Science.gov

Sample records for nuclear material detection

  1. Detecting Illicit Nuclear Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Kouzes, Richard T.

    2005-09-01

    The threat that weapons of mass destruction might enter the United States has led to a number of efforts for the detection and interdiction of nuclear, radiological, chemical, and biological weapons at our borders. There have been multiple deployments of instrumentation to detect radiation signatures to interdict radiological material, including weapons and weapons material worldwide.

  2. Nuclear material detection techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christian, James F.; Sia, Radia; Dokhale, Purushottam; Shestakova, Irina; Nagarkar, Vivek; Shah, Kanai; Johnson, Erik B.; Stapels, Christopher J.; Ryan, James M.; Macri, John; Bravar, Ulisse; Leung, Ka-Ngo; Squillante, Michael R.

    2008-04-01

    Illicit nuclear materials represent a threat for the safety of the American citizens, and the detection and interdiction of a nuclear weapon is a national problem that has not been yet solved. Alleviating this threat represents an enormous challenge to current detection methods that have to be substantially improved to identify and discriminate threatening from benign incidents. Rugged, low-power and less-expensive radiation detectors and imagers are needed for large-scale wireless deployment. Detecting the gamma rays emitted by nuclear and fissionable materials, particularly special nuclear materials (SNM), is the most convenient way to identify and locate them. While there are detectors that have the necessary sensitivity, none are suitable to meet the present need, primarily because of the high occurrence of false alarms. The exploitation of neutron signatures represents a promising solution to detecting illicit nuclear materials. This work presents the development of several detector configurations such as a mobile active interrogation system based on a compact RF-Plasma neutron generator developed at LBNL and a fast neutron telescope that uses plastic scintillating-fibers developed at the University of New Hampshire. A human-portable improved Solid-State Neutron Detector (SSND) intended to replace pressurized 3He-tubes will be also presented. The SSND uses an ultra-compact CMOS-SSPM (Solid-State Photomultiplier) detector, developed at Radiation Monitoring devices Inc., coupled to a neutron sensitive scintillator. The detector is very fast and can provide time and spectroscopy information over a wide energy range including fast neutrons.

  3. Materials Science for Nuclear Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Peurrung, Anthony J.

    2008-03-01

    In response to the elevated importance of nuclear detection technology, a variety of research efforts have sought to accelerate the discovery and development of useful new radiation detection materials These efforts have goals such as improving our understanding of how these materials perform, supporting the development of formalized discovery tools, or enabling rapid and effective performance characterization. This article provides an overview of these efforts along with an introduction to the history, physics, and taxonomy of these materials.

  4. Metabonomics for detection of nuclear materials processing.

    SciTech Connect

    Alam, Todd Michael; Luxon, Bruce A.; Neerathilingam, Muniasamy; Ansari, S.; Volk, David; Sarkar, S.; Alam, Mary Kathleen

    2010-08-01

    Tracking nuclear materials production and processing, particularly covert operations, is a key national security concern, given that nuclear materials processing can be a signature of nuclear weapons activities by US adversaries. Covert trafficking can also result in homeland security threats, most notably allowing terrorists to assemble devices such as dirty bombs. Existing methods depend on isotope analysis and do not necessarily detect chronic low-level exposure. In this project, indigenous organisms such as plants, small mammals, and bacteria are utilized as living sensors for the presence of chemicals used in nuclear materials processing. Such 'metabolic fingerprinting' (or 'metabonomics') employs nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to assess alterations in organismal metabolism provoked by the environmental presence of nuclear materials processing, for example the tributyl phosphate employed in the processing of spent reactor fuel rods to extract and purify uranium and plutonium for weaponization.

  5. Technologies for detection of nuclear materials

    SciTech Connect

    DeVolpi, A.

    1996-03-30

    Detection of smuggled nuclear materials at transit points requires monitoring unknown samples in large closed packages. This review contends that high-confidence nuclear-material detection requires induced fission as the primary mechanism, with passive radiation screening in a complementary role. With the right equipment, even small quantities of nuclear materials are detectable with a high probability at transit points. The equipment could also be linked synergistically with detectors of other contrabond. For screening postal mail and packages, passive monitors are probably more cost-effective. When a suspicious item is detected, a single active probe could then be used. Until active systems become mass produced, this two-stage screening/interrogation role for active/passive equipment is more economic for cargo at border crossings. For widespread monitoring of nuclear smuggling, it will probably be necessary to develop a system for simultaneously detecting most categories of contraband, including explosives and illicit drugs. With control of nuclear materials at known storage sites being the first line of defense, detection capabilities at international borders could establish a viable second line of defense against smuggling.

  6. Muon Tracking to Detect Special Nuclear Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Schwellenbach, D.; Dreesen, W.; Green, J. A.; Tibbitts, A.; Schotik, G.; Borozdin, K.; Bacon, J.; Midera, H.; Milner, C.; Morris, C.; Perry, J.; Barrett, S.; Perry, K.; Scott, A.; Wright, C.; Aberle, D.

    2013-03-18

    Previous experiments have proven that nuclear assemblies can be imaged and identified inside of shipping containers using vertical trajectory cosmic-ray muons with two-sided imaging. These experiments have further demonstrated that nuclear assemblies can be identified by detecting fission products in coincidence with tracked muons. By developing these technologies, advanced sensors can be designed for a variety of warhead monitoring and detection applications. The focus of this project is to develop tomographic-mode imaging using near-horizontal trajectory muons in conjunction with secondary particle detectors. This will allow imaging in-situ without the need to relocate the objects and will enable differentiation of special nuclear material (SNM) from other high-Z materials.

  7. Intense Photoneutron Sources For Nuclear Material Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gozani, Tsahi; Shaw, Timothy; King, Michael

    2011-06-01

    Intense neutron sources are essential for cargo inspection for a broad range of threats from explosives, to contraband, to nuclear materials and especially SNM (Special Nuclear Materials). To be effective over a wide range of cargo materials, in particular for hydrogenous cargo such as food, and to offer practical inspection times, the neutron source must be very strong, typically >1010 neutrons per second. Unfortunately there are currently no reasonably compact and economical neutron generators with the required intensities. The insufficiency and inadequacy of intense neutron sources are especially conspicuous in the ≤2.5 MeV range (low voltage (d,D) generator). This energy range is needed if the strong signature of prompt fission neutrons (≈3 per fission) is to be detected and discerned from the numerous source neutrons. The photonuclear reactions of x-rays from commercial linacs in appropriate converters can provide ample intensities of neutrons. These converters have a very low (γ,n) energy threshold: 1.67 MeV for beryllium and 2.23 MeV for deuterium. The intense x-ray beams provided by commercial x-ray systems, more than compensate for the relatively low (γ,n) cross-sections which are in the milli-barn range. The choice of converter material, the geometrical shape, dimensions and location relative to the x-ray source, determine the efficiency of the neutron conversion. For electron accelerators with less than 10 MeV, the preferred converters, Be and D2O, are also very good neutron moderators. Thus, while increasing the converters' thickness leads to an increase in the overall neutron yield, this causes the softening of the neutron spectrum, which reduces the neutron penetration especially in hydrogenous cargos. Photoneutron sources can be optimized to meet specific needs such as maximum fission signals in various cargo materials of interest. Efficient photoneutron sources with different energy spectra were investigated. Conversion efficiency of more than

  8. Integrated nuclear techniques to detect illicit materials

    SciTech Connect

    DeVolpi, A.

    1997-10-01

    This paper discusses the problem of detecting explosives in the context of an object being transported for illicit purposes. The author emphasizes that technologies developed for this particular application have payoffs in many related problem areas. The author discusses nuclear techniques which can be applied to this detection problem. These include: x-ray imaging; neutronic interrogation; inelastic neutron scattering; fieldable neutron generators. He discusses work which has been done on the applications of these technologies, including results for detection of narcotics. He also discusses efforts to integrate these techniques into complementary systems which offer improved performance.

  9. System for detecting special nuclear materials

    SciTech Connect

    Jandel, Marian; Rusev, Gencho Yordanov; Taddeucci, Terry Nicholas

    2015-07-14

    The present disclosure includes a radiological material detector having a convertor material that emits one or more photons in response to a capture of a neutron emitted by a radiological material; a photon detector arranged around the convertor material and that produces an electrical signal in response to a receipt of a photon; and a processor connected to the photon detector, the processor configured to determine the presence of a radiological material in response to a predetermined signature of the electrical signal produced at the photon detector. One or more detectors described herein can be integrated into a detection system that is suited for use in port monitoring, treaty compliance, and radiological material management activities.

  10. Detecting fission from special nuclear material sources

    SciTech Connect

    Rowland, Mark S.; Snyderman, Neal J.

    2012-06-05

    A neutron detector system for discriminating fissile material from non-fissile material wherein a digital data acquisition unit collects data at high rate, and in real-time processes large volumes of data directly into information that a first responder can use to discriminate materials. The system comprises counting neutrons from the unknown source and detecting excess grouped neutrons to identify fission in the unknown source. The system includes a graphing component that displays the plot of the neutron distribution from the unknown source over a Poisson distribution and a plot of neutrons due to background or environmental sources. The system further includes a known neutron source placed in proximity to the unknown source to actively interrogate the unknown source in order to accentuate differences in neutron emission from the unknown source from Poisson distributions and/or environmental sources.

  11. Detection of Shielded Nuclear Material in a Cargo Container

    SciTech Connect

    J. L. Jones; D. R. Norman; K. J. Haskell; J. W. Sterbentz; W. Y. Yoon; S. M. Watson; J. T. Johnson; J. M. Zabriskie; B. D. Bennett; R. W. Watson; J. F. Hamon

    2005-06-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory, along with Los Alamos National Laboratory and the Idaho State University’s Idaho Accelerator Center, are developing electron accelerator-based, photonuclear inspection technologies for the detection of shielded nuclear material within air-, rail-, and especially, maritime-cargo transportation containers. This paper describes a developing prototypical cargo container inspection system utilizing the Pulsed Photonuclear Assessment (PPA) technology, incorporates interchangeable, well-defined, contraband shielding structures (i.e., "calibration" pallets) providing realistic detection data for induced radiation signatures from smuggled nuclear material, and provides various shielded nuclear material detection results. Using a 4.8-kg quantity of depleted uranium, neutron and gamma-ray detection responses are presented for well-defined shielded and unshielded configurations evaluated in a selected cargo container inspection configuration. © 2001 Elsevier Science. All rights reserved

  12. Radiation and Nuclear Materials Detection Research and Development at ORNL

    SciTech Connect

    Hardy, Jim E; Wright, Michael C

    2009-01-01

    Research and development is underway to improve radiation and nuclear detection capabilities. This research and development in radiation and nuclear detection includes areas such as advanced materials, applied research and engineering for designing and fabricating customized detection equipment, and theoretical modeling and computational support. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has a distinctive set of detector materials fabrication and characterization capabilities and recently created a Center for Radiation Detection Materials and Systems. Applied research and engineering efforts have led to the development of improved detectors for specific applications including safeguards, treaty monitoring, and science experiments. All sizes, types, and capabilities of detector systems have been addressed from miniature to man-portable and from neutrons to gamma radiation. Dedicated test beds, in-house and in the field, have been established to analyze, characterize, and improve detection systems.

  13. Pulsed Photofission Delayed Gamma Ray Detection for Nuclear Material Identification

    SciTech Connect

    John Kavouras; Xianfei Wen; Daren R. Norman; Dante R. Nakazawa; Haori Yang

    2012-11-01

    Innovative systems with increased sensitivity and resolution are in great demand to detect diversion and to prevent misuse in support of nuclear materials management for the U.S. fuel cycle. Nuclear fission is the most important multiplicative process involved in non-destructive active interrogation. This process produces the most easily recognizable signature for nuclear materials. High-energy gamma rays can also excite a nucleus and cause fission through a process known as photofission. After photofission reactions, delayed signals are easily distinguishable from the interrogating radiation. Linac-based, advanced inspection techniques utilizing the fission signals after photofission have been extensively studied for homeland security applications. Previous research also showed that a unique delayed gamma ray energy spectrum exists for each fissionable isotope. Isotopic composition measurement methods based on delayed gamma ray spectroscopy will be the primary focus of this work.

  14. Detection of special nuclear materials with the associate particle technique

    SciTech Connect

    Carasco, Cedric; Deyglun, Clement; Perot, Bertrand; Eleon, Cyrille; Normand, Stephane; Sannie, Guillaume; Boudergui, Karim; Corre, Gwenole; Konzdrasovs, Vladimir; Pras, Philippe

    2013-04-19

    In the frame of the French trans-governmental R and D program against chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear and explosives (CBRN-E) threats, CEA is studying the detection of Special Nuclear Materials (SNM) by neutron interrogation with fast neutrons produced by an associated particle sealed tube neutron generator. The deuterium-tritium fusion reaction produces an alpha particle and a 14 MeV neutron almost back to back, allowing tagging neutron emission both in time and direction with an alpha particle position-sensitive sensor embedded in the generator. Fission prompt neutrons and gamma rays induced by tagged neutrons which are tagged by an alpha particle are detected in coincidence with plastic scintillators. This paper presents numerical simulations performed with the MCNP-PoliMi Monte Carlo computer code and with post processing software developed with the ROOT data analysis package. False coincidences due to neutron and photon scattering between adjacent detectors (cross talk) are filtered out to increase the selectivity between nuclear and benign materials. Accidental coincidences, which are not correlated to an alpha particle, are also taken into account in the numerical model, as well as counting statistics, and the time-energy resolution of the data acquisition system. Such realistic calculations show that relevant quantities of SNM (few kg) can be distinguished from cargo and shielding materials in 10 min acquisitions. First laboratory tests of the system under development in CEA laboratories are also presented.

  15. Liquefied Noble Gas (LNG) detectors for detection of nuclear materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikkel, J. A.; Gozani, T.; Brown, C.; Kwong, J.; McKinsey, D. N.; Shin, Y.; Kane, S.; Gary, C.; Firestone, M.

    2012-03-01

    Liquefied-noble-gas (LNG) detectors offer, in principle, very good energy resolution for both neutrons and gamma rays, fast response time (hence high-count-rate capabilities), excellent discrimination between neutrons and gamma rays, and scalability to large volumes. They do, however, need cryogenics. LNG detectors in sizes of interest for fissionable material detection in cargo are reaching a certain level of maturity because of the ongoing extensive R&}D effort in high-energy physics regarding their use in the search for dark matter and neutrinoless double beta decay. The unique properties of LNG detectors, especially those using Liquid Argon (LAr) and Liquid Xenon (LXe), call for a study to determine their suitability for Non-Intrusive Inspection (NII) for Special Nuclear Materials (SNM) and possibly for other threats in cargo. Rapiscan Systems Laboratory, Yale University Physics Department, and Adelphi Technology are collaborating in the investigation of the suitability of LAr as a scintillation material for large size inspection systems for air and maritime containers and trucks. This program studies their suitability for NII, determines their potential uses, determines what improvements in performance they offer and recommends changes to their design to further enhance their suitability. An existing 3.1 liter LAr detector (microCLEAN) at Yale University, developed for R&}D on the detection of weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) was employed for testing. A larger version of this detector (15 liters), more suitable for the detection of higher energy gamma rays and neutrons is being built for experimental evaluation. Results of measurements and simulations of gamma ray and neutron detection in microCLEAN and a larger detector (326 liter CL38) are presented.

  16. Code System to Detect Recurring Loss of Special Nuclear Materials.

    2001-08-23

    Version 00 NRCPAGE is used in safeguards applications to detect a recurring loss of special nuclear material by frequent evaluation (sequential analysis) of accountability data. Standard sequential testing procedures are traditionally based on sequences of independent and normally distributed measurements. This same approach can be applied to materials balance (MB) data. Here, the term materials balance has a meaning similar to inventory difference and represents a materials loss indicator localized in time and space. However,more » distinct Mbs cannot be reasonably treated as statistically independent and may not always be reasonably treated as normally distributed. Furthermore, the covariance structure associated with a given MB sequence is not known and must be estimated. Nonindependence is treated by converting the MB sequence to the innovation sequence, sometimes called the ITMUF sequence or the sequence of MUF residuals, which are statistically independent and amenable to sequential test procedures. A one-sided page's test, effective for a wide range of recurring loss scenarios, is applied to the standardized innovation sequence. The program can be easily modified to suit particular needs; the models for the assumption of multivariate normality for MBs when computing the innovation sequence or the test procedure can be changed as can the input/output format, dimensioning, local error checking, and simulation work. Input files can be sequentially constructed using local text editors to update existing files. Output files can be read by graphics, report writer, or other stand-alone utility routines.« less

  17. Neutron interrogation system using high gamma ray signature to detect contraband special nuclear materials in cargo

    DOEpatents

    Slaughter, Dennis R.; Pohl, Bertram A.; Dougan, Arden D.; Bernstein, Adam; Prussin, Stanley G.; Norman, Eric B.

    2008-04-15

    A system for inspecting cargo for the presence of special nuclear material. The cargo is irradiated with neutrons. The neutrons produce fission products in the special nuclear material which generate gamma rays. The gamma rays are detecting indicating the presence of the special nuclear material.

  18. Special Nuclear Material Detection with a Water Cherenkov based Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Sweany, M; Bernstein, A; Bowden, N; Dazeley, S; Svoboda, R

    2008-11-10

    Fission events from Special Nuclear Material (SNM), such as highly enriched uranium or plutonium, produce a number of neutrons and high energy gamma-rays. Assuming the neutron multiplicity is approximately Poissonian with an average of 2 to 3, the observation of time correlations between these particles from a cargo container would constitute a robust signature of the presence of SNM inside. However, in order to be sensitive to the multiplicity, one would require a high total efficiency. There are two approaches to maximize the total efficiency; maximizing the detector efficiency or maximizing the detector solid angle coverage. The advanced detector group at LLNL is investigating one way to maximize the detector size. We are designing and building a water Cerenkov based gamma and neutron detector for the purpose of developing an efficient and cost effective way to deploy a large solid angle car wash style detector. We report on our progress in constructing a larger detector and also present preliminary results from our prototype detector that indicates detection of neutrons.

  19. Modular Detection System for Special Nuclear Material (MODES_SNM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christodoulou, Georgios

    2014-02-01

    The MODES_SNM project, funded by the European Community within the scope of the FP7 security theme, explores new techniques for the design and demonstration of novel technologies for the detection of dangerous radioactive materials. Noble gas pressurized detectors are developed and optimized to build a human portable modular detector system to detect and identify illicit SNM. Since masked or shielded SNM is hard to detect, the MODES_SNM detector system will be sensitive to both fast and thermal neutrons and to photons emitted by the SNM. Thus, the project aims to increase the detection sensitivity of shielded SNM, to reduce the false alarm rate and to provide a mobile system to be used by both experts and non-experts in the field of radiation detection. The project now enters into its final phase towards the construction and characterization of a working prototype to be tested under laboratory conditions and in a real world environment.

  20. Detecting special nuclear materials in containers using high-energy gamma rays emitted by fission products

    DOEpatents

    Norman, Eric B.; Prussin, Stanley G.

    2007-10-02

    A method and a system for detecting the presence of special nuclear materials in a container. The system and its method include irradiating the container with an energetic beam, so as to induce a fission in the special nuclear materials, detecting the gamma rays that are emitted from the fission products formed by the fission, to produce a detector signal, comparing the detector signal with a threshold value to form a comparison, and detecting the presence of the special nuclear materials using the comparison.

  1. Detection of previous neutron irradiation and reprocessing of uranium materials for nuclear forensic purposes.

    PubMed

    Varga, Zsolt; Surányi, Gergely

    2009-04-01

    The paper describes novel analytical methods developed for the detection of previous neutron irradiation and reprocessing of illicit nuclear materials, which is an important characteristic of nuclear materials of unknown origin in nuclear forensics. Alpha spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma sector-field mass spectrometry (ICP-SFMS) using solution nebulization and direct, quasi-non-destructive laser ablation as sample introduction were applied for the measurement of trace-level (232)U, (236)U and plutonium isotopes deriving from previous neutron irradiation of uranium-containing nuclear materials. The measured radionuclides and isotope ratios give important information on the raw material used for fuel production and enable confirm the supposed provenance of illicit nuclear material. PMID:19179085

  2. Fissile and Non-Fissile Material Detection Using Nuclear Acoustic Resonance Signatures

    SciTech Connect

    Bernhard R. Tittmann; P.M. Lenahan; David Spears; Rhys Williams

    2008-11-25

    The objective of this project is to develop anovel technique for remote, non-destructive, non-radiation-based detection of materials of interest to Nonproliferation Programs. We propse the development of a detection system based on magnetic resonance principles (NAR), which would work where radiation detection is not possible. The approach would be non-intrusive, penetrating, applicable to many materials of interest for Nonproliferation, and be able to identify the nuclear samples under investigation.

  3. Optical detection of special nuclear materials: an alternative approach for standoff and remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, J. Bruce; Reeve, S. W.; Burns, W. A.; Allen, Susan D.

    2010-04-01

    Termed Special Nuclear Material (SNM) by the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, fissile materials, such as 235U and 239Pu, are the primary components used to construct modern nuclear weapons. Detecting the clandestine presence of SNM represents an important capability for Homeland Security. An ideal SNM sensor must be able to detect fissile materials present at ppb levels, be able to distinguish between the source of the detected fissile material, i.e., 235U, 239Pu, 233U or other fission source, and be able to perform the discrimination in near real time. A sensor with such capabilities would provide not only rapid identification of a threat but, ultimately, information on the potential source of the threat. For example, current detection schemes for monitoring clandestine nuclear testing and nuclear fuel reprocessing to provide weapons grade fissile material rely largely on passive air sampling combined with a subsequent instrumental analysis or some type of wet chemical analysis of the collected material. It would be highly useful to have a noncontact method of measuring isotopes capable of providing forensic information rapidly at ppb levels of detection. Here we compare the use of Kr, Xe and I as "canary" species for distinguishing between 235U and 239Pu fission sources by spectroscopic methods.

  4. Advanced Laser-Compton Gamma-Ray Sources for Nuclear Materials Detection, Assay and Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barty, C. P. J.

    2015-10-01

    Highly-collimated, polarized, mono-energetic beams of tunable gamma-rays may be created via the optimized Compton scattering of pulsed lasers off of ultra-bright, relativistic electron beams. Above 2 MeV, the peak brilliance of such sources can exceed that of the world's largest synchrotrons by more than 15 orders of magnitude and can enable for the first time the efficient pursuit of nuclear science and applications with photon beams, i.e. Nuclear Photonics. Potential applications are numerous and include isotope-specific nuclear materials management, element-specific medical radiography and radiology, non-destructive, isotope-specific, material assay and imaging, precision spectroscopy of nuclear resonances and photon-induced fission. This review covers activities at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory related to the design and optimization of mono-energetic, laser-Compton gamma-ray systems and introduces isotope-specific nuclear materials detection and assay applications enabled by them.

  5. Magnetic Separation for Nuclear Material Detection and Surveillance

    SciTech Connect

    Worl, L.A.; Devlin, D.; Hill, D.; Padilla, D.; Prenger, F.C.

    1998-08-01

    A high performance superconducting magnet is being developed for particle retrieval from field collected samples. Results show that maximum separation effectiveness is obtained when the matrix fiber diameter approaches the diameter of the particles to be captured. Experimentally, the authors obtained a single particle capture limit with 0.8{micro}m PuO{sub 2} particles with dodecane as a carrier fluid. The development of new matrix materials is being pursued through the controlled corrosion of stainless steel wool, or the deposition of nickel dendrites on the existing stainless steel matrix material. They have also derived a model from a continuity equation that uses empirically determined capture cross section values. This enables the prediction of high gradient magnetic separator performance for a variety of materials and applications. The model can be used to optimize the capture cross section and thus increase the capture efficiency.

  6. New radiological material detection technologies for nuclear forensics: Remote optical imaging and graphene-based sensors.

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, Richard Karl; Martin, Jeffrey B.; Wiemann, Dora K.; Choi, Junoh; Howell, Stephen W.

    2015-09-01

    We developed new detector technologies to identify the presence of radioactive materials for nuclear forensics applications. First, we investigated an optical radiation detection technique based on imaging nitrogen fluorescence excited by ionizing radiation. We demonstrated optical detection in air under indoor and outdoor conditions for alpha particles and gamma radiation at distances up to 75 meters. We also contributed to the development of next generation systems and concepts that could enable remote detection at distances greater than 1 km, and originated a concept that could enable daytime operation of the technique. A second area of research was the development of room-temperature graphene-based sensors for radiation detection and measurement. In this project, we observed tunable optical and charged particle detection, and developed improved devices. With further development, the advancements described in this report could enable new capabilities for nuclear forensics applications.

  7. Photonuclear Reaction Studies at HIγS: Developing the Science of Remote Detection of Nuclear Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howell, C. R.

    2015-10-01

    Development of gamma-ray beam interrogation technologies for remote detection of special nuclear materials and isotope analysis requires comprehensive databases of nuclear structure information and gamma-ray induced nuclear reaction observables. Relevant nuclear structure details include the energy, spin and parity of excited states that have significant probability for electromagnetic transition from the ground state, i.e, the angular momentum transferred in the reaction is Δl ≤ 2. This talk will report recent Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence (NRF) measurements to identify and characterize new low-spin states in actinide nuclei at energies from 1 to 4 MeV, which is the energy range most important for remote analysis methods. These measurements are carried out using the nearly mono-energetic linearly polarized gamma-ray beam at the High Intensity Gamma-ray Source (HIγS) at the Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory. Also, studies of the (γ, n) reaction on a variety of nuclei with linearly polarized beams at HIγS indicate that this reaction might be used to discern between fissile and non-fissile materials. This work will be described. In addition, an overview will be given of a concept for a next generation laser Compton-backing scattering gamma-ray source to be implemented as an upgrade to increase the beam intensity at HIγS by more than an order of magnitude.

  8. Compact Detection System for High Sensitivity Hydrogen Profiling of Materials by Nuclear Reaction Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Marble, Daniel Keith; Urban, Ben; Pacheco, Jose

    2009-03-10

    Hydrogen is a ubiquitous contaminant that is known to have dramatic effects on the electrical, chemical, and mechanical properties of many types of materials in even minute quantities. Thus, the detection of hydrogen in materials is of major importance. Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA) is a powerful technique for nondestructive profiling hydrogen in materials. However, NRA has found only limited use in many applications because of poor sensitivity due to cosmic ray background (CSRB). Most attempts to eliminate CSRB to achieve ppm detection levels using higher energy nuclear reactions or tons of passive shielding are not compatible with commercial ion beam analysis space and equipment requirements Zimmerman, et al. have previously reported upon a coincidence detector that meets IBA space requirements and reduces the cosmic ray background, but the detector suffers from lower detection efficiency and small sample size. We have replaced the BGO well detector in the Zimmerman coincidence detection scheme with a larger Nal well detector and used faster timing electronics to produce a detector that can handle larger samples with higher detection efficiency, and still eliminate cosmic ray background.

  9. Nuclear Material Detection by One-Short-Pulse-Laser-Driven Neutron Source

    SciTech Connect

    Favalli, Andrea; Aymond, F.; Bridgewater, Jon S.; Croft, Stephen; Deppert, O.; Devlin, Matthew James; Falk, Katerina; Fernandez, Juan Carlos; Gautier, Donald Cort; Gonzales, Manuel A.; Goodsell, Alison Victoria; Guler, Nevzat; Hamilton, Christopher Eric; Hegelich, Bjorn Manuel; Henzlova, Daniela; Ianakiev, Kiril Dimitrov; Iliev, Metodi; Johnson, Randall Philip; Jung, Daniel; Kleinschmidt, Annika; Koehler, Katrina Elizabeth; Pomerantz, Ishay; Roth, Markus; Santi, Peter Angelo; Shimada, Tsutomu; Swinhoe, Martyn Thomas; Taddeucci, Terry Nicholas; Wurden, Glen Anthony; Palaniyappan, Sasikumar; McCary, E.

    2015-01-28

    Covered in the PowerPoint presentation are the following areas: Motivation and requirements for active interrogation of nuclear material; laser-driven neutron source; neutron diagnostics; active interrogation of nuclear material; and, conclusions, remarks, and future works.

  10. Detecting special nuclear materials in suspect containers using high-energy gamma rays emitted by fission products

    DOEpatents

    Norman, Eric B [Oakland, CA; Prussin, Stanley G [Kensington, CA

    2009-05-05

    A method and a system for detecting the presence of special nuclear materials in a suspect container. The system and its method include irradiating the suspect container with a beam of neutrons, so as to induce a thermal fission in a portion of the special nuclear materials, detecting the gamma rays that are emitted from the fission products formed by the thermal fission, to produce a detector signal, comparing the detector signal with a threshold value to form a comparison, and detecting the presence of the special nuclear materials using the comparison.

  11. Detecting special nuclear materials in suspect containers using high-energy gamma rays emitted by fission products

    DOEpatents

    Norman, Eric B.; Prussin, Stanley G.

    2009-01-27

    A method and a system for detecting the presence of special nuclear materials in a suspect container. The system and its method include irradiating the suspect container with a beam of neutrons, so as to induce a thermal fission in a portion of the special nuclear materials, detecting the gamma rays that are emitted from the fission products formed by the thermal fission, to produce a detector signal, comparing the detector signal with a threshold value to form a comparison, and detecting the presence of the special nuclear materials using the comparison.

  12. Detecting special nuclear materials in suspect containers using high-energy gamma rays emitted by fission products

    DOEpatents

    Norman, Eric B.; Prussin, Stanley G.

    2009-01-06

    A method and a system for detecting the presence of special nuclear materials in a suspect container. The system and its method include irradiating the suspect container with a beam of neutrons, so as to induce a thermal fission in a portion of the special nuclear materials, detecting the gamma rays that are emitted from the fission products formed by the thermal fission, to produce a detector signal, comparing the detector signal with a threshold value to form a comparison, and detecting the presence of the special nuclear materials using the comparison.

  13. Fissile and Non-Fissile Material Detection using Nuclear Acoustic Resonance Signatures

    SciTech Connect

    Herberg, J; Maxwell, R; Tittmann, B R; Lenahan, P M; Yerkes, S; Jayaraman, S

    2005-10-04

    This report reviews progress made on NA22 project LL251DP to develop a novel technique, Nuclear Acoustic Resonance (NAR), for remote, non-destructive, nonradiation-based detection of materials of interest to Nonproliferation Programs, including {sup 235}U and {sup 239}Pu. We have met all milestones and deliverables for FY05, as shown in Table 1. In short, we have developed a magnetic shield chamber and magnetic field, develop a digital lock-in amplifier computer to integrate both the ultrasound radiation with the detector, developed strain measurements, and begin to perform initial measurements to obtain a NAR signal from aluminum at room temperature and near the earth's magnetic field. The results obtained in FY05 further support the feasibility of successful demonstration of an NAR experiment for remote, non-destructive, non-radiation-based detection of materials of interest to Nonproliferation Programs.

  14. APSTNG: neutron interrogation for detection of explosives, drugs, and nuclear and chemical warfare materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhodes, Edgar A.; Peters, Charles W.

    1993-02-01

    A recently developed neutron diagnostic probe system has the potential to satisfy a significant number of van-mobile and fixed-portal requirements for nondestructive detection, including monitoring of contraband explosives, drugs, and weapon materials, and treaty verification of sealed munitions. The probe is based on a unique associated-particle sealed-tube neutron generator (APSTNG) that interrogates the object of interest with a low-intensity beam of 14- MeV neutrons generated from the deuterium-tritium reaction and that detects the alpha-particle associated with each neutron. Gamma-ray spectra of resulting neutron reactions identify nuclides associated with all major chemicals in explosives, drugs, and chemical warfare agents, as well as many pollutants and fissile and fertile special nuclear material. Flight times determined from detection times of the gamma-rays and alpha-particles yield a separate coarse tomographic image of each identified nuclide. The APSTNG also forms the basis for a compact fast-neutron transmission imaging system that can be used along with or instead of the emission imaging system. Proof-of-concept experiments have been performed under laboratory conditions for simulated nuclear and chemical warfare munitions and for explosives and drugs. The small and relatively inexpensive APSTNG exhibits high reliability and can be quickly replaced. Surveillance systems based on APSTNG technology can avoid the large physical size, high capital and operating expenses, and reliability problems associated with complex accelerators.

  15. Comprehensive modeling of special nuclear materials detection using three-dimensional deterministic and Monte Carlo methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghita, Gabriel M.

    Our study aim to design a useful neutron signature characterization device based on 3He detectors, a standard neutron detection methodology used in homeland security applications. Research work involved simulation of the generation, transport, and detection of the leakage radiation from Special Nuclear Materials (SNM). To accomplish research goals, we use a new methodology to fully characterize a standard "1-Ci" Plutonium-Beryllium (Pu-Be) neutron source based on 3-D computational radiation transport methods, employing both deterministic SN and Monte Carlo methodologies. Computational model findings were subsequently validated through experimental measurements. Achieved results allowed us to design, build, and laboratory-test a Nickel composite alloy shield that enables the neutron leakage spectrum from a standard Pu-Be source to be transformed, through neutron scattering interactions in the shield, into a very close approximation of the neutron spectrum leaking from a large, subcritical mass of Weapons Grade Plutonium (WGPu) metal. This source will make possible testing with a nearly exact reproduction of the neutron spectrum from a 6.67 kg WGPu mass equivalent, but without the expense or risk of testing detector components with real materials. Moreover, over thirty moderator materials were studied in order to characterize their neutron energy filtering potential. Specific focus was made to establish the limits of He-3 spectroscopy using ideal filter materials. To demonstrate our methodology, we present the optimally detected spectral differences between SNM materials (Plutonium and Uranium), metal and oxide, using ideal filter materials. Finally, using knowledge gained from previous studies, the design of a He-3 spectroscopy system neutron detector, simulated entirely via computational methods, is proposed to resolve the spectra from SNM neutron sources of high interest. This was accomplished by replacing ideal filters with real materials, and comparing reaction

  16. Detection of fast neutrons from shielded nuclear materials using a semiconductor alpha detector.

    PubMed

    Pöllänen, R; Siiskonen, T

    2014-08-01

    The response of a semiconductor alpha detector to fast (>1 MeV) neutrons was investigated by using measurements and simulations. A polyethylene converter was placed in front of the detector to register recoil protons generated by elastic collisions between neutrons and hydrogen nuclei of the converter. The developed prototype equipment was tested with shielded radiation sources. The low background of the detector and insensitivity to high-energy gamma rays above 1 MeV are advantages when the detection of neutron-emitting nuclear materials is of importance. In the case of a (252)Cf neutron spectrum, the intrinsic efficiency of fast neutron detection was determined to be 2.5×10(-4), whereas three-fold greater efficiency was obtained for a (241)AmBe neutron spectrum.

  17. Detection of Shielded Special Nuclear Material With a Cherenkov-Based Transmission Imaging System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rose, Paul; Erickson, Anna; Mayer, Michael; Jovanovic, Igor

    2015-10-01

    Detection of shielded special nuclear material, SSNM, while in transit, offers a unique challenge. Typical cargo imaging systems are Bremsstrahlung-based and cause an abundance of unnecessary signal in the detectors and doses to the cargo contents and surroundings. Active interrogation with dual monoenergetic photons can unveil the illicit material when coupled with a high-contrast imaging system while imparting significantly less dose to the contents. Cherenkov detectors offer speed, resilience, inherent energy threshold rejection, directionality and scalability beyond the capability of most scintillators. High energy resolution is not a priority when using two well separated gamma rays, 4.4 and 15.1 MeV, generated from low energy nuclear reactions such as 11B(d,n- γ)12C. These gamma rays offer a measure of the effective atomic number, Z, of the cargo by taking advantage of the large difference in photon interaction cross sections, Compton scattering and pair production. This imaging system will be coupled to neutron detectors to provide unique signature of SNM by monitoring delayed neutrons. Our experiments confirm that the Cherenkov imaging system can be used with the monoenergetic source to relate transmission and atomic number of the scanned material.

  18. Investigation of Active Interrogation Techniques to Detect Special Nuclear Material in Maritime Environments

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Thomas Martin; Patton, Bruce W

    2010-01-01

    The detection and interdiction of special nuclear material (SNM) is still a high-priority focus area for many organizations around the world. One method that is commonly considered a leading candidate in the detection of SNM is active interrogation (AI). AI is different from its close relative, passive interrogation, in that an active source is used to enhance or create a detectable signal (usually fission) from SNM, particularly in shielded scenarios or scenarios where the SNM has a low activity. The use of AI thus makes the detection of SNM easier or, in some scenarios, even enables previously impossible detection. In this work the signal from prompt neutrons and photons as well as delayed neutrons and photons will be combined, as is typically done in AI. In previous work AI has been evaluated experimentally and computationally. However, for the purposes of this work, past scenarios are considered lightly shielded and tightly coupled spatially. At most, the previous work interrogated the contents of one standard cargo container (2.44 x 2.60 x 6.10 m) and the source and detector were both within a few meters of the object being interrogated. A few examples of this type of previous work can be found in references 1 and 2. Obviously, more heavily shielded AI scenarios will require larger source intensities, larger detector surface areas (larger detectors or more detectors), greater detector efficiencies, longer count times, or some combination of these.

  19. Associated-particle sealed-tube neutron probe: Detection of explosives, contraband, and nuclear materials

    SciTech Connect

    Rhodes, E.; Dickerman, C.E.

    1996-05-01

    Continued research and development of the APSTNG shows the potential for practical field use of this technology for detection of explosives, contraband, and nuclear materials. The APSTNG (associated-particle sealed-tube generator) inspects the item to be examined using penetrating 14-MeV neutrons generated by the deuterium-tritium reaction inside a compact accelerator tube. An alpha detector built into the sealed tube detects the alpha-particle associated with each neutron emitted in a cone encompassing the volume to be inspected. Penetrating high-energy gamma-rays from the resulting neutron reactions identify specific nuclides inside the volume. Flight-times determined from the detection times of gamma-rays and alpha-particles separate the prompt and delayed gamma-ray spectra and allow a coarse 3-D image to be obtained of nuclides identified in the prompt spectrum. The generator and detectors can be on the same side of the inspected object, on opposite sides, or with intermediate orientations. Thus, spaces behind walls and other confined regions can be inspected. Signals from container walls can be discriminated against using the flight-time technique. No collimators or shielding are required, the neutron generator is relatively small, and commercial-grade electronics are employed. The use of 14-MeV neutrons yields a much higher cross-section for detecting nitrogen than that for systems based on thermal-neutron reactions alone, and the broad range of elements with significant 14-MeV neutron cross-sections extends explosives detection to other elements including low-nitrogen compounds, and allows detection of many other substances. Proof-of-concept experiments have been successfully performed for conventional explosives, chemical warfare agents, cocaine, and fissionable materials.

  20. Fissile and Non-Fissile Material Detection using Nuclear Acoustic Resonance Signatures: Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Herberg, J; Maxwell, R; Tittmann, B R; Lenahan, P M; Yerkes, S; Jayaraman, S B

    2006-11-02

    This is final report on NA-22 project LL251DP, where the goal was to develop a novel technique, Nuclear Acoustic Resonance (NAR), for remote, non-destructive, nonradiation-based detection of materials of interest to Nonproliferation Programs, including {sup 235}U and {sup 239}Pu. In short, we have developed a magnetic shield chamber and magnetic field, develop a digital lock-in amplifier computer to integrate both the ultrasound radiation with the detector, developed strain measurements, and begun to perform initial measurements to obtain a NAR signal from aluminum at room temperature and near the earth's magnetic field. Since our funding was cut in FY06, I will discuss where this project can go in the future with this technology.

  1. A Fast Pulsed Neutron Source for Time-of-Flight Detection of Nuclear Materials and Explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnan, Mahadevan; Bures, Brian; James, Colt; Madden, Robert; Hennig, Wolfgang; Breus, Dimitry; Asztalos, Stephen; Sabourov, Konstantin; Lane, Stephen

    2011-12-13

    AASC has built a fast pulsed neutron source based on the Dense Plasma Focus (DPF). The more current version stores only 100 J but fires at {approx}10-50 Hz and emits {approx}10{sup 6}n/pulse at a peak current of 100 kA. Both sources emit 2.45{+-}0.1 MeV(DD) neutron pulses of {approx}25-40 ns width. Such fast, quasi-monoenergetic pulses allow time-of-flight detection of characteristic emissions from nuclear materials or high explosives. A test is described in which iron targets were placed at different distances from the point neutron source. Detectors such as Stilbene and LaBr3 were used to capture inelastically induced, 847 keV gammas from the iron target. Shielding of the source and detectors eliminated most (but not all) of the source neutrons from the detectors. Gated detection, pulse shape analysis and time-of-flight discrimination enable separation of gamma and neutron signatures and localization of the target. A Monte Carlo simulation allows evaluation of the potential of such a fast pulsed source for a field-portable detection system. The high rep-rate source occupies two 200 liter drums and uses a cooled DPF Head that is <500 cm{sup 3} in volume.

  2. Detection of special nuclear materials using prompt gamma-rays from fast and slow neutron-induced fission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kane, Steven Ze

    A complete system has been simulated using experimentally obtained input parameters for the detection of special nuclear materials (SNM). A variation of the associated particle imaging (API) technique, referred to as reverse associated particle imaging detection (RAPID), has been developed in the context of detecting 5-kg spherical samples of U-235 in cargo containers uniformly filled with wood (low-Z) or iron (high-Z) at densities ranging from 0.1 g/cm3 to 0.4 g/cm3, the maximal density for a uniformly fully loaded 40-ft standard cargo container. In addition, samples were located at the center of a given container to study worst-case scenarios. The RAPID technique allows for the interrogation of containers at neutron production rates between 1x108 neutrons/s and 4x108 neutrons/s, depending on cargo material and density. These rates are low enough to prevent transmutation of materials in cargo and radiation safety hazards are limited. The merit of performance for the system is the time to detect the threat material with 95% probability of detection and 10-4 false positive rate per interrogated voxel of cargo. The detection of 5-kg of U-235 was chosen because this quantity of material is near the lower limit of the amount of special nuclear material that might be used in a nuclear weapon. This is in contrast to the 25-kg suggested sensitivity proposed by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA).

  3. Development of Measurement Methods for Detection of Special Nuclear Materials using D-D Pulsed Neutron Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misawa, Tsuyoshi; Takahashi, Yoshiyuki; Yagi, Takahiro; Pyeon, Cheol Ho; Kimura, Masaharu; Masuda, Kai; Ohgaki, Hideaki

    2015-10-01

    For detection of hidden special nuclear materials (SNMs), we have developed an active neutron-based interrogation system combined with a D-D fusion pulsed neutron source and a neutron detection system. In the detection scheme, we have adopted new measurement techniques simultaneously; neutron noise analysis and neutron energy spectrum analysis. The validity of neutron noise analysis method has been experimentally studied in the Kyoto University Critical Assembly (KUCA), and was applied to a cargo container inspection system by simulation.

  4. LYNX: An unattended sensor system for detection of gamma-ray and neutron emissions from special nuclear materials

    SciTech Connect

    Runkle, Robert C.; Myjak, Mitchell J.; Kiff, Scott D.; Sidor, Daniel E.; Morris, Scott J.; Rohrer, John S.; Jarman, Kenneth D.; Pfund, David M.; Todd, Lindsay C.; Bowler, Ryan S.; Mullen, Crystal A.

    2009-01-21

    This manuscript profiles an unattended and fully autonomous detection system sensitive to gamma-ray and neutron emissions from special nuclear material. The LYNX design specifically targets applications that require radiation detection capabilities but possess little or no infrastructure. In these settings, users need the capability to deploy sensors for extended periods of time that analyze whatever signal-starved data can be captured, since little or no control may be exerted over measurement conditions. The fundamental sensing elements of the LYNX system are traditional NaI(Tl) and 3He detectors. The new developments reported here center on two themes: low-power electronics and computationally simple analysis algorithms capable of discriminating gamma-ray signatures indicative of special nuclear materials from those of naturally occurring radioactive material. Incorporating tripwire-detection algorithms based on gamma-ray spectral signatures into a low-power electronics package significantly improves performance in environments where sensors encounter nuisance sources.

  5. Revolution in nuclear detection affairs

    SciTech Connect

    Stern, Warren M.

    2014-05-09

    The detection of nuclear or radioactive materials for homeland or national security purposes is inherently difficult. This is one reason detection efforts must be seen as just one part of an overall nuclear defense strategy which includes, inter alia, material security, detection, interdiction, consequence management and recovery. Nevertheless, one could argue that there has been a revolution in detection affairs in the past several decades as the innovative application of new technology has changed the character and conduct of detection operations. This revolution will likely be most effectively reinforced in the coming decades with the networking of detectors and innovative application of anomaly detection algorithms.

  6. Gamma/neutron time-correlation for special nuclear material detection – Active stimulation of highly enriched uranium

    SciTech Connect

    Paff, Marc G.; Monterial, Mateusz; Marleau, Peter; Kiff, Scott; Nowack, Aaron; Clarke, Shaun D.; Pozzi, Sara A.

    2014-06-21

    A series of simulations and experiments were undertaken to explore and evaluate the potential for a novel new technique for fissile material detection and characterization, the timecorrelated pulse-height (TCPH) method, to be used concurrent with active stimulation of potential nuclear materials. In previous work TCPH has been established as a highly sensitive method for the detection and characterization of configurations of fissile material containing Plutonium in passive measurements. By actively stimulating fission with the introduction of an external radiation source, we have shown that TCPH is also an effective method of detecting and characterizing configurations of fissile material containing Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU). The TCPH method is shown to be robust in the presence of the proper choice of external radiation source. An evaluation of potential interrogation sources is presented.

  7. Gamma/neutron time-correlation for special nuclear material detection – Active stimulation of highly enriched uranium

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Paff, Marc G.; Monterial, Mateusz; Marleau, Peter; Kiff, Scott; Nowack, Aaron; Clarke, Shaun D.; Pozzi, Sara A.

    2014-06-21

    A series of simulations and experiments were undertaken to explore and evaluate the potential for a novel new technique for fissile material detection and characterization, the timecorrelated pulse-height (TCPH) method, to be used concurrent with active stimulation of potential nuclear materials. In previous work TCPH has been established as a highly sensitive method for the detection and characterization of configurations of fissile material containing Plutonium in passive measurements. By actively stimulating fission with the introduction of an external radiation source, we have shown that TCPH is also an effective method of detecting and characterizing configurations of fissile material containing Highlymore » Enriched Uranium (HEU). The TCPH method is shown to be robust in the presence of the proper choice of external radiation source. An evaluation of potential interrogation sources is presented.« less

  8. Detection of special nuclear material by observation of delayed neutrons with a novel fast neutron composite detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, Michael; Nattress, Jason; Barhoumi Meddeb, Amira; Foster, Albert; Trivelpiece, Cory; Rose, Paul; Erickson, Anna; Ounaies, Zoubeida; Jovanovic, Igor

    2015-10-01

    Detection of shielded special nuclear material is crucial to countering nuclear terrorism and proliferation, but its detection is challenging. By observing the emission of delayed neutrons, which is a unique signature of nuclear fission, the presence of nuclear material can be inferred. We report on the observation of delayed neutrons from natural uranium by using monoenergetic photons and neutrons to induce fission. An interrogating beam of 4.4 MeV and 15.1 MeV gamma-rays and neutrons was produced using the 11B(d,n-γ)12C reaction and used to probe different targets. Neutron detectors with complementary Cherenkov detectors then discriminate material undergoing fission. A Li-doped glass-polymer composite neutron detector was used, which displays excellent n/ γ discrimination even at low energies, to observe delayed neutrons from uranium fission. Delayed neutrons have relatively low energies (~0.5 MeV) compared to prompt neutrons, which makes them difficult to detect using recoil-based detectors. Neutrons were counted and timed after the beam was turned off to observe the characteristic decaying time profile of delayed neutrons. The expected decay of neutron emission rate is in agreement with the common parametrization into six delayed neutron groups.

  9. Detection of special nuclear material from delayed neutron emission induced by a dual-particle monoenergetic source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, M.; Nattress, J.; Jovanovic, I.

    2016-06-01

    Detection of unique signatures of special nuclear materials is critical for their interdiction in a variety of nuclear security and nonproliferation scenarios. We report on the observation of delayed neutrons from fission of uranium induced in dual-particle active interrogation based on the 11B(d,n γ)12C nuclear reaction. Majority of the fissions are attributed to fast fission induced by the incident quasi-monoenergetic neutrons. A Li-doped glass-polymer composite scintillation neutron detector, which displays excellent neutron/γ discrimination at low energies, was used in the measurements, along with a recoil-based liquid scintillation detector. Time-dependent buildup and decay of delayed neutron emission from 238U were measured between the interrogating beam pulses and after the interrogating beam was turned off, respectively. Characteristic buildup and decay time profiles were compared to the common parametrization into six delayed neutron groups, finding a good agreement between the measurement and nuclear data. This method is promising for detecting fissile and fissionable materials in cargo scanning applications and can be readily integrated with transmission radiography using low-energy nuclear reaction sources.

  10. Absolute nuclear material assay

    DOEpatents

    Prasad, Manoj K.; Snyderman, Neal J.; Rowland, Mark S.

    2012-05-15

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  11. Absolute nuclear material assay

    DOEpatents

    Prasad, Manoj K.; Snyderman, Neal J.; Rowland, Mark S.

    2010-07-13

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  12. Progress in Nuclear Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vojtech, Richard

    2010-02-01

    The Transformational and Applied Research Directorate (TAR) was established within the Department of Homeland Security's Domestic Nuclear Detection Office (DNDO) to conduct, support, coordinate, and encourage near- and long-term Research and Development (R&D) programs for break-through technologies designed to dramatically improve capabilities to detect and report illicit trafficking of nuclear and radiological materials. These programs cover a wide range of technologies and high-level technical challenges associated with the DNDO mission and the Global Nuclear Detection Architecture (GNDA). They encompass a range of technology levels, ranging from feasibility and proof of concept studies to technology demonstrations of systems. Even though the focus is on high level challenges, the direction of some topic areas can change from year to year. This presentation will provide an overview of the TAR mission and discuss the current status of transformational R&D efforts in three major program areas: Advanced Technology Demonstrations (ATD), Exploratory Research (ER) and Academic Research Initiative (ARI). )

  13. Nuclear Material Variance Calculation

    1995-01-01

    MAVARIC (Materials Accounting VARIance Calculations) is a custom spreadsheet that significantly reduces the effort required to make the variance and covariance calculations needed to determine the detection sensitivity of a materials accounting system and loss of special nuclear material (SNM). The user is required to enter information into one of four data tables depending on the type of term in the materials balance (MB) equation. The four data tables correspond to input transfers, output transfers,more » and two types of inventory terms, one for nondestructive assay (NDA) measurements and one for measurements made by chemical analysis. Each data entry must contain an identification number and a short description, as well as values for the SNM concentration, the bulk mass (or solution volume), the measurement error standard deviations, and the number of measurements during an accounting period. The user must also specify the type of error model (additive or multiplicative) associated with each measurement, and possible correlations between transfer terms. Predefined spreadsheet macros are used to perform the variance and covariance calculations for each term based on the corresponding set of entries. MAVARIC has been used for sensitivity studies of chemical separation facilities, fuel processing and fabrication facilities, and gas centrifuge and laser isotope enrichment facilities.« less

  14. Nuclear Material Management Abstract

    SciTech Connect

    Jesse C. Schreiber

    2007-07-10

    Nevada Test Site (NTS) has transitioned from its historical and critical role of weapons testing to another critical role for the nation. This new role focuses on being a integral element in solving the multiple challenges facing the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) with nuclear material management. NTS is positioned to be a solution for other NNSA sites challenged with safe nuclear materials storage and disposition. NNSA, with site involvement, is currently transforming the nuclear stockpile and supporting infrastructure to meet the 2030 vision. Efforts are under way to consolidate and modernize the production complex . With respect to the nuclear material stockpile, the NNSA sites are currently reducing the complex nuclear material inventory through disposition and consolidation. This includes moving material from other sites to NTS. State of the art nuclear material management and control practices at NTS are essential for NTS to ensure that assigned activities are accomplished in a safe, secure, efficient, and environmentally responsible manner. NTS activities and challenges will be addressed.

  15. Nuclear material operations manual

    SciTech Connect

    Tyler, R.P.

    1981-02-01

    This manual provides a concise and comprehensive documentation of the operating procedures currently practiced at Sandia National Laboratories with regard to the management, control, and accountability of nuclear materials. The manual is divided into chapters which are devoted to the separate functions performed in nuclear material operations-management, control, accountability, and safeguards, and the final two chapters comprise a document which is also issued separately to provide a summary of the information and operating procedures relevant to custodians and users of radioactive and nuclear materials. The manual also contains samples of the forms utilized in carrying out nuclear material activities. To enhance the clarity of presentation, operating procedures are presented in the form of playscripts in which the responsible organizations and necessary actions are clearly delineated in a chronological fashion from the initiation of a transaction to its completion.

  16. Active Detection and Imaging of Nuclear Materials with High-Brightness Gamma Rays

    SciTech Connect

    Barty, C J; Gibson, D J; Albert, F; Anderson, S G; Anderson, G G; Betts, S M; Berry, R D; Fisher, S E; Hagmann, C A; Johnson, M S; Messerly, M J; Phan, H H; Semenov, V A; Shverdin, M Y; Tremaine, A M; Hartemann, F V; Siders, C W; McNabb, D P

    2009-02-26

    A Compton scattering {gamma}-ray source, capable of producing photons with energies ranging from 0.1 MeV to 0.9 MeV has been commissioned and characterized, and then used to perform nuclear resonance fluorescence (NRF) experiments. The performances of the two laser systems (one for electron production, one for scattering), the electron photoinjector, and the linear accelerator are also detailed, and {gamma}-ray results are presented. The key source parameters are the size (0.01 mm{sup 2}), horizontal and vertical divergence (6 x 10 mrad{sup 2}), duration (10 ps), spectrum and intensity (10{sup 5} photons/shot). These parameters are summarized by the peak brightness, 1.5 x 10{sup 15} photons/mm{sup 2}/mrad{sup 2}/s/0.1% bandwidth, measured at 478 keV. Additional measurements of the flux as a function of the timing difference between the drive laser pulse and the relativistic photo-electron bunch, {gamma}-ray beam profile, and background evaluations are presented. These results are systematically compared to theoretical models and computer simulations. NRF measurements performed on {sup 7}Li in LiH demonstrate the potential of Compton scattering photon sources to accurately detect isotopes in situ.

  17. Nuclear Forensic Materials and Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutcheon, I. D.; Grant, P. M.; Moody, K. J.

    A short history and treatment of the various aspects of nuclear forensic analysis is followed by a discussion of the most common chemical procedures, including applications of tracers, radioisotopic generators, and sample chronometry. Analytic methodology discussed includes sample preparation, radiation detection, various forms of microscopy, and mass-spectrometric techniques. The chapter concludes with methods for the production and treatment of special nuclear materials and with a description of several actual case studies conducted at Livermore.

  18. Optimization of laser ablation and signal enhancement for nuclear material detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LaHaye, Nicole L.

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the role of different laser parameters on laser ablation properties, specifically in terms of performance in laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). Many laser parameters affect laser ablation performance, including laser wavelength and pulse duration, as presented here. It was previously thought that wavelength plays no role in ultrafast laser ablation; however, it was found that shorter wavelength yields lower detection limits and ablation threshold. Our results also demonstrate that in the laser pulse duration range of 40 fs to 1 ps, negligible differences occur in signal intensity, elemental ratios, and detection limits. U/Pb and U/Th ratios, which were examined to ensure limited fractionation, give comparable results at all pulse widths investigated. A parametric study of plasma hydrodynamics will also be presented. An elemental detection method combining laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and LA-ICP-MS is developed, with plasma density and temperature actively monitored to investigate how plasma conditions affect ICP-MS results. The combination of these two methods will help to mitigate the disadvantages of using each technique individually. Depth and spatial analysis of thin films was performed using femtosecond LA-ICP-MS to study the stoichiometric distribution of the films. The thin film-substrate interface was probed, revealing intermixing between the two layers. Lastly, the persistence of uranium emission in laser-produced plasmas (LPP) was investigated under various Ar ambient environments. Plasma collisional effects and confinement play a very important role in emission intensity and persistence, yielding important results for future LIBS and laser absorption spectroscopy (LAS) research. Lastly, suggestions for future work are made, which include extension of the LIBS and LA-ICP-MS systems to other samples like oxide thin films and spatial and depth profiling of known

  19. NUCLEAR FUEL MATERIAL

    DOEpatents

    Goeddel, W.V.

    1962-06-26

    An improved method is given for making the carbides of nuclear fuel material. The metal of the fuel material, which may be a fissile and/or fertile material, is transformed into a silicide, after which the silicide is comminuted to the desired particle size. This silicide is then carburized at an elevated temperature, either above or below the melting point of the silicide, to produce an intimate mixture of the carbide of the fuel material and the carbide of silicon. This mixture of the fuel material carbide and the silicon carbide is relatively stable in the presence of moisture and does not exhibit the highly reactive surface condition which is observed with fuel material carbides made by most other known methods. (AEC)

  20. Detection of Special Nuclear Material in Cargo Containers Using Neutron Interrogation

    SciTech Connect

    Slaughter, D; Accatino, M; Bernstein, A; Candy, J; Dougan, A; Hall, J; Loshak, A; Manatt, D; Meyer, A; Pohl, B; Prussin, S; Walling, R; Weirup, D

    2003-08-01

    The goal of the work reported here is to develop a concept for an active neutron interrogation system that can detect small targets of SNM contraband in cargo containers, roughly 5 kg HEU or 1 kg Pu, even when well shielded by a thick cargo. It is essential that the concept be reliable and have low false-positive and false-negative error rates. It also must be rapid to avoid interruption of commerce, completing the analysis in minutes. A new radiation signature unique to SNM has been identified that utilizes high-energy (E{sub {gamma}} = 3-7 MeV) fission product {gamma}-ray emission. Fortunately, this high-energy {gamma}-ray signature is robust in that it is very distinct compared to normal background radiation where there is no comparable high-energy {gamma}-ray radiation. Equally important, it has a factor of 10 higher yield than delayed neutrons that are the basis of classical interrogation technique normally used on small unshielded specimens of SNM. And it readily penetrates two meters of low-Z and high-Z cargo at the expected density of {approx} 0.5 gm/cm{sup 3}. Consequently, we expect that in most cases the signature flux at the container wall is at least 2-3 decades more intense than delayed neutron signals used historically and facilitates the detection of SNM even when shielded by thick cargo. Experiments have verified this signature and its predicted characteristics. However, they revealed an important interference due to the activation of {sup 16}O by the {sup 16}O(n,p){sup 16}N reaction that produces a 6 MeV {gamma}-ray following a 7-sec {beta}-decay of the {sup 16}N. This interference is important when irradiating with 14 MeV neutrons but is eliminated when lower energy neutron sources are utilized since the reaction threshold for {sup 16}O(n,p){sup 16}N is 10 MeV. The signature {gamma}-ray fluxes exiting a thick cargo can be detected in large arrays of scintillation detectors to produce useful signal count rates of 2-4 x 10{sup 4} cps. That is high

  1. Nuclear materials management storage study

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, G.W. Jr.

    1994-02-01

    The Office of Weapons and Materials Planning (DP-27) requested the Planning Support Group (PSG) at the Savannah River Site to help coordinate a Departmental complex-wide nuclear materials storage study. This study will support the development of management strategies and plans until Defense Programs` Complex 21 is operational by DOE organizations that have direct interest/concerns about or responsibilities for nuclear material storage. They include the Materials Planning Division (DP-273) of DP-27, the Office of the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Facilities (DP-60), the Office of Weapons Complex Reconfiguration (DP-40), and other program areas, including Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM). To facilitate data collection, a questionnaire was developed and issued to nuclear materials custodian sites soliciting information on nuclear materials characteristics, storage plans, issues, etc. Sites were asked to functionally group materials identified in DOE Order 5660.1A (Management of Nuclear Materials) based on common physical and chemical characteristics and common material management strategies and to relate these groupings to Nuclear Materials Management Safeguards and Security (NMMSS) records. A database was constructed using 843 storage records from 70 responding sites. The database and an initial report summarizing storage issues were issued to participating Field Offices and DP-27 for comment. This report presents the background for the Storage Study and an initial, unclassified summary of storage issues and concerns identified by the sites.

  2. Integrated Global Nuclear Materials Management Preliminary Concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, E; Dreicer, M

    2006-06-19

    policy, science/technology, and intelligence elements are all crucial and must be harmonized. It is envisioned that integrated solutions will include reducing and securing nuclear/radiological materials at their source; improved monitoring and tracking; and enhancing detection, interdiction, and response. An active architecture, artfully combined of many synergistic elements, would support national actions and international collaboration in nuclear materials management, and it would help navigate a transition toward global nuclear sustainability.

  3. Investigation of active interrogation techniques to detect special nuclear material in maritime environments: Boarded search of a cargo container ship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grogan, Brandon R.; Henkel, James J.; Johnson, Jeffrey O.; Mihalczo, John T.; Miller, Thomas M.; Patton, Bruce W.

    2013-12-01

    The detonation of a terrorist nuclear weapon in the United States would result in the massive loss of life and grave economic damage. Even if a device was not detonated, its known or suspected presence aboard a cargo container ship in a U.S. port would have major economic and political consequences. One possible means to prevent this threat would be to board a ship at sea and search for the device before it reaches port. The scenario considered here involves a small Coast Guard team with strong intelligence boarding a container ship to search for a nuclear device. Using active interrogation, the team would nonintrusively search a block of shipping containers to locate the fissile material. Potential interrogation source and detector technologies for the team are discussed. The methodology of the scan is presented along with a technique for calculating the required interrogation source strength using computer simulations. MCNPX was used to construct a computer model of a container ship, and several search scenarios were simulated. The results of the simulations are presented in terms of the source strength required for each interrogation scenario. Validation measurements were performed in order to scale these simulation results to expected performance. Interrogations through the short (2.4 m) axis of a standardized shipping container appear to be feasible given the entire range of container loadings tested. Interrogations through several containers at once or a single container through its long (12.2 m) axis do not appear to be viable with a portable interrogation system.

  4. Millimeter wave detection of nuclear radiation: An alternative detection mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Gopalsami, N.; Chien, H. T.; Heifetz, A.; Koehl, E. R.; Raptis, A. C.

    2009-08-15

    We present a nuclear radiation detection mechanism using millimeter waves as an alternative to conventional detection. It is based on the concept that nuclear radiation causes ionization of air and that if we place a dielectric material near the radiation source, it acts as a charge accumulator of the air ions. We have found that millimeter waves can interrogate the charge cloud on the dielectric material remotely. This concept was tested with a standoff millimeter wave system by monitoring the charge levels on a cardboard tube placed in an x-ray beam.

  5. Millimeter wave detection of nuclear radiation - an alternative detection mechanism.

    SciTech Connect

    Gopalsami, N.; Chien, H. T.; Heifetz, A.; Koehl, E. R.; Raptis, A. C.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2009-08-01

    We present a nuclear radiation detection mechanism using millimeter waves as an alternative to conventional detection. It is based on the concept that nuclear radiation causes ionization of air and that if we place a dielectric material near the radiation source, it acts as a charge accumulator of the air ions. We have found that millimeter waves can interrogate the charge cloud on the dielectric material remotely. This concept was tested with a standoff millimeter wave system by monitoring the charge levels on a cardboard tube placed in an x-ray beam.

  6. Millimeter wave detection of nuclear radiation: an alternative detection mechanism.

    PubMed

    Gopalsami, N; Chien, H T; Heifetz, A; Koehl, E R; Raptis, A C

    2009-08-01

    We present a nuclear radiation detection mechanism using millimeter waves as an alternative to conventional detection. It is based on the concept that nuclear radiation causes ionization of air and that if we place a dielectric material near the radiation source, it acts as a charge accumulator of the air ions. We have found that millimeter waves can interrogate the charge cloud on the dielectric material remotely. This concept was tested with a standoff millimeter wave system by monitoring the charge levels on a cardboard tube placed in an x-ray beam.

  7. International safeguards: Accounting for nuclear materials

    SciTech Connect

    Fishbone, L.G.

    1988-09-28

    Nuclear safeguards applied by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) are one element of the non-proliferation regime'', the collection of measures whose aim is to forestall the spread of nuclear weapons to countries that do not already possess them. Safeguards verifications provide evidence that nuclear materials in peaceful use for nuclear-power production are properly accounted for. Though carried out in cooperation with nuclear facility operators, the verifications can provide assurance because they are designed with the capability to detect diversion, should it occur. Traditional safeguards verification measures conducted by inspectors of the IAEA include book auditing; counting and identifying containers of nuclear material; measuring nuclear material; photographic and video surveillance; and sealing. Novel approaches to achieve greater efficiency and effectiveness in safeguards verifications are under investigation as the number and complexity of nuclear facilities grow. These include the zone approach, which entails carrying out verifications for groups of facilities collectively, and randomization approach, which entails carrying out entire inspection visits some fraction of the time on a random basis. Both approaches show promise in particular situations, but, like traditional measures, must be tested to ensure their practical utility. These approaches are covered on this report. 15 refs., 16 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Materials challenges for nuclear systems

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, Todd; Busby, Jeremy; Meyer, Mitch; Petti, David

    2010-11-26

    The safe and economical operation of any nuclear power system relies to a great extent, on the success of the fuel and the materials of construction. During the lifetime of a nuclear power system which currently can be as long as 60 years, the materials are subject to high temperature, a corrosive environment, and damage from high-energy particles released during fission. The fuel which provides the power for the reactor has a much shorter life but is subject to the same types of harsh environments. This article reviews the environments in which fuels and materials from current and proposed nuclear systems operate and then describes how the creation of the Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility is allowing researchers from across the U.S. to test their ideas for improved fuels and materials.

  9. Contraband Detection with Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence: Feasibility and Impact

    SciTech Connect

    Pruet, J; Lange, D

    2007-01-03

    In this report they show that cargo interrogation systems developed to thwart trafficking of illicit nuclear materials could also be powerful tools in the larger fight against contraband smuggling. In particular, in addition to detecting special nuclear materials, cargo scanning systems that exploit nuclear resonance fluorescence to detect specific isotopes can be used to help find: chemical weapons; some drugs as well as some chemicals regulated under the controlled substances act; precious metals; materials regulated under export control laws; and commonly trafficked fluorocarbons.

  10. Radiation damage in nuclear materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matzke, Hj.

    1992-03-01

    Any nuclear material experiences radiation damage in the course of its technological application. The damage sources cover a wide range: fission, fast neutrons, α-particles and recoil atoms of the α-decay, β- and γ-radiation. In addition, extensive parametric studies using controlled ion implantation have been performed covering wide ranges of doses, ion energies, implantation and recovery-temperatures and using different ion beams. The present paper concentrates on ceramic nuclear materials for fission reactors (i.e. the nuclear fuels UO 2 and UN), but damage effects in materials for solidification of nuclear waste (ceramics and glasses) arc also discussed. Since the author has contributed extensive reviews to this field at previous REI conferences, emphasis is placed on new insights gained in recent work. A good knowledge on the various aspects (type, extent, recovery temperatures, etc.) of radiation damage has been elaborated. Many physical properties are affected. The importance of radiation effects and of radiation damage for the technological application of nuclear materials is discussed.

  11. MSFC Nuclear Propulsion Materials Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, J. R.; Cook, B.

    2004-01-01

    Nuclear propulsion systems for spacecraft applications present numerous technical challenges for propulsion systems. They have been the focus of a recent NRA. Challenges inclue: a nuclear reactor subsystem to produce thermal energy; a power conversion subsystem to convert the thermal energy into electrical energy; a propulsion subsystem that utilizes Hall effect thrusters; thruster technologies and high temperature materials to support subsystems. The MSFC Electrostatic Levitation (ESL) Facility provides an ideal platform for the study of high temperature and reactive materials. An overview of the facility and its capabilities will be presented.

  12. Materials Challenges in Nuclear Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Zinkle, Steven J; Was, Gary

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear power currently provides about 13% of the worldwide electrical power, and has emerged as a reliable baseload source of electricity. A number of materials challenges must be successfully resolved for nuclear energy to continue to make further improvements in reliability, safety and economics. The operating environment for materials in current and proposed future nuclear energy systems is summarized, along with a description of materials used for the main operating components. Materials challenges associated with power uprates and extensions of the operating lifetimes of reactors are described. The three major materials challenges for the current and next generation of water-cooled fission reactors are centered on two structural materials aging degradation issues (corrosion and stress corrosion cracking of structural materials and neutron-induced embrittlement of reactor pressure vessels), along with improved fuel system reliability and accident tolerance issues. The major corrosion and stress corrosion cracking degradation mechanisms for light water reactors are reviewed. The materials degradation issues for the Zr alloy clad UO2 fuel system currently utilized in the majority of commercial nuclear power plants is discussed for normal and off-normal operating conditions. Looking to proposed future (Generation IV) fission and fusion energy systems, there are 5 key bulk radiation degradation effects (low temperature radiation hardening and embrittlement, radiation-induced and modified solute segregation and phase stability, irradiation creep, void swelling, and high temperature helium embrittlement) and a multitude of corrosion and stress corrosion cracking effects (including irradiation-assisted phenomena) that can have a major impact on the performance of structural materials.

  13. Materials challenges for nuclear systems

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Allen, Todd; Busby, Jeremy; Meyer, Mitch; Petti, David

    2010-11-26

    The safe and economical operation of any nuclear power system relies to a great extent, on the success of the fuel and the materials of construction. During the lifetime of a nuclear power system which currently can be as long as 60 years, the materials are subject to high temperature, a corrosive environment, and damage from high-energy particles released during fission. The fuel which provides the power for the reactor has a much shorter life but is subject to the same types of harsh environments. This article reviews the environments in which fuels and materials from current and proposed nuclearmore » systems operate and then describes how the creation of the Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility is allowing researchers from across the U.S. to test their ideas for improved fuels and materials.« less

  14. Solid state nuclear track detection

    SciTech Connect

    Durrani, S.A.; Bull, R.K.

    1987-01-01

    This book is a basic work on the technique variously known as 'nuclear track analysis', 'track-etch technique', or 'solid state nuclear tract detection'. This has greatly expanded in range, scope and depth since the early 1960's, soon after its discovery, until there is hardly a field now in which it has not found an actual or potential use. Such applications range from archaeology, geology, space physics, medicine and biology to reactor physics and nuclear physics-to name but a few.

  15. Nuclear and hazardous material perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Sandquist, Gary M.; Kunze, Jay F.; Rogers, Vern C.

    2007-07-01

    The reemerging nuclear enterprise in the 21. century empowering the power industry and nuclear technology is still viewed with fear and concern by many of the public and many political leaders. Nuclear phobia is also exhibited by many nuclear professionals. The fears and concerns of these groups are complex and varied, but focus primarily on (1) management and disposal of radioactive waste [especially spent nuclear fuel and low level radioactive waste], (2) radiation exposures at any level, and (3) the threat nuclear terrorism. The root cause of all these concerns is the exaggerated risk perceived to human health from radiation exposure. These risks from radiation exposure are compounded by the universal threat of nuclear weapons and the disastrous consequences if these weapons or materials become available to terrorists or rogue nations. This paper addresses the bases and rationality for these fears and considers methods and options for mitigating these fears. Scientific evidence and actual data are provided. Radiation risks are compared to similar risks from common chemicals and familiar human activities that are routinely accepted. (authors)

  16. Radiation Detection Material Discovery Initiative at PNNL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milbrath, Brian

    2006-05-01

    Today's security threats are being met with 30-year old radiation technology. Discovery of new radiation detection materials is currently a slow and Edisonian process. With heightened concerns over nuclear proliferation, terrorism and unconventional warfare, an alternative strategy for identification and development of potential radiation detection materials must be adopted. Through the Radiation Detection Materials Discovery Initiative, PNNL focuses on the science-based discovery of next generation materials for radiation detection by addressing three ``grand challenges'': fundamental understanding of radiation detection, identification of new materials, and accelerating the discovery process. The new initiative has eight projects addressing these challenges, which will be described, including early work, paths forward and the opportunities for collaboration.

  17. Special nuclear material simulation device

    DOEpatents

    Leckey, John H.; DeMint, Amy; Gooch, Jack; Hawk, Todd; Pickett, Chris A.; Blessinger, Chris; York, Robbie L.

    2014-08-12

    An apparatus for simulating special nuclear material is provided. The apparatus typically contains a small quantity of special nuclear material (SNM) in a configuration that simulates a much larger quantity of SNM. Generally the apparatus includes a spherical shell that is formed from an alloy containing a small quantity of highly enriched uranium. Also typically provided is a core of depleted uranium. A spacer, typically aluminum, may be used to separate the depleted uranium from the shell of uranium alloy. A cladding, typically made of titanium, is provided to seal the source. Methods are provided to simulate SNM for testing radiation monitoring portals. Typically the methods use at least one primary SNM spectral line and exclude at least one secondary SNM spectral line.

  18. An interactive ontology-driven information system for simulating background radiation and generating scenarios for testing special nuclear materials detection algorithms

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Sorokine, Alexandre; Schlicher, Bob G.; Ward, Richard C.; Wright, Michael C.; Kruse, Kara L.; Bhaduri, Budhendra; Slepoy, Alexander

    2015-05-22

    This paper describes an original approach to generating scenarios for the purpose of testing the algorithms used to detect special nuclear materials (SNM) that incorporates the use of ontologies. Separating the signal of SNM from the background requires sophisticated algorithms. To assist in developing such algorithms, there is a need for scenarios that capture a very wide range of variables affecting the detection process, depending on the type of detector being used. To provide such a cpability, we developed an ontology-driven information system (ODIS) for generating scenarios that can be used in creating scenarios for testing of algorithms for SNMmore » detection. The ontology-driven scenario generator (ODSG) is an ODIS based on information supplied by subject matter experts and other documentation. The details of the creation of the ontology, the development of the ontology-driven information system, and the design of the web user interface (UI) are presented along with specific examples of scenarios generated using the ODSG. We demonstrate that the paradigm behind the ODSG is capable of addressing the problem of semantic complexity at both the user and developer levels. Compared to traditional approaches, an ODIS provides benefits such as faithful representation of the users' domain conceptualization, simplified management of very large and semantically diverse datasets, and the ability to handle frequent changes to the application and the UI. Furthermore, the approach makes possible the generation of a much larger number of specific scenarios based on limited user-supplied information« less

  19. An interactive ontology-driven information system for simulating background radiation and generating scenarios for testing special nuclear materials detection algorithms

    SciTech Connect

    Sorokine, Alexandre; Schlicher, Bob G.; Ward, Richard C.; Wright, Michael C.; Kruse, Kara L.; Bhaduri, Budhendra; Slepoy, Alexander

    2015-05-22

    This paper describes an original approach to generating scenarios for the purpose of testing the algorithms used to detect special nuclear materials (SNM) that incorporates the use of ontologies. Separating the signal of SNM from the background requires sophisticated algorithms. To assist in developing such algorithms, there is a need for scenarios that capture a very wide range of variables affecting the detection process, depending on the type of detector being used. To provide such a cpability, we developed an ontology-driven information system (ODIS) for generating scenarios that can be used in creating scenarios for testing of algorithms for SNM detection. The ontology-driven scenario generator (ODSG) is an ODIS based on information supplied by subject matter experts and other documentation. The details of the creation of the ontology, the development of the ontology-driven information system, and the design of the web user interface (UI) are presented along with specific examples of scenarios generated using the ODSG. We demonstrate that the paradigm behind the ODSG is capable of addressing the problem of semantic complexity at both the user and developer levels. Compared to traditional approaches, an ODIS provides benefits such as faithful representation of the users' domain conceptualization, simplified management of very large and semantically diverse datasets, and the ability to handle frequent changes to the application and the UI. Furthermore, the approach makes possible the generation of a much larger number of specific scenarios based on limited user-supplied information

  20. Puncture detecting barrier materials

    DOEpatents

    Hermes, Robert E.; Ramsey, David R.; Stampfer, Joseph F.; Macdonald, John M.

    1998-01-01

    A method and apparatus for continuous real-time monitoring of the integrity of protective barrier materials, particularly protective barriers against toxic, radioactive and biologically hazardous materials has been developed. Conductivity, resistivity or capacitance between conductive layers in the multilayer protective materials is measured by using leads connected to electrically conductive layers in the protective barrier material. The measured conductivity, resistivity or capacitance significantly changes upon a physical breach of the protective barrier material.

  1. Puncture detecting barrier materials

    DOEpatents

    Hermes, R.E.; Ramsey, D.R.; Stampfer, J.F.; Macdonald, J.M.

    1998-03-31

    A method and apparatus for continuous real-time monitoring of the integrity of protective barrier materials, particularly protective barriers against toxic, radioactive and biologically hazardous materials has been developed. Conductivity, resistivity or capacitance between conductive layers in the multilayer protective materials is measured by using leads connected to electrically conductive layers in the protective barrier material. The measured conductivity, resistivity or capacitance significantly changes upon a physical breach of the protective barrier material. 4 figs.

  2. Application of Two Phase (Liquid/Gas) Xenon Gamma-Camera for the Detection of Special Nuclear Material and PET Medical Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    McKinsey, Daniel Nicholas

    2013-08-27

    The McKinsey group at Yale has been awarded a grant from DTRA for the building of a Liquid Xenon Gamma Ray Color Camera (LXe-GRCC), which combines state-of-the-art detection of LXe scintillation light and time projection chamber (TPC) charge readout. The DTRA application requires a movable detector and hence only a single phase (liquid) xenon detector can be considered in this case. We propose to extend the DTRA project to applications that allow a two phase (liquid/gas) xenon TPC. This entails additional (yet minimal) hardware and extension of the research effort funded by DTRA. The two phase detector will have better energy and angular resolution. Such detectors will be useful for PET medical imaging and detection of special nuclear material in stationary applications (e.g. port of entry). The expertise of the UConn group in gas phase TPCs will enhance the capabilities of the Yale group and the synergy between the two groups will be very beneficial for this research project as well as the education and research projects of the two universities. The LXe technology to be used in this project has matured rapidly over the past few years, developed for use in detectors for nuclear physics and astrophysics. This technology may now be applied in a straightforward way to the imaging of gamma rays. According to detailed Monte Carlo simulations recently performed at Yale University, energy resolution of 1% and angular resolution of 3 degrees may be obtained for 1.0 MeV gamma rays, using existing technology. With further research and development, energy resolution of 0.5% and angular resolution of 1.3 degrees will be possible at 1.0 MeV. Because liquid xenon is a high density, high Z material, it is highly efficient for scattering and capturing gamma rays. In addition, this technology scales elegantly to large detector areas, with several square meter apertures possible. The Yale research group is highly experienced in the development and use of noble liquid detectors for

  3. Scanning of vehicles for nuclear materials

    SciTech Connect

    Katz, J. I.

    2014-05-09

    Might a nuclear-armed terrorist group or state use ordinary commerce to deliver a nuclear weapon by smuggling it in a cargo container or vehicle? This delivery method would be the only one available to a sub-state actor, and it might enable a state to make an unattributed attack. Detection of a weapon or fissile material smuggled in this manner is difficult because of the large volume and mass available for shielding. Here I review methods for screening cargo containers to detect the possible presence of nuclear threats. Because of the large volume of innocent international commerce, and the cost and disruption of secondary screening by opening and inspection, it is essential that the method be rapid and have a low false-positive rate. Shielding can prevent the detection of neutrons emitted spontaneously or by induced fission. The two promising methods are muon tomography and high energy X-radiography. If they do not detect a shielded threat object they can detect the shield itself.

  4. Scanning of vehicles for nuclear materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katz, J. I.

    2014-05-01

    Might a nuclear-armed terrorist group or state use ordinary commerce to deliver a nuclear weapon by smuggling it in a cargo container or vehicle? This delivery method would be the only one available to a sub-state actor, and it might enable a state to make an unattributed attack. Detection of a weapon or fissile material smuggled in this manner is difficult because of the large volume and mass available for shielding. Here I review methods for screening cargo containers to detect the possible presence of nuclear threats. Because of the large volume of innocent international commerce, and the cost and disruption of secondary screening by opening and inspection, it is essential that the method be rapid and have a low false-positive rate. Shielding can prevent the detection of neutrons emitted spontaneously or by induced fission. The two promising methods are muon tomography and high energy X-radiography. If they do not detect a shielded threat object they can detect the shield itself.

  5. Unattended sensors for nuclear threat detection

    SciTech Connect

    Runkle, Robert C.; Myjak, Mitchell J.; Batdorf, Michael T.; Bowler, Ryan S.; Kiff, Scott D.; Morris, Scott J.; Mullen, Crystal A.; Rohrer, John S.; Todd, Lindsay C.

    2008-06-30

    This paper discusses the ongoing development of a compact, unattended, and low-power radiation detection system designed for deployment to the front lines of nuclear proliferation. Current countermeasure deployments aim to detect nuclear threats by screening cargo containers abroad or at ports of entry, but the defensive nature of these systems means that they face the immense challenge of detecting intentionally-concealed materials. A complementary strategy places countermeasures closer to the source of nuclear proliferation, but deployments to these regions often must operate autonomously and in the absence of infrastructure. This application motivates our development of a low-power system capable of detecting gamma-ray and neutron emissions while operating autonomously for extended periods of time. Many challenges are present when developing radiation-detection systems for this application, and this paper describes work focused on two of them: the development of compact, low-power electronics for gamma-ray-spectrometer and 3He- tube signal processing, and analysis algorithms capable of distinguishing threats from benign sources in mid-resolution gamma-ray spectrometers. We discuss our development efforts on these fronts and present results based on implementation in a proof-of-principle system comprised of two 5 cm x 10 cm x 41 cm NaI(Tl) crystals and eight 40-cm 3He tubes.

  6. 10 CFR 74.51 - Nuclear material control and accounting for strategic special nuclear material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nuclear material control and accounting for strategic special nuclear material. 74.51 Section 74.51 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Formula Quantities of Strategic Special...

  7. 10 CFR 74.51 - Nuclear material control and accounting for strategic special nuclear material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Nuclear material control and accounting for strategic special nuclear material. 74.51 Section 74.51 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Formula Quantities of Strategic Special...

  8. 10 CFR 74.51 - Nuclear material control and accounting for strategic special nuclear material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Nuclear material control and accounting for strategic special nuclear material. 74.51 Section 74.51 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Formula Quantities of Strategic Special...

  9. 10 CFR 74.51 - Nuclear material control and accounting for strategic special nuclear material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Nuclear material control and accounting for strategic special nuclear material. 74.51 Section 74.51 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Formula Quantities of Strategic Special...

  10. 10 CFR 74.51 - Nuclear material control and accounting for strategic special nuclear material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Nuclear material control and accounting for strategic special nuclear material. 74.51 Section 74.51 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Formula Quantities of Strategic Special...

  11. Statistical methods for nuclear material management

    SciTech Connect

    Bowen W.M.; Bennett, C.A.

    1988-12-01

    This book is intended as a reference manual of statistical methodology for nuclear material management practitioners. It describes statistical methods currently or potentially important in nuclear material management, explains the choice of methods for specific applications, and provides examples of practical applications to nuclear material management problems. Together with the accompanying training manual, which contains fully worked out problems keyed to each chapter, this book can also be used as a textbook for courses in statistical methods for nuclear material management. It should provide increased understanding and guidance to help improve the application of statistical methods to nuclear material management problems.

  12. Large area nuclear particle detectors using ET materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this SBIR Phase 1 feasibility effort was to demonstrate the usefulness of Quantex electron-trapping (ET) materials for spatial detection of nuclear particles over large areas. This demonstration entailed evaluating the prompt visible scintillation as nuclear particles impinged on films of ET materials, and subsequently detecting the nuclear particle impingement information pattern stored in the ET material, by means of the visible-wavelength luminescence produced by near-infrared interrogation. Readily useful levels of scintillation and luminescence outputs are demonstrated.

  13. Review of Nuclear Methodologies for Explosive Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Womble, Phillip C.; Vourvopoulos, George; Novikov, Ivan; Paschal, Jon

    2001-10-01

    Nuclear techniques show a number of advantages for non-destructive elemental characterization. These include the ability to examine bulk quantities with speed, high elemental specificity, and no memory effects from the previously measured object. These qualities are important for an effective detection system for explosives and drugs. High explosives (TNT, RDX, C-4, etc.) are composed primarily of the chemical elements hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen. Many innocuous materials are also primarily composed of these same elements. These elements, however, are found in each material with very different elemental ratios and concentrations. It is thus possible to identify and differentiate e.g. TNT from paraffin. For narcotics, the C/O ratio is at least a factor of two larger than the innocuous materials. Explosives have been shown to be differentiated by the utilization of both C/O ratio and N/O ratios. The problem of identifying explosives is thus reduced to the problem of elemental identification and quantization. We will review the methods of explosive detection with emphasis on nuclear techniques. We will discuss where improvements are desired on current techniques for landmine detection and unexploded ordnance.

  14. Environmental Detection of Clandestine Nuclear Weapon Programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemp, R. Scott

    2016-06-01

    Environmental sensing of nuclear activities has the potential to detect nuclear weapon programs at early stages, deter nuclear proliferation, and help verify nuclear accords. However, no robust system of detection has been deployed to date. This can be variously attributed to high costs, technical limitations in detector technology, simple countermeasures, and uncertainty about the magnitude or behavior of potential signals. In this article, current capabilities and promising opportunities are reviewed. Systematic research in a variety of areas could improve prospects for detecting covert nuclear programs, although the potential for countermeasures suggests long-term verification of nuclear agreements will need to rely on methods other than environmental sensing.

  15. Nuclear power plant cable materials :

    SciTech Connect

    Celina, Mathias Christopher; Gillen, Kenneth T; Lindgren, Eric Richard

    2013-05-01

    A selective literature review was conducted to assess whether currently available accelerated aging and original qualification data could be used to establish operational margins for the continued use of cable insulation and jacketing materials in nuclear power plant environments. The materials are subject to chemical and physical degradation under extended radiationthermal- oxidative conditions. Of particular interest were the circumstances under which existing aging data could be used to predict whether aged materials should pass loss of coolant accident (LOCA) performance requirements. Original LOCA qualification testing usually involved accelerated aging simulations of the 40-year expected ambient aging conditions followed by a LOCA simulation. The accelerated aging simulations were conducted under rapid accelerated aging conditions that did not account for many of the known limitations in accelerated polymer aging and therefore did not correctly simulate actual aging conditions. These highly accelerated aging conditions resulted in insulation materials with mostly inert aging processes as well as jacket materials where oxidative damage dropped quickly away from the air-exposed outside jacket surface. Therefore, for most LOCA performance predictions, testing appears to have relied upon heterogeneous aging behavior with oxidation often limited to the exterior of the cable cross-section a situation which is not comparable with the nearly homogenous oxidative aging that will occur over decades under low dose rate and low temperature plant conditions. The historical aging conditions are therefore insufficient to determine with reasonable confidence the remaining operational margins for these materials. This does not necessarily imply that the existing 40-year-old materials would fail if LOCA conditions occurred, but rather that unambiguous statements about the current aging state and anticipated LOCA performance cannot be provided based on

  16. Source Book of Educational Materials for Nuclear Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pijar, Mary Lou, Comp.; Lewis, Jeannine T., Comp.

    The contents of this sourcebook of educational materials are divided into the following sections: Anatomy and Physiology; Medical Terminology; Medical Ethics and Department Management; Patient Care and Medical Decision-Making; Basic Nuclear Medicine; Diagnostic in Vivo; Diagnostic in Vitro; Pediatric Nuclear Medicine; Radiation Detection and…

  17. Detection of Explosive Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trogler, William

    2008-03-01

    High explosives present a challenge for detection methods because of their range of physical properties, which range from volatile liquids to nonvolatile solids. They share the common feature of possessing both oxidizing and reducing chemical properties within a single molecule or an intimate chemical mixture. Our research group has been focused on the synthesis of new luminescent polymers, which undergo electron transfer quenching by a variety of organic high explosives, such as TNT, RDX, and PETN. The application to imaging trace explosive particle residues will be described. Density functional calculations show an excellent correlation between the sensor response and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital of the explosive analyte. For volatile high explosives, such as organic peroxides (e.g. TATP), vapor sensors based on chemically sensitive transistors containing different metal phthalocyanines have been explored. The mechanism of current response in these films has been shown to be a result of surface Lewis acid-base chemistry or redox catalysis at the metal centers. The link between surface chemistry and electronic resonse has led to a simple peroxide specific vapor sensor array.

  18. Advanced research workshop: nuclear materials safety

    SciTech Connect

    Jardine, L J; Moshkov, M M

    1999-01-28

    The Advanced Research Workshop (ARW) on Nuclear Materials Safety held June 8-10, 1998, in St. Petersburg, Russia, was attended by 27 Russian experts from 14 different Russian organizations, seven European experts from six different organizations, and 14 U.S. experts from seven different organizations. The ARW was conducted at the State Education Center (SEC), a former Minatom nuclear training center in St. Petersburg. Thirty-three technical presentations were made using simultaneous translations. These presentations are reprinted in this volume as a formal ARW Proceedings in the NATO Science Series. The representative technical papers contained here cover nuclear material safety topics on the storage and disposition of excess plutonium and high enriched uranium (HEU) fissile materials, including vitrification, mixed oxide (MOX) fuel fabrication, plutonium ceramics, reprocessing, geologic disposal, transportation, and Russian regulatory processes. This ARW completed discussions by experts of the nuclear materials safety topics that were not covered in the previous, companion ARW on Nuclear Materials Safety held in Amarillo, Texas, in March 1997. These two workshops, when viewed together as a set, have addressed most nuclear material aspects of the storage and disposition operations required for excess HEU and plutonium. As a result, specific experts in nuclear materials safety have been identified, know each other from their participation in t he two ARW interactions, and have developed a partial consensus and dialogue on the most urgent nuclear materials safety topics to be addressed in a formal bilateral program on t he subject. A strong basis now exists for maintaining and developing a continuing dialogue between Russian, European, and U.S. experts in nuclear materials safety that will improve the safety of future nuclear materials operations in all the countries involved because of t he positive synergistic effects of focusing these diverse backgrounds of

  19. In-field analysis and assessment of nuclear material

    SciTech Connect

    Morgado, R.E.; Myers, W.S.; Olivares, J.A.; Phillips, J.R.; York, R.L.

    1996-05-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has actively developed and implemented a number of instruments to monitor, detect, and analyze nuclear materials in the field. Many of these technologies, developed under existing US Department of Energy programs, can also be used to effectively interdict nuclear materials smuggled across or within national borders. In particular, two instruments are suitable for immediate implementation: the NAVI-2, a hand-held gamma-ray and neutron system for the detection and rapid identification of radioactive materials, and the portable mass spectrometer for the rapid analysis of minute quantities of radioactive materials. Both instruments provide not only critical information about the characteristics of the nuclear material for law-enforcement agencies and national authorities but also supply health and safety information for personnel handling the suspect materials.

  20. Fuzzy controllers in nuclear material accounting

    SciTech Connect

    Zardecki, A.

    1994-10-01

    Fuzzy controllers are applied to predicting and modeling a time series, with particular emphasis on anomaly detection in nuclear material inventory differences. As compared to neural networks, the fuzzy controllers can operate in real time; their learning process does not require many iterations to converge. For this reason fuzzy controllers are potentially useful in time series forecasting, where the authors want to detect and identify trends in real time. They describe an object-oriented implementation of the algorithm advanced by Wang and Mendel. Numerical results are presented both for inventory data and time series corresponding to chaotic situations, such as encountered in the context of strange attractors. In the latter case, the effects of noise on the predictive power of the fuzzy controller are explored.

  1. Materials in Nuclear Waste Disposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rebak, Raul B.

    2014-03-01

    Commercial nuclear energy has been used for over 6 decades; however, to date, none of the 30+ countries with nuclear power has opened a repository for high-level waste (HLW). All countries with nuclear waste plan to dispose of it in metallic containers located in underground geologically stable repositories. Some countries also have liquid nuclear waste that needs to be reduced and vitrified before disposition. The five articles included in this topic offer a cross section of the importance of alloy selection to handle nuclear waste at the different stages of waste processing and disposal.

  2. Nuclear Materials Management Program at the NNSS

    SciTech Connect

    ,

    2012-06-08

    The Nevada National Security Site (NNSS), formerly the Nevada Test Site, was established in 1951 mainly for weapons testing; because special nuclear materials (SNM) were expended during the tests, a nuclear material management program was not required. That changed in December 2004 with the receipt of Category I SNM for purposes other than weapons testing. At that time, Material Control and Accountability and Nuclear Material Management were a joint laboratory (Los Alamos and Lawrence Livermore) effort with nuclear material management being performed at the laboratories. That changed in March 2006 when the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office appointed sole responsibility to the Management and Operations (M&O) contractor, National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec). Since 2006 the basic nuclear material management work was completed by a combination of M&O employees and subcontractors, but a true Nuclear Material Management (NMM) Program was not determined to be necessary until recently. With expanding missions and more nuclear material (NM) coming to the NNSS, it became imperative to have an organization to manage these materials; therefore, an NMM Manager was officially appointed by NSTec in 2012. In June 2011 a Gap Analysis and white paper was completed by a subcontractor; this presentation will include highlights from those documents along with our plans to resolve the “gaps” and stand up a functional and compliant NMM Program at the NNSS.

  3. Nuclear materials safeguards for the future

    SciTech Connect

    Tape, J.W.

    1995-12-31

    Basic concepts of domestic and international safeguards are described, with an emphasis on safeguards systems for the fuel cycles of commercial power reactors. Future trends in institutional and technical measures for nuclear materials safeguards are outlined. The conclusion is that continued developments in safeguards approaches and technology, coupled with institutional measures that facilitate the global management and protection of nuclear materials, are up to the challenge of safeguarding the growing inventories of nuclear materials in commercial fuel cycles in technologically advanced States with stable governments that have signed the nonproliferation treaty. These same approaches also show promise for facilitating international inspection of excess weapons materials and verifying a fissile materials cutoff convention.

  4. The nuclear materials control technology briefing book

    SciTech Connect

    Hartwell, J.K.; Fernandez, S.J.

    1992-03-01

    As national and international interests in nuclear arms control and non-proliferation of nuclear weapons, intensify, it becomes ever more important that contributors be aware of the technologies available for the measurement and control of the nuclear materials important to nuclear weapons development. This briefing book presents concise, nontechnical summaries of various special nuclear material (SNM) and tritium production monitoring technologies applicable to the control of nuclear materials and their production. Since the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) operates a multinational, on-site-inspector-based safeguards program in support of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT), many (but not all) of the technologies reported in this document are in routine use or under development for IAEA safeguards.

  5. Nuclear weapon detection categorization analysis

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-01

    This statement of work is for the Proof of Concept for nuclear weapon categories utility in Arms control. The focus of the project will be to collect, analyze and correlate Intrinsic Radiation (INRAD) calculation results for the purpose of defining measurable signatures that differentiate categories of nuclear weapons. The project will support START III negotiations by identifying categories of nuclear weapons. The categories could be used to clarify sub-limits on the total number of nuclear weapons.

  6. Passive sensor systems for nuclear material monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, M.L.; Boatner, L.A.; Holcomb, D.E.; McElhaney, S.A.; Mihalczo, J.T.; Muhs, J.D.; Roberts, M.R.; Hill, N.W.

    1993-09-01

    Passive fiber optic sensor systems capable of confirming the presence of special nuclear materials in storage or process facilities are being developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). These sensors provide completely passive, remote measurement capability. No power supplies, amplifiers, or other active components that could degrade system reliability are required at the sensor location. ORNL, through its research programs in scintillator materials, has developed a variety of materials for use in alpha-, beta-, gamma-, and neutron-sensitive scintillator detectors. In addition to sensors for measuring radiation flux, new sensor materials have been developed which are capable of measuring weight, temperature, and source location. An example of a passive sensor for temperature measurement is the combination of a thermophosphor (e.g., rare-earth activated Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}) with {sup 6}LiF (95% {sup 6}Li). This combination results in a new class of scintillators for thermal neutrons that absorb energy from the radiation particles and remit the energy as a light pulse, the decay rate of which, over a specified temperature range, is temperature dependent. Other passive sensors being developed include pressure-sensitive triboluminescent materials, weight-sensitive silicone rubber fibers, scintillating fibers, and other materials for gamma and neutron detection. The light from the scintillator materials of each sensor would be sent through optical fibers to a monitoring station, where the attribute quantity could be measured and compared with previously recorded emission levels. Confirmatory measurement applications of these technologies are being evaluated to reduce the effort, costs, and employee exposures associated with inventorying stockpiles of highly enriched uranium at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant.

  7. Nuclear materials stewardship: Our enduring mission

    SciTech Connect

    Isaacs, T.H.

    1998-12-31

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessors have handled a remarkably wide variety of nuclear materials over the past 50 yr. Two fundamental changes have occurred that shape the current landscape regarding nuclear materials. If one recognizes the implications and opportunities, one sees that the stewardship of nuclear materials will be a fundamental and important job of the DOE for the foreseeable future. The first change--the breakup of the Soviet Union and the resulting end to the nuclear arms race--altered US objectives. Previously, the focus was on materials production, weapon design, nuclear testing, and stockpile enhancements. Now the attention is on dismantlement of weapons, excess special nuclear material inventories, accompanying increased concern over the protection afforded to such materials; new arms control measures; and importantly, maintenance of the safety and reliability of the remaining arsenal without testing. The second change was the raised consciousness and sense of responsibility for dealing with the environmental legacies of past nuclear arms programs. Recognition of the need to clean up radioactive contamination, manage the wastes, conduct current operations responsibly, and restore the environment have led to the establishment of what is now the largest program in the DOE. Two additional features add to the challenge and drive the need for recognition of nuclear materials stewardship as a fundamental, enduring, and compelling mission of the DOE. The first is the extraordinary time frames. No matter what the future of nuclear weapons and no matter what the future of nuclear power, the DOE will be responsible for most of the country`s nuclear materials and wastes for generations. Even if the Yucca Mountain program is successful and on schedule, it will last more than 100 yr. Second, the use, management, and disposition of nuclear materials and wastes affect a variety of nationally important and diverse objectives, from national

  8. Defense Nuclear Material Stewardship Integrated Inventory Information Management System (IIIMS).

    SciTech Connect

    Aas, Christopher A.; Lenhart, James E.; Bray, Olin H.; Witcher, Christina Jenkin

    2004-11-01

    Sandia National Laboratories was tasked with developing the Defense Nuclear Material Stewardship Integrated Inventory Information Management System (IIIMS) with the sponsorship of NA-125.3 and the concurrence of DOE/NNSA field and area offices. The purpose of IIIMS was to modernize nuclear materials management information systems at the enterprise level. Projects over the course of several years attempted to spearhead this modernization. The scope of IIIMS was broken into broad enterprise-oriented materials management and materials forecasting. The IIIMS prototype was developed to allow multiple participating user groups to explore nuclear material requirements and needs in detail. The purpose of material forecasting was to determine nuclear material availability over a 10 to 15 year period in light of the dynamic nature of nuclear materials management. Formal DOE Directives (requirements) were needed to direct IIIMS efforts but were never issued and the project has been halted. When restarted, duplicating or re-engineering the activities from 1999 to 2003 is unnecessary, and in fact future initiatives can build on previous work. IIIMS requirements should be structured to provide high confidence that discrepancies are detected, and classified information is not divulged. Enterprise-wide materials management systems maintained by the military can be used as overall models to base IIIMS implementation concepts upon.

  9. Synthetic Organic Materials in Nuclear Powerplants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bouquet, F. L.; Winslow, J. W.

    1985-01-01

    Report aids plant designers and qualification engineers in ensuring that organic materials in nuclear powerplants will perform satisfactorily in such safety-related equipment as insulation on motor windings, pump diaphragms, motor and pump lubricants, and pump seals and gaskets. Report provides information for service that may include both mild and harsh nuclear environments.

  10. Radiation Effects in Nuclear Waste Materials

    SciTech Connect

    William j. Weber; Lumin Wang; Jonathan Icenhower

    2004-07-09

    The objective of this project is to develop a fundamental understanding of radiation effects in glasses and ceramics, as well as the influence of solid-state radiation effects on aqueous dissolution kinetics, which may impact the performance of nuclear waste forms and stabilized nuclear materials.

  11. Nuclear Concrete Materials Database Phase I Development

    SciTech Connect

    Ren, Weiju; Naus, Dan J

    2012-05-01

    The FY 2011 accomplishments in Phase I development of the Nuclear Concrete Materials Database to support the Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program are summarized. The database has been developed using the ORNL materials database infrastructure established for the Gen IV Materials Handbook to achieve cost reduction and development efficiency. In this Phase I development, the database has been successfully designed and constructed to manage documents in the Portable Document Format generated from the Structural Materials Handbook that contains nuclear concrete materials data and related information. The completion of the Phase I database has established a solid foundation for Phase II development, in which a digital database will be designed and constructed to manage nuclear concrete materials data in various digitized formats to facilitate electronic and mathematical processing for analysis, modeling, and design applications.

  12. Nuclear Materials Safeguards - Manpower Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanter, Manuel A.

    Nuclear safeguard systems, their operation and implications for future manpower needs, and the need for these topics to be integrated into the engineering education curriculum, are focused on in this paper. The elements of a safeguard system and factors influencing the selection of a particular system are presented. Projections concerning the use…

  13. 10 CFR 74.31 - Nuclear material control and accounting for special nuclear material of low strategic significance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Nuclear material control and accounting for special nuclear material of low strategic significance. 74.31 Section 74.31 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Special Nuclear Material of...

  14. 10 CFR 74.31 - Nuclear material control and accounting for special nuclear material of low strategic significance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Nuclear material control and accounting for special nuclear material of low strategic significance. 74.31 Section 74.31 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Special Nuclear Material of...

  15. 10 CFR 74.31 - Nuclear material control and accounting for special nuclear material of low strategic significance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Nuclear material control and accounting for special nuclear material of low strategic significance. 74.31 Section 74.31 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Special Nuclear Material of...

  16. 10 CFR 74.31 - Nuclear material control and accounting for special nuclear material of low strategic significance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Nuclear material control and accounting for special nuclear material of low strategic significance. 74.31 Section 74.31 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Special Nuclear Material of...

  17. 10 CFR 74.31 - Nuclear material control and accounting for special nuclear material of low strategic significance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nuclear material control and accounting for special nuclear material of low strategic significance. 74.31 Section 74.31 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Special Nuclear Material of...

  18. Detection of radioactive materials at Astrakhan

    SciTech Connect

    Cantut, L; Dougan, A; Hemberger, P; Kravenchenko, Gromov, A; Martin, D; Pohl, B; Richardson, J H; Williams, H; York, R; Zaitsev, E

    1999-07-01

    Astrakhan is the major Russian port on the Caspian Sea. Consequently, it is the node for significant river traffic up the Volga, as well as shipments to and from other seaports on the Caspian Sea. The majority of this latter trade across the Caspian Sea is with Iran. The Second Line of Defense and RF SCC identified Astrakhan as one of the top priorities for upgrading with modern radiation detection equipment. The purpose of the cooperative effort between RF SCC and DOE at Astrakhan is to provide the capability through equipment and training to monitor and detect illegal shipments of nuclear materials through Astrakhan. The first facility was equipped with vehicle and rail portal monitoring systems. The second facility was equipped with pedestrian, vehicle and rail portal monitoring systems. A second phase of this project will complete the equipping of Astrakhan by providing additional rail and handheld systems, along with completion of video systems. Associated with both phases is the necessary equipment and procedural training to ensure successful operation of the equipment in order to detect and deter illegal trafficking in nuclear materials. The presentation will described this project and its overall relationship to the Second Line of Defense Program.

  19. Explosives detection by nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garroway, Allen N.; Buess, Michael L.; Yesinowski, James P.; Miller, Joel B.; Krauss, Ronald A.

    1994-10-01

    Pure nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) of 14N nuclei is quite promising as a method for detecting explosives such as RDX and contraband narcotics such as cocaine and heroin in quantities of interest. Pure NQR is conducted without an external applied magnetic field, so potential concerns about damage to magnetically encoded data or exposure of personnel to large magnetic fields are not relevant. Because NQR frequencies of different compounds are quite distinct, we do not encounter false alarms from the NQR signals of other benign materials. We have constructed a laboratory prototype NQR explosives detector which interrogates a volume of 300 liters (10 ft3). This paper presents abbreviated results from a demonstration of the laboratory prototype NQR explosives detector conducted at the Federal Aviation Administration Technical Center in May 1994 on RDX-based explosives.

  20. Fundamentals of materials accounting for nuclear safeguards

    SciTech Connect

    Pillay, K.K.S.

    1989-04-01

    Materials accounting is essential to providing the necessary assurance for verifying the effectiveness of a safeguards system. The use of measurements, analyses, records, and reports to maintain knowledge of the quantities of nuclear material present in a defined area of a facility and the use of physical inventories and materials balances to verify the presence of special nuclear materials are collectively known as materials accounting for nuclear safeguards. This manual, prepared as part of the resource materials for the Safeguards Technology Training Program of the US Department of Energy, addresses fundamental aspects of materials accounting, enriching and complementing them with the first-hand experiences of authors from varied disciplines. The topics range from highly technical subjects to site-specific system designs and policy discussions. This collection of papers is prepared by more than 25 professionals from the nuclear safeguards field. Representing research institutions, industries, and regulatory agencies, the authors create a unique resource for the annual course titled ''Materials Accounting for Nuclear Safeguards,'' which is offered at the Los Alamos National Laboratory.

  1. Nuclear Space Power Systems Materials Requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Buckman, R.W. Jr.

    2004-02-04

    High specific energy is required for space nuclear power systems. This generally means high operating temperatures and the only alloy class of materials available for construction of such systems are the refractory metals niobium, tantalum, molybdenum and tungsten. The refractory metals in the past have been the construction materials selected for nuclear space power systems. The objective of this paper will be to review the past history and requirements for space nuclear power systems from the early 1960's through the SP-100 program. Also presented will be the past and present status of refractory metal alloy technology and what will be needed to support the next advanced nuclear space power system. The next generation of advanced nuclear space power systems can benefit from the review of this past experience. Because of a decline in the refractory metal industry in the United States, ready availability of specific refractory metal alloys is limited.

  2. ABACC`s nuclear material accountancy

    SciTech Connect

    Nicolas, R.O.

    1995-12-31

    This article is a review of the history and policies of the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for the Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials (ABACC). The discussion leads up to a description of the database (presently utilizing Fox Pro) developed for materials accountability, with its broad requirements listed.

  3. Radiation Effects in Nuclear Waste Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, William J.

    2005-09-30

    The objective of this project is to develop a fundamental understanding of radiation effects in glasses and ceramics, as well as the influence of solid-state radiation effects on aqueous dissolution kinetics, which may impact the performance of nuclear waste forms and stabilized nuclear materials. This work provides the underpinning science to develop improved glass and ceramic waste forms for the immobilization and disposition of high-level tank waste, excess plutonium, plutonium residues and scrap, other actinides, and other nuclear waste streams. Furthermore, this work is developing develop predictive models for the performance of nuclear waste forms and stabilized nuclear materials. Thus, the research performed under this project has significant implications for the immobilization of High-Level Waste (HLW) and Nuclear Materials, two mission areas within the Office of Environmental Management (EM). With regard to the HLW mission, this research will lead to improved understanding of radiation-induced degradation mechanisms and their effects on dissolution kinetics, as well as development of predictive models for waste form performance. In the Nuclear Materials mission, this research will lead to improvements in the understanding of radiation effects on the chemical and structural properties of materials for the stabilization and long-term storage of plutonium, highly-enriched uranium, and other actinides. The research uses plutonium incorporation, ion-beam irradiation, and electron-beam irradiation to simulate the effects of alpha decay and beta decay on relevant glasses and ceramics. The research under this project has the potential to result in improved glass and ceramic materials for the stabilization and immobilization of high-level tank waste, plutonium residues and scraps, surplus weapons plutonium, highly-enriched uranium, other actinides, and other radioactive materials.

  4. Radiation Effects in Nuclear Waste Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, William J.

    2005-06-01

    The objective of this project is to develop a fundamental understanding of radiation effects in glasses and ceramics, as well as the influence of solid-state radiation effects on aqueous dissolution kinetics, which may impact the performance of nuclear waste forms and stabilized nuclear materials. This work provides the underpinning science to develop improved glass and ceramic waste forms for the immobilization and disposition of high-level tank waste, excess plutonium, plutonium residues and scrap, other actinides, and other nuclear waste streams. Furthermore, this work is developing develop predictive models for the performance of nuclear waste forms and stabilized nuclear materials. Thus, the research performed under this project has significant implications for the immobilization of High-Level Waste (HLW) and Nuclear Materials, two mission areas within the Office of Environmental Management (EM). With regard to the HLW mission, this research will lead to improved understanding of radiation-induced degradation mechanisms and their effects on dissolution kinetics, as well as development of predictive models for waste form performance. In the Nuclear Materials mission, this research will lead to improvements in the understanding of radiation effects on the chemical and structural properties of materials for the stabilization and long-term storage of plutonium, highly-enriched uranium, and other actinides. The research uses plutonium incorporation, ion-beam irradiation, and electron-beam irradiation to simulate the effects of alpha decay and beta decay on relevant glasses and ceramics. The research under this project has the potential to result in improved glass and ceramic materials for the stabilization and immobilization of high-level tank waste, plutonium residues and scraps, surplus weapons plutonium, highly-enriched uranium, other actinides, and other radioactive materials.

  5. 10 CFR 74.41 - Nuclear material control and accounting for special nuclear material of moderate strategic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Nuclear material control and accounting for special nuclear material of moderate strategic significance. 74.41 Section 74.41 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Special Nuclear...

  6. 10 CFR 74.41 - Nuclear material control and accounting for special nuclear material of moderate strategic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Nuclear material control and accounting for special nuclear material of moderate strategic significance. 74.41 Section 74.41 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Special Nuclear...

  7. 10 CFR 74.41 - Nuclear material control and accounting for special nuclear material of moderate strategic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Nuclear material control and accounting for special nuclear material of moderate strategic significance. 74.41 Section 74.41 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Special Nuclear...

  8. 10 CFR 74.41 - Nuclear material control and accounting for special nuclear material of moderate strategic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nuclear material control and accounting for special nuclear material of moderate strategic significance. 74.41 Section 74.41 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Special Nuclear...

  9. 10 CFR 74.41 - Nuclear material control and accounting for special nuclear material of moderate strategic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Nuclear material control and accounting for special nuclear material of moderate strategic significance. 74.41 Section 74.41 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Special Nuclear...

  10. Nuclear material accounting software for Ukraine

    SciTech Connect

    Doll, M.; Ewing, T.; Lindley, R.; McWilliams, C.; Roche, C.; Sakunov, I.; Walters, G.

    1999-07-26

    Among the needs identified during initial surveys of nuclear facilities in Ukraine was improved accounting software for reporting material inventories to the regulatory body. AIMAS (Automated Inventory/Material Accounting System) is a PC-based application written in Microsoft Access that was jointly designed by an US/Ukraine development team. The design is highly flexible and configurable, and supports a wide range of computing infrastructure needs and facility requirements including situations where networks are not available or reliable. AIMAS has both English and Russian-language options for displays and reports, and it operates under Windows 3.1, 95, or NT 4.0{trademark}. AIMAS functions include basic physical inventory tracking, transaction histories, reporting, and system administration functions (system configuration, security, data backup and recovery). Security measures include multilevel password access control, all transactions logged with the user identification, and system administration control. Interfaces to external modules provide nuclear fuel burn-up adjustment and barcode scanning capabilities for physical inventory taking. AIMAS has been installed at Kiev Institute of Nuclear Research (KINR), South Ukraine Nuclear Power Plant (SUNPP), Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology (KIPT), Sevastopol Institute of Nuclear Energy and Industry (SINEI), and the Ministry of Environmental Protection and Nuclear Safety/Nuclear Regulatory Administration (MEPNS/NRA). Facility specialists are being trained to use the application to track material movement and report to the national regulatory authority.

  11. Modernizing computerized nuclear material accounting systems

    SciTech Connect

    Erkkila, B.H.; Claborn, J.

    1995-09-01

    DOE Orders and draft orders for nuclear material control and accountability address a complete material control and accountability (MC and A) program for all DOE contractors processing, using, or storing nuclear materials. A critical element of an MC and A program is the accounting system used to track and record all inventories of nuclear material and movements of materials in those inventories. Most DOE facilities use computerized accounting systems to facilitate the task of accounting for all their inventory of nuclear materials. Many facilities still use a mixture of a manual paper system with a computerized system. Also, facilities may use multiple systems to support information needed for MC and A. For real-time accounting it is desirable to implement a single integrated data base management system for a variety of users. In addition to accountability needs, waste management, material management, and production operations must be supported. Information in these systems can also support criticality safety and other safety issues. Modern networked microcomputers provide extensive processing and reporting capabilities that single mainframe computer systems struggle with. This paper describes an approach being developed at Los Alamos to address these problems.

  12. Modeling and Simulation of Nuclear Fuel Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Devanathan, Ram; Van Brutzel, Laurent; Tikare, Veena; Bartel, Timothy; Besmann, Theodore M; Stan, Marius; Van Uffelen, Paul

    2010-01-01

    We review the state of modeling and simulation of nuclear fuels with emphasis on the most widely used nuclear fuel, UO2. The hierarchical scheme presented represents a science-based approach to modeling nuclear fuels by progressively passing information in several stages from ab initio to continuum levels. Such an approach is essential to overcome the challenges posed by radioactive materials handling, experimental limitations in modeling extreme conditions and accident scenarios and small time and distance scales of fundamental defect processes. When used in conjunction with experimental validation, this multiscale modeling scheme can provide valuable guidance to development of fuel for advanced reactors to meet rising global energy demand.

  13. Modeling and Simulation of Nuclear Fuel Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Devanathan, Ramaswami; Van Brutzel, Laurent; Chartier, Alan; Gueneau, Christine; Mattsson, Ann E.; Tikare, Veena; Bartel, Timothy; Besmann, T. M.; Stan, Marius; Van Uffelen, Paul

    2010-10-01

    We review the state of modeling and simulation of nuclear fuels with emphasis on the most widely used nuclear fuel, UO2. The hierarchical scheme presented represents a science-based approach to modeling nuclear fuels by progressively passing information in several stages from ab initio to continuum levels. Such an approach is essential to overcome the challenges posed by radioactive materials handling, experimental limitations in modeling extreme conditions and accident scenarios, and the small time and distance scales of fundamental defect processes. When used in conjunction with experimental validation, this multiscale modeling scheme can provide valuable guidance to development of fuel for advanced reactors to meet rising global energy demand.

  14. Strategic special nuclear material Inventory Differences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1985-07-01

    This sixteenth periodic semiannual report of Inventory Differences (ID) covers the last six months of fiscal year 1984 (April 1, 1984, through September 30, 1984), for the Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE contractor facilities possessing significant quantities of strategic special nuclear material (SSNM). Inventory Differences are simply the differences between the amount of material shown in the accounting records and the amount of material reported in the physical inventory. These differences are generally due to errors in estimating material in unmeasurable form at the time of an inventory, unmeasurable holdup in equipment, measurement imprecisions, inaccuracies in initial determinations of SSNM produced or used in nuclear reactors, and inventory or bookkeeping errors. Both DOE and contractors operating DOE facilities carefully maintain, analyze, and investigate ID data. Inventory Differences are expected in nuclear material processing and are not, in and of themselves, evidence of lost or stolen material. On the other hand, ID analysis provides valuable information on the effectiveness of the safeguards system's physical protection and material control measures as well as a check on the process controls and material management procedures. If necessary, an operation may be shut down until an ID is resolved.

  15. IMPROVED TECHNNOLOGY TO PREVENT ILLICIT TRAFFICKING IN NUCLEAR MATERIALS

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, J H

    2005-07-20

    The proliferation of nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons (collectively known as weapons of mass destruction, or WMD) and the potential acquisition and use of WMD against the world by terrorists are extremely serious threats to international security. These threats are complex and interrelated. There are myriad routes to weapons of mass destruction--many different starting materials, material sources, and production processes. There are many possible proliferators--threshold countries, rogue states, state-sponsored or transnational terrorists groups, domestic terrorists, and even international crime organizations. Motives for acquiring and using WMD are similarly wide ranging--from a desire to change the regional power balance, deny access to a strategic area, or alter international policy to extortion, revenge, or hate. Because of the complexity of this threat landscape, no single program, technology, or capability--no silver bullet--can solve the WMD proliferation and terrorism problem. An integrated program is needed that addresses the WMD proliferation and terrorism problem from end to end, from prevention to detection, reversal, and response, while avoiding surprise at all stages, with different activities directed specifically at different types of WMD and proliferators. Radiation detection technologies are an important tool in the prevention of proliferation. A variety of new developments have enabled enhanced performance in terms of energy resolution, spatial resolution, predictive modeling and simulation, active interrogation, and ease of operation and deployment in the field. The radiation properties of nuclear materials, particularly highly enriched uranium (HEU), make the detection of smuggled nuclear materials technically difficult. A number of efforts are under way to devise improved detector materials and instruments and to identify novel signatures that could be detected. Key applications of this work include monitoring for radioactive

  16. Interactive Simulation of Nuclear Materials Safeguards and Security

    SciTech Connect

    Stanbro, William D.

    1994-03-14

    THIEF is an interactive computer simulation or computer game of the safeguards and security (S&S) systems of a nuclear facility. The user is placed in the role of a non-violent insider attempting to remove special nuclear material from the facility. All portions of the S&S system that are relevant to the non-violent insider threat are included. The computer operates the S&S systems and attempts to detect the loss of the nuclear material. Both the physical protection system and the materials control and accounting system are modeled. The description of the facility and its S&S systems are defined by the user with the aid of an input module. All aspects of the facility description are provided by the user. The program has a custom graphical user interface to facilitate its use by people with limited computer experience. The custom interface also allows it to run on relatively small computer systems.

  17. Bar code usage in nuclear materials accountability

    SciTech Connect

    Mee, W.T.

    1983-07-01

    The age old method of physically taking an inventory of materials by listing each item's identification number has lived beyond its usefulness. In this age of computerization, which offers the local grocery store a quick, sure, and easy means to inventory, it is time for nuclear materials facilities to automate accountability activities. The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant began investigating the use of automated data collection devices in 1979. At that time, bar code and optical-character-recognition (OCR) systems were reviewed with the purpose of directly entering data into DYMCAS (Dynamic Special Nuclear Materials Control and Accountability System). Both of these systems appeared applicable; however, other automated devices already employed for production control made implementing the bar code and OCR seem improbable. However, the DYMCAS was placed on line for nuclear material accountability, a decision was made to consider the bar code for physical inventory listings. For the past several months a development program has been underway to use a bar code device to collect and input data to the DYMCAS on the uranium recovery operations. Programs have been completed and tested, and are being employed to ensure that data will be compatible and useful. Bar code implementation and expansion of its use for all nuclear material inventory activity in Y-12 is presented.

  18. Nuclear fuel elements made from nanophase materials

    DOEpatents

    Heubeck, N.B.

    1998-09-08

    A nuclear reactor core fuel element is composed of nanophase high temperature materials. An array of the fuel elements in rod form are joined in an open geometry fuel cell that preferably also uses such nanophase materials for the cell structures. The particular high temperature nanophase fuel element material must have the appropriate mechanical characteristics to avoid strain related failure even at high temperatures, in the order of about 3000 F. Preferably, the reactor type is a pressurized or boiling water reactor and the nanophase material is a high temperature ceramic or ceramic composite. Nanophase metals, or nanophase metals with nanophase ceramics in a composite mixture, also have desirable characteristics, although their temperature capability is not as great as with all-ceramic nanophase material. Combinations of conventional or nanophase metals and conventional or nanophase ceramics can be employed as long as there is at least one nanophase material in the composite. The nuclear reactor so constructed has a number of high strength fuel particles, a nanophase structural material for supporting a fuel rod at high temperature, a configuration to allow passive cooling in the event of a primary cooling system failure, an ability to retain a coolable geometry even at high temperatures, an ability to resist generation of hydrogen gas, and a configuration having good nuclear, corrosion, and mechanical characteristics. 5 figs.

  19. Nuclear fuel elements made from nanophase materials

    DOEpatents

    Heubeck, Norman B.

    1998-01-01

    A nuclear reactor core fuel element is composed of nanophase high temperature materials. An array of the fuel elements in rod form are joined in an open geometry fuel cell that preferably also uses such nanophase materials for the cell structures. The particular high temperature nanophase fuel element material must have the appropriate mechanical characteristics to avoid strain related failure even at high temperatures, in the order of about 3000.degree. F. Preferably, the reactor type is a pressurized or boiling water reactor and the nanophase material is a high temperature ceramic or ceramic composite. Nanophase metals, or nanophase metals with nanophase ceramics in a composite mixture, also have desirable characteristics, although their temperature capability is not as great as with all-ceramic nanophase material. Combinations of conventional or nanophase metals and conventional or nanophase ceramics can be employed as long as there is at least one nanophase material in the composite. The nuclear reactor so constructed has a number of high strength fuel particles, a nanophase structural material for supporting a fuel rod at high temperature, a configuration to allow passive cooling in the event of a primary cooling system failure, an ability to retain a coolable geometry even at high temperatures, an ability to resist generation of hydrogen gas, and a configuration having good nuclear, corrosion, and mechanical characteristics.

  20. Designed porosity materials in nuclear reactor components

    DOEpatents

    Yacout, A. M.; Pellin, Michael J.; Stan, Marius

    2016-09-06

    A nuclear fuel pellet with a porous substrate, such as a carbon or tungsten aerogel, on which at least one layer of a fuel containing material is deposited via atomic layer deposition, and wherein the layer deposition is controlled to prevent agglomeration of defects. Further, a method of fabricating a nuclear fuel pellet, wherein the method features the steps of selecting a porous substrate, depositing at least one layer of a fuel containing material, and terminating the deposition when the desired porosity is achieved. Also provided is a nuclear reactor fuel cladding made of a porous substrate, such as silicon carbide aerogel or silicon carbide cloth, upon which layers of silicon carbide are deposited.

  1. X-ray backscatter imaging of nuclear materials

    DOEpatents

    Chapman, Jeffrey Allen; Gunning, John E; Hollenbach, Daniel F; Ott, Larry J; Shedlock, Daniel

    2014-09-30

    The energy of an X-ray beam and critical depth are selected to detect structural discontinuities in a material having an atomic number Z of 57 or greater. The critical depth is selected by adjusting the geometry of a collimator that blocks backscattered radiation so that backscattered X-ray originating from a depth less than the critical depth is not detected. Structures of Lanthanides and Actinides, including nuclear fuel rod materials, can be inspected for structural discontinuities such as gaps, cracks, and chipping employing the backscattered X-ray.

  2. Atoms on the Move: Transporting Nuclear Material.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dukert, Joseph M.

    This is an Energy Research and Development Administration pamphlet outlining in detail the many aspects involved in safe transportation of all types of nuclear materials. The detailed safety regulations and designs of various shipping packages and containers are emphasized. Included are maps of waste burial sites and fuel production facilities, an…

  3. Nuclear Materials Identification System Operational Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Chiang, L.G.

    2001-04-10

    This report describes the operation and setup of the Nuclear Materials Identification System (NMIS) with a {sup 252}Cf neutron source at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. The components of the system are described with a description of the setup of the system along with an overview of the NMIS measurements for scanning, calibration, and confirmation of inventory items.

  4. Gamma and neutron detection modeling in the nuclear detection figure of merit (NDFOM) portal

    SciTech Connect

    Stroud, Phillip D; Saeger, Kevin J

    2009-01-01

    The Nuclear Detection Figure Of Merit (NDFOM) portal is a database of objects and algorithms for evaluating the performance of radiation detectors to detect nuclear material. This paper describes the algorithms used to model the physics and mathematics of radiation detection. As a first-principles end-to-end analysis system, it starts with the representation of the gamma and neutron spectral fluxes, which are computed with the particle and radiation transport code MCNPX. The gamma spectra emitted by uranium, plutonium, and several other materials of interest are described. The impact of shielding and other intervening material is computed by the method of build-up factors. The interaction of radiation with the detector material is computed by a detector response function approach. The construction of detector response function matrices based on MCNPX simulation runs is described in detail. Neutron fluxes are represented in a three group formulation to treat differences in detector sensitivities to thermal, epithermal, and fast neutrons.

  5. Tungsten - Yttrium Based Nuclear Structural Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramana, Chintalapalle; Chessa, Jack; Martinenz, Gustavo

    2013-04-01

    The challenging problem currently facing the nuclear science community in this 21st century is design and development of novel structural materials, which will have an impact on the next-generation nuclear reactors. The materials available at present include reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steels, dispersion strengthened reduced activation ferritic steels, and vanadium- or tungsten-based alloys. These materials exhibit one or more specific problems, which are either intrinsic or caused by reactors. This work is focussed towards tungsten-yttrium (W-Y) based alloys and oxide ceramics, which can be utilized in nuclear applications. The goal is to derive a fundamental scientific understanding of W-Y-based materials. In collaboration with University of Califonia -- Davis, the project is designated to demonstrate the W-Y based alloys, ceramics and composites with enhanced physical, mechanical, thermo-chemical properties and higher radiation resistance. Efforts are focussed on understanding the microstructure, manipulating materials behavior under charged-particle and neutron irradiation, and create a knowledge database of defects, elemental diffusion/segregation, and defect trapping along grain boundaries and interfaces. Preliminary results will be discussed.

  6. 10 CFR 70.42 - Transfer of special nuclear material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Transfer of special nuclear material. 70.42 Section 70.42 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DOMESTIC LICENSING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Acquisition, Use and Transfer of Special Nuclear Material, Creditors' Rights § 70.42 Transfer of...

  7. 10 CFR 70.42 - Transfer of special nuclear material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Transfer of special nuclear material. 70.42 Section 70.42 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DOMESTIC LICENSING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Acquisition, Use and Transfer of Special Nuclear Material, Creditors' Rights § 70.42 Transfer of...

  8. 10 CFR 1017.9 - Nuclear material determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nuclear material determinations. 1017.9 Section 1017.9... NUCLEAR INFORMATION Initially Determining What Information Is Unclassified Controlled Nuclear Information § 1017.9 Nuclear material determinations. (a) The Secretary may determine that a material other...

  9. 10 CFR 70.42 - Transfer of special nuclear material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Transfer of special nuclear material. 70.42 Section 70.42 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DOMESTIC LICENSING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Acquisition, Use and Transfer of Special Nuclear Material, Creditors' Rights § 70.42 Transfer of...

  10. 10 CFR 1017.9 - Nuclear material determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Nuclear material determinations. 1017.9 Section 1017.9... NUCLEAR INFORMATION Initially Determining What Information Is Unclassified Controlled Nuclear Information § 1017.9 Nuclear material determinations. (a) The Secretary may determine that a material other...

  11. 10 CFR 70.42 - Transfer of special nuclear material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Transfer of special nuclear material. 70.42 Section 70.42 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DOMESTIC LICENSING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Acquisition, Use and Transfer of Special Nuclear Material, Creditors' Rights § 70.42 Transfer of...

  12. 10 CFR 70.42 - Transfer of special nuclear material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Transfer of special nuclear material. 70.42 Section 70.42 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DOMESTIC LICENSING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Acquisition, Use and Transfer of Special Nuclear Material, Creditors' Rights § 70.42 Transfer of...

  13. 10 CFR 1017.9 - Nuclear material determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Nuclear material determinations. 1017.9 Section 1017.9... NUCLEAR INFORMATION Initially Determining What Information Is Unclassified Controlled Nuclear Information § 1017.9 Nuclear material determinations. (a) The Secretary may determine that a material other...

  14. 10 CFR 1017.9 - Nuclear material determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Nuclear material determinations. 1017.9 Section 1017.9... NUCLEAR INFORMATION Initially Determining What Information Is Unclassified Controlled Nuclear Information § 1017.9 Nuclear material determinations. (a) The Secretary may determine that a material other...

  15. 10 CFR 1017.9 - Nuclear material determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Nuclear material determinations. 1017.9 Section 1017.9... NUCLEAR INFORMATION Initially Determining What Information Is Unclassified Controlled Nuclear Information § 1017.9 Nuclear material determinations. (a) The Secretary may determine that a material other...

  16. Neutrinos, Dark Matter and Nuclear Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, W H; Bernstein, A; Craig, W W; Johnson, M

    2007-05-29

    Solutions to problems in nuclear non-proliferation and counter-terrorism may be found at the forefront of modern physics. Neutrino oscillation experiments, dark matter searches, and high energy astrophysics, are based on technology advances that have may also have application to nuclear detection. The detection problems share many characteristics, including energy scales, time structures, particle-type, and, of course, the combination of high backgrounds and low signal levels. This convergence of basic and applied physics is realized in non-proliferation and homeland security projects at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Examples described here include reactor anti-neutrino monitoring, dual-phase noble liquid TPC development, gamma-ray telescopes, and nuclear resonance fluorescence.

  17. Nuclear Materials: Reconsidering Wastes and Assets - 13193

    SciTech Connect

    Michalske, T.A.

    2013-07-01

    The nuclear industry, both in the commercial and the government sectors, has generated large quantities of material that span the spectrum of usefulness, from highly valuable ('assets') to worthless ('wastes'). In many cases, the decision parameters are clear. Transuranic waste and high level waste, for example, have no value, and is either in a final disposition path today, or - in the case of high level waste - awaiting a policy decision about final disposition. Other materials, though discardable, have intrinsic scientific or market value that may be hidden by the complexity, hazard, or cost of recovery. An informed decision process should acknowledge the asset value, or lack of value, of the complete inventory of materials, and the structure necessary to implement the range of possible options. It is important that informed decisions are made about the asset value for the variety of nuclear materials available. For example, there is a significant quantity of spent fuel available for recycle (an estimated $4 billion value in the Savannah River Site's (SRS) L area alone); in fact, SRS has already blended down more than 300 metric tons of uranium for commercial reactor use. Over 34 metric tons of surplus plutonium is also on a path to be used as commercial fuel. There are other radiological materials that are routinely handled at the site in large quantities that should be viewed as strategically important and / or commercially viable. In some cases, these materials are irreplaceable domestically, and failure to consider their recovery could jeopardize our technological leadership or national defense. The inventories of nuclear materials at SRS that have been characterized as 'waste' include isotopes of plutonium, uranium, americium, and helium. Although planning has been performed to establish the technical and regulatory bases for their discard and disposal, recovery of these materials is both economically attractive and in the national interest. (authors)

  18. Robot development for nuclear material processing

    SciTech Connect

    Pedrotti, L.R.; Armantrout, G.A.; Allen, D.C.; Sievers, R.H. Sr.

    1991-07-01

    The Department of Energy is seeking to modernize its special nuclear material (SNM) production facilities and concurrently reduce radiation exposures and process and incidental radioactive waste generated. As part of this program, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) lead team is developing and adapting generic and specific applications of commercial robotic technologies to SNM pyrochemical processing and other operations. A working gantry robot within a sealed processing glove box and a telerobot control test bed are manifestations of this effort. This paper describes the development challenges and progress in adapting processing, robotic, and nuclear safety technologies to the application. 3 figs.

  19. Laser detection of material thickness

    DOEpatents

    Early, James W.

    2002-01-01

    There is provided a method for measuring material thickness comprising: (a) contacting a surface of a material to be measured with a high intensity short duration laser pulse at a light wavelength which heats the area of contact with the material, thereby creating an acoustical pulse within the material: (b) timing the intervals between deflections in the contacted surface caused by the reverberation of acoustical pulses between the contacted surface and the opposite surface of the material: and (c) determining the thickness of the material by calculating the proportion of the thickness of the material to the measured time intervals between deflections of the contacted surface.

  20. Integrated Global Nuclear Materials Management - Preliminary Concepts -

    SciTech Connect

    Dreicer, M; Jones, E; Richardson, J

    2006-07-13

    Approach to Connect Global Objectives and Local Actions: (1) Articulate global objectives into a hierarchy of subsystem requirements and local attributes and measures; (2) Establish a baseline system and viable alternatives through the interactions and relationships (e.g., networks) of local system elements and their options; (3) Evaluate performance of system alternatives and develop improved nuclear material management strategies and technologies; and (4) The need to address greatest concerns first (prioritized or graded approach) and to make tradeoffs among implementation options and competing objectives entails a risk-based approach. IGNMM could provide a systematic understanding of global nuclear materials management and evolutionarily improve and integrate the management through an active architecture, using for example, situation awareness, system models, methods, technologies, and international cooperation. Different tools would be used within the overall framework to address individual issues on the desired geographic scale that could be easily linked to broader analyses. Life-cycle system analyses would allow for evaluating material path alternatives on an integrated global scale. Disconnects, overlaps, technical options, and alternatives for optimizing nuclear materials processes could be evaluated in an integrated manner.

  1. Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence for Materials Assay

    SciTech Connect

    Quiter, Brian; Ludewigt, Bernhard; Mozin, Vladimir; Prussin, Stanley

    2009-06-05

    This paper discusses the use of nuclear resonance fluorescence (NRF) techniques for the isotopic and quantitative assaying of radioactive material. Potential applications include age-dating of an unknown radioactive source, pre- and post-detonation nuclear forensics, and safeguards for nuclear fuel cycles Examples of age-dating a strong radioactive source and assaying a spent fuel pin are discussed. The modeling work has ben performed with the Monte Carlo radiation transport computer code MCNPX, and the capability to simulate NRF has bee added to the code. Discussed are the limitations in MCNPX's photon transport physics for accurately describing photon scattering processes that are important contributions to the background and impact the applicability of the NRF assay technique.

  2. Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence for Materials Assay

    SciTech Connect

    Quiter, Brian J.; Ludewigt, Bernhard; Mozin, Vladimir; Prussin, Stanley

    2009-06-29

    This paper discusses the use of nuclear resonance fluorescence (NRF) techniques for the isotopic and quantitative assaying of radioactive material. Potential applications include age-dating of an unknown radioactive source, pre- and post-detonation nuclear forensics, and safeguards for nuclear fuel cycles Examples of age-dating a strong radioactive source and assaying a spent fuel pin are discussed. The modeling work has ben performed with the Monte Carlo radiation transport computer code MCNPX, and the capability to simulate NRF has bee added to the code. Discussed are the limitations in MCNPX?s photon transport physics for accurately describing photon scattering processes that are important contributions to the background and impact the applicability of the NRF assay technique.

  3. The Science of Nuclear Materials: A Modular, Laboratory-based Curriculum

    SciTech Connect

    Cahill, C.L.; Feldman, G.; Briscoe, W.J.

    2014-06-15

    The development of a curriculum for nuclear materials courses targeting students pursuing Master of Arts degrees at The George Washington University is described. The courses include basic concepts such as radiation and radioactivity as well as more complex topics such the nuclear fuel cycle, nuclear weapons, radiation detection and technological aspects of non-proliferation.

  4. The Science of Nuclear Materials: A Modular, Laboratory-based Curriculum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cahill, C. L.; Feldman, G.; Briscoe, W. J.

    2014-06-01

    The development of a curriculum for nuclear materials courses targeting students pursuing Master of Arts degrees at The George Washington University is described. The courses include basic concepts such as radiation and radioactivity as well as more complex topics such the nuclear fuel cycle, nuclear weapons, radiation detection and technological aspects of non-proliferation.

  5. Nuclear Fuels & Materials Spotlight Volume 4

    SciTech Connect

    I. J. van Rooyen,; T. M. Lillo; Y. Q. WU; P.A. Demkowicz; L. Scott; D.M. Scates; E. L. Reber; J. H. Jackson; J. A. Smith; D.L. Cottle; B.H. Rabin; M.R. Tonks; S.B. Biner; Y. Zhang; R.L. Williamson; S.R. Novascone; B.W. Spencer; J.D. Hales; D.R. Gaston; C.J. Permann; D. Anders; S.L. Hayes; P.C. Millett; D. Andersson; C. Stanek; R. Ali; S.L. Garrett; J.E. Daw; J.L. Rempe; J. Palmer; B. Tittmann; B. Reinhardt; G. Kohse; P. Ramuhali; H.T. Chien; T. Unruh; B.M. Chase; D.W. Nigg; G. Imel; J. T. Harris

    2014-04-01

    As the nation's nuclear energy laboratory, Idaho National Laboratory brings together talented people and specialized nuclear research capability to accomplish our mission. This edition of the Nuclear Fuels and Materials Division Spotlight provides an overview of some of our recent accomplishments in research and capability development. These accomplishments include: • The first identification of silver and palladium migrating through the SiC layer in TRISO fuel • A description of irradiation assisted stress corrosion testing capabilities that support commercial light water reactor life extension • Results of high-temperature safety testing on coated particle fuels irradiated in the ATR • New methods for testing the integrity of irradiated plate-type reactor fuel • Description of a 'Smart Fuel' concept that wirelessly provides real time information about changes in nuclear fuel properties and operating conditions • Development and testing of ultrasonic transducers and real-time flux sensors for use inside reactor cores, and • An example of a capsule irradiation test. Throughout Spotlight, you'll find examples of productive partnerships with academia, industry, and government agencies that deliver high-impact outcomes. The work conducted at Idaho National Laboratory helps to spur innovation in nuclear energy applications that drive economic growth and energy security. We appreciate your interest in our work here at INL, and hope that you find this issue informative.

  6. Molecular forensic science analysis of nuclear materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reilly, Dallas David

    Concerns over the proliferation and instances of nuclear material in the environment have increased interest in the expansion of nuclear forensics analysis and attribution programs. A new related field, molecular forensic science (MFS) has helped meet this expansion by applying common scientific analyses to nuclear forensics scenarios. In this work, MFS was applied to three scenarios related to nuclear forensics analysis. In the first, uranium dioxide was synthesized and aged at four sets of static environmental conditions and studied for changes in chemical speciation. The second highlighted the importance of bulk versus particle characterizations by analyzing a heterogeneous industrially prepared sample with similar techniques. In the third, mixed uranium/plutonium hot particles were collected from the McGuire Air Force Base BOMARC Site and analyzed for chemical speciation and elemental surface composition. This work has identified new signatures and has indicated unexpected chemical behavior under various conditions. These findings have lead to an expansion of basic actinide understanding, proof of MFS as a tool for nuclear forensic science, and new areas for expansion in these fields.

  7. Material flow simulation in a nuclear chemical process

    SciTech Connect

    Mahgerefteh, M.

    1984-01-01

    At a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant the special nuclear materials (SNM) are received as constituents of spent fuel assemblies, are converted to liquid form, and undergo a series of chemical processes. Uncertainties in measurements of SNM at each stage of reprocessing limit the accuracy of simple material balance accounting as a safeguards method. To be effective, a formal safeguards program must take into account all sources of measurement error yet detect any diversion of SNM. An analytical method for assessing the accountability of selected constituent SNM is demonstrated. A combined discrete-continuous, time-dependent model using the GASP IV simulation language is developed to simulate mass flow, material accountability and measurement error at each stage of the reprocessing plant.

  8. Radioactive materials released from nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Tichler, J.; Norden, K.; Congemi, J. )

    1989-10-01

    Releases of radioactive materials in airborne and liquid effluents from commercial light water reactors during 1987 have been compiled and reported. Data on solid waste shipments as well as selected operating information have been included. This report supplements earlier annual reports issued by the former Atomic Energy Commission and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The 1987 release data are summarized in tabular form. Data covering specific radionuclides are summarized. 16 tabs.

  9. Radioactive materials released from nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Tichler, J.; Norden, K.; Congemi, J. )

    1991-05-01

    Releases of radioactive materials in airborne and liquid effluents from commercial light water reactors during 1988 have been compiled and reported. Data on solid waste shipments as well as selected operating information have been included. This report supplements earlier annual reports issued by the former Atomic Energy Commission and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The 1988 release data are summarized in tabular form. Data covering specific radionuclides are summarized. 16 tabs.

  10. Radioactive materials released from nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Tichler, J.; Benkovitz, C.

    1981-11-01

    Releases of radioactive materials in airborne and liquid effluents from commercial light water reactors during 1979 have been compiled and reported. Data on solid waste shipments as well as selected operating information have been included. This report supplements earlier annual reports issued by the former Atomic Energy Commission and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The 1979 release data are compared with previous year's releases in tabular form. Data covering specific radionuclides are summarized.

  11. Bar code usage in nuclear materials accountability

    SciTech Connect

    Mee, W.T.

    1983-01-01

    The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant began investigating the use of automated data collection devices in 1979. At this time, bar code and optical-character-recognition (OCR) systems were reviewed with the purpose of directly entering data into DYMCAS (Dynamic Special Nuclear Materials Control and Accountability System). Both of these systems appeared applicable, however, other automated devices already employed for production control made implementing the bar code and OCR seem improbable. However, the DYMCAS was placed on line for nuclear material accountability, a decision was made to consider the bar code for physical inventory listings. For the past several months a development program has been underway to use a bar code device to collect and input data to the DYMCAS on the uranium recovery operations. Programs have been completed and tested, and are being employed to ensure that data will be compatible and useful. Bar code implementation and expansion of its use for all nuclear material inventory activity in Y-12 is presented.

  12. Integrating the stabilization of nuclear materials

    SciTech Connect

    Dalton, H.F.

    1996-05-01

    In response to Recommendation 94-1 of the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board, the Department of Energy committed to stabilizing specific nuclear materials within 3 and 8 years. These efforts are underway. The Department has already repackaged the plutonium at Rocky Flats and metal turnings at Savannah River that had been in contact with plastic. As this effort proceeds, we begin to look at activities beyond stabilization and prepare for the final disposition of these materials. To describe the plutonium materials being stabilize, Figure 1 illustrates the quantities of plutonium in various forms that will be stabilized. Plutonium as metal comprises 8.5 metric tons. Plutonium oxide contains 5.5 metric tons of plutonium. Plutonium residues and solutions, together, contain 7 metric tons of plutonium. Figure 2 shows the quantity of plutonium-bearing material in these four categories. In this depiction, 200 metric tons of plutonium residues and 400 metric tons of solutions containing plutonium constitute most of the material in the stabilization program. So, it is not surprising that much of the work in stabilization is directed toward the residues and solutions, even though they contain less of the plutonium.

  13. Limits of Tumor Detectability in Nuclear Medicine and PET

    PubMed Central

    Erdi, Yusuf Emre

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Nuclear medicine is becoming increasingly important in the early detection of malignancy. The advantage of nuclear medicine over other imaging modalities is the high sensitivity of the gamma camera. Nuclear medicine counting equipment has the capability of detecting levels of radioactivity which exceed background levels by as little as 2.4 to 1. This translates to only a few hundred counts per minute on a regular gamma camera or as few as 3 counts per minute when using coincidence detection on a positron emission tomography (PET) camera. Material and Methods: We have experimentally measured the limits of detectability using a set of hollow spheres in a Jaszczak phantom at various tumor-to-background ratios. Imaging modalities for this work were (1) planar, (2) SPECT, (3) PET, and (4) planar camera with coincidence detection capability (MCD). Results: When there is no background (infinite contrast) activity present, the detectability of tumors is similar for PET and planar imaging. With the presence of the background activity , PET can detect objects in an order of magnitude smaller in size than that can be seen by conventional planar imaging especially in the typical clinical low (3:1) T/B ratios. The detection capability of the MCD camera lies between a conventional nuclear medicine (planar / SPECT) scans and the detection capability of a dedicated PET scanner. Conclusion: Among nuclear medicine’s armamentarium, PET is the closest modality to CT or MR imaging in terms of limits of detection. Modern clinical PET scanners have a resolution limit of 4 mm, corresponding to the detection of tumors with a volume of 0.2 ml (7 mm diameter) in 5:1 T/B ratio. It is also possible to obtain better resolution limits with dedicated brain and animal scanners. The future holds promise in development of new detector materials, improved camera design, and new reconstruction algorithms which will improve sensitivity, resolution, contrast, and thereby further diminish

  14. Some political issues related to future special nuclear materials production

    SciTech Connect

    Peaslee, A.T. Jr.

    1981-08-01

    The Federal Government must take action to assure the future adequate supply of special nuclear materials for nuclear weapons. Existing statutes permit the construction of advanced defense production reactors and the reprocessing of commercial spent fuel for the production of special materials. Such actions would not only benefit the US nuclear reactor manufacturers, but also the US electric utilities that use nuclear reactors.

  15. Covariance Spectroscopy Applied to Nuclear Radiation Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Trainham, R., Tinsley, J., Keegan, R., Quam, W.

    2011-09-01

    Covariance spectroscopy is a method of processing second order moments of data to obtain information that is usually absent from average spectra. In nuclear radiation detection it represents a generalization of nuclear coincidence techniques. Correlations and fluctuations in data encode valuable information about radiation sources, transport media, and detection systems. Gaining access to the extra information can help to untangle complicated spectra, uncover overlapping peaks, accelerate source identification, and even sense directionality. Correlations existing at the source level are particularly valuable since many radioactive isotopes emit correlated gammas and neutrons. Correlations also arise from interactions within detector systems, and from scattering in the environment. In particular, correlations from Compton scattering and pair production within a detector array can be usefully exploited in scenarios where direct measurement of source correlations would be unfeasible. We present a covariance analysis of a few experimental data sets to illustrate the utility of the concept.

  16. Probe for contamination detection in recyclable materials

    DOEpatents

    Taleyarkhan, Rusi

    2003-08-05

    A neutron detection system for detection of contaminants contained within a bulk material during recycling includes at least one neutron generator for neutron bombardment of the bulk material, and at least one gamma ray detector for detection of gamma rays emitted by contaminants within the bulk material. A structure for analyzing gamma ray data is communicably connected to the gamma ray detector, the structure for analyzing gamma ray data adapted. The identity and concentration of contaminants in a bulk material can also be determined. By scanning the neutron beam, discrete locations within the bulk material having contaminants can be identified. A method for recycling bulk material having unknown levels of contaminants includes the steps of providing at least one neutron generator, at least one gamma ray detector, and structure for analyzing gamma ray data, irradiating the bulk material with neutrons, and then determining the presence of at least one contaminant in the bulk material from gamma rays emitted from the bulk material.

  17. Gamma-ray identification of nuclear weapon materials

    SciTech Connect

    Gosnell, T. B., LLNL; Hall, J. M.; Jam, C. L.; Knapp, D. A.; Koenig, Z. M.; Luke, S. J.; Pohl, B. A.; Schach von Wittenau, A.; Wolford, J. K.

    1997-02-03

    There has been an accelerating national interest in countering nuclear smuggling. This has caused a corresponding expansion of interest in the use of gamma-ray spectrometers for checkpoint monitoring, nuclear search, and within networks of nuclear and collateral sensors. All of these are fieldable instruments--ranging from large, fixed portal monitors to hand-held and remote monitoring equipment. For operational reasons, detectors with widely varying energy resolution and detection efficiency will be employed. In many instances, such instruments must be sensitive to weak signals, always capable of recognizing the gamma-ray signatures from nuclear weapons materials (NWM), often largely insensitive to spectral alteration by radiation transport through intervening materials, capable of real-time implementation, and able to discriminate against signals from commonly encountered legitimate gamma-ray sources, such as radiopharmaceuticals. Several decades of experience in classified programs have shown that all of these properties are not easily achieved and successful approaches were of limited scope--such as the detection of plutonium only. This project was originally planned as a two-year LDRD-ER. Since funding for 1997 was not sustained, this is a report of the first year's progress.

  18. Recovery of fissile materials from nuclear wastes

    DOEpatents

    Forsberg, Charles W.

    1999-01-01

    A process for recovering fissile materials such as uranium, and plutonium, and rare earth elements, from complex waste feed material, and converting the remaining wastes into a waste glass suitable for storage or disposal. The waste feed is mixed with a dissolution glass formed of lead oxide and boron oxide resulting in oxidation, dehalogenation, and dissolution of metal oxides. Carbon is added to remove lead oxide, and a boron oxide fusion melt is produced. The fusion melt is essentially devoid of organic materials and halogens, and is easily and rapidly dissolved in nitric acid. After dissolution, uranium, plutonium and rare earth elements are separated from the acid and recovered by processes such as PUREX or ion exchange. The remaining acid waste stream is vitrified to produce a waste glass suitable for storage or disposal. Potential waste feed materials include plutonium scrap and residue, miscellaneous spent nuclear fuel, and uranium fissile wastes. The initial feed materials may contain mixtures of metals, ceramics, amorphous solids, halides, organic material and other carbon-containing material.

  19. Vulnerability Analysis Considerations for the Transportation of Special Nuclear Material

    SciTech Connect

    Nicholson, Lary G.; Purvis, James W.

    1999-07-21

    The vulnerability analysis methodology developed for fixed nuclear material sites has proven to be extremely effective in assessing associated transportation issues. The basic methods and techniques used are directly applicable to conducting a transportation vulnerability analysis. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate that the same physical protection elements (detection, delay, and response) are present, although the response force plays a dominant role in preventing the theft or sabotage of material. Transportation systems are continuously exposed to the general public whereas the fixed site location by its very nature restricts general public access.

  20. Automatic detection of high-Z materials in cargo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perticone, David; Eilbert, Richard; Gillett, Nick; McNabb, Ronald S., Jr.; Ozcandarli, Altan; Stillson, Jeffrey

    2010-08-01

    The United States Domestic Nuclear Detection Office (DNDO) Cargo Advanced Automatic Radiography System (CAARS) was an advanced technology demonstration to detect high-Z materials (Z, the atomic number, >= 72) in full sized cargo systems such as a 74 foot length tractor-trailer. The L-3 CAARS was one of two CAARS prototypes developed and tested under the program. The L-3 system utilized MeV range dual-energy photons to determine Z and a sophisticated image processing based detection algorithm to accomplish the detection. This paper describes the L-3 CAARS hardware, the physics approach to measuring Z, and presents some results from the system.

  1. Detection device for hazardous materials

    DOEpatents

    Partin, Judy K.; Grey, Alan E.

    1994-04-05

    A detection device that is activated by the interaction of a hazardous chcal with a coating interactive with said chemical on an optical fiber thereby reducing the amount of light passing through the fiber to a light detector. A combination of optical filters separates the light into a signal beam and a reference beam which after detection, appropriate amplification, and comparison with preset internal signals, activates an alarm means if a predetermined level of contaminant is observed.

  2. Detection device for hazardous materials

    DOEpatents

    Partin, Judy K.; Grey, Alan E.

    1994-01-01

    A detection device that is activated by the interaction of a hazardous chcal with a coating interactive with said chemical on an optical fiber thereby reducing the amount of light passing through the fiber to a light detector. A combination of optical filters separates the light into a signal beam and a reference beam which after detection, appropriate amplification, and comparison with preset internal signals, activates an alarm means if a predetermined level of contaminant is observed.

  3. 48 CFR 970.4402-4 - Nuclear material transfers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nuclear material transfers... 970.4402-4 Nuclear material transfers. (a) Management and operating contractors, in preparing... nuclear material, shall be required to assure that each such subcontract or agreement contains a—...

  4. 48 CFR 970.4402-4 - Nuclear material transfers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Nuclear material transfers... 970.4402-4 Nuclear material transfers. (a) Management and operating contractors, in preparing... nuclear material, shall be required to assure that each such subcontract or agreement contains a—...

  5. 48 CFR 970.4402-4 - Nuclear material transfers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Nuclear material transfers... 970.4402-4 Nuclear material transfers. (a) Management and operating contractors, in preparing... nuclear material, shall be required to assure that each such subcontract or agreement contains a—...

  6. 48 CFR 970.4402-4 - Nuclear material transfers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Nuclear material transfers... 970.4402-4 Nuclear material transfers. (a) Management and operating contractors, in preparing... nuclear material, shall be required to assure that each such subcontract or agreement contains a—...

  7. 48 CFR 970.4402-4 - Nuclear material transfers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Nuclear material transfers... 970.4402-4 Nuclear material transfers. (a) Management and operating contractors, in preparing... nuclear material, shall be required to assure that each such subcontract or agreement contains a—...

  8. Uncovering Special Nuclear Materials by Low-energy Nuclear Reaction Imaging.

    PubMed

    Rose, P B; Erickson, A S; Mayer, M; Nattress, J; Jovanovic, I

    2016-04-18

    Weapons-grade uranium and plutonium could be used as nuclear explosives with extreme destructive potential. The problem of their detection, especially in standard cargo containers during transit, has been described as "searching for a needle in a haystack" because of the inherently low rate of spontaneous emission of characteristic penetrating radiation and the ease of its shielding. Currently, the only practical approach for uncovering well-shielded special nuclear materials is by use of active interrogation using an external radiation source. However, the similarity of these materials to shielding and the required radiation doses that may exceed regulatory limits prevent this method from being widely used in practice. We introduce a low-dose active detection technique, referred to as low-energy nuclear reaction imaging, which exploits the physics of interactions of multi-MeV monoenergetic photons and neutrons to simultaneously measure the material's areal density and effective atomic number, while confirming the presence of fissionable materials by observing the beta-delayed neutron emission. For the first time, we demonstrate identification and imaging of uranium with this novel technique using a simple yet robust source, setting the stage for its wide adoption in security applications.

  9. Uncovering Special Nuclear Materials by Low-energy Nuclear Reaction Imaging.

    PubMed

    Rose, P B; Erickson, A S; Mayer, M; Nattress, J; Jovanovic, I

    2016-01-01

    Weapons-grade uranium and plutonium could be used as nuclear explosives with extreme destructive potential. The problem of their detection, especially in standard cargo containers during transit, has been described as "searching for a needle in a haystack" because of the inherently low rate of spontaneous emission of characteristic penetrating radiation and the ease of its shielding. Currently, the only practical approach for uncovering well-shielded special nuclear materials is by use of active interrogation using an external radiation source. However, the similarity of these materials to shielding and the required radiation doses that may exceed regulatory limits prevent this method from being widely used in practice. We introduce a low-dose active detection technique, referred to as low-energy nuclear reaction imaging, which exploits the physics of interactions of multi-MeV monoenergetic photons and neutrons to simultaneously measure the material's areal density and effective atomic number, while confirming the presence of fissionable materials by observing the beta-delayed neutron emission. For the first time, we demonstrate identification and imaging of uranium with this novel technique using a simple yet robust source, setting the stage for its wide adoption in security applications. PMID:27087555

  10. Applying RFID technology in nuclear materials management.

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, H.; Chen, K.; Liu, Y.; Norair, J. P.; Bellamy, S.; Shuler, J.; SRL; Savi Technology; DOE

    2008-01-01

    The Packaging Certification Program (PCP) of US Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Management (EM), Office of Safety Management and Operations (EM-60), has developed a radio frequency identification (RFID) system for the management of nuclear materials. Argonne National Laboratory, a PCP supporting laboratory, and Savi Technology, a Lockheed Martin Company, are collaborating in the development of the RFID system, a process that involves hardware modification (form factor, seal sensor and batteries), software development and irradiation experiments. Savannah River National Laboratory and Argonne will soon field test the active RFID system on Model 9975 drums, which are used for storage and transportation of fissile and radioactive materials. Potential benefits of the RFID system are enhanced safety and security, reduced need for manned surveillance, real time access of status and history data, and overall cost effectiveness.

  11. IBA studies of helium mobility in nuclear materials revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trocellier, P.; Agarwal, S.; Miro, S.; Vaubaillon, S.; Leprêtre, F.; Serruys, Y.

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to point out and to discuss some features extracted from the study of helium migration in nuclear materials performed during the last fifteen years using ion beam analysis (IBA) measurements. The first part of this paper is devoted to a brief description of the two main IBA methods used, i.e. deuteron induced nuclear reaction for 3He depth profiling and high-energy heavy-ion induced elastic recoil detection analysis for 4He measurement. In the second part, we provide an overview of the different studies carried out on model nuclear waste matrices and model nuclear reactor structure materials in order to illustrate and discuss specific results in terms of key influence parameters in relation with thermal or radiation activated migration of helium. Finally, we show that among the key parameters we have investigated as able to influence the height of the helium migration barrier, the following can be considered as pertinent: the experimental conditions used to introduce helium (implanted ion energy and implantation fluence), the grain size of the matrix, the lattice cell volume, the Young's modulus, the ionicity degree of the chemical bond between the transition metal atom M and the non-metal atom X, and the width of the band gap.

  12. Molecular forensic science of nuclear materials

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkerson, Marianne Perry

    2010-01-01

    We are interested in applying our understanding of actinide chemical structure and bonding to broaden the suite of analytical tools available for nuclear forensic analyses. Uranium- and plutonium-oxide systems form under a variety of conditions, and these chemical species exhibit some of the most complex behavior of metal oxide systems known. No less intriguing is the ability of AnO{sub 2} (An: U, Pu) to form non-stoichiometric species described as AnO{sub 2+x}. Environmental studies have shown the value of utilizing the chemical signatures of these actinide oxides materials to understand transport following release into the environment. Chemical speciation of actinide-oxide samples may also provide clues as to the age, source, process history, or transport of the material. The scientific challenge is to identify, measure and understand those aspects of speciation of actinide analytes that carry information about material origin and history most relevant to forensics. Here, we will describe our efforts in material synthesis and analytical methods development that we will use to provide the fundamental science required to characterize actinide oxide molecular structures for forensics science. Structural properties and initial results to measure structural variability of uranium oxide samples using synchrotron-based X-ray Absorption Fine Structure will be discussed.

  13. Device for detection and identification of carbon- and nitrogen-containing materials

    DOEpatents

    Karev, Alexander Ivanovich; Raevsky, Valery Georgievich; Dzhilavyan, Leonid Zavenovich; Laptev, Valery Dmitrievich; Pakhomov, Nikolay Ivanovich; Shvedunov, Vasily Ivanovich; Rykalin, Vladimir Ivanovich; Brothers, Louis Joseph; Wilhide, Larry K

    2014-03-25

    A device for detection and identification of carbon- and nitrogen-containing materials is described. In particular, the device performs the detection and identification of carbon- and nitrogen-containing materials by photo-nuclear detection. The device may comprise a race-track microtron, a breaking target, and a water-filled Cherenkov radiation counter.

  14. Methods of detection and identificationoc carbon- and nitrogen-containing materials

    DOEpatents

    Karev, Alexander Ivanovich; Raevsky, Valery Georgievich; Dzhalivyan, Leonid Zavenovich; Brothers, Louis Joseph; Wilhide, Larry K

    2013-11-12

    Methods for detecting and identifying carbon- and/or nitrogen-containing materials are disclosed. The methods may comprise detection of photo-nuclear reaction products of nitrogen and carbon to detect and identify the carbon- and/or nitrogen-containing materials.

  15. Nuclear Technology Series. Course 25: Radioactive Material Handling Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This technical specialty course is one of thirty-five courses designed for use by two-year postsecondary institutions in five nuclear technician curriculum areas: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and control technician, (3) nuclear materials processing technician, (4) nuclear quality-assurance/quality-control…

  16. Nuclear Technology Series. Course 21: Radioactive Materials Disposal and Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This technical specialty course is one of thirty-five courses designed for use by two-year postsecondary institutions in five nuclear technician curriculum areas: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and control technician, (3) nuclear materials processing technician, (4) nuclear quality-assurance/quality-control…

  17. Interactive Simulation of Nuclear Materials Safeguards and Security

    1994-03-14

    THIEF is an interactive computer simulation or computer game of the safeguards and security (S&S) systems of a nuclear facility. The user is placed in the role of a non-violent insider attempting to remove special nuclear material from the facility. All portions of the S&S system that are relevant to the non-violent insider threat are included. The computer operates the S&S systems and attempts to detect the loss of the nuclear material. Both the physicalmore » protection system and the materials control and accounting system are modeled. The description of the facility and its S&S systems are defined by the user with the aid of an input module. All aspects of the facility description are provided by the user. The program has a custom graphical user interface to facilitate its use by people with limited computer experience. The custom interface also allows it to run on relatively small computer systems.« less

  18. Uncovering Special Nuclear Materials by Low-energy Nuclear Reaction Imaging

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Rose, P. B.; Erickson, A. S.; Mayer, M.; Nattress, J.; Jovanovic, I.

    2016-04-18

    Weapons-grade uranium and plutonium could be used as nuclear explosives with extreme destructive potential. The problem of their detection, especially in standard cargo containers during transit, has been described as “searching for a needle in a haystack” because of the inherently low rate of spontaneous emission of characteristic penetrating radiation and the ease of its shielding. Currently, the only practical approach for uncovering well-shielded special nuclear materials is by use of active interrogation using an external radiation source. However, the similarity of these materials to shielding and the required radiation doses that may exceed regulatory limits prevent this method frommore » being widely used in practice. We introduce a low-dose active detection technique, referred to as low-energy nuclear reaction imaging, which exploits the physics of interactions of multi-MeV monoenergetic photons and neutrons to simultaneously measure the material’s areal density and effective atomic number, while confirming the presence of fissionable materials by observing the beta-delayed neutron emission. For the first time, we demonstrate identification and imaging of uranium with this novel technique using a simple yet robust source, setting the stage for its wide adoption in security applications.« less

  19. Uncovering Special Nuclear Materials by Low-energy Nuclear Reaction Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rose, P. B.; Erickson, A. S.; Mayer, M.; Nattress, J.; Jovanovic, I.

    2016-04-01

    Weapons-grade uranium and plutonium could be used as nuclear explosives with extreme destructive potential. The problem of their detection, especially in standard cargo containers during transit, has been described as “searching for a needle in a haystack” because of the inherently low rate of spontaneous emission of characteristic penetrating radiation and the ease of its shielding. Currently, the only practical approach for uncovering well-shielded special nuclear materials is by use of active interrogation using an external radiation source. However, the similarity of these materials to shielding and the required radiation doses that may exceed regulatory limits prevent this method from being widely used in practice. We introduce a low-dose active detection technique, referred to as low-energy nuclear reaction imaging, which exploits the physics of interactions of multi-MeV monoenergetic photons and neutrons to simultaneously measure the material’s areal density and effective atomic number, while confirming the presence of fissionable materials by observing the beta-delayed neutron emission. For the first time, we demonstrate identification and imaging of uranium with this novel technique using a simple yet robust source, setting the stage for its wide adoption in security applications.

  20. Uncovering Special Nuclear Materials by Low-energy Nuclear Reaction Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Rose, P. B.; Erickson, A. S.; Mayer, M.; Nattress, J.; Jovanovic, I.

    2016-01-01

    Weapons-grade uranium and plutonium could be used as nuclear explosives with extreme destructive potential. The problem of their detection, especially in standard cargo containers during transit, has been described as “searching for a needle in a haystack” because of the inherently low rate of spontaneous emission of characteristic penetrating radiation and the ease of its shielding. Currently, the only practical approach for uncovering well-shielded special nuclear materials is by use of active interrogation using an external radiation source. However, the similarity of these materials to shielding and the required radiation doses that may exceed regulatory limits prevent this method from being widely used in practice. We introduce a low-dose active detection technique, referred to as low-energy nuclear reaction imaging, which exploits the physics of interactions of multi-MeV monoenergetic photons and neutrons to simultaneously measure the material’s areal density and effective atomic number, while confirming the presence of fissionable materials by observing the beta-delayed neutron emission. For the first time, we demonstrate identification and imaging of uranium with this novel technique using a simple yet robust source, setting the stage for its wide adoption in security applications. PMID:27087555

  1. Analysis of insider threats against computerized nuclear materials accountability applications

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, E.; Sicherman, A.

    1995-07-01

    DOE Order 5633.3B requires that nuclear material accountability (MA) systems provide for (1) tracking material inventories, (2) documenting material transactions, (3) issuing periodic reports, and (4) assisting in the detection of- unauthorized system access, data falsification, and material gains or losses. Insider threats against the MA system represent the potential to degrade the integrity with which these requirements are addressed (e.g., altering data to misrepresent the quantity or location of nuclear material). In this paper, we describe a methodology for evaluating potential insider threats against both current and future (e.g., client-server network) MA software applications. The methodology comprises a detail yet practical taxonomy for characterizing various types of MA system/software applications and their implementation options. This taxonomy facilitates the systematic collection and organization of key information that helps spotlight such things as stag of information flow, transaction procedures, or auditing procedures potentially susceptible to inside falsification. Methodology benefits include helping MA managers and policy makers: (1) examine proposed software designs or modifications with respect to how they might reduce or increase exposure to insider threats; and (2) better understand safeguards cost (e.g., operational hindrances) and benefit (resistance to falsification) tradeoffs of different system/software alternatives.

  2. Computerized nuclear material system at Sandia National Laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    Tischhauser, J.L.

    1980-01-01

    SNLA developed and implemented a nuclear material control and accountability system on an HP 3000 minicomputer. The Sandia Nuclear Materials Computer System (SNMCS) which became operative in January 1980 provides: control of shipments and receivals of nuclear material, control of internal transfers of nuclear material, automated inventory with a bar code system, control of inventory adjustments, automated reporting/transmitting to other contractors and operations offices, automated ledgers and journals for material weights and costs, and interface to the Albuquerque Operations Office (ALO) Automated 741 System.

  3. The Nuclear Material Focus Area Roadmapping Process Utilizing Environmental Management Complex-Wide Nuclear Material Disposition Pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Sala, D. R.; Furhman, P.; Smith, J. D.

    2002-02-26

    This paper describes the process that the Nuclear Materials Focus Area (NMFA) has developed and utilizes in working with individual Department of Energy (DOE) sites to identify, address, and prioritize research and development efforts in the stabilization, disposition, and storage of nuclear materials. By associating site technology needs with nuclear disposition pathways and integrating those with site schedules, the NMFA is developing a complex wide roadmap for nuclear material technology development. This approach will leverage technology needs and opportunities at multiple sites and assist the NMFA in building a defensible research and development program to address the nuclear material technology needs across the complex.

  4. Nuclear Technology Series. Course 11: Radiation Detection and Measurement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technical Education Research Center, Waco, TX.

    This technical specialty course is one of thirty-five courses designed for use by two-year postsecondary institutions in five nuclear technician curriculum areas: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and control technician, (3) nuclear materials processing technician, (4) nuclear quality-assurance/quality-control…

  5. Cladding and Duct Materials for Advanced Nuclear Recycle Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, Todd R.; Busby, Jeremy T; Klueh, Ronald L; Maloy, S; Toloczko, M

    2008-01-01

    The expanded use of nuclear energy without risk of nuclear weapons proliferation and with safe nuclear waste disposal is a primary goal of the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP). To achieve that goal the GNEP is exploring advanced technologies for recycling spent nuclear fuel that do not separate pure plutonium, and advanced reactors that consume transuranic elements from recycled spent fuel. The GNEP s objectives will place high demands on reactor clad and structural materials. This article discusses the materials requirements of the GNEP s advanced nuclear recycle reactors program.

  6. Cladding and duct materials for advanced nuclear recycle reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, T. R.; Busby, J. T.; Klueh, R. L.; Maloy, S. A.; Toloczko, M. B.

    2008-01-01

    The expanded use of nuclear energy without risk of nuclear weapons proliferation and with safe nuclear waste disposal is a primary goal of the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP). To achieve that goal the GNEP is exploring advanced technologies for recycling spent nuclear fuel that do not separate pure plutonium, and advanced reactors that consume transuranic elements from recycled spent fuel. The GNEP’s objectives will place high demands on reactor clad and structural materials. This article discusses the materials requirements of the GNEP’s advanced nuclear recycle reactors program.

  7. Revisiting Statistical Aspects of Nuclear Material Accounting

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Burr, T.; Hamada, M. S.

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear material accounting (NMA) is the only safeguards system whose benefits are routinely quantified. Process monitoring (PM) is another safeguards system that is increasingly used, and one challenge is how to quantify its benefit. This paper considers PM in the role of enabling frequent NMA, which is referred to as near-real-time accounting (NRTA). We quantify NRTA benefits using period-driven and data-driven testing. Period-driven testing makes a decision to alarm or not at fixed periods. Data-driven testing decides as the data arrives whether to alarm or continue testing. The difference between period-driven and datad-riven viewpoints is illustrated by using one-year andmore » two-year periods. For both one-year and two-year periods, period-driven NMA using once-per-year cumulative material unaccounted for (CUMUF) testing is compared to more frequent Shewhart and joint sequential cusum testing using either MUF or standardized, independently transformed MUF (SITMUF) data. We show that the data-driven viewpoint is appropriate for NRTA and that it can be used to compare safeguards effectiveness. In addition to providing period-driven and data-driven viewpoints, new features include assessing the impact of uncertainty in the estimated covariance matrix of the MUF sequence and the impact of both random and systematic measurement errors.« less

  8. Absolute nuclear material assay using count distribution (LAMBDA) space

    SciTech Connect

    Prasad, Mano K.; Snyderman, Neal J.; Rowland, Mark S.

    2015-12-01

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  9. Absolute nuclear material assay using count distribution (LAMBDA) space

    DOEpatents

    Prasad, Manoj K.; Snyderman, Neal J.; Rowland, Mark S.

    2012-06-05

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  10. Detecting Cyber Attacks On Nuclear Power Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rrushi, Julian; Campbell, Roy

    This paper proposes an unconventional anomaly detection approach that provides digital instrumentation and control (I&C) systems in a nuclear power plant (NPP) with the capability to probabilistically discern between legitimate protocol frames and attack frames. The stochastic activity network (SAN) formalism is used to model the fusion of protocol activity in each digital I&C system and the operation of physical components of an NPP. SAN models are employed to analyze links between protocol frames as streams of bytes, their semantics in terms of NPP operations, control data as stored in the memory of I&C systems, the operations of I&C systems on NPP components, and NPP processes. Reward rates and impulse rewards are defined in the SAN models based on the activity-marking reward structure to estimate NPP operation profiles. These profiles are then used to probabilistically estimate the legitimacy of the semantics and payloads of protocol frames received by I&C systems.

  11. 10 CFR 73.25 - Performance capabilities for physical protection of strategic special nuclear material in transit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... unauthorized materials by stealth or force into the vicinity of transports and strategic special nuclear... unauthorized material into transports by stealth or force using the following subsystems and subfunctions: (i...) Detect attempts to remove strategic special nuclear material from transports by stealth or force...

  12. 10 CFR 73.25 - Performance capabilities for physical protection of strategic special nuclear material in transit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... unauthorized materials by stealth or force into the vicinity of transports and strategic special nuclear... unauthorized material into transports by stealth or force using the following subsystems and subfunctions: (i...) Detect attempts to remove strategic special nuclear material from transports by stealth or force...

  13. Materials Discovery: Informatic Strategies for Semiconducting Radiation Detection Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferris, Kim; Jones, Dumont; Schultz, Brian

    2010-03-01

    Inorganic semiconducting materials used in gamma radiation detection applications are typically binary and ternary inorganic crystals. Performance metrics for these materials include band gap, relating to carrier concentration and thermal background current; density, relating to stopping power; and electron mobility, which limits electron transport and is typically the dominant information carrier. In this paper, we describe an information-based approach to the identification of new radiation detection materials, using the specific case of the II-VI semiconductors. Even for simple binary systems, the sheer number of potential materials considering the presence of crystal system polymorphs and higher order compositions is daunting. The key to a successful materials search is the ability to suggest promising materials and a priori eliminate unfruitful inquiry. The success of an informatics-based design program depends on the relation of materials-level properties to atomic-scale properties that change rationally with structure, and the ability to extract rules which define these mappings. A brief example of a property-level screen will be given to illustrate the materials development process. The authors gratefully acknowledge financial support from U.S. Department of Homeland Security under Contract No. HSHQDC-08-X-00872.

  14. Microbial Effects on Nuclear Waste Packaging Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Horn, J; Martin, S; Carrillo, C; Lian, T

    2005-07-22

    Microorganisms may enhance corrosion of components of planned engineered barriers within the proposed nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain (YM). Corrosion could occur either directly, through processes collectively known as Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion (MIC), or indirectly, by adversely affecting the composition of water or brines that come into direct contact with engineered barrier surfaces. Microorganisms of potential concern (bacteria, archea, and fungi) include both those indigenous to Yucca Mountain and those that infiltrate during repository construction and after waste emplacement. Specific aims of the experimental program to evaluate the potential of microorganisms to affect damage to engineered barrier materials include the following: Indirect Effects--(1) Determine the limiting factors to microbial growth and activity presently in the YM environment. (2) Assess these limiting factors to aid in determining the conditions and time during repository evolution when MIC might become operant. (3) Evaluate present bacterial densities, the composition of the YM microbial community, and determining bacterial densities if limiting factors are overcome. During a major portion of the regulatory period, environmental conditions that are presently extant become reestablished. Therefore, these studies ascertain whether biomass is sufficient to cause MIC during this period and provide a baseline for determining the types of bacterial activities that may be expected. (4) Assess biogenic environmental effects, including pH, alterations to nitrate concentration in groundwater, the generation of organic acids, and metal dissolution. These factors have been shown to be those most relevant to corrosion of engineered barriers. Direct Effects--(1) Characterize and quantify microbiological effects on candidate containment materials. These studies were carried out in a number of different approaches, using whole YM microbiological communities, a subset of YM

  15. 10 CFR 72.78 - Nuclear material transaction reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Nuclear material transaction reports. 72.78 Section 72.78 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED GREATER THAN CLASS C WASTE...

  16. 10 CFR 72.78 - Nuclear material transaction reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Nuclear material transaction reports. 72.78 Section 72.78 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED GREATER THAN CLASS C WASTE...

  17. 10 CFR 72.78 - Nuclear material transaction reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Nuclear material transaction reports. 72.78 Section 72.78 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED GREATER THAN CLASS C WASTE...

  18. 10 CFR 72.78 - Nuclear material transaction reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nuclear material transaction reports. 72.78 Section 72.78 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED GREATER THAN CLASS C WASTE...

  19. 10 CFR 72.78 - Nuclear material transaction reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Nuclear material transaction reports. 72.78 Section 72.78 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED GREATER THAN CLASS C WASTE...

  20. Integration of advanced nuclear materials separation processes

    SciTech Connect

    Jarvinen, G.D.; Worl, L.A.; Padilla, D.D.; Berg, J.M.; Neu, M.P.; Reilly, S.D.; Buelow, S.

    1998-12-31

    This is the final report of a two-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This project has examined the fundamental chemistry of plutonium that affects the integration of hydrothermal technology into nuclear materials processing operations. Chemical reactions in high temperature water allow new avenues for waste treatment and radionuclide separation.Successful implementation of hydrothermal technology offers the potential to effective treat many types of radioactive waste, reduce the storage hazards and disposal costs, and minimize the generation of secondary waste streams. The focus has been on the chemistry of plutonium(VI) in solution with carbonate since these are expected to be important species in the effluent from hydrothermal oxidation of Pu-containing organic wastes. The authors investigated the structure, solubility, and stability of the key plutonium complexes. Installation and testing of flow and batch hydrothermal reactors in the Plutonium Facility was accomplished. Preliminary testing with Pu-contaminated organic solutions gave effluent solutions that readily met discard requirements. A new effort in FY 1998 will build on these promising initial results.

  1. Wireless sensor for detecting explosive material

    DOEpatents

    Lamberti, Vincent E; Howell, Jr., Layton N; Mee, David K; Sepaniak, Michael J

    2014-10-28

    Disclosed is a sensor for detecting explosive devices. The sensor includes a ferromagnetic metal and a molecular recognition reagent coupled to the ferromagnetic metal. The molecular recognition reagent is operable to expand upon absorption of vapor from an explosive material such that the molecular recognition reagent changes a tensile stress upon the ferromagnetic metal. The explosive device is detected based on changes in the magnetic switching characteristics of the ferromagnetic metal caused by the tensile stress.

  2. Fissile Materials Detection via Neutron Differential Die-Away Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batyaev, V. F.; Bochkarev, O. V.; Sklyarov, S. V.

    2014-02-01

    This work is devoted to the differential die-away technique that is widely used for active detection of fissile materials via pulsed neutron generators. The technique allows direct detection of milligram quantities of uranium-235 and plutonium-239 in objects with volumes up to several cubic meters. Our group has demonstrated this technique, creating a special installation based on the commercially produced ING-07T pulsed neutron generator. The installation includes eight proportional 3He-counters mounted inside a polyethylene moderator with a cadmium filter, as well as a polyethylene chamber into which a 70-liter container is loaded for inspection. Preliminary testing showed that the minimum detectable mass of unshielded uranium-235 is ˜3 mg, using a 5.108 n/s neutron yield and 8 min measurement time. When the container is filled with neutron absorbing materials, e.g., iron, the minimum detectable mass increases to ˜30 mg. Use of borated screens further increases the minimum mass that can be detected. The tested installation and/or its modifications can be used for control and detection of fissile materials in various applications from luggage inspection to control containers with nuclear fuel cycle radioactive wastes.

  3. Characterization of nuclear material by Neutron Resonance Transmission Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paradela, C.; Alaerts, G.; Becker, B.; Heyse, J.; Kopecky, S.; Moens, A.; Mondelaers, W.; Schillebeeckx, P.; Wynants, R.; Harada, H.; Kitatani, F.; Koizumi, M.; Tsuchiya, H.

    2016-11-01

    The use of Neutron Resonance Transmission Analysis for the characterization of nuclear materials is discussed. The method, which relies on resonance structures in neutron-induced reaction cross sections, can be applied as a non-destructive method to characterise complex nuclear materials such as melted fuel resulting from a severe nuclear accident. Results of a demonstration experiment at the GELINA facility reveal that accurate data can be obtained at a compact facility even in the case of strong overlapping resonances.

  4. Covariance Spectroscopy for Fissile Material Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Rusty Trainham, Jim Tinsley, Paul Hurley, Ray Keegan

    2009-06-02

    Nuclear fission produces multiple prompt neutrons and gammas at each fission event. The resulting daughter nuclei continue to emit delayed radiation as neutrons boil off, beta decay occurs, etc. All of the radiations are causally connected, and therefore correlated. The correlations are generally positive, but when different decay channels compete, so that some radiations tend to exclude others, negative correlations could also be observed. A similar problem of reduced complexity is that of cascades radiation, whereby a simple radioactive decay produces two or more correlated gamma rays at each decay. Covariance is the usual means for measuring correlation, and techniques of covariance mapping may be useful to produce distinct signatures of special nuclear materials (SNM). A covariance measurement can also be used to filter data streams because uncorrelated signals are largely rejected. The technique is generally more effective than a coincidence measurement. In this poster, we concentrate on cascades and the covariance filtering problem.

  5. Novel Materials and Devices for Solid-State Neutron Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Manginell, Ronald P.; Pfeifer, Kent B.

    2015-11-01

    There is a need in many fields, such as nuclear medicine, non-proliferation, energy exploration, national security, homeland security, nuclear energy, etc, for miniature, thermal neutron detectors. Until recently, thermal neutron detection has required physically large devices to provide sufficient neutron interaction and transduction signal. Miniaturization would allow broader use in the fields just mentioned and open up other applications potentially. Recent research shows promise in creating smaller neutron detectors through the combination of high-neutron-cross-section converter materials and solid-state devices. Yet, till recently it is difficult to measure low neutron fluxes by solidstate means given the need for optimized converter materials (purity, chemical composition and thickness) and a lack of designs capable of efficient transduction of the neutron conversion products (x-rays, electrons, gamma rays). Gadolinium-based semiconductor heterojunctions have detected electrons produced by Gd-neutron reactions but only at high neutron fluxes. One of the main limitations to this type of approach is the use of thin converter layers and the inability to utilize all the conversion products. In this LDRD we have optimized the converter material thickness and chemical composition to improve capture of conversion electrons and have detected thermal neutrons with high fidelity at low flux. We are also examining different semiconductor materials and converter materials to attempt to capture a greater percentage of the conversion electrons, both low and higher energy varieties. We have studied detector size and bias scaling, and cross-sensitivity to xrays and shown that we can detect low fluxes of thermal neutrons in less than 30 minutes with high selectivity by our approach. We are currently studying improvements in performance with direct placement of the Gd converter on the detector. The advancement of sensitive, miniature neutron detectors will have benefits in

  6. Detection and drug delivery from superhydrophobic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falde, Eric John

    The wetting of a rough material is controlled by surface chemistry and morphology, the liquid phase, solutes, and surfactants that affect the surface tension with the gas phase, and environmental conditions such as temperature and pressure. Materials with high (>150°) apparent contact angles are known as superhydrophobic and are very resistant to wetting. However, in complex biological mixtures eventually protein adsorbs, fouling the surface and facilitating wetting on time scales from seconds to months. The work here uses the partially-wetted (Cassie-Baxter) to fully-wetted (Wenzel) state transition to control drug delivery and to perform surfactant detection via surface tension using hydrophobic and superhydrophobic materials. First there is an overview of the physics of the non-wetting state and the transition to wetting. Then there is a review of how wetting can be controlled by outside stimuli and applications of these materials. Next there is work presented on controlling drug release using superhydrophobic materials with controlled wetting rates, with both in vitro and in vivo results. Then there is work on developing a sensor based on this wetting state transition and its applications toward detecting solute levels in biological fluids for point-of-care diagnosis. Finally, there is work presented on using these sensors for detecting the alcohol content in wine and spirits.

  7. Materials for Children about Nuclear War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eiss, Harry

    President Reagan's Fiscal Year 1987 budget was an attempt to increase dramatically spending on national defense, on nuclear weapons, while cutting back on social programs. The increases for almost all nuclear weapons indicate the Administration of the United States saw its major responsibility as one of providing a strong military, one centered on…

  8. Radiation sensitive devices and systems for detection of radioactive materials and related methods

    DOEpatents

    Kotter, Dale K

    2014-12-02

    Radiation sensitive devices include a substrate comprising a radiation sensitive material and a plurality of resonance elements coupled to the substrate. Each resonance element is configured to resonate responsive to non-ionizing incident radiation. Systems for detecting radiation from a special nuclear material include a radiation sensitive device and a sensor located remotely from the radiation sensitive device and configured to measure an output signal from the radiation sensitive device. In such systems, the radiation sensitive device includes a radiation sensitive material and a plurality of resonance elements positioned on the radiation sensitive material. Methods for detecting a presence of a special nuclear material include positioning a radiation sensitive device in a location where special nuclear materials are to be detected and remotely interrogating the radiation sensitive device with a sensor.

  9. Management of Global Nuclear Materials for International Security

    SciTech Connect

    Isaacs, T; Choi, J-S

    2003-09-18

    Nuclear materials were first used to end the World War II. They were produced and maintained during the cold war for global security reasons. In the succeeding 50 years since the Atoms for Peace Initiative, nuclear materials were produced and used in global civilian reactors and fuel cycles intended for peaceful purposes. The Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT) of 1970 established a framework for appropriate applications of both defense and civilian nuclear activities by nuclear weapons states and non-nuclear weapons states. As global inventories of nuclear materials continue to grow, in a diverse and dynamically changing manner, it is time to evaluate current and future trends and needed actions: what are the current circumstances, what has been done to date, what has worked and what hasn't? The aim is to identify mutually reinforcing programmatic directions, leading to global partnerships that measurably enhance international security. Essential elements are material protection, control and accountability (MPC&A) of separated nuclear materials, interim storage, and geologic repositories for all nuclear materials destined for final disposal. Cooperation among key partners, such as the MPC&A program between the U.S. and Russia for nuclear materials from dismantled weapons, is necessary for interim storage and final disposal of nuclear materials. Such cooperative partnerships can lead to a new nuclear regime where a complete fuel cycle service with fuel leasing and spent fuel take-back can be offered to reactor users. The service can effectively minimize or even eliminate the incentive or rationale for the user-countries to develop their indigenous enrichment and reprocessing technologies. International cooperation, supported by governments of key countries can be best to facilitate the forum for formation of such cooperative partnerships.

  10. U.S. national nuclear material control and accounting system

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, S; Terentiev, V G

    1998-12-01

    Issues related to nuclear material control and accounting and illegal dealing in these materials were discussed at the April 19--20, 1996 Moscow summit meeting (G7 + Russia). The declaration from this meeting reaffirmed that governments are responsible for the safety of all nuclear materials in their possession and for the effectiveness of the national control and accounting system for these materials. The Russian delegation at this meeting stated that ''the creation of a nuclear materials accounting, control, and physical protection system has become a government priority''. Therefore, in order to create a government nuclear material control and accounting system for the Russian Federation, it is critical to study the structure, operating principles, and regulations supporting the control and accounting of nuclear materials in the national systems of nuclear powers. In particular, Russian specialists have a definite interest in learning about the National Nuclear Material Control and Accounting System of the US, which has been operating successfully as an automated system since 1968.

  11. Matrix Characterization in Threat Material Detection Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Obhodas, J.; Sudac, D.; Valkovic, V.

    2009-03-10

    Matrix characterization in the threat material detection is of utmost importance, it generates the background against which the threat material signal has to be identified. Threat materials (explosive, chemical warfare, ...) are usually contained within small volume inside large volumes of variable matrices. We have studied the influence of matrix materials on the capability of neutron systems to identify hidden threat material. Three specific scenarios are considered in some details: case 1--contraband material in the sea containers, case 2 - explosives in soil (landmines), case 3 - explosives and chemical warfare on the sea bottom. Effects of container cargo material on tagged neutron system are seen in the increase of gamma background and the decrease of neutron beam intensity. Detection of landmines is more complex because of variable soil properties. We have studied in detail space and time variations of soil elemental compositions and in particular hydrogen content (humidity). Of special interest are ammunitions and chemical warfare on the sea bottom, damping sites and leftovers from previous conflicts (WW-I, WW-II and local). In this case sea sediment is background source and its role is similar to the role of the soil in the landmine detection. In addition to geochemical cycling of chemical elements in semi-enclosed sea, like the Adriatic Sea, one has to consider also anthropogenic influence, especially when studying small scale variations in concentration levels. Some preliminary experimental results obtained with tagged neutron sensor inside an underwater vehicle are presented as well as data on sediment characterization by X-Ray Fluorescence.

  12. Nuclear Weapons Effects (Self-Teaching Materials).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Civil Preparedness Agency (DOD), Battle Creek, MI.

    Developed by the Civil Defense Preparedness Agency, this autoinstructional text deals with nuclear weapons effects. The destructive effects of an atomic blast are first introduced, and then long-term radioactive consequences are stressed. (CP)

  13. 78 FR 38739 - Special Nuclear Material Control and Accounting Systems for Nuclear Power Plants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-27

    ... Information DG-5028, was published in the Federal Register on May 14, 2012 (77 FR 28407), for a 60-day public... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Special Nuclear Material Control and Accounting Systems for Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY:...

  14. 77 FR 28407 - Special Nuclear Material Control and Accounting Systems for Nuclear Power Plants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-14

    ... January 1998 (63 FR 2426; January 15, 1998), because the underlying basis standard, ANSI N15.8-1974... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Special Nuclear Material Control and Accounting Systems for Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY:...

  15. Ultra Wide Band RFID Neutron Tags for Nuclear Materials Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Nekoogar, F; Dowla, F; Wang, T

    2010-01-27

    Recent advancements in the ultra-wide band Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology and solid state pillar type neutron detectors have enabled us to move forward in combining both technologies for advanced neutron monitoring. The LLNL RFID tag is totally passive and will operate indefinitely without the need for batteries. The tag is compact, can be directly mounted on metal, and has high performance in dense and cluttered environments. The LLNL coin-sized pillar solid state neutron detector has achieved a thermal neutron detection efficiency of 20% and neutron/gamma discrimination of 1E5. These performance values are comparable to a fieldable {sup 3}He based detector. In this paper we will discuss features about the two technologies and some potential applications for the advanced safeguarding of nuclear materials.

  16. Ground-based Nuclear Detonation Detection (GNDD) Technology Roadmap

    SciTech Connect

    Casey, Leslie A.

    2014-01-13

    This GNDD Technology Roadmap is intended to provide guidance to potential researchers and help management define research priorities to achieve technology advancements for ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring science being pursued by the Ground-based Nuclear Detonation Detection (GNDD) Team within the Office of Nuclear Detonation Detection in the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Four science-based elements were selected to encompass the entire scope of nuclear monitoring research and development (R&D) necessary to facilitate breakthrough scientific results, as well as deliver impactful products. Promising future R&D is delineated including dual use associated with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). Important research themes as well as associated metrics are identified along with a progression of accomplishments, represented by a selected bibliography, that are precursors to major improvements to nuclear explosion monitoring.

  17. Nuclear Forensic Science: Analysis of Nuclear Material Out of Regulatory Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kristo, Michael J.; Gaffney, Amy M.; Marks, Naomi; Knight, Kim; Cassata, William S.; Hutcheon, Ian D.

    2016-06-01

    Nuclear forensic science seeks to identify the origin of nuclear materials found outside regulatory control. It is increasingly recognized as an integral part of a robust nuclear security program. This review highlights areas of active, evolving research in nuclear forensics, with a focus on analytical techniques commonly employed in Earth and planetary sciences. Applications of nuclear forensics to uranium ore concentrates (UOCs) are discussed first. UOCs have become an attractive target for nuclear forensic researchers because of the richness in impurities compared to materials produced later in the fuel cycle. The development of chronometric methods for age dating nuclear materials is then discussed, with an emphasis on improvements in accuracy that have been gained from measurements of multiple radioisotopic systems. Finally, papers that report on casework are reviewed, to provide a window into current scientific practice.

  18. Game theory and decision support system for use in security reviews of nuclear material tracking and accountancy systems

    SciTech Connect

    Goutal, P.; Werkoff, F.; Le Manchec, K.; Preston, N.; Roche, F.

    1995-12-31

    Tracking and accountancy arrangements help guarantee the security of nuclear materials. Verifications consisting of comparisons between physical identifications or measurements on one hand and material accountancy on the other hand are carried out, in order to detect any unexpected absence of nuclear material. This paper studies two different aspects of the problem of the efficiency of these verifications. First, a decision support system for use in security reviews of nuclear material accountancy systems is presented. Its purpose is firstly to represent a facility and the associated verifications, tracking and accountancy operations and secondly, to calculate the detection delay in the case of an absence of nuclear material. Next, in order to minimize the detection delay for a limited, fixed number of physical identifications, a two-person, zero-sum game with incomplete information is described. The first results obtained from this analysis indicate shorter detection times than those given by games with complete information.

  19. Large Area Imaging Detector for Long-Range, Passive Detection Of Fissile Material

    SciTech Connect

    Ziock, K P; Craig, W W; Fabris, L; Lanza, R C; Gallagher, S; Horn, B P; Madden, N W

    2004-07-30

    Recent events highlight the increased risk of a terrorist attack using either a nuclear or a radiological weapon. One of the key needs to counter such a threat is long-range detection of nuclear material. Theoretically, gamma-ray emissions from such material should allow passive detection to distances greater than 100 m. However, detection at this range has long been thought impractical due to fluctuating levels of natural background radiation. These fluctuations are the major source of uncertainty in detection and mean that sensitivity cannot be increased simply by increasing detector size. Recent work has shown that this problem can be overcome through the use of imaging techniques. In this paper we describe the background problems, the advantages of imaging and the construction of a prototype, large-area (0.57 m{sup 2}) gamma-ray imager to detect nuclear materials at distances of {approx}100 m.

  20. Large Area Imaging Detector for Long-Range, Passive Detection of Fissile Material

    SciTech Connect

    Ziock, K P; Craig, W W; Fabris, L; Lanza, R C; Gallagher, S; Horn, B P; Madden, N W

    2003-10-29

    Recent events highlight the increased risk of a terrorist attack using either a nuclear or a radiological weapon. One of the key needs to counter such a threat is long-range detection of nuclear material. Theoretically, gamma-ray emissions from such material should allow passive detection to distances greater than 100 m. However, detection at this range has long been thought impractical due to fluctuating levels of natural background radiation. These fluctuations are the major source of uncertainty in detection and mean that sensitivity cannot be increased simply by increasing detector size. Recent work has shown that this problem can be overcome through the use of imaging techniques. In this paper we describe the background problems, the advantages of imaging and the construction of a prototype, large-area (0.57 m{sup 2}) gamma-ray imager to detect nuclear materials at distances of {approx}100 m.

  1. 2002-2003 Engineering Accomplishments: Unconventional Nuclear Weapons Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Hernandez, J E; Valentine, J

    2004-04-09

    The Defense Threat Reduction Agency, DTRA, is a federal agency charged with safeguarding the nation from weapons of mass destruction, in particular nuclear weapons such as crude devices, and radiological dispersal devices (RDD), also known as dirty bombs. Both of which could be delivered using unconventional means such as by transporting them by a car or boat. Two years ago DTRA partnered with NNSA to evaluate commercially available technologies that could be deployed quickly to defend against threats posed by unconventional nuclear weapons under a program called the Unconventional Nuclear Warfare Defense (UNWD) Program. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) was one of several National laboratories that participated in this program, which consisted in developing, deploying, and demonstrating detection systems suitable for military base protection. Two key contributions to this program by the LLNL team were the development of two Radiation Detection Buoys (RDB) deployed at Naval Base in Kings Bay in Georgia, and the Detection and Tracking System (DTS) demonstrated at Fort Leonard Wood Missouri, headquarters for the Total Force's Maneuver Support Center (MANSCEN). The RDB's were designed to detect the potential transportation of an unconventional nuclear or radiological weapon by a boat. The RDB's consisted of two commercial marine buoys instrumented with several types of detectors sensitive to gamma rays and neutrons, two key modes of energy emitted by radioactive materials. The engineering team selected a standard marine buoy as the overall system platform for this deployment since buoys are already designed to sustain the harsh marine environment, and also for their covertness, since once deployed, they look just like any other buoy on the water. Since this was the first time such a system was ever deployed, the team choose to instrument the buoys with a suite of different types of detectors with the goal to learn which detectors would be best suited for

  2. Materials Science of High-Level Nuclear Waste Immobilization

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, William J.; Navrotsky, Alexandra; Stefanovsky, S. V.; Vance, E. R.; Vernaz, Etienne Y.

    2009-01-09

    With the increasing demand for the development of more nuclear power comes the responsibility to address the technical challenges of immobilizing high-level nuclear wastes in stable solid forms for interim storage or disposition in geologic repositories. The immobilization of high-level nuclear wastes has been an active area of research and development for over 50 years. Borosilicate glasses and complex ceramic composites have been developed to meet many technical challenges and current needs, although regulatory issues, which vary widely from country to country, have yet to be resolved. Cooperative international programs to develop advanced proliferation-resistant nuclear technologies to close the nuclear fuel cycle and increase the efficiency of nuclear energy production might create new separation waste streams that could demand new concepts and materials for nuclear waste immobilization. This article reviews the current state-of-the-art understanding regarding the materials science of glasses and ceramics for the immobilization of high-level nuclear waste and excess nuclear materials and discusses approaches to address new waste streams.

  3. THE ATTRACTIVENESS OF MATERIALS IN ADVANCED NUCLEAR FUEL CYCLES FOR VARIOUS PROLIFERATION AND THEFT SCENARIOS

    SciTech Connect

    Bathke, C. G.; Ebbinghaus, Bartley B.; Collins, Brian A.; Sleaford, Brad W.; Hase, Kevin R.; Robel, Martin; Wallace, R. K.; Bradley, Keith S.; Ireland, J. R.; Jarvinen, G. D.; Johnson, M. W.; Prichard, Andrew W.; Smith, Brian W.

    2012-08-29

    We must anticipate that the day is approaching when details of nuclear weapons design and fabrication will become common knowledge. On that day we must be particularly certain that all special nuclear materials (SNM) are adequately accounted for and protected and that we have a clear understanding of the utility of nuclear materials to potential adversaries. To this end, this paper examines the attractiveness of materials mixtures containing SNM and alternate nuclear materials associated with the plutonium-uranium reduction extraction (Purex), uranium extraction (UREX), coextraction (COEX), thorium extraction (THOREX), and PYROX (an electrochemical refining method) reprocessing schemes. This paper provides a set of figures of merit for evaluating material attractiveness that covers a broad range of proliferant state and subnational group capabilities. The primary conclusion of this paper is that all fissile material must be rigorously safeguarded to detect diversion by a state and must be provided the highest levels of physical protection to prevent theft by subnational groups; no 'silver bullet' fuel cycle has been found that will permit the relaxation of current international safeguards or national physical security protection levels. The work reported herein has been performed at the request of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and is based on the calculation of 'attractiveness levels' that are expressed in terms consistent with, but normally reserved for, the nuclear materials in DOE nuclear facilities. The methodology and findings are presented. Additionally, how these attractiveness levels relate to proliferation resistance and physical security is discussed.

  4. Monitor for detecting nuclear waste leakage in a subsurface repository

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klainer, S.; Hirschfeld, T.; Bowman, H.; Milanovich, F.; Perry, D.; Johnson, D.

    1980-11-01

    A remote fiber optics system is employed in conjunction with the coprecipitation enhanced fluorimetry technique to detect radioactive waste leakage. An in situ monitoring capability using fiber optics to effect communication between the instrumentation and the sample is demonstrated. The sample is an actinide or a tracer material leaking from an underground nuclear waste repository into the ground water. A lanthanide (which is an excellent fluorescent agent), actinide or other species which does not radiation damage is chosen as the tracer to maximize sensitivity, specificity, and relevance. Taggants having variable excitation and emission wavelengths create a need for an acromatic retroreflective fiber coupler. This was done using the geometrical properties of the fiber to design a coupler requiring no dichroics or glossy energy splitting surfaces.

  5. Real-Time Characterization of Special Nuclear Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Walston, Sean; Candy, Jim; Chambers, Dave; Chandrasekaran, Hema; Snyderman, Neal

    2015-09-04

    When confronting an item that may contain nuclear material, it is urgently necessary to determine its characteristics. Our goal is to provide accurate information with high-con dence as rapidly as possible.

  6. Beryllium - A Unique Material in Nuclear Applications

    SciTech Connect

    T., A. Tomberlin

    2004-11-01

    Beryllium, due to its unique combination of structural, chemical, atomic number, and neutron absorption cross section characteristics, has been used successfully as a neutron reflector for three generations of nuclear test reactors at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR), the largest test reactor in the world, has utilized five successive beryllium neutron reflectors and is scheduled for continued operation with a sixth beryllium reflector. A high radiation environment in a test reactor produces radiation damage and other changes in beryllium. These changes necessitate safety analysis of the beryllium, methods to predict performance, and appropriate surveillances. Other nuclear applications also utilize beryllium. Beryllium, given its unique atomic, physical, and chemical characteristics, is widely used as a “window” for x-rays and gamma rays. Beryllium, intimately mixed with high-energy alpha radiation emitters has been successfully used to produce neutron sources. This paper addresses operational experience and methodologies associated with the use of beryllium in nuclear test reactors and in “windows” for x-rays and gamma rays. Other nuclear applications utilizing beryllium are also discussed.

  7. Advanced Neutron Detection Methods: new Tools for Countering Nuclear Terrorism (412th Brookhaven Lecture)

    SciTech Connect

    Vanier, Peter

    2006-02-15

    Acts of terrorism have become almost daily occurrences in the international news. Yet one of the most feared types of terrorism — nuclear terrorism — has not yet happened. One important way of preventing nuclear terrorism is to safeguard nuclear materials, and many people worldwide work continuously to achieve that goal. A second, vital defense is being developed: greatly improved methods of detecting material that a nuclear terrorist would need so that timely discovery of the material could become more probable. Special nuclear materials can emit neutrons, either spontaneously or when excited by a source of high-energy gamma rays, such as an electron accelerator. Traditional neutron detectors can sense these neutrons, but not the direction from which the neutrons come, or their energy. The odds against finding smuggled nuclear materials using conventional detectors are great. However, innovative designs of detectors are producing images that show the locations and even the shapes of man-made neutron sources, which stand out against the uniform background produced by cosmic rays. With the new detectors, finding needles in haystacks — or smuggled nuclear materials in a huge container among thousands of others in a busy port — suddenly becomes possible.

  8. The Use of Fast Neutron Detection for Materials Accountability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakae, L. F.; Chapline, G. F.; Glenn, A. M.; Kerr, P. L.; Kim, K. S.; Ouedraogo, S. A.; Prasad, M. K.; Sheets, S. A.; Snyderman, N. J.; Verbeke, J. M.; Wurtz, R. E.

    2014-02-01

    For many years at LLNL, we have been developing time-correlated neutron detection techniques and algorithms for applications such as Arms Control, Threat Detection and Nuclear Material Assay. Many of our techniques have been developed specifically for the relatively low efficiency (a few percent) inherent in man-portable systems. Historically, thermal neutron detectors (mainly 3He) were used, taking advantage of the high thermal neutron interaction cross-sections, but more recently we have been investigating the use of fast neutron detection with liquid scintillators, inorganic crystals, and in the near future, pulse-shape discriminating plastics that respond over 1000 times faster (nanoseconds versus tens of microseconds) than thermal neutron detectors. Fast neutron detection offers considerable advantages, since the inherent nanosecond production timescales of fission and neutron-induced fission are preserved and measured instead of being lost in the thermalization of thermal neutron detectors. We are now applying fast neutron technology to the safeguards regime in the form of high efficiency counters. Faster detector response times and sensitivity to neutron momentum show promise in measuring, differentiating, and assaying samples that have modest to very high count rates, as well as mixed neutron sources (e.g., Pu oxide or Mixed Cm and Pu). Here we report on measured results with our existing liquid scintillator array and promote the design of a nuclear material assay system that incorporates fast neutron detection, including the surprising result that fast liquid scintillator becomes competitive and even surpasses the precision of 3He counters measuring correlated pairs in modest (kg) samples of plutonium.

  9. Detection of fissionable materials in cargoes using monochromatic photon radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danagoulian, Areg; Lanza, Richard; O'Day, Buckley; LNSP Team

    2015-04-01

    The detection of Special Nuclear Materials (e.g. Pu and U) and nuclear devices in the commercial cargo traffic is one of the challenges posed by the threat of nuclear terrorism. Radiography and active interrogation of heavily loaded cargoes require ~ 1 - 10MeV photons for penetration. In a proof-of-concept system under development at MIT, the interrogating monochromatic photon beam is produced via a 11B(d , nγ) 12C reaction. To achieve this, a boron target is used along with the 3 MeV d+ RFQ accelerator at MIT-Bates. The reactions results in the emission of very narrow 4.4 MeV and 15.1 MeV gammas lines. The photons, after traversing the cargo, are detected by an array of NaI(Tl) detectors. A spectral analysis of the transmitted gammas allows to independently determine the areal density and the atomic number (Z) of the cargo. The proposed approach could revolutionize cargo inspection, which, in its current fielded form has to rely on simple but high dose bremsstrahlung sources. Use of monochromatic sources would significantly reduce the necessary dose and allow for better determination of the cargo's atomic number. The general methodology will be described and the preliminary results from the proof-of-concept system will be presented and discussed. Supported by NSF/DNDO Collaborative Research ARI-LA Award ECCS-1348328.

  10. Advanced materials for space nuclear power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Titran, Robert H.; Grobstein, Toni L.; Ellis, David L.

    1991-01-01

    The overall philosophy of the research was to develop and characterize new high temperature power conversion and radiator materials and to provide spacecraft designers with material selection options and design information. Research on three candidate materials (carbide strengthened niobium alloy PWC-11 for fuel cladding, graphite fiber reinforced copper matrix composites for heat rejection fins, and tungsten fiber reinforced niobium matrix composites for fuel containment and structural supports) considered for space power system applications is discussed. Each of these types of materials offers unique advantages for space power applications.

  11. Advanced materials for space nuclear power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Titran, Robert H.; Grobstein, Toni L.; Ellis, David L.

    1991-01-01

    The overall philosophy of the research was to develop and characterize new high temperature power conversion and radiator materials and to provide spacecraft designers with material selection options and design information. Research on three candidate materials (carbide strengthened niobium alloy PWC-11 for fuel cladding, graphite fiber reinforced copper matrix composites for heat rejection fins, and tungsten fiber reinforced niobium matrix composites for fuel containment and structural supports considered for space power system applications is discussed. Each of these types of materials offers unique advantages for space power applications.

  12. 10 CFR 70.11 - Persons using special nuclear material under certain Department of Energy and Nuclear Regulatory...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Persons using special nuclear material under certain Department of Energy and Nuclear Regulatory Commission contracts. 70.11 Section 70.11 Energy NUCLEAR... using special nuclear material under certain Department of Energy and Nuclear Regulatory...

  13. 10 CFR 70.11 - Persons using special nuclear material under certain Department of Energy and Nuclear Regulatory...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Persons using special nuclear material under certain Department of Energy and Nuclear Regulatory Commission contracts. 70.11 Section 70.11 Energy NUCLEAR... using special nuclear material under certain Department of Energy and Nuclear Regulatory...

  14. 10 CFR 70.11 - Persons using special nuclear material under certain Department of Energy and Nuclear Regulatory...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Persons using special nuclear material under certain Department of Energy and Nuclear Regulatory Commission contracts. 70.11 Section 70.11 Energy NUCLEAR... using special nuclear material under certain Department of Energy and Nuclear Regulatory...

  15. 10 CFR 70.11 - Persons using special nuclear material under certain Department of Energy and Nuclear Regulatory...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Persons using special nuclear material under certain Department of Energy and Nuclear Regulatory Commission contracts. 70.11 Section 70.11 Energy NUCLEAR... using special nuclear material under certain Department of Energy and Nuclear Regulatory...

  16. 10 CFR 70.11 - Persons using special nuclear material under certain Department of Energy and Nuclear Regulatory...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Persons using special nuclear material under certain Department of Energy and Nuclear Regulatory Commission contracts. 70.11 Section 70.11 Energy NUCLEAR... using special nuclear material under certain Department of Energy and Nuclear Regulatory...

  17. Portable nuclear material detector and process

    DOEpatents

    Hofstetter, Kenneth J; Fulghum, Charles K; Harpring, Lawrence J; Huffman, Russell K; Varble, Donald L

    2008-04-01

    A portable, hand held, multi-sensor radiation detector is disclosed. The detection apparatus has a plurality of spaced sensor locations which are contained within a flexible housing. The detection apparatus, when suspended from an elevation, will readily assume a substantially straight, vertical orientation and may be used to monitor radiation levels from shipping containers. The flexible detection array can also assume a variety of other orientations to facilitate any unique container shapes or to conform to various physical requirements with respect to deployment of the detection array. The output of each sensor within the array is processed by at least one CPU which provides information in a usable form to a user interface. The user interface is used to provide the power requirements and operating instructions to the operational components within the detection array.

  18. A treaty to ban nuclear smuggling: The next step in nuclear material control?

    SciTech Connect

    Carnahan, B.M.; Smith, J.R.

    1994-10-01

    Since the demise of the Soviet Union, reports have continued to surface that weapons-usable nuclear material has been smuggled out of former Soviet territory into the hands of proliferant states. So far, few examples of nuclear smuggling have involved serious quantities of weapons-usable material, and much purported smuggling has involved attempted fraud rather than an effort to transfer fissile material. In no instance has an actual transfer to a potential proliferant state been verified.

  19. Nuclear forensics of special nuclear material at Los Alamos: three recent studies

    SciTech Connect

    Tandon, Lav; Gallimore, David L; Garduon, Katherine; Keller, Russell C; Kuhn, Kevin J; Lujan, Elmer J; Martinez, Alexander; Myers, Steven C; Moore, Steve S; Porterfield, Donivan R; Schwartz, Daniel S; Spencer, Khalil J; Townsend, Lisa E; Xu, Ning

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear forensics of special nuclear materials is a highly specialized field because there are few analytical laboratories in the world that can safely handle nuclear materials, perform high accuracy and precision analysis using validated analytical methods. The goal of nuclear forensics is to establish an unambiguous link between illicitly trafficked nuclear material and its origin. The Los Alamos National Laboratory Nuclear Materials Signatures Program has implemented a graded 'conduct of operations' type approach for determining the unique nuclear, chemical, and physical signatures needed to identify the manufacturing process, intended use, and origin of interdicted nuclear material. In our approach an analysis flow path was developed for determining key signatures necessary for attributing unknown materials to a source. This analysis flow path included both destructive (i.e., alpha spectrometry, ICP-MS, ICP-AES, TIMS, particle size distribution, density and particle fractionation) and non-destructive (i.e., gamma-ray spectrometry, optical microscopy, SEM, XRD, and x-ray fluorescence) characterization techniques. Analytical techniques and results from three recent cases characterized by this analysis flow path along with an evaluation of the usefulness of this approach will be discussed in this paper.

  20. The U.S. national nuclear forensics library, nuclear materials information program, and data dictionary

    SciTech Connect

    Lamont, Stephen Philip; Brisson, Marcia; Curry, Michael

    2011-02-17

    Nuclear forensics assessments to determine material process history requires careful comparison of sample data to both measured and modeled nuclear material characteristics. Developing centralized databases, or nuclear forensics libraries, to house this information is an important step to ensure all relevant data will be available for comparison during a nuclear forensics analysis and help expedite the assessment of material history. The approach most widely accepted by the international community at this time is the implementation of National Nuclear Forensics libraries, which would be developed and maintained by individual nations. This is an attractive alternative toan international database since it provides an understanding that each country has data on materials produced and stored within their borders, but eliminates the need to reveal any proprietary or sensitive information to other nations. To support the concept of National Nuclear Forensics libraries, the United States Department of Energy has developed a model library, based on a data dictionary, or set of parameters designed to capture all nuclear forensic relevant information about a nuclear material. Specifically, information includes material identification, collection background and current location, analytical laboratories where measurements were made, material packaging and container descriptions, physical characteristics including mass and dimensions, chemical and isotopic characteristics, particle morphology or metallurgical properties, process history including facilities, and measurement quality assurance information. While not necessarily required, it may also be valuable to store modeled data sets including reactor burn-up or enrichment cascade data for comparison. It is fully expected that only a subset of this information is available or relevant to many materials, and much of the data populating a National Nuclear Forensics library would be process analytical or material accountability

  1. Rattling Nucleons: New Developments in Active Interrogation of Special Nuclear Material

    SciTech Connect

    Robert C. Runkle; David L. Chichester; Scott J. Thompson

    2012-01-01

    Active interrogation is a vigorous area of research and development due to its promise of offering detection and characterization capabilities of special nuclear material in environments where passive detection fails. The primary value added by active methods is the capability to penetrate shielding - special nuclear material itself, incidental materials, or intentional shielding - and advocates hope that active interrogation will provide a solution to the problem of detecting shielded uranium, which is at present the greatest obstacle to interdiction efforts. The technique also provides a unique benefit for quantifying nuclear material in high background-radiation environments, an area important for nuclear material safeguards and material accountancy. Progress has been made in the field of active interrogation on several fronts, most notably in the arenas of source development, systems integration, and the integration and exploitation of multiple fission and non-fission signatures. But penetration of interrogating radiation often comes at a cost, not only in terms of finance and dose but also in terms of induced backgrounds, system complexity, and extended measurement times (including set up and acquisition). These costs make the calculus for deciding to implement active interrogation more subtle than may be apparent. The purpose of this review is thus to examine existing interrogation methods, compare and contrast their attributes and limitations, and identify missions where active interrogation may hold the most promise.

  2. Elevated Radioxenon Detected Remotely Following the Fukushima Nuclear Accident

    SciTech Connect

    Bowyer, Ted W.; Biegalski, Steven R.; Cooper, Matthew W.; Eslinger, Paul W.; Haas, Derek A.; Hayes, James C.; Miley, Harry S.; Strom, Daniel J.; Woods, Vincent T.

    2011-04-21

    We report on the first measurements of short-lived gaseous fission products detected outside of Japan following the Fukushima nuclear releases, which occurred after a 9.0 magnitude earthquake and tsunami on March 11, 2011.

  3. Multivariate diagnostics and anomaly detection for nuclear safeguards

    SciTech Connect

    Burr, T.; Jones, J.; Wangen, L.

    1994-08-01

    For process control and other reasons, new and future nuclear reprocessing plants are expected to be increasingly more automated than older plants. As a consequence of this automation, the quantity of data potentially available for safeguards may be much greater in future reprocessing plants than in current plants. The authors first review recent literature that applies multivariate Shewhart and multivariate cumulative sum (Cusum) tests to detect anomalous data. These tests are used to evaluate residuals obtained from a simulated three-tank problem in which five variables (volume, density, and concentrations of uranium, plutonium, and nitric acid) in each tank are modeled and measured. They then present results from several simulations involving transfers between the tanks and between the tanks and the environment. Residuals from a no-fault problem in which the measurements and model predictions are both correct are used to develop Cusum test parameters which are then used to test for faults for several simulated anomalous situations, such as an unknown leak or diversion of material from one of the tanks. The leak can be detected by comparing measurements, which estimate the true state of the tank system, with the model predictions, which estimate the state of the tank system as it ``should`` be. The no-fault simulation compares false alarm behavior for the various tests, whereas the anomalous problems allow one to compare the power of the various tests to detect faults under possible diversion scenarios. For comparison with the multivariate tests, univariate tests are also applied to the residuals.

  4. A Uniform Framework of Global Nuclear Materials Management

    SciTech Connect

    Dupree, S.A.; Mangan, D.L.; Sanders, T.L; Sellers, T.A.

    1999-04-20

    Global Nuclear Materials Management (GNMM) anticipates and supports a growing international recognition of the importance of uniform, effective management of civilian, excess defense, and nuclear weapons materials. We expect thereto be a continuing increase in both the number of international agreements and conventions on safety, security, and transparency of nuclear materials, and the number of U.S.-Russian agreements for the safety, protection, and transparency of weapons and excess defense materials. This inventory of agreements and conventions may soon expand into broad, mandatory, international programs that will include provisions for inspection, verification, and transparency, To meet such demand the community must build on the resources we have, including State agencies, the IAEA and regional organizations. By these measures we will meet the future expectations for monitoring and inspection of materials, maintenance of safety and security, and implementation of transparency measures.

  5. Nonlinear ultrasonic scanning to detect material defects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yost, William T. (Inventor); Cantrell, John H. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A method and system are provided to detect defects in a material. Waves of known frequency(ies) are mixed at an interaction zone in the material. As a result, at least one of a difference wave and a sum wave are generated in the interaction zone. The difference wave occurs at a difference frequency and the sum wave occurs at a sum frequency. The amplitude of at least one nonlinear signal based on the sum and/or difference waves is then measured. The nonlinear signal is defined as the amplitude of one of the difference wave and sum wave relative to the product of the amplitude of the surface waves. The amplitude of the nonlinear signal is an indication of defects (e.g., dislocation dipole density) in the interaction zone.

  6. Summary Report for the Radiation Detection for Nuclear Security Summer School 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Runkle, Robert C.; Baciak, James E.; Stave, Jean A.

    2012-08-22

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) hosted students from across the United States at the inaugural Radiation Detection for Nuclear Security Summer School from June 11 – 22, 2012. The summer school provided students with a unique understanding of nuclear security challenges faced in the field and exposed them to the technical foundations, analyses, and insight that will be required by future leaders in technology development and implementation. The course heavily emphasized laboratory and field demonstrations including direct measurements of special nuclear material. The first week of the summer school focused on the foundational knowledge required by technology practitioners; the second week focused on contemporary applications. Student evaluations and feedback from student advisors indicates that the summer school achieved its objectives of 1) exposing students to the range of nuclear security applications for which radiation detection is necessary, 2) articulating the relevance of student research into the broader context, and 3) exciting students about the possibility of future careers in nuclear security.

  7. Glassy materials investigated for nuclear reactor applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lynch, E. D.

    1968-01-01

    Studies determine the feasibility of preparing fuel-bearing glasses and glasses bearing neutron-absorbing materials for use as crystalline fuel and control rods for reactors. Properties investigated were devitrification resistance, urania solubility, and density.

  8. Advanced materials for space nuclear power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Titran, R.H.; Grobstein, T.L. . Lewis Research Center); Ellis, D.L. )

    1991-01-01

    Research on monolithic refractory metal alloys and on metal matrix composites is being conducted at the NASA Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio, in support of advanced space power systems. The overall philosophy of the research is to develop and characterize new high-temperature power conversion and radiator materials and to provide spacecraft designers with material selection options and design information. Research on three candidate materials (carbide strengthened niobium alloy PWC-11 for fuel cladding, graphite fiber reinforced copper matrix composites (Gr/Cu) for heat rejection fins, and tungsten fiber reinforced niobium matrix composites (W/NB) for fuel containment and structural supports) considered for space power system applications is discussed. Each of these types of materials offers unique advantages for space power applications.

  9. Nuclear materials accounting, helping the facility operator

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, J.W.; Thomas, K.E.

    1986-01-01

    A modern materials control and accounting (MC and A) system can provide major benefits to production personnel. It can enhance understanding of process systems performance, localize and reconcile material losses, and identify instruments that are out-of-calibration or malfunctioning. Examples of the above MC and A system applications are given. We show how Operations personnel can use an MC and A system to their advantage rather than letting the MC and A system take advantage of them.

  10. Introduction to Special Edition (of the Journal of Nuclear Materials Management) on Reducing the Threat from Radioactive Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Mladineo, Stephen V.

    2007-03-01

    Introductory article for special edition of the JOURNAL OF NUCLEAR MATERIALS MANAGEMENT outlining the Institute of Nuclear Materials Management Nonproliferation and Arms Control Technical Division. In particular the International Nuclear and Radiological Security Standing Committee and its initial focus covering four topical areas--Radiological Threat Reduction, Nuclear Smuggling and Illicit Trafficking, Countering Nuclear Terrorism, and Radioligical Terrorism Consequence Management.

  11. Thermal Analysis of Storage Cans Containing Special Nuclear Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Jerrell, J.W.

    2000-11-17

    A series of thermal analyses have been completed for ten storage can configurations representing various cases of materials stored in F-Area. The analyses determine the temperatures of the cans, the special nuclear material, and the air sealed within the cans. Analyses to aid in understanding the effect of oxide accumulation and metal aging on temperatures are also included.

  12. Multi-Elemental Nuclear Analysis of soil reference material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metairon, S.; Zamboni, C. B.; Medeiros, I. M. M. Amaral; Menezes, M. À. B. C.

    2011-08-01

    The elements concentration in the soil reference material (IAEA/SOIL-7) was obtained using the parametric Neutron Activation Analysis technique in the IEA-R1 nuclear reactor at IPEN (CNEN-SP). The results obtained were in good agreement with the respective nominal values from this reference material suggesting the viability of using this parametric procedure for environmental investigations.

  13. Computational Age Dating of Special Nuclear Materials

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2012-06-30

    This slide-show presented an overview of the Constrained Progressive Reversal (CPR) method for computing decays, age dating, and spoof detecting. The CPR method is: Capable of temporal profiling a SNM sample; Precise (compared with known decay code, such a ORIGEN); Easy (for computer implementation and analysis). We have illustrated with real SNM data using CPR for age dating and spoof detection. If SNM is pure, may use CPR to derive its age. If SNM is mixed, CPR will indicate that it is mixed or spoofed.

  14. Capacitor-based detection of nuclear magnetization: nuclear quadrupole resonance of surfaces.

    PubMed

    Gregorovič, Alan; Apih, Tomaž; Kvasić, Ivan; Lužnik, Janko; Pirnat, Janez; Trontelj, Zvonko; Strle, Drago; Muševič, Igor

    2011-03-01

    We demonstrate excitation and detection of nuclear magnetization in a nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) experiment with a parallel plate capacitor, where the sample is located between the two capacitor plates and not in a coil as usually. While the sensitivity of this capacitor-based detection is found lower compared to an optimal coil-based detection of the same amount of sample, it becomes comparable in the case of very thin samples and even advantageous in the proximity of conducting bodies. This capacitor-based setup may find its application in acquisition of NQR signals from the surface layers on conducting bodies or in a portable tightly integrated nuclear magnetic resonance sensor.

  15. Accelerated Nuclear Energy Materials Development with Multiple Ion Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Fluss, M J; Bench, G

    2009-08-19

    A fundamental issue in nuclear energy is the changes in material properties as a consequence of time, temperature, and neutron fluence. Usually, candidate materials for nuclear energy applications are tested in nuclear reactors to understand and model the changes that arise from a combination of atomic displacements, helium and hydrogen production, and other nuclear transmutations (e.g. fission and the production of fission products). Experiments may be carried out under neutron irradiation conditions in existing nuclear materials test reactors (at rates of 10 to 20 displacements per atom (DPA) per year or burn-up rates of a few percent per year for fertile fuels), but such an approach takes much too long for many high neutron fluence scenarios (300 DPA for example) expected in reactors of the next generation. Indeed it is reasonable to say that there are no neutron sources available today to accomplish sufficiently rapid accelerated aging let alone also provide the temperature and spectral characteristics of future fast spectrum nuclear energy systems (fusion and fission both). Consequently, materials research and development progress continues to be severely limited by this bottleneck.

  16. Nuclear Material Control and Accountability System Effectiveness Tool (MSET)

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, Danny H; Elwood Jr, Robert H; Roche, Charles T; Campbell, Billy J; Hammond, Glenn A; Meppen, Bruce W; Brown, Richard F

    2011-01-01

    A nuclear material control and accountability (MC&A) system effectiveness tool (MSET) has been developed in the United States for use in evaluating material protection, control, and accountability (MPC&A) systems in nuclear facilities. The project was commissioned by the National Nuclear Security Administration's Office of International Material Protection and Cooperation. MSET was developed by personnel with experience spanning more than six decades in both the U.S. and international nuclear programs and with experience in probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) in the nuclear power industry. MSET offers significant potential benefits for improving nuclear safeguards and security in any nation with a nuclear program. MSET provides a design basis for developing an MC&A system at a nuclear facility that functions to protect against insider theft or diversion of nuclear materials. MSET analyzes the system and identifies several risk importance factors that show where sustainability is essential for optimal performance and where performance degradation has the greatest impact on total system risk. MSET contains five major components: (1) A functional model that shows how to design, build, implement, and operate a robust nuclear MC&A system (2) A fault tree of the operating MC&A system that adapts PRA methodology to analyze system effectiveness and give a relative risk of failure assessment of the system (3) A questionnaire used to document the facility's current MPC&A system (provides data to evaluate the quality of the system and the level of performance of each basic task performed throughout the material balance area [MBA]) (4) A formal process of applying expert judgment to convert the facility questionnaire data into numeric values representing the performance level of each basic event for use in the fault tree risk assessment calculations (5) PRA software that performs the fault tree risk assessment calculations and produces risk importance factor reports on the

  17. Potential applications of nanostructured materials in nuclear waste management.

    SciTech Connect

    Braterman, Paul S. (The University of North Texas, Denton, TX); Phol, Phillip Isabio; Xu, Zhi-Ping (The University of North Texas, Denton, TX); Brinker, C. Jeffrey; Yang, Yi; Bryan, Charles R.; Yu, Kui; Xu, Huifang (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Wang, Yifeng; Gao, Huizhen

    2003-09-01

    This report summarizes the results obtained from a Laboratory Directed Research & Development (LDRD) project entitled 'Investigation of Potential Applications of Self-Assembled Nanostructured Materials in Nuclear Waste Management'. The objectives of this project are to (1) provide a mechanistic understanding of the control of nanometer-scale structures on the ion sorption capability of materials and (2) develop appropriate engineering approaches to improving material properties based on such an understanding.

  18. Optoelectronic inventory system for special nuclear material

    SciTech Connect

    Sieradzki, F.H.

    1994-01-01

    In support of the Department of Energy`s Dismantlement Program, the Optoelectronics Characterization and Sensor Development Department 2231 at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico has developed an in situ nonintrusive Optoelectronic Inventory System (OIS) that has the potential for application wherever periodic inventory of selected material is desired. Using a network of fiber-optic links, the OIS retrieves and stores inventory signatures from data storage devices (which are permanently attached to material storage containers) while inherently providing electromagnetic pulse immunity and electrical noise isolation. Photovoltaic cells (located within the storage facility) convert laser diode optic power from a laser driver to electrical energy. When powered and triggered, the data storage devices sequentially output their digital inventory signatures through light-emitting diode/photo diode data links for retrieval and storage in a mobile data acquisition system. An item`s exact location is determined through fiber-optic network and software design. The OIS provides an on-demand method for obtaining acceptable inventory reports while eliminating the need for human presence inside the material storage facility. By using modularization and prefabricated construction with mature technologies and components, an OIS installation with virtually unlimited capacity can be tailored to the customer`s requirements.

  19. Detection of electromagnetic radiation using nonlinear materials

    DOEpatents

    Hwang, Harold Y.; Liu, Mengkun; Averitt, Richard D.; Nelson, Keith A.; Sternbach, Aaron; Fan, Kebin

    2016-06-14

    An apparatus for detecting electromagnetic radiation within a target frequency range is provided. The apparatus includes a substrate and one or more resonator structures disposed on the substrate. The substrate can be a dielectric or semiconductor material. Each of the one or more resonator structures has at least one dimension that is less than the wavelength of target electromagnetic radiation within the target frequency range, and each of the resonator structures includes at least two conductive structures separated by a spacing. Charge carriers are induced in the substrate near the spacing when the resonator structures are exposed to the target electromagnetic radiation. A measure of the change in conductivity of the substrate due to the induced charge carriers provides an indication of the presence of the target electromagnetic radiation.

  20. Toward better management of nuclear materials in Japan and Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Kurihara, Hiroyoshi

    1996-11-01

    The Asian region is drawing a great deal of attention from all over the world regarding its possible future role as the core of worldwide peaceful nuclear energy development. Northeast Asia, Japan, Korea, and Taiwan already have a significant amount of nuclear power generation. Furthermore, these countries together with China have expansion plans. Southeast Asia is just beginning to plan and construct civilian nuclear power stations. Among these Asian countries, Japan can be regarded as one of the most developed nations as far as peaceful nuclear energy is concerned. Within Japan several nuclear fuel cycle facilities, including reprocessing and uranium enrichment facilities, are in operation. Research and developmental activities on fast breeder reactors are continuing. On this occasion the author explains three topics in general. The first is the history and the present situation of Japanese nuclear energy development and nuclear materials management. The second topic is Japan`s efforts to strengthen international nonproliferation efforts, which include: various assistances in the dismantling of the former Soviet Union`s nuclear forces; Japan`s participation in the Korean Peninsula Energy Development Organization (KEDO), which is responsible for the supply of two light water reactors to the Democratic people`s Republic of Korea (DPRK); Japan`s initiative and contributions to the establishment of guidelines for use and storage of separated plutonium; technical and financial support to the IAEA safeguards implementation; and the strengthening of the Japanese system of accounting for and control of nuclear materials (SSAC) in connection with the Agency`s activity, Program 93+2. The last topic addresses is concerned with nuclear energy in the Asian region. The concept of ASIATOM, or PACIFIC ATOM is now being widely discussed in several countries in Asia. The author discusses this idea, especially regarding the objectives, possible contents and the structures.

  1. Materials technology applied to nuclear accelerator targets

    SciTech Connect

    Barthell, B.L.

    1986-11-10

    The continuing requests for both shaped and flat, very low areal density metal foils have led to the development of metallurgical quality, high strength products. Intent of this paper is to show methods of forming structures on various substrates using periodic vapor interruptions, alternating anodes, and mechanical peening to alter otherwise unacceptable grain morphology which both lowers tensile strength and causes high stresses in thin films. The three technologies, physical vapor deposition, electrochemistry, and chemical vapor deposition and their thin film products can benefit from the use of laminate technology and control of grain structure morphology through the use of materials research and technology.

  2. International training course on nuclear materials accountability for safeguards purposes

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-12-01

    The two volumes of this report incorporate all lectures and presentations at the International Training Course on Nuclear Materials Accountability and Control for Safeguards Purposes, held May 27-June 6, 1980, at the Bishop's Lodge near Santa Fe, New Mexico. The course, authorized by the US Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act and sponsored by the US Department of Energy in cooperation with the International Atomic Energy Agency, was developed to provide practical training in the design, implementation, and operation of a National system of nuclear materials accountability and control that satisfies both National and IAEA International safeguards objectives. Volume I, covering the first week of the course, presents the background, requirements, and general features of material accounting and control in modern safeguard systems. Volume II, covering the second week of the course, provides more detailed information on measurement methods and instruments, practical experience at power reactor and research reactor facilities, and examples of operating state systems of accountability and control.

  3. ADDING REALISM TO NUCLEAR MATERIAL DISSOLVING ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    Williamson, B.

    2011-08-15

    Two new criticality modeling approaches have greatly increased the efficiency of dissolver operations in H-Canyon. The first new approach takes credit for the linear, physical distribution of the mass throughout the entire length of the fuel assembly. This distribution of mass is referred to as the linear density. Crediting the linear density of the fuel bundles results in using lower fissile concentrations, which allows higher masses to be charged to the dissolver. Also, this approach takes credit for the fact that only part of the fissile mass is wetted at a time. There are multiple assemblies stacked on top of each other in a bundle. On average, only 50-75% of the mass (the bottom two or three assemblies) is wetted at a time. This means that only 50-75% (depending on operating level) of the mass is moderated and is contributing to the reactivity of the system. The second new approach takes credit for the progression of the dissolving process. Previously, dissolving analysis looked at a snapshot in time where the same fissile material existed both in the wells and in the bulk solution at the same time. The second new approach models multiple consecutive phases that simulate the fissile material moving from a high concentration in the wells to a low concentration in the bulk solution. This approach is more realistic and allows higher fissile masses to be charged to the dissolver.

  4. Effect of Nuclear Radiation on Materials at Cryogenic Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwanbeck, C. A.

    1965-01-01

    The tensile properties for 33 polycrystalline structural materials including aluminum, titanium, nickel and iron alloys were obtained at -256.5 C (30 deg R) after irradiation exposure at this temperature to 10(exp 17) nvt (E greater than 0.5 Mev), at -256.5 C without previous irradiation, and at approximately 27 C (540 deg R) without previous irradiation. The data were evaluated statistically to permit identification of cryogenic effects and nuclear-cryogenic effects. A number of conclusions were drawn regarding suitability of certain of the materials for use in nuclear-cryogenic applications and regarding the need for further investigation.

  5. 10 CFR Appendix M to Part 110 - Categorization of Nuclear Material d

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Categorization of Nuclear Material d M Appendix M to Part 110 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) EXPORT AND IMPORT OF NUCLEAR EQUIPMENT AND MATERIAL Pt. 110, App. M Appendix M to Part 110—Categorization of Nuclear Material d Material Form...

  6. 10 CFR Appendix M to Part 110 - Categorization of Nuclear Material d

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Categorization of Nuclear Material d M Appendix M to Part 110 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) EXPORT AND IMPORT OF NUCLEAR EQUIPMENT AND MATERIAL Pt. 110, App. M Appendix M to Part 110—Categorization of Nuclear Material d Material Form...

  7. 10 CFR Appendix M to Part 110 - Categorization of Nuclear Material d

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Categorization of Nuclear Material d M Appendix M to Part 110 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) EXPORT AND IMPORT OF NUCLEAR EQUIPMENT AND MATERIAL Pt. 110, App. M Appendix M to Part 110—Categorization of Nuclear Material d Material Form...

  8. 10 CFR Appendix M to Part 110 - Categorization of Nuclear Material d

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Categorization of Nuclear Material d M Appendix M to Part 110 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) EXPORT AND IMPORT OF NUCLEAR EQUIPMENT AND MATERIAL Pt. 110, App. M Appendix M to Part 110—Categorization of Nuclear Material d Material Form...

  9. 10 CFR Appendix M to Part 110 - Categorization of Nuclear Material d

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Categorization of Nuclear Material d M Appendix M to Part 110 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) EXPORT AND IMPORT OF NUCLEAR EQUIPMENT AND MATERIAL Pt. 110, App. M Appendix M to Part 110—Categorization of Nuclear Material d Material Form...

  10. Automatic nuclear bud detection using ellipse fitting, moving sticks or top-hat transformation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, C; Sun, C; Vallotton, P; Fenech, M; Pham, T D

    2013-11-01

    Micronucleus assays are extensively used by biologists to assess genotoxicity and to monitor human exposure to genotoxic materials. As recent studies suggested that nuclear buds can be a new source of micronuclei formed in interphase, the quantification of nuclear buds, which are micronucleus like objects that are attached to the nuclei in interphase, in normal and control group is needed. Three automatic nuclear bud detection algorithms fit for different situations are proposed in this paper. One is based on ellipse fitting, one is based on a stick model and the other is based on the top-hat transform. Comparison of the three methods is also given in this paper. Experimental results showed that the proposed algorithms are all effective and efficient for nuclear bud detection. PMID:23961938

  11. Certified reference materials and reference methods for nuclear safeguards and security.

    PubMed

    Jakopič, R; Sturm, M; Kraiem, M; Richter, S; Aregbe, Y

    2013-11-01

    Confidence in comparability and reliability of measurement results in nuclear material and environmental sample analysis are established via certified reference materials (CRMs), reference measurements, and inter-laboratory comparisons (ILCs). Increased needs for quality control tools in proliferation resistance, environmental sample analysis, development of measurement capabilities over the years and progress in modern analytical techniques are the main reasons for the development of new reference materials and reference methods for nuclear safeguards and security. The Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM) prepares and certifices large quantities of the so-called "large-sized dried" (LSD) spikes for accurate measurement of the uranium and plutonium content in dissolved nuclear fuel solutions by isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) and also develops particle reference materials applied for the detection of nuclear signatures in environmental samples. IRMM is currently replacing some of its exhausted stocks of CRMs with new ones whose specifications are up-to-date and tailored for the demands of modern analytical techniques. Some of the existing materials will be re-measured to improve the uncertainties associated with their certified values, and to enable laboratories to reduce their combined measurement uncertainty. Safeguards involve the quantitative verification by independent measurements so that no nuclear material is diverted from its intended peaceful use. Safeguards authorities pay particular attention to plutonium and the uranium isotope (235)U, indicating the so-called 'enrichment', in nuclear material and in environmental samples. In addition to the verification of the major ratios, n((235)U)/n((238)U) and n((240)Pu)/n((239)Pu), the minor ratios of the less abundant uranium and plutonium isotopes contain valuable information about the origin and the 'history' of material used for commercial or possibly clandestine purposes, and

  12. A Future Vision of Nuclear Material Information Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wimple, C.; Suski, N.; Kreek, S.; Buckley, W.; Romine, B.

    1999-09-17

    Modern nuclear materials accounting and safeguards measurement systems are becoming increasingly advanced as they embrace emerging technologies. However, many facilities still rely on human intervention to update materials accounting records. The demand for nuclear materials safeguards information continues to increase while general industry and government down-sizing has resulted in less availability of qualified staff. Future safeguards requirements will necessitate access to information through unattended and/or remote monitoring systems requiring minimal human intervention. Under the auspices of the Department of Energy (DOE), LLNL is providing assistance in the development of standards for minimum raw data file contents, methodology for comparing shipper-receiver values and generation of total propagated measurement uncertainties, as well as the implementation of modern information technology to improve reliability of and accessibility to nuclear materials information. An integrated safeguards and accounting system is described, along with data and methodology standards that ultimately speed access to this information. This system will semi-automate activities such as material balancing, reconciliation of shipper/receiver differences, and report generation. In addition, this system will implement emerging standards that utilize secure direct electronic linkages throughout several phases of safeguards accounting and reporting activities. These linkages will demonstrate integration of equipment in the facility that measures material quantities, a site-level computerized Materials Control and Accounting (MC&A) inventory system, and a country-level state system of accounting and control.

  13. Predictive aging results for cable materials in nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Gillen, K.T.; Clough, R.L.

    1990-11-01

    In this report, we provide a detailed discussion of methodology of predicting cable degradation versus dose rate, temperature, and exposure time and its application to data obtained on a number of additional nuclear power plant cable insulation (a hypalon, a silicon rubber and two ethylenetetrafluoroethylenes) and jacket (a hypalon) materials. We then show that the predicted, low-dose-rate results for our materials are in excellent agreement with long-term (7 to 9 years), low dose-rate results recently obtained for the same material types actually aged under nuclear power plant conditions. Based on a combination of the modelling and long-term results, we find indications of reasonably similar degradation responses among several different commercial formulations for each of the following generic'' materials: hypalon, ethylenetetrafluoroethylene, silicone rubber and PVC. If such generic'' behavior can be further substantiated through modelling and long-term results on additional formulations, predictions of cable life for other commercial materials of the same generic types would be greatly facilitated. Finally, to aid utilities in their cable life extension decisions, we utilize our modelling results to generate lifetime prediction curves for the materials modelled to data. These curves plot expected material lifetime versus dose rate and temperature down to the levels of interest to nuclear power plant aging. 18 refs., 30 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Survey of hazardous materials used in nuclear testing

    SciTech Connect

    Bryant, E.A.; Fabryka-Martin, J.

    1991-02-01

    The use of hazardous'' materials in routine underground nuclear tests at the Nevada Test Site has been reviewed. In addition the inventory of test yields, originally reported in 1976 has been updated. A trail down-hole inventory'' has been conducted for a selected test. The inorganic hazardous materials introduced during testing (with the exception of lead and the fissionable materials) produce an incremental change in the quantity of such materials already present in the geologic media surrounding the test points. 1 ref., 3 tabs.

  15. Development of Curricula for Nuclear Radiation Protection, Nuclear Instrumentation, and Nuclear Materials Processing Technologies. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hull, Daniel M.

    A study was conducted to assist two-year postsecondary educational institutions in providing technical specialty courses for preparing nuclear technicians. As a result of project activities, curricula have been developed for five categories of nuclear technicians and operators: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and…

  16. The detection of bulk explosives using nuclear-based techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Morgado, R.E.; Gozani, T.; Seher, C.C.

    1988-01-01

    In 1986 we presented a rationale for the detection of bulk explosives based on nuclear techniques that addressed the requirements of civil aviation security in the airport environment. Since then, efforts have intensified to implement a system based on thermal neutron activation (TNA), with new work developing in fast neutron and energetic photon reactions. In this paper we will describe these techniques and present new results from laboratory and airport testing. Based on preliminary results, we contended in our earlier paper that nuclear-based techniques did provide sufficiently penetrating probes and distinguishable detectable reaction products to achieve the FAA operational goals; new data have supported this contention. The status of nuclear-based techniques for the detection of bulk explosives presently under investigation by the US Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) is reviewed. These include thermal neutron activation (TNA), fast neutron activation (FNA), the associated particle technique, nuclear resonance absorption, and photoneutron activation. The results of comprehensive airport testing of the TNA system performed during 1987-88 are summarized. From a technical point of view, nuclear-based techniques now represent the most comprehensive and feasible approach for meeting the operational criteria of detection, false alarms, and throughput. 9 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Chemical digestion of low level nuclear solid waste material

    DOEpatents

    Cooley, Carl R.; Lerch, Ronald E.

    1976-01-01

    A chemical digestion for treatment of low level combustible nuclear solid waste material is provided and comprises reacting the solid waste material with concentrated sulfuric acid at a temperature within the range of 230.degree.-300.degree.C and simultaneously and/or thereafter contacting the reacting mixture with concentrated nitric acid or nitrogen dioxide. In a special embodiment spent ion exchange resins are converted by this chemical digestion to noncombustible gases and a low volume noncombustible residue.

  18. IMPACT OF NUCLEAR MATERIAL DISSOLUTION ON VESSEL CORROSION

    SciTech Connect

    Mickalonis, J.; Dunn, K.; Clifton, B.

    2012-10-01

    Different nuclear materials require different processing conditions. In order to maximize the dissolver vessel lifetime, corrosion testing was conducted for a range of chemistries and temperature used in fuel dissolution. Compositional ranges of elements regularly in the dissolver were evaluated for corrosion of 304L, the material of construction. Corrosion rates of AISI Type 304 stainless steel coupons, both welded and non-welded coupons, were calculated from measured weight losses and post-test concentrations of soluble Fe, Cr and Ni.

  19. First-principles modeling of materials for nuclear energy applications

    SciTech Connect

    Dmitriev, Andrey I. Nikonov, Anton Yu.; Ponomareva, Alena V.; Abrikosov, Igor A.; Barannikova, Svetlana A.

    2014-11-14

    We discuss recent developments in the field of ab initio electronic structure theory and its use for studies of materials for nuclear energy applications. We review state-of-the-art simulation methods that allow for an efficient treatment of effects due to chemical and magnetic disorder, and illustrate their predictive power with examples of two materials systems, Fe-Cr-Ni alloys and Zr-Nb alloys.

  20. Technology Readiness Levels for Advanced Nuclear Fuels and Materials Development

    SciTech Connect

    Jon Carmack

    2014-01-01

    The Technology Readiness Level (TRL) process is used to quantitatively assess the maturity of a given technology. The TRL process has been developed and successfully used by the Department of Defense (DOD) for development and deployment of new technology and systems for defense applications. In addition, NASA has also successfully used the TRL process to develop and deploy new systems for space applications. Advanced nuclear fuels and materials development is a critical technology needed for closing the nuclear fuel cycle. Because the deployment of a new nuclear fuel forms requires a lengthy and expensive research, development, and demonstration program, applying the TRL concept to the advanced fuel development program is very useful as a management and tracking tool. This report provides definition of the technology readiness level assessment process as defined for use in assessing nuclear fuel technology development for the Advanced Fuel Campaign (AFC).

  1. Behavior of nuclear materials irradiated with a dual ion beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomé, Lionel; Velişa, Gihan; Debelle, Aurélien; Miro, Sandrine; Garrido, Frédérico; Trocellier, Patrick; Serruys, Yves

    2014-05-01

    Synergistic effects of nuclear (Sn) and electronic (Se) energy losses are investigated by comparing the damage accumulated in selected oxide (c-ZrO2, MgO, Gd2Ti2O7) and carbide (SiC) single crystals irradiated with single and dual low and high energy ion beams. Channeling results show that the Sn/Se synergy induces a strong decrease of the damage in MgO and SiC (where amorphization is prevented) and almost no effects in c-ZrO2 and Gd2Ti2O7. Raman and TEM results confirm this statement. The healing of defects generated by nuclear collisions in MgO and SiC is due to the electronic excitation produced in the wake of swift ions. These results present a strong interest for technological applications in the nuclear industry where expected cooperative Sn/Se effects may preserve the integrity of nuclear materials.

  2. ADVANCED CERAMIC MATERIALS FOR NEXT-GENERATION NUCLEAR APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Marra, J.

    2010-09-29

    proliferation), the worldwide community is working to develop and deploy new nuclear energy systems and advanced fuel cycles. These new nuclear systems address the key challenges and include: (1) extracting the full energy value of the nuclear fuel; (2) creating waste solutions with improved long term safety; (3) minimizing the potential for the misuse of the technology and materials for weapons; (4) continually improving the safety of nuclear energy systems; and (5) keeping the cost of energy affordable.

  3. Application of nuclear microprobes to material of archaeological interest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demortier, G.

    1988-03-01

    Strongly focused nuclear microprobes have not been widely used until recently for characterization of material of archaeological interest. The main reasons are (1) the large size of many artefacts are not suitable for measurements in vacuum together with the requirement of avoiding sampling from (often) unique material; (2) the frequent surface corrosion of objects to depths thicker than the range of the incident particles; (3) the high cost of analyses when compared with the budgets of Museum's curators for scientific investigations. About ten laboratories throughout the world are concerned with nuclear milliprobe for investigation of bones, glasses, papers and parchments, potsherds, coins, iron and bronze artefacts, silver and gold jewelry. The nuclear microprobe facilities in this field of research have mostly been developed at Bartol-Delaware and Los Alamos (USA), Lower Hutt (New Zealand), Saclay (France) and LARN — Namur (Belgium).

  4. Long Duration Hot Hydrogen Exposure of Nuclear Thermal Rocket Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litchford, Ron J.; Foote, John P.; Hickman, Robert; Dobson, Chris; Clifton, Scooter

    2007-01-01

    An arc-heater driven hyper-thermal convective environments simulator was recently developed and commissioned for long duration hot hydrogen exposure of nuclear thermal rocket materials. This newly established non-nuclear testing capability uses a high-power, multi-gas, wall-stabilized constricted arc-heater to .produce high-temperature pressurized hydrogen flows representative of nuclear reactor core environments, excepting radiation effects, and is intended to serve as a low cost test facility for the purpose of investigating and characterizing candidate fuel/structural materials and improving associated processing/fabrication techniques. Design and engineering development efforts are fully summarized, and facility operating characteristics are reported as determined from a series of baseline performance mapping runs and long duration capability demonstration tests.

  5. Adhesion layer for etching of tracks in nuclear trackable materials

    DOEpatents

    Morse, Jeffrey D.; Contolini, Robert J.

    2001-01-01

    A method for forming nuclear tracks having a width on the order of 100-200 nm in nuclear trackable materials, such as polycarbonate (LEXAN) without causing delamination of the LEXAN. The method utilizes an adhesion film having a inert oxide which allows the track to be sufficiently widened to >200 nm without delamination of the nuclear trackable materials. The adhesion film may be composed of a metal such as Cr, Ni, Au, Pt, or Ti, or composed of a dielectric having a stable surface, such as silicon dioxide (SiO.sub.2), silicon nitride (SiN.sub.x), and aluminum oxide (AlO). The adhesion film can either be deposited on top of the gate metal layer, or if the properties of the adhesion film are adequate, it can be used as the gate layer. Deposition of the adhesion film is achieved by standard techniques, such as sputtering or evaporation.

  6. Storage of nuclear materials by encapsulation in fullerenes

    DOEpatents

    Coppa, Nicholas V.

    1994-01-01

    A method of encapsulating radioactive materials inside fullerenes for stable long-term storage. Fullerenes provide a safe and efficient means of disposing of nuclear waste which is extremely stable with respect to the environment. After encapsulation, a radioactive ion is essentially chemically isolated from its external environment.

  7. Managing the coming glut of nuclear weapons materials

    SciTech Connect

    Scheinman, L. ); Fischer, D.A.V.

    1992-03-01

    Nuclear disarmament should be pursued in a way that reinforces the nonproliferation regime and its international safeguards system. To this end, the US and the successor states of the former Soviet Union should: (1) commit all fissile material from dismantled nuclear warheads to secure storage and exclusively peaceful use or terminal disposal; (2) establish a fissile material storage regime with host-country protection and safety for the material, and verification by the IAEA, alone or in conjunction with a bilateral verification arrangement between the parties directly involved; (3) undertake that any material withdrawn from storage will be used for exclusively peaceful purposes and be subject to IAEA verification in perpetuity; (4) in conjunction with the commercial nuclear marketplace, establish an arrangement whereby HEU released from military use is made available as low-enriched uranium to support peaceful nuclear activity in states in full compliance with their nonproliferation and safeguards undertakings; and (5) delay any release of plutonium until such time as arrangements for its use or disposal consistent with international security and safety can be agreed, and a system for the management and control of all facets of its use, movement, and disposal is in place.

  8. Selecting and using materials for a nuclear rocket engine reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanin, Anatolii G.; Fedik, Ivan I.

    2011-03-01

    This paper provides a historical account of how the nuclear rocket engine reactor was created and discusses the problem of selecting materials for a gas environment at a temperature of up to 3100 K and energy release of 30 MW per liter.

  9. Recovery and Detection of Uranium (VI) From Building Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, Philip A.; Copper, Christine L.; Berv, David; Ramsey, Jeremy D.; Collins, Greg E.

    2004-03-29

    As a legacy of the United States' 50 year old nuclear weapons program, the Department of Energy is responsible for cleaning up and decommissioning contaminated sites that were used for the production of these weapons. The method presented here addresses the problem of detecting and quantifying uranium (VI) in concrete. Specifically, the uranium (VI) is removed from concrete surfaces using a low pH buffer rinse that dissolves the surface layer. The amount of uranium in the wash solution can be quite low, even with extraction efficiencies exceeding 50 %. Therefore, the uranium is complexed with an organic chelating agent (arsenazo III) and concentrated using C18 solid phase extraction. Because the absorbance maximum of arsenazo III shifts upon binding to uranium, the concentrated complex can be detected using ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. Low part-per-billion levels of uranium (VI) in cement can be detected by this method. Results of work related to other building material s such as stainless steel and plexiglass will also be reported.

  10. Nuclear cardiac blood volume detecting apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, H.N.; Wake, R.H.

    1980-04-15

    A built up image illustrating blood volume in the heart versus time taken over many cardiac cycles is produced by continuously displaying a graph of cumulative data indicating the amount of radioactivity from a tracer in the blood detected in the heart during each of a series of intervals into which the average cardiac period is divided. The parallel lines of a raster scan display correspond respectively to the memory channels. The count stored in a particular memory channel causes the video signal for the corresponding line to be maintained at a binary level for a corresponding time interval thus generating a bar graph in which the length of each bar indicates the amount of radioactivity sensed during the corresponding interval of the cardiac cycle. As each memory channel accumulates radioactivity data with each successive cardiac cycle, each bar displayed in the bar graph lengthens to indicate the cumulative activity until an interpretable curve is obtained.

  11. Method for detecting radiation dose utilizing thermoluminescent material

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Steven D.; McDonald, Joseph C.; Eichner, Fred N.; Durham, James S.

    1992-01-01

    The amount of ionizing radiation to which a thermoluminescent material has been exposed is determined by first cooling the thermoluminescent material and then optically stimulating the thermoluminescent material by exposure to light. Visible light emitted by the thermoluminescent material as it is allowed to warm up to room temperature is detected and counted. The thermoluminescent material may be annealed by exposure to ultraviolet light.

  12. Direct detection of the 229Th nuclear clock transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von der Wense, Lars; Seiferle, Benedict; Laatiaoui, Mustapha; Neumayr, Jürgen B.; Maier, Hans-Jörg; Wirth, Hans-Friedrich; Mokry, Christoph; Runke, Jörg; Eberhardt, Klaus; Düllmann, Christoph E.; Trautmann, Norbert G.; Thirolf, Peter G.

    2016-05-01

    Today’s most precise time and frequency measurements are performed with optical atomic clocks. However, it has been proposed that they could potentially be outperformed by a nuclear clock, which employs a nuclear transition instead of an atomic shell transition. There is only one known nuclear state that could serve as a nuclear clock using currently available technology, namely, the isomeric first excited state of 229Th (denoted 229mTh). Here we report the direct detection of this nuclear state, which is further confirmation of the existence of the isomer and lays the foundation for precise studies of its decay parameters. On the basis of this direct detection, the isomeric energy is constrained to between 6.3 and 18.3 electronvolts, and the half-life is found to be longer than 60 seconds for 229mTh2+. More precise determinations appear to be within reach, and would pave the way to the development of a nuclear frequency standard.

  13. Direct detection of the (229)Th nuclear clock transition.

    PubMed

    von der Wense, Lars; Seiferle, Benedict; Laatiaoui, Mustapha; Neumayr, Jürgen B; Maier, Hans-Jörg; Wirth, Hans-Friedrich; Mokry, Christoph; Runke, Jörg; Eberhardt, Klaus; Düllmann, Christoph E; Trautmann, Norbert G; Thirolf, Peter G

    2016-05-01

    Today's most precise time and frequency measurements are performed with optical atomic clocks. However, it has been proposed that they could potentially be outperformed by a nuclear clock, which employs a nuclear transition instead of an atomic shell transition. There is only one known nuclear state that could serve as a nuclear clock using currently available technology, namely, the isomeric first excited state of (229)Th (denoted (229m)Th). Here we report the direct detection of this nuclear state, which is further confirmation of the existence of the isomer and lays the foundation for precise studies of its decay parameters. On the basis of this direct detection, the isomeric energy is constrained to between 6.3 and 18.3 electronvolts, and the half-life is found to be longer than 60 seconds for (229m)Th(2+). More precise determinations appear to be within reach, and would pave the way to the development of a nuclear frequency standard. PMID:27147026

  14. Direct detection of the (229)Th nuclear clock transition.

    PubMed

    von der Wense, Lars; Seiferle, Benedict; Laatiaoui, Mustapha; Neumayr, Jürgen B; Maier, Hans-Jörg; Wirth, Hans-Friedrich; Mokry, Christoph; Runke, Jörg; Eberhardt, Klaus; Düllmann, Christoph E; Trautmann, Norbert G; Thirolf, Peter G

    2016-05-01

    Today's most precise time and frequency measurements are performed with optical atomic clocks. However, it has been proposed that they could potentially be outperformed by a nuclear clock, which employs a nuclear transition instead of an atomic shell transition. There is only one known nuclear state that could serve as a nuclear clock using currently available technology, namely, the isomeric first excited state of (229)Th (denoted (229m)Th). Here we report the direct detection of this nuclear state, which is further confirmation of the existence of the isomer and lays the foundation for precise studies of its decay parameters. On the basis of this direct detection, the isomeric energy is constrained to between 6.3 and 18.3 electronvolts, and the half-life is found to be longer than 60 seconds for (229m)Th(2+). More precise determinations appear to be within reach, and would pave the way to the development of a nuclear frequency standard.

  15. Nuclear archaeology: Verifying declarations of fissile-material production

    SciTech Connect

    Fetter, S. )

    1993-01-01

    Controlling the production of fissile material is an essential element of nonproliferation policy. Similarly, accounting for the past production of fissile material should be an important component of nuclear disarmament. This paper describes two promising techniques that make use of physical evidence at reactors and enrichment facilities to verify the past production of plutonium and highly enriched uranium. In the first technique, the concentrations of long-lived radionuclides in permanent components of the reactor core are used to estimate the neutron fluence in various regions of the reactor, and thereby verify declarations of plutonium production in the reactor. In the second technique, the ratio of the concentration of U-235 to that of U-234 in the tails is used to determine whether a given container of tails was used in the production of low- enriched uranium, which is suitable for reactor fuel, or highly enriched uranium, which can be used in nuclear weapons. Both techniques belong to the new field of [open quotes]nuclear archaeology,[close quotes] in which the authors attempt to document past nuclear weapons activities and thereby lay a firm foundation for verifiable nuclear disarmament. 11 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  16. 10 CFR 11.16 - Cancellation of request for special nuclear material access authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cancellation of request for special nuclear material access authorization. 11.16 Section 11.16 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION CRITERIA AND PROCEDURES FOR DETERMINING ELIGIBILITY FOR ACCESS TO OR CONTROL OVER SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Requirements for Special Nuclear Material Access Authorization...

  17. 10 CFR 70.20 - General license to own special nuclear material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false General license to own special nuclear material. 70.20 Section 70.20 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DOMESTIC LICENSING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL General Licenses § 70.20 General license to own special nuclear material. A general license...

  18. 10 CFR 110.21 - General license for the export of special nuclear material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false General license for the export of special nuclear material. 110.21 Section 110.21 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) EXPORT AND IMPORT OF NUCLEAR EQUIPMENT AND MATERIAL Licenses § 110.21 General license for the export of special nuclear material....

  19. 10 CFR 70.41 - Authorized use of special nuclear material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Authorized use of special nuclear material. 70.41 Section 70.41 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DOMESTIC LICENSING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Acquisition, Use and Transfer of Special Nuclear Material, Creditors' Rights § 70.41 Authorized use of...

  20. 10 CFR 110.21 - General license for the export of special nuclear material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General license for the export of special nuclear material. 110.21 Section 110.21 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) EXPORT AND IMPORT OF NUCLEAR EQUIPMENT AND MATERIAL Licenses § 110.21 General license for the export of special nuclear material....

  1. 10 CFR 110.9 - List of Nuclear Material under NRC export licensing authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false List of Nuclear Material under NRC export licensing authority. 110.9 Section 110.9 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) EXPORT AND IMPORT OF NUCLEAR EQUIPMENT AND MATERIAL General Provisions § 110.9 List of Nuclear Material under NRC export...

  2. 10 CFR 70.41 - Authorized use of special nuclear material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Authorized use of special nuclear material. 70.41 Section 70.41 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DOMESTIC LICENSING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Acquisition, Use and Transfer of Special Nuclear Material, Creditors' Rights § 70.41 Authorized use of...

  3. 10 CFR 110.21 - General license for the export of special nuclear material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false General license for the export of special nuclear material. 110.21 Section 110.21 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) EXPORT AND IMPORT OF NUCLEAR EQUIPMENT AND MATERIAL Licenses § 110.21 General license for the export of special nuclear material....

  4. 10 CFR 70.41 - Authorized use of special nuclear material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Authorized use of special nuclear material. 70.41 Section 70.41 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DOMESTIC LICENSING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Acquisition, Use and Transfer of Special Nuclear Material, Creditors' Rights § 70.41 Authorized use of...

  5. 10 CFR 110.9 - List of Nuclear Material under NRC export licensing authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false List of Nuclear Material under NRC export licensing authority. 110.9 Section 110.9 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) EXPORT AND IMPORT OF NUCLEAR EQUIPMENT AND MATERIAL General Provisions § 110.9 List of Nuclear Material under NRC export...

  6. 10 CFR 70.20 - General license to own special nuclear material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false General license to own special nuclear material. 70.20 Section 70.20 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DOMESTIC LICENSING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL General Licenses § 70.20 General license to own special nuclear material. A general license...

  7. 10 CFR 70.41 - Authorized use of special nuclear material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Authorized use of special nuclear material. 70.41 Section 70.41 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DOMESTIC LICENSING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Acquisition, Use and Transfer of Special Nuclear Material, Creditors' Rights § 70.41 Authorized use of...

  8. 10 CFR 110.21 - General license for the export of special nuclear material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false General license for the export of special nuclear material. 110.21 Section 110.21 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) EXPORT AND IMPORT OF NUCLEAR EQUIPMENT AND MATERIAL Licenses § 110.21 General license for the export of special nuclear material....

  9. 10 CFR 70.41 - Authorized use of special nuclear material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Authorized use of special nuclear material. 70.41 Section 70.41 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DOMESTIC LICENSING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Acquisition, Use and Transfer of Special Nuclear Material, Creditors' Rights § 70.41 Authorized use of...

  10. 10 CFR 70.20 - General license to own special nuclear material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General license to own special nuclear material. 70.20 Section 70.20 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DOMESTIC LICENSING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL General Licenses § 70.20 General license to own special nuclear material. A general license...

  11. 10 CFR 70.20 - General license to own special nuclear material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false General license to own special nuclear material. 70.20 Section 70.20 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DOMESTIC LICENSING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL General Licenses § 70.20 General license to own special nuclear material. A general license...

  12. 10 CFR 110.9 - List of Nuclear Material under NRC export licensing authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false List of Nuclear Material under NRC export licensing authority. 110.9 Section 110.9 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) EXPORT AND IMPORT OF NUCLEAR EQUIPMENT AND MATERIAL General Provisions § 110.9 List of Nuclear Material under NRC export...

  13. 10 CFR 110.9 - List of Nuclear Material under NRC export licensing authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false List of Nuclear Material under NRC export licensing authority. 110.9 Section 110.9 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) EXPORT AND IMPORT OF NUCLEAR EQUIPMENT AND MATERIAL General Provisions § 110.9 List of Nuclear Material under NRC export...

  14. 10 CFR 110.9 - List of Nuclear Material under NRC export licensing authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false List of Nuclear Material under NRC export licensing authority. 110.9 Section 110.9 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) EXPORT AND IMPORT OF NUCLEAR EQUIPMENT AND MATERIAL General Provisions § 110.9 List of Nuclear Material under NRC export...

  15. 10 CFR 110.21 - General license for the export of special nuclear material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false General license for the export of special nuclear material. 110.21 Section 110.21 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) EXPORT AND IMPORT OF NUCLEAR EQUIPMENT AND MATERIAL Licenses § 110.21 General license for the export of special nuclear material....

  16. 10 CFR 70.20 - General license to own special nuclear material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false General license to own special nuclear material. 70.20 Section 70.20 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DOMESTIC LICENSING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL General Licenses § 70.20 General license to own special nuclear material. A general license...

  17. An overview of the Nuclear Materials Focus Area research program

    SciTech Connect

    ROBERSON,GARY D.; POLANSKY,GARY F.; OSBORNE,KEN K.; RANDALL,VIRGINIA

    2000-02-25

    The Nuclear Material Focus Area (NMFA) is responsible for providing comprehensive needs identification, integration of technology research and development activities, and technology deployment for stabilization, packaging, and interim storage of surplus nuclear materials within the DOE complex. The NMFA was chartered in April 1999 by the Office of Science and Technology (OST), an organizational component of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM). OST manages a national program to conduct basic and applied research, and technology development, demonstration, and deployment assistance that is essential to completing a timely and cost-effective cleanup of the DOE nuclear weapons complex. DOE/EM provides environmental research results, as well as cleanup technologies and systems, to meet high-priority end-user needs, reduce EM's major cost centers and technological risks, and accelerate technology deployments. The NMFA represents the segment of EM that focuses on technological solutions for re-using, transforming, and disposing excess nuclear materials and is jointly managed by the DOE Albuquerque Operations Office and the DOE Idaho Operations Office.

  18. Nuclear materials 1993 annual report. Volume 8, No. 2

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    This annual report of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s Office for Analysis and Evaluation of Operational Data (AEOD) describes activities conducted during 1993. The report is published in two parts. NUREG-1272, Vol. 8, No. 1, covers power reactors and presents an overview of the operating experience of the nuclear power industry from the NRC perspective, including comments about the trends of some key performance measures. The report also includes the principal findings and issues identified in AEOD studies over the past year and summarizes information from such sources as licensee event reports, diagnostic evaluations, and reports to the NRC`s Operations Center. NUREG-1272, Vol. 8, No. 2, covers nuclear materials and presents a review of the events and concerns during 1993 associated with the use of licensed material in nonreactor applications, such as personnel overexposures and medical misadministrations. Note that the subtitle of No. 2 has been changed from ``Nonreactors`` to ``Nuclear Materials.`` Both reports also contain a discussion of the Incident Investigation Team program and summarize both the Incident Investigation Team and Augmented Inspection Team reports. Each volume contains a list of the AEOD reports issued from 1980 through 1993.

  19. Nuclear isomers as ultra-high-energy-density materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poppe, C. H.; Weiss, M. S.; Anderson, J. D.

    1992-04-01

    Nuclear isomers are metastable states of atomic nuclei which release their energy in a prompt burst of electromagnetic radiation. Two kinds of nuclear isomers are known to exist: spin isomers and shape isomers. There is evidence for at least 27 different fissionless shape isomers in isotopes of mercury, lead, and thallium, in agreement with theoretical predictions. Three potential mechanisms for releasing the stored isomeric energy are neutron catalysis, laser-electron-nuclear coupling, and Stark-shift-induced mixing. While shape isomers are believed to hold the most promise for radioactivity-free, ultra-high-energy-density materials, spin isomers can be used as surrogates for developing the release mechanisms. It is proposed to undertake shell-model calculations for the nuclear levels in vicinity of the (sup 178)Hf spin isomer, in order to estimate the efficacy of neutron catalysis. It is also proposed to use the toroidal electron spectrometer to measure the conversion electrons from laser-induced transitions in (sup 229)Th. The final mechanism, Stark-shift-induced mixing of atomic and nuclear levels, would also be studied theoretically. Finally, isomer production is considered briefly, including the possibility of shape isomers in fission products from radwaste or nuclear explosions.

  20. Selecting a radiation tolerant piezoelectric material for nuclear reactor applications

    SciTech Connect

    Parks, D. A.; Reinhardt, B. T.; Tittmann, B. R.

    2013-01-25

    Bringing systems for online monitoring of nuclear reactors to fruition has been delayed by the lack of suitable ultrasonic sensors. Recent work has demonstrated the capability of an AlN sensor to perform ultrasonic evaluation in an actual nuclear reactor. Although the AlN demonstrated sustainability, no loss in signal amplitude and d{sub 33} up to a fast and thermal neutron fluence of 1.85 Multiplication-Sign 1018 n/cm{sup 2} and 5.8 Multiplication-Sign 1018 n/cm{sup 2} respectively, no formal process to selecting a suitable sensor material was made. It would be ideal to use first principles approaches to somehow reduce each candidate piezoelectric material to a simple ranking showing directly which materials one should expect to be most radiation tolerant. However, the complexity of the problem makes such a ranking impractical and one must appeal to experimental observations. This should not be of any surprise to one whom is familiar with material science as most material properties are obtained in this manner. Therefore, this work adopts a similar approach, the mechanisms affecting radiation tolerance are discussed and a good engineering sense is used for material qualification of the candidate piezoelectric materials.

  1. Detection of Materials of Interest to Non-Proliferation: A Novel Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Ze, F; Tittmann, B R; Lehahan, P M

    2002-04-11

    We propose the development of a novel detector that can locate and identify materials of interest to Nuclear Arms Non Proliferation. The device will combine nuclear acoustic resonance (NAR) with superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) widely used in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), geophysics, nondestructive evaluations, and biomagnetism, to name only few. NAR works like NMR. Thus resonant absorption (of applied ultrasonic energy) by a nuclear spin system occurs when the ultrasonic frequency is equal to the appropriate frequency separations between the magnetic nuclear energy levels. Ultrasonic energy couples to the nuclear spin system via spin-phonon interaction. The resulting nuclear acoustic resonance can be detected via the changes in (a) ultrasonic attenuation, (b) ultrasonic velocity, (c) material magnetization, (d) or nuclear magnetic susceptibility, all of which carries ''intrinsic and unique signatures'' of the material under investigation. The device's sensitivity and penetration depth (into metals) will be enhanced by incorporating SQUID technology into the design. We will present the details of interaction physics and outline a plan of action needed to successfully transform the concepts into a practical detector.

  2. USED NUCLEAR MATERIALS AT SAVANNAH RIVER SITE: ASSET OR WASTE?

    SciTech Connect

    Magoulas, V.

    2013-06-03

    The nuclear industry, both in the commercial and the government sectors, has generated large quantities of material that span the spectrum of usefulness, from highly valuable (“assets”) to worthless (“wastes”). In many cases, the decision parameters are clear. Transuranic waste and high level waste, for example, have no value, and is either in a final disposition path today, or – in the case of high level waste – awaiting a policy decision about final disposition. Other materials, though discardable, have intrinsic scientific or market value that may be hidden by the complexity, hazard, or cost of recovery. An informed decision process should acknowledge the asset value, or lack of value, of the complete inventory of materials, and the structure necessary to implement the range of possible options. It is important that informed decisions are made about the asset value for the variety of nuclear materials available. For example, there is a significant quantity of spent fuel available for recycle (an estimated $4 billion value in the Savannah River Site’s (SRS) L area alone); in fact, SRS has already blended down more than 300 metric tons of uranium for commercial reactor use. Over 34 metric tons of surplus plutonium is also on a path to be used as commercial fuel. There are other radiological materials that are routinely handled at the site in large quantities that should be viewed as strategically important and / or commercially viable. In some cases, these materials are irreplaceable domestically, and failure to consider their recovery could jeopardize our technological leadership or national defense. The inventories of nuclear materials at SRS that have been characterized as “waste” include isotopes of plutonium, uranium, americium, and helium. Although planning has been performed to establish the technical and regulatory bases for their discard and disposal, recovery of these materials is both economically attractive and in the national

  3. The attractiveness of materials in advanced nuclear fuel cycles for various proliferation and theft scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Bathke, Charles G; Wallace, Richard K; Ireland, John R; Johnson, M W; Hase, Kevin R; Jarvinen, Gordon D; Ebbinghaus, Bartley B; Sleaford, Brad A; Bradley, Keith S; Collins, Brian W; Smith, Brian W; Prichard, Andrew W

    2009-01-01

    This paper is an extension to earlier studies that examined the attractiveness of materials mixtures containing special nuclear materials (SNM) and alternate nuclear materials (ANM) associated with the PUREX, UREX, COEX, THOREX, and PYROX reprocessing schemes. This study extends the figure of merit (FOM) for evaluating attractiveness to cover a broad range of proliferant state and sub-national group capabilities. The primary conclusion of this study is that all fissile material needs to be rigorously safeguarded to detect diversion by a state and provided the highest levels of physical protection to prevent theft by sub-national groups; no 'silver bullet' has been found that will permit the relaxation of current international safeguards or national physical security protection levels. This series of studies has been performed at the request of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and is based on the calculation of 'attractiveness levels' that are expressed in terms consistent with, but normally reserved for nuclear materials in DOE nuclear facilities. The expanded methodology and updated findings are presented. Additionally, how these attractiveness levels relate to proliferation resistance and physical security are discussed.

  4. Nuclear-based explosives detection in an airport environment

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, C.J.

    1994-12-31

    Beginning in the 1970`s The FAA has been developing techniques for detection of explosives in airline passenger luggage and/or air cargo. One general class of techniques of interest are those based on nuclear phenomena. Any system to be deployed in an airport must detect high explosives in sub-kilogram quantities while processing 600 bags/hour. Systems must meet the standards of regulatory agencies such as the FDA and/or NRC. In addition, installation of explosives detection systems at airports should neither require major alteration of facilities nor significantly disrupt normal operations.

  5. Computation of Free Molecular Flow in Nuclear Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Casella, Andrew M.; Loyalka, Sudarsham K.; Hanson, Brady D.

    2009-11-11

    Generally the transport of gases and vapors in nuclear materials is adequately described by the diffusion equation with an effective diffusion coefficient. There are instances however, such as transport through porous or cracked media (nuclear fuels, cladding and coating materials, fuel-cladding gap, graphite, rocks, soil) where the diffusion description has limitations. In general, molecular transport is governed by intermolecular forces and collisions (interactions between multiple gas/vapor molecules) and by molecule-surface interactions. However, if nano-scale pathways exist within these materials, as has been suggested, then molecular transport can be characterized as being in the free-molecular flow regime where intermolecular interactions can be ignored and flow is determined entirely by molecule-surface collisions. Our purpose in this investigation is to focus on free molecular transport in fine capillaries of a range of shapes and to explore the effect of geometry on this transport. We have employed Monte Carlo techniques in our calculations, and for simple geometries we have benchmarked our results against some analytical and previously available results. We have used Mathematica® which has exceptional built-in symbolic and graphical capabilities, permitting easy handling of the complicated geometries and good visualization of the results. Our computations provide insights into the role of geometry in molecular transport in nuclear materials with narrow pathways for flows, and also will be useful in guiding computations that include intermolecular collisions and more realistic gas-surface collision operators.

  6. The Application of materials attractiveness in a graded approach to nuclear materials security

    SciTech Connect

    Ebbinghaus, B.; Bathke, C.; Dalton, D.; Murphy, J.

    2013-07-01

    The threat from terrorist groups has recently received greater attention. In this paper, material quantity and material attractiveness are addressed through the lens of a minimum security strategy needed to prevent the construction of a nuclear explosive device (NED) by an adversary. Nuclear materials are placed into specific security categories (3 or 4 categories) , which define a number of security requirements to protect the material. Materials attractiveness can be divided into four attractiveness levels, High, Medium, Low, and Very Low that correspond to the utility of the material to the adversary and to a minimum security strategy that is necessary to adequately protect the nuclear material. We propose a graded approach to materials attractiveness that recognizes for instance substantial differences in attractiveness between pure reactor-grade Pu oxide (High attractiveness) and fresh MOX fuel (Low attractiveness). In either case, an adversary's acquisition of a Category I quantity of plutonium would be a major incident, but the acquisition of Pu oxide by the adversary would be substantially worse than the acquisition of fresh MOX fuel because of the substantial differences in the time and complexity required of the adversary to process the material and fashion it into a NED.

  7. Access to Special Nuclear Material at the Idaho National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    R. Bean; J. Barrett; D. Gerts; B. Brush

    2010-07-01

    Access to special nuclear material (SNM) such as enriched uranium or plutonium is critical to the experimental validation of measurement techniques for nuclear nonproliferation applications. It is especially important that realistic quantities be available for measurements in the field. Security and safety requirements have made such access nearly impossible at many U.S. facilities. The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has been able to provide kilogram quantities of SNM for in situ measurements ranging from testing of equipment in laboratory facilities, to outdoor measurements simulating real conditions, to transfer of the SNM to the customer’s facility and back for measurements in the field. The INL will be working to make SNM more widely accessible for measurements by nuclear nonproliferation projects, including those with international researchers.

  8. Nanotechnology-Based Systems for Nuclear Radiation and Chemicl Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Kody Varahramyan; Pedro Derosa; Chester Wilson

    2006-10-11

    This main objectives of this effort are the development and prototyping of a small. sensitive, and low-cost multi-channel nanoparticle scintillation microdevice with integrated waveguides for alpha, beta, gamma, and neutron detection. This research effort has integrated experiments and simulation to determine the combination of process-specific materials for the achievement optimum detection conditions.

  9. Nuclear Materials Focus Area Fiscal Year 2002 Mid Year Review

    SciTech Connect

    Thiel, Elizabeth Chilcote

    2002-05-01

    The Nuclear Materials Focus Area (NMFA) held its annual mid-year review on February 12 and 14, 2002, in Santa Fe, New Mexico. The purpose of this review was to examine both the technical aspects and the programmatic aspects of its technology development program. The focus area activities were reviewed by a panel consisting of personnel representing the end users of the technologies, and technical experts in nuclear materials. This year's review was somewhat different than in the past, as the stress was on how well the various projects being managed through the NMFA aligned with the two thrust areas and nine key goals and priorities recently issued by the Deputy Assistant Secretary for DOE's Office of Environmental Management (EM).

  10. Nuclear Materials Focus Area Fiscal Year 2002 Mid Year Review

    SciTech Connect

    Thiel, E.C.; Fuhrman, P.W.

    2002-05-30

    The Nuclear Materials Focus Area (NMFA) held its annual mid-year review on February 12 and 14, 2002, in Santa Fe, New Mexico. The purpose of this review was to examine both the technical aspects and the programmatic aspects of its technology development program. The focus area activities were reviewed by a panel consisting of personnel representing the end users of the technologies, and technical experts in nuclear materials. This year's review was somewhat different than in the past, as the stress was on how well the various projects being managed through the NMFA aligned with the two thrust areas and nine key goals and priorities recently issued by the Deputy Assistant Secretary for DOE's Office of Environmental Management (EM).

  11. The world's nuclear future - built on material success

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ion, Sue

    2010-07-01

    In our energy hungry world of the twenty-first century, the future of electricity generation must meet the twin challenges of security of supply and reduced carbon emissions. The expectations for nuclear power programmes to play a part in delivering success on both counts, grows ever higher. The nuclear industry is poised on a renaissance likely to dwarf the heady days of the 1960s and early 1970s. Global supply chain and project management challenges abound, now just as then. The science and engineering of materials will be key to the successful deployment and operation of a new generation of reactor systems and their associated fuel cycles. Understanding and predicting materials performance will be key to achieving life extension of existing assets and underpinning waste disposal options, as well as giving confidence to the designers, their financial backers and governments across the globe, that the next generation of reactors will deliver their full potential.

  12. Inventory extension at the Nuclear Materials Storage Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Stanbro, W.D.; Longmire, V.; Olinger, C.T.; Argo, P.E.

    1996-09-01

    The planned renovation of the Nuclear Material Storage Facility (NMSF) at Los Alamos National Laboratory will be a significant addition to the plutonium storage capacity of the nuclear weapons complex. However, the utility of the facility may be impaired by an overly conservative approach to performing inventories of material in storage. This report examines options for taking advantage of provisions in Department of Energy orders to extend the time between inventories. These extensions are based on a combination of modern surveillance technology, facility design features, and revised operational procedures. The report also addresses the possibility that NMSF could be the site of some form of international inspection as part of the US arms control and nonproliferation policy.

  13. Interpretational framework for forensic analyses of illicit nuclear materials

    SciTech Connect

    Niemeyer, S.; Kammeraad, J.

    1996-10-01

    jThe interdiction of illicit special nuclear materials (SNM) causes many attribution questions to be asked, e.g. where was this material produced, where was legitimate control lost, how was it transported, etc. We have developed a general framework for evaluating forensic measurements that will be useful in answering attribution questions, and will present an initial prioritization of these measurements. Interpretation of the measurements requires the integration of inputs from a diverse set of experts who have knowledge of environmental signatures, radiochemical signatures, weapons production complex, production pathways for SNM, criminal forensics, law enforcement, and intelligence. Comparison databases and international cooperation are crucial for future application of forensic measurements to the nuclear smuggling problem.

  14. Piezoelectric material for use in a nuclear reactor core

    SciTech Connect

    Parks, D. A.; Reinhardt, Brian; Tittmann, B. R.

    2012-05-17

    In radiation environments ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation has great potential for improving reactor safety and furthering the understanding of radiation effects and materials. In both nuclear power plants and materials test reactors, elevated temperatures and high levels of radiation present challenges to ultrasonic NDE methodologies. The challenges are primarily due to the degradation of the ultrasonic sensors utilized. We present results from the operation of a ultrasonic piezoelectric transducer, composed of bulk single crystal AlN, in a nuclear reactor core for over 120 MWHrs. The transducer was coupled to an aluminum cylinder and operated in pulse echo mode throughout the irradiation. In addition to the pulse echo testing impedance data were obtained. Further, the piezoelectric coefficient d{sub 33} was measured prior to irradiation and found to be 5.5 pC/N which is unchanged from as-grown samples, and in fact higher than the measured d{sub 33} for many as-grown samples.

  15. Probing soil and aquifer material porosity with nuclear magnetic resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinedi, Z. R.; Kabala, Z. J.; Skaggs, T. H.; Borchardt, D. B.; Lee, R. W. K.; Chang, A. C.

    1993-12-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation measurements were used to identify different characteristic porosity domains in soil and aquifer materials. The porosity distribution can be inferred from these measurements by a regularization method applicable to any nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxation, or by an analytic method applicable only to multiexponential relaxations (D. Orazio et al., 1989). The porosity distribution obtained from NMR relaxation measurements strongly depends on the pore shape factor. For the Borden aquifer material, both the regularized and the analytic pore size distribution obtained from NMR relaxation measurements are consistent with those obtained by Ball et al. (1990) using Hg porosimetry and N2 adsorption. For the Eustis and the Webster soils, the measured porosity domains are qualitatively consistent with those expected based on their respective composition. Our findings suggest that due to the long time required to saturate fine pores, NMR measurements of porosity distribution that are collected at short saturation times are biased toward larger pore sizes.

  16. Exploring laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for nuclear materials analysis and in-situ applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Madhavi Z.; Allman, Steve; Brice, Deanne J.; Martin, Rodger C.; Andre, Nicolas O.

    2012-08-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has been used to determine the limits of detection of strontium (Sr) and cesium (Cs), common nuclear fission products. Additionally, detection limits were determined for cerium (Ce), often used as a surrogate for radioactive plutonium in laboratory studies. Results were obtained using a laboratory instrument with a Nd:YAG laser at fundamental wavelength of 1064 nm, frequency doubled to 532 nm with energy of 50 mJ/pulse. The data was compared for different concentrations of Sr and Ce dispersed in a CaCO3 (white) and carbon (black) matrix. We have addressed the sampling errors, limits of detection, reproducibility, and accuracy of measurements as they relate to multivariate analysis in pellets that were doped with the different elements at various concentrations. These results demonstrate that LIBS technique is inherently well suited for in situ analysis of nuclear materials in hot cells. Three key advantages are evident: (1) small samples (mg) can be evaluated; (2) nuclear materials can be analyzed with minimal sample preparation; and (3) samples can be remotely analyzed very rapidly (ms-seconds). Our studies also show that the methods can be made quantitative. Very robust multivariate models have been used to provide quantitative measurement and statistical evaluation of complex materials derived from our previous research on wood and soil samples.

  17. Exploring laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for nuclear materials analysis and in-situ applications

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Madhavi Z; Allman, Steve L; Brice, Deanne Jane; Martin, Rodger Carl; Andre, Nicolas O

    2012-01-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has been used to determine the limits of detection of strontium (Sr) and cesium (Cs), common nuclear fission products. Additionally, detection limits were determined for cerium (Ce), often used as a surrogate for radioactive plutonium in laboratory studies. Results were obtained using a laboratory instrument with a Nd:YAG laser at fundamental wavelength of 1064 nm, frequency doubled to 532 nm with energy of 50 mJ/pulse. The data was compared for different concentrations of Sr and Ce dispersed in a CaCO3 (white) and carbon (black) matrix. We have addressed the sampling errors, limits of detection, reproducibility, and accuracy of measurements as they relate to multivariate analysis in pellets that were doped with the different elements at various concentrations. These results demonstrate that LIBS technique is inherently well suited for in situ analysis of nuclear materials in hot cells. Three key advantages are evident: (1) small samples (mg) can be evaluated; (2) nuclear materials can be analyzed with minimal sample preparation; and (3) samples can be remotely analyzed very rapidly (ms-seconds). Our studies also show that the methods can be made quantitative. Very robust multivariate models have been used to provide quantitative measurement and statistical evaluation of complex materials derived from our previous research on wood and soil samples.

  18. Detection of Actinides via Nuclear Isomer De-Excitation

    SciTech Connect

    Francy, Christopher J.

    2009-07-01

    This dissertation discusses a data collection experiment within the Actinide Isomer Identification project (AID). The AID project is the investigation of an active interrogation technique that utilizes nuclear isomer production, with the goal of assisting in the interdiction of illicit nuclear materials. In an attempt to find and characterize isomers belonging to 235U and its fission fragments, a 232Th target was bombarded with a monoenergetic 6Li ion beam, operating at 45 MeV.

  19. Radioactive materials released from nuclear power plants. Annual report 1978

    SciTech Connect

    Tichler, J.; Benkovitz, C.

    1981-03-01

    Releases of radioactive materials in airborne and liquid effluents from commerical light water reactors during 1978 have been compiled and reported. Data on soild waste shipments as well as selected operating information have been included. This report supplements earlier annual reports by the former Atomic Energy Commission and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The 1978 release data are compared with previous years releases in tabular form. Data covering specific radionuclides are summarized.

  20. Radioactive materials released from nuclear power plants. Annual report, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Tichler, J.; Benkovitz, C.

    1983-01-01

    Releases of radioactive materials in airborne and liquid effluents from commercial light water reactors during 1980 have been compiled and reported. Data on solid waste shipments as well as selected operating information have been included. This report supplements earlier annual reports issued by the former Atomic Energy Commission and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The 1980 release data are summarized in tabular form. Data covering specific radionuclides are summarized.

  1. Robotic control architecture development for automated nuclear material handling systems

    SciTech Connect

    Merrill, R.D.; Hurd, R.; Couture, S.; Wilhelmsen, K.

    1995-02-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is engaged in developing automated systems for handling materials for mixed waste treatment, nuclear pyrochemical processing, and weapon components disassembly. In support of these application areas there is an extensive robotic development program. This paper will describe the portion of this effort at LLNL devoted to control system architecture development, and review two applications currently being implemented which incorporate these technologies.

  2. Radioactive materials released from nuclear power plants: Annual report, 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Tichler, J.; Norden, K.; Congemi, J.

    1988-01-01

    Releases of radioactive materials in airborne and liquid effluents from commercial light water reactors during 1985 have been compiled and reported. Data on solid waste shipments as well as selected operating information have been included. This report supplements earlier annual reports issued by the former Atomic Energy Commission and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The 1985 release data are summarized in tabular form. Data covering specific radionuclides are summarized.

  3. Radioactive materials released from nuclear power plants: Annual report, 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Tichler, J.; Norden, K.; Congemi, J.

    1987-08-01

    Releases of radioactive materials in airborne and liquid effluents from commercial light water reactors during 1984 have been compiled and reported. Data on solid waste shipments as well as selected operating information have been included. This report supplements earlier annual reports issued by the former Atomic Energy Commission and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The 1984 release data are summarized in tabular form. Data covering specific radionuclides are summarized.

  4. Grain boundary engineering for structure materials of nuclear reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, L.; Allen, T. R.; Busby, J. T.

    2013-10-01

    Grain boundary engineering (GBE), primarily implemented by thermomechanical processing, is an effective and economical method of enhancing the properties of polycrystalline materials. Among the factors affecting grain boundary character distribution, literature data showed definitive effect of grain size and texture. GBE is more effective for austenitic stainless steels and Ni-base alloys compared to other structural materials of nuclear reactors, such as refractory metals, ferritic and ferritic-martensitic steels, and Zr alloys. GBE has shown beneficial effects on improving the strength, creep strength, and resistance to stress corrosion cracking and oxidation of austenitic stainless steels and Ni-base alloys.

  5. Nuclear material control and accounting safeguards in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Woltermann, H.A.; Rudy, C.R.; Rakel, D.A.; DeVer, E.A.

    1982-07-01

    Material control and accounting (MC and A) of special nuclear material (SNM) must supplement physical security to protect SNM from unlawful use such as terrorist activities. This article reviews MC and A safeguards of SNM in the United States. The following topics are covered: a brief perspective and history of MC and A safeguards, current MC and A practices, measurement methods for SNM, historical MC and A performance, a description of near-real-time MC and A systems, and conclusions on the status of MC and A in the United States.

  6. Interactive image quantification tools in nuclear material forensics

    SciTech Connect

    Porter, Reid B; Ruggiero, Christy; Hush, Don; Harvey, Neal; Kelly, Pat; Scoggins, Wayne; Tandon, Lav

    2011-01-03

    Morphological and microstructural features visible in microscopy images of nuclear materials can give information about the processing history of a nuclear material. Extraction of these attributes currently requires a subject matter expert in both microscopy and nuclear material production processes, and is a time consuming, and at least partially manual task, often involving multiple software applications. One of the primary goals of computer vision is to find ways to extract and encode domain knowledge associated with imagery so that parts of this process can be automated. In this paper we describe a user-in-the-loop approach to the problem which attempts to both improve the efficiency of domain experts during image quantification as well as capture their domain knowledge over time. This is accomplished through a sophisticated user-monitoring system that accumulates user-computer interactions as users exploit their imagery. We provide a detailed discussion of the interactive feature extraction and segmentation tools we have developed and describe our initial results in exploiting the recorded user-computer interactions to improve user productivity over time.

  7. Interactive image quantification tools in nuclear material forensics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porter, Reid; Ruggiero, Christy; Hush, Don; Harvey, Neal; Kelly, Patrick; Scoggins, Wayne; Tandon, Lav

    2011-03-01

    Morphological and microstructural features visible in microscopy images of nuclear materials can give information about the processing history of a nuclear material. Extraction of these attributes currently requires a subject matter expert in both microscopy and nuclear material production processes, and is a time consuming, and at least partially manual task, often involving multiple software applications. One of the primary goals of computer vision is to find ways to extract and encode domain knowledge associated with imagery so that parts of this process can be automated. In this paper we describe a user-in-the-loop approach to the problem which attempts to both improve the efficiency of domain experts during image quantification as well as capture their domain knowledge over time. This is accomplished through a sophisticated user-monitoring system that accumulates user-computer interactions as users exploit their imagery. We provide a detailed discussion of the interactive feature extraction and segmentation tools we have developed and describe our initial results in exploiting the recorded user-computer interactions to improve user productivity over time.

  8. Nuclear Fuel Cycle & Vulnerabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Boyer, Brian D.

    2012-06-18

    The objective of safeguards is the timely detection of diversion of significant quantities of nuclear material from peaceful nuclear activities to the manufacture of nuclear weapons or of other nuclear explosive devices or for purposes unknown, and deterrence of such diversion by the risk of early detection. The safeguards system should be designed to provide credible assurances that there has been no diversion of declared nuclear material and no undeclared nuclear material and activities.

  9. INFCIRC/153 as the basis for verification of a special nuclear materials production cutoff convention

    SciTech Connect

    Parsick, R.; Sanborn, J.

    1994-08-01

    Although safeguards practice under the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) has evolved considerably over the lifetime of the agreement, INFCIRC/153 remains the defining document of NPT verification. It is the only available document that might be adopted as an element of a special nuclear materials production cutoff convention to define an ``NPT-like`` verification regime. The clearly stated objective of INFCIRC/153 safeguards is the ability to ``detect diversion,`` which is achieved by verifying the state`s nuclear material accounting system. Although the way in which the verification objectives of a cutoff convention will be formulated is not yet known, it is clear that there will not be an exact fit between the two. The mismatch becomes greater to the extent that material in declared facilities is ``grandfathered`` under cutoff. It also increases as a cutoff regime focuses verification on the physical process of production (in operating facilities) or on facility operational status or capability (at non-operating facilities) rather than on the nuclear material itself. This paper compares the technical objectives which may be assigned to the IAEA under a cutoff convention with those described in INFCIRC/153. It also deals with means and limitations of verification activities which are closely linked to these objectives. The broader political and legal objectives associated with the convention are not considered.

  10. Summary Report for the Radiation Detection for Nuclear Security Summer School 2014

    SciTech Connect

    Runkle, Robert C.; Baciak, James E.; Woodring, Mitchell L.; Jenno, Diana M.

    2014-09-01

    Executive Summary The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) hosted students from across the United States at the 3rd Radiation Detection for Nuclear Security Summer School from 16 – 27 June 2014. The summer school provided students with a unique understanding of nuclear security challenges faced in the field and exposed them to the technical foundations, analyses, and insight that will be required by future leaders in technology development and implementation. The course heavily emphasized laboratory and field demonstrations including direct measurements of special nuclear material. Student evaluations and feedback from student advisors indicates that the summer school achieved its objectives of 1) exposing students to the range of nuclear security applications for which radiation detection is necessary, 2) articulating the relevance of student research into the broader context, and 3) exciting students about the possibility of future careers in nuclear security. In fact, we are beginning to see previous students both enroll in graduate programs (former undergraduates) and complete internships at agencies like the National Nuclear Security Administration.

  11. Enhancing nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) signature detection leveraging interference suppression algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeBardelaben, James A.; Miller, Jeremy K.; Myrick, Wilbur L.; Miller, Joel B.; Gilbreath, G. Charmaine; Bajramaj, Blerta

    2012-06-01

    Nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) is a radio frequency (RF) magnetic spectroscopic technique that has been shown to detect and identify a wide range of explosive materials containing quadrupolar nuclei. The NQR response signal provides a unique signature of the material of interest. The signal is, however, very weak and can be masked by non-stationary RF interference (RFI) and thermal noise, limiting detection distance. In this paper, we investigate the bounds on the NQR detection range for ammonium nitrate. We leverage a low-cost RFI data acquisition system composed of inexpensive B-field sensing and commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) software-defined radios (SDR). Using collected data as RFI reference signals, we apply adaptive filtering algorithms to mitigate RFI and enable NQR detection techniques to approach theoretical range bounds in tactical environments.

  12. Los Alamos National Laboratory standard nuclear material container

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, Timothy A

    2009-01-01

    The shut down of United States (U.S.) nuclear-weapons production activities in the early 1990s left large quantities of nuclear materials throughout the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex in forms not intended for long-term storage. In May 1994, the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) issued Recommendation 94-1, which called for the stabilization and disposition of 'thousands of containers of plutonium-bearing liquids and solids' in the DOE complex, including LANL in the nuclear-weapons-manufacturing pipeline when manufacturing ended. This resulted in the development of the 3013 standard with container requirements for long term storage (up to 50 years). A follow on was the Criteria For Interim Storage of Plutonium Bearing Materials, Charles B. Curtis, in 1996 to address storage other than the 3013 standard for shorter time frames. In January 2000, the DNFSB issued Recommendation 2000-1, which stated the need for LANL to repackage 'about one ton of plutonium metal and oxide,' declared excess to Defense Program (DP) needs. The DNFSB recommended that LANL 'stabilize and seal within welded containers with an inert atmosphere the plutonium oxides ... which are not yet in states conforming to the long-term storage envisaged by DOE-STD-3013,' and that they '... enclose existing and newly-generated legacy plutonium metal in sealed containers with an inert atmosphere,' and 'remediate and/or safely store the various residues.' Recommendation 2000-1, while adding to the number of items needing remediation, also reiterated the need to address remaining items from 1994-1 in a timely fashion. Since timetables slipped, the DNFSB recommended that the Complex 'prioritize and schedule tasks according to the consideration of risks.' In March 2005, the DNFSB issued Recommendation 2005-1. This recommendation addresses the need for a consistent set of criteria across the DOE complex for the interim storage of nuclear material packaged outside an engineered barrier. The

  13. Material handling for the Los Alamos National Laboratory Nuclear Material Storage Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Pittman, P.; Roybal, J.; Durrer, R.; Gordon, D.

    1999-04-01

    This paper will present the design and application of material handling and automation systems currently being developed for the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Nuclear Material Storage Facility (NMSF) renovation project. The NMSF is a long-term storage facility for nuclear material in various forms. The material is stored within tubes in a rack called a basket. The material handling equipment range from simple lift assist devices to more sophisticated fully automated robots, and are split into three basic systems: a Vault Automation System, an NDA automation System, and a Drum handling System. The Vault Automation system provides a mechanism to handle a basket of material cans and to load/unload storage tubes within the material vault. In addition, another robot is provided to load/unload material cans within the baskets. The NDA Automation System provides a mechanism to move material within the small canister NDA laboratory and to load/unload the NDA instruments. The Drum Handling System consists of a series of off the shelf components used to assist in lifting heavy objects such as pallets of material or drums and barrels.

  14. 10 CFR 11.15 - Application for special nuclear material access authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Application for special nuclear material access authorization. 11.15 Section 11.15 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION CRITERIA AND PROCEDURES FOR DETERMINING ELIGIBILITY FOR ACCESS TO OR CONTROL OVER SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Requirements for Special Nuclear...

  15. 10 CFR 72.74 - Reports of accidental criticality or loss of special nuclear material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... nuclear material. 72.74 Section 72.74 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR... accidental criticality or loss of special nuclear material. (a) Each licensee shall notify the NRC...

  16. 10 CFR 11.15 - Application for special nuclear material access authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Application for special nuclear material access authorization. 11.15 Section 11.15 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION CRITERIA AND PROCEDURES FOR DETERMINING ELIGIBILITY FOR ACCESS TO OR CONTROL OVER SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Requirements for Special Nuclear...

  17. 10 CFR 72.74 - Reports of accidental criticality or loss of special nuclear material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... nuclear material. 72.74 Section 72.74 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR... accidental criticality or loss of special nuclear material. (a) Each licensee shall notify the NRC...

  18. 10 CFR 72.74 - Reports of accidental criticality or loss of special nuclear material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... nuclear material. 72.74 Section 72.74 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR... accidental criticality or loss of special nuclear material. (a) Each licensee shall notify the NRC...

  19. 10 CFR 11.15 - Application for special nuclear material access authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Application for special nuclear material access authorization. 11.15 Section 11.15 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION CRITERIA AND PROCEDURES FOR DETERMINING ELIGIBILITY FOR ACCESS TO OR CONTROL OVER SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Requirements for Special Nuclear...

  20. 10 CFR 11.15 - Application for special nuclear material access authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Application for special nuclear material access authorization. 11.15 Section 11.15 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION CRITERIA AND PROCEDURES FOR DETERMINING ELIGIBILITY FOR ACCESS TO OR CONTROL OVER SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Requirements for Special Nuclear...

  1. 10 CFR 72.74 - Reports of accidental criticality or loss of special nuclear material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... nuclear material. 72.74 Section 72.74 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR... accidental criticality or loss of special nuclear material. (a) Each licensee shall notify the NRC...

  2. 10 CFR 11.15 - Application for special nuclear material access authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Application for special nuclear material access authorization. 11.15 Section 11.15 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION CRITERIA AND PROCEDURES FOR DETERMINING ELIGIBILITY FOR ACCESS TO OR CONTROL OVER SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Requirements for Special Nuclear...

  3. 10 CFR 72.74 - Reports of accidental criticality or loss of special nuclear material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... nuclear material. 72.74 Section 72.74 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR... accidental criticality or loss of special nuclear material. (a) Each licensee shall notify the NRC...

  4. Method of enhancing radiation response of radiation detection materials

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Steven D.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention is a method of increasing radiation response of a radiation detection material for a given radiation signal by first pressurizing the radiation detection material. Pressurization may be accomplished by any means including mechanical and/or hydraulic. In this application, the term "pressure" includes fluid pressure and/or mechanical stress.

  5. Nuclear particle detection using a track-recording solid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, M.; Weber, D.

    1984-01-01

    The design of the nuclear particle detector located in Purdue University's Get Away Special package which was flown aboard STS-7 is detailed. The experiment consisted of a stack of particle-detecting polymer sheets. The sheets show positive results of tracks throughout the block. A slide of each sheet was made for further analysis. Recommendations for similar experiments performed in the future are discussed.

  6. Ultrasonic gas accumulation detection and evaluation in nuclear cooling pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Lingyu; Lin, Bin; Shin, Yong-June; Wang, Jingjiang; Tian, Zhenhua

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents a novel ultrasonic guided wave based inspection methodology for detecting and evaluating gas accumulation in nuclear cooling pipe system. The sensing is in-situ by means of low-profile permanently installed piezoelectric wafer sensors to excite interrogating guided waves and to receive the propagating waves in the pipe structure. Detection and evaluation is established through advanced cross time-frequency analysis to extract the phase change in the sensed signal when the gas is accumulating. A correlation between the phase change and the gas amount has been established to provide regulatory prediction capability based on measured sensory data.

  7. Method for detecting radiation dose utilizing thermoluminescent material

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Steven D.; McDonald, Joseph C.; Eichner, Fred N.; Tomeraasen, Paul L.

    1991-01-01

    The amount of ionizing radiation to which a thermoluminescent material has been exposed is determined by first cooling the thermoluminescent material to a cryogenic temperature. The thermoluminescent material is then optically stimulated by exposure to ultraviolet light. Visible light emitted by the thermoluminescent material as it is allowed to warm up to room temperature is detected and counted. The thermoluminescent material may be annealed by exposure to ultraviolet light.

  8. Method for detecting radiation dose utilizing thermoluminescent material

    DOEpatents

    Miller, S.D.; McDonald, J.C.; Eichner, F.N.; Durham, J.S.

    1992-08-04

    The amount of ionizing radiation to which a thermoluminescent material has been exposed is determined by first cooling the thermoluminescent material and then optically stimulating the thermoluminescent material by exposure to light. Visible light emitted by the thermoluminescent material as it is allowed to warm up to room temperature is detected and counted. The thermoluminescent material may be annealed by exposure to ultraviolet light. 5 figs.

  9. Enhancing international radiation/nuclear detection training opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Thomas L.; Bersell, Bridget M.; Booker, Paul M.; Anderson, Gerald E.; Leitch, Rosalyn M.; Meagher, John B.; Siefken, Rob R.; Spracklen, James L.

    2015-09-23

    The United States has worked domestically to develop and provide radiological and nuclear detection training and education initiatives aimed at interior law enforcement, but the international community has predominantly focused efforts at border and customs officials. The interior law enforcement officials of a State play a critical role in maintaining an effective national-level nuclear detection architecture. To meet this vital need, DNDO was funded by the U.S. Department of State (DOS) to create and deliver a 1-week course at the International Law Enforcement Academy (ILEA) in Budapest, Hungary to inform interior law enforcement personnel of the overall mission, and to provide an understanding of how the participants can combat the threats of radiological and nuclear terrorism through detection efforts. Two courses, with approximately 20 students in each course, were delivered in fiscal year (FY) 2013, two were delivered in FY 2014 and FY 2015, and as of this report’s writing more are planned in FY 2016. However, while the ILEA courses produced measurable success, DNDO requested Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) research potential avenues to further increase the course impact.In a multi-phased approach, PNNL researched and analyzed several possible global training locations and venues, and other possible ways to increase the impact of the course using an agreed-to data-gathering format.

  10. Subthreshold neutron interrogator for detection of radioactive materials

    DOEpatents

    Evans, Michael L.; Menlove, Howard O.; Baker, Michael P.

    1980-01-01

    A device for detecting fissionable material such as uranium in low concentrations by interrogating with photoneutrons at energy levels below 500 keV, and typically about 26 keV. Induced fast neutrons having energies above 500 keV by the interrogated fissionable material are detected by a liquid scintillator or recoil proportional counter which is sensitive to the induced fast neutrons. Since the induced fast neutrons are proportional to the concentration of fissionable material, detection of induced fast neutrons indicate concentration of the fissionable material.

  11. Nuclear Materials Characterization in the Materials and Fuels Complex Analytical Hot Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Rodriquez

    2009-03-01

    As energy prices skyrocket and interest in alternative, clean energy sources builds, interest in nuclear energy has increased. This increased interest in nuclear energy has been termed the “Nuclear Renaissance”. The performance of nuclear fuels, fuels and reactor materials and waste products are becoming a more important issue as the potential for designing new nuclear reactors is more immediate. The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) Analytical Laboratory Hot Cells (ALHC) are rising to the challenge of characterizing new reactor materials, byproducts and performance. The ALHC is a facility located near Idaho Falls, Idaho at the INL Site. It was built in 1958 as part of the former Argonne National Laboratory West Complex to support the operation of the second Experimental Breeder Reactor (EBR-II). It is part of a larger analytical laboratory structure that includes wet chemistry, instrumentation and radiochemistry laboratories. The purpose of the ALHC is to perform analytical chemistry work on highly radioactive materials. The primary work in the ALHC has traditionally been dissolution of nuclear materials so that less radioactive subsamples (aliquots) could be transferred to other sections of the laboratory for analysis. Over the last 50 years though, the capabilities within the ALHC have also become independent of other laboratory sections in a number of ways. While dissolution, digestion and subdividing samples are still a vitally important role, the ALHC has stand alone capabilities in the area of immersion density, gamma scanning and combustion gas analysis. Recent use of the ALHC for immersion density shows that extremely fine and delicate operations can be performed with the master-slave manipulators by qualified operators. Twenty milligram samples were tested for immersion density to determine the expansion of uranium dioxide after irradiation in a nuclear reactor. The data collected confirmed modeling analysis with very

  12. Advanced ceramic materials for next-generation nuclear applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marra, John

    2011-10-01

    The nuclear industry is at the eye of a 'perfect storm' with fuel oil and natural gas prices near record highs, worldwide energy demands increasing at an alarming rate, and increased concerns about greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions that have caused many to look negatively at long-term use of fossil fuels. This convergence of factors has led to a growing interest in revitalization of the nuclear power industry within the United States and across the globe. Many are surprised to learn that nuclear power provides approximately 20% of the electrical power in the US and approximately 16% of the world-wide electric power. With the above factors in mind, world-wide over 130 new reactor projects are being considered with approximately 25 new permit applications in the US. Materials have long played a very important role in the nuclear industry with applications throughout the entire fuel cycle; from fuel fabrication to waste stabilization. As the international community begins to look at advanced reactor systems and fuel cycles that minimize waste and increase proliferation resistance, materials will play an even larger role. Many of the advanced reactor concepts being evaluated operate at high-temperature requiring the use of durable, heat-resistant materials. Advanced metallic and ceramic fuels are being investigated for a variety of Generation IV reactor concepts. These include the traditional TRISO-coated particles, advanced alloy fuels for 'deep-burn' applications, as well as advanced inert-matrix fuels. In order to minimize wastes and legacy materials, a number of fuel reprocessing operations are being investigated. Advanced materials continue to provide a vital contribution in 'closing the fuel cycle' by stabilization of associated low-level and high-level wastes in highly durable cements, ceramics, and glasses. Beyond this fission energy application, fusion energy will demand advanced materials capable of withstanding the extreme environments of high

  13. Monitoring Thermal Fatigue Damage In Nuclear Power Plant Materials Using Acoustic Emission

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, Ryan M.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Watson, Bruce E.; Pitman, Stan G.; Roosendaal, Timothy J.; Bond, Leonard J.

    2012-04-26

    Proactive aging management of nuclear power plant passive components requires technologies to enable monitoring and accurate quantification of material condition at early stages of degradation (i.e., pre-macrocrack). Acoustic emission (AE) is well-suited to continuous monitoring of component degradation and is proposed as a method to monitor degradation during accelerated thermal fatigue tests. A key consideration is the ability to separate degradation responses from external sources such as water spray induced during thermal fatigue testing. Water spray provides a significant background of acoustic signals, which can overwhelm AE signals caused by degradation. Analysis of AE signal frequency and energy is proposed in this work as a means for separating degradation signals from background sources. Encouraging results were obtained by applying both frequency and energy filters to preliminary data. The analysis of signals filtered using frequency and energy provides signatures exhibiting several characteristics that are consistent with degradation accumulation in materials. Future work is planned to enable verification of the efficacy of AE for thermal fatigue crack initiation detection. While the emphasis has been placed on the use of AE for crack initiation detection during accelerated aging tests, this work also has implications with respect to the use of AE as a primary tool for early degradation monitoring in nuclear power plant materials. The development of NDE tools for characterization of aging in materials can also benefit from the use of a technology such as AE which can continuously monitor and detect crack initiation during accelerated aging tests.

  14. Modeling of radiation effects on nuclear waste package materials

    SciTech Connect

    Simonson, S.A.

    1988-09-01

    A methodology is developed for the assessment of radiation effects on nuclear waste package materials. An assessment of the current status of understanding with regard to waste package materials and their behavior in radiation environments is presented. The methodology is used to make prediction as to the chemically induced changes in the groundwater surrounding nuclear waste packages in a repository in tuff. The predictions indicate that mechanisms not currently being pursued by the Department of Energy may be a factor in the long-term performance of nuclear waste packages. The methodology embodies a physical model of the effects of radiation on aqueous solutions. Coupled to the physical model is a method for analyzing the complex nature of the physical model using adjoint sensitivity analysis. The sensitivity aid in both the physical understanding of the processes involved as well as aiding in eliminating portions of the model that have no bearing on the desired results. A computer implementation of the methodology is provided. 128 refs.

  15. Development of the RFID System for nuclear materials management.

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, K.; Tsai, H.; Liu, Y. Y.

    2008-01-01

    Radio frequency identification (RFID) is one of today's most rapidly growing technologies in the automatic data collection industry. Although commercial applications are already widespread, the use of this technology for managing nuclear materials is only in its infancy. Employing an RFID system has the potential to offer an immense payback: enhanced safety and security, reduced need for manned surveillance, real-time access to status and event history data, and overall cost-effectiveness. The Packaging Certification Program (PCP) in the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Environmental Management (EM), Office of Packaging and Transportation (EM-63), is developing an RFID system for nuclear materials management. The system consists of battery-powered RFID tags with onboard sensors and memories, a reader network, application software, a database server and web pages. The tags monitor and record critical parameters, including the status of seals, movement of objects, and environmental conditions of the nuclear material packages in real time. They also provide instant warnings or alarms when preset thresholds for the sensors are exceeded. The information collected by the readers is transmitted to a dedicated central database server that can be accessed by authorized users across the DOE complex via a secured network. The onboard memory of the tags allows the materials manifest and event history data to reside with the packages throughout their life cycles in storage, transportation, and disposal. Data security is currently based on Advanced Encryption Standard-256. The software provides easy-to-use graphical interfaces that allow access to all vital information once the security and privilege requirements are met. An innovative scheme has been developed for managing batteries in service for more than 10 years without needing to be changed. A miniature onboard dosimeter is being developed for applications that require radiation surveillance. A field

  16. CORROSION OF LEAD SHIELDING IN NUCLEAR MATERIALS PACKAGES

    SciTech Connect

    Subramanian, K; Kerry Dunn, K

    2007-11-16

    Inspection of United States-Department of Energy (US-DOE) model 9975 nuclear materials shipping package revealed corrosion of the lead shielding induced by off-gas constituents from organic components in the package. Experiments were performed to determine the corrosion rate of lead when exposed to off-gas or degradation products of these organic materials. The results showed that the room temperature vulcanizing (RTV) sealant was the most corrosive organic species followed by the polyvinyl acetate (PVAc) glue. The fiberboard material induced corrosion to a much lesser extent than the PVAc glue and RTV, and only in the presence of condensed water. The results indicated faster corrosion at temperatures higher than ambient and with condensed water as expected. A corrosion rate of 0.05 mm/year measured for coupons exposed to the most aggressive conditions was recommended as a conservative estimate for use in package performance calculations.

  17. CORROSION OF LEAD SHIELDING IN NUCLEAR MATERIALS PACKAGES

    SciTech Connect

    Subramanian, K; Kerry Dunn, K; Joseph Murphy, J

    2008-07-18

    Inspection of United States-Department of Energy (US-DOE) model 9975 nuclear materials shipping package revealed corrosion of the lead shielding that was induced by off-gas constituents from organic components in the package. Experiments were performed to determine the corrosion rate of lead when exposed to off-gas or degradation products of these organic materials. The results showed that the room temperature vulcanizing (RTV) sealant was the most corrosive organic species used in the construction of the packaging, followed by polyvinyl acetate (PVAc) glue. Fiberboard material, also used in the construction of the packaging induced corrosion to a much lesser extent than the PVAc glue and RTV sealant, and only in the presence of condensed water. The results indicated faster corrosion at temperatures higher than ambient and with condensed water. In light of these corrosion mechanisms, the lead shielding was sheathed in a stainless steel liner to mitigate against corrosion.

  18. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Materials Research and Development Program Plan

    SciTech Connect

    G.O. Hayner; R.L. Bratton; R.N. Wright

    2005-09-01

    The U.S Department of Energy (DOE) has selected the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) design for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project. The NGNP will demonstrate the use of nuclear power for electricity and hydrogen production without greenhouse gas emissions. The reactor design will be a graphite moderated, helium-cooled, prismatic or pebble-bed, thermal neutron spectrum reactor that will produce electricity and hydrogen in a state-of-the-art thermodynamically efficient manner. The NGNP will use very high burn-up, low-enriched uranium, TRISO-coated fuel and have a projected plant design service life of 60 years. The VHTR concept is considered to be the nearest-term reactor design that has the capability to efficiently produce hydrogen. The plant size, reactor thermal power, and core configuration will ensure passive decay heat removal without fuel damage or radioactive material releases during accidents. The NGNP Project is envisioned to demonstrate the following: (1) A full-scale prototype VHTR by about 2021; (2) High-temperature Brayton Cycle electric power production at full scale with a focus on economic performance; (3) Nuclear-assisted production of hydrogen (with about 10% of the heat) with a focus on economic performance; and (4) By test, the exceptional safety capabilities of the advanced gas-cooled reactors. Further, the NGNP program will: (1) Obtain a Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) License to construct and operate the NGNP, this process will provide a basis for future performance based, risk-informed licensing; and (2) Support the development, testing, and prototyping of hydrogen infrastructures. The NGNP Materials Research and Development (R&D) Program is responsible for performing R&D on likely NGNP materials in support of the NGNP design, licensing, and construction activities. The NGNP Materials R&D Program includes the following elements: (1) Developing a specific approach, program plan and other project management tools for

  19. Safeguards and Nuclear Materials Management: A view from the DOE Chicago Operations Office

    SciTech Connect

    Healy, F.E.; Ahlberg, C.G.

    1994-07-01

    Nuclear Materials Safeguards (also known as Material Control and Accountability or MC&A) and Nuclear Materials Management as practiced within the US Department of Energy (DOE) are separate, but related disciplines with differing goals and objectives. Safeguards and Nuclear Materials Management are closely related through the common use of transaction and inventory reporting data from the Nuclear Materials Management and Safeguards System (NMMSS). Adherence to Nuclear Materials management principals may enhance Nuclear Materials Safeguards, and has the potential to result in savings for both program and safeguards costs. Both the Safeguards and Nuclear Materials Management Programs for the Chicago Operations Office are administered by the Safeguards and Security Division, Safeguards Branch. This paper discusses Safeguards and Materials Management issues within the Chicago Operations Office, some of which relate to problems faced by the DOE complex as a whole.

  20. 5 CFR 842.208 - Firefighters, law enforcement officers, and nuclear materials couriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., and nuclear materials couriers. 842.208 Section 842.208 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL... ANNUITY Eligibility § 842.208 Firefighters, law enforcement officers, and nuclear materials couriers. (a... enforcement officer or nuclear materials courier totaling 25 years; or (2) After becoming age 50...

  1. Special nuclear materials cutoff exercise: Issues and lessons learned. Volume 3

    SciTech Connect

    Libby, R.A.; Segal, J.E.; Stanbro, W.D.; Davis, C.

    1995-08-01

    This document is appendices D-J for the Special Nuclear Materials Cutoff Exercise: Issues and Lessons Learned. Included are discussions of the US IAEA Treaty, safeguard regulations for nuclear materials, issue sheets for the PUREX process, and the LANL follow up activity for reprocessing nuclear materials.

  2. 10 CFR 73.28 - Security background checks for secure transfer of nuclear materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Security background checks for secure transfer of nuclear materials. 73.28 Section 73.28 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF PLANTS AND MATERIALS Physical Protection of Special Nuclear Material in Transit § 73.28...

  3. 10 CFR 73.28 - Security background checks for secure transfer of nuclear materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Security background checks for secure transfer of nuclear materials. 73.28 Section 73.28 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF PLANTS AND MATERIALS Physical Protection of Special Nuclear Material in Transit § 73.28...

  4. 10 CFR 73.28 - Security background checks for secure transfer of nuclear materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Security background checks for secure transfer of nuclear materials. 73.28 Section 73.28 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF PLANTS AND MATERIALS Physical Protection of Special Nuclear Material in Transit § 73.28...

  5. 10 CFR 73.28 - Security background checks for secure transfer of nuclear materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Security background checks for secure transfer of nuclear materials. 73.28 Section 73.28 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF PLANTS AND MATERIALS Physical Protection of Special Nuclear Material in Transit § 73.28...

  6. 10 CFR 74.17 - Special nuclear material physical inventory summary report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Special nuclear material physical inventory summary report. 74.17 Section 74.17 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL General Reporting and Recordkeeping Requirements § 74.17 Special...

  7. 10 CFR 74.17 - Special nuclear material physical inventory summary report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Special nuclear material physical inventory summary report. 74.17 Section 74.17 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL General Reporting and Recordkeeping Requirements § 74.17 Special...

  8. 10 CFR 74.17 - Special nuclear material physical inventory summary report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Special nuclear material physical inventory summary report. 74.17 Section 74.17 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL General Reporting and Recordkeeping Requirements § 74.17 Special...

  9. 10 CFR 74.17 - Special nuclear material physical inventory summary report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Special nuclear material physical inventory summary report. 74.17 Section 74.17 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL General Reporting and Recordkeeping Requirements § 74.17 Special...

  10. 10 CFR 74.17 - Special nuclear material physical inventory summary report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Special nuclear material physical inventory summary report. 74.17 Section 74.17 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL General Reporting and Recordkeeping Requirements § 74.17 Special...

  11. 10 CFR 73.28 - Security background checks for secure transfer of nuclear materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Security background checks for secure transfer of nuclear materials. 73.28 Section 73.28 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF PLANTS AND MATERIALS Physical Protection of Special Nuclear Material in Transit § 73.28...

  12. 5 CFR 842.208 - Firefighters, law enforcement officers, and nuclear materials couriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., and nuclear materials couriers. 842.208 Section 842.208 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL... ANNUITY Eligibility § 842.208 Firefighters, law enforcement officers, and nuclear materials couriers. (a... enforcement officer or nuclear materials courier totaling 25 years; or (2) After becoming age 50...

  13. Sensor Detects Overheating Of Perishable Material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dordick, Jonathan S.; Klibanov, Alexander

    1990-01-01

    Experimental temperature sensor changes color rapidly and irreversibly when temperature rises above pre-determined level. Based on reactions of enzymes in paraffins, blended so mixture melts at temperature considered maximum safe value. Similar devices used to detect temperature abuse, whether foods or medicines refrigerated exposed to excessive temperatures during shipment and storage. By viewing sensor, receiving clerk tells immediately whether product maintained at safe temperatures and acceptable.

  14. Materials Degradation and Detection (MD2): Deep Dive Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    McCloy, John S.; Montgomery, Robert O.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Meyer, Ryan M.; Hu, Shenyang Y.; Li, Yulan; Henager, Charles H.; Johnson, Bradley R.

    2013-02-01

    An effort is underway at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to develop a fundamental and general framework to foster the science and technology needed to support real-time monitoring of early degradation in materials used in the production of nuclear power. The development of such a capability would represent a timely solution to the mounting issues operators face with materials degradation in nuclear power plants. The envisioned framework consists of three primary and interconnected “thrust” areas including 1) microstructural science, 2) behavior assessment, and 3) monitoring and predictive capabilities. A brief state-of-the-art assessment for each of these core technology areas is discussed in the paper.

  15. Vapor etching of nuclear tracks in dielectric materials

    DOEpatents

    Musket, Ronald G.; Porter, John D.; Yoshiyama, James M.; Contolini, Robert J.

    2000-01-01

    A process involving vapor etching of nuclear tracks in dielectric materials for creating high aspect ratio (i.e., length much greater than diameter), isolated cylindrical holes in dielectric materials that have been exposed to high-energy atomic particles. The process includes cleaning the surface of the tracked material and exposing the cleaned surface to a vapor of a suitable etchant. Independent control of the temperatures of the vapor and the tracked materials provide the means to vary separately the etch rates for the latent track region and the non-tracked material. As a rule, the tracked regions etch at a greater rate than the non-tracked regions. In addition, the vapor-etched holes can be enlarged and smoothed by subsequent dipping in a liquid etchant. The 20-1000 nm diameter holes resulting from the vapor etching process can be useful as molds for electroplating nanometer-sized filaments, etching gate cavities for deposition of nano-cones, developing high-aspect ratio holes in trackable resists, and as filters for a variety of molecular-sized particles in virtually any liquid or gas by selecting the dielectric material that is compatible with the liquid or gas of interest.

  16. Nuclear Materials Management U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO)

    SciTech Connect

    Jesse Schrieber

    2008-07-01

    In light of the changing Defense Complex mission, the high cost to storing and protecting nuclear materials, and in consideration of scarcity of resources, it is imperative that the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) owned nuclear materials are managed effectively. The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Strategic Action Plan outlines the strategy for continuing to meet America’s nuclear security goals, meeting the overall mission challenges of DOE and NNSA as well as giving focus to local missions. The mission of the NNSA/NSO Nuclear Materials Management (NMM) Program is to ensure that nuclear material inventories are accurately assessed and reported, future material needs are adequately planned, and that existing Nevada Test Site (NTS) inventories are efficiently utilized, staged, or dispositioned. The NNSA/NSO understands that the NTS has unique characteristics to serve and benefit the nation with innovative solutions to the complex problems involving Special Nuclear Materials, hazardous materials, and multi-agency, integrated operations. The NNSA/NSO is defining infrastructure requirements for known future missions, developing footprint consolidation strategic action plans, and continuing in the path of facility modernization and improvements. The NNSA/NSO is striving for the NTS to be acknowledged as an ideal location towards mission expansion and growth. The NTS has the capability of providing isolated, large scale construction and development locations for nuclear power or alternate energy source facilities, expanded nuclear material storage sites, and for new development in “green” technology.

  17. XAFS studies of radiation damage in nuclear materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olive, Daniel Thomas

    The growing demand for nuclear energy places a high importance on the development of new materials capable of withstanding higher temperatures and harsher irradiation conditions than those used in existing reactors. By supporting the development of next generation reactors it also becomes possible to close the nuclear fuel cycle, greatly reducing the amount of waste sent for disposal in deep geologic repositories, where its interaction with the environment is also a matter of interest. In this thesis, X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy is used to investigate the local atomic structure of systems of interest to nuclear energy. First, two XAFS studies on environmental materials are presented. Granular activated carbon (GAC) was treated with iron to improve its water remediation properties, specifically with respect to arsenic. XAFS was used to determine the nature of iron coating on the GAC surface, and the method of arsenic bonding to the treated surface. Next, a neodymium precipitate from solubility studies carried out for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) was analyzed. Neodymium was used as an analog for plutonium in brine solutions. XAFS fitting indicated that the neodymium substituted for calcium in a gypsum lattice, providing information useful for future geochemical modeling. XAFS was also used to study radiation damage in materials. A candidate material for advanced reactor structural materials, modified 9Cr--1Mo, was irradiated to 1, 4, and 10 displacements per atom (dpa). XAFS analyses were performed on the Fe, Mo, and Nb K-edges. Irradiation caused a reduction in coordination for all three elements, but the exact behavior was element specific. Damage around Fe atoms was linear with dose, while damage around Mo atoms saturated at or before 1 dpa. XAFS was shown to provide a useful atomic level description of radiation damage for a complex alloy system. Finally, zirconium carbide and zirconium nitride, candidate materials for advanced

  18. Safety assessment of a robotic system handling nuclear material

    SciTech Connect

    Atcitty, C.B.; Robinson, D.G.

    1996-02-01

    This paper outlines the use of a Failure Modes and Effects Analysis for the safety assessment of a robotic system being developed at Sandia National Laboratories. The robotic system, The Weigh and Leak Check System, is to replace a manual process at the Department of Energy facility at Pantex by which nuclear material is inspected for weight and leakage. Failure Modes and Effects Analyses were completed for the robotics process to ensure that safety goals for the system had been meet. These analyses showed that the risks to people and the internal and external environment were acceptable.

  19. DIGITAL RADIOGRAPHY OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL TEST PACKAGES

    SciTech Connect

    HOWARD, BOYD

    2006-02-02

    The purpose of this document is to provide a brief introduction to digital radiography (DR), and a description of the DR configuration that was used to radiographically image the Special Nuclear Material (SNM) Test Packages before and after function tests that have been conducted. Also included are (1) Attachment 1, a comprehensive index that describes at which phase of the certification process that digital radiographic images were acquired, (2) digital radiographic images of each of the six packages at various stages of the certification process, and (3) Attachment 2, imaging instructions, that specify the setup procedures and detailed parameters of the DR imaging methodology that were used.

  20. Organic materials able to detect analytes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rose, Aimee (Inventor); Swager, Timothy M. (Inventor); Zhu, Zhengguo (Inventor); Bulovic, Vladimir (Inventor); Madigan, Conor Francis (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    The present invention generally relates to polymers with lasing characteristics that allow the polymers to be useful in detecting analytes. In one aspect, the polymer, upon an interaction with an analyte, may exhibit a change in a lasing characteristic that can be determined in some fashion. For example, interaction of an analyte with the polymer may affect the ability of the polymer to reach an excited state that allows stimulated emission of photons to occur, which may be determined, thereby determining the analyte. In another aspect, the polymer, upon interaction with an analyte, may exhibit a change in stimulated emission that is at least 10 times greater with respect to a change in the spontaneous emission of the polymer upon interaction with the analyte. The polymer may be a conjugated polymer in some cases. In one set of embodiments, the polymer includes one or more hydrocarbon side chains, which may be parallel to the polymer backbone in some instances. In another set of embodiments, the polymer may include one or more pendant aromatic rings. In yet another set of embodiments, the polymer may be substantially encapsulated in a hydrocarbon. In still another set of embodiments, the polymer may be substantially resistant to photobleaching. In certain aspects, the polymer may be useful in the detection of explosive agents, such as 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and 2,4-dinitrotoluene (DNT).

  1. Modeling most likely pathways for smuggling radioactive and special nuclear materials on a worldwide multi-modal transportation network

    SciTech Connect

    Saeger, Kevin J; Cuellar, Leticia

    2010-10-28

    Nuclear weapons proliferation is an existing and growing worldwide problem. To help with devising strategies and supporting decisions to interdict the transport of nuclear material, we developed the Pathway Analysis, Threat Response and Interdiction Options Tool (PATRIOT) that provides an analytical approach for evaluating the probability that an adversary smuggling radioactive or special nuclear material will be detected during transit. We incorporate a global, multi-modal transportation network, explicit representation of designed and serendipitous detection opportunities, and multiple threat devices, material types, and shielding levels. This paper presents the general structure of PATRIOT, all focuses on the theoretical framework used to model the reliabilities of all network components that are used to predict the most likely pathways to the target.

  2. Modeling most likely pathways for smuggling radioactive and special nuclear materials on a worldwide multimodal transportation network

    SciTech Connect

    Saeger, Kevin J; Cuellar, Leticia

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear weapons proliferation is an existing and growing worldwide problem. To help with devising strategies and supporting decisions to interdict the transport of nuclear material, we developed the Pathway Analysis, Threat Response and Interdiction Options Tool (PATRIOT) that provides an analytical approach for evaluating the probability that an adversary smuggling radioactive or special nuclear material will be detected during transit. We incorporate a global, multi-modal transportation network, explicit representation of designed and serendipitous detection opportunities, and multiple threat devices, material types, and shielding levels. This paper presents the general structure of PATRIOT, and focuses on the theoretical framework used to model the reliabilities of all network components that are used to predict the most likely pathways to the target.

  3. Isotope-specific detection of low density materials with mono-energetic (gamma)-rays

    SciTech Connect

    Albert, F; Anderson, S G; Gibson, D J; Hagmann, C A; Johnson, M S; Messerly, M J; Semenov, V A; Shverdin, M Y; Tremaine, A M; Hartemann, F V; Siders, C W; McNabb, D P; Barty, C J

    2009-03-16

    The first demonstration of isotope-specific detection of a low-Z, low density object, shielded by a high-Z and high density material using mono-energetic gamma-rays is reported. Isotope-specific detection of LiH shielded by Pb and Al is accomplished using the nuclear resonance fluorescence line of {sup 7}Li at 0.478 MeV. Resonant photons are produced via laser-based Compton scattering. The detection techniques are general and the confidence level obtained is shown to be superior to that yielded by conventional x-ray/{gamma}-ray techniques in these situations.

  4. Illicit Trafficking in Radiological and Nuclear Materials. Lack of Regulations and Attainable Disposal for Radioactive Materials Make Them More Vulnerable than Nuclear Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Balatsky, G.I.; Severe, W.R.; Leonard, L.

    2007-07-01

    Illicit trafficking in nuclear and radioactive materials is far from a new issue. Reports of nuclear materials offered for sale as well as mythical materials such as red mercury date back to the 1960's. While such reports were primarily scams, it illustrates the fact that from an early date there were criminal elements willing to sell nuclear materials, albeit mythical ones, to turn a quick profit. In that same time frame, information related to lost and abandoned radioactive sources began to be reported. Unlike reports on nuclear material of that era, these reports on abandoned sources were based in fact - occasionally associated with resulting injury and death. With the collapse of the Former Soviet Union, illicit trafficking turned from a relatively unnoticed issue to one of global concern. Reports of unsecured nuclear and radiological material in the states of the Former Soviet Union, along with actual seizures of such material in transit, gave the clear message that illicit trafficking was now a real and urgent problem. In 1995, the IAEA established an Illicit Trafficking Data Base to keep track of confirmed instances. Illicit Trafficking is deemed to include not only radioactive materials that have been offered for sale or crossed international boarders, but also such materials that are no longer under appropriate regulatory control. As an outcome of 9/11, the United States took a closer look at illicit nuclear trafficking as well as a reassessment of the safety and security of nuclear and other radioactive materials both in the United States and Globally. This reassessment launched heightened controls and security domestically and increased our efforts internationally to prevent illicit nuclear trafficking. This reassessment also brought about the Global Threat Reduction Initiative which aims to further reduce the threats of weapons usable nuclear materials as well those of radioactive sealed sources. This paper will focus on the issues related to a subset

  5. Detection of Carbonaceous Material in Naga Bhasma

    PubMed Central

    Singh, S. K.; Rai, S. B.

    2012-01-01

    Traditional medicines have maintained their popularity in all regions of the developing world and are being adopted increasingly by people worldwide. Indian traditional system of medicine Ayurveda make use of unique metallic-herbal preparations (called Bhasma) which involves different processing steps including repeated steps of calcination of metal in the presence of natural precursor (herbal juices, decoctions, and powders, etc). It has been recently established that Bhasma contains nano/sub-micron size particles and different nutrient elements. However, the role and the end product of the raw materials, especially the herbal parts, used during the synthesis of the drug (Bhasma) is one of the important but unanswered problems in such medicinal preparations. Present work on Naga Bhasma is an attempt to understand the role of natural precursors in detail. Our results on infrared, Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy along with thermal measurements identify the presence of carbonaceous material (hydrogenated amorphous carbon) in the drug along with other compounds. In addition, this work also suggests the science and mechanism behind such complex preparations which could help in standardization of such medicines. PMID:23326003

  6. Detection of carbonaceous material in naga bhasma.

    PubMed

    Singh, S K; Rai, S B

    2012-03-01

    Traditional medicines have maintained their popularity in all regions of the developing world and are being adopted increasingly by people worldwide. Indian traditional system of medicine Ayurveda make use of unique metallic-herbal preparations (called Bhasma) which involves different processing steps including repeated steps of calcination of metal in the presence of natural precursor (herbal juices, decoctions, and powders, etc). It has been recently established that Bhasma contains nano/sub-micron size particles and different nutrient elements. However, the role and the end product of the raw materials, especially the herbal parts, used during the synthesis of the drug (Bhasma) is one of the important but unanswered problems in such medicinal preparations. Present work on Naga Bhasma is an attempt to understand the role of natural precursors in detail. Our results on infrared, Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy along with thermal measurements identify the presence of carbonaceous material (hydrogenated amorphous carbon) in the drug along with other compounds. In addition, this work also suggests the science and mechanism behind such complex preparations which could help in standardization of such medicines. PMID:23326003

  7. Nuclear and materials aspects of the thorium fuel cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, P.; Sundaram, C. V.

    1981-09-01

    This paper is an attempt to assess and review the materials aspects of the thorium fuel cycle. It starts with an examination of the nuclear aspects of the thorium fuel cycle, meant as an introduction for materials scientists and engineers who may not normally be familiar with the concepts and terms involved. After defining and describing the thorium and uranium fuel cycles, the reasons for the resurgence of interest in the thorium fuel cycle and the technical and economic considerations that support its early adoption are examined. The reactor physics and fissile economics aspects of the thorium and uranium cycles are then compared. The specific reactor types suitable for the adoption of the thorium cycle are briefly examined and described. Subsequent sections of the paper are devoted to a detailed discussion of the materials aspects of the thorium fuel cycle. Available information on fabrication, refabrication and irradiation performance of thorium-based fuels for light water reactors, heavy water reactors, high temperature gas-cooled reactors, molten salt breeder reactors and fast breeder reactors is critically reviewed and analysed. Materials problems related to cladding and structural materials are also discussed whenever these are unique to the thorium cycle.

  8. Pulsed, Photonuclear-induced, Neutron Measurements of Nuclear Materials with Composite Shielding

    SciTech Connect

    James Jones; Kevin Haskell; Rich Waston; William Geist; Jonathan Thron; Corey Freeman; Martyn Swinhoe; Seth McConchie; Eric Sword; Lee Montierth; John Zabriskie

    2011-07-01

    Active measurements were performed using a 10-MeV electron accelerator with inspection objects containing various nuclear and nonnuclear materials available at the Idaho National Laboratory’s Zero Power Physics Reactor (ZPPR) facility. The inspection objects were assembled from ZPPR reactor plate materials to evaluate the measurement technologies for the characterization of plutonium, depleted uranium or highly enriched uranium shielded by both nuclear and non-nuclear materials. A series of pulsed photonuclear, time-correlated measurements were performed with unshielded calibration materials and then compared with the more complex composite shield configurations. The measurements used multiple 3He detectors that are designed to detect fission neutrons between pulses of an electron linear accelerator. The accelerator produced 10-MeV bremsstrahlung X-rays at a repetition rate of 125 Hz (8 ms between pulses) with a 4-us pulse width. All inspected objects were positioned on beam centerline and 100 cm from the X-ray source. The time-correlated data was collected in parallel using both a Los Alamos National Laboratory-designed list-mode acquisition system and a commercial multichannel scaler analyzer. A combination of different measurement configurations and data analysis methods enabled the identification of each object. This paper describes the experimental configuration, the ZPPR inspection objects used, and the various measurement and analysis results for each inspected object.

  9. Fuel leak detection apparatus for gas cooled nuclear reactors

    DOEpatents

    Burnette, Richard D.

    1977-01-01

    Apparatus is disclosed for detecting nuclear fuel leaks within nuclear power system reactors, such as high temperature gas cooled reactors. The apparatus includes a probe assembly that is inserted into the high temperature reactor coolant gaseous stream. The probe has an aperture adapted to communicate gaseous fluid between its inside and outside surfaces and also contains an inner tube for sampling gaseous fluid present near the aperture. A high pressure supply of noncontaminated gas is provided to selectively balance the pressure of the stream being sampled to prevent gas from entering the probe through the aperture. The apparatus includes valves that are operable to cause various directional flows and pressures, which valves are located outside of the reactor walls to permit maintenance work and the like to be performed without shutting down the reactor.

  10. Long Range, Passive Detection of Fissile Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Fabris, L; Ziock, K P

    2005-02-03

    We have recently completed a large-area, coded-aperture, gamma-ray imager for use in searching for radiation sources. The instrument was constructed to verify that weak point sources can be detected at considerable distances if one uses imaging to overcome fluctuations in the natural background. The instrument uses a rank-19, one-dimensional coded aperture to cast shadow patterns onto a 0.57 m{sup 2} NaI(Tl) detector composed of 57 individual cubes each 10 cm on a side. These are arranged in a 19 x 3 array. The mask is composed of four-centimeter thick, one-meter high, 10-cm wide lead blocks. The instrument is mounted in the back of a small truck from which images are obtained as one drives through a region.

  11. Testing of Liquid Scintillator Materials for Gamma and Neutron Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Verbeke, J M; Nakae, L; Kerr, P; Dietrich, D; Dougan, A

    2009-06-19

    The key fact about fissile material is that a sufficient quantity of the material can produce chains of fissions, including some very long chains. A chain of fissions will give rise to a detected burst of neutrons with longer chains generally producing larger bursts. These bursts produce distinctive time correlations in a detector near the multiplying material. These correlations are measurable and can be analyzed to infer attributes of the fissile material including fissile material mass, assembly neutron multiplication, characteristic fast fission chain evolution time scale, also known as the {alpha} time scale, thermalization time scale. The correlation signal is very robust with respect to background and to neutron absorbing material.

  12. R&D for Better Nuclear Security: Radiation Detector Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Kammeraad, J E

    2009-04-02

    I am going to talk about the need for better materials for radiation detectors. I believe that government investment in this area can enable transformational technology change that could impact domestic nuclear security and also national nuclear security in some very positive and powerful ways. I'm not going to give you a lecture on how radiation detectors work, but I am going to tell you a bit about today's off-the-shelf technology and why it is not sufficient, what we need, and what security benefit you could get from improvements. I think we're at a critical point in time for some very impactful investments. In particular I'm going to focus on the use of gamma-ray radiation detectors at ports of entry. Not long before DHS was formed, Congress decreed that counter measures against the delivery of radiological and nuclear threats would be put in place at US ports of entry, under the authority of US Customs (later Customs and Border Protection in DHS). This included the screening of all cars and trucks passing through a port of entry. Existing off-the-shelf radiation detectors had to be selected for this purpose. Plans were made to make the most of the available technologies, but there are some inherent limitations of these detectors, plus the operational setting can bring out other limitations.

  13. Special Nuclear Material Portal Monitoring at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    DeAnn Long; Michael Murphy

    2008-07-01

    Prior to April 2007, acceptance and performance testing of the various Special Nuclear Material (SNM) monitoring devices at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) was performed by the Radiological Health Instrumentation department. Calibration and performance testing on the PM-700 personnel portal monitor was performed, but there was no test program for the VM-250 vehicle portal monitor. The handheld SNM monitors, the TSA model 470B, were being calibrated annually, but there was no performance test program. In April of 2007, the Material Control and Accountability Manager volunteered to take over performance testing of all SNM portal monitors at NTS in order to strengthen the program and meet U.S. Department of Energy Order requirements. This paper will discuss the following activities associated with developing a performance testing program: changing the culture, learning the systems, developing and implementing procedures, troubleshooting and repair, validating the process, physical control of equipment, acquisition of new systems, and implementing the performance test program.

  14. Problems in detection and measurement in nuclear medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aysun Ugur, Fatma

    2015-07-01

    Nuclear Medicine studies are performed with a variety of types of radiation measurement instruments, depending on the kind of radiation source that is being measured and the type of information sought. For example, some instruments are designed for in vitro measurements on blood samples, urine specimens, and so forth. Others are designed for in vivo measurements of radioactivity in patients. All these instruments have special design characteristics to optimize them for their specific tasks, as described in this study; however, some considerations of design characteristics and performance limitations are common to all of them. An important consideration for any radiation measurement instrument is its detection efficiency. Maximum detection efficiency is desirable because one thus obtains maximum information with a minimum amount of radioactivity. Also important are instrument's counting rate limitations. There are finite counting rate limits for all counting and imaging instruments used in nuclear medicine, above which accurate results are obtained because of data losses and other data distortions. Non penetrating radiations, such as ß particles, have special detection and measurement problems. In this study, some of these general considerations have been discussed.

  15. Evaluating Safeguards Benefits of Process Monitoring as compared with Nuclear Material Accountancy

    SciTech Connect

    Humberto Garcia; Wen-Chiao Lin; Reed Carlson

    2014-07-01

    This paper illustrates potential safeguards benefits that process monitoring (PM) may have as a diversion deterrent and as a complementary safeguards measure to nuclear material accountancy (NMA). This benefit is illustrated by quantifying the standard deviation associated with detecting a considered material diversion scenario using either an NMA-based method or a PM-based approach. To illustrate the benefits of PM for effective safeguards, we consider a reprocessing facility. We assume that the diversion of interest for detection manifests itself as a loss of Pu caused by abnormally operating a dissolver for an extended period to accomplish protracted diversion (or misdirection) of Pu to a retained (unconditioned) waste stream. For detecting the occurrence of this diversion (which involves anomalous operation of the dissolver), we consider two different data evaluation and integration (DEI) approaches, one based on NMA and the other based on PM. The approach based on PM does not directly do mass balance calculations, but rather monitors for the possible occurrence of anomaly patterns related to potential loss of nuclear material. It is thus assumed that the loss of a given mass amount of nuclear material can be directly associated with the execution of proliferation-driven activities that trigger the occurrence of an anomaly pattern consisting of series of events or signatures occurring at different unit operations and time instances. By effectively assessing these events over time and space, the PM-based DEI approach tries to infer whether this specific pattern of events has occurred and how many times within a given time period. To evaluate the goodness of PM, the 3 Sigma of the estimated mass loss is computed under both DEI approaches as function of the number of input batches processed. Simulation results are discussed.

  16. 10 CFR 73.6 - Exemptions for certain quantities and kinds of special nuclear material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... special nuclear material. A licensee is exempt from the requirements of 10 CFR part 26 and §§ 73.20, 73.25, 73.26, 73.27, 73.45, 73.46, 73.70 and 73.72 with respect to the following special nuclear material... nuclear material. 73.6 Section 73.6 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PHYSICAL...

  17. 10 CFR 73.6 - Exemptions for certain quantities and kinds of special nuclear material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... special nuclear material. A licensee is exempt from the requirements of 10 CFR part 26 and §§ 73.20, 73.25, 73.26, 73.27, 73.45, 73.46, 73.70 and 73.72 with respect to the following special nuclear material... nuclear material. 73.6 Section 73.6 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PHYSICAL...

  18. 10 CFR 73.6 - Exemptions for certain quantities and kinds of special nuclear material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... special nuclear material. A licensee is exempt from the requirements of 10 CFR part 26 and §§ 73.20, 73.25, 73.26, 73.27, 73.45, 73.46, 73.70 and 73.72 with respect to the following special nuclear material... nuclear material. 73.6 Section 73.6 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PHYSICAL...

  19. 10 CFR 73.6 - Exemptions for certain quantities and kinds of special nuclear material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... special nuclear material. A licensee is exempt from the requirements of 10 CFR part 26 and §§ 73.20, 73.25, 73.26, 73.27, 73.45, 73.46, 73.70 and 73.72 with respect to the following special nuclear material... nuclear material. 73.6 Section 73.6 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PHYSICAL...

  20. 10 CFR 73.6 - Exemptions for certain quantities and kinds of special nuclear material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... special nuclear material. A licensee is exempt from the requirements of 10 CFR part 26 and §§ 73.20, 73.25, 73.26, 73.27, 73.45, 73.46, 73.70 and 73.72 with respect to the following special nuclear material... nuclear material. 73.6 Section 73.6 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PHYSICAL...

  1. DOE nuclear material packaging manual: storage container requirements for plutonium oxide materials

    SciTech Connect

    Veirs, D Kirk

    2009-01-01

    Loss of containment of nuclear material stored in containers such as food-pack cans, paint cans, or taped slip lid cans has generated concern about packaging requirements for interim storage of nuclear materials in working facilities such as the plutonium facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). In response, DOE has recently issued DOE M 441.1 'Nuclear Material Packaging Manual' with encouragement from the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board. A unique feature compared to transportation containers is the allowance of filters to vent flammable gases during storage. Defining commonly used concepts such as maximum allowable working pressure and He leak rate criteria become problematic when considering vented containers. Los Alamos has developed a set of container requirements that are in compliance with 441.1 based upon the activity of heat-source plutonium (90% Pu-238) oxide, which bounds the requirements for weapons-grade plutonium oxide. The pre and post drop-test He leak rates depend upon container size as well as the material contents. For containers that are routinely handled, ease of handling and weight are a major consideration. Relatively thin-walled containers with flat bottoms are desired yet they cannot be He leak tested at a differential pressure of one atmosphere due to the potential for plastic deformation of the flat bottom during testing. The He leak rates and He leak testing configuration for containers designed for plutonium bearing materials will be presented. The approach to meeting the other manual requirements such as corrosion and thermal degradation resistance will be addressed. The information presented can be used by other sites to evaluate if their conditions are bounded by LANL requirements when considering procurement of 441.1 compliant containers.

  2. Materials Selection Criteria for Nuclear Power Applications: A Decision Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Prieto, Álvaro; Camacho, Ana María; Sebastián, Miguel Ángel

    2016-02-01

    An innovative methodology based on stringency levels is proposed in this paper and improves the current selection method for structural materials used in demanding industrial applications. This paper describes a new approach for quantifying the stringency of materials requirements based on a novel deterministic algorithm to prevent potential failures. We have applied the new methodology to different standardized specifications used in pressure vessels design, such as SA-533 Grade B Cl.1, SA-508 Cl.3 (issued by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers), DIN 20MnMoNi55 (issued by the German Institute of Standardization) and 16MND5 (issued by the French Nuclear Commission) specifications and determine the influence of design code selection. This study is based on key scientific publications on the influence of chemical composition on the mechanical behavior of materials, which were not considered when the technological requirements were established in the aforementioned specifications. For this purpose, a new method to quantify the efficacy of each standard has been developed using a deterministic algorithm. The process of assigning relative weights was performed by consulting a panel of experts in materials selection for reactor pressure vessels to provide a more objective methodology; thus, the resulting mathematical calculations for quantitative analysis are greatly simplified. The final results show that steel DIN 20MnMoNi55 is the best material option. Additionally, more recently developed materials such as DIN 20MnMoNi55, 16MND5 and SA-508 Cl.3 exhibit mechanical requirements more stringent than SA-533 Grade B Cl.1. The methodology presented in this paper can be used as a decision tool in selection of materials for a wide range of applications.

  3. Rapid response sensor for analyzing Special Nuclear Material

    SciTech Connect

    Mitra, S. S.; Doron, O.; Chen, A. X.; Antolak, A. J.

    2015-06-18

    Rapid in-situ analytical techniques are attractive for characterizing Special Nuclear Material (SNM). Present techniques are time consuming, and require sample dissolution. Proof-of-principal studies are performed to demonstrate the utility of employing low energy neutrons from a portable pulsed neutron generator for non-destructive isotopic analysis of nuclear material. In particular, time-sequenced data acquisition, operating synchronously with the pulsing of a neutron generator, partitions the characteristic elemental prompt gamma-rays according to the type of the reaction; inelastic neutron scattering reactions during the ON state and thermal neutron capture reactions during the OFF state of the generator. Thus, the key challenge is isolating these signature gamma- rays from the prompt fission and β-delayed gamma-rays that are also produced during the neutron interrogation. A commercial digital multi-channel analyzer has been specially customized to enable time-resolved gamma-ray spectral data to be acquired in multiple user-defined time bins within each of the ON/OFF gate periods of the neutron generator. Preliminary results on new signatures from depleted uranium as well as modeling and benchmarking of the concept are presented, however this approach should should be applicable for virtually all forms of SNM.

  4. THIEF: An interactive simulation of nuclear materials safeguards

    SciTech Connect

    Stanbro, W. D.

    1990-01-01

    The safeguards community is facing an era in which it will be called upon to tighten protection of nuclear material. At the same time, it is probable that safeguards will face more competition for available resources from other activities such as environmental cleanup. To exist in this era, it will be necessary to understand and coordinate all aspects of the safeguards system. Because of the complexity of the interactions involved, this process puts a severe burden on designers and operators of safeguards systems. This paper presents a simulation tool developed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory to allow users to examine the interactions among safeguards elements as they apply to combating the insider threat. The tool consists of a microcomputer-based simulation in which the user takes the role of the insider trying to remove nuclear material from a facility. The safeguards system is run by the computer and consists of both physical protection and MC A computer elements. All data elements describing a scenario can be altered by the user. The program can aid in training, as well as in developing threat scenarios. 4 refs.

  5. Rapid Response Sensor for Analyzing Special Nuclear Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitra, S. S.; Doron, O.; Chen, A. X.; Antolak, A. J.

    Rapid in-situ analytical techniques are attractive for characterizing Special Nuclear Material (SNM). Present techniques are time consuming, and require sample dissolution. Proof-of-principal studies are performed to demonstrate the utility of employing low energy neutrons from a portable pulsed neutron generator for non-destructive isotopic analysis of nuclear material. In particular, time-sequenced data acquisition, operating synchronously with the pulsing of a neutron generator, partitions the characteristic elemental prompt gamma-rays according to the type of the reaction; inelastic neutron scattering reactions during the ON state and thermal neutron capture reactions during the OFF state of the generator. The key challenge is isolating these signature gamma- rays from the prompt fission and β-delayed gamma-rays that are also produced during the neutron interrogation. A commercial digital multi-channel analyzer has been specially customized to enable time-resolved gamma-ray spectral data to be acquired in multiple user-defined time bins within each of the ON/OFF gate periods of the neutron generator. Preliminary results on new signatures from depleted uranium as well as modeling and benchmarking of the concept are presented, but this approach should should be applicable for virtually all forms of SNM

  6. Rapid response sensor for analyzing Special Nuclear Material

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Mitra, S. S.; Doron, O.; Chen, A. X.; Antolak, A. J.

    2015-06-18

    Rapid in-situ analytical techniques are attractive for characterizing Special Nuclear Material (SNM). Present techniques are time consuming, and require sample dissolution. Proof-of-principal studies are performed to demonstrate the utility of employing low energy neutrons from a portable pulsed neutron generator for non-destructive isotopic analysis of nuclear material. In particular, time-sequenced data acquisition, operating synchronously with the pulsing of a neutron generator, partitions the characteristic elemental prompt gamma-rays according to the type of the reaction; inelastic neutron scattering reactions during the ON state and thermal neutron capture reactions during the OFF state of the generator. Thus, the key challenge is isolatingmore » these signature gamma- rays from the prompt fission and β-delayed gamma-rays that are also produced during the neutron interrogation. A commercial digital multi-channel analyzer has been specially customized to enable time-resolved gamma-ray spectral data to be acquired in multiple user-defined time bins within each of the ON/OFF gate periods of the neutron generator. Preliminary results on new signatures from depleted uranium as well as modeling and benchmarking of the concept are presented, however this approach should should be applicable for virtually all forms of SNM.« less

  7. Conceptual baseline document for the nuclear materials safeguards system

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, R.A.

    1995-08-01

    This document defines the baseline scope, schedule, and cost requirements of the Nuclear Materials Safeguards System (NMSS) replacement for the Plutonium Finishing Plant. The Nuclear Material Safeguards System (NMSS), operating in PFP, comprises data from several site safeguards systems that have been merged since 1987. NMSS was designed and implemented to the state of computer technology for the mid 1970`s. Since implementation, the hardware vendor has stopped producing computer systems and the availability of personnel trained and willing to work with the technology has diminished. Maintenance has become expensive and `reliability is a serious concern. -This effort provides a replacement in kind of the NMSS, using modern, scalable, upgradable hardware and software to the same standards used for the Hanford Local Area Network (HLAN) system. The NMSS Replacement is a Client/Server architecture designed on a Personal Computer based local area network (LAN) platform. The LAN is provided through an ethernet interface running the Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP). This architecture conforms to the HLAN standard, including the End System Operating Environment (ESOE). The Server runs the Microsoft Windows NT` Server operating system, Microsoft SQL Server2 database management system, and application tools. Clients run Microsoft Windows` and application software provided as part of the system. The interface between the clients and the database is through Microsoft ODBC4.

  8. Hybrid statistical testing for nuclear material accounting data and/or process monitoring data in nuclear safeguards

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Burr, Tom; Hamada, Michael S.; Ticknor, Larry; Sprinkle, James

    2015-01-01

    The aim of nuclear safeguards is to ensure that special nuclear material is used for peaceful purposes. Historically, nuclear material accounting (NMA) has provided the quantitative basis for monitoring for nuclear material loss or diversion, and process monitoring (PM) data is collected by the operator to monitor the process. PM data typically support NMA in various ways, often by providing a basis to estimate some of the in-process nuclear material inventory. We develop options for combining PM residuals and NMA residuals (residual = measurement - prediction), using a hybrid of period-driven and data-driven hypothesis testing. The modified statistical tests canmore » be used on time series of NMA residuals (the NMA residual is the familiar material balance), or on a combination of PM and NMA residuals. The PM residuals can be generated on a fixed time schedule or as events occur.« less

  9. Hybrid statistical testing for nuclear material accounting data and/or process monitoring data in nuclear safeguards

    SciTech Connect

    Burr, Tom; Hamada, Michael S.; Ticknor, Larry; Sprinkle, James

    2015-01-01

    The aim of nuclear safeguards is to ensure that special nuclear material is used for peaceful purposes. Historically, nuclear material accounting (NMA) has provided the quantitative basis for monitoring for nuclear material loss or diversion, and process monitoring (PM) data is collected by the operator to monitor the process. PM data typically support NMA in various ways, often by providing a basis to estimate some of the in-process nuclear material inventory. We develop options for combining PM residuals and NMA residuals (residual = measurement - prediction), using a hybrid of period-driven and data-driven hypothesis testing. The modified statistical tests can be used on time series of NMA residuals (the NMA residual is the familiar material balance), or on a combination of PM and NMA residuals. The PM residuals can be generated on a fixed time schedule or as events occur.

  10. Mobile Pit verification system design based on passive special nuclear material verification in weapons storage facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Paul, J. N.; Chin, M. R.; Sjoden, G. E.

    2013-07-01

    A mobile 'drive by' passive radiation detection system to be applied in special nuclear materials (SNM) storage facilities for validation and compliance purposes has been designed through the use of computational modeling and new radiation detection methods. This project was the result of work over a 1 year period to create optimal design specifications to include creation of 3D models using both Monte Carlo and deterministic codes to characterize the gamma and neutron leakage out each surface of SNM-bearing canisters. Results were compared and agreement was demonstrated between both models. Container leakages were then used to determine the expected reaction rates using transport theory in the detectors when placed at varying distances from the can. A 'typical' background signature was incorporated to determine the minimum signatures versus the probability of detection to evaluate moving source protocols with collimation. This established the criteria for verification of source presence and time gating at a given vehicle speed. New methods for the passive detection of SNM were employed and shown to give reliable identification of age and material for highly enriched uranium (HEU) and weapons grade plutonium (WGPu). The finalized 'Mobile Pit Verification System' (MPVS) design demonstrated that a 'drive-by' detection system, collimated and operating at nominally 2 mph, is capable of rapidly verifying each and every weapon pit stored in regularly spaced, shelved storage containers, using completely passive gamma and neutron signatures for HEU and WGPu. This system is ready for real evaluation to demonstrate passive total material accountability in storage facilities. (authors)

  11. Fissile Material Detection Using a Prompt Fission Neutron Chamber System

    SciTech Connect

    Raymond P. Keegan; Leo A. Van Ausdeln

    2007-11-01

    The calculations supporting the design of a chamber system to detect and verify fissile material in items such as mail packages or luggage are described. Stimulated neutrons from fission are separated from those produced by the system 14 MeV neutron generators by time delay. The proposed system design has a chamber volume of 60 × 60 × 90 cm. It is anticipated that at least 1g of fissile material could be detected in as little as 5s of interrogation.

  12. Fabrication of High Temperature Cermet Materials for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hickman, Robert; Panda, Binayak; Shah, Sandeep

    2005-01-01

    Processing techniques are being developed to fabricate refractory metal and ceramic cermet materials for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP). Significant advances have been made in the area of high-temperature cermet fuel processing since RoverNERVA. Cermet materials offer several advantages such as retention of fission products and fuels, thermal shock resistance, hydrogen compatibility, high conductivity, and high strength. Recent NASA h d e d research has demonstrated the net shape fabrication of W-Re-HfC and other refractory metal and ceramic components that are similar to UN/W-Re cermet fuels. This effort is focused on basic research and characterization to identify the most promising compositions and processing techniques. A particular emphasis is being placed on low cost processes to fabricate near net shape parts of practical size. Several processing methods including Vacuum Plasma Spray (VPS) and conventional PM processes are being evaluated to fabricate material property samples and components. Surrogate W-Re/ZrN cermet fuel materials are being used to develop processing techniques for both coated and uncoated ceramic particles. After process optimization, depleted uranium-based cermets will be fabricated and tested to evaluate mechanical, thermal, and hot H2 erosion properties. This paper provides details on the current results of the project.

  13. Radiation effects in nuclear materials: Role of nuclear and electronic energy losses and their synergy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomé, Lionel; Debelle, A.; Garrido, F.; Mylonas, S.; Décamps, B.; Bachelet, C.; Sattonnay, G.; Moll, S.; Pellegrino, S.; Miro, S.; Trocellier, P.; Serruys, Y.; Velisa, G.; Grygiel, C.; Monnet, I.; Toulemonde, M.; Simon, P.; Jagielski, J.; Jozwik-Biala, I.; Nowicki, L.; Behar, M.; Weber, W. J.; Zhang, Y.; Backman, M.; Nordlund, K.; Djurabekova, F.

    2013-07-01

    Ceramic oxides and carbides are promising matrices for the immobilization and/or transmutation of nuclear wastes, cladding materials for gas-cooled fission reactors and structural components for fusion reactors. For these applications there is a need of fundamental data concerning the behavior of nuclear ceramics upon irradiation. This article is focused on the presentation of a few remarkable examples regarding ion-beam modifications of nuclear ceramics with an emphasis on the mechanisms leading to damage creation and phase transformations. Results obtained by combining advanced techniques (Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and channeling, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy) concern irradiations in a broad energy range (from keV to GeV) with the aim of exploring both nuclear collision (Sn) and electronic excitation (Se) regimes. Finally, the daunting challenge of the demonstration of the existence of synergistic effects between Sn and Se is tackled by discussing the healing due to intense electronic energy deposition (SHIBIEC) and by reporting results recently obtained in dual-beam irradiation (DBI) experiments.

  14. Credibility of anomaly detection in nuclear reactors using neural networks

    SciTech Connect

    Kozma, R.; Kitamura, Masaharu; Sakuma, M.; Hoogenboom, J.E.

    1994-12-31

    The detection of anomalies in nuclear reactors in an incipient phase is an important safety issue. Artificial neural network (ANN) models can be trained to identify various anomaly types and associate the actual system state with one of the anomaly classes. The ANNs have a clear advantage over the usual statistical methods in detecting anomalies at an early stage. This advantage becomes apparent in the case of short-term analysis when the uncertainty of the statistical discriminators is large. In this paper, the signals generated by ANNs are analyzed from the viewpoint of the credibility of the judgement of the network about the presence or absence of anomaly in the system. The results have been applied to analyze the boiling anomaly induced in the Interfaculty Reactor Institute (IRI) research reactor in the Netherlands.

  15. Elevated radioxenon detected remotely following the Fukushima nuclear accident.

    PubMed

    Bowyer, T W; Biegalski, S R; Cooper, M; Eslinger, P W; Haas, D; Hayes, J C; Miley, H S; Strom, D J; Woods, V

    2011-07-01

    We report on the first measurements of short-lived gaseous fission products detected outside of Japan following the Fukushima nuclear releases, which occurred after a 9.0 magnitude earthquake and tsunami on March 11, 2011. The measurements were conducted at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), (46°16'47″N, 119°16'53″W) located more than 7000 km from the emission point in Fukushima Japan (37°25'17″N, 141°1'57″E). First detections of (133)Xe were made starting early March 16, only four days following the earthquake. Maximum concentrations of (133)Xe were in excess of 40 Bq/m(3), which is more than ×40,000 the average concentration of this isotope is this part of the United States.

  16. 10 CFR 1017.16 - Unclassified Controlled Nuclear Information markings on documents or material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Unclassified Controlled Nuclear Information markings on...) IDENTIFICATION AND PROTECTION OF UNCLASSIFIED CONTROLLED NUCLEAR INFORMATION Review of a Document or Material for Unclassified Controlled Nuclear Information § 1017.16 Unclassified Controlled Nuclear Information markings...

  17. 10 CFR 1017.16 - Unclassified Controlled Nuclear Information markings on documents or material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Unclassified Controlled Nuclear Information markings on...) IDENTIFICATION AND PROTECTION OF UNCLASSIFIED CONTROLLED NUCLEAR INFORMATION Review of a Document or Material for Unclassified Controlled Nuclear Information § 1017.16 Unclassified Controlled Nuclear Information markings...

  18. 10 CFR 1017.16 - Unclassified Controlled Nuclear Information markings on documents or material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Unclassified Controlled Nuclear Information markings on...) IDENTIFICATION AND PROTECTION OF UNCLASSIFIED CONTROLLED NUCLEAR INFORMATION Review of a Document or Material for Unclassified Controlled Nuclear Information § 1017.16 Unclassified Controlled Nuclear Information markings...

  19. 10 CFR 1017.16 - Unclassified Controlled Nuclear Information markings on documents or material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Unclassified Controlled Nuclear Information markings on...) IDENTIFICATION AND PROTECTION OF UNCLASSIFIED CONTROLLED NUCLEAR INFORMATION Review of a Document or Material for Unclassified Controlled Nuclear Information § 1017.16 Unclassified Controlled Nuclear Information markings...

  20. 10 CFR 1017.16 - Unclassified Controlled Nuclear Information markings on documents or material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Unclassified Controlled Nuclear Information markings on...) IDENTIFICATION AND PROTECTION OF UNCLASSIFIED CONTROLLED NUCLEAR INFORMATION Review of a Document or Material for Unclassified Controlled Nuclear Information § 1017.16 Unclassified Controlled Nuclear Information markings...

  1. Detecting body cavity bombs with nuclear quadrupole resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, Michael London

    Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance (NQR) is a technology with great potential for detecting hidden explosives. Past NQR research has studied the detection of land mines and bombs concealed within luggage and packages. This thesis focuses on an NQR application that has received less attention and little or no publicly available research: detecting body cavity bombs (BCBs). BCBs include explosives that have been ingested, inserted into orifices, or surgically implanted. BCBs present a threat to aviation and secure facilities. They are extremely difficult to detect with the technology currently employed at security checkpoints. To evaluate whether or not NQR can be used to detect BCBs, a computational model is developed to assess how the dielectric properties of biological tissue affect the radio frequency magnetic field employed in NQR (0.5-5MHz). The relative permittivity of some biological tissue is very high (over 1,000 at 1MHz), making it conceivable that there is a significant effect on the electromagnetic field. To study this effect, the low-frequency approximation known as the Darwin model is employed. First, the electromagnetic field of a coil is calculated in free space. Second, a dielectric object or set of objects is introduced, and the free-space electric field is modified to accommodate the dielectric object ensuring that the relevant boundary conditions are obeyed. Finally, the magnetic field associated with the corrected electric field is calculated. This corrected magnetic field is evaluated with an NQR simulation to estimate the impact of dielectric tissue on NQR measurements. The effect of dielectric tissue is shown to be small, thus obviating a potential barrier to BCB detection. The NQR model presented may assist those designing excitation and detection coils for NQR. Some general coil design considerations and strategies are discussed.

  2. 10 CFR 11.16 - Cancellation of request for special nuclear material access authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cancellation of request for special nuclear material access authorization. 11.16 Section 11.16 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION CRITERIA AND PROCEDURES FOR DETERMINING ELIGIBILITY FOR ACCESS TO OR CONTROL OVER SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Requirements...

  3. 10 CFR 11.16 - Cancellation of request for special nuclear material access authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cancellation of request for special nuclear material access authorization. 11.16 Section 11.16 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION CRITERIA AND PROCEDURES FOR DETERMINING ELIGIBILITY FOR ACCESS TO OR CONTROL OVER SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Requirements...

  4. 10 CFR 150.17 - Submission to Commission of nuclear material status reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Submission to Commission of nuclear material status reports. 150.17 Section 150.17 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) EXEMPTIONS AND CONTINUED... Authority in Agreement States § 150.17 Submission to Commission of nuclear material status reports....

  5. 10 CFR 150.17 - Submission to Commission of nuclear material status reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Submission to Commission of nuclear material status reports. 150.17 Section 150.17 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) EXEMPTIONS AND CONTINUED... Authority in Agreement States § 150.17 Submission to Commission of nuclear material status reports....

  6. 10 CFR 150.17 - Submission to Commission of nuclear material status reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Submission to Commission of nuclear material status reports. 150.17 Section 150.17 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) EXEMPTIONS AND CONTINUED... Authority in Agreement States § 150.17 Submission to Commission of nuclear material status reports....

  7. 10 CFR 76.115 - Special nuclear material of moderate strategic significance-Category II.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Special nuclear material of moderate strategic significance-Category II. 76.115 Section 76.115 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Safeguards and Security § 76.115 Special nuclear material of...

  8. 10 CFR 150.21 - Transportation of special nuclear material by aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Transportation of special nuclear material by aircraft. 150.21 Section 150.21 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) EXEMPTIONS AND CONTINUED... Transportation of special nuclear material by aircraft. Except as specifically approved by the Commission...

  9. 10 CFR 76.117 - Special nuclear material of low strategic significance-Category III.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Special nuclear material of low strategic significance-Category III. 76.117 Section 76.117 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Safeguards and Security § 76.117 Special nuclear material of low...

  10. 10 CFR 150.17 - Submission to Commission of nuclear material status reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Submission to Commission of nuclear material status reports. 150.17 Section 150.17 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) EXEMPTIONS AND CONTINUED... Authority in Agreement States § 150.17 Submission to Commission of nuclear material status reports....

  11. 10 CFR 150.21 - Transportation of special nuclear material by aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Transportation of special nuclear material by aircraft. 150.21 Section 150.21 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) EXEMPTIONS AND CONTINUED... Transportation of special nuclear material by aircraft. Except as specifically approved by the Commission...

  12. 10 CFR 50.101 - Retaking possession of special nuclear material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Retaking possession of special nuclear material. 50.101 Section 50.101 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING OF PRODUCTION AND UTILIZATION... Operations by the Commission § 50.101 Retaking possession of special nuclear material. Upon revocation of...

  13. 10 CFR 76.117 - Special nuclear material of low strategic significance-Category III.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Special nuclear material of low strategic significance-Category III. 76.117 Section 76.117 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Safeguards and Security § 76.117 Special nuclear material of low...

  14. 10 CFR 150.17 - Submission to Commission of nuclear material status reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Submission to Commission of nuclear material status reports. 150.17 Section 150.17 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) EXEMPTIONS AND CONTINUED... Authority in Agreement States § 150.17 Submission to Commission of nuclear material status reports....

  15. 10 CFR 11.16 - Cancellation of request for special nuclear material access authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cancellation of request for special nuclear material access authorization. 11.16 Section 11.16 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION CRITERIA AND PROCEDURES FOR DETERMINING ELIGIBILITY FOR ACCESS TO OR CONTROL OVER SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Requirements...

  16. 10 CFR 76.115 - Special nuclear material of moderate strategic significance-Category II.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Special nuclear material of moderate strategic significance-Category II. 76.115 Section 76.115 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Safeguards and Security § 76.115 Special nuclear material of...

  17. 10 CFR 76.117 - Special nuclear material of low strategic significance-Category III.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Special nuclear material of low strategic significance-Category III. 76.117 Section 76.117 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Safeguards and Security § 76.117 Special nuclear material of low...

  18. 10 CFR 150.16 - Submission to Commission of nuclear material transaction reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Submission to Commission of nuclear material transaction reports. 150.16 Section 150.16 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) EXEMPTIONS AND CONTINUED... Authority in Agreement States § 150.16 Submission to Commission of nuclear material transaction reports....

  19. 10 CFR 150.16 - Submission to Commission of nuclear material transaction reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Submission to Commission of nuclear material transaction reports. 150.16 Section 150.16 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) EXEMPTIONS AND CONTINUED... Authority in Agreement States § 150.16 Submission to Commission of nuclear material transaction reports....

  20. 10 CFR 150.21 - Transportation of special nuclear material by aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Transportation of special nuclear material by aircraft. 150.21 Section 150.21 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) EXEMPTIONS AND CONTINUED... Transportation of special nuclear material by aircraft. Except as specifically approved by the Commission...

  1. 10 CFR 76.117 - Special nuclear material of low strategic significance-Category III.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Special nuclear material of low strategic significance-Category III. 76.117 Section 76.117 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Safeguards and Security § 76.117 Special nuclear material of low...

  2. 10 CFR 150.21 - Transportation of special nuclear material by aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Transportation of special nuclear material by aircraft. 150.21 Section 150.21 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) EXEMPTIONS AND CONTINUED... Transportation of special nuclear material by aircraft. Except as specifically approved by the Commission...

  3. 10 CFR 76.115 - Special nuclear material of moderate strategic significance-Category II.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Special nuclear material of moderate strategic significance-Category II. 76.115 Section 76.115 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Safeguards and Security § 76.115 Special nuclear material of...

  4. 10 CFR 11.16 - Cancellation of request for special nuclear material access authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cancellation of request for special nuclear material access authorization. 11.16 Section 11.16 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION CRITERIA AND PROCEDURES FOR DETERMINING ELIGIBILITY FOR ACCESS TO OR CONTROL OVER SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Requirements...

  5. 10 CFR 76.115 - Special nuclear material of moderate strategic significance-Category II.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Special nuclear material of moderate strategic significance-Category II. 76.115 Section 76.115 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Safeguards and Security § 76.115 Special nuclear material of...

  6. 10 CFR 76.117 - Special nuclear material of low strategic significance-Category III.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Special nuclear material of low strategic significance-Category III. 76.117 Section 76.117 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Safeguards and Security § 76.117 Special nuclear material of low...

  7. 10 CFR 150.16 - Submission to Commission of nuclear material transaction reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Submission to Commission of nuclear material transaction reports. 150.16 Section 150.16 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) EXEMPTIONS AND CONTINUED... Authority in Agreement States § 150.16 Submission to Commission of nuclear material transaction reports....

  8. 10 CFR 50.101 - Retaking possession of special nuclear material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Retaking possession of special nuclear material. 50.101 Section 50.101 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING OF PRODUCTION AND UTILIZATION... Operations by the Commission § 50.101 Retaking possession of special nuclear material. Upon revocation of...

  9. 10 CFR 50.101 - Retaking possession of special nuclear material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Retaking possession of special nuclear material. 50.101 Section 50.101 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING OF PRODUCTION AND UTILIZATION... Operations by the Commission § 50.101 Retaking possession of special nuclear material. Upon revocation of...

  10. 10 CFR 50.101 - Retaking possession of special nuclear material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Retaking possession of special nuclear material. 50.101 Section 50.101 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING OF PRODUCTION AND UTILIZATION... Operations by the Commission § 50.101 Retaking possession of special nuclear material. Upon revocation of...

  11. 10 CFR 50.101 - Retaking possession of special nuclear material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Retaking possession of special nuclear material. 50.101 Section 50.101 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING OF PRODUCTION AND UTILIZATION... Operations by the Commission § 50.101 Retaking possession of special nuclear material. Upon revocation of...

  12. 10 CFR 150.16 - Submission to Commission of nuclear material transaction reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Submission to Commission of nuclear material transaction reports. 150.16 Section 150.16 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) EXEMPTIONS AND CONTINUED... Authority in Agreement States § 150.16 Submission to Commission of nuclear material transaction reports....

  13. 10 CFR 150.16 - Submission to Commission of nuclear material transaction reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Submission to Commission of nuclear material transaction reports. 150.16 Section 150.16 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) EXEMPTIONS AND CONTINUED... Authority in Agreement States § 150.16 Submission to Commission of nuclear material transaction reports....

  14. 10 CFR 76.115 - Special nuclear material of moderate strategic significance-Category II.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Special nuclear material of moderate strategic significance-Category II. 76.115 Section 76.115 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Safeguards and Security § 76.115 Special nuclear material of...

  15. 10 CFR 150.21 - Transportation of special nuclear material by aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Transportation of special nuclear material by aircraft. 150.21 Section 150.21 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) EXEMPTIONS AND CONTINUED... Transportation of special nuclear material by aircraft. Except as specifically approved by the Commission...

  16. NUCLEAR MATERIAL ATTRACTIVENESS: AN ASSESSMENT OF MATERIAL FROM PHWR'S IN A CLOSED THORIUM FUEL CYCLE

    SciTech Connect

    Sleaford, B W; Collins, B A; Ebbinghaus, B B; Bathke, C G; Prichard, A W; Wallace, R K; Smith, B W; Hase, K R; Bradley, K S; Robel, M; Jarvinen, G D; Ireland, J R; Johnson, M W

    2010-04-26

    This paper examines the attractiveness of material mixtures containing special nuclear materials (SNM) associated with reprocessing and the thorium-based LWR fuel cycle. This paper expands upon the results from earlier studies that examined the attractiveness of SNM associated with the reprocessing of spent light water reactor (LWR) fuel by various reprocessing schemes and the recycle of plutonium as a mixed oxide (MOX) fuel in LWR. This study shows that {sup 233}U that is produced in thorium-based fuel cycles is very attractive for weapons use. Consistent with other studies, these results also show that all fuel cycles examined to date need to be rigorously safeguarded and provided moderate to high levels of physical protection. These studies were performed at the request of the United States Department of Energy (DOE), and are based on the calculation of 'attractiveness levels' that has been couched in terms chosen for consistency with those normally used for nuclear materials in DOE nuclear facilities. The methodology and key findings will be presented.

  17. Apparatus and method for detecting flaws in conductive material

    DOEpatents

    Hockey, Ronald L.; Riechers, Douglas M.

    1999-01-01

    The present invention is an improved sensing unit for detecting flaws in conductive material wherein the sensing coil is positioned away from a datum of either the datum point, the datum orientation, or a combination thereof. Position of the sensing coil away from a datum increases sensitivity for detecting flaws having a characteristic volume less than about 1 mm.sup.3, and further permits detection of subsurface flaws. Use of multiple sensing coils permits quantification of flaw area or volume.

  18. Remote detection of traces of high energetic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobrovnikov, S. M.; Gorlov, E. V.; Zharkov, V. I.; Panchenko, Yu. N.

    2015-11-01

    The possibility of remote detection of traces of high energetic materials using laser fragmentation/laser-induced fluorescence (LF/LIF) method is studied. Experimental data on the remote visualization of traces of trinitrotoluene, hexogen, composition B, octogen, and tetryl obtained at a distance of 5 m with a scanning lidar detector of traces of high energetic materials are presented.

  19. Termination of Safeguards for Accountable Nuclear Materials at the Idaho National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Holzemer; Alan Carvo

    2012-04-01

    Termination of safeguards ends requirements of Nuclear Material Control and Accountability (MC&A) and thereby removes the safeguards basis for applying physical protection requirements for theft and diversion of nuclear material, providing termination requirements are met as described. Department of Energy (DOE) M 470.4 6 (Nuclear Material Control and Accountability [8/26/05]) stipulates: 1. Section A, Chapter I (1)( q) (1): Safeguards can be terminated on nuclear materials provided the following conditions are met: (a) 'If the material is special nuclear material (SNM) or protected as SNM, it must be attractiveness level E and have a measured value.' (b) 'The material has been determined by DOE line management to be of no programmatic value to DOE.' (c) 'The material is transferred to the control of a waste management organization where the material is accounted for and protected in accordance with waste management regulations. The material must not be collocated with other accountable nuclear materials.' Requirements for safeguards termination depend on the safeguards attractiveness levels of the material. For attractiveness level E, approval has been granted from the DOE Idaho Operations Office (DOE ID) to Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC (BEA) Safeguards and Security (S&S). In some cases, it may be necessary to dispose of nuclear materials of attractiveness level D or higher. Termination of safeguards for such materials must be approved by the Departmental Element (this is the DOE Headquarters Office of Nuclear Energy) after consultation with the Office of Security.

  20. Narcotics and explosives detection by 14N pure nuclear quadrupole resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garroway, Allen N.; Buess, Michael L.; Yesinowski, James P.; Miller, Joel B.

    1994-03-01

    Pure nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) of 14N nuclei is quite promising as a method for detecting explosives such as RDX and contraband narcotics such as cocaine and heroin in quantities of interest. Pure NQR is conducted without an external applied magnetic field, so potential concerns about damage to magnetically encoded data or exposure of personnel to large magnetic fields are not relevant. Because NQR frequencies of different compounds are quite distinct, we do not encounter false alarms from the NQR signals of other benign materials. We have constructed a proof-of-concept NQR explosives detector which interrogates a volume of 300 liters (10 ft3). With minimal modification to the existing explosives detector, we can detect operationally relevant quantities of (free base) cocaine within the 300-liter inspection volume in 6 seconds. We are presently extending this approach to the detection of heroin base and also examining 14N and 35,37Cl pure NQR for detection of the hydrochloride forms of both materials. An adaptation of this NQR approach may be suitable for scanning personnel for externally carried contraband and explosives. We first outline the basics of the NQR approach, highlighting strengths and weaknesses, and then present representative results for RDX and cocaine detection. We also present a partial compendium of relevant NQR parameters measured for some materials of interest.