures and the full-length versions of 103 presentations. The latter have been reviewed by the scientific committee (see

  3. Department of Energy Programmatic Spent Nuclear Fuel Management and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programs Draft Environmental Impact Statement. Volume 1, Appendix D, Part B: Naval spent nuclear fuel management

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    This volume contains the following attachments: transportation of Naval spent nuclear fuel; description of Naval spent nuclear receipt and handling at the Expended Core Facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory; comparison of storage in new water pools versus dry container storage; description of storage of Naval spent nuclear fuel at servicing locations; description of receipt, handling, and examination of Naval spent nuclear fuel at alternate DOE facilities; analysis of normal operations and accident conditions; and comparison of the Naval spent nuclear fuel storage environmental assessment and this environmental impact statement.

  4. Changing concepts of geologic structure and the problem of siting nuclear reactors: examples from Washington State

    SciTech Connect

    Tabor, R.W.

    1986-09-01

    The conflict between regulation and healthy evolution of geological science has contributed to the difficulties of siting nuclear reactors. On the Columbia Plateau in Washington, but for conservative design of the Hanford reactor facility, the recognition of the little-understood Olympic-Wallowa lineament as a major, possibly still active structural alignment might have jeopardized the acceptability of the site for nuclear reactors. On the Olympic Peninsula, evolving concepts of compressive structures and their possible recent activity and the current recognition of a subducting Juan de Fuca plate and its potential for generating great earthquakes - both concepts little-considered during initial site selection - may delay final acceptance of the Satsop site. Conflicts of this sort are inevitable but can be accommodated if they are anticipated in the reactor-licensing process. More important, society should be increasing its store of geologic knowledge now, during the current recess in nuclear reactor siting.

  5. Future energy system in environment, economy, and energy problems (2) various nuclear energy system evaluations

    SciTech Connect

    Matsui, Kazuaki; Ujita, Hiroshi; Tashimo, Masanori

    2006-07-01

    Role and potentials of nuclear energy system in the energy options are discussed from the viewpoint of sustainable development with protecting from global warming by using the energy module structure of GRAPE model. They change and are affected dramatically by different sets of energy characteristics, nuclear behavior and energy policy even under the moderate set of presumptions. Introduction of thousands of reactors in the end of the century seems inevitable for better life and cleaner earth, but it will not come without efforts and cost. The analysis suggests the need of long term planning and R and D efforts under the wisdom. (authors)

  6. Hybrid-finite-element analysis of some nonlinear and 3-dimensional problems of engineering fracture mechanics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atluri, S. N.; Nakagaki, M.; Kathiresan, K.

    1980-01-01

    In this paper, efficient numerical methods for the analysis of crack-closure effects on fatigue-crack-growth-rates, in plane stress situations, and for the solution of stress-intensity factors for arbitrary shaped surface flaws in pressure vessels, are presented. For the former problem, an elastic-plastic finite element procedure valid for the case of finite deformation gradients is developed and crack growth is simulated by the translation of near-crack-tip elements with embedded plastic singularities. For the latter problem, an embedded-elastic-singularity hybrid finite element method, which leads to a direct evaluation of K-factors, is employed.

  7. Possibilities for the production of radioisotopes for nuclear-medicine problems by means of photonuclear reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Dzhilavyan, L. Z.; Karev, A. I.; Raevsky, V. G.

    2011-12-15

    For electrons of energy about 55 MeV that create an average current of about 40 Micro-Sign A, it is shown that the production of many of the radioisotopes important for nuclear medicine is possible in significant amounts.

  8. UNEDF: Advanced Scientific Computing Transforms the Low-Energy Nuclear Many-Body Problem

    SciTech Connect

    Stoitsov, Mario; Nam, Hai Ah; Nazarewicz, Witold; Bulgac, Aurel; Hagen, Gaute; Kortelainen, E. M.; Pei, Junchen; Roche, K. J.; Schunck, N.; Thompson, I.; Vary, J. P.; Wild, S.

    2011-01-01

    The UNEDF SciDAC collaboration of nuclear theorists, applied mathematicians, and computer scientists is developing a comprehensive description of nuclei and their reactions that delivers maximum predictive power with quantified uncertainties. This paper illustrates significant milestones accomplished by UNEDF through integration of the theoretical approaches, advanced numerical algorithms, and leadership class computational resources.

  9. Three Lectures on Random Matrices and the Nuclear Many-body Problem

    SciTech Connect

    Weidenmueller, Hans A.

    2008-11-13

    In the first lecture, I give an overview of the random--matrix approach to the statistical theory of nuclear reactions, with application to recent data on a microwave billiard. In the second lecture, I discuss the preponderance of ground states with spin zero and of states with positive parity. In the third lecture, I discuss constrained ensembles of random matrices.

  10. PREFACE: 6th International Conference on Inverse Problems in Engineering: Theory and Practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnet, Marc

    2008-07-01

    The 6th International Conference on Inverse Problems in Engineering: Theory and Practice (ICIPE 2008) belongs to a successful series of conferences held up to now following a three-year cycle. Previous conferences took place in Palm Coast, Florida, USA (1993), Le Croisic, France (1996), Port Ludlow, Washington, USA (1999), Angra dos Reis, Brazil (2002), and Cambridge, UK (2005). The conference has its roots on the informal seminars organized by Professor J V Beck at Michigan State University, which were initiated in 1987. The organization of this Conference, which took place in Dourdan (Paris) France, 15-19 June 2008, was made possible through a joint effort by four research departments from four different universities: LEMTA (Laboratoire de Mécanique Théorique et Appliquée, Nancy-Université) LMS (Laboratoire de Mécanique des Solides, Ecole Polytechnique, Paris) LMAC (Laboratoire de Mathématiques Appliquées, UTC Compiègne) LTN (Laboratoire de Thermocinétique, Université de Nantes) It received support from three organizations: SFT (Société Française de Thermique: French Heat Transfer Association) ACSM (Association Calcul de Structures et Simulation : Computational Structural Mechanics Association) GdR Ondes - CNRS (`Waves' Network, French National Center for Scientific Research) The objective of the conference was to provide the opportunity for interaction and cross-fertilization between designers of inverse methods and practitioners. The delegates came from very different fields, such as applied mathematics, heat transfer, solid mechanics, tomography.... Consequently the sessions were organised along mostly methodological topics in order to facilitate interaction among participants who might not meet otherwise. The present proceedings, published in the Journal of Physics: Conference Series, gathers the four plenary invited lectures and the full-length versions of 103 presentations. The latter have been reviewed by the scientific committee (see

  11. APPALACHIAN FOLDS, LATERAL RAMPS, AND BASEMENT FAULTS: A MODERN ENGINEERING PROBLEM?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pohn, Howard A.

    1987-01-01

    Field studies and analysis of radar data have shown that cross-strike faulting in the central and southern Appalachians has affected geologic structures at the surface. These basement faults appear to have been active through much of geologic time. Indeed, more than 45 percent of modern earthquakes occur along these narrow zones here termed 'lateral ramps. ' Because of this seismic activity, these lateral ramps are likely to be zones that are prone to slope failure. The engineer should be aware of the presence of such zones and the higher landslide potential along them.

  12. Nuclear Plant Inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1983-01-01

    Engineers from the Power Authority of the State of New York use a Crack Growth Analysis Program supplied by COSMIC (Computer Software Management and Information Center) in one stage of nuclear plant inspection. Welds of the nuclear steam supply system are checked for cracks; radiographs, dye penetration and visual inspections are performed to locate cracks in the metal structure and welds. The software package includes three separate crack growth analysis models and enables necessary repairs to be planned before serious problems develop.

  13. Engine-cycle analysis for a particle-bed reactor nuclear rocket. Final report, May-Jul 90

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, D.E.

    1991-03-01

    This report addresses three candidate engine cycles for a particle bed nuclear rocket; bleed cycle with uncooled carbon - carbon composite nozzle; bleed cycle with regeneratively cooled Aluminum nozzle; expander cycle with regeneratively cooled Aluminum nozzle. The analysis was performed using the SALT System Analysis Language Translator code with the following amendments; particle bed reactor was modeled as a simple heater; a regeneratively cooled nozzle model was added which includes the heating of the coolant due to hot exhaust gases and nuclear heating of nozzle. The conclusion of the analysis were the topping cycle should be pursued for Mars missions and the bleed cycle should be pursued for OTV (Orbital Transfer Vehicle) missions. This study indicates that a regeneratively cooled aluminum nozzle can be sufficiently cooled to allow its use with a PBR rocket engine. This result is based on nozzle heating due to hot exhaust gases at a maximum chamber temperature and nuclear heating effects. The highest temperatures occur at the nozzle throat, where a composite or alloy coating could protect the aluminum. Further investigation of nozzle cooling should include modeling the nozzle with more nodes, and including more accurate dimensions for the nozzle wall thicknesses and coolant flow passages. The study also indicates that an expander cycle with a cooled aluminum nozzle can operate with a high pressure PBR at realistic TPA efficiencies. Further investigation should include the improvements to the regeneratively cooled nozzle model and more accurate performance maps for the TPA components.

  14. Assessing controls on perched saturated zones beneath the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mirus, Benjamin B.; Perkins, Kim S.; Nimmo, John R.

    2011-01-01

    Waste byproducts associated with operations at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) have the potential to contaminate the eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP) aquifer. Recharge to the ESRP aquifer is controlled largely by the alternating stratigraphy of fractured volcanic rocks and sedimentary interbeds within the overlying vadose zone and by the availability of water at the surface. Beneath the INTEC facilities, localized zones of saturation perched on the sedimentary interbeds are of particular concern because they may facilitate accelerated transport of contaminants. The sources and timing of natural and anthropogenic recharge to the perched zones are poorly understood. Simple approaches for quantitative characterization of this complex, variably saturated flow system are needed to assess potential scenarios for contaminant transport under alternative remediation strategies. During 2009-2011, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, employed data analysis and numerical simulations with a recently developed model of preferential flow to evaluate the sources and quantity of recharge to the perched zones. Piezometer, tensiometer, temperature, precipitation, and stream-discharge data were analyzed, with particular focus on the possibility of contributions to the perched zones from snowmelt and flow in the neighboring Big Lost River (BLR). Analysis of the timing and magnitude of subsurface dynamics indicate that streamflow provides local recharge to the shallow, intermediate, and deep perched saturated zones within 150 m of the BLR; at greater distances from the BLR the influence of streamflow on recharge is unclear. Perched water-level dynamics in most wells analyzed are consistent with findings from previous geochemical analyses, which suggest that a combination of annual snowmelt and anthropogenic sources (for example, leaky pipes and drainage ditches) contribute to recharge of shallow and

  15. Airborne multispectral and hyperspectral remote sensing: Examples of applications to the study of environmental and engineering problems

    SciTech Connect

    Bianchi, R.; Marino, C.M.

    1997-10-01

    The availability of a new aerial survey capability carried out by the CNR/LARA (National Research Council - Airborne Laboratory for the Environmental Research) by a new spectroradiometer AA5000 MIVIS (Multispectral Infrared and Visible Imaging Spectrometer) on board a CASA 212/200 aircraft, enable the scientists to obtain innovative data sets, for different approach to the definitions and the understanding of a variety of environmental and engineering problems. The 102 MIVIS channels spectral bandwidths are chosen to meet the needs of scientific research for advanced applications of remote sensing data. In such configuration MIVIS can offer significant contributions to problem solving in wide sectors such as geologic exploration, agricultural crop studies, forestry, land use mapping, idrogeology, oceanography and others. LARA in 1994-96 has been active over different test-sites in joint-venture with JPL, Pasadena, different European Institutions and Italian University and Research Institutes. These aerial surveys allow the national and international scientific community to approach the use of Hyperspectral Remote Sensing in environmental problems of very large interest. The sites surveyed in Italy, France and Germany include a variety of targets such as quarries, landfills, karst cavities areas, landslides, coastlines, geothermal areas, etc. The deployments gathered up to now more than 300 GBytes of MIVIS data in more than 30 hours of VLDS data recording. The purpose of this work is to present and to comment the procedures and the results at research and at operational level of the past campaigns with special reference to the study of environmental and engineering problems.

  16. Using Mathematics and Engineering to Solve Problems in Secondary Level Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Charles; Reynolds, Birdy; Schunn, Christian; Schuchardt, Anita

    2016-01-01

    There are strong classroom ties between mathematics and the sciences of physics and chemistry, but those ties seem weaker between mathematics and biology. Practicing biologists realize both that there are interesting mathematics problems in biology, and that viewing classroom biology in the context of another discipline could support students'…

  17. Development of Problem Sets for K-12 and Engineering on Pharmaceutical Particulate Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savelski, Mariano J.; Slater, C. Stewart; Del Vecchio, Christopher A.; Kosteleski, Adrian J.; Wilson, Sarah A.

    2010-01-01

    Educational problem sets have been developed on structured organic particulate systems (SOPS) used in pharmaceutical technology. The sets present topics such as particle properties and powder flow and can be integrated into K-12 and college-level curricula. The materials educate students in specific areas of pharmaceutical particulate processing,…

  18. Problem Solution Processes of Musicians and Engineers: What Do Their Approaches Look Like?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nissilä, Säde-Pirkko; Virkkula, Esa

    2015-01-01

    PBL is learning through becoming conscious of practical and abstract problems and finding ways how to solve them. It can be a pattern which doesn't follow traditional divisions of disciplines. In this article the material was collected from two, in the first sight, very different groups. One was music students (N = 62) who had to learn to solve…

  19. Using Dynamic Geometry and Computer Algebra Systems in Problem Based Courses for Future Engineers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomiczková, Svetlana; Lávicka, Miroslav

    2015-01-01

    It is a modern trend today when formulating the curriculum of a geometric course at the technical universities to start from a real-life problem originated in technical praxis and subsequently to define which geometric theories and which skills are necessary for its solving. Nowadays, interactive and dynamic geometry software plays a more and more…

  20. YouTube Fridays: Student Led Development of Engineering Estimate Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liberatore, Matthew W.; Vestal, Charles R.; Herring, Andrew M.

    2012-01-01

    YouTube Fridays devotes a small fraction of class time to student-selected videos related to the course topic, e.g., thermodynamics. The students then write and solve a homework-like problem based on the events in the video. Three recent pilots involving over 300 students have developed a database of videos and questions that reinforce important…

  1. On the Problems of Cracking and the Question of Structural Integrity of Engineering Composite Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaumont, Peter W. R.

    2014-02-01

    Predicting precisely where a crack will develop in a material under stress and exactly when in time catastrophic fracture of the component will occur is one the oldest unsolved mysteries in the design and building of large engineering structures. Where human life depends upon engineering ingenuity, the burden of testing to prove a "fracture safe design" is immense. For example, when human life depends upon structural integrity as an essential design requirement, it takes ten thousand material test coupons per composite laminate configuration to evaluate an airframe plus loading to ultimate failure tails, wing boxes, and fuselages to achieve a commercial aircraft airworthiness certification. Fitness considerations for long-life implementation of aerospace composites include understanding phenomena such as impact, fatigue, creep, and stress corrosion cracking that affect reliability, life expectancy, and durability of structure. Structural integrity analysis treats the design, the materials used, and figures out how best components and parts can be joined. Furthermore, SI takes into account service duty. However, there are conflicting aims in the complete design process of designing simultaneously for high efficiency and safety assurance throughout an economically viable lifetime with an acceptable level of risk.

  2. Electrospinning of gelatin for tissue engineering--molecular conformation as one of the overlooked problems.

    PubMed

    Sajkiewicz, P; Kołbuk, D

    2014-01-01

    Gelatin is one of the most promising materials in tissue engineering as a scaffold component. This biopolymer indicates biocompatibility and bioactivity caused by the existence of specific amino acid sequences, being preferred sites for interactions with cells, with high similarity to natural extracellular matrix. The present paper does not aspire to be a full review of electrospinning of gelatin and gelatin containing nanofibers as scaffolds in tissue engineering. It is focused on the still open question of the role of the higher order structures of gelatin in scaffold's bioactivity/functionality. Gelatin molecules can adopt various conformations depending on temperature, solvent, pH, etc. Our review indicates the potential ways for formation of α-helix conformation during electrospinning and the methods of further structure stabilization. It is intuitively expected that the native α-helix conformation appearing as a result of partial renaturation of gelatin can be beneficial from the viewpoint of bioactivity of scaffolds, providing thus a much cheaper alternative approach as opposed to expensive electrospinning of native collagen.

  3. Problems and experience of detecting particles on the beaches in the vicinity of the Dounreay nuclear site

    SciTech Connect

    Adsley, Ian; Davies, Mike; McCulloch, George; Gerrard, Alan

    2007-07-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: There are several instances where radioactive material has been released from nuclear sites and is now found in particulate form in the environment. Contamination in this form was identified on the beaches close to the Dounreay Nuclear site in the 1990's and since that time NUKEM Limited has provided a measurement service to the UKAEA to find and recover these particles. There are specific difficulties associated with detecting particles - as distinct from distributed activity - and this paper discusses some of the theoretical and practical problems that are encountered in monitoring for such particles. The viability and performance of several types and configurations of radiation detectors will be described, along with methods by which particles might be detected, given their response to buried particles. Practical solutions to these measurement problems are described. Three generations of vehicle mounted sensing systems are discussed - each including improvements to specific measurement problems. The reliability and failure mechanisms of the monitoring systems used will be discussed, together with remedial actions employed. Alongside the radiation technology has been the use of GPS and GIS technologies to provide area mapping at high spatial resolution. The other practical aspects of performing surveys are also discussed, including understanding health-and-safety requirements; constraints imposed by weather, tides and tidal speed; the logistics of making vehicles. The results of all the particle finds to date will be presented and compared to the anticipated detection limits, derived from computer modeling and experimental studies. (authors)

  4. Nuclear Reactor Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stacey, Weston M.

    2001-02-01

    An authoritative textbook and up-to-date professional's guide to basic and advanced principles and practices Nuclear reactors now account for a significant portion of the electrical power generated worldwide. At the same time, the past few decades have seen an ever-increasing number of industrial, medical, military, and research applications for nuclear reactors. Nuclear reactor physics is the core discipline of nuclear engineering, and as the first comprehensive textbook and reference on basic and advanced nuclear reactor physics to appear in a quarter century, this book fills a large gap in the professional literature. Nuclear Reactor Physics is a textbook for students new to the subject, for others who need a basic understanding of how nuclear reactors work, as well as for those who are, or wish to become, specialists in nuclear reactor physics and reactor physics computations. It is also a valuable resource for engineers responsible for the operation of nuclear reactors. Dr. Weston Stacey begins with clear presentations of the basic physical principles, nuclear data, and computational methodology needed to understand both the static and dynamic behaviors of nuclear reactors. This is followed by in-depth discussions of advanced concepts, including extensive treatment of neutron transport computational methods. As an aid to comprehension and quick mastery of computational skills, he provides numerous examples illustrating step-by-step procedures for performing the calculations described and chapter-end problems. Nuclear Reactor Physics is a useful textbook and working reference. It is an excellent self-teaching guide for research scientists, engineers, and technicians involved in industrial, research, and military applications of nuclear reactors, as well as government regulators who wish to increase their understanding of nuclear reactors.

  5. Hydro-engineering and environmental problems in Poti Black Sea region and ways of their solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saghinadze, Ivane; Pkhakadze, Manana; Kodua, Manoni; Gagoshidze, Shalva

    2016-04-01

    (The article was published with support of the Shota Rustaveli National Science Foundation) Work is dedicated to the development of hydro-engineering and environmental protection measures in the Black Sea regions, the main Georgian port of Poti at the mouth of the Rioni, which will minimize the region geomorphological changes caused by the influence of natural and anthropogenic factors, and will over a long period protect coastal areas of these regions from washouts and large scale silting processes. The research objects are: 1. Poti seashore, which has retreated for hundreds of meters, promoted with the existence of underwater canyon along the southern pier of the port; 2. The Rioni river watershed dam, the tail race of which in time was subjected to destruction and substantial washout. Currently the stability of the dam is endangered; 3. "City Canal" - the Rioni river old bed, which is greatly silted up and is virtually unable to perform its function - to feed Poti seashore with solid matter. The work for the hydrodynamics solutions using high-precision mathematical methods. In particular, for the establishment of coastal longshore migrations of sediment and deformations of the coastal zone is used finite element method, Crank-Nicolson scheme and method of upper relaxation in the calculation of wave propagation in the estuarine areas of the Rioni River uses direct and asymptotic (particularly WKB) Methods of mathematical analysis. The results obtained using these models will be put as a base of development of such engineering measures and design proposals which: a) will provide sustained increase of Poti coastal line on the basis of working out of exploitation regimes of the Rioni watershed hydro complex and as a result of performing additional engineering measures in "City Canal"; b) will thoroughly protect the Rioni watershed hydro complex dam tail-water from destruction and washouts. The packets of mathematical programs and analytical methods of calculation

  6. Design principles for problem-driven learning laboratories in biomedical engineering education.

    PubMed

    Newstetter, Wendy C; Behravesh, Essy; Nersessian, Nancy J; Fasse, Barbara B

    2010-10-01

    This article presents a translational model of curricular design in which findings from investigating learning in university BME research laboratories (in vivo sites) are translated into design principles for educational laboratories (in vitro sites). Using these principles, an undergraduate systems physiology lab class was redesigned and then evaluated in a comparative study. Learning outcomes in a control section that utilized a technique-driven approach were compared to those found in an experimental class that embraced a problem-driven approach. Students in the experimental section demonstrated increased learning gains even when they were tasked with solving complex, ill structured problems on the bench top. The findings suggest the need for the development of new, more authentic models of learning that better approximate practices from industry and academia.

  7. Monte Carlo Solutions for Selected Problems in Gamma-Ray Spectrometry and Nuclear Activation Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Sima, Octavian

    2008-08-14

    A comprehensive calibration of gamma-ray spectrometers cannot be obtained purely on experimental basis. Problems like self-attenuation effects, coincidence-summing effects and non-uniform source distribution (resulting e.g. from neutron self-shielding in NAA) can be efficiently solved by Monte Carlo simulation. The application of the GESPECOR code to these problems is presented and the associated uncertainty is discussed.

  8. Thermal problems related to blowdown operation of a hydrazine film cooled bipropellant apogee engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyajima, Hiroshi; Kusaka, Kazuo; Takano, Akira; Kobayashi, Hideyuki; Nakamura, Masakuni; Iihara, Sigeyasu

    When an altitude blowdown simulation test was conducted on the pressure-fed, blowdown, hydrazine/NTO apogee propulsion system selected for the ETS-VI to be launched by the H-II rocket in 1993, the chamber wall temperatures just upstream of the contraction section became higher at lower chamber pressures than those in the throat section. Experimental data on this anomalous and potentially critical phenomenon are presented. Efforts to avert or overcome this problem are addressed.

  9. Work demands are related to mental health problems for older engine room officers.

    PubMed

    Rydstedt, Leif W; Lundh, Monica

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyse the main and interaction effects of age and psychosocial work demands on mental wellbeing in a sample (N = 685; age M = 47 years) of engine room officers in the Swedish merchant fleet. As expected, work demands were highly related to general mental health as well as to perceived stress, while the main effect of age only related significantly to perceived stress. The interaction effects between high work demands and high age significantly explained the variance of general mental health as well as perceived stress. The results can be understood as a consequence of the rapid technological and organisational development in the shipping industry and suggest that it ought be of high priority to provide older employees with work-related resources to support their long-term work performance as well as their health and wellbeing. PMID:24595972

  10. Radiation heat transfer calculations for the uranium fuel-containment region of the nuclear light bulb engine.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodgers, R. J.; Latham, T. S.; Krascella, N. L.

    1971-01-01

    Calculation results are reviewed of the radiant heat transfer characteristics in the fuel and buffer gas regions of a nuclear light bulb engine based on the transfer of energy by thermal radiation from gaseous uranium fuel in a neon vortex, through an internally cooled transparent wall, to seeded hydrogen propellant. The results indicate that the fraction of UV energy incident on the transparent walls increases with increasing power level. For the reference engine power level of 4600 megw, it is necessary to employ space radiators to reject the UV radiated energy absorbed by the transparent walls. This UV energy can be blocked by employing nitric oxide and oxygen seed gases in the fuel and buffer gas regions. However, this results in increased UV absorption in the buffer gas which also requires space radiators to reject the heat load.

  11. Neutron Transport and Nuclear Burnup Analysis for the Laser Inertial Confinement Fusion-Fission Energy (LIFE) Engine

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, K J; Latkowski, J F; Abbott, R P; Boyd, J K; Powers, J J; Seifried, J E

    2008-10-24

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is currently developing a hybrid fusion-fission nuclear energy system, called LIFE, to generate power and burn nuclear waste. We utilize inertial confinement fusion to drive a subcritical fission blanket surrounding the fusion chamber. It is composed of TRISO-based fuel cooled by the molten salt flibe. Low-yield (37.5 MJ) targets and a repetition rate of 13.3 Hz produce a 500 MW fusion source that is coupled to the subcritical blanket, which provides an additional gain of 4-8, depending on the fuel. In the present work, we describe the neutron transport and nuclear burnup analysis. We utilize standard analysis tools including, the Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) transport code, ORIGEN2 and Monteburns to perform the nuclear design. These analyses focus primarily on a fuel composed of depleted uranium not requiring chemical reprocessing or enrichment. However, other fuels such as weapons grade plutonium and highly-enriched uranium are also under consideration. In addition, we have developed a methodology using {sup 6}Li as a burnable poison to replace the tritium burned in the fusion targets and to maintain constant power over the lifetime of the engine. The results from depleted uranium analyses suggest up to 99% burnup of actinides is attainable while maintaining full power at 2GW for more than five decades.

  12. Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center Low-Activity Waste Process Technology Program FY-99 Status Report

    SciTech Connect

    A. K. Herbst; J. A. McCray; R. J. Kirkham; J. Pao; S. H. Hinckley

    1999-09-30

    The Low-Activity Waste Process Technology Program at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) anticipates that large volumes of low-level/low-activity wastes will need to be grouted prior to near-surface disposal. During fiscal year 1999, grout formulations were studied for transuranic waste derived from INTEC liquid sodium-bearing waste and for projected newly generated low-level liquid waste. Additional studies were completed on radionuclide leaching, microbial degradation, waste neutralization, and a small mockup for grouting the INTEC underground storage tank residual heels.

  13. Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center Low-Activity Waste Process Technology Program FY-99 Status Report

    SciTech Connect

    Herbst, Alan Keith; Mc Cray, John Alan; Kirkham, Robert John; Pao, Jenn Hai; Hinckley, Steve Harold

    1999-10-01

    The Low-Activity Waste Process Technology Program at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) anticipates that large volumes of low-level/low-activity wastes will need to be grouted prior to near-surface disposal. During fiscal year 1999, grout formulations were studied for transuranic waste derived from INTEC liquid sodium-bearing waste and for projected newly generated low-level liquid waste. Additional studies were completed on radionuclide leaching, microbial degradation, waste neutralization, and a small mockup for grouting the INTEC underground storage tank residual heels.

  14. Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center Low-Activity Waste Process Technology Program FY-2000 Status Report

    SciTech Connect

    Herbst, Alan Keith; Mc Cray, John Alan; Kirkham, Robert John; Pao, Jenn Hai; Argyle, Mark Don; Lauerhass, Lance; Bendixsen, Carl Lee; Hinckley, Steve Harold

    2000-11-01

    The Low-Activity Waste Process Technology Program anticipated that grouting will be used for disposal of low-level and transuranic wastes generated at the Idaho Nuclear Technology Engineering Center (INTEC). During fiscal year 2000, grout formulations were studied for transuranic waste derived from INTEC liquid sodium-bearing waste and for projected newly generated low-level liquid waste. Additional studies were completed using silica gel and other absorbents to solidify sodium-bearing wastes. A feasibility study and conceptual design were completed for the construction of a grout pilot plant for simulated wastes and demonstration facility for actual wastes.

  15. Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center Low-Activity Waste Process Technology Program FY-2000 Status Report

    SciTech Connect

    Herbst, A.K.; McCray, J.A.; Kirkham, R.J.; Pao, J.; Argyle, M.D.; Lauerhass, L.; Bendixsen, C.L.; Hinckley, S.H.

    2000-10-31

    The Low-Activity Waste Process Technology Program anticipated that grouting will be used for disposal of low-level and transuranic wastes generated at the Idaho Nuclear Technology Engineering Center (INTEC). During fiscal year 2000, grout formulations were studied for transuranic waste derived from INTEC liquid sodium-bearing waste and for projected newly generated low-level liquid waste. Additional studies were completed using silica gel and other absorbents to solidify sodium-bearing wastes. A feasibility study and conceptual design were completed for the construction of a grout pilot plant for simulated wastes and demonstration facility for actual wastes.

  16. Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center Low-Activity Waste Process Technology Program FY-98 Status Report

    SciTech Connect

    Herbst, A.K.; McCray, J.A.; Rogers, A.Z.; Simmons, R.F.; Palethrope, S.J.

    1999-03-01

    The Low-Activity Waste Process Technology Program at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) anticipates that large volumes of low-level/low-activity wastes will need to be grouted prior to near-surface disposal. During fiscal year 1998, three grout formulations were studied for low-activity wastes derived from INTEC liquid sodium-bearing waste. Compressive strength and leach results are presented for phosphate bonding cement, acidic grout, and alkaline grout formulations. In an additional study, grout formulations are recommended for stabilization of the INTEC underground storage tank residual heels.

  17. Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center Low-Activity Waste Process Technology Program, FY-98 Status Report

    SciTech Connect

    Herbst, A.K.; Rogers, A.Z.; McCray, J.A.; Simmons, R.F.; Palethorpe, S.J.

    1999-03-01

    The Low-Activity Waste Process Technology Program at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) anticipates that large volumes of low-level/low-activity wastes will need to be grouted prior to near-surface disposal. During fiscal year 1998, three grout formulations were studied for low-activity wastes derived from INTEC liquid sodium-bearing waste. Compressive strength and leach results are presented for phosphate bonding cement, acidic grout, and alkaline grout formulations. In an additional study, grout formulations are recommended for stabilization of the INTEC underground storage tank residual heels.

  18. Terpene metabolic engineering via nuclear or chloroplast genomes profoundly and globally impacts off-target pathways through metabolite signalling.

    PubMed

    Pasoreck, Elise K; Su, Jin; Silverman, Ian M; Gosai, Sager J; Gregory, Brian D; Yuan, Joshua S; Daniell, Henry

    2016-09-01

    The impact of metabolic engineering on nontarget pathways and outcomes of metabolic engineering from different genomes are poorly understood questions. Therefore, squalene biosynthesis genes FARNESYL DIPHOSPHATE SYNTHASE (FPS) and SQUALENE SYNTHASE (SQS) were engineered via the Nicotiana tabacum chloroplast (C), nuclear (N) or both (CN) genomes to promote squalene biosynthesis. SQS levels were ~4300-fold higher in C and CN lines than in N, but all accumulated ~150-fold higher squalene due to substrate or storage limitations. Abnormal leaf and flower phenotypes, including lower pollen production and reduced fertility, were observed regardless of the compartment or level of transgene expression. Substantial changes in metabolomes of all lines were observed: levels of 65-120 unrelated metabolites, including the toxic alkaloid nicotine, changed by as much as 32-fold. Profound effects of transgenesis on nontarget gene expression included changes in the abundance of 19 076 transcripts by up to 2000-fold in CN; 7784 transcripts by up to 1400-fold in N; and 5224 transcripts by as much as 2200-fold in C. Transporter-related transcripts were induced, and cell cycle-associated transcripts were disproportionally repressed in all three lines. Transcriptome changes were validated by qRT-PCR. The mechanism underlying these large changes likely involves metabolite-mediated anterograde and/or retrograde signalling irrespective of the level of transgene expression or end product, due to imbalance of metabolic pools, offering new insight into both anticipated and unanticipated consequences of metabolic engineering. PMID:27507797

  19. Analogy between an engineering heat-conduction problem and one climatic event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babeshko, V. A.; Evdokimova, O. V.; Babeshko, O. M.

    2015-11-01

    A mixed boundary-value problem for a parabolic equation of heat distribution in a layer is considered. Ggradient is specified in one region of the boundary, and temperature in the other. It is assumed that away from the initial conditions, the process is established in time and the temperature decreases slowly and exponentially and then increases. We study temperature localization in one of the regions, and the conditions and consequences of localization in the other region at various stages of temperature change. An analogy is drawn between the temperature distribution pattern in the layer and some climatic events.

  20. Engineered nanomaterials in soil: Problems in assessing their effect on living organisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terekhova, V. A.; Gladkova, M. M.

    2013-12-01

    Studies on the occurrence and potential effects of nanomaterials (NMs) in the environment are analyzed. Mechanisms of action of some of the well-known nanotechnological products on test cultures are discussed. Attention is focused on the problems of determination of the ecotoxicity of NMs in soils in relation to their instability and variability in the environmental conditions. Our data indicate that the effect of the interactions between the nanoparticles should be taken into consideration in econanotoxicological studies. The formation of aggregates at high concentrations of nanoparticles and an increase in the content of free nanoparticles upon dilution largely explain the inverted dose-response ratio, or the U-shaped curve describing this relationship in the analysis of dispersed systems. Problems in the development of an assessment system for the effect of NMs on environments, including soils, are also discussed. Presently, there are no standards for assessing NMs, and approved Russian and international procedures for checking the sensitivity of standardized test organisms are used. However, the imperfection of the approaches to the analysis of NMs toxicity gives no ground for hampering the development of nanotechnologies for nature conservation purposes.

  1. Environmental and engineering effects of sinkholes - the processes behind the problems

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, B.F. )

    1988-10-01

    Karstic erosion of the land surface is controlled by processes occurring in the epikarstic zone-the upper portion of the limestone which is most intensely dissolved. Sinkholes developing today are generally the effects of downward movement of mantling sediment into the major karren shafts which drain the epikarstic zone deeper into the true karstic aquifer. Dissolution of the limestone itself does not cause significant changes in man's time frame. The downward erosion of mantling sediment is termed ravelling. Only in uniform sediment will an arched cavity occur. In unconsolidated sediment which is stratified, lateral tunneling may even occur. Only the major karren can transmit sediment downward, the majority are ineffective. In mantled karst the location of surficial depressions and photo-linears does not necessarily correlate to areas of new collapse. The irregular and highly dissolved character of the epikarstic zone complicates foundation engineering. Downward drainage through this zone may be limited and cause flooding. An understanding of processes in the epikarstic zone is essential in developing on karst.

  2. An Introductory Guide to GREEN’S Function Methods in Nuclear Many-Body Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, T. T. S.; Tzeng, Yiharn

    We present an elementary and fairly detailed review of several Green’s function methods for treating nuclear and other many-body systems. We first treat the single-particle Green’s function, by way of which some details concerning linked diagram expansion, rules for evaluating Green’s function diagrams and solution of the Dyson’s integral equation for Green’s function are exhibited. The particle-particle hole-hole (pphh) Green’s function is then considered, and a specific time-blocking technique is discussed. This technique enables us to have a one-frequency Dyson’s equation for the pphh and similarly for other Green’s functions, thus considerably facilitating their calculation. A third type of Green’s function considered is the particle-hole Green’s function. RPA and high order RPA are treated, along with examples for setting up particle-hole RPA equations. A general method for deriving a model-space Dyson’s equation for Green’s functions is discussed. We also discuss a method for determining the normalization of Green’s function transition amplitudes based on its vertex function. Some applications of Green’s function methods to nuclear structure and recent deep inelastic lepton-nucleus scattering are addressed.

  3. Living with Radiation. The Problems of the Nuclear Age for the Layman.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brannigan, Francis L.

    The text takes a practical approach to the understanding of industrial radiation hazards. It is intended for the layman who requires a basic understanding of the relationship of radiation problems to his own field. Discussion includes such topics as: uses which benefit mankind; radiation energy versus fission energy; effects of excessive radiation…

  4. State of art and key problems of OOP for FE programming in engineering analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Heng; Zhou, Yunyun

    2013-03-01

    Object-oriented programming (OOP) has been the most important development method, especially for huge and complicated program systems, since OOP can overcome structural complexity of code, strong coupling among modules and poor maintenance shortcomings in traditional structural programming. Since B.W.R.Forde applied OOP to Finite Element (FE) firstly in 1990, the research in this field has not been stopped. Scholars have taken many positive and useful attempts on study of OOP in FE programming from different aspects. The state of the art of OOP in FE and current development has been reviewed, and the key problems in the OOP FEM fields thus are pointed out, thus prospects of OOP in FE code design are put forward.

  5. Measurement of Sedimentary Interbed Hydraulic Properties and Their Hydrologic Influence near the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perkins, Kim S.

    2003-01-01

    Disposal of wastewater to unlined infiltration ponds near the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC), formerly known as the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) has resulted in the formation of perched water bodies in the unsaturated zone (Cecil and others, 1991). The unsaturated zone at INEEL comprises numerous basalt flows interbedded with thinner layers of coarse- to fine-grained sediments and perched ground-water zones exist at various depths associated with massive basalts, basalt-flow contacts, sedimentary interbeds, and sediment-basalt contacts. Perched ground water is believed to result from large infiltration events such as seasonal flow in the Big Lost River and wastewater discharge to infiltration ponds. Evidence from a large-scale tracer experiment conducted in 1999 near the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC), approximately 13 km from the INTEC, indicates that rapid lateral flow of perched water in the unsaturated zone may be an important factor in contaminant transport at the INEEL (Nimmo and others, 2002b). Because sedimentary interbeds, and possibly baked-zone alterations at sediment-basalt contacts (Cecil and other, 1991) play an important role in the generation of perched water it is important to assess the hydraulic properties of these units.

  6. The results of the investigations of Russian Research Center—``Kurchatov Institute'' on molten salt applications to problems of nuclear energy systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novikov, Vladimir M.

    1995-09-01

    The results of investigations on molten salt (MS) applications to problems of nuclear energy systems that have been conducted in Russian Research ``Kurchatov Institute'' are presented and discussed. The spectrum of these investigations is rather broad and covers the following items: physical characteristics of molten salt nuclear energy systems (MSNES); nuclear and radiation safety of MSNES; construction materials compatible with MS of different compositions; technological aspects of MS loops; in-reactor loop testing. It is shown that main findings of completed program support the conclusion that there are no physical nor technological obstacles on a way of MS application to different nuclear energy systems.

  7. Educational Effects and Problems on Cooperative Education for Training Practical Engineer at Anan National College of Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harano, Tomoki; Yoshimura, Hiroshi; Yasuno, Emiko; Uehara, Nobutomo

    The first author has devised the new cooperative education program to adopt the curricula at Colleges of Technology in Japan. The program consists of the practical work programs at manufacturing industries for three weeks and two weeks in every summer and spring vacation at third to fourth grade year, to enhance the communication skill, and to acquire the practical manufacturing technology and so on. In addition, the program has the practical design project of the manufacturing industry to cultivate the problem-solving skill for the fifth grade students at last. The program has many participants that are forty industry companies and seventy students in successfully. It is found that the program is to enhance the communication skill, writing skill and self-confident as a practical engineer by the iterative work.

  8. UNEDF: Advanced Scientific Computing Collaboration Transforms the Low-Energy Nuclear Many-Body Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nam, H.; Stoitsov, M.; Nazarewicz, W.; Bulgac, A.; Hagen, G.; Kortelainen, M.; Maris, P.; Pei, J. C.; Roche, K. J.; Schunck, N.; Thompson, I.; Vary, J. P.; Wild, S. M.

    2012-12-01

    The demands of cutting-edge science are driving the need for larger and faster computing resources. With the rapidly growing scale of computing systems and the prospect of technologically disruptive architectures to meet these needs, scientists face the challenge of effectively using complex computational resources to advance scientific discovery. Multi-disciplinary collaborating networks of researchers with diverse scientific backgrounds are needed to address these complex challenges. The UNEDF SciDAC collaboration of nuclear theorists, applied mathematicians, and computer scientists is developing a comprehensive description of nuclei and their reactions that delivers maximum predictive power with quantified uncertainties. This paper describes UNEDF and identifies attributes that classify it as a successful computational collaboration. We illustrate significant milestones accomplished by UNEDF through integrative solutions using the most reliable theoretical approaches, most advanced algorithms, and leadership-class computational resources.

  9. UNEDF: Advanced Scientific Computing Collaboration Transforms the Low-Energy Nuclear Many-Body Problem

    SciTech Connect

    Nam, H.; Stoitsov, M.; Nazarewicz, W.; Bulgac, A.; Hagen, G.; Kortelainen, M.; Maris, P.; Pei, J. C.; Roche, K. J.; Schunck, N.; Thompson, I.; Vary, J. P.; Wild, S. M.

    2012-12-20

    The demands of cutting-edge science are driving the need for larger and faster computing resources. With the rapidly growing scale of computing systems and the prospect of technologically disruptive architectures to meet these needs, scientists face the challenge of effectively using complex computational resources to advance scientific discovery. Multi-disciplinary collaborating networks of researchers with diverse scientific backgrounds are needed to address these complex challenges. The UNEDF SciDAC collaboration of nuclear theorists, applied mathematicians, and computer scientists is developing a comprehensive description of nuclei and their reactions that delivers maximum predictive power with quantified uncertainties. This paper describes UNEDF and identifies attributes that classify it as a successful computational collaboration. Finally, we illustrate significant milestones accomplished by UNEDF through integrative solutions using the most reliable theoretical approaches, most advanced algorithms, and leadership-class computational resources.

  10. Using Nanomaterials to Solve Environmental Problems: Advancing the Science and Engineering of Photocatalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brame, Jonathon Andrew

    . Extensive reuse of treatment materials (>60 cycles), and utilization of less-purified starting materials (>90% cost reduction) highlight possible ways to reduce the cost of nanomaterial photocatalysis. By reducing financial implementation barriers, defining niches where photocatalysis can be superiorly effective, engineering reactor systems that enable real-world testing of this technology, and increasing understanding of photocatalytic inhibition mechanisms, photocatalysis can become a tool to help solve global water challenges.

  11. The Oblique Basis Method from an Engineering Point of View

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gueorguiev, V. G.

    2012-12-01

    The oblique basis method is reviewed from engineering point of view related to vibration and control theory. Examples are used to demonstrate and relate the oblique basis in nuclear physics to the equivalent mathematical problems in vibration theory. The mathematical techniques, such as principal coordinates and root locus, used by vibration and control theory engineers are shown to be relevant to the Richardson - Gaudin pairing-like problems in nuclear physics.

  12. Application of Micro-XRF for Nuclear Materials Characterization and Problem Solving

    SciTech Connect

    Worley, Christopher G.; Tandon, Lav; Martinez, Patrick T.; Decker, Diana L.; Schwartz, Daniel S.

    2012-08-02

    Micro-X-ray fluorescence (MXRF) used for >> 20 years To date MXRF has been underutilized for nuclear materials (NM) spatially-resolved elemental characterization. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with EDX much more common for NM characterization at a micro scale. But MXRF fills gap for larger 10's microns to cm{sup 2} scales. Will present four interesting NM applications using MXRF. Demonstrated unique value of MXRF for various plutonium applications. Although SEM has much higher resolution, MXRF clearly better for these larger scale samples (especially non-conducting samples). MXRF useful to quickly identify insoluble particles in Pu/Np oxide. MXRF vital to locating HEPA filter Pu particles over cm{sup 2} areas which were then extracted for SEM morphology and particle size distribution analysis. MXRF perfect for surface swipes which are far too large for practical SEM imaging, and loose residue would contaminate SEM vacuum chamber. MXRF imaging of ER Plutonium metal warrants further studies to explore metal elemental heterogeneity.

  13. Educational Programs and Facilities in Nuclear Science and Engineering. Fifth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oak Ridge Associated Universities, TN.

    This publication contains detailed descriptions of nuclear programs and facilities of 182 four-year educational institutions. Instead of chapters, the contents are presented in five tables. Table I presents the degrees, graduate appointments, special facilities and programs of the institutions. The institutions are arranged in alphabetical order…

  14. Engine

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, H.B.

    1984-02-28

    An internal combustion engine has a piston rack depending from each piston. This rack is connected to a power output shaft through a mechanical rectifier so that the power output shaft rotates in only one direction. A connecting rod is pivotally connected at one end to the rack and at the other end to the crank of a reduced function crankshaft so that the crankshaft rotates at the same angular velocity as the power output shaft and at the same frequency as the pistons. The crankshaft has a size, weight and shape sufficient to return the pistons back into the cylinders in position for the next power stroke.

  15. Worldwide assessment of steam-generator problems in pressurized-water-reactor nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Woo, H.H.; Lu, S.C.

    1981-09-15

    Objective is to assess the reliability of steam generators of pressurized water reactor (PWR) power plants in the United States and abroad. The assessment is based on operation experience of both domestic and foreign PWR plants. The approach taken is to collect and review papers and reports available from the literature as well as information obtained by contacting research institutes both here and abroad. This report presents the results of the assessment. It contains a general background of PWR plant operations, plant types, and materials used in PWR plants. A review of the worldwide distribution of PWR plants is also given. The report describes in detail the degradation problems discovered in PWR steam generators: their causes, their impacts on the performance of steam generators, and the actions to mitigate and avoid them. One chapter is devoted to operating experience of PWR steam generators in foreign countries. Another discusses the improvements in future steam generator design.

  16. Few-Body Problem in Nuclear Reactions: Beyond the horizon of the three-body Faddeev equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oryu, Shinsho; Hiratsuka, Yasuhisa; Watanabe, Takashi

    2016-06-01

    Recent progress in few-body problem physics based on the three-body Faddeev equations is reviewed for three-related fields. The first field involves the description of light nuclear reactions in terms of multi-channel three-body Faddeev equations. The second field is the investigation of the two- and three-body threshold behaviors for the NNπ system using the three-body Faddeev equations, where the πD and the NN' or N-(Nπ) scattering lengths are calculated, and also we show that the NN' potential has a long range term of 1/r2 form. The third is a new Coulomb treatment in terms of a generalized screening range to describe on-shell Coulomb amplitudes which is useful in the threebody Faddeev equations. This procedure reproduces both of the Coulomb phase shift and the wave function from the electron-electron to the heavy-ion-heavy-ion systems.

  17. Department of Energy Programmatic Spent Nuclear Fuel Management and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programs, Draft Environmental Impact Statement. Volume 1, Appendix D: Part A, Naval Spent Nuclear Fuel Management

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    Volume 1 to the Department of Energy`s Programmatic Spent Nuclear Fuel Management and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Environmental Management Programs Environmental Impact Statement evaluates a range of alternatives for managing naval spent nuclear fuel expected to be removed from US Navy nuclear-powered vessels and prototype reactors through the year 2035. The Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) considers a range of alternatives for examining and storing naval spent nuclear fuel, including alternatives that terminate examination and involve storage close to the refueling or defueling site. The EIS covers the potential environmental impacts of each alternative, as well as cost impacts and impacts to the Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program mission. This Appendix covers aspects of the alternatives that involve managing naval spent nuclear fuel at four naval shipyards and the Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program Kesselring Site in West Milton, New York. This Appendix also covers the impacts of alternatives that involve examining naval spent nuclear fuel at the Expended Core Facility in Idaho and the potential impacts of constructing and operating an inspection facility at any of the Department of Energy (DOE) facilities considered in the EIS. This Appendix also considers the impacts of the alternative involving limited spent nuclear fuel examinations at Puget Sound Naval Shipyard. This Appendix does not address the impacts associated with storing naval spent nuclear fuel after it has been inspected and transferred to DOE facilities. These impacts are addressed in separate appendices for each DOE site.

  18. Kinetic: A system code for analyzing nuclear thermal propulsion rocket engine transients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, Eldon; Lazareth, Otto; Ludewig, Hans

    1993-01-01

    The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: outline of kinetic code; a kinetic information flow diagram; kinetic neutronic equations; turbopump/nozzle algorithm; kinetic heat transfer equations per node; and test problem diagram.

  19. 10 CFR Appendix S to Part 50 - Earthquake Engineering Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... criteria in Section VI of appendix A to 10 CFR part 100 continue to apply. Paragraphs IV.a.1.i, IV.a.1.ii... license, design approval, or manufacturing license is required by §§ 50.34(a)(12), 50.34(b)(10), or 10 CFR... final standard design for a nuclear power reactor of the type described in 10 CFR 50.22....

  20. 10 CFR Appendix S to Part 50 - Earthquake Engineering Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... criteria in Section VI of appendix A to 10 CFR part 100 continue to apply. Paragraphs IV.a.1.i, IV.a.1.ii... license, design approval, or manufacturing license is required by §§ 50.34(a)(12), 50.34(b)(10), or 10 CFR... final standard design for a nuclear power reactor of the type described in 10 CFR 50.22....