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Sample records for nuclear engineering problems

  1. Teaching Problem-Solving Skills to Nuclear Engineering Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waller, E.; Kaye, M. H.

    2012-01-01

    Problem solving is an essential skill for nuclear engineering graduates entering the workforce. Training in qualitative and quantitative aspects of problem solving allows students to conceptualise and execute solutions to complex problems. Solutions to problems in high consequence fields of study such as nuclear engineering require rapid and…

  2. Teaching Problem-Solving Skills to Nuclear Engineering Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waller, E.; Kaye, M. H.

    2012-01-01

    Problem solving is an essential skill for nuclear engineering graduates entering the workforce. Training in qualitative and quantitative aspects of problem solving allows students to conceptualise and execute solutions to complex problems. Solutions to problems in high consequence fields of study such as nuclear engineering require rapid and…

  3. Teaching problem-solving skills to nuclear engineering students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waller, E.; Kaye, M. H.

    2012-08-01

    Problem solving is an essential skill for nuclear engineering graduates entering the workforce. Training in qualitative and quantitative aspects of problem solving allows students to conceptualise and execute solutions to complex problems. Solutions to problems in high consequence fields of study such as nuclear engineering require rapid and accurate analysis of the problems, design of solutions (focusing on public safety, environmental stewardship and ethics), solution execution and monitoring results. A three-month course in problem solving, modelling and simulation was designed and a collaborative approach was undertaken with instructors from both industry and academia. Training was optimised for the laptop-based pedagogy, which provided unique advantages for a course that includes modelling and simulation components. The concepts and tools learned as part of the training were observed to be utilised throughout the duration of student university studies and interviews with students who have entered the workforce indicate that the approaches learned and practised are retained long term.

  4. Application of Lie groups to discretizing nuclear engineering problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grove, Travis Justin

    A method utilizing groups of point transformations is applied to the three and four group time-independent neutron diffusion equations to obtain invariant difference equations for one-region and composite-region domains in one-dimensional Cartesian, cylindrical, and spherical geometries. Also, the theory behind this particular method will be discussed. A comparison of the invariant difference equations will be made to standard finite difference equations as well as to analytical results. From the analytical results, it will be shown that the invariant difference technique gives exact analytical solutions for the grid point values. The construction of invariant difference operators technique is also applied to the one-dimensional P 3 equations from neutron transport theory in Cartesian geometry, using the FLIP formulation, which allows PL equations to be written in the form of sets of coupled ordinary differential equations. The use of finite transforms will be examined to transform multi-dimensional problems into one-dimension where then the construction of invariant difference operators technique can be used to create difference equations. The solutions to the set of equations can then be transformed back into the multi-dimensional geometries. The use of finite transforms along with the construction of invariant difference operators technique is applied to a simple two-dimensional benchmark problem. In addition, a method using groups of point transformations along with Noether's theorem is shown to generate a conservation law that can be used to create a two-term recurrence relation which calculates numerically exact Green's functions in one dimension for the time-independent neutron diffusion equation for Cartesian, cylindrical, and spherical geometries. This method will be expanded to constructing two-term recurrence relations for an arbitrary number of spatial regions, as well as detailing starting point values for type 2 and type 3 homogeneous endpoint

  5. Nuclear propulsion systems engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Madsen, W.W.; Neuman, J.E.: Van Haaften, D.H.

    1992-12-31

    The Nuclear Energy for Rocket Vehicle Application (NERVA) program of the 1960`s and early 1970`s was dramatically successful, with no major failures during the entire testing program. This success was due in large part to the successful development of a systems engineering process. Systems engineering, properly implemented, involves all aspects of the system design and operation, and leads to optimization of theentire system: cost, schedule, performance, safety, reliability, function, requirements, etc. The process must be incorporated from the very first and continued to project completion. This paper will discuss major aspects of the NERVA systems engineering effort, and consider the implications for current nuclear propulsion efforts.

  6. Nuclear propulsion systems engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Madsen, W.W.; Neuman, J.E.: Van Haaften, D.H.

    1992-01-01

    The Nuclear Energy for Rocket Vehicle Application (NERVA) program of the 1960's and early 1970's was dramatically successful, with no major failures during the entire testing program. This success was due in large part to the successful development of a systems engineering process. Systems engineering, properly implemented, involves all aspects of the system design and operation, and leads to optimization of theentire system: cost, schedule, performance, safety, reliability, function, requirements, etc. The process must be incorporated from the very first and continued to project completion. This paper will discuss major aspects of the NERVA systems engineering effort, and consider the implications for current nuclear propulsion efforts.

  7. Job Prospects for Nuclear Engineers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basta, Nicholas

    1985-01-01

    As the debate over nuclear safety continues, the job market remains healthy for nuclear engineers. The average salary offered to new nuclear engineers with bachelor's degrees is $27,400. Salary averages and increases compare favorably with other engineering disciplines. Various job sources in the field are noted. (JN)

  8. Job Prospects for Nuclear Engineers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basta, Nicholas

    1985-01-01

    As the debate over nuclear safety continues, the job market remains healthy for nuclear engineers. The average salary offered to new nuclear engineers with bachelor's degrees is $27,400. Salary averages and increases compare favorably with other engineering disciplines. Various job sources in the field are noted. (JN)

  9. Job Prospects for Nuclear Engineers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basta, Nicholas

    1987-01-01

    Discusses trends in job opportunities for nuclear engineers. Lists some of the factors influencing increases and decreases in the demand for nuclear engineers. Describes the effects on career opportunities from recent nuclear accidents, military research and development, and projected increases of demand for electricity. (TW)

  10. Job Prospects for Nuclear Engineers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basta, Nicholas

    1987-01-01

    Discusses trends in job opportunities for nuclear engineers. Lists some of the factors influencing increases and decreases in the demand for nuclear engineers. Describes the effects on career opportunities from recent nuclear accidents, military research and development, and projected increases of demand for electricity. (TW)

  11. Design considerations in clustering nuclear rocket engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sager, Paul H.

    1992-01-01

    An initial investigation of the design considerations in clustering nuclear rocket engines for space transfer vehicles has been made. The clustering of both propulsion modules (which include start tanks) and nuclear rocket engines installed directly to a vehicle core tank appears to be feasible. Special provisions to shield opposite run tanks and the opposite side of a core tank - in the case of the boost pump concept - are required; the installation of a circumferential reactor side shield sector appears to provide an effective solution to this problem. While the time response to an engine-out event does not appear to be critical, the gimbal displacement required appears to be important. Since an installation of three engines offers a substantial reduction in gimbal requirements for engine-out and it may be possible to further enhance mission reliability with the greater number of engines, it is recommended that a cluster of four engines be considered.

  12. Design considerations in clustering nuclear rocket engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sager, Paul H.

    1992-01-01

    An initial investigation of the design considerations in clustering nuclear rocket engines for space transfer vehicles has been made. The clustering of both propulsion modules (which include start tanks) and nuclear rocket engines installed directly to a vehicle core tank appears to be feasible. Special provisions to shield opposite run tanks and the opposite side of a core tank - in the case of the boost pump concept - are required; the installation of a circumferential reactor side shield sector appears to provide an effective solution to this problem. While the time response to an engine-out event does not appear to be critical, the gimbal displacement required appears to be important. Since an installation of three engines offers a substantial reduction in gimbal requirements for engine-out and it may be possible to further enhance mission reliability with the greater number of engines, it is recommended that a cluster of four engines be considered.

  13. The nuclear matter problem

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, J. A.; Cowell, S.; Morales, J.; Ravenhall, D. G.; Pandharipande, V. R.

    2002-01-01

    We review the present statiis of the many-body theory of nuclear and pure neutron matter based on realistic models of nuclear forces, The current models of two- and three-nucleon interactions are discussed along with recent results obtained with the Brueckner and variatioual methods. New initiatives in the variational method and quantuni Monte Carlo nicthods to study pure neutron matter are described, and finally, the analytic behavior of the energy of piire neutron matter at low densities is cliscussed.

  14. ABB Combustion Engineering nuclear technology

    SciTech Connect

    Matzie, R.A.

    1994-12-31

    The activities of ABB Combustion Engineering in the design and construction of nuclear systems and components are briefly reviewed. ABB Construction Engineering continues to improve the design and design process for nuclear generating stations. Potential improvements are evaluated to meet new requirements both of the public and the regulator, so that the designs meet the highest standards worldwide. Advancements necessary to meet market needs and to ensure the highest level of performance in the future will be made.

  15. Nuclear industry will be short of engineers

    SciTech Connect

    Yates, M.

    1990-09-13

    This article discusses the potential shortage of nuclear engineers due to reduction of educational and training facilities and difficulty in attracting minorities into nuclear engineering. The article reports on recommendations from the National Research Council Nuclear Education Study Committee on attracting minorities to nuclear engineering, increasing DOE fellowships, funding for research and development, involvement of utilities and vendors, and support of the American Nuclear Society's advocacy of nuclear engineering education.

  16. Space Power Engineering Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senkevich, V. P.

    2002-01-01

    Development of space power engineering in the first half of XXI century shall be aimed at preventing the forthcoming energy crisis and ecological catastrophes. The problem can be solved through using solar energy being perpetual, endless, and ecologically safe. As of now, issues on the development and employment of solar power stations and its beaming to the ground stations in the SHF band are put on the agenda. The most pressing problem is to develop orbital solar reflectors to illuminate towns in the polar regions, agricultural regions, and areas of processing sea products. Space-based technologies can be used to deal with typhoons, green house effects, and "ozone holes". Recently, large, frameless film structures formed by centrifugal forces offer the promise of structures for orbital power plants, reflectors, and solar sails. A big success is achieved in the development of power generating solar array elements of amorphous silicon. These innovations would make the development of orbital solar power plants dozens of times cheaper. Such solar arrays shall be used in the nearest future on heavy communication satellites and the Earth remote sensing platforms for generation of 140-160 kW at a specific power beyond 300 W/kg. The cargo traffic needed to develop and maintain the orbital power plants and reflector systems could be equipped with solar sails as the future low thrust propulsion. In 2000, the mankind witnessed an unexpected beginning of energy crisis along with strong hydro- meteorological events (typhoons, floods) that shocked the USA, the Western Europe, England, Japan, and other countries. The total damage is estimated as 90 billions of dollars. The mankind is approaching a boundary beyond which its further existence would depend on how people would learn to control weather and use ecologically safe power sources. Space technology base on the research potential accumulated in the previous century could serve for the solution of this problem.

  17. (Nuclear power engineering in space)

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, R.H. Jr.

    1990-06-18

    The principal purpose of this trip was to participate in the Anniversary Specialist Conference on Nuclear Power Engineering in Space hosted by the USSR Ministry of Atomic Power Engineering and Industry. The conference was held in Obninsk, USSR. A secondary purpose of the trip was to meet with the French Commissariat A L'Energie Atomique in Paris regarding the status of their space power program.

  18. Final Technical Report; NUCLEAR ENGINEERING RECRUITMENT EFFORT

    SciTech Connect

    Kerrick, Sharon S.; Vincent, Charles D.

    2007-07-02

    This report provides the summary of a project whose purpose was to support the costs of developing a nuclear engineering awareness program, an instruction program for teachers to integrate lessons on nuclear science and technology into their existing curricula, and web sites for the exchange of nuclear engineering career information and classroom materials. The specific objectives of the program were as follows: OBJECTIVE 1: INCREASE AWARENESS AND INTEREST OF NUCLEAR ENGINEERING; OBJECTIVE 2: INSTRUCT TEACHERS ON NUCLEAR TOPICS; OBJECTIVE 3: NUCLEAR EDUCATION PROGRAMS WEB-SITE; OBJECTIVE 4: SUPPORT TO UNIVERSITY/INDUSTRY MATCHING GRANTS AND REACTOR SHARING; OBJECTIVE 5: PILOT PROJECT; OBJECTIVE 6: NUCLEAR ENGINEERING ENROLLMENT SURVEY AT UNIVERSITIES

  19. Nuclear Engineering Academic Programs Survey, 2004

    SciTech Connect

    Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education

    2005-03-01

    This annual report details the number of nuclear engineering bachelor's, master's, and doctoral degrees awarded at a sampling of academic programs from 1998-2004. It also looks at nuclear engineering degrees by curriculum and the number of students enrolled in nuclear engineering degree programs at 31 U.S. universities in 2004.

  20. Nuclear engineering enrollments and degrees, 1994: Appendixes

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    This survey is designed to include those programs sponsored by the Department of Energy. The survey is designed to include those programs offering a major in nuclear engineering or course work equivalent to a major in other engineering disciplines that prepare the graduates to perform as nuclear engineers. This survey provides data on nuclear engineering enrollments and degrees for use in labor market analyses, information on education programs for students, and information on new graduates to employers, government agencies, academia and professional societies.

  1. Program For Optimization Of Nuclear Rocket Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plebuch, R. K.; Mcdougall, J. K.; Ridolphi, F.; Walton, James T.

    1994-01-01

    NOP is versatile digital-computer program devoloped for parametric analysis of beryllium-reflected, graphite-moderated nuclear rocket engines. Facilitates analysis of performance of engine with respect to such considerations as specific impulse, engine power, type of engine cycle, and engine-design constraints arising from complications of fuel loading and internal gradients of temperature. Predicts minimum weight for specified performance.

  2. Applications of NASTRAN to nuclear problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spreeuw, E.

    1972-01-01

    The extent to which suitable solutions may be obtained for one physics problem and two engineering type problems is traced. NASTRAN appears to be a practical tool to solve one-group steady-state neutron diffusion equations. Transient diffusion analysis may be performed after new levels that allow time-dependent temperature calculations are developed. NASTRAN piecewise linear anlaysis may be applied to solve those plasticity problems for which a smooth stress-strain curve can be used to describe the nonlinear material behavior. The accuracy decreases when sharp transitions in the stress-strain relations are involved. Improved NASTRAN usefulness will be obtained when nonlinear material capabilities are extended to axisymmetric elements and to include provisions for time-dependent material properties and creep analysis. Rigid formats 3 and 5 proved to be very convenient for the buckling and normal-mode analysis of a nuclear fuel element.

  3. US nuclear engineering education: Status and prospects

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    This study, conducted under the auspices of the Energy Engineering Board of the National Research Council, examines the status of and outlook for nuclear engineering education in the United States. The study resulted from a widely felt concern about the downward trends in student enrollments in nuclear engineering, in both graduate and undergraduate programs. Concerns have also been expressed about the declining number of US university nuclear engineering departments and programs, the aging of their faculties, the appropriateness of their curricula and research funding for industry and government needs, the availability of scholarships and research funding, and the increasing ratio of foreign to US graduate students. A fundamental issue is whether the supply of nuclear engineering graduates will be adequate for the future. Although such issues are more general, pertaining to all areas of US science and engineering education, they are especially acute for nuclear engineering education. 30 refs., 12 figs., 20 tabs.

  4. Estimates of the radiation environment for a nuclear rocket engine

    SciTech Connect

    Courtney, J.C.; Manohara, H.M.; Williams, M.L.

    1992-12-31

    Ambitious missions in deep space, such as manned expeditions to Mars, require nuclear propulsion if they are to be accomplished in a reasonable length of time. Current technology is adequate to support the use of nuclear fission as a source of energy for propulsion; however, problems associated with neutrons and gammas leaking from the rocket engine must be addressed. Before manned or unmanned space flights are attempted, an extensive ground test program on the rocket engine must be completed. This paper compares estimated radiation levels and nuclear heating rates in and around the rocket engine for both a ground test and space environments.

  5. Nuclear Teaching: Propaganda or Problem Solving?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    La Farge, Phyllis

    1988-01-01

    Describes how nuclear education has evolved into nuclear age education in an attempt to prepare young people to respond responsibly to world problems. Explains how positive and preventive emphases toward social issues have helped the growing acceptance of nuclear age and peace education. Discusses some remaining problems. (RT)

  6. Nuclear Engineering Enrollments and Degrees, 1982.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweeney, Deborah H.; And Others

    This report presents data on the number of students enrolled and the number of bachelor's, master's, and doctoral degrees awarded in academic year 1981-82 from 72 United States institutions offering degree programs in nuclear engineering or nuclear options within other engineering fields. Presented as well are historical data for the last decade…

  7. Nuclear Engineering Enrollments and Degrees, 1982.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweeney, Deborah H.; And Others

    This report presents data on the number of students enrolled and the number of bachelor's, master's, and doctoral degrees awarded in academic year 1981-82 from 72 United States institutions offering degree programs in nuclear engineering or nuclear options within other engineering fields. Presented as well are historical data for the last decade…

  8. Thermal hydraulics in undergraduate nuclear engineering education

    SciTech Connect

    Theofanous, T.G.

    1986-01-01

    The intense safety-related research efforts of the seventies in reactor thermal hydraulics have brought about the recognition of the subject as one of the cornerstones of nuclear engineering. Many nuclear engineering departments responded by building up research programs in this area, and mostly as a consequence, educational programs, too. Whether thermal hydraulics has fully permeated the conscience of nuclear engineering, however, remains yet to be seen. The lean years that lie immediately ahead will provide the test. The purpose of this presentation is to discuss the author's own educational activity in undergraduate nuclear engineering education over the past 10 yr or so. All this activity took place at Purdue's School of Nuclear Engineering. He was well satisfied with the results and expects to implement something similar at the University of California in Santa Barbara in the near future.

  9. Sanitary engineering aspects of nuclear energy developments*

    PubMed Central

    Kenny, A. W.

    1962-01-01

    So many developments have taken place in the field of nuclear energy since 1956, when the author's previous paper on radioactive waste disposal was published in the Bulletin of the World Health Organization, that a fresh review of the subject is now appropriate. The present paper deals with those aspects of the problem which are of most interest to the sanitary engineer. It considers specific points in the latest recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection in relation to public drinking-water supplies, and examines the problem of fall-out, with special reference to the presence and significance of strontium-90 in drinking-water. A general survey of the various uses of radioactive materials is followed by a discussion of the legislative and control measures necessary to ensure safe disposal of wastes. The methods of waste disposal adopted in a number of nuclear energy establishments are described in detail. The paper concludes with some remarks on solid waste disposal, siting of nuclear energy industries and area monitoring. PMID:14455214

  10. Group Design Problems in Engineering Design Graphics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, David

    2001-01-01

    Describes group design techniques used within the engineering design graphics sequence at Western Washington University. Engineering and design philosophies such as concurrent engineering place an emphasis on group collaboration for the solving of design problems. (Author/DDR)

  11. Nuclear Engineering Technologists in the Nuclear Power Era

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, C. H.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    Describes manpower needs in nuclear engineering in the areas of research and development, architectural engineering and construction supervision, power reactor operations, and regulatory tasks. Outlines a suitable curriculum to prepare students for the tasks related to construction and operation of power reactors. (GS)

  12. Nuclear Engineering Technologists in the Nuclear Power Era

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, C. H.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    Describes manpower needs in nuclear engineering in the areas of research and development, architectural engineering and construction supervision, power reactor operations, and regulatory tasks. Outlines a suitable curriculum to prepare students for the tasks related to construction and operation of power reactors. (GS)

  13. EDITORIAL: Inverse Problems in Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, Robert M.; Lesnic, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Presented here are 11 noteworthy papers selected from the Fifth International Conference on Inverse Problems in Engineering: Theory and Practice held in Cambridge, UK during 11-15 July 2005. The papers have been peer-reviewed to the usual high standards of this journal and the contributions of reviewers are much appreciated. The conference featured a good balance of the fundamental mathematical concepts of inverse problems with a diverse range of important and interesting applications, which are represented here by the selected papers. Aspects of finite-element modelling and the performance of inverse algorithms are investigated by Autrique et al and Leduc et al. Statistical aspects are considered by Emery et al and Watzenig et al with regard to Bayesian parameter estimation and inversion using particle filters. Electrostatic applications are demonstrated by van Berkel and Lionheart and also Nakatani et al. Contributions to the applications of electrical techniques and specifically electrical tomographies are provided by Wakatsuki and Kagawa, Kim et al and Kortschak et al. Aspects of inversion in optical tomography are investigated by Wright et al and Douiri et al. The authors are representative of the worldwide interest in inverse problems relating to engineering applications and their efforts in producing these excellent papers will be appreciated by many readers of this journal.

  14. Problems of the mathematical description of rocket engines as plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiforenko, B. N.

    2012-09-01

    Mathematical models of liquid-propellant, nuclear, and electric rocket engines are presented that more fully describe thrust generation than the classical models do. The optimal control of engine thrust is analyzed within the framework of Mayer's general variational problem. It is shown that the control of a rocket engine satisfying the necessary optimality conditions belongs to the boundary arc of the feasible control set between the point of maximum thrust and the point of maximum exhaust velocity

  15. Nuclear Engineering at Colleges and Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffey, Dick

    1973-01-01

    Presents five statistical tables relating to nuclear engineering education, namely, course offerings by U.S. and Canadian schools; degrees and enrollment; enrollment, courses, and staff by schools; degrees granted by schools; and research contributions to the American Nuclear Society meetings. (CC)

  16. ABB Combustion Engineering`s nuclear experience and technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Matzie, R.A.

    1994-12-31

    ABB Combustion Engineering`s nuclear experience and technologies are outlined. The following topics are discussed: evolutionary approach using proven technology, substantial improvement to plant safety, utility perspective up front in developing design, integrated design, competitive plant cost, operability and maintainability, standardization, and completion of US NRC technical review.

  17. Selecting and using materials for a nuclear rocket engine reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanin, Anatolii G.; Fedik, Ivan I.

    2011-03-01

    This paper provides a historical account of how the nuclear rocket engine reactor was created and discusses the problem of selecting materials for a gas environment at a temperature of up to 3100 K and energy release of 30 MW per liter.

  18. Nuclear engineering enrollments and degrees, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Little, J R; Shirley, D L

    1982-05-01

    This report presents data on the number of students enrolled and the degrees awarded in academic year 1980-81 from 73 US institutions offering degree programs in nuclear engineering or nuclear options within other engineering fields. Presented here are historical data for the last decade, which provide information such as trends by degree level, foreign national student participation, female and minority student participation, and placement of graduates. Also included is a listing of the universities by type of program and number of students.

  19. Nuclear thermal rocket engine operation and control

    SciTech Connect

    Gunn, S.V.; Savoie, M.T.; Hundal, R.

    1993-06-01

    The operation of a typical Rover/Nerva-derived nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) engine is characterized and the control requirements of the NTR are defined. A rationale for the selection of a candidate diverse redundant NTR engine control system is presented and the projected component operating requirements are related to the state of the art of candidate components and subsystems. The projected operational capabilities of the candidate system are delineated for the startup, full-thrust, shutdown, and decay heat removal phases of the engine operation. 9 refs.

  20. Midwest Nuclear Science and Engineering Consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Wynn Volkert; Dr. Arvind Kumar; Dr. Bryan Becker; Dr. Victor Schwinke; Dr. Angel Gonzalez; Dr. DOuglas McGregor

    2010-12-08

    The objective of the Midwest Nuclear Science and Engineering Consortium (MNSEC) is to enhance the scope, quality and integration of educational and research capabilities of nuclear sciences and engineering (NS/E) programs at partner schools in support of the U.S. nuclear industry (including DOE laboratories). With INIE support, MNSEC had a productive seven years and made impressive progress in achieving these goals. Since the past three years have been no-cost-extension periods, limited -- but notable -- progress has been made in FY10. Existing programs continue to be strengthened and broadened at Consortium partner institutions. The enthusiasm generated by the academic, state, federal, and industrial communities for the MNSEC activities is reflected in the significant leveraging that has occurred for our programs.

  1. Nuclear Power: Problems in Information Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaver, William

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the problems encountered at the Duquesne Light Company of Pittsburgh's nuclear power plant as the result of an inability to process information effectively and keep pace with technological change. The creation of a separate division trained and directed to manage the plant's information flows is described and evaluated. (CLB)

  2. Nuclear Power: Problems in Information Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaver, William

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the problems encountered at the Duquesne Light Company of Pittsburgh's nuclear power plant as the result of an inability to process information effectively and keep pace with technological change. The creation of a separate division trained and directed to manage the plant's information flows is described and evaluated. (CLB)

  3. 2009 UK/US Nuclear Engineering Workshop Report

    SciTech Connect

    Richard Rankin

    2009-04-01

    This report summarizes the 2009 UK/US Nuclear Engineering Workshop held April 20-21, 2010, in Washington, D.C. to discuss opportunities for nuclear engineering collaboration between researchers in the United States and the United Kingdom.

  4. Nuclear Engineering Enrollments and Degrees Survey, 2005 Data

    SciTech Connect

    Oak RIdge Institute for Science and Education

    2006-03-01

    This annual report details the number of nuclear engineering bachelor's, master's, and doctoral degrees awarded at a sampling of academic programs from 1998-2005. it also looks at nuclear engineering degrees by curriculum and the number of students enrolled in nuclear engineering degree programs at 30 U.S. universities in 2005.

  5. Status of nuclear light bulb engine design and performance analyses.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, H. E.

    1971-01-01

    The dynamic response is discussed of a nuclear light bulb engine to perturbations at full-power operating conditions, both with and without control systems. Start-up and shutdown procedures are described, along with the provisions for residual afterheat removal. Problems associated with uprated engine designs are examined. The results of some analytical studies indicate that satisfactory control can be obtained by varying the fuel injection rate by means of a control valve which responds to the rate of change of neutron flux, or to the difference between the instantaneous and steady-state neutron fluxes.

  6. Status of nuclear light bulb engine design and performance analyses.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, H. E.

    1971-01-01

    The dynamic response is discussed of a nuclear light bulb engine to perturbations at full-power operating conditions, both with and without control systems. Start-up and shutdown procedures are described, along with the provisions for residual afterheat removal. Problems associated with uprated engine designs are examined. The results of some analytical studies indicate that satisfactory control can be obtained by varying the fuel injection rate by means of a control valve which responds to the rate of change of neutron flux, or to the difference between the instantaneous and steady-state neutron fluxes.

  7. Nuclear Engineering Academic Programs Survey, 2003

    SciTech Connect

    Science and Engineering Education, Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education

    2004-03-01

    The survey includes degrees granted between September 1, 2002 and August 31, 2003. Thirty-three academic programs reported having nuclear engineering programs during the survey time period and all responded (100% response rate). Three of the programs included in last year's report were discontinued or out-of-scope in 2003. One new program has been added to the list. This year the survey data include U.S. citizenship, gender, and race/ethnicity by degree level.

  8. Chemists, Engineers Probe Mutual Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Summarizes recommendations made in a workshop sponsored by the American Chemical Society concerning issues involving the diverging viewpoints of chemistry and chemical engineering. Includes recommendations regarding curricula, salary differences, and the need to change attitudes of chemistry faculty toward industry and industrial chemistry. (CS)

  9. Chemists, Engineers Probe Mutual Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Summarizes recommendations made in a workshop sponsored by the American Chemical Society concerning issues involving the diverging viewpoints of chemistry and chemical engineering. Includes recommendations regarding curricula, salary differences, and the need to change attitudes of chemistry faculty toward industry and industrial chemistry. (CS)

  10. Nuclear thermal propulsion engine cost trade studies

    SciTech Connect

    Paschall, R.K. )

    1993-01-10

    The NASA transportation strategy for the Mars Exploration architecture includes the use of nuclear thermal propulsion as the primary propulsion system for Mars transits. It is anticipated that the outgrowth of the NERVA/ROVER programs will be a nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) system capable of providing the propulsion for missions to Mars. The specific impulse (Isp) for such a system is expected to be in the 870 s range. Trade studies were conducted to investigate whether or not it may be cost effective to invest in a higher performance (Isp[gt]870 s) engine for nuclear thermal propulsion for missions to Mars. The basic cost trades revolved around the amount of mass that must be transported to low-earth orbit prior to each Mars flight and the cost to launch that mass. The mass required depended on the assumptions made for Mars missions scenarios including piloted/cargo flights, number of Mars missions, and transit time to Mars. Cost parameters included launch cost, program schedule for development and operations, and net discount rate. The results were very dependent on the assumptions that were made. Under some assumptions, higher performance engines showed cost savings in the billions of dollars; under other assumptions, the additional cost to develop higher performance engines was not justified.

  11. Advanced nuclear rocket engine mission analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ramsthaler, J.; Farbman, G.; Sulmeisters, T.; Buden, D.; Harris, P.

    1987-12-01

    The use of a derivative of the NERVA engine developed from 1955 to 1973 was evluated for potential application to Air Force orbital transfer and maneuvering missions in the time period 1995 to 2020. The NERVA stge was found to have lower life cycle costs (LCC) than an advanced chemical stage for performing low earth orbit (LEO) to geosynchronous orbit (GEO0 missions at any level of activity greater than three missions per year. It had lower life cycle costs than a high performance nuclear electric engine at any level of LEO to GEO mission activity. An examination of all unmanned orbital transfer and maneuvering missions from the Space Transportation Architecture study (STAS 111-3) indicated a LCC advantage for the NERVA stage over the advanced chemical stage of fifteen million dollars. The cost advanced accured from both the orbital transfer and maneuvering missions. Parametric analyses showed that the specific impulse of the NERVA stage and the cost of delivering material to low earth orbit were the most significant factors in the LCC advantage over the chemical stage. Lower development costs and a higher thrust gave the NERVA engine an LCC advantage over the nuclear electric stage. An examination of technical data from the Rover/NERVA program indicated that development of the NERVA stage has a low technical risk, and the potential for high reliability and safe operation. The data indicated the NERVA engine had a great flexibility which would permit a single stage to perform all Air Force missions.

  12. Medical problems of survivors of nuclear war

    SciTech Connect

    Abrams, H.L.; Von Kaenel, W.E.

    1981-11-01

    The nature of the medical problems that may confront survivors of a nuclear war are discussed with emphasis on infection and the spread of communicable disease. Factors which will increase the risk and severity of infection include: radiation, trauma and burns, malnutrition and starvation, dehydration, exposure, and hardship. Factors which will increase the spread of disease include: crowded shelter conditions, poor sanitation, insects, corpses, free-roaming diseased animals. Shortages of physicians, the destruction of laboratories, and the general disorganization sure to follow the attack will also contribute to the problems. The authors recommend further study in this area. (JMT)

  13. Quantity and quality in nuclear engineering professional skills needed by the nuclear power industry

    SciTech Connect

    Slember, R.J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper examines the challenge of work force requirements in the context of the full range of issues facing the nuclear power industry. The supply of skilled managers and workers may be a more serious problem if nuclear power fades away than if it is reborn in a new generation. An even greater concern, however, is the quality of education that the industry needs in all its future professionals. Both government and industry should be helping universities adapt their curricula to the needs of the future. This means building a closer relationship with schools that educate nuclear professionals, that is, providing adequate scholarships and funding for research and development programs, offering in-kind services, and encouraging internships and other opportunities for hands-on experience. The goal should not be just state-of-the-art engineering practices, but the broad range of knowledge, issues, and skills that will be required of the nuclear leadership of the twenty-first century.

  14. Summary of aerospace and nuclear engineering activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The Texas A&M Nuclear and Aerospace engineering departments have worked on five different projects for the NASA/USRA Advanced Design Program during the 1987/88 year. The aerospace department worked on two types of lunar tunnelers that would create habitable space. The first design used a heated cone to melt the lunar regolith, and the second used a conventional drill to bore its way through the crust. Both used a dump truck to get rid of waste heat from the reactor as well as excess regolith from the tunneling operation. The nuclear engineering department worked on three separate projects. The NEPTUNE system is a manned, outer-planetary explorer designed with Jupiter exploration as the baseline mission. The lifetime requirement for both reactor and power-conversion systems was twenty years. The second project undertaken for the power supply was a Mars Sample Return Mission power supply. This was designed to produce 2 kW of electrical power for seven years. The design consisted of a General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) utilizing a Stirling engine as the power conversion unit. A mass optimization was performed to aid in overall design. The last design was a reactor to provide power for propulsion to Mars and power on the surface. The requirements of 300 kW of electrical power output and a mass of less than 10,000 Rg were set. This allowed the reactor and power conversion unit to fit within the Space Shuttle cargo bay.

  15. Summary of aerospace and nuclear engineering activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The Texas A&M Nuclear and Aerospace engineering departments have worked on five different projects for the NASA/USRA Advanced Design Program during the 1987/88 year. The aerospace department worked on two types of lunar tunnelers that would create habitable space. The first design used a heated cone to melt the lunar regolith, and the second used a conventional drill to bore its way through the crust. Both used a dump truck to get rid of waste heat from the reactor as well as excess regolith from the tunneling operation. The nuclear engineering department worked on three separate projects. The NEPTUNE system is a manned, outer-planetary explorer designed with Jupiter exploration as the baseline mission. The lifetime requirement for both reactor and power-conversion systems was twenty years. The second project undertaken for the power supply was a Mars Sample Return Mission power supply. This was designed to produce 2 kW of electrical power for seven years. The design consisted of a General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) utilizing a Stirling engine as the power conversion unit. A mass optimization was performed to aid in overall design. The last design was a reactor to provide power for propulsion to Mars and power on the surface. The requirements of 300 kW of electrical power output and a mass of less than 10,000 Rg were set. This allowed the reactor and power conversion unit to fit within the Space Shuttle cargo bay.

  16. Applying optimization software libraries to engineering problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Healy, M. J.

    1984-01-01

    Nonlinear programming, preliminary design problems, performance simulation problems trajectory optimization, flight computer optimization, and linear least squares problems are among the topics covered. The nonlinear programming applications encountered in a large aerospace company are a real challenge to those who provide mathematical software libraries and consultation services. Typical applications include preliminary design studies, data fitting and filtering, jet engine simulations, control system analysis, and trajectory optimization and optimal control. Problem sizes range from single-variable unconstrained minimization to constrained problems with highly nonlinear functions and hundreds of variables. Most of the applications can be posed as nonlinearly constrained minimization problems. Highly complex optimization problems with many variables were formulated in the early days of computing. At the time, many problems had to be reformulated or bypassed entirely, and solution methods often relied on problem-specific strategies. Problems with more than ten variables usually went unsolved.

  17. Nuclear engine flow reactivity shim control

    DOEpatents

    Walsh, J.M.

    1973-12-11

    A nuclear engine control system is provided which automatically compensates for reactor reactivity uncertainties at the start of life and reactivity losses due to core corrosion during the reactor life in gas-cooled reactors. The coolant gas flow is varied automatically by means of specially provided control apparatus so that the reactor control drums maintain a predetermined steady state position throughout the reactor life. This permits the reactor to be designed for a constant drum position and results in a desirable, relatively flat temperature profile across the core. (Official Gazette)

  18. Engineer and technical training at GPUN's nuclear generating stations

    SciTech Connect

    Coe, R.P. )

    1993-01-01

    GPU Nuclear (GPUN) owns and operates the Oyster Creek and Three Mile Island (TMI) unit I nuclear generating stations. They also continue the recovery efforts of the damaged reactor at TMI-2. Technical training for engineers and support staff is managed by the GPUN Corporate Training Department. The group also manages the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO)-accredited Engineering Support Personnel (ESP) Training Program and the GPUN New Engineer Training Program. The New Engineer Training Program has been in existence since 1982 and has trained and oriented [approximately]100 new college graduates to the nuclear industry.

  19. Induction simulation of gas core nuclear engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poole, J. W.; Vogel, C. E.

    1973-01-01

    The design, construction and operation of an induction heated plasma device known as a combined principles simulator is discussed. This device incorporates the major design features of the gas core nuclear rocket engine such as solid feed, propellant seeding, propellant injection through the walls, and a transpiration cooled, choked flow nozzle. Both argon and nitrogen were used as propellant simulating material, and sodium was used for fuel simulating material. In addition, a number of experiments were conducted utilizing depleted uranium as the fuel. The test program revealed that satisfactory operation of this device can be accomplished over a range of operating conditions and provided additional data to confirm the validity of the gas core concept.

  20. Problem Decomposition and Recomposition in Engineering Design: A Comparison of Design Behavior between Professional Engineers, Engineering Seniors, and Engineering Freshmen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Ting; Becker, Kurt; Gero, John; DeBerard, Scott; DeBerard, Oenardi; Reeve, Edward

    2016-01-01

    The authors investigated the differences in using problem decomposition and problem recomposition between dyads of engineering experts, engineering seniors, and engineering freshmen. Participants worked in dyads to complete an engineering design challenge within 1 hour. The entire design process was video and audio recorded. After the design…

  1. Nuclear Engine System Simulation (NESS). Volume 1: Program user's guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pelaccio, Dennis G.; Scheil, Christine M.; Petrosky, Lyman J.

    1993-01-01

    A Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) engine system design analysis tool is required to support current and future Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) propulsion and vehicle design studies. Currently available NTP engine design models are those developed during the NERVA program in the 1960's and early 1970's and are highly unique to that design or are modifications of current liquid propulsion system design models. To date, NTP engine-based liquid design models lack integrated design of key NTP engine design features in the areas of reactor, shielding, multi-propellant capability, and multi-redundant pump feed fuel systems. Additionally, since the SEI effort is in the initial development stage, a robust, verified NTP analysis design tool could be of great use to the community. This effort developed an NTP engine system design analysis program (tool), known as the Nuclear Engine System Simulation (NESS) program, to support ongoing and future engine system and stage design study efforts. In this effort, Science Applications International Corporation's (SAIC) NTP version of the Expanded Liquid Engine Simulation (ELES) program was modified extensively to include Westinghouse Electric Corporation's near-term solid-core reactor design model. The ELES program has extensive capability to conduct preliminary system design analysis of liquid rocket systems and vehicles. The program is modular in nature and is versatile in terms of modeling state-of-the-art component and system options as discussed. The Westinghouse reactor design model, which was integrated in the NESS program, is based on the near-term solid-core ENABLER NTP reactor design concept. This program is now capable of accurately modeling (characterizing) a complete near-term solid-core NTP engine system in great detail, for a number of design options, in an efficient manner. The following discussion summarizes the overall analysis methodology, key assumptions, and capabilities associated with the NESS presents an

  2. The beginnings. [Of Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicles Application

    SciTech Connect

    Bohl, R.J.; Kirk, W.L.; Holman, R.R.; Westinghouse Electric Corp., Pittsburgh, PA )

    1989-06-01

    The development of the nuclear rocket engine called NERVA (Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Application) is described. The choice of fuel element, required rocket parameters, NERVA project objectives, division of responsibilities among different organizations, and NERVA design configuration are reviewed. Progress that has been made in the development of NERVA is addressed.

  3. Inherently safe nuclear-driven internal combustion engines

    SciTech Connect

    Alesso, P.; Chow, Tze-Show; Condit, R.; Heidrich, J.; Pettibone, J.; Streit, R.

    1991-06-14

    A family of nuclear driven engines is described in which nuclear energy released by fissioning of uranium or plutonium in a prompt critical assembly is used to heat a working gas. Engine performance is modeled using a code that calculates hydrodynamics, fission energy production, and neutron transport self-consistently. Results are given demonstrating a large negative temperature coefficient that produces self-shutoff of energy production. Reduced fission product inventory and the self-shutoff provide inherent nuclear safety. It is expected that nuclear engine reactor units could be scaled from 100 MW on up. 7 refs., 3 figs.

  4. Rocketdyne/Westinghouse nuclear thermal rocket engine modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glass, James F.

    1993-01-01

    The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: systems approach needed for nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) design optimization; generic NTR engine power balance codes; rocketdyne nuclear thermal system code; software capabilities; steady state model; NTR engine optimizer code-logic; reactor power calculation logic; sample multi-component configuration; NTR design code output; generic NTR code at Rocketdyne; Rocketdyne NTR model; and nuclear thermal rocket modeling directions.

  5. Rocketdyne/Westinghouse nuclear thermal rocket engine modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glass, James F.

    The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: systems approach needed for nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) design optimization; generic NTR engine power balance codes; rocketdyne nuclear thermal system code; software capabilities; steady state model; NTR engine optimizer code-logic; reactor power calculation logic; sample multi-component configuration; NTR design code output; generic NTR code at Rocketdyne; Rocketdyne NTR model; and nuclear thermal rocket modeling directions.

  6. The Problem of Whistleblowing in Engineering Ethics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohishi, Toshihiro

    The purpose of this paper is to clarify the features of whistleblowing by considering the arguments about whistleblowing in engineering ethics. First, I analyze the concept of ‘whistleblowing’ by defining the word as clearly as possible. Second, I examine the standard justification theory of whistleblowing by showing the problems of the theory. Finally, I analyze the dilemma about whistleblowing by revealing a prospective whistleblower‧s struggle to choose moral value or non-moral value.

  7. Labor market trends for nuclear engineers through 2005

    SciTech Connect

    Seltzer, N.; Blair, L.M.

    1996-10-01

    Between 1983 and 1989, employment of nuclear engineers in the nuclear energy field increased almost 40 percent while the annual number of nuclear engineering degrees awarded decreased by almost one-fourth. There were, on average, more job openings for new graduates than there were new graduates available to fill the jobs during the 1980s. This trend reversed in the l990s as nuclear engineering employment in the nuclear energy field decreased from 11,500 in 1991 to 9,400 in 1995. During roughly the same period, the annual number of nuclear engineering degrees increased by 11 percent. As a result, from 1990 through 1995, the number of new graduate nuclear engineers available in the labor supply far exceeded the number of job openings for new graduates in the nuclear energy field. This oversupply of new graduates was particularly acute for 1993 through 1995. During 1996--1997, a relative improvement is expected in job opportunities in the nuclear energy field for new graduates; however, a large oversupply is still expected (almost twice as many graduates available for employment as there are job openings). For 1998 through 2000, some improvement is expected in the relative number of job opportunities for new graduates in the nuclear energy field. Nuclear engineering jobs in the nuclear energy field are expected to decrease only slightly (by less than 150) during this period. Also a 10--15% decrease in the annual number of degrees and available supply of new graduates is expected. Overall, an oversupply is expected (140 graduates available per 100 job openings for new graduates in the nuclear energy field), but this is still a substantial improvement over the current period. For 2001 through 2005, if enrollments and degrees continue to decline, the labor market for new graduates is expected to be approximately balanced. This assumes, however, that the number of degrees and the available supply of new graduates will decrease by 25% from 1995 levels.

  8. Making objective decisions in mechanical engineering problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raicu, A.; Oanta, E.; Sabau, A.

    2017-08-01

    Decision making process has a great influence in the development of a given project, the goal being to select an optimal choice in a given context. Because of its great importance, the decision making was studied using various science methods, finally being conceived the game theory that is considered the background for the science of logical decision making in various fields. The paper presents some basic ideas regarding the game theory in order to offer the necessary information to understand the multiple-criteria decision making (MCDM) problems in engineering. The solution is to transform the multiple-criteria problem in a one-criterion decision problem, using the notion of utility, together with the weighting sum model or the weighting product model. The weighted importance of the criteria is computed using the so-called Step method applied to a relation of preferences between the criteria. Two relevant examples from engineering are also presented. The future directions of research consist of the use of other types of criteria, the development of computer based instruments for decision making general problems and to conceive a software module based on expert system principles to be included in the Wiki software applications for polymeric materials that are already operational.

  9. Brief 70 Nuclear Engineering Enrollments and Degrees, 2011 Summary Information

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Don Johnson

    2012-10-31

    The survey includes degrees granted between September 1, 2010 and August 31, 2011. Enrollment information refers to the fall term 2011. The enrollment and degree data include students majoring in nuclear engineering or in an option program equivalent to a major. Thirty-two academic programs reported having nuclear engineering programs during 2011, and data was received from all thirty-two programs. The data for two nuclear engineering programs include enrollments and degrees in health physics options that are also reported in the health physics enrollments and degrees data.

  10. Brief 74 Nuclear Engineering Enrollments and Degrees Survey, 2014 Data

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2015-03-15

    The 2014 survey includes degrees granted between September 1, 2013 and August 31, 2014, and enrollments for fall 2014. There are three academic programs new to this year's survey. Thirty-five academic programs reported having nuclear engineering programs during 2014, and data were provided by all thirty-five. The enrollments and degrees data include students majoring in nuclear engineering or in an option program equivalent to a major. Two nuclear engineering programs have indicated that health physics option enrollments and degrees are also reported in the health physics enrollments and degrees survey.

  11. Brief 76 Nuclear Engineering Enrollments and Degrees Survey, 2015 Data

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2016-03-15

    The 2015 Nuclear Engineering Enrollments and Degrees Survey reports degrees granted between September 1, 2014 and August 31, 2015. Enrollment information refers to the fall term 2015. The enrollments and degrees data comprises students majoring in nuclear engineering or in an option program equivalent to a major. Thirty-five academic programs reported having nuclear engineering programs during 2015, and data was received from all thirty-five programs. The report includes enrollment information on undergraduate students and graduate students and information by degree level for post-graduation plans.

  12. Chemistry and the Internal Combustion Engine II: Pollution Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, C. B.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses pollution problems which arise from the use of internal combustion (IC) engines in the United Kingdom (UK). The IC engine exhaust emissions, controlling IC engine pollution in the UK, and some future developments are also included. (HM)

  13. Chemistry and the Internal Combustion Engine II: Pollution Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, C. B.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses pollution problems which arise from the use of internal combustion (IC) engines in the United Kingdom (UK). The IC engine exhaust emissions, controlling IC engine pollution in the UK, and some future developments are also included. (HM)

  14. Nuclear Engine System Simulation (NESS) version 2.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pelaccio, Dennis G.; Scheil, Christine M.; Petrosky, Lyman J.

    1993-01-01

    The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following; nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) engine system analysis program development; nuclear thermal propulsion engine analysis capability requirements; team resources used to support NESS development; expanded liquid engine simulations (ELES) computer model; ELES verification examples; NESS program development evolution; past NTP ELES analysis code modifications and verifications; general NTP engine system features modeled by NESS; representative NTP expander, gas generator, and bleed engine system cycles modeled by NESS; NESS program overview; NESS program flow logic; enabler (NERVA type) nuclear thermal rocket engine; prismatic fuel elements and supports; reactor fuel and support element parameters; reactor parameters as a function of thrust level; internal shield sizing; and reactor thermal model.

  15. NTP system simulation and detailed nuclear engine modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anghaie, Samim

    1993-01-01

    The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) & detailed nuclear engine modeling; modeling and engineering simulation of nuclear thermal rocket systems; nuclear thermal rocket simulation system; INSPI-NTVR core axial flow profiles; INSPI-NTRV core axial flow profiles; specific impulse vs. chamber pressure; turbine pressure ratio vs. chamber pressure; NERVA core axial flow profiles; P&W XNR2000 core axial flow profiles; pump pressure rise vs. chamber pressure; streamline of jet-induced flow in cylindrical chamber; flow pattern of a jet-induced flow in a chamber; and radiative heat transfer models.

  16. Examining Young Students' Problem Scoping in Engineering Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Jessica; Spencer, Kathleen; Hammer, David

    2014-01-01

    Problem scoping--determining the nature and boundaries of a problem--is an essential aspect of the engineering design process. Some studies from engineering education suggest that beginning students tend to skip problem scoping or oversimplify a problem. However, the ways these studies often characterize students' problem scoping often do not…

  17. Brief 66 Nuclear Engineering Enrollments and Degrees Survey, 2009 Data

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Larry M. Blair, Analysis and Evaluation, Science Education Programs

    2010-03-01

    The survey includes degrees granted between September 1, 2008 and August 31, 2009, and fall 2009 enrollments. Thirty-two academic programs reported having nuclear engineering programs during 2009, and data was obtained from all thirty-two.

  18. Nuclear Engineering Enrollments and Degrees Survey, 2008 Data

    SciTech Connect

    Analysis and Evaluation, Science Education Programs

    2009-03-30

    The survey includes degrees granted between September 1, 2007, and August 31, 2008, and fall 2008 enrollments. Thirty-one academic programs reported having nuclear engineering programs during 2008, and data was provided by all thirty-one programs.

  19. Nuclear Engineering Enrollments and Degrees Survey, 2007 Data

    SciTech Connect

    Analysis and Evaluation, Science Education Programs

    2008-03-01

    The survey includes degrees granted between September 1, 2006, and August 1, 2007, and fall 2007 enrollments. Thirty-one academic programs reported having nuclear engineering programs during 2007, and data was obtained for all thirty-one.

  20. A TAPS Interactive Multimedia Package to Solve Engineering Dynamics Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sidhu, S. Manjit; Selvanathan, N.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To expose engineering students to using modern technologies, such as multimedia packages, to learn, visualize and solve engineering problems, such as in mechanics dynamics. Design/methodology/approach: A multimedia problem-solving prototype package is developed to help students solve an engineering problem in a step-by-step approach. A…

  1. A TAPS Interactive Multimedia Package to Solve Engineering Dynamics Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sidhu, S. Manjit; Selvanathan, N.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To expose engineering students to using modern technologies, such as multimedia packages, to learn, visualize and solve engineering problems, such as in mechanics dynamics. Design/methodology/approach: A multimedia problem-solving prototype package is developed to help students solve an engineering problem in a step-by-step approach. A…

  2. Nuclear-spectroscopy problems studied with neutrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raman, S.

    Nuclear spectroscopy with neutrons continues to have a major impact on the progress of nuclear science. Neutrons, being uncharged, are particularly useful for the study of low energy reactions. Recent advances in time-of-flight spectroscopy, as well as in the gamma ray spectroscopy following neutron capture, have permitted precision studies of unbound and bound nuclear levels and related phenomena. By going to new energy domains, by using polarized beams and targets, through the invention of new kinds of detectors, and through the general improvement in beam quantity and quality, new features of nuclear structure and reactions were obtained that are not only interesting per se but are also grist for old and new theory mills. The above technical advances have opened up opportunities for further discoveries.

  3. Nuclear-spectroscopy problems studied with neutrons

    SciTech Connect

    Raman, S.

    1982-01-01

    Nuclear spectroscopy with neutrons continues to have a major impact on the progress of nuclear science. Neutrons, being uncharged, are particularly useful for the study of low energy reactions. Recent advances in time-of-flight spectroscopy, as well as in the gamma ray spectroscopy following neutron capture, have permitted precision studies of unbound and bound nuclear levels and related phenomena. By going to new energy domains, by using polarized beams and targets, through the invention of new kinds of detectors, and through the general improvement in beam quantity and quality, new features of nuclear structure and reactions have been obtained that are not ony interesting per se but are also grist for old and new theory mills. The above technical advances have opened up new opportunities for further discoveries.

  4. Advanced numerical analyses for complex thermal-hydraulics in nuclear engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Seiichi Koshizuka; Yoshiaki Oka

    2002-07-01

    Complex thermal-hydraulic phenomena in the nuclear engineering have been solved by advanced numerical analyses based on fundamental governing equations excluding experimental correlations. A new method, called Moving Particle Semi-implicit (MPS) method, is developed as one of the advanced methods. Governing equations are discretized to particle dynamics using particle interaction models. Grids are not necessary. Therefore, complex motion of interfaces can be calculated without grid tangling or numerical diffusion. This is advantageous to multi-fluid and multi-phase thermal-hydraulic problems which emerge in the nuclear engineering. The analyzed problems are vapor explosions, molten core-concrete interaction, fluid-structure interaction, nucleate boiling, transient boiling at reactivity initiated accidents, and the critical Weber number for droplet breakup. These examples show that the MPS method is being useful for direct simulation of complex thermal-hydraulics, particularly multi-phase flows, in the nuclear engineering. (authors)

  5. Engineering problems of tandem-mirror reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Moir, R.W.; Barr, W.L.; Boghosian, B.M.

    1981-10-22

    We have completed a comparative evaluation of several end plug configurations for tandem mirror fusion reactors with thermal barriers. The axi-cell configuration has been selected for further study and will be the basis for a detailed conceptual design study to be carried out over the next two years. The axi-cell end plug has a simple mirror cell produced by two circular coils followed by a transition coil and a yin-yang pair, which provides for MHD stability. This paper discusses some of the many engineering problems facing the designer. We estimated the direct cost to be 2$/W/sub e/. Assuming total (direct and indirect) costs to be twice this number, we need to reduce total costs by factors between 1.7 and 2.3 to compete with future LWRs levelized cost of electricity. These reductions may be possible by designing magnets producing over 20T made possible by use of combinations of superconducting and normal conducting coils as well as improvements in performance and cost of neutral beam and microwave power systems. Scientific and technological understanding and innovation are needed in the area of thermal barrier pumping - a process by which unwanted particles are removed (pumped) from certain regions of velocity and real space in the end plug. Removal of exhaust fuel ions, fusion ash and impurities by action of a halo plasma and plasma dump in the mirror end region is another challenging engineering problem discussed in this paper.

  6. The medium nuclear powers and nuclear stability: The Nth Country Problem revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, W.

    1992-01-01

    The theme of this thesis is about what is the impact of the three medium nuclear powers (Britain, France, and China) on nuclear stability. The purpose of studying this issue is to go beyond the thinking of the bipolar nuclear deterrence and to gain a better understanding of the meaning of a future multilateral nuclear world. Two different but complementary approaches -- structural realist and liberal institutionalist -- are used to interpret: (a) what are the structural reasons of the MNPs' nuclear behavior in the international system; and (b) what is the learning effect on their nuclear behavior. By examining the three countries' role in three aspects of nuclear stability (crisis stability, arms race stability, and nuclear nonproliferation), this thesis concludes that they are generally stabilizing to the international nuclear system, and rejects the relevance of the destabilizing propositions of the [open quotes]Nth Country Problem[close quotes] to the issue of the MNPs and nuclear stability.

  7. Recommendations to the NRC on human engineering guidelines for nuclear power plant maintainability

    SciTech Connect

    Badalamente, R.V.; Fecht, B.A.; Blahnik, D.E.; Eklund, J.D.; Hartley, C.S.

    1986-03-01

    This document contains human engineering guidelines which can enhance the maintainability of nuclear power plants. The guidelines have been derived from general human engineering design principles, criteria, and data. The guidelines may be applied to existing plants as well as to plants under construction. They apply to nuclear power plant systems, equipment and facilities, as well as to maintenance tools and equipment. The guidelines are grouped into seven categories: accessibility and workspace, physical environment, loads and forces, maintenance facilities, maintenance tools and equipment, operating equipment design, and information needs. Each chapter of the document details specific maintainability problems encountered at nuclear power plants, the safety impact of these problems, and the specific maintainability design guidelines whose application can serve to avoid these problems in new or existing plants.

  8. Applications of artificial intelligence to engineering problems

    SciTech Connect

    Adey, R.A.; Sriram, D.

    1987-01-01

    The conference covered general sessions on AI techniques suitable for engineering applications, e.g. knowledge representation, natural language, probability, design methodologies and constraints. This was followed by sessions covering application in mechanical engineering, civil engineering, electrical engineering, and general engineering. Further sessions covered robotics and tools and techniques for building knowledge based systems.

  9. Nuclear physics problems for accreting neutron stars

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, R.K.; Woosley, S.E.

    1983-01-01

    The importance of p(e/sup -/nu)n and of (p,..gamma..) reactions on /sup 56/Ni during a thermonuclear runaway on a neutron star surface is pointed out. A fast 16-isotope approximate nuclear reaction network is developed that is suitable for use in hydrodynamic calculations of such events.

  10. Ground test facility for SEI nuclear rocket engines

    SciTech Connect

    Harmon, C.D.; Ottinger, C.A.; Sanchez, L.C.; Shipers, L.R.

    1992-08-01

    Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) has been identified as a critical technology in support of the NASA Space Exploration Initiative (SEI). In order to safely develop a reliable, reusable, long-lived flight engine, facilities are required that will support ground tests to qualify the nuclear rocket engine design. Initial nuclear fuel element testing will need to be performed in a facility that supports a realistic thermal and neutronic environment in which the fuel elements will operate at a fraction of the power of a flight weight reactor/engine. Ground testing of nuclear rocket engines is not new. New restrictions mandated by the National Environmental Protection Act of 1970, however, now require major changes to be made in the manner in which reactor engines are now tested. These new restrictions now preclude the types of nuclear rocket engine tests that were performed in the past from being done today. A major attribute of a safely operating ground test facility is its ability to prevent fission products from being released in appreciable amounts to the environment. Details of the intricacies and complications involved with the design of a fuel element ground test facility are presented in this report with a strong emphasis on safety and economy.

  11. Parallel multiphysics algorithms and software for computational nuclear engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaston, D.; Hansen, G.; Kadioglu, S.; Knoll, D. A.; Newman, C.; Park, H.; Permann, C.; Taitano, W.

    2009-07-01

    There is a growing trend in nuclear reactor simulation to consider multiphysics problems. This can be seen in reactor analysis where analysts are interested in coupled flow, heat transfer and neutronics, and in fuel performance simulation where analysts are interested in thermomechanics with contact coupled to species transport and chemistry. These more ambitious simulations usually motivate some level of parallel computing. Many of the coupling efforts to date utilize simple code coupling or first-order operator splitting, often referred to as loose coupling. While these approaches can produce answers, they usually leave questions of accuracy and stability unanswered. Additionally, the different physics often reside on separate grids which are coupled via simple interpolation, again leaving open questions of stability and accuracy. Utilizing state of the art mathematics and software development techniques we are deploying next generation tools for nuclear engineering applications. The Jacobian-free Newton-Krylov (JFNK) method combined with physics-based preconditioning provide the underlying mathematical structure for our tools. JFNK is understood to be a modern multiphysics algorithm, but we are also utilizing its unique properties as a scale bridging algorithm. To facilitate rapid development of multiphysics applications we have developed the Multiphysics Object-Oriented Simulation Environment (MOOSE). Examples from two MOOSE-based applications: PRONGHORN, our multiphysics gas cooled reactor simulation tool and BISON, our multiphysics, multiscale fuel performance simulation tool will be presented.

  12. Paralel Multiphysics Algorithms and Software for Computational Nuclear Engineering

    SciTech Connect

    D. Gaston; G. Hansen; S. Kadioglu; D. A. Knoll; C. Newman; H. Park; C. Permann; W. Taitano

    2009-08-01

    There is a growing trend in nuclear reactor simulation to consider multiphysics problems. This can be seen in reactor analysis where analysts are interested in coupled flow, heat transfer and neutronics, and in fuel performance simulation where analysts are interested in thermomechanics with contact coupled to species transport and chemistry. These more ambitious simulations usually motivate some level of parallel computing. Many of the coupling efforts to date utilize simple 'code coupling' or first-order operator splitting, often referred to as loose coupling. While these approaches can produce answers, they usually leave questions of accuracy and stability unanswered. Additionally, the different physics often reside on separate grids which are coupled via simple interpolation, again leaving open questions of stability and accuracy. Utilizing state of the art mathematics and software development techniques we are deploying next generation tools for nuclear engineering applications. The Jacobian-free Newton-Krylov (JFNK) method combined with physics-based preconditioning provide the underlying mathematical structure for our tools. JFNK is understood to be a modern multiphysics algorithm, but we are also utilizing its unique properties as a scale bridging algorithm. To facilitate rapid development of multiphysics applications we have developed the Multiphysics Object-Oriented Simulation Environment (MOOSE). Examples from two MOOSE based applications: PRONGHORN, our multiphysics gas cooled reactor simulation tool and BISON, our multiphysics, multiscale fuel performance simulation tool will be presented.

  13. Rover nuclear rocket engine program: Overview of rover engine tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finseth, J. L.

    1991-01-01

    The results of nuclear rocket development activities from the inception of the ROVER program in 1955 through the termination of activities on January 5, 1973 are summarized. This report discusses the nuclear reactor test configurations (non cold flow) along with the nuclear furnace demonstrated during this time frame. Included in the report are brief descriptions of the propulsion systems, test objectives, accomplishments, technical issues, and relevant test results for the various reactor tests. Additionally, this document is specifically aimed at reporting performance data and their relationship to fuel element development with little or no emphasis on other (important) items.

  14. Problem free nuclear power and global change

    SciTech Connect

    Teller, E.; Wood, L.; Nuckolls, J.; Ishikawa, M.; Hyde, R.

    1997-08-15

    Nuclear fission power reactors represent a solution-in-principle to all aspects of global change possibly induced by inputting of either particulate or carbon or sulfur oxides into the Earth`s atmosphere. Of proven technological feasibility, they presently produce high- grade heat for electricity generation, space heating and industrial process-driving around the world, without emitting greenhouse gases or atmospheric particulates. However, a substantial number of major issues currently stand between nuclear power implemented with light- water reactors and widespread substitution for large stationary fossil fuel-fired systems, including long-term fuel supply, adverse public perceptions regarding both long-term and acute operational safety, plant decommissioning, fuel reprocessing, radwaste disposal, fissile materials diversion to military purposes and - perhaps more seriously - cost. We describe a GW-scale, high-temperature nuclear reactor heat source that can operate with no human intervention for a few decades and that may be widely acceptable, since its safety features are simple, inexpensive and easily understood. We provide first-level details of a reactor system designed to satisfy these requirements. Such a back-solving approach to realizing large-scale nuclear fission power systems potentially leads to an energy source capable of meeting all large-scale stationary demands for high- temperature heat. If widely employed to support such demands, it could, for example, directly reduce present-day world-wide CO{sub 2} emissions by two-fold; by using it to produce non-carbonaceous fuels for small mobile demands, a second two-fold reduction could be attained. Even the first such reduction would permit continued slow power-demand growth in the First World and rapid development of the Third World, both without any governmental suppression of fossil fuel usage.

  15. Open problems in understanding the nuclear chirality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Jie; Zhang, S. Q.

    2010-06-01

    Open problems in the interpretation of the observed pair of near-degenerate ΔI = 1 bands with the same parity as the chiral doublet bands are discussed. The ambiguities for the existing fingerprints of the chirality in atomic nuclei and problems in existing theory are discussed, including the description of quantum tunneling in the mean field approximation as well as the deformation, core polarization and configuration of the particle rotor model (PRM). Future developments of the theoretical approach are anticipated.

  16. Computational nuclear quantum many-body problem: The UNEDF project

    SciTech Connect

    Fann, George I

    2013-01-01

    The UNEDF project was a large-scale collaborative effort that applied high-performance computing to the nuclear quantum many-body problem. The primary focus of the project was on constructing, validating, and applying an optimized nuclear energy density functional, which entailed a wide range of pioneering developments in microscopic nuclear structure and reactions, algorithms, high-performance computing, and uncertainty quantification. UNEDF demonstrated that close associations among nuclear physicists, mathematicians, and computer scientists can lead to novel physics outcomes built on algorithmic innovations and computational developments. This review showcases a wide range of UNEDF science results to illustrate this interplay.

  17. Labor market trends for nuclear engineers through 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Seltzer, N.; Blair, L.M.; Baker, J.G.

    1995-01-01

    Throughout most of the 1980s, both private organizations and government agencies were concerned about the availability of an adequate supply of qualified nuclear engineers. This concern was primarily the result of a number of nuclear engineering academic programs being eliminated coupled with a continuous decline in graduate and undergraduate enrollments and degrees. By the early 1990s, the number of degrees and available supply had declined to new lows, but cutbacks in funding for the nuclear weapons program and nuclear energy R&D, and in hiring by the electric utility industry, offset in large measure the declining supply. Recently, concerns about environment and waste management and about nuclear safety have again generated questions about the adequacy of supply of qualified personnel for nuclear energy activities. This report briefly examines the nuclear engineering labor market. Trends in employment, new graduates, job openings, and salaries are reviewed as a basis for understanding the current labor market. This review is then used as a basis for assessing future employment needs and new graduate supply to provide an outlook for future labor market conditions through 2000.

  18. Hybrid intelligent optimization methods for engineering problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pehlivanoglu, Yasin Volkan

    The purpose of optimization is to obtain the best solution under certain conditions. There are numerous optimization methods because different problems need different solution methodologies; therefore, it is difficult to construct patterns. Also mathematical modeling of a natural phenomenon is almost based on differentials. Differential equations are constructed with relative increments among the factors related to yield. Therefore, the gradients of these increments are essential to search the yield space. However, the landscape of yield is not a simple one and mostly multi-modal. Another issue is differentiability. Engineering design problems are usually nonlinear and they sometimes exhibit discontinuous derivatives for the objective and constraint functions. Due to these difficulties, non-gradient-based algorithms have become more popular in recent decades. Genetic algorithms (GA) and particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithms are popular, non-gradient based algorithms. Both are population-based search algorithms and have multiple points for initiation. A significant difference from a gradient-based method is the nature of the search methodologies. For example, randomness is essential for the search in GA or PSO. Hence, they are also called stochastic optimization methods. These algorithms are simple, robust, and have high fidelity. However, they suffer from similar defects, such as, premature convergence, less accuracy, or large computational time. The premature convergence is sometimes inevitable due to the lack of diversity. As the generations of particles or individuals in the population evolve, they may lose their diversity and become similar to each other. To overcome this issue, we studied the diversity concept in GA and PSO algorithms. Diversity is essential for a healthy search, and mutations are the basic operators to provide the necessary variety within a population. After having a close scrutiny of the diversity concept based on qualification and

  19. "Cloud" functions and templates of engineering calculations for nuclear power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ochkov, V. F.; Orlov, K. A.; Ko, Chzho Ko

    2014-10-01

    The article deals with an important problem of setting up computer-aided design calculations of various circuit configurations and power equipment carried out using the templates and standard computer programs available in the Internet. Information about the developed Internet-based technology for carrying out such calculations using the templates accessible in the Mathcad Prime software package is given. The technology is considered taking as an example the solution of two problems relating to the field of nuclear power engineering.

  20. Systems engineering: A problem of perception

    SciTech Connect

    Senglaub, M.

    1995-08-01

    The characterization of systems engineering as a discipline, process, procedure or a set of heuristics will have an impact on the implementation strategy, the training methodology, and operational environment. The systems engineering upgrade activities in the New Mexico Weapons Development Center and a search of systems engineering related information provides evidence of a degree of ambiguity in this characterization of systems engineering. A case is made in this article for systems engineering being the engineering discipline applied to the science of complexity. Implications of this characterization and some generic issues are delineated with the goal of providing an enterprise with a starting point for developing its business environment.

  1. Corrosion problems in light water nuclear reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, W.E.

    1984-06-01

    The corrosion problems encountered during the author's career are reviewed. Attention is given to the development of Zircaloys and attendant factors that affect corrosion; the caustic and chloride stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of austenitic stainless steel steam generator tubing; the qualification of Inconel Alloy 600 for steam generator tubing and the subsequent corrosion problem of secondary side wastage, caustic SCC, pitting, intergranular attack, denting, and primary side SCC; and SCC in weld and furnace sensitized stainless steel piping and internals in boiling water reactor primary coolants. Also mentioned are corrosion of metallic uranium alloy fuels; corrosion of aluminum and niobium candidate fuel element claddings; crevice corrosion and seizing of stainless steel journal-sleeve combinations; SCC of precipitation hardened and martensitic stainless steels; low temperature SCC of welded austenitic stainless steels by chloride, fluoride, and sulfur oxy-anions; and corrosion problems experienced by condensers.

  2. Gas core nuclear thermal rocket engine research and development in the former USSR

    SciTech Connect

    Koehlinger, M.W.; Bennett, R.G.; Motloch, C.G.; Gurfink, M.M.

    1992-09-01

    Beginning in 1957 and continuing into the mid 1970s, the USSR conducted an extensive investigation into the use of both solid and gas core nuclear thermal rocket engines for space missions. During this time the scientific and engineering. problems associated with the development of a solid core engine were resolved. At the same time research was undertaken on a gas core engine, and some of the basic engineering problems associated with the concept were investigated. At the conclusion of the program, the basic principles of the solid core concept were established. However, a prototype solid core engine was not built because no established mission required such an engine. For the gas core concept, some of the basic physical processes involved were studied both theoretically and experimentally. However, no simple method of conducting proof-of-principle tests in a neutron flux was devised. This report focuses primarily on the development of the. gas core concept in the former USSR. A variety of gas core engine system parameters and designs are presented, along with a summary discussion of the basic physical principles and limitations involved in their design. The parallel development of the solid core concept is briefly described to provide an overall perspective of the magnitude of the nuclear thermal propulsion program and a technical comparison with the gas core concept.

  3. Engineering students' experiences and perceptions of workplace problem solving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Rui

    In this study, I interviewed 22 engineering Co-Op students about their workplace problem solving experiences and reflections and explored: 1) Of Co-Op students who experienced workplace problem solving, what are the different ways in which students experience workplace problem solving? 2) How do students perceive a) the differences between workplace problem solving and classroom problem solving and b) in what areas are they prepared by their college education to solve workplace problems? To answer my first research question, I analyzed data through the lens of phenomenography and I conducted thematic analysis to answer my second research question. The results of this study have implications for engineering education and engineering practice. Specifically, the results reveal the different ways students experience workplace problem solving, which provide engineering educators and practicing engineers a better understanding of the nature of workplace engineering. In addition, the results indicate that there is still a gap between classroom engineering and workplace engineering. For engineering educators who aspire to prepare students to be future engineers, it is imperative to design problem solving experiences that can better prepare students with workplace competency.

  4. The problem of engineering creativity in Russia: a critical review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukushkin, Sergey; Churlyaeva, Natalya

    2012-10-01

    The problem of technological creativity in Russia is briefly discussed. Special attention is paid to the development of indigenous engineering corpus in unfavourable conditions and some reasons for engineers' low creativity are revealed. The Soviet system of engineering higher education (HE) is criticised as not focused on fostering creative engineers and the existing HE system as a degraded relic of the Soviet one. Continuous education and training in advanced corporations engaged in innovations seems better suited for preparing engineers.

  5. Nuclear electric propulsion mission engineering study. Volume 2: Final report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Results of a mission engineering analysis of nuclear-thermionic electric propulsion spacecraft for unmanned interplanetary and geocentric missions are summarized. Critical technologies associated with the development of nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) are assessed, along with the impact of its availability on future space programs. Outer planet and comet rendezvous mission analysis, NEP stage design for geocentric and interplanetary missions, NEP system development cost and unit costs, and technology requirements for NEP stage development are studied.

  6. Laser Atrial Septostomy: An Engineering Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben-Shachar, Giora; Cohen, Mark H.; Riemenschneider, Thomas A.; Beder, Stanley D.

    1987-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a reproducible method for atrial septostomy in live animals, which would be independent of both atrial septal thickness and left atrial size. Seven mongrel dogs monitored electrocardiographically were anesthetized and instrumented with systemic and pulmonary arterial lines. A modified Mullin's transseptal sheath was advanced under fluoroscopic control to interrogate the left atrium and atrial septum. A 400 micron regular quartz or a laser heated metallic tip fiber was passed through the sheath up to the atrial septum. Lasing of the atrial septum was done with an Argon laser at power output of 5 watts. In three dogs, an atrial septosomy catheter was passed to the left atrium through the laser atrial septostomy and balloon atrial septostomy was performed. The laser atrial septostomy measured 3 x 5 mm in diameter. This interatrial communication could be enlarged with a balloon septostomy to over one cm in diameter. Hemodynamic and electrocardiographic monitoring were stable during the procedure. Engineering problems included: 1) radioluscency of the laser fibers thus preventing fluoroscopic localization of the fiber course; and 2) the inability to increase lateral vaporization of the atrial septum. It is concluded that further changes in the lasing fibers need to be made before the method can be considered for clinical use.

  7. The open-cycle gas-core nuclear rocket engine - Some engineering considerations.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, M. F.; Whitmarsh, C. L., Jr.; Sirocky, P. J., Jr.; Iwanczyk, L. C.

    1971-01-01

    A preliminary design study of a conceptual 6000-MW open-cycle gas-core nuclear rocket engine system was made. The engine has a thrust of 44,200 lb and a specific impulse of 4400 sec. The nuclear fuel is uranium-235 and the propellant is hydrogen. Critical fuel mass was calculated for several reactor configurations. Major components of the reactor (reflector, pressure vessel) and the waste heat rejection system were considered conceptually and were sized.

  8. The open-cycle gas-core nuclear rocket engine - Some engineering considerations.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, M. F.; Whitmarsh, C. L., Jr.; Sirocky, P. J., Jr.; Iwanczyk, L. C.

    1971-01-01

    A preliminary design study of a conceptual 6000-MW open-cycle gas-core nuclear rocket engine system was made. The engine has a thrust of 44,200 lb and a specific impulse of 4400 sec. The nuclear fuel is uranium-235 and the propellant is hydrogen. Critical fuel mass was calculated for several reactor configurations. Major components of the reactor (reflector, pressure vessel) and the waste heat rejection system were considered conceptually and were sized.

  9. Grooved Fuel Rings for Nuclear Thermal Rocket Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emrich, William

    2009-01-01

    An alternative design concept for nuclear thermal rocket engines for interplanetary spacecraft calls for the use of grooved-ring fuel elements. Beyond spacecraft rocket engines, this concept also has potential for the design of terrestrial and spacecraft nuclear electric-power plants. The grooved ring fuel design attempts to retain the best features of the particle bed fuel element while eliminating most of its design deficiencies. In the grooved ring design, the hydrogen propellant enters the fuel element in a manner similar to that of the Particle Bed Reactor (PBR) fuel element.

  10. Work force problems in nuclear medicine and possible solutions.

    PubMed

    Lull, R J; Littlefield, J L

    1993-01-01

    Nuclear medicine practice and work force demographics reflect the historically diverse evolution of this specialty. The most pressing problem for nuclear medicine is a projected shortage of fully trained physicians due to practitioner retirement that is unmatched by residency program output. During the past decade the number of 2-year nuclear medicine residency programs (average of 90) and the total number of residents (average of 191 in both years) have remained remarkably stable. In contrast, the number of 1-year nuclear radiology residency programs, available positions, and residents have declined significantly. A similar decline is seen in radiologists obtaining full nuclear medicine training and American Board of Nuclear Medicine (ABNM) board certification. This void has been filled by nonradiologist trainees who only seek certification by ABNM. Perhaps such shifts in resident profile are an early indicator that the United States is evolving toward practice models in which nuclear medicine is provided by fully trained, full-time physicians, similar to the European work force model. The recent Society of Nuclear Medicine survey of 10,446 physicians who practice nuclear medicine shows a current practice pattern in the United States that is distinctly different from that in Europe. The vast majority of those surveyed practice part time. Only 7% of all physicians who practice nuclear medicine do so full time, (ie more than 90% of the time), but they account for as much full-time employee (FTE) work load as 70% of all part-time physicians. Although the number of radiologists entering nuclear medicine is declining, 51% of total FTE work load is still done by radiologists with only American Board of Radiology certification. Physicians certified by ABNM represent 42% of all FTE work load. Cardiologists certified by American Board of Internal Medicine-Cardiovascular Specialization account for approximately 4% of nuclear medicine (15% of total cardiovascular nuclear

  11. Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Research and Engineering Program - Strategic Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Casey, Leslie A.

    2004-09-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Research and Engineering (NEM R&E) Program is dedicated to providing knowledge, technical expertise, and products to US agencies responsible for monitoring nuclear explosions in all environments and is successful in turning scientific breakthroughs into tools for use by operational monitoring agencies. To effectively address the rapidly evolving state of affairs, the NNSA NEM R&E program is structured around three program elements described within this strategic plan: Integration of New Monitoring Assets, Advanced Event Characterization, and Next-Generation Monitoring Systems. How the Program fits into the National effort and historical accomplishments are also addressed.

  12. Hyperthermal Environments Simulator for Nuclear Rocket Engine Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litchford, Ron J.; Foote, John P.; Clifton, W. B.; Hickman, Robert R.; Wang, Ten-See; Dobson, Christopher C.

    2011-01-01

    An arc-heater driven hyperthermal convective environments simulator was recently developed and commissioned for long duration hot hydrogen exposure of nuclear thermal rocket materials. This newly established non-nuclear testing capability uses a high-power, multi-gas, wall-stabilized constricted arc-heater to produce hightemperature pressurized hydrogen flows representative of nuclear reactor core environments, excepting radiation effects, and is intended to serve as a low-cost facility for supporting non-nuclear developmental testing of hightemperature fissile fuels and structural materials. The resulting reactor environments simulator represents a valuable addition to the available inventory of non-nuclear test facilities and is uniquely capable of investigating and characterizing candidate fuel/structural materials, improving associated processing/fabrication techniques, and simulating reactor thermal hydraulics. This paper summarizes facility design and engineering development efforts and reports baseline operational characteristics as determined from a series of performance mapping and long duration capability demonstration tests. Potential follow-on developmental strategies are also suggested in view of the technical and policy challenges ahead. Keywords: Nuclear Rocket Engine, Reactor Environments, Non-Nuclear Testing, Fissile Fuel Development.

  13. Training of nuclear criticality safety engineers

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, R.G.

    1997-06-01

    The site specific analysis of nuclear criticality training needs is very briefly described. Analysis indicated that the four major components required were analysis, surveillance, business practices or administration, and emergency preparedness. The analysis component was further divided into process analysis, accident analysis, and transportation analysis. Ten subject matter areas for the process analysis component were identified as candidates for class development. Training classes developed from the job content analysis have demonstrated that the specialized information can be successfully delivered to new entrants. 1 fig.

  14. Satellite nuclear power station: An engineering analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, J. R.; Clement, J. D.; Rosa, R. J.; Kirby, K. D.; Yang, Y. Y.

    1973-01-01

    A nuclear-MHD power plant system which uses a compact non-breeder reactor to produce power in the multimegawatt range is analyzed. It is shown that, operated in synchronous orbit, the plant would transmit power safely to the ground by a microwave beam. Fuel reprocessing would take place in space, and no radioactive material would be returned to earth. Even the effect of a disastrous accident would have negligible effect on earth. A hydrogen moderated gas core reactor, or a colloid-core, or NERVA type reactor could also be used. The system is shown to approach closely the ideal of economical power without pollution.

  15. Satellite nuclear power station: An engineering analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, J. R.; Clement, J. D.; Rosa, R. J.; Kirby, K. D.; Yang, Y. Y.

    1973-01-01

    A nuclear-MHD power plant system which uses a compact non-breeder reactor to produce power in the multimegawatt range is analyzed. It is shown that, operated in synchronous orbit, the plant would transmit power safely to the ground by a microwave beam. Fuel reprocessing would take place in space, and no radioactive material would be returned to earth. Even the effect of a disastrous accident would have negligible effect on earth. A hydrogen moderated gas core reactor, or a colloid-core, or NERVA type reactor could also be used. The system is shown to approach closely the ideal of economical power without pollution.

  16. Expert vs. novice: Problem decomposition/recomposition in engineering design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Ting

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the differences of using problem decomposition and problem recomposition among dyads of engineering experts, dyads of engineering seniors, and dyads of engineering freshmen. Fifty participants took part in this study. Ten were engineering design experts, 20 were engineering seniors, and 20 were engineering freshmen. Participants worked in dyads to complete an engineering design challenge within an hour. The entire design process was video and audio recorded. After the design session, members participated in a group interview. This study used protocol analysis as the methodology. Video and audio data were transcribed, segmented, and coded. Two coding systems including the FBS ontology and "levels of the problem" were used in this study. A series of statistical techniques were used to analyze data. Interview data and participants' design sketches also worked as supplemental data to help answer the research questions. By analyzing the quantitative and qualitative data, it was found that students used less problem decomposition and problem recomposition than engineer experts in engineering design. This result implies that engineering education should place more importance on teaching problem decomposition and problem recomposition. Students were found to spend less cognitive effort when considering the problem as a whole and interactions between subsystems than engineer experts. In addition, students were also found to spend more cognitive effort when considering details of subsystems. These results showed that students tended to use dept-first decomposition and experts tended to use breadth-first decomposition in engineering design. The use of Function (F), Behavior (B), and Structure (S) among engineering experts, engineering seniors, and engineering freshmen was compared on three levels. Level 1 represents designers consider the problem as an integral whole, Level 2 represents designers consider interactions between

  17. Risk analysis and solving the nuclear waste siting problem

    SciTech Connect

    Inhaber, H.

    1993-12-01

    In spite of millions of dollars and countless human resources being expended on finding nuclear wastes sites, the search has proved extremely difficult for the nuclear industry. This may be due to the approach followed, rather than inadequacies in research or funding. A new approach to the problem, the reverse Dutch auction, is suggested. It retains some of the useful elements of the present system, but it also adds new ones.

  18. The Problem of Engineering Creativity in Russia: A Critical Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kukushkin, Sergey; Churlyaeva, Natalya

    2012-01-01

    The problem of technological creativity in Russia is briefly discussed. Special attention is paid to the development of indigenous engineering corpus in unfavourable conditions and some reasons for engineers' low creativity are revealed. The Soviet system of engineering higher education (HE) is criticised as not focused on fostering creative…

  19. The Problem of Engineering Creativity in Russia: A Critical Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kukushkin, Sergey; Churlyaeva, Natalya

    2012-01-01

    The problem of technological creativity in Russia is briefly discussed. Special attention is paid to the development of indigenous engineering corpus in unfavourable conditions and some reasons for engineers' low creativity are revealed. The Soviet system of engineering higher education (HE) is criticised as not focused on fostering creative…

  20. U.S. Nuclear Engineering Education: Status and Prospects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems.

    This study examines the status of and outlook for nuclear engineering (NE) in the United States. The study resulted from a concern about the downward trends in student enrollments in NE, in both graduate and undergraduate programs. Concerns have also been expressed about the declining number of U.S. university NE departments and programs, the…

  1. Salary information for health physicists and nuclear engineers, October 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of a survey conducted by Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU) to obtain current salary data from employers of health physicists and nuclear engineers. The questionnaires were distributed to 52 utilities and 139 non-utilities in October 1991. The non-utilities include private sector organizations and Department of Energy laboratories and production facilities operated by contractors. Excluded from the survey are government agencies, educational institutions, and medical/health facilities. The employers were asked to provide data on average salaries for BS, MS, and PhD degree level health physicists and nuclear engineers with zero, one, and three years of professional work experience. Responses from individual employers are kept confidential, and the list of respondents provided at the back of this report includes only those organizations authorizing the release of their names. The survey universe consists of those utilities and non-utilities that employed five or more health physicists or nuclear engineers based on data from the 1991 Survey of Occupational Employment in Nuclear-Related Activities'' conducted by Oak Ridge Associated Universities which includes information provided by the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations.

  2. Introductory Level Problems Illustrating Concepts in Pharmaceutical Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIver, Keith; Whitaker, Kathryn; De Delva, Vladimir; Farrell, Stephanie; Savelski, Mariano J.; Slater, C. Stewart

    2012-01-01

    Textbook style problems including detailed solutions introducing pharmaceutical topics at the level of an introductory chemical engineering course have been created. The problems illustrate and teach subjects which students would learn if they were to pursue a career in pharmaceutical engineering, including the unique terminology of the field,…

  3. Problem Solving and Engineering Design, Introducing Bachelor Students to Engineering Practice at K. U. Leuven

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heylen, Christel; Smet, Marc; Buelens, Hermans; Sloten, Jos Vander

    2007-01-01

    A present-day engineer has a large scientific knowledge; he is a team-player, eloquent communicator and life-long learner. At the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, the course "Problem Solving and Engineering Design" introduces engineering students from the first semester onwards into real engineering practice and teamwork. Working in small…

  4. Problem Solving and Engineering Design, Introducing Bachelor Students to Engineering Practice at K. U. Leuven

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heylen, Christel; Smet, Marc; Buelens, Hermans; Sloten, Jos Vander

    2007-01-01

    A present-day engineer has a large scientific knowledge; he is a team-player, eloquent communicator and life-long learner. At the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, the course "Problem Solving and Engineering Design" introduces engineering students from the first semester onwards into real engineering practice and teamwork. Working in small…

  5. Nuclear Methods for Transmutation of Nuclear Waste: Problems, Perspextives, Cooperative Research - Proceedings of the International Workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khankhasayev, Zhanat B.; Kurmanov, Hans; Plendl, Mikhail Kh.

    1996-12-01

    The Table of Contents for the full book PDF is as follows: * Preface * I. Review of Current Status of Nuclear Transmutation Projects * Accelerator-Driven Systems — Survey of the Research Programs in the World * The Los Alamos Accelerator-Driven Transmutation of Nuclear Waste Concept * Nuclear Waste Transmutation Program in the Czech Republic * Tentative Results of the ISTC Supported Study of the ADTT Plutonium Disposition * Recent Neutron Physics Investigations for the Back End of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle * Optimisation of Accelerator Systems for Transmutation of Nuclear Waste * Proton Linac of the Moscow Meson Factory for the ADTT Experiments * II. Computer Modeling of Nuclear Waste Transmutation Methods and Systems * Transmutation of Minor Actinides in Different Nuclear Facilities * Monte Carlo Modeling of Electro-nuclear Processes with Nonlinear Effects * Simulation of Hybrid Systems with a GEANT Based Program * Computer Study of 90Sr and 137Cs Transmutation by Proton Beam * Methods and Computer Codes for Burn-Up and Fast Transients Calculations in Subcritical Systems with External Sources * New Model of Calculation of Fission Product Yields for the ADTT Problem * Monte Carlo Simulation of Accelerator-Reactor Systems * III. Data Basis for Transmutation of Actinides and Fission Products * Nuclear Data in the Accelerator Driven Transmutation Problem * Nuclear Data to Study Radiation Damage, Activation, and Transmutation of Materials Irradiated by Particles of Intermediate and High Energies * Radium Institute Investigations on the Intermediate Energy Nuclear Data on Hybrid Nuclear Technologies * Nuclear Data Requirements in Intermediate Energy Range for Improvement of Calculations of ADTT Target Processes * IV. Experimental Studies and Projects * ADTT Experiments at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center * Neutron Multiplicity Distributions for GeV Proton Induced Spallation Reactions on Thin and Thick Targets of Pb and U * Solid State Nuclear Track Detector and

  6. Engineering factors influencing Corbicula fouling in nuclear-service water systems

    SciTech Connect

    Henager, C.H.; Johnson, K.I.; Page, T.L.

    1983-06-01

    Corbicula fouling is a continuing problem in nuclear-service water systems. More knowledge of biological and engineering factors is needed to develop effective detection and control methods. A data base on Corbicula fouling was compiled from nuclear and non-nuclear power stations and industries using raw water. This data base was used in an analysis to identify systems and components which are conducive to fouling by Corbicula. Bounds on several engineering parameters such as velocity and temperature which support Corbicula growth are given. Service water systems found in BWR and PWR reactors are listed and those that show fouling are identified. Possible safety implications of Corbicula fouling are discussed for specific service water systems. Several effective control methods in current use include backflushing with heated water, centrifugal strainers, and continuous chlorination during spawning seasons.

  7. Enrichment Zoning Options for the Small Nuclear Rocket Engine (SNRE)

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce G. Schnitzler; Stanley K. Borowski

    2010-07-01

    Advancement of U.S. scientific, security, and economic interests through a robust space exploration program requires high performance propulsion systems to support a variety of robotic and crewed missions beyond low Earth orbit. In NASA’s recent Mars Design Reference Architecture (DRA) 5.0 study (NASA-SP-2009-566, July 2009), nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) was again selected over chemical propulsion as the preferred in-space transportation system option because of its high thrust and high specific impulse (-900 s) capability, increased tolerance to payload mass growth and architecture changes, and lower total initial mass in low Earth orbit. An extensive nuclear thermal rocket technology development effort was conducted from 1955-1973 under the Rover/NERVA Program. The Small Nuclear Rocket Engine (SNRE) was the last engine design studied by the Los Alamos National Laboratory during the program. At the time, this engine was a state-of-the-art design incorporating lessons learned from the very successful technology development program. Past activities at the NASA Glenn Research Center have included development of highly detailed MCNP Monte Carlo transport models of the SNRE and other small engine designs. Preliminary core configurations typically employ fuel elements with fixed fuel composition and fissile material enrichment. Uniform fuel loadings result in undesirable radial power and temperature profiles in the engines. Engine performance can be improved by some combination of propellant flow control at the fuel element level and by varying the fuel composition. Enrichment zoning at the fuel element level with lower enrichments in the higher power elements at the core center and on the core periphery is particularly effective. Power flattening by enrichment zoning typically results in more uniform propellant exit temperatures and improved engine performance. For the SNRE, element enrichment zoning provided very flat radial power profiles with 551 of the 564

  8. Engine System Model Development for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Karl W.; Simpson, Steven P.

    2006-01-01

    In order to design, analyze, and evaluate conceptual Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) engine systems, an improved NTP design and analysis tool has been developed. The NTP tool utilizes the Rocket Engine Transient Simulation (ROCETS) system tool and many of the routines from the Enabler reactor model found in Nuclear Engine System Simulation (NESS). Improved non-nuclear component models and an external shield model were added to the tool. With the addition of a nearly complete system reliability model, the tool will provide performance, sizing, and reliability data for NERVA-Derived NTP engine systems. A new detailed reactor model is also being developed and will replace Enabler. The new model will allow more flexibility in reactor geometry and include detailed thermal hydraulics and neutronics models. A description of the reactor, component, and reliability models is provided. Another key feature of the modeling process is the use of comprehensive spreadsheets for each engine case. The spreadsheets include individual worksheets for each subsystem with data, plots, and scaled figures, making the output very useful to each engineering discipline. Sample performance and sizing results with the Enabler reactor model are provided including sensitivities. Before selecting an engine design, all figures of merit must be considered including the overall impacts on the vehicle and mission. Evaluations based on key figures of merit of these results and results with the new reactor model will be performed. The impacts of clustering and external shielding will also be addressed. Over time, the reactor model will be upgraded to design and analyze other NTP concepts with CERMET and carbide fuel cores.

  9. LDRD Final Report: Global Optimization for Engineering Science Problems

    SciTech Connect

    HART,WILLIAM E.

    1999-12-01

    For a wide variety of scientific and engineering problems the desired solution corresponds to an optimal set of objective function parameters, where the objective function measures a solution's quality. The main goal of the LDRD ''Global Optimization for Engineering Science Problems'' was the development of new robust and efficient optimization algorithms that can be used to find globally optimal solutions to complex optimization problems. This SAND report summarizes the technical accomplishments of this LDRD, discusses lessons learned and describes open research issues.

  10. Universities and national laboratory roles in nuclear engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sackett, J. I.

    Nuclear Engineering Education is being significantly challenged in the United States. The decline in enrollment generally and the reduction of the number of nuclear engineering departments has been well documented. These declines parallel a lack of new construction for nuclear power plants and a decline in research and development to support new plant design. Precisely at a time when innovation is needed to deal with many issues facing nuclear power, the number of qualified people to do so is being reduced. It is important that the University and National Laboratory Communities cooperate to address these issues. The Universities must increasingly identify challenges facing nuclear power that demand innovative solutions and pursue them. To be drawn into the technology the best students must see a future, a need and identify challenges that they can meet. The University community can provide that vision with help from the National Laboratories. It has been a major goal within the reactor development program at Argonne National Laboratory to establish the kind of program that can help accomplish this.

  11. Nuclear morphology and deformation in engineered cardiac myocytes and tissues.

    PubMed

    Bray, Mark-Anthony P; Adams, William J; Geisse, Nicholas A; Feinberg, Adam W; Sheehy, Sean P; Parker, Kevin K

    2010-07-01

    Cardiac tissue engineering requires finely-tuned manipulation of the extracellular matrix (ECM) microenvironment to optimize internal myocardial organization. The myocyte nucleus is mechanically connected to the cell membrane via cytoskeletal elements, making it a target for the cellular response to perturbation of the ECM. However, the role of ECM spatial configuration and myocyte shape on nuclear location and morphology is unknown. In this study, printed ECM proteins were used to configure the geometry of cultured neonatal rat ventricular myocytes. Engineered one- and two-dimensional tissue constructs and single myocyte islands were assayed using live fluorescence imaging to examine nuclear position, morphology and motion as a function of the imposed ECM geometry during diastolic relaxation and systolic contraction. Image analysis showed that anisotropic tissue constructs cultured on microfabricated ECM lines possessed a high degree of nuclear alignment similar to that found in vivo; nuclei in isotropic tissues were polymorphic in shape with an apparently random orientation. Nuclear eccentricity was also increased for the anisotropic tissues, suggesting that intracellular forces deform the nucleus as the cell is spatially confined. During systole, nuclei experienced increasing spatial confinement in magnitude and direction of displacement as tissue anisotropy increased, yielding anisotropic deformation. Thus, the nature of nuclear displacement and deformation during systole appears to rely on a combination of the passive myofibril spatial organization and the active stress fields induced by contraction. Such findings have implications in understanding the genomic consequences and functional response of cardiac myocytes to their ECM surroundings under conditions of disease.

  12. Nuclear electric propulsion mission engineering study. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Results of a mission engineering analysis of nuclear-thermionic electric propulsion spacecraft for unmanned interplanetary and geocentric missions are summarized. Critical technologies associated with the development of nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) are assessed. Outer planet and comet rendezvous mission analysis, NEP stage design for geocentric and interplanetary missions, NEP system development cost and unit costs, and technology requirements for NEP stage development are studied. The NEP stage design provides both inherent reliability and high payload mass capability. The NEP stage and payload integration was found to be compatible with the space shuttle.

  13. Educational Innovation in the Design of an Online Nuclear Engineering Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Simin; Jones, Brett D.; Amelink, Catherine; Hu, Deyu

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the development and implementation phases of online graduate nuclear engineering courses that are part of the Graduate Nuclear Engineering Certificate program at Virginia Tech. Virginia Tech restarted its nuclear engineering program in the Fall of 2007 with 60 students, and by 2009, the enrollment had grown…

  14. Dynamic model for simulating the acceptance problem of nuclear energy

    SciTech Connect

    Seifritz, W.; Mennig, J.

    1987-01-01

    Nonlinear dynamics are attaining greater interest in different fields of application. Since the early 1980s, these methods have been applied intensively to a variety of very different general problems, such as the description of political and economic processes as well as the symbiotic behavior in the flora and fauna. The authors have tried to apply these mathematical methods to the dynamic behavior inherent in the problem of the acceptance of nuclear energy. The model, which simplifies the real situation, is two-dimensional and describes the symbiosis of two individuals: the capacity of nuclear power plants P and their acceptance A by the public. It is clear that in reality the acceptance problem depends on a series of other variables as well. However, it is believed that our investigations reveal some universal properties inherent to our socioeconomic system: nonlinearity and dissipative processes.

  15. Hurricanes as Heat Engines: Two Undergraduate Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pyykko, Pekka

    2007-01-01

    Hurricanes can be regarded as Carnot heat engines. One reason that they can be so violent is that thermodynamically, they demonstrate large efficiency, [epsilon] = (T[subscript h] - T[subscript c]) / T[subscript h], which is of the order of 0.3. Evaporation of water vapor from the ocean and its subsequent condensation is the main heat transfer…

  16. Hurricanes as Heat Engines: Two Undergraduate Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pyykko, Pekka

    2007-01-01

    Hurricanes can be regarded as Carnot heat engines. One reason that they can be so violent is that thermodynamically, they demonstrate large efficiency, [epsilon] = (T[subscript h] - T[subscript c]) / T[subscript h], which is of the order of 0.3. Evaporation of water vapor from the ocean and its subsequent condensation is the main heat transfer…

  17. Calculated concentrations of any radionuclide deposited on the ground by release from underground nuclear detonations, tests of nuclear rockets, and tests of nuclear ramjet engines

    SciTech Connect

    Hicks, H.G.

    1981-11-01

    This report presents calculated gamma radiation exposure rates and ground deposition of related radionuclides resulting from three types of event that deposited detectable radioactivity outside the Nevada Test Site complex, namely, underground nuclear detonations, tests of nuclear rocket engines and tests of nuclear ramjet engines.

  18. Nuclear power plant alarm systems: Problems and issues

    SciTech Connect

    O'Hara, J.M.; Brown, W.S.

    1991-01-01

    Despite the incorporation of advanced technology into nuclear power plant alarm systems, human factors problems remain. This paper identifies to be addressed in order to allow advanced technology to be used effectively in the design of nuclear power plant alarm systems. The operator's use and processing of alarm system information will be considered. Based upon a review of alarm system research, issues related to general system design, alarm processing, display and control are discussed. It is concluded that the design of effective alarm systems depends on an understanding of the information processing capabilities and limitations of the operator. 39 refs.

  19. Global climatic effects of a nuclear war: An interdisciplinary problem

    SciTech Connect

    Ghan, S.J.

    1988-05-01

    In summary, an elucidation of the global-scale response to a nuclear war is a problem of great breadth, involving many of the sub-disciplines of aerosol physics, meteorology, oceanography, atmospheric chemistry and ecology. As diverse as these fields are, communication between the sub-disciplines has been remarkably effective, with two major interdisciplinary reports published in the last few years. It is my belief that, in addition to addressing the global-scale implications of a nuclear war, the global effects effort also serves as an excellent example of an interdisciplinary research program. 23 refs.

  20. Structured system engineering methodologies used to develop a nuclear thermal propulsion engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corban, R.; Wagner, R.

    1993-01-01

    To facilitate the development of a space nuclear thermal propulsion engine for manned flights to Mars, requirements must be established early in the technology development cycle. The long lead times for the acquisition of the engine system and nuclear test facilities demands that the engine system size, performance and safety goals be defined at the earliest possible time. These systems are highly complex and require a large multidisciplinary systems engineering team to develop and track requirements, and to ensure that the as-built system reflects the intent of the mission. A methodology has been devised which uses sophisticated computer tools to effectively develop and interpret functional requirements, and furnish these to the specification level for implementation.

  1. Nuclear magnetic resonance in environmental engineering: principles and applications.

    PubMed

    Lens, P N; Hemminga, M A

    1998-01-01

    This paper gives an introduction to nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in relation to applications in the field of environmental science and engineering. The underlying principles of high resolution solution and solid state NMR, relaxation time measurements and imaging are presented. Then, the use of NMR is illustrated and reviewed in studies of biodegradation and biotransformation of soluble and solid organic matter, removal of nutrients and xenobiotics, fate of heavy metal ions, and transport processes in bioreactor systems.

  2. Salary Information for Nuclear Engineers and Health Physicists, October 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education

    1995-10-15

    Salary information was collected for October 1995 for personnel working as nuclear engineers and health physicists. The salary information includes personnel at the B.S., M.S., and Ph.D. levels with zero, one, and three years of professional work experience. Information is provided for utilities and non-utilities. Non-utilities include private sector organizations and U.S. Department of Energy contractor-operated facilities. Government agencies, the military, academic organizations, and medical facilities are excluded.

  3. A Process Analysis of Engineering Problem Solving and Assessment of Problem Solving Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grigg, Sarah J.

    2012-01-01

    In the engineering profession, one of the most critical skills to possess is accurate and efficient problem solving. Thus, engineering educators should strive to help students develop skills needed to become competent problem solvers. In order to measure the development of skills, it is necessary to assess student performance, identify any…

  4. Problem-Based Learning in Engineering Ethics Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkman, Robert

    2016-01-01

    I describe the first stages of a process of design research in which I employ problem-based learning in a course in engineering ethics, which fulfills a requirement for students in engineering degree programs. The aim of the course is to foster development of particular cognitive skills contributing to moral imagination, a capacity to notice,…

  5. Problem-Based Learning in Engineering Ethics Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkman, Robert

    2016-01-01

    I describe the first stages of a process of design research in which I employ problem-based learning in a course in engineering ethics, which fulfills a requirement for students in engineering degree programs. The aim of the course is to foster development of particular cognitive skills contributing to moral imagination, a capacity to notice,…

  6. Strategies, Competence and Style--Problem Solving in Engineering Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weth, Rudiger, von der; Frankenberger, Eckart

    1995-01-01

    A series of experiments involving more than 40 mechanical engineers and engineering students with different levels of expertise examined strategies, competence, and style of the designers in problem-solving behavior. A model is proposed that explains differences in designing as an interaction of domain-specific and heuristic competence. (SLD)

  7. Multi-physics nuclear reactor simulator for advanced nuclear engineering education

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, A.

    2012-07-01

    Multi-physics nuclear reactor simulator, which aims to utilize for advanced nuclear engineering education, is being introduced to Nagoya Univ.. The simulator consists of the 'macroscopic' physics simulator and the 'microscopic' physics simulator. The former performs real time simulation of a whole nuclear power plant. The latter is responsible to more detail numerical simulations based on the sophisticated and precise numerical models, while taking into account the plant conditions obtained in the macroscopic physics simulator. Steady-state and kinetics core analyses, fuel mechanical analysis, fluid dynamics analysis, and sub-channel analysis can be carried out in the microscopic physics simulator. Simulation calculations are carried out through dedicated graphical user interface and the simulation results, i.e., spatial and temporal behaviors of major plant parameters are graphically shown. The simulator will provide a bridge between the 'theories' studied with textbooks and the 'physical behaviors' of actual nuclear power plants. (authors)

  8. Reverse engineering nuclear properties from rare earth abundances in the r process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mumpower, M. R.; McLaughlin, G. C.; Surman, R.; Steiner, A. W.

    2017-03-01

    The bulk of the rare earth elements are believed to be synthesized in the rapid neutron capture process or r process of nucleosynthesis. The solar r-process residuals show a small peak in the rare earths around A∼ 160, which is proposed to be formed dynamically during the end phase of the r process by a pileup of material. This abundance feature is of particular importance as it is sensitive to both the nuclear physics inputs and the astrophysical conditions of the main r process. We explore the formation of the rare earth peak from the perspective of an inverse problem, using Monte Carlo studies of nuclear masses to investigate the unknown nuclear properties required to best match rare earth abundance sector of the solar isotopic residuals. When nuclear masses are changed, we recalculate the relevant β-decay properties and neutron capture rates in the rare earth region. The feedback provided by this observational constraint allows for the reverse engineering of nuclear properties far from stability where no experimental information exists. We investigate a range of astrophysical conditions with this method and show how these lead to different predictions in the nuclear properties influential to the formation of the rare earth peak. We conclude that targeted experimental campaigns in this region will help to resolve the type of conditions responsible for the production of the rare earth nuclei, and will provide new insights into the longstanding problem of the astrophysical site(s) of the r process.

  9. Engineering thinking in emergency situations: A new nuclear safety concept.

    PubMed

    Guarnieri, Franck; Travadel, Sébastien

    2014-11-01

    The lessons learned from the Fukushima Daiichi accident have focused on preventive measures designed to protect nuclear reactors, and crisis management plans. Although there is still no end in sight to the accident that occurred on March 11, 2011, how engineers have handled the aftermath offers new insight into the capacity of organizations to adapt in situations that far exceed the scope of safety standards based on probabilistic risk assessment and on the comprehensive identification of disaster scenarios. Ongoing crises in which conventional resources are lacking, but societal expectations are high, call for "engineering thinking in emergency situations." This is a new concept that emphasizes adaptability and resilience within organizations-such as the ability to create temporary new organizational structures; to quickly switch from a normal state to an innovative mode; and to integrate a social dimension into engineering activities. In the future, nuclear safety oversight authorities should assess the ability of plant operators to create and implement effective engineering strategies on the fly, and should require that operators demonstrate the capability for resilience in the aftermath of an accident.

  10. Engineering thinking in emergency situations: A new nuclear safety concept

    PubMed Central

    Guarnieri, Franck; Travadel, Sébastien

    2014-01-01

    The lessons learned from the Fukushima Daiichi accident have focused on preventive measures designed to protect nuclear reactors, and crisis management plans. Although there is still no end in sight to the accident that occurred on March 11, 2011, how engineers have handled the aftermath offers new insight into the capacity of organizations to adapt in situations that far exceed the scope of safety standards based on probabilistic risk assessment and on the comprehensive identification of disaster scenarios. Ongoing crises in which conventional resources are lacking, but societal expectations are high, call for “engineering thinking in emergency situations.” This is a new concept that emphasizes adaptability and resilience within organizations—such as the ability to create temporary new organizational structures; to quickly switch from a normal state to an innovative mode; and to integrate a social dimension into engineering activities. In the future, nuclear safety oversight authorities should assess the ability of plant operators to create and implement effective engineering strategies on the fly, and should require that operators demonstrate the capability for resilience in the aftermath of an accident. PMID:25419015

  11. Proceedings of EPRI/DOE workshop on nuclear industry valve problems

    SciTech Connect

    Sprung, J.L.

    1981-01-01

    Representatives from 29 nuclear industry organizations (11 valve manufacturers, 4 nuclear steam supply system vendors, 5 utilities, 3 national laboratories, 2 architect/engineering firms, the Department of Energy (DOE), EPRI, and 2 others) attended the workshop. Working sessions on key valves and on valve stem and seat leakage developed the following recommendations: (1) establish a small permanent expert staff to collect, analyze, and disseminate information about nuclear valve problems; (2) perform generic key valve programs for pressurized water reactors and for boiling water reactors, and several plant specific key valve programs, the latter to demonstrate the cost-effectiveness of such studies; (3) confirm the identity of, define, and initiate needed longer term research and development programs dealing with seat and stem leakage; and (4) establish an industry working group to review and advise on these efforts. Separate abstracts were prepared for three papers which are included in the appendix. (DLC)

  12. Hyperthermal Environments Simulator for Nuclear Rocket Engine Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litchford, R. J.; Foote, J. P.; Clifton, W. B.; Hickman, R. R.; Wang, T.-S.; Dobson, C. C.

    An arc-heater driven hyperthermal convective environments simulator was recently developed and commissioned for long duration hot hydrogen exposure of nuclear thermal rocket materials. This newly established non-nuclear testing capability uses a high-power, multi-gas, wall-stabilised constricted arc-heater to produce high-temperature pressurised hydrogen flows representative of nuclear reactor core environments, excepting radiation effects, and is intended to serve as a low-cost facility for supporting non-nuclear developmental testing of high-temperature fissile fuels and structural materials. The resulting reactor environments simulator represents a valuable addition to the available inventory of non-nuclear test facilities and is uniquely capable of investigating and characterising candidate fuel/structural materials, improving associated processing/ fabrication techniques, and simulating reactor thermal hydraulics. This paper summarizes facility design and engineering development efforts and reports baseline operational characteristics as determined from a series of performance mapping and long duration capability demonstration tests. Potential follow-on developmental strategies are also suggested in view of the technical and policy challenges ahead.

  13. An Integrated Architecture for Engineering Problem Solving

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-12-01

    62 Figure 33: Constrained attainable envisionment heuristic............................................63 Figure 34: Problem 4.21...collection of qualitative states and transitions that describe the behavior of the system is called an envisionment (de Kleer, 1977). There are two...types of envisionments commonly used for analyzing systems. An attainable envisionment describes all states that are reachable from a given initial

  14. Detectors for high energy nuclear collisions: problems, progress and promise

    SciTech Connect

    Ludlam, T.W.

    1986-01-01

    Some perspective of the main issues in high energy nuclear collision physics is offered. How to identify and measure a quark-gluon plasma is considered to still be an open question. The types of detector configurations to be used in high-energy nucleus-nucleus experiments are discussed. Particular issues covered are measurements of lepton pair spectra, tracking systems and multitrack resolution, event-rate capabilities, backgrounds and other problems close to the beam, and calorimetry. 2 refs. (LEW)

  15. Problem-based learning biotechnology courses in chemical engineering.

    PubMed

    Glatz, Charles E; Gonzalez, Ramon; Huba, Mary E; Mallapragada, Surya K; Narasimhan, Balaji; Reilly, Peter J; Saunders, Kevin P; Shanks, Jacqueline V

    2006-01-01

    We have developed a series of upper undergraduate/graduate lecture and laboratory courses on biotechnological topics to supplement existing biochemical engineering, bioseparations, and biomedical engineering lecture courses. The laboratory courses are based on problem-based learning techniques, featuring two- and three-person teams, journaling, and performance rubrics for guidance and assessment. Participants initially have found them to be difficult, since they had little experience with problem-based learning. To increase enrollment, we are combining the laboratory courses into 2-credit groupings and allowing students to substitute one of them for the second of our 2-credit chemical engineering unit operations laboratory courses.

  16. Engineering and the problem of moral overload.

    PubMed

    Van den Hoven, Jeroen; Lokhorst, Gert-Jan; Van de Poel, Ibo

    2012-03-01

    When thinking about ethics, technology is often only mentioned as the source of our problems, not as a potential solution to our moral dilemmas. When thinking about technology, ethics is often only mentioned as a constraint on developments, not as a source and spring of innovation. In this paper, we argue that ethics can be the source of technological development rather than just a constraint and technological progress can create moral progress rather than just moral problems. We show this by an analysis of how technology can contribute to the solution of so-called moral overload or moral dilemmas. Such dilemmas typically create a moral residue that is the basis of a second-order principle that tells us to reshape the world so that we can meet all our moral obligations. We can do so, among other things, through guided technological innovation. © The Author(s) 2011. This article is published with open access at Springerlink.com

  17. Problem-Based Learning for Large Classes in Chemical Engineering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Donald R.

    1996-01-01

    Two McMaster University (Canada) chemical engineering courses enrolling 30-50 students incorporate problem-based learning (PBL). Issues addressed in implementation included overcoming faculty and student resistance, integrating PBL methods within a predominantly conventional curriculum, developing PBL problems and objectives, and using tutorless…

  18. Introducing Future Engineers to Sustainable Ecology Problems: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filipkowski, A.

    2011-01-01

    The problem of Earth environmental destruction by human activities is becoming dangerous. Engineers responsible for the production of any goods should be well aware of the negative influence of their activities on the state of the planet. This is why the understanding of ecological problems is essential for people responsible for production and…

  19. The Problem Solving Studio: An Apprenticeship Environment for Aspiring Engineers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Doux, Joseph M.; Waller, Alisha A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the problem-solving studio (PSS) learning environment. PSS was designed to teach students how to solve difficult analytical engineering problems without resorting to rote memorization of algorithms, while at the same time developing their deep conceptual understanding of the course topics. There are several key features of…

  20. Introducing Future Engineers to Sustainable Ecology Problems: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filipkowski, A.

    2011-01-01

    The problem of Earth environmental destruction by human activities is becoming dangerous. Engineers responsible for the production of any goods should be well aware of the negative influence of their activities on the state of the planet. This is why the understanding of ecological problems is essential for people responsible for production and…

  1. History of the Development of NERVA Nuclear Rocket Engine Technology

    SciTech Connect

    David L. Black

    2000-06-04

    During the 17 yr between 1955 and 1972, the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), the U.S. Air Force (USAF), and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) collaborated on an effort to develop a nuclear rocket engine. Based on studies conducted in 1946, the concept selected was a fully enriched uranium-filled, graphite-moderated, beryllium-reflected reactor, cooled by a monopropellant, hydrogen. The program, known as Rover, was centered at Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL), funded jointly by the AEC and the USAF, with the intent of designing a rocket engine for long-range ballistic missiles. Other nuclear rocket concepts were studied during these years, such as cermet and gas cores, but are not reviewed herein. Even thought the program went through the termination phase in a very short time, the technology may still be fully recoverable/retrievable to the state of its prior technological readiness in a reasonably short time. Documents; drawings; and technical, purchasing, manufacturing, and materials specifications were all stored for ease of retrieval. If the U.S. space program were to discover a need/mission for this engine, its 1972 'pencils down' status could be updated for the technology developments of the past 28 yr for flight demonstration in 8 or fewer years. Depending on today's performance requirements, temperatures and pressures could be increased and weight decreased considerably.

  2. Progress of teaching and learning of nuclear engineering courses at College of Engineering, Universiti Tenaga Nasional (UNITEN)

    SciTech Connect

    Hamid, Nasri A. Mohamed, Abdul Aziz; Yusoff, Mohd. Zamri

    2015-04-29

    Developing human capital in nuclear with required nuclear background and professional qualifications is necessary to support the implementation of nuclear power projects in the near future. Sufficient educational and training skills are required to ensure that the human resources needed by the nuclear power industry meets its high standard. The Government of Malaysia has made the decision to include nuclear as one of the electricity generation option for the country, post 2020 in order to cater for the increasing energy demands of the country as well as to reduce CO{sub 2} emission. The commitment by the government has been made clearer with the inclusion of the development of first NPP by 2021 in the Economic Transformation Program (ETP) which was launched by the government in October 2010. The In tandem with the government initiative to promote nuclear energy, Center for Nuclear Energy, College of Engineering, Universiti Tenaga Nasional (UNITEN) is taking the responsibility in developing human capital in the area of nuclear power and technology. In the beginning, the College of Engineering has offered the Introduction to Nuclear Technology course as a technical elective course for all undergraduate engineering students. Gradually, other nuclear technical elective courses are offered such as Nuclear Policy, Security and Safeguards, Introduction to Nuclear Engineering, Radiation Detection and Nuclear Instrumentation, Introduction to Reactor Physics, Radiation Safety and Waste Management, and Nuclear Thermal-hydraulics. In addition, another course Advancement in Nuclear Energy is offered as one of the postgraduate elective courses. To enhance the capability of teaching staffs in nuclear areas at UNITEN, several junior lecturers are sent to pursue their postgraduate studies in the Republic of Korea, United States and the United Kingdom, while the others are participating in short courses and workshops in nuclear that are conducted locally and abroad. This paper

  3. Progress of teaching and learning of nuclear engineering courses at College of Engineering, Universiti Tenaga Nasional (UNITEN)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamid, Nasri A.; Mohamed, Abdul Aziz; Yusoff, Mohd. Zamri

    2015-04-01

    Developing human capital in nuclear with required nuclear background and professional qualifications is necessary to support the implementation of nuclear power projects in the near future. Sufficient educational and training skills are required to ensure that the human resources needed by the nuclear power industry meets its high standard. The Government of Malaysia has made the decision to include nuclear as one of the electricity generation option for the country, post 2020 in order to cater for the increasing energy demands of the country as well as to reduce CO2 emission. The commitment by the government has been made clearer with the inclusion of the development of first NPP by 2021 in the Economic Transformation Program (ETP) which was launched by the government in October 2010. The In tandem with the government initiative to promote nuclear energy, Center for Nuclear Energy, College of Engineering, Universiti Tenaga Nasional (UNITEN) is taking the responsibility in developing human capital in the area of nuclear power and technology. In the beginning, the College of Engineering has offered the Introduction to Nuclear Technology course as a technical elective course for all undergraduate engineering students. Gradually, other nuclear technical elective courses are offered such as Nuclear Policy, Security and Safeguards, Introduction to Nuclear Engineering, Radiation Detection and Nuclear Instrumentation, Introduction to Reactor Physics, Radiation Safety and Waste Management, and Nuclear Thermal-hydraulics. In addition, another course Advancement in Nuclear Energy is offered as one of the postgraduate elective courses. To enhance the capability of teaching staffs in nuclear areas at UNITEN, several junior lecturers are sent to pursue their postgraduate studies in the Republic of Korea, United States and the United Kingdom, while the others are participating in short courses and workshops in nuclear that are conducted locally and abroad. This paper describes

  4. Problem of technological inheritance in machine engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blumenstein, Valery; Rakhimyanov, Kharis; Heifetz, Mikhail; Kleptzov, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    This article demonstrates the importance of the research study with regard to the technological inheritance of the properties, which characterize the surface layer, at different stages of a part's life cycle. It looks back at the major achievements and gives the findings relating to the technological inheritance of the parameters of the surface layer strength and quality as well as to how they affect the performance properties of machine parts. It demonstrates that high rates of machine engineering development, occurrence of new materials and more complicated machine operation environment require a shorter period for design-to-manufacture facility by reducing experiments and increasing design work. That, in its turn, generates the necessity in more complex but also more accurate models of metal behavior under stressing. It is especially critical for strengthening treatment. Among them are the models developed within the mechanics of technological inheritance. It is assumed that at the stages of a part's life cycle deformation accumulates on a continuous basis and the plasticity reserve of the metal, which the surface layer is made of, depletes. The research study of technological inheritance and the discovery of physical patterns of the evolution and degradation of the structures in a thin surface layer, which occur during machining and operational stressing of parts made from existing and unique including nanopatterned metals, is a crucial scientific challenge. This leads to the acquisition of new knowledge in the plasticity of state-of-the-art metals in the conditions of complex non monotonous stressing and to the development of efficient integrated and combined methods of technological impact.

  5. EDF's Engineering Experience and Contribution to the Nuclear Development

    SciTech Connect

    Salha, Bernard; Fourest, Bernard; Arpino, Jean-Marc

    2002-07-01

    Electricite de France (EDF) is now operating 58 nuclear power units which produce 76% of the electricity generated in France. This EDF's industrial success is the result of its capacity to master and optimize its production tool, from design through operation. EDF's integrated engineering is in the heart of this process of technical expertise and economic optimization. It allows to be in interface between the needs of operators and industrials suppliers, while accumulating a significant feedback of operating experience. The will of achieving the process of frenchifying PWR technology and to implement new industrial innovations have ended up in the new NPP of 100 % french design, the N4 series and its significant innovations. EDF energy policy is to keep the nuclear option open for the future. This strategy results from the need to improve the availability and the life extension of the units in operation and to prepare the replacement of the operating reactors around 2015. This is the objective of the European Pressurized Reactor (EPR), a French-German joint project. EDF is also applying this industrial process in its international projects. For example China, which desires to implement a standardized nuclear program and to move forward the complete autonomy of its nuclear industry, has decided to adopt a similar approach to EDF's one. (authors)

  6. Systems analysis of solid fuel nuclear engines in cislunar space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, U.; Koelle, H. H.; Balzer-Sieb, R.; Bernau, D.; Czarnitzki, J.; Floete, A.; Goericke, D.; Lindenthal, A.; Protsch, R.; Teschner, O.

    1984-12-01

    The use of nuclear engines in cislunar space was studied and the restrictions imposed on nuclear ferries by the chemical Earth to lower Earth orbit (LEO) transportation system were analyzed. The operating conditions are best met by tungsten-water-moderated reactors due to a high specific impulse and long durability. Specific transportation cost for LEO to geostationary orbit (GEO) and LEO to lunar orbit flights were calculated for a transportation system life of 50 yr. Average transportation costs are estimated to be 141 $/kg. No difference is made for both routes. An additional analysis of smaller and larger flight units shows only small cost reductions by employing larger ferries but a significant cost increase in case smaller flight units are used.

  7. Surface analysis for students in Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences

    SciTech Connect

    Rotberg, V.H.; Busby, J.; Toader, O.; Was, G.S.

    2003-08-26

    Students in Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences at the University of Michigan are required to learn about the various applications of radiation. Because of the broad applicability of accelerators to surface analysis, one of these courses includes a laboratory session on surface analysis techniques such as Rutherford Backscattering Analysis (RBS) and Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA). In this laboratory session, the students determine the concentration of nitrogen atoms in various targets using RBS and NRA by way of the 14N(d,{alpha})12C reaction. The laboratory is conducted in a hands-on format in which the students conduct the experiment and take the data. This paper describes the approach to teaching the theory and experimental methods behind the techniques, the conduct of the experiment and the analysis of the data.

  8. Upgrades to the NESS (Nuclear Engine System Simulation) Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fittje, James E.

    2007-01-01

    In support of the President's Vision for Space Exploration, the Nuclear Thermal Rocket (NTR) concept is being evaluated as a potential propulsion technology for human expeditions to the moon and Mars. The need for exceptional propulsion system performance in these missions has been documented in numerous studies, and was the primary focus of a considerable effort undertaken during the 1960's and 1970's. The NASA Glenn Research Center is leveraging this past NTR investment in their vehicle concepts and mission analysis studies with the aid of the Nuclear Engine System Simulation (NESS) code. This paper presents the additional capabilities and upgrades made to this code in order to perform higher fidelity NTR propulsion system analysis and design.

  9. Human Factors Engineering Review Model for advanced nuclear power reactors

    SciTech Connect

    O'Hara, J.; Higgins, J. ); Goodman, C.; Galletti, G.: Eckenrode, R. )

    1993-01-01

    One of the major issues to emerge from the initial design reviews under the certification process was that detailed human-systems interface (HSI) design information was not available for staff review. To address the lack of design detail issue. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is performing the design certification reviews based on a design process plan which describes the human factors engineering (HFE) program elements that are necessary and sufficient to develop an acceptable detailed design specification. Since the review of a design process is unprecedented in the nuclear industry. The criteria for review are not addressed by current regulations or guidance documents and. therefore, had to be developed. Thus, an HFE Program Review Model was developed. This paper will describe the model's rationale, scope, objectives, development, general characteristics. and application.

  10. Human Factors Engineering Review Model for advanced nuclear power reactors

    SciTech Connect

    O`Hara, J.; Higgins, J.; Goodman, C.; Galletti, G.: Eckenrode, R.

    1993-05-01

    One of the major issues to emerge from the initial design reviews under the certification process was that detailed human-systems interface (HSI) design information was not available for staff review. To address the lack of design detail issue. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is performing the design certification reviews based on a design process plan which describes the human factors engineering (HFE) program elements that are necessary and sufficient to develop an acceptable detailed design specification. Since the review of a design process is unprecedented in the nuclear industry. The criteria for review are not addressed by current regulations or guidance documents and. therefore, had to be developed. Thus, an HFE Program Review Model was developed. This paper will describe the model`s rationale, scope, objectives, development, general characteristics. and application.

  11. Role of testing in requalifying Transamerica Delaval, Inc. , engines for nuclear service

    SciTech Connect

    Nesbitt, J.F.; Dingee, D.A.; Laity, W.W.

    1985-03-01

    This paper discusses the role of testing in requalifying Transamerica Delaval, Inc. (TDI) diesel generators for use as emergency standby power sources at nuclear power plants. ''Lead'' engine tests (to confirm the design adequacy of key engine components under conditions that could induce high-cycle fatigue) and ''following'' engine tests (for engines of the same model and equipped with the same components as the ''lead'' engine) have been conducted at several nuclear power plants. The tests conducted by Duke Power Company (Catawba Nuclear Station Unit 1) and Long Island Lighting Company (Shoreham Nuclear Power Station Unit 1) are discussed. 2 refs.

  12. Implanting a Discipline: The Academic Trajectory of Nuclear Engineering in the USA and UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Sean F.

    2009-01-01

    The nuclear engineer emerged as a new form of recognised technical professional between 1940 and the early 1960s as nuclear fission, the chain reaction and their applications were explored. The institutionalization of nuclear engineering--channelled into new national laboratories and corporate design offices during the decade after the war, and…

  13. 10 CFR Appendix S to Part 50 - Earthquake Engineering Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Earthquake Engineering Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants S... FACILITIES Pt. 50, App. S Appendix S to Part 50—Earthquake Engineering Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants... nuclear power plant structures, systems, and components important to safety to withstand the effects...

  14. 10 CFR Appendix S to Part 50 - Earthquake Engineering Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Earthquake Engineering Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants S... FACILITIES Pt. 50, App. S Appendix S to Part 50—Earthquake Engineering Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants... nuclear power plant structures, systems, and components important to safety to withstand the effects...

  15. 10 CFR Appendix S to Part 50 - Earthquake Engineering Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Earthquake Engineering Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants S... FACILITIES Pt. 50, App. S Appendix S to Part 50—Earthquake Engineering Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants... nuclear power plant structures, systems, and components important to safety to withstand the effects...

  16. 10 CFR Appendix S to Part 50 - Earthquake Engineering Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Earthquake Engineering Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants S... FACILITIES Pt. 50, App. S Appendix S to Part 50—Earthquake Engineering Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants... nuclear power plant structures, systems, and components important to safety to withstand the effects...

  17. 10 CFR Appendix S to Part 50 - Earthquake Engineering Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Earthquake Engineering Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants S... FACILITIES Pt. 50, App. S Appendix S to Part 50—Earthquake Engineering Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants... nuclear power plant structures, systems, and components important to safety to withstand the effects...

  18. Implanting a Discipline: The Academic Trajectory of Nuclear Engineering in the USA and UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Sean F.

    2009-01-01

    The nuclear engineer emerged as a new form of recognised technical professional between 1940 and the early 1960s as nuclear fission, the chain reaction and their applications were explored. The institutionalization of nuclear engineering--channelled into new national laboratories and corporate design offices during the decade after the war, and…

  19. Grain boundary engineering for structure materials of nuclear reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, Lizhen; Allen, Todd R.; Busby, Jeremy T.

    2013-03-29

    Grain boundary engineering (GBE), primarily implemented by thermomechanical processing, is an effective and economical method of enhancing the properties of polycrystalline materials. Among the factors affecting grain boundary character distribution, literature data showed definitive effect of grain size and texture. GBE is more effective for austenitic stainless steels and Ni-base alloys compared to other structural materials of nuclear reactors, such as refractory metals, ferritic and ferritic–martensitic steels, and Zr alloys. Furthermore, GBE has shown beneficial effects on improving the strength, creep strength, and resistance to stress corrosion cracking and oxidation of austenitic stainless steels and Ni-base alloys.

  20. Theater Nuclear Force Survivability and Security Instrumentation. Engineering Development Phase.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-05-15

    THIS SHEET LINVENTORY o - Aproved I oi ;~ziTic :~ o |. .. Distiibutio,-; ni ,t, DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT ACCESSION FOR NTIS GRA&I DTIC T"A D UNANNOUNCED...H 81 2 O 01 " DATE KECEIVED IN DTIC PHOTOGRAPH THIS SHEET AND RETURN TO DTIC-DDA-2 FORM DOCUMENT PROCESSING SHEET DTIC OCT 79 70A h-10( 4.c DNA 5158F...THEATER NUCLEAR FORCE SURVIVABILITY SAND SECURITY INSTRUMENTATION ’ Engineering Development Phase o rhe BDM Corporation ’.0. Box 9274 kibuquerque

  1. A proposed benchmark problem for cargo nuclear threat monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wesley Holmes, Thomas; Calderon, Adan; Peeples, Cody R.; Gardner, Robin P.

    2011-10-01

    There is currently a great deal of technical and political effort focused on reducing the risk of potential attacks on the United States involving radiological dispersal devices or nuclear weapons. This paper proposes a benchmark problem for gamma-ray and X-ray cargo monitoring with results calculated using MCNP5, v1.51. The primary goal is to provide a benchmark problem that will allow researchers in this area to evaluate Monte Carlo models for both speed and accuracy in both forward and inverse calculational codes and approaches for nuclear security applications. A previous benchmark problem was developed by one of the authors (RPG) for two similar oil well logging problems (Gardner and Verghese, 1991, [1]). One of those benchmarks has recently been used by at least two researchers in the nuclear threat area to evaluate the speed and accuracy of Monte Carlo codes combined with variance reduction techniques. This apparent need has prompted us to design this benchmark problem specifically for the nuclear threat researcher. This benchmark consists of conceptual design and preliminary calculational results using gamma-ray interactions on a system containing three thicknesses of three different shielding materials. A point source is placed inside the three materials lead, aluminum, and plywood. The first two materials are in right circular cylindrical form while the third is a cube. The entire system rests on a sufficiently thick lead base so as to reduce undesired scattering events. The configuration was arranged in such a manner that as gamma-ray moves from the source outward it first passes through the lead circular cylinder, then the aluminum circular cylinder, and finally the wooden cube before reaching the detector. A 2 in.×4 in.×16 in. box style NaI (Tl) detector was placed 1 m from the point source located in the center with the 4 in.×16 in. side facing the system. The two sources used in the benchmark are 137Cs and 235U.

  2. MIMD massively parallel methods for engineering and science problems

    SciTech Connect

    Camp, W.J.; Plimpton, S.J.

    1993-08-01

    MIMD massively parallel computers promise unique power and flexibility for engineering and scientific simulations. In this paper we review the development of a number of software methods and algorithms for scientific and engineering problems which are helping to realize that promise. We discuss new domain decomposition, load balancing, data layout and communications methods applicable to simulations in a broad range of technical field including signal processing, multi-dimensional structural and fluid mechanics, materials science, and chemical and biological systems.

  3. Quantum engineering of superconducting structures: Principles, promise and problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zagoskin, Alexandre

    2017-07-01

    Quantum technologies went through an explosive development since the beginning of the century. The progress in the field of superconducting quantum structures was especially fast. As the result, the design and characterization of large quantum coherent structures became an engineering problem. We will discuss the current status of the emerging discipline of quantum engineering and possible ways of meeting its main challenge, the fundamental impossibility of an efficient modelling of a quantum system using classical means.

  4. Complex composite engineering architectures for nuclear and high-radiation environments

    SciTech Connect

    Kornreich, Drew E; Vaidya, Rajendra U; Ammerman, Curtt N

    2010-01-01

    Integrated Computational Materials Engineering (ICME) is a novel overarching approach to bridge length and time scales in computational materials science and engineering. This approach integrates all elements of multi-scale modeling (including various empirical and science-based models) with materials informatics to provide users the opportunity to tailor material selections based on stringent application needs. Typically, materials engineering has focused on structural requirements (stress, strain, modulus, fracture toughness etc.) while multi-scale modeling has been science focused (mechanical threshold strength model, grain-size models, solid-solution strengthening models etc.). Materials informatics (mechanical property inventories) on the other hand, is extensively data focused. All of these elements are combined within the framework of ICME to create architecture for the development, selection and design new composite materials for challenging environments. We propose development of the foundations for applying ICME to composite materials development for nuclear and high-radiation environments (including nuclear-fusion energy reactors, nuclear-fission reactors, and accelerators). We expect to combine all elements of current material models (including thermo-mechanical and finite-element models) into the ICME framework. This will be accomplished through the use of a various mathematical modeling constructs. These constructs will allow the integration of constituent models, which in tum would allow us to use the adaptive strengths of using a combinatorial scheme (fabrication and computational) for creating new composite materials. A sample problem where these concepts are used is provided in this summary.

  5. Exhaust gas treatment in testing nuclear rocket engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zweig, Herbert R.; Fischler, Stanley; Wagner, William R.

    1993-01-01

    With the exception of the last test series of the Rover program, Nuclear Furnace 1, test-reactor and rocket engine hydrogen gas exhaust generated during the Rover/NERVA program was released directly to the atmosphere, without removal of the associated fission products and other radioactive debris. Current rules for nuclear facilities (DOE Order 5480.6) are far more protective of the general environment; even with the remoteness of the Nevada Test Site, introduction of potentially hazardous quantities of radioactive waste into the atmosphere must be scrupulously avoided. The Rocketdyne treatment concept features a diffuser to provide altitude simulation and pressure recovery, a series of heat exchangers to gradually cool the exhaust gas stream to 100 K, and an activated charcoal bed for adsorption of inert gases. A hydrogen-gas fed ejector provides auxiliary pumping for startup and shutdown of the engine. Supplemental filtration to remove particulates and condensed phases may be added at appropriate locations in the system. The clean hydrogen may be exhausted to the atmosphere and flared, or the gas may be condensed and stored for reuse in testing. The latter approach totally isolates the working gas from the environment.

  6. Closing nuclear fuel cycle with fast reactors: problems and prospects

    SciTech Connect

    Shadrin, A.; Dvoeglazov, K.; Ivanov, V.

    2013-07-01

    The closed nuclear fuel cycle (CNFC) with fast reactors (FR) is the most promising way of nuclear energetics development because it prevents spent nuclear fuel (SNF) accumulation and minimizes radwaste volume due to minor actinides (MA) transmutation. CNFC with FR requires the elaboration of safety, environmentally acceptable and economically effective methods of treatment of SNF with high burn-up and low cooling time. The up-to-date industrially implemented SNF reprocessing technologies based on hydrometallurgical methods are not suitable for the reprocessing of SNF with high burn-up and low cooling time. The alternative dry methods (such as electrorefining in molten salts or fluoride technologies) applicable for such SNF reprocessing have not found implementation at industrial scale. So the cost of SNF reprocessing by means of dry technologies can hardly be estimated. Another problem of dry technologies is the recovery of fissionable materials pure enough for dense fuel fabrication. A combination of technical solutions performed with hydrometallurgical and dry technologies (pyro-technology) is proposed and it appears to be a promising way for the elaboration of economically, ecologically and socially accepted technology of FR SNF management. This paper deals with discussion of main principle of dry and aqueous operations combination that probably would provide safety and economic efficiency of the FR SNF reprocessing. (authors)

  7. Recent Developments in the Nuclear Many-Body Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furnstahl, R. J.

    The study of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) over the past quarter century has had relatively little impact on the traditional approach to the low-energy nuclear many-body problem. Recent developments are changing this situation. New experimental capabilities and theoretical approaches are opening windows into the richness of many-body phenomena in QCD. A common theme is the use of effective field theory (EFT) methods, which exploit the separation of scales in physical systems. At low energies, effective field theory can explain how existing phenomenology emerges from QCD and how to refine it systematically. More generally, the application of EFT methods to many-body problems promises insight into the analytic structure of observables, the identification of new expansion parameters, and a consistent organisation of many-body corrections, with reliable error estimates.

  8. Recent Developments in the Nuclear Many-Body Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furnstahl, R. J.

    2002-12-01

    The study of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) over the past quarter century has had relatively little impact on the traditional approach to the low-energy nuclear many-body problem. Recent developments are changing this situation. New experimental capabilities and theoretical approaches are opening windows into the richness of many-body phenomena in QCD. A common theme is the use of effective field theory (EFT) methods, which exploit the separation of scales in physical systems. At low energies, effective field theory can explain how existing phenomenology emerges from QCD and how to refine it systematically. More generally, the application of EFT methods to many-body problems promises insight into the analytic structure of observables, the identification of new expansion parameters, and a consistent organisation of many-body corrections, with reliable error estimates.

  9. Lecture notes for introduction to nuclear engineering 101

    SciTech Connect

    Fullwood, R.; Cadwell, J.

    1992-03-01

    The lecture notes for introductory nuclear engineering are provided for Department of Energy personnel that are recent graduates, transfers from non-nuclear industries, and people with minimum engineering training. The material assumes a knowledge of algebra and elementary calculus. These notes support and supplement a three-hour lecture. The reader is led into the subject from the familiar macroscopic world to the microscopic world of atoms and the parts of atoms called elementary particles. Only a passing reference is made to the very extensive world of quarks and tansitory particles to concentrate on those associated with radioactivity and fission. The Einsteinian truth of mass-energy equivalence provides an understanding of the forces binding a nucleus with a resulting mass defect that results in fusion at one end of the mass spectrum and fission at the other. Exercises are provided in calculating the energy released in isotopic transformation, reading and understanding the chart of the nuclides. The periodic table is reviewed to appreciate that the noble elements are produced by quantum mechanical shell closings. Radioactive decay is calculated as well as nuclear penetration and shielding. The geometric attenuation of radiation is studied for personal protection; the use of shielding materials for radiation protection is presented along with the buildup factor that renders the shielding less effective than might be supposed. The process of fission is presented along with the fission products and energies produced by fission. The requirements for producing a sustained chain reactor are discussed. The lecture ends with discussions of how radiation and dose is measured and how dose is converted to measures of the damage of radiation to our bodies.

  10. Conceptual Comparison of Population Based Metaheuristics for Engineering Problems

    PubMed Central

    Green, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Metaheuristic algorithms are well-known optimization tools which have been employed for solving a wide range of optimization problems. Several extensions of differential evolution have been adopted in solving constrained and nonconstrained multiobjective optimization problems, but in this study, the third version of generalized differential evolution (GDE) is used for solving practical engineering problems. GDE3 metaheuristic modifies the selection process of the basic differential evolution and extends DE/rand/1/bin strategy in solving practical applications. The performance of the metaheuristic is investigated through engineering design optimization problems and the results are reported. The comparison of the numerical results with those of other metaheuristic techniques demonstrates the promising performance of the algorithm as a robust optimization tool for practical purposes. PMID:25874265

  11. Examining the Critical Thinking Dispositions and the Problem Solving Skills of Computer Engineering Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Özyurt, Özcan

    2015-01-01

    Problem solving is an indispensable part of engineering. Improving critical thinking dispositions for solving engineering problems is one of the objectives of engineering education. In this sense, knowing critical thinking and problem solving skills of engineering students is of importance for engineering education. This study aims to determine…

  12. Examining the Critical Thinking Dispositions and the Problem Solving Skills of Computer Engineering Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Özyurt, Özcan

    2015-01-01

    Problem solving is an indispensable part of engineering. Improving critical thinking dispositions for solving engineering problems is one of the objectives of engineering education. In this sense, knowing critical thinking and problem solving skills of engineering students is of importance for engineering education. This study aims to determine…

  13. Three Problems: Nuclear Energy, National Defense and International Cooperation

    SciTech Connect

    Teller, E.

    1999-09-06

    A little more than half a century into the Nuclear Age, we cannot look back on a peaceful period, but we can say that the second (nuclear) half of the century has seen much less violence than the first half with its two violent wars. Also the second half of the century has seen the fortunate ending of the Cold War. But as to the future, we are left with three great questions. (1) How can the world be provided with ample energy? (2) How can we avoid the potentially devastating sudden applications of new destructive technologies? And finally, (3) How can we preserve the development of the world's new potentialities without producing a continuation of violent conflicts? The development of nuclear reactors appears to provide a most interesting new initiative to make energy available to every one. The reality of this promise is at least indicated by progress in France where electricity now is 80% ''nuclear.'' Unfortunately, fear of radioactivity and fear of weapons proliferation has turned public opinion in many parts of the world against nuclear energy. The fear of radioactivity seems to be exaggerated, as indicated, for instance, in the recent international conference in Vienna on the consequences of Chernobyl. The conference concluded that most of the anticipated difficulties (cancer and congenital malformation) have been grossly exaggerated. In my opinion, both the worry about radioactivity and the worry about massive military use of reactor products can be solved. There remain further real difficulties connected with expense and the availability of expertise that may be needed to handle nuclear reactors that may be absent in many parts of the world. I believe that all these problems can be solved. The three major accidents, Windscale in England in 1957, Three-Mile Island in Pennsylvania in 1979, and Chernobyl in Russia in 1986, could have been avoided by proper handling of reactors. The obvious answer seems to be more strict education of the reactor operators. In

  14. Texas A and M University student/professional nuclear science and engineering conference

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-03-12

    Abstracts of papers presented at the meeting are included. Topics discussed include: reactor engineering; space nuclear power systems; health physics and dosimetry; fusion engineering and physics; and reactor physics and theory.

  15. Numerical Problem Solving Using Mathcad in Undergraduate Reaction Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parulekar, Satish J.

    2006-01-01

    Experience in using a user-friendly software, Mathcad, in the undergraduate chemical reaction engineering course is discussed. Example problems considered for illustration deal with simultaneous solution of linear algebraic equations (kinetic parameter estimation), nonlinear algebraic equations (equilibrium calculations for multiple reactions and…

  16. Real-World Problem Solving in Freshman-Sophomore Engineering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavelich, Michael J.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    In an integrated four-course sequence, Colorado School of Mines engineering and science students work on open-ended, real-world problems prepared by government agencies and private companies that interact as clients with student teams. The program fosters intellectual development, teamwork, and communication skills. (Author/MSE)

  17. Creativity and Inspiration for Problem Solving in Engineering Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nordstrom, Katrina; Korpelainen, Paivi

    2011-01-01

    Problem solving is a critical skill for engineering students and essential to development of creativity and innovativeness. Essential to such learning is an ease of communication and allowing students to address the issues at hand via the terminology, attitudes, humor and empathy, which is inherent to their frame of mind as novices, without the…

  18. Numerical Problem Solving Using Mathcad in Undergraduate Reaction Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parulekar, Satish J.

    2006-01-01

    Experience in using a user-friendly software, Mathcad, in the undergraduate chemical reaction engineering course is discussed. Example problems considered for illustration deal with simultaneous solution of linear algebraic equations (kinetic parameter estimation), nonlinear algebraic equations (equilibrium calculations for multiple reactions and…

  19. Creativity and Inspiration for Problem Solving in Engineering Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nordstrom, Katrina; Korpelainen, Paivi

    2011-01-01

    Problem solving is a critical skill for engineering students and essential to development of creativity and innovativeness. Essential to such learning is an ease of communication and allowing students to address the issues at hand via the terminology, attitudes, humor and empathy, which is inherent to their frame of mind as novices, without the…

  20. DOE/Industrial Matching Grant to Support Nuclear Engineering and Nuclear-Related /Disciplines

    SciTech Connect

    Slaughter, David M.

    2002-08-31

    Final Report - Assurance is given that monies received through the matching grant were, in general, disburse as outlined in the original proposal. Specifically, the grant funded graduate students who participated in the nuclear engineering course opinions. The contract provided for a number of research stipends and student salaries for graduates working with industrial partners affiliated with the CENTER/NEP program (i.e., Envirocare, E-cubed, Aerotest, Little Mountain/Boeing). When necessary, supplies were purchased that supported these student activities. No funds were distributed for faculty or staff salaries.

  1. Remote machine engineering applications for nuclear facilities decommissioning

    SciTech Connect

    Toto, G.; Wyle, H.R.

    1983-01-01

    Decontamination and decommissioning of a nuclear facility require the application of techniques that protect the worker and the enviroment from radiological contamination and radiation. Remotely operated portable robotic arms, machines, and devices can be applied. The use of advanced systems should enhance the productivity, safety, and cost facets of the efforts; remote automatic tooling and systems may be used on any job where job hazard and other factors justify application. Many problems based on costs, enviromental impact, health, waste generation, and political issues may be mitigated by use of remotely operated machines. The work that man can not do or should not do will have to be done by machines.

  2. Problems in the introduction of genetically engineered microorganisms into the environment.

    PubMed

    Gorlach, K

    1994-01-01

    The use and release of genetically engineered microorganisms (GEMs) into the environment, usually the agricultural environment, is increasing exponentially. Potential applications of GEMs include crop production, pest management, degradation of environmental pollutants, mining and mineral recovery, and others. Several strategies of molecular and cellular biotechnology, such as recombinant DNA techniques, nuclear microinjection and cell fusion may be used to modify bacteria and fungi for useful purposes. The benefits expected from release of genetically engineered microorganisms, if safely applied, might be substantial in various fields. However, a safe introduction of GEMs into the environment requires full environmental and ecological risks assessment. Because of the wide scope of genetic engineering targets this review will focus on the application of GEMs potentially useful in agricultural practices (crop nutrition, pest and disease control) and ecological problems associated with the introduction of alien microorganisms into the environment.

  3. Salary Information for Nuclear Engineers and Health Physicists, July 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education

    1996-07-15

    Salary information was collected for July 1996 for personnel working as nuclear engineers and health physicists. The salary information includes personnel at the B.S., M.S., and Ph.D. levels with zero, one, three, four to seven, and eight to ten years of professional work experience. Information is provided for utilities and non-utilities. Non-utilities include private sector organizations and U.S. Department of Energy contractor-operated facilities. Government agencies, the military, academic organizations, and medical facilities are excluded. In previous years the salary data have been collected for October. In 1996, the data were collected for July; thus, some caution must be exercised in making annual salary trend comparisons.

  4. Interactive virtual laboratory for distance education in nuclear engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, P.; Stubbins, J.; Uddin, R.

    2006-07-01

    A real time, distance lab module is being developed and implemented in the Dept. of Nuclear, Plasma and Radiological Engineering at the Univ. of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. This internet based system allows remote personnel to watch the experiments, acquire data, and interact with on-site personnel. The e-lab broadcasts not only the live scenes of laboratory and experiments, but also the real time data and plots being measured and displayed in graphical and other formats. Moreover, use of LabVIEW's remote front panel feature allows communications between the local lab and remote client so that, if permitted, remote client can control part or all of the experiment in real-time. (authors)

  5. Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings: Phillips/United Nuclear site, Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    1981-10-01

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah, Inc., has reevaluated the Phillips/United Nuclear site in order to revise the December 1977 engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from 2.6 million dry tons of tailings at the Phillips/United Nuclear site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation also are factors. The four alternative actions presented in this engineering assessment range from millsite decontamination with the addition of 3 m of stabilization cover material, to removal of the tailings to remote disposal sites and decontamination of the tailings site. Cost estimates for the four options range from about $21,500,000 for stabilization in-place, to about $45,200,000 for disposal at a distance of about 15 mi. Three principal alternatives for the reprocessing of the Phillips/United Nuclear tailings were examined: heap leaching; treatment at an existing mill; and reprocessing at a new conventional mill constructed for tailings reprocessing.The cost of the uranium recovered would be about $87/lb of U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ by either heap leach or conventional plant process. The spot market price for uranium was $25/lb early in 1981. Reprocessing the Phillips/United Nuclear tailings for uranium recovery does not appear to be economically attractive under present or foreseeable market conditions.

  6. NASA Engineering and Safety Center NDE Super Problem Resolution Team

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prosser, W. H.

    2007-03-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) is an independent organization, which was charted in the wake of the Space Shuttle Columbia accident to serve as an Agency-wide technical resource focused on engineering excellence. The objective of the NESC is to improve safety by performing in-depth independent engineering assessments, testing, and analysis to uncover technical vulnerabilities and to determine appropriate preventative and corrective actions for problems, trends or issues within NASA's programs, projects and institutions. Critical to the NESC are teams of experts in a number of core disciplines including nondestructive evaluation (NDE). These teams, designated Super Problem Resolution Teams (SPRTs), draw upon the best engineering expertise from across the Agency and include partnerships with other government agencies, national laboratories, universities and industry. The NESC NDE SPRT provides a ready resource of NDE technical expertise to support NESC Independent Technical Assessments and Investigations. The purpose of this session will be to provide an overview of the NESC and the NDE SPRT along with a few examples of NDE related problems that the team has addressed for NASA Programs. It is hoped that this session will be of interest to the general NDE community and will foster contacts with additional NDE experts that might provide future support to the NASA NESC NDE SPRT.

  7. Problems in detection and measurement in nuclear medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aysun Ugur, Fatma

    2015-07-01

    Nuclear Medicine studies are performed with a variety of types of radiation measurement instruments, depending on the kind of radiation source that is being measured and the type of information sought. For example, some instruments are designed for in vitro measurements on blood samples, urine specimens, and so forth. Others are designed for in vivo measurements of radioactivity in patients. All these instruments have special design characteristics to optimize them for their specific tasks, as described in this study; however, some considerations of design characteristics and performance limitations are common to all of them. An important consideration for any radiation measurement instrument is its detection efficiency. Maximum detection efficiency is desirable because one thus obtains maximum information with a minimum amount of radioactivity. Also important are instrument's counting rate limitations. There are finite counting rate limits for all counting and imaging instruments used in nuclear medicine, above which accurate results are obtained because of data losses and other data distortions. Non penetrating radiations, such as ß particles, have special detection and measurement problems. In this study, some of these general considerations have been discussed.

  8. Isotopic Effects in Nuclear Fragmentation and GCR Transport Problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2002-01-01

    Improving the accuracy of the galactic cosmic ray (GCR) environment and transport models is an important goal in preparing for studies of the projected risks and the efficiency of potential mitigations methods for space exploration. In this paper we consider the effects of the isotopic composition of the primary cosmic rays and the isotopic dependence of nuclear fragmentation cross sections on GCR transport models. Measurements are used to describe the isotopic composition of the GCR including their modulation throughout the solar cycle. The quantum multiple-scattering approach to nuclear fragmentation (QMSFRG) is used as the data base generator in order to accurately describe the odd-even effect in fragment production. Using the Badhwar and O'Neill GCR model, the QMSFRG model and the HZETRN transport code, the effects of the isotopic dependence of the primary GCR composition and on fragment production for transport problems is described for a complete GCR isotopic-grid. The principle finding of this study is that large errors ( 100%) will occur in the mass-flux spectra when comparing the complete isotopic-grid (141 ions) to a reduced isotopic-grid (59 ions), however less significant errors 30%) occur in the elemental-flux spectra. Because the full isotopic-grid is readily handled on small computer work-stations, it is recommended that they be used for future GCR studies.

  9. Nuclear transformation of eukaryotic microalgae: historical overview, achievements and problems.

    PubMed

    León, Rosa; Fernández, Emilio

    2007-01-01

    Transformation of microalgae is a first step in their use for biotechnological applications involving foreign protein production or molecular modifications of specific cell metabolic pathways. Since the first reliable achievements of nuclear transformation in Chlamydomonas, other eukaryotic microalgae have become transformed with molecular markers that allow a direct selection. Different methods--glass beads, electroporation, particle bombardment, or Agrobacterium--and constructions have been set up in several organisms and successfully used. However, some problems associated with efficiency, integration, or stability of the transgenes still persist and are analysed herein. Though the number of microalgae species successfully transformed is not very high, prospects for transformation of many more are good enough on the basis of what has been achieved so far.

  10. Instabilities in uranium plasma and the gas-core nuclear rocket engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tidman, D. A.

    1972-01-01

    The nonlinear evolution of unstable sound waves in a uranium plasma has been calculated using a multiple time-scale asymptotic expansion scheme. The fluid equations used include the fission power density, radiation diffusion, and the effects of the changing degree of ionization of the uranium atoms. The nonlinear growth of unstable waves is shown to be limited by mode coupling to shorter wavelength waves which are damped by radiation diffusion. This mechanism limits the wave pressure fluctuations to values of order delta P/P approximates 0.00001 in the plasma of a typical gas-core nuclear rocket engine. The instability is thus not expected to present a control problem for this engine.

  11. Dimensionality reduction for uncertainty quantification of nuclear engineering models.

    SciTech Connect

    Roderick, O.; Wang, Z.; Anitescu, M.

    2011-01-01

    The task of uncertainty quantification consists of relating the available information on uncertainties in the model setup to the resulting variation in the outputs of the model. Uncertainty quantification plays an important role in complex simulation models of nuclear engineering, where better understanding of uncertainty results in greater confidence in the model and in the improved safety and efficiency of engineering projects. In our previous work, we have shown that the effect of uncertainty can be approximated by polynomial regression with derivatives (PRD): a hybrid regression method that uses first-order derivatives of the model output as additional fitting conditions for a polynomial expansion. Numerical experiments have demonstrated the advantage of this approach over classical methods of uncertainty analysis: in precision, computational efficiency, or both. To obtain derivatives, we used automatic differentiation (AD) on the simulation code; hand-coded derivatives are acceptable for simpler models. We now present improvements on the method. We use a tuned version of the method of snapshots, a technique based on proper orthogonal decomposition (POD), to set up the reduced order representation of essential information on uncertainty in the model inputs. The automatically obtained sensitivity information is required to set up the method. Dimensionality reduction in combination with PRD allows analysis on a larger dimension of the uncertainty space (>100), at modest computational cost.

  12. Engineering Codes' Numerical Benchmarks for RBMK-1000 Nuclear Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Davidov, V.K.; Rozhdestvenskij, M.I.; Druzhinin, V.E.; Kashevarov, F.Yu.; Gorodkov, S.S.; Kvator, V.M.

    2002-07-01

    Solutions to a number of neutron transport problems, typical for RBMK-1000 reactor calculations were developed with the MCU-REA code, based on a Monte-Carlo method approximately 400 relatively simple problem variants - infinite height cylindrical and square cells and some poly-cells were considered. At that stage sole simplification of the complex internal structure of the RBMK cells was the homogenization of the fuel rods spacers. The burnup calculations were carried out with the detailed account of circa 50 isotopes history. The obtained results are supposed to be used as numerical benchmarks for the verification of engineering code complexes and their separate modules for RBMK-1000 calculations. They can also be considered as results of numerical experiments and analyzed to achieve better understanding of complex fine features of neutron physics processes in reactor. (authors)

  13. Current state of nuclear fuel cycles in nuclear engineering and trends in their development according to the environmental safety requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vislov, I. S.; Pischulin, V. P.; Kladiev, S. N.; Slobodyan, S. M.

    2016-08-01

    The state and trends in the development of nuclear fuel cycles in nuclear engineering, taking into account the ecological aspects of using nuclear power plants, are considered. An analysis of advantages and disadvantages of nuclear engineering, compared with thermal engineering based on organic fuel types, was carried out. Spent nuclear fuel (SNF) reprocessing is an important task in the nuclear industry, since fuel unloaded from modern reactors of any type contains a large amount of radioactive elements that are harmful to the environment. On the other hand, the newly generated isotopes of uranium and plutonium should be reused to fabricate new nuclear fuel. The spent nuclear fuel also includes other types of fission products. Conditions for SNF handling are determined by ecological and economic factors. When choosing a certain handling method, one should assess these factors at all stages of its implementation. There are two main methods of SNF handling: open nuclear fuel cycle, with spent nuclear fuel assemblies (NFAs) that are held in storage facilities with their consequent disposal, and closed nuclear fuel cycle, with separation of uranium and plutonium, their purification from fission products, and use for producing new fuel batches. The development of effective closed fuel cycles using mixed uranium-plutonium fuel can provide a successful development of the nuclear industry only under the conditions of implementation of novel effective technological treatment processes that meet strict requirements of environmental safety and reliability of process equipment being applied. The diversity of technological processes is determined by different types of NFA devices and construction materials being used, as well as by the composition that depends on nuclear fuel components and operational conditions for assemblies in the nuclear power reactor. This work provides an overview of technological processes of SNF treatment and methods of handling of nuclear fuel

  14. Development of undergraduate nuclear security curriculum at College of Engineering, Universiti Tenaga Nasional

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamid, Nasri A.; Mujaini, Madihah; Mohamed, Abdul Aziz

    2017-01-01

    The Center for Nuclear Energy (CNE), College of Engineering, Universiti Tenaga Nasional (UNITEN) has a great responsibility to undertake educational activities that promote developing human capital in the area of nuclear engineering and technology. Developing human capital in nuclear through education programs is necessary to support the implementation of nuclear power projects in Malaysia in the near future. In addition, the educational program must also meet the nuclear power industry needs and requirements. In developing a certain curriculum, the contents must comply with the university's Outcomes Based Education (OBE) philosophy. One of the important courses in the nuclear curriculum is in the area of nuclear security. Basically the nuclear security course covers the current issues of law, politics, military strategy, and technology with regard to weapons of mass destruction and related topics in international security, and review legal regulations and political relationship that determine the state of nuclear security at the moment. In addition, the course looks into all aspects of the nuclear safeguards, builds basic knowledge and understanding of nuclear non-proliferation, nuclear forensics and nuclear safeguards in general. The course also discusses tools used to combat nuclear proliferation such as treaties, institutions, multilateral arrangements and technology controls. In this paper, we elaborate the development of undergraduate nuclear security course at the College of Engineering, Universiti Tenaga Nasional. Since the course is categorized as mechanical engineering subject, it must be developed in tandem with the program educational objectives (PEO) of the Bachelor of Mechanical Engineering program. The course outcomes (CO) and transferrable skills are also identified. Furthermore, in aligning the CO with program outcomes (PO), the PO elements need to be emphasized through the CO-PO mapping. As such, all assessments and distribution of Bloom Taxonomy

  15. Geological aspects of the nuclear waste disposal problem

    SciTech Connect

    Laverov, N.P.; Omelianenko, B.L.; Velichkin, V.I.

    1994-06-01

    For the successful solution of the high-level waste (HLW) problem in Russia one must take into account such factors as the existence of the great volume of accumulated HLW, the large size and variety of geological conditions in the country, and the difficult economic conditions. The most efficient method of HLW disposal consists in the maximum use of protective capacities of the geological environment and in using inexpensive natural minerals for engineered barrier construction. In this paper, the principal trends of geological investigation directed toward the solution of HLW disposal are considered. One urgent practical aim is the selection of sites in deep wells in regions where the HLW is now held in temporary storage. The aim of long-term investigations into HLW disposal is to evaluate geological prerequisites for regional HLW repositories.

  16. 2002-2003 Engineering Accomplishments: Unconventional Nuclear Weapons Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Hernandez, J E; Valentine, J

    2004-04-09

    The Defense Threat Reduction Agency, DTRA, is a federal agency charged with safeguarding the nation from weapons of mass destruction, in particular nuclear weapons such as crude devices, and radiological dispersal devices (RDD), also known as dirty bombs. Both of which could be delivered using unconventional means such as by transporting them by a car or boat. Two years ago DTRA partnered with NNSA to evaluate commercially available technologies that could be deployed quickly to defend against threats posed by unconventional nuclear weapons under a program called the Unconventional Nuclear Warfare Defense (UNWD) Program. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) was one of several National laboratories that participated in this program, which consisted in developing, deploying, and demonstrating detection systems suitable for military base protection. Two key contributions to this program by the LLNL team were the development of two Radiation Detection Buoys (RDB) deployed at Naval Base in Kings Bay in Georgia, and the Detection and Tracking System (DTS) demonstrated at Fort Leonard Wood Missouri, headquarters for the Total Force's Maneuver Support Center (MANSCEN). The RDB's were designed to detect the potential transportation of an unconventional nuclear or radiological weapon by a boat. The RDB's consisted of two commercial marine buoys instrumented with several types of detectors sensitive to gamma rays and neutrons, two key modes of energy emitted by radioactive materials. The engineering team selected a standard marine buoy as the overall system platform for this deployment since buoys are already designed to sustain the harsh marine environment, and also for their covertness, since once deployed, they look just like any other buoy on the water. Since this was the first time such a system was ever deployed, the team choose to instrument the buoys with a suite of different types of detectors with the goal to learn which detectors would be best suited for

  17. Lessons Learned on University Education Programs of Chemical Engineering Principles for Nuclear Plant Operations - 13588

    SciTech Connect

    Ryu, Jun-hyung

    2013-07-01

    University education aims to supply qualified human resources for industries. In complex large scale engineering systems such as nuclear power plants, the importance of qualified human resources cannot be underestimated. The corresponding education program should involve many topics systematically. Recently a nuclear engineering program has been initiated in Dongguk University, South Korea. The current education program focuses on undergraduate level nuclear engineering students. Our main objective is to provide industries fresh engineers with the understanding on the interconnection of local parts and the entire systems of nuclear power plants and the associated systems. From the experience there is a huge opportunity for chemical engineering disciple in the context of giving macroscopic overview on nuclear power plant and waste treatment management by strengthening the analyzing capability of fundamental situations. (authors)

  18. Expert systems applied to two problems in nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, K.Y.

    1988-01-01

    This dissertation describes two prototype expert systems applied to two problems in nuclear power plants. One problem is spare parts inventory control, and the other one is radionuclide release from containment during severe accident. The expert system for spare parts inventory control can handle spare parts requirements not only in corrective, preventive, or predictive maintenance, but also when failure rates of components or parts are updated by new data. Costs and benefits of spare parts inventory acquisition are evaluated with qualitative attributes such as spare part availability to provide the inventory manager with an improved basis for decision making. The expert system is implemented with Intelligence/Compiler on an IBM-AT. The other expert system for radionuclide release from containment can estimate magnitude, type, location, and time of release of radioactive materials from containment during a severe accident nearly on line, based on the actual measured physical parameters such as temperature and pressure inside the containment. The expert system has a function to check the validation of sensor data. The expert system is implemented with KEE on a Symbolics LISP machine.

  19. Problem-based learning in optical engineering studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voznesenskaya, Anna

    2016-09-01

    Nowadays, the Problem-Based Learning (PBL) is one of the most prospective educational technologies. PBL is based on evaluation of learning outcomes of a student, both professional and personal, instead of traditional evaluation of theoretical knowledge and selective practical skills. Such an approach requires changes in the curricula development. There should be introduced projects (cases) imitating real tasks from the professional life. These cases should include a problem summary with necessary theoretic description, charts, graphs, information sources etc, task to implement and evaluation indicators and criteria. Often these cases are evaluated with the assessment-center method. To motivate students for the given task they could be divided into groups and have a contest. Whilst it looks easy to implement in social, economic or teaching fields PBL is pretty complicated in engineering studies. Examples of cases in the first-cycle optical engineering studies are shown in this paper. Procedures of the PBL implementation and evaluation are described.

  20. STEM Leader from the Roeper School: An Interview with Nuclear Engineer Clair J. Sullivan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ambrose, Don

    2016-01-01

    Clair J. Sullivan is an assistant professor in the Department of Nuclear, Plasma and Radiological Engineering at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC). Her research interests include radiation detection and measurements; gamma-ray spectroscopy; automated isotope identification algorithms; nuclear forensics; nuclear security;…

  1. STEM Leader from the Roeper School: An Interview with Nuclear Engineer Clair J. Sullivan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ambrose, Don

    2016-01-01

    Clair J. Sullivan is an assistant professor in the Department of Nuclear, Plasma and Radiological Engineering at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC). Her research interests include radiation detection and measurements; gamma-ray spectroscopy; automated isotope identification algorithms; nuclear forensics; nuclear security;…

  2. Class and Home Problems: Humidification, a True "Home" Problem for p. Chemical Engineer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Condoret, Jean-Stephane

    2012-01-01

    The problem of maintaining hygrothermal comfort in a house is addressed using the chemical engineer's toolbox. A simple dynamic modelling proved to give a good description of the humidification of the house in winter, using a domestic humidifier. Parameters of the model were identified from a simple experiment. Surprising results, especially…

  3. Class and Home Problems: Humidification, a True "Home" Problem for p. Chemical Engineer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Condoret, Jean-Stephane

    2012-01-01

    The problem of maintaining hygrothermal comfort in a house is addressed using the chemical engineer's toolbox. A simple dynamic modelling proved to give a good description of the humidification of the house in winter, using a domestic humidifier. Parameters of the model were identified from a simple experiment. Surprising results, especially…

  4. Applications of nuclear magnetic resonance imaging in process engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gladden, Lynn F.; Alexander, Paul

    1996-03-01

    During the past decade, the application of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging techniques to problems of relevance to the process industries has been identified. The particular strengths of NMR techniques are their ability to distinguish between different chemical species and to yield information simultaneously on the structure, concentration distribution and flow processes occurring within a given process unit. In this paper, examples of specific applications in the areas of materials and food processing, transport in reactors and two-phase flow are discussed. One specific study, that of the internal structure of a packed column, is considered in detail. This example is reported to illustrate the extent of new, quantitative information of generic importance to many processing operations that can be obtained using NMR imaging in combination with image analysis.

  5. Manpower Assessment Brief {number_sign}42: Nuclear Engineering Enrollments and Degrees Decreased at all Levels in 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1998-06-01

    This report presents the findings from a 1997 enrollment and degree survey sent to 46 institutions offering a major in nuclear engineering or an option program received their degrees within the nuclear engineering major programs.

  6. Introducing future engineers to sustainable ecology problems: a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filipkowski, A.

    2011-12-01

    The problem of Earth environmental destruction by human activities is becoming dangerous. Engineers responsible for the production of any goods should be well aware of the negative influence of their activities on the state of the planet. This is why the understanding of ecological problems is essential for people responsible for production and industrial design. The energy, which they consume, is increasing the greenhouse effect and the waste poisons the environment. So far, most courses on ecology are offered to specialists in environmental engineering. These courses are filled with many details. The Warsaw Academy of Computer Science, Management and Administration teaches students in the direction of management and production engineering. Upon completion, the students receive the degree of 'engineer'. Their future work will mainly concern management of different types of industrial enterprises and they will be responsible for organising it in such a way as to avoid a dangerous contribution to environmental pollution and climate change. This is why it was decided to introduce a new course entitled 'Principles of Ecology and Environmental Management'. This course is quite broad, concerning almost all technical, law and organisational aspects of the problem. The presentation is made in a spectacular way, aiming to convince students that their future activity must be environmentally friendly. It contains information about international activities in ecology, legal aspects concerning pollution, technical and information methods of monitoring and, finally, the description of 'green' solutions. Altogether, 27 hours of lectures and 15 hours of discussions and students' presentations complete the course. Details of this course are described in this paper.

  7. Engineering neural systems for high-level problem solving.

    PubMed

    Sylvester, Jared; Reggia, James

    2016-07-01

    There is a long-standing, sometimes contentious debate in AI concerning the relative merits of a symbolic, top-down approach vs. a neural, bottom-up approach to engineering intelligent machine behaviors. While neurocomputational methods excel at lower-level cognitive tasks (incremental learning for pattern classification, low-level sensorimotor control, fault tolerance and processing of noisy data, etc.), they are largely non-competitive with top-down symbolic methods for tasks involving high-level cognitive problem solving (goal-directed reasoning, metacognition, planning, etc.). Here we take a step towards addressing this limitation by developing a purely neural framework named galis. Our goal in this work is to integrate top-down (non-symbolic) control of a neural network system with more traditional bottom-up neural computations. galis is based on attractor networks that can be "programmed" with temporal sequences of hand-crafted instructions that control problem solving by gating the activity retention of, communication between, and learning done by other neural networks. We demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach by showing that it can be applied successfully to solve sequential card matching problems, using both human performance and a top-down symbolic algorithm as experimental controls. Solving this kind of problem makes use of top-down attention control and the binding together of visual features in ways that are easy for symbolic AI systems but not for neural networks to achieve. Our model can not only be instructed on how to solve card matching problems successfully, but its performance also qualitatively (and sometimes quantitatively) matches the performance of both human subjects that we had perform the same task and the top-down symbolic algorithm that we used as an experimental control. We conclude that the core principles underlying the galis framework provide a promising approach to engineering purely neurocomputational systems for problem

  8. Nuclear ribosomal spacer regions in plant phylogenetics: problems and prospects.

    PubMed

    Poczai, Péter; Hyvönen, Jaakko

    2010-04-01

    The nuclear ribosomal locus coding for the large subunit is represented in tandem arrays in the plant genome. These consecutive gene blocks, consisting of several regions, are widely applied in plant phylogenetics. The regions coding for the subunits of the rRNA have the lowest rate of evolution. Also the spacer regions like the internal transcribed spacers (ITS) and external transcribed spacers (ETS) are widely utilized in phylogenetics. The fact, that these regions are present in many copies in the plant genome is an advantage for laboratory practice but might be problem for phylogenetic analysis. Beside routine usage, the rDNA regions provide the great potential to study complex evolutionary mechanisms, such as reticulate events or array duplications. The understanding of these processes is based on the observation that the multiple copies of rDNA regions are homogenized through concerted evolution. This phenomenon results to paralogous copies, which can be misleading when incorporated in phylogenetic analyses. The fact that non-functional copies or pseudogenes can coexist with ortholougues in a single individual certainly makes also the analysis difficult. This article summarizes the information about the structure and utility of the phylogenetically informative spacer regions of the rDNA, namely internal- and external transcribed spacer regions as well as the intergenic spacer (IGS).

  9. Parameter Study of the LIFE Engine Nuclear Design

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, K J; Meier, W R; Latkowski, J F; Abbott, R P

    2009-07-10

    LLNL is developing the nuclear fusion based Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE) power plant concept. The baseline design uses a depleted uranium (DU) fission fuel blanket with a flowing molten salt coolant (flibe) that also breeds the tritium needed to sustain the fusion energy source. Indirect drive targets, similar to those that will be demonstrated on the National Ignition Facility (NIF), are ignited at {approx}13 Hz providing a 500 MW fusion source. The DU is in the form of a uranium oxycarbide kernel in modified TRISO-like fuel particles distributed in a carbon matrix forming 2-cm-diameter pebbles. The thermal power is held at 2000 MW by continuously varying the 6Li enrichment in the coolants. There are many options to be considered in the engine design including target yield, U-to-C ratio in the fuel, fission blanket thickness, etc. Here we report results of design variations and compare them in terms of various figures of merit such as time to reach a desired burnup, full-power years of operation, time and maximum burnup at power ramp down and the overall balance of plant utilization.

  10. Engineering problems in ensuring the strength and reliability of the new generation of aircraft engines

    SciTech Connect

    Boguslaev, V.A.

    1995-11-01

    The {open_quotes}Motor Sich{close_quotes} plant - formerly the Zaporozh`e Engine Plant - has been a major contributor to the genesis and development of the domestic aviation industry. More than 20,000 engines made at the plant are currently operating in 18 domestic models of airplanes and helicopters, while roughly 4000 of the factory`s engines are in use abroad. Also, 998 mobile gas-turbine power plants of the PAES-2500 type are presently in service in and outside the CIS. Successes such as these are the result of the tremendous effort put forth by plant personnel and close collaboration with aircraft designers and buyers and scientific-research institutes on engine manufacture, operation, and servicing. Their contributions have made it possible to improve the strength and reliability of engines AI-20, AI-241 AI-25, AI-25TL, and TVZ-117. These models are renowned most of all for their durability, surpassing comparable foreign makes with respect to length of service. Engines AI-20, AI-24, and AI-25 have an average service life of 200,000 h, versus the 50,000 h life of foreign counterparts {open_quotes}Tyne,{close_quotes} {open_quotes}Dart,{close_quotes} and TE.731. At present, engine model D-18T is still not the equal of comparable foreign-made engines in terms of reliability and service life. This can be attributed to both to the problems associated with designing high-thrust engines and to the lack of adequate diagnostic systems. After several problems are resolved, new-generation engines D-36, D-136, and D-18 will provide new levels of reliability and durability. The durability of the D-36 is presently limited by the life of the casing of the combustor (6053 cycles) and the disks of the low- and high-pressure compressors (6500-7000 cycles). The life of the D-18T is restricted mainly by the life of the rotor blades in the high-pressure turbine, defects in the disks of the high-pressure compressor, and other problems.

  11. Brief 72 Nuclear Engineering Enrollments and Degrees Survey, 2013 Data (2-14)

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2014-02-15

    The survey includes degrees granted between September 1, 2012 and August 31, 2013. Enrollment information refers to the fall term 2013. The enrollments and degrees data include students majoring in nuclear engineering or in an option program equivalent to a major. Thirty-two academic programs reported having nuclear engineering programs during 2013, and data was received from all thirty-two programs. The data for two nuclear engineering programs include enrollments and degrees in health physics options that are also reported in the health physics enrollments and degrees data.

  12. UMCP-BG and E collaboration in nuclear power engineering in the framework of DOE-Utility Nuclear Power Engineering Education Matching Grant Program

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfe, Lothar PhD

    2000-03-01

    The DOE-Utility Nuclear Power Engineering Education Matching Grant Program has been established to support the education of students in Nuclear Engineering Programs to maintain a knowledgeable workforce in the United States in order to keep nuclear power as a viable component in a mix of energy sources for the country. The involvement of the utility industry ensures that this grant program satisfies the needs and requirements of local nuclear energy producers and at the same time establishes a strong linkage between education and day-to-day nuclear power generation. As of 1997, seventeen pairs of university-utility partners existed. UMCP was never a member of that group of universities, but applied for the first time with a proposal to Baltimore Gas and Electric Company in January 1999 [1]. This proposal was generously granted by BG&E [2,3] in the form of a gift in the amount of $25,000 from BG&E's Corporate Contribution Program. Upon the arrival of a newly appointed Director of Administration in the Department of Materials and Nuclear Engineering, the BG&E check was deposited into the University's Maryland Foundation Fund. The receipt of the letter and the check enabled UMCP to apply for DOE's matching funds in the same amount by a proposal.

  13. Brief 68.1 Nuclear Engineering Enrollments and Degrees Survey, 2010 Data

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Don Johnson, Analysis and Evaluation, Science Education Programs

    2011-07-28

    The survey includes degrees granted between September 1, 2009 and August 31, 2010, and fall 2010 enrollments. Thirty-two academic programs reported having nuclear engineering programs during 2010, and data was obtained from all thirty-two.

  14. A Report of the Nuclear Engineering Division Sessions at the 1971 ASEE Annual Conference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckley, Wayne; Nelson, George W.

    1972-01-01

    Summarizes the discussions at the conference under the topics, Objective Criteria for the Future" and Teaching Concepts Basic to Nuclear Engineering." Includes comments from personnel representing universities, industries, and government laboratories. (TS)

  15. Nuclear power in the Ukraine: Problems and prospects

    SciTech Connect

    Nigmatullin, N.R.

    1995-10-01

    Nuclear power production in the Ukraine started in 1977 with the startup of the first 1000-MW power-generating unit at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant. During the period from 1977 to 1989 sixteen power-generating units with a total electric capacity of 14,880 MW were put into operation at five nuclear power plants: ten VVER-1000, two VVER-440, and four RBMK-1000. As a result of the accident in 1986 in the fourth power-generating unit and the fire in 1991 in the second power-generating unit of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant, these units are no longer operating. Therefore the total installed nuclear power plant capacity is 12,880 MW. Moreover, the construction of three more power-generating units with VVER-1000 reactors is almost completed at three nuclear power plants - Zaporozh`e, Roven, and Khmel`nitsk. These units are not in operation because of the moratorium announced by the Supreme Council of Ukraine. In connection with the Council`s decision, the Chernobyl nuclear power plant should have been shut down in 1993.

  16. Statistics for nuclear engineers and scientists. Part 1. Basic statistical inference

    SciTech Connect

    Beggs, W.J.

    1981-02-01

    This report is intended for the use of engineers and scientists working in the nuclear industry, especially at the Bettis Atomic Power Laboratory. It serves as the basis for several Bettis in-house statistics courses. The objectives of the report are to introduce the reader to the language and concepts of statistics and to provide a basic set of techniques to apply to problems of the collection and analysis of data. Part 1 covers subjects of basic inference. The subjects include: descriptive statistics; probability; simple inference for normally distributed populations, and for non-normal populations as well; comparison of two populations; the analysis of variance; quality control procedures; and linear regression analysis.

  17. The growing problem of stranded used nuclear fuel.

    PubMed

    Alley, William M; Alley, Rosemarie

    2014-02-18

    By 2050, almost all U.S. nuclear reactors will have reached their 60 year maximum expected life. Many will shut down sooner. With no assurance that the current approach for finding a geologic repository or interim storage sites will succeed, used nuclear fuel could be stranded indefinitely at more than 70 sites in 35 states. Societal discussions about the future of nuclear waste should be framed in terms of the relative risks of all alternatives. We review and compare onsite storage, interim storage, and a geologic repository, as well as how these alternatives are presented to the public.

  18. Your Career and Nuclear Weapons: A Guide for Young Scientists and Engineers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albrecht, Andreas; And Others

    This four-part booklet examines various issues related to nuclear weapons and how they will affect an individual working as a scientist or engineer. It provides information about the history of nuclear weapons, about the weapons industry which produces them, and about new weapons programs. Issues are raised so that new or future graduates may make…

  19. Your Career and Nuclear Weapons: A Guide for Young Scientists and Engineers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albrecht, Andreas; And Others

    This four-part booklet examines various issues related to nuclear weapons and how they will affect an individual working as a scientist or engineer. It provides information about the history of nuclear weapons, about the weapons industry which produces them, and about new weapons programs. Issues are raised so that new or future graduates may make…

  20. A High Intensity Multi-Purpose D-D Neutron Generator for Nuclear Engineering Laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    Ka-Ngo Leung; Jasmina L. Vujic; Edward C. Morse; Per F. Peterson

    2005-11-29

    This NEER project involves the design, construction and testing of a low-cost high intensity D-D neutron generator for teaching nuclear engineering students in a laboratory environment without radioisotopes or a nuclear reactor. The neutron generator was designed, fabricated and tested at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL).

  1. Program plan for US Department of Energy support for nuclear engineering education

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, L.

    1992-05-11

    This document describes the plan developed to address the growing concern for the continued deterioration of nuclear engineering education in the United States and its ability to meet the manpower demands for this Nation's work force requiring nuclear related talent in the foreseeable future.

  2. Calcined Waste Storage at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center

    SciTech Connect

    M. D. Staiger M. C. Swenson

    2007-06-01

    This report provides a quantitative inventory and composition (chemical and radioactivity) of calcined waste stored at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center. From December 1963 through May 2000, liquid radioactive wastes generated by spent nuclear fuel reprocessing were converted into a solid, granular form called calcine. This report also contains a description of the calcine storage bins.

  3. Communication Problems in Requirements Engineering: A Field Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Al-Rawas, Amer; Easterbrook, Steve

    1996-01-01

    The requirements engineering phase of software development projects is characterized by the intensity and importance of communication activities. During this phase, the various stakeholders must be able to communicate their requirements to the analysts, and the analysts need to be able to communicate the specifications they generate back to the stakeholders for validation. This paper describes a field investigation into the problems of communication between disparate communities involved in the requirements specification activities. The results of this study are discussed in terms of their relation to three major communication barriers: (1) ineffectiveness of the current communication channels; (2) restrictions on expressiveness imposed by notations; and (3) social and organizational barriers. The results confirm that organizational and social issues have great influence on the effectiveness of communication. They also show that in general, end-users find the notations used by software practitioners to model their requirements difficult to understand and validate.

  4. A Programmatic and Engineering Approach to the Development of a Nuclear Thermal Rocket for Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bordelon, Wayne J., Jr.; Ballard, Rick O.; Gerrish, Harold P., Jr.

    2006-01-01

    With the announcement of the Vision for Space Exploration on January 14, 2004, there has been a renewed interest in nuclear thermal propulsion. Nuclear thermal propulsion is a leading candidate for in-space propulsion for human Mars missions; however, the cost to develop a nuclear thermal rocket engine system is uncertain. Key to determining the engine development cost will be the engine requirements, the technology used in the development and the development approach. The engine requirements and technology selection have not been defined and are awaiting definition of the Mars architecture and vehicle definitions. The paper discusses an engine development approach in light of top-level strategic questions and considerations for nuclear thermal propulsion and provides a suggested approach based on work conducted at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center to support planning and requirements for the Prometheus Power and Propulsion Office. This work is intended to help support the development of a comprehensive strategy for nuclear thermal propulsion, to help reduce the uncertainty in the development cost estimate, and to help assess the potential value of and need for nuclear thermal propulsion for a human Mars mission.

  5. A Programmatic and Engineering Approach to the Development of a Nuclear Thermal Rocket for Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bordelon, Wayne J., Jr.; Ballard, Rick O.; Gerrish, Harold P., Jr.

    2006-01-01

    With the announcement of the Vision for Space Exploration on January 14, 2004, there has been a renewed interest in nuclear thermal propulsion. Nuclear thermal propulsion is a leading candidate for in-space propulsion for human Mars missions; however, the cost to develop a nuclear thermal rocket engine system is uncertain. Key to determining the engine development cost will be the engine requirements, the technology used in the development and the development approach. The engine requirements and technology selection have not been defined and are awaiting definition of the Mars architecture and vehicle definitions. The paper discusses an engine development approach in light of top-level strategic questions and considerations for nuclear thermal propulsion and provides a suggested approach based on work conducted at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center to support planning and requirements for the Prometheus Power and Propulsion Office. This work is intended to help support the development of a comprehensive strategy for nuclear thermal propulsion, to help reduce the uncertainty in the development cost estimate, and to help assess the potential value of and need for nuclear thermal propulsion for a human Mars mission.

  6. Nuclear DNA Amounts in Angiosperms: Progress, Problems and Prospects

    PubMed Central

    BENNETT, M. D.; LEITCH, I. J.

    2005-01-01

    CONTENTSINTRODUCTION45PROGRESS46    Improved systematic representation (species and families)46        (i) First estimates for species46        (ii) First estimates for families47PROBLEMS48    Geographical representation and distribution48    Plant life form48    Obsolescence time bomb49    Errors and inexactitudes49    Genome size, ‘complete’ genome sequencing, and, the euchromatic genome50    The completely sequenced genome50    Weeding out erroneous data52    What is the smallest reliable C-value for an angiosperm?52    What is the minimum C-value for a free-living angiosperm and other free-living organisms?53PROSPECTS FOR THE NEXT TEN YEARS54    Holistic genomics55LITERATURE CITED56APPENDIX59    Notes to the Appendix59    Original references for DNA values89 • Background The nuclear DNA amount in an unreplicated haploid chromosome complement (1C-value) is a key diversity character with many uses. Angiosperm C-values have been listed for reference purposes since 1976, and pooled in an electronic database since 1997 (http://www.kew.org/cval/homepage). Such lists are cited frequently and provide data for many comparative studies. The last compilation was published in 2000, so a further supplementary list is timely to monitor progress against targets set at the first plant genome size workshop in 1997 and to facilitate new goal setting. • Scope The present work lists DNA C-values for 804 species including first values for 628 species from 88 original sources, not included in any previous compilation, plus additional values for 176 species included in a previous compilation. • Conclusions 1998–2002 saw striking progress in our knowledge of angiosperm C-values. At least 1700 first values for species were measured (the most in any five-year period) and familial representation rose from 30 % to 50 %. The loss of many

  7. Nuclear processing - a simple cost equation or a complex problem?

    SciTech Connect

    Banfield, Z.; Banford, A.W.; Hanson, B.C.; Scully, P.J.

    2007-07-01

    BNFL has extensive experience of nuclear processing plant from concept through to decommissioning, at all stages of the fuel cycle. Nexia Solutions (formerly BNFL's R and D Division) has always supported BNFL in development of concept plant, including the development of costed plant designs for the purpose of economic evaluation and technology selection. Having undertaken such studies over a number of years, this has enabled Nexia Solutions to develop a portfolio of costed plant designs for a broad range of nuclear processes, throughputs and technologies. This work has led to an extensive understanding of the relationship of the cost of nuclear processing plant, and how this can be impacted by scale of process, and the selection of design philosophy. The relationship has been seen to be non linear and so simplistic equations do not apply, the relationship is complex due to the variety of contributory factors. This is particularly evident when considering the scale of a process, for example how step changes in design occurs with increasing scale, how the applicability of technology options can vary with scale etc... This paper will explore the contributory factor of scale to nuclear processing plant costs. (authors)

  8. The Terminological Problems Facing Euratom's Nuclear Documentation Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Detant, Marcel

    In order to carry out its project for a mechanized documentation service based on a system of keyword coordination, European Atomic Energy Community's Centre for Information and Documentation was led to draw up an inventory of terminology in the nuclear field and maintain a tight control over it. A basic thesaurus of 1230 keywords was drawn up and…

  9. The Terminological Problems Facing Euratom's Nuclear Documentation Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Detant, Marcel

    In order to carry out its project for a mechanized documentation service based on a system of keyword coordination, European Atomic Energy Community's Centre for Information and Documentation was led to draw up an inventory of terminology in the nuclear field and maintain a tight control over it. A basic thesaurus of 1230 keywords was drawn up and…

  10. An Historical Perspective of the NERVA Nuclear Rocket Engine Technology Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robbins, W. H.; Finger, H. B.

    1991-01-01

    Nuclear rocket research and development was initiated in the United States in 1955 and is still being pursued to a limited extent. The major technology emphasis occurred in the decade of the 1960s and was primarily associated with the Rover/NERVA Program where the technology for a nuclear rocket engine system for space application was developed and demonstrated. The NERVA (Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Application) technology developed twenty years ago provides a comprehensive and viable propulsion technology base that can be applied and will prove to be valuable for application to the NASA Space Exploration Initiative (SEI). This paper, which is historical in scope, provides an overview of the conduct of the NERVA Engine Program, its organization and management, development philosophy, the engine configuration, and significant accomplishments.

  11. An historical perspective of the NERVA nuclear rocket engine technology program. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Robbins, W.H.; Finger, H.B.

    1991-07-01

    Nuclear rocket research and development was initiated in the United States in 1955 and is still being pursued to a limited extent. The major technology emphasis occurred in the decade of the 1960s and was primarily associated with the Rover/NERVA Program where the technology for a nuclear rocket engine system for space application was developed and demonstrated. The NERVA (Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Application) technology developed twenty years ago provides a comprehensive and viable propulsion technology base that can be applied and will prove to be valuable for application to the NASA Space Exploration Initiative (SEI). This paper, which is historical in scope, provides an overview of the conduct of the NERVA Engine Program, its organization and management, development philosophy, the engine configuration, and significant accomplishments.

  12. An historical perspective of the NERVA nuclear rocket engine technology program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robbins, W. H.; Finger, H. B.

    1991-01-01

    Nuclear rocket research and development was initiated in the United States in 1955 and is still being pursued to a limited extent. The major technology emphasis occurred in the decade of the 1960s and was primarily associated with the Rover/NERVA Program where the technology for a nuclear rocket engine system for space application was developed and demonstrated. The NERVA (Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Application) technology developed twenty years ago provides a comprehensive and viable propulsion technology base that can be applied and will prove to be valuable for application to the NASA Space Exploration Initiative (SEI). This paper, which is historical in scope, provides an overview of the conduct of the NERVA Engine Program, its organization and management, development philosophy, the engine configuration, and significant accomplishments.

  13. Engineering Risk Assessment of Space Thruster Challenge Problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathias, Donovan L.; Mattenberger, Christopher J.; Go, Susie

    2014-01-01

    The Engineering Risk Assessment (ERA) team at NASA Ames Research Center utilizes dynamic models with linked physics-of-failure analyses to produce quantitative risk assessments of space exploration missions. This paper applies the ERA approach to the baseline and extended versions of the PSAM Space Thruster Challenge Problem, which investigates mission risk for a deep space ion propulsion system with time-varying thruster requirements and operations schedules. The dynamic mission is modeled using a combination of discrete and continuous-time reliability elements within the commercially available GoldSim software. Loss-of-mission (LOM) probability results are generated via Monte Carlo sampling performed by the integrated model. Model convergence studies are presented to illustrate the sensitivity of integrated LOM results to the number of Monte Carlo trials. A deterministic risk model was also built for the three baseline and extended missions using the Ames Reliability Tool (ART), and results are compared to the simulation results to evaluate the relative importance of mission dynamics. The ART model did a reasonable job of matching the simulation models for the baseline case, while a hybrid approach using offline dynamic models was required for the extended missions. This study highlighted that state-of-the-art techniques can adequately adapt to a range of dynamic problems.

  14. Environmental and engineering problems of karst Geology in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daoxian, Yuan

    1988-10-01

    Karst terrane is generally regarded as a fragile and vulnerable environment. Its underground drainage system can aggrevate both drought and flood problems; the lack of filtration in an underground conduit makes waste disposal more difficult; and the lack of soil cover in bare karstland can enhance deforestation. Moreover, karst terranes are quite often haunted by a series of engineering problems, such as water gushing into mines or transportation tunnels; leakage from reservoirs; and failure of building foundations. In China, there are more than 200 cases of karst collapse, which include many thousands of individual collapse points. Some of these are paleo and natural collapses, but most of them are modern collapses induced by human activities and they have caused serious damage. Many factors such as geologic structure, overburden thickness and character, lithologic features of karstified rock, and intensity of karstification are related to development and distribution of modern collapses. However, China's karst is mainly developed in pre-Triassic, old phase, hard, compact, carbonate rock. Consequently most modern collapses have occurred only in the overlying soil. So it is understandable that the fluctuation of the water table in the underlying karstified strata plays an important role in the process of collapse. Nevertheless, there are different explanations as to how the groundwater activities can induce collapse.

  15. Three CLIPS-based expert systems for solving engineering problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parkinson, W. J.; Luger, G. F.; Bretz, R. E.

    1990-01-01

    We have written three expert systems, using the CLIPS PC-based expert system shell. These three expert systems are rule based and are relatively small, with the largest containing slightly less than 200 rules. The first expert system is an expert assistant that was written to help users of the ASPEN computer code choose the proper thermodynamic package to use with their particular vapor-liquid equilibrium problem. The second expert system was designed to help petroleum engineers choose the proper enhanced oil recovery method to be used with a given reservoir. The effectiveness of each technique is highly dependent upon the reservoir conditions. The third expert system is a combination consultant and control system. This system was designed specifically for silicon carbide whisker growth. Silicon carbide whiskers are an extremely strong product used to make ceramic and metal composites. The manufacture of whiskers is a very complicated process. which to date. has defied a good mathematical model. The process was run by experts who had gained their expertise by trial and error. A system of rules was devised by these experts both for procedure setup and for the process control. In this paper we discuss the three problem areas of the design, development and evaluation of the CLIPS-based programs.

  16. Integrated Realization of Engineered Materials and Products: A Foundational Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Janet K.; Mistree, Farrokh; Panchal, Jitesh; Gautham, B. P.; Singh, Amarendra; Reddy, Sreedhar; Kulkarni, Nagesh; Kumar, Prabhash

    In the last several years, considerable ICME related research has been directed towards the study of multiscale materials design. However, relatively little effort has gone into the study of the integrated design of engineered materials and products. In this paper, we describe a foundational problem that is being used to validate and demonstrate the ICME construct and enable design approaches and a computational platform. The foundational problem involves the integrated design of steel and gears, traversing across the chain of steel making, mill production, component fabrication and performance testing tracking the evolution of the material during these processes and linking this to the mechanical design of the component. The design approaches are focused on addressing the following key challenges in the integrated design of products and materials: uncertainty management, complexity management, and holistic verification and validation. The management of uncertainty and complexity is critical to understanding the relationship between computational costs and the value of the resulting information in the design decision making process.

  17. Environmental and engineering problems of karst geology in China

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan Daoxian )

    1988-10-01

    Karst terrane is generally regarded as a fragile and vulnerable environment. Its underground drainage system can aggravate both drought and flood problems; the lack of filtration in an underground conduit makes waste disposal more difficult; and the lack of soil cover in bare karstland can enhance deforestation. Moreover, karst terranes are quite often haunted by a series of engineering problems, such as water gushing into mines or transportation tunnels; leakage from reservoirs; and failure of building foundations. In China, there are more than 200 cases of karst collapse, which include many thousands of individual collapse points. Some of these are paleo and natural collapses, but most of them are modern collapses induced by human activities and they have caused serious damage. Many factors such as geologic structure, overburden thickness and character, lithologic features of karstified rock, and intensity of karstification are related to development and distribution of modern collapses. However, China's karst is mainly developed in pre-Triassic, old phase, hard, compact, carbonate rock. Consequently most modern collapses have occurred only in the overlying soil. So it is understandable that the fluctuation of the water table in the underlying karstified strata plays an important role in the process of collapse. Nevertheless, there are different explanations as to how the groundwater activities can induce collapse.

  18. Three CLIPS-based expert systems for solving engineering problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parkinson, W. J.; Luger, G. F.; Bretz, R. E.

    1990-01-01

    We have written three expert systems, using the CLIPS PC-based expert system shell. These three expert systems are rule based and are relatively small, with the largest containing slightly less than 200 rules. The first expert system is an expert assistant that was written to help users of the ASPEN computer code choose the proper thermodynamic package to use with their particular vapor-liquid equilibrium problem. The second expert system was designed to help petroleum engineers choose the proper enhanced oil recovery method to be used with a given reservoir. The effectiveness of each technique is highly dependent upon the reservoir conditions. The third expert system is a combination consultant and control system. This system was designed specifically for silicon carbide whisker growth. Silicon carbide whiskers are an extremely strong product used to make ceramic and metal composites. The manufacture of whiskers is a very complicated process. which to date. has defied a good mathematical model. The process was run by experts who had gained their expertise by trial and error. A system of rules was devised by these experts both for procedure setup and for the process control. In this paper we discuss the three problem areas of the design, development and evaluation of the CLIPS-based programs.

  19. Ground Test Facility for Propulsion and Power Modes of Nuclear Engine Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Michael, WILLIAMS

    2004-11-22

    Existing DOE Ground Test Facilities have not been used to support nuclear propulsion testing since the Rover/NERVA programs of the 1960's. Unlike the Rover/NERVA programs, DOE Ground Test facilities for space exploration enabling nuclear technologies can no longer be vented to the open atmosphere. The optimal selection of DOE facilities and accompanying modifications for confinement and treatment of exhaust gases will permit the safe testing of NASA Nuclear Propulsion and Power devices involving variable size and source nuclear engines for NASA Jupiter Icy Moon Orbiter (JIMO) and Commercial Space Exploration Missions with minimal cost, schedule and environmental impact. NASA site selection criteria and testing requirements are presented.

  20. Psychological effects following the Iran nuclear deal: Iranian nuclear threat salience moderates the relationship between PTSD symptoms and sleep problems.

    PubMed

    Grossman, Ephraim S; Hoffman, Yaakov; Bodner, Ehud; Palgi, Yuval; Gottlieb, Merav; Mesika, Ofra; Ben-Ezra, Menachem; Shrira, Amit

    2016-09-30

    Following the July-14th, 2015 Iranian agreement, we examined if preoccupation with the threat of a nuclear Iran moderates the relationship between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and reported sleep problems in individuals exposed to the 2014 Israel-Gaza conflict. While sleep problems were evident in individuals suffering from PTSD symptoms, they were especially pronounced when PTSD symptoms were coupled with increased Iranian nuclear threat salience. Preoccupation with future national threats may increase PTSD-related sleep problems. Therefore, it may be useful if such threats are accounted for in interventions aiming to ameliorate trauma-related sleep problems arising in the context of security situation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Results in Developing an Engineering Degree Program in Safeguards and Security of Nuclear Materials at Moscow Engineering Physics Institute

    SciTech Connect

    Kryuchkov, Eduard F.; Geraskin, Nikolay I.; Killinger, Mark H.; Goodey, Kent O.; Butler, Gilbert W.; Duncan, Cristen L.

    2007-07-01

    The world’s first master’s degree program in nuclear safeguards and security, established at Moscow Engineering Physics Institute (MEPhI), has now graduated nine classes of students. Most of the graduates have gone on to work at government agencies, research organizations, or obtain their PhD. In order to meet the demand for safeguards and security specialists at nuclear facilities, MEPhI established a 5½ year engineering degree program that provides more hands-on training desired by facilities. In February 2004, the first students began their studies in the new discipline Nuclear Material Safeguards and Nonproliferation. This class, as well as other subsequent classes, included students who started the program in their third year of studies, as the first 2½ years consists of general engineering curriculum. Fourteen students made up the first graduating class, receiving their engineering degrees in February 2007. The topics addressed in this paper include specific features of the program caused by peculiarities of Russian education legislation and government quality control of academic education. This paper summarizes the main joint actions undertaken by MEPhI and the US National Laboratories in conjunction with the U.S. Department of Energy, to develop the engineering degree program. Also discussed are the program’s specific training requirements, student internships, and job placement. The paper concludes with recommendations from a recent international seminar on nonproliferation education and training.

  2. Overview of the 1995 NATO ARW on nuclear submarine decommissioning and related problems

    SciTech Connect

    LeSage, L.G.

    1997-10-01

    The NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Nuclear Submarine Decommissioning and Related Problems was held in Moscow June 19--22, 1995. It was preceded by a visit to the Zvezdotchka Shipyard at Severodvinsk, a repair and maintenance yard for Russian nuclear submarines, for a subgroup of the workshop attendees. Most of the material in this paper is drawn directly form the workshop proceedings. Slightly less than 500 nuclear ships and submarines (the vast majority are submarines) have been constructed by the countries with nuclear navies. This includes approximately 250 by Russia, 195 by the United States, 23 by the United Kingdom, 11 by France and 6 by China. By the year 2000 it is expected that approximately one-half of these nuclear vessels will be removed from service and in various states of decommissioning. A newspaper account in June 1997 indicated that 156 Russian nuclear submarines had been removed from service. In August 1996 it was reported that 55 reactor compartment sections from US nuclear submarines were already in long-term storage at Hanford. Overall the dismantlement of nuclear submarines and the processing, storage and disposal of nuclear fuel, activated components and section of the hulls, and the liquid and solid radioactive and hazardous wastes is an enormous problem. This problem has been exacerbated by the accelerated decommissioning schedule associated with treaty obligations.

  3. Framing ethical acceptability: a problem with nuclear waste in Canada.

    PubMed

    Wilding, Ethan T

    2012-06-01

    Ethical frameworks are often used in professional fields as a means of providing explicit ethical guidance for individuals and institutions when confronted with ethically important decisions. The notion of an ethical framework has received little critical attention, however, and the concept subsequently lends itself easily to misuse and ambiguous application. This is the case with the 'ethical framework' offered by Canada's Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO), the crown-corporation which owns and is responsible for the long-term management of Canada's high-level nuclear fuel waste. It makes a very specific claim, namely that it is managing Canada's long-lived radioactive nuclear fuel waste in an ethically responsible manner. According to this organization, what it means to behave in an ethically responsible manner is to act and develop policy in accordance with its ethical framework. What, then, is its ethical framework, and can it be satisfied? In this paper I will show that the NWMO's ethical and social framework is deeply flawed in two respects: (a) it fails to meet the minimum requirements of a code of ethic or ethical framework by offering only questions, and no principles or rules of conduct; and (b) if posed as principles or rules of conduct, some of its questions are unsatisfiable. In particular, I will show that one of its claims, namely that it seek informed consent from individuals exposed to risk of harm from nuclear waste, cannot be satisfied as formulated. The result is that the NWMO's ethical framework is not, at present, ethically acceptable.

  4. Linked-Class Problem-Based Learning in Engineering: Method and Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Emily M.; Lockwood-Cooke, Pamela; Kelley, Judy

    2010-01-01

    Problem-Based Learning (PBL) is a problem-centered teaching method with exciting potential in engineering education for motivating and enhancing student learning. Implementation of PBL in engineering education has the potential to bridge the gap between theory and practice. Two common problems are encountered when attempting to integrate PBL into…

  5. Moving beyond Formulas and Fixations: Solving Open-Ended Engineering Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglas, Elliot P.; Koro-Ljungberg, Mirka; McNeill, Nathan J.; Malcolm, Zaria T.; Therriault, David J.

    2012-01-01

    Open-ended problem solving is a central skill in engineering practice; consequently, it is imperative for engineering students to develop expertise in solving these types of problems. The complexity of open-ended problems requires a unique set of skills. The purpose of this qualitative study was to investigate the approaches used by engineering…

  6. An Uncertain Deterrence: Bernard Brodie, Indian Nuclear Strategy, and the Problems of Stability

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-01-01

    NATIONAL DEFENSE UNNERSm NATIONAL WAR COLLEGE An Uncertain Deterrence : Bernard Brodie, Indian Nuclear Strategy, and the Problem of Stability...COVERED 00-00-1997 to 00-00-1997 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE An Uncertain Deterrence: Bernard Brodie, Indian Nuclear Strategy, and the Problems of...themselves anconsciously reject tie concept of deterrence based on retalirrtron’. The above statement was excerpted from Bernard Brodie’s 1959 sruc?y

  7. Report to DOE and Exelon Corporation: Matching Grant Program for the Nuclear Engineering Program at University of Wisconsin, Madison

    SciTech Connect

    Corradini, Michael L.

    2002-02-18

    The DOE Industry Matching Grant Program, which began in 1992, is designed to encourage collaborative support for nuclear engineering education as well as research between the nation's nuclear industry and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Over the past two decades nuclear engineering programs in the United States have witnessed a serious decline in student enrollments, number of faculty members and support from their host universities. Despite this decline, the discipline of nuclear engineering remains important to the advancement of the mission goals of the U.S. Department of Energy. These academic programs are also critically important in maintaining a viable workforce for the nation's nuclear industry. As conceived by Commonwealth Edison, this program has focused on creating a partnership between DOE and private sector businesses, which employ nuclear engineers. The program is designed to ensure that academic programs in nuclear engineering are maintained and enhanced in universities throughout the United States.

  8. [Occupational medicine in nuclear industry and power engineering].

    PubMed

    Gus'kova, A K

    2004-01-01

    The author analysed results of medical service in atomic industry and power engineering over 50 years. Those results are beneficial for management in occupational medicine for any new complicated and potentially dangerous technology and activity.

  9. A Hydrogen Containment Process for Nuclear Thermal Engine Ground testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Ten-See; Stewart, Eric; Canabal, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to propose a new total hydrogen containment process to enable the testing required for NTP engine development. This H2 removal process comprises of two unit operations: an oxygen-rich burner and a shell-and-tube type of heat exchanger. This new process is demonstrated by simulation of the steady state operation of the engine firing at nominal conditions.

  10. Analytical design and performance studies of the nuclear light bulb engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodgers, R. J.; Latham, T. S.

    1972-01-01

    Analytical studies were conducted to investigate in detail the heat balance characteristics of the nuclear light bulb engine. Distributions of energy deposition to all engine components from the fission process, conduction and convection, and thermal radiation were considered. Where uncertainties in basic data or heat transfer characteristics were encountered, ranges of heat loads were calculated and reference values were selected. The influence of these heat loads on engine performance, space radiator requirements, and cooling sequence and cooling circuit designs was determined. The analyses resulted in revisions to the previously reported reference engine characteristics, principally in the heat loads to some engine components and in the cooling sequence. These revisions were incorporated in the engine dynamics digital computer simulation program. No significant changes occurred in the dynamic response of the engine to perturbations in fuel injection rate, reactivity or exhaust nozzle area.

  11. Can pump maintenance problems be solved by engineered modifications

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, R.E. ); Chang, L.C. )

    1991-01-28

    Engineered solutions for vertical can-pump maintenance problems reduced maintenance costs and high production losses, and eliminated replacement costs. The vertical can pumps shown were installed in a major waterflood operation in California. Ten vertical pumping systems were installed at three locations in the field. Each system included a booster pump and an injection pump connected in series and mounted on a common concrete support base. Source- well water pressure was increased from less than 100 psig to 3,000 psig by the two-pump system. During the first 4 1/2 years of operating the pumping systems, excessive failures were experienced. Motor bearing failures, seal failures, throat-bushing failures, and deep erosion of the pump shaft in the throat bushing area were presenting a nightmare maintenance program. Average motor thrust bearing life was only 2-4 weeks. Seals and throat bushings were failing every 4 weeks. This paper illustrates a typical throat-bushing failure. These failures led to replacement of the pump shafts as well as the bushings due to severe scoring of the shafts.

  12. Overview of codes and tools for nuclear engineering education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yakovlev, D.; Pryakhin, A.; Medvedeva, L.

    2017-01-01

    The recent world trends in nuclear education have been developed in the direction of social education, networking, virtual tools and codes. MEPhI as a global leader on the world education market implements new advanced technologies for the distance and online learning and for student research work. MEPhI produced special codes, tools and web resources based on the internet platform to support education in the field of nuclear technology. At the same time, MEPhI actively uses codes and tools from the third parties. Several types of the tools are considered: calculation codes, nuclear data visualization tools, virtual labs, PC-based educational simulators for nuclear power plants (NPP), CLP4NET, education web-platforms, distance courses (MOOCs and controlled and managed content systems). The university pays special attention to integrated products such as CLP4NET, which is not a learning course, but serves to automate the process of learning through distance technologies. CLP4NET organizes all tools in the same information space. Up to now, MEPhI has achieved significant results in the field of distance education and online system implementation.

  13. Manipulation of dynamic nuclear spin polarization in single quantum dots by photonic environment engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fong, C. F.; Ota, Y.; Iwamoto, S.; Arakawa, Y.

    2017-06-01

    Optically induced dynamic nuclear spin polarization (DNP) in a semiconductor quantum dot (QD) requires many cycles of excitation of spin polarized carriers and carrier recombination. As such, the radiative lifetime of the exciton containing the electron becomes one of the limiting factors of DNP. In principle, changing the radiative lifetime of the exciton will affect DNP and thus the nuclear spin polarization. Here, we demonstrate the manipulation of DNP in single QDs through the engineering of the photonic environment using two-dimensional photonic crystals. We find that the achievable degree of nuclear spin polarization can be controlled through the modification of exciton radiative lifetime. Our results show the promise of achieving a higher degree of nuclear spin polarization via photonic environment engineering, with implications on spin-based quantum information processing.

  14. High-Fidelity Space-Time Adaptive Multiphysics Simulations in Nuclear Engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Solin, Pavel; Ragusa, Jean

    2014-03-09

    We delivered a series of fundamentally new computational technologies that have the potential to significantly advance the state-of-the-art of computer simulations of transient multiphysics nuclear reactor processes. These methods were implemented in the form of a C++ library, and applied to a number of multiphysics coupled problems relevant to nuclear reactor simulations.

  15. Management of Spent Nuclear Fuel of Nuclear Research Reactor VVR-S at the National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest, Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biro, Lucian

    2009-05-01

    The Nuclear Research Reactor VVR-S (RR-VVR-S) located in Magurele-Bucharest, Romania, was designed for research and radioisotope production. It was commissioned in 1957 and operated without any event or accident for forty years until shut down in 1997. In 2002, by government decree, it was permanently shutdown for decommissioning. The National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering (IFIN-HH) is responsible for decommissioning the RR-VVR-S, the first nuclear decommissioning project in Romania. In this context, IFIN-HH prepared and obtained approval from the Romanian Nuclear Regulatory Body for the Decommissioning Plan. One of the most important aspects for decommissioning the RR-VVR-S is solving the issue of the fresh and spent nuclear fuel (SNF) stored on site in wet storage pools. In the framework of the Russian Research Reactor Fuel Return Program (RRRFR), managed by the U.S. Department of Energy and in cooperation with the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Rosatom State Corporation, Romania repatriated all fresh HEU fuel to the Russian Federation in 2003 and the HEU SNF will be repatriated to Russia in 2009. With the experience and lessons learned from this action and with the financial support of the Romanian Government it will be possible for Romania to also repatriate the LEU SNF to the Russian Federation before starting the dismantling and decontamination of the nuclear facility. [4pt] In collaboration with K. Allen, Idaho National Laboratory, USA; L. Biro, National Commission for Nuclear Activities Control, Romania; and M. Dragusin, National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest-Magurele, Romania.

  16. Educating Next Generation Nuclear Criticality Safety Engineers at the Idaho National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    J. D. Bess; J. B. Briggs; A. S. Garcia

    2011-09-01

    One of the challenges in educating our next generation of nuclear safety engineers is the limitation of opportunities to receive significant experience or hands-on training prior to graduation. Such training is generally restricted to on-the-job-training before this new engineering workforce can adequately provide assessment of nuclear systems and establish safety guidelines. Participation in the International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP) and the International Reactor Physics Experiment Evaluation Project (IRPhEP) can provide students and young professionals the opportunity to gain experience and enhance critical engineering skills. The ICSBEP and IRPhEP publish annual handbooks that contain evaluations of experiments along with summarized experimental data and peer-reviewed benchmark specifications to support the validation of neutronics codes, nuclear cross-section data, and the validation of reactor designs. Participation in the benchmark process not only benefits those who use these Handbooks within the international community, but provides the individual with opportunities for professional development, networking with an international community of experts, and valuable experience to be used in future employment. Traditionally students have participated in benchmarking activities via internships at national laboratories, universities, or companies involved with the ICSBEP and IRPhEP programs. Additional programs have been developed to facilitate the nuclear education of students while participating in the benchmark projects. These programs include coordination with the Center for Space Nuclear Research (CSNR) Next Degree Program, the Collaboration with the Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office to train nuclear and criticality safety engineers, and student evaluations as the basis for their Master's thesis in nuclear engineering.

  17. Solving Quantum Ground-State Problems with Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhaokai; Yung, Man-Hong; Chen, Hongwei; Lu, Dawei; Whitfield, James D.; Peng, Xinhua; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán; Du, Jiangfeng

    2011-01-01

    Quantum ground-state problems are computationally hard problems for general many-body Hamiltonians; there is no classical or quantum algorithm known to be able to solve them efficiently. Nevertheless, if a trial wavefunction approximating the ground state is available, as often happens for many problems in physics and chemistry, a quantum computer could employ this trial wavefunction to project the ground state by means of the phase estimation algorithm (PEA). We performed an experimental realization of this idea by implementing a variational-wavefunction approach to solve the ground-state problem of the Heisenberg spin model with an NMR quantum simulator. Our iterative phase estimation procedure yields a high accuracy for the eigenenergies (to the 10−5 decimal digit). The ground-state fidelity was distilled to be more than 80%, and the singlet-to-triplet switching near the critical field is reliably captured. This result shows that quantum simulators can better leverage classical trial wave functions than classical computers PMID:22355607

  18. Final report to DOE: Matching Grant Program for the Penn State University Nuclear Engineering Program

    SciTech Connect

    Jack S. Brenizer, Jr.

    2003-01-17

    The DOE/Industry Matching Grant Program is designed to encourage collaborative support for nuclear engineering education as well as research between the nation's nuclear industry and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Despite a serious decline in student enrollments in the 1980s and 1990s, the discipline of nuclear engineering remained important to the advancement of the mission goals of DOE. The program is designed to ensure that academic programs in nuclear engineering are maintained and enhanced in universities throughout the U.S. At Penn State, the Matching Grant Program played a critical role in the survival of the Nuclear Engineering degree programs. Funds were used in a variety of ways to support both undergraduate and graduate students directly. Some of these included providing seed funding for new graduate research initiatives, funding the development of new course materials, supporting new teaching facilities, maintenance and purchase of teaching laboratory equipment, and providing undergraduate scholarships, graduate fellowships, and wage payroll positions for students.

  19. Childhood Problems in a Sudanese City: A Comparison of Extended and Nuclear Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Awad, Ahmed M. El Hassan; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J. S.

    1992-01-01

    Compared mothers' ratings of childhood problems of 4- to 9-year-old Sudanese children. Compared to children in extended families, children in nuclear families had more conduct, emotional, and sleep problems; exhibited poorer self-care and greater overdependence; and were less likely to be breastfed and have grandmothers involved in their care. (BC)

  20. BRIK, An Interactive, Goal Programming Model for Nuclear Exchange Problems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-03-01

    allocation is achieved through a nonlinear integer progamming algorithm using a branch and bound technique (Ref 21). DAVID, This model allocates a...Because of the complexity of the damage function and the nonlinearity of portions of the constraint set, a Lagrangian solution method is used (Ref 15...the weapon stockpile. The model is complex and requires the solution of a nonlinear programming problem for every target complex. DAY assigns values

  1. Reactor physics teaching and research in the Swiss nuclear engineering master

    SciTech Connect

    Chawla, R.

    2012-07-01

    Since 2008, a Master of Science program in Nuclear Engineering (NE) has been running in Switzerland, thanks to the combined efforts of the country's key players in nuclear teaching and research, viz. the Swiss Federal Inst.s of Technology at Lausanne (EPFL) and at Zurich (ETHZ), the Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI) at Villigen and the Swiss Nuclear Utilities (Swissnuclear). The present paper, while outlining the academic program as a whole, lays emphasis on the reactor physics teaching and research training accorded to the students in the framework of the developed curriculum. (authors)

  2. A Case Study: Problem-Based Learning for Civil Engineering Students in Transportation Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahern, A. A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes two case studies where problem-based learning (PBL) has been introduced to undergraduate civil engineering students in University College Dublin. PBL has recently been put in place in the penultimate and final year transport engineering classes in the civil engineering degree in University College Dublin. In this case study,…

  3. Using Ontological Engineering to Overcome AI-ED Problems: Contribution, Impact and Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mizoguchi, Riichiro; Bourdeau, Jacqueline

    2016-01-01

    This article reflects on the ontology engineering methodology discussed by the paper entitled "Using Ontological Engineering to Overcome AI-ED Problems" published in this journal in 2000. We discuss the achievements obtained in the last 10 years, the impact of our work as well as recent trends and perspectives in ontology engineering for…

  4. A Case Study: Problem-Based Learning for Civil Engineering Students in Transportation Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahern, A. A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes two case studies where problem-based learning (PBL) has been introduced to undergraduate civil engineering students in University College Dublin. PBL has recently been put in place in the penultimate and final year transport engineering classes in the civil engineering degree in University College Dublin. In this case study,…

  5. Using Ontological Engineering to Overcome AI-ED Problems: Contribution, Impact and Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mizoguchi, Riichiro; Bourdeau, Jacqueline

    2016-01-01

    This article reflects on the ontology engineering methodology discussed by the paper entitled "Using Ontological Engineering to Overcome AI-ED Problems" published in this journal in 2000. We discuss the achievements obtained in the last 10 years, the impact of our work as well as recent trends and perspectives in ontology engineering for…

  6. Summary of the engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings: Phillips/United Nuclear site, Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    1981-10-01

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah, Inc., has reevaluated the Phillips/United Nuclear site in order to revise the December 1977 engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from the 2.6 million dry tons of tailings at the Phillips/United Nuclear site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation also are factors. The four alternative actions presented in this engineering assessment range from millsite decontamination with the addition of 3 m of stabilization cover material, to removal of the tailings to remote disposal sites and decontamination of the tailings site. Cost estimates for the four options range from about $21,500,000 for stabilization in-place, to about $45,200,000 for disposal at a distance of about 15 mi. Three principal alternatives for the reprocessing of the Phillips/United Nuclear tailings were examined: heap leaching; treatment at an existing mill; reprocessing at a new conventional mill constructed for tailings reprocessing. The cost of the uranium recovered would be about $87/lb of U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ by either heap leach or conventional plant process. The spot market price for uranium was $25/lb early in 1981. Reprocessing the Phillips/United Nuclear tailings for uranium recovery does not appear to be economically attractive under present or foreseeable market conditions.

  7. Nuclear medicine in problems of fertility and impotence.

    PubMed

    Zuckier, L S; Strober, M D

    1992-04-01

    Nuclear medicine techniques may be used to test fallopian tube patency and penile vascular inflow and outflow. Radionuclide hysterosalpingography (HSP) is a readily performed method of evaluating fallopian tube patency, and is believed to be more physiologic and functionally informative than the accepted radiologic method of contrast HSP. The test is simple to perform and interpret and offers an accurate alternative to the contrast examination. For scintigraphic evaluation of impotence, blood pool studies are most useful in assessing the integrity of arterial inflow, but may also be used to generate indices of venous leak. Washout of xenon after subcutaneous injection, in the flaccid state, has been used as a measure of baseline penile perfusion, as has intracavernosal injections in the flaccid penis. Intracavernosal xenon washout during erection seems the most useful method of testing venous integrity. Washout using technetium-99m (99mTc)-labeled red blood cells (99mTc-RBC) may emerge as a convenient alternative to the more technically difficult xenon examinations.

  8. Instrumentation Requirements for the Engineering Evaluation of Nuclear-Electric Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Apel, W. C.

    1961-01-01

    Spacecraft employing nuclear-electric propulsion are being proposed for missions to Venus and distances beyond. These spacecraft utilize a nuclear reactor to provide thermal energy to a turboalternator which generates electric power for an ion motor and the other spacecraft systems. This Report discusses the instrumentation and communications system needed to evaluate a nuclear-electric spacecraft in flight, along with the problems expected. A representative spacecraft design is presented, which leads to a discussion of the instrumentation needed to evaluate such a spacecraft. A basic communications system is considered for transmitting the spacecraft data to Earth. The instrumentation and communications system, as well as all electronic systems on a nuclear-electric spacecraft, will be operating in high temperature and nuclear-radiation environments. The problems caused by these environments are discussed, and possible solutions are offered.

  9. Instrumentation Requirements for the Engineering Evaluation of Nuclear-Electric Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Apel, W. C.

    1961-01-01

    Spacecraft employing nuclear-electric propulsion are being proposed for missions to Venus and distances beyond. These spacecraft utilize a nuclear reactor to provide thermal energy to a turboalternator which generates electric power for an ion motor and the other spacecraft systems. This Report discusses the instrumentation and communications system needed to evaluate a nuclear-electric spacecraft in flight, along with the problems expected. A representative spacecraft design is presented, which leads to a discussion of the instrumentation needed to evaluate such a spacecraft. A basic communications system is considered for transmitting the spacecraft data to Earth. The instrumentation and communications system, as well as all electronic systems on a nuclear-electric spacecraft, will be operating in high temperature and nuclear-radiation environments. The problems caused by these environments are discussed, and possible solutions are offered.

  10. Nuclear Deterrence in the 21st Century: The Role of Science and Engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Martz, Joseph C; Ventura, Jonathan S

    2008-01-01

    Twenty-first century security challenges are multi-polar and asymmetric. A few nations have substantial nuclear arsenals and active nuclear weapons programs that still threaten vital US national security directly or by supporting proliferation. Maintaining a credible US nuclear deterrent and containing further proliferation will continue to be critical to US national security. Overlaid against this security backdrop, the rising worldwide population and its effects on global climate, food, and energy resources are greatly complicating the degree and number of security challenges before policy makers.This new paradigm requires new ways to assure allies that the United States remains a trusted security partner and to deter potential adversaries from aggressive actions that threaten global stability. Every U.S. President since Truman has affirmed the role of nuclear weapons as a supreme deterrent and protector of last resort of U.S. national security interests. Recently, President Bush called for a nuclear deterrent consistent with the 'lowest number of nuclear weapons' that still protects U.S. interests. How can this be achieved? And how can we continue on a path of nuclear reductions while retaining the security benefits of nuclear deterrence? Science and engineering have a key role to play in a potential new paradigm for nuclear deterrence, a concept known as 'capability-based deterrence.'

  11. Another Educational Problem: Shortages of University Scientific and Engineering Faculty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Paul W.

    It is pointed out that there is a desperate need for engineering and computer science doctoral faculty, a need recognized by various schools of science and engineering and by the Federal government. Although the National Science Foundation and other agencies do not see a shortage of college faculty in the other sciences, faculty in some of these…

  12. Using Existing Facilities to Meet Problems in Engineering Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rybak, James P.

    1984-01-01

    "Two-plus-two transfer programs" involve teaching lower-division engineering programs at non-engineering institutions, allowing senior institutions to concentrate on upper division courses. The program at Mesa College (Colorado) is described. Suggestions for other institutions are offered. (JN)

  13. Promoting Collaborative Problem-Solving Skills in a Course on Engineering Grand Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zou, Tracy X. P.; Mickleborough, Neil C.

    2015-01-01

    The ability to solve problems with people of diverse backgrounds is essential for engineering graduates. A course on engineering grand challenges was designed to promote collaborative problem-solving (CPS) skills. One unique component is that students need to work both within their own team and collaborate with the other team to tackle engineering…

  14. Effect of a "Look-Ahead" Problem on Undergraduate Engineering Students' Concept Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Kevin; Davis, Julian; McDonald, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    In an effort to motivate undergraduate engineering students to prepare for class by reviewing material before lectures, a "Look-Ahead" problem was utilized. Students from two undergraduate engineering courses; Statics and Electronic Circuits, were assigned problems from course material that had not yet been covered in class. These…

  15. Promoting Collaborative Problem-Solving Skills in a Course on Engineering Grand Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zou, Tracy X. P.; Mickleborough, Neil C.

    2015-01-01

    The ability to solve problems with people of diverse backgrounds is essential for engineering graduates. A course on engineering grand challenges was designed to promote collaborative problem-solving (CPS) skills. One unique component is that students need to work both within their own team and collaborate with the other team to tackle engineering…

  16. Investigation of an online, problem-based introduction to nuclear sciences: A case study

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, M.; Easter, M.; Jiazhen, W.; Jonassen, D.

    2006-07-01

    An online, grant-funded course on nuclear engineering in society was developed at a large Midwestern university with the goal of providing non-majors a meaningful introduction to the many applications of nuclear science in a modern society and to stimulate learner interest in academic studies and/or professional involvement in nuclear science. Using a within-site case study approach, the current study focused on the efficacy of the online learning environment's support of learners' acquisition of knowledge and the impact of the environment on learners' interest in and beliefs about nuclear sciences in society. Findings suggest the environment successfully promoted learning and had a positive impact on learners' interests and beliefs. (authors)

  17. Nuclear DNA amounts in angiosperms: progress, problems and prospects.

    PubMed

    Bennett, M D; Leitch, I J

    2005-01-01

    The nuclear DNA amount in an unreplicated haploid chromosome complement (1C-value) is a key diversity character with many uses. Angiosperm C-values have been listed for reference purposes since 1976, and pooled in an electronic database since 1997 (http://www.kew.org/cval/homepage). Such lists are cited frequently and provide data for many comparative studies. The last compilation was published in 2000, so a further supplementary list is timely to monitor progress against targets set at the first plant genome size workshop in 1997 and to facilitate new goal setting. The present work lists DNA C-values for 804 species including first values for 628 species from 88 original sources, not included in any previous compilation, plus additional values for 176 species included in a previous compilation. 1998-2002 saw striking progress in our knowledge of angiosperm C-values. At least 1700 first values for species were measured (the most in any five-year period) and familial representation rose from 30 % to 50 %. The loss of many densitometers used to measure DNA C-values proved less serious than feared, owing to the development of relatively inexpensive flow cytometers and computer-based image analysis systems. New uses of the term genome (e.g. in 'complete' genome sequencing) can cause confusion. The Arabidopsis Genome Initiative C-value for Arabidopsis thaliana (125 Mb) was a gross underestimate, and an exact C-value based on genome sequencing alone is unlikely to be obtained soon for any angiosperm. Lack of this expected benchmark poses a quandary as to what to use as the basal calibration standard for angiosperms. The next decade offers exciting prospects for angiosperm genome size research. The database (http://www.kew.org/cval/homepage) should become sufficiently representative of the global flora to answer most questions without needing new estimations. DNA amount variation will remain a key interest as an integrated strand of holistic genomics.

  18. Radiological effluents released from nuclear rocket and ramjet engine tests at the Nevada Test Site 1959 through 1969: Fact Book

    SciTech Connect

    Friesen, H.N.

    1995-06-01

    Nuclear rocket and ramjet engine tests were conducted on the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in Area 25 and Area 26, about 80 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada, from July 1959 through September 1969. This document presents a brief history of the nuclear rocket engine tests, information on the off-site radiological monitoring, and descriptions of the tests.

  19. Nuclear Engineering Enrollment and Degree Survey: Enrollments - Fall 1972; Degrees Granted - July 1965-June 1972.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chewning, June S.

    The Atomic Energy Commission's survey of nuclear engineering degrees granted during the 1971-72 academic year shows a continuing increase in bachelor's recipients, a slight increase in the number of master's, but a continuing decline in new Ph.D.'s. If the present rate of decline persists, by 1974 the number of new Ph.D.'s in the field will be…

  20. Enhancement of Teaching and Learning of the Fundamentals of Nuclear Engineering Using Multimedia Courseware.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keyvan, Shahla A.; Pickard, Rodney; Song, Xiaolong

    1997-01-01

    Computer-aided instruction incorporating interactive multimedia and network technologies can boost teaching effectiveness and student learning. This article describes the development and implementation of network server-based interactive multimedia courseware for a fundamental course in nuclear engineering. A student survey determined that 80% of…

  1. Nuclear science and engineering and health physics fellowships: 1984 description. Research areas for the practicum

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    This booklet describes available research areas at participating centers where a practicum may be held under the Nuclear Science and Engineering and Health Physics Fellowship program. After a year of graduate study each fellow is expected to arrange for a practicum period at one of the participating centers.

  2. How useful is neutron diffusion theory for nuclear rocket engine design

    SciTech Connect

    Hilsmeier, T.A.; Aithal, S.M.; Aldemir, T. )

    1992-01-01

    Correct modeling of neutron leakage and geometry effects is important in the design of a nuclear rocket engine because of the need for small reactor cores in space applications. In principle, there are generalized procedures that can account for these effects in a reliable manner (e.g., a three-dimensional, continuous-energy Monte Carlo calculation with all core components explicitly modeled). However, these generalized procedures are not usually suitable for parametric design studies because of the long computational times required, and the feasibility of using faster running, more approrimate neutronic modeling approaches needs to be investigated. Faster running neutronic models are also needed for simulator development to assess the engine performance during startup and power level changes. This paper investigates the potential of the few-group diffusion approach for nuclear rocket engine core design and optimization by comparing the k[sub eff] and power distributions obtained by the MCNP code against those obtained from the LEOPARD and 2DB codes for the particle bed reactor (PBR) concept described. The PBRs have been identified as one of the two near-term options for nuclear thermal propulsion by the joint National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)/US Department of Energy/US Department of Defense program that was recently set up at the NASA Lewis Research Center to develop a flight-rated nuclear rocket engine by the 2020s.

  3. Salary information for health physicists and nuclear engineers, October 1991. Summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of a survey conducted by Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU) to obtain current salary data from employers of health physicists and nuclear engineers. The questionnaires were distributed to 52 utilities and 139 non-utilities in October 1991. The non-utilities include private sector organizations and Department of Energy laboratories and production facilities operated by contractors. Excluded from the survey are government agencies, educational institutions, and medical/health facilities. The employers were asked to provide data on average salaries for BS, MS, and PhD degree level health physicists and nuclear engineers with zero, one, and three years of professional work experience. Responses from individual employers are kept confidential, and the list of respondents provided at the back of this report includes only those organizations authorizing the release of their names. The survey universe consists of those utilities and non-utilities that employed five or more health physicists or nuclear engineers based on data from the 1991 ``Survey of Occupational Employment in Nuclear-Related Activities`` conducted by Oak Ridge Associated Universities which includes information provided by the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations.

  4. Rover nuclear rocket engine program: Overview of rover engine tests. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Finseth, J.L.

    1991-02-01

    The results of nuclear rocket development activities from the inception of the ROVER program in 1955 through the termination of activities on January 5, 1973 are summarized. This report discusses the nuclear reactor test configurations (non cold flow) along with the nuclear furnace demonstrated during this time frame. Included in the report are brief descriptions of the propulsion systems, test objectives, accomplishments, technical issues, and relevant test results for the various reactor tests. Additionally, this document is specifically aimed at reporting performance data and their relationship to fuel element development with little or no emphasis on other (important) items.

  5. Automatic differentiation of codes in nuclear engineering applications.

    SciTech Connect

    Alexe, M.; Roderick, O.; Utke, J.; Anitescu, M.; Hovland, P.; Fanning, T.; Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ.; Unv. of Chicago

    2009-12-01

    We discuss our experience in applying automatic differentiation (AD) to calculations in nuclear reactor applications. The document is intended as a guideline on how to apply AD to Fortran codes with significant legacy components; it is also a part of a larger research effort in uncertainty quantification using sampling methods augmented with derivative information. We provide a brief theoretical description of the concept of AD, explain the necessary changes in the code structure, and remark on possible ways to deal with non-differentiability. Numerical experiments were carried out where the derivative of a functional subset of the SAS4A/SASSYS code was computed in forward mode with several AD tools. The results are in good agreement with both the real and complex finite-difference approximations of the derivative.

  6. Environmental Degradation of Materials for Nuclear Waste Repositories Engineered Barriers

    SciTech Connect

    Rebak, R B

    2006-12-24

    Several countries are considering geological repositories for the storage of nuclear waste. Most of the environments for these repositories will be reducing in nature, except for the repository in the US, which is going to be oxidizing. For the reducing repositories, alloys such as carbon steel, copper, stainless steels and titanium are being evaluated. For the repository in the US, some of the most corrosion resistant commercially available alloys are being investigated. This paper presents a summary of the behavior of the different materials under consideration for the repositories and the current understanding of the degradation modes of the proposed alloys in ground water environments from the point of view of general corrosion, localized corrosion and environmentally assisted cracking.

  7. Nuclear and plastid genetic engineering of plants: comparison of opportunities and challenges.

    PubMed

    Meyers, Benjamin; Zaltsman, Adi; Lacroix, Benoît; Kozlovsky, Stanislav V; Krichevsky, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Plant genetic engineering is one of the key technologies for crop improvement as well as an emerging approach for producing recombinant proteins in plants. Both plant nuclear and plastid genomes can be genetically modified, yet fundamental functional differences between the eukaryotic genome of the plant cell nucleus and the prokaryotic-like genome of the plastid will have an impact on key characteristics of the resulting transgenic organism. So, which genome, nuclear or plastid, to transform for the desired transgenic phenotype? In this review we compare the advantages and drawbacks of engineering plant nuclear and plastid genomes to generate transgenic plants with the traits of interest, and evaluate the pros and cons of their use for different biotechnology and basic research applications, ranging from generation of commercial crops with valuable new phenotypes to 'bioreactor' plants for large-scale production of recombinant proteins to research model plants expressing various reporter proteins.

  8. Evaluation of Recent Upgrades to the NESS (Nuclear Engine System Simulation) Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fittje, James E.; Schnitzler, Bruce G.

    2008-01-01

    The Nuclear Thermal Rocket (NTR) concept is being evaluated as a potential propulsion technology for exploratory expeditions to the moon, Mars, and beyond. The need for exceptional propulsion system performance in these missions has been documented in numerous studies, and was the primary focus of a considerable effort undertaken during the Rover/NERVA program from 1955 to 1973. The NASA Glenn Research Center is leveraging this past NTR investment in their vehicle concepts and mission analysis studies with the aid of the Nuclear Engine System Simulation (NESS) code. This paper presents the additional capabilities and upgrades made to this code in order to perform higher fidelity NTR propulsion system analysis and design, and a comparison of its results to the Small Nuclear Rocket Engine (SNRE) design.

  9. Renormalizability of the nuclear many-body problem with the Skyrme interaction beyond mean field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, C. J.; Grasso, M.; Moghrabi, K.; van Kolck, U.

    2017-05-01

    Phenomenological effective interactions like Skyrme forces are currently used in mean-field calculations in nuclear physics. Mean-field models have strong analogies with the first order of the perturbative many-body problem and the currently used effective interactions are adjusted at the mean-field level. In this work, we analyze the renormalizability of the nuclear many-body problem in the case where the effective Skyrme interaction is employed in its standard form and the perturbative problem is solved up to second order. We focus on symmetric nuclear matter and its equation of state, which can be calculated analytically at this order. It is shown that only by applying specific density dependence and constraints to the interaction parameters can renormalizability be guaranteed in principle. This indicates that the standard Skyrme interaction does not in general lead to a renormalizable theory. To achieve renormalizability, other terms should be added to the interaction and employed perturbatively only at first order.

  10. Engineer Ethics Education that Treated Safety Problem to Promote Development of General Human Competence and Independent Engineer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hotta, Genji

    The human race came to expect the engineer‧s international activity by an international extension of the risk. The engineer should provide with “Overall ability” and “Independent ability” to answer the demand of the society. The engineer ethics education is effective to the acquisition of the ability that the society demands. Because the engineer ethics education teaches the engineer to develop “Ethics action as the individual” to “Ethics activity as the enterprise” . In the point of development of the comprehensive capacity, it can be said that the engineer ethics education is training that supports the action power that accomplishes the social responsibility. However, it is easy to make the engineer ethics education a polite fiction. Then, we propose to take the safety problem to the ethics education for the prevention of making to the polite fiction of the education.

  11. Investigation of the Muffling Problem for Airplane Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Upton, G B; Gage, V R

    1920-01-01

    The experimentation presented in this report falls in two divisions: first, the determination of the relation between back pressure in the exhaust line and consequent power loss, for various combinations of speed and throttle positions of the engine; second, the construction and trial of muffler designs covering both type and size. Report deals with experiments in the development of a muffler designed on the principle which will give the maximum muffling effect with a minimum loss of power. The main body of the work has been done on a Curtiss OX eight-cylinder airplane engine, 4 by 5 inches, rated 70 horsepower at 1,200 revolutions per minute. For estimation of the muffling ability and suppression of "bark" of individual exhausts, the "Ingeco" stationary, single cylinder, 5 1/2 by 10 inch, throttling governed gasoline engine, and occasionally other engines were used.

  12. Isotopically engineered silicon/silicon-germanium nanostructures as basic elements for a nuclear spin quantum computer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shlimak, I.; Safarov, V. I.; Vagner, I. D.

    2001-07-01

    The idea of quantum computation is the most promising recent development in the high-tech domain, while experimental realization of a quantum computer poses a formidable challenge. Among the proposed models especially attractive are semiconductor based nuclear spin quantum computers (S-NSQCs), where nuclear spins are used as quantum bistable elements, `qubits', coupled to the electron spin and orbital dynamics. We propose here a scheme for implementation of basic elements for S-NSQCs which are realizable within achievements of the modern nanotechnology. These elements are expected to be based on a nuclear-spin-controlled isotopically engineered Si/SiGe heterojunction, because in these semiconductors one can vary the abundance of nuclear spins by engineering the isotopic composition. A specific device is suggested, which allows one to model the processes of recording, reading and information transfer on a quantum level using the technique of electrical detection of the magnetic state of nuclear spins. Improvement of this technique for a semiconductor system with a relatively small number of nuclei might be applied to the manipulation of nuclear spin `qubits' in the future S-NSQCs.

  13. Collaborative Systems Thinking: A Response to the Problems Faced by Systems Engineering's 'Middle Tier'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phfarr, Barbara B.; So, Maria M.; Lamb, Caroline Twomey; Rhodes, Donna H.

    2009-01-01

    Experienced systems engineers are adept at more than implementing systems engineering processes: they utilize systems thinking to solve complex engineering problems. Within the space industry demographics and economic pressures are reducing the number of experienced systems engineers that will be available in the future. Collaborative systems thinking within systems engineering teams is proposed as a way to integrate systems engineers of various experience levels to handle complex systems engineering challenges. This paper uses the GOES-R Program Systems Engineering team to illustrate the enablers and barriers to team level systems thinking and to identify ways in which performance could be improved. Ways NASA could expand its engineering training to promote team-level systems thinking are proposed.

  14. Calcine Waste Storage at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center

    SciTech Connect

    Staiger, Merle Daniel; M. C. Swenson

    2005-01-01

    This report documents an inventory of calcined waste produced at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center during the period from December 1963 to May 2000. The report was prepared based on calciner runs, operation of the calcined solids storage facilities, and miscellaneous operational information that establishes the range of chemical compositions of calcined waste stored at Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center. The report will be used to support obtaining permits for the calcined solids storage facilities, possible treatment of the calcined waste at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, and to ship the waste to an off-site facility including a geologic repository. The information in this report was compiled from calciner operating data, waste solution analyses and volumes calcined, calciner operating schedules, calcine temperature monitoring records, and facility design of the calcined solids storage facilities. A compact disk copy of this report is provided to facilitate future data manipulations and analysis.

  15. Application of desktop computers in nuclear engineering education

    SciTech Connect

    Graves, H.W. Jr. )

    1990-01-01

    Utilization of desktop computers in the academic environment is based on the same objectives as in the industrial environment - increased quality and efficiency. Desktop computers can be extremely useful teaching tools in two general areas: classroom demonstrations and homework assignments. Although differences in emphasis exist, tutorial programs share many characteristics with interactive software developed for the industrial environment. In the Reactor Design and Fuel Management course at the University of Maryland, several interactive tutorial programs provided by Energy analysis Software Service have been utilized. These programs have been designed to be sufficiently structured to permit an orderly, disciplined solution to the problem being solved, and yet be flexible enough to accommodate most problem solution options.

  16. Removal of actinides from nuclear fuel reprocessing wastes: engineering studies

    SciTech Connect

    Maxey, H. R.; McIsaac, L. D.; Chamberlain, D. B.; McManus, G. J.

    1980-01-01

    The major pilot plant effort has been directed towards understanding the behavior of the extraction column. This emphasis was placed on extraction because the actinide-free raffinate from this column is the process product. Although actual radioactive feeds have been used only in a very limited number of tests, the combination of simulated column tests, minimixer-settler tests, and pilot plant experiments have shown that an actinide-free raffinate can be produced. A pulsed sieve plate column can achieve this separation in a reasonable height. In the design of an extraction process, there are several tradeoffs that have to be examined. One such tradeoff is that between column capacity and separation efficiency; an increase in column diameter (or capacity) means a faster processing rate, but, unfortunately, it also means a decrease in column efficiency. Therefore, the greater the diameter, the larger the HTU and the higher the column has to be to achieve the desired separation. In nuclear applications this is very important since column height is limited by the size of the process containment building. In increasing the diameter from 3 to 8 inches, an increase in HTU's up to 50% was observed by Sege. For plant operations, the pulse columns could probably be pulsed at 40 CPM, 2.5 cm per pulse. At these conditions, the HTU should be no greater than 0.75 m, even considering changes resulting from scaleup.

  17. Challenge problem and milestones for : Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) waste Integrated Performance and Safety Codes (IPSC).

    SciTech Connect

    Freeze, Geoffrey A.; Wang, Yifeng; Howard, Robert; McNeish, Jerry A.; Schultz, Peter Andrew; Arguello, Jose Guadalupe, Jr.

    2010-09-01

    This report describes the specification of a challenge problem and associated challenge milestones for the Waste Integrated Performance and Safety Codes (IPSC) supporting the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) Campaign. The NEAMS challenge problems are designed to demonstrate proof of concept and progress towards IPSC goals. The goal of the Waste IPSC is to develop an integrated suite of modeling and simulation capabilities to quantitatively assess the long-term performance of waste forms in the engineered and geologic environments of a radioactive waste storage or disposal system. The Waste IPSC will provide this simulation capability (1) for a range of disposal concepts, waste form types, engineered repository designs, and geologic settings, (2) for a range of time scales and distances, (3) with appropriate consideration of the inherent uncertainties, and (4) in accordance with robust verification, validation, and software quality requirements. To demonstrate proof of concept and progress towards these goals and requirements, a Waste IPSC challenge problem is specified that includes coupled thermal-hydrologic-chemical-mechanical (THCM) processes that describe (1) the degradation of a borosilicate glass waste form and the corresponding mobilization of radionuclides (i.e., the processes that produce the radionuclide source term), (2) the associated near-field physical and chemical environment for waste emplacement within a salt formation, and (3) radionuclide transport in the near field (i.e., through the engineered components - waste form, waste package, and backfill - and the immediately adjacent salt). The initial details of a set of challenge milestones that collectively comprise the full challenge problem are also specified.

  18. Frost Formation Problem in the Development of a Hypersonic Turbojet Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukiba, Katsuyoshi; Sato, Tetsuya; Kobayashi, Hiroaki; Ohkubo, Hidetoshi

    The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency has developed a hypersonic aircraft flying at Mach 5. A precooled turbojet engine is the candidate of the engine for the hypersonic aircraft. The precooled turbojet engine has a heat exchanger(precooler) which cools the breathed air by using cryogenic propellant, such as liquid hydrogen. The precooler has a problem that frost forms on the cooling tubes of the precooler, and the frost decrease the engine performance. Some approaches to deal with the frost formation problem have employed in the development. In this paper, those approaches are introduced and the results of some fundamental studies about frost are also shown.

  19. Optical Detection of the Hidden Nuclear Engine in NGC 4258

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkes, Belinda J.; Schmidt, Gary D.; Smith, Paul S.; Mathur, Smita; McLeod, Kim K.

    1997-01-01

    The subparsec masing disk recently found to be orbiting a central mass of approx. 3.6 x 10(exp 7) Ms in the Seyfert/LINER galaxy NGC 4258 (Miyoshi and coworkers) provides the most compelling evidence to date for the existence of a massive black hole in the nucleus of a galaxy. The disk is oriented nearly edge-on, and the X-ray spectrum is heavily absorbed. Therefore, in this galaxy, the optical emission-line spectrum generally exhibited by an active galactic nucleus is perhaps best sought using polarized light: probing for light scattered off material surrounding the central source. New polarimetry of NGC 4258 has uncovered a compact polarized nucleus whose spectrum consists of a faint blue continuum similar to those of unobscured quasars (F(sub upsilon) proportional to upsilon(sup -1.1)), plus broadened (approx. 1000 km/s) emission lines. The lines are strongly linearly polarized (5%-10%) at a position angle (85 deg +/- 2 deg) coincident with the plane of the maser disk. This result provides substantiating evidence for a weakly active central engine in NGC 4258 and for the existence of obscuring, orbiting tori, which impart many of the perceived distinctions between various types of active galaxies.

  20. Mitochondrial Replacement Therapy: Are Mito-nuclear Interactions Likely To Be a Problem?

    PubMed

    Eyre-Walker, Adam

    2017-04-01

    It has been suggested that deleterious interactions between the mitochondrial and nuclear genomes could pose a problem for mitochondrial replacement therapy (MRT). This is because the mitochondrial genome is placed in a novel nuclear environment using this technique. In contrast, it is inherited with half the mother's genome during normal reproduction, a genome that it is relatively compatible with, since the mother is alive. Here, I review the evidence of whether mito-nuclear interactions are likely to pose a problem for MRT. The majority of the available experimental evidence, both in humans and other species, suggests that MRT is not harmful. These results are consistent with population genetic theory, which predicts that deleterious mito-nuclear interactions are unlikely to be much more prevalent in individuals born to MRT than normal reproduction, particularly in a species such as humans with low population differentiation. This is because selection is unlikely to be strong enough to establish significant linkage disequilibrium between the mitochondrial and nuclear genomes. These results are supported by a meta-analysis of 231 cases, from a variety of animals, in which the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from one strain has been introgressed into the nuclear background of another strain of the same species. Overall, there is little tendency for introgression of mtDNA to be harmful.

  1. A Coding Scheme for Analysing Problem-Solving Processes of First-Year Engineering Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grigg, Sarah J.; Benson, Lisa C.

    2014-01-01

    This study describes the development and structure of a coding scheme for analysing solutions to well-structured problems in terms of cognitive processes and problem-solving deficiencies for first-year engineering students. A task analysis approach was used to assess students' problem solutions using the hierarchical structure from a…

  2. Investigating and Developing Engineering Students' Mathematical Modelling and Problem-Solving Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wedelin, Dag; Adawi, Tom; Jahan, Tabassum; Andersson, Sven

    2015-01-01

    How do engineering students approach mathematical modelling problems and how can they learn to deal with such problems? In the context of a course in mathematical modelling and problem solving, and using a qualitative case study approach, we found that the students had little prior experience of mathematical modelling. They were also inexperienced…

  3. Avoid, Control, Succumb, or Balance: Engineering Students' Approaches to a Wicked Sustainability Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lönngren, Johanna; Ingerman, Åke; Svanström, Magdalena

    2017-01-01

    Wicked sustainability problems (WSPs) are an important and particularly challenging type of problem. Science and engineering education can play an important role in preparing students to deal with such problems, but current educational practice may not adequately prepare students to do so. We address this gap by providing insights related to…

  4. Chemical Engineers Go to the Movies (Stimulating Problems for the Contemporary Undergraduate Student)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smart, Jimmy L.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author presents five problems that are representative of some of the "movie problems" that he has used on tests in various courses, including reactor design, heat transfer, mass transfer, engineering economics, and fluid mechanics. These problems tend to be open-ended. They can be challenging and can often be worked a variety…

  5. Chemical Engineers Go to the Movies (Stimulating Problems for the Contemporary Undergraduate Student)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smart, Jimmy L.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author presents five problems that are representative of some of the "movie problems" that he has used on tests in various courses, including reactor design, heat transfer, mass transfer, engineering economics, and fluid mechanics. These problems tend to be open-ended. They can be challenging and can often be worked a variety…

  6. Complex Problem Exercises in Developing Engineering Students' Conceptual and Procedural Knowledge of Electromagnetics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leppavirta, J.; Kettunen, H.; Sihvola, A.

    2011-01-01

    Complex multistep problem exercises are one way to enhance engineering students' learning of electromagnetics (EM). This study investigates whether exposure to complex problem exercises during an introductory EM course improves students' conceptual and procedural knowledge. The performance in complex problem exercises is compared to prior success…

  7. Process Inquiry: Analysis of Oral Problem-Solving Skills in Mathematics of Engineering Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trance, Naci John C.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents another effort in determining the difficulty of engineering students in terms of solving word problems. Students were presented with word problems in algebra. Then, they were asked to solve the word problems orally; that is, before they presented their written solutions, they were required to explain how they understood the…

  8. Complex Problem Exercises in Developing Engineering Students' Conceptual and Procedural Knowledge of Electromagnetics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leppavirta, J.; Kettunen, H.; Sihvola, A.

    2011-01-01

    Complex multistep problem exercises are one way to enhance engineering students' learning of electromagnetics (EM). This study investigates whether exposure to complex problem exercises during an introductory EM course improves students' conceptual and procedural knowledge. The performance in complex problem exercises is compared to prior success…

  9. Investigating and Developing Engineering Students' Mathematical Modelling and Problem-Solving Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wedelin, Dag; Adawi, Tom; Jahan, Tabassum; Andersson, Sven

    2015-01-01

    How do engineering students approach mathematical modelling problems and how can they learn to deal with such problems? In the context of a course in mathematical modelling and problem solving, and using a qualitative case study approach, we found that the students had little prior experience of mathematical modelling. They were also inexperienced…

  10. A Coding Scheme for Analysing Problem-Solving Processes of First-Year Engineering Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grigg, Sarah J.; Benson, Lisa C.

    2014-01-01

    This study describes the development and structure of a coding scheme for analysing solutions to well-structured problems in terms of cognitive processes and problem-solving deficiencies for first-year engineering students. A task analysis approach was used to assess students' problem solutions using the hierarchical structure from a…

  11. Four nucleon systems: a zoom to the open problems in nuclear interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Lazauskas, R.

    2005-05-06

    Faddeev-Yakubovski equations in configuration space are used to solve four nucleon problem for bound and scattering states. Different realistic interaction models are tested, elucidating open problems in the description of nuclear interaction. On one hand, by example of nonlocal Doleschall potential, we reveal possibility of reducing three-nucleon force. On the other hand we disclose discrepancies in describing n+3H resonance, which seems to be hardly related with off-shell structure of nucleon-nucleon interaction.

  12. The Green`s function method for nuclear engineering applications

    SciTech Connect

    Kornreich, D.E.; Ganapol, B.D.

    1997-07-01

    The Green`s function method (GFM) is employed to obtain scalar and angular flux distributions in heterogeneous slab geometry with isotropic scattering. All solutions utilize the infinite-medium Green`s function to obtain results in finite media. Past Green`s function analyses that do not resort to expansions of the angular flux in basis functions have been performed for nonmultiplying media only; in this paper, results are provided, for the first time, for both multiplying and nonmultiplying media using the GFM. Several source configurations are considered, including a beam source on the leftmost face, isotropic incidence on any face, and constant inhomogeneous volume sources in internal materials. Scalar and angular flux distributions compare favorably with those obtained using the F{sub N} method as well as the ONEDANT discrete ordinates code. In addition, the single and heterogeneous critical slab problems are investigated and solved using the GFM.

  13. Implementing Problem Based Learning through Engineers without Borders Student Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wittig, Ann

    2013-01-01

    Engineers Without Borders USA (EWB) is a nonprofit organization that partners student chapters with communities in fundamental need of potable water, clean air, sanitation, irrigation, energy, basic structures for schools and clinics, roads and bridges, etc. While EWB projects may vary in complexity, they are all realistic, ill-structured and…

  14. Problem Solving and Report Writing for Second Language Engineering Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotecha, Piyushi

    1991-01-01

    Describes a report writing unit that is part of a three-year language/communication course for second language engineering students at the University of the Witwatersrand in South Africa. States that the tasks motivated the students to develop their report writing and oral skills. (RS)

  15. Problem Solving and Report Writing for Second Language Engineering Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotecha, Piyushi

    1991-01-01

    Describes a report writing unit that is part of a three-year language/communication course for second language engineering students at the University of the Witwatersrand in South Africa. States that the tasks motivated the students to develop their report writing and oral skills. (RS)

  16. Transdisciplinary Variation in Engineering Curricula. Problems and Means for Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jakobsen, Arne; Bucciarelli, Louis L.

    2007-01-01

    An essential difficulty in solving practical problems that are not like the ones a student has solved before is discerning the core of the problem. It is claimed that discernment has to be trained by variation--by varying the context of the assignments in which students have to identify and grasp their "underlying form". A decisive…

  17. Transdisciplinary Variation in Engineering Curricula. Problems and Means for Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jakobsen, Arne; Bucciarelli, Louis L.

    2007-01-01

    An essential difficulty in solving practical problems that are not like the ones a student has solved before is discerning the core of the problem. It is claimed that discernment has to be trained by variation--by varying the context of the assignments in which students have to identify and grasp their "underlying form". A decisive…

  18. Problem reporting and tracking system: a systems engineering challenge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cortez, Vasco; Lopez, Bernhard; Whyborn, Nicholas; Price, Roberto; Hernandez, Octavio; Gairing, Stefan; Barrios, Emilio; Alarcon, Hector

    2016-08-01

    The problem reporting and tracking system (PRTS) is the ALMA system to register operational problems, track unplanned corrective operational maintenance activities and follow the investigations of all problems or possible issues arisen in operation activities. After the PRTS implementation appeared several issues that finally produced a lack in the management of the investigations, problems to produce KPIs, loss of information, among others. In order to improve PRTS, we carried out a process to review the status of system, define a set of modifications and implement a solution; all according to the stakeholder requirements. In this work, we shall present the methodology applied to define a set of concrete actions at the basis of understanding the complexity of the problem, which finally got to improve the interactions between different subsystems and enhance the communication at different levels.

  19. Open problems in applying random-matrix theory to nuclear reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weidenmüller, H. A.

    2014-09-01

    Problems in applying random-matrix theory (RMT) to nuclear reactions arise in two domains. To justify the approach, statistical properties of isolated resonances observed experimentally must agree with RMT predictions. That agreement is less striking than would be desirable. In the implementation of the approach, the range of theoretically predicted observables is too narrow.

  20. The spatial isomorphism problem for close separable nuclear C*-algebras.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Erik; Sinclair, Allan M; Smith, Roger R; White, Stuart A; Winter, Wilhelm

    2010-01-12

    The Kadison-Kastler problem asks whether close C*-algebras on a Hilbert space must be spatially isomorphic. We establish this when one of the algebras is separable and nuclear. We also apply our methods to the study of near inclusions of C*-algebras.

  1. Consolidated View on Space Software Engineering Problems - An Empirical Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, N.; Vieira, M.; Ricci, D.; Cotroneo, D.

    2015-09-01

    Independent software verification and validation (ISVV) has been a key process for engineering quality assessment for decades, and is considered in several international standards. The “European Space Agency (ESA) ISVV Guide” is used for the European Space market to drive the ISVV tasks and plans, and to select applicable tasks and techniques. Software artefacts have room for improvement due to the amount if issues found during ISVV tasks. This article presents the analysis of the results of a large set of ISVV issues originated from three different ESA missions-amounting to more than 1000 issues. The study presents the main types, triggers and impacts related to the ISVV issues found and sets the path for a global software engineering improvement based on the most common deficiencies identified for space projects.

  2. Problems and outlooks for petrothermal power engineering ( review)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alekseenko, S. V.; Borodulin, V. Yu.; Gnatus, N. A.; Nizovtsev, M. I.; Smirnova, N. N.

    2016-01-01

    A review is given for the state of the art and future development of the geothermal power engineering. Different diagrams of GeoPP are shown for different levels of geofluid temperature. A special focus is made on challenges for petrothermal power production. The huge amount of heat from petrothermal resources can be harnessed through creating geothermal circulation systems within the dry rocks. Estimates for system lifetime and heat production capacity of circulation systems are given for different flow rates of coolant.

  3. Problem Solving and Training Guide for Shipyard Industrial Engineers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-06-01

    the “ Schaum Outlines ” published by McGraw-Hill. While useful to the person who is taking or has already taken a classroom course in the subject, the... Schaum outlines ” are less usefuI to the novice than the first three series mentioned. Rowntree, Derek. STATISTICS WITHOUT TEARS: A PRIMER FOR NON...Economic quantities of manufacture or purchase,” pp. 53-80. 265 Shupe, D. S . WHAT EVERY ENGINEER SHOULD KNOW ABOUT ECONOMIC DECISION ANALYSIS . (1980

  4. Modern design methodology and problems in training aircraft engineers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liseitsev, N. K.

    1989-01-01

    A brief report on the problem of modern aircraft specialist education is presented that is devoted to the content and methods of teaching a course in General Aircraft Design in the Moscow Aviation Institute.

  5. Modern design methodology and problems in training aircraft engineers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liseitsev, N. K.

    1989-01-01

    A brief report on the problem of modern aircraft specialist education is presented that is devoted to the content and methods of teaching a course in General Aircraft Design in the Moscow Aviation Institute.

  6. Wildland fire management. Volume 1: Prevention methods and analysis. [systems engineering approach to California fire problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weissenberger, S. (Editor)

    1973-01-01

    A systems engineering approach is reported for the problem of reducing the number and severity of California's wildlife fires. Prevention methodologies are reviewed and cost benefit models are developed for making preignition decisions.

  7. Nuclear design analysis of square-lattice honeycomb space nuclear rocket engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widargo, Reza; Anghaie, Samim

    1999-01-01

    The square-lattice honeycomb reactor is designed based on a cylindrical core that is determined to have critical diameter and length of 0.50 m and 0.50 c, respectively. A 0.10-cm thick radial graphite reflector, in addition to a 0.20-m thick axial graphite reflector are used to reduce neutron leakage from the reactor. The core is fueled with solid solution of 93% enriched (U, Zr, Nb)C, which is one of several ternary uranium carbides that are considered for this concept. The fuel is to be fabricated as 2 mm grooved (U, Zr, Nb)C wafers. The fuel wafers are used to form square-lattice honeycomb fuel assemblies, 0.10 m in length with 30% cross-sectional flow area. Five fuel assemblies are stacked up axially to form the reactor core. Based on the 30% void fraction, the width of the square flow channel is about 1.3 mm. The hydrogen propellant is passed through these flow channels and removes the heat from the reactor core. To perform nuclear design analysis, a series of neutron transport and diffusion codes are used. The preliminary results are obtained using a simple four-group cross-section model. To optimize the nuclear design, the fuel densities are varied for each assembly. Tantalum, hafnium and tungsten are considered and used as a replacement for niobium in fuel material to provide water submersion sub-criticality for the reactor. Axial and radial neutron flux and power density distributions are calculated for the core. Results of the neutronic analysis indicate that the core has a relatively fast spectrum. From the results of the thermal hydraulic analyses, eight axial temperature zones are chosen for the calculation of group average cross-sections. An iterative process is conducted to couple the neutronic calculations with the thermal hydraulics calculations. Results of the nuclear design analysis indicate that a compact core can be designed based on ternary uranium carbide square-lattice honeycomb fuel. This design provides a relatively high thrust to weight

  8. Engineering-Based Problem Solving in the Middle School: Design and Construction with Simple Machines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English, Lyn D.; Hudson, Peter; Dawes, Les

    2013-01-01

    Incorporating engineering concepts into middle school curriculum is seen as an effective way to improve students' problem-solving skills. A selection of findings is reported from a science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM)-based unit in which students in the second year (grade 8) of a three-year longitudinal study explored…

  9. Perceptions and Problems of English Language and Communication Abilities: A Final Check on Thai Engineering Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rajprasit, Krich; Pratoomrat, Panadda; Wang, Tuntiga

    2015-01-01

    English language and communication abilities are an essential part of the global engineering community. However, non-native English speaking engineers and students tend to be unable to master these skills. This study aims to gauge the perceived levels of their general English language proficiency, to explore their English communicative problems,…

  10. Hydrostatic Pressure Project: Linked-Class Problem-Based Learning in Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Freddie J.; Lockwood-Cooke, Pamela; Hunt, Emily M.

    2011-01-01

    Over the last few years, WTAMU Mathematics, Engineering and Science faculty has used interdisciplinary projects as the basis for implementation of a linked-class approach to Problem-Based Learning (PBL). A project that has significant relevance to engineering statics, fluid mechanics, and calculus is the Hydrostatic Pressure Project. This project…

  11. Gendered Practices of Constructing an Engineering Identity in a Problem-Based Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Du, Xiang-Yun

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the learning experiences of engineering students of both genders in a problem-based and project-organized learning environment (PBL) at a Danish university. This study relates an amalgam of theories on learning and gender to the context of engineering education. Based on data from a qualitative study of an electrical and…

  12. Exploring How Experience with Planning Impacts First Grade Students' Planning and Solutions to Engineering Design Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portsmore, Merredith D.

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation presents research that investigated how first grade students' ability to construct solutions and to plan through drawing for engineering design problems is related to their participation in a LEGO-based engineering curriculum with two variations on the instruction for planning. The quasi-experimental design engaged two first…

  13. Gendered Practices of Constructing an Engineering Identity in a Problem-Based Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Du, Xiang-Yun

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the learning experiences of engineering students of both genders in a problem-based and project-organized learning environment (PBL) at a Danish university. This study relates an amalgam of theories on learning and gender to the context of engineering education. Based on data from a qualitative study of an electrical and…

  14. Integrating Creativity Training into Problem and Project-Based Learning Curriculum in Engineering Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Chunfang

    2012-01-01

    In order to foster creative engineers, a creativity training programme was carried out in medialogy education in a Problem and Project-Based Learning (PBL) environment at Aalborg University, Denmark. This paper focuses on the question of how engineering students perceive the strategy of integrating creativity training into a PBL curriculum. A…

  15. Engineering-Based Problem Solving in the Middle School: Design and Construction with Simple Machines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English, Lyn D.; Hudson, Peter; Dawes, Les

    2013-01-01

    Incorporating engineering concepts into middle school curriculum is seen as an effective way to improve students' problem-solving skills. A selection of findings is reported from a science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM)-based unit in which students in the second year (grade 8) of a three-year longitudinal study explored…

  16. Exploring How Experience with Planning Impacts First Grade Students' Planning and Solutions to Engineering Design Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portsmore, Merredith D.

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation presents research that investigated how first grade students' ability to construct solutions and to plan through drawing for engineering design problems is related to their participation in a LEGO-based engineering curriculum with two variations on the instruction for planning. The quasi-experimental design engaged two first…

  17. Pyroelectric Crystal Accelerator In The Department Of Physics And Nuclear Engineering At West Point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillich, Don; Shannon, Mike; Kovanen, Andrew; Anderson, Tom; Bright, Kevin; Edwards, Ronald; Danon, Yaron; Moretti, Brian; Musk, Jeffrey

    2011-06-01

    The Nuclear Science and Engineering Research Center (NSERC), a Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA) office located at the United States Military Academy (USMA), sponsors and manages cadet and faculty research in support of DTRA objectives. The NSERC has created an experimental pyroelectric crystal accelerator program to enhance undergraduate education at USMA in the Department of Physics and Nuclear Engineering. This program provides cadets with hands-on experience in designing their own experiments using an inexpensive tabletop accelerator. This device uses pyroelectric crystals to ionize and accelerate gas ions to energies of ˜100 keV. Within the next year, cadets and faculty at USMA will use this device to create neutrons through the deuterium-deuterium (D-D) fusion process, effectively creating a compact, portable neutron generator. The double crystal pyroelectric accelerator will also be used by students to investigate neutron, x-ray, and ion spectroscopy.

  18. An improved heat transfer configuration for a solid-core nuclear thermal rocket engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, John S.; Walton, James T.; Mcguire, Melissa L.

    1992-01-01

    Interrupted flow, impingement cooling, and axial power distribution are employed to enhance the heat-transfer configuration of a solid-core nuclear thermal rocket engine. Impingement cooling is introduced to increase the local heat-transfer coefficients between the reactor material and the coolants. Increased fuel loading is used at the inlet end of the reactor to enhance heat-transfer capability where the temperature differences are the greatest. A thermal-hydraulics computer program for an unfueled NERVA reactor core is employed to analyze the proposed configuration with attention given to uniform fuel loading, number of channels through the impingement wafers, fuel-element length, mass-flow rate, and wafer gap. The impingement wafer concept (IWC) is shown to have heat-transfer characteristics that are better than those of the NERVA-derived reactor at 2500 K. The IWC concept is argued to be an effective heat-transfer configuration for solid-core nuclear thermal rocket engines.

  19. Pyroelectric Crystal Accelerator In The Department Of Physics And Nuclear Engineering At West Point

    SciTech Connect

    Gillich, Don; Kovanen, Andrew; Anderson, Tom; Bright, Kevin; Edwards, Ronald; Moretti, Brian; Shannon, Mike; Musk, Jeffrey; Danon, Yaron

    2011-06-01

    The Nuclear Science and Engineering Research Center (NSERC), a Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA) office located at the United States Military Academy (USMA), sponsors and manages cadet and faculty research in support of DTRA objectives. The NSERC has created an experimental pyroelectric crystal accelerator program to enhance undergraduate education at USMA in the Department of Physics and Nuclear Engineering. This program provides cadets with hands-on experience in designing their own experiments using an inexpensive tabletop accelerator. This device uses pyroelectric crystals to ionize and accelerate gas ions to energies of {approx}100 keV. Within the next year, cadets and faculty at USMA will use this device to create neutrons through the deuterium-deuterium (D-D) fusion process, effectively creating a compact, portable neutron generator. The double crystal pyroelectric accelerator will also be used by students to investigate neutron, x-ray, and ion spectroscopy.

  20. Reference analysis on the utility of engineered barriers for geologic disposal of spent nuclear fuel: overview

    SciTech Connect

    Cloninger, M.O.

    1981-09-01

    The development and characterization of waste forms, containers and other engineered barriers destined for use in the isolation of nuclear waste in deep geologic repositories has progressed to the point where there are several options for barrier systems that are available to help assure safe disposal of nuclear wastes. However, a rigorous basis has not yet developed to define whether various concepts or products are required or desirable, or how effective they should be for how long. This analysis is an attempt to contribute to that basis. Intent of the study is to determine what incentives exist for providing highly effective engineered barriers for the isolation of radioactive waste (spent fuel in this case) in a deep geologic repository. 6 figures.

  1. MITEE: A Compact Ultralight Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Engine for Planetary Science Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, J.; Maise, G.; Paniagua, J.

    2001-01-01

    A new approach for a near-term compact, ultralight nuclear thermal propulsion engine, termed MITEE (Miniature Reactor Engine) is described. MITEE enables a wide range of new and unique planetary science missions that are not possible with chemical rockets. With U-235 nuclear fuel and hydrogen propellant the baseline MITEE engine achieves a specific impulse of approximately 1000 seconds, a thrust of 28,000 newtons, and a total mass of only 140 kilograms, including reactor, controls, and turbo-pump. Using higher performance nuclear fuels like U-233, engine mass can be reduced to as little as 80 kg. Using MITEE, V additions of 20 km/s for missions to outer planets are possible compared to only 10 km/s for H2/O2 engines. The much greater V with MITEE enables much faster trips to the outer planets, e.g., two years to Jupiter, three years to Saturn, and five years to Pluto, without needing multiple planetary gravity assists. Moreover, MITEE can utilize in-situ resources to further extend mission V. One example of a very attractive, unique mission enabled by MITEE is the exploration of a possible subsurface ocean on Europa and the return of samples to Earth. Using MITEE, a spacecraft would land on Europa after a two-year trip from Earth orbit and deploy a small nuclear heated probe that would melt down through its ice sheet. The probe would then convert to a submersible and travel through the ocean collecting samples. After a few months, the probe would melt its way back up to the MITEE lander, which would have replenished its hydrogen propellant by melting and electrolyzing Europa surface ice. The spacecraft would then return to Earth. Total mission time is only five years, starting from departure from Earth orbit. Other unique missions include Neptune and Pluto orbiter, and even a Pluto sample return. MITEE uses the cermet Tungsten-UO2 fuel developed in the 1960's for the 710 reactor program. The W-UO2 fuel has demonstrated capability to operate in 3000 K hydrogen for

  2. Nuclear Engineering: Enrollments and Degrees. Enrollments-Fall 1973, Degrees Granted-July 1965-June 1973.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atomic Energy Commission, Washington, DC. Office of Industrial Relations.

    This document presents statistical data concerning enrollments for fall 1973 and degrees granted 1965-June 1973 in nuclear engineering. Highlights of this survey of educational institutions indicated: (1) Ph.D.'s decreased to 126 from 149 in 1971-72 and from 181 in 1969-70. (2) MS's increased to 442 from 428 in 1971-72. (3) BS's increased to 551…

  3. Nuclear electric propulsion mission engineering study development program and costs estimates, Phase 2 review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The results are presented of the second six-month performance period of the Nuclear Electric Propulsion Mission Engineering Study. A brief overview of the program, identifying the study objectives and approach, and a discussion of the program status and schedule are presented. The program results are reviewed and key conclusions to date are summarized. Planned effort for the remainder of the program is reviewed.

  4. Engineered barrier development for a nuclear waste repository in basalt: an integration of current knowledge

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M.J.

    1980-05-01

    This document represents a compilation of data and interpretive studies conducted as part of the engineered barriers program of the Basalt Waste Isolation Project. The overall objective of these studies is to provide information on barrier system designs, emplacement and isolation techniques, and chemical reactions expected in a nuclear waste repository located in the basalts underlying the Hanford Site within the state of Washington. Backfills, waste-basalt interactions, sorption, borehole plugging, etc., are among the topics discussed.

  5. Feature of high flux engineering test reactor and its role in nuclear power development

    SciTech Connect

    Guangquan, L.

    1988-01-01

    The High Flux Engineering Test Reactor (HFETR) designed and built by China own efforts reached to its initial criticality on Dec. 27, 1979, and then achieved high power operation on Dec. 16, 1980. Until Nov. 11, 1986, the reactor had been operated for thirteen cycles. The paper presents briefly main feature of HFETR and its utilization during past years. The paper also deals with its role in nuclear power development. Finally, author gives his opinion on comprehensive utilization of HFETR.

  6. Thermal hydraulic design analysis of ternary carbide fueled square-lattice honeycomb nuclear rocket engine

    SciTech Connect

    Furman, Eric M.; Anghaie, Samim

    1999-01-22

    A computational analysis is conducted to determine the optimum thermal-hydraulic design parameters for a square-lattice honeycomb nuclear rocket engine core that will incorporate ternary carbide based uranium fuels. Recent studies at the Innovative Nuclear Space Power and Propulsion Institute (INSPI) have demonstrated the feasibility of processing solid solution, ternary carbide fuels such as (U, Zr, Nb)C, (U, Zr, Ta)C, (U, Zr, Hf)C and (U, Zr, W)C. The square-lattice honeycomb design provides high strength and is amenable to the processing complexities of these ultrahigh temperature fuels. A parametric analysis is conducted to examine how core geometry, fuel thickness and the propellant flow area effect the thermal performance of the nuclear rocket engine. The principal variables include core size (length and diameter) and fuel element dimensions. The optimum core configuration requires a balance between high specific impulse and thrust level performance, and maintaining the temperature and strength limits of the fuel. A nuclear rocket engine simulation code is developed and used to examine the system performance as well as the performance of the main reactor core components. The system simulation code was originally developed for analysis of NERVA-Derivative and Pratt and Whitney XNR-2000 nuclear thermal rockets. The code is modified and adopted to the square-lattice geometry of the new fuel design. Thrust levels ranging from 44,500 to 222,400 N (10,000 to 50,000 lbf) are considered. The average hydrogen exit temperature is kept at 2800 K, which is well below the melting point of these fuels. For a nozzle area ratio of 300 and a thrust chamber pressure of 4.8 Mpa (700 psi), the specific impulse is 930 s. Hydrogen temperature and pressure distributions in the core and the fuel maximum temperatures are calculated.

  7. Thermal hydraulic design analysis of ternary carbide fueled square-lattice honeycomb nuclear rocket engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furman, Eric M.; Anghaie, Samim

    1999-01-01

    A computational analysis is conducted to determine the optimum thermal-hydraulic design parameters for a square-lattice honeycomb nuclear rocket engine core that will incorporate ternary carbide based uranium fuels. Recent studies at the Innovative Nuclear Space Power and Propulsion Institute (INSPI) have demonstrated the feasibility of processing solid solution, ternary carbide fuels such as (U, Zr, Nb)C, (U, Zr, Ta)C, (U, Zr, Hf)C and (U, Zr, W)C. The square-lattice honeycomb design provides high strength and is amenable to the processing complexities of these ultrahigh temperature fuels. A parametric analysis is conducted to examine how core geometry, fuel thickness and the propellant flow area effect the thermal performance of the nuclear rocket engine. The principal variables include core size (length and diameter) and fuel element dimensions. The optimum core configuration requires a balance between high specific impulse and thrust level performance, and maintaining the temperature and strength limits of the fuel. A nuclear rocket engine simulation code is developed and used to examine the system performance as well as the performance of the main reactor core components. The system simulation code was originally developed for analysis of NERVA-Derivative and Pratt & Whitney XNR-2000 nuclear thermal rockets. The code is modified and adopted to the square-lattice geometry of the new fuel design. Thrust levels ranging from 44,500 to 222,400 N (10,000 to 50,000 lbf) are considered. The average hydrogen exit temperature is kept at 2800 K, which is well below the melting point of these fuels. For a nozzle area ratio of 300 and a thrust chamber pressure of 4.8 Mpa (700 psi), the specific impulse is 930 s. Hydrogen temperature and pressure distributions in the core and the fuel maximum temperatures are calculated.

  8. Strengthening the fission reactor nuclear science and engineering program at UCLA. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Okrent, D.

    1997-06-23

    This is the final report on DOE Award No. DE-FG03-92ER75838 A000, a three year matching grant program with Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG and E) to support strengthening of the fission reactor nuclear science and engineering program at UCLA. The program began on September 30, 1992. The program has enabled UCLA to use its strong existing background to train students in technological problems which simultaneously are of interest to the industry and of specific interest to PG and E. The program included undergraduate scholarships, graduate traineeships and distinguished lecturers. Four topics were selected for research the first year, with the benefit of active collaboration with personnel from PG and E. These topics remained the same during the second year of this program. During the third year, two topics ended with the departure o the students involved (reflux cooling in a PWR during a shutdown and erosion/corrosion of carbon steel piping). Two new topics (long-term risk and fuel relocation within the reactor vessel) were added; hence, the topics during the third year award were the following: reflux condensation and the effect of non-condensable gases; erosion/corrosion of carbon steel piping; use of artificial intelligence in severe accident diagnosis for PWRs (diagnosis of plant status during a PWR station blackout scenario); the influence on risk of organization and management quality; considerations of long term risk from the disposal of hazardous wastes; and a probabilistic treatment of fuel motion and fuel relocation within the reactor vessel during a severe core damage accident.

  9. Storage and treatment of SNF of Alfa class nuclear submarines: current status and problems

    SciTech Connect

    Ignatiev, Sviatoslav; Zabudko, Alexey; Pankratov, Dmitry; Somov, Ivan; Suvorov, Gennady

    2007-07-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: The current status and main problems associated with storage, defueling and following treatment of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) of Nuclear Submarines (NS) with heavy liquid metal cooled reactors are considered. In the final analysis these solutions could be realized in the form of separate projects to be funded through national and bi- and multilateral funding in the framework of the international collaboration of the Russian Federation on complex utilization of NS and rehabilitation of contaminated objects allocated in the North-West region of Russia. (authors)

  10. [Prospects of systemic radioecology in solving innovative tasks of nuclear power engineering].

    PubMed

    Spiridonov, S I

    2014-01-01

    A need of systemic radioecological studies in the strategy developed by the atomic industry in Russia in the XXI century has been justified. The priorities in the radioecology of nuclear power engineering of natural safety associated with the development of the radiation-migration equivalence concept, comparative evaluation of innovative nuclear technologies and forecasting methods of various emergencies have been identified. Also described is an algorithm for the integrated solution of these tasks that includes elaboration of methodological approaches, methods and software allowing dose burdens to humans and biota to be estimated. The rationale of using radioecological risks for the analysis of uncertainties in the environmental contamination impacts,at different stages of the existing and innovative nuclear fuel cycles is shown.

  11. A Systems Engineering Framework for Design, Construction and Operation of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Edward J. Gorski; Charles V. Park; Finis H. Southworth

    2004-06-01

    Not since the International Space Station has a project of such wide participation been proposed for the United States. Ten countries, the European Union, universities, Department of Energy (DOE) laboratories, and industry will participate in the research and development, design, construction and/or operation of the fourth generation of nuclear power plants with a demonstration reactor to be built at a DOE site and operational by the middle of the next decade. This reactor will be like no other. The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) will be passively safe, economical, highly efficient, modular, proliferation resistant, and sustainable. In addition to electrical generation, the NGNP will demonstrate efficient and cost effective generation of hydrogen to support the President’s Hydrogen Initiative. To effectively manage this multi-organizational and technologically complex project, systems engineering techniques and processes will be used extensively to ensure delivery of the final product. The technological and organizational challenges are complex. Research and development activities are required, material standards require development, hydrogen production, storage and infrastructure requirements are not well developed, and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission may further define risk-informed/performance-based approach to licensing. Detailed design and development will be challenged by the vast cultural and institutional differences across the participants. Systems engineering processes must bring the technological and organizational complexity together to ensure successful product delivery. This paper will define the framework for application of systems engineering to this $1.5B - $1.9B project.

  12. Engineering calculations for solving the orbital allotment problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reilly, C.; Walton, E. K.; Mount-Campbell, C.; Caldecott, R.; Aebker, E.; Mata, F.

    1988-01-01

    Four approaches for calculating downlink interferences for shaped-beam antennas are described. An investigation of alternative mixed-integer programming models for satellite synthesis is summarized. Plans for coordinating the various programs developed under this grant are outlined. Two procedures for ordering satellites to initialize the k-permutation algorithm are proposed. Results are presented for the k-permutation algorithms. Feasible solutions are found for 5 of the 6 problems considered. Finally, it is demonstrated that the k-permutation algorithm can be used to solve arc allotment problems.

  13. UC Berkeley Nuclear Engineering Curriculum and Research Enhancement. Final report, February 14, 1993--February 14, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, T.K.; Peterson, P.F.

    1995-05-11

    This is a report for the 2/14/93 to 2/14/95 period of the five-year program proposed and initiated in 1992, for curriculum and research enhancement for the Department of Nuclear Engineering at the University of California, Berkeley. The program is designed to strengthen the departmental academic infrastructure and improve the education breadth of nuclear engineering students. The DOE funds have supported scholarships and a novel educational program which includes summer coursework at the Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant. The summer course provides an important introduction to reactor safety and operations to students who will in the future be responsible for running many of our existing nuclear power plants. The work was funded under DOE contract DE-FG0393ER75856, with a matching gift to the Department from the Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG&E). The program described in the original grant proposal has been successful implemented with an enthusiastic response from our students and faculty. The program consisted of two parts, one for innovative additions to our curriculum funded by the DOE, and the other for distinguished lectureships and support for basic research funded by gifts from PG&E.

  14. Facilitating Open-Ended Problem Solving: Training Engineering TAs To Facilitate Open-Ended Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Streveler, Ruth A.; King, Robert H.

    2000-01-01

    Describes and evaluates a four-session training program for Multidisciplinary Engineering Laboratory (MEL) teaching assistants at the Colorado School of Mines. The sessions focus attention on student development approaches to learning. (EV)

  15. Designing Online Problem Representation Engine for Conceptual Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Chwee Beng; Ling, Keck Voon

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to describe the web-based scaffold dynamic simulation system (PRES-on) designed for pre-service teachers. Design/methodology/approach: The paper describes the initial design of a web-based scaffold dynamic simulation system (PRES-on) as a cognitive tool for learners to represent problems. For the widespread use of the…

  16. Designing Online Problem Representation Engine for Conceptual Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Chwee Beng; Ling, Keck Voon

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to describe the web-based scaffold dynamic simulation system (PRES-on) designed for pre-service teachers. Design/methodology/approach: The paper describes the initial design of a web-based scaffold dynamic simulation system (PRES-on) as a cognitive tool for learners to represent problems. For the widespread use of the…

  17. Engineering-Based Interdisciplinary Education for Health Systems Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kay, Bonnie J.; Pittman, Julian V.

    1980-01-01

    Examines the educational challenges created by complex health care delivery systems and the need to train analysts and problem solvers to work effectively within these systems. Illustrates, through a course description, how cognitive and experiential learning approaches can provide the student with a bridge between acquiring technical skills and…

  18. ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH DECOMMISSIONING THE CHERNOBYL NUCLEAR POWER PLANT COOLING POND

    SciTech Connect

    Farfan, E.

    2009-09-30

    Decommissioning of nuclear power plants and other nuclear fuel cycle facilities has been an imperative issue lately. There exist significant experience and generally accepted recommendations on remediation of lands with residual radioactive contamination; however, there are hardly any such recommendations on remediation of cooling ponds that, in most cases, are fairly large water reservoirs. The literature only describes remediation of minor reservoirs containing radioactive silt (a complete closure followed by preservation) or small water reservoirs resulting in reestablishing natural water flows. Problems associated with remediation of river reservoirs resulting in flooding of vast agricultural areas also have been described. In addition, the severity of environmental and economic problems related to the remedial activities is shown to exceed any potential benefits of these activities. One of the large, highly contaminated water reservoirs that require either remediation or closure is Karachay Lake near the MAYAK Production Association in the Chelyabinsk Region of Russia where liquid radioactive waste had been deep well injected for a long period of time. Backfilling of Karachay Lake is currently in progress. It should be noted that secondary environmental problems associated with its closure are considered to be of less importance since sustaining Karachay Lake would have presented a much higher radiological risk. Another well-known highly contaminated water reservoir is the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) Cooling Pond, decommissioning of which is planned for the near future. This study summarizes the environmental problems associated with the ChNPP Cooling Pond decommissioning.

  19. Environmental Problems Associated With Decommissioning The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Cooling Pond

    SciTech Connect

    Farfan, E. B.; Jannik, G. T.; Marra, J. C.; Oskolkov, B. Ya.; Bondarkov, M. D.; Gaschak, S. P.; Maksymenko, A. M.; Maksymenko, V. M.; Martynenko, V. I.

    2009-11-09

    Decommissioning of nuclear power plants and other nuclear fuel cycle facilities has been an imperative issue lately. There exist significant experience and generally accepted recommendations on remediation of lands with residual radioactive contamination; however, there are hardly any such recommendations on remediation of cooling ponds that, in most cases, are fairly large water reservoirs. The literature only describes remediation of minor reservoirs containing radioactive silt (a complete closure followed by preservation) or small water reservoirs resulting in reestablishing natural water flows. Problems associated with remediation of river reservoirs resulting in flooding of vast agricultural areas also have been described. In addition, the severity of environmental and economic problems related to the remedial activities is shown to exceed any potential benefits of these activities. One of the large, highly contaminated water reservoirs that require either remediation or closure is Karachay Lake near the MAYAK Production Association in the Chelyabinsk Region of Russia where liquid radioactive waste had been deep well injected for a long period of time. Backfilling of Karachay Lake is currently in progress. It should be noted that secondary environmental problems associated with its closure are considered to be of less importance since sustaining Karachay Lake would have presented a much higher radiological risk. Another well-known highly contaminated water reservoir is the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) Cooling Pond, decommissioning of which is planned for the near future. This study summarizes the environmental problems associated with the ChNPP Cooling Pond decommissioning.

  20. Nuclear Engine System Simulation (NESS). Version 2.0: Program user's guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pelaccio, Dennis G.; Scheil, Christine M.; Petrosky, Lyman

    1993-01-01

    This Program User's Guide discusses the Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) engine system design features and capabilities modeled in the Nuclear Engine System Simulation (NESS): Version 2.0 program (referred to as NESS throughout the remainder of this document), as well as its operation. NESS was upgraded to include many new modeling capabilities not available in the original version delivered to NASA LeRC in Dec. 1991, NESS's new features include the following: (1) an improved input format; (2) an advanced solid-core NERVA-type reactor system model (ENABLER 2); (3) a bleed-cycle engine system option; (4) an axial-turbopump design option; (5) an automated pump-out turbopump assembly sizing option; (6) an off-design gas generator engine cycle design option; (7) updated hydrogen properties; (8) an improved output format; and (9) personal computer operation capability. Sample design cases are presented in the user's guide that demonstrate many of the new features associated with this upgraded version of NESS, as well as design modeling features associated with the original version of NESS.

  1. Fuel/propellant mixing in an open-cycle gas core nuclear rocket engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Xu; Wehrmeyer, Joseph A.

    1997-01-01

    A numerical investigation of the mixing of gaseous uranium and hydrogen inside an open-cycle gas core nuclear rocket engine (spherical geometry) is presented. The gaseous uranium fuel is injected near the centerline of the spherical engine cavity at a constant mass flow rate, and the hydrogen propellant is injected around the periphery of the engine at a five degree angle to the wall, at a constant mass flow rate. The main objective is to seek ways to minimize the mixing of uranium and hydrogen by choosing a suitable injector geometry for the mixing of light and heavy gas streams. Three different uranium inlet areas are presented, and also three different turbulent models (k-ɛ model, RNG k-V model, and RSM model) are investigated. The commercial CFD code, FLUENT, is used to model the flow field. Uranium mole fraction, axial mass flux, and radial mass flux contours are obtained.

  2. Developments in the Nuclear Safeguards and Security Engineering Degree Program at Tomsk Polytechnic University

    SciTech Connect

    Boiko, Vladimir I.; Demyanyuk, Dmitry G.; Silaev, Maxim E.; Duncan, Cristen L.; Heinberg, Cynthia L.; Killinger, Mark H.; Goodey, Kent O.; Butler, Gilbert W.

    2009-10-06

    Over the last six years, Tomsk Polytechnic University (TPU) has developed a 5½ year engineering degree program in the field of Material Protection Control and Accounting (MPC&A). In 2009 the first students graduated with this new degree. There were 25 job offers from nuclear fuel cycle enterprises of Russia and Kazakhstan for 17 graduates of the program. Due to the rather wide selection of workplaces, all graduates have obtained positions at nuclear enterprises. The program was developed within the Applied Physics and Engineering Department (APED). The laboratory and methodological base has been created taking into consideration the experience of the similar program at the Moscow Engineering Physics Institute (MEPhI). However, the TPU program has some distinguishing features such as the inclusion of special courses pertaining to fuel enrichment and reprocessing. During the last two years, three MPC&A laboratories have been established at APED. This was made possible due to several factors such as establishment of the State innovative educational program at TPU, assistance of the U.S. Department of Energy through Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and Los Alamos National Laboratory, and the financial support of the Swedish Radiation Safety Authority and some Russian private companies. All three of the MPC&A laboratories are part of the Innovative Educational Center “Nuclear Technologies and Non-Proliferation,” which deals with many topics including research activities, development of new curricula for experts training and retraining, and training of master’s students. In 2008, TPU developed a relationship with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), which was familiarized with APED’s current resources and activities. The IAEA has shown interest in creation of a master’s degree educational program in the field of nuclear security at TPU. A future objective is to acquaint nuclear fuel cycle enterprises with new APED capabilities and involve the

  3. Nuclear power supplies: Their potential and the practical problems to their achievement for space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colston, B. W.

    1986-01-01

    Various issues associated with getting technology development of nuclear power systems moving at a pace which will support the anticipated need for such systems in later years is discussed. The projected power needs of such advanced space elements as growth space stations and lunar and planetary vehicles and bases are addressed briefly, and the relevance of nuclear power systems is discussed. A brief history and status of the U.S. nuclear reactor systems is provided, and some of the problems (real and/or perceived) are dealt with briefly. Key areas on which development attention should be focused in the near future are identified, and a suggested approach is recommended to help accelerate the process.

  4. Minimizing the Institutional Change Required to Augment Calculus with Real-World Engineering Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neubert, Jeremiah; Khavanin, Mohammad; Worley, Deborah; Kaabouch, Naima

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a method for allowing calculus taught by mathematics faculty to be augmented with real-world engineering problems. The method relies on modules to deliver the problems and required background information. Students complete the modules outside of class and discuss them in mentor-led sessions. To encourage participation, students…

  5. Problem Solving Method Based on E-Learning System for Engineering Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khazaal, Hasan F.

    2015-01-01

    Encouraging engineering students to handle advanced technology with multimedia, as well as motivate them to have the skills of solving the problem, are the missions of the teacher in preparing students for a modern professional career. This research proposes a scenario of problem solving in basic electrical circuits based on an e-learning system…

  6. Minimizing the Institutional Change Required to Augment Calculus with Real-World Engineering Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neubert, Jeremiah; Khavanin, Mohammad; Worley, Deborah; Kaabouch, Naima

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a method for allowing calculus taught by mathematics faculty to be augmented with real-world engineering problems. The method relies on modules to deliver the problems and required background information. Students complete the modules outside of class and discuss them in mentor-led sessions. To encourage participation, students…

  7. Toward Teaching Methods that Develop Learning and Enhance Problem Solving Skills in Engineering Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loji, K.

    2012-01-01

    Problem solving skills and abilities are critical in life and more specifically in the engineering field. Unfortunately, significant numbers of South African students who are accessing higher education lack problem solving skills and this results in poor academic performance jeopardizing their progress especially from first to second year. On the…

  8. Toward Teaching Methods that Develop Learning and Enhance Problem Solving Skills in Engineering Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loji, K.

    2012-01-01

    Problem solving skills and abilities are critical in life and more specifically in the engineering field. Unfortunately, significant numbers of South African students who are accessing higher education lack problem solving skills and this results in poor academic performance jeopardizing their progress especially from first to second year. On the…

  9. Experimental challenge to nuclear physics problems in the {nu}p-process

    SciTech Connect

    Kubono, S.; Binh, Dam N.; Hayakawa, S.; Hashimoto, T.; Kahl, D. M.; Yamaguchi, H.; Wakabayashi, Y.; Teranishi, T.; Iwasa, N.; Komatsubara, T.; Kato, S.; Chen, A.; Cherubini, S.; Choi, S. H.; Hahn, I. S.; He, J. J.; Khiem, Le H.; Lee, C. S.; Kwon, Y. K.; Wanajo, S.; and others

    2012-11-12

    Astrophysical stellar reactions at extremely high temperatures involve a variety of problems both in nuclear reactions and nuclear structures. Specifically, the problems in the {nu}pprocess were discussed in this talk based on our recent experimental results with low-energy RI beams and a simulation study. The {nu}p-process is one of the key processes for investigating the mechanism of type II supernovae, and the process could be possibly responsible for 'the excess production' of p-nuclei around mass 90-100. Alpha cluster resonances have been discovered experimentally to play a crucial role for the stellar ({alpha}, p) reactions just above the alpha threshold. Neutron induced reactions in the proton-rich nuclear regions in the {nu}p-process are also suggested to play an important role, which involve nuclear structures of high level density at high excitation energies, probably giant resonances. The discussion also covered the p-nuclei production through the {nu}p-process at around mass 100.

  10. Physics and nuclear power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buttery, N. E.

    2008-03-01

    Nuclear power owes its origin to physicists. Fission was demonstrated by physicists and chemists and the first nuclear reactor project was led by physicists. However as nuclear power was harnessed to produce electricity the role of the engineer became stronger. Modern nuclear power reactors bring together the skills of physicists, chemists, chemical engineers, electrical engineers, mechanical engineers and civil engineers. The paper illustrates this by considering the Sizewell B project and the role played by physicists in this. This covers not only the roles in design and analysis but in problem solving during the commissioning of first of a kind plant. Looking forward to the challenges to provide sustainable and environmentally acceptable energy sources for the future illustrates the need for a continuing synergy between physics and engineering. This will be discussed in the context of the challenges posed by Generation IV reactors.

  11. Investigating and developing engineering students' mathematical modelling and problem-solving skills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wedelin, Dag; Adawi, Tom; Jahan, Tabassum; Andersson, Sven

    2015-09-01

    How do engineering students approach mathematical modelling problems and how can they learn to deal with such problems? In the context of a course in mathematical modelling and problem solving, and using a qualitative case study approach, we found that the students had little prior experience of mathematical modelling. They were also inexperienced problem solvers, unaware of the importance of understanding the problem and exploring alternatives, and impeded by inappropriate beliefs, attitudes and expectations. Important impacts of the course belong to the metacognitive domain. The nature of the problems, the supervision and the follow-up lectures were emphasised as contributing to the impacts of the course, where students show major development. We discuss these empirical results in relation to a framework for mathematical thinking and the notion of cognitive apprenticeship. Based on the results, we argue that this kind of teaching should be considered in the education of all engineers.

  12. Use of liquid metals in nuclear and thermonuclear engineering, and in other innovative technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rachkov, V. I.; Arnol'dov, M. N.; Efanov, A. D.; Kalyakin, S. G.; Kozlov, F. A.; Loginov, N. I.; Orlov, Yu. I.; Sorokin, A. P.

    2014-05-01

    By now, a good deal of experience has been gained with using liquid metals as coolants in nuclear power installations; extensive knowledge has been gained about the physical, thermophysical, and physicochemical properties of these coolants; and the scientific principles and a set of methods and means for handling liquid metals as coolants for nuclear power installations have been elaborated. Prototype and commercialgrade sodium-cooled NPP power units have been developed, including the BOR-60, BN-350, and BN-600 power units (the Soviet Union); the Rapsodie, Phenix, and Superphenix power units (France), the EBR-II power unit (the United States); and the PFR power unit (the United Kingdom). In Russia, dedicated nuclear power installations have been constructed, including those with a lead-bismuth coolant for nuclear submarines and with sodium-potassium alloy for spacecraft (the Buk and Topol installations), which have no analogs around the world. Liquid metals (primarily lithium and its alloy with lead) hold promise for use in thermonuclear power engineering, where they can serve not only as a coolant, but also as tritium-producing medium. In this article, the physicochemical properties of liquid metal coolants, as well as practical experience gained from using them in nuclear and thermonuclear power engineering and in innovative technologies are considered, and the lines of further research works are formulated. New results obtained from investigations carried out on the Pb-Bi and Pb for the SVBR and BREST fast-neutron reactors (referred to henceforth as fast reactors) and for controlled accelerator systems are described.

  13. Interdisciplinary Team-Teaching Experience for a Computer and Nuclear Energy Course for Electrical and Computer Engineering Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Charles; Jackson, Deborah; Keiller, Peter

    2016-01-01

    A new, interdisciplinary, team-taught course has been designed to educate students in Electrical and Computer Engineering (ECE) so that they can respond to global and urgent issues concerning computer control systems in nuclear power plants. This paper discusses our experience and assessment of the interdisciplinary computer and nuclear energy…

  14. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Nuclear Science Symposium, 18th, and Nuclear Power Systems Symposium, 3rd, San Francisco, Calif., November 3-5, 1971, Proceedings.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Potential advantages of fusion power reactors are discussed together with the protection of the public from radioactivity produced in nuclear power reactors, and the significance of tritium releases to the environment. Other subjects considered are biomedical instrumentation, radiation damage problems, low level environmental radionuclide analysis systems, nuclear techniques in environmental research, nuclear instrumentation, and space and plasma instrumentation. Individual items are abstracted in this issue.

  15. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Nuclear Science Symposium, 18th, and Nuclear Power Systems Symposium, 3rd, San Francisco, Calif., November 3-5, 1971, Proceedings.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Potential advantages of fusion power reactors are discussed together with the protection of the public from radioactivity produced in nuclear power reactors, and the significance of tritium releases to the environment. Other subjects considered are biomedical instrumentation, radiation damage problems, low level environmental radionuclide analysis systems, nuclear techniques in environmental research, nuclear instrumentation, and space and plasma instrumentation. Individual items are abstracted in this issue.

  16. Manpower Assessment Brief #44: NUCLEAR ENGINEERING Enrollments Decreased at All Levels in 1998. Undergraduate and Doctoral Degrees Decreased, While Master's Degrees Increased Slightly.

    SciTech Connect

    Shirley, Duveen

    1999-05-04

    The survey of "Nuclear Engineering Enrollments and Degrees, 1998" was sent to 45 institutions offering a major in nuclear engineering or an option program in another discipline or department (for example, electrical or mechanical engineering) equivalent to a major that qualifies the graduates to perform as nuclear engineers. This document provides statistical data on undergraduate and graduate enrollments and degrees, employment and post-graduation plans, and foreign national participation.

  17. Inverse problems in the design, modeling and testing of engineering systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alifanov, Oleg M.

    1991-01-01

    Formulations, classification, areas of application, and approaches to solving different inverse problems are considered for the design of structures, modeling, and experimental data processing. Problems in the practical implementation of theoretical-experimental methods based on solving inverse problems are analyzed in order to identify mathematical models of physical processes, aid in input data preparation for design parameter optimization, help in design parameter optimization itself, and to model experiments, large-scale tests, and real tests of engineering systems.

  18. Advanced Nuclear Measurements - Sensitivity Analysis Emerging Safeguards, Problems and Proliferation Risk

    SciTech Connect

    Dreicer, J.S.

    1999-07-15

    During the past year this component of the Advanced Nuclear Measurements LDRD-DR has focused on emerging safeguards problems and proliferation risk by investigating problems in two domains. The first is related to the analysis, quantification, and characterization of existing inventories of fissile materials, in particular, the minor actinides (MA) formed in the commercial fuel cycle. Understanding material forms and quantities helps identify and define future measurement problems, instrument requirements, and assists in prioritizing safeguards technology development. The second problem (dissertation research) has focused on the development of a theoretical foundation for sensor array anomaly detection. Remote and unattended monitoring or verification of safeguards activities is becoming a necessity due to domestic and international budgetary constraints. However, the ability to assess the trustworthiness of a sensor array has not been investigated. This research is developing an anomaly detection methodology to assess the sensor array.

  19. Strategies for Limiting Engineers' Potential Liability for Indoor Air Quality Problems.

    PubMed

    von Oppenfeld, Rolf R; Freeze, Mark E; Sabo, Sean M

    1998-10-01

    Engineers face indoor air quality (IAQ) issues at the design phase of building construction as well as during the investigation and mitigation of potential indoor air pollution problems during building operation. IAQ issues that can be identified are "building-related illnesses" that may include problems of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). IAQ issues that cannot be identified are termed "sick building syndrome." Frequently, microorganism-caused illnesses are difficult to confirm. Engineers who provide professional services that directly or indirectly impact IAQ face significant potential liability to clients and third parties when performing these duties. Potential theories supporting liability claims for IAQ problems against engineers include breach of contract and various common law tort theories such as negligence and negligent misrepresentation. Furthermore, an increasing number of federal, state, and local regulations affect IAQ issues and can directly increase the potential liability of engineers. A duty to disclose potential or actual air quality concerns to third parties may apply for engineers in given circumstances. Such a duty may arise from judicial precedent, the Model Guide for Professional Conduct for Engineers, or the Code of Ethics for Engineers. Practical strategies engineers can use to protect themselves from liability include regular training and continuing education in relevant regulatory, scientific, and case law developments; detailed documentation and recordkeeping practices; adequate insurance coverage; contractual indemnity clauses; contractual provisions limiting liability to the scope of work performed; and contractual provisions limiting the extent of liability for engineers' negligence. Furthermore, through the proper use of building materials and construction techniques, an engineer or other design professional can effectively limit the potential for IAQ liability.

  20. Innovations in nuclear engineering distance education at the University of Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, L.; Pevey, R.; Hines, W.; Townsend, L.; Upadhyaya, B.; Groer, P.; Grossbeck, M.; Dodds, H.

    2006-07-01

    The Univ. of Tennessee Dept. of Nuclear Engineering (UTNE) offers both graduate and undergraduate internet-based courses that support a Master of Science (MS) degree and several certificate programs. In particular a MS degree can be conveniently obtained through distance classes. In addition certificates in Nuclear Criticality Safety and in Maintenance and Reliability can be obtained by completing a subset of courses offered for the MS degree. Students enrolled in these courses are predominately located in East Tennessee, but many live throughout the United States and in several foreign countries. An innovation of significant benefit to the UTNE undergraduate program is the implementation of reactor and laboratory experiments that are conducted over the Internet on the PULSTAR reactor at North Carolina State Univ. (NCSU). These experiments are conducted live with video, audio, and data transmission, and to date experiments involving approach to critical, rod calibration using incremental and inverse kinetics methods, thermal calibration of neutron detectors, and reactivity coefficients have been conducted. Neutron scattering experiments are planned for remote control by students. The use of internet-based education has enhanced the undergraduate program at the UTNE, and it has created opportunities for students with Internet access to obtain a quality education in Nuclear Engineering. (authors)

  1. The Need for Cyber-Informed Engineering Expertise for Nuclear Research Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Robert Stephen

    2015-12-01

    Engineering disciplines may not currently understand or fully embrace cyber security aspects as they apply towards analysis, design, operation, and maintenance of nuclear research reactors. Research reactors include a wide range of diverse co-located facilities and designs necessary to meet specific operational research objectives. Because of the nature of research reactors (reduced thermal energy and fission product inventory), hazards and risks may not have received the same scrutiny as normally associated with power reactors. Similarly, security may not have been emphasized either. However, the lack of sound cybersecurity defenses may lead to both safety and security impacts. Risk management methodologies may not contain the foundational assumptions required to address the intelligent adversary’s capabilities in malevolent cyber attacks. Although most research reactors are old and may not have the same digital footprint as newer facilities, any digital instrument and control function must be considered as a potential attack platform that can lead to sabotage or theft of nuclear material, especially for some research reactors that store highly enriched uranium. This paper will provide a discussion about the need for cyber-informed engineering practices that include the entire engineering lifecycle. Cyber-informed engineering as referenced in this paper is the inclusion of cybersecurity aspects into the engineering process. A discussion will consider several attributes of this process evaluating the long-term goal of developing additional cyber safety basis analysis and trust principles. With a culture of free information sharing exchanges, and potentially a lack of security expertise, new risk analysis and design methodologies need to be developed to address this rapidly evolving (cyber) threatscape.

  2. A field release of genetically engineered gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) Nuclear Polyhedrosis Virus (LdNPV)

    Treesearch

    Vincent D' Amico; Joseph S. Elkinton; John D. Podgwaite; James M. Slavicek; Michael L. McManus; John P. Burand

    1999-01-01

    The gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) nuclear polyhedrosis virus was genetically engineered for nonpersistence by removal of the gene coding for polyhedrin production and stabilized using a coocclusion process. A β-galactosidase marker gene was inserted into the genetically engineered virus (LdGEV) so that infected larvae could be tested for...

  3. Happy software developers solve problems better: psychological measurements in empirical software engineering.

    PubMed

    Graziotin, Daniel; Wang, Xiaofeng; Abrahamsson, Pekka

    2014-01-01

    For more than thirty years, it has been claimed that a way to improve software developers' productivity and software quality is to focus on people and to provide incentives to make developers satisfied and happy. This claim has rarely been verified in software engineering research, which faces an additional challenge in comparison to more traditional engineering fields: software development is an intellectual activity and is dominated by often-neglected human factors (called human aspects in software engineering research). Among the many skills required for software development, developers must possess high analytical problem-solving skills and creativity for the software construction process. According to psychology research, affective states-emotions and moods-deeply influence the cognitive processing abilities and performance of workers, including creativity and analytical problem solving. Nonetheless, little research has investigated the correlation between the affective states, creativity, and analytical problem-solving performance of programmers. This article echoes the call to employ psychological measurements in software engineering research. We report a study with 42 participants to investigate the relationship between the affective states, creativity, and analytical problem-solving skills of software developers. The results offer support for the claim that happy developers are indeed better problem solvers in terms of their analytical abilities. The following contributions are made by this study: (1) providing a better understanding of the impact of affective states on the creativity and analytical problem-solving capacities of developers, (2) introducing and validating psychological measurements, theories, and concepts of affective states, creativity, and analytical-problem-solving skills in empirical software engineering, and (3) raising the need for studying the human factors of software engineering by employing a multidisciplinary viewpoint.

  4. Happy software developers solve problems better: psychological measurements in empirical software engineering

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaofeng; Abrahamsson, Pekka

    2014-01-01

    For more than thirty years, it has been claimed that a way to improve software developers’ productivity and software quality is to focus on people and to provide incentives to make developers satisfied and happy. This claim has rarely been verified in software engineering research, which faces an additional challenge in comparison to more traditional engineering fields: software development is an intellectual activity and is dominated by often-neglected human factors (called human aspects in software engineering research). Among the many skills required for software development, developers must possess high analytical problem-solving skills and creativity for the software construction process. According to psychology research, affective states—emotions and moods—deeply influence the cognitive processing abilities and performance of workers, including creativity and analytical problem solving. Nonetheless, little research has investigated the correlation between the affective states, creativity, and analytical problem-solving performance of programmers. This article echoes the call to employ psychological measurements in software engineering research. We report a study with 42 participants to investigate the relationship between the affective states, creativity, and analytical problem-solving skills of software developers. The results offer support for the claim that happy developers are indeed better problem solvers in terms of their analytical abilities. The following contributions are made by this study: (1) providing a better understanding of the impact of affective states on the creativity and analytical problem-solving capacities of developers, (2) introducing and validating psychological measurements, theories, and concepts of affective states, creativity, and analytical-problem-solving skills in empirical software engineering, and (3) raising the need for studying the human factors of software engineering by employing a multidisciplinary viewpoint

  5. Ways of thinking about and teaching ethical problem solving: microethics and macroethics in engineering.

    PubMed

    Herkert, Joseph R

    2005-07-01

    Engineering ethics entails three frames of reference: individual, professional, and social. "Microethics" considers individuals and internal relations of the engineering profession; "macroethics" applies to the collective social responsibility of the profession and to societal decisions about technology. Most research and teaching in engineering ethics, including online resources, has had a "micro" focus. Mechanisms for incorporating macroethical perspectives include: integrating engineering ethics and science, technology and society (STS); closer integration of engineering ethics and computer ethics; and consideration of the influence of professional engineering societies and corporate social responsibility programs on ethical engineering practice. Integrating macroethical issues and concerns in engineering ethics involves broadening the context of ethical problem solving. This in turn implies: developing courses emphasizing both micro and macro perspectives, providing faculty development that includes training in both STS and practical ethics; and revision of curriculum materials, including online resources. Multidisciplinary collaboration is recommended 1) to create online case studies emphasizing ethical decision making in individual, professional, and societal contexts; 2) to leverage existing online computer ethics resources with relevance to engineering education and practice; and 3) to create transparent linkages between public policy positions advocated by professional societies and codes of ethics.

  6. TLD environmental monitoring at the Institute of Nuclear Engineering in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Taam, I H; da Rosa, L A R; Crispim, V R

    2008-09-01

    Since 2003 the Institute of Nuclear Engineering in Rio de Janeiro city, Brazil, operates a new cyclotron, RDS-111, to produce (18)F-Fluorodeoxyglucose to be used in nuclear medicine. Additionally, the IEN radioactive waste repository has been enlarged during the past last years, receiving a considerable amount of radioactive materials. Therefore, it became necessary to evaluate a possible increase of the environmental gamma exposure rates at the institute site due to the operation of the new accelerator and the enlargement of the institute waste repository as well. LiF:Mg,Cu,P, TLD-100H, and TL detectors were employed for environmental kerma rate evaluation and the results were compared with previous results obtained before the RDS-111 operation initialisation and the enlargement of IEN waste repository. No significant contribution for the enhancement of environmental gamma kerma rates was detected.

  7. An investigation of dual-mode operation of a nuclear-thermal rocket engine

    SciTech Connect

    Kirk, W.L.; Hedstrom, J.C.; Moore, S.W.; McFarland, R.D.; Merrigan, M.A.; Buksa, J.J.; Cappiello, M.W.; Hanson, D.L.; Woloshun, K.A.

    1991-06-01

    A preliminary assessment of the technical feasibility and mass competitiveness of a dual-mode nuclear propulsion and power system based on Rover-type reactors has been completed. Earlier studies have indicated that dual-mode systems appear attractive for electrical power levels of a few kilowatts. However, at the megawatt electrical power level considered in this study, it appears that extensive modifications to the nuclear-thermal engines would be required, the feasibility of which is unclear. Mass competitiveness at high electrical power levels is also uncertain. Further study of reactor and shield design in conjuction with mission and vehicle studies is necessary in order to determine a useful dual-mode power range. 9 refs., 20 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. The Australian Institute of Nuclear Science & Engineering - a model for University-National Laboratory collaboration

    SciTech Connect

    Gammon, R.B.

    1994-12-31

    This paper describes the aims and activities of the Australian Institute of Nuclear Science and Engineering (AINSE), from its foundation in 1958 through to 1993. The philosophy, structure and funding of the Institute are briefly reviewed, followed by an account of the development of national research facilities at the Lucas Heights Research Laboratories, with particular emphasis on nuclear techniques of analysis using neutron scattering instruments and particle accelerators. AINSE`s program of Grants, Fellowships and Studentships are explained with many examples given of projects having significance in the context of Australia`s national goals. Conference and training programs are also included. The achievements during these years demonstrate that AINSE has been an efficient and cost- effective model for collaboration between universities and a major national laboratory. In recent years, industry, government organisations and the tertiary education system have undergone major re-structuring and rationalization. A new operational structure for AINSE has evolved in response to these changes and is described.

  9. The line-emitting gas in active galaxies - A probe of the nuclear engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veilleux, Sylvain

    1993-01-01

    This paper reviews some of the basic questions regarding the structure of the engine powering active galactic nuclei (AGN), the nature of the interaction between the AGN and the host galaxy, and the origin and evolution of AGN. The study of the dynamics and physical characteristics of the line-emitting gas in these objects has proven fruitful in addressing many of these issues. Recent advances in optical and infrared detector technology combined with the development of superior ground-based instruments have produced efficient new tools for the study of the line-emitting gas on nuclear and Galactic scales. Programs which take advantage of two of these new techniques, Fabry-Perot imaging spectroscopy and infrared spectroscopy, are described in this paper. The origin of nuclear activity in galaxies is also addressed in a third project which aims at determining the nature of luminous infrared galaxies.

  10. A phenomenographic analysis of first-year engineering students' experiences with problems involving multiple possible solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dringenberg, Emily A.

    Engineers are expected to solve problems that are ill-structured. These problems are presented with a lack of necessary information and allow for different ways of engaging with the problem; they are open-ended and involve multiple possible solutions with multiple means of evaluation. In order to allow maximum time for students to develop skills for solving such problems, undergraduate engineering programs can introduce such problems during the first year of students' education, in the form of cornerstone design tasks. This provides students with more opportunities to develop their ability to engage with ill-structured problems, which are characteristic of engineering work. Researchers have documented variation within both the behavior and perceptions of students' early experiences with design problems. General themes include novice-like design behavior, discomfort with lack of information, difficulty with problem scoping, and resistance to ambiguity. To build on these generalizations of students' experiences, a more thorough understanding of the variation in how students experience this phenomenon of engaging with ill-structured problems is needed to design effective learning environments. This work presents the qualitatively different ways that engineering students experience problems with multiple possible solutions during their first year of engineering studies. Using phenomenography as the methodological framework, data were collected through in-depth, semi-structured interviews with 27 first-year engineering students. The iterative, phenomenographic analysis resulted in seven descriptive categories for the ways participants experienced problems involving multiple possible solutions. The names of these categories represent the different foci of the students' experiences: completion, transition, iteration, organization, collaboration, reasoning, and growth. These categories are organized along two crucial dimensions of variation: reaction to ambiguity and role

  11. Concept study of a hydrogen containment process during nuclear thermal engine ground testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ten-See; Stewart, Eric T.; Canabal, Francisco

    A new hydrogen containment process was proposed for ground testing of a nuclear thermal engine. It utilizes two thermophysical steps to contain the hydrogen exhaust. First, the decomposition of hydrogen through oxygen-rich combustion at higher temperature; second, the recombination of remaining hydrogen with radicals at low temperature. This is achieved with two unit operations: an oxygen-rich burner and a tubular heat exchanger. A computational fluid dynamics methodology was used to analyze the entire process on a three-dimensional domain. The computed flammability at the exit of the heat exchanger was less than the lower flammability limit, confirming the hydrogen containment capability of the proposed process.

  12. Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center Newly Generated Liquid Waste Demonstration Project Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect

    Herbst, A.K.

    2000-02-01

    A research, development, and demonstration project for the grouting of newly generated liquid waste (NGLW) at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center is considered feasible. NGLW is expected from process equipment waste, decontamination waste, analytical laboratory waste, fuel storage basin waste water, and high-level liquid waste evaporator condensate. The potential grouted waste would be classed as mixed low-level waste, stabilized and immobilized to meet RCRA LDR disposal in a grouting process in the CPP-604 facility, and then transported to the state.

  13. Bleed cycle propellant pumping in a gas-core nuclear rocket engine system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kascak, A. F.; Easley, A. J.

    1972-01-01

    The performance of ideal and real staged primary propellant pumps and bleed-powered turbines was calculated for gas-core nuclear rocket engines over a range of operating pressures from 500 to 5000 atm. This study showed that for a required engine operating pressure of 1000 atm the pump work was about 0.8 hp/(lb/sec), the specific impulse penalty resulting from the turbine propellant bleed flow as about 10 percent; and the heat required to preheat the propellant was about 7.8 MN/(lb/sec). For a specific impulse above 2400 sec, there is an excess of energy available in the moderator due to the gamma and neutron heating that occurs there. Possible alternative pumping cycles are the Rankine or Brayton cycles.

  14. Calcine Waste Storage at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center

    SciTech Connect

    M. D. Staiger

    1999-06-01

    A potential option in the program for long-term management of high-level wastes at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC), at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, calls for retrieving calcine waste and converting it to a more stable and less dispersible form. An inventory of calcine produced during the period December 1963 to May 1999 has been prepared based on calciner run, solids storage facilities operating, and miscellaneous operational information, which gives the range of chemical compositions of calcine waste stored at INTEC. Information researched includes calciner startup data, waste solution analyses and volumes calcined, calciner operating schedules, solids storage bin capacities, calcine storage bin distributor systems, and solids storage bin design and temperature monitoring records. Unique information on calcine solids storage facilities design of potential interest to remote retrieval operators is given.

  15. Engineering of Deinococcus radiodurans R1 for bioprecipitation of uranium from dilute nuclear waste.

    PubMed

    Appukuttan, Deepti; Rao, Amara Sambasiva; Apte, Shree Kumar

    2006-12-01

    Genetic engineering of radiation-resistant organisms to recover radionuclides/heavy metals from radioactive wastes is an attractive proposition. We have constructed a Deinococcus radiodurans strain harboring phoN, a gene encoding a nonspecific acid phosphatase, obtained from a local isolate of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi. The recombinant strain expressed an approximately 27-kDa active PhoN protein and efficiently precipitated over 90% of the uranium from a 0.8 mM uranyl nitrate solution in 6 h. The engineered strain retained uranium bioprecipitation ability even after exposure to 6 kGy of 60Co gamma rays. The PhoN-expressing D. radiodurans offers an effective and eco-friendly in situ approach to biorecovery of uranium from dilute nuclear waste.

  16. Decay heat removal from a Particle Bed Reactor Nuclear Thermal Rocket engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gustafson, Eric

    1993-06-01

    Nuclear Thermal Rockets used in propulsion systems for planetary exploration will generate significant amounts of heat following normal engine shutdown due to the buildup of and decay of radioactive fission products. The amount of energy that is generated as decay heat is approximately 2-5 percent of the energy released during nominal operation. Various schemes are possible for removing this heat, including using primary coolant (hydrogen) to cool the reactor. Depending on the amount of coolant required, this may result in a large weight penalty for the mission. This paper quantifies the amount of decay heat that must be removed from the engine, shows the resulting impact on the vehicle design for particular missions, and examines possible approaches for reducing the amount of coolant required for decay heat removal. The costs and benefits of these schemes will be shown for several different missions. The missions that will be considered include both manned Mars missions and unmanned planetary exploration missions.

  17. Engineering of Deinococcus radiodurans R1 for Bioprecipitation of Uranium from Dilute Nuclear Waste▿

    PubMed Central

    Appukuttan, Deepti; Rao, Amara Sambasiva; Apte, Shree Kumar

    2006-01-01

    Genetic engineering of radiation-resistant organisms to recover radionuclides/heavy metals from radioactive wastes is an attractive proposition. We have constructed a Deinococcus radiodurans strain harboring phoN, a gene encoding a nonspecific acid phosphatase, obtained from a local isolate of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi. The recombinant strain expressed an ∼27-kDa active PhoN protein and efficiently precipitated over 90% of the uranium from a 0.8 mM uranyl nitrate solution in 6 h. The engineered strain retained uranium bioprecipitation ability even after exposure to 6 kGy of 60Co gamma rays. The PhoN-expressing D. radiodurans offers an effective and eco-friendly in situ approach to biorecovery of uranium from dilute nuclear waste. PMID:17056698

  18. Nuclear reaction uncertainties, massive gravitino decays and the cosmological lithium problem

    SciTech Connect

    Cyburt, Richard H.; Ellis, John; Fields, Brian D.; Luo, Feng; Olive, Keith A.; Spanos, Vassilis C. E-mail: john.ellis@cern.ch E-mail: fluo@physics.umn.edu E-mail: spanos@physics.umn.edu

    2010-10-01

    We consider the effects of uncertainties in nuclear reaction rates on the cosmological constraints on the decays of unstable particles during or after Big-Bang nucleosynthesis (BBN). We identify the nuclear reactions due to non-thermal hadrons that are the most important in perturbing standard BBN, then quantify the uncertainties in these reactions and in the resulting light-element abundances. These results also indicate the key nuclear processes for which improved cross section data would allow different light-element abundances to be determined more accurately, thereby making possible more precise probes of BBN and evaluations of the cosmological constraints on unstable particles. Applying this analysis to models with unstable gravitinos decaying into neutralinos, we calculate the likelihood function for the light-element abundances measured currently, taking into account the current experimental errors in the determinations of the relevant nuclear reaction rates. We find a region of the gravitino mass and abundance in which the abundances of deuterium, {sup 4}He and {sup 7}Li may be fit with χ{sup 2} = 5.5, compared with χ{sup 2} = 31.7 if the effects of gravitino decays are unimportant. The best-fit solution is improved to χ{sup 2} ∼ 2.0 when the lithium abundance is taken from globular cluster data. Some such re-evaluation of the observed light-element abundances and/or nuclear reaction rates would be needed if this region of gravitino parameters is to provide a complete solution to the cosmological {sup 7}Li problem.

  19. Jet Engine Powerloss in Ice Particle Conditions: An Aviation Industry Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strapp, J. W.

    2009-09-01

    mass concentration, characterization of clouds containing these conditions, experimental testing to support ice accretion model development, and development of engine test requirements. An overview of the engine-powerloss problem, and a summary of the current status of the EHWG technical plan will be given.

  20. Testing foreign language impact on engineering students' scientific problem-solving performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tatzl, Dietmar; Messnarz, Bernd

    2013-12-01

    This article investigates the influence of English as the examination language on the solution of physics and science problems by non-native speakers in tertiary engineering education. For that purpose, a statistically significant total number of 96 students in four year groups from freshman to senior level participated in a testing experiment in the Degree Programme of Aviation at the FH JOANNEUM University of Applied Sciences, Graz, Austria. Half of each test group were given a set of 12 physics problems described in German, the other half received the same set of problems described in English. It was the goal to test linguistic reading comprehension necessary for scientific problem solving instead of physics knowledge as such. The results imply that written undergraduate English-medium engineering tests and examinations may not require additional examination time or language-specific aids for students who have reached university-entrance proficiency in English as a foreign language.

  1. Lightweight aircraft engines, the potential and problems for use of automotive fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, D. J.

    1983-01-01

    A comprehensive data research and analysis for evaluating the use of automotive fuels as a substitute for aviation grade fuel by piston-type general aviation aircraft engines is presented. Historically known problems and potential problems with fuels were reviewed for possible impact relative to application to an aircraft operational environment. This report reviews areas such as: fuel specification requirements, combustion knock, preignition, vapor lock, spark plug fouling, additives for fuel and oil, and storage stability.

  2. Lightweight aircraft engines, the potential and problems for use of automotive fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, D. J.

    1983-01-01

    A comprehensive data research and analysis for evaluating the use of automotive fuels as a substitute for aviation grade fuel by piston-type general aviation aircraft engines is presented. Historically known problems and potential problems with fuels were reviewed for possible impact relative to application to an aircraft operational environment. This report reviews areas such as: fuel specification requirements, combustion knock, preignition, vapor lock, spark plug fouling, additives for fuel and oil, and storage stability.

  3. Nuclear power supplies: their potential and the practical problems to their achievement for space missions

    SciTech Connect

    Colston, B.W.; Brehm, R.L.

    1985-01-01

    The anticipated growth of the space station power requirement provides a good example of the problem the space nuclear power supply developers have to contend with: should a reactor power supply be developed that attempts to be all things to all missions, i.e., is highly flexible in its ability to meet a wide variety of missions, or should the development of a reactor system await a specific mission definition and be customized to this mission. This leads, of course, to a chicken-and-egg situation. For power requirements of several hundreds of kilowatts or more, no nuclear power source exists or is even far enough along in the definition stage (much less the development stage) for NASA to reasonably assume probable availability within the next 10 years. The real problem of space nuclear power is this ''chicken-and-egg'' syndrome: DOE will not develop a space reactor system for NASA without a firm mission, and NASA will not specify a firm mission requiring a space reactor because such a system doesn't exist and is perceived not to be developable within the time frame of the mission. The problem is how to break this cycle. The SP-100 program has taken an important first step to breaking this cycle, but this program is much more design-specific than what is required to achieve a broad technology base and latitude in achievable power level. In contrast to the SP-100 approach, a wider perspective is required: the development of the appropriate technologies for power levels can be broken into ranges, say, from 100 kWe to 1000 kWe, and from 1000 kWe to 10,000 kWe.

  4. Maintenance problems associated with the operation of the F402 /Pegasus/ engine in the AV-8A /Harrier/ aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanley, C. W.; Hood, W. E.

    1981-01-01

    The U.S. Marine Corp (USMC) has been operating the only V/STOL attack aircraft in the western world since 1971. Some of the maintenance problems experienced are related to the unique V/STOL design criteria of the Pegasus engine. However, the major part of the required maintenance effort is found to involve the more conventional engine problems. A description of the aircraft engine is provided and the problems resulting from V/STOL design demands are examined. Attention is given to the fuel system control, the engine air bleed, foreign object damage to the hp compressor, and the engine exhaust system.

  5. Engineering Virus Capsids Into Biomedical Delivery Vehicles: Structural Engineering Problems in Nanoscale.

    PubMed

    Bajaj, Saumya; Banerjee, Manidipa

    2015-01-01

    Virus capsids have evolved to protect the genome sequestered in their interior from harsh environmental conditions, and to deliver it safely and precisely to the host cell of choice. This characteristic makes them naturally perfect containers for delivering therapeutic molecules to specific locations. Development of an ideal virus-based nano-container for medical usage requires that the capsid be converted into a targetable protein cage which retains the original stability, flexibility and host cell penetrating properties of the native particles, without the associated immunogenicity, and is able to encapsulate large quantities of therapeutic or diagnostic material. In the last few years, several icosahedral, non-enveloped viruses, with a diameter of 25-90 nm-a size which conveniently falls within the 10-100 nm range desirable for biomedical nanoparticles-have been chemically or genetically engineered towards partial fulfilment of the above criteria. This review summarizes the approaches taken towards engineering viruses into biomedical delivery devices and discusses the challenges involved in achieving this goal.

  6. Design and Development of the MITEE-B Bi-Modal Nuclear Propulsion Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paniagua, John C.; Powell, James R.; Maise, George

    2003-01-01

    Previous studies of compact, ultra-lightweight high performance nuclear thermal propulsion engines have concentrated on systems that only deliver high thrust. However, many potential missions also require substantial amounts of electric power. Studies of a new, very compact and lightweight bi-modal nuclear engine that provides both high propulsive thrust and high electric power for planetary science missions are described. The design is a modification of the MITEE nuclear thermal engine concept that provided only high propulsive thrust. In the new design, MITEE-B, separate closed cooling circuits are incorporated into the reactor, which transfers useful amounts of thermal energy to a small power conversion system that generates continuous electric power over the full life of the mission, even when the engine is not delivering propulsive thrust. Two versions of the MITEE-B design are described and analyzed. Version 1 generates 1 kW(e) of continuous power for control of the spacecraft, sensors, data transmission, etc. This power level eliminates the need for RTG's on missions to the outer planets, and allowing considerably greater operational capability for the spacecraft. This, plus its high thrust and high specific impulse propulsive capabilities, makes MITEE-B very attractive for such missions. In Version 2, of MITEE-B, a total of 20 kW(e) is generated, enabling the use of electric propulsion. The combination of high open cycle propulsion thrust (20,000 Newtons) with a specific impulse of ~1000 seconds for short impulse burns, and long term (months to years), electric propulsion greatly increases MITEE's ΔV capability. Version 2 of MITEE-B also enables the production and replenishment of H2 propellant using in-situ resources, such as electrolysis of water from the ice sheet on Europa and other Jovian moons. This capability would greatly increase the ΔV available for certain planetary science missions. The modifications to the MITEE multiple pressure tube

  7. Problems of Accreditation and Quality Assurance of Engineering Education in Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bordia, Surek

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the relationship between funding, management, and quality assurance in engineering education in developing countries. Presents a few case studies on problems of accreditation and quality assessment in larger developing countries such as India and the Philippines, and also in very small developing countries such as Papua New Guinea, Fiji,…

  8. Future Critical Issues and Problems Facing Technology and Engineering Education in the Commonwealth of Virginia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katsioloudis, Petros; Moye, Johnny J.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to determine the future critical issues and problems facing the K-12 technology and engineering education profession in the Commonwealth of Virginia. This study was based on the Wicklein nationwide studies (1993a, 2005). Even though this study did not exactly replicate the Wicklein studies--since it was limited to…

  9. Impact Assessment of Problem-Based Learning in an Engineering Science Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nasr, Karim J.; Ramadan, Bassem H.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the development and implementation of Problem-Based Learning (PBL) in an engineering thermodynamics course at Kettering University. In this project, the thermodynamics course was restructured as modules presenting practical applications first, whereas principles were introduced just-in-time and as encountered. Theoretical…

  10. Absorption and Adjustment Problems among Immigrant Students Studying for the Practical Engineering Degree in Israel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doron, Rina

    The main objectives of this study were: to examine the problems faced by immigrant students (N=294) from the former Soviet Union studying for the practical engineering diploma; to examine their attitudes towards various aspects of training in the college, and to make recommendations that facilitate the absorption process of the immigrant students.…

  11. Learning on the Job: Cooperative Education, Internships and Engineering Problem-Solving Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yin, Alexander C.

    2009-01-01

    Cooperative education (co-op) and internships are forms of experiential education that allow students to complement their classroom experiences with work experience. This study examines the influence of co-op and internships on engineering problem-solving skills by answering the following research questions: (1) Does experience in cooperative…

  12. Testing Foreign Language Impact on Engineering Students' Scientific Problem-Solving Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tatzl, Dietmar; Messnarz, Bernd

    2013-01-01

    This article investigates the influence of English as the examination language on the solution of physics and science problems by non-native speakers in tertiary engineering education. For that purpose, a statistically significant total number of 96 students in four year groups from freshman to senior level participated in a testing experiment in…

  13. Comparison of Example-Based Learning and Problem-Based Learning in Engineering Domain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sern, Lai Chee; Salleh, Kahirol Mohd; Sulaiman, Nor lisa; Mohamad, Mimi Mohaffyza; Yunos, Jailani Md

    2015-01-01

    The research was conducted to compare the impacts of problem-based learning (PBL) and example-based learning (EBL) on the learning performance in an engineering domain. The research was implemented by means of experimental design. Specifically, a two-group experiment with a pre- and post-test design was used in this research. A total of 37…

  14. Report to NASA Committee on Aircraft Operating Problems Relative to Aviation Safety Engineering and Research Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    The following report highlights some of the work accomplished by the Aviation Safety Engineering and Research Division of the Flight Safety Foundations since the last report to the NASA Committee on Aircraft Operating Problems on 22 May 1963. The information presented is in summary form. Additional details may be provided upon request of the reports themselves may be obtained from AvSER.

  15. Learning Probabilities in Computer Engineering by Using a Competency- and Problem-Based Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khoumsi, Ahmed; Hadjou, Brahim

    2005-01-01

    Our department has redesigned its electrical and computer engineering programs by adopting a learning methodology based on competence development, problem solving, and the realization of design projects. In this article, we show how this pedagogical approach has been successfully used for learning probabilities and their application to computer…

  16. Learning on the Job: Cooperative Education, Internships and Engineering Problem-Solving Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yin, Alexander C.

    2009-01-01

    Cooperative education (co-op) and internships are forms of experiential education that allow students to complement their classroom experiences with work experience. This study examines the influence of co-op and internships on engineering problem-solving skills by answering the following research questions: (1) Does experience in cooperative…

  17. Testing Foreign Language Impact on Engineering Students' Scientific Problem-Solving Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tatzl, Dietmar; Messnarz, Bernd

    2013-01-01

    This article investigates the influence of English as the examination language on the solution of physics and science problems by non-native speakers in tertiary engineering education. For that purpose, a statistically significant total number of 96 students in four year groups from freshman to senior level participated in a testing experiment in…

  18. Analysis of Arguments Constructed by First-Year Engineering Students Addressing Electromagnetic Induction Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almudi, Jose Manuel; Ceberio, Mikel

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the quality of arguments used by first-year engineering university students enrolled in a traditional physics course dealing with electromagnetic induction and related problem solving where they had to assess whether the electromagnetic induction phenomenon would occur. Their conclusions were analyzed for the relevance of the…

  19. Analysis of Arguments Constructed by First-Year Engineering Students Addressing Electromagnetic Induction Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almudi, Jose Manuel; Ceberio, Mikel

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the quality of arguments used by first-year engineering university students enrolled in a traditional physics course dealing with electromagnetic induction and related problem solving where they had to assess whether the electromagnetic induction phenomenon would occur. Their conclusions were analyzed for the relevance of the…

  20. [Some engineering problems on developing production industry of modern traditional Chinese medicine].

    PubMed

    Qu, Hai-bin; Cheng, Yi-yu; Wang, Yue-sheng

    2003-10-01

    Based on the review of some engineering problems on developing modern production industry of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), the differences of TCM production industry between China and abroad were pointed out. Accelerating the application and extension of high-tech and computer integrated manufacturing system (CIMS) were suggested to promote the technology advancement of TCM industry.

  1. Factors Affecting Perceived Learning of Engineering Students in Problem Based Learning Supported by Business Simulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaparro-Pelaez, Julian; Iglesias-Pradas, Santiago; Pascual-Miguel, Felix J.; Hernandez-Garcia, Angel

    2013-01-01

    Although literature about problem based learning (PBL) is not scarce, there is little research on experiences about learning methodologies that combine PBL and the use of simulation tools. This lack of studies is even more notable in the case of engineering courses. The motivation for this study is to show how such a combination of PBL and…

  2. Factors Affecting Perceived Learning of Engineering Students in Problem Based Learning Supported by Business Simulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaparro-Pelaez, Julian; Iglesias-Pradas, Santiago; Pascual-Miguel, Felix J.; Hernandez-Garcia, Angel

    2013-01-01

    Although literature about problem based learning (PBL) is not scarce, there is little research on experiences about learning methodologies that combine PBL and the use of simulation tools. This lack of studies is even more notable in the case of engineering courses. The motivation for this study is to show how such a combination of PBL and…

  3. Impact Assessment of Problem-Based Learning in an Engineering Science Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nasr, Karim J.; Ramadan, Bassem H.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the development and implementation of Problem-Based Learning (PBL) in an engineering thermodynamics course at Kettering University. In this project, the thermodynamics course was restructured as modules presenting practical applications first, whereas principles were introduced just-in-time and as encountered. Theoretical…

  4. Nuclear EMP simulation for large-scale urban environments. FDTD for electrically large problems.

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, William S.; Bull, Jeffrey S.; Wilcox, Trevor; Bos, Randall J.; Shao, Xuan-Min; Goorley, John T.; Costigan, Keeley R.

    2012-08-13

    In case of a terrorist nuclear attack in a metropolitan area, EMP measurement could provide: (1) a prompt confirmation of the nature of the explosion (chemical or nuclear) for emergency response; and (2) and characterization parameters of the device (reaction history, yield) for technical forensics. However, urban environment could affect the fidelity of the prompt EMP measurement (as well as all other types of prompt measurement): (1) Nuclear EMP wavefront would no longer be coherent, due to incoherent production, attenuation, and propagation of gamma and electrons; and (2) EMP propagation from source region outward would undergo complicated transmission, reflection, and diffraction processes. EMP simulation for electrically-large urban environment: (1) Coupled MCNP/FDTD (Finite-difference time domain Maxwell solver) approach; and (2) FDTD tends to be limited to problems that are not 'too' large compared to the wavelengths of interest because of numerical dispersion and anisotropy. We use a higher-order low-dispersion, isotropic FDTD algorithm for EMP propagation.

  5. Highly sensitive detection of protein biomarkers via nuclear magnetic resonance biosensor with magnetically engineered nanoferrite particles.

    PubMed

    Jeun, Minhong; Park, Sungwook; Lee, Hakho; Lee, Kwan Hyi

    Magnetic-based biosensors are attractive for on-site detection of biomarkers due to the low magnetic susceptibility of biological samples. Here, we report a highly sensitive magnetic-based biosensing system that is composed of a miniaturized nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) device and magnetically engineered nanoferrite particles (NFPs). The sensing performance, also identified as the transverse relaxation (R2) rate, of the NMR device is directly related to the magnetic properties of the NFPs. Therefore, we developed magnetically engineered NFPs (MnMg-NFP) and used them as NMR agents to exhibit a significantly improved R2 rate. The magnetization of the MnMg-NFPs was increased by controlling the Mn and Mg cation concentration and distribution during the synthesis process. This modification of the Mn and Mg cation directly contributed to improving the R2 rate. The miniaturized NMR system, combined with the magnetically engineered MnMg-NFPs, successfully detected a small amount of infectious influenza A H1N1 nucleoprotein with high sensitivity and stability.

  6. Functions of an engineered barrier system for a nuclear waste repository in basalt

    SciTech Connect

    Coons, W.E.; Moore, E.L.; Smith, M.J.; Kaser, J.D.

    1980-01-01

    Defined in this document are the functions of components selected for an engineered barrier system for a nuclear waste repository in basalt. The definitions provide a focal point for barrier material research and development by delineating the purpose and operative lifetime of each component of the engineered system. A five-component system (comprised of waste form, canister, buffer, overpack, and tailored backfill) is discussed in terms of effective operation throughout the course of repository history, recognizing that the emplacement environment changes with time. While components of the system are mutually supporting, redundancy is provided by subsystems of physical and chemical barriers which act in concert with the geology to provide a formidable barrier to transport of hazardous materials to the biosphere. The operating philosophy of the conceptual engineered barrier system is clarified by examples pertinent to storage in basalt, and a technical approach to barrier design and material selection is proposed. A method for system validation and qualification is also included which considers performance criteria proposed by external agencies in conjunction with site-specific models and risk assessment to define acceptable levels of system performance.

  7. Multiphysics Computational Analysis of a Solid-Core Nuclear Thermal Engine Thrust Chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Ten-See; Canabal, Francisco; Cheng, Gary; Chen, Yen-Sen

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this effort is to develop an efficient and accurate computational heat transfer methodology to predict thermal, fluid, and hydrogen environments for a hypothetical solid-core, nuclear thermal engine - the Small Engine. In addition, the effects of power profile and hydrogen conversion on heat transfer efficiency and thrust performance were also investigated. The computational methodology is based on an unstructured-grid, pressure-based, all speeds, chemically reacting, computational fluid dynamics platform, while formulations of conjugate heat transfer were implemented to describe the heat transfer from solid to hydrogen inside the solid-core reactor. The computational domain covers the entire thrust chamber so that the afore-mentioned heat transfer effects impact the thrust performance directly. The result shows that the computed core-exit gas temperature, specific impulse, and core pressure drop agree well with those of design data for the Small Engine. Finite-rate chemistry is very important in predicting the proper energy balance as naturally occurring hydrogen decomposition is endothermic. Locally strong hydrogen conversion associated with centralized power profile gives poor heat transfer efficiency and lower thrust performance. On the other hand, uniform hydrogen conversion associated with a more uniform radial power profile achieves higher heat transfer efficiency, and higher thrust performance.

  8. Highly sensitive detection of protein biomarkers via nuclear magnetic resonance biosensor with magnetically engineered nanoferrite particles

    PubMed Central

    Jeun, Minhong; Park, Sungwook; Lee, Hakho; Lee, Kwan Hyi

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic-based biosensors are attractive for on-site detection of biomarkers due to the low magnetic susceptibility of biological samples. Here, we report a highly sensitive magnetic-based biosensing system that is composed of a miniaturized nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) device and magnetically engineered nanoferrite particles (NFPs). The sensing performance, also identified as the transverse relaxation (R2) rate, of the NMR device is directly related to the magnetic properties of the NFPs. Therefore, we developed magnetically engineered NFPs (MnMg-NFP) and used them as NMR agents to exhibit a significantly improved R2 rate. The magnetization of the MnMg-NFPs was increased by controlling the Mn and Mg cation concentration and distribution during the synthesis process. This modification of the Mn and Mg cation directly contributed to improving the R2 rate. The miniaturized NMR system, combined with the magnetically engineered MnMg-NFPs, successfully detected a small amount of infectious influenza A H1N1 nucleoprotein with high sensitivity and stability. PMID:27799772

  9. Impact of Problem-Based Learning on Engineering Student Curiosity Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sipes, Shannon M.

    Curiosity is a necessary component to intellectual growth (Engel, 2009) and fundamental to learning (Schmitt & Lahroodi, 2008), but it is unclear how to purposefully grow an individual's curiosity (Smith, 2011). Therefore, the purpose of this quantitative study was to examine the relationship between problem-based learning and curiosity in engineering education. Results from a series of regression analyses did not support a predictive relationship between problem-based learning and curiosity. Further data analysis suggest problem-based learning environment should be a categorical rather than continuous variable.

  10. DAPI-fluorescent fading: a problem in microscopy or a way to measure nuclear DNA content?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallardo-Escárate, Cristian; Álvarez-Borrego, Josué; Kober, V.; del Río-Portilla, Miguel Á.

    2006-01-01

    In observation by confocal or conventional fluorescence microscopy, the retardation of the lost in fluorescence, from highest signal of fluorescence to lowest intensity are important factors in order to obtain accurate images. This problem is very common in fluorochromes for nuclear DNA and especially for DAPI stain. The fluorescence of DAPI is rapidly lost when it is exposure to excitation by ultra violet (UV) light, and especially under optimal condition of observation. Although the fading process could be retardate by using of mounting medium with antifading solutions, the photochemical process underlying the fluorescence decay has not yet been fully explained. In addiction, neither relationship has been tested between the fluorescence fading and nuclear DNA content. However, the capacity of the DNA to absorb UV light is knows. In order to test this relationship we measured by means of image analysis the fluorescence intensity in several nuclei types during a fading period. The analysis was performed by an algorithm specifically built in MATLAB software. The relationship between nuclear DNA content and DAPI-fluorescence fading was found equal to 99%. This study demonstrates the feasibility for estimates genome size by quantification of fluorescence fading. In this context, the present method allows to measure nuclear DNA content in several medical applications (cancer, HIV, organ transplants, etc). Nowadays, for measuring DNA content, flow cytometry is widely used; however, with the flow cytometry method it is not possible to select a specific group of cells, such as from a specific region of a tumor. Moreover, the using of image analysis allows automatizing diagnostics procedures.

  11. Avoid, Control, Succumb, or Balance: Engineering Students' Approaches to a Wicked Sustainability Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lönngren, Johanna; Ingerman, Åke; Svanström, Magdalena

    2017-08-01

    Wicked sustainability problems (WSPs) are an important and particularly challenging type of problem. Science and engineering education can play an important role in preparing students to deal with such problems, but current educational practice may not adequately prepare students to do so. We address this gap by providing insights related to students' abilities to address WSPs. Specifically, we aim to (I) describe key constituents of engineering students' approaches to a WSP, (II) evaluate these approaches in relation to the normative context of education for sustainable development (ESD), and (III) identify relevant aspects of learning related to WSPs. Aim I is addressed through a phenomenographic study, while aims II and III are addressed by relating the results to research literature about human problem solving, sustainable development, and ESD. We describe four qualitatively different ways of approaching a specific WSP, as the outcome of the phenomenographic study: A. Simplify and avoid, B. Divide and control, C. Isolate and succumb, and D. Integrate and balance. We identify approach D as the most appropriate approach in the context of ESD, while A and C are not. On this basis, we identify three learning objectives related to students' abilities to address WSPs: learn to use a fully integrative approach, distinguish WSPs from tame and well-structured problems, and understand and consider the normative context of SD. Finally, we provide recommendations for how these learning objectives can be used to guide the design of science and engineering educational activities.

  12. Avoid, Control, Succumb, or Balance: Engineering Students' Approaches to a Wicked Sustainability Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lönngren, Johanna; Ingerman, Åke; Svanström, Magdalena

    2016-07-01

    Wicked sustainability problems (WSPs) are an important and particularly challenging type of problem. Science and engineering education can play an important role in preparing students to deal with such problems, but current educational practice may not adequately prepare students to do so. We address this gap by providing insights related to students' abilities to address WSPs. Specifically, we aim to (I) describe key constituents of engineering students' approaches to a WSP, (II) evaluate these approaches in relation to the normative context of education for sustainable development (ESD), and (III) identify relevant aspects of learning related to WSPs. Aim I is addressed through a phenomenographic study, while aims II and III are addressed by relating the results to research literature about human problem solving, sustainable development, and ESD. We describe four qualitatively different ways of approaching a specific WSP, as the outcome of the phenomenographic study: A. Simplify and avoid, B. Divide and control, C. Isolate and succumb, and D. Integrate and balance. We identify approach D as the most appropriate approach in the context of ESD, while A and C are not. On this basis, we identify three learning objectives related to students' abilities to address WSPs: learn to use a fully integrative approach, distinguish WSPs from tame and well-structured problems, and understand and consider the normative context of SD. Finally, we provide recommendations for how these learning objectives can be used to guide the design of science and engineering educational activities.

  13. Using powerful vibrators for calibration of seismic traces in nuclear explosion monitoring problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glinsky, B.; Kovalevsky, V.; Seleznev, V.; Emanov, A.; Soloviev, V.

    2009-04-01

    The efficiency of functioning of the International Seismic Monitoring System (ISMS) is connected with the accuracy of the location and identification of a source of seismic waves which can be nuclear explosion. The errors in the determination of the location are caused by local and regional variations of wave hodographs. Empirical approach to solving these problems is to use events for which the locations and times are known, in order to determine a set of corrections to the regional model of wave propagation. The using of powerful vibrators for calibration of seismic traces is a new way in nuclear explosion monitoring problems. Now the 60-100 tons force vibrator can radiate the signals which can be recorded at the distances up to 500 km and can be used for regional calibration of seismic traces. The comparison of the seismic wave fields of powerful vibrators and 100-ton chemical explosion "Omega-3" at the 630-km profile, quarry explosions of the Kuznetsk basin with power from 50 to 700 tons at the distances up to 355 km showed their equivalence in the main types of waves. The paper presents the results of experiments of long-distance recording of seismic signals of powerful vibrators and detailed investigation of the velocity characteristics of the Earth's crust in West Siberia and Altay-Sayan region.

  14. Using powerful vibrators for calibration of seismic traces in nuclear explosion monitoring problems.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glinsky, B.; Kovalevsky, V.; Seleznev, V.; Emanov, A.; Soloviev, V.

    2009-04-01

    The efficiency of functioning of the International Seismic Monitoring System (ISMS) is connected with the accuracy of the location and identification of a source of seismic waves which can be nuclear explosion. The errors in the determination of the location are caused by local and regional variations of wave hodographs. Empirical approach to solving these problems is to use events for which the locations and times are known, in order to determine a set of corrections to the regional model of wave propagation. The using of powerful vibrators for calibration of seismic traces is a new way in nuclear explosion monitoring problems. Now the 60-100 tons force vibrator can radiate the signals which can be recorded at the distances up to 500 km and can be used for regional calibration of seismic traces. The comparison of the seismic wave fields of powerful vibrators and 100-ton chemical explosion "Omega-3" at the 630-km profile, quarry explosions of the Kuznetsk basin with power from 50 to 700 tons at the distances up to 355 km showed their equivalence in the main types of waves. The paper presents the results of experiments of long-distance recording of seismic signals of powerful vibrators and detailed investigation of the velocity characteristics of the Earth's crust in West Siberia and Altay-Sayan region.

  15. Application of Modified Flower Pollination Algorithm on Mechanical Engineering Design Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kok Meng, Ong; Pauline, Ong; Chee Kiong, Sia; Wahab, Hanani Abdul; Jafferi, Noormaziah

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the optimization is to obtain the best solution among other solutions in order to achieve the objective of the problem without evaluation on all possible solutions. In this study, an improved flower pollination algorithm, namely, the Modified Flower Pollination Algorithms (MFPA) is developed. Comprising of the elements of chaos theory, frog leaping local search and adaptive inertia weight, the performance of MFPA is evaluated in optimizing five benchmark mechanical engineering design problems - tubular column design, speed reducer, gear train, tension/compression spring design and pressure vessel. The obtained results are listed and compared with the results of the other state-of-art algorithms. Assessment shows that the MFPA gives promising result in finding the optimal design for all considered mechanical engineering problems.

  16. Pricing Theory of Derivatives in Financial Engineering and the Problems on the Application to Electricity Markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misawa, Tetsuya

    Recently, the wholesale electric power exchange has been founded in Japan. With the progress of the electricity market, some management schemes of electricity price risk will be necessary. In financial markets or the preceding electricity markets, various “derivatives" on assets in the markets are often used as management tools to hedge the price risk. This paper gives a short commentary on some fundamental concepts of the derivatives and the pricing theory in the financial engineering, and discusses the problems on the financial engineering approach to electricity derivatives.

  17. GPU Based General-Purpose Parallel computing to Solve Nuclear Reactor In-Core fuel Management Design and Operation Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prayudhatama, D.; Waris, A.; Kurniasih, N.; Kurniadi, R.

    2010-06-01

    In-core fuel management study is a crucial activity in nuclear power plant design and operation. Its common problem is to find an optimum arrangement of fuel assemblies inside the reactor core. Main objective for this activity is to reduce the cost of generating electricity, which can be done by altering several physical properties of the nuclear reactor without violating any of the constraints imposed by operational and safety considerations. This research try to address the problem of nuclear fuel arrangement problem, which is, leads to the multi-objective optimization problem. However, the calculation of the reactor core physical properties itself is a heavy computation, which became obstacle in solving the optimization problem by using genetic algorithm optimization. This research tends to address that problem by using the emerging General Purpose Computation on Graphics Processing Units (GPGPU) techniques implemented by C language for CUDA (Compute Unified Device Architecture) parallel programming. By using this parallel programming technique, we develop parallelized nuclear reactor fitness calculation, which is involving numerical finite difference computation. This paper describes current prototype of the parallel algorithm code we have developed on CUDA, that performs one hundreds finite difference calculation for nuclear reactor fitness evaluation in parallel by using GPU G9 Hardware Series developed by NVIDIA.

  18. GPU Based General-Purpose Parallel computing to Solve Nuclear Reactor In-Core fuel Management Design and Operation Problem

    SciTech Connect

    Prayudhatama, D.; Waris, A.; Kurniasih, N.; Kurniadi, R.

    2010-06-22

    In-core fuel management study is a crucial activity in nuclear power plant design and operation. Its common problem is to find an optimum arrangement of fuel assemblies inside the reactor core. Main objective for this activity is to reduce the cost of generating electricity, which can be done by altering several physical properties of the nuclear reactor without violating any of the constraints imposed by operational and safety considerations. This research try to address the problem of nuclear fuel arrangement problem, which is, leads to the multi-objective optimization problem. However, the calculation of the reactor core physical properties itself is a heavy computation, which became obstacle in solving the optimization problem by using genetic algorithm optimization.This research tends to address that problem by using the emerging General Purpose Computation on Graphics Processing Units (GPGPU) techniques implemented by C language for CUDA (Compute Unified Device Architecture) parallel programming. By using this parallel programming technique, we develop parallelized nuclear reactor fitness calculation, which is involving numerical finite difference computation. This paper describes current prototype of the parallel algorithm code we have developed on CUDA, that performs one hundreds finite difference calculation for nuclear reactor fitness evaluation in parallel by using GPU G9 Hardware Series developed by NVIDIA.

  19. MHTGR-Nuclear Island Engineering: Final summary report for the period November 30, 1987 through December 1, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    1988-12-01

    This report summarizes the Modular High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (MHTGR) - Nuclear Island Engineering (NIE) design and development work performed by General Atomics (GA) for the period November 30, 1987 through December 1, 1988, under the Department of Energy (DOE) Contract AC03-88SF17367. The scope of the report includes work performed by Bechtel National Inc. (BNI), Combustion Engineering Inc. (C-E), and James Howden Company, as major subcontractors to GA.

  20. Multiphysics Analysis of a Solid-Core Nuclear Thermal Engine Thrust Chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Ten-See; Canabal, Francisco; Cheng, Gary; Chen, Yen-Sen

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this effort is to develop an efficient and accurate thermo-fluid computational methodology to predict environments for a hypothetical solid-core, nuclear thermal engine thrust chamber. The computational methodology is based on an unstructured-grid, pressure-based computational fluid dynamics methodology. Formulations for heat transfer in solids and porous media were implemented and anchored. A two-pronged approach was employed in this effort: A detailed thermo-fluid analysis on a multi-channel flow element for mid-section corrosion investigation; and a global modeling of the thrust chamber to understand the effect of hydrogen dissociation and recombination on heat transfer and thrust performance. The formulations and preliminary results on both aspects are presented.

  1. AMS at the National Institute of Nuclear Physics and Engineering in Bucharest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stan-Sion, C.; Ivascu, M.; Plostinaru, D.; Catana, D.; Marinescu, L.; Radulescu, M.; Nolte, E.

    2000-10-01

    A new beam line and injector deck for AMS measurements have been built at the 8 MV tandem accelerator of the National Institute of Nuclear Physics and Engineering, Bucharest, Romania. The main components on the low-energy side are a high-current cesium sputter source, a 90° injection magnet and a pre-acceleration stage. At the high-energy side the beam line is achromatic, consisting of two 90° analysing magnets with mass energy product 120 MeV amu and a gas-filled ionization chamber. The system will be complete with a Wien filter and a multi-anode gas detector with time-of-flight discrimination. Presently, the AMS facility is undergoing tests and routine measurements are expected to start soon.

  2. Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) Sodium Bearing Waste - Waste Incidental to Reprocessing Determination

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, Victor Levon

    2002-08-01

    U.S. Department of Energy Manual 435.1-1, Radioactive Waste Management, Section I.1.C, requires that all radioactive waste subject to Department of Energy Order 435.1 be managed as high-level radioactive waste, transuranic waste, or low-level radioactive waste. Determining the radiological classification of the sodium-bearing waste currently in the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center Tank Farm Facility inventory is important to its proper treatment and disposition. This report presents the technical basis for making the determination that the sodium-bearing waste is waste incidental to spent fuel reprocessing and should be managed as mixed transuranic waste. This report focuses on the radiological characteristics of the sodiumbearing waste. The report does not address characterization of the nonradiological, hazardous constituents of the waste in accordance with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act requirements.

  3. Matching Grant to Support Nuclear Engineering Education at Georgia Tech, September 1, 1999 - September 30, 2001

    SciTech Connect

    Valentine, John

    2002-05-10

    During the 2001 Fiscal year, funds from the DOE Matching Grant Program, along with matching funds from the industrial sponsors have been used to support both research (in the area of thermal-hydraulics) and educational missions. Experimental research has been performed in the area of axial offset anomaly in pressurized water reactors. Numerical research has also been performed in the area of multi-fluid modeling of two-phase flow. Details of activities in these two areas are given below. As for the educational component, funds were used to support the Georgia Tech Nuclear and Radiological Engineering (NRE) Scholarship Program. This Scholarship Program has allowed Georgia Tech to substantially increase the freshman class size and to populate it with outstanding students.

  4. The Implementation and Evaluation of a Project-Oriented Problem-Based Learning Module in a First Year Engineering Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLoone, Seamus C.; Lawlor, Bob J.; Meehan, Andrew R.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes how a circuits-based project-oriented problem-based learning educational model was integrated into the first year of a Bachelor of Engineering in Electronic Engineering programme at Maynooth University, Ireland. While many variations of problem based learning exist, the presented model is closely aligned with the model used in…

  5. Providing Formative Assessment to Students Solving Multipath Engineering Problems with Complex Arrangements of Interacting Parts: An Intelligent Tutor Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steif, Paul S.; Fu, Luoting; Kara, Levent Burak

    2016-01-01

    Problems faced by engineering students involve multiple pathways to solution. Students rarely receive effective formative feedback on handwritten homework. This paper examines the potential for computer-based formative assessment of student solutions to multipath engineering problems. In particular, an intelligent tutor approach is adopted and…

  6. Providing Formative Assessment to Students Solving Multipath Engineering Problems with Complex Arrangements of Interacting Parts: An Intelligent Tutor Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steif, Paul S.; Fu, Luoting; Kara, Levent Burak

    2016-01-01

    Problems faced by engineering students involve multiple pathways to solution. Students rarely receive effective formative feedback on handwritten homework. This paper examines the potential for computer-based formative assessment of student solutions to multipath engineering problems. In particular, an intelligent tutor approach is adopted and…

  7. Research and education on innovative nuclear engineering in 21. century COE program in Japan (COE-INES)

    SciTech Connect

    Hiroshi Sekimoto

    2004-07-01

    -In the year 2002 and 2003 the Japanese Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) started the 'Priority Assistance for the Formation of Worldwide Renowned Centers of Research - The 21. Century Center of Excellence (COE) Program'. A program proposed by Tokyo Institute of Technology (TITech) 'Innovative Nuclear Energy Systems for Sustainable Development of the World (COE-INES)' was selected as the only one program in nuclear engineering. Here the innovative nuclear energy systems include innovative nuclear reactors and innovative separation and transmutation technologies. This program is planned to continue for 5 years, and the monetary support for the first year (2003-4) is already fixed to be 196 M yens. International collaboration will be promoted for research and education on innovative nuclear energy systems. Several international meetings and intensive personnel exchanges will be performed. (author)

  8. Delivering Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes to the Nucleus Using Engineered Nuclear Protein Domains.

    PubMed

    Boyer, Patrick D; Ganesh, Sairaam; Qin, Zhao; Holt, Brian D; Buehler, Markus J; Islam, Mohammad F; Dahl, Kris Noel

    2016-02-10

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) have great potential for cell-based therapies due to their unique intrinsic optical and physical characteristics. Consequently, broad classes of dispersants have been identified that individually suspend SWCNTs in water and cell media in addition to reducing nanotube toxicity to cells. Unambiguous control and verification of the localization and distribution of SWCNTs within cells, particularly to the nucleus, is needed to advance subcellular technologies utilizing nanotubes. Here we report delivery of SWCNTs to the nucleus by noncovalently attaching the tail domain of the nuclear protein lamin B1 (LB1), which we engineer from the full-length LMNB1 cDNA. More than half of this low molecular weight globular protein is intrinsically disordered but has an immunoglobulin-fold composed of a central hydrophobic core, which is highly suitable for associating with SWCNTs, stably suspending SWCNTs in water and cell media. In addition, LB1 has an exposed nuclear localization sequence to promote active nuclear import of SWCNTs. These SWCNTs-LB1 dispersions in water and cell media display near-infrared (NIR) absorption spectra with sharp van Hove peaks and an NIR fluorescence spectra, suggesting that LB1 individually disperses nanotubes. The dispersing capability of SWCNTs by LB1 is similar to that by albumin proteins. The SWCNTs-LB1 dispersions with concentrations ≥150 μg/mL (≥30 μg/mL) in water (cell media) remain stable for ≥75 days (≥3 days) at 4 °C (37 °C). Further, molecular dynamics modeling of association of LB1 with SWCNTs reveal that the exposure of the nuclear localization sequence is independent of LB1 binding conformation. Measurements from confocal Raman spectroscopy and microscopy, NIR fluorescence imaging of SWCNTs, and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy show that millions of these SWCNTs-LB1 complexes enter HeLa cells, localize to the nucleus of cells, and interact with DNA. We postulate that the

  9. The Problem-Solving Process in Physics as Observed When Engineering Students at University Level Work in Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gustafsson, Peter; Jonsson, Gunnar; Enghag, Margareta

    2015-01-01

    The problem-solving process is investigated for five groups of students when solving context-rich problems in an introductory physics course included in an engineering programme. Through transcripts of their conversation, the paths in the problem-solving process have been traced and related to a general problem-solving model. All groups exhibit…

  10. The Problem-Solving Process in Physics as Observed When Engineering Students at University Level Work in Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gustafsson, Peter; Jonsson, Gunnar; Enghag, Margareta

    2015-01-01

    The problem-solving process is investigated for five groups of students when solving context-rich problems in an introductory physics course included in an engineering programme. Through transcripts of their conversation, the paths in the problem-solving process have been traced and related to a general problem-solving model. All groups exhibit…

  11. Anticipated Degradation Modes of Metallic Engineered Barriers for High-Level Nuclear Waste Repositories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez, Martín A.

    2014-03-01

    Metallic engineered barriers must provide a period of absolute containment to high-level radioactive waste in geological repositories. Candidate materials include copper alloys, carbon steels, stainless steels, nickel alloys, and titanium alloys. The national programs of nuclear waste management have to identify and assess the anticipated degradation modes of the selected materials in the corresponding repository environment, which evolves in time. Commonly assessed degradation modes include general corrosion, localized corrosion, stress-corrosion cracking, hydrogen-assisted cracking, and microbiologically influenced corrosion. Laboratory testing and modeling in metallurgical and environmental conditions of similar and higher aggressiveness than those expected in service conditions are used to evaluate the corrosion resistance of the materials. This review focuses on the anticipated degradation modes of the selected or reference materials as corrosion-resistant barriers in nuclear repositories. These degradation modes depend not only on the selected alloy but also on the near-field environment. The evolution of the near-field environment varies for saturated and unsaturated repositories considering backfilled and unbackfilled conditions. In saturated repositories, localized corrosion and stress-corrosion cracking may occur in the initial aerobic stage, while general corrosion and hydrogen-assisted cracking are the main degradation modes in the anaerobic stage. Unsaturated repositories would provide an oxidizing environment during the entire repository lifetime. Microbiologically influenced corrosion may be avoided or minimized by selecting an appropriate backfill material. Radiation effects are negligible provided that a thick-walled container or an inner shielding container is used.

  12. The engineering of a nuclear thermal landing and ascent vehicle utilizing indigenous Martian propellant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zubrin, Robert M.

    1991-01-01

    The following paper reports on a design study of a novel space transportation concept known as a 'NIMF' (Nuclear rocket using Indigenous Martian Fuel). The NIMF is a ballistic vehicle which obtains its propellant out of the Martian air by compression and liquefaction of atmospheric CO2. This propellant is subsequently used to generate rocket thrust at a specific impulse of 264 s by being heated to high temperature (2800 K) gas in the NIMFs' nuclear thermal rocket engines. The vehicle is designed to provide surface to orbit and surface to surface transportation, as well as housing, for a crew of three astronauts. It is capable of refueling itself for a flight to its maximum orbit in less than 50 days. The ballistic NIMF has a mass of 44.7 tonnes and, with the assumed 2800 K propellant temperature, is capable of attaining highly energetic (250 km by 34,000 km elliptical) orbits. This allows it to rendezvous with interplanetary transfer vehicles which are only very loosely bound into orbit around Mars. If a propellant temperature of 2000 K is assumed, then low Mars orbit can be attained; while if 3100 K is assumed, then the ballistic NIMF is capable of injecting itself onto a minimum energy transfer orbit to Earth in a direct ascent from the Martian surface.

  13. The engineering of a nuclear thermal landing and ascent vehicle utilizing indigenous Martian propellant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zubrin, Robert M.

    1991-01-01

    The following paper reports on a design study of a novel space transportation concept known as a 'NIMF' (Nuclear rocket using Indigenous Martian Fuel). The NIMF is a ballistic vehicle which obtains its propellant out of the Martian air by compression and liquefaction of atmospheric CO2. This propellant is subsequently used to generate rocket thrust at a specific impulse of 264 s by being heated to high temperature (2800 K) gas in the NIMFs' nuclear thermal rocket engines. The vehicle is designed to provide surface to orbit and surface to surface transportation, as well as housing, for a crew of three astronauts. It is capable of refueling itself for a flight to its maximum orbit in less than 50 days. The ballistic NIMF has a mass of 44.7 tonnes and, with the assumed 2800 K propellant temperature, is capable of attaining highly energetic (250 km by 34,000 km elliptical) orbits. This allows it to rendezvous with interplanetary transfer vehicles which are only very loosely bound into orbit around Mars. If a propellant temperature of 2000 K is assumed, then low Mars orbit can be attained; while if 3100 K is assumed, then the ballistic NIMF is capable of injecting itself onto a minimum energy transfer orbit to Earth in a direct ascent from the Martian surface.

  14. Updating Human Factors Engineering Guidelines for Conducting Safety Reviews of Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    O, J.M.; Higgins, J.; Stephen Fleger - NRC

    2011-09-19

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) reviews the human factors engineering (HFE) programs of applicants for nuclear power plant construction permits, operating licenses, standard design certifications, and combined operating licenses. The purpose of these safety reviews is to help ensure that personnel performance and reliability are appropriately supported. Detailed design review procedures and guidance for the evaluations is provided in three key documents: the Standard Review Plan (NUREG-0800), the HFE Program Review Model (NUREG-0711), and the Human-System Interface Design Review Guidelines (NUREG-0700). These documents were last revised in 2007, 2004 and 2002, respectively. The NRC is committed to the periodic update and improvement of the guidance to ensure that it remains a state-of-the-art design evaluation tool. To this end, the NRC is updating its guidance to stay current with recent research on human performance, advances in HFE methods and tools, and new technology being employed in plant and control room design. This paper describes the role of HFE guidelines in the safety review process and the content of the key HFE guidelines used. Then we will present the methodology used to develop HFE guidance and update these documents, and describe the current status of the update program.

  15. Nuclear gene targeting in Chlamydomonas using engineered zinc-finger nucleases.

    PubMed

    Sizova, Irina; Greiner, Andre; Awasthi, Mayanka; Kateriya, Suneel; Hegemann, Peter

    2013-03-01

    The unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is a versatile model for fundamental and biotechnological research. A wide range of tools for genetic manipulation have been developed for this alga, but specific modification of nuclear genes is still not routinely possible. Here, we present a nuclear gene targeting strategy for Chlamydomonas that is based on the application of zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs). Our approach includes (i) design of gene-specific ZFNs using available online tools, (ii) evaluation of the designed ZFNs in a Chlamydomonas in situ model system, (iii) optimization of ZFN activity by modification of the nuclease domain, and (iv) application of the most suitable enzymes for mutagenesis of an endogenous gene. Initially, we designed a set of ZFNs to target the COP3 gene that encodes the light-activated ion channel channelrhodopsin-1. To evaluate the designed ZFNs, we constructed a model strain by inserting a non-functional aminoglycoside 3'-phosphotransferase VIII (aphVIII) selection marker interspaced with a short COP3 target sequence into the nuclear genome. Upon co-transformation of this recipient strain with the engineered ZFNs and an aphVIII DNA template, we were able to restore marker activity and select paromomycin-resistant (Pm-R) clones with expressing nucleases. Of these Pm-R clones, 1% also contained a modified COP3 locus. In cases where cells were co-transformed with a modified COP3 template, the COP3 locus was specifically modified by homologous recombination between COP3 and the supplied template DNA. We anticipate that this ZFN technology will be useful for studying the functions of individual genes in Chlamydomonas.

  16. The main problems in the mechanical engineering sector and some possible directions of their solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strizhakova, E.

    2016-04-01

    The article shows the problems of the sector of mechanical engineering in the industrial system in Russia. The author's method of estimating the relative level of risk and the method of determining the de-industrialization degree of the sector based on the aggregated level of adaptability are given. According to them we have analysed the key indicators, such as basic, developed and advanced technologies, and investments in an old or new technology of industrial sectors. The main directions of the impact of industrial policy allowing a change in the current situation in mechanical engineering are given. The results can be applied in practice in formation of directions and actual control actions to improve the overall efficiency of mechanical engineering industry.

  17. Department of Energy Programmatic Spent Nuclear Fuel Management and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programs draft environmental impact statement. Volume 1, Appendix B: Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Spent Nuclear Fuel Management Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared this report to assist its management in making two decisions. The first decision, which is programmatic, is to determine the management program for DOE spent nuclear fuel. The second decision is on the future direction of environmental restoration, waste management, and spent nuclear fuel management activities at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Volume 1 of the EIS, which supports the programmatic decision, considers the effects of spent nuclear fuel management on the quality of the human and natural environment for planning years 1995 through 2035. DOE has derived the information and analysis results in Volume 1 from several site-specific appendixes. Volume 2 of the EIS, which supports the INEL-specific decision, describes environmental impacts for various environmental restoration, waste management, and spent nuclear fuel management alternatives for planning years 1995 through 2005. This Appendix B to Volume 1 considers the impacts on the INEL environment of the implementation of various DOE-wide spent nuclear fuel management alternatives. The Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program, which is a joint Navy/DOE program, is responsible for spent naval nuclear fuel examination at the INEL. For this appendix, naval fuel that has been examined at the Naval Reactors Facility and turned over to DOE for storage is termed naval-type fuel. This appendix evaluates the management of DOE spent nuclear fuel including naval-type fuel.

  18. Preface to foundations of information/decision fusion with applications to engineering problems

    SciTech Connect

    Madan, R.N.; Rao, N.S.V.

    1996-10-01

    In engineering design, it was shown by von Neumann that a reliable system can be built using unreliable components by employing simple majority rule fusers. If error densities are known for individual pattern recognizers then an optimal fuser was shown to be implementable as a threshold function. Many applications have been developed for distributed sensor systems, sensor-based robotics, face recognition, decision fusion, recognition of handwritten characters, and automatic target recognition. Recently, information/decision fusion has been recognized as an independently growing field with its own principles and methods. While some of the fusion problems in engineering systems could be solved by applying existing results from other domains, many others require original approaches and solutions. In turn, these new approaches would lead to new applications in other areas. There are two paradigms at the extrema of the spectrum of the information/decision methods: (i) Fusion as Problem: In certain applications, fusion is explicitly specified in the problem statement. Particularly in robotics applications, many researchers realized the fundamental limitations of single sensor systems, thereby motivating the deployment of multiple sensors. In more general engineering applications, similar sensors are employed for fault tolerance, while in several others, different sensor modalities are required to achieve the given task. In these scenarios, fusion methods have to be first designed to solve the problem at hand. (ii) Fusion as Solution: In many instances (e.g., DNA analysis), a number of different solutions to a particular problem already exist. Often these solutions can be combined to obtain solutions that outperform any individual one. The area of forecasting is a good example of such paradigm. Although fusion is not explicitly specified in these problems, it is used as an ingredient of the solution.

  19. Research on Life Science and Life Support Engineering Problems of Manned Deep Space Exploration Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Bin; Guo, Linli; Zhang, Zhixian

    2016-07-01

    Space life science and life support engineering are prominent problems in manned deep space exploration mission. Some typical problems are discussed in this paper, including long-term life support problem, physiological effect and defense of varying extraterrestrial environment. The causes of these problems are developed for these problems. To solve these problems, research on space life science and space medical-engineering should be conducted. In the aspect of space life science, the study of space gravity biology should focus on character of physiological effect in long term zero gravity, co-regulation of physiological systems, impact on stem cells in space, etc. The study of space radiation biology should focus on target effect and non-target effect of radiation, carcinogenicity of radiation, spread of radiation damage in life system, etc. The study of basic biology of space life support system should focus on theoretical basis and simulating mode of constructing the life support system, filtration and combination of species, regulation and optimization method of life support system, etc. In the aspect of space medical-engineering, the study of bio-regenerative life support technology should focus on plants cultivation technology, animal-protein production technology, waste treatment technology, etc. The study of varying gravity defense technology should focus on biological and medical measures to defend varying gravity effect, generation and evaluation of artificial gravity, etc. The study of extraterrestrial environment defense technology should focus on risk evaluation of radiation, monitoring and defending of radiation, compound prevention and removal technology of dust, etc. At last, a case of manned lunar base is analyzed, in which the effective schemes of life support system, defense of varying gravity, defense of extraterrestrial environment are advanced respectively. The points in this paper can be used as references for intensive study on key

  20. Simulations for Complex Fluid Flow Problems from Berkeley Lab's Center for Computational Sciences and Engineering (CCSE)

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Center for Computational Sciences and Engineering (CCSE) develops and applies advanced computational methodologies to solve large-scale scientific and engineering problems arising in the Department of Energy (DOE) mission areas involving energy, environmental, and industrial technology. The primary focus is in the application of structured-grid finite difference methods on adaptive grid hierarchies for compressible, incompressible, and low Mach number flows. The diverse range of scientific applications that drive the research typically involve a large range of spatial and temporal scales (e.g. turbulent reacting flows) and require the use of extremely large computing hardware, such as the 153,000-core computer, Hopper, at NERSC. The CCSE approach to these problems centers on the development and application of advanced algorithms that exploit known separations in scale; for many of the application areas this results in algorithms are several orders of magnitude more efficient than traditional simulation approaches.

  1. Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) (formerly ICPP) ash reutilization study

    SciTech Connect

    Langenwalter, T.; Pettet, M.; Ochoa, R.; Jensen, S.

    1998-05-01

    Since 1984, the coal-fired plant at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC, formerly Idaho Chemical Processing Plant) has been generating fly ash at a rate of approximately 1,000 tons per year. This ash is hydrated and placed in an ash bury pit near the coal-fired plant. The existing ash bury pit will be full in less than 1 year at its present rate of use. A conceptual design to build a new ash bury pit was completed, and the new pit is estimated to cost $1.7 million. This report evaluates ash reutilization alternatives that propose to eliminate this waste stream and save the $1.7 million required to build a new pit. The alternatives include using ash for landfill day cover, concrete admixture, flowable fill, soil stabilization, waste remediation, and carbon recovery technology. Both physical and chemical testing, under the guidance of the American Society for Testing and Materials, have been performed on ash from the existing pit and from different steps within the facility`s processes. The test results have been evaluated, compared to commercial ash, and are discussed as they relate to reutilization alternatives. This study recommends that the ash be used in flowable fill concrete for Deactivation and Demolition work at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory.

  2. Investigation of metallic, ceramic, and polymeric materials for engineered barrier applications in nuclear-waste packages

    SciTech Connect

    Westerman, R.E.

    1980-10-01

    An effort to develop licensable engineered barrier systems for the long-term (about 1000 yr) containment of nuclear wastes under conditions of deep continental geologic disposal has been underway at Pacific Northwest Laboratory since January 1979, under the auspices of the High-Level Waste Immobilization Program. In the present work, the barrier system comprises the hard or structural elements of the package: the canister, the overpack(s), and the hole sleeve. A number of candidate metallic, ceramic, and polymeric materials were put through mechanical, corrosion, and leaching screening tests to determine their potential usefulness in barrier-system applications. Materials demonstrating adequate properties in the screening tests will be subjected to more detailed property tests, and, eventually, cost/benefit analyses, to determine their ultimate applicability to barrier-system design concepts. The following materials were investigated: two titanium alloys of Grade 2 and Grade 12; 300 and 400 series stainless steels, Inconels, Hastelloy C-276, titanium, Zircoloy, copper-nickel alloys and cast irons; total of 14 ceramic materials, including two grades of alumina, plus graphite and basalt; and polymers such as polyamide-imide, polyarylene, polyimide, polyolefin, polyphenylene sulfide, polysulfone, fluoropolymer, epoxy, furan, silicone, and ethylene-propylene terpolymer (EPDM) rubber. The most promising candidates for further study and potential use in engineered barrier systems were found to be rubber, filled polyphenylene sulfide, fluoropolymer, and furan derivatives.

  3. Calcined Waste Storage at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center

    SciTech Connect

    Staiger, M. Daniel, Swenson, Michael C.

    2011-09-01

    This comprehensive report provides definitive volume, mass, and composition (chemical and radioactivity) of calcined waste stored at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center. Calcine composition data are required for regulatory compliance (such as permitting and waste disposal), future treatment of the caline, and shipping the calcine to an off-Site-facility (such as a geologic repository). This report also contains a description of the calcine storage bins. The Calcined Solids Storage Facilities (CSSFs) were designed by different architectural engineering firms and built at different times. Each CSSF has a unique design, reflecting varying design criteria and lessons learned from historical CSSF operation. The varying CSSF design will affect future calcine retrieval processes and equipment. Revision 4 of this report presents refinements and enhancements of calculations concerning the composition, volume, mass, chemical content, and radioactivity of calcined waste produced and stored within the CSSFs. The historical calcine samples are insufficient in number and scope of analysis to fully characterize the entire inventory of calcine in the CSSFs. Sample data exist for all the liquid wastes that were calcined. This report provides calcine composition data based on liquid waste sample analyses, volume of liquid waste calcined, calciner operating data, and CSSF operating data using several large Microsoft Excel (Microsoft 2003) databases and spreadsheets that are collectively called the Historical Processing Model. The calcine composition determined by this method compares favorably with historical calcine sample data.

  4. Numerical zoom for multiscale problems with an application to nuclear waste disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Apoung Kamga, Jean-Baptiste . E-mail: apoung@ann.jussieu.fr; Pironneau, Olivier . E-mail: Olivier.Pironneau@upmc.fr

    2007-05-20

    We analyse here a computational technique and error estimates for the numerical solution of some problems with multiple scales when the small scale is confined to geometrically small regions such as jumps of coefficients on curves and surfaces or complex variations of coefficients in small regions where numerical zooms can be made. The method is an adaptation of the Hilbert Subspace Decomposition Method studied by the second author in a different context so the method is restated with all known results. Combined with the layer decomposition of [S. Delpino, O. Pironneau, Asymptotic analysis and layer decomposition for the Couplex exercise, in: Alain Bourgeat, Michel Kern (Eds.), Computational Geosciences, vol. 8. No. 2, Kluwer Academics Publishers, 2004, pp. 149-162] the method is applied to the numerical assessment of a nuclear waste repository site.

  5. High-resolution coupled physics solvers for analysing fine-scale nuclear reactor design problems

    PubMed Central

    Mahadevan, Vijay S.; Merzari, Elia; Tautges, Timothy; Jain, Rajeev; Obabko, Aleksandr; Smith, Michael; Fischer, Paul

    2014-01-01

    An integrated multi-physics simulation capability for the design and analysis of current and future nuclear reactor models is being investigated, to tightly couple neutron transport and thermal-hydraulics physics under the SHARP framework. Over several years, high-fidelity, validated mono-physics solvers with proven scalability on petascale architectures have been developed independently. Based on a unified component-based architecture, these existing codes can be coupled with a mesh-data backplane and a flexible coupling-strategy-based driver suite to produce a viable tool for analysts. The goal of the SHARP framework is to perform fully resolved coupled physics analysis of a reactor on heterogeneous geometry, in order to reduce the overall numerical uncertainty while leveraging available computational resources. The coupling methodology and software interfaces of the framework are presented, along with verification studies on two representative fast sodium-cooled reactor demonstration problems to prove the usability of the SHARP framework. PMID:24982250

  6. High-Resolution Coupled Physics Solvers for Analysing Fine-Scale Nuclear Reactor Design Problems

    SciTech Connect

    Mahadevan, Vijay S.; Merzari, Elia; Tautges, Timothy; Jain, Rajeev; Obabko, Aleksandr; Smith, Michael; Fischer, Paul

    2014-06-30

    An integrated multi-physics simulation capability for the design and analysis of current and future nuclear reactor models is being investigated, to tightly couple neutron transport and thermal-hydraulics physics under the SHARP framework. Over several years, high-fidelity, validated mono-physics solvers with proven scalability on petascale architectures have been developed independently. Based on a unified component-based architecture, these existing codes can be coupled with a mesh-data backplane and a flexible coupling-strategy-based driver suite to produce a viable tool for analysts. The goal of the SHARP framework is to perform fully resolved coupled physics analysis of a reactor on heterogeneous geometry, in order to reduce the overall numerical uncertainty while leveraging available computational resources. The coupling methodology and software interfaces of the framework are presented, along with verification studies on two representative fast sodium-cooled reactor demonstration problems to prove the usability of the SHARP framework.

  7. Exact formulation and solution of the nuclear eigenvalue problem in a microscopic multiphonon space

    SciTech Connect

    Andreozzi, F.; Iudice, N. Lo; Porrino, A.; Knapp, F.; Kvasil, J.

    2007-04-15

    We propose a method for solving exactly the nuclear eigenvalue problem within a multiphonon space constructed out of Tamm-Dancoff phonons. The method consists in deriving, within a given n-phonon subspace, a set of equations, of simple structure for any n, which are solved iteratively, starting from the particle-hole vacuum, to yield a set of states covering a multiphonon space up to an arbitrary number of phonons. The intrinsic redundancy of the set so generated is removed completely and exactly by a simple and efficient prescription. Such a multiphonon basis reduces the Hamiltonian into diagonal blocks plus residual off-diagonal terms of simple form. Its diagonalization becomes straightforward and yields exact eigensolutions. {sup 16}O is adopted as numerical test ground.

  8. High-resolution coupled physics solvers for analysing fine-scale nuclear reactor design problems.

    PubMed

    Mahadevan, Vijay S; Merzari, Elia; Tautges, Timothy; Jain, Rajeev; Obabko, Aleksandr; Smith, Michael; Fischer, Paul

    2014-08-06

    An integrated multi-physics simulation capability for the design and analysis of current and future nuclear reactor models is being investigated, to tightly couple neutron transport and thermal-hydraulics physics under the SHARP framework. Over several years, high-fidelity, validated mono-physics solvers with proven scalability on petascale architectures have been developed independently. Based on a unified component-based architecture, these existing codes can be coupled with a mesh-data backplane and a flexible coupling-strategy-based driver suite to produce a viable tool for analysts. The goal of the SHARP framework is to perform fully resolved coupled physics analysis of a reactor on heterogeneous geometry, in order to reduce the overall numerical uncertainty while leveraging available computational resources. The coupling methodology and software interfaces of the framework are presented, along with verification studies on two representative fast sodium-cooled reactor demonstration problems to prove the usability of the SHARP framework.

  9. Effect of buoyancy on fuel containment in an open-cycle gas-core nuclear rocket engine.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Putre, H. A.

    1971-01-01

    Analysis aimed at determining the scaling laws for the buoyancy effect on fuel containment in an open-cycle gas-core nuclear rocket engine, so conducted that experimental conditions can be related to engine conditions. The fuel volume fraction in a short coaxial flow cavity is calculated with a programmed numerical solution of the steady Navier-Stokes equations for isothermal, variable density fluid mixing. A dimensionless parameter B, called the Buoyancy number, was found to correlate the fuel volume fraction for large accelerations and various density ratios. This parameter has the value B = 0 for zero acceleration, and B = 350 for typical engine conditions.

  10. Optimization of Engineering Design of Subsurface Environmental Remediation Systems: Development and Testing of Community Benchmark Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, A. S.; Miller, C. T.

    2003-12-01

    It is well established that the design of economically efficient subsurface remediation systems can benefit from the joint use of formal optimization and simulation models. It is also well known that obtaining the optimal solution for such designs is usually difficult and computationally expensive, due to the characteristic nonlinear, nonconvex nature of the solution spaces. We believe that more rapid progress on optimal design methods might result from both improved methods of evaluation and comparison of existing methods on realistic problems and from the investigation of novel methods not yet studied in subsurface remediation field. This work responds to these needs. We have designed a set of systematic test problems to be attacked by the engineering and mathematics community, as a means for benchmarking and comparing optimization approaches. The test problems pose many of the difficulties anticipated in solving real-world problems such as (a) mixed continuous and integer, nonlinear objective functions, (b) the combination of boundary conditions and system parameters gives rise to complex relationships between the objective function, the decision variables, the constraints, and the state variables, (c) evaluation of the objective function is based on solving model equations that are difficult to solve accurately and quickly; and (d) the number and range of decision variables is potentially enormous. The physical problems include water supply design problems in freshwater and freshwater-saltwater systems, a contaminant plume capture zone design problem, and a contaminant plume pump-and-treat design problem. Problem domains are specified in terms of hydraulic conductivity distributions- from homogeneous domains to spatially-correlated random fields- and in terms of confined vs. unconfined conditions. Each problem is specified completely in mathematical and numerical terms, but sufficient flexibility is allowed to provide for a wide range of problem solution

  11. Finite element analysis of structural engineering problems using a viscoplastic model incorporating two back stresses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arya, Vinod K.; Halford, Gary R.

    1993-01-01

    The feasibility of a viscoplastic model incorporating two back stresses and a drag strength is investigated for performing nonlinear finite element analyses of structural engineering problems. To demonstrate suitability for nonlinear structural analyses, the model is implemented into a finite element program and analyses for several uniaxial and multiaxial problems are performed. Good agreement is shown between the results obtained using the finite element implementation and those obtained experimentally. The advantages of using advanced viscoplastic models for performing nonlinear finite element analyses of structural components are indicated.

  12. Case study of a problem-based learning course of physics in a telecommunications engineering degree

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macho-Stadler, Erica; Jesús Elejalde-García, Maria

    2013-08-01

    Active learning methods can be appropriate in engineering, as their methodology promotes meta-cognition, independent learning and problem-solving skills. Problem-based learning is the educational process by which problem-solving activities and instructor's guidance facilitate learning. Its key characteristic involves posing a 'concrete problem' to initiate the learning process, generally implemented by small groups of students. Many universities have developed and used active methodologies successfully in the teaching-learning process. During the past few years, the University of the Basque Country has promoted the use of active methodologies through several teacher training programmes. In this paper, we describe and analyse the results of the educational experience using the problem-based learning (PBL) method in a physics course for undergraduates enrolled in the technical telecommunications engineering degree programme. From an instructors' perspective, PBL strengths include better student attitude in class and increased instructor-student and student-student interactions. The students emphasised developing teamwork and communication skills in a good learning atmosphere as positive aspects.

  13. Dimensional analysis considerations in the engine rotor fragment containment/deflection problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leech, J. W.; Witmer, E. A.; Yeghiayan, R. P.

    1971-01-01

    Dimensional analysis techniques are described and applied to the containment/deflection problem of bursting high-rpm rotating parts of turbojet engines. The use of dimensional analysis to select a feasible set of experiments and to determine the important parameters to be varied is presented. The determination of a containment coefficient based on the nondimensionalized parameters is developed for the reduction of experimental data and as an assist to designers of containment/deflection devices.

  14. Principles of construction of ultrasonic tomographs for solution of problems of nondestructive testing in mechanical engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolotina, I.; Bulavinov, A.; Pinchuk, R.; Salchak, Y.

    2016-04-01

    The paper considers the problems of ultrasonic nondestructive testing of products intended for mechanical engineering. The functional and electronic circuits of an ultrasonic tomograph are presented. The function of signal radiation from the clocked multielement apparatus is described, the cross-functional flowchart of the prototype of a US tomograph is considered. The development trends of ultrasonic tomography for near-term outlook are demonstrated.

  15. Conceptual Engine System Design for NERVA derived 66.7KN and 111.2KN Thrust Nuclear Thermal Rockets

    SciTech Connect

    Fittje, James E.; Buehrle, Robert J.

    2006-01-20

    The Nuclear Thermal Rocket concept is being evaluated as an advanced propulsion concept for missions to the moon and Mars. A tremendous effort was undertaken during the 1960's and 1970's to develop and test NERVA derived Nuclear Thermal Rockets in the 111.2 KN to 1112 KN pound thrust class. NASA GRC is leveraging this past NTR investment in their vehicle concepts and mission analysis studies, and has been evaluating NERVA derived engines in the 66.7 KN to the 111.2 KN thrust range. The liquid hydrogen propellant feed system, including the turbopumps, is an essential component of the overall operation of this system. The NASA GRC team is evaluating numerous propellant feed system designs with both single and twin turbopumps. The Nuclear Engine System Simulation code is being exercised to analyze thermodynamic cycle points for these selected concepts. This paper will present propellant feed system concepts and the corresponding thermodynamic cycle points for 66.7 KN and 111.2 KN thrust NTR engine systems. A pump out condition for a twin turbopump concept will also be evaluated, and the NESS code will be assessed against the Small Nuclear Rocket Engine preliminary thermodynamic data.

  16. Conceptual Engine System Design for NERVA derived 66.7KN and 111.2KN Thrust Nuclear Thermal Rockets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fittje, James E.; Buehrle, Robert J.

    2006-01-01

    The Nuclear Thermal Rocket concept is being evaluated as an advanced propulsion concept for missions to the moon and Mars. A tremendous effort was undertaken during the 1960's and 1970's to develop and test NERVA derived Nuclear Thermal Rockets in the 111.2 KN to 1112 KN pound thrust class. NASA GRC is leveraging this past NTR investment in their vehicle concepts and mission analysis studies, and has been evaluating NERVA derived engines in the 66.7 KN to the 111.2 KN thrust range. The liquid hydrogen propellant feed system, including the turbopumps, is an essential component of the overall operation of this system. The NASA GRC team is evaluating numerous propellant feed system designs with both single and twin turbopumps. The Nuclear Engine System Simulation code is being exercised to analyze thermodynamic cycle points for these selected concepts. This paper will present propellant feed system concepts and the corresponding thermodynamic cycle points for 66.7 KN and 111.2 KN thrust NTR engine systems. A pump out condition for a twin turbopump concept will also be evaluated, and the NESS code will be assessed against the Small Nuclear Rocket Engine preliminary thermodynamic data.

  17. The cosmological {sup 7}Li problem from a nuclear physics perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Broggini, C.; Canton, L.; Fiorentini, G.; Villante, F.L. E-mail: luciano.canton@pd.infn.it E-mail: francesco.villante@lngs.infn.it

    2012-06-01

    The primordial abundance of {sup 7}Li as predicted by Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN) is more than a factor 2 larger than what has been observed in metal-poor halo stars. Herein, we analyze the possibility that this discrepancy originates from incorrect assumptions about the nuclear reaction cross sections relevant for BBN. To do this, we introduce an efficient method to calculate the changes in the {sup 7}Li abundance produced by arbitrary (temperature dependent) modifications of the nuclear reaction rates. Then, considering that {sup 7}Li is mainly produced from {sup 7}Be via the electron capture process {sup 7}Be+e{sup −} → {sup 7}Li+ν{sub e}, we assess the impact of the various channels of {sup 7}Be destruction. Differently from previous analysis, we consider the role of unknown resonances by using a complete formalism which takes into account the effect of Coulomb and centrifugal barrier penetration and that does not rely on the use of the narrow-resonance approximation. As a result of this, the possibility of a nuclear physics solution to the {sup 7}Li problem is significantly suppressed. Given the present experimental and theoretical constraints, it is unlikely that the {sup 7}Be+n destruction rate is underestimated by the 2.5 factor required to solve the problem. We exclude, moreover, that resonant destruction in the channels {sup 7}Be+t and {sup 7}Be+{sup 3}He can explain the {sup 7}Li puzzle. New unknown resonances in {sup 7}Be+d and {sup 7}Be+α could potentially produce significant effects. Recent experimental results have ruled out such a possibility for {sup 7}Be+d. On the other hand, for the {sup 7}Be+α channel very favorable conditions are required. The possible existence of a partially suitable resonant level in {sup 11}C is studied in the framework of a coupled-channel model and the possibility of a direct measurement is considered.

  18. Environmental problems associated with decommissioning the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Cooling Pond.

    PubMed

    Oskolkov, B Ya; Bondarkov, M D; Gaschak, S P; Maksymenko, A M; Maksymenko, V M; Martynenko, V I; Farfán, E B; Jannik, G T; Marra, J C

    2010-11-01

    Decommissioning of nuclear power plants and other nuclear fuel cycle facilities associated with residual radioactive contamination of their territories is an imperative issue. Significant problems may result from decommissioning of cooling ponds with residual radioactive contamination. The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) Cooling Pond is one of the largest self-contained water reservoirs in the Chernobyl region and Ukrainian and Belorussian Polesye region. The 1986 ChNPP Reactor Unit Number Four significantly contaminated the ChNPP Cooling Pond. The total radionuclide inventory in the ChNPP Cooling Pond bottom deposits are as follows: ¹³⁷Cs: 16.28 ± 2.59 TBq; ⁹⁰Sr: 2.4 ± 0.48 TBq; and ²³⁹+²⁴⁰Pu: 0.00518 ± 0.00148 TBq. The ChNPP Cooling Pond is inhabited by over 500 algae species and subspecies, over 200 invertebrate species, and 36 fish species. The total mass of the living organisms in the ChNPP Cooling Pond is estimated to range from about 60,000 to 100,000 tons. The territory adjacent to the ChNPP Cooling Pond attracts many birds and mammals (178 bird species and 47 mammal species were recorded in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone). This article describes several options for the ChNPP Cooling Pond decommissioning and environmental problems associated with its decommissioning. The article also provides assessments of the existing and potential exposure doses for the shoreline biota. For the 2008 conditions, the estimated total dose rate values were 11.4 40 μGy h⁻¹ for amphibians, 6.3 μGy h⁻¹ for birds, 15.1 μGy h⁻¹ for mammals, and 10.3 μGy h⁻¹ for reptiles, with the recommended maximum dose rate being equal to 40 μGy h⁻¹. However, drying the ChNPP Cooling Pond may increase the exposure doses to 94.5 μGy h⁻¹ for amphibians, 95.2 μGy h⁻¹ for birds, 284.0 μGy h⁻¹ for mammals, and 847.0 μGy h⁻¹ for reptiles. All of these anticipated dose rates exceed the recommended values.

  19. Engineering development of a digital replacement protection system at an operating US PWR nuclear power plant: Installation and operational experiences

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, M.H.

    1995-04-01

    The existing Reactor Protection Systems (RPSs) at most US PWRs are systems which reflect 25 to 30 year-old designs, components and manufacturing techniques. Technological improvements, especially in relation to modern digital systems, offer improvements in functionality, performance, and reliability, as well as reductions in maintenance and operational burden. The Nuclear power industry and the US nuclear regulators are poised to move forward with the issues that have slowed the transition to modern digital replacements for nuclear power plant safety systems. The electric utility industry is now more than ever being driven by cost versus benefit decisions. Properly designed, engineered, and installed digital systems can provide adequate cost-benefit and allow continued nuclear generated electricity. This paper describes various issues and areas related to an ongoing RPS replacement demonstration project which are pertinant for a typical US nuclear plant to consider cost-effective replacement of an aging analog RPS with a modern digital RPS. The following subject areas relative to the Oconee Nuclear Station ISAT{trademark} Demonstrator project are discussed: Operator Interface Development; Equipment Qualification; Validation and Verification of Software; Factory Testing; Field Changes and Verification Testing; Utility Operational, Engineering and Maintenance; Experiences with Demonstration System; and Ability to operate in parallel with the existing Analog RPS.

  20. On a distinctive feature of problems of calculating time-average characteristics of nuclear reactor optimal control sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trifonenkov, A. V.; Trifonenkov, V. P.

    2017-01-01

    This article deals with a feature of problems of calculating time-average characteristics of nuclear reactor optimal control sets. The operation of a nuclear reactor during threatened period is considered. The optimal control search problem is analysed. The xenon poisoning causes limitations on the variety of statements of the problem of calculating time-average characteristics of a set of optimal reactor power off controls. The level of xenon poisoning is limited. There is a problem of choosing an appropriate segment of the time axis to ensure that optimal control problem is consistent. Two procedures of estimation of the duration of this segment are considered. Two estimations as functions of the xenon limitation were plot. Boundaries of the interval of averaging are defined more precisely.