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Sample records for nuclear matter equation

  1. Equation of state for {beta}-stable hot nuclear matter

    SciTech Connect

    Moustakidis, Ch. C.; Panos, C. P.

    2009-04-15

    We provide an equation of state for hot nuclear matter in {beta} equilibrium by applying a momentum-dependent effective interaction. We focus on the study of the equation of state of high-density and high-temperature nuclear matter, containing leptons (electrons and muons) under the chemical equilibrium condition in which neutrinos have left the system. The conditions of charge neutrality and equilibrium under the {beta}-decay process lead first to the evaluation of proton and lepton fractions and then to the evaluation of internal energy, free energy, and pressure, and in total to the equation of state of hot nuclear matter. Thermal effects on the properties and equation of state of nuclear matter are assessed and analyzed in the framework of the proposed effective interaction model. Special attention is given to the study of the contribution of the components of {beta}-stable nuclear matter to the entropy per particle, a quantity of great interest in the study of structure and collapse of supernova.

  2. Nuclear matter equation of state and three-body forces

    SciTech Connect

    Mansour, H. M. M.; Algamoudi, A. M. A.

    2012-04-15

    The energy per particle, symmetry energy, pressure, and free energy are calculated for symmetric nuclear matter using BHF approach with modern nucleon-nucleon CD-Bonn, Nijm1, Argonne v{sub 18}, and Reid 93 potentials. To obtain saturation in nuclear matter we add three-body interaction terms which are equivalent to a density-dependent two-nucleon interaction a la Skyrme force. Good agreement is obtained in comparison with previous theoretical estimates and experimental data.

  3. Equation of State for Isospin Asymmetric Nuclear Matter Using Lane Potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, D. N.; Chowdhury, P. Roy; Samanta, C.

    2006-10-01

    A mean field calculation for obtaining the equation of state (EOS) for symmetric nuclear matter from a density dependent M3Y interaction supplemented by a zero-range potential is described. The energy per nucleon is minimized to obtain the ground state of symmetric nuclear matter. The saturation energy per nucleon used for nuclear matter calculations is determined from the co-efficient of the volume term of Bethe--Weizsäcker mass formula which is evaluated by fitting the recent experimental and estimated atomic mass excesses from Audi--Wapstra--Thibault atomic mass table by minimizing the mean square deviation. The constants of density dependence of the effective interaction are obtained by reproducing the saturation energy per nucleon and the saturation density of spin and isospin symmetric cold infinite nuclear matter. The EOS of symmetric nuclear matter, thus obtained, provide reasonably good estimate of nuclear incompressibility. Once the constants of density dependence are determined, EOS for asymmetric nuclear matter is calculated by adding to the isoscalar part, the isovector component of the M3Y interaction that do not contribute to the EOS of symmetric nuclear matter. These EOS are then used to calculate the pressure, the energy density and the velocity of sound in symmetric as well as isospin asymmetric nuclear matter.

  4. A new mathematical model for the equation of state of an asymmetric infinite nuclear matter

    SciTech Connect

    Zoghi-Foumani, N. Shojaei, M. R.

    2016-04-21

    In this paper, the average energy variation with respect to the density of a system of nucleons is studied. A new formula is presented for the nuclear equation of state. This formula is related to an infinite system of protons and neutrons with relatively small thermal excitations. It is shown that the proposed formulation for the nuclear equation of state reproduces the results obtained in the Skyrme-Hartree-Fock (SHF) and Relativistic Mean-Field (RMF) models of nuclear matter. It should be realized that the consistency of the obtained results for nuclear matter with the predictions of well-known SHF and RMF models for symmetric and asymmetric system of nucleons indicates the reliability of this formulation for different types of nuclear matter in large scales such as neutron stars.

  5. Determination of the equation of state of asymmetric nuclear matter

    SciTech Connect

    Tsang, Manyee Betty

    2016-12-30

    A new Time Projection Chamber (TPC), called the SπRIT (SAMURAI pion Reconstruction Ion Tracker) TPC was constructed and used successfully in two experiments with the SAMURAI spectrometer at RIKEN, Japan to study the equation of state of neutron rich matter. As a result of the project, the SπRIT collaboration, an international collaboration consisting of groups from US, Japan, Korea, Poland, China and Germany, has been formed to pursue the science opportunities provided by the SπRIT TPC. After completion of the TPC and the two experiments, the collaboration continues to develop the software to analyze the SπRIT experiments and extract constraints of symmetry energy at supra-saturation densities. Over 250 TB of data have been obtained in the last SπRIT TPC experimental campaign. Construction of the TPC provided opportunities for the scientists to develop new designs for the light-weight and thin-walled field cage for the large pad plane and for the gating grid. Two PhD students (1 US and 1 Korea) graduated in 2016 based on their research on the TPC. At least four more doctoral theses (2 US, 1 Japan and 1 Korea) based on physics from the SπRIT experiments are expected.

  6. Variational calculation for the equation of state of nuclear matter at finite temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanzawa, H.; Oyamatsu, K.; Sumiyoshi, K.; Takano, M.

    2007-07-01

    An equation of state (EOS) for uniform nuclear matter is constructed at zero and finite temperatures with the variational method starting from the realistic nuclear Hamiltonian composed of the Argonne V18 and UIX potentials. The energy is evaluated in the two-body cluster approximation with the three-body-force contribution treated phenomenologically so as to reproduce the empirical saturation conditions. The obtained energies for symmetric nuclear matter and neutron matter at zero temperature are in fair agreement with those by Akmal, Pandharipande and Ravenhall, and the maximum mass of the neutron star is 2.2M. At finite temperatures, a variational method by Schmidt and Pandharipande is employed to evaluate the free energy, which is used to derive various thermodynamic quantities of nuclear matter necessary for supernova simulations. The result of this variational method at finite temperatures is found to be self-consistent.

  7. Unified description of equation of state and transport properties of nuclear matter

    SciTech Connect

    Benhar, Omar; Farina, Nicola; Valli, Marco; Fiorilla, Salvatore

    2008-10-13

    Correlated basis function perturbation theory and the formalism of cluster expansions have been recently employed to obtain an effective interaction from a state-of-the-art nucleon nucleon potential model. The approach based on the effective interaction allows for a consistent description of the nuclear matter ground state and nucleon-nucleon scattering in the nuclear medium. This paper reports the the results of numerical calculations of different properties of nuclear and neutron matter, including the equation of state and the shear viscosity and thermal conductivity transport coefficients, carried out using the effective interaction.

  8. Neutron drip line and the equation of state of nuclear matter

    SciTech Connect

    Oyamatsu, Kazuhiro; Iida, Kei; Koura, Hiroyuki

    2010-08-15

    We investigate how the neutron drip line is related to the density dependence of the symmetry energy by using a macroscopic nuclear model that allows us to calculate nuclear masses in a way that is dependent on the equation of state of asymmetric nuclear matter. The neutron drip line obtained from these masses is shown to appreciably shift to a neutron-rich side in a nuclear chart as the density derivative of the symmetry energy increases. Such a shift is clearly seen for light nuclei, a feature coming mainly from the surface property of neutron-rich nuclei.

  9. Equation of state of hot polarized nuclear matter using the generalized Skyrme interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abd-Alla, M.; Hager, S. A.

    2000-04-01

    We used the generalized Skyrme potential to study the equation of state of polarized nuclear matter in the frame of the Thomas-Fermi model. The critical temperature of the liquid-gas phase transition is found to be Tc=16.2 MeV. This critical temperature was found to decease with the asymmetry, spin, and spin-isospin excess parameters. The isothermal compressibility of polarized nuclear matter was also studied. The volume compressibility Kv was found to decrease with temperature. The symmetry compressibility Kx, the spin symmetry compressibility Ky, and the spin-isospin symmetry compressibility Kz were found to have a little increasing behavior with temperature.

  10. Probing the equation of state of nuclear matter via neutron star asteroseismology.

    PubMed

    Sotani, Hajime; Nakazato, Ken'ichiro; Iida, Kei; Oyamatsu, Kazuhiro

    2012-05-18

    We general-relativistically calculate the frequency of fundamental torsional oscillations of neutron star crusts, where we focus on the crystalline properties obtained from macroscopic nuclear models in a way that is dependent on the equation of state of nuclear matter. We find that the calculated frequency is sensitive to the density dependence of the symmetry energy, but almost independent of the incompressibility of symmetric nuclear matter. By identifying the lowest-frequency quasiperiodic oscillation in giant flares observed from soft gamma-ray repeaters as the fundamental torsional mode and allowing for the dependence of the calculated frequency on stellar models, we provide a lower limit of the density derivative of the symmetry energy as L≃50  MeV.

  11. Equation of state of neutron star matter, and the nuclear symmetry energy

    SciTech Connect

    Loan, Doan Thi; Tan, Ngo Hai; Khoa, Dao T.; Margueron, Jerome

    2011-06-15

    The nuclear mean-field potentials obtained in the Hartree-Fock method with different choices of the in-medium nucleon-nucleon (NN) interaction have been used to study the equation of state (EOS) of the neutron star (NS) matter. The EOS of the uniform NS core has been calculated for the npe{mu} composition in the {beta} equilibrium at zero temperature, using version Sly4 of the Skyrme interaction as well as two density-dependent versions of the finite-range M3Y interaction (CDM3Yn and M3Y-Pn), and versions D1S and D1N of the Gogny interaction. Although the considered effective NN interactions were proven to be quite realistic in numerous nuclear structure and/or reaction studies, they give quite different behaviors of the symmetry energy of nuclear matter at supranuclear densities that lead to the soft and stiff scenarios discussed recently in the literature. Different EOS's of the NS core and the EOS of the NS crust given by the compressible liquid drop model have been used as input of the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkov equations to study how the nuclear symmetry energy affects the model prediction of different NS properties, like the cooling process as well as the gravitational mass, radius, and moment of inertia.

  12. New Kohn-Sham density functional based on microscopic nuclear and neutron matter equations of state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldo, M.; Robledo, L. M.; Schuck, P.; Viñas, X.

    2013-06-01

    A new version of the Barcelona-Catania-Paris energy functional is applied to a study of nuclear masses and other properties. The functional is largely based on calculated ab initio nuclear and neutron matter equations of state. Compared to typical Skyrme functionals having 10-12 parameters apart from spin-orbit and pairing terms, the new functional has only 2 or 3 adjusted parameters, fine tuning the nuclear matter binding energy and fixing the surface energy of finite nuclei. An energy rms value of 1.58 MeV is obtained from a fit of these three parameters to the 579 measured masses reported in the Audi and Wapstra [Nucl. Phys. ANUPABL0375-947410.1016/j.nuclphysa.2003.11.003 729, 337 (2003)] compilation. This rms value compares favorably with the one obtained using other successful mean field theories, which range from 1.5 to 3.0 MeV for optimized Skyrme functionals and 0.7 to 3.0 for the Gogny functionals. The other properties that have been calculated and compared to experiment are nuclear radii, the giant monopole resonance, and spontaneous fission lifetimes.

  13. Influence of Density-Dependent Coupling Constants on Equation of State of Infinite Symmetric Nuclear Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hua-Ju; Ye, Xian-Mei; Chen, Wei

    2016-11-01

    In the mean field approximation of nonlinear relativistic σ—ω—ρ model, we have studied the influence of density-dependent coupling constants between nucleons and mesons on the equation of state (EOS) of infinite symmetric nuclear matter in different conditions. We find that the EOS of nuclear matter will become stiffer as c, d in the self-interaction of σ meson increase when the coefficients except aω in Γω, in which the opposite occurs, are fixed. On the other hand, greater values of aσ, bσ, cσ, aω, dω and smaller values of dσ, bω, cω will lead to stiffer EOS if c and d are fixed. Besides, greater values of Γσ,ω lead to stiffer EOS in high density region for the EOS with same incompressibility coefficient at saturation density. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 11275073

  14. Equation of state for nucleonic matter and its quark mass dependence from the nuclear force in lattice QCD.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Takashi; Aoki, Sinya; Doi, Takumi; Hatsuda, Tetsuo; Ikeda, Yoichi; Ishii, Noriyoshi; Murano, Keiko; Nemura, Hidekatsu; Sasaki, Kenji

    2013-09-13

    Quark mass dependence of the equation of state (EOS) for nucleonic matter is investigated, on the basis of the Brueckner-Hartree-Fock method with the nucleon-nucleon interaction extracted from lattice QCD simulations. We observe saturation of nuclear matter at the lightest available quark mass corresponding to the pseudoscalar meson mass ≃469  MeV. Mass-radius relation of the neutron stars is also studied with the EOS for neutron-star matter from the same nuclear force in lattice QCD. We observe that the EOS becomes stiffer and thus the maximum mass of neutron star increases as the quark mass decreases toward the physical point.

  15. Nuclear matter equation of state from a quark-model nucleon-nucleon interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukukawa, K.; Baldo, M.; Burgio, G. F.; Lo Monaco, L.; Schulze, H.-J.

    2015-12-01

    Starting from a realistic constituent quark model for the nucleon-nucleon interaction, we derive the equation of state (EOS) of nuclear matter within the Bethe-Brueckner-Goldstone approach up to the three-hole-line level, without the need to introduce three-nucleon forces. To estimate the uncertainty of the calculations both the gap and the continuous choices for the single-particle potential are considered and compared. The resultant EOS is compatible with the phenomenological analysis of the saturation point, the incompressibility, the symmetry energy at a low density, and its slope at saturation, together with the high-density pressure extracted from flow data on heavy-ion collisions. Although the symmetry energy is appreciably higher in the gap choice in the high-density region, the maximum neutron star masses derived from the continuous-choice EOS and the gap-choice EOS are similar and close to two solar masses, which is again compatible with recent observational data. A comparison with other microscopic equations of state is presented and discussed.

  16. Constraining the equation of state of nuclear matter from fusion hindrance in reactions leading to the production of superheavy elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veselsky, M.; Klimo, J.; Ma, Yu-Gang; Souliotis, G. A.

    2016-12-01

    The mechanism of fusion hindrance, an effect preventing the synthesis of superheavy elements in the reactions of cold and hot fusion, is investigated using the Boltzmann-Uehling-Uhlenbeck equation, where Coulomb interaction is introduced. A strong sensitivity is observed both to the modulus of incompressibility of symmetric nuclear matter, controlling the competition of surface tension and Coulomb repulsion, and to the stiffness of the density-dependence of symmetry energy, influencing the formation of the neck prior to scission. The experimental fusion probabilities were for the first time used to derive constraints on the nuclear equation of state. A strict constraint on the modulus of incompressibility of nuclear matter K0=240 -260 MeV is obtained while the stiff density-dependences of the symmetry energy (γ >1 ) are rejected.

  17. Tabulated equation of state for supernova matter including full nuclear ensemble

    SciTech Connect

    Buyukcizmeci, N.; Botvina, A. S.; Mishustin, I. N.

    2014-07-01

    This is an introduction to the tabulated database of stellar matter properties calculated within the framework of the Statistical Model for Supernova Matter (SMSM). The tables present thermodynamical characteristics and nuclear abundances for 31 values of baryon density (10{sup –8} < ρ/ρ{sub 0} < 0.32, ρ{sub 0} = 0.15 fm{sup –3} is the normal nuclear matter density), 35 values of temperature (0.2 MeV < T < 25 MeV), and 28 values of electron-to-baryon ratio (0.02 < Y{sub e} < 0.56). The properties of stellar matter in β equilibrium are also considered. The main ingredients of the SMSM are briefly outlined, and the data structure and content of the tables are explained.

  18. NUCLEAR PHYSICS: Equation of State for Isospin Asymmetric Matter of Nucleons and Deltas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Xiao-Hua; Zhang, Ying-Xun; Li, Zhu-Xia; Zhao, Zhi-Xiang

    2008-11-01

    An investigation on the equation of state of the isospin asymmetric, hot, dense matter of nucleons and deltas is performed based on the relativistic mean Geld theory. The QHD-II-type effective Lagrangian extending to the delta degree of freedom is adopted. Our results show that the equation of state is softened due to the inclusion of the delta degree of freedom. The baryon resonance isomer may occur depending on the delta-meson coupling. The results show that the densities for appearing the baryon resonance isomer, the densities for starting softening the equation of state and the extent of the softening depend not only on the temperature, the coupling strengths but also the isospin asymmetry of the baryon matter.

  19. Hollow nuclear matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yong, Gao-Chan

    2016-01-01

    It is generally considered that an atomic nucleus is always compact. Based on the isospin-dependent Boltzmann nuclear transport model, here I show that large block nuclear matter or excited nuclear matter may both be hollow. The size of the inner bubble in these matter is affected by the charge number of nuclear matter. The existence of hollow nuclear matter may have many implications in nuclear or atomic physics or astrophysics as well as some practical applications.

  20. The nuclear equation of state

    SciTech Connect

    Kahana, S.

    1986-01-01

    The role of the nuclear equation of state in determining the fate of the collapsing cores of massive stars is examined in light of both recent theoretical advances in this subject and recent experimental measurements with relativistic heavy ions. The difficulties existing in attempts to bring the softer nuclear matter apparently required by the theory of Type II supernovae into consonance with the heavy ion data are discussed. Relativistic mean field theory is introduced as a candidate for derivation of the equation of state, and a simple form for the saturation compressibility is obtained. 28 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Toward order-by-order calculations of the nuclear and neutron matter equations of state in chiral effective field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sammarruca, F.; Coraggio, L.; Holt, J. W.; Itaco, N.; Machleidt, R.; Marcucci, L. E.

    2015-05-01

    We calculate the nuclear and neutron matter equations of state from microscopic nuclear forces at different orders in chiral effective field theory and with varying momentum-space cutoff scales. We focus attention on how the order-by-order convergence depends on the choice of resolution scale and the implications for theoretical uncertainty estimates on the isospin asymmetry energy. Specifically we study the equations of state using consistent NLO and N2LO (next-to-next-to-leading order) chiral potentials where the low-energy constants cD and cE associated with contact vertices in the N2LO chiral three-nucleon force are fitted to reproduce the binding energies of H3 and He3 as well as the beta-decay lifetime of H3 . At these low orders in the chiral expansion there is little sign of convergence, while an exploratory study employing the N3LO two-nucleon force together with the N2LO three-nucleon force give first indications for (slow) convergence with low-cutoff potentials and poor convergence with higher-cutoff potentials. The consistent NLO and N2LO potentials described in the present work provide the basis for estimating theoretical uncertainties associated with the order-by-order convergence of nuclear many-body calculations in chiral effective field theory.

  2. The nuclear matter problem

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, J. A.; Cowell, S.; Morales, J.; Ravenhall, D. G.; Pandharipande, V. R.

    2002-01-01

    We review the present statiis of the many-body theory of nuclear and pure neutron matter based on realistic models of nuclear forces, The current models of two- and three-nucleon interactions are discussed along with recent results obtained with the Brueckner and variatioual methods. New initiatives in the variational method and quantuni Monte Carlo nicthods to study pure neutron matter are described, and finally, the analytic behavior of the energy of piire neutron matter at low densities is cliscussed.

  3. Connection between the nuclear matter mean-field equation of state and the quark and gluon condensates at high density

    SciTech Connect

    Malheiro, M.; Dey, M.; Delfino, A.; Dey, J. |||

    1997-01-01

    It is known now that chiral symmetry restoration requires the meson-nucleon couplings to be density-dependent in nuclear-matter mean-field models. We further show that, quite generally, the quark and gluon condensates in medium are related to the trace of the energy-momentum tensor of nuclear matter and in these models the incompressibility K must be less than 3 times the chemical potential {mu}. In the critical density {rho}{sub c}, the gluon condensate is only reduced by 20{percent}, indicating a larger effective nucleon mass. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  4. Exotic States of Nuclear Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lombardo, Umberto; Baldo, Marcello; Burgio, Fiorella; Schulze, Hans-Josef

    2008-02-01

    pt. A. Theory of nuclear matter EOS and symmetry energy. Constraining the nuclear equation of state from astrophysics and heavy ion reactions / C. Fuchs. In-medium hadronic interactions and the nuclear equation of state / F. Sammarruca. EOS and single-particle properties of isospin-asymmetric nuclear matter within the Brueckner theory / W. Zuo, U. Lombardo & H.-J. Schulze. Thermodynamics of correlated nuclear matter / A. Polls ... [et al.]. The validity of the LOCV formalism and neutron star properties / H. R. Moshfegh ... [et al.]. Ferromagnetic instabilities of neutron matter: microscopic versus phenomenological approaches / I. Vidaã. Sigma meson and nuclear matter saturation / A. B. Santra & U. Lombardo. Ramifications of the nuclear symmetry energy for neutron stars, nuclei and heavy-ion collisions / A. W. Steiner, B.-A. Li & M. Prakash. The symmetry energy in nuclei and nuclear matter / A. E. L. Dieperink. Probing the symmetry energy at supra-saturation densities / M. Di Toro et al. Investigation of low-density symmetry energy via nucleon and fragment observables / H. H. Wolter et al. Instability against cluster formation in nuclear and compact-star matter / C. Ducoin ... [et al.]. Microscopic optical potentials of nucleon-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus scattering / Z.-Y. Ma, J. Rong & Y.-Q. Ma -- pt. B. The neutron star crust: structure, formation and dynamics. Neutron star crust beyond the Wigner-Seitz approximation / N. Chamel. The inner crust of a neutron star within the Wigner-Seitz method with pairing: from drip point to the bottom / E. E. Saperstein, M. Baldo & S. V. Tolokonnikov. Nuclear superfluidity and thermal properties of neutron stars / N. Sandulescu. Collective excitations: from exotic nuclei to the crust of neutron stars / E. Khan, M. Grasso & J. Margueron. Monte Carlo simulation of the nuclear medium: fermi gases, nuclei and the role of Pauli potentials / M. A. Pérez-García. Low-density instabilities in relativistic hadronic models / C. Provid

  5. Equation of state in the pion condensation phase in asymmetric nuclear matter using a holographic QCD model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishihara, Hiroki; Harada, Masayasu

    2014-12-01

    We study the asymmetric nuclear matter using a holographic QCD model by introducing a baryonic charge in the infrared boundary. We first show that, in the normal hadron phase, the predicted values of the symmetry energy and its slope parameter are comparable with the empirical values. We find that the phase transition from the normal phase to the pion condensation phase is delayed compared with the pure mesonic matter: the critical chemical potential is larger than the pion mass which is obtained for the pure mesonic matter. We also show that, in the pion condensation phase, the pion contribution to the isospin number density increases with the chemical potential, while the baryonic contribution is almost constant. Furthermore, the value of chiral condensation implies that the enhancement of the chiral symmetry breaking occurs in the asymmetric nuclear matter as in the pure mesonic matter. We also give a discussion on how to understand the delay in terms of the four-dimensional chiral Lagrangian including the rho and omega mesons based on the hidden local symmetry.

  6. Determination of the equation of state of dense matter.

    PubMed

    Danielewicz, Paweł; Lacey, Roy; Lynch, William G

    2002-11-22

    Nuclear collisions can compress nuclear matter to densities achieved within neutron stars and within core-collapse supernovae. These dense states of matter exist momentarily before expanding. We analyzed the flow of matter to extract pressures in excess of 10(34) pascals, the highest recorded under laboratory-controlled conditions. Using these analyses, we rule out strongly repulsive nuclear equations of state from relativistic mean field theory and weakly repulsive equations of state with phase transitions at densities less than three times that of stable nuclei, but not equations of state softened at higher densities because of a transformation to quark matter.

  7. Shear viscosity of nuclear matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magner, A. G.; Gorenstein, M. I.; Grygoriev, U. V.; Plujko, V. A.

    2016-11-01

    Shear viscosity η is calculated for the nuclear matter described as a system of interacting nucleons with the van der Waals (VDW) equation of state. The Boltzmann-Vlasov kinetic equation is solved in terms of the plane waves of the collective overdamped motion. In the frequent-collision regime, the shear viscosity depends on the particle-number density n through the mean-field parameter a , which describes attractive forces in the VDW equation. In the temperature region T =15 -40 MeV, a ratio of the shear viscosity to the entropy density s is smaller than 1 at the nucleon number density n =(0.5 -1.5 ) n0 , where n0=0.16 fm-3 is the particle density of equilibrium nuclear matter at zero temperature. A minimum of the η /s ratio takes place somewhere in a vicinity of the critical point of the VDW system. Large values of η /s ≫1 are, however, found in both the low-density, n ≪n0 , and high-density, n >2 n0 , regions. This makes the ideal hydrodynamic approach inapplicable for these densities.

  8. Condensed Matter Nuclear Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biberian, Jean-Paul

    2006-02-01

    1. General. A tribute to gene Mallove - the "Genie" reactor / K. Wallace and R. Stringham. An update of LENR for ICCF-11 (short course, 10/31/04) / E. Storms. New physical effects in metal deuterides / P. L. Hagelstein ... [et al.]. Reproducibility, controllability, and optimization of LENR experiments / D. J. Nagel -- 2. Experiments. Electrochemistry. Evidence of electromagnetic radiation from Ni-H systems / S. Focardi ... [et al.]. Superwave reality / I. Dardik. Excess heat in electrolysis experiments at energetics technologies / I. Dardik ... [et al.]. "Excess heat" during electrolysis in platinum/K[symbol]CO[symbol]/nickel light water system / J. Tian ... [et al.]. Innovative procedure for the, in situ, measurement of the resistive thermal coefficient of H(D)/Pd during electrolysis; cross-comparison of new elements detected in the Th-Hg-Pd-D(H) electrolytic cells / F. Celani ... [et al.]. Emergence of a high-temperature superconductivity in hydrogen cycled Pd compounds as an evidence for superstoihiometric H/D sites / A. Lipson ... [et al.]. Plasma electrolysis. Calorimetry of energy-efficient glow discharge - apparatus design and calibration / T. B. Benson and T. O. Passell. Generation of heat and products during plasma electrolysis / T. Mizuno ... [et al.]. Glow discharge. Excess heat production in Pd/D during periodic pulse discharge current in various conditions / A. B. Karabut. Beam experiments. Accelerator experiments and theoretical models for the electron screening effect in metallic environments / A. Huke, K. Czerski, and P. Heide. Evidence for a target-material dependence of the neutron-proton branching ratio in d+d reactions for deuteron energies below 20keV / A. Huke ... [et al.]. Experiments on condensed matter nuclear events in Kobe University / T. Minari ... [et al.]. Electron screening constraints for the cold fusion / K. Czerski, P. Heide, and A. Huke. Cavitation. Low mass 1.6 MHz sonofusion reactor / R. Stringham. Particle detection. Research

  9. Condensed Matter Nuclear Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Akito; Ota, Ken-Ichiro; Iwamura, Yashuhiro

    Preface -- 1. General. Progress in condensed matter nuclear science / A. Takahashi. Summary of ICCF-12 / X. Z. Li. Overview of light water/hydrogen-based low-energy nuclear reactions / G. H. Miley and P. J. Shrestha -- 2. Excess heat and He detection. Development of "DS-reactor" as the practical reactor of "cold fusion" based on the "DS-cell" with "DS-cathode" / Y. Arata and Y.-C. Zhang. Progress in excess of power experiments with electrochemical loading of deuterium in palladium / V. Violante ... [et al.]. Anomalous energy generation during conventional electrolysis / T. Mizuno and Y. Toriyabe. "Excess heat" induced by deuterium flux in palladium film / B. Liu ... [et al.]. Abnormal excess heat observed during Mizuno-type experiments / J.-F. Fauvarque, P. P. Clauzon and G. J.-M. Lallevé. Seebeck envelope calorimetry with a Pd|D[symbol]O + H[symbol]SO[symbol] electrolytic cell / W.-S. Zhang, J. Dash and Q. Wang. Observation and investigation of nuclear fusion and self-induced electric discharges in liquids / A. I. Koldamasov ... [et al.]. Description of a sensitive seebeck calorimeter used for cold fusion studies / E. Storms. Some recent results at ENEA / M. Apicella ... [et al.]. Heat measurement during plasma electrolysis / K. Iizumi ... [et al.]. Effect of an additive on thermal output during electrolysis of heavy water with a palladium cathode / Q. Wang and J. Dash. Thermal analysis of calorimetric systems / L. D'Aulerio ... [et al.]. Surface plasmons and low-energy nuclear reactions triggering / E. Castagna ... [et al.]. Production method for violent TCB jet plasma from cavity / F. Amini. New results and an ongoing excess heat controversy / L. Kowalski ... [et al.] -- 3. Transmutation. Observation of surface distribution of products by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry during D[symbol] gas permeation through Pd Complexes / Y. Iwamura ... [et al.]. Discharge experiment using Pd/CaO/Pd multi-layered cathode / S. Narita ... [et al.]. Producing transmutation

  10. The role of nuclear physics in supernovae and the evolution of neutron stars Neutrino Opacities, Equation of State, Transport Coefficients, and Dark Matter Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rrapaj, Ermal

    A massive star, of at least eight solar masses, end their life cycle in a sudden, catastrophic collapse under its own gravity. In a thousandth of a second, it can shrink from thousands of kilometers across to a ball of ultra-condensed matter just a few kilometers across. Ultimately, it all ends in a cataclysmic explosion known as a supernova, and for a few short weeks it burns as brightly as several billion suns, briefly outshining the star's entire home galaxy. The visible light of a supernova, though, represents only about 1% of the released energy, the vast majority being in the form of ultraviolet light, x-rays, gamma rays and, especially neutrinos. In the first chapter of work, I study neutrino - nucleon interactions and their role in the nucleosynthesis of heavy elements. Another key ingredient is the equation of state, which relates the thermodynamic properties of these extreme environments to the micro physics of nuclear interactions, explored in the second chapter. As a supernova cools, a new neutron star is born. The thermal, electric properties and the shear viscosity of this object are analyzed in terms of a newly discovered interaction, among electrons and neutrons, in the third chapter. Given the enormous amount of energy released during the explosion, I study the possibility of producing light massive particles, candidates for what is commonly called dark matter, in the last chapter of this work. I find that supernovae are ideal environments where the interplay of all forces in nature can be observed, nuclear forces playing a paramount role.

  11. Constraining the equation of state of nuclear matter with gravitational wave observations: Tidal deformability and tidal disruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maselli, Andrea; Gualtieri, Leonardo; Ferrari, Valeria

    2013-11-01

    We study how to extract information on the neutron star equation of state from the gravitational wave signal emitted during the coalescence of a binary system composed of two neutron stars or a neutron star and a black hole. We use post-Newtonian templates which include the tidal deformability parameter and, when tidal disruption occurs before merger, a frequency cutoff. Assuming that this signal is detected by Advanced LIGO/Virgo or the Einstein Telescope, we evaluate the uncertainties on these parameters using different data-analysis strategies based on the Fisher matrix approach and on recently obtained analytical fits of the relevant quantities. We find that the tidal deformability is more effective than the stellar compactness to discriminate among different possible equations of state.

  12. Boost-invariant description of nuclear matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Głazek, St.; Shakin, C. M.

    1991-09-01

    We present a self-consistent mean-field description of nuclear matter making use of light front dynamics and focus our attention on a model with nucleons coupled to scalar mesons. We derive the mean-field Dirac equation for nucleon separation energies. The nucleon-meson seagull interactions are included in the calculations. In the mean-field analysis, the nucleon momentum sum rule, which plays an important role in the description of deep-inelastic scattering from heavy nuclei, results from the thermodynamical consistency condition that there is no pressure at zero temperature. We obtain the same energy density of nuclear matter at rest as one derives in the instant form of dynamics. Our light front mean-field formalism describes nuclear matter in uniform motion at any possible velocity.

  13. Phase transitions in nuclear matter

    SciTech Connect

    Glendenning, N.K.

    1984-11-01

    The rather general circumstances under which a phase transition in hadronic matter at finite temperature to an abnormal phase in which baryon effective masses become small and in which copious baryon-antibaryon pairs appear is emphasized. A preview is also given of a soliton model of dense matter, in which at a density of about seven times nuclear density, matter ceases to be a color insulator and becomes increasingly color conducting. 22 references.

  14. Deuteron distribution in nuclear matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benhar, O.; Fabrocini, A.; Fantoni, S.; Illarionov, A. Yu.; Lykasov, G. I.

    2002-05-01

    We analyze the properties of deuteron-like structures in infinite, correlated nuclear matter, described by a realistic hamiltonian containing the Urbana v14 two-nucleon and the Urbana TNI many-body potentials. The distribution of neutron-proton pairs, carrying the deuteron quantum numbers, is obtained as a function of the total momentum by computing the overlap between the nuclear matter in its ground state and the deuteron wave functions in correlated basis functions theory. We study the differences between the S- and D-wave components of the deuteron and those of the deuteron-like pair in the nuclear medium. The total number of deuteron type pairs is computed and compared with the predictions of Levinger's quasideuteron model. The resulting Levinger's factor in nuclear matter at equilibrium density is 11.63. We use the local density approximation to estimate the Levinger's factor for heavy nuclei, obtaining results which are consistent with the available experimental data from photoreactions.

  15. Theoretical constraints on the properties of low-mass neutron stars from the equation of state of nuclear matter in the inner crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Yong-Mei; Wen, De-Hua

    2017-06-01

    By employing four typical equation of states (EOSs) of nuclear matter in the inner crust, the properties of low-mass neutron stars are investigated theoretically. Based on the well-known fact that there is a big gap between the neutron stars and white dwarfs in the mass-radius sequence of compact stars, according to the mass-radius relations of the four adopted EOSs, we conclude that there is a rough forbidden region for the central density and stellar radius to form a compact star; that is, there is no compact star in nature having central density in the region from about 1012kgm-3 to 1017kgm-3 , and there is also no compact star having a radius in the region from about 400 km to 2000 km. Moreover, the properties of the low-mass neutron stars are also explored. It is shown that for a stable neutron star near the minimum mass point, the stellar size (with radius >200 km) is much larger than that of normal neutron stars, and there is a compact "core" concentrated at about 95% of the stellar mass in the inner core with a radius of about 13 km and density higher than the neutron-drip point (4.3 ×1014kgm-3) . This property totally differs from that of normal neutron stars and white dwarfs. Furthermore, the Keplerian period, the moment of inertia, and the surface gravitational redshift of the star near the minimum-mass point are also investigated.

  16. Nuclear and neutron matter studies

    SciTech Connect

    Wiringa, R.B.; Akmal, A.; Pandharipande, V.R.

    1995-08-01

    We are studying nuclear and neutron matter with the new Argonne v{sub 18} NN and Urbana 3N potentials. We use variational wave functions and a diagrammatic cluster expansion with Fermi hypernetted and single-operator chain (FHNC/SOC) integral equations to evaluate the energy expectation value. Initial results show some interesting differences with our previous calculations with the older Argonne v{sub 14} potential. In particular, there are a number of diagrams involving L{center_dot}S and L{sup 2} terms which were small with the older model and were rather crudely estimated or even neglected. It appears that these terms are more important with the new potential and will have to be evaluated more accurately. Work on this subject is in progress. A simple line of attack is to just add additional diagrams at the three-body cluster level. A longer term approach may be to adapt some of the methods for evaluating nucleon clusters used in the few-body and closed shell nuclei described above.

  17. Hot nuclear matter

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, S.

    1992-11-01

    The goal in this thesis is thus twofold: The first is to investigate the feasibility of using heavy ion collisions to create conditions in the laboratory which are ripe for the formation of a quark-gluon plasma. The second is to develop a technique for studying some of the many non-perturbative features of this novel phase of matter.

  18. Heavy hadrons in nuclear matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosaka, Atsushi; Hyodo, Tetsuo; Sudoh, Kazutaka; Yamaguchi, Yasuhiro; Yasui, Shigehiro

    2017-09-01

    Current studies on heavy hadrons in nuclear medium are reviewed with a summary of the basic theoretical concepts of QCD, namely chiral symmetry, heavy quark spin symmetry, and the effective Lagrangian approach. The nuclear matter is an interesting place to study the properties of heavy hadrons from many different points of view. We emphasize the importance of the following topics: (i) charm/bottom hadron-nucleon interaction, (ii) structure of charm/bottom nuclei, and (iii) QCD vacuum properties and hadron modifications in nuclear medium. We pick up three different groups of heavy hadrons, quarkonia (J / ψ, ϒ), heavy-light mesons (D/ D ¯ , B ¯ / B) and heavy baryons (Λc, Λb). The modifications of those hadrons in nuclear matter provide us with important information to investigate the essential properties of heavy hadrons. We also give the discussions about the heavy hadrons, not only in infinite nuclear matter, but also in finite-size atomic nuclei with finite baryon numbers, to serve future experiments.

  19. Hot magnetized nuclear matter: Thermodynamic and saturation properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezaei, Z.; Bordbar, G. H.

    2017-03-01

    We have used a realistic nuclear potential, AV_{18}, and a many-body technique, the lowest-order constraint variational (LOCV) approach, to calculate the properties of hot magnetized nuclear matter. By investigating the free energy, spin polarization parameter, and symmetry energy, we have studied the temperature and magnetic field dependence of the saturation properties of magnetized nuclear matter. In addition, we have calculated the equation of state of magnetized nuclear matter at different temperatures and magnetic fields. It was found that the flashing temperature of nuclear matter decreases by increasing the magnetic field. In addition, we have studied the effect of the magnetic field on liquid gas phase transition of nuclear matter. The liquid gas coexistence curves, the order parameter of the liquid gas phase transition, and the properties of critical point at different magnetic fields have been calculated.

  20. Thermodynamics of neutron-rich nuclear matter

    SciTech Connect

    López, Jorge A.; Porras, Sergio Terrazas Gutiérrez, Araceli Rodríguez

    2016-07-07

    This manuscript presents methods to obtain properties of neutron-rich nuclear matter from classical molecular dynamics. Some of these are bulk properties of infinite nuclear matter, phase information, the Maxwell construction, spinodal lines and symmetry energy.

  1. Virial Expansion of the Nuclear Equation of State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magana, Ruslan; Zheng, Hua; Bonasera, Aldo

    We study the equation of state (EOS) of nuclear matter as function of density. We expand the energy per particle (E/A) of symmetric infinite nuclear matter in powers of the density to take into account 2, 3, …, N-body forces. New EOS are proposed by fitting ground state properties of nuclear matter (binding energy, compressibility and pressure) and assuming that at high densities a second-order phase transition to the quark-gluon plasma (QGP) occurs. The latter phase transition is due to symmetry breaking at high density from nuclear matter (locally color white) to the QGP (globally color white). In the simplest implementation of a second-order phase transition we calculate the critical exponent δ by using Landau's theory of phase transition. We find δ = 3. Refining the properties of the EOS near the critical point gives δ = 5 in agreement with experimental results. We also discuss some scenarios for the EOS at finite temperatures.

  2. Nuclear matter physics at NICA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senger, P.

    2016-08-01

    The exploration of the QCD phase diagram is one of the most exciting and challenging projects of modern nuclear physics. In particular, the investigation of nuclear matter at high baryon densities offers the opportunity to find characteristic structures such as a first-order phase transition with a region of phase coexistence and a critical endpoint. The experimental discovery of these prominent landmarks of the QCD phase diagram would be a major breakthrough in our understanding of the properties of nuclear matter. Equally important is the quantitative experimental information on the properties of hadrons in dense matter which may shed light on chiral symmetry restoration and the origin of hadron masses. Worldwide, substantial efforts at the major heavy-ion accelerators are devoted to the clarification of these fundamental questions, and new dedicated experiments are planned at future facilities like CBM at FAIR in Darmstadt and MPD at NICA/JINR in Dubna. In this article the perspectives for MPD at NICA will be discussed.

  3. Quark description of nuclear matter

    SciTech Connect

    Berges, Jurgen

    2001-07-01

    We discuss the role of an adjoint chiral condensate for color superconducting quark matter. Its presence leads to color-flavor locking in two-flavor quark matter. Color is broken completely as well as chiral symmetry in the two-flavor theory with coexisting adjoint quark-antiquark and antitriplet quark-quark condensates. The qualitative properties of this phase match the properties of ordinary nuclear matter without strange baryons. This complements earlier proposals by Schaefer and Wilczek for a quark description of hadronic phases. We show for a class of models with effective four-fermion interactions that adjoint chiral and diquark condensates do not compete, in the sense that simultaneous condensation occurs for sufficiently strong interactions in the adjoint chiral channel.

  4. Particle-hole states in nuclear matter

    SciTech Connect

    Matyas, C.A.

    1985-01-01

    This work deals with the collective excitations in nuclear matter, from the point of view of the TDA approximation. Our calculations involved the construction of a Hamiltonian, expressed as a matrix in the space of particle-hole excitations with a given momentum transfer. We used in this Hamiltonian an average single nucleon potential, and (in some cases) an effective interaction obtained for the potential HEA in the relativistic Brueckner-Hartree Fock theory. The eigenvectors of the TDA-Hamiltonian were used to compute the strength of the collective response of nuclear matter to external probes. Our results, succinctly described in the last section, are summarized in a set of figures at the end of this monograph. The specific form of the TDA equations that we used, and the procedure to calculate the degree of collectivity of the solutions, is studied in detail in the fifth chapter. A derivation of the TDA equations, and a discussion of the solutions for a separable potential, is given in the fourth chapter. The structure of a non-relativistic potential for a system of two nucleons is examined in the third chapter, in several representations. On the other hand, the particle-hole states relevant to our discussions on the TDA equations are introduced in the first two chapters.

  5. Quark degrees of freedom in nuclear matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldo, Marcello

    2017-06-01

    The microscopic theory of Nuclear Matter has been approached along the years by different many-body methods and different nucleon-nucleon (NN) interactions. The realistic NN interactions can be classified mainly into two categories. One relies on the meson-nucleon coupling scheme, within relativistic or non-relativistic framework. The so-called chiral interactions are based on the assumption that, once the pion exchange contribution has been explicitly isolated, it is possible to expand the NN interaction in a series of point interaction terms which respect the underlying QCD chiral symmetry. In both schemes three-body (TBF) or higher forces can be constructed, which can have different degrees of phenomenological character. The TBF are essential to get the Nuclear Matter saturation point close to the phenomenological one. However the QCD quark degrees of freedom are not explicitly introduced. It will be shown that a realistic NN interaction that is constructed from the quark degrees of freedom can produce the correct saturation point without the need of TBF. The corresponding Equation of State is compatible with all the phenomenological constraints, including the Neutron Star maximum mass limit. Taking this result literally, one can say that quarks have been revealed in Nuclear Matter. Another conclusion is that the effect of TBF is model dependent.

  6. Nuclear Matter Stability in a Soliton Model for Finite Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derreth, Ch.; Elze, H.-Th.; Greiner, W.

    A relativistic band structure method for the computation of the electronic structure of atomic clusters is adapter to the Friedberg-Lee nontopological soliton model. Thus, finite nuclei can be studied in the soliton model. As a verification of our method, we calculated the equation of state of nuclear matter. In order to achieve nuclear matter stability, we added the colour magnetic interaction for an inhomogeneous dielectric medium as well as a phenomenological residual interaction to the soliton model. Both modifications are examined in detail. Nuclear matter stability near the empirical ground state density and binding energy has been achieved.

  7. Functional renormalization group studies of nuclear and neutron matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drews, Matthias; Weise, Wolfram

    2017-03-01

    Functional renormalization group (FRG) methods applied to calculations of isospin-symmetric and asymmetric nuclear matter as well as neutron matter are reviewed. The approach is based on a chiral Lagrangian expressed in terms of nucleon and meson degrees of freedom as appropriate for the hadronic phase of QCD with spontaneously broken chiral symmetry. Fluctuations beyond mean-field approximation are treated solving Wetterich's FRG flow equations. Nuclear thermodynamics and the nuclear liquid-gas phase transition are investigated in detail, both in symmetric matter and as a function of the proton fraction in asymmetric matter. The equations of state at zero temperature of symmetric nuclear matter and pure neutron matter are found to be in good agreement with advanced ab-initio many-body computations. Contacts with perturbative many-body approaches (in-medium chiral perturbation theory) are discussed. As an interesting test case, the density dependence of the pion mass in the medium is investigated. The question of chiral symmetry restoration in nuclear and neutron matter is addressed. A stabilization of the phase with spontaneously broken chiral symmetry is found to persist up to high baryon densities once fluctuations beyond mean-field are included. Neutron star matter including beta equilibrium is discussed under the aspect of the constraints imposed by the existence of two-solar-mass neutron stars.

  8. Elementary diagrams in nuclear and neutron matter

    SciTech Connect

    Wiringa, R.B.

    1995-08-01

    Variational calculations of nuclear and neutron matter are currently performed using a diagrammatic cluster expansion with the aid of nonlinear integral equations for evaluating expectation values. These are the Fermi hypernetted chain (FHNC) and single-operator chain (SOC) equations, which are a way of doing partial diagram summations to infinite order. A more complete summation can be made by adding elementary diagrams to the procedure. The simplest elementary diagrams appear at the four-body cluster level; there is one such E{sub 4} diagram in Bose systems, but 35 diagrams in Fermi systems, which gives a level of approximation called FHNC/4. We developed a novel technique for evaluating these diagrams, by computing and storing 6 three-point functions, S{sub xyz}(r{sub 12}, r{sub 13}, r{sub 23}), where xyz (= ccd, cce, ddd, dde, dee, or eee) denotes the exchange character at the vertices 1, 2, and 3. All 35 Fermi E{sub 4} diagrams can be constructed from these 6 functions and other two-point functions that are already calculated. The elementary diagrams are known to be important in some systems like liquid {sup 3}He. We expect them to be small in nuclear matter at normal density, but they might become significant at higher densities appropriate for neutron star calculations. This year we programmed the FHNC/4 contributions to the energy and tested them in a number of simple model cases, including liquid {sup 3}He and Bethe`s homework problem. We get reasonable, but not exact agreement with earlier published work. In nuclear and neutron matter with the Argonne v{sub 14} interaction these contributions are indeed small corrections at normal density and grow to only 5-10 MeV/nucleon at 5 times normal density.

  9. Neutron stars, strange stars, and the nuclear equation of state

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, F.; Glendenning, N.K.

    1992-11-02

    This article consists of three parts. In part one we review the present status of dense nuclear matter calculations, and introduce a representative collection of realistic nuclear equations of state which are derived for different assumptions about the physical behavior of dense matter (baryon population, pion condensation,.possible transition of baryon matter to quark matter). In part two we review recently performed non-rotating and rotating compact star calculations performed for these equations of state. The minimum stable rotational periods of compact stars, whose knowledge is of decisive importance for the interpretation of rapidly rotating pulsars, axe determined. For this purpose two different limits on stable rotation are studied: rotation at the general relativistic Kepler period (below which mass shedding at the star`s equator sets in), and, secondly, rotation at the gravitational radiation-reaction instability (at which emission of gravitational waves set in which slows the star down). Part three of this article deals with the properties of hypothetical strange stars. Specifically we investigate the amount of nuclear solid crust that can be carried by a rotating strange star, and answer the question whether such objects can give rise to the observed phenomena of pulsar glitches, which is at the present time the only astrophysical test of the strange-quark-matter hypothesis.

  10. Neutron stars, strange stars, and the nuclear equation of state

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, F.; Glendenning, N.K.

    1992-11-02

    This article consists of three parts. In part one we review the present status of dense nuclear matter calculations, and introduce a representative collection of realistic nuclear equations of state which are derived for different assumptions about the physical behavior of dense matter (baryon population, pion condensation,.possible transition of baryon matter to quark matter). In part two we review recently performed non-rotating and rotating compact star calculations performed for these equations of state. The minimum stable rotational periods of compact stars, whose knowledge is of decisive importance for the interpretation of rapidly rotating pulsars, axe determined. For this purpose two different limits on stable rotation are studied: rotation at the general relativistic Kepler period (below which mass shedding at the star's equator sets in), and, secondly, rotation at the gravitational radiation-reaction instability (at which emission of gravitational waves set in which slows the star down). Part three of this article deals with the properties of hypothetical strange stars. Specifically we investigate the amount of nuclear solid crust that can be carried by a rotating strange star, and answer the question whether such objects can give rise to the observed phenomena of pulsar glitches, which is at the present time the only astrophysical test of the strange-quark-matter hypothesis.

  11. Linear response of homogeneous nuclear matter with energy density functionals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pastore, A.; Davesne, D.; Navarro, J.

    2015-03-01

    Response functions of infinite nuclear matter with arbitrary isospin asymmetry are studied in the framework of the random phase approximation. The residual interaction is derived from a general nuclear Skyrme energy density functional. Besides the usual central, spin-orbit and tensor terms it could also include other components as new density-dependent terms or three-body terms. Algebraic expressions for the response functions are obtained from the Bethe-Salpeter equation for the particle-hole propagator. Applications to symmetric nuclear matter, pure neutron matter and asymmetric nuclear matter are presented and discussed. Spin-isospin strength functions are analyzed for varying conditions of density, momentum transfer, isospin asymmetry, and temperature for some representative Skyrme functionals. Particular attention is paid to the discussion of instabilities, either real or unphysical, which could manifest in finite nuclei.

  12. Superfluidity in asymmetric nuclear matter

    SciTech Connect

    Sedrakian, A.; Alm, T.; Lombardo, U.

    1997-02-01

    The onset of superfluidity in isospin-asymmetric nuclear matter is investigated within the BCS theory. A neutron-proton superfluid state in the channel {sup 3}S{sub 1}-{sup 3}D{sub 1} comes about from the interplay between thermal excitations and separation {delta}{mu} of the two Fermi surfaces. The superfluid state disappears above the threshold value of the density-asymmetry parameter {alpha}=(n{sub n}{minus}n{sub p})/n{approx_equal}0.35. For large enough shift between the two Fermi surfaces {delta}{mu}=(1)/(2)({mu}{sub n}{minus}{mu}{sub p}) the transition to the normal state becomes a first-order transition and a second gap solution develops. This solution, however, corresponds to a metastable superfluid state which is unstable with respect to the transition to the normal state. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  13. Progress in Condensed Matter Nuclear Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Akito

    Recent studies of condensed matter nuclear science (CMNS) including cold fusion have accumulated some convincing data and theoretical modeling, and we are about to conclude that (1) deuteron-related clean fusion reactions and (2) cold and special transmutations may take place in the environment of condensed matter containing deuterons and protons. This emerging field of CMNS is expected to give us strong impact on the future of basic sciences for energy-application, fundamental nuclear science, and condensed matter sciences.

  14. Monte Carlo approach to nuclei and nuclear matter

    SciTech Connect

    Fantoni, Stefano; Gandolfi, Stefano; Illarionov, Alexey Yu.; Schmidt, Kevin E.; Pederiva, Francesco

    2008-10-13

    We report on the most recent applications of the Auxiliary Field Diffusion Monte Carlo (AFDMC) method. The equation of state (EOS) for pure neutron matter in both normal and BCS phase and the superfluid gap in the low-density regime are computed, using a realistic Hamiltonian containing the Argonne AV8' plus Urbana IX three-nucleon interaction. Preliminary results for the EOS of isospin-asymmetric nuclear matter are also presented.

  15. Microscopic calculations of nuclear and neutron matter, symmetry energy and neutron stars

    DOE PAGES

    Gandolfi, S.

    2015-02-01

    We present Quantum Monte Carlo calculations of the equation of state of neutron matter. The equation of state is directly related to the symmetry energy and determines the mass and radius of neutron stars, providing then a connection between terrestrial experiments and astronomical observations. As a result, we also show preliminary results of the equation of state of nuclear matter.

  16. Effects of Induced Surface Tension in Nuclear and Hadron Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sagun, V. V.; Bugaev, K. A.; Ivanytskyi, A. I.; Oliinychenko, D. R.; Mishustin, I. N.

    2017-03-01

    Short range particle repulsion is rather important property of the hadronic and nuclear matter equations of state. We present a novel equation of state which is based on the virial expansion for the multicomponent mixtures with hard-core repulsion. In addition to the hard-core repulsion taken into account by the proper volumes of particles, this equation of state explicitly contains the surface tension which is induced by another part of the hard-core repulsion between particles. At high densities the induced surface tension vanishes and the excluded volume treatment of hard-core repulsion is switched to its proper volume treatment. Possible applications of this equation of state to a description of hadronic multiplicities measured in A+A collisions, to an investigation of the nuclear matter phase diagram properties and to the neutron star interior modeling are discussed.

  17. Nuclear equation of state for core-collapse supernova simulations with realistic nuclear forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Togashi, H.; Nakazato, K.; Takehara, Y.; Yamamuro, S.; Suzuki, H.; Takano, M.

    2017-05-01

    A new table of the nuclear equation of state (EOS) based on realistic nuclear potentials is constructed for core-collapse supernova numerical simulations. Adopting the EOS of uniform nuclear matter constructed by two of the present authors with the cluster variational method starting from the Argonne v18 and Urbana IX nuclear potentials, the Thomas-Fermi calculation is performed to obtain the minimized free energy of a Wigner-Seitz cell in non-uniform nuclear matter. As a preparation for the Thomas-Fermi calculation, the EOS of uniform nuclear matter is modified so as to remove the effects of deuteron cluster formation in uniform matter at low densities. Mixing of alpha particles is also taken into account following the procedure used by Shen et al. (1998, 2011). The critical densities with respect to the phase transition from non-uniform to uniform phase with the present EOS are slightly higher than those with the Shen EOS at small proton fractions. The critical temperature with respect to the liquid-gas phase transition decreases with the proton fraction in a more gradual manner than in the Shen EOS. Furthermore, the mass and proton numbers of nuclides appearing in non-uniform nuclear matter with small proton fractions are larger than those of the Shen EOS. These results are consequences of the fact that the density derivative coefficient of the symmetry energy of our EOS is smaller than that of the Shen EOS.

  18. Three-body properties in nuclear matter at thermal equilibrium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyer, M.; Schadow, W.; Kuhrts, C.; Röpke, G.

    1999-09-01

    We derive three-body equations valid at finite densities and temperatures. The equations are based on the cluster mean field approach consistently including proper self-energy corrections and Pauli blocking. As an application we investigate the binding energies of triton and determine the Mott densities and momenta relevant for a many particle description of nuclear matter in a generalized Beth-Uhlenbeck approach. The method, however, is not restricted to nuclear physics problems but may also be relevant, e.g., to treat three-particle correlations in weakly doped semiconductors or strongly coupled dense plasmas.

  19. Nucleons, Nuclear Matter and Quark Matter: A unified NJL approach

    SciTech Connect

    S. Lawley; W. Bentz; A.W. Thomas

    2006-02-10

    We use an effective quark model to describe both hadronic matter and deconfined quark matter. By calculating the equations of state and the corresponding neutron star properties, we show that the internal properties of the nucleon have important implications for the properties of these systems.

  20. Realistic calculations of excitations in nuclear matter

    SciTech Connect

    Kwong, N.H.

    1983-01-01

    A numerical method has been developed to solve the RPA equation, exchange term included, in nuclear matter. The dynamic form factor S(q,w) is extracted for several v4 and v6 phenomenological potentials, including the d1-potential of Gogny et al. The limits of validity of the long-wavelength (Landau) approximation and the often adopted local-kernel approximation are discussed. Substantial disagreements with the exact results are found for the latter. The method is then applied to solve a Jastrow-correlated extension of the RPA equation, using the hardcore OMY potential. Results of calculations performed in two-body cluster approximation and Fermi-Hypernetted-Chain (FHNC) approximation are compared. The two-body results predict an instability against density fluctuations, which disappears at the FHNC level. The validity and consequences of employing the FHNC effective potential within the self-consistent HF/RPA framework are discussed. Future developments include applying the method to other Fermi systems such as liquid /sup 3/He and the microscopic calculation of Landau parameters.

  1. Past and present of nuclear matter

    SciTech Connect

    Ritter, H.G.

    1994-05-01

    The subject of nuclear matter is interesting for many fields of physics ranging from condensed matter to lattice QCD. Knowing its properties is important for our understanding of neutron stars, supernovae and cosmology. Experimentally, we have the most precise information on ground state nuclear matter from the mass formula and from the systematics of monopole vibrations. This gives us the ground state density, binding energy and the compression modulus k at ground state density. However, those methods can not be extended towards the regime we are most interested in, the regime of high density and high temperature. Additional information can be obtained from the observation of neutron stars and of supernova explosions. In both cases information is limited by the rare events that nature provides for us. High energy heavy ion collisions, on the other hand, allow us to perform controlled experiments in the laboratory. For a very short period in time we can create a system that lets us study nuclear matter properties. Density and temperature of the system depend on the mass of the colliding nuclei, on their energy and on the impact parameter. The system created in nuclear collisions has at best about 200 constituents not even close to infinite nuclear matter, and it lasts only for collision times of {approx} 10{sup {minus}22}sec, not an ideal condition for establishing any kind of equilibrium. Extended size and thermal and chemical equilibrium, however, axe a priori conditions of nuclear matter. As a consequence we need realistic models that describe the collision dynamics and non-equilibrium effects in order to relate experimental observables to properties of nuclear matter. The study of high energy nuclear collisions started at the Bevalac. I will try to summarize the results from the Bevalac studies, the highlights of the continuing program, and extension to higher energies without claiming to be complete.

  2. Equations of state for real gases on the nuclear scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vovchenko, Volodymyr

    2017-07-01

    The formalism to augment the classical models of the equation of state for real gases with quantum statistical effects is presented. It allows an arbitrary excluded volume procedure to model repulsive interactions, and an arbitrary density-dependent mean field to model attractive interactions. Variations on the excluded volume mechanism include van der Waals (VDW) and Carnahan-Starling models, while the mean fields are based on VDW, Redlich-Kwong-Soave, Peng-Robinson, and Clausius equations of state. The VDW parameters of the nucleon-nucleon interaction are fitted in each model to the properties of the ground state of nuclear matter, and the following range of values is obtained: a =330 -430 MeV fm3 and b =2.5 -4.4 fm3 . In the context of the excluded volume approach, the fits to the nuclear ground state disfavor the values of the effective hard-core radius of a nucleon significantly smaller than 0.5 fm , at least for the nuclear matter region of the phase diagram. Modifications to the standard VDW repulsion and attraction terms allow one to improve significantly the value of the nuclear incompressibility factor K0, bringing it closer to empirical estimates. The generalization to include the baryon-baryon interactions into the hadron resonance gas model is performed. The behavior of the baryon-related lattice QCD observables at zero chemical potential is shown to be strongly correlated to the nuclear matter properties: an improved description of the nuclear incompressibility also yields an improved description of the lattice data at μ =0 .

  3. From holography towards real-world nuclear matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Si-wen; Schmitt, Andreas; Wang, Qun

    2015-07-01

    Quantum chromodynamics is notoriously difficult to solve at nonzero baryon density, and most models or effective theories of dense quark or nuclear matter are restricted to a particular density regime and/or a particular form of matter. Here we study dense (and mostly cold) matter within the holographic Sakai-Sugimoto model, aiming at a strong-coupling framework in the wide density range between nuclear saturation density and ultrahigh quark matter densities. The model contains only three parameters, and we ask whether it fulfills two basic requirements of real-world cold and dense matter, a first-order onset of nuclear matter and a chiral phase transition at high density to quark matter. Such a model would be extremely useful for astrophysical applications because it would provide a single equation of state for all densities relevant in a compact star. Our calculations are based on two approximations for baryonic matter—first, an instanton gas and, second, a homogeneous ansatz for the non-Abelian gauge fields on the flavor branes of the model. While the instanton gas shows chiral restoration at high densities but an unrealistic second-order baryon onset, the homogeneous ansatz behaves exactly the other way around. Our study, thus, provides all ingredients that are necessary for a more realistic model and allows for systematic improvements of the applied approximations.

  4. Relativity Damps OPEP in Nuclear Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Manoj K.

    1998-09-01

    Using a relativistic Dirac--Brueckner analysis the OPEP contribution to the ground state energy of nuclear matter is studied. In the study the pion is derivative-coupled. We find that the role of the tensor force in the saturation mechanism is substantially reduced compared to its dominant role in a usual nonrelativistic treatment. We show that the damping of derivative-coupled OPEP is actually due to the decrease of M*/M with increasing density. We point out that if derivative-coupled OPEP is the preferred form of nuclear effective Lagrangian nonrelativistic treatment of nuclear matter is in trouble. Lacking the notion of M* it cannot replicate the damping. We suggest an examination of the feasibility of using pseudoscalar coupled πN interaction before reaching a final conclusion about nonrelativistic treatment of nuclear matter.

  5. Relativity damps OPEP in nuclear matter

    SciTech Connect

    Banerjee, M.K.

    1998-06-01

    Using a relativistic Dirac-Brueckner analysis the OPEP contribution to the ground state energy of nuclear matter is studied. In the study the pion is derivative-coupled. The author finds that the role of the tensor force in the saturation mechanism is substantially reduced compared to its dominant role in a usual nonrelativistic treatment. He shows that the damping of derivative-coupled OPEP is actually due to the decrease of M{sup *}/M with increasing density. He points out that if derivative-coupled OPEP is the preferred form of nuclear effective lagrangian nonrelativistic treatment of nuclear matter is in trouble. Lacking the notion of M{sup *} it cannot replicate the damping. He suggests an examination of the feasibility of using pseudoscalar coupled {pi}N interaction before reaching a final conclusion about nonrelativistic treatment of nuclear matter.

  6. Equation of state of warm condensed matter

    SciTech Connect

    Barbee, T.W., III; Young, D.A.; Rogers, F.J.

    1998-03-01

    Recent advances in computational condensed matter theory have yielded accurate calculations of properties of materials. These calculations have, for the most part, focused on the low temperature (T=0) limit. An accurate determination of the equation of state (EOS) at finite temperature also requires knowledge of the behavior of the electron and ion thermal pressure as a function of T. Current approaches often interpolate between calculated T=0 results and approximations valid in the high T limit. Plasma physics-based approaches are accurate in the high temperature limit, but lose accuracy below T{approximately}T{sub Fermi}. We seek to ``connect up`` these two regimes by using ab initio finite temperature methods (including linear-response[1] based phonon calculations) to derive an equation of state of condensed matter for T{<=}T{sub Fermi}. We will present theoretical results for the principal Hugoniot of shocked materials, including carbon and aluminum, up to pressures P>100 GPa and temperatures T>10{sup 4}K, and compare our results with available experimental data.

  7. Soliton matter as a model of dense nuclear matter

    SciTech Connect

    Glendenning, N.K.

    1985-01-01

    We employ the hybrid soliton model of the nucleon consisting of a topological meson field and deeply bound quarks to investigate the behavior of the quarks in soliton matter as a function of density. To organize the calculation, we place the solitons on a spatial lattice. The model suggests the transition of matter from a color insulator to a color conductor above a critical density of a few times normal nuclear density. 9 references, 5 figures.

  8. Nuclear Matters. A Practical Guide

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    likelihood of resuming underground nuclear testing, and accelerating dismantlement of retired weapons are all essential elements of a necessary path ...provide assurances that the lack of nuclear testing would not put the U.S. on a path to unintended unilateral disarmament (due to the forced retirement...unusual slant to BlueGene/L’s cabinets is a necessary design element to keep cooled air flowing properly around each cabinet’s 2,000-plus

  9. Matter in extremis: Ultrarelativistic nuclear collisions at RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobs, Peter; Wang, Xin-Nian

    2004-08-20

    We review the physics of nuclear matter at high energy density and the experimental search for the Quark-Gluon Plasma at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The data obtained in the first three years of the RHIC physics program provide several lines of evidence that a novel state of matter has been created in the most violent, head-on collisions of Au nuclei at {radical}s = 200 GeV. Jet quenching and global measurements show that the initial energy density of the strongly interacting medium generated in the collision is about two orders of magnitude larger than that of cold nuclear matter, well above the critical density for the deconfinement phase transition predicted by lattice QCD. The observed collective flow patterns imply that the system thermalizes early in its evolution, with the dynamics of its expansion consistent with ideal hydrodynamic flow based on a Quark-Gluon Plasma equation of state.

  10. Extreme States of Nuclear Matter: 1980

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafelski, Johann

    The theory of hot nuclear fireballs consisting of all possible finite-size hadronic constituents in chemical and thermal equilibrium is presented. As a complement of this hadronic gas phase characterized by maximal temperature and energy density, the quark bag description of the hadronic fireball is considered. Preliminary calculations of temperatures and mean transverse momenta of particles emitted in high multiplicity relativistic nuclear collisions together with some considerations on the observability of quark matter are offered.

  11. Empirical information on nuclear matter fourth-order symmetry energy from an extended nuclear mass formula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Rui; Chen, Lie-Wen

    2017-10-01

    We establish a relation between the equation of state of nuclear matter and the fourth-order symmetry energy asym,4 (A) of finite nuclei in a semi-empirical nuclear mass formula by self-consistently considering the bulk, surface and Coulomb contributions to the nuclear mass. Such a relation allows us to extract information on nuclear matter fourth-order symmetry energy Esym,4 (ρ0) at normal nuclear density ρ0 from analyzing nuclear mass data. Based on the recent precise extraction of asym,4 (A) via the double difference of the ;experimental; symmetry energy extracted from nuclear masses, for the first time, we estimate a value of Esym,4 (ρ0) = 20.0 ± 4.6 MeV. Such a value of Esym,4 (ρ0) is significantly larger than the predictions from mean-field models and thus suggests the importance of considering the effects of beyond the mean-field approximation in nuclear matter calculations.

  12. Speed of sound in nuclear matter and Skyrme effective interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Su, R.K.; Kuo, T.T.S.

    1987-02-01

    Using a nuclear equation of state derived from a finite-temperature Green's function method and the Skyrme effective interactions SkI, SkIII and SkM*, the authors have calculated the speed of sound in symmetric nuclear matter. For certain densities and temperatures, this speed is found to become super-luminous. Causal boundaries in the density-temperature plane are determined, and they indicate that SkM* is a more desirable effective interaction than SkI and SkIII. Comparison with a similar calculation by Osnes and Strottman is made.

  13. Phase structure in a chiral model of nuclear matter

    SciTech Connect

    Phat, Tran Huu; Anh, Nguyen Tuan; Tam, Dinh Thanh

    2011-08-15

    The phase structure of symmetric nuclear matter in the extended Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (ENJL) model is studied by means of the effective potential in the one-loop approximation. It is found that chiral symmetry gets restored at high nuclear density and a typical first-order phase transition of the liquid-gas transition occurs at zero temperature, T=0, which weakens as T grows and eventually ends up with a second-order critical point at T=20 MeV. This phase transition scenario is confirmed by investigating the evolution of the effective potential versus the effective nucleon mass and the equation of state.

  14. Probing Cold Dense Nuclear Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subedi, R.; Shneor, R.; Monaghan, P.; Anderson, B. D.; Aniol, K.; Annand, J.; Arrington, J.; Benaoum, H.; Benmokhtar, F.; Boeglin, W.; Chen, J.-P.; Choi, Seonho; Cisbani, E.; Craver, B.; Frullani, S.; Garibaldi, F.; Gilad, S.; Gilman, R.; Glamazdin, O.; Hansen, J.-O.; Higinbotham, D. W.; Holmstrom, T.; Ibrahim, H.; Igarashi, R.; de Jager, C. W.; Jans, E.; Jiang, X.; Kaufman, L. J.; Kelleher, A.; Kolarkar, A.; Kumbartzki, G.; LeRose, J. J.; Lindgren, R.; Liyanage, N.; Margaziotis, D. J.; Markowitz, P.; Marrone, S.; Mazouz, M.; Meekins, D.; Michaels, R.; Moffit, B.; Perdrisat, C. F.; Piasetzky, E.; Potokar, M.; Punjabi, V.; Qiang, Y.; Reinhold, J.; Ron, G.; Rosner, G.; Saha, A.; Sawatzky, B.; Shahinyan, A.; Širca, S.; Slifer, K.; Solvignon, P.; Sulkosky, V.; Urciuoli, G. M.; Voutier, E.; Watson, J. W.; Weinstein, L. B.; Wojtsekhowski, B.; Wood, S.; Zheng, X.-C.; Zhu, L.

    2008-06-01

    The protons and neutrons in a nucleus can form strongly correlated nucleon pairs. Scattering experiments, in which a proton is knocked out of the nucleus with high-momentum transfer and high missing momentum, show that in carbon-12 the neutron-proton pairs are nearly 20 times as prevalent as proton-proton pairs and, by inference, neutron-neutron pairs. This difference between the types of pairs is due to the nature of the strong force and has implications for understanding cold dense nuclear systems such as neutron stars.

  15. Probing cold dense nuclear matter.

    PubMed

    Subedi, R; Shneor, R; Monaghan, P; Anderson, B D; Aniol, K; Annand, J; Arrington, J; Benaoum, H; Benmokhtar, F; Boeglin, W; Chen, J-P; Choi, Seonho; Cisbani, E; Craver, B; Frullani, S; Garibaldi, F; Gilad, S; Gilman, R; Glamazdin, O; Hansen, J-O; Higinbotham, D W; Holmstrom, T; Ibrahim, H; Igarashi, R; de Jager, C W; Jans, E; Jiang, X; Kaufman, L J; Kelleher, A; Kolarkar, A; Kumbartzki, G; Lerose, J J; Lindgren, R; Liyanage, N; Margaziotis, D J; Markowitz, P; Marrone, S; Mazouz, M; Meekins, D; Michaels, R; Moffit, B; Perdrisat, C F; Piasetzky, E; Potokar, M; Punjabi, V; Qiang, Y; Reinhold, J; Ron, G; Rosner, G; Saha, A; Sawatzky, B; Shahinyan, A; Sirca, S; Slifer, K; Solvignon, P; Sulkosky, V; Urciuoli, G M; Voutier, E; Watson, J W; Weinstein, L B; Wojtsekhowski, B; Wood, S; Zheng, X-C; Zhu, L

    2008-06-13

    The protons and neutrons in a nucleus can form strongly correlated nucleon pairs. Scattering experiments, in which a proton is knocked out of the nucleus with high-momentum transfer and high missing momentum, show that in carbon-12 the neutron-proton pairs are nearly 20 times as prevalent as proton-proton pairs and, by inference, neutron-neutron pairs. This difference between the types of pairs is due to the nature of the strong force and has implications for understanding cold dense nuclear systems such as neutron stars.

  16. Probing Cold Dense Nuclear Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Subedi, Ramesh; Shneor, R.; Monaghan, Peter; Anderson, Bryon; Aniol, Konrad; Annand, John; Arrington, John; Benaoum, Hachemi; Benmokhtar, Fatiha; Bertozzi, William; Boeglin, Werner; Chen, Jian-Ping; Choi, Seonho; Cisbani, Evaristo; Craver, Brandon; Frullani, Salvatore; Garibaldi, Franco; Gilad, Shalev; Gilman, Ronald; Glamazdin, Oleksandr; Hansen, Jens-Ole; Higinbotham, Douglas; Holmstrom, Timothy; Ibrahim, Hassan; Igarashi, Ryuichi; De Jager, Cornelis; Jans, Eddy; Jiang, Xiaodong; Kaufman, Lisa; Kelleher, Aidan; Kolarkar, Ameya; Kumbartzki, Gerfried; LeRose, John; Lindgren, Richard; Liyanage, Nilanga; Margaziotis, Demetrius; Markowitz, Pete; Marrone, Stefano; Mazouz, Malek; Meekins, David; Michaels, Robert; Moffit, Bryan; Perdrisat, Charles; Piasetzky, Eliazer; Potokar, Milan; Punjabi, Vina; Qiang, Yi; Reinhold, Joerg; Ron, Guy; Rosner, Guenther; Saha, Arunava; Sawatzky, Bradley; Shahinyan, Albert; Sirca, Simon; Slifer, Karl; Solvignon, Patricia; Sulkosky, Vince; Sulkosky, Vincent; Sulkosky, Vince; Sulkosky, Vincent; Urciuoli, Guido; Voutier, Eric; Watson, John; Weinstein, Lawrence; Wojtsekhowski, Bogdan; Wood, Stephen; Zheng, Xiaochao; Zhu, Lingyan

    2008-06-01

    The protons and neutrons in a nucleus can form strongly correlated nucleon pairs. Scattering experiments, in which a proton is knocked out of the nucleus with high-momentum transfer and high missing momentum, show that in carbon-12 the neutron-proton pairs are nearly 20 times as prevalent as proton-proton pairs and, by inference, neutron-neutron pairs. This difference between the types of pairs is due to the nature of the strong force and has implications for understanding cold dense nuclear systems such as neutron stars.

  17. Nuclear and quark matter at high temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biró, Tamás S.; Jakovác, Antal; Schram, Zsolt

    2017-03-01

    We review important ideas on nuclear and quark matter description on the basis of high-temperature field theory concepts, like resummation, dimensional reduction, interaction scale separation and spectral function modification in media. Statistical and thermodynamical concepts are spotted in the light of these methods concentrating on the -partially still open- problems of the hadronization process.

  18. Nuclear Matter Phase Transition in Infinite and Finite Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terranova, S.; Bonasera, A.

    2005-04-01

    A new "semiclassical" model of the nuclear matter, composed of u, d colored quarks, is proposed. The approach, named Constrained Molecular Dynamics (CoMD) is based on the molecular dynamics simulation of the quarks, which interact through the Richardson's potential, and on a constraint due to Pauli blocking. With a suitable choice of the quark masses, some possible Equation of State (EOS) of the nuclear matter, at temperature equal to zero and finite baryon density, are obtained. These equations of state, not only present some known properties of the nuclear matter, as the Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP) phase transition, but also shown the existence of a new state, the Exotic Color Clustering (ECC) state, in which cluster of quarks with the same color are formed. Some new quantities, "indicators" of the phase transition, are introduced: three order parameters, Mc2, Mc3, Mc4 defined trough the Gell-Mann matrices λα, and the lifetime of the J/Ψ particle. The behavior of the J/Ψ particle is studied also in the "finite" systems, obtained by expanding the corresponding "infinite" systems. It seems that the dynamics and the finite size effects do not wash completely the phase transition occurred in infinite systems, and the J/Ψ particle is still a good signature.

  19. Supernovae and high density nuclear matter

    SciTech Connect

    Kahana, S.

    1986-01-01

    The role of the nuclear equation of state (EOS) in producing prompt supernova explosions is examined. Results of calculations of Baron, Cooperstein, and Kahana incorporating general relativity and a new high density EOS are presented, and the relevance of these calculations to laboratory experiments with heavy ions considered. 31 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Probing nuclear matter with jet conversions

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, W.; Fries, R. J.

    2008-05-15

    We discuss the flavor of leading jet partons as a valuable probe of nuclear matter. We point out that the coupling of jets to nuclear matter naturally leads to an alteration of jet chemistry even at high transverse momentum p{sub T}. In particular, quantum chromodynamics (QCD) jets coupling to a chemically equilibrated quark gluon plasma in nuclear collisions will lead to hadron ratios at high transverse momentum p{sub T} that can differ significantly from their counterparts in p+p collisions. Flavor measurements could complement energy loss as a way to study interactions of hard QCD jets with nuclear matter. Roughly speaking they probe the inverse mean free path 1/{lambda} while energy loss probes the average squared momentum transfer {mu}{sup 2}/{lambda}. We present some estimates for the rate of jet conversions in a consistent Fokker-Planck framework and their impact on future high-p{sub T} identified hadron measurements at RHIC and LHC. We also suggest some novel observables to test flavor effects.

  1. Determining the nuclear equation of state from neutron-star masses and radii

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindblom, Lee

    1992-01-01

    A method is developed for determining the nuclear equation of state directly from a knowledge of the masses and radii of neutron stars. This analysis assumes only that equilibrium neutron-star matter has the stress-energy tensor of an isotropic fluid with a barotropic equation of state, and that general relativity describes a neutron star's internal gravitational field. We present numerical examples which illustrate how well this method will determine the equation of state when the appropriate observational data become available.

  2. Wanted! Nuclear Data for Dark Matter Astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Gondolo, P.

    2014-06-15

    Astronomical observations from small galaxies to the largest scales in the universe can be consistently explained by the simple idea of dark matter. The nature of dark matter is however still unknown. Empirically it cannot be any of the known particles, and many theories postulate it as a new elementary particle. Searches for dark matter particles are under way: production at high-energy accelerators, direct detection through dark matter-nucleus scattering, indirect detection through cosmic rays, gamma rays, or effects on stars. Particle dark matter searches rely on observing an excess of events above background, and a lot of controversies have arisen over the origin of observed excesses. With the new high-quality cosmic ray measurements from the AMS-02 experiment, the major uncertainty in modeling cosmic ray fluxes is in the nuclear physics cross sections for spallation and fragmentation of cosmic rays off interstellar hydrogen and helium. The understanding of direct detection backgrounds is limited by poor knowledge of cosmic ray activation in detector materials, with order of magnitude differences between simulation codes. A scarcity of data on nucleon spin densities blurs the connection between dark matter theory and experiments. What is needed, ideally, are more and better measurements of spallation cross sections relevant to cosmic rays and cosmogenic activation, and data on the nucleon spin densities in nuclei.

  3. Wanted! Nuclear Data for Dark Matter Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gondolo, P.

    2014-06-01

    Astronomical observations from small galaxies to the largest scales in the universe can be consistently explained by the simple idea of dark matter. The nature of dark matter is however still unknown. Empirically it cannot be any of the known particles, and many theories postulate it as a new elementary particle. Searches for dark matter particles are under way: production at high-energy accelerators, direct detection through dark matter-nucleus scattering, indirect detection through cosmic rays, gamma rays, or effects on stars. Particle dark matter searches rely on observing an excess of events above background, and a lot of controversies have arisen over the origin of observed excesses. With the new high-quality cosmic ray measurements from the AMS-02 experiment, the major uncertainty in modeling cosmic ray fluxes is in the nuclear physics cross sections for spallation and fragmentation of cosmic rays off interstellar hydrogen and helium. The understanding of direct detection backgrounds is limited by poor knowledge of cosmic ray activation in detector materials, with order of magnitude differences between simulation codes. A scarcity of data on nucleon spin densities blurs the connection between dark matter theory and experiments. What is needed, ideally, are more and better measurements of spallation cross sections relevant to cosmic rays and cosmogenic activation, and data on the nucleon spin densities in nuclei.

  4. From asymmetric nuclear matter to neutron stars: A functional renormalization group study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drews, Matthias; Weise, Wolfram

    2015-03-01

    A previous study of nuclear matter in a chiral nucleon-meson model is extended to isospin-asymmetric matter. Fluctuations beyond mean-field approximation are treated in the framework of the functional renormalization group. The nuclear liquid-gas phase transition is investigated in detail as a function of the proton fraction in asymmetric matter. The equations of state at zero temperature of both symmetric nuclear matter and pure neutron matter are found to be in good agreement with realistic many-body computations. We also study the density dependence of the pion mass in the medium. The question of chiral symmetry restoration in neutron matter is addressed; we find a stabilization of the phase with spontaneously broken chiral symmetry once fluctuations are included. Finally, neutron-star matter including β equilibrium is discussed. The model satisfies the constraints imposed by the existence of two-solar mass neutron stars.

  5. Neutrinos, Dark Matter and Nuclear Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, W H; Bernstein, A; Craig, W W; Johnson, M

    2007-05-29

    Solutions to problems in nuclear non-proliferation and counter-terrorism may be found at the forefront of modern physics. Neutrino oscillation experiments, dark matter searches, and high energy astrophysics, are based on technology advances that have may also have application to nuclear detection. The detection problems share many characteristics, including energy scales, time structures, particle-type, and, of course, the combination of high backgrounds and low signal levels. This convergence of basic and applied physics is realized in non-proliferation and homeland security projects at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Examples described here include reactor anti-neutrino monitoring, dual-phase noble liquid TPC development, gamma-ray telescopes, and nuclear resonance fluorescence.

  6. Nuclear matter properties with nucleon-nucleon forces up to fifth order in the chiral expansion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Jinniu; Zhang, Ying; Epelbaum, Evgeny; Meißner, Ulf-G.; Meng, Jie

    2017-09-01

    The properties of nuclear matter are studied using state-of-the-art nucleon-nucleon forces up to fifth order in chiral effective field theory. The equations of state of symmetric nuclear matter and pure neutron matter are calculated in the framework of the Brueckner-Hartree-Fock theory. We discuss in detail the convergence pattern of the chiral expansion and the regulator dependence of the calculated equations of state and provide an estimation of the truncation uncertainty. For all employed values of the regulator, the fifth-order chiral two-nucleon potential is found to generate nuclear saturation properties similar to the available phenomenological high precision potentials. We also extract the symmetry energy of nuclear matter, which is shown to be quite robust with respect to the chiral order and the value of the regulator.

  7. Nuclear charge and neutron radii and nuclear matter: Trend analysis in Skyrme density-functional-theory approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinhard, P.-G.; Nazarewicz, W.

    2016-05-01

    Background: Radii of charge and neutron distributions are fundamental nuclear properties. They depend on both nuclear interaction parameters related to the equation of state of infinite nuclear matter and on quantal shell effects, which are strongly impacted by the presence of nuclear surface. Purpose: In this work, by studying the correlation of charge and neutron radii, and neutron skin, with nuclear matter parameters, we assess different mechanisms that drive nuclear sizes. Method: We apply nuclear density functional theory using a family of Skyrme functionals obtained by means of optimization protocols, which do not include any radius information. By performing the Monte Carlo sampling of reasonable functionals around the optimal parametrization, we scan all correlations between nuclear matter properties and observables characterizing charge and neutron distributions of spherical closed-shell nuclei 48Ca,208Pb, and 298Fl. Results: By considering the influence of various nuclear matter properties on charge and neutron radii in a multidimensional parameter space of Skyrme functionals, we demonstrate the existence of two strong relationships: (i) between the nuclear charge radii and the saturation density of symmetric nuclear matter ρ0, and (ii) between the neutron skins and the slope of the symmetry energy L . The impact of other nuclear matter properties on nuclear radii is weak or nonexistent. For functionals optimized to experimental binding energies only, proton and neutron radii are found to be weakly correlated due to canceling trends from different nuclear matter characteristics. Conclusion: The existence of only two strong relations connecting nuclear radii with nuclear matter properties has important consequences. First, by requiring that the nuclear functional reproduces the empirical saturation point of symmetric nuclear matter practically fixes the charge (or proton) radii, and vice versa. This explains the recent results of ab initio calculations

  8. Equation of State of Structured Matter at Finite Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maruyama, T.; Yasutake, N.; Tatsumi, T.

    We investigate the properties of nuclear matter at the first-order phase transitions such as liquid-gas phase transition and hadron-quark phase transition. As a general feature of the first-order phase transitions of matter consisting of many species of charged particles, there appears a mixed phases with geometrical structures called ``pasta'' due to the balance of the Coulomb repulsion and the surface tension between two phases [G.~D.~Ravenhall, C.~J.~Pethick and J.~R.~Wilson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 50 (1983), 2066. M.~Hashimoto, H.~Seki and M.~Yamada, Prog. Theor. Phys. 71 (1984), 320.] The equation of state (EOS) of mixed phase is different from the one obtained by a bulk application of the Gibbs conditions or by the Maxwell construction due to the effects of the non-uniform structure. We show that the charge screening and strong surface tension make the EOS close to that of the Maxwell construction. The thermal effects are elucidated as well as the above finite-size effects.

  9. XXXI International Conference on Equations of State for Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortov, V. E.; Khishchenko, K. V.; Karamurzov, B. S.; Efremov, V. P.; Sultanov, V. G.; Kadatskiy, M. A.

    2016-11-01

    This paper is a preface to the proceedings of the XXXI International Conference on Equations of State for Matter, which was held in Elbrus settlement, in the Kabardino-Balkar Republic of the Russian Federation, during March 1-6, 2016. The conference was devoted to the seventieth anniversary of birth of Aleksey Vladimirovich Bushman (16.10.1946-6.12.1993), the author of classic works on equations of state for matter over a wide range of thermodynamic parameters on phase diagram.

  10. Equation of state of matter at supernuclear densities.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leung, Y. C.; Wang, C. G.

    1973-01-01

    The qualitative features of the equation of state of matter at supernuclear densities are deduced through a careful examination of the nature of particle interactions at short distances and by the introduction of an 'effective baryon mass spectrum.' It is found that the equation of state begins to take on a particularly simple form (the 'asymptotic form') at a relatively low matter density of 100,000 teragrams per cu cm.

  11. Laboratory tests of low density astrophysical nuclear equations of state.

    PubMed

    Qin, L; Hagel, K; Wada, R; Natowitz, J B; Shlomo, S; Bonasera, A; Röpke, G; Typel, S; Chen, Z; Huang, M; Wang, J; Zheng, H; Kowalski, S; Barbui, M; Rodrigues, M R D; Schmidt, K; Fabris, D; Lunardon, M; Moretto, S; Nebbia, G; Pesente, S; Rizzi, V; Viesti, G; Cinausero, M; Prete, G; Keutgen, T; El Masri, Y; Majka, Z; Ma, Y G

    2012-04-27

    Clustering in low density nuclear matter has been investigated using the NIMROD multidetector at Texas A&M University. Thermal coalescence modes were employed to extract densities, ρ, and temperatures, T, for evolving systems formed in collisions of 47A MeV (40)Ar+(112)Sn, (124)Sn and (64)Zn+(112)Sn, (124)Sn. The yields of d, t, (3)He, and (4)He have been determined at ρ=0.002 to 0.03 nucleons/fm(3) and T=5 to 11 MeV. The experimentally derived equilibrium constants for α particle production are compared with those predicted by a number of astrophysical equations of state. The data provide important new constraints on the model calculations.

  12. Relativistic mean-field hadronic models under nuclear matter constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutra, M.; Lourenço, O.; Avancini, S. S.; Carlson, B. V.; Delfino, A.; Menezes, D. P.; Providência, C.; Typel, S.; Stone, J. R.

    2014-11-01

    Background: The microscopic composition and properties of infinite hadronic matter at a wide range of densities and temperatures have been subjects of intense investigation for decades. The equation of state (EoS) relating pressure, energy density, and temperature at a given particle number density is essential for modeling compact astrophysical objects such as neutron stars, core-collapse supernovae, and related phenomena, including the creation of chemical elements in the universe. The EoS depends not only on the particles present in the matter, but, more importantly, also on the forces acting among them. Because a realistic and quantitative description of infinite hadronic matter and nuclei from first principles in not available at present, a large variety of phenomenological models has been developed in the past several decades, but the scarcity of experimental and observational data does not allow a unique determination of the adjustable parameters. Purpose: It is essential for further development of the field to determine the most realistic parameter sets and to use them consistently. Recently, a set of constraints on properties of nuclear matter was formed and the performance of 240 nonrelativistic Skyrme parametrizations was assessed [M. Dutra et al., Phys. Rev. C 85, 035201 (2012), 10.1103/PhysRevC.85.035201] in describing nuclear matter up to about three times nuclear saturation density. In the present work we examine 263 relativistic-mean-field (RMF) models in a comparable approach. These models have been widely used because of several important aspects not always present in nonrelativistic models, such as intrinsic Lorentz covariance, automatic inclusion of spin, appropriate saturation mechanism for nuclear matter, causality, and, therefore, no problems related to superluminal speed of sound in medium. Method: Three different sets of constraints related to symmetric nuclear matter, pure neutron matter, symmetry energy, and its derivatives were used. The

  13. Is nuclear matter a quantum crystal?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canuto, V.; Chitre, S. M.

    1973-01-01

    A possible alternative to the ordinary gas-like computation for nuclear matter is investigated under the assumption that the nucleons are arranged in a lattice. BCC, FCC and HCP structures are investigated. Only HCP shows a minimum in the energy vs. density curve with a modest binding energy of -1.5 MeV. The very low density limit is investigated and sensible results are obtained only if the tensor force decreases with the density. A study of the elastic properties indicates that the previous structures are mechanically unstable against shearing stresses.

  14. Hadronization measurements in cold nuclear matter

    SciTech Connect

    Dupre, Raphael

    2015-05-01

    Hadronization is the non-perturbative process of QCD by which partons become hadrons. It has been studied at high energies through various processes, we focus here on the experiments of lepto-production of hadrons in cold nuclear matter. By studying the dependence of observables to the atomic number of the target, these experimentscan give information on the dynamic of the hadronization at the femtometer scale. In particular, we will present preliminary results from JLab Hall B (CLAS collaboration), which give unprecedented statistical precision. Then, we will present results of a phenomenological study showing how HERMES data can be described with pure energyloss models.

  15. Applications of modern chiral interactions in nuclear matter and nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sammarruca, Francesca

    2016-09-01

    Experimental investigations are in progress, and more are planned for the near future, to set reliable constraints on the isospin asymmetric part of the nuclear equation of state. The latter plays a fundamental role in a broad spectrum of systems and phenomena, including the skins of neutron-rich nuclei and the location of the neutron drip lines. From the theoretical standpoint, microscopic calculations with statistically meaningful uncertainties are essential to guide experiments. We will discuss recent calculations of the nuclear and neutron matter equations of state at different orders of the chiral expansion. We will present applications and discuss the significance of those predictions as a foundation for future studies of convergence of the chiral perturbation series. Anticipating future experiments which may provide reliable information on the weak charge density in nuclei, we discuss the possibility of constraining the size of three-neutron forces in neutron matter. Supported by the U.S. Department of Energy under Grant No. DE-FG02-03ER41270.

  16. Dynamics of hot and dense nuclear and partonic matter

    SciTech Connect

    Bratkovskaya, E. L.; Cassing, W.; Linnyk, O.; Konchakovski, V. P.; Voronyuk, V.; Ozvenchuk, V.

    2012-06-15

    The dynamics of hot and dense nuclear matter is discussed from the microscopic transport point of view. The basic concepts of the Hadron-String-Dynamical transport model (HSD)-derived from Kadanoff-Baym equations in phase phase-are presented as well as 'highlights' of HSD results for different observables in heavy-ion collisions from 100 A MeV (SIS) to 21 A TeV(RHIC) energies. Furthermore, a novel extension of the HSD model for the description of the partonic phase-the Parton-Hadron-String-Dynamics (PHSD) approach-is introduced. PHSD includes a nontrivial partonic equation of state-in line with lattice QCD-as well as covariant transition rates from partonic to hadronic degrees of freedom. The sensitivity of hadronic observables to the partonic phase is demonstrated for relativistic heavy-ion collisions from the FAIR/NICA up to the RHIC energy regime.

  17. Cosmological implications of the dark matter equation of state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Weiqiang; Li, Hang; Wu, Yabo; Lu, Jianbo

    In this paper, we study a model which is composed of the cosmological constant and dark matter with nonzero equation of state parameter, which could be called as ΛwDM. In the synchronous gauge, we obtain the perturbation equations of dark matter, and deduce the evolution equations of growth factor about the dark matter and baryons. Based on the Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method, we constrain this model by the recently available cosmic observations which include cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation, baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO), type Ia supernovae (SNIa) and fσ8(z) data points from redshift-space distortion (RSD). The results present a tighter constraint on the model than the case without fσ8(z) data. In 3σ regions, we find the dark matter equation of state parameter wdm = 0.00011‑0.00070‑0.00135‑0.00178+0.00069+0.00134+0.00179. The currently available cosmic observations do not favor the nonzero dark matter equation of state parameter, no deviation from the lambda cold dark matter (ΛCDM) model is found in 1σ region.

  18. Equations of state and phase transitions in stellar matter

    SciTech Connect

    Raduta, Ad. R.; Gulminelli, F.; Aymard, F.; Oertel, M.; Margueron, J.

    2014-05-09

    Realistic description of core-collapsing supernovae evolution and structure of proto-neutron stars chiefly depends on microphysics input in terms of equations of state, chemical composition and weak interaction rates. At sub-saturation densities the main uncertainty comes from the symmetry energy. Within a nuclear statistical equilibrium (NSE) model with consistent treatment of clusterized and unbound components we investigate the meaning of symmetry energy in the case of dis-homogeneous systems, as the one thought to constitute the neutron star crust, and its sensitivity to the isovector properties of the effective interaction. At supra-saturation densities the situation is much more difficult because of the poor knowledge of nucleon-hyperon and hyperon-hyperon interactions and thermodynamic behavior in terms of phase transitions. Within a simple (npΛ) model we show that compressed baryonic matter with strangeness manifests a complex phase diagram with first and second order phase transitions. The fact that both are explored under strangeness chemical equilibrium and survive Coulomb suggests that they might have sizable consequences on star evolution. An example in this sense is the drastic reduction of the neutrino-mean free path in the vicinity of the critical point obtained within RPA which would lead to a less rapid star cooling.

  19. Symmetry energy of dilute warm nuclear matter.

    PubMed

    Natowitz, J B; Röpke, G; Typel, S; Blaschke, D; Bonasera, A; Hagel, K; Klähn, T; Kowalski, S; Qin, L; Shlomo, S; Wada, R; Wolter, H H

    2010-05-21

    The symmetry energy of nuclear matter is a fundamental ingredient in the investigation of exotic nuclei, heavy-ion collisions, and astrophysical phenomena. New data from heavy-ion collisions can be used to extract the free symmetry energy and the internal symmetry energy at subsaturation densities and temperatures below 10 MeV. Conventional theoretical calculations of the symmetry energy based on mean-field approaches fail to give the correct low-temperature, low-density limit that is governed by correlations, in particular, by the appearance of bound states. A recently developed quantum-statistical approach that takes the formation of clusters into account predicts symmetry energies that are in very good agreement with the experimental data. A consistent description of the symmetry energy is given that joins the correct low-density limit with quasiparticle approaches valid near the saturation density.

  20. EQUATION OF STATE AND NEUTRON STAR PROPERTIES CONSTRAINED BY NUCLEAR PHYSICS AND OBSERVATION

    SciTech Connect

    Hebeler, K.; Lattimer, J. M.; Pethick, C. J.; Schwenk, A.

    2013-08-10

    Microscopic calculations of neutron matter based on nuclear interactions derived from chiral effective field theory, combined with the recent observation of a 1.97 {+-} 0.04 M{sub Sun} neutron star, constrain the equation of state of neutron-rich matter at sub- and supranuclear densities. We discuss in detail the allowed equations of state and the impact of our results on the structure of neutron stars, the crust-core transition density, and the nuclear symmetry energy. In particular, we show that the predicted range for neutron star radii is robust. For use in astrophysical simulations, we provide detailed numerical tables for a representative set of equations of state consistent with these constraints.

  1. Nuclear matter in the early universe

    SciTech Connect

    Barros, Celso de Camargo; Cunha, Ivan Eugênio da

    2015-12-17

    Recently, extreme conditions have been obtained in ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions at RHIC and at the Large Hadron collider. It is believed that these conditions are similar to the ones of the early Universe, in the time between 10{sup −6}s and 1s, approximately. In this work, the hadrons produced in this range of time will be studied, considering some aspects of the systems produced in the heavy-ion collisions. We will study a phase posterior to the phase transition (in fact it is believed to be a crossover) from the quark-gluon plasma, that is the hadronic phase of the Universe. We will show the model proposed in [1], considering the hadronic matter described by a relativistic model (similar to the Walecka model), considering particles described by quantum equations in a curved spacetime. This curvature is due to the mass and to the strong interactions that appears in the energy-momentum tensor. The set of the equations is proposed in the Robertson-Walker metric, and some approximate solutions are obtained.

  2. Charged anisotropic matter with linear or nonlinear equation of state

    SciTech Connect

    Varela, Victor; Rahaman, Farook; Ray, Saibal; Chakraborty, Koushik; Kalam, Mehedi

    2010-08-15

    Ivanov pointed out substantial analytical difficulties associated with self-gravitating, static, isotropic fluid spheres when pressure explicitly depends on matter density. Simplifications achieved with the introduction of electric charge were noticed as well. We deal with self-gravitating, charged, anisotropic fluids and get even more flexibility in solving the Einstein-Maxwell equations. In order to discuss analytical solutions we extend Krori and Barua's method to include pressure anisotropy and linear or nonlinear equations of state. The field equations are reduced to a system of three algebraic equations for the anisotropic pressures as well as matter and electrostatic energy densities. Attention is paid to compact sources characterized by positive matter density and positive radial pressure. Arising solutions satisfy the energy conditions of general relativity. Spheres with vanishing net charge contain fluid elements with unbounded proper charge density located at the fluid-vacuum interface. Notably the electric force acting on these fluid elements is finite, although the acting electric field is zero. Net charges can be huge (10{sup 19}C) and maximum electric field intensities are very large (10{sup 23}-10{sup 24} statvolt/cm) even in the case of zero net charge. Inward-directed fluid forces caused by pressure anisotropy may allow equilibrium configurations with larger net charges and electric field intensities than those found in studies of charged isotropic fluids. Links of these results with charged strange quark stars as well as models of dark matter including massive charged particles are highlighted. The van der Waals equation of state leading to matter densities constrained by cubic polynomial equations is briefly considered. The fundamental question of stability is left open.

  3. Recent progress on dense nuclear matter in skyrmion approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, YongLiang; Rho, Mannque

    2017-03-01

    The Skyrme model provides a novel unified approach to nuclear physics. In this approach, single baryon, baryonic matter and medium-modified hadron properties are treated on the same footing. Intrinsic density dependence (IDD) reflecting the change of vacuum by compressed baryonic matter figures naturally in the approach. In this article, we review the recent progress on accessing dense nuclear matter by putting baryons treated as solitons, namely, skyrmions, on crystal lattice with accents on the implications in compact stars.

  4. Recent progress on dense nuclear matter in skyrmion approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, YongLiang; Rho, Mannque

    2017-03-01

    The Skyrme model provides a novel unified approach to nuclear physics. In this approach, single baryon, baryonic matter and medium-modified hadron properties are treated on the same footing. Intrinsic density dependence (IDD) reflecting the change of vacuum by compressed baryonic matter figures naturally in the approach. In this article, we review the recent progress on accessing dense nuclear matter by putting baryons treated as solitons, namely, skyrmions, on crystal lattice with accents on the implications in compact stars.

  5. Equation of state of hadronic matter with dibaryons in an effective quark model

    SciTech Connect

    R. Aguirre; M. Schvellinger

    1998-06-01

    The equation of state of symmetric nuclear matter with the inclusion of non-strange dibaryons is studied. They pay special attention to the existence of a dibaryon condensate at zero temperature. These calculations have been performed in an extended quark-meson coupling model with density-dependent parameters, which takes into account the finite size of nucleons and dibaryons. A first-order phase-transition to pure dibaryon matter has been found. The corresponding critical density is strongly dependent on the value of the dibaryon mass. The density behavior of the nucleon and dibaryon effective masses and confining volumes have also been discussed.

  6. The many facets of the (non-relativistic) Nuclear Equation of State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giuliani, G.; Zheng, H.; Bonasera, A.

    2014-05-01

    A nucleus is a quantum many body system made of strongly interacting Fermions, protons and neutrons (nucleons). This produces a rich Nuclear Equation of State whose knowledge is crucial to our understanding of the composition and evolution of celestial objects. The nuclear equation of state displays many different features; first neutrons and protons might be treated as identical particles or nucleons, but when the differences between protons and neutrons are spelled out, we can have completely different scenarios, just by changing slightly their interactions. At zero temperature and for neutron rich matter, a quantum liquid-gas phase transition at low densities or a quark-gluon plasma at high densities might occur. Furthermore, the large binding energy of the α particle, a Boson, might also open the possibility of studying a system made of a mixture of Bosons and Fermions, which adds to the open problems of the nuclear equation of state.

  7. Equation of state and neutrino opacity of dense stellar matter

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, S.

    2004-01-01

    The properties of matter at densities similar to nuclear density plays an important role in core collapse supernova. In this talk I discuss aspects of the equation of state and weak interactions at high density. I highlight its relation to the temporal and spectral features of the neutrino emission from the newly born neutron star born in the aftermath of a core-collapse supernova. I will briefly comment on how this will impact r-process nucleosynthesis. The hot and dense neutron star (proto-neutron star) born in the aftermath of a core collapse supernova provides a promising environment for r-process nucleosynthesis. The intense temperatures and neutrino fluxes in the vicinity of the proto-neutron star is expected to result in a high entropy neutron-rich wind necessary for successful r-process nucleosynthesis. Although theoretical efforts to simulate core collapse supernova have not been able to provide a mechanism for robust explosions, several key features of the supernova dynamics and early evolution of the proto-neutron star are well understood. Large scale numerical simulations of supernova and neutron star evolution are now being pursued by several groups. Simulating core collapse supernova is challenging because it involves coupled multi-dimensional hydrodynamics and neutrino transport. The neutrinos play a key role since they are the dominant source of energy transport. It is expected that refinements in neutrino transport and better treatment of multi-dimensional effects are needed to understand the explosion mechanism. The temporal and spectral features of the neutrino emission which is emitted from the proto-neutron star is an independent diagnostic of supernova explosion dynamics and early evolution of the proto-neutron star. To accurately predict the ambient conditions just outside the newly born neutron star for the first 10-20 s, we will need to understand both the explosion mechanism and neutrino emission. In this talk I will discuss micro

  8. Modern compact star observations and the quark matter equation of state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klähn, T.; Blaschke, D.; Sandin, F.; Fuchs, Ch.; Faessler, A.; Grigorian, H.; Röpke, G.; Trümper, J.

    2007-10-01

    We present a hybrid equation of state (EoS) for dense matter that satisfies phenomenological constraints from modern compact star (CS) observations which indicate high maximum masses (M ∼ 2M⊙) and large radii (R > 12 km). The corresponding isospin symmetric EoS is consistent with flow data analyses of heavy-ion collisions and a deconfinement transition at ∼ 0.55 fm-3. The quark matter phase is described by a 3-flavor Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model that accounts for scalar diquark condensation and vector meson interactions while the nuclear matter phase is obtained within the Dirac-Brueckner-Hartree-Fock (DBHF) approach using the Bonn-A potential. We demonstrate that both pure neutron stars and neutron stars with quark matter cores are consistent with modern CS observations. Hybrid star configurations with a CFL quark core are unstable within the present model.

  9. Phases of kinky holographic nuclear matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliot-Ripley, Matthew; Sutcliffe, Paul; Zamaklar, Marija

    2016-10-01

    Holographic QCD at finite baryon number density and zero temperature is studied within the five-dimensional Sakai-Sugimoto model. We introduce a new approximation that models a smeared crystal of solitonic baryons by assuming spatial homogeneity to obtain an effective kink theory in the holographic direction. The kink theory correctly reproduces a first order phase transition to lightly bound nuclear matter. As the density is further increased the kink splits into a pair of half-kink constituents, providing a concrete realization of the previously suggested dyonic salt phase, where the bulk soliton splits into constituents at high density. The kink model also captures the phenomenon of baryonic popcorn, in which a first order phase transition generates an additional soliton layer in the holographic direction. We find that this popcorn transition takes place at a density below the dyonic salt phase, making the latter energetically unfavourable. However, the kink model predicts only one pop, rather than the sequence of pops suggested by previous approximations. In the kink model the two layers produced by the single pop form the surface of a soliton bag that increases in size as the baryon chemical potential is increased. The interior of the bag is filled with abelian electric potential and the instanton charge density is localized on the surface of the bag. The soliton bag may provide a holographic description of a quarkyonic phase.

  10. Sigma meson in vacuum and nuclear matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menchaca-Maciel, M. C.; Morones-Ibarra, J. R.

    2013-04-01

    We have obtained the value of the interaction constant g σππ that adjusts the values obtained in the E791 Collaboration at Fermilab and BES Collaboration at the Beijing Electron Positron Collider experiments. To get this we have used the concept of critical width to make compatible the parameters obtained from the Breit-Wigner formula and those obtained from the density function. Also, the total width and effective mass modification of the sigma meson in nuclear matter has been studied in the Walecka model, assuming that the sigma couples to a pair of nucleon-antinucleon states and to particle-hole states, including the in-medium effect of sigma-omega mixing. We have considered, for completeness, the coupling of sigma to two virtual pions. We have found that the sigma meson mass decreases with respect to its value in vacuum and that the contribution of the sigma-omega mixing effect on the mass shift is relevant.

  11. Scattering of dressed nucleons in nuclear matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickhoff, W. H.

    1998-11-01

    The scattering of dressed nucleons in nuclear matter is studied. By casting the conventional asymptotic analysis of scattering in free space in the language of the two-body propagator, it becomes possible to develop modifications of this analysis due to the dressing of the scattering nucleons in the medium. While the scattering energy singles out a unique (on-shell) momentum characterizing the relative wave function of free or mean-field nucleons, this uniqueness is no longer maintained for dressed nucleons. The resulting distribution of momenta in the relative wave function leads to a localization in coordinate space of the influence of the scattering process which can be expressed as a healing of the wave function to the noninteracting one. An analytic approximation to the noninteracting propagator of the dressed nucleons is utilized to illustrate these points. The localization of the scattered wave implies that the particles no longer ``remember'' their scattering event beyond some finite distance. This feature suggests that the strict notion of a cross section in the medium is a tenuous concept. Approximate expressions are developed to characterize the strength of the interaction in the medium in terms of phase shifts and cross sections to facilitate comparisons with results of calculations involving mean-field nucleons.

  12. Functional renormalization group study of nuclear and neutron matter

    SciTech Connect

    Drews, Matthias; Weise, Wolfram

    2016-01-22

    A chiral model based on nucleons interacting via boson exchange is investigated. Fluctuation effects are included consistently beyond the mean-field approximation in the framework of the functional renormalization group. The liquid-gas phase transition of symmetric nuclear matter is studied in detail. No sign of a chiral restoration transition is found up to temperatures of about 100 MeV and densities of at least three times the density of normal nuclear matter. Moreover, the model is extended to asymmetric nuclear matter and the constraints from neutron star observations are discussed.

  13. Temperature and density dependence of properties of nuclear matter deduced from heavy ion collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Shlomo, Shalom

    2010-11-24

    Heavy-ion collision experiments are often employed to determine properties of nuclear matter under extreme conditions of temperature and density. This has been the subject of many investigations in recent decades, since understanding the equation of state of hot nuclear matter is very important in the study supernovae, neutron stars and nuclei. We present a short and limited review of the theoretical and experimental status of determining the temperature and density of the disassembling hot nucleus from ratios of the yields of emitted fragments.

  14. Angular correlations from particle-particle propagation in symmetric nuclear matter

    SciTech Connect

    Arellano, H. F.; Delaroche, J.-P.

    2010-08-04

    Angular correlations arising from particle-particle propagation in nuclear matter are presented. Their account emerges from an exact treatment of the Pauli blocking on intermediate states while retaining the angular structure of the energy denominator. As a result, a correlation form factor appears from the Cauchy principal-value of the particle-particle propagator, while the imaginary part becomes structurally different from those in Lippmann-Schwinger-type equations. In selfconsistent runs these features alter the behavior of the mass operator near the Fermi surface, modifying the saturation properties of infinite nuclear matter.

  15. K meson-nucleus interactions: strangeness and nuclear matter

    SciTech Connect

    Kahana, S.

    1985-01-01

    A brief review is provided of some straightforward K-nuclear and ..lambda..-hypernuclear systems. A discussion of less straightforward speculations on H-dibaryons and strange quark matter by many authors, is also given. 28 refs., 6 figs.

  16. Operational Equations of State. 2. The Generalized Courant-Friedrichs Equation of State for Condensed Matter

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    The equation of state (EOS) with separable internal energy played a big role in the analysis of dynamics of condensed matter and development of the mathematical basis of the shock-wave physics (Courant, R.; Friedrichs, K. O. Supersonic Flow and Shock Waves; Interscience: New

  17. Einstein's equations and a cosmology with finite matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clavelli, L.; Goldstein, Gary R.

    2015-04-01

    We discuss various space-time metrics which are compatible with Einstein's equations and a previously suggested cosmology with a finite total mass.1 In this alternative cosmology, the matter density was postulated to be a spatial delta function at the time of the big bang thereafter diffusing outward with constant total mass. This proposal explores a departure from standard assumptions that the big bang occurred everywhere at once or was just one of an infinite number of previous and later transitions.

  18. Quark Matter Equation of State from Perturbative QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vuorinen, Aleksi

    2017-03-01

    In this proceedings contribution, we discuss recent developments in the perturbative determination of the Equation of State of dense quark matter, relevant for the microscopic description of neutron star cores. First, we introduce the current state of the art in the problem, both at zero and small temperatures, and then present results from two recent perturbative studies that pave the way towards extending the EoS to higher orders in perturbation theory.

  19. Sigma omega meson coupling and properties of nuclei and nuclear matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haidari, Maryam M.; Sharma, Madan M.

    2008-05-01

    We have constructed a Lagrangian model with a coupling of σ and ω mesons in the relativistic mean-field theory. Properties of finite nuclei and nuclear matter are explored with the new Lagrangian model SIG-OM. The study shows that an excellent description of binding energies and charge radii of nuclei over a large range of isospin is achieved with SIG-OM. With an incompressibility of nuclear matter K=265 MeV, it is also able to describe the breathing-mode isoscalar giant monopole resonance energies appropriately. It is shown that the high-density behaviour of the equation of state of nuclear and neutron matter with the σ-ω coupling is much softer than that of the non-linear scalar coupling model.

  20. Neutrino mean free paths in cold symmetric nuclear matter

    SciTech Connect

    Cowell, S.; Pandharipande, V.R.

    2004-09-01

    The neutrino mean free paths (NMFP) for scattering and absorption in cold symmetric nuclear matter (SNM) are calculated using two-body effective interactions and one-body effective weak operators obtained from realistic models of nuclear forces using correlated basis theory. The infinite system is modeled in a box with periodic boundary conditions and the one particle-hole (p-h) response functions are calculated using the Tamm-Dancoff approximation (TDA). For the densities {rho}=(1/2), 1 (3/2){rho}{sub 0}, where {rho}{sub 0} is the equilibrium density of SNM, the strength of the response is shifted to higher energy transfers when compared to a noninteracting Fermi gas (FG). This and the weakness of effective operators compared to the bare operators, significantly reduces the cross sections, enhancing the NMFP by factors of {approx}2.5-3.5 at the densities considered. The NMFP at the equilibrium density {rho}{sub 0} are also calculated using the TDA and random phase approximation (RPA) using zero range Skyrme-like effective interactions with parameters chosen to reproduce the equation of state and spin-isospin susceptibilities of matter. Their results indicate that RPA corrections to correlated TDA may further increase the NMFP by {approx}25% to 3-4 times those in a noninteracting FG. Finally, the sums and the energy weighted sums of the Fermi and Gamow-Teller responses obtained from the correlated ground state are compared with those of the 1 p-h response functions to extract the sum and mean energies of multi p-h contributions to the weak response. The relatively large mean energy of the multi p-h excitations suggests that they may not contribute significantly to low energy NMFP.

  1. The nuclear geometric Yang-Mills equation for incompressible nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sparks, Nicholas; Rosensteel, George

    2016-09-01

    The geometric Yang-Mills equation for the Bohr-Mottelson collective model provides a way of relating angular momentum degrees of freedom to the internal (Kelvin circulation) degrees of freedom. It is well known that nuclei are highly incompressible. The correct mathematical description for nuclear incompressibility involves an equation of constraint for constant volume. An alternative yet equivalent description involves treating this constraint in a purely differential geometric way. The relationship between these two seemingly different approaches is explored here.

  2. An Application of Functional Renormalization Group Method for Superdense Nuclear Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnaföldi, G. G.; Jakovác, A.; Pósfay, P.

    2017-01-01

    We proposed a method, using the expansion of the effective potential in a base of harmonic functions, to study the Functional Renormalization Group (FRG) method at finite chemical potential. Within this theoretical framework we determined the equation of state and the phase diagram of a simple model of massless fermions coupled to scalars through Yukawa-couling at the zero-temperature limit. Here, we use our FRG-based equation of state to describe the superdense nuclear matter inside compact astrophysical objects. We calculated the mass-radius relation for a compact star using the TOV equation, which was compared to other results.

  3. Medium polarization and pairing in asymmetric nuclear matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, J. M.; Lombardo, U.; Zhang, H. F.; Zuo, W.

    2017-01-01

    The many-body theory of asymmetric nuclear matter is developed beyond the Brueckner-Hartree-Fock approximation to incorporate the medium polarization effects. The extension is performed within the Babu-Brown induced interaction theory. After deriving the particle-hole interaction in the form of Landau-Migdal parameters, the effects of the induced component on the symmetry energy are investigated along with the screening of 1 S 0 proton-proton and 3 PF 2 neutron-neutron pairing, which are relevant for the neutron-star cooling. The crossover from repulsive (screening) to attractive (anti-screening) interaction going from pure neutron matter to symmetric nuclear matter is discussed.

  4. Low energy overlineKN interaction in nuclear matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waas, T.; Kaiser, N.; Weise, W.

    1996-02-01

    We investigate the low-energy overlineKN interaction in nuclear matter including Pauli blocking, Fermi motion and binding effects. We use a coupled-channel approach based on the Chiral SU(3) Effective Lagrangian which describes all available low energy data of the coupled overlineKN, πΣ, πΛ system. Due to the dynamics of the Λ (1405) resonance we find a strong non-linear density dependence of the K -p scattering amplitude in nuclear matter. The real part of the K -p scattering length changes sign already at a small fraction of nuclear matter density, less than 0.2 po. This may explain the striking behaviour of the K - -nuclear optical potential found in the analysis of kaonic atom data.

  5. Interacting Quark Matter Equation of State for Compact Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraga, Eduardo S.; Kurkela, Aleksi; Vuorinen, Aleksi

    2014-02-01

    Lattice quantum chromodynamics (QCD) studies of the thermodynamics of hot quark-gluon plasma demonstrate the importance of accounting for the interactions of quarks and gluons if one wants to investigate the phase structure of strongly interacting matter. Motivated by this observation and using state-of-the-art results from perturbative QCD, we construct a simple, effective equation of state (EOS) for cold quark matter that consistently incorporates the effects of interactions and furthermore includes a built-in estimate of the inherent systematic uncertainties. This goes beyond the MIT bag model description in a crucial way, yet leads to an EOS that is equally straightforward to use. We also demonstrate that, at moderate densities, our EOS can be made to smoothly connect to hadronic EOSs, with the two exhibiting very similar behavior near the matching region. The resulting hybrid stars are seen to have masses similar to those predicted by the purely nucleonic EOSs.

  6. INTERACTING QUARK MATTER EQUATION OF STATE FOR COMPACT STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Fraga, Eduardo S.; Kurkela, Aleksi; Vuorinen, Aleksi

    2014-02-01

    Lattice quantum chromodynamics (QCD) studies of the thermodynamics of hot quark-gluon plasma demonstrate the importance of accounting for the interactions of quarks and gluons if one wants to investigate the phase structure of strongly interacting matter. Motivated by this observation and using state-of-the-art results from perturbative QCD, we construct a simple, effective equation of state (EOS) for cold quark matter that consistently incorporates the effects of interactions and furthermore includes a built-in estimate of the inherent systematic uncertainties. This goes beyond the MIT bag model description in a crucial way, yet leads to an EOS that is equally straightforward to use. We also demonstrate that, at moderate densities, our EOS can be made to smoothly connect to hadronic EOSs, with the two exhibiting very similar behavior near the matching region. The resulting hybrid stars are seen to have masses similar to those predicted by the purely nucleonic EOSs.

  7. Neutron Star Dense Matter Equation of State Constraints with NICER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogdanov, Slavko; Arzoumanian, Zaven; Chakrabarty, Deepto; Guillot, Sebastien; Kust Harding, Alice; Ho, Wynn C. G.; Lamb, Frederick K.; Mahmoodifar, Simin; Miller, M. Coleman; Morsink, Sharon; Ozel, Feryal; Psaltis, Dimitrios; Ray, Paul S.; Riley, Tom; Strohmayer, Tod E.; Watts, Anna; Wolff, Michael Thomas; Gendreau, Keith

    2017-08-01

    One of the principal goals of the Neutron Star Interior Composition Explorer (NICER) is to place constraints on the dense matter equation of state through sensitive X-ray observations of neutron stars. The NICER mission will focus on measuring the masses and radii of several relatively bright, thermally-emitting, rotation-powered millisecond pulsars, by fitting models that incorporate all relevant relativistic effects and atmospheric radiation transfer processes to their periodic soft X-ray modulations. Here, we provide an overview of the targets NICER will observe and tthe technique and models that have been developed by the NICER team to estimate the masses and radii of these pulsars.

  8. Landau parameters of nuclear matter in the spin and spin-isospin channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuo, W.; Shen, Caiwan; Lombardo, U.

    2003-03-01

    The equation of state of spin and isospin polarized nuclear matter is determined in the framework of the Brueckner theory including three-body forces. The Landau parameters in the spin and spin-isospin sectors are derived as a function of the baryonic density. The results are compared with the Gamow-Teller collective modes. The relevance of G0 and G'0 for neutron stars is shortly discussed, including the magnetic susceptibility and the neutron star cooling.

  9. Effective contact pairing forces from realistic calculations in infinite homogeneous nuclear matter

    SciTech Connect

    Chamel, N.

    2010-07-15

    Nonempirical effective contact pairing forces to be used in self-consistent mean-field calculations are presented. These pairing forces, constructed so as to reproduce exactly any given microscopic pairing gaps in infinite homogeneous nuclear matter for any isospin asymmetry, are given in analytical form. As a by-product, this work provides an analytical solution of the BCS gap equations which could be applied to describe various many-body systems.

  10. $J/\\Psi$ mass shift in nuclear matter

    SciTech Connect

    Gastao Krein, Anthony Thomas, Kazuo Tsushima

    2011-02-01

    The $J/\\Psi$ mass shift in cold nuclear matter is computed using an effective Lagrangian approach. The mass shift is computed by evaluating $D$ and $D^*$ meson loop contributions to the $J/\\Psi$ self-energy employing medium-modified meson masses. The modification of the $D$ and $D^*$ masses in nuclear matter is obtained using the quark-meson coupling model. The loop integrals are regularized with dipole form factors and the sensitivity of the results to the values of form-factor cutoff masses is investigated. The $J/\\Psi$ mass shift arising from the modification of the $D$ and $D^*$ loops at normal nuclear matter density is found to range from $-16$~MeV to $-24$~MeV under a wide variation of values of the cutoff masses. Experimental perspectives for the formation of a bound state of $J/\\Psi$ to a nucleus are investigated.

  11. Sonoluminescence test for equation of state in warm dense matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, Siu-Fai; Barnard, J. J.; Leung, P. T.; Yu, S. S.

    2009-07-01

    In experiments of Single-bubble Sonoluminescence (SBSL), the bubble is heated to temperatures of a few eV in the collapse phase of the oscillation. Our hydrodynamic simulations show that the density inside the bubble can go up to the order of 1 g/cm 3, and the electron density due to ionization is 10 21/cm 3. So the plasma coupling constant is found to be around 1 and the gas inside the bubble is in the Warm Dense Matter (WDM) regime. We simulate the light emission of SL with an optical model for thermal radiation which takes the finite opacity of the bubble into consideration. The numerical results obtained are compared with the experimental data and found to be very sensitive to the equation of state (EOS) used. As theories for the equation of state, as well as the opacity data, in the WDM regime are still very uncertain, we propose that SL may be a good low-cost experimental check for the EOS and the opacity data for matter in the WDM regime.

  12. Sonoluminescence test for equation of state in warm dense matter

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, Siu-Fai; Barnard, J.J.; Leung, P.T.; Yu, S.S.

    2008-08-01

    In experiments of Single-bubble Sonoluminescence (SBSL), the bubble is heated to temperatures of a few eV in the collapse phase of the oscillation. Our hydrodynamic simulations show that the density inside the bubble can go up to the order of 1 g/cm3, and the electron density due to ionization is 1021 /cm3. So the plasma coupling constant is found to be around 1 and the gas inside the bubble is in the Warm Dense Matter (WDM) regime. We simulate the light emission of SL with an optical model for thermal radiation which takes the finite opacity of the bubble into consideration. The numerical results obtained are compared to the experimental data and found to be very sensitive to the equation of state used. As theories for the equation of state, as well as the opacity data, in the WDM regime are still very uncertain, we propose that SL may be a good low-cost experimental check for the EOS and the opacity data for matter in the WDM regime.

  13. Recent Developments in Cold Fusion / Condensed Matter Nuclear Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krivit, Steven B.

    2006-03-01

    Krivit is recognized internationally as an expert on the subject matter of cold fusion / condensed matter nuclear science. He is the editor of New Energy Times, the leading source of information for the field of cold fusion. He is the author of the 2005 book, The Rebirth of Cold Fusion and founder of New Energy Institute, an independent nonprofit public benefit corporation dedicated to accelerating the progress of new, sustainable and environmentally friendly energy sources.

  14. From light nuclei to nuclear matter the role of relativity?

    SciTech Connect

    Coester, F.; Physics

    2003-11-10

    The success of non-relativistic quantum dynamics in accounting for the binding energies and spectra of light nuclei with masses up to A=10 raises the question whether the same dynamics applied to infinite nuclear matter agrees with the empirical saturation properties of large nuclei. The simple unambiguous relation between few-nucleon and many-nucleon Hamiltonians is directly related to the Galilean covariance of nonrelativistic dynamics. Relations between the irreducible unitary representations of the Galilei and Poincare groups indicate that the 'nonrelativistic' nuclear Hamiltonians may provide sufficiently accurate approximations to Poincare invariant mass operators. In relativistic nuclear dynamics based on suitable Lagrangeans the intrinsic nucleon parity is an explicit, dynamically relevant, degree of freedom and the emphasis is on properties of nuclear matter. The success of this approach suggests the question how it might account for the spectral properties of light nuclei.

  15. Energy-range relations for hadrons in nuclear matter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strugalski, Z.

    1985-01-01

    Range-energy relations for hadrons in nuclear matter exist similarly to the range-energy relations for charged particles in materials. When hadrons of GeV kinetic energies collide with atomic nuclei massive enough, events occur in which incident hadron is stopped completely inside the target nucleus without causing particle production - without pion production in particular. The stoppings are always accompanied by intensive emission of nucleons with kinetic energy from about 20 up to about 400 MeV. It was shown experimentally that the mean number of the emitted nucleons is a measure of the mean path in nuclear matter in nucleons on which the incident hadrons are stopped.

  16. Climate Change, Nuclear Power and Nuclear Proliferation: Magnitude Matters

    SciTech Connect

    Robert J. Goldston

    2010-03-03

    Integrated energy, environment and economics modeling suggests electrical energy use will increase from 2.4 TWe today to 12 TWe in 2100. It will be challenging to provide 40% of this electrical power from combustion with carbon sequestration, as it will be challenging to provide 30% from renewable energy sources. Thus nuclear power may be needed to provide ~30% by 2100. Calculations of the associated stocks and flows of uranium, plutonium and minor actinides indicate that the proliferation risks at mid-century, using current light-water reactor technology, are daunting. There are institutional arrangements that may be able to provide an acceptable level of risk mitigation, but they will be difficult to implement. If a transition is begun to fast-spectrum reactors at mid-century, without a dramatic change in the proliferation risks of such systems, at the end of the century proliferation risks are much greater, and more resistant to mitigation. The risks of nuclear power should be compared with the risks of the estimated 0.64oC long-term global surface-average temperature rise predicted if nuclear power were replaced with coal-fired power plants without carbon sequestration. Fusion energy, if developed, would provide a source of nuclear power with much lower proliferation risks than fission.

  17. Nuclear Physics of Dark Matter Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engel, J.; Pittel, S.; Vogel, P.

    We describe the elastic scattering of weakly interacting dark matter particles from nuclei, with laboratory detection in mind. We focus on the lightest neutralino (a neutral fermion predicted by supersymmetry) as a likely candidate and discuss the physics needed to calculate its elastic scattering cross section and interpret experimental results. Particular emphasis is placed on a proper description of the structure of the proposed detector nuclei. We include a brief discussion of expected count rates in some detectors.

  18. Connecting neutron star observations to three-body forces in neutron matter and to the nuclear symmetry energy.

    PubMed

    Steiner, A W; Gandolfi, S

    2012-02-24

    Using a phenomenological form of the equation of state of neutron matter near the saturation density which has been previously demonstrated to be a good characterization of quantum Monte Carlo simulations, we show that currently available neutron star mass and radius measurements provide a significant constraint on the equation of state of neutron matter. At higher densities we model the equation of state by using polytropes and a quark matter model. We show that observations offer an important constraint on the strength of the three-body force in neutron matter, and thus some theoretical models of the three-body force may be ruled out by currently available astrophysical data. In addition, we obtain an estimate of the symmetry energy of nuclear matter and its slope that can be directly compared to the experiment and other theoretical calculations.

  19. Climate Change, Nuclear Power and Nuclear Proliferation: Magnitude Matters

    SciTech Connect

    Robert J. Goldston

    2011-04-28

    Integrated energy, environment and economics modeling suggests that worldwide electrical energy use will increase from 2.4 TWe today to ~12 TWe in 2100. It will be challenging to provide 40% of this electrical power from combustion with carbon sequestration, as it will be challenging to provide 30% from renewable energy sources derived from natural energy flows. Thus nuclear power may be needed to provide ~30%, 3600 GWe, by 2100. Calculations of the associated stocks and flows of uranium, plutonium and minor actinides indicate that the proliferation risks at mid-century, using current light-water reactor technology, are daunting. There are institutional arrangements that may be able to provide an acceptable level of risk mitigation, but they will be difficult to implement. If a transition is begun to fast-spectrum reactors at mid-century, without a dramatic change in the proliferation risks of such systems, at the end of the century global nuclear proliferation risks are much greater, and more resistant to mitigation. Fusion energy, if successfully demonstrated to be economically competitive, would provide a source of nuclear power with much lower proliferation risks than fission.

  20. Shell effects in hot nuclei and their influence on nuclear composition in supernova matter

    SciTech Connect

    Nishimura, Suguru; Takano, Masatoshi

    2014-05-02

    We calculate nuclear composition in supernova (SN) matter explicitly taking into account the temperature dependence of nuclear shell effects. The abundance of nuclei in SN matter is important in the dynamics of core-collapse supernovae and, in recently constructed equations of state (EOS) for SN matter, the composition of nuclei are calculated assuming nuclear statistical equilibrium wherein the nuclear internal free energies govern the composition. However, in these EOS, thermal effects on the shell energy are not explicitly taken into account. To address this shortfall, we calculate herein the shell energies of hot nuclei and examine their influence on the composition of SN matter. Following a simplified macroscopic-microscopic approach, we first calculate single-particle (SP) energies by using a spherical Woods-Saxon potential. Then we extract shell energies at finite temperatures using Strutinsky method with the Fermi distribution as the average occupation probability of the SP levels. The results show that at relatively low temperatures, shell effects are still important and magic nuclei are abundant. However, at temperatures above approximately 2 MeV, shell effects are almost negligible, and the mass fractions with shell energies including the thermal effect are close to those obtained from a simple liquid drop model at finite temperatures.

  1. Medium modifications of baryon properties in nuclear matter and hypernuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, J. S.; Shen, H.

    2013-09-01

    We study the medium modifications of baryon properties in nuclear many-body systems, especially in Λ hypernuclei. The nucleon and the Λ hyperon are described in the Friedberg-Lee model as nontopological solitons which interact through the self-consistent exchange of scalar and vector mesons. The quark degrees of freedom are explicitly considered in the model, so that the medium effects on baryons could be investigated. It is found that the model can provide reasonable descriptions for nuclear matter, finite nuclei, and Λ hypernuclei. The present model predicts a significant increase of the baryon radius in nuclear medium.

  2. Phase transitions of nuclear matter beyond mean field theory

    SciTech Connect

    Tran Huu Phat; Nguyen Tuan Anh; Nguyen Van Long; Le Viet Hoa

    2007-10-15

    The Cornwall-Jackiw-Tomboulis (CJT) effective action approach is applied to study the phase transition of nuclear matter modeled by the four-nucleon interaction. It is shown that in the Hartree-Fock approximation (HFA) a first-order phase transition takes place at low temperature, whereas the phase transition is of second order at higher temperature.

  3. The coexistence curve of finite charged nuclear matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliott, J. B.; Moretto, L. G.; Phair, L.; Wozniak, G. J.; Beaulieu, L.; Breuer, H.; Korteling, R. G.; Kwiatkowski, K.; Lefort, T.; Pienkowski, L.; Ruangma, A.; Viola, V. E.; Yennello, S. J.; Albergo, S.; Bieser, F.; Brady, F. P.; Caccia, Z.; Cebra, D. A.; Chacon, A. D.; Chance, J. L.; Choi, Y.; Costa, S.; Gilkes, M. L.; Hauger, J. A.; Hirsch, A. S.; Hjort, E. L.; Insolia, A.; Justice, M.; Keane, D.; Kintner, J. C.; Lindenstruth, V.; Lisa, M. A.; Matis, H. S.; McMahan, M.; McParland, C.; Müller, W. F. J.; Olson, D. L.; Partlan, M. D.; Porile, N. T.; Potenza, R.; Rai, G.; Rasmussen, J.; Ritter, H. G.; Romanski, J.; Romero, J. L.; Russo, G. V.; Sann, H.; Scharenberg, R. P.; Scott, A.; Shao, Y.; Srivastava, B. K.; Symons, T. J. M.; Tincknell, M.; Tuvé, C.; Wang, S.; Warren, P.; Wieman, H. H.; Wienold, T.; Wolf, K.

    2002-04-01

    The multifragmentation data of the ISiS Collaboration and the EOS Collaboration are examined. Fisher's droplet formalism, modified to account for Coulomb energy, is used to determine the critical exponents τ and σ, the surface energy coefficient c0, the pressure-temperature-density coexistence curve of finite nuclear matter and the location of the critical point. .

  4. Nuclear Matter from Effective Quark-Quark Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldo, M.; Fukukawa, K.

    2014-12-01

    We study neutron matter and symmetric nuclear matter with the quark-meson model for the two-nucleon interaction. The Bethe-Bruckner-Goldstone many-body theory is used to describe the correlations up to the three hole-line approximation with no extra parameters. At variance with other nonrelativistic realistic interactions, the three hole-line contribution turns out to be non-negligible and to have a substantial saturation effect. The saturation point of nuclear matter, the compressibility, the symmetry energy, and its slope are within the phenomenological constraints. Since the interaction also reproduces fairly well the properties of the three-nucleon system, these results indicate that the explicit introduction of the quark degrees of freedom within the considered constituent quark model is expected to reduce the role of three-body forces.

  5. Nuclear matter from effective quark-quark interaction.

    PubMed

    Baldo, M; Fukukawa, K

    2014-12-12

    We study neutron matter and symmetric nuclear matter with the quark-meson model for the two-nucleon interaction. The Bethe-Bruckner-Goldstone many-body theory is used to describe the correlations up to the three hole-line approximation with no extra parameters. At variance with other nonrelativistic realistic interactions, the three hole-line contribution turns out to be non-negligible and to have a substantial saturation effect. The saturation point of nuclear matter, the compressibility, the symmetry energy, and its slope are within the phenomenological constraints. Since the interaction also reproduces fairly well the properties of the three-nucleon system, these results indicate that the explicit introduction of the quark degrees of freedom within the considered constituent quark model is expected to reduce the role of three-body forces.

  6. Nuclear techniques in studies of condensed matter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Jag J.

    1987-01-01

    Nuclear techniques have played an important role in the studies of materials over the past several decades. For example, X-ray diffraction, neutron diffraction, neutron activation, and particle- or photon-induced X-ray emission techniques have been used extensively for the elucidation of structural and compositional details of materials. Several new techniques have been developed recently. Four such techniques are briefly reviewed which have great potential in the study and development of new materials. Of these four, Mossbauer spectroscopy, muon spin rotation, and positron annihilation spectroscopy techniques exploit their great sensitivity to the local atomic environments in the test materials. Interest in synchrotron radiation, on the other hand, stems from its special properties, such as high intensity, high degree of polarization, and high monochromaticity. It is hoped that this brief review will stimulate interest in the exploitation of these newer techniques for the development of improved materials.

  7. Nuclear matter at high density: Phase transitions, multiquark states, and supernova outbursts

    SciTech Connect

    Krivoruchenko, M. I.; Nadyozhin, D. K.; Rasinkova, T. L.; Simonov, Yu. A.; Trusov, M. A. Yudin, A. V.

    2011-03-15

    Phase transition from hadronic matter to quark-gluon matter is discussed for various regimes of temperature and baryon number density. For small and medium densities, the phase transition is accurately described in the framework of the Field Correlation Method, whereas at high density predictions are less certain and leave room for the phenomenological models. We study formation of multiquark states (MQS) at zero temperature and high density. Relevant MQS components of the nuclear matter can be described using a previously developed formalism of the quark compound bags (QCB). Partialwave analysis of nucleon-nucleon scattering indicates the existence of 6QS which manifest themselves as poles of P matrix. In the framework of the QCB model, we formulate a self-consistent system of coupled equations for the nucleon and 6QS propagators in nuclear matter and the G matrix. The approach provides a link between high-density nuclear matter with the MQS components and the cumulative effect observed in reactions on the nuclei, which requires the admixture of MQS in the wave functions of nuclei kinematically. 6QS determines the natural scale of the density for a possible phase transition into theMQS phase of nuclear matter. Such a phase transition can lead to dynamic instability of newly born protoneutron stars and dramatically affect the dynamics of supernovae. Numerical simulations show that the phase transition may be a good remedy for the triggering supernova explosions in the spherically symmetric supernovamodels. A specific signature of the phase transition is an additional neutrino peak in the neutrino light curve. For a Galactic core-collapse supernova, such a peak could be resolved by the present neutrino detectors. The possibility of extracting the parameters of the phase of transition from observation of the neutrino signal is discussed also.

  8. np Pairing Correlations in Low-Density Region of Nuclear Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Isayev, A.A.; Bastrukov, S.I.; Yang, J.

    2004-10-01

    In the framework of Green's function formalism at finite temperatures, superfluidity of nuclear matter with np pairing correlations is studied. It is shown that, at low densities, equations for the energy gap in the spectrum of quasiparticles and chemical potentials of protons and neutrons allow solutions with negative chemical potential, which corresponds to appearance of Bose-Einstein condensation of deuterons in the low-density region of nuclear matter. In this region, np pairing correlations survive even for large isospin asymmetry. Interaction between nucleons is described by the effective zero range force, developed to reproduce the energy gap in the isospin singlet pairing channel, calculated with the use of the Paris NN potential. The obtained results may be of importance for description of thermal properties of outer low-density regions of neutron stars.

  9. Kondo effect of D\\xAFs and D\\xAFs* mesons in nuclear matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasui, Shigehiro; Sudoh, Kazutaka

    2017-03-01

    We study the Kondo effect for D¯s and D¯s* mesons as impurity particles in nuclear matter. The spin-exchange interaction between the D¯s or D¯s* meson and the nucleon induces the enhancement of the effective coupling in the low-energy scattering in the infrared region, whose energy scale of singularity is given by the Kondo scale. We investigate the Kondo scale in the renormalization group equation at nucleon one-loop level. We furthermore study the ground state with the Kondo effect in the mean-field approach, and present that the Kondo scale is related to the mixing strength between the D¯s or D¯s* meson and the nucleon in nuclear matter. We show the spectral function of the impurity when the Kondo effect occurs.

  10. Warm unstable asymmetric nuclear matter: Critical properties and the density dependence of the symmetry energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, N.; Pais, H.; Providência, C.; Agrawal, B. K.

    2017-05-01

    The spinodal instabilities in hot asymmetric nuclear matter and some important critical parameters derived thereof are studied by using six different families of relativistic mean-field models. The slopes of the symmetry energy coefficient vary over a wide range within each family. The critical densities and proton fractions are more sensitive to the symmetry energy slope parameter at temperatures much below its critical value (Tc˜14 -16 MeV ). The spread in the critical proton fraction at a given symmetry energy slope parameter is noticeably larger near Tc, indicating that the equation of state of warm asymmetric nuclear matter at subsaturation densities is not sufficiently constrained. The distillation effects are sensitive to the density dependence of the symmetry energy at low temperatures which tend to wash out with increasing temperature.

  11. Nuclear processing - a simple cost equation or a complex problem?

    SciTech Connect

    Banfield, Z.; Banford, A.W.; Hanson, B.C.; Scully, P.J.

    2007-07-01

    BNFL has extensive experience of nuclear processing plant from concept through to decommissioning, at all stages of the fuel cycle. Nexia Solutions (formerly BNFL's R and D Division) has always supported BNFL in development of concept plant, including the development of costed plant designs for the purpose of economic evaluation and technology selection. Having undertaken such studies over a number of years, this has enabled Nexia Solutions to develop a portfolio of costed plant designs for a broad range of nuclear processes, throughputs and technologies. This work has led to an extensive understanding of the relationship of the cost of nuclear processing plant, and how this can be impacted by scale of process, and the selection of design philosophy. The relationship has been seen to be non linear and so simplistic equations do not apply, the relationship is complex due to the variety of contributory factors. This is particularly evident when considering the scale of a process, for example how step changes in design occurs with increasing scale, how the applicability of technology options can vary with scale etc... This paper will explore the contributory factor of scale to nuclear processing plant costs. (authors)

  12. Constraining the nuclear equation of state at subsaturation densities.

    PubMed

    Khan, E; Margueron, J; Vidaña, I

    2012-08-31

    Only one-third of the nucleons in 208Pb occupy the saturation density area. Consequently, nuclear observables related to the average properties of nuclei, such as masses or radii, constrain the equation of state not at the saturation density but rather around the so-called crossing density, localized close to the mean value of the density of nuclei: ρ is approximately equal to 0.11 fm(-3). This provides an explanation for the empirical fact that several equation of state quantities calculated with various functionals cross at a density significantly lower than the saturation one. The third derivative M of the energy per unit of volume at the crossing density is constrained by the giant monopole resonance measurements in an isotopic chain rather than the incompressibility at saturation density. The giant monopole resonance measurements provide M=1100±70 MeV (6% uncertainty), whose extrapolation gives K(∞)=230±40 MeV (17% uncertainty).

  13. Stochastic Evolution Equations Driven by Nuclear Space Valued Martingales.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-09-01

    11TILEI- d cutic eolufctin equations dIriven by nucle ar space valued mart in ial s 12. PER50NAL AUTHOR(S) Kallianpiir, G. and Perez-Ahreu, V. 13a. TYPE...space D where the driving force is a ’-valued martingale. We do this in Section 2 where we obtain an "evolution" or "mild solution" in the form of a...2 nuclear space) such that the restriction A(t) of A(t) on D is a continuous linear operator on (. Thus one is led to the question of

  14. Nuclear matter in nontopological soliton models with quark-meson coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnea, Nir; Walhout, Timothy S.

    2000-09-01

    A system of nontopological solitons interacting through meson exchange is used to model dense nuclear matter. The models studied are of the Friedberg-Lee type, which exhibit dynamical bag formation due to the coupling of quarks to a scalar composite gluon field σ. It is shown in the Wigner-Seitz approximation that the high density behavior of such models depends essentially on the leading power of the quark- σ coupling vertex. By insisting that the parameters of any soliton model be chosen to reproduce single nucleon properties, this high-density behavior then selects a promising class of models that better fit the empirical results — the chiral chromodielectric models. The presence of a scalar meson is shown to provide saturation as well as an increase of the proton charge radius with nuclear density. We go beyond the usual Wigner-Seitz approximation by introducing the disorder necessary to reproduce the liquid state, using the significant structure theory of physical chemistry. We study nuclear matter, with particular interest in the transition to a quark plasma, showing that even the simplest version of the model provides a reasonable qualitative fit to both the empirical nuclear matter equation of state and single nucleon properties.

  15. Study of nuclear matter density distributions using hadronic probes

    SciTech Connect

    Kohama, Akihisa; Iida, Kei; Oyamatsu, Kazuhiro

    2011-05-06

    We briefly review our formula for a proton-nucleus total reaction cross section, {sigma}{sub R}, constructed in the black-sphere approximation of nuclei, in which a nucleus is viewed as a 'black' sphere of radius 'a'. Some years ago, using the Glauber model, one of the authors (A.K.) and his collaborators performed numerical simulations to examine the possibility to probe the nuclear matter density distributions of neutron-rich unstable nuclei from proton elastic scatterings 'model-independently'. The present study is another attempt to seek a 'model-independent' framework for systematically analyzing scattering data for studying the matter density distributions of atomic nuclei.

  16. Nuclear matter radii determined by interaction cross sections

    SciTech Connect

    Ozawa, A.

    2005-10-19

    Experimental studies on nuclear matter radii determined by the interaction cross sections ({sigma}I) are reviewed. In particular, the procedure to determine the root-mean square matter radii from the measured {sigma}I by Galuber model analysis is described. Future {sigma}I measurements at the RI beam factory (RIBF) in RIKEN are introduced. As new calculations, the sensitivity of the skin is discussed in the case with a proton target based on Glauber-model calculations. In the energy region of RIBF, {sigma}I is sensitive for the skin; however, measurements with high accuracies are needed.

  17. Nucleon propagation through nuclear matter in chiral effective field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallik, S.; Mishra, H.

    2007-05-01

    We treat the propagation of a nucleon in nuclear matter by evaluating the ensemble average of the two-point function of the nucleon currents in the framework of chiral effective field theory. We first derive the effective parameters of the nucleon to one loop. The resulting formula for the effective mass has been known since before and gives an absurd value at normal nuclear density. We then modify it following Weinberg’s method for the two-nucleon system in the effective theory. Our results for the effective mass and the width of the nucleon are compared with those in the literature.

  18. Properties of nucleon in nuclear matter: once more

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azizi, K.; Er, N.

    2014-05-01

    We calculate the mass and residue of the nucleon in nuclear matter in the frame work of QCD sum rules using the nucleon's interpolating current with an arbitrary mixing parameter. We evaluate the effects of the nuclear medium on these quantities and compare the results obtained with the existing theoretical predictions. The results are also compared with those obtained in vacuum to find the shifts in the quantities under consideration. Our calculations show that these shifts in the mass and residue are about and , respectively.

  19. Scattering and stopping of hadrons in nuclear matter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strugalski, Z.

    1985-01-01

    It was observed, in the 180 litre xenon bubble chamber, that when hadrons with kinetic energy higher than the pion production threshold fall on a layer of nuclear matter - on an atomic nucleus in other words - in many cases they can pass through it without causing particles production but they are deflected through some deflection angles; if the energy is lower than a few GeV and the nuclear matter layer is thick enough, the hadrons can be stopped in it. The amount of the deflection at a given incident hadron energy varies with the way the hadron strikes the atomic nucleus; the probability of the occurrence of stopping depends on the incident hadron identity and energy, and on the way the hadron passed through the nucleus, as well.

  20. Electric-dipole sum rule in nuclear matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabrocini, A.; Fantoni, S.

    1985-03-01

    The enhancement factor K in the electric-dipole sum rule for some realistic models of symmetrical nuclear matter is calculated using variational theory. The nuclear-matter wave function used contains central, spin, isospin, tensor and spin-orbit pair correlations. The non-central correlations, particularly the tensor one, give the major contribution to K. At experimental equilibrium density K. turns out to be ≈ 1.8, of which 65% comes from OPEP and 30% from the short-range part of the interaction. The two-pion-exchange three-nucleon interaction contributes ≈ 0.2% and is cancelled, to a large extent, by the contribution due to the intermediate-range two-body potential. The relationship of the summed oscillator strength with the effective mass is also discussed.

  1. Nuclear matter in the crystal soliton bag model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achtzehnter, Joachim; Scheid, Werner; Wilets, Lawrence

    1985-11-01

    A model for nuclear matter is introduced as consisting of an infinite number of bags placed on a spatial cubic lattice. Using the soliton bag model of Friedberg and Lee in the self-consistent mean-field approximation we study the properties of the system as a function of the lattice constant. At low densities the hadronic matter is well described by the solutions of isolated nucleons. With decreasing lattice constant the energies of the quarks spread out into bands and the quark wave functions of different bags start to overlap. At a certain critical density an abrupt phase transition to a uniform quark distribution occurs. The model yields a critical density of the order of the normal nuclear density which shows that the model cannot adequately describe the repulsive part of the nucleon-nucleon interaction at small relative distances.

  2. Suppression of the {Lambda}-{Sigma} coupling in nuclear matter

    SciTech Connect

    Bodmer, A.R.; Usmani, Q.N.

    1995-08-01

    We initiated a study of the modification of the coupling of the {Lambda}N to the {Sigma}N channel in nuclear matter with the Fermi hypernetted-chain variational approach. This modification of the {Lambda}N-{Sigma}N coupling is a central problem in hypernuclear physics and is related closely to the strongly repulsive three-body forces which are needed to account for hypernuclear binding energies. All earlier calculations have only considered this problem in the so-called G-matrix approximation which neglects important higher-order effects. An important result of this work will be a better understanding of the density dependence of {Lambda} binding in nuclear matter, which can then be tested in the calculation of the {Lambda} single-particle energies.

  3. Determination of nuclear-matter temperature and density

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, K.L.

    1980-01-01

    Some of the things learned about nuclear matter under extreme conditions during the past few years in relativistic heavy ion studies are reviewed. Two developments are discussed. The completion of analyses and publication of results from the impact parameter selected, single-particle inclusive experiments have proven to be important. Preliminary results from the new generation of two-particle correlation and particle-exclusive measurements, especially those using streamer chambers, look even more definitive. Also the measurement of more exotic ejectiles with long mean free paths in nuclear matter promises to provide more basic information. Calculations are offering real guidance and are providing explanations of high energy collisions. The Monte Carlo and intranuclear cascade calculations discussed are especially informative.

  4. Heating of nuclear matter and multifragmentation : antiprotons vs. pions.

    SciTech Connect

    Back, B.; Beaulieu, L.; Breuer, H.; Gushue, S.; Hsi, W.-C.; Korteling, R. G.; Kwiatkowski, K.; Laforest, R.; Lefort, T.; Martin, E.; Pienkowski, L.; Ramakrishnan, E.; Remsberg, L. P.; Rowland, D.; Ruangma, A.; Viola, V. E.; Winchester, E.; Yennello, S. J.

    1999-05-03

    Heating of nuclear matter with 8 GeV/c {bar p} and {pi}{sup {minus}} beams has been investigated in an experiment conducted at BNL AGS accelerator. All charged particles from protons to Z {approx_equal} 16 were detected using the Indiana Silicon Sphere 4{pi} array. Significant enhancement of energy deposition in high multiplicity events is observed for antiprotons compared to other hadron beams. The experimental trends are qualitatively consistent with predictions from an intranuclear cascade code.

  5. Investigation of the organic matter in inactive nuclear tank liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Schenley, R.L.; Griest, W.H.

    1990-08-01

    Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) methodology for regulatory organics fails to account for the organic matter that is suggested by total organic carbon (TOC) analysis in the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) inactive nuclear waste-tank liquids and sludges. Identification and measurement of the total organics are needed to select appropriate waste treatment technologies. An initial investigation was made of the nature of the organics in several waste-tank liquids. This report details the analysis of ORNL wastes.

  6. Constructing the phase diagram of finite neutral nuclear matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliott, J. B.; Moretto, L. G.; Phair, L.; Wozniak, G. J.; Albergo, S.; Bieser, F.; Brady, F. P.; Caccia, Z.; Cebra, D. A.; Chacon, A. D.; Chance, J. L.; Choi, Y.; Costa, S.; Gilkes, M. L.; Hauger, J. A.; Hirsch, A. S.; Hjort, E. L.; Insolia, A.; Justice, M.; Keane, D.; Kintner, J. C.; Lindenstruth, V.; Lisa, M. A.; Matis, H. S.; McMahan, M.; McParland, C.; Müller, W. F.; Olson, D. L.; Partlan, M. D.; Porile, N. T.; Potenza, R.; Rai, G.; Rasmussen, J.; Ritter, H. G.; Romanski, J.; Romero, J. L.; Russo, G. V.; Sann, H.; Scharenberg, R. P.; Scott, A.; Shao, Y.; Srivastava, B. K.; Symons, T. J.; Tincknell, M.; Tuvé, C.; Wang, S.; Warren, P.; Wieman, H. H.; Wienold, T.; Wolf, K.

    2003-02-01

    The fragment yields from the multifragmentation of gold, lanthanum, and krypton nuclei obtained by the EOS Collaboration are examined in terms of Fisher’s droplet formalism modified to account for Coulomb energy. The critical exponents σ and τ and the surface energy coefficient c0 are obtained. Estimates are made of the pressure-temperature and temperature-density coexistence curve of finite neutral nuclear matter as well as the location of the critical point.

  7. Extended Skyrme interactions for nuclear matter, finite nuclei, and neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhen; Chen, Lie-Wen

    2016-12-01

    Recent progress in theory, experiment, and observation challenges the mean-field models by using the conventional Skyrme interaction, suggesting that the extension of the conventional Skyrme interaction is necessary. In this work, by fitting the experimental data of a number of finite nuclei together with a few additional constraints on nuclear matter using the simulated annealing method, we construct three Skyrme interaction parameter sets; namely, eMSL07, eMSL08, and eMSL09, based on an extended Skyrme interaction which includes additional momentum and density-dependent two-body forces to effectively simulate the momentum dependence of the three-body force. The three new interactions (i) can reasonably describe the ground-state properties and the isoscalar giant monopole resonance energies of various spherical nuclei used in the fit as well as the ground-state properties of many other spherical nuclei, (ii) nicely conform to the current knowledge on the equation of state of asymmetric nuclear matter, (iii) eliminate the notorious unphysical instabilities of symmetric nuclear matter and pure neutron matter up to a very high density of 1.2 fm-3 , and (iv) simultaneously support heavier neutron stars with mass larger than two times the solar mass. One important difference of the three new interactions involves the prediction of the symmetry energy at supra-saturation densities, and these new interactions are thus potentially useful for the future determination of the largely uncertain high-density symmetry energy. In addition, the predictions of nuclear matter, finite nuclei, and neutron stars made using the three new interactions are compared with those made using the three typical interactions BSk22, BSk24, and BSk26 from the Brussels group.

  8. Nuclear inertia from the time dependent pairing equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirea, M.

    2016-10-01

    In a dynamical system, the momenta of inertia and the effective masses are not adiabatic quantities, but are dynamical ones that depend on the dissipated energy accumulated during motion. However, these parameters are calculated for adiabatic nuclear systems, leaving no room for dissipated energy. In this work, a formalism is elaborated in order to derive simultaneously the nuclear momenta of inertia and the effective masses by taking into account the appearance of dissipated energy for large amplitude motion of the nuclear system. The expressions that define the inertia are obtained from the variational principle. The same principle manages the time dependent pairing equations, offering estimations of the averaged dissipation energy for large amplitude motions. The model is applied to 232Th fission. The fission barrier was calculated along the least action trajectory. The dissipation energy, effective mass and moment of inertia are determined for different values of the collective velocities. The dissipation increases with the internuclear velocity in binary disintegration processes and modifies the effective mass parameters. We observed that the inertia decreases as long as the collective velocity increases to some moderate values and begins to grow for larger collective velocities. So, a dependence between the cranking mass parameters and the intrinsic excitation energy is evidenced. In order to investigate the overall effect, the half-lives are predicted for adiabatic and dynamics simulations.

  9. Saturated symmetric nuclear matter in strong magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diener, J. P. W.; Scholtz, F. G.

    2013-06-01

    Strongly magnetized symmetric nuclear matter is investigated within the context of effective baryon-meson exchange models. The magnetic field is coupled to the charge as well as the dipole moment of the baryons by including the appropriate terms in the Lagrangian density. The saturation density of magnetized, symmetric nuclear matter ρ0(B) was calculated for magnetic fields of the order of 1017 gauss. For the calculated range of ρ0(B) the binding energy, symmetry energy coefficient a4, and compressibility K of nuclear matter were also calculated. It is found that with an increasing magnetic field ρ0(B) increases, while the system becomes less bound. Furthermore, the depopulation of proton Landau levels leaves a distinct fluctuating imprint on K and a4. The calculations were also performed for increased values of the baryon magnetic dipole moment. By increasing the dipole moment strength ρ0(B) is found to decrease, but the system becomes more tightly bound while the fluctuations in K and a4 persist.

  10. Properties of nuclear matter from macroscopic-microscopic mass formulas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ning; Liu, Min; Ou, Li; Zhang, Yingxun

    2015-12-01

    Based on the standard Skyrme energy density functionals together with the extended Thomas-Fermi approach, the properties of symmetric and asymmetric nuclear matter represented in two macroscopic-microscopic mass formulas: Lublin-Strasbourg nuclear drop energy (LSD) formula and Weizsäcker-Skyrme (WS*) formula, are extracted through matching the energy per particle of finite nuclei. For LSD and WS*, the obtained incompressibility coefficients of symmetric nuclear matter are K∞ = 230 ± 11 MeV and 235 ± 11 MeV, respectively. The slope parameter of symmetry energy at saturation density is L = 41.6 ± 7.6 MeV for LSD and 51.5 ± 9.6 MeV for WS*, respectively, which is compatible with the liquid-drop analysis of Lattimer and Lim [4]. The density dependence of the mean-field isoscalar and isovector effective mass, and the neutron-proton effective masses splitting for neutron matter are simultaneously investigated. The results are generally consistent with those from the Skyrme Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov calculations and nucleon optical potentials, and the standard deviations are large and increase rapidly with density. A better constraint for the effective mass is helpful to reduce uncertainties of the depth of the mean-field potential.

  11. Effective kaon masses in dense nuclear and neutron matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waas, T.; Kaiser, N.; Weise, W.

    1996-02-01

    The effective mass and decay width of kaonic modes in baryonic matter are studied within a coupled-channel approach based on the Chiral SU(3) Effective Lagrangian which describes all available low energy data of the coupled overlineKN, π∑, πΛ system. Including Pauli blocking and Fermi motion in the kaon dispersion relation, we find a strong non-linear density dependence of the K - effective mass and decay width in symmetric nuclear matter at densities around 0.1 times normal nuclear matter density ϱ0 due to the in-medium dynamics of the Λ(1405) resonance. At higher densities the K - effective mass decreases slowly but stays above 0.5 mK at least up to densities below 3 ϱ0. In neutron matter the K - effective mass decreases almost linearly with increasing density but remains relatively large ( m K∗ > 0.65 m K) for ϱn ≲ 3 ϱ0. The K + effective mass turns out to increase very slowly with rising density.

  12. Nuclear matter at high temperature and low net baryonic density

    SciTech Connect

    Costa, R. S.; Duarte, S. B.; Oliveira, J. C. T.; Chiapparini, M.

    2010-11-12

    We study the effect of the {sigma}-{omega} mesons interaction on nucleon-antinucleon matter properties. This interaction is employed in the context of the linear Walecka model to discuss the behavior of this system at high temperature and low net baryonic density regime. The field equations are solved in the relativistic mean-field approximation and our results show that the phase transition pointed out in the literature for this regime is eliminated when the meson interaction are considered.

  13. Thermodynamic instabilities in hot and dense nuclear matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavagno, A.

    2016-11-01

    We study the presence of thermodynamic instabilities in a hot and dense nuclear medium where a nuclear phase transition can take place. Similarly to the low density nuclear liquid-gas phase transition, we show that such a phase transition is characterized by pure hadronic matter with both mechanical instability (fluctuations on the baryon density) that by chemical-diffusive instability (fluctuations on the strangeness concentration). The analysis is performed by requiring the global conservation of baryon number and zero net strangeness in the framework of an effective relativistic mean field theory with the inclusion of the Δ(1232)-isobars, hyperons and the lightest pseudoscalar and vector meson degrees of freedom. It turns out that in this situation hadronic phases with different values of strangeness content may coexist, altering significantly meson-antimeson ratios.

  14. 76 FR 31992 - In the Matter of Nine Mile Point Nuclear Station, LLC; Nine Mile Point Nuclear Station...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-02

    ... is collocated with a power reactor may choose to comply with the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION In the Matter of Nine Mile Point Nuclear Station, LLC; Nine Mile Point Nuclear Station...

  15. 75 FR 10833 - In the Matter of Entergy Nuclear Operations; Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Station; Demand for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION In the Matter of Entergy Nuclear Operations; Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Station; Demand for.... The license authorizes the operation of the Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Station (Vermont Yankee) in...

  16. Nonextensive statistical effects and strangeness production in hot and dense nuclear matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavagno, A.; Pigato, D.

    2012-12-01

    By means of an effective relativistic nuclear equation of state in the framework of the nonextensive statistical mechanics, characterized by power-law quantum distributions, we study the phase transition from hadronic matter to quark-gluon plasma at finite temperature and baryon density. The analysis is performed by requiring the Gibbs conditions on the global conservation of baryon number, electric charge fraction and zero net strangeness. We show that nonextensive statistical effects strongly influence the strangeness production during the pure hadronic phase and the hadron-quark-gluon mixed phase transition, also for small deviations from the standard Boltzmann-Gibbs statistics.

  17. The properties of nuclear matter with lattice NN potential in relativistic Brueckner-Hartree-Fock theory

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Jinniu; Toki, Hiroshi; Shen, Hong

    2016-01-01

    We study the properties of nuclear matter with lattice nucleon-nucleon (NN) potential in the relativistic Brueckner-Hartree-Fock (RBHF) theory. To use this potential in such a microscopic many-body theory, we firstly have to construct a one-boson-exchange potential (OBEP) based on the latest lattice NN potential. Three mesons, pion, σ meson, and ω meson, are considered. Their coupling constants and cut-off momenta are determined by fitting the on-shell behaviors and phase shifts of the lattice force, respectively. Therefore, we obtain two parameter sets of the OBEP potential (named as LOBEP1 and LOBEP2) with these two fitting ways. We calculate the properties of symmetric and pure neutron matter with LOBEP1 and LOBEP2. In non-relativistic Brueckner-Hartree-Fock case, the binding energies of symmetric nuclear matter are around −3 and −5 MeV at saturation density, while it becomes −8 and −12 MeV in relativistic framework with 1S0, 3S1, and 3D1 channels using our two parameter sets. For the pure neutron matter, the equations of state in non-relativistic and relativistic cases are very similar due to only consideration 1S0 channel with isospin T = 1 case. PMID:27752124

  18. The properties of nuclear matter with lattice NN potential in relativistic Brueckner-Hartree-Fock theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Jinniu; Toki, Hiroshi; Shen, Hong

    2016-10-01

    We study the properties of nuclear matter with lattice nucleon-nucleon (NN) potential in the relativistic Brueckner-Hartree-Fock (RBHF) theory. To use this potential in such a microscopic many-body theory, we firstly have to construct a one-boson-exchange potential (OBEP) based on the latest lattice NN potential. Three mesons, pion, σ meson, and ω meson, are considered. Their coupling constants and cut-off momenta are determined by fitting the on-shell behaviors and phase shifts of the lattice force, respectively. Therefore, we obtain two parameter sets of the OBEP potential (named as LOBEP1 and LOBEP2) with these two fitting ways. We calculate the properties of symmetric and pure neutron matter with LOBEP1 and LOBEP2. In non-relativistic Brueckner-Hartree-Fock case, the binding energies of symmetric nuclear matter are around ‑3 and ‑5 MeV at saturation density, while it becomes ‑8 and ‑12 MeV in relativistic framework with 1S0, 3S1, and 3D1 channels using our two parameter sets. For the pure neutron matter, the equations of state in non-relativistic and relativistic cases are very similar due to only consideration 1S0 channel with isospin T = 1 case.

  19. BISON Theory Manual The Equations behind Nuclear Fuel Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Hales, J. D.; Williamson, R. L.; Novascone, S. R.; Pastore, G.; Spencer, B. W.; Stafford, D. S.; Gamble, K. A.; Perez, D. M.; Liu, W.

    2016-09-01

    BISON is a finite element-based nuclear fuel performance code applicable to a variety of fuel forms including light water reactor fuel rods, TRISO particle fuel, and metallic rod and plate fuel. It solves the fully-coupled equations of thermomechanics and species diffusion, for either 2D axisymmetric or 3D geometries. Fuel models are included to describe temperature and burnup dependent thermal properties, fission product swelling, densification, thermal and irradiation creep, fracture, and fission gas production and release. Plasticity, irradiation growth, and thermal and irradiation creep models are implemented for clad materials. Models are also available to simulate gap heat transfer, mechanical contact, and the evolution of the gap/plenum pressure with plenum volume, gas temperature, and fission gas addition. BISON is based on the MOOSE framework and can therefore efficiently solve problems using standard workstations or very large high-performance computers. This document describes the theoretical and numerical foundations of BISON.

  20. REJECTING PROPOSED DENSE MATTER EQUATIONS OF STATE WITH QUIESCENT LOW-MASS X-RAY BINARIES

    SciTech Connect

    Guillot, Sebastien; Rutledge, Robert E. E-mail: rutledge@physics.mcgill.ca

    2014-11-20

    Neutrons stars are unique laboratories for discriminating between the various proposed equations of state of matter at and above nuclear density. One sub-class of neutron stars—those inside quiescent low-mass X-ray binaries (qLMXBs)—produce a thermal surface emission from which the neutron star radius (R {sub NS}) can be measured, using the widely accepted observational scenario for qLMXBs, assuming unmagnetized H atmospheres. In a combined spectral analysis, this work first reproduces a previously published measurement of the R {sub NS}, assumed to be the same for all neutron stars, using a slightly expanded data set. The radius measured is R{sub NS}=9.4±1.2 km. On the basis of spectral analysis alone, this measured value is not affected by imposing an assumption of causality in the core. However, the assumptions underlying this R {sub NS} measurement would be falsified by the observation of any neutron star with a mass >2.6 M {sub ☉}, since radii <11 km would be rejected if causality is assumed, which would exclude most of the R {sub NS} parameter space obtained in this analysis. Finally, this work directly tests a selection of dense matter equations of state: WFF1, AP4, MPA1, PAL1, MS0, and three versions of equations of state produced through chiral effective theory. Two of those, MS0 and PAL1, are rejected at the 99% confidence level, accounting for all quantifiable uncertainties, while the other cannot be excluded at >99% certainty.

  1. Relativistic mean-field models and nuclear matter constraints

    SciTech Connect

    Dutra, M.; Lourenco, O.; Carlson, B. V.; Delfino, A.; Menezes, D. P.; Avancini, S. S.; Stone, J. R.; Providencia, C.; Typel, S.

    2013-05-06

    This work presents a preliminary study of 147 relativistic mean-field (RMF) hadronic models used in the literature, regarding their behavior in the nuclear matter regime. We analyze here different kinds of such models, namely: (i) linear models, (ii) nonlinear {sigma}{sup 3}+{sigma}{sup 4} models, (iii) {sigma}{sup 3}+{sigma}{sup 4}+{omega}{sup 4} models, (iv) models containing mixing terms in the fields {sigma} and {omega}, (v) density dependent models, and (vi) point-coupling ones. In the finite range models, the attractive (repulsive) interaction is described in the Lagrangian density by the {sigma} ({omega}) field. The isospin dependence of the interaction is modeled by the {rho} meson field. We submit these sets of RMF models to eleven macroscopic (experimental and empirical) constraints, used in a recent study in which 240 Skyrme parametrizations were analyzed. Such constraints cover a wide range of properties related to symmetric nuclear matter (SNM), pure neutron matter (PNM), and both SNM and PNM.

  2. Strong correlations of neutron star radii with the slopes of nuclear matter incompressibility and symmetry energy at saturation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, N.; Agrawal, B. K.; Fortin, M.; Pais, H.; Providência, C.; Raduta, Ad. R.; Sulaksono, A.

    2016-11-01

    We examine the correlations of neutron star radii with the nuclear matter incompressibility, symmetry energy, and their slopes, which are the key parameters of the equation of state (EoS) of asymmetric nuclear matter. The neutron star radii and the EoS parameters are evaluated using a representative set of 24 Skyrme-type effective forces and 18 relativistic mean field models, and two microscopic calculations, all describing 2 M⊙ neutron stars. Unified EoSs for the inner-crust-core region have been built for all the phenomenological models, both relativistic and nonrelativistic. Our investigation shows the existence of a strong correlation of the neutron star radii with the linear combination of the slopes of the nuclear matter incompressibility and the symmetry energy coefficients at the saturation density. Such correlations are found to be almost independent of the neutron star mass in the range 0.6 -1.8 M⊙ . This correlation can be linked to the empirical relation existing between the star radius and the pressure at a nucleonic density between one and two times saturation density, and the dependence of the pressure on the nuclear matter incompressibility, its slope, and the symmetry energy slope. The slopes of the nuclear matter incompressibility and the symmetry energy coefficients as estimated from the finite nuclei data yield the radius of a 1.4 M⊙ neutron star in the range 11.09 -12.86 km.

  3. Reducible chiral four-body interactions in nuclear matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaiser, N.; Milkus, R.

    2016-01-01

    The method of unitary transformations generates five classes of leading-order reducible chiral four-nucleon interactions which involve pion exchanges and a spin-spin contact term. Their first-order contributions to the energy per particle of isospin-symmetric nuclear matter and pure neutron matter are evaluated in detail. For most of the closed four-loop diagrams the occurring integrals over four Fermi spheres can be reduced to easily manageable one- or two-parameter integrals. One finds substantial compensations among the different contributions arising from 2-ring and 1-ring diagrams. Altogether, the net attraction generated by the chiral four-nucleon interaction does not exceed values of -1.3 MeV for densities ρ < 2ρ0.

  4. Three nucleon forces in nuclear matter in QCD sum rules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drukarev, E. G.; Ryskin, M. G.; Sadovnikova, V. A.

    2017-03-01

    We calculate the single-particle nucleon characteristics in symmetric nuclear matter with inclusion of the 3N interactions. The contributions of the 3N forces to nucleon self energies are expressed in terms of the nonlocal scalar condensate (d = 3) and of the configuration of the four-quark condensates (d = 6) in which two diquark operators act on two different nucleons of the matter. The most important part of the contribution of the four-quark condensate is calculated in a model-independent way. We employed a relativistic quark model of nucleon for calculation of the other parts. The density dependence of the vector and scalar nucleon self energies and of the single-particle potential energy are obtained. Estimations on contributions of the 4N forces to the nucleon self energies are made.

  5. Nuclear matter symmetry energy from polarizabilities at low density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braghin, Fábio L.

    2010-03-01

    The nuclear matter polarizability had been proposed as a suitable framework to investigate the symmetry energy [F.L. Braghin, Nucl. Phys. A 665 (2000) 13; 696 (2001) 413; Err709 (2002) 487; F.L. Braghin, Phys. Rev. C 71 064303 (2005); Phys. Rev. C 79 069902(E) (2009); Proc. of XXX Braz. Meeting on Nucl. Phys. 2007, ed. by A. Suaide, Braz. Phys. Soc. (2008)]. It provides an original and rich conceptual framework yielding the simultaneous dependences of the symmetry energy on diverse variables. We present few different results for the symmetry energy dependence mainly on: temperature and momentum at low nuclear densities (ρ=0.1ρ). Based on the form of the polarizability we present an argument supporting that, due to the behavior of the density fluctuations, a third order term in the n-p asymmetry can yield a more reasonable result than a linear term.

  6. Heavy-ion collisions and the nuclear equation of state

    SciTech Connect

    Keane, D.

    1992-01-01

    The overall goal of this project is to study nucleus-nucleus collisions experimentally at intermediate and relativistic energies, with emphasis on measurement and interpretation of correlation effects that provide insight into the nuclear phase diagram and the nuclear equation of state. During the past year, the PI has been on leave at Lawrence Berkeley Lab and has worked on this research project full-time. A large fraction of the effort of the PI and graduate students has gone into preparing for experiments using the Time Projection Chamber at LBL's Bevalac accelerator; in March 1992, this device successfully took data in production mode for the first time, and the first physics analysis is now under way. The PI has carried out simulations that help to define the physics performance and engineering specifications of the recently-approved STAR detector for the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider, and has identified a new capability of this device with the potential for being an important quark-gluon plasma signature. A Postdoctoral Fellow, jointly supported by this grant and Kent State University, has been recruited to augment these efforts. Since May 1991, 11 journal papers have been published or submitted for publication; 2 conference proceedings and 9 reports or abstracts have also been published during the past year. One paper in Phys. Rev. Left., one in Phys. Rev. C, and one conference proceedings are based on the thesis project of one of the PI's Ph.D. students who is expected to graduate later this year. Partly in response to the impending closure of the Bevalac, the PI's group has recently joined the NA49 experiment at CERN.

  7. Neutrons in strong magnetic fields and equation of state of neutron matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bigdeli, Mohsen

    2017-02-01

    In the present work, I investigate the influence of neutron mass reduction due to magnetic field on the equation of state of neutron matter using the lowest-order constraint variational (LOCV) method with the A V18 potential.

  8. Hot nuclear matter in the static fluctuation approximation

    SciTech Connect

    Ghulam, N. M.; Ghassib, H. B.; Al-Sugheir, M. K.

    2007-06-15

    In this work, the bulk and thermodynamic properties of nonrelativistic hot nuclear matter--the mean internal energy per unit volume, the saturation density and the corresponding internal energy per nucleon, the pressure, the entropy per unit volume, the heat capacity per unit volume, and the chemical potential--are studied within the static fluctuation approximation (SFA). The basic input is the well-known Reid68 and Reid93 soft-core potentials, with special emphasis on three channels that have different spin and isospin--namely, the {sup 1}S{sub 0}-channel as well as the {sup 3}S{sub 1}-{sup 3}D{sub 1} and {sup 3}P{sub 2}-{sup 3}F{sub 2} coupled channels. Finally, a full-fledged calculation is presented using the Reid93 potential for all channels J{<=}2. Wherever possible, comparisons are made with previous calculations. It is concluded that SFA is valid for hot nuclear matter over a wide range of temperatures ({<=}50 MeV)

  9. Thermodynamic consistency of the equation of state of strongly interacting matter

    SciTech Connect

    Randrup, Jorgen; Ruuskanen, Vesa P.

    2003-12-12

    Addressing strongly interacting matter in the region of energy density where the hadronic gas phase coexists with the quark-gluon plasma phase, we discuss how thermodynamic consistency can be used to constrain the equation of state for uniform matter and we illustrate the method by constructing a T{sub c}-dependent family of thermodynamically consistent equations of state based on simple spline interpolations between the gas and plasma phases.

  10. Discovery potential for directional dark matter detection with nuclear emulsions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guler, A. M.; NEWSdm Collaboration

    2017-06-01

    Direct Dark Matter searches are nowadays one of the most exciting research topics. Several Experimental efforts are concentrated on the development, construction, and operation of detectors looking for the scattering of target nuclei with Weakly Interactive Massive Particles (WIMPs). In this field a new frontier can be opened by directional detectors able to reconstruct the direction of the WIMP-recoiled nucleus thus allowing to extend dark matter searches beyond the neutrino floor. Exploiting directionality would also give a proof of the galactic origin of dark matter making it possible to have a clear and unambiguous signal to background separation. The angular distribution of WIPM-scattered nuclei is indeed expected to be peaked in the direction of the motion of the Solar System in the Galaxy, i.e. toward the Cygnus constellation, while the background distribution is expected to be isotropic. Current directional experiments are based on the use of gas TPC whose sensitivity is limited by the small achievable detector mass. In this paper we show the potentiality in terms of exclusion limit of a directional experiment based on the use of a solid target made by newly developed nuclear emulsions and read-out systems reaching sub-micrometric resolution.

  11. The effect of elastic properties of nuclear matter on nuclear fission

    SciTech Connect

    Bastrukov, S.I.; Molodtsova, I.V.; Yuldashbaeva, E.Kh.

    1994-07-01

    Spheroidal nuclear vibrations are considered using a macroscopic model based on the assumption that nuclear matter possesses the properties of elastic medium. Emphasis is laid on the analysis of instability of the quadrupole configuration. It is presumed that the onset of this instability is associated with the commencement of fission. The proposed fluid-dynamics model predicts the values of the parameters of nuclear fission that differ somewhat from the values given by the standard liquid drop-model. In particular, the obtained critical ratio Z{sup 2}/A, which characterizes the loss of stability of the quadrupole mode, is equal to 35. It follows from this estimate that fission induced by an external perturbation should be expected for nuclei (from the {beta}-stability valley) with A{>=}230. 16 refs.

  12. Modification of the omega-meson lifetime in nuclear matter.

    PubMed

    Kotulla, M; Trnka, D; Mühlich, P; Anton, G; Bacelar, J C S; Bartholomy, O; Bayadilov, D; Beloglazov, Y A; Bogendörfer, R; Castelijns, R; Crede, V; Dutz, H; Ehmanns, A; Elsner, D; Ewald, R; Fabry, I; Fuchs, M; Essig, K; Funke, Ch; Gothe, R; Gregor, R; Gridnev, A B; Gutz, E; Höffgen, S; Hoffmeister, P; Horn, I; Hössl, J; Jaegle, I; Junkersfeld, J; Kalinowsky, H; Klein, Frank; Klein, Fritz; Klempt, E; Konrad, M; Kopf, B; Krusche, B; Langheinrich, J; Löhner, H; Lopatin, I V; Lotz, J; Lugert, S; Menze, D; Messchendorp, J G; Mertens, T; Metag, V; Mosel, U; Nanova, M; Novotny, R; Ostrick, M; Pant, L M; van Pee, H; Pfeiffer, M; Roy, A; Radkov, A; Schadmand, S; Schmidt, Ch; Schmieden, H; Schoch, B; Shende, S; Suft, G; Sumachev, V V; Szczepanek, T; Süle, A; Thoma, U; Varma, R; Walther, D; Weinheimer, Ch; Wendel, Ch

    2008-05-16

    Information on hadron properties in the nuclear medium has been derived from the photoproduction of omega mesons on the nuclei C, Ca, Nb, and Pb using the Crystal Barrel/TAPS detector at the ELSA tagged photon facility in Bonn. The dependence of the omega-meson cross section on the nuclear mass number has been compared with three different types of models: a Glauber analysis, a Boltzmann-Uehling-Uhlenbeck analysis of the Giessen theory group, and a calculation by the Valencia theory group. In all three cases, the inelastic omega width is found to be 130-150 MeV/c(2) at normal nuclear matter density for an average 3-momentum of 1.1 GeV/c. In the rest frame of the omega meson, this inelastic omega width corresponds to a reduction of the omega lifetime by a factor approximately 30. For the first time, the momentum dependent omegaN cross section has been extracted from the experiment and is in the range of 70 mb.

  13. Modification of the ω-Meson Lifetime in Nuclear Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotulla, M.; Trnka, D.; Mühlich, P.; Anton, G.; Bacelar, J. C. S.; Bartholomy, O.; Bayadilov, D.; Beloglazov, Y. A.; Bogendörfer, R.; Castelijns, R.; Crede, V.; Dutz, H.; Ehmanns, A.; Elsner, D.; Ewald, R.; Fabry, I.; Fuchs, M.; Essig, K.; Funke, Ch.; Gothe, R.; Gregor, R.; Gridnev, A. B.; Gutz, E.; Höffgen, S.; Hoffmeister, P.; Horn, I.; Hössl, J.; Jaegle, I.; Junkersfeld, J.; Kalinowsky, H.; Klein, Frank; Klein, Fritz; Klempt, E.; Konrad, M.; Kopf, B.; Krusche, B.; Langheinrich, J.; Löhner, H.; Lopatin, I. V.; Lotz, J.; Lugert, S.; Menze, D.; Messchendorp, J. G.; Mertens, T.; Metag, V.; Mosel, U.; Nanova, M.; Novotny, R.; Ostrick, M.; Pant, L. M.; van Pee, H.; Pfeiffer, M.; Roy, A.; Radkov, A.; Schadmand, S.; Schmidt, Ch.; Schmieden, H.; Schoch, B.; Shende, S.; Suft, G.; Sumachev, V. V.; Szczepanek, T.; Süle, A.; Thoma, U.; Varma, R.; Walther, D.; Weinheimer, Ch.; Wendel, Ch.

    2008-05-01

    Information on hadron properties in the nuclear medium has been derived from the photoproduction of ω mesons on the nuclei C, Ca, Nb, and Pb using the Crystal Barrel/TAPS detector at the ELSA tagged photon facility in Bonn. The dependence of the ω-meson cross section on the nuclear mass number has been compared with three different types of models: a Glauber analysis, a Boltzmann-Uehling-Uhlenbeck analysis of the Giessen theory group, and a calculation by the Valencia theory group. In all three cases, the inelastic ω width is found to be 130 150MeV/c2 at normal nuclear matter density for an average 3-momentum of 1.1GeV/c. In the rest frame of the ω meson, this inelastic ω width corresponds to a reduction of the ω lifetime by a factor ≈30. For the first time, the momentum dependent ωN cross section has been extracted from the experiment and is in the range of 70 mb.

  14. Engineering of Condensed Matter Nuclear Physics: Heterodyne Behavior in Condensed Matter Nuclear Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swartz, Mitchell R.

    2007-03-01

    Previously, we reported methods to semi-quantitatively measure and control tardive thermal power (TTP) which develops long after the termination of electric input power in condensed matter high-deuteron-flux Phusor devices providing (Pt/D2O/Pd; 0.5 cm^3) peak excess power ratios circa 2.30+/-.84 ^2^,^3. Now we report one method to improve excess energy using heterodyned CMN systems using both normal and TTD operation - heterodyne operation (that is, ` hetero ' for other, and ` dyne ' for power). By augmenting the conventional excess energy produced by CMN active systems (normal operation) with the additional energy (``other power'') resulting from the time integral of TTP (``heat after death''), the net time-integrated excess energy (output energy beyond that applied as the input energy) is greater than we have previously reported^2 and may be maximized using TTD drive techniques^1. Initial experiments of heterodyned active samples, capable of excess heat operation at the optimal operating point, have yielded excess energy increases of up to four times beyond that obtained without heterodyned operation. M.R. Swartz, Bull. of the APS, 50, #1, part 2, 1203 (2005). M.R.Swartz, Proc ICCF10, 29-44; 45-54, and 213-226 (2006).

  15. A study of nuclear recoil backgrounds in dark matter detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westerdale, Shawn S.

    Despite the great success of the Standard Model of particle physics, a preponderance of astrophysical evidence suggests that it cannot explain most of the matter in the universe. This so-called dark matter has eluded direct detection, though many theoretical extensions to the Standard Model predict the existence of particles with a mass on the 1-1000 GeV scale that interact only via the weak nuclear force. Particles in this class are referred to as Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs), and their high masses and low scattering cross sections make them viable dark matter candidates. The rarity of WIMP-nucleus interactions makes them challenging to detect: any background can mask the signal they produce. Background rejection is therefore a major problem in dark matter detection. Many experiments greatly reduce their backgrounds by employing techniques to reject electron recoils. However, nuclear recoil backgrounds, which produce signals similar to what we expect from WIMPs, remain problematic. There are two primary sources of such backgrounds: surface backgrounds and neutron recoils. Surface backgrounds result from radioactivity on the inner surfaces of the detector sending recoiling nuclei into the detector. These backgrounds can be removed with fiducial cuts, at some cost to the experiment's exposure. In this dissertation we briefly discuss a novel technique for rejecting these events based on signals they make in the wavelength shifter coating on the inner surfaces of some detectors. Neutron recoils result from neutrons scattering off of nuclei in the detector. These backgrounds may produce a signal identical to what we expect from WIMPs and are extensively discussed here. We additionally present a new tool for calculating (alpha, n) yields in various materials. We introduce the concept of a neutron veto system designed to shield against, measure, and provide an anti-coincidence veto signal for background neutrons. We discuss the research and development

  16. A Study of Nuclear Recoil Backgrounds in Dark Matter Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Westerdale, Shawn S.

    2016-01-01

    Despite the great success of the Standard Model of particle physics, a preponderance of astrophysical evidence suggests that it cannot explain most of the matter in the universe. This so-called dark matter has eluded direct detection, though many theoretical extensions to the Standard Model predict the existence of particles with a mass on the $1-1000$ GeV scale that interact only via the weak nuclear force. Particles in this class are referred to as Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs), and their high masses and low scattering cross sections make them viable dark matter candidates. The rarity of WIMP-nucleus interactions makes them challenging to detect: any background can mask the signal they produce. Background rejection is therefore a major problem in dark matter detection. Many experiments greatly reduce their backgrounds by employing techniques to reject electron recoils. However, nuclear recoil backgrounds, which produce signals similar to what we expect from WIMPs, remain problematic. There are two primary sources of such backgrounds: surface backgrounds and neutron recoils. Surface backgrounds result from radioactivity on the inner surfaces of the detector sending recoiling nuclei into the detector. These backgrounds can be removed with fiducial cuts, at some cost to the experiment's exposure. In this dissertation we briefly discuss a novel technique for rejecting these events based on signals they make in the wavelength shifter coating on the inner surfaces of some detectors. Neutron recoils result from neutrons scattering from nuclei in the detector. These backgrounds may produce a signal identical to what we expect from WIMPs and are extensively discussed here. We additionally present a new tool for calculating ($\\alpha$, n)yields in various materials. We introduce the concept of a neutron veto system designed to shield against, measure, and provide an anti-coincidence veto signal for background neutrons. We discuss the research and development

  17. A New Open-Source Nuclear Equation of State Framework based on the Liquid-Drop Model with Skyrme Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva Schneider, Andre; Roberts, Luke; Ott, Christian

    2017-01-01

    The equation of state (EOS) of dense matter is an essential ingredient for numerical simulations of many astrophysical phenomena. We implement a modular open-source Fortran 90 code to construct the EOS of hot dense matter for astrophysical applications. For high density matter we use a non-relativistic liquid-drop description of nuclei that includes surface effects in a single nucleus approximation (SNA). The model is based on the work of Lattimer and Swesty and has been generalized to accommodate most Skyrme parametrizations available in the literature. Low density matter is described as an ensemble of nuclei in nuclear statistical equilibrium (NSE). The transition between the SNA and NSE regimes is performed via a continuous function that smoothly blends their Helmholtz free energy. To account for the existence of 2 solar mass neutron stars, we extend the formalism to allow for a stiffening of the EOS at densities above 3 times nuclear saturation density, where the properties of matter are presently poorly constrained. We study how different Skyrme parametrizations affect the EOS, neutron star mass-radius relationships, and the spherically symmetric collapse and post-bounce supernova evolution of massive stars.

  18. A New Open-Source Nuclear Equation of State Framework based on the Liquid-Drop Model with Skyrme Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva Schneider, Andre; Roberts, Luke F.; Ott, Christian D.

    2016-09-01

    The equation of state (EoS) of dense matter is an essential ingredient for numerical simulations of many astrophysical phenomena. We implement a modular open-source Fortran 90 code to construct EoS of hot dense matter for astrophysical applications. For high density matter we use a non-relativistic liquid-drop description of nuclei that includes surface effects in a single nucleus approximation (SNA). The model is based on the work of Lattimer and Swesty and has been generalized to accommodate most Skyrme parametrizations available in the literature. Low density matter is described as an ensemble of nuclei in nuclear statistical equilibrium (NSE). The transition between the two regimes is performed via a continuous function that smoothly blends their Helmholtz free energy. To account for the existence of 2 solar mass neutron stars, we extend the formalism to allow for a stiffening of the EoS at densities above 3 times nuclear saturation density, where the properties of matter are presently poorly constrained. We study how different Skyrme parametrizations affect the EoS, neutron star mass-radius relationships, and the spherically symmetric collapse and post-bounce supernova evolution of massive stars.

  19. On the universality of Einstein(-Cartan) field equations in the presence of matter fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubilar, Guillermo F.

    1998-01-01

    Within the context of gravity formulated as a gauge theory of the Lorentz group, we derive the field equations for a gravitational action consisting of a generic analytic function of the curvature scalar, in the presence of general matter fields. In the vacuum case we obtain universal equations in agreement with Ferraris et al. We also show explicit non-trivial examples of universal behaviour in the presence of matter fields, which in the general case produces a non-zero torsion field, leading to an Einstein-Cartan geometry and universal Einstein-Cartan field equations.

  20. Bulk Properties of Nuclear Matter From Excitations of Nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Shlomo, Shalom

    2007-10-26

    We consider the predictive power of Hartree-Fock (HF) approximation in determining properties of finite nuclei and thereby in extracting bulk properties of infinite nuclear matter (NM) by extrapolation. In particular, we review the current status of determining the value of NM incompressibility coefficient K, considering the most sensitive method of analyzing the recent accurate experimental data on excitation strengths of compression modes of nuclei within microscopic relativistic and non-relativistic theoretical models. We discuss the consequences of common violations of self-consistency in HF based random-phase-approximation calculations of strength functions and present results of highly accurate calculations of centroid energies and excitation cross sections of giant resonances. Explanations (resolutions) of long standing discrepancies in the value of K are presented.

  1. Exploring the Quark-Gluon Content of Hadrons: From Mesons to Nuclear Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Matevosyan, Hrayr

    2007-08-01

    Even though Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) was formulated over three decades ago, it poses enormous challenges for describing the properties of hadrons from the underlying quark-gluon degrees of freedom. Moreover, the problem of describing the nuclear force from its quark-gluon origin is still open. While a direct solution of QCD to describe the hadrons and nuclear force is not possible at this time, we explore a variety of developed approaches ranging from phenomenology to first principle calculations at one or other level of approximation in linking the nuclear force to QCD. The Dyson Schwinger formulation (DSE) of coupled integral equations for the QCD Green’s functions allows a non-perturbative approach to describe hadronic properties, starting from the level of QCD n-point functions. A significant approximation in this method is the employment of a finite truncation of the system of DSEs, that might distort the physical picture. In this work we explore the effects of including a more complete truncation of the quark-gluon vertex function on the resulting solutions for the quark 2-point functions as well as the pseudoscalar and vector meson masses. The exploration showed strong indications of possibly large contributions from the explicit inclusion of the gluon 3- and 4-point functions that are omitted in this and previous analyses. We then explore the possibility of extrapolating state of the art lattice QCD calculations of nucleon form factors to the physical regime using phenomenological models of nucleon structure. Finally, we further developed the Quark Meson Coupling model for describing atomic nuclei and nuclear matter, where the quark-gluon structure of nucleons is modeled by the MIT bag model and the nucleon many body interaction is mediated by the exchange of scalar and vector mesons. This approach allows us to formulate a fully relativistic theory, which can be expanded in the nonrelativistic limit to reproduce the well known phenomenological Skyrme

  2. Empirical observations on the unpredictable behavior of nuclear matter

    SciTech Connect

    Tannenbaum, M.J.

    1994-01-19

    While many aspects of matter are unpredictable from basic principles, there are some that are susceptible to empirical descriptions which can be quite accurate and beautiful. One such example from the field of ``Nuclear Matter Under Extreme Conditions`` is the distribution of the number of particles produced, or alternatively, of the energy carried by these particles, in energetic collisions of atomic nuclei. The present work consists of a series of published scientific papers on measurements of the distribution of particles produced, or the energy carried by these particles, in collisions of various nuclei, spanning more than a decade of research. Due to the unpredictability of the theory, the work includes empirical studies of the regularity of the measured distributions from which significant knowledge is gained. The aesthetics of this subject derives from the physical beauty of the measured curves, the characteristic changes of shape with different species of nuclei, and the deep understanding obtained by the use of a simple and elegant mathematical function to describe the data.

  3. Width of the {phi} meson in nuclear matter

    SciTech Connect

    Polyanskiy, A. Yu.; Hartmann, M.; Kiselev, Yu. T.; Paryev, E. Ya.; Buescher, M.; Chiladze, D.; Dymov, S. N.; Dzyuba, A. A.; Gebel, R.; Hejny, V.; Kaempfer, B.; Keshelashvili, I.; Koptev, V. P.; Lorentz, B.; Maeda, Y.; Merzliakov, S. I.; and others

    2012-01-15

    The ratios of the cross sections for {phi}-meson production induced by 2.83-GeV protons on Cu, Ag, and Au nuclei to the respective cross section for C nuclei were measured at the ANKE-COSY facility in the momentum range of 0.6-1.6 GeV/c and the angular range of 0 Degree-Sign -8 Degree-Sign . The product {phi} mesons were identified by their decay {phi} {yields} K{sup +}K{sup -}. The procedure used to separate kaon pairs was described in detail, and all sources of the background and their contribution to the resulting error in the values found for the above cross-section ratios were analyzed. The A dependence of the cross section for {phi}-meson production was shown to obey the A{sup 0.56{+-}0.03} law. The total width of the {phi} meson at a normal nuclear density was extracted from a comparison of the measured cross-section ratios with the results of calculations based on two theoretical models. The resulting width value exceeds substantially both the vacuum width and the width expected in the absence of the nuclear-matter effect on the properties of the {phi} meson.

  4. Stability and size of a chiral soliton immersed in nuclear matter

    SciTech Connect

    Kahana, S.

    1985-01-01

    The alteration in nucleon substructure when nucleons are placed in nuclear matter is addressed in a Wigner-Seitz approximation by treating nuclei as a collection of chiral solitons. In the limit of strong coupling between quarks and the binding chiral fields, and for low density nuclear matter, it is found the solitons decrease slightly in size. 19 refs., 3 figs.

  5. A review on the relativistic effective field theory with parameterized couplings for nuclear matter and neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasconcellos, C. A. Zen

    2015-12-01

    Nuclear science has developed many excellent theoretical models for many-body systems in the domain of the baryon-meson strong interaction for the nucleus and nuclear matter at low, medium and high densities. However, a full microscopic understanding of nuclear systems in the extreme density domain of compact stars is still lacking. The aim of this contribution is to shed some light on open questions facing the nuclear many-body problem at the very high density domain. Here we focus our attention on the conceptual issue of naturalness and its role in shaping the baryon-meson phase space dynamics in the description of the equation of state (EoS) of nuclear matter and neutrons stars. In particular, in order to stimulate possible new directions of research, we discuss relevant aspects of a recently developed relativistic effective theory for nuclear matter within Quantum Hadrodynamics (QHD) with genuine many-body forces and derivative natural parametric couplings. Among other topics we discuss in this work the connection of this theory with other known effective QHD models of the literature and its potentiality in describing a new physics for dense matter. The model with parameterized couplings exhausts the whole fundamental baryon octet (n, p, Σ-, Σ0, Σ+, Λ, Ξ-, Ξ0) and simulates n-order corrections to the minimal Yukawa baryon couplings by considering nonlinear self-couplings of meson fields and meson-meson interaction terms coupled to the baryon fields involving scalar-isoscalar (σ, σ∗), vector-isoscalar (ω, ɸ), vector-isovector (ϱ) and scalar-isovector (δ) virtual sectors. Following recent experimental results, we consider in our calculations the extreme case where the Σ- experiences such a strong repulsion that its influence in the nuclear structure of a neutron star is excluded at all. A few examples of calculations of properties of neutron stars are shown and prospects for the future are discussed.

  6. Theory of the equation of state of hot dense matter

    SciTech Connect

    Barbee, T W; Surh, M; Yang, L H

    1999-07-23

    Ab initio molecular dynamics calculations are adapted to treat dense plasmas for temperatures exceeding the electronic Fermi temperature. Extended electronic states are obtained in a plane wave basis by using pseudopotentials for the ion cores in the local density approximation to density functional theory. The method reduces to conventional first principles molecular dynamics at low temperatures with the expected high level of accuracy. The occurrence of thermally excited ion cores at high temperatures is treated by means of final state pseudopotentials. The method is applied to the shock compression Hugoniot equation of state for aluminum. Good agreement with experiment is found for temperatures ranging from zero through 105K.

  7. 77 FR 5853 - In the Matter of Entergy Nuclear Operations Inc; Confirmatory Order Modifying License (Effective...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY...-47; DPR-28; NFP-38; EA-10-090; EA-10-248; EA-11-160] In the Matter of Entergy Nuclear Operations Inc; Confirmatory Order Modifying License (Effective Immediately) I Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc. (Entergy...

  8. Ferromagnetism in neutron matter and its implication for the neutron star equation of state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diener, J. P. W.; Scholtz, F. G.

    2011-09-01

    We investigate the possible contribution of the ferromagnetic phase of neutron matter in the neutron star interior to the star's magnetic field. We introduce a relativistic, self-consistent calculation of the ferromagnetic phase in neutron matter within the context of the relativistic mean-field approximation. The presence of the ferromagnetic phase stiffens the star's equation of state which implies a larger neutron star radius compared to the non-ferromagnetic case.

  9. Ferromagnetism in neutron matter and its implication for the neutron star equation of state

    SciTech Connect

    Diener, J. P. W.; Scholtz, F. G.

    2011-09-21

    We investigate the possible contribution of the ferromagnetic phase of neutron matter in the neutron star interior to the star's magnetic field. We introduce a relativistic, self-consistent calculation of the ferromagnetic phase in neutron matter within the context of the relativistic mean-field approximation. The presence of the ferromagnetic phase stiffens the star's equation of state which implies a larger neutron star radius compared to the non-ferromagnetic case.

  10. Effect of a strong magnetic field on the energy yield of nuclear reactions in dense nuclear matter

    SciTech Connect

    Sekerzhitskii, V.S.

    1995-01-01

    According to modern concepts, the electron-neutron-nuclear (Aen) phase of dense highly degenerate matter can be realized in the shells of neutron stars. This phase has relatively stable and absolutely stable states of thermodynamic equilibrium. Strong magnetic fields can exist in neutron stars. For this reason, analysis of their effect on the characteristics of the Aen phase is of great interest. It is specially important to study the influence of strong magnetic fields on the energy yield of nuclear reactions in dense nuclear matter because the transition to the absolute equilibrium state proceeds through these reactions.

  11. Spectral equation-of-state theory for dense, partially ionized matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritchie, Burke

    2005-07-01

    The Schrödinger equation is solved in time and space to implement a finite-temperature equation-of-state theory for dense, partially ionized matter. The time-dependent calculation generates a spectrum of quantum states. Eigenfunctions are calculated from a knowledge of the spectrum and used to calculate the electronic pressure and energy. Results are given for Be and LiD and compared with results from the INFERNO model [D. A. Liberman, Phys. Rev. B 20, 4981 (1979)].

  12. Mass predictions of atomic nuclei in the infinite nuclear matter model

    SciTech Connect

    Nayak, R.C.; Satpathy, L.

    2012-07-15

    We present here the mass excesses, binding energies, one- and two-neutron, one- and two-proton and {alpha}-particle separation energies of 6727 nuclei in the ranges 4{<=}Z{<=}120 and 8{<=}A{<=}303 calculated in the infinite nuclear matter model. Compared to our predictions of 1999 mass table, the present ones are obtained using larger data base of 2003 mass table of Wapstra and Audi and resorting to higher accuracy in the solutions of the {eta}-differential equations of the INM model. The local energy {eta}'s supposed to carry signature of the characteristic properties of nuclei are found to possess the predictive capability. In fact {eta}-systematics reveal new magic numbers in the drip-line regions giving rise to new islands of stability supported by relativistic mean field theoretic calculations. This is a manifestation of a new phenomenon where shell-effect overcomes the instability due to repulsive components of the nucleon-nucleon force broadening the stability peninsula. The two-neutron separation energy-systematics derived from the present mass predictions reveal a general new feature for the existence of islands of inversion in the exotic neutron-rich regions of nuclear landscape, apart from supporting the presently known islands around {sup 31}Na and {sup 62}Ti. The five global parameters representing the properties of infinite nuclear matter, the surface, the Coulomb and the pairing terms are retained as per our 1999 mass table. The root-mean-square deviation of the present mass-fit to 2198 known masses is 342 keV, while the mean deviation is 1.3 keV, reminiscent of no left-over systematic effects. This is a substantive improvement over our 1999 mass table having rms deviation of 401 keV and mean deviation of 9 keV for 1884 data nuclei.

  13. Mass predictions of atomic nuclei in the infinite nuclear matter model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nayak, R. C.; Satpathy, L.

    2012-07-01

    We present here the mass excesses, binding energies, one- and two-neutron, one- and two-proton and α-particle separation energies of 6727 nuclei in the ranges 4≤Z≤120 and 8≤A≤303 calculated in the infinite nuclear matter model. Compared to our predictions of 1999 mass table, the present ones are obtained using larger data base of 2003 mass table of Wapstra and Audi and resorting to higher accuracy in the solutions of the η-differential equations of the INM model. The local energy η's supposed to carry signature of the characteristic properties of nuclei are found to possess the predictive capability. In fact η-systematics reveal new magic numbers in the drip-line regions giving rise to new islands of stability supported by relativistic mean field theoretic calculations. This is a manifestation of a new phenomenon where shell-effect overcomes the instability due to repulsive components of the nucleon-nucleon force broadening the stability peninsula. The two-neutron separation energy-systematics derived from the present mass predictions reveal a general new feature for the existence of islands of inversion in the exotic neutron-rich regions of nuclear landscape, apart from supporting the presently known islands around 31Na and 62Ti. The five global parameters representing the properties of infinite nuclear matter, the surface, the Coulomb and the pairing terms are retained as per our 1999 mass table. The root-mean-square deviation of the present mass-fit to 2198 known masses is 342 keV, while the mean deviation is 1.3 keV, reminiscent of no left-over systematic effects. This is a substantive improvement over our 1999 mass table having rms deviation of 401 keV and mean deviation of 9 keV for 1884 data nuclei.

  14. Family matters: happiness in nuclear families and twins.

    PubMed

    Nes, Ragnhild Bang; Czajkowski, N; Tambs, K

    2010-09-01

    Biometric studies have shown that happiness is strongly affected by genes. The findings are mainly based on twin data, however, and the full validity of the results has been debated. To overcome some limitations in classical twin research, we examined aetiological sources of subjective well-being (SWB), using two independent population-based samples, one including nuclear families (N = 54,540) and one including twins (N = 6,620). Biometric modelling using R was conducted to test for a data structure implying either non-additive genetic effects or higher environmental co-twin correlation in MZ than DZ pairs (violation of the EEA). We also estimated non-random mating, cultural transmission and shared environments specific for regular siblings and twins. Two sets of nested models were fitted and compared. The best explanatory model shows that family matters for happiness predominantly due to quantitative sex-specific genetic effects, a moderate spousal correlation and a shared twin environment. Upper limits for broad-sense heritability were estimated to be 0.33 (females) and 0.36 (males). Our study constitutes the most elaborate biometric study of SWB to date and illustrates the utility of including responses from multiple types of relatives in quantitative genetic analyses.

  15. Isovector response function of hot nuclear matter with Skyrme interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Braghin, F.L.; Vautherin, D.; Abada, A.

    1995-11-01

    We investigate the role of the effective nucleon-nucleon interaction in the description of giant dipole resonances in hot nuclei. For this purpose we calculate the response function of hot nuclear matter to a small isovector external perturbation using various effective Skyrme interactions. We find that for Skyrme forces with an effective mass close to unity an undamped zero sound mode occurs at zero temperature. This mode gives rise in finite nuclei (calculated via the Steinwedel-Jenssen model) to a resonance whose energy agrees with the observed value. We find that zero sound disappears at a temperature of a few MeV, leaving only a broad peak in the dipole strength. For Skyrme forces with a small value of the effective mass (0.4), there is no zero sound at zero temperature but only a weak peak located too high in energy. The strength distribution in this case is nearly independent of temperature and shows small collective effects. The relevance of these results for the saturation of photon multiplicities observed in recent experiments is pointed out.

  16. Deformation of Lattice in a Solid Nuclear Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, K.

    1994-02-01

    The effect of the deformation of lattice in the three dimensional (3D) ALS (i.e., alternating layer spin) solid of neutron matter is investigated, taking the elastic-, spin- and isospin-wave excitations into account in the model with Pandharipande-Smith (PS)'s potential and non-vanishing classical pion field. The q-number part of pion-field is replaced by the effective one-pion-exchange potential (OPEP). The tetragonal structure of lattice is presumed. Solutions of the equation of motion (EOM) for the ground state are sought by the variational method for two cases in which c-number part of π--field is non-vanishing and is supposed to be propagating either (i) perpendicularly to or (ii) within layers of 3D ALS solid. The phonon and magnon sectors of Hamiltonian are diagonalized for case (i) and the phonon sector for case (ii). The criterion of the stability is the absence of imaginary part in the dispersion relations of phonon and of magnon. In both cases, tetragonal lattices have energies about 40 MeV/nucleon lower than the simple cubic (sc) lattices in the density region of [0.35 fm-3, 0.75 fm-3]. In (i), the zero-point energy of magnon is a few percent of phonon. Both in (i) and (ii), the charged pion condensations are negligible.

  17. Students' Understanding of Conservation of Matter, Stoichiometry and Balancing Equations in Indonesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agung, Salamah; Schwartz, Marc S.

    2007-01-01

    This study examines Indonesian students' understanding of conservation of matter, balancing of equations and stoichiometry. Eight hundred and sixty-seven Grade 12 students from 22 schools across four different cities in two developed provinces in Indonesia participated in the study. Nineteen teachers also participated in order to validate the…

  18. Structural Equation Modeling in Assessing Students' Understanding of the State Changes of Matter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stamovlasis, Dimitrios; Tsitsipis, Georgios; Papageorgiou, George

    2012-01-01

    In this study, structural equation modeling (SEM) is applied to an instrument assessing students' understanding of the particulate nature of matter, the collective properties and physical changes, such as melting, evaporation, boiling and condensation. The structural relationships among particular groups of items were investigated. In addition,…

  19. Students' Understanding of Conservation of Matter, Stoichiometry and Balancing Equations in Indonesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agung, Salamah; Schwartz, Marc S.

    2007-01-01

    This study examines Indonesian students' understanding of conservation of matter, balancing of equations and stoichiometry. Eight hundred and sixty-seven Grade 12 students from 22 schools across four different cities in two developed provinces in Indonesia participated in the study. Nineteen teachers also participated in order to validate the…

  20. Structural Equation Modeling in Assessing Students' Understanding of the State Changes of Matter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stamovlasis, Dimitrios; Tsitsipis, Georgios; Papageorgiou, George

    2012-01-01

    In this study, structural equation modeling (SEM) is applied to an instrument assessing students' understanding of the particulate nature of matter, the collective properties and physical changes, such as melting, evaporation, boiling and condensation. The structural relationships among particular groups of items were investigated. In addition,…

  1. A new equation of state for core-collapse supernovae based on realistic nuclear forces and including a full nuclear ensemble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furusawa, S.; Togashi, H.; Nagakura, H.; Sumiyoshi, K.; Yamada, S.; Suzuki, H.; Takano, M.

    2017-09-01

    We have constructed a nuclear equation of state (EOS) that includes a full nuclear ensemble for use in core-collapse supernova simulations. It is based on the EOS for uniform nuclear matter that two of the authors derived recently, applying a variational method to realistic two- and three-body nuclear forces. We have extended the liquid drop model of heavy nuclei, utilizing the mass formula that accounts for the dependences of bulk, surface, Coulomb and shell energies on density and/or temperature. As for light nuclei, we employ a quantum-theoretical mass evaluation, which incorporates the Pauli- and self-energy shifts. In addition to realistic nuclear forces, the inclusion of in-medium effects on the full ensemble of nuclei makes the new EOS one of the most realistic EOSs, which covers a wide range of density, temperature and proton fraction that supernova simulations normally encounter. We make comparisons with the FYSS EOS, which is based on the same formulation for the nuclear ensemble but adopts the relativistic mean field theory with the TM1 parameter set for uniform nuclear matter. The new EOS is softer than the FYSS EOS around and above nuclear saturation densities. We find that neutron-rich nuclei with small mass numbers are more abundant in the new EOS than in the FYSS EOS because of the larger saturation densities and smaller symmetry energy of nuclei in the former. We apply the two EOSs to 1D supernova simulations and find that the new EOS gives lower electron fractions and higher temperatures in the collapse phase owing to the smaller symmetry energy. As a result, the inner core has smaller masses for the new EOS. It is more compact, on the other hand, due to the softness of the new EOS and bounces at higher densities. It turns out that the shock wave generated by core bounce is a bit stronger initially in the simulation with the new EOS. The ensuing outward propagations of the shock wave in the outer core are very similar in the two simulations, which

  2. Dynamical properties of nuclear and stellar matter and the symmetry energy

    SciTech Connect

    Pais, Helena; Santos, Alexandre; Brito, Lucilia; Providencia, Constanca

    2010-08-15

    The effects of density dependence of the symmetry energy on the collective modes and dynamical instabilities of cold and warm nuclear and stellar matter are studied in the framework of relativistic mean-field hadron models. The existence of the collective isovector and possibly an isoscalar collective mode above saturation density is discussed. It is shown that soft equations of state do not allow for a high-density isoscalar collective mode; however, if the symmetry energy is hard enough, an isovector mode will not disappear at high densities. The crust-core transition density and pressure are obtained as a function of temperature for {beta}-equilibrium matter with and without neutrino trapping. Estimations of the size of the clusters formed in the nonhomogeneous phase, as well as the corresponding growth rates and distillation effect, are made. It is shown that cluster sizes increase with temperature, that the distillation effect close to the inner edge of the crust-core transition is very sensitive to the symmetry energy, and that, within a dynamical instability calculation, the pasta phase exists in warm compact stars up to 10-12 MeV.

  3. Semiclassical Calculations of Peripheral Heavy-Ion Collisions at Fermi Energies and the Nuclear Equation of State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souliotis, G. A.; Shetty, D. V.; Galanopoulos, S.; Yennello, S. J.

    2008-10-01

    A systematic study of quasi-elastic and deep-inelastic collisions at Fermi energies has been undertaken at Texas A&M aiming at obtaining information on the mechanism of nucleon exchange and the course towards N/Z equilibration [1,2]. We expect to get insight in the dynamics and the nuclear equation of state by comparing our experimental heavy residue data to detailed calculations using microscopic models of quantum molecular dynamics (QMD) type. At present, we have performed detailed calculations using the code CoMD (Constrained Molecular Dynamics) of A. Bonasera and M. Papa [3]. The code implements an effective interaction with a nuclear-matter compressibility of K=200 (soft EOS) with several forms of the density dependence of the nucleon-nucleon symmetry potential. CoMD imposes a constraint in the phase space occupation for each nucleon, effectively restoring the Pauli principle at each time step of the collision. Results of the calculations and comparisons with our data will be presented and implications concerning the isospin part of the nuclear equation of state will be discussed. [1] G.A. Souliotis et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 022701 (2003). [2] G.A. Souliotis et al., Phys. Lett. B 588, 35 (2004). [3] M. Papa et al., Phys. Rev. C 64, 024612 (2001).

  4. The Heart of Matter: A Nuclear Chemistry Module. Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viola, Vic; Hearle, Robert

    This teacher's guide is designed to provide science teachers with the necessary guidance and suggestions for teaching nuclear chemistry. In this book, the fundamental concepts of nuclear science and the applications of nuclear energy are discussed. The material in this book can be integrated with the other modules in a sequence that helps students…

  5. Asymmetric nuclear matter and neutron star properties within the extended Brueckner theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassaneen, Khaled S. A.

    2017-01-01

    Microscopically, the equation of state (EOS) and other properties of asymmetric nuclear matter at zero temperature have been investigated extensively by adopting the non-relativistic Brueckner-Hartree-Fock (BHF) and the extended BHF approaches by using the self-consistent Green's function approach or by including a phenomenological three-body force. Once three-body forces are introduced, the phenomenological saturation point is reproduced and the theory is applied to the study of neutron star properties. We can calculate the total mass and radius for neutron stars using various equations of state at high densities in β-equilibrium without hyperons. A comparison with other microscopic predictions based on non-relativistic and density-dependent relativistic mean-field calculations has been done. It is found that relativistic EOS yields however larger mass and radius for neutron star than predictions based on non-relativistic approaches. Also the three-body force plays a crucial role to deduce the theoretical value of the maximum mass of neutron stars in agreement with recent measurements of the neutron star mass.

  6. Do Skyrme forces that fit nuclear matter work well in finite nuclei?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevenson, P. D.; Goddard, P. M.; Stone, J. R.; Dutra, M.

    2013-05-01

    A short list of Skyrme force parameterizations, recently found to have passed a series of constraints relating to nuclear matter properties is analyzed for their ability to reproduce data in finite nuclei. We analyse binding energies, isotope shifts, neutron skin thicknesses and fission barriers. We find that the subset of forces have no common ability to reproduce(or otherwise)properties of finite nuclei, despite passing the extensive range of nuclear matter constraints.

  7. A NEW EQUATION OF STATE FOR NEUTRON STAR MATTER WITH NUCLEI IN THE CRUST AND HYPERONS IN THE CORE

    SciTech Connect

    Miyatsu, Tsuyoshi; Yamamuro, Sachiko; Nakazato, Ken'ichiro

    2013-11-01

    The equation of state for neutron stars in a wide-density range at zero temperature is constructed. The chiral quark-meson coupling model within relativistic Hartree-Fock approximation is adopted for uniform nuclear matter. The coupling constants are determined so as to reproduce the experimental data of atomic nuclei and hypernuclei. In the crust region, nuclei are taken into account within the Thomas-Fermi calculation. All octet baryons are considered in the core region, while only Ξ{sup –} appears in neutron stars. The resultant maximum mass of neutron stars is 1.95 M{sub ☉}, which is consistent with the constraint from the recently observed massive pulsar, PSR J1614-2230.

  8. Equation of state of strongly interacting matter and intensity interferometry of thermal photons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De, Somnath; Srivastava, Dinesh K.; Chatterjee, Rupa

    2011-07-01

    We find that an equation of state (EOS) for hot hadronic matter consisting of all mesons (baryons) having M < 1.5 (2.0)GeV along with Hagedorn resonances in thermal and chemical equilibrium, matches rather smoothly with lattice EOS (p4 action, Nτ = 8) for T up to ≈200 MeV, when corrections are made for the finite volume of hadrons. Two equations of state, HHL and HHB are constructed where the above is matched to the lattice and bag model EoS respectively at a critical temperature Tc = 165MeV. We find that the particle and thermal photon spectra differ only marginally for the two equations of state at both RHIC and LHC energies. The intensity interferometry results, specially the outward correlations for thermal photons are found to be quite distinct for the two equations of state.

  9. Renormalization group flow equations for chiral nuclear models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Andrew Sheriden

    1997-10-01

    facto use of the hydrodynamic limit fails both qualitatively and quantitatively. These systems require the use of the RG for an understanding beyond that provided by the hydrodynamic continuum limit or mean field theory. Next we discuss the derivation of the exact RG equations and the differential flow equations under various approximations for model field theories containing both bosonic and fermionic degrees of freedom. The RG flow equations for the boson and generalized Yukawa effective potentials to leading order (LO) in the derivative expansion (DE) are derived in detail and compared with previously published results. The derivation of the σ-model flow equations is outlined and the results, which are quite lengthy, are catalogued in an appendix. We present the numerical solution of the LO flow equations for the Yukawa coupled fermions and the σ-model treating the field variables and the momentum scale as independent continuous variables. The results for the flow of the boson and fermion Yukawa couplings are in agreement with those previously published. The results for the σ-model include the calculation of πpi scattering lengths which are an improvement on the old perturbative calculation and essentially in agreement with experiment. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  10. Fraunhofer diffraction of coherent and incoherent nuclear matter waves by complementary screens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silveira, R.; Leclercq-Willain, Ch.

    2013-06-01

    The analogy between Fraunhofer diffraction effects observed in nuclear and subnuclear collisions and those observed with light diffracted by complementary screens is revisited. Emphasis will be put on the collision mechanisms playing a role analogous to that of an aperture in light diffraction. These analogies are illustrated with examples involving coherent and incoherent nuclear matter waves.

  11. Kaon properties in dense nuclear matter: are there experimental evidences of in medio effects?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangiarotti, A.

    2009-06-01

    Beyond the general interest for nuclear matter theory, the K- in medio mass modification could have important astrophysical consequences. Experimental evidences of how a nuclear medium affects K+ and K- properties will be summarised. To reach a firm conclusion about the K-, the missing information on the flow will be shown to be still relevant.

  12. Thermodynamics of Hot Nuclear Matter: 1978 in the Statistical Bootstrap Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafelski, Johann; Hagedorn, Rolf

    We formulate the statistical bootstrap model for nuclear matter, and study its resulting thermodynamic properties at nuclear densities below the saturation density. We discuss the relevance of limiting temperature and the phase transition gas-`liquid' when the volume of the fireball grows with its energy.

  13. Heavy ion collisions with A = 10/sup 57/: Aspects of nuclear stability and the nuclear equation of state in coalescing neutron-star binary systems

    SciTech Connect

    Mathews, G.J.; Wilson, J.R.; Evans, C.R.; Detweiler, S.L.

    1987-12-01

    The dynamics of the final stages of the coalescence of two neturon stars (such as the binary pulsar PSR 1913+16) is an unsolved problem in astrophysics. Such systems are probably efficient generators of gravitational radiation, and may be significant contributors to heavy-element nucleosynthesis. The input physics for the study of such systems is similar to that required for the strudy of heavy-ion collision hydrodynamics; e.g., a finite temperature nuclear equation of state, properties of nuclei away from stability, etc. We discuss the development of a relativistic hydrodynamics code in three spatial dimensions for the purpose of studying such neutron-star systems. The properties of the mass-radius relation (determined by the nuclear equation of state) may lead to a proposed mechanism by which hot, highly neutronized matter is ejected from the coalescing stars. This material is photodisintegrated into a free (mostly) neutron gas which may subsequently experience rapid-neutron capture (r-process) nucleosynthesis. 15 refs., 4 figs.

  14. Theory of magnetohydrodynamic accretion of matter with an ultrahard equation of state onto a black hole

    SciTech Connect

    Chernov, S. V.

    2015-06-15

    We consider the magnetohydrodynamic theory of spherically symmetric accretion of a perfect fluid onto a Schwarzschild black hole with an ultrahard equation of state, p = μ ∼ ρ{sup 2}, where p is the pressure, μ is the total energy density, and ρ is the fluid density. An approximate analytical solution is written out. We show that one critical sonic surface that coincides with the black hole event horizon is formed instead of two critical surfaces (fast and slow magnetosonic surfaces) for a degenerate ultrahard equation of state of matter.

  15. Constraining the Equation of State of Superhadronic Matter from Heavy-Ion Collisions.

    PubMed

    Pratt, Scott; Sangaline, Evan; Sorensen, Paul; Wang, Hui

    2015-05-22

    The equation of state of QCD matter for temperatures near and above the quark-hadron transition (∼165  MeV) is inferred within a Bayesian framework through the comparison of data from the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider and from the Large Hadron Collider to theoretical models. State-of-the-art statistical techniques are applied to simultaneously analyze multiple classes of observables while varying 14 independent model parameters. The resulting posterior distribution over possible equations of state is consistent with results from lattice gauge theory.

  16. Constraining the equation of state of superhadronic matter from heavy-ion collisions

    DOE PAGES

    Pratt, Scott; Sorensen, Paul; Sangaline, Evan; ...

    2015-05-19

    The equation of state of QCD matter for temperatures near and above the quark-hadron transition (~165 MeV) is inferred within a Bayesian framework through the comparison of data from the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider and from the Large Hadron Collider to theoretical models. State-of-the-art statistical techniques are applied to simultaneously analyze multiple classes of observables while varying 14 independent model parameters. Thus, the resulting posterior distribution over possible equations of state is consistent with results from lattice gauge theory.

  17. Time-dependent pairing equations for seniority-one nuclear systems

    SciTech Connect

    Mirea, M.

    2008-10-15

    When the time-dependent Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov intrinsic equations of motion are solved in the case of seniority-one nuclear systems, the unpaired nucleon remains on the same orbital. The blocking effect hinders the possibility to skip from one orbital to another. This unpleasant feature is by-passed with a new set of pairing time-dependent equations that allows the possibility that the unpaired nucleon changes its single-particle level. These equations generalize the time-dependent Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov equations of motion by including the Landau-Zener effect. The derivation of these new equations is presented in detail. These equations are applied to the case of a superasymmetric fission process, that is, to explain the fine structure the {sup 14}C emission from {sup 233}Ra. In this context, a new version of the Woods-Saxon model extended for two-center potentials is used.

  18. Investigating the Nuclear Equation of State through N/Z Equilibration

    SciTech Connect

    Yennello, S.; Keksis, A.; Bell, E.

    2007-10-26

    The equilibration of the N/Z degree of freedom during heavy-ion collisions can be a discriminating observables for helping to understand the nuclear equation of state. Equilibration can be investigated by examining the ratios of isotopes produced in these reactions. The isotope ratio method and the tracer method yield consistent results. The quasiprojectiles produced in deep inelastic collisions are predicted to be sensitive to the density dependence of the equation of state.

  19. Experimental study of the equation of state of isochorically heated warm dense matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyer, Gilliss Mcnaughton

    2007-12-01

    We have performed a series of experiments developing the techniques of volumetric, isochoric heating of matter to high energy density states, and the subsequent probing of the release isentrope. Using ultrafast, ultra intense laser systems with pulse lengths from 100fs - 1ps and pulse energies between 2 J and 100 J, we generated strong secondary radiation, in the form of Kalpha x-rays and directed proton beams, which we used to rapidly heat a foil sample to temperatures from ˜1 eV to ˜25 eV at solid density, thus entering the strongly coupled, partially ionized regime of warm dense matter, in which the equation of state is poorly understood. The first set of experiments examines the possibility of using laser generated Kalpha x-rays in isochoric heating experiments and concludes that this technique will require the use of higher energies and higher Z materials than were used in this thesis to achieve warm dense matter conditions. In the second set of experiments, we used an ultrafast, laser-generated proton beam with a temperature of ˜2 MeV and cutoff energy of ˜40 MeV to volumetrically and isochorically heat a sample foil to >20 eV. With single-shot diagnostics, we measured the evolution of the temperature with 3.3 ps resolution over the first 35 ps of expansion by streaked optical pyrometry, and measured the evolution of the target expansion over the same timescale with sub-ps resolution by chirped pulse interferometry. In this way we were able to verify the equation of state and ion-balance in the SESAME equation of state tables with a Saha ionization model and distinguish this as more accurate than other, simpler models. This thesis establishes an experimental framework for acquiring equation of state data in the regime of warm dense matter that is distinct and complimentary to that acquired by the techniques of shock heating.

  20. 78 FR 41805 - In the Matter of FirstEnergy Nuclear Operating Company; Beaver Valley Power Station; Independent...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-11

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of FirstEnergy Nuclear Operating Company; Beaver Valley Power Station; Independent... fingerprinting for unescorted access to FirstEnergy Nuclear Operating Company. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: L..., the NRC is providing notice in the matter of FirstEnergy Nuclear Operating Company, Beaver Valley...

  1. Partonic Equations of State in High-Energy Nuclear Collisions atRHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Nu

    2006-10-01

    The authors discuss the recent results on equation of state for partonic matter created at RHIC. Issues of partonic collectivity for multi-strange hadrons and J/{psi} from Au + Au collisions at {radical}s{sub NN} = 200 GeV are the focus of this paper.

  2. A review on the relativistic effective field theory with parameterized couplings for nuclear matter and neutron stars

    SciTech Connect

    Vasconcellos, C. A. Zen

    2015-12-17

    Nuclear science has developed many excellent theoretical models for many-body systems in the domain of the baryon-meson strong interaction for the nucleus and nuclear matter at low, medium and high densities. However, a full microscopic understanding of nuclear systems in the extreme density domain of compact stars is still lacking. The aim of this contribution is to shed some light on open questions facing the nuclear many-body problem at the very high density domain. Here we focus our attention on the conceptual issue of naturalness and its role in shaping the baryon-meson phase space dynamics in the description of the equation of state (EoS) of nuclear matter and neutrons stars. In particular, in order to stimulate possible new directions of research, we discuss relevant aspects of a recently developed relativistic effective theory for nuclear matter within Quantum Hadrodynamics (QHD) with genuine many-body forces and derivative natural parametric couplings. Among other topics we discuss in this work the connection of this theory with other known effective QHD models of the literature and its potentiality in describing a new physics for dense matter. The model with parameterized couplings exhausts the whole fundamental baryon octet (n, p, Σ{sup −}, Σ{sup 0}, Σ{sup +}, Λ, Ξ{sup −}, Ξ{sup 0}) and simulates n-order corrections to the minimal Yukawa baryon couplings by considering nonlinear self-couplings of meson fields and meson-meson interaction terms coupled to the baryon fields involving scalar-isoscalar (σ, σ∗), vector-isoscalar (ω, Φ), vector-isovector (ϱ) and scalar-isovector (δ) virtual sectors. Following recent experimental results, we consider in our calculations the extreme case where the Σ{sup −} experiences such a strong repulsion that its influence in the nuclear structure of a neutron star is excluded at all. A few examples of calculations of properties of neutron stars are shown and prospects for the future are discussed.

  3. Self-consistency and quasi-particle approximation in π- and Δ-propagation in nuclear matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cenni, R.; Dillon, G.

    1983-01-01

    The equations for the self-consistent π- and Δ-propagation in nuclear matter are solved numerically in the quasi-particle approximation. We have taken into account the full complexity of nucleon recoil and Fermi motion as well as the effects of binding and short-range correlations. Because of the much smoother behaviour of the self-consistent π and Δ self-energies it turns out that the quasi-particle approximation is still a good one even at normal nuclear density, whereas for kF ⩾ 1 fm -1 the first-order solution displays a multiple eigenmode propagation for the pion in the resonance region. The self-consistent π- and Δ-dispersion relations in the medium are then obtained for increasing densities by an iterative procedure which takes as a starting point, each time, the final result at the preceding density.

  4. Toward an actual account for the angular dependence of the Brueckner-Bethe-Goldstone propagator in nuclear matter

    SciTech Connect

    Arellano, H. F.

    2011-04-15

    Angular correlations arising from particle-particle (pp) propagation in symmetric nuclear matter are investigated. Their account follows a detailed treatment of the angular dependence of the energy denominator of the propagator in the Brueckner-Bethe-Goldstone (BBG) equation, in conjunction with the Pauli exclusion principle for intermediate states. As a result, taking a monopole approximation for the propagator, a correlation form factor emerges from the Cauchy principal-value integral of the pp propagator, while the imaginary part becomes structurally different from those in Lippmann-Schwinger-type equations. These features are investigated within the continuous choice of the single-particle potential considering the Argonne v{sub 18} and Paris two-nucleon potentials. We find that the behavior of the mass operator is affected, deepening slightly the saturation point of symmetric nuclear matter relative to those based on angle-averaged energy denominators. Implications of these angular correlations were also investigated in the context of proton-nucleus scattering, showing clear effects on scattering observables below 100 MeV.

  5. Field theoretical model for nuclear and neutron matter. IV - Radial oscillations of warm cores in neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marti, Jose M.; Miralles, Juan A.; Ibanez, Jose M.; Diaz Alonso, J.

    1988-06-01

    The relativistic equations for the radial oscillations of warm cores in neutron stars have been solved and the eigenfrequencies of the fundamental modes have been obtained for a large sample of configurations in relativistic thermal equilibrium. The equation of state used was derived in the frame of a field theoretical model for the analysis of relativistic nuclear and neutron matter at nonzero temperatures. The Lagrangian describing the microdynamics has been introduced by coupling the nucleons to sigma, pi, omega, and rho meson fields in a renormalizable way. Moreover, the results of this paper allow the so-called static stability criterion to be reviewed and a 'central temperature-central density' diagram to be built which displays a well-defined region of stability and admits an evolutive interpretation.

  6. Evaluation of equations to predict dry matter intake of dairy heifers.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, P C; Weigel, K A; Wernberg, R M

    2008-09-01

    Daily pen dry matter intakes (DMI, n = 9,275) were collected over a 28-mo period at the University of Wisconsin's Integrated Dairy Research Facility. Heifers were housed in pens containing 8 Holstein or Holstein x Jersey crossbred heifers/pen. Heifer diets were formulated to energy and protein requirement twice monthly, with feed intake, dietary nutrient density, and ambient temperature recorded daily. Heifers were weighed at 60-d intervals, and mean pen body weights (BW) were estimated for each day between the weigh dates using the interval average daily gain as a regression coefficient. Prediction of heifer DMI was evaluated using the equations of NRC (2001), Quigley et al. (1986), or alternative random effects mixed models or nonlinear exponential models. The effects of breed, BW, temperature and neutral detergent fiber deviation (NDFdv) were considered as independent variables. Holstein and crossbred heifer DMI was predicted with reasonable precision [standard error (SE) < 0.86 kg/d], by the NRC (2001) or Quigley et al. (1986) equations, but heifer DMI was over- or underpredicted for heifers >500 kg, respectively. Improved heifer DMI prediction equations were achieved with exponential models. For Holsteins (SE = 0.71 kg/d), the prediction equation was: DMI (kg/d) = 15.79 x [1 - e((-0.00210 x BW))] - 0.0820 x NDFdv, where NDFdv = (dietary neutral detergent fiber as a % of dry matter) - {22.07 + [0.08714 x BW] - [0.00007383 x (BW)(2)]}. For crossbred heifers (SE = 0.60 kg/d), the prediction equation was: DMI (kg/d) = 13.48 x [1 - e((-0.00271 x BW))] - 0.0824 x NDFdv where NDFdv = (dietary neutral detergent fiber as a % of dry matter) - {23.11 + [0.07968 x BW] - [0.00006252 x (BW)(2)]}. Alternative exponential DMI model equations when dietary neutral detergent fiber is unknown were also developed. The Holstein DMI equation (SE = 0.73 kg/d) was: DMI (kg/d) = 15.36 x [1 - e((-0.00220 x BW))], and the crossbred DMI equation (SE = 0.81 kg/d) was: DMI (kg/d) = 12.91 x

  7. Scaling relationships for nonadiabatic energy relaxation times in warm dense matter: toward understanding the equation of state.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Ekadashi; Magyar, Rudolph J; Akimov, Alexey V

    2016-11-30

    Understanding the dynamics of electron-ion energy transfer in warm dense (WD) matter is important to the measurement of equation of state (EOS) properties and for understanding the energy balance in dynamic simulations. In this work, we present a comprehensive investigation of nonadiabatic electron relaxation and thermal excitation dynamics in aluminum under high pressure and temperature. Using quantum-classical trajectory surface hopping approaches, we examine the role of nonadiabatic couplings and electronic decoherence in electron-nuclear energy transfer in WD aluminum. The computed timescales range from 400 fs to 4.0 ps and are consistent with existing experimental studies. We have derived general scaling relationships between macroscopic parameters of WD systems such as temperature or mass density and the timescales of energy redistribution between quantum and classical degrees of freedom. The scaling laws are supported by computational results. We show that electronic decoherence plays essential role and can change the functional dependencies qualitatively. The established scaling relationships can be of use in modelling of WD matter.

  8. Probing the low and high density nuclear matter by hadron scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliseev, S. M.; Kosmachev, O. S.

    2017-03-01

    The subject of this report is connected with the widely discussed manifestation of in-medium effect in nuclear collisions. At present, the medium modification of hadron properties in the normal and in a dense nuclear matter is one of the fundamental questions of strong interaction physics. A new Glauber Monte Carlo model for hadron-nuclei interaction at intermediate energy is proposed. We utilized the principal assumptions as in the approaches of other authors describing nuclear collisions at high energy in the framework of the models without QGP. Yet, a number of new ingredients (noneikonal corrections, correlations of nucleons, in the nuclei, the nuclear Fermi motion, etc.) are introduced.

  9. 78 FR 19535 - In the Matter of Entergy Operations, Inc. (Arkansas Nuclear One, Unit 1); Confirmatory Order...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION In the Matter of Entergy Operations, Inc. (Arkansas Nuclear One, Unit 1); Confirmatory Order Modifying License I Entergy Operations, Inc. (Entergy, licensee), is the holder of Renewed...

  10. Intron or no intron: a matter for nuclear pore complexes

    PubMed Central

    Bonnet, Amandine; Palancade, Benoit

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) have been shown to regulate distinct steps of the gene expression process, from transcription to mRNA export. In particular, mRNAs expressed from intron-containing genes are surveyed by a specific NPC-dependent quality control pathway ensuring that unspliced mRNAs are retained within the nucleus. In this Extra View, we summarize the different approaches that have been developed to evaluate the contribution of various NPC components to the expression of intron-containing genes. We further present the mechanistic models that could account for pre-mRNA retention at the nuclear side of NPCs. Finally, we discuss the possibility that other stages of intron-containing gene expression could be regulated by nuclear pores, in particular through the regulation of mRNA biogenesis factors by the NPC-associated SUMO protease Ulp1. PMID:26709543

  11. Experimental Determination of η /s for Finite Nuclear Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mondal, Debasish; Pandit, Deepak; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Pal, Surajit; Dey, Balaram; Bhattacharya, Srijit; De, A.; Bhattacharya, Soumik; Bhattacharyya, S.; Roy, Pratap; Banerjee, K.; Banerjee, S. R.

    2017-05-01

    We present, for the first time, simultaneous determination of shear viscosity (η ) and entropy density (s ) and thus, η /s for equilibrated nuclear systems from A ˜30 to A ˜208 at different temperatures. At finite temperature, η is estimated by utilizing the γ decay of the isovector giant dipole resonance populated via fusion evaporation reaction, while s is evaluated from the nuclear level density parameter (a ) and nuclear temperature (T ), determined precisely by the simultaneous measurements of the evaporated neutron energy spectra and the compound nuclear angular momenta. The transport parameter η and the thermodynamic parameter s both increase with temperature, resulting in a mild decrease of η /s with temperature. The extracted η /s is also found to be independent of the neutron-proton asymmetry at a given temperature. Interestingly, the measured η /s values are comparable to that of the high-temperature quark-gluon plasma, pointing towards the fact that strong fluidity may be the universal feature of the strong interaction of many-body quantum systems.

  12. Ionization yield from nuclear recoils in liquid-xenon dark matter detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mu, Wei; Ji, Xiangdong

    2015-03-01

    The ionization yield in a two-phase liquid xenon dark-matter detector has been studied in keV nuclear recoil energy region. The newly obtained nuclear quenching as well as the average energy required to produce an electron-ion pair from the measurement in Seguinot (1992) are used to calculate the total electric charges produced. To estimate the fraction of the electron charges collected, the Thomas-Imel model is generalized to describe the field dependence for nuclear recoils in liquid xenon. With free parameters fitted to experimentally measured 56.5 keV nuclear recoils, the energy dependence of ionization yield for nuclear recoils is predicted, which increases as recoil energy decreases and reaches the maximum value at 2∼3 keV. This prediction agrees well with existing data and may help to lower the energy detection threshold for nuclear recoils to ∼1 keV.

  13. Covariant mean-field calculations of finite-temperature nuclear matter

    SciTech Connect

    R. J. Furnstahl; Brian D. Serot

    1990-01-01

    Hot nuclear matter is studied in the framework of quantum hadrodynamics. General principles of covariant thermodynamics and thermodynamic consistency are discussed, and these principles are illustrated by computing nuclear matter properties in an arbitrary reference frame, using the mean-field approximation to the Walecka model. The results are shown to be Lorentz covariant, and thermodynamic consistency is demonstrated by proving the equality of the ‘‘thermodynamic’’ and ‘‘hydrostatic’’ pressures. The mean-field results are used in a simple hydrodynamic picture to discuss the phenomenology of heavy-ion collisions and astrophysical systems, with an emphasis on new features that arise in a covariant approach.

  14. Parametrization of light nuclei quasiparticle energy shifts and composition of warm and dense nuclear matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Röpke, G.

    2011-10-01

    Correlations and the formation of bound states (nuclei) are essential for the properties of nuclear matter in equilibrium as well as in nonequilibrium. In a quantum statistical approach, quasiparticle energies are obtained for the light elements that reflect the influence of the medium. We present analytical fits for the quasiparticle energy shifts of light nuclei that can be used in various applications. This is a prerequisite for the investigation of warm and dense matter that reproduces the nuclear statistical equilibrium and virial expansions in the low-density limit as well as relativistic mean field and Brueckner Hartree-Fock approaches near saturation density.

  15. Constraining a dark matter and dark energy interaction scenario with a dynamical equation of state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Weiqiang; Banerjee, Narayan; Pan, Supriya

    2017-06-01

    In this work we have used the recent cosmic chronometer data along with the latest estimation of the local Hubble parameter value, H0 at 2.4% precision as well as the standard dark energy probes, such as the Supernovae Type Ia, baryon acoustic oscillation distance measurements, and cosmic microwave background measurements (PlanckTT+ lowP ) to constrain a dark energy model where the dark energy is allowed to interact with the dark matter. A general equation of state of dark energy parametrized by a dimensionless parameter "β " is utilized. From our analysis, we find that the interaction is compatible with zero within the 1 σ confidence limit. We also show that the same evolution history can be reproduced by a small pressure of the dark matter.

  16. Equation of State of the Strong Interaction Matter in an External Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Rui; Liu, Yu-Xin

    2015-10-01

    We investigate the equation of state of the strong interaction matter in a background magnetic field via the two flavor Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model. Starting from the mean-field thermodynamical potential density Ω, we calculate the pressure density p, the entropy density s, the energy density ɛ, and the interaction measure (ɛ - 3p)/T4 of the strong interaction matter at finite temperature and finite magnetic field. The results manifest that the chiral phase transition is just a crossover but not a low order phase transition. Moreover there may exist magnetic catalysis effect, and its mechanism is just the effective dimension reduction induced by the magnetic field. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. 10935001, 11175004 and 11435001, and the National Key Basic Research Program of China under Grant Nos. G2013CB834400 and 2015CB856900

  17. ERK5 and Cell Proliferation: Nuclear Localization Is What Matters.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Nestor; Erazo, Tatiana; Lizcano, Jose M

    2016-01-01

    ERK5, the last MAP kinase family member discovered, is activated by the upstream kinase MEK5 in response to growth factors and stress stimulation. MEK5-ERK5 pathway has been associated to different cellular processes, playing a crucial role in cell proliferation in normal and cancer cells by mechanisms that are both dependent and independent of its kinase activity. Thus, nuclear ERK5 activates transcription factors by either direct phosphorylation or acting as co-activator thanks to a unique transcriptional activation TAD domain located at its C-terminal tail. Consequently, ERK5 has been proposed as an interesting target to tackle different cancers, and either inhibitors of ERK5 activity or silencing the protein have shown antiproliferative activity in cancer cells and to block tumor growth in animal models. Here, we review the different mechanisms involved in ERK5 nuclear translocation and their consequences. Inactive ERK5 resides in the cytosol, forming a complex with Hsp90-Cdc37 superchaperone. In a canonical mechanism, MEK5-dependent activation results in ERK5 C-terminal autophosphorylation, Hsp90 dissociation, and nuclear translocation. This mechanism integrates signals such as growth factors and stresses that activate the MEK5-ERK5 pathway. Importantly, two other mechanisms, MEK5-independent, have been recently described. These mechanisms allow nuclear shuttling of kinase-inactive forms of ERK5. Although lacking kinase activity, these forms activate transcription by interacting with transcription factors through the TAD domain. Both mechanisms also require Hsp90 dissociation previous to nuclear translocation. One mechanism involves phosphorylation of the C-terminal tail of ERK5 by kinases that are activated during mitosis, such as Cyclin-dependent kinase-1. The second mechanism involves overexpression of chaperone Cdc37, an oncogene that is overexpressed in cancers such as prostate adenocarcinoma, where it collaborates with ERK5 to promote cell proliferation

  18. ERK5 and Cell Proliferation: Nuclear Localization Is What Matters

    PubMed Central

    Gomez, Nestor; Erazo, Tatiana; Lizcano, Jose M.

    2016-01-01

    ERK5, the last MAP kinase family member discovered, is activated by the upstream kinase MEK5 in response to growth factors and stress stimulation. MEK5-ERK5 pathway has been associated to different cellular processes, playing a crucial role in cell proliferation in normal and cancer cells by mechanisms that are both dependent and independent of its kinase activity. Thus, nuclear ERK5 activates transcription factors by either direct phosphorylation or acting as co-activator thanks to a unique transcriptional activation TAD domain located at its C-terminal tail. Consequently, ERK5 has been proposed as an interesting target to tackle different cancers, and either inhibitors of ERK5 activity or silencing the protein have shown antiproliferative activity in cancer cells and to block tumor growth in animal models. Here, we review the different mechanisms involved in ERK5 nuclear translocation and their consequences. Inactive ERK5 resides in the cytosol, forming a complex with Hsp90-Cdc37 superchaperone. In a canonical mechanism, MEK5-dependent activation results in ERK5 C-terminal autophosphorylation, Hsp90 dissociation, and nuclear translocation. This mechanism integrates signals such as growth factors and stresses that activate the MEK5-ERK5 pathway. Importantly, two other mechanisms, MEK5-independent, have been recently described. These mechanisms allow nuclear shuttling of kinase-inactive forms of ERK5. Although lacking kinase activity, these forms activate transcription by interacting with transcription factors through the TAD domain. Both mechanisms also require Hsp90 dissociation previous to nuclear translocation. One mechanism involves phosphorylation of the C-terminal tail of ERK5 by kinases that are activated during mitosis, such as Cyclin-dependent kinase-1. The second mechanism involves overexpression of chaperone Cdc37, an oncogene that is overexpressed in cancers such as prostate adenocarcinoma, where it collaborates with ERK5 to promote cell proliferation

  19. Nuclear matter properties from local chiral interactions with Δ isobar intermediate states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Logoteta, Domenico; Bombaci, Ignazio; Kievsky, Alejandro

    2016-12-01

    Using two-nucleon and three-nucleon interactions derived in the framework of chiral perturbation theory (ChPT) with and without the explicit Δ isobar contributions, we calculate the energy per particle of symmetric nuclear matter and pure neutron matter in the framework of the microscopic Brueckner-Hartree-Fock approach. In particular, we present for the first time nuclear matter calculations using the new fully local in coordinate-space two-nucleon interaction at the next-to-next-to-next-to-leading-order (N3LO) of ChPT with Δ isobar intermediate states (N 3 LO Δ ) recently developed by Piarulli et al. [arXiv:1606.06335]. We find that using this N 3 LO Δ potential, supplemented with a local N2LO three-nucleon interaction with explicit Δ isobar degrees of freedom, it is possible to obtain a satisfactory saturation point of symmetric nuclear matter. For this combination of two- and three-nucleon interactions we also calculate the nuclear symmetry energy and we compare our results with the empirical constraints on this quantity obtained using the excitation energies to isobaric analog states in nuclei and using experimental data on the neutron skin thickness of heavy nuclei, finding a very good agreement in all the considered nucleonic density range. In addition, we find that the explicit inclusion of Δ isobars diminishes the strength of the three-nucleon interactions needed to get a good saturation point of symmetric nuclear matter. We also compare the results of our calculations with those obtained by other research groups using chiral nuclear interactions with different many-body methods, finding in many cases a very satisfactory agreement.

  20. Nuclear recoil energy scale in liquid xenon with application to the direct detection of dark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Sorensen, P; Dahl, C E

    2011-02-14

    We show for the first time that the quenching of electronic excitation from nuclear recoils in liquid xenon is well-described by Lindhard theory, if the nuclear recoil energy is reconstructed using the combined (scintillation and ionization) energy scale proposed by Shutt et al.. We argue for the adoption of this perspective in favor of the existing preference for reconstructing nuclear recoil energy solely from primary scintillation. We show that signal partitioning into scintillation and ionization is well-described by the Thomas-Imel box model. We discuss the implications for liquid xenon detectors aimed at the direct detection of dark matter.

  1. Nuclear recoil energy scale in liquid xenon with application to the direct detection of dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorensen, Peter; Dahl, Carl Eric

    2011-03-01

    We show for the first time that the quenching of electronic excitation from nuclear recoils in liquid xenon is well-described by Lindhard theory, if the nuclear recoil energy is reconstructed using the combined (scintillation and ionization) energy scale proposed by Shutt et al. We argue for the adoption of this perspective in favor of the existing preference for reconstructing nuclear recoil energy solely from primary scintillation. We show that signal partitioning into scintillation and ionization is well described by the Thomas-Imel box model. We discuss the implications for liquid xenon detectors aimed at the direct detection of dark matter.

  2. The Thermal Properties of Asymmetric Nuclear Matter within the Extended Brueckner-Hartree-Fock Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassaneen, Khaled; Mansour, Hesham

    2017-02-01

    The single-particle potentials and other properties at absolute zero temperature in isospin asymmetric nuclear matter are investigated in the frame of an extended Brueckner theory. Also thermal quantities are calculated in asymmetric nuclear matter using CD-Bonn potential and the Urbana three-body forces (3BF). Also, the effects of the hole-hole contributions are investigated within the self-consistent Greens function approach. The inclusion of 3BF or the hole-hole contributions improves the predicted saturation property of symmetric nuclear matter within the Brueckner-Hartree-Fock approach and it leads to a significant stiffening of the density dependence of symmetry energy at high densities but the exact saturation point is not reproduced. This is of great importance in astrophysical calculation. A phenomenological term simulating the three-body interaction is introduced to assure the empirical saturation property. The hot properties of asymmetric nuclear matter such as the internal energy and the pressure are analyzed using T2-approximation method at low temperatures.

  3. Nuclear magnetic biosignatures in the carbonaceous matter of ancient cherts: comparison with carbonaceous meteorites.

    PubMed

    Gourier, Didier; Delpoux, Olivier; Binet, Laurent; Vezin, Hervé

    2013-10-01

    The search for organic biosignatures is motivated by the hope of understanding the conditions of emergence of life on Earth and the perspective of finding traces of extinct life in martian sediments. Paramagnetic radicals, which exist naturally in amorphous carbonaceous matter fossilized in Precambrian cherts, were used as local structural probes and studied by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. The nuclear magnetic resonance transitions of elements inside and around these radicals were detected by monitoring the nuclear modulations of electron spin echo in pulsed EPR. We found that the carbonaceous matter of fossilized microorganisms with age up to 3.5 billion years gives specific nuclear magnetic signatures of hydrogen (¹H), carbon (¹³C), and phosphorus (³¹P) nuclei. We observed that these potential biosignatures of extinct life are found neither in the carbonaceous matter of carbonaceous meteorites (4.56 billion years), the most ancient objects of the Solar System, nor in any carbonaceous matter resulting from carbonization of organic and bioorganic precursors. These results indicate that these nuclear signatures are sensitive to thermal episodes and can be used for Archean cherts with metamorphism not higher than the greenschist facies.

  4. Intrinsic neutron background of nuclear emulsions for directional Dark Matter searches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexandrov, A.; Asada, T.; Buonaura, A.; Consiglio, L.; D'Ambrosio, N.; De Lellis, G.; Di Crescenzo, A.; Di Marco, N.; Di Vacri, M. L.; Furuya, S.; Galati, G.; Gentile, V.; Katsuragawa, T.; Laubenstein, M.; Lauria, A.; Loverre, P. F.; Machii, S.; Monacelli, P.; Montesi, M. C.; Naka, T.; Pupilli, F.; Rosa, G.; Sato, O.; Strolin, P.; Tioukov, V.; Umemoto, A.; Yoshimoto, M.

    2016-07-01

    Recent developments of the nuclear emulsion technology led to the production of films with nanometric silver halide grains suitable to track low energy nuclear recoils with submicrometric length. This improvement opens the way to a directional Dark Matter detection, thus providing an innovative and complementary approach to the on-going WIMP searches. An important background source for these searches is represented by neutron-induced nuclear recoils that can mimic the WIMP signal. In this paper we provide an estimation of the contribution to this background from the intrinsic radioactive contamination of nuclear emulsions. We also report the neutron-induced background as a function of the read-out threshold, by using a GEANT4 simulation of the nuclear emulsion, showing that it amounts to about 0.06 per year per kilogram, fully compatible with the design of a 10 kg × year exposure.

  5. NuSol - Numerical solver for the 3D stationary nuclear Schrödinger equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graen, Timo; Grubmüller, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    The classification of short hydrogen bonds depends on several factors including the shape and energy spacing between the nuclear eigenstates of the hydrogen. Here, we describe the NuSol program in which three classes of algorithms were implemented to solve the 1D, 2D and 3D time independent nuclear Schrödinger equation. The Schrödinger equation was solved using the finite differences based Numerov's method which was extended to higher dimensions, the more accurate pseudo-spectral Chebyshev collocation method and the sinc discrete variable representation by Colbert and Miller. NuSol can be applied to solve the Schrödinger equation for arbitrary analytical or numerical potentials with focus on nuclei bound by the potential of their molecular environment. We validated the methods against literature values for the 2D Henon-Heiles potential, the 3D linearly coupled sextic oscillators and applied them to study hydrogen bonding in the malonaldehyde derivate 4-cyano-2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-3,5-heptanedione. With NuSol, the extent of nuclear delocalization in a given molecular potential can directly be calculated without relying on linear reaction coordinates in 3D molecular space.

  6. Effect of the {delta} meson on the instabilities of nuclear matter under strong magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Rabhi, A.; Providencia, C.; Da Providencia, J.

    2009-08-15

    We study the influence of the isovector-scalar meson on the spinodal instabilities and the distillation effect in asymmetric nonhomogenous nuclear matter under strong magnetic fields of the order of 10{sup 18}-10{sup 19} G. Relativistic nuclear models both with constant couplings (NLW) and with density-dependent parameters (DDRH) are considered. A strong magnetic field can have large effects on the instability regions giving rise to bands of instability and wider unstable regions. It is shown that for neutron-rich matter the inclusion of the {delta} meson increases the size of the instability region for NLW models and decreases it for the DDRH models. The effect of the {delta} meson on the transition density to homogeneous {beta}-equilibrium matter is discussed. The DDRH{delta} model predicts the smallest transition pressures, about half the values obtained for NL{delta}.

  7. Covariant and self-consistent vertex corrections for pions and isobars in nuclear matter

    SciTech Connect

    Korpa, C. L.; Lutz, M. F. M.; Riek, F.

    2009-08-15

    We evaluate the pion and isobar propagators in cold nuclear matter self-consistently applying a covariant form of the isobar-hole model. Migdal's vertex correction effects are considered systematically in the absence of phenomenological soft form factors. Saturated nuclear matter is modeled by scalar and vector mean fields for the nucleon. It is shown that the short-range dressing of the {pi}N{delta} vertex has a significant effect on the pion and isobar properties. Using realistic parameters sets we predict a downward shift of about 50 MeV for the {delta} resonance at nuclear saturation density. The pionic soft modes are much less pronounced than in previous studies.

  8. Cold Nuclear Matter Effects on J/psi Production: Intrinsic and Extrinsic Transverse Momentum Effects

    SciTech Connect

    Ferreiro, E.G.; Fleuret, F.; Lansberg, J.P.; Rakotozafindrabe, A.; /SPhN, DAPNIA, Saclay

    2010-08-26

    Cold nuclear matter effects on J/{psi} production in proton-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions are evaluated taking into account the specific J/{psi}-production kinematics at the partonic level, the shadowing of the initial parton distributions and the absorption in the nuclear matter. We consider two different parton processes for the c{bar c}-pair production: one with collinear gluons and a recoiling gluon in the final state and the other with initial gluons carrying intrinsic transverse momentum. Our results are compared to RHIC observables. The smaller values of the nuclear modification factor R{sub AA} in the forward rapidity region (with respect to the mid rapidity region) are partially explained, therefore potentially reducing the need for recombination effects.

  9. The dark matter distribution function and halo thermalization from the Eddington equation in galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vega, H. J.; Sanchez, N. G.

    2016-05-01

    We find the distribution function f(E) for dark matter (DM) halos in galaxies and the corresponding equation of state from the (empirical) DM density profiles derived from observations. We solve for DM in galaxies the analogous of the Eddington equation originally used for the gas of stars in globular clusters. The observed density profiles are a good realistic starting point and the distribution functions derived from them are realistic. We do not make any assumption about the DM nature, the methods developed here apply to any DM kind, though all results are consistent with warm dark matter (WDM). With these methods we find: (i) Cored density profiles behaving quadratically for small distances ρ(r)= r → 0ρ(0) - Kr2 produce distribution functions which are finite and positive at the halo center while cusped density profiles always produce divergent distribution functions at the center. (ii) Cored density profiles produce approximate thermal Boltzmann distribution functions for r ≲ 3rh where rh is the halo radius. (iii) Analytic expressions for the dispersion velocity and the pressure are derived yielding at each halo point an ideal DM gas equation of state with local temperature T(r) ≡ mv2(r)/3. T(r) turns out to be constant in the same region where the distribution function is thermal and exhibits the same temperature within the percent. The self-gravitating DM gas can thermalize despite being collisionless because it is an ergodic system. (iv) The DM halo can be consistently considered at local thermal equilibrium with: (a) a constant temperature T(r) = T0 for r ≲ 3rh, (b) a space dependent temperature T(r) for 3rh < r ≲ Rvirial, which slowly decreases with r. That is, the DM halo is realistically a collisionless self-gravitating thermal gas for r ≲ Rvirial. (v) T(r) outside the halo radius nicely follows the decrease of the circular velocity squared.

  10. Onset of nuclear matter expansion in Au+Au collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crochet, P.; Rami, F.; Gobbi, A.; Dona, R.; Coffin, J. P.; Fintz, P.; Guillaume, G.; Jundt, F.; Kuhn, C.; Roy, C.; de Schauenburg, B.; Tizniti, L.; Wagner, P.; Alard, J. P.; Amouroux, V.; Andronic, A.; Basrak, Z.; Bastid, N.; Belyaev, I.; Best, D.; Biegansky, J.; Buta, A.; Čaplar, R.; Cindro, N.; Dupieux, P.; Dželalija, M.; Fan, Z. G.; Fodor, Z.; Fraysse, L.; Freifelder, R. P.; Berrmann, N.; Hildenbrand, K. D.; Hong, B.; Jeong, S. C.; Kecskemeti, J.; Kirejczyk, M.; Koncz, P.; Korolija, M.; Kotte, R.; Lebedev, A.; Leifels, Y.; Manko, V.; Moisa, D.; Mösner, J.; Neubert, W.; Pelte, D.; Petrovici, M.; Pinkenburg, C.; Pras, P.; Ramillien, V.; Reisdorf, W.; Ritman, J. L.; Sadchikov, A. G.; Schüll, D.; Seres, Z.; Sikora, B.; Simion, V.; Siwek-Wilczyńska, K.; Sodan, U.; Teh, K. M.; Trzaska, M.; Vasiliev, M.; Wang, G. S.; Wessels, J. P.; Wienold, T.; Wisniewski, K.; Wohlfarth, D.; Zhilin, A.; FOPI Collaboration

    1997-02-01

    Using the FOPI detector at GSI Darmstadt, excitation functions of collective flow components were measured for the Au+Au system, in the reaction plane and out of this plane, at seven incident energies ranging from 100 A MeV to 800 A MeV. The threshold energies, corresponding to the onset of sideward-flow (balance energy) and squeeze-out effect (transition energy), are extracted from extrapolations of these excitation functions toward lower beam energies for charged products with Z ⩾ 2. The transition energy is found to be larger than the balance energy. The impact parameter dependence of both balance and transition energies, when extrapolated to central collisions, suggests comparable although slightly higher values than the threshold energy for the radial flow. The relevant parameter seems to be the energy deposited into the system in order to overcome the attractive nuclear forces.

  11. Specific heat of matter formed in relativistic nuclear collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, Sumit; Chatterjee, Sandeep; Chatterjee, Rupa; Nayak, Tapan K.; Nandi, Basanta K.

    2016-10-01

    We report the excitation energy dependence of specific heat (cv) of hadronic matter at freeze-out in Au+Au and Cu+Cu collisions at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider energies by analyzing the published data on event-by-event mean transverse momentum ( ) distributions. The distributions in finite pT ranges are converted to distributions of effective temperatures, and dynamical fluctuations in temperature are extracted by subtracting widths of the corresponding mixed event distributions. The heat capacity per particle at the kinetic freeze-out surface is presented as a function of collision energy, which shows a sharp rise in cv below √{sN N}=62.4 GeV. We employ the hadron resonance gas (HRG) model to estimate cv at the chemical and kinetic freeze-out surfaces. The experimental results are compared to the HRG and other theoretical model calculations. HRG results show good agreement with data. Model predictions for cv at the CERN Large Hadron Collider energy are presented.

  12. 75 FR 24998 - In the Matter of Florida Power and Light Company: Turkey Point Nuclear Plant; Independent Spent...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-06

    .... Licensees whose ISFSI is collocated with a power reactor may choose to comply with the U.S. Nuclear... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION In the Matter of Florida Power and Light Company: Turkey Point Nuclear Plant; Independent...

  13. 78 FR 41425 - In the Matter of Duke Energy Carolinas, LLC; (Oconee Nuclear Station, Units 1, 2, and 3...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY...; EA-13-010] In the Matter of Duke Energy Carolinas, LLC; (Oconee Nuclear Station, Units 1, 2, and 3... Facility Operating License Nos. DPR-38, DPR-47, and DPR-55 issued by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory...

  14. 78 FR 47795 - In the Matter of Entergy Nuclear Generation Company Pilgrim Power Station Independent Spent Fuel...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-06

    .... Licensees whose ISFSI is collocated with a power reactor may choose to comply with the U.S. Nuclear... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION In the Matter of Entergy Nuclear Generation Company Pilgrim Power Station Independent Spent...

  15. 75 FR 35846 - In the Matter of Babcock & Wilcox Nuclear Operations Group, Inc., Lynchburg, VA; Order Imposing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION In the Matter of Babcock & Wilcox Nuclear Operations Group, Inc., Lynchburg, VA; Order Imposing Civil Monetary Penalty I Babcock & Wilcox Nuclear Operations Group, Inc., (Licensee) is the holder...

  16. 78 FR 13384 - In the Matter of FirstEnergy Nuclear Operating Co. (Beaver Valley Units 1 and 2); Confirmatory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-27

    ... Matter of FirstEnergy Nuclear Operating Co. (Beaver Valley Units 1 and 2); Confirmatory Order Modifying License I FirstEnergy Nuclear Operating Company (FENOC, the licensee) is the holder of Renewed Facility... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY...

  17. Renormalization group equation analysis of a pseudoscalar portal dark matter model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghorbani, Karim

    2017-10-01

    We investigate the vacuum stability and perturbativity of a pseudoscalar portal dark matter (DM) model with a Dirac DM candidate, through the renormalization group equation analysis at one-loop order. The model has a particular feature which can evade the direct detection upper bounds measured by XENON100 and even that from planned experiment XENON1T. We first find the viable regions in the parameter space which will give rise to correct DM relic density and comply with the constraints from Higgs physics. We show that for a given mass of the pseudoscalar, the mixing angle plays no significant role in the running of the couplings. Then we study the running of the couplings for various pseudoscalar masses at mixing angle θ =6^\\circ , and find the scale of validity in terms of the dark coupling, {λ }d. Depending on our choice of the cutoff scale, the resulting viable parameter space will be determined.

  18. Description of the evolution of inhomogeneities on a dark matter halo with the Vlasov equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domínguez-Fernández, Paola; Jiménez-Vázquez, Erik; Alcubierre, Miguel; Montoya, Edison; Núñez, Darío

    2017-09-01

    We use a direct numerical integration of the Vlasov equation in spherical symmetry with a background gravitational potential to determine the evolution of a collection of particles in different models of a galactic halo in order to test its stability against perturbations. Such collection is assumed to represent a dark matter inhomogeneity which is represented by a distribution function defined in phase-space. Non-trivial stationary states are obtained and determined by the virialization of the system. We describe some features of these stationary states by means of the properties of the final distribution function and final density profile. We compare our results using the different halo models and find that the NFW halo model is the most stable of them, in the sense that an inhomogeneity in this halo model requires a shorter time to virialize.

  19. Explicit Energy Functional for Infinite Nuclear Matter with the Tensor Force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takano, M.; Kato, K.; Yamada, M.

    2014-08-01

    We have applied the variational method using explicit energy functionals (EEFs) to energy calculations of infinite nuclear matter. In EEFs, the energy per nucleon is explicitly expressed with spin-isospin-dependent two-body distribution functions, which are regarded as variational functions, and fully minimized energies are conveniently calculated with the EEF. A remarkable feature of this approach is that EEFs guarantee non-negativeness of structure functions. In this study, we extend the EEF variational method so as to consider state- independent three-body forces for neutron matter at finite temperatures following the procedure proposed by Schmidt and Pandharipande. For neutron matter, the free energies obtained with the Argonne v4' two-body potential and the repulsive part of the Urbana IX (UIX) three- body potential are quite reasonable. Furthermore, we improve the EEF of nuclear matter using the two-body central and tensor forces by considering the main three-body cluster terms and guaranteeing non-negativeness of tensor structure functions. In addition, healing distances are introduced for two-body distribution functions so that Mayer's condition is satisfied. The obtained energies per neutron of neutron matter with the Argonne v6' two-body potential and the repulsive part of the UIX potential are in good agreement with those obtained by auxiliary field diffusion Monte Carlo calculations.

  20. Constraining the symmetry energy content of nuclear matter from nuclear masses: A covariance analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mondal, C.; Agrawal, B. K.; De, J. N.

    2015-08-01

    Elements of nuclear symmetry energy evaluated from different energy density functionals parametrized by fitting selective bulk properties of few representative nuclei are seen to vary widely. Those obtained from experimental data on nuclear masses across the periodic table, however, show that they are better constrained. A possible direction in reconciling this paradox may be gleaned from comparison of results obtained from use of the binding energies in the fitting protocol within a microscopic model with two sets of nuclei, one a representative standard set and another where very highly asymmetric nuclei are additionally included. A covariance analysis reveals that the additional fitting protocol reduces the uncertainties in the nuclear symmetry energy coefficient, its slope parameter, as well as the neutron-skin thickness in 208Pb nucleus by ˜50 % . The central values of these entities are also seen to be slightly reduced.

  1. Nuclear equation of state in a relativistic independent quark model with chiral symmetry and dependence on quark masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barik, N.; Mishra, R. N.; Mohanty, D. K.; Panda, P. K.; Frederico, T.

    2013-07-01

    We have calculated the properties of nuclear matter in a self-consistent manner with a quark-meson coupling mechanism incorporating the structure of nucleons in vacuum through a relativistic potential model; where the dominant confining interaction for the free independent quarks inside a nucleon is represented by a phenomenologically average potential in equally mixed scalar-vector harmonic form. Corrections due to spurious center of mass motion as well as those due to other residual interactions, such as the one gluon exchange at short distances and quark-pion coupling arising out of chiral symmetry restoration, have been considered in a perturbative manner to obtain the nucleon mass in vacuum. The nucleon-nucleon interaction in nuclear matter is then realized by introducing additional quark couplings to σ and ω mesons through mean field approximations. The relevant parameters of the interaction are obtained self-consistently while realizing the saturation properties such as the binding energy, pressure, and compressibility of the nuclear matter. We also discuss some implications of chiral symmetry in nuclear matter along with the nucleon and nuclear σ term and the sensitivity of nuclear matter binding energy with variations in the light quark mass.

  2. Gap-bridging enhancement of modified Urca processes in nuclear matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alford, Mark G.; Pangeni, Kamal

    2017-01-01

    In nuclear matter at neutron-star densities and temperatures, Cooper pairing leads to the formation of a gap in the nucleon excitation spectra resulting in exponentially strong Boltzmann suppression of many transport coefficients. Previous calculations have shown evidence that density oscillations of sufficiently large amplitude can overcome this suppression for flavor-changing β processes, via the mechanism of "gap bridging." We address the simplifications made in that initial work, and show that gap bridging can counteract Boltzmann suppression of neutrino emissivity for the realistic case of modified Urca processes in matter with P32 neutron pairing.

  3. Equation of state studies of warm dense matter samples heated by laser produced proton beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoarty, D. J.; Guymer, T.; James, S. F.; Gumbrell, E.; Brown, C. R. D.; Hill, M.; Morton, J.; Doyle, H.

    2012-03-01

    Heating of matter by proton beams produced by short pulse, laser-solid target interaction has been demonstrated over the last ten years by a number of workers. In the work described in this paper heating by a pulse of laser produced protons has been combined with high-resolution soft x-ray radiography to record the expansion of thin wire targets. Analysis of the radiographs yields material properties in the warm dense matter regime. These measurements imply initial temperatures in the experimental samples over a range from 14 eV up to 40 eV; the sample densities varied from solid to a tenth solid density. Assuming an adiabatic expansion after the initial proton heating phase isentropes of the aluminium sample material were inferred and compared to tabulated data from the SESAME equation of state library. The proton spectrum was also measured using calibrated magnetic spectrometers and radiochromic film. The accuracy of the technique used to infer material data is discussed along with possible future development.

  4. Collective Sideward Flow of Nuclear Matter in Violent High-Energy Heavy-Ion Collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Stöcker, Horst; Maruhn, Jouchim A.; Greiner, Walter

    1980-03-01

    The nuclear fluid dynamical model with final thermal breakup is used to study the reactions {sup 20}Ne + {sup 238}U and {sup 40} Ar + {sup 40}Ca at E{sub LAB}=390 MeV/n. Calculated double differential cross sections d{sup 2}{sigma}/d{Omega}dE are in agreement with recent experimental data. It is shown that azimuthally dependent triple differential cross sections d{sup 3}{sigma}/dEd cos{theta}d{phi} yield considerably deeper insight into the collision process and allow for snapshots of the reactions. Strongly correlated jets of nuclear matter are predicted.

  5. Nuclear collisions from AMeV to ATeV: from nuclear to quark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Gyulassy, M.

    1982-10-01

    The maximum energy density achieved in nuclear collisions is estimated in this energy range. Stopping power and longitudinal growth are discussed. We show that for lab energies > 100 AGeV energy densities high enough to produce a plasma can be reached. Cosmic-ray data support these calculations and suggest a possible novel signature of the plasma phase transition.

  6. Exact solutions to the continuous-quality equation for soil organic matter turnover.

    PubMed

    Bosatta, Ernesto; Agren, Göran I

    2003-09-07

    All living systems depend on transformations of elements between different states. In particular, the transformation of dead organic matter in the soil (SOM) by decomposers (microbes) releases elements incorporated in SOM and makes the elements available anew to plants. A major problem in analysing and describing this process is that SOM, as the result of the decomposer activity, is a mixture of a very large number of molecules with widely differing chemical and physical properties. The continuous-quality equation (CQE) is a general equation describing this complexity by assigning a continuous-quality variable to each carbon atom in SOM. The use of CQE has been impeded by its complicated mathematics. Here, we show by deriving exact solutions that, at least for some specific cases, there exist solutions to CQE. These exact solutions show that previous approximations have overestimated the rate by which litter decomposes and as a consequence underestimated steady state SOM amounts. The exact and approximate solutions also differ with respect to the parameter space in which they yield finite steady-state SOM amounts. The latter point is important because temperature is one of the parameters and climatic change may move the solution from a region of the parameter space with infinite steady-state SOM to a region of finite steady-state SOM, with potentially large changes in soil carbon stores. We also show that the solution satisfies the Chapman-Kolmogorov theorem. The importance of this is that it provides efficient algorithms for numerical solutions.

  7. Linking empowering leadership to safety participation in nuclear power plants: a structural equation model.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Córcoles, Mario; Schöbel, Markus; Gracia, Francisco J; Tomás, Inés; Peiró, José M

    2012-07-01

    Safety participation is of paramount importance in guaranteeing the safe running of nuclear power plants. The present study examined the effects of empowering leadership on safety participation. Based on a sample of 495 employees from two Spanish nuclear power plants, structural equation modeling showed that empowering leadership has a significant relationship with safety participation, which is mediated by collaborative team learning. In addition, the results revealed that the relationship between empowering leadership and collaborative learning is partially mediated by the promotion of dialogue and open communication. The implications of these findings for safety research and their practical applications are outlined. An empowering leadership style enhances workers' safety performance, particularly safety participation behaviors. Safety participation is recommended to detect possible rule inconsistencies or misunderstood procedures and make workers aware of critical safety information and issues. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Disappearance of flow as a probe of the nuclear equation of state

    SciTech Connect

    Krofcheck, D.; Bauer, W.; Crawley, G.M.; Howden, S.; Ogilvie, C.A.; Vander Molen, A.; Westfall, G.D.; Wilson, W.K. ); Tickle, R.S. ); Djalali, C. ); Gale, C. )

    1992-10-01

    The disappearance of directed, collective nuclear motion ( flow'') away from the interaction region of heavy-ion collisions has been observed using the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory Streamer Chamber. We find that flow vanishes at a beam energy near 50 MeV/nucleon for the {sup 139}La+{sup 139}La system and near 60 MeV/nucleon for the {sup 93}Nb+{sup 93}Nb system. The disappearance of flow may be understood as resulting from a balance between attractive and repulsive scattering strengths. Full calculations with the Boltzmann-Uehling-Uhlenbeck model show that the disappearance of flow is sensitive to the assumed nuclear equation of state (EOS) and to the in-medium scattering cross section ({sigma}{sub {ital N}{ital N}}). Also, in the {sup 93}Nb+{sup 93}Nb system, the purely attractive contribution to the reduced flow does not appear to be strongly sensitive to the EOS assumptions.

  9. Hyperbolic reaction-diffusion equations and irreversible thermodynamics: II. Two-dimensional patterns and dissipation of energy and matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Ghoul, Mazen; Eu, Byung Chan

    In this work we continue the study of pattern formations and dissipation of energy and matter initiated in the previous papers by using hyperbolic reaction-diffusion equations for reacting systems. In this paper, two-dimensional hyperbolic reaction-diffusion equations are numerically solved for the Selkov model. It is shown that the evolution equations used can give rise to various kinds of patterns such as hexagonal structures, stripes, spirals, maze structures, chaotic structures, etc., depending on the values of the reaction-diffusion number Nrd and the initial and boundary conditions. Random initial conditions are shown to give rise to patterns which evolve to break symmetry and form a new series of patterns. Solitary waves are also observed. The entropy production (equivalently, the calortropy production for the approximations made) is studied for various patterns formed and its characteristic features are observed to be related to the patterns. As is the case of one-dimensional hyperbolic reaction-diffusion equations reported earlier, the values of the entropy production computed indicate that the system maintains the particular organized local structures at the expense of energy and matter on the part of other modes, and the global energy and matter dissipation is the same for all patterns formed. However, when the system produces a chaotic pattern, the entropy production is lower than the locally organized structures. The amplitude equations are derived and compared for the hyperbolic and parabolic reaction-diffusion equations. Except for the coefficients in the equations the basic structures are the same regardless of their precursor equations. Hyperbolic reaction-diffusion equations appear to be better suited for description of transient structures and richer in variety of patterns than the corresponding parabolic differential equations to which the former reduce in the limit of high reaction-diffusion number.

  10. Yang-Mills equation for the nuclear geometrical collective model connexion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sparks, N.; Rosensteel, G.

    2017-01-01

    The Bohr-Mottelson collective model of rotations and quadrupole vibrations is a foundational model in nuclear structure physics. A modern formulation using differential geometry of bundles builds on this legacy collective model to allow a deformation-dependent interaction between rotational and vortical degrees of freedom. The interaction is described by the bundle connexion. This article reports the Yang-Mills equation for the connexion. For a class of solutions to the Yang-Mills equation, the differential geometric collective model attains agreement between experiment and theory for the moments of inertia of deformed isotopes. More generally, the differential geometric framework applies to models of emergent phenomena in which two interacting sets of degrees of freedom must be unified.

  11. Relativistic calculation of the pion loop correlation energy in nuclear matter in a theory including confinement

    SciTech Connect

    Massot, E.; Chanfray, G.

    2009-07-15

    We present a relativistic calculation of the saturation properties of nuclear matter which contains the correlation energy. Pion loops are incorporated on top of a relativistic Hartree-Fock (RHF) approach based on a chiral theory. It includes the effect of nucleon structure through its response to the background chiral invariant scalar field. All the parameters which enter the RHF calculation are fixed or strongly constrained by hadron phenomenology or lattice data. The new input for the correlation energy is the Landau-Migdal parameter g{sup '} governing the short-range part of the spin-isospin interaction. We find that the inclusion of the correlation energy improves the description of the saturation properties of nuclear matter.

  12. Probing the Symmetry Term of the Nuclear Equation of State at High Baryonic Densities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russotto, P.; Acosta, L.; Adamczyk, M.; Al-Ajlan, A.; Al-Garawi, M.; Al-Homaidhi, S.; Amorini, F.; Auditore, L.; Aumann, T.; Ayyad, Y.; Basrak, Z.; Benlliure, J.; Boisjoli, M.; Boretzky, K.; Brzychczyk, J.; Budzanowski, A.; Caesar, C.; Cardella, G.; Cammarata, P.; Chajecki, Z.; Chartier, M.; Chbihi, A.; Colonna, M.; Cozma, M. D.; Czech, B.; De Filippo, E.; Di Toro, M.; Famiano, M.; Gannon, S.; Gašparić, I.; Grassi, L.; Guazzoni, C.; Guazzoni, P.; Heil, M.; Heilborn, L.; Introzzi, R.; Isobe, T.; Kezzar, K.; Kiš, M.; Krasznahorkay, A.; Kupny, S.; Kurz, N.; La Guidara, E.; Lanzalone, G.; Lasko, P.; Le Fèvre, A.; Leifels, Y.; Lemmon, R. C.; Li, QF; Lombardo, I.; Łukasik, J.; Lynch, W. G.; Marini, P.; Matthews, Z.; May, L.; Minniti, T.; Mostazo, M.; Pagano, A.; Pagano, E. V.; Papa, M.; Pawłowski, P.; Pirrone, S.; Politi, G.; Porto, F.; Reviol, W.; Riccio, F.; Rizzo, F.; Rosato, E.; Rossi, D.; Santoro, S.; Sarantites, D. G.; Simon, H.; Skwirczynska, I.; Sosin, Z.; Stuhl, L.; Trautmann, W.; Trifirò, A.; Trimarchi, M.; Tsang, M. B.; Verde, G.; Veselsky, M.; Vigilante, M.; Wang, Yongjia; Wieloch, A.; Wigg, P.; Winkelbauer, J.; Wolter, H. H.; Wu, P.; Yennello, S.; Zambon, P.; Zetta, L.; Zoric, M.

    2017-06-01

    In the ASY-EOS experiment flows of neutrons and light charged particles were measured for 197Au+197Au collisions at 400 MeV/nucleon, in order to investigate the strength of the symmetry term of the nuclear equation of state at supra-saturation densities. By comparing the experimental data with the UrQMD transport model predictions, we have extracted a new constraint in agreement with the moderately soft to linear density dependence obtained in the former analysis on FOPI-LAND data, but reducing the associated uncertainty by a factor ∼ 2.

  13. Pulsar Glitches and the Neutron-Star Matter Equation of State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fattoyev, Farrukh J.; Piekarewicz, Jorge; Horowitz, Charles J.

    2015-04-01

    Long time observation of sudden spin jumps in the Vela pulsar suggests that at least 1.6% of the total moment of inertia must reside in the solid crust. It has been argued that the amount of superfluid entrainment in the crust effectively reduces the angular-momentum reservoir, and in turn suggests that the crustal fraction of the moment of inertia must increase to about 7%. This indicates that the required angular momentum reservoir may exceed the one available in the crust as predicted by most models of the equation of state. We explore the possibility that uncertainties in the equation of state provide enough flexibility for the construction of models that predict a large crustal moment of inertia. Since the crustal moment of inertia is sensitive to the transition pressure at the crust-core interface, we tune the parameters of the model to maximize the transition pressure, while still providing an excellent description of nuclear observables. In particular, we find that if the neutron-skin thickness of 208 Pb falls within the (0.20-0.26) fm range, large enough transition pressures can be generated to explain the large Vela glitches without invoking an additional angular-momentum reservoir beyond that confined to the solid crust. Our results suggest that the crust may be enough.

  14. The tendency analytical equations of stable nuclides and the superluminal velocity motion laws of matter in geospace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Kun

    In this paper, by discussing the existent distribution trend of relation for the proton number and the neutron number to be included by the stable nuclides in geospace, the tendency analytical method and it's periodic distribution equation forms of the stable nuclides are expressed at first. Then the comparison result between the curve of the theoretical equation analysis and the points of the experimental distribution data of the stable nuclides in geospace are given. Further more, the stable nuclide limit and the chemical element limit for the chemical element periodic table are given, and the possible corresponding relation equation with the positron-particle annihilation is expressed, which includes the estimation of the order of the static mass to be situated nearby at the electron neutrino structural dimension. Subsequently, by forming two hypotheses about the energy state of vacuum matter, and basing on the equivalent Binet equation, the mass equations and the energy equations of the partial moving with light-velocity or superluminal-velocity motion fusing with the results of Einstein special relativity are expressed. As inference, the possible corresponding relations between the mass equations and energy equations with the dark matter and dark energy are discussed tentatively.

  15. Robert Vivian Pound and the Discovery of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance in Condensed Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlish, Ursula

    2010-06-01

    This paper is based upon five interviews I conducted with Robert Vivian Pound in 2006-2007 and covers his childhood interest in radios, his time at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Radiation Laboratory during the Second World War, his work on the discovery of nuclear magnetic resonance in condensed matter, his travels as a professor at Harvard University, and his social interactions with other physicists.

  16. Investigation of the organic matter in inactive nuclear tank liquids. Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Schenley, R.L.; Griest, W.H.

    1990-08-01

    Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) methodology for regulatory organics fails to account for the organic matter that is suggested by total organic carbon (TOC) analysis in the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) inactive nuclear waste-tank liquids and sludges. Identification and measurement of the total organics are needed to select appropriate waste treatment technologies. An initial investigation was made of the nature of the organics in several waste-tank liquids. This report details the analysis of ORNL wastes.

  17. Simulation of electromagnetic and strange probes of dense nuclear matter at NICA/MPD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zinchenko, A.; Kolesnikov, V.; Vasendina, V.

    2016-01-01

    The main task of the NICA/MPD physics program is a study of the properties of nuclear matter under extreme conditions achieved in collisions of heavy ions. These properties can reveal themselves through different probes, the most promising among those being the lepton-antilepton pairs and strange hadrons. In this paper the MPD performance for measuring the electron-positron pairs and strange hyperons in central Au+Au collisions at NICA energies is presented.

  18. Nuclear Forces and Their Impact on Neutron-Rich Nuclei and Neutron-Rich Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hebeler, K.; Holt, J. D.; Menéndez, J.; Schwenk, A.

    2015-10-01

    We review the impact of nuclear forces on matter at neutron-rich extremes. Recent results have shown that neutron-rich nuclei become increasingly sensitive to three-nucleon forces, which are at the forefront of theoretical developments based on effective field theories of quantum chromodynamics. These developments include the formation of shell structure, the spectroscopy of exotic nuclei, and the location of the neutron drip line. Nuclear forces also constrain the properties of neutron-rich matter, including the neutron skin, the symmetry energy, and the structure of neutron stars. First, we review our understanding of three-nucleon forces and show how chiral effective field theory makes unique predictions for many-body forces. Then, we survey results with three-nucleon forces in neutron-rich oxygen and calcium isotopes and neutron-rich matter, which have been explored with a range of many-body methods. Three-nucleon forces therefore provide an exciting link between theoretical, experimental, and observational nuclear physics frontiers.

  19. Nuclear Matter Properties with the Re-evaluated Coefficients of Liquid Drop Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdhury, P. Roy; Basu, D. N.

    2006-06-01

    The coefficients of the volume, surface, Coulomb, asymmetry and pairing energy terms of the semiempirical liquid drop model mass formula have been determined by furnishing best fit to the observed mass excesses. Slightly different sets of the weighting parameters for liquid drop model mass formula have been obtained from minimizations of \\chi 2 and mean square deviation. The most recent experimental and estimated mass excesses from Audi-Wapstra-Thibault atomic mass table have been used for the least square fitting procedure. Equation of state, nuclear incompressibility, nuclear mean free path and the most stable nuclei for corresponding atomic numbers, all are in good agreement with the experimental results.

  20. Basic Equations Interrelate Atomic and Nuclear Properties to Patterns at the Size Scales of the Cosmos, Extended Clusters of Galaxies, Galaxies, and Nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Rob

    2016-09-01

    Structures within molecules and nuclei have relationships to astronomical patterns. The COBE cosmic scale plots, and large scale surveys of galaxy clusters have patterns also repeating and well known at atomic scales. The Induction, Strong Force, and Nuclear Binding Energy Periods within the Big Bang are revealed to have played roles in the formation of these large scale distributions. Equations related to the enormous patterns also model chemical bonds and likely nucleus and nucleon substructures. ratios of the forces that include gravity are accurately calculated from the distributions and shapes. In addition, particle masses and a great many physical constants can be derived with precision and accuracy from astrophysical shapes. A few very basic numbers can do modelling from nucleon internals to molecules to super novae, and up to the Visible Universe. Equations are also provided along with possible structural configurations for some Cold Dark Matter and Dark Energy.

  1. Equation of state, universal profiles, scaling and macroscopic quantum effects in warm dark matter galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vega, H. J.; Sanchez, N. G.

    2017-02-01

    The Thomas-Fermi approach to galaxy structure determines self-consistently and non-linearly the gravitational potential of the fermionic warm dark matter (WDM) particles given their quantum distribution function f( E). This semiclassical framework accounts for the quantum nature and high number of DM particles, properly describing gravitational bounded and quantum macroscopic systems as neutron stars, white dwarfs and WDM galaxies. We express the main galaxy magnitudes as the halo radius r_h , mass M_h , velocity dispersion and phase space density in terms of the surface density which is important to confront to observations. From these expressions we derive the general equation of state for galaxies, i.e., the relation between pressure and density, and provide its analytic expression. Two regimes clearly show up: (1) Large diluted galaxies for M_h ≳ 2.3 × 10^6 M_⊙ and effective temperatures T_0 > 0.017 K described by the classical self-gravitating WDM Boltzman gas with a space-dependent perfect gas equation of state, and (2) Compact dwarf galaxies for 1.6 × 10^6 M_⊙ ≳ M_h ≳ M_{h,min} ˜eq 3.10 × 10^4 (2 {keV}/m)^{16/5} M_⊙, T_0 < 0.011 K described by the quantum fermionic WDM regime with a steeper equation of state close to the degenerate state. In particular, the T_0 = 0 degenerate or extreme quantum limit yields the most compact and smallest galaxy. In the diluted regime, the halo radius r_h , the squared velocity v^2(r_h) and the temperature T_0 turn to exhibit square-root of M_h scaling laws. The normalized density profiles ρ (r)/ρ (0) and the normalized velocity profiles v^2(r)/ v^2(0) are universal functions of r/r_h reflecting the WDM perfect gas behavior in this regime. These theoretical results contrasted to robust and independent sets of galaxy data remarkably reproduce the observations. For the small galaxies, 10^6 ≳ M_h ≥ M_{h,min} , the equation of state is galaxy mass dependent and the density and velocity profiles are not

  2. Measurement of Quark Energy Loss in Cold Nuclear Matter at Fermilab E906/SeaQuest

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Po-Ju

    2017-01-01

    Parton energy loss is a process within QCD that draws considerable interest. The measurement of parton energy loss can provide valuable information for other hard-scattering processes in nuclei, and also serves as an important tool for exploring the properties of the quark-gluon plasma (QGP). Quantifying the energy loss in cold nuclear matter will help to set a baseline relative to energy loss in the QGP. With the Drell-Yan process, the energy loss of incoming quarks in cold nuclear matter can be ideally investigated since the final state interaction is expected to be minimal. E906/SeaQuest is a fixed-target experiment using the 120 GeV proton beam from the Fermilab Main Injector and has been collecting data from p+p, p+d, p+C, p+Fe, and p+W collisions. Within the E906 kinematic coverage of Drell-Yan production via the dimuon channel, the quark energy loss can be measured in a regime where other nuclear effects are expected to be small. In this thesis, the study of quark ener gy loss from different cold nuclear targets is presented.

  3. Spin-dependent structure functions in nuclear matter and the polarized EMC effect

    SciTech Connect

    I.C. Cloet; W. Bentz; A.W. Thomas

    2005-04-01

    An excellent description of both spin-independent and spin-dependent quark distributions and structure functions has been obtained with a modified Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model, which is free of unphysical thresholds for nucleon decay into quarks--hence incorporating an important aspect of confinement. We utilize this model to investigate nuclear medium modifications to structure functions, and find that we are readily able to reproduce both nuclear matter saturation and the experimental F{sub 2N}{sup A}/F{sub 2N} ratio, that is, the EMC effect. Applying this framework to determine g{sub 1p}{sup A}, we find that the ratio g{sub 1p}{sup A}/g{sub 1p} differs significantly from 1, with the quenching caused by the nuclear medium being about twice that of the spin-independent case. This represents an exciting result, which if confirmed experimentally, will reveal much about the quark structure of nuclear matter.

  4. Approximate analytical solution for nuclear matter in a mean-field Walecka model and Coester line behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Delfino, A.; Silva, J.B.; Malheiro, M.

    2006-03-15

    We study nuclear matter, at the mean-field approximation, by considering as equal the values of the scalar and the vector density in the Walecka model, which is a very reasonable approximation up to the nuclear matter saturation density. It turns out that the model has an analytical solution for the scalar and vector couplings as functions only of the nuclear matter density and binding energy. The nuclear matter properties are very close to the original version of the model. This solution allows us to show that the correlation between the binding energy and the saturation density is Coester line like. The liquid-gas phase transition is also studied and the critical and flash temperatures are again very similar to the original ones.

  5. Low-momentum NN interactions and all-order summation of ring diagrams of symmetric nuclear matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siu, L.-W.; Holt, J. W.; Kuo, T. T. S.; Brown, G. E.

    2009-05-01

    We study the equation of state for symmetric nuclear matter using a ring-diagram approach in which the particle-particle hole-hole (pphh) ring diagrams within a momentum model space of decimation scale Λ are summed to all orders. The calculation is carried out using the renormalized low-momentum nucleon-nucleon (NN) interaction Vlow-k, which is obtained from a bare NN potential by integrating out the high-momentum components beyond Λ. The bare NN potentials of CD-Bonn, Nijmegen, and Idaho have been employed. The choice of Λ and its influence on the single particle spectrum are discussed. Ring-diagram correlations at intermediate momenta (k≃2fm-1) are found to be particularly important for nuclear saturation, suggesting the necessity of using a sufficiently large decimation scale so that the above momentum region is not integrated out. Using Vlow-k with Λ~3fm-1, we perform a ring-diagram computation with the above potentials, which all yield saturation energies E/A and Fermi momenta kF(0) considerably larger than the empirical values. On the other hand, similar computations with the medium-dependent Brown-Rho scaled NN potentials give satisfactory results of E/A≃-15 MeV and kF(0)≃1.4fm-1. The effect of this medium dependence is well reproduced by an empirical three-body force of the Skyrme type.

  6. Holographic Quark Matter and Neutron Stars.

    PubMed

    Hoyos, Carlos; Jokela, Niko; Rodríguez Fernández, David; Vuorinen, Aleksi

    2016-07-15

    We use a top-down holographic model for strongly interacting quark matter to study the properties of neutron stars. When the corresponding equation of state (EOS) is matched with state-of-the-art results for dense nuclear matter, we consistently observe a first-order phase transition at densities between 2 and 7 times the nuclear saturation density. Solving the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkov equations with the resulting hybrid EOSs, we find maximal stellar masses in excess of two solar masses, albeit somewhat smaller than those obtained with simple extrapolations of the nuclear matter EOSs. Our calculation predicts that no quark matter exists inside neutron stars.

  7. Supernova equations of state including full nuclear ensemble with in-medium effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furusawa, Shun; Sumiyoshi, Kohsuke; Yamada, Shoichi; Suzuki, Hideyuki

    2017-01-01

    We construct new equations of state for baryons at sub-nuclear densities for the use in core-collapse supernova simulations. The abundance of various nuclei is obtained together with thermodynamic quantities. The formulation is an extension of the previous model, in which we adopted the relativistic mean field theory with the TM1 parameter set for nucleons, the quantum approach for d, t, h and α as well as the liquid drop model for the other nuclei under the nuclear statistical equilibrium. We reformulate the model of the light nuclei other than d, t, h and α based on the quasi-particle description. Furthermore, we modify the model so that the temperature dependences of surface and shell energies of heavy nuclei could be taken into account. The pasta phases for heavy nuclei and the Pauli- and self-energy shifts for d, t, h and α are taken into account in the same way as in the previous model. We find that nuclear composition is considerably affected by the modifications in this work, whereas thermodynamical quantities are not changed much. In particular, the washout of shell effect has a great impact on the mass distribution above T ∼ 1 MeV. This improvement may have an important effect on the rates of electron captures and coherent neutrino scatterings on nuclei in supernova cores.

  8. Electronic Contributions to the Equation-of-State of Warm Dense Matter*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albritton, J. R.; Liberman, D. A.; Sonnad, V.; Young, D. A.; Reisman, D. B.; Cauble, R. C.

    2001-10-01

    We describe calculations with the INFERNO[1] atom-in-jellium model to produce single-shock Hugoniot curves for aluminum, copper, and still other elements, from their normal initial density and also from "expanded" states of initial density of about 1/10 normal. These calculations address the regime of "warm-dense-matter", the former in support of experiments toward maximum compression, and the latter in support of experiments toward isentropic compression. INFERNO provides the electronic contributions to the internal energy and pressure, and ideal-gas or QEOS[2] atomic nuclear contributions complete the scheme. We compare INFERNO’s fully quantum-mechanical treatment of electrons with the familiar Thomas-Fermi model. We also investigate the one-component-plasma[3] model for the non-ideal contributions of atomic ions in strongly-coupled plasmas. [1] D.A. Liberman, Phys Rev B, 20, 4981 (1979) [2] R.M. More, K.H. Warren, D.A. Young, and G.B. Zimmerman, Phys Fluids, 31, 3059 (1988) [3] H. DeWitt, W. Slattery, and Gilles Chabrier, Physica B, 228, 21 (1996) *This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract No. W-7405-Eng-48.

  9. Many-particle theory of nuclear system with application to neutron-star matter and other systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, C. H.

    1978-01-01

    General problems in nuclear-many-body theory were considered. Superfluid states of neutron star matter and other strongly interacting many-fermion systems were analyzed by using the soft-core potential of Reid. The pion condensation in neutron star matter was also treated.

  10. Symmetric formulation of neutrino oscillations in matter and its intrinsic connection to renormalization-group equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Shun

    2017-04-01

    In this article, we point out that the effective Hamiltonian for neutrino oscillations in matter is invariant under the transformation of the mixing angle {θ }12\\to {θ }12-π /2 and the exchange of first two neutrino masses {m}1≤ftrightarrow {m}2, if the standard parametrization of lepton flavor mixing matrix is adopted. To maintain this symmetry in perturbative calculations, we present a symmetric formulation of the effective Hamiltonian by introducing an η-gauge neutrino mass-squared difference {{{Δ }}}* \\equiv η {{{Δ }}}31+(1-η ){{{Δ }}}32 for 0≤slant η ≤slant 1, where {{{Δ }}}{ji}\\equiv {m}j2-{m}i2 for {ji}=21,31,32, and show that only η =1/2, η ={\\cos }2{θ }12 or η ={\\sin }2{θ }12 is allowed. Furthermore, we prove that η ={\\cos }2{θ }12 is the best choice to derive more accurate and compact neutrino oscillation probabilities, by implementing the approach of renromalization-group equations. The validity of this approach becomes transparent when an analogy is made between the parameter η herein and the renormalization scale μ in relativistic quantum field theories.

  11. Condensed-matter equation of states covering a wide region of pressure studied experimentally

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Elijah E.; Köhler, Jürgen; Whangbo, Myung-Hwan

    2016-01-01

    The relationships among the pressure P, volume V, and temperature T of solid-state materials are described by their equations of state (EOSs), which are often derived from the consideration of the finite-strain energy or the interatomic potential. These EOSs consist of typically three parameters to determine from experimental P-V-T data by fitting analyses. In the empirical approach to EOSs, one either refines such fitting parameters or improves the mathematical functions to better simulate the experimental data. Despite over seven decades of studies on EOSs, none has been found to be accurate for all types of solids over the whole temperature and pressure ranges studied experimentally. Here we show that the simple empirical EOS, P = α1(PV) + α2(PV)2 + α3(PV)3, in which the pressure P is indirectly related to the volume V through a cubic polynomial of the energy term PV with three fitting parameters α1–α3, provides accurate descriptions for the P-vs-V data of condensed matter in a wide region of pressure studied experimentally even in the presence of phase transitions. PMID:27976712

  12. 76 FR 11522 - In the Matter of Progress Energy Florida, Inc. (Combined License Application, Levy County Nuclear...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION In the Matter of Progress Energy Florida, Inc. (Combined License Application, Levy County Nuclear Power Plant, Units 1 and 2); Notice of Appointment of Adjudicatory Employee Commissioners: Gregory...

  13. 77 FR 11169 - In the Matter of Exelon Corporation; Constellation Energy Group, Inc.; R.E. Ginna Nuclear Power...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-24

    ... License] In the Matter of Exelon Corporation; Constellation Energy Group, Inc.; R.E. Ginna Nuclear Power... (Exelon), and Exelon Ventures Company, LLC (Exelon Ventures), and Constellation Energy Nuclear Group, LLC...'s parent companies, Constellation Energy Group, Inc. (CEG), whereby CEG would be merged into...

  14. 78 FR 68102 - Atomic Safety and Licensing Board; In the Matter of Nuclear Innovation North America LLC (South...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Atomic Safety and Licensing Board; In the Matter of Nuclear Innovation North America LLC (South Texas Project Units 3 and 4); Notice of Hearing (Application for Combined Licenses) November 6, 2013. Before Administrative Judges: Michael M....

  15. Self-consistent calculation of the nuclear composition in hot and dense stellar matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furusawa, Shun; Mishustin, Igor

    2017-03-01

    We investigate the mass fractions and in-medium properties of heavy nuclei in stellar matter at characteristic densities and temperatures for supernova (SN) explosions. The individual nuclei are described within the compressible liquid-drop model taking into account modifications of bulk, surface, and Coulomb energies. The equilibrium properties of nuclei and the full ensemble of heavy nuclei are calculated self-consistently. It is found that heavy nuclei in the ensemble are either compressed or decompressed depending on the isospin asymmetry of the system. The compression or decompression has a little influence on the binding energies, total mass fractions, and average mass numbers of heavy nuclei, although the equilibrium densities of individual nuclei themselves are changed appreciably above one-hundredth of normal nuclear density. We find that nuclear structure in the single-nucleus approximation deviates from the actual one obtained in the multinucleus description, since the density of free nucleons is different between these two descriptions. This study indicates that a multinucleus description is required to realistically account for in-medium effects on the nuclear structure in supernova matter.

  16. Cold Nuclear Matter Effects on J/psi and Upsilon Production at the LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Vogt, R

    2009-06-23

    The charmonium yields are expected to be considerably suppressed if a deconfined medium is formed in high-energy heavy-ion collisions. In addition, the bottomonium states, with the possible exception of the {Upsilon}(1S) state, are also expected to be suppressed in heavy-ion collisions. However, in proton-nucleus collisions the quarkonium production cross sections, even those of the {Upsilon}(1S), scale less than linearly with the number of binary nucleon-nucleon collisions. These 'cold nuclear matter' effects need to be accounted for before signals of the high density QCD medium can be identified in the measurements made in nucleus-nucleus collisions. We identify two cold nuclear matter effects important for midrapidity quarkonium production: 'nuclear absorption', typically characterized as a final-state effect on the produced quarkonium state and shadowing, the modification of the parton densities in nuclei relative to the nucleon, an initial-state effect. We characterize these effects and study their energy and rapidity dependence.

  17. ϕ meson self-energy in nuclear matter from ϕ N resonant interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabrera, D.; Hiller Blin, A. N.; Vicente Vacas, M. J.

    2017-01-01

    The ϕ -meson properties in cold nuclear matter are investigated by implementing resonant ϕ N interactions as described in effective approaches including the unitarization of scattering amplitudes. Several N*-like states are dynamically generated in these models around 2 GeV, in the vicinity of the ϕ N threshold. We find that both these states and the non-resonant part of the amplitude contribute sizably to the ϕ collisional self-energy at finite nuclear density. These contributions are of a similar strength as the widely studied medium effects from the K ¯K cloud. Depending on model details (position of the resonances and strength of the coupling to ϕ N ) we report a ϕ broadening up to about 40-50 MeV, to be added to the ϕ →K ¯K in-medium decay width, and an attractive optical potential at threshold up to about 35 MeV at normal matter density. The ϕ spectral function develops a double peak structure as a consequence of the mixing of resonance-hole modes with the ϕ quasiparticle peak. The former results point in the direction of making up for missing absorption as reported in ϕ nuclear production experiments.

  18. Dark matter RNA: an intelligent scaffold for the dynamic regulation of the nuclear information landscape

    PubMed Central

    St. Laurent, Georges; Savva, Yiannis A.; Kapranov, Philipp

    2012-01-01

    Perhaps no other topic in contemporary genomics has inspired such diverse viewpoints as the 95+% of the genome, previously known as “junk DNA,” that does not code for proteins. Here, we present a theory in which dark matter RNA plays a role in the generation of a landscape of spatial micro-domains coupled to the information signaling matrix of the nuclear landscape. Within and between these micro-domains, dark matter RNAs additionally function to tether RNA interacting proteins and complexes of many different types, and by doing so, allow for a higher performance of the various processes requiring them at ultra-fast rates. This improves signal to noise characteristics of RNA processing, trafficking, and epigenetic signaling, where competition and differential RNA binding among proteins drives the computational decisions inherent in regulatory events. PMID:22539933

  19. Does fairness matter in the context of anger about nuclear energy decision making?

    PubMed

    Besley, John C

    2012-01-01

    Several recent studies have questioned whether nonoutcome forms of fairness matter in decision-making situations where individuals feel strongly engaged by the issue at hand. This survey-based study focuses on perceptions about a decision-making process related to a proposal to expand a nuclear power plant in the U.S. Southeast. It finds that anger moderates the impacts of outcome and procedural fairness on willingness to accept a decision process as satisfactory and legitimate. The more anger a person said he or she would feel if a decision were to contradict that person's point of view, the more perceived outcome and procedural fairness mattered. The study also finds that interpersonal fairness is also moderated by anger, but in the opposite direction. Interpersonal fairness had less of an impact on willingness to accept a decision for those who said they would feel angry if the decision did not go their preferred way. © 2011 Society for Risk Analysis.

  20. Transverse isospin response function of asymmetric nuclear matter from a local isospin density functional

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipparini, Enrico; Pederiva, Francesco

    2016-08-01

    The time dependent local isospin density approximation (TDLIDA) has been extended to the study of the transverse isospin response function in nuclear matter with an arbitrary neutron-proton asymmetry parameter ξ . The energy density functional has been chosen in order to fit existing accurate quantum Monte Carlo calculations with a density dependent potential. The evolution of the response with ξ in the Δ Tz=±1 channels is quite different. While the strength of the Δ Tz=+1 channel disappears rather quickly by increasing the asymmetry, the Δ Tz=-1 channel develops a stronger and stronger collective mode that in the regime typical of neutron star matter at β equilibrium almost completely exhausts the excitation spectrum of the system. The neutrino mean free paths obtained from the TDLIDA responses are strongly dependent on ξ and on the presence of collective modes, leading to a sizable difference with respect to the prediction of the Fermi gas model.

  1. Towards Dense Nuclear Matter in A Modified Sakai-Sugimoto Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Youngman; Rho, Mannque; Tsukioka, Takuya; Yi, Deokhyun

    2012-02-01

    As a part of the attempt to address dense baryonic matter, we first review holographic approaches to QCD. The big advantage of the holographic approaches is that they render strongly coupled 4D gauge theories as duals of certain weakly coupled string/supergravity that are well understood. Its relevance to real QCD is one of the central problems in hadron/nuclear physics as well as in the context of applied string theory. None of the models based on these holographic approaches presently available can adequately describe the system we are interested in, namely dense baryonic matter. Nevertheless, some aspects of the holographic approach are found to describe certain processes both in vacuum and in medium. In this talk we only present the structure of a model that appears to be closest to QCD, and has the potential to address the problem.

  2. Cold Nuclear Matter Effects on Heavy Quark Production in Relativistic Heavy Ion Collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durham, John Matthew

    2011-12-01

    The experimental collaborations at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) have established that dense nuclear matter with partonic degrees of freedom is formed in collisions of heavy nuclei at 200 GeV. Information from heavy quarks has given significant insight into the dynamics of this matter. Charm and bottom quarks are dominantly produced by gluon fusion in the early stages of the collision, and thus experience the complete evolution of the medium. The production baseline measured in p + p collisions can be described by fixed order plus next to leading log perturbative QCD calculations within uncertainties. In central Au+Au collisions, suppression has been measured relative to the yield in p + p scaled by the number of nucleon-nucleon collisions, indicating a significant energy loss by heavy quarks in the medium. The large elliptic flow amplitude v2 provides evidence that the heavy quarks flow along with the lighter partons. The suppression and elliptic flow of these quarks are in qualitative agreement with calculations based on Langevin transport models that imply a viscosity to entropy density ratio close to the conjectured quantum lower bound of 1/4pi. However, a full understanding of these phenomena requires measurements of cold nuclear matter (CNM) effects, which should be present in Au+Au collisions but are difficult to distinguish experimentally from effects due to interactions with the medium. This thesis presents measurements of electrons at midrapidity from the decays of heavy quarks produced in d+Au collisions at RHIC. A significant enhancement of these electrons is seen at a transverse momentum below 5 GeV/c, indicating strong CNM effects on charm quarks that are not present for lighter quarks. A simple model of CNM effects in Au+Au collisions suggests that the level of suppression in the hot nuclear medium is comparable for all quark flavors.

  3. Spinodal instabilities and the distillation effect in nuclear matter under strong magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Rabhi, A.; Providencia, C.; Providencia, J. Da

    2009-01-15

    We study the effect of strong magnetic fields, of the order of 10{sup 18}-10{sup 19} G, on the instability region of nuclear matter at subsaturation densities. Relativistic nuclear models both with constant couplings and with density-dependent parameters are considered. It is shown that a strong magnetic field can have large effects on the instability regions giving rise to bands of instability and wider unstable regions. As a consequence, we predict larger transition densities at the inner edge of the crust of compact stars with strong magnetic fields. The direction of instability gives rise to a very strong distillation effect if the last Landau level is only partially filled. However, for almost completed Landau levels, an antidistillation effect may occur.

  4. Cluster-virial expansion for nuclear matter within a quasiparticle statistical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Röpke, G.; Bastian, N.-U.; Blaschke, D.; Klähn, T.; Typel, S.; Wolter, H. H.

    2013-01-01

    Correlations in interacting many-particle systems can lead to the formation of clusters, in particular bound states and resonances. Systematic quantum statistical approaches allow to combine the nuclear statistical equilibrium description (law of mass action) with mean-field concepts. A chemical picture, which treats the clusters as distinct entities, serves as an intuitive concept to treat the low-density limit. Within a generalized Beth-Uhlenbeck approach, the quasiparticle-virial expansion is extended to include arbitrary clusters, where special attention must be paid to avoid inconsistencies such as double counting. Correlations are suppressed with increasing density due to Pauli blocking. The contribution of the continuum to the virial coefficients can be reduced by considering clusters explicitly and introducing quasiparticle energies. The cluster-virial expansion for nuclear matter joins known benchmarks at low densities with those near saturation density.

  5. Scintillation efficiency for low energy nuclear recoils in liquid xenon dark matter detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mu, Wei; Xiong, Xiaonu; Ji, Xiangdong

    2015-02-01

    We perform a theoretical study of the scintillation efficiency of the low energy region crucial for liquid xenon dark matter detectors. We develop a computer program to simulate the cascading process of the recoiling xenon nucleus in liquid xenon and calculate the nuclear quenching effect due to atomic collisions. We use the electronic stopping power extrapolated from experimental data to the low energy region, and take into account the effects of electron escape from electron-ion pair recombination using the generalized Thomas-Imel model fitted to scintillation data. Our result agrees well with the experiments from neutron scattering and vanishes rapidly as the recoil energy drops below 3 keV.

  6. Hollow cores in warm dark matter halos from the Vlasov-Poisson equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Destri, Claudio

    2014-12-01

    We report the results of extended high-resolution numerical integrations of the Vlasov-Poisson equation for the collapse of spherically symmetric warm dark matter (WDM) halos. For thermal relics with mass m =1 keV /c2 , we find collapsed halos with cores of size 0.1 to 0.6 kpc. The typical core is hollow, with the mass density decreasing towards the core center by almost three orders of magnitude from its maximum near the core radius rc. The core is in equilibrium with the diffused part of the halo but far from virialization. These properties are rooted in the conservation of the squared angular momentum and in the original excess, proper of WDM initial conditions, of kinetic energy in the core region. In a sample of more than one hundred simulated collapses, the values of rc and of the core density ρc are in the range typical of dwarf spheroids, while the maximal circular velocities Vmax are proper of small disk galaxies. The product μc=ρcrc takes values between 116 M⊙/pc2 and 283 M⊙/pc2 , while the surface density μ0, as determined from a Burkert fit, is roughly three times larger. From these data and data obtained at smaller values of m , we extrapolate for one particular halo μc=263 (308 )M⊙/pc2 and μ0=754 (855 )M⊙/pc2 at m =2 (3.3 ) keV /c2 , to be compared with the observed value 14 0-52+83M⊙/pc2 . In view of the many improvements and enhancements available, we conclude that WDM is a viable solution for explaining the presence and the size of cores in low mass galaxies.

  7. Nucleon spectral function at finite temperature and the onset of superfluidity in nuclear matter

    SciTech Connect

    Alm, T.; Roepke, G.; Schnell, A.; Kwong, N.H.; Koehler, H.S.

    1996-05-01

    Nucleon self-energies and spectral functions are calculated at the saturation density of symmetric nuclear matter at finite temperatures. In particular, the behavior of these quantities at temperatures above and close to the critical temperature for the superfluid phase transition in nuclear matter is discussed. It is shown how the singularity in the thermodynamic {ital T} matrix at the critical temperature for superfluidity (Thouless criterion) reflects in the self-energy and correspondingly in the spectral function. The real part of the on-shell self-energy (optical potential) shows an anomalous behavior for momenta near the Fermi momentum and temperatures close to the critical temperature related to the pairing singularity in the imaginary part. For comparison the self-energy derived from the {ital K} matrix of Brueckner theory is also calculated. It is found that there is no pairing singularity in the imaginary part of the self-energy in this case, which is due to the neglect of hole-hole scattering in the {ital K} matrix. From the self-energy the spectral function and the occupation numbers for finite temperatures are calculated. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  8. ϕ meson mass and decay width in nuclear matter and nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cobos-Martínez, J. J.; Tsushima, K.; Krein, G.; Thomas, A. W.

    2017-08-01

    The mass and decay width of the ϕ meson in cold nuclear matter are computed in an effective Lagrangian approach. The medium dependence of these properties are obtained by evaluating kaon-antikaon loop contributions to the ϕ self-energy, employing the medium-modified kaon masses, calculated using the quark-meson coupling model. The loop integral is regularized with a dipole form factor, and the sensitivity of the results to the choice of cutoff mass in the form factor is investigated. At normal nuclear matter density we find a downward shift of the ϕ mass by a few percent, while the decay width is enhanced by an order of magnitude. For a large variation of the cutoff mass parameter, the results for the ϕ mass and the decay width turn out to vary very little. Our results support results in the literature which suggest that one should observe a small downward mass shift and a large broadening of the decay width. In order to explore the possibility of studying the binding and absorption of ϕ mesons in nuclei, we also present the single-particle binding energies and half-widths of ϕ-nucleus bound states for some selected nuclei.

  9. Updates of the nuclear equation of state for core-collapse supernovae and neutron stars: effects of 3-body forces, QCD, and magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathews, G. J.; Meixner, M.; Olson, J. P.; Suh, I.-S.; Kajino, T.; Maruyama, T.; Hidaka, J.; Ryu, C.-Y.; Cheoun, M.-K.; Lan, N. Q.

    2013-07-01

    We summarize several new developments in the nuclear equation of state for supernova simulations and neutron stars. We discuss an updated and improved Notre-Dame-Livermore Equation of State (NDL EoS) for use in supernovae simulations. This Eos contains many updates. Among them are the effects of 3- body nuclear forces at high densities and the possible transition to a QCD chiral and/or super-conducting color phase at densities. We also consider the neutron star equation of state and neutrino transport in the presence of strong magnetic fields. We study a new quantum hadrodynamic (QHD) equation of state for neutron stars (with and without hyperons) in the presence of strong magnetic fields. The parameters are constrained by deduced masses and radii. The calculated adiabatic index for these magnetized neutron stars exhibit rapid changes with density. This may provide a mechanism for star-quakes and flares in magnetars. We also investigate the strong magnetic field effects on the moments of inertia and spin down of neutron stars. The change of the moment of inertia associated with emitted magnetic flares is shown to match well with observed glitches in some magnetars. We also discuss a perturbative calculation of neutrino scattering and absorption in hot and dense hyperonic neutron-star matter in the presence of a strong magnetic field. The absorption cross-sections show a remarkable angular dependence in that the neutrino absorption strength is reduced in a direction parallel to the magnetic field and enhanced in the opposite direction. The pulsar kick velocities associated with this asymmetry comparable to observed pulsar velocities and may affect the early spin down rate of proto-neutron star magnetars with a toroidal field configuration.

  10. Characterization of sewage sludge organic matter using solid-state carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Smernik, Ronald J; Oliver, Ian W; Merrington, Graham

    2003-01-01

    Six sewage sludges from five sewage treatment plants in Australia were characterized using solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Spectra were acquired both before and after removal of mineral components through treatment with hydrofluoric acid (HF). Carbon mass balance indicated that little organic matter was lost on HF treatment, which significantly improved NMR sensitivity and spectral resolution, and decreased acquisition time and hence cost of NMR analysis. Two NMR techniques were used, the standard cross polarization (CP) technique and Bloch decay (BD). The BD technique had not been applied previously to the analysis of sewage sludge. For each sludge sample, both before and after HF treatment, the BD spectrum contained significantly more alkyl carbon. Spin counting, another technique applied to sewage sludge here for the first time, showed that the BD spectra of the HF-treated sludges were quantitative, while approximately 30% of the CP NMR signal went undetected. The discrepancy between CP and BD spectra was attributed to the presence of alkyl carbon with such high molecular mobility that the efficiency of cross polarization is affected. This study shows that sewage sludge organic matter is significantly different in chemistry to soil organic matter and has implications for the application of sewage sludge to agricultural land.

  11. A systematic study of J/psi suppression in cold nuclear matter

    SciTech Connect

    Arleo, Francois; Tram, Vi-Nham

    2008-04-05

    Understanding the effects of cold nuclear matter on J/psi production is a key requirement in order to interpret the J/psi suppression reported in heavy-ion collisions. Based on a Glauber model, the J/psi-nucleon inelastic cross section is determined from a statistical analysis of J/psi world data on nuclear targets. The global fit of all data gives sigmaJ/psiN = 3.4 +/- 0.2 mb, significantly smaller than previous estimates, yet the chi2 of the fit is pretty large, chi2/ndf = 1.5. A similar value, sigmaJ/psiN = 3.5 +/- 0.2 +/- 1.7 mb, is obtained when the De Florian-Sassot modifications of the nuclear parton densities are included in the analysis, although we emphasize that the present uncertainties on gluon (anti)shadowing do not allow for a precise determination of sigmaJ/psiN. Finally, the possible energy dependence of the J/psi-nucleon inelastic cross section is investigated within this framework. No significant energy dependence of the J/psi-N interaction is observed.

  12. Using a Relativistic Electron Beam to Generate Warm Dense Matter for Equation of State Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Berninger, M.

    2011-06-24

    Experimental equation-of-state (EOS) data are difficult to obtain for warm dense matter (WDM)–ionized materials at near-solid densities and temperatures ranging from a few to tens of electron volts–due to the difficulty in preparing suitable plasmas without significant density gradients and transient phenomena. We propose that the Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test (DARHT) facility can be used to create a temporally stationary and spatially uniform WDM. DARHT has an 18 MeV electron beam with 2 kA of current and a programmable pulse length of 20 ns to 200 ns. This poster describes how Monte Carlo n-Particle (MCNP) radiation transport and LASNEX hydrodynamics codes were used to demonstrate that the DARHT beam is favorable for avoiding the problems that have hindered past attempts to constrain WDM properties. In our concept, a 60 ns pulse of electrons is focused onto a small, cylindrical (1 mm diameter × 1 mm long) foam target, which is inside a stiff high-heat capacity tube that both confines the WDM and allows pressure measurements. In our model, the foam is made of 30% density Au and the tamper is a B4C tube. An MCNP model of the DARHT beam investigated electron collisions and the amount of energy deposited in the foam target. The MCNP data became the basis for a LASNEX source model, where the total energy was distributed over a 60 ns time-dependent linear ramp consistent with the DARHT pulse. We used LASNEX to calculate the evolution of the foam EOS properties during and after deposition. Besides indicating that a ~3 eV Au plasma can be achieved, LASNEX models also showed that the WDM generates a shock wave into the tamper whose speed can be measured using photonic Doppler velocimetry. EOS pressures can be identified to better than 10% precision. These pressures can be correlated to energy deposition with electron spectrometry in order to obtain the Au EOS. Radial uniformity in the DARHT beam was also investigated. To further obtain uniform radial

  13. Predicting dry matter intake by growing and finishing beef cattle: evaluation of current methods and equation development.

    PubMed

    Anele, U Y; Domby, E M; Galyean, M L

    2014-06-01

    The NRC (1996) equation for predicting DMI by growing-finishing beef cattle, which is based on dietary NEm concentration and average BW(0.75), has been reported to over- and underpredict DMI depending on dietary and animal conditions. Our objectives were to 1) develop broadly applicable equations for predicting DMI from BW and dietary NEm concentration and 2) evaluate the predictive value of using NE requirements and dietary NE concentrations to determine the DMI required (DMIR) by feedlot cattle. Two new DMI prediction equations were developed from a literature data set, which represented treatment means from published experiments from 1980 to 2011 that covered a wide range of dietary NEm concentrations. Dry matter intake predicted from the 2 new equations, which were based on NEm concentration and either the ending BW for a feeding period or the DMI per unit of average BW (End BW and DMI/BW, respectively), accounted for 61 and 58% of the variation in observed DMI, respectively, vs. 48% for the 1996 NRC equation. When validated with 4 independent data sets that included 7,751 pen and individual observations of DMI by animals of varying BW and feeding periods of varying length, DMI predicted by the 1996 NRC equation, the End BW and DMI/BW equations, and the DMIR method accounted for 13.1 to 82.9% of the variation in observed DMI, with higher r(2) values for 2 feedlot pen data sets and lower values for pen and individual data sets that included animals on lower-energy, growing diets as well as those in feedlot settings. The DMIR method yielded the greatest r(2) values and least prediction errors across the 4 data sets; however, mean biases (P < 0.01) were evident for all the equations across the data sets, ranging from as high as 1.01 kg for the DMIR method to -1.03 kg for the 1996 NRC equation. Negative linear bias was evident in virtually all cases, suggesting that prediction errors changed as DMI increased. Despite the expanded literature database for equation

  14. Unified field theory from the classical wave equation: Preliminary application to atomic and nuclear structure

    SciTech Connect

    Múnera, Héctor A.

    2016-07-07

    It is postulated that there exists a fundamental energy-like fluid, which occupies the flat three-dimensional Euclidean space that contains our universe, and obeys the two basic laws of classical physics: conservation of linear momentum, and conservation of total energy; the fluid is described by the classical wave equation (CWE), which was Schrödinger’s first candidate to develop his quantum theory. Novel solutions for the CWE discovered twenty years ago are nonharmonic, inherently quantized, and universal in the sense of scale invariance, thus leading to quantization at all scales of the universe, from galactic clusters to the sub-quark world, and yielding a unified Lorentz-invariant quantum theory ab initio. Quingal solutions are isomorphic under both neo-Galilean and Lorentz transformations, and exhibit nother remarkable property: intrinsic unstability for large values of ℓ (a quantum number), thus limiting the size of each system at a given scale. Unstability and scale-invariance together lead to nested structures observed in our solar system; unstability may explain the small number of rows in the chemical periodic table, and nuclear unstability of nuclides beyond lead and bismuth. Quingal functions lend mathematical basis for Boscovich’s unified force (which is compatible with many pieces of evidence collected over the past century), and also yield a simple geometrical solution for the classical three-body problem, which is a useful model for electronic orbits in simple diatomic molecules. A testable prediction for the helicoidal-type force is suggested.

  15. Unified field theory from the classical wave equation: Preliminary application to atomic and nuclear structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Múnera, Héctor A.

    2016-07-01

    It is postulated that there exists a fundamental energy-like fluid, which occupies the flat three-dimensional Euclidean space that contains our universe, and obeys the two basic laws of classical physics: conservation of linear momentum, and conservation of total energy; the fluid is described by the classical wave equation (CWE), which was Schrödinger's first candidate to develop his quantum theory. Novel solutions for the CWE discovered twenty years ago are nonharmonic, inherently quantized, and universal in the sense of scale invariance, thus leading to quantization at all scales of the universe, from galactic clusters to the sub-quark world, and yielding a unified Lorentz-invariant quantum theory ab initio. Quingal solutions are isomorphic under both neo-Galilean and Lorentz transformations, and exhibit nother remarkable property: intrinsic unstability for large values of ℓ (a quantum number), thus limiting the size of each system at a given scale. Unstability and scale-invariance together lead to nested structures observed in our solar system; unstability may explain the small number of rows in the chemical periodic table, and nuclear unstability of nuclides beyond lead and bismuth. Quingal functions lend mathematical basis for Boscovich's unified force (which is compatible with many pieces of evidence collected over the past century), and also yield a simple geometrical solution for the classical three-body problem, which is a useful model for electronic orbits in simple diatomic molecules. A testable prediction for the helicoidal-type force is suggested.

  16. The Conservation Equations for a Magnetically Confined Gas Core Nuclear Rocket

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kammash, Terry; Galbraith, David L.

    1994-07-01

    A very promising propulsion scheme that could meet the objectives of the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) of sending manned missions to Mars in the early part of the next century is the open-cycle Gas Core (GCR) Nuclear Rocket. Preliminary assessments of the performance of such advice indicate that specific impulses of several thousand seconds, and thrusts of hundreds of kilonewtons are possible. These attractive propulsion parameters are obtained because the hydrogen propellant gets heated to very high temperatures by the energy radiated from a critical uranium core which is in the form of a plasma generated under very high pressure. Because of the relative motion between the propellant and the core, certain types of hydrodynamic instabilities can occur, and result in rapid escape of the fuel through the nozzle. One effective way of dealing with this instability is to place the system in an externally applied magnetic field. In this paper we formulate the appropriate conservation equations that describe the dynamics of GCR in the presence of magnetic fields, and indicate the role such fields play in the performance of the system.

  17. Measurement of Nuclear Recoils in the CDMS II Dark Matter Search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fallows, Scott M.

    The Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) experiment is designed to directly detect elastic scatters of weakly-interacting massive dark matter particles (WIMPs), on target nuclei in semiconductor crystals composed of Si and Ge. These scatters would occur very rarely, in an overwhelming background composed primarily of electron recoils from photons and electrons, as well as a smaller but non-negligible background of WIMP-like nuclear recoils from neutrons. The CDMS~II generation of detectors simultaneously measure ionization and athermal phonon signals from each scatter, allowing discrimination against virtually all electron recoils in the detector bulk. Pulse-shape timing analysis allows discrimination against nearly all remaining electron recoils taking place near detector surfaces. Along with carefully limited neutron backgrounds, this experimental program allowed for "background-free'' operation of CDMS~II at Soudan, with less than one background event expected in each WIMP-search analysis. As a result, exclusionary upper-limits on WIMP-nucleon interaction cross section were placed over a wide range of candidate WIMP masses, ruling out large new regions of parameter space. These results, like any others, are subject to a variety of systematic effects that may alter their final interpretations. A primary focus of this dissertation will be difficulties in precisely calibrating the energy scale for nuclear recoil events like those from WIMPs. Nuclear recoils have suppressed ionization signals relative to electron recoils of the same recoil energy, so the response of the detectors is calibrated differently for each recoil type. The overall normalization and linearity of the energy scale for electron recoils in CDMS~II detectors is clearly established by peaks of known gamma energy in the ionization spectrum of calibration data from a 133Ba source. This electron-equivalent keVee) energy scale enables calibration of the total phonon signal (keVt) by enforcing unity

  18. Nuclear physics insights for new-physics searches using nuclei: Neutrinoless ββ decay and dark matter direct detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menéndez, Javier

    2017-03-01

    Experiments using nuclei to probe new physics beyond the Standard Model, such as neutrinoless ββ decay searches testing whether neutrinos are their own antiparticle, and direct detection experiments aiming to identify the nature of dark matter, require accurate nuclear physics input for optimizing their discovery potential and for a correct interpretation of their results. This demands a detailed knowledge of the nuclear structure relevant for these processes. For instance, neutrinoless ββ decay nuclear matrix elements are very sensitive to the nuclear correlations in the initial and final nuclei, and the spin-dependent nuclear structure factors of dark matter scattering depend on the subtle distribution of the nuclear spin among all nucleons. In addition, nucleons are composite and strongly interacting, which implies that many-nucleon processes are necessary for a correct description of nuclei and their interactions. It is thus crucial that theoretical studies and experimental analyses consider β decays and dark matter interactions with a coupling to two nucleons, called two-nucleon currents.

  19. Measurements of hadron mean free path for the particle-producing collisions in nuclear matter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strugalski, Z.

    1985-01-01

    It is not obvious a priority that the cross-section for a process in hadron collisions with free nucleons is the same as that for the process in hadron collisions with nucleons inside a target nucleus. The question arises: what is the cross-section for a process in a hadron collision with nucleon on inside the atomic nucleus. The answer to it must be found in experiments. The mean free path for particle-producing collisions of pions in nuclear matter is determined experimentally using pion-xenon nucleus collisions at 3.5 GeV/c momentum. Relation between the mean free path in question lambda sub in nucleons fm squared and the cross-section in units of fm squared/nucleon for collisions of the hadron with free nucleon is: lambda sub i = k/cross section sub i, where k = 3.00 plus or minus 0.26.

  20. Transverse momentum dependence of spectra of cumulative particles produced from droplets of dense nuclear matter

    SciTech Connect

    Vechernin, Vladimir

    2016-01-22

    The transverse momentum dependence of the yields of particles produced from the clusters of dense cold nuclear matter in nuclei is calculated in the approach based on perturbative QCD calculations of the corresponding quark diagrams near the thresholds. It is shown that the transverse momentum dependence of the pion and proton spectra at different values of the Feynman variable x in the cumulative region, x > 1, can be described by the only parameter - the constituent quark mass, taken to be equal 300 MeV. It is found that the cumulative protons are formed predominantly via a coherent coalescence of three fast cluster quarks, whereas the production of cumulative pions is dominated by one fast cluster quark hadronization. This enabled to explain the experimentally observed more slow increase of the mean transverse momentum of cumulative protons with the increase of the cumulative variable x, compared to pions.

  1. What can HELIOS tell us on phase transition of nuclear matter

    SciTech Connect

    En'yo, H.

    1987-01-01

    Transverse energy (E/sub t/) distributions and P/sub t/ spectra of negative particles and photons measured by the HELIOS experiment in 200 GeVN and 60 GeVN oxygen-nucleus reactions are presented. The E/sub t/ distributions are compared to a geometrical parametrization and a Montereverse arrowCarlo calculation, particle spectra to the proton-nucleus reaction case. The comparisons show that yet the results can be understood without assuming quark-gluon plasma formation. A discussion is made based on these comparisons together with an estimate of the energy density of the reaction, attempting to know how close we are to the detection of a phase transition of nuclear matter. 21 refs., 15 figs.

  2. Competition between fermions and bosons in nuclear matter at low densities and finite temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mabiala, J.; Zheng, H.; Bonasera, A.; Kohley, Z.; Yennello, S. J.

    2016-12-01

    We derive the free energy for fermions and bosons from fragmentation data. Inspired by the symmetry and pairing energy of the Weizsäcker mass formula, we obtain the free energy of fermions (nucleons) and bosons (alphas and deuterons) using Landau's free-energy approach. We confirm previously obtained results for fermions and show that the free energy for α particles is negative and close to the free energy for ideal Bose gases and in perfect agreement with the free energy of an interacting Bose gas under the repulsive Coulomb force. Deuterons behave more similarly to fermions (positive free energy) rather than bosons, which is probably due to their low binding energy. We show that the α -particle fraction is dominant at all temperatures and densities explored in this work. This is consistent with their negative free energy, which favors clusterization of nuclear matter into α particles at subsaturation densities and finite temperatures.

  3. Nuclear matter incompressibility from a semi-empirical analysis of breathing-mode energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, M. M.; Stocker, W.; Gleissl, P.; Brack, M.

    1989-11-01

    We check the validity and applicability of a liquid-drop model type expansion for the incompressibility KA of finite nuclei: K A = K V + K SA {-1}/{3} + (higher-order terms). Our theoretical considerations are based upon calculations of breathing-mode energies following from a density variational framework taking into account various Skyrme interactions. Using a semi-empirical procedure based upon this expansion of KA, we corroborate that new precision data for the monopole energies favour a volume coefficient KV (300±25) MeV and an appreciable surface coefficient KS (-750±80) MeV. We discuss the implication of this result for the incompressibility K∞ of infinite nuclear matter.

  4. Onset Transition to Cold Nuclear Matter from Lattice QCD with Heavy Quarks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fromm, M.; Langelage, J.; Lottini, S.; Neuman, M.; Philipsen, O.

    2013-03-01

    Lattice QCD at finite density suffers from a severe sign problem, which has so far prohibited simulations of the cold and dense regime. Here we study the onset of nuclear matter employing a three-dimensional effective theory derived by combined strong coupling and hopping expansions, which is valid for heavy but dynamical quarks and has a mild sign problem only. Its numerical evaluations agree between a standard Metropolis and complex Langevin algorithm, where the latter is free of the sign problem. Our continuum extrapolated data approach a first order phase transition at μB≈mB as the temperature approaches zero. An excellent description of the data is achieved by an analytic solution in the strong coupling limit.

  5. Onset transition to cold nuclear matter from lattice QCD with heavy quarks.

    PubMed

    Fromm, M; Langelage, J; Lottini, S; Neuman, M; Philipsen, O

    2013-03-22

    Lattice QCD at finite density suffers from a severe sign problem, which has so far prohibited simulations of the cold and dense regime. Here we study the onset of nuclear matter employing a three-dimensional effective theory derived by combined strong coupling and hopping expansions, which is valid for heavy but dynamical quarks and has a mild sign problem only. Its numerical evaluations agree between a standard Metropolis and complex Langevin algorithm, where the latter is free of the sign problem. Our continuum extrapolated data approach a first order phase transition at μ(B) ≈ m(B) as the temperature approaches zero. An excellent description of the data is achieved by an analytic solution in the strong coupling limit.

  6. Temperature and momentum dependence of single-particle properties in hot asymmetric nuclear matter

    SciTech Connect

    Moustakidis, Ch. C.

    2008-11-15

    We have studied the effects of momentum-dependent interactions on the single-particle properties of hot asymmetric nuclear matter. In particular, the single-particle potential of protons and neutrons as well as the symmetry potential have been studied within a self-consistent model using a momentum-dependent effective interaction. In addition, the isospin splitting of the effective mass has been derived from the above model. In each case temperature effects have been included and analyzed. The role of the specific parametrization of the effective interaction used in the present work has been investigated. It has been concluded that the behavior of the symmetry potential depends strongly on the parametrization of the interaction part of the energy density and the momentum dependence of the regulator function. The effects of the parametrization have been found to be less pronounced on the isospin mass splitting.

  7. Measurement of Nuclear Recoils in the CDMS II Dark Matter Search

    SciTech Connect

    Fallows, Scott Mathew

    2014-12-01

    The Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) experiment is designed to directly detect elastic scatters of weakly-interacting massive dark matter particles (WIMPs), on target nuclei in semiconductor crystals composed of Si and Ge. These scatters would occur very rarely, in an overwhelming background composed primarily of electron recoils from photons and electrons, as well as a smaller but non-negligible background of WIMP-like nuclear recoils from neutrons. The CDMS II generation of detectors simultaneously measure ionization and athermal phonon signals from each scatter, allowing discrimination against virtually all electron recoils in the detector bulk. Pulse-shape timing analysis allows discrimination against nearly all remaining electron recoils taking place near detector surfaces. Along with carefully limited neutron backgrounds, this experimental program allowed for \\background- free" operation of CDMS II at Soudan, with less than one background event expected in each WIMP-search analysis. As a result, exclusionary upper-limits on WIMP-nucleon interaction cross section were placed over a wide range of candidate WIMP masses, ruling out large new regions of parameter space.

  8. Thermodynamic coupling of heat and matter flows in near-field regions of nuclear waste repositories

    SciTech Connect

    Carnahan, C.L.

    1983-11-01

    In near-field regions of nuclear waste repositories, thermodynamically coupled flows of heat and matter can occur in addition to the independent flows in the presence of gradients of temperature, hydraulic potential, and composition. The following coupled effects can occur: thermal osmosis, thermal diffusion, chemical osmosis, thermal filtration, diffusion thermal effect, ultrafiltration, and coupled diffusion. Flows of heat and matter associated with these effects can modify the flows predictable from the direct effects, which are expressed by Fourier's law, Darcy's law, and Fick's law. The coupled effects can be treated quantitatively together with the direct effects by the methods of the thermodynamics of irreversible processes. The extent of departure of fully coupled flows from predictions based only on consideration of direct effects depends on the strengths of the gradients driving flows, and may be significant at early times in backfills and in near-field geologic environments of repositories. Approximate calculations using data from the literature and reasonable assumptions of repository conditions indicate that thermal-osmotic and chemical-osmotic flows of water in semipermeable backfills may exceed Darcian flows by two to three orders of magnitude, while flows of solutes may be reduced greatly by ultrafiltration and chemical osmosis, relative to the flows predicted by advection and diffusion alone. In permeable materials, thermal diffusion may contribute to solute flows to a smaller, but still significant, extent.

  9. First measurement of nuclear recoil head-tail sense in a fiducialised WIMP dark matter detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battat, J. B. R.; Daw, E.; Ezeribe, A. C.; Gauvreau, J.-L.; Harton, J. L.; Lafler, R.; Lee, E. R.; Loomba, D.; Lumnah, A.; Miller, E. H.; Mouton, F.; Murphy, A. StJ.; Paling, S. M.; Phan, N. S.; Robinson, M.; Sadler, S. W.; Scarff, A.; Schuckman, F. G., II; Snowden-Ifft, D. P.; Spooner, N. J. C.

    2016-10-01

    Recent computational results suggest that directional dark matter detectors have potential to probe for WIMP dark matter particles below the neutrino floor. The DRIFT-IId detector used in this work is a leading directional WIMP search time projection chamber detector. We report the first measurements of the detection of the directional nuclear recoils in a fully fiducialised low-pressure time projection chamber. In this new operational mode, the distance between each event vertex and the readout plane is determined by the measurement of minority carriers produced by adding a small amount of oxygen to the nominal CS2+CF4 target gas mixture. The CS2+CF4+O2 mixture has been shown to enable background-free operation at current sensitivities. Sulfur, fluorine, and carbon recoils were generated using neutrons emitted from a 252Cf source positioned at different locations around the detector. Measurement of the relative energy loss along the recoil tracks allowed the track vector sense, or the so-called head-tail asymmetry parameter, to be deduced. Results show that the previously reported observation of head-tail sensitivity in pure CS2 is well retained after the addition of oxygen to the gas mixture.

  10. Age-related decline in white matter tract integrity and cognitive performance: a DTI tractography and structural equation modeling study.

    PubMed

    Voineskos, Aristotle N; Rajji, Tarek K; Lobaugh, Nancy J; Miranda, Dielle; Shenton, Martha E; Kennedy, James L; Pollock, Bruce G; Mulsant, Benoit H

    2012-01-01

    Age-related decline in microstructural integrity of certain white matter tracts may explain cognitive decline associated with normal aging. Whole brain tractography and a clustering segmentation in 48 healthy individuals across the adult lifespan were used to examine: interhemispheric (corpus callosum), intrahemispheric association (cingulum, uncinate, arcuate, inferior longitudinal, inferior occipitofrontal), and projection (corticospinal) fibers. Principal components analysis reduced cognitive tests into 6 meaningful factors: (1) memory and executive function; (2) visuomotor dexterity; (3) motor speed; (4) attention and working memory; (5) set-shifting/flexibility; and (6) visuospatial construction. Using theory-based structural equation modeling, relationships among age, white matter tract integrity, and cognitive performance were investigated. Parsimonious model fit demonstrated relationships where decline in white matter integrity may explain age-related decline in cognitive performance: inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF) with visuomotor dexterity; the inferior occipitofrontal fasciculus with visuospatial construction; and posterior fibers (i.e., splenium) of the corpus callosum with memory and executive function. Our findings suggest that decline in the microstructural integrity of white matter fibers can account for cognitive decline in normal aging. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Age-related decline in white matter tract integrity and cognitive performance: A DTI tractography and structural equation modeling study

    PubMed Central

    Voineskos, Aristotle N.; Rajji, Tarek K.; Lobaugh, Nancy J.; Miranda, Dielle; Shenton, Martha E.; Kennedy, James L.; Pollock, Bruce G.; Mulsant, Benoit H.

    2010-01-01

    Age-related decline in microstructural integrity of certain white matter tracts may explain cognitive decline associated with normal aging. Whole brain tractography and a clustering segmentation in 48 healthy individuals across the adult lifespan were used to examine: interhemispheric (corpus callosum), intrahemispheric association (cingulum, uncinate, arcuate, inferior longitudinal, inferior occipitofrontal), and projection (corticospinal) fibers. Principal components analysis reduced cognitive tests into 6 meaningful factors: (1) memory and executive function; (2) visuomotor dexterity; (3) motor speed; (4) attention and working memory; (5) set-shifting/flexibility; and (6) visuospatial construction. Using theory-based structural equation modeling, relationships among age, white matter tract integrity, and cognitive performance were investigated. Parsimonious model fit demonstrated relationships where decline in white matter integrity may explain age-related decline in cognitive performance: inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF) with visuomotor dexterity; the inferior occipitofrontal fasciculus with visuospatial construction; and posterior fibers (i.e., splenium) of the corpus callosum with memory and executive function. Our findings suggest that decline in the microstructural integrity of white matter fibers can account for cognitive decline in normal aging. PMID:20363050

  12. van der Waals Interactions in Hadron Resonance Gas: From Nuclear Matter to Lattice QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vovchenko, Volodymyr; Gorenstein, Mark I.; Stoecker, Horst

    2017-05-01

    An extension of the ideal hadron resonance gas (HRG) model is constructed which includes the attractive and repulsive van der Waals (VDW) interactions between baryons. This VDW-HRG model yields the nuclear liquid-gas transition at low temperatures and high baryon densities. The VDW parameters a and b are fixed by the ground state properties of nuclear matter, and the temperature dependence of various thermodynamic observables at zero chemical potential are calculated within the VDW-HRG model. Compared to the ideal HRG model, the inclusion of VDW interactions between baryons leads to a qualitatively different behavior of second and higher moments of fluctuations of conserved charges, in particular in the so-called crossover region T ˜140 - 190 MeV . For many observables this behavior resembles closely the results obtained from lattice QCD simulations. This hadronic model also predicts nontrivial behavior of net-baryon fluctuations in the region of phase diagram probed by heavy-ion collision experiments. These results imply that VDW interactions play a crucial role in the thermodynamics of hadron gas. Thus, the commonly performed comparisons of the ideal HRG model with the lattice and heavy-ion data may lead to misconceptions and misleading conclusions.

  13. van der Waals Interactions in Hadron Resonance Gas: From Nuclear Matter to Lattice QCD.

    PubMed

    Vovchenko, Volodymyr; Gorenstein, Mark I; Stoecker, Horst

    2017-05-05

    An extension of the ideal hadron resonance gas (HRG) model is constructed which includes the attractive and repulsive van der Waals (VDW) interactions between baryons. This VDW-HRG model yields the nuclear liquid-gas transition at low temperatures and high baryon densities. The VDW parameters a and b are fixed by the ground state properties of nuclear matter, and the temperature dependence of various thermodynamic observables at zero chemical potential are calculated within the VDW-HRG model. Compared to the ideal HRG model, the inclusion of VDW interactions between baryons leads to a qualitatively different behavior of second and higher moments of fluctuations of conserved charges, in particular in the so-called crossover region T∼140-190  MeV. For many observables this behavior resembles closely the results obtained from lattice QCD simulations. This hadronic model also predicts nontrivial behavior of net-baryon fluctuations in the region of phase diagram probed by heavy-ion collision experiments. These results imply that VDW interactions play a crucial role in the thermodynamics of hadron gas. Thus, the commonly performed comparisons of the ideal HRG model with the lattice and heavy-ion data may lead to misconceptions and misleading conclusions.

  14. Study of Dark-matter Admixed Neutron Stars Using the Equation of State from the Rotational Curves of Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezaei, Z.

    2017-01-01

    In this work, we employ the dark matter equations of state (DMEOSs) obtained from the rotational curves of galaxies as well as the fermionic DMEOS with m=1.0 {GeV} to study the structure of dark-matter admixed neutron stars (DMANSs). Applying the equation of state in the Skyrme framework for the neutron matter (NM), we calculate the mass–radius relation for different DMANSs with various DMEOSs and central pressure of dark matter (DM) to NM ratios. Our results show that for some DMEOSs, the mass–radius relations are in agreement with new observations, e.g., EXO 1745-248, 4U 1608-52, and 4U 1820-30, which are inconsistent with normal neutron stars. We conclude that both DMEOSs and central pressure ratios of DM to NM affect the slope of the mass–radius relation of DMANSs. This is because of the interaction between DM and NM, which leads to gravitationally or self-bound DMANSs. We study the radius of the NM sphere as well as the radius of the DM halo for different DMANSs. The results confirm that, in some cases, a NM sphere with a small radius is surrounded by a halo of DM with a larger radius. Our calculations verify that, due to the different degrees of DM domination in DMANSs, with a value of the visible radius of a star two possible DMANSs with different masses can exist. The gravitational redshift is also calculated for DMANSs with different DMEOSs and central pressure ratios. The results explain that the existence of DM in a DMANS leads to higher values of gravitational redshift of the star.

  15. The Brueckner-Hartree-Fock Equation of State for Nuclear Matter and Neutron Skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qing-Yang, Bu; Zeng-Hua, Li; Hans-Josef, Schulze

    2016-03-01

    Not Available Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos 11075037 and 11475045, the Scientific Research Foundation for the Returned Overseas Chinese Scholars of the Ministry of Education of China, the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities of China, the Shanghai Leading Academic Discipline Project under Grant No B107, and the ‘NewCompStar’, COST Action MP1304.

  16. Nuclear matter properties in the relativistic mean-field theory at finite temperature with interaction between sigma-omega mesons

    SciTech Connect

    Costa, R. S.; Duarte, S. B.; Oliveira, J. C. T.; Chiapparini, M.

    2010-05-21

    We study the nuclear matter properties in the regime of high temperatures using a relativistic mean-field theory. Contrasting with the usual linear Walecka model, we include the sigma-omega meson coupling in order to investigate the role of this interaction in the nucleon effective mass behavior. Some numerical results are presented and discussed.

  17. A study of intrinsic statistical variation for low-energy nuclear recoils in liquid xenon detector for dark matter searches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lu; Wei, Wenzhao; Mei, Dongming; Cubed Collaboration

    2015-10-01

    Noble liquid xenon experiments, such as XENON100, LUX, XENON 1-Ton, and LZ are large dark matter experiments directly searches for weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs). One of the most important features is to discriminate nuclear recoils from electronic recoils. Detector response is generally calibrated with different radioactive sources including 83mKr, tritiated methane, 241AmBe, 252Cf, and DD-neutrons. The electronic recoil and nuclear recoil bands have been determined by these calibrations. However, the width of nuclear recoil band needs to be fully understood. We derive a theoretical model to understand the correlation of the width of nuclear recoil band and intrinsic statistical variation. In addition, we conduct experiments to validate the theoretical model. In this paper, we present the study of intrinsic statistical variation contributing to the width of nuclear recoil band. DE-FG02-10ER46709 and the state of South Dakota.

  18. 77 FR 6598 - In the Matter of Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., Palisades Nuclear Plant, 27780 Blue Star...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-08

    .... 3-2011-003) associated with an at- the-controls reactor operator at the Palisades Nuclear Plant who... reactor operator in the Entergy nuclear fleet (in Entergy's employ as of the date of the letter) re... executive shall send a letter to each licensed reactor operator in the Entergy nuclear fleet (in...

  19. Incorporating delayed neutrons into the point-model equations routinely used for neutron coincidence counting in nuclear safeguards

    DOE PAGES

    Croft, Stephen; Favalli, Andrea

    2016-09-21

    Here, we extend the familiar Bӧhnel point-model equations, which are routinely used to interpret neutron coincidence counting rates, by including the contribution of delayed neutrons. After developing the necessary equations we use them to show, by providing some numerical results, what the quantitative impact of neglecting delayed neutrons is across the full range of practical nuclear safeguards applications. The influence of delayed neutrons is predicted to be small for the types of deeply sub-critical assay problems which concern the nuclear safeguards community, smaller than uncertainties arising from other factors. This is most clearly demonstrated by considering the change in themore » effective (α,n)-to-spontaneous fission prompt-neutron ratio that the inclusion of delayed neutrons gives rise to. That the influence of delayed neutrons is small is fortunate, and our results justify the long standing practice of simply neglecting them in the analysis of field measurements.« less

  20. Incorporating delayed neutrons into the point-model equations routinely used for neutron coincidence counting in nuclear safeguards

    SciTech Connect

    Croft, Stephen; Favalli, Andrea

    2016-09-21

    Here, we extend the familiar Bӧhnel point-model equations, which are routinely used to interpret neutron coincidence counting rates, by including the contribution of delayed neutrons. After developing the necessary equations we use them to show, by providing some numerical results, what the quantitative impact of neglecting delayed neutrons is across the full range of practical nuclear safeguards applications. The influence of delayed neutrons is predicted to be small for the types of deeply sub-critical assay problems which concern the nuclear safeguards community, smaller than uncertainties arising from other factors. This is most clearly demonstrated by considering the change in the effective (α,n)-to-spontaneous fission prompt-neutron ratio that the inclusion of delayed neutrons gives rise to. That the influence of delayed neutrons is small is fortunate, and our results justify the long standing practice of simply neglecting them in the analysis of field measurements.

  1. Development of equations to predict dry matter intake of lactating cows using animal factors

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Our objective was to model dry matter intake (DMI, kg) in Holstein dairy cows based on milk energy (MilkE, Mcal/d), energy required for maintenance, change in body weight (DeltaBW, kg/d), body condition score (BCS, scale 1 to 5), height (Htcm, cm), and parity. The database contained weekly DMI of 4,...

  2. A few-parameter equation of state of the condensed matter and its application to the impact problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fomin, V.; Kraus, E.; Shabalin, I.

    A simple caloric model of the equation of state is proposed to describe thermodynamic properties of solid materials with the phase transitions being ignored and with the minimum possible number of parameters as the initial data. Thermal oscillations of the crystal lattice are described by the Debye approximation. The values of the parameters on the zero isotherm are calculated analytically from the generalized form of the Gruneisen function. Thermodynamic characteristics are calculated in wide ranges of densities and pressures. Extensive comparisons of theoretical results with experimental data available for high energy densities are performed for the materials considered. Two-dimensional problems of a high-velocity impact of a reactor of a nuclear powerplant with the Earth's surface propulsion system are solved on the basis of Willkins' method with allowance for the equation of state being derived.

  3. Transport properties of isospin asymmetric nuclear matter using the time-dependent Hartree-Fock method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umar, A. S.; Simenel, C.; Ye, W.

    2017-08-01

    Background: The study of deep-inelastic reactions of nuclei provides a vehicle to explore nuclear transport phenomena for a full range of equilibration dynamics. These investigations provide us the ingredients to model such phenomena and help answer important questions about the nuclear equation of state and its evolution as a function of neutron-to-proton (N /Z ) ratio. Purpose: The motivation is to examine the real-time dynamics of nuclear transport phenomena and its dependence on N /Z asymmetry from a microscopic point of view to avoid any pre-conceived assumptions about the involved processes. Method: The time-dependent Hartree-Fock (TDHF) method in full three dimensions is employed to calculate deep-inelastic reactions of 78Kr+208Pb and 92Kr+208Pb systems at 8.5 MeV/nucleon. The impact parameter and energy-loss dependence of relevant observables are calculated. In addition, the density-constrained TDHF method is used to compute excitation energies of the primary fragments. The statistical deexcitation code gemini is utilized to examine the final reaction products. Results: The kinetic energy loss and sticking times as a function of impact parameter are calculated. The final properties of the fragments (charge, mass, scattering angle, and kinetic energy) are computed. Their evolution as a function of energy loss is studied and various intra-relations are investigated. The fragment excitation energy sharing is computed. Conclusions: We find a smooth dependence of the energy loss, Eloss, on the impact parameter for both systems. However, the transfer properties for low Eloss values are very different for the two systems but become similar in the higher Eloss regime. The mean lifetime of the charge equilibration process, obtained from the final (N -Z )/A value of the fragments, is shown to be ˜0.5 zs. This value is slightly larger than (but of the same order as) the value obtained from reactions at Fermi energies.

  4. In-pile calorimetry in the joint Sandia/KfK equation-of-state experiments on nuclear fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Breitung, W.M.

    1981-04-01

    Because determination of the fuel energy deposition is of crucial importance in in-pile equation of state (EOS) experiments on nuclear fuels, an in-pile calorimeter was developed for the joint Sandia/KfK EOS series. This report describes calorimeter design, principle, and uncertainty of the energy measurement, as well as the planned test program. The uncertainty in the measured total energy deposition into the EOS test fuel is estimated to + or - 2%.

  5. Rater Comparability Scoring and Equating: Does Choice of Target Population Weights Matter in This Context?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puhan, Gautam

    2013-01-01

    When a constructed-response test form is reused, raw scores from the two administrations of the form may not be comparable. The solution to this problem requires a rescoring, at the current administration, of examinee responses from the previous administration. The scores from this "rescoring" can be used as an anchor for equating. In…

  6. Does the Choice of Reference Levels of Education Matter in the ORU Earnings Equation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiswick, Barry R.; Miller, Paul W.

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines whether the results of the earnings equation developed in the over-education/required education/under-education (ORU) literature are sensitive to whether the usual or reference levels of education are measured using the Realized Matches or Worker Self-Assessment methods. The analyses are conducted for all male native-born and…

  7. Rater Comparability Scoring and Equating: Does Choice of Target Population Weights Matter in This Context?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puhan, Gautam

    2013-01-01

    When a constructed-response test form is reused, raw scores from the two administrations of the form may not be comparable. The solution to this problem requires a rescoring, at the current administration, of examinee responses from the previous administration. The scores from this "rescoring" can be used as an anchor for equating. In…

  8. Optical manipulation of a multilevel nuclear spin in ZnO: Master equation and experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buß, J. H.; Rudolph, J.; Wassner, T. A.; Eickhoff, M.; Hägele, D.

    2016-04-01

    We demonstrate the dynamics and optical control of a large quantum mechanical solid state spin system consisting of a donor electron spin strongly coupled to the 9/2 nuclear spin of 115In in the semiconductor ZnO. Comparison of electron spin dynamics observed by time-resolved pump-probe spectroscopy with density matrix theory reveals nuclear spin pumping via optically oriented electron spins, coherent spin-spin interaction, and quantization effects of the ten nuclear spin levels. Modulation of the optical electron spin orientation at frequencies above 1 MHz gives evidence for fast optical manipulation of the nuclear spin state.

  9. Fundamental uncertainty equations for nuclear dating applied to the (140)Ba-(140)La and (227)Th-(223)Ra chronometers.

    PubMed

    Pommé, S; Collins, S M; Harms, A; Jerome, S M

    2016-10-01

    Basic equations for age dating through activity ratio measurements are presented and applied to nuclear chronometers based on parent-daughter decay. Uncertainty propagation formulae are derived which relate the relative uncertainty on the half-lives and measured activity ratios with the relative uncertainty on the calculated time of a nuclear event. Particular attention is paid to the case of relatively short-lived radionuclides for which the change in decay rate during the measurement is non-negligible. Mathematical solutions are presented to correct the perceived activity ratio and adapt the uncertainty propagation formulae to complete the uncertainty budget. The formulae have been applied to (140)Ba-(140)La chronometry, which is particularly useful for dating a nuclear explosion through measurement of the produced activity ratio of (140)La and (140)Ba in a finite time interval. They were also applied to the (227)Th-(223)Ra parent-daughter pair produced for therapeutic use. The impact of inaccuracies in the nuclear decay data on the performance of these nuclear chronometers is shown and discussed. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Effective equations for matter-wave gap solitons in higher-order transversal states.

    PubMed

    Mateo, A Muñoz; Delgado, V

    2013-10-01

    We demonstrate that an important class of nonlinear stationary solutions of the three-dimensional (3D) Gross-Pitaevskii equation (GPE) exhibiting nontrivial transversal configurations can be found and characterized in terms of an effective one-dimensional (1D) model. Using a variational approach we derive effective equations of lower dimensionality for BECs in (m,n(r)) transversal states (states featuring a central vortex of charge m as well as n(r) concentric zero-density rings at every z plane) which provides us with a good approximate solution of the original 3D problem. Since the specifics of the transversal dynamics can be absorbed in the renormalization of a couple of parameters, the functional form of the equations obtained is universal. The model proposed finds its principal application in the study of the existence and classification of 3D gap solitons supported by 1D optical lattices, where in addition to providing a good estimate for the 3D wave functions it is able to make very good predictions for the μ(N) curves characterizing the different fundamental families. We have corroborated the validity of our model by comparing its predictions with those from the exact numerical solution of the full 3D GPE.

  11. Effective equations for matter-wave gap solitons in higher-order transversal states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mateo, A. Muñoz; Delgado, V.

    2013-10-01

    We demonstrate that an important class of nonlinear stationary solutions of the three-dimensional (3D) Gross-Pitaevskii equation (GPE) exhibiting nontrivial transversal configurations can be found and characterized in terms of an effective one-dimensional (1D) model. Using a variational approach we derive effective equations of lower dimensionality for BECs in (m,nr) transversal states (states featuring a central vortex of charge m as well as nr concentric zero-density rings at every z plane) which provides us with a good approximate solution of the original 3D problem. Since the specifics of the transversal dynamics can be absorbed in the renormalization of a couple of parameters, the functional form of the equations obtained is universal. The model proposed finds its principal application in the study of the existence and classification of 3D gap solitons supported by 1D optical lattices, where in addition to providing a good estimate for the 3D wave functions it is able to make very good predictions for the μ(N) curves characterizing the different fundamental families. We have corroborated the validity of our model by comparing its predictions with those from the exact numerical solution of the full 3D GPE.

  12. Concluding Remarks: Connecting Relativistic Heavy Ion Collisions and Neutron Star Mergers by the Equation of State of Dense Hadron- and Quark Matter as signalled by Gravitational Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanauske, Matthias; Steinheimer, Jan; Bovard, Luke; Mukherjee, Ayon; Schramm, Stefan; Takami, Kentaro; Papenfort, Jens; Wechselberger, Natascha; Rezzolla, Luciano; Stöcker, Horst

    2017-07-01

    The underlying open questions in the fields of general relativistic astrophysics and elementary particle and nuclear physics are strongly connected and their results are interdependent. Although the physical systems are quite different, the 4D-simulation of a merger of a binary system of two neutron stars and the properties of the hot and dense matter created in high energy heavy ion collisions, strongly depend on the equation of state of fundamental elementary matter. Neutron star mergers represent optimal astrophysical laboratories to investigate the QCD phase structure using a spectrogram of the post-merger phase of the emitted gravitational waves. These studies can be supplemented by observations from heavy ion collisions to possibly reach a conclusive picture on the QCD phase structure at high density and temperature. As gravitational waves (GWs) emitted from merging neutron star binaries are on the verge of their first detection, it is important to understand the main characteristics of the underlying merging system in order to predict the expected GW signal. Based on numerical-relativity simulations of merging neutron star binaries, the emitted GW and the interior structure of the generated hypermassive neutron stars (HMNS) have been analyzed in detail. This article will focus on the internal and rotational HMNS properties and their connection with the emitted GW signal. Especially, the appearance of the hadon-quark phase transition in the interior region of the HMNS and its conjunction with the spectral properties of the emitted GW will be addressed and confronted with the simulation results of high energy heavy ion collisions.

  13. First measurement of proton-induced low-momentum dielectron radiation off cold nuclear matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    HADES Collaboration; Agakishiev, G.; Balanda, A.; Belver, D.; Belyaev, A.; Berger-Chen, J. C.; Blanco, A.; Böhmer, M.; Boyard, J. L.; Cabanelas, P.; Chernenko, S.; Dybczak, A.; Epple, E.; Fabbietti, L.; Fateev, O.; Finocchiaro, P.; Fonte, P.; Friese, J.; Fröhlich, I.; Galatyuk, T.; Garzón, J. A.; Gernhäuser, R.; Göbel, K.; Golubeva, M.; González-Díaz, D.; Guber, F.; Gumberidze, M.; Heinz, T.; Hennino, T.; Holzmann, R.; Ierusalimov, A.; Iori, I.; Ivashkin, A.; Jurkovic, M.; Kämpfer, B.; Karavicheva, T.; Koenig, I.; Koenig, W.; Kolb, B. W.; Kornakov, G.; Kotte, R.; Krása, A.; Krizek, F.; Krücken, R.; Kuc, H.; Kühn, W.; Kugler, A.; Kurepin, A.; Ladygin, V.; Lalik, R.; Lang, S.; Lapidus, K.; Lebedev, A.; Liu, T.; Lopes, L.; Lorenz, M.; Maier, L.; Mangiarotti, A.; Markert, J.; Metag, V.; Michalska, B.; Michel, J.; Mishra, D.; Müntz, C.; Naumann, L.; Pachmayer, Y. C.; Palka, M.; Parpottas, Y.; Pechenov, V.; Pechenova, O.; Pietraszko, J.; Przygoda, W.; Ramstein, B.; Reshetin, A.; Rustamov, A.; Sadovsky, A.; Salabura, P.; Schmah, A.; Schwab, E.; Siebenson, J.; Sobolev, Yu. G.; Spataro, S.; Spruck, B.; Ströbele, H.; Stroth, J.; Sturm, C.; Tarantola, A.; Teilab, K.; Tlusty, P.; Traxler, M.; Trebacz, R.; Tsertos, H.; Vasiliev, T.; Wagner, V.; Weber, M.; Wendisch, C.; Wüstenfeld, J.; Yurevich, S.; Zanevsky, Y.

    2012-09-01

    We present data on dielectron emission in proton induced reactions on a Nb target at 3.5 GeV kinetic beam energy measured with HADES installed at GSI. The data represent the first high statistics measurement of proton-induced dielectron radiation from cold nuclear matter in a kinematic regime, where strong medium effects are expected. Combined with the good mass resolution of 2%, it is the first measurement sensitive to changes of the spectral functions of vector mesons, as predicted by models for hadrons at rest or small relative momenta. Comparing the e+e- invariant mass spectra to elementary p + p data, we observe for e+e- momenta Pee<0.8 GeV/c a strong modification of the shape of the spectrum, which we attribute to an additional ρ-like contribution and a decrease of ω yield. These opposite trends are tentatively interpreted as a strong coupling of the ρ meson to baryonic resonances and an absorption of the ω meson, which are two aspects of in-medium modification of vector mesons.

  14. Low-density homogeneous symmetric nuclear matter: Disclosing dinucleons in coexisting phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arellano, Hugo F.; Delaroche, Jean-Paul

    2015-01-01

    The effect of in-medium dinucleon bound states on self-consistent single-particle fields in Brueckner, Bethe and Goldstone theory is investigated in symmetric nuclear matter at zero temperature. To this end, dinucleon bound state occurences in the 1 S 0 and 3 SD 1 channels are explicitly accounted for --within the continuous choice for the auxiliary fields-- while imposing self-consistency in Brueckner-Hartree-Fock approximation calculations. Searches are carried out at Fermi momenta in the range fm-1, using the Argonne bare nucleon-nucleon potential without resorting to the effective-mass approximation. As a result, two distinct solutions meeting the self-consistency requirement are found with overlapping domains in the interval 0.130 fm-1 0.285 fm-1, corresponding to mass densities between and g cm-3. Effective masses as high as three times the nucleon mass are found in the coexistence domain. The emergence of superfluidity in relationship with BCS pairing gap solutions is discussed.

  15. Light clusters in nuclear matter: Excluded volume versus quantum many-body approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hempel, Matthias; Schaffner-Bielich, Jürgen; Typel, Stefan; Röpke, Gerd

    2011-11-01

    The formation of clusters in nuclear matter is investigated, which occurs, e.g., in low-energy heavy-ion collisions or core-collapse supernovae. In astrophysical applications, the excluded volume concept is commonly used for the description of light clusters. Here we compare a phenomenological excluded volume approach to two quantum many-body models, the quantum statistical model and the generalized relativistic mean-field model. All three models contain bound states of nuclei with mass number A≤4. It is explored to which extent the complex medium effects can be mimicked by the simpler excluded volume model, regarding the chemical composition and thermodynamic variables. Furthermore, the role of heavy nuclei and excited states is investigated by use of the excluded volume model. At temperatures of a few MeV the excluded volume model gives a poor description of the medium effects on the light clusters, but there the composition is actually dominated by heavy nuclei. At larger temperatures there is a rather good agreement, whereas some smaller differences and model dependencies remain.

  16. First measurement of surface nuclear recoil background for argon dark matter searches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jingke; Stanford, Chris; Westerdale, Shawn; Calaprice, Frank; Wright, Alexander; Shi, Zhiming

    2017-09-01

    One major background in direct searches for weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) comes from the deposition of radon progeny on detector surfaces. A dangerous surface background is the 206Pb nuclear recoils produced by 210Po decays. In this paper, we report the first characterization of this background in liquid argon. The scintillation signal of low energy Pb recoils is measured to be highly quenched in argon, and we estimate that the 103 keV 206Pb recoil background will produce a signal equal to that of a ˜5 keV (30 keV) electron recoil (40Ar recoil). In addition, we demonstrate that this dangerous 210Po surface background can be suppressed, using pulse shape discrimination methods, by a factor of ˜100 or higher, which can make argon dark matter detectors near background-free and enhance their potential for discovery of medium- and high-mass WIMPs. We also discuss the impact on other low background experiments.

  17. Asymmetric nuclear matter and neutron skin in an extended relativistic mean-field model

    SciTech Connect

    Agrawal, B. K.

    2010-03-15

    The density dependence of the symmetry energy, instrumental in understanding the behavior of the asymmetric nuclear matter, is investigated within the extended relativistic mean-field (ERMF) model, which includes the contributions from the self- and mixed-interaction terms for the scalar-isoscalar ({sigma}), vector-isoscalar ({omega}), and vector-isovector ({rho}) mesons up to the quartic order. Each of the 26 different parametrizations of the ERMF model employed is compatible with the bulk properties of the finite nuclei. The behavior of the symmetry energy for several parameter sets is found to be consistent with the empirical constraints on them as extracted from the analyses of the isospin diffusion data. The neutron-skin thickness in the {sup 208}Pb nucleus for these parameter sets of the ERMF model lies in the range of {approx}0.20-0.24 fm, which is in harmony with the thickness predicted by the Skyrme Hartree-Fock model. We also investigate the role of various mixed-interaction terms that are crucial for the density dependence of the symmetry energy.

  18. ON THE FATE OF THE MATTER REINSERTED WITHIN YOUNG NUCLEAR STELLAR CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Hueyotl-Zahuantitla, Filiberto; Palous, Jan; Wuensch, Richard; Tenorio-Tagle, Guillermo; Silich, Sergiy

    2013-04-01

    This paper presents a hydrodynamical model describing the evolution of the gas reinserted by stars within a rotating young nuclear star cluster (NSC). We explicitly consider the impact of the stellar component on the flow by means of a uniform insertion of mass and energy within the stellar cluster. The model includes the gravity force of the stellar component and a central supermassive black hole (SMBH), and accounts for the heating from the central source of radiation and the radiative cooling of the thermalized gas. By using a set of parameters typical for NSCs and SMBHs in Seyfert galaxies, our simulations show that a filamentary/clumpy structure is formed in the inner part of the cluster. This 'torus' is Compton-thick and covers a large fraction of the sky (as seen from the SMBH). In the outer parts of the cluster a powerful wind is produced that inhibits the infall of matter from larger scales and thus the NSC-SMBH interplay occurs in isolation.

  19. Indications for a critical end point in the phase diagram for hot and dense nuclear matter.

    PubMed

    Lacey, Roy A

    2015-04-10

    Excitation functions for the Gaussian emission source radii difference (R_{out}^{2}-R_{side}^{2}) obtained from two-pion interferometry measurements in Au+Au (sqrt[s_{NN}]=7.7-200  GeV) and Pb+Pb (sqrt[s_{NN}]=2.76  TeV) collisions are studied for a broad range of collision centralities. The observed nonmonotonic excitation functions validate the finite-size scaling patterns expected for the deconfinement phase transition and the critical end point (CEP), in the temperature versus baryon chemical potential (T,μ_{B}) plane of the nuclear matter phase diagram. A finite-size scaling (FSS) analysis of these data suggests a second order phase transition with the estimates T^{cep}∼165  MeV and μ_{B}^{cep}∼95  MeV for the location of the critical end point. The critical exponents (ν≈0.66 and γ≈1.2) extracted via the same FSS analysis place this CEP in the 3D Ising model universality class.

  20. A few-parameter equation of state of the condensed matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraus, E. I.; Shabalin, I. I.

    2016-11-01

    A simple caloric equation-of-state model is proposed to describe thermodynamic properties of solid materials without phase transitions with the minimum number of parameters as initial data. The thermal vibrations of the crystal lattice are described by the Debye approximation. The parameter values on the zero isotherm are calculated analytically from the generalized form of the Grüneisen function. Thermodynamic characteristics are calculated in the wide range of densities and pressures. The results of the theoretical calculations for these materials are exhaustively compared with the available experimental data for high energy densities.

  1. Origin of the Nuclear Equation of State at the Quark Level

    SciTech Connect

    A.W. Thomas

    2007-05-01

    There is a measure of debate within the nuclear community concerning the relevance of quark degrees of freedom in understanding nuclear structure. We briefly outline some of the key issues and review the impressive progress made recently within the framework of the quark-meson coupling model. In particular, we explain in quite general terms how the modification of the internal structure of hadrons in-medium leads naturally to three- and four-body forces, or equivalently to density dependent effective interactions.

  2. Progress in Understanding the Nuclear Equation of State at the Quark Level

    SciTech Connect

    A.W. Thomas; P.A.M. Guichon

    2007-01-03

    At the present time there is a lively debate within the nuclear community concerning the relevance of quark degrees of freedom in understanding nuclear structure. We outline the key issues and review the impressive progress made recently within the framework of the quark-meson coupling model. In particular, we explain in quite general terms how the modification of the internal structure of hadrons in-medium leads naturally to three- and four-body forces, or equivalently, to density dependent effective interactions.

  3. A Matter of Principle: The Principles of Quantum Theory, Dirac's Equation, and Quantum Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plotnitsky, Arkady

    2015-10-01

    This article is concerned with the role of fundamental principles in theoretical physics, especially quantum theory. The fundamental principles of relativity will be addressed as well, in view of their role in quantum electrodynamics and quantum field theory, specifically Dirac's work, which, in particular Dirac's derivation of his relativistic equation of the electron from the principles of relativity and quantum theory, is the main focus of this article. I shall also consider Heisenberg's earlier work leading him to the discovery of quantum mechanics, which inspired Dirac's work. I argue that Heisenberg's and Dirac's work was guided by their adherence to and their confidence in the fundamental principles of quantum theory. The final section of the article discusses the recent work by D'Ariano and coworkers on the principles of quantum information theory, which extend quantum theory and its principles in a new direction. This extension enabled them to offer a new derivation of Dirac's equations from these principles alone, without using the principles of relativity.

  4. Measurement of the ionization produced by sub-keV silicon nuclear recoils in a CCD dark matter detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chavarria, A. E.; Collar, J. I.; Peña, J. R.; Privitera, P.; Robinson, A. E.; Scholz, B.; Sengul, C.; Zhou, J.; Estrada, J.; Izraelevitch, F.; Tiffenberg, J.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; Torres Machado, D.

    2016-10-01

    We report a measurement of the ionization efficiency of silicon nuclei recoiling with sub-keV kinetic energy in the bulk silicon of a charge-coupled device (CCD). Nuclear recoils are produced by low-energy neutrons (<24 keV ) from a 124Sb-9Be photoneutron source, and their ionization signal is measured down to 60 eV electron equivalent. This energy range, previously unexplored, is relevant for the detection of low-mass dark matter particles. The measured efficiency is found to deviate from the extrapolation to low energies of the Lindhard model. This measurement also demonstrates the sensitivity to nuclear recoils of CCDs employed by DAMIC, a dark matter direct detection experiment located in the SNOLAB underground laboratory.

  5. Measurement of the ionization produced by sub-keV silicon nuclear recoils in a CCD dark matter detector

    DOE PAGES

    Chavarria, A. E.; Collar, J. I.; Peña, J. R.; ...

    2016-10-15

    We report a measurement of the ionization efficiency of silicon nuclei recoiling with sub-keV kinetic energy in the bulk silicon of a charge-coupled device (CCD). Nuclear recoils are produced by low-energy neutrons (<24 keV) from a 124Sb–9Be photoneutron source, and their ionization signal is measured down to 60 eV electron equivalent. This energy range, previously unexplored, is relevant for the detection of low-mass dark matter particles. The measured efficiency is found to deviate from the extrapolation to low energies of the Lindhard model. Furthermore, this measurement also demonstrates the sensitivity to nuclear recoils of CCDs employed by DAMIC, a darkmore » matter direct detection experiment located in the SNOLAB underground laboratory.« less

  6. Measurement of the ionization produced by sub-keV silicon nuclear recoils in a CCD dark matter detector

    SciTech Connect

    Chavarria, A. E.; Collar, J. I.; Peña, J. R.; Privitera, P.; Robinson, A. E.; Scholz, B.; Sengul, C.; Zhou, J.; Estrada, J.; Izraelevitch, F.; Tiffenberg, J.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; Machado, D. Torres

    2016-10-15

    We report a measurement of the ionization efficiency of silicon nuclei recoiling with sub-keV kinetic energy in the bulk silicon of a charge-coupled device (CCD). Nuclear recoils are produced by low-energy neutrons (<24 keV) from a 124Sb–9Be photoneutron source, and their ionization signal is measured down to 60 eV electron equivalent. This energy range, previously unexplored, is relevant for the detection of low-mass dark matter particles. The measured efficiency is found to deviate from the extrapolation to low energies of the Lindhard model. Furthermore, this measurement also demonstrates the sensitivity to nuclear recoils of CCDs employed by DAMIC, a dark matter direct detection experiment located in the SNOLAB underground laboratory.

  7. Relating the strangeness content of the nucleon with the mass shift of the ϕ meson in nuclear matter

    SciTech Connect

    Gubler, Philipp; Ohtani, Keisuke

    2016-01-22

    The behavior of the ϕ meson at finite density is studied, making use of a QCD sum rule approach in combination with the maximum entropy method. It is demonstrated that a possible mass shift of the ϕ in nuclear matter is strongly correlated to the strangeness content of the nucleon, which is proportional to the strange sigma term, σ{sub sN}. In contrast to earlier studies, our results show that, depending on the value of σ{sub sN}, the ϕ meson could receive both a positive or negative mass shift at nuclear matter density. We find that these results depend only weakly on potential modifications of the width of the ϕ meson peak and on assumptions made on the behavior of four-quark condensates at finite density.

  8. 76 FR 14997 - In the Matter of Entergy Nuclear Vermont Yankee, LLC and Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-18

    ... for the radioactive nuclide hydrogen-3. Tritium occurs naturally in the environment because of cosmic ray interactions. It is also ] produced by nuclear reactor operations, and can be legally discharged...

  9. Electron-nuclear spin dynamics of Ga2 + paramagnetic centers probed by spin-dependent recombination: A master equation approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibarra-Sierra, V. G.; Sandoval-Santana, J. C.; Azaizia, S.; Carrère, H.; Bakaleinikov, L. A.; Kalevich, V. K.; Ivchenko, E. L.; Marie, X.; Amand, T.; Balocchi, A.; Kunold, A.

    2017-05-01

    Similar to nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond and impurity atoms in silicon, interstitial gallium deep paramagnetic centers in GaAsN have been proven to have useful characteristics for the development of spintronic devices. Among other interesting properties, under circularly polarized light, gallium centers act as spin filters that dynamically polarize free and bound electrons reaching record spin polarizations (close to 100%). Furthermore, the recent observation of the amplification of the spin filtering effect under a Faraday configuration magnetic field has suggested that the hyperfine interaction that couples bound electrons and nuclei permits the optical manipulation of the nuclear spin polarization. Even though the mechanisms behind the nuclear spin polarization in gallium centers are fairly well understood, the origin of nuclear spin relaxation and the formation of an Overhauser-like magnetic field remain elusive. In this work we develop a model based on the master equation approach to describe the evolution of electronic and nuclear spin polarizations of gallium centers interacting with free electrons and holes. Our results are in good agreement with existing experimental observations. In particular, we are able to reproduce the amplification of the spin filtering effect under a circularly polarized excitation in a Faraday configuration magnetic field. In regard to the nuclear spin relaxation, the roles of nuclear dipolar and quadrupolar interactions are discussed. Our findings show that, besides the hyperfine interaction, the spin relaxation mechanisms are key to understand the amplification of the spin filtering effect and the appearance of the Overhauser-like magnetic field. To gain a deeper insight in the interplay of the hyperfine interaction and the relaxation mechanisms, we have also performed calculations in the pulsed excitation regime. Our model's results allow us to propose an experimental protocol based on time-resolved spectroscopy. It

  10. Spectral functions for D ¯ and D¯0* mesons in nuclear matter with partial restoration of chiral symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suenaga, Daiki; Yasui, Shigehiro; Harada, Masayasu

    2017-07-01

    We investigate the in-medium masses of a D ¯(0-) meson and a D¯0*(0+) meson, and spectral functions for D ¯ and D¯0* meson channels in nuclear matter. These mesons are introduced as chiral partners in the chiral-symmetry-broken vacuum, hence they are useful to explore the partial restoration of the broken chiral symmetry in nuclear matter. We consider the linear sigma model to describe the chiral symmetry breaking and to investigate a qualitative tendency of changes of D ¯ mesons at low density. Our study shows that the loop corrections to D ¯ and D¯0* meson masses provide a smaller mass splitting at finite density than that in vacuum, a result that indicates a tendency of the restoration of the chiral symmetry. We investigate also the spectral function for D¯0* meson channel, and find three peaks. The first peak, which corresponds to the resonance of the D¯0* meson, is broadened by collisions with nucleons in medium, and the peak position shifts to lower mass due to the partial restoration of chiral symmetry as the density increases. The second peak is identified as a threshold enhancement which shows a remarkable enhancement as the density increases. The third peak is Landau damping. The obtained properties of D ¯ and D¯0* mesons in nuclear matter will provide useful information for experiments.

  11. Neutron-proton effective mass splitting in neutron-rich matter and its impacts on nuclear reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Bao-An; Chen, Lie-Wen

    2015-04-01

    The neutron-proton effective mass splitting in neutron-rich nucleonic matter reflects the spacetime nonlocality of the isovector nuclear interaction. It affects the neutron/proton ratio during the earlier evolution of the Universe, cooling of proto-neutron stars, structure of rare isotopes and dynamics of heavy-ion collisions. While there is still no consensus on whether the neutron-proton effective mass splitting is negative, zero or positive and how it depends on the density as well as the isospin-asymmetry of the medium, significant progress has been made in recent years in addressing these issues. There are different kinds of nucleon effective masses. In this mini-review, we focus on the total effective masses often used in the non-relativistic description of nuclear dynamics. We first recall the connections among the neutron-proton effective mass splitting, the momentum dependence of the isovector potential and the density dependence of the symmetry energy. We then make a few observations about the progress in calculating the neutron-proton effective mass splitting using various nuclear many-body theories and its effects on the isospin-dependence of in-medium nucleon-nucleon cross-sections. Perhaps, our most reliable knowledge so far about the neutron-proton effective mass splitting at saturation density of nuclear matter comes from optical model analyses of huge sets of nucleon-nucleus scattering data accumulated over the last five decades. The momentum dependence of the symmetry potential from these analyses provide a useful boundary condition at saturation density for calibrating nuclear many-body calculations. Several observables in heavy-ion collisions have been identified as sensitive probes of the neutron-proton effective mass splitting in dense neutron-rich matter based on transport model simulations. We review these observables and comment on the latest experimental findings.

  12. Generation of matter-wave solitons of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation with a time-dependent complicated potential

    SciTech Connect

    Mohamadou, Alidou; Wamba, Etienne; Kofane, Timoleon C.; Doka, Serge Y.; Ekogo, Thierry B.

    2011-08-15

    We examine the generation of bright matter-wave solitons in the Gross-Pitaevskii equation describing Bose-Einstein condensates with a time-dependent complex potential, which is composed of a repulsive parabolic background potential and a gravitational field. By performing a modified lens-type transformation, an explicit expression for the growth rate of a purely growing modulational instability is presented and analyzed. We point out the effects of the gravitational field, as well as of the parameter related to the feeding or loss of atoms in the condensate, on the instability growth rate. It is evident from numerical simulations that the feeding with atoms and the magnetic trap have opposite effects on the dynamics of the system. It is shown that the feeding or loss parameter can be well used to control the instability domain. Our study shows that the gravitational field changes the condensate trail of the soliton trains during the propagation. We also perform a numerical analysis to solve the Gross-Pitaevskii equation with a time-dependent complicated potential. The numerical results on the effect of both the gravitational field and the parameter of feeding or loss of atoms in the condensate agree well with predictions of the linear stability analysis. Another result of the present work is the modification of the background wave function in the Thomas-Fermi approximation during the numerical simulations.

  13. Consequences of a strong phase transition in the dense matter equation of state for the rotational evolution of neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bejger, M.; Blaschke, D.; Haensel, P.; Zdunik, J. L.; Fortin, M.

    2017-03-01

    Aims: We explore the implications of a strong first-order phase transition region in the dense matter equation of state in the interiors of rotating neutron stars, and the resulting creation of two disjoint families of neutron-star configurations (the so-called high-mass twins). Methods: We numerically obtained rotating, axisymmetric, and stationary stellar configurations in the framework of general relativity, and studied their global parameters and stability. Results: The instability induced by the equation of state divides stable neutron star configurations into two disjoint families: neutron stars (second family) and hybrid stars (third family), with an overlapping region in mass, the high-mass twin-star region. These two regions are divided by an instability strip. Its existence has interesting astrophysical consequences for rotating neutron stars. We note that it provides a natural explanation for the rotational frequency cutoff in the observed distribution of neutron star spins, and for the apparent lack of back-bending in pulsar timing. It also straightforwardly enables a substantial energy release in a mini-collapse to another neutron-star configuration (core quake), or to a black hole.

  14. Sensitivity of the moment of inertia of neutron stars to the equation of state of neutron-rich matter

    SciTech Connect

    Fattoyev, F. J.; Piekarewicz, J.

    2010-08-15

    The sensitivity of the stellar moment of inertia to the neutron-star matter equation of state is examined using accurately calibrated relativistic mean-field models. We probe this sensitivity by tuning both the density dependence of the symmetry energy and the high-density component of the equation of state, properties that are at present poorly constrained by existing laboratory data. Particularly attractive is the study of the fraction of the moment of inertia contained in the solid crust. Analytic treatments of the crustal moment of inertia reveal a high sensitivity to the transition pressure at the core-crust interface. This may suggest the existence of a strong correlation between the density dependence of the symmetry energy and the crustal moment of inertia. However, no correlation was found. We conclude that constraining the density dependence of the symmetry energy - through, for example, the measurement of the neutron skin thickness in {sup 208}Pb - will place no significant bound on either the transition pressure or the crustal moment of inertia.

  15. The effects of QCD equation of state on the relic density of WIMP dark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Drees, Manuel; Hajkarim, Fazlollah; Schmitz, Ernany Rossi

    2015-06-12

    Weakly Interactive Massive Particles (WIMPs) are the most widely studied candidate particles forming the cold dark matter (CDM) whose existence can be inferred from a wealth of astrophysical and cosmological observations. In the framework of the minimal cosmological model detailed measurements on the cosmic microwave background by the PLANCK collaboration fix the scaled CDM relic density to Ω{sub c}h{sup 2}=0.1193±0.0014, with an error of less than 1.5%. In order to fully exploit this observational precision, theoretical calculations should have a comparable or smaller error. In this paper we use recent lattice QCD calculations to improve the description of the thermal plasma. This affects the predicted relic density of “thermal WIMPs”, which once were in chemical equilibrium with Standard Model particles. For WIMP masses between 3 and 15 GeV, where QCD effects are most important, our predictions differ from earlier results by up to 9% (12%) for pure S-wave (P-wave) annihilation. We use these results to compute the thermally averaged WIMP annihilation cross section that reproduces the correct CDM relic density, for WIMP masses between 0.1 GeV and 10 TeV.

  16. The effects of QCD equation of state on the relic density of WIMP dark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Drees, Manuel; Hajkarim, Fazlollah; Schmitz, Ernany Rossi E-mail: hajkarim@th.physik.uni-bonn.de

    2015-06-01

    Weakly Interactive Massive Particles (WIMPs) are the most widely studied candidate particles forming the cold dark matter (CDM) whose existence can be inferred from a wealth of astrophysical and cosmological observations. In the framework of the minimal cosmological model detailed measurements on the cosmic microwave background by the PLANCK collaboration fix the scaled CDM relic density to Ω{sub c}h{sup 2}=0.1193±0.0014, with an error of less than 1.5%. In order to fully exploit this observational precision, theoretical calculations should have a comparable or smaller error. In this paper we use recent lattice QCD calculations to improve the description of the thermal plasma. This affects the predicted relic density of ''thermal WIMPs'', which once were in chemical equilibrium with Standard Model particles. For WIMP masses between 3 and 15 GeV, where QCD effects are most important, our predictions differ from earlier results by up to 9% (12%) for pure S-wave (P-wave) annihilation. We use these results to compute the thermally averaged WIMP annihilation cross section that reproduces the correct CDM relic density, for WIMP masses between 0.1 GeV and 10 TeV.

  17. A database for equations of state and resistivities measurements in the warm dense matter regime

    SciTech Connect

    Clerouin, J.; Noiret, P.; Blottiau, P.; Recoules, V.; Siberchicot, B.; Renaudin, P.; Blancard, C.; Faussurier, G.; Holst, B.; Starrett, C. E.

    2012-08-15

    The aim of this paper is to provide experimental data on various expanded elements in the warm dense matter regime. The experiments were done on the experimental facility 'enceinte a plasma isochore' and are evaluated through a thorough comparison with ab initio calculations, average-atom codes, and chemical models. This comparison allows for the evaluation of the experimental temperatures that are not accessible to the measurements and permits the building of useful data tables gathering energy, pressure, conductivity, and temperatures. We summarize experiments performed on aluminum (0.1 and 0.3 g/cm{sup 3}), nickel (0.2 g/cm{sup 3}), titanium (0.1 g/cm{sup 3}), copper (0.3 and 0.5 g/cm{sup 3}), silver (0.43 g/cm{sup 3}), gold (0.5 g/cm{sup 3}), boron (0.094 g/cm{sup 3}), and silicon (0.21 g/cm{sup 3}) for temperatures ranging from 0.5 eV to 3-4 eV.

  18. A database for equations of state and resistivities measurements in the warm dense matter regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clérouin, J.; Noiret, P.; Blottiau, P.; Recoules, V.; Siberchicot, B.; Renaudin, P.; Blancard, C.; Faussurier, G.; Holst, B.; Starrett, C. E.

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide experimental data on various expanded elements in the warm dense matter regime. The experiments were done on the experimental facility "enceinte à plasma isochore" and are evaluated through a thorough comparison with ab initio calculations, average-atom codes, and chemical models. This comparison allows for the evaluation of the experimental temperatures that are not accessible to the measurements and permits the building of useful data tables gathering energy, pressure, conductivity, and temperatures. We summarize experiments performed on aluminum (0.1 and 0.3 g/cm3), nickel (0.2 g/cm3), titanium (0.1 g/cm3), copper (0.3 and 0.5 g/cm3), silver (0.43 g/cm3), gold (0.5 g/cm3), boron (0.094 g/cm3), and silicon (0.21 g/cm3) for temperatures ranging from 0.5 eV to 3-4 eV.

  19. 76 FR 54499 - In the Matter of Entergy Operations, Inc. and Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Confirmatory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-01

    ... Fitzpatrick Nuclear Power Plant, Grand Gulf Nuclear Station, Unit 1, Indian Point Nuclear Generating, Units 2... Committees (both for Boiling Water Reactors and Pressurized Water Reactors) will conduct an effectiveness... the issuance of this CO, subcommittees of Entergy's Safety Review Committees (both for Boiling...

  20. Equation of state and transport property measurements of warm dense matter.

    SciTech Connect

    Knudson, Marcus D.; Desjarlais, Michael Paul

    2009-10-01

    Location of the liquid-vapor critical point (c.p.) is one of the key features of equation of state models used in simulating high energy density physics and pulsed power experiments. For example, material behavior in the location of the vapor dome is critical in determining how and when coronal plasmas form in expanding wires. Transport properties, such as conductivity and opacity, can vary an order of magnitude depending on whether the state of the material is inside or outside of the vapor dome. Due to the difficulty in experimentally producing states near the vapor dome, for all but a few materials, such as Cesium and Mercury, the uncertainty in the location of the c.p. is of order 100%. These states of interest can be produced on Z through high-velocity shock and release experiments. For example, it is estimated that release adiabats from {approx}1000 GPa in aluminum would skirt the vapor dome allowing estimates of the c.p. to be made. This is within the reach of Z experiments (flyer plate velocity of {approx}30 km/s). Recent high-fidelity EOS models and hydrocode simulations suggest that the dynamic two-phase flow behavior observed in initial scoping experiments can be reproduced, providing a link between theory and experiment. Experimental identification of the c.p. in aluminum would represent the first measurement of its kind in a dynamic experiment. Furthermore, once the c.p. has been experimentally determined it should be possible to probe the electrical conductivity, opacity, reflectivity, etc. of the material near the vapor dome, using a variety of diagnostics. We propose a combined experimental and theoretical investigation with the initial emphasis on aluminum.

  1. Stochastic Evolution Equations with Values on the Dual of a Countably Hilbert Nuclear Space.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-07-01

    Banach space, as e.g., in the Example 4.1 or the works by Dawson and Gorostiza (1985), Kato (1976) and Tanabe (1975). In such cases the problem of...Hill. Dawson D.A. and L.G. Gorostiza (1985) "Solution of evolution equations in Hilbert space", preprint. Hitsuda M. and I. Mitoma (1985) "Tightness

  2. Constraining Neutron Star Matter with Quantum Chromodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurkela, Aleksi; Fraga, Eduardo S.; Schaffner-Bielich, Jürgen; Vuorinen, Aleksi

    2014-07-01

    In recent years, there have been several successful attempts to constrain the equation of state of neutron star matter using input from low-energy nuclear physics and observational data. We demonstrate that significant further restrictions can be placed by additionally requiring the pressure to approach that of deconfined quark matter at high densities. Remarkably, the new constraints turn out to be highly insensitive to the amount—or even presence—of quark matter inside the stars.

  3. Constraining neutron star matter with quantum chromodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Kurkela, Aleksi; Fraga, Eduardo S.; Schaffner-Bielich, Jürgen; Vuorinen, Aleksi

    2014-07-10

    In recent years, there have been several successful attempts to constrain the equation of state of neutron star matter using input from low-energy nuclear physics and observational data. We demonstrate that significant further restrictions can be placed by additionally requiring the pressure to approach that of deconfined quark matter at high densities. Remarkably, the new constraints turn out to be highly insensitive to the amount—or even presence—of quark matter inside the stars.

  4. Second-order correction to the Bigeleisen–Mayer equation due to the nuclear field shift

    PubMed Central

    Bigeleisen, Jacob

    1998-01-01

    The nuclear field shift affects the electronic, rotational, and vibrational energies of polyatomic molecules. The theory of the shifts in molecular spectra has been studied by Schlembach and Tiemann [Schlembach, J. & Tiemann, E. (1982) Chem. Phys. 68, 21]; measurements of the electronic and rotational shifts of the diatomic halides of Pb and Tl have been made by Tiemann et al. [Tiemann, E., Knöckel, H. & Schlembach, J. (1982) Ber. Bunsenges. Phys. Chem. 86, 821]. These authors have estimated the relative shifts in the harmonic frequencies of these compounds due to the nuclear field shift to be of the order of 10−6. I have used this estimate of the relative shift in vibrational frequency to calculate the correction to the harmonic oscillator approximation to the isotopic reduced partition-function ratio 208Pb32S/207Pb32S. The correction is 0.3% of the harmonic oscillator value at 300 K. In the absence of compelling evidence to the contrary, it suffices to calculate the nuclear field effect on the total isotopic partition-function ratio from its shift of the electronic zero point energy and the unperturbed molecular vibration. PMID:9560183

  5. Dynamical ejecta from precessing neutron star-black hole mergers with a hot, nuclear-theory based equation of state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foucart, F.; Desai, D.; Brege, W.; Duez, M. D.; Kasen, D.; Hemberger, D. A.; Kidder, L. E.; Pfeiffer, H. P.; Scheel, M. A.

    2017-02-01

    Neutron star-black hole binaries are among the strongest sources of gravitational waves detectable by current observatories. They can also power bright electromagnetic signals (gamma-ray bursts, kilonovae), and may be a significant source of production of r-process nuclei. A misalignment of the black hole spin with respect to the orbital angular momentum leads to precession of that spin and of the orbital plane, and has a significant effect on the properties of the post-merger remnant and of the material ejected by the merger. We present a first set of simulations of precessing neutron star-black hole mergers using a hot, composition dependent, nuclear-theory based equation of state (DD2). We show that the mass of the remnant and of the dynamical ejecta are broadly consistent with the result of simulations using simpler equations of state, while differences arise when considering the dynamics of the merger and the velocity of the ejecta. We show that the latter can easily be understood from assumptions about the composition of low-density, cold material in the different equations of state, and propose an updated estimate for the ejecta velocity which takes those effects into account. We also present an updated mesh-refinement algorithm which allows us to improve the numerical resolution used to evolve neutron star-black hole mergers.

  6. Nuclear and particle astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Glendenning, N.K.

    1990-10-31

    We discuss the physics of matter that is relevant to the structure of compact stars. This includes nuclear, neutron star matter and quark matter and phase transitions between them. Many aspects of neutron star structure and its dependance on a number of physical assumptions about nuclear matter properties and hyperon couplings are investigated. We also discuss the prospects for obtaining constraints on the equation of state from astrophysical sources. Neuron star masses although few are known at present, provide a very direct constraint in as much as the connection to the equation of state involves only the assumption that Einstein's general of theory of relativity is correct at the macroscopic scale. Supernovae simulations involve such a plethora of physical processes including those involved in the evolution of the precollapse configuration, not all of them known or understood, that they provide no constraint at the present time. Indeed the prompt explosion, from which a constraint had been thought to follow, is now believed not to be mechanism by which most, if any stars, explode. In any case the nuclear equation of state is but one of a multitude on uncertain factors, and possibly one of the least important. The rapid rotation of pulsars is also discussed. It is shown that for periods below a certain limit it becomes increasingly difficult to reconcile them with neutron stars. Strange stars are possible if strange matter is the absolute ground state. We discuss such stars and their compatibility with observation. 112 refs., 37 figs., 6 tabs.

  7. Calculation of the release of total organic matter and total mineral using the hydrodynamic equations applied to palm oil mill effluent treatment by cascaded anaerobic ponds.

    PubMed

    Fulazzaky, Mohamad Ali

    2013-01-01

    Anaerobic treatment processes to remove organic matter from palm oil mill effluent (POME) have been used widely in Malaysia. Still the amounts of total organic and total mineral released from POME that may cause degradation of the receiving environment need to be verified. This paper proposes the use of the hydrodynamic equations to estimate performance of the cascaded anaerobic ponds (CAP) and to calculate amounts of total organic matter and total mineral released from POME. The CAP efficiencies to remove biochemical oxygen demands, chemical oxygen demands, total solids and volatile solids (VS) as high as 94.5, 93.6, 96.3 and 98.2 %, respectively, are estimated. The amounts of total organic matter and total mineral as high as 538 kg VS/day and 895 kg FS/day, respectively, released from POME to the receiving water are calculated. The implication of the proposed hydrodynamic equations contributes to more versatile environmental assessment techniques, sometimes replacing laboratory analysis.

  8. Source dynamics of radiocesium-contaminated particulate matter deposited in an agricultural water reservoir after the Fukushima nuclear accident.

    PubMed

    Huon, Sylvain; Hayashi, Seiji; Laceby, J Patrick; Tsuji, Hideki; Onda, Yuichi; Evrard, Olivier

    2017-09-06

    The Fukushima nuclear accident in Japan resulted in the deposition of radiocesium over forested and rural landscapes northwest of the power plant. Although there have been several investigations into the dynamics of contaminated river sediment, less attention has been paid to the sources of deposited particulate matter in dams and reservoirs. In the Fukushima Prefecture, there are 10 significant dams and over a 1000 reservoirs for both agricultural and surface water management. These reservoirs may have trapped a significant volume of radiocesium-contaminated sediment. Therefore, characterizing the sources of contaminated particulate matter is important for the ongoing management of contamination in the region. Accordingly, the composition of particulate matter deposited in the Mano Dam reservoir, approximately 40km northwest of the power plant, was investigated with the analyses and modelling of carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios (δ(13)C and δ(15)N), total organic carbon (TOC) and total nitrogen (TN) concentrations. Four sediment cores, with lengths ranging 29-41cm, were sampled in the Mano Dam. Source samples from 46 forest soils, 28 cultivated soils and 25 subsoils were used to determine the source contributions of particulate matter. Carbon and nitrogen parameters were analyzed on all samples and a concentration-dependent distribution modelling approach was used to apportion source contributions. Three of the four cores sampled in the Mano Dam reservoir had distinct radiocesium peaks representative of the initial post-accident wash-off phase. Cultivated sources were responsible for 48±7% of the deposited fine particulate matter whereas forests were modelled to contribute 27±6% and subsoil sources 25±4%. Ongoing decontamination of cultivated sources in the Fukushima region should result in a decrease of contaminated matter deposition in reservoirs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Characterization of clay minerals and organic matter in shales: Application to high-level nuclear waste isolation

    SciTech Connect

    Gueven, N.; Landis, C.R.; Jacobs, G.K.

    1988-10-01

    The objective of the Sedimentary Rock Program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory is to conduct investigations to assess the potential for shale to serve as a host medium for the isolation of high-level nuclear wastes. The emphasis on shale is a result of screening major sedimentary rock types (shale, sandstone, carbonate , anhydrite, and chalk) for a variety of attributes that affect the performance of repositories. The retardation of radionuclides was recognized as one of the potentially favorable features of shale. Because shale contains both clay minerals and organic matter, phases that may provide significant sorption of radioelement, the characterization of these phases is essential. In addition, the organic matter in shale has been identified as a critical area for study because of its potential to play either a favorable (reductant) or deleterious (organic ligands) role in the performance of a repository sited in shale. 36 refs., 36 figs., 10 tabs.

  10. Analysis of colliding nuclear matter in terms of symmetry energy and cross-section using computational method

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, Arun Bharti, Arun; Gautam, Sakshi

    2015-08-28

    Here we perform a systematic study to extract the information for colliding nuclear matter via symmetry energy and nucleon-nucleon cross section in the fragmentation of some asymmetric colliding nuclei (O{sup 16}+Br{sup 80,} {sup 84,} {sup 92}) in the energy range between 50-200 MeV/nucleon. The simulations are carried out using isospin-dependent quantum-molecular dynamics (IQMD) computational approach for central collisions. Our study reveals that fragmentation pattern of neutron-rich colliding nuclei is sensitive to symmetry energy at lower incident energies, whereas isospin dependence of nucleon-nucleon cross section becomes dominant for reactions at higher incident energies.

  11. Nuclear matter properties in the non-linear Walecka model at finite temperature with interaction between the σ - ω mesons

    SciTech Connect

    Costa, R. S.; Cortes, M. R.; Nunes, D. R.; Batista, A. S. A.

    2014-11-11

    In this work in contrast to the usual Walecka model [1] we include the interaction between the σ – ω mesons [2,3] with the aim of studying the nuclear matter properties in the relativistic mean-field theory in the regime of high temperatures. Therefore in our work we use the non-linear Walecka model. We investigate whether the phase transition characteristic of other models without these interactions vanishes for a given value of chemical potential μ and baryon density ρ{sub N}.

  12. Cosmological bang as a consequence of a sudden change in the quantum statistics of nuclear matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avetissian, A. K.

    2008-01-01

    An heuristic hypothesis is advanced about dominant Bose statistics during the transition from the radiation era to the matter era in the early universe. It is shown that large scale Bose condensation of matter from baryon-antibaryon pairs is possible, as a result of which a colossal amount of mass may accumulate in a volume of cosmic scale. At a threshold density of matter, the structural bosons decay into the fermions of which they are composed, so that a sudden change in the symmetry of the wave functions of the particles causes a jump from Bose-Einstein to Fermi-Dirac statistics. This involves a large scale phase transition with an enormous pressure jump which may show up as a cosmological bang at the beginning of the matter era.

  13. Many-particle theory of nuclear systems with application to neutron star matter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chakkalakal, D. A.; Yang, C.

    1973-01-01

    The research is reported concerning energy-density relation for the normal state of neutron star matter, and the effects of superfluidity and polarization on neutron star matter. Considering constraints on variation, and the theory of quantum fluids, three methods for calculating the energy-density range are presented. The effects of polarization on neutron star structure, and polarization effects on condensation and superfluid-state energy are discussed.

  14. Propagation of Chaos and the McKean-Vlasov Equation in Duals of Nuclear Spaces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-05-01

    and # E 0, let L2 denote the space of progressively T ~ measurable processes H: IR ~x[2 -. L(0.0) for which Ef; Q[HO.HO]ds < -, where H* is the operator...on the existence and uniqueness of solutions of stochastic differential equations. For a probability measure go on V and a pair of functions A: IR +x...34.x 0.’ For any fixed r~l. 3 a r-* A ( 11 i=1.2 so that A 3 ((R1 .P2) -1 l 1 0 ii-2" Thus 2 2 < 62a2(314 ( 1 1,e2 ): "l"l-r + -l Ir / 1)(314 On the

  15. Constraining nuclear equations of state using gravitational waves from hypermassive neutron stars.

    PubMed

    Shibata, Masaru

    2005-05-27

    Latest general relativistic simulations for the merger of binary neutron stars with realistic equations of states (EOSs) show that a hypermassive neutron star of an ellipsoidal figure is formed after the merger if the total mass is smaller than a threshold value which depends on the EOSs. The effective amplitude of quasiperiodic gravitational waves from such hypermassive neutron stars is approximately 6-7 x 10(-21) at a distance of 50 Mpc, which may be large enough for detection by advanced laser interferometric gravitational wave detectors although the frequency is high, approximately 3 kHz. We point out that the detection of such signals may lead to constraining the EOSs for neutron stars.

  16. Heavy-ion collisions and the nuclear equation of state. Progress report, August 15, 1992--April 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Keane, D.

    1993-08-01

    The overall goal of this project is to study nucleus-nucleus collisions experimentally at intermediate and relativistic energies, with emphasis on measurement and interpretation of correlation effects that provide insight into the nuclear phase diagram and the nuclear equation of state. During the course of this reporting period, the PI returned to Kent from a 15-month leave at Lawrence Berkeley Lab, which had been devoted 100% to work on this research project. The EOS Time Projection Chamber at LBL`s Bevalac accelerator has continued to be the major focus of research for all of the supported personnel; about a year ago, this detector successfully took data in production mode for the first time, and accumulated in excess of 1000 hours of beam time before the termination of the Bevalac in February 1993. Reduction and analysis of these data is currently our first priority. Effort has also been devoted to the STAR detector at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider, in the form of contributions to the Conceptual Design Report, work on HV control hardware and software for use with the STAR Time Projection Chamber, and tracking software development.

  17. Chiral symmetry and effective field theories for hadronic, nuclear and stellar matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holt, Jeremy W.; Rho, Mannque; Weise, Wolfram

    2016-03-01

    Chiral symmetry, first entering in nuclear physics in the 1970s for which Gerry Brown played a seminal role, has led to a stunningly successful framework for describing strongly-correlated nuclear dynamics both in finite and infinite systems. We review how the early, germinal idea conceived with the soft-pion theorems in the pre-QCD era has evolved into a highly predictive theoretical framework for nuclear physics, aptly assessed by Steven Weinberg: "it (chiral effective field theory) allows one to show in a fairly convincing way that what they (nuclear physicists) have been doing all along... is the correct first step in a consistent approximation scheme". Our review recounts both how the theory presently fares in confronting Nature and how one can understand its extremely intricate workings in terms of the multifaceted aspects of chiral symmetry, namely, chiral perturbation theory, skyrmions, Landau Fermi-liquid theory, the Cheshire cat phenomenon, and hidden local and mended symmetries.

  18. Big Bang Nucleosynthesis: Impact of Nuclear Physics Uncertainties on Baryonic Matter Density

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Michael Scott; Roberts, Luke F; Hix, William Raphael; Bruner, Blake D; Kozub, R. L.; Tytler, David; Fuller, George M; Lingerfelt, Eric J; Nesaraja, Caroline D

    2008-01-01

    We performed new Big Bang Nucleosynthesis simulations with the bigbangonline.org suite of codes to determine, from the nuclear physics perspective, the highest achievable precision of the constraint on the baryon-to-photo ratio {eta} given current observational uncertainties. We also performed sensitivity studies to determine the impact that particular nuclear physics measurements would have on the uncertainties of predicted abundances and on the {eta} constraint.

  19. Big Bang Nucleosynthesis: Impact of Nuclear Physics Uncertainties on Baryonic Matter Density Constraints

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Michael Scott; Bruner, Blake D; KOZUB, RAYMOND L; Roberts, Luke F; Tytler, David; Fuller, George M; Lingerfelt, Eric J; Hix, William Raphael; Nesaraja, Caroline D

    2008-01-01

    We ran new Big Bang Nucleosynthesis simulations with the bigbangonline.org suite of codes to determine, from the nuclear physics perspective, the highest achievable precision of the constraint on the baryon-to-photo ratio eta given current observational uncertainties. We also ran sensitivity studies to determine the impact that particular nuclear physics measurements would have on the uncertainties of predicted abundances and on the eta constraint.

  20. Using heavy-ion collisions to elucidate the asymmetric equation-of-state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yennello, Sherry; McIntosh, Alan

    2016-06-01

    The nuclear equation-of-state impacts a number of nuclear properties as well as astrophysical processes. The asymmetric term of the equation-of-state, which describes the behavior away from N=Z, has significant uncertainty. Giant resonances and nuclear masses can elucidate the asymmetry energy for cold normal-density nuclei. Heavy-ion collisions can be used to probe nuclear matter at higher temperatures and densities away from saturation density. The temperatures that are attained in these nuclear collisions are predicted to depend on the isospin asymmetry. In this work we present evidence of the asymmetry dependence of the nuclear caloric curve.

  1. Modeling of matter-wave solitons in a nonlinear inductor-capacitor network through a Gross-Pitaevskii equation with time-dependent linear potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kengne, E.; Lakhssassi, A.; Liu, W. M.

    2017-08-01

    A lossless nonlinear L C transmission network is considered. With the use of the reductive perturbation method in the semidiscrete limit, we show that the dynamics of matter-wave solitons in the network can be modeled by a one-dimensional Gross-Pitaevskii (GP) equation with a time-dependent linear potential in the presence of a chemical potential. An explicit expression for the growth rate of a purely growing modulational instability (MI) is presented and analyzed. We find that the potential parameter of the GP equation of the system does not affect the different regions of the MI. Neglecting the chemical potential in the GP equation, we derive exact analytical solutions which describe the propagation of both bright and dark solitary waves on continuous-wave (cw) backgrounds. Using the found exact analytical solutions of the GP equation, we investigate numerically the transmission of both bright and dark solitary voltage signals in the network. Our numerical studies show that the amplitude of a bright solitary voltage signal and the depth of a dark solitary voltage signal as well as their width, their motion, and their behavior depend on (i) the propagation frequencies, (ii) the potential parameter, and (iii) the amplitude of the cw background. The GP equation derived in this paper with a time-dependent linear potential opens up different ideas that may be of considerable theoretical interest for the management of matter-wave solitons in nonlinear L C transmission networks.

  2. CLASH-VLT: Constraints on the Dark Matter Equation of State from Accurate Measurements of Galaxy Cluster Mass Profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sartoris, Barbara; Biviano, Andrea; Rosati, Piero; Borgani, Stefano; Umetsu, Keiichi; Bartelmann, Matthias; Girardi, Marisa; Grillo, Claudio; Lemze, Doron; Zitrin, Adi; Balestra, Italo; Mercurio, Amata; Nonino, Mario; Postman, Marc; Czakon, Nicole; Bradley, Larry; Broadhurst, Tom; Coe, Dan; Medezinski, Elinor; Melchior, Peter; Meneghetti, Massimo; Merten, Julian; Annunziatella, Marianna; Benitez, Narciso; Czoske, Oliver; Donahue, Megan; Ettori, Stefano; Ford, Holland; Fritz, Alexander; Kelson, Dan; Koekemoer, Anton; Kuchner, Ulrike; Lombardi, Marco; Maier, Christian; Moustakas, Leonidas A.; Munari, Emiliano; Presotto, Valentina; Scodeggio, Marco; Seitz, Stella; Tozzi, Paolo; Zheng, Wei; Ziegler, Bodo

    2014-03-01

    A pressureless scenario for the dark matter (DM) fluid is a widely adopted hypothesis, despite the absence of direct observational evidence. According to general relativity, the total mass-energy content of a system shapes the gravitational potential well, but different test particles perceive this potential in different ways depending on their properties. Cluster galaxy velocities, being Ltc, depend solely on the gravitational potential, whereas photon trajectories reflect the contributions from the gravitational potential plus a relativistic-pressure term that depends on the cluster mass. We exploit this phenomenon to constrain the equation of state (EoS) parameter of the fluid, primarily DM, contained in galaxy clusters. We use complementary information provided by the kinematic and lensing mass profiles of the galaxy cluster MACS 1206.2-0847 at z = 0.44, as obtained in an extensive imaging and spectroscopic campaign within the Cluster Lensing And Supernova survey with Hubble. The unprecedented high quality of our data set and the properties of this cluster are well suited to determine the EoS parameter of the cluster fluid. Since baryons contribute at most 15% to the total mass in clusters and their pressure is negligible, the EoS parameter we derive describes the behavior of the DM fluid. We obtain the most stringent constraint on the DM EoS parameter to date, w = (pr + 2 pt )/(3 c 2ρ) = 0.00 ± 0.15 (stat) ± 0.08 (syst), averaged over the radial range 0.5 Mpc <= r <= r 200, where pr and pt are the radial and tangential pressure, and ρ is the density. We plan to further improve our constraint by applying the same procedure to all clusters from the ongoing Cluster Lensing And Supernova Survey with Hubble-Very Large Telescope program.

  3. Black-Hole Solutions to Einstein's Equations in the Presence of Matter and Modifications of Gravitation in Extra Dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goutéraux, B.

    2010-11-01

    In this thesis, we wish to examine the black-hole solutions of modified gravity theories inspired by String Theory or Cosmology. Namely, these modifications will take the guise of additional gauge and scalar fields for the so-called Einstein-Maxwell-Dilaton theories with an exponential Liouville potential; and of extra spatial dimensions for Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet theories. The black-hole solutions of EMD theories as well as their integrability are reviewed. One of the main results is that a master equation is obtained in the case of planar horizon topology, which allows to completely integrate the problem for s special relationship between the couplings. We also classify existing solutions. We move on to the study of Gauss-Bonnet black holes, focusing on the six-dimensional case. It is found that the Gauss-Bonnet coupling exposes the Weyl tensor of the horizon to the dynamics, severely restricting the Einstein spaces admissible and effectively lifting some of the degeneracy on the horizon topology. We then turn to the study of the thermodynamic properties of black holes, in General Relativity as well as in EMD theories. For the latter, phase transitions may be found in the canonical ensemble, which resemble the phase transitions for Reissner-Nordström black holes. Generically, we find that the thermodynamic properties (stability, order of phase transitions) depend crucially on the values of the EMD coupling constants. Finally, we interpret our planar EMD solutions holographically as Infra-Red geometries through the AdS/CFT correspondence, taking into account various validity constraints. We also compute AC and DC conductivities as applications to Condensed Matter Systems, and find some properties characteristic of strange metal behaviour.

  4. Stochastic gravitational wave background from newly born massive magnetars: The role of a dense matter equation of state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Quan; Zhang, Shuang-Nan; Zheng, Xiao-Ping

    2017-04-01

    Newly born massive magnetars are generally considered to be produced by binary neutron star (NS) mergers, which could give rise to short gamma-ray bursts (SGRBs). The strong magnetic fields and fast rotation of these magnetars make them promising sources for gravitational wave (GW) detection using ground based GW interferometers. Based on the observed masses of Galactic NS-NS binaries, by assuming different equations of state (EOSs) of dense matter, we investigate the stochastic gravitational wave background (SGWB) produced by an ensemble of newly born massive magnetars. The massive magnetar formation rate is estimated through: (i) the SGRB formation rate (hereafter entitled as MFR1); (ii) the NS-NS merger rate (hereafter entitled as MFR2). We find that for massive magnetars with masses Mr m =2.4743 M⊙ , if EOS CDDM2 is assumed, the resultant SGWBs may be detected by the future Einstein Telescope (ET) even for MFR1 with minimal local formation rate, and for MFR2 with a local merger rate ρ˙c o(0 )≲10 Mpc-3 Myr-1 . However, if EOS BSk21 is assumed, the SGWB may be detectable by the ET for MFR1 with the maximal local formation rate. Moreover, the background spectra show cutoffs at about 350 Hz in the case of EOS BSk21, and at 124 Hz for CDDM2, respectively. We suggest that if the cutoff at ˜100 Hz in the background spectrum from massive magnetars could be detected, then the quark star EOS CDDM2 seems to be favorable. Moreover, the EOSs, which present relatively small TOV maximum masses, would be excluded.

  5. Economy, Speed and Size Matter: Evolutionary Forces Driving Nuclear Genome Miniaturization and Expansion

    PubMed Central

    CAVALIER-SMITH, THOMAS

    2005-01-01

    • Background Nuclear genome size varies 300 000-fold, whereas transcriptome size varies merely 17-fold. In the largest genomes nearly all DNA is non-genic secondary DNA, mostly intergenic but also within introns. There is now compelling evidence that secondary DNA is functional, i.e. positively selected by organismal selection, not the purely neutral or ‘selfish’ outcome of mutation pressure. The skeletal DNA theory argued that nuclear volumes are genetically determined primarily by nuclear DNA amounts, modulated somewhat by genes affecting the degree of DNA packing or unfolding; the huge spread of nuclear genome sizes is the necessary consequence of the origin of the nuclear envelope and the nucleation of its assembly by DNA, plus the adaptively significant 300 000-fold range of cell volumes and selection for balanced growth by optimizing karyoplasmic volume ratios (essentially invariant with cell volume in growing/multiplying cells). This simple explanation of the C-value paradox is refined here in the light of new insights into the nature of heterochromatin and the nuclear lamina, the genetic control of cell volume, and large-scale eukaryote phylogeny, placing special emphasis on protist test cases of the basic principles of nuclear genome size evolution. • Genome Miniaturization and Expansion Intracellular parasites (e.g. Plasmodium, microsporidia) dwarfed their genomes by gene loss and eliminating virtually all secondary DNA. The primary driving forces for genome reduction are metabolic and spatial economy and cell multiplication speed. Most extreme nuclear shrinkage yielded genomes as tiny as 0·38 Mb (making the nuclear genome size range effectively 1·8 million-fold!) in some minute enslaved nuclei (nucleomorphs) of cryptomonads and chlorarachneans, chimaeric cells that also retain a separate normal large nucleus. The latter shows typical correlation between genome size and cell volume, but nucleomorphs do not despite co-existing in the same cell

  6. Economy, speed and size matter: evolutionary forces driving nuclear genome miniaturization and expansion.

    PubMed

    Cavalier-Smith, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    Nuclear genome size varies 300 000-fold, whereas transcriptome size varies merely 17-fold. In the largest genomes nearly all DNA is non-genic secondary DNA, mostly intergenic but also within introns. There is now compelling evidence that secondary DNA is functional, i.e. positively selected by organismal selection, not the purely neutral or 'selfish' outcome of mutation pressure. The skeletal DNA theory argued that nuclear volumes are genetically determined primarily by nuclear DNA amounts, modulated somewhat by genes affecting the degree of DNA packing or unfolding; the huge spread of nuclear genome sizes is the necessary consequence of the origin of the nuclear envelope and the nucleation of its assembly by DNA, plus the adaptively significant 300 000-fold range of cell volumes and selection for balanced growth by optimizing karyoplasmic volume ratios (essentially invariant with cell volume in growing/multiplying cells). This simple explanation of the C-value paradox is refined here in the light of new insights into the nature of heterochromatin and the nuclear lamina, the genetic control of cell volume, and large-scale eukaryote phylogeny, placing special emphasis on protist test cases of the basic principles of nuclear genome size evolution. and Expansion Intracellular parasites (e.g. Plasmodium, microsporidia) dwarfed their genomes by gene loss and eliminating virtually all secondary DNA. The primary driving forces for genome reduction are metabolic and spatial economy and cell multiplication speed. Most extreme nuclear shrinkage yielded genomes as tiny as 0.38 Mb (making the nuclear genome size range effectively 1.8 million-fold!) in some minute enslaved nuclei (nucleomorphs) of cryptomonads and chlorarachneans, chimaeric cells that also retain a separate normal large nucleus. The latter shows typical correlation between genome size and cell volume, but nucleomorphs do not despite co-existing in the same cell for >500 My. Thus mutation pressure does not

  7. Advanced solid-state carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic studies of sewage sludge organic matter: detection of organic "domains".

    PubMed

    Smernik, Ronald J; Oliver, Ian W; Merrington, Graham

    2003-01-01

    Two novel solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic techniques, PSRE (proton spin relaxation editing) and RESTORE [Restoration of Spectra via T(CH) and T(1rho)H (T One Rho H) Editing], were used to provide detailed chemical characterization of the organic matter from six Australian sewage sludges. These methods were used to probe the submicrometer heterogeneity of sludge organic matter, and identify and quantify spatially distinct components. Analysis of the T1H relaxation behavior of the sludges indicated that each sludge contained two types of organic domains. Carbon-13 PSRE NMR subspectra were generated to determine the chemical nature of these domains. The rapidly relaxing component of each sludge was rich in protein and alkyl carbon, and was identified as dead bacterial material. The slowly relaxing component of each sludge was rich in carbohydrate and lignin structures, and was identified as partly degraded plant material. The bacterial domains were shown, using the RESTORE technique, to also have characteristically rapid T(1rho)H relaxation rates. This rapid T(1rho)H relaxation was identified as the main cause of underrepresentation of these domains in standard 13C cross polarization (CP) NMR spectra of sludges. The heterogeneous nature of sewage sludge organic matter has implications for land application of sewage sludge, since the two components are likely to have different capacities for sorbing organic and inorganic toxicants present in sewage sludge, and will decompose at different rates.

  8. Plasma Time in Discriminating Nuclear Recoils in Germanium Detector for Dark Matter Searches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mei, Dongming; Barker, D'ann

    2012-10-01

    In the detection of WIMP-induced nuclear recoils with high-purity germanium detectors, CDMS-type bolometers are often used in measuring the ionization yield. For this technology, the detector is operated in the milli-Kelvin temperature range, which requires high priced detectors. Alternative electron/nuclear recoil discrimination using pulse shape has been widely utilized in the energy range of MeV in neutrinoless double-beta decay experiments with germanium detectors. However, the nuclear recoils induced by WIMPs are in the energy range of keV, and their pulse shape difference with electronic recoils in the same energy range has not proven to be visible in a commercially available germanium detector. This paper presents a new idea of using plasma time difference in pulse shape to discriminate nuclear recoils from electronic recoils. We show the plasma time difference as a function of nuclear recoil energy. The technique using plasma time will be discussed with a generic germanium detector.

  9. BLACK HOLE-NEUTRON STAR MERGERS WITH A HOT NUCLEAR EQUATION OF STATE: OUTFLOW AND NEUTRINO-COOLED DISK FOR A LOW-MASS, HIGH-SPIN CASE

    SciTech Connect

    Deaton, M. Brett; Duez, Matthew D.; Foucart, Francois; O'Connor, Evan; Ott, Christian D.; Scheel, Mark A.; Szilagyi, Bela; Kidder, Lawrence E.; Muhlberger, Curran D. E-mail: m.duez@wsu.edu

    2013-10-10

    Neutrino emission significantly affects the evolution of the accretion tori formed in black hole-neutron star mergers. It removes energy from the disk, alters its composition, and provides a potential power source for a gamma-ray burst. To study these effects, simulations in general relativity with a hot microphysical equation of state (EOS) and neutrino feedback are needed. We present the first such simulation, using a neutrino leakage scheme for cooling to capture the most essential effects and considering a moderate mass (1.4 M{sub ☉} neutron star, 5.6 M{sub ☉} black hole), high-spin (black hole J/M {sup 2} = 0.9) system with the K{sub 0} = 220 MeV Lattimer-Swesty EOS. We find that about 0.08 M{sub ☉} of nuclear matter is ejected from the system, while another 0.3 M{sub ☉} forms a hot, compact accretion disk. The primary effects of the escaping neutrinos are (1) to make the disk much denser and more compact, (2) to cause the average electron fraction Y{sub e} of the disk to rise to about 0.2 and then gradually decrease again, and (3) to gradually cool the disk. The disk is initially hot (T ∼ 6 MeV) and luminous in neutrinos (L{sub ν} ∼ 10{sup 54} erg s{sup –1}), but the neutrino luminosity decreases by an order of magnitude over 50 ms of post-merger evolution.

  10. Nuclear emulsions as a very high resolution detector for directional dark matter search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Ambrosio, N.; Di Marco, N.; Pupilli, F.; Alexandrov, A.; De Lellis, G.; Di Crescenzo, A.; Tioukov, V.; Sirignano, C.; Naka, T.; Asada, T.; Katsuragawa, T.; Yoshimoto, M.; Hakamata, K.; Ishikawa, M.; Kuwabara, K.; Umemoto, A.; Furuya, S.; Machii, S.; Tawara, Y.

    2014-01-01

    The use of nuclear emulsions in particle physics dates back to the very early stages. They are now used when an extremely high position resolution is required like in the search for short lived particles. The capability to detect nuclear recoils induced by WIMPs relies on the possibility to detect sub-micrometric trajectories. Recently nuclear emulsions with silver grains of 20 nm diameter were developed, opening the way for the reconstruction of nanometric particles. This challenging purpose requires the development of fully automated optical readout systems for a fast scanning of the emulsion films. This is meant for a pre-selection of recoil candidates. Once candidates have been identified, a fine grained X-ray microscope is used to detect the grains making up the tracks. We report here the present results on the current development along this line.

  11. Quantum nuclear pasta and nuclear symmetry energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fattoyev, F. J.; Horowitz, C. J.; Schuetrumpf, B.

    2017-05-01

    Complex and exotic nuclear geometries, collectively referred to as "nuclear pasta," are expected to appear naturally in dense nuclear matter found in the crusts of neutron stars and supernovae environments. The pasta geometries depend on the average baryon density, proton fraction, and temperature and are critically important in the determination of many transport properties of matter in supernovae and the crusts of neutron stars. Using a set of self-consistent microscopic nuclear energy density functionals, we present the first results of large scale quantum simulations of pasta phases at baryon densities 0.03 ≤ρ ≤0.10 fm-3 , proton fractions 0.05 ≤Yp≤0.40 , and zero temperature. The full quantum simulations, in particular, allow us to thoroughly investigate the role and impact of the nuclear symmetry energy on pasta configurations. We use the Sky3D code that solves the Skyrme Hartree-Fock equations on a three-dimensional Cartesian grid. For the nuclear interaction we use the state-of-the-art UNEDF1 parametrization, which was introduced to study largely deformed nuclei, hence is suitable for studies of the nuclear pasta. Density dependence of the nuclear symmetry energy is simulated by tuning two purely isovector observables that are insensitive to the current available experimental data. We find that a minimum total number of nucleons A =2000 is necessary to prevent the results from containing spurious shell effects and to minimize finite size effects. We find that a variety of nuclear pasta geometries are present in the neutron star crust, and the result strongly depends on the nuclear symmetry energy. The impact of the nuclear symmetry energy is less pronounced as the proton fractions increase. Quantum nuclear pasta calculations at T =0 MeV are shown to get easily trapped in metastable states, and possible remedies to avoid metastable solutions are discussed.

  12. Heavy-ion collisions and the nuclear equation of state. Progress report, August 15, 1991--March 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Keane, D.

    1992-09-01

    The overall goal of this project is to study nucleus-nucleus collisions experimentally at intermediate and relativistic energies, with emphasis on measurement and interpretation of correlation effects that provide insight into the nuclear phase diagram and the nuclear equation of state. During the past year, the PI has been on leave at Lawrence Berkeley Lab and has worked on this research project full-time. A large fraction of the effort of the PI and graduate students has gone into preparing for experiments using the Time Projection Chamber at LBL`s Bevalac accelerator; in March 1992, this device successfully took data in production mode for the first time, and the first physics analysis is now under way. The PI has carried out simulations that help to define the physics performance and engineering specifications of the recently-approved STAR detector for the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider, and has identified a new capability of this device with the potential for being an important quark-gluon plasma signature. A Postdoctoral Fellow, jointly supported by this grant and Kent State University, has been recruited to augment these efforts. Since May 1991, 11 journal papers have been published or submitted for publication; 2 conference proceedings and 9 reports or abstracts have also been published during the past year. One paper in Phys. Rev. Left., one in Phys. Rev. C, and one conference proceedings are based on the thesis project of one of the PI`s Ph.D. students who is expected to graduate later this year. Partly in response to the impending closure of the Bevalac, the PI`s group has recently joined the NA49 experiment at CERN.

  13. COBRA-NC: a thermal-hydraulic code for transient analysis of nuclear reactor components. Equations and constitutive models. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Wheeler, C.L.; Thurgood, M.J.; Guidotti, T.E.; DeBellis, D.E.

    1986-05-01

    COBRA-NC is a digital computer program written in FORTRAN IV that simulates the response of nuclear reactor components and systems to thermal-hydraulic transients. The code solves the multicomponent, compressible, three-dimensional, two-fluid, three-field equations for two-phase flow. The three velocity fields are the vapor/gas field, the continuous liquid field, and the liquid drop field. The code has been used to model flow and heat transfer within the reactor core, the reactor vessel, the steam generators, and in the nuclear containment. The conservation equations, equations of state, and physical models that are common to all applications are presented in this volume of the code documentation.

  14. BREIT code: Analytical solution of the balance rate equations for charge-state evolutions of heavy-ion beams in matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winckler, N.; Rybalchenko, A.; Shevelko, V. P.; Al-Turany, M.; Kollegger, T.; Stöhlker, Th.

    2017-02-01

    A detailed description of a recently developed BREIT computer code (Balance Rate Equations of Ion Transportation) for calculating charge-state fractions of ion beams passing through matter is presented. The code is based on the analytical solutions of the differential balance equations for the charge-state fractions as a function of the target thickness and can be used for calculating the ion evolutions in gaseous, solid and plasma targets. The BREIT code is available on-line and requires the charge-changing cross sections and initial conditions in the input file. The eigenvalue decomposition method, applied to obtain the analytical solutions of the rate equations, is described in the paper. Calculations of non-equilibrium and equilibrium charge-state fractions, performed by the BREIT code, are compared with experimental data and results of other codes for ion beams in gaseous and solid targets. Ability and limitations of the BREIT code are discussed in detail.

  15. Evolution of the phase-space density and the Jeans scale for dark matter derived from the Vlasov-Einstein equation

    SciTech Connect

    Piattella, O.F.; Rodrigues, D.C.; Fabris, J.C.; Pacheco, J.A. de Freitas E-mail: davi.rodrigues@ufes.br E-mail: pacheco@oca.eu

    2013-11-01

    We discuss solutions of Vlasov-Einstein equation for collisionless dark matter particles in the context of a flat Friedmann universe. We show that, after decoupling from the primordial plasma, the dark matter phase-space density indicator Q = ρ/(σ{sub 1D}{sup 2}){sup 3/2} remains constant during the expansion of the universe, prior to structure formation. This well known result is valid for non-relativistic particles and is not ''observer dependent'' as in solutions derived from the Vlasov-Poisson system. In the linear regime, the inclusion of velocity dispersion effects permits to define a physical Jeans length for collisionless matter as function of the primordial phase-space density indicator: λ{sub J} = (5π/G){sup 1/2}Q{sup −1/3}ρ{sub dm}{sup −1/6}. The comoving Jeans wavenumber at matter-radiation equality is smaller by a factor of 2-3 than the comoving wavenumber due to free-streaming, contributing to the cut-off of the density fluctuation power spectrum at the lowest scales. We discuss the physical differences between these two scales. For dark matter particles of mass equal to 200 GeV, the derived Jeans mass is 4.3 × 10{sup −6}M{sub ⊙}.

  16. Practical matters for the control of contamination in a nuclear medicine department.

    PubMed

    Nicol, A; Robertson, J; McCurrach, A

    2011-03-01

    A practicable and safe methodology is required for the control of contamination arising due to work in nuclear medicine departments, taking account of the range of radionuclides used for diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. A method for categorising radionuclides is proposed, based on their contamination derived limits. The categories utilised are: low energy gamma, imaging gamma, high energy gamma with beta, low energy beta, high energy beta and (51)Cr. A framework for the preparation of a risk assessment for the control of contamination in a nuclear medicine department is presented. This includes assessment of the procedures performed, occupancies and workflows for the department and a review of control measures. A risk assessment should also include a contamination monitoring programme and a practicable approach is presented.

  17. Exchange current corrections to neutrino-nucleus scattering. I. Nuclear matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umino, Y.; Udias, J. M.

    1995-12-01

    Relativistic exchange current corrections to the impulse approximation in low and intermediate energy neutrino-nucleus scattering are presented assuming nonvanishing strange quark form factors for constituent nucleons. Two-body exchange current operators which treat all SU(3) vector and axial currents on an equal footing are constructed by generalizing the soft-pion dominance method of Chemtob and Rho. For charged current reactions, exchange current corrections can reduce the impulse approximation results by 5 to 10 % depending on the nuclear density. A finite strange quark form factor may change the total cross section for neutral current scattering by 20% while exchange current corrections are found to be sensitive to the nuclear density. Implications on the current LSND experiment to extract the strange quark axial form factor of the nucleon are discussed.

  18. Phase transition of the baryon-antibaryon plasma in hot and dense nuclear matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavagno, A.; Iazzi, F.; Pigato, D.

    2014-02-01

    We investigate the presence of thermodynamic instabilities in a hot and dense nuclear medium where a phase transition from a gas of massive hadrons to a nearly massless baryon, antibaryon plasma can take place. The analysis is performed by requiring the global conservation of baryon number and zero net strangeness in the framework of an effective relativistic mean field theory with the inclusion of the Δ(1232)-isobars, hyperons and the lightest pseudoscalar and vector meson degrees of freedom. Similarly to the low density nuclear liquid-gas phase transition, we show that such a phase transition is characterized by both mechanical instability (fluctuations on the baryon density) that by chemical- diffusive instability (fluctuations on the strangeness concentration). It turns out that, in this situation, phases with different values of antibaryon-baryon ratios and strangeness content may coexist.

  19. Cold and hot nuclear matter effects on charmonium production in p+Pb collisions at LHC energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Baoyi; Guo, Tiecheng; Liu, Yunpeng; Zhuang, Pengfei

    2017-02-01

    We study cold and hot nuclear matter effects on charmonium production in p+Pb collisions at √{sNN} = 5.02 TeV in a transport approach. At the forward rapidity, the cold medium effect on all the c c bar states and the hot medium effect on the excited c c bar states only can explain well the J / ψ and ψ‧ yield and transverse momentum distribution measured by the ALICE collaboration, and we predict a significantly larger ψ‧pT broadening in comparison with J / ψ. However, we can not reproduce the J / ψ and ψ‧ data at the backward rapidity with reasonable cold and hot medium effects.

  20. Variational theory of hot dense matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Abhishek

    We develop a variational theory of hot nuclear matter in neutron stars and supernovae. It can also be used to study charged, hot nuclear matter which may be produced in heavy-ion collisions. This theory is a generalization of the variational theory of cold nuclear and neutron star matter based on realistic models of nuclear forces and pair correlation operators. The present approach uses microcanonical ensembles and the variational principle obeyed by the free energy. We show that the correlated states of the microcanonical ensemble at a given temperature T and density r can be orthonormalized preserving their diagonal matrix elements of the Hamiltonian. This allows for the minimization of the free energy without corrections from the nonorthogonality of the correlated basis states, similar to that of the ground state energy. Samples of the microcanonical ensemble can be used to study the response, and the neutrino luminosities and opacities of hot matter. We present methods to orthonormalize the correlated states that contribute to the response of hot matter. We apply this variational theory to symmetric nuclear matter and pure neutron matter. This extension generalizes to finite temperatures, the many body technique used in the construction of the zero temperature Akmal-Pandharipande-Ravenhall equation of state. We discuss how the formalism can be used for practical calculations of hot dense matter. Our calculations are a significant improvement over the previous calculation due to Friedman and Pandharipande. The Hamiltonian contains modern realistic two nucleon and three nucleon interactions along with relativistic boost corrections. Expectation values of various operators, including the Hamiltonian, are calculated using cluster expansion and chain summation techniques. The pair correlation operator is now calculated at every density and temperature. Neutral pion condensation along with the associated isovector spin longitudinal sum rule is analyzed. The equation

  1. Scalar quanta in Fermi liquids: Zero sounds, instabilities, Bose condensation, and a metastable state in dilute nuclear matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolomeitsev, E. E.; Voskresensky, D. N.

    2016-12-01

    The spectrum of bosonic scalar-mode excitations in a normal Fermi liquid with local scalar interaction is investigated for various values and momentum dependence of the scalar Landau parameter f0 in the particle-hole channel. For f0 > 0 the conditions are found when the phase velocity on the spectrum of zero sound acquires a minimum at non-zero momentum. For -1 < f0 < 0 there are only damped excitations, and for f0 < -1 the spectrum becomes unstable against the growth of scalar-mode excitations. An effective Lagrangian for the scalar excitation modes is derived after performing a bosonization procedure. We demonstrate that the instability may be tamed by the formation of a static Bose condensate of the scalar modes. The condensation may occur in a homogeneous or inhomogeneous state relying on the momentum dependence of the scalar Landau parameter. We show that in the isospin-symmetric nuclear matter there may appear a metastable state at subsaturation nuclear density owing to the condensate. Then we consider a possibility of the condensation of the zero-sound-like excitations in a state with a non-zero momentum in Fermi liquids moving with overcritical velocities, provided an appropriate momentum dependence of the Landau parameter f0(k) > 0. We also argue that in peripheral heavy-ion collisions the Pomeranchuk instability may occur already for f0 > -1.

  2. Exploring the nuclear pasta phase in core-collapse supernova matter.

    PubMed

    Pais, Helena; Stone, Jirina R

    2012-10-12

    The core-collapse supernova phenomenon, one of the most explosive events in the Universe, presents a challenge to theoretical astrophysics. Of the large variety of forms of matter present in core-collapse supernova, we focus on the transitional region between homogeneous (uniform) and inhomogeneous (pasta) phases. A three-dimensional, finite temperature Skyrme-Hartree-Fock (3D-SHF)+BCS calculation yields, for the first time fully self-consistently, the critical density and temperature of both the onset of the pasta in inhomogeneous matter, consisting of neutron-rich heavy nuclei and a free neutron and electron gas, and its dissolution to a homogeneous neutron, proton, and electron liquid. We also identify density regions for different pasta formations between the two limits. We employ four different forms of the Skyrme interaction, SkM*, SLy4, NRAPR, and SQMC700 and find subtle variations in the low density and high density transitions into and out of the pasta phase. One new stable pasta shape has been identified, in addition to the classic ones, on the grid of densities and temperatures used in this work. Our results are critically compared to recent calculations of pasta formation in the quantum molecular dynamics approach and Thomas-Fermi and coexisting phase approximations to relativistic mean-field models.

  3. Toroidal Nuclear Matter Distributions of Superheavy Nuclei from Constrained Skyrme-HFB Calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Kosior, Amelia; Staszczak, A.; Wong, Cheuk-Yin

    2017-01-01

    Using the Hartree Fock Bogoliubov (HFB) self-consistent mean-field theory with the SkM* Skyrme energy-density functional, we study nuclear structure properties of even even superheavy nuclei (SHN) of Z = 120 isotopes and N = 184 isotones. The shape of the nucleus along the lowest energy curve as a function of the quadrupole moment Q20 makes a sud- den transition from the oblate spheroids (biconcave discs) to the toroidal shapes, in the region of large oblate quadrupole moments.

  4. Implications of the Oklo Phenomenon in a Chiral Approach to Nuclear Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Edward D.

    2015-09-01

    It has been customary to use data from the Oklo natural nuclear reactor to place bounds on the change that has occurred in the electromagnetic fine structure constant α over the last 2 billion years. Alternatively, an analysis could be based on a recently proposed expression for shifts in resonance energies which relates them to changes in both α and the average m q of the u and d current quark masses, and which makes explicit the dependence on mass number A and atomic number Z. (Recent model independent results on hadronic -terms suggest sensitivity to the strange quark mass is negligible.) The most sophisticated analysis, to date, of the quark mass term invokes a calculation of the nuclear mean-field within the Walecka model of quantum hadrodynamics. We comment on this study and consider an alternative in which the link to low-energy quantum chromodynamics and its pattern of chiral symmetry-breaking is more readily discernible. Specifically, we investigate the sensitivity to changes in the pion mass of a single nucleon potential determined by an in-medium chiral perturbation theory (PT) calculation which includes virtual -excitations. Subject to some reasonable assumptions about low-energy constants, we confirm that the m q -contribution to resonance shifts is enhanced by a factor of 10 or so relative to the -term and deduce that the Oklo data for Sm imply that.

  5. Investigating the low-energy K- interactions in nuclear matter with AMADEUS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Grande, R.; Bazzi, M.; Belloti, G.; Berucci, C.; Bragadireanu, A. M.; Bosnar, D.; Butt, A. D.; Cargnelli, M.; Curceanu, C.; Fabbietti, L.; Fiorini, C.; Ghio, F.; Guaraldo, C.; Hayano, R. S.; Iliescu, M.; Iwasaki, M.; Levi Sandri, P.; Marton, J.; Miliucci, M.; Okada, S.; Pietreanu, D.; Piscicchia, K.; Romero Vidal, A.; Scordo, A.; Shi, H.; Sirghi, D. L.; Sirghi, F.; Tucakovic, I.; Vazquez Doce, O.; Widmann, E.; Wycech, S.; Zmeskal, J.; Mandaglio, G.; Martini, M.; Moskal, P.

    2017-05-01

    The AMADEUS collaboration studies low-energy K- interactions with light nuclei in order to clarify some aspects related to the behaviour of hadrons containing strangeness in nuclear medium. One of the main topics is the quest about the possible formation of Kaonic Nuclear Clusters (KNC), which depends on the strength of the anti-kaons interaction with nucleons. In kaonic absorption experiments, the search for KNC is strictly connected with the measurement of the yields of the so-called multi-nucleon absorption processes. In this paper, the study of Σ0p correlated production from K- absorption in 12C, using the KLOE 2004-2005 data set, is reported. The yield of the two nucleon absorption (2NA), when the produced Σ0 and p particles are free from any final state interaction process, was measured for the first time. The contribution of a ppK- bound state was also tested. The best fit is obtained for a ppK- state with a binding energy of 45 MeV and a width of 30 MeV, but the statistical significance is at the level of 1σ only.

  6. Nuclear Matter Effects on ϕ Production in Cu+Au Collisions at √{s}NN = 200 GeV with the PHENIX Muon Arms at RHIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jezghani, Margaret; Phenix Collaboration

    2015-10-01

    A major objective in the field of high-energy nuclear physics is to quantify and characterize the quark-gluon plasma formed in relativistic heavy-ion collisions. The ϕ meson is an excellent probe for studying this hot and dense state of nuclear matter due to its very short lifetime, and the absence of strong interactions between muons and the surrounding hot hadronic matter makes the ϕ to dimuon decay channel particularly interesting. Since the ϕ meson is composed of a strange and antistrange quark, its nuclear modification in heavy-ion collisions may provide insight on strangeness enhancement in-medium. Additionally, the rapidity dependence of ϕ production in asymmetric heavy-ion collisions provides a unique means to study the entanglement of hot and cold nuclear matter effects. In this talk, we present the measurement of ϕ meson production and nuclear modification in asymmetric Cu+Au heavy-ion collisions at √{s}NN = 200 GeV at both forward (Cu-going direction) and backward (Au-going direction) rapidities. This material is based upon work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Science, Office of Workforce Development for Teachers and Scientists, Office of Science Graduate Student Research (SCGSR) award program.

  7. Effect of medium dependent binding energies on inferring the temperatures and freeze-out density of disassembling hot nuclear matter from cluster yields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shlomo, S.; Röpke, G.; Natowitz, J. B.; Qin, L.; Hagel, K.; Wada, R.; Bonasera, A.

    2009-03-01

    We explore the abundance of light clusters in asymmetric nuclear matter at subsaturation density. With increasing density, binding energies and wave functions are modified due to medium effects. The method of Albergo, Costa, Costanzo, and Rubbino (ACCR) for determining the temperature and free nucleon density of a disassembling hot nuclear source from fragment yields is modified to include, in addition to Coulomb effects and flow, also effects of medium modifications of cluster properties, which become of importance when the nuclear matter density is above 10-3fm-3. We show how the analysis of cluster yields, to infer temperature and nucleon densities, is modified if the shifts in binding energies of in medium clusters are included. Although, at low densities, the temperature calculated from given yields changes only modestly if medium effects are taken into account, larger discrepancies are observed when the nucleon densities are determined from measured yields.

  8. Plasma dark matter direct detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, J. D.; Foot, R.

    2016-01-01

    Dark matter in spiral galaxies like the Milky Way may take the form of a dark plasma. Hidden sector dark matter charged under an unbroken U(1)' gauge interaction provides a simple and well defined particle physics model realising this possibility. The assumed U(1)' neutrality of the Universe then implies (at least) two oppositely charged dark matter components with self-interactions mediated via a massless "dark photon" (the U(1)' gauge boson). In addition to nuclear recoils such dark matter can give rise to keV electron recoils in direct detection experiments. In this context, the detailed physical properties of the dark matter plasma interacting with the Earth is required. This is a complex system, which is here modelled as a fluid governed by the magnetohydrodynamic equations. These equations are numerically solved for some illustrative examples, and implications for direct detection experiments discussed. In particular, the analysis presented here leaves open the intriguing possibility that the DAMA annual modulation signal is due primarily to electron recoils (or even a combination of electron recoils and nuclear recoils). The importance of diurnal modulation (in addition to annual modulation) as a means of probing this kind of dark matter is also emphasised.

  9. Plasma dark matter direct detection

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, J.D.; Foot, R. E-mail: rfoot@unimelb.edu.au

    2016-01-01

    Dark matter in spiral galaxies like the Milky Way may take the form of a dark plasma. Hidden sector dark matter charged under an unbroken U(1)' gauge interaction provides a simple and well defined particle physics model realising this possibility. The assumed U(1)' neutrality of the Universe then implies (at least) two oppositely charged dark matter components with self-interactions mediated via a massless 'dark photon' (the U(1)' gauge boson). In addition to nuclear recoils such dark matter can give rise to keV electron recoils in direct detection experiments. In this context, the detailed physical properties of the dark matter plasma interacting with the Earth is required. This is a complex system, which is here modelled as a fluid governed by the magnetohydrodynamic equations. These equations are numerically solved for some illustrative examples, and implications for direct detection experiments discussed. In particular, the analysis presented here leaves open the intriguing possibility that the DAMA annual modulation signal is due primarily to electron recoils (or even a combination of electron recoils and nuclear recoils). The importance of diurnal modulation (in addition to annual modulation) as a means of probing this kind of dark matter is also emphasised.

  10. Nuclear Reaction Recoil Fragments as Probes of Electronic Structure in Condensed Matter.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bishop, Judith Lance

    Ambiguities in the stopping powers of many solids are frequently observed. When the cross-sections for constituent atoms are reliable, the deviations can be discussed meaningfully. This work measures cross-sections for boron, hexagonal boron -nitride, cubic boron-nitride (borazon) and cubic boron -phosphide and suggests that these samples may provide reasonable atomic cross-sections. Intermolecular deviations may exist, but molecular deviations appear to be absent. The method used for measuring cross-sections is based on information obtained from radiating Li('7) projectiles, whose motion and internal excitation are initiated by the thermal nuclear reaction ('10)B(n,(alpha))('7)Li* These projectiles have well defined initial momentum and spend their entire lives confined to the stopping medium.

  11. Nuclear-reaction recoil fragments as probes of electronic structure in condensed matter

    SciTech Connect

    Bishop, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    Ambiguities in the stopping powers of many solids are frequently observed. When the cross-sections for constituent atoms are reliable, the deviations can be discussed meaningfully. This work measures cross-sections for boron, hexagonal boron-nitride, cubic boron-nitride (borazon) and cubic boron-phosphide and suggests that these samples may provide reasonable atomic cross-sections. Intermolecular deviations may exist, but molecular deviations appear to be absent. The method used for measuring cross-sections is based on information obtained from radiating Li{sup 7} projectiles, whose motion and internal excitation are initiated by the thermal nuclear reaction {sup 10}B(n,{alpha}){sup 7}Li{sup *}. These projectiles have well defined initial momentum and spend their entire lives confined to the stopping medium.

  12. Time-dependent integral equations of neutron transport for calculating the kinetics of nuclear reactors by the Monte Carlo method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidenko, V. D.; Zinchenko, A. S.; Harchenko, I. K.

    2016-12-01

    Integral equations for the shape functions in the adiabatic, quasi-static, and improved quasi-static approximations are presented. The approach to solving these equations by the Monte Carlo method is described.

  13. Time-dependent integral equations of neutron transport for calculating the kinetics of nuclear reactors by the Monte Carlo method

    SciTech Connect

    Davidenko, V. D. Zinchenko, A. S. Harchenko, I. K.

    2016-12-15

    Integral equations for the shape functions in the adiabatic, quasi-static, and improved quasi-static approximations are presented. The approach to solving these equations by the Monte Carlo method is described.

  14. Stability of Relativistic Matter with Magnetic Fields for Nuclear Charges up to the Critical Value

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, Rupert L.; Lieb, Elliott H.; Seiringer, Robert

    2007-08-01

    The paper deals with the numerical method of the compressible gas flow through a porous filter emphasizing the treatment of the interface between a pure gaseous phase and a solid phase. An incident shock wave is initiated in the gaseous phase interacting with a porous filter inducing a transmitted and a reflected wave. To take into account the discontinuity jump in the porosity between the gaseous phase and the porous filter, an approximate Riemann solver is used to compute homogeneous non-conservative Euler equations in porous media using ideal gas state law. The discretization of this problem is based on a finite volume method where the fluxes are evaluated by a “volumes finis Roe” (VFRoe) scheme. A stationary solution is determined with a continuous variable porosity in order to test the numerical scheme. Numerical results are compared with the two-phase shock tube experiments and simulations of a shock wave attenuation and gas filtration in porous filters are presented.

  15. Tensor interaction and short range correlations in relativistic nuclear models

    SciTech Connect

    Panda, Prafulla K.; Providencia, C.; Providencia, J. da

    2007-06-15

    Short range correlations are introduced using a Jastrow factor in a relativistic approach to the equation of state of the infinite nuclear matter in the framework of the Hartree-Fock approximation. The pion exchange, including the tensor contribution, is taken into account. It is shown that both the tensor contribution of pion exchange and short range correlations soften the equation of state. Neutron matter with correlations presents no minimum at low densities.

  16. Multiparticle Correlation Functions: A probe for the High Energy Density Nuclear Matter created at RHIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holzmann, Wolf

    2002-04-01

    In a recent publication [1], the PHENIX collaboration has reported on the transverse momentum spectra for charged hadrons and for neutral pions in the range 1 < pT < 5 GeV/c. The spectra from peripheral nuclear collisions were found to be consistent with a simple scaling of the spectra from p+p collisions by the average number of nucleon-nucleon binary collisions. In contrast, the spectra from central collisions appeared to be significantly suppressed when compared to that from peripheral collisions as well as to the scaled p+p expectation. These observations have been interpreted as an important signature for jet quenching( [1],[2]) in central Au + Au collisions at RHIC. Significant jet production should also lead to discernable multi-particle correlations. Thus, the study of such correlations and their possible modification due to quenching, offers a promising opportunity for the investigation and study of QGP formation at RHIC. The multiparticle correlation analysis technique will be presented in conjunction with possible results for Au + Au data (sqrt(s) = 200GeV/c) obtained with the PHENIX detector at RHIC [1] Adcox et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 022301 (2001) [2] M. Gyulassy and X.-N. Wang, Nucl. Phys. B420, 583 (1994)X.-N. Wang, M.Gyulassy and M. Pluemer, Phys. Rev. D 51, 3436 (1995)

  17. Indications for a critical point in the phase diagram for hot and dense nuclear matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacey, Roy A.

    2016-12-01

    Two-pion interferometry measurements are studied for a broad range of collision centralities in Au+Au (√{sNN} = 7.7- 200 GeV) and Pb+Pb (√{sNN} = 2.76 TeV) collisions. They indicate non-monotonic excitation functions for the Gaussian emission source radii difference (Rout -Rside), suggestive of reaction trajectories which spend a fair amount of time near a soft point in the equation of state (EOS) that coincides with the critical end point (CEP). A Finite-Size Scaling (FSS) analysis of these excitation functions, provides further validation tests for the CEP. It also indicates a second order phase transition at the CEP, and the values Tcep ∼ 165 MeV and μBcep ∼ 95 MeV for its location in the (T ,μB)-plane of the phase diagram. The static critical exponents (ν ≈ 0.66 and γ ≈ 1.2) extracted via the same FSS analysis, place this CEP in the 3D Ising model (static) universality class. A Dynamic Finite-Size Scaling analysis of the excitation functions, gives the estimate z ∼ 0.87 for the dynamic critical exponent, suggesting that the associated critical expansion dynamics is dominated by the hydrodynamic sound mode.

  18. Investigating a suitable equation of state for an infinite system of nucleons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoghi-Foumani, Niloufar; Shojaei, Mohammad Reza

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, the average energy variation with respect to the density of a system of nucleons is theoretically studied. A new formula is proposed for the nuclear equation of state. This formula is related to an infinite system of protons and neutrons with relatively small thermal excitation. It is shown that the presented formulation for the nuclear equation of state reproduces the results obtained in the Skyrme-Hartree-Fock (SHF) and Relativistic Mean-Field (RMF) models of nuclear matter. It should be realized that the consistency of the obtained results for nuclear matter with the predictions of the well-known SHF and RMF models for symmetric and asymmetric system of nucleons indicates the reliability of this formulation for various types of nuclear matter in large scales such as neutron stars.

  19. Neutron star inner crust: Nuclear physics input

    SciTech Connect

    Steiner, Andrew W.

    2008-03-15

    A fully self-consistent model of the neutron star inner crust based upon models of the nucleonic equation of state at zero temperature is constructed. The results nearly match those of previous calculations of the inner crust given the same input equation of state. The extent to which the uncertainties in the symmetry energy, the compressibility, and the equation of state of low-density neutron matter affect the composition of the crust are examined. The composition and pressure of the crust is sensitive to the description of low-density neutron matter and the nuclear symmetry energy, and the latter dependence is nonmonotonic, giving larger nuclei for moderate symmetry energies and smaller nuclei for more extreme symmetry energies. Future nuclear experiments may help constrain the crust and future astrophysical observations may constrain the nuclear physics input.

  20. Simulations of the nuclear recoil head-tail signature in gases relevant to directional dark matter searches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spooner, N. J. C.; Majewski, P.; Muna, D.; Snowden-Ifft, D. P.

    2010-12-01

    We present the first detailed simulations of the so-called head-tail effect of nuclear recoils in gas, the presence of which is vital to directional WIMP dark matter searches. We include comparison simulations of the range and straggling of carbon, sulphur and fluorine recoils in low pressure gas. However, the prime focus is a detailed investigation of carbon and sulphur recoils in 40 Torr negative ion carbon disulfide, a gas proposed for use in large scale directional detectors. The focus is to determine whether the location of the majority of the ionization charge released and observed from a recoil track in carbon disulfide is at the beginning (tail) of the track, at the end (head) or evenly distributed. We used the SRIM simulation program, together with a purpose-written Monte Carlo generator to model production of ionizing pairs, diffusion and basic readout geometries relevant to potential real detector scenarios, such as under development for the DRIFT experiment. The results indicate the likely existence of a head-tail track asymmetry but with a magnitude critically influenced by several competing factors, notably the W-value assumed, the drift distance and diffusion, and the recoil energy.

  1. Determination of dry matter content in potato tubers by low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (LF-NMR).

    PubMed

    Hansen, Christian Lyndgaard; Thybo, Anette Kistrup; Bertram, Hanne Christine; Viereck, Nanna; van den Berg, Frans; Engelsen, Søren Balling

    2010-10-13

    The objective of this study was to develop a calibration model between time-domain low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (LF-NMR) measurements and dry matter (DM) content in single potatoes. An extensive sampling procedure was used to collect 210 potatoes from eight cultivars with a wide range in DM content, ranging from 16 to 28%. The exponential NMR relaxation curves were resolved into four mono-exponential components using a number of solution diagnostics. Partial least-squares (PLS) regression between NMR parameters (relaxation time constants T(2,1-4) and magnitudes M(0,1-4)) and DM content resulted in a model with low error (RMSECV, 0.71; RMSEP, 0.60) and high correlation (r(CV), 0.97; r(test), 0.98) between predicted and actual DM content. Correlation between DM content and each of the proton populations revealed that M(0,1) (T(2,1), 3.6 ms; SD, 0.3 ms; r, 0.95) and M(0,4) (T(2,4), 508 ms; SD, 53 ms; r, -0.90) were the major contributors to the PLS regression model.

  2. Study of the influence of a strong magnetic field on the composition of nuclear matter at high densities and zero temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Coelho, Eduardo L.; Chiapparini, Marcelo; Bracco, Mirian E.

    2013-03-25

    Magnetars are neutron stars with a strong surface magnetic field. Observations of soft gamma-ray and anomalous X-ray pulsars pointed out that the surface magnetic field of magnetars is equal or even greater than 10{sup 15} G. In this work we study the influence of a strong magnetic field on the composition of nuclear matter at high densities and zero temperature. We describe the matter through a relativistic mean-field model with eight light baryons (baryon octet), electrons, muons and with magnetic field. As output of the numerical calculations, we obtain the relative population of each species of particles as function of baryon density.

  3. 75 FR 5357 - In the Matter of Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., et al.; Order Extending the Effectiveness of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-02

    ... Nuclear Power Station (Pilgrim). Pilgrim is a boiling water nuclear reactor that is owned by Entergy... and IP3 are both pressurized water nuclear reactors that are owned by ENIP2 and ENIP3, respectively... (FitzPatrick). FitzPatrick is a boiling water nuclear reactor that is owned by EN-FitzPatrick...

  4. Nuclear symmetry energy in terms of single-nucleon potential and its effect on the proton fraction of β-stable npeμ matter

    SciTech Connect

    Sahoo, Babita; Chakraborty, Suparna; Sahoo, Sukadev

    2016-01-15

    Momentum and density dependence of single-nucleon potential u{sub τ} (k, ρ, β) is analyzed using a density dependent finite range effective interaction of the Yukawa form. Depending on the choice of the strength parameters of exchange interaction, two different trends of the momentum dependence of nuclear symmetry potential are noticed which lead to two opposite types of neutron and proton effective mass splitting. The 2nd-order and 4th-order symmetry energy of isospin asymmetric nuclear matter are expressed analytically in terms of the single-nucleon potential. Two distinct behavior of the density dependence of 2nd-order and 4th-order symmetry energy are observed depending on neutron and proton effective mass splitting. It is also found that the 4th-order symmetry energy has a significant contribution towards the proton fraction of β-stable npeμ matter at high densities.

  5. QCD constraints on the equation of state for compact stars

    SciTech Connect

    Fraga, E. S.; Kurkela, A.; Schaffner-Bielich, J.; Vuorinen, A.

    2016-01-22

    In recent years, there have been several successful attempts to constrain the equation of state of neutron star matter using input from low-energy nuclear physics and observational data. We demonstrate that significant further restrictions can be placed by additionally requiring the pressure to approach that of deconfined quark matter at high densities. Remarkably, the new constraints turn out to be highly insensitive to the amount - or even presence - of quark matter inside the stars. In this framework, we also present a simple effective equation of state for cold quark matter that consistently incorporates the effects of interactions and furthermore includes a built-in estimate of the inherent systematic uncertainties. This goes beyond the MIT bag model description in a crucial way, yet leads to an equation of state that is equally straightforward to use.

  6. QCD constraints on the equation of state for compact stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraga, E. S.; Kurkela, A.; Schaffner-Bielich, J.; Vuorinen, A.

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, there have been several successful attempts to constrain the equation of state of neutron star matter using input from low-energy nuclear physics and observational data. We demonstrate that significant further restrictions can be placed by additionally requiring the pressure to approach that of deconfined quark matter at high densities. Remarkably, the new constraints turn out to be highly insensitive to the amount - or even presence - of quark matter inside the stars. In this framework, we also present a simple effective equation of state for cold quark matter that consistently incorporates the effects of interactions and furthermore includes a built-in estimate of the inherent systematic uncertainties. This goes beyond the MIT bag model description in a crucial way, yet leads to an equation of state that is equally straightforward to use.

  7. QCD constraints on the equation of state for compact stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraga, E. S.; Kurkela, A.; Schaffner-Bielich, J.; Vuorinen, A.

    2016-12-01

    In recent years, there have been several successful attempts to constrain the equation of state of neutron star matter using input from low-energy nuclear physics and observational data. We demonstrate that significant further restrictions can be placed by additionally requiring the pressure to approach that of deconfined quark matter at high densities. Remarkably, the new constraints turn out to be highly insensitive to the amount - or even presence - of quark matter inside the stars. In this framework, we also present a simple effective equation of state for cold quark matter that consistently incorporates the effects of interactions and furthermore includes a built-in estimate of the inherent systematic uncertainties. This goes beyond the MIT bag model description in a crucial way, yet leads to an equation of state that is equally straightforward to use.

  8. Constraints on the Skyrme equations of state from properties of doubly magic nuclei.

    PubMed

    Brown, B Alex

    2013-12-06

    I use properties of doubly magic nuclei to constrain symmetric nuclear matter and neutron matter equations of state. I conclude that these data determine the value of the neutron equation of state at a density of ρ(on)=0.10  nucleons/fm3 to be 11.4(10) MeV. The slope at that point is constrained by the value of the neutron skin. Analytical equations are given that show the dependence of the Skyrme equations of state on the neutron skin.

  9. Solution of self-consistent equations for the N 3LO nuclear energy density functional in spherical symmetry. The program HOSPHE (v1.02)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlsson, B. G.; Dobaczewski, J.; Toivanen, J.; Veselý, P.

    2010-09-01

    We present solution of self-consistent equations for the N 3LO nuclear energy density functional. We derive general expressions for the mean fields expressed as differential operators depending on densities and for the densities expressed in terms of derivatives of wave functions. These expressions are then specified to the case of spherical symmetry. We also present the computer program HOSPHE (v1.02), which solves the self-consistent equations by using the expansion of single-particle wave functions on the spherical harmonic oscillator basis. Program summaryProgram title: HOSPHE (v1.02) Catalogue identifier: AEGK_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEGK_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 45 809 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 290 514 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Fortran-90 Computer: PCs and workstations Operating system: Linux RAM: 50 MB Classification: 17.22 External routines: LAPACK ( http://www.netlib.org/lapack/), BLAS ( http://www.netlib.org/blas/) Nature of problem: The nuclear mean-field methods constitute principal tools of a description of nuclear states in heavy nuclei. Within the Local Density Approximation with gradient corrections up to N 3LO [1], the nuclear mean-field is local and contains derivative operators up to sixth order. The locality allows for an effective and fast solution of the self-consistent equations. Solution method: The program uses the spherical harmonic oscillator basis to expand single-particle wave functions of neutrons and protons for the nuclear state being described by the N 3LO nuclear energy density functional [1]. The expansion coefficients are determined by the iterative diagonalization of the mean-field Hamiltonian, which depends non

  10. Chemical Equation Balancing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blakley, G. R.

    1982-01-01

    Reviews mathematical techniques for solving systems of homogeneous linear equations and demonstrates that the algebraic method of balancing chemical equations is a matter of solving a system of homogeneous linear equations. FORTRAN programs using this matrix method to chemical equation balancing are available from the author. (JN)

  11. Softening of the Equation of State of Matter at Large Densities and Temperatures: Chiral-Symmetry Restoration Versus Quark Deconfinement

    SciTech Connect

    Bonanno, Luca; Drago, Alessandro; Lavagno, Andrea

    2007-12-14

    We discuss two models in which a softening of the equation of state takes place due to the appearance of new degrees of freedom. The first is a hadronic model in which the softening is due to chiral symmetry restoration. In the second model the softening is associated with the formation of clusters of quarks in the mixed phase. We show that in the first case the bulk modulus is mainly dependent on the density, while in the mixed-phase model the bulk modulus strongly depends on the temperature and it is not vanishing due to the presence of two conserved charges, the baryon and the isospin one.

  12. Evaluation of the National Research Council (1996) dry matter intake prediction equations and relationships between intake and performance by feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    McMeniman, J P; Defoor, P J; Galyean, M L

    2009-03-01

    Intake prediction equations of NRC based on initial BW and dietary NE(m) concentration were evaluated with a commercial feedlot database consisting of 3,363 pen means collected from 3 feedlots over a 4-yr period. The DMI predicted by NRC equations had significant (P < 0.01) mean and linear biases across the range of observed DMI in the database. In general, DMI was overpredicted by the NRC equations. Adjustment of the NE(m)-based prediction by use of a 12% increase in NE(m) concentration and a 4% decrease in predicted DMI associated with the feeding of monensin decreased bias. Dry matter intake predicted by the NE(m)-based monensin-adjusted, NE(m)- based, and initial BW equations explained 67, 66, and 64% of the variation in observed DMI, respectively. Relationships between ADG and G:F with DMI as a percentage of BW and NE(g) intake also were examined in the same data set. Across the wide range of average shrunk BW in the database (334.4 to 548.0 kg), ADG was positively related to DMI as a percentage of BW (P < 0.01); however, this relationship was not strong (r(2) = 0.17). Likewise, G:F showed little relationship with DMI as a percentage of BW (P < 0.01; r(2) = 0.05). By accounting for differences in maintenance energy requirements of pens with varying average BW, NE(g) intake was strongly and positively related to ADG (linear and quadratic, P < 0.01; R(2) = 0.70); however, G:F showed little relationship with NE(g) intake (P = 0.02; r(2) = 0.01). Our evaluations with measurements of DMI by cattle in commercial feedlots indicated the shortcomings of current published equations for predicting DMI and suggest the need for development of new equations with improved accuracy and precision. Furthermore, our data indicate that increasing NE(g) in- take increased ADG in a quadratic manner but did not affect G:F by pens of cattle in feedlots. These findings suggest a diminishing returns effect of energy intake on energy retention.

  13. Spatial solitons in thermo-optical media from the nonlinear Schrödinger-Poisson equation and dark-matter analogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarrete, Alvaro; Paredes, Angel; Salgueiro, José R.; Michinel, Humberto

    2017-01-01

    We analyze theoretically the Schrödinger-Poisson equation in two transverse dimensions in the presence of a Kerr term. The model describes the nonlinear propagation of optical beams in thermo-optical media and can be regarded as an analog system for a self-gravitating self-interacting wave. We compute numerically the family of radially symmetric ground-state bright stationary solutions for focusing and defocusing local nonlinearity, keeping in both cases a focusing nonlocal nonlinearity. We also analyze excited states and oscillations induced by fixing the temperature at the borders of the material. We provide simulations of soliton interactions, drawing analogies with the dynamics of galactic cores in the scalar field dark-matter scenario.

  14. Correlation equation for predicting attachment efficiency (α) of organic matter-colloid complexes in unsaturated porous media.

    PubMed

    Morales, Verónica L; Sang, Wenjng; Fuka, Daniel R; Lion, Leonard W; Gao, Bin; Steenhuis, Tammo S

    2011-12-01

    Naturally occurring polymers such as organic matter have been known to inhibit aggregation and promote mobility of suspensions in soil environments by imparting steric stability. This increase in mobility can significantly reduce the water filtering capacity of soils, thus jeopardizing a primary function of the vadose zone. Improvements to classic filtration theory have been made to account for the known decrease in attachment efficiency of electrostatically stabilized particles, and more recently, of sterically stabilized particles traveling through simple and saturated porous media. In the absence of an established unsaturated transport expression, and in the absence of applicable theoretical approaches for suspensions with asymmetric and nonindifferent electrolytes, this study presents an empirical correlation to predict attachment efficiency (α) for electrosterically stabilized suspensions in unsaturated systems in the presence of nonideal electrolytes. We show that existing models fall short in estimating polymer-coated colloid deposition in unsaturated media. This deficiency is expected given that the models were developed for saturated conditions where the mechanisms controlling colloid deposition are significantly different. A new correlation is derived from unsaturated transport data and direct characterization of microspheres coated with natural organic matter over a range of pH and CaCl(2) concentrations. The improvements to existing transport models include the following: adjustment for a restricted liquid-phase in the medium, development of a quantitative term to account for unsaturated transport phenomena, and adjustments in the relative contribution of steric stability parameters based on direct measurements of the adsorbed polymer layer characteristics. Differences in model formulation for correlations designed for saturated systems and the newly proposed correlation for unsaturated systems are discussed, and the performance of the new model

  15. 77 FR 40914 - In the Matter of Indiana Michigan Power Company, D. C. Cook Nuclear Power Plant; Confirmatory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY... of Indiana Michigan Power Company, D. C. Cook Nuclear Power Plant; Confirmatory Order Modifying License (Effective Immediately) I Indiana Michigan Power Company (Licensee) is the holder of...

  16. A Study of Nuclear Recoils in Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber for the Direct Detection of WIMP Dark Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, Huajie

    2014-11-01

    Robust results of WIMP direct detection experiments depend on rm understandings of nuclear recoils in the detector media. This thesis documents the most comprehensive study to date on nuclear recoils in liquid argon - a strong candidate for the next generation multi-ton scale WIMP detectors. This study investigates both the energy partition from nuclear recoil energy to secondary modes (scintillation and ionization) and the pulse shape characteristics of scintillation from nuclear recoils.

  17. Properties of hadron matter. II - Dense baryon matter and neutron stars.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leung, Y. C.; Wang, C. G.

    1971-01-01

    In this article we have provided certain details of a nuclear-matter computation, based on the Brueckner-Bethe-Goldstone theory of nuclear reaction, which leads to an equation of state for matter in the density region of 10 to 500 trillion g/cu cm. We also explore the possibilities that at very high baryon densities or for very short baryon separations, the net baryon-baryon interaction may be negligible so that the results of dynamical models, like the statistical bootstrap model and the dual-resonance model, may be applicable to the study of dense baryon matter. Several plausible equations of state are constructed, and their effect on the limiting mass of the neutron star is examined.

  18. 75 FR 74750 - In the Matter of Toshiba America Nuclear Energy Corporation and All Other Persons Who Seek or...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-01

    ... Register notice contains specific requirements for applicants for new nuclear power reactors. To assist... and Section III.C.2 above to the Director, Office of New Reactors, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission... 2010. For the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Michael R. Johnson, Director, Office of New...

  19. Transport properties and equation of state for HCNO mixtures in and beyond the warm dense matter regime

    DOE PAGES

    Ticknor, Christopher; Collins, Lee A.; Kress, Joel D.

    2015-08-04

    We present simulations of a four component mixture of HCNO with orbital free molecular dynamics (OFMD). These simulations were conducted for 5–200 eV with densities ranging between 0.184 and 36.8 g/cm3. We extract the equation of state from the simulations and compare to average atom models. We found that we only need to add a cold curve model to find excellent agreement. In addition, we studied mass transport properties. We present fits to the self-diffusion and shear viscosity that are able to reproduce the transport properties over the parameter range studied. We compare these OFMD results to models based onmore » the Coulomb coupling parameter and one-component plasmas.« less

  20. Transport properties and equation of state for HCNO mixtures in and beyond the warm dense matter regime.

    PubMed

    Ticknor, Christopher; Collins, Lee A; Kress, Joel D

    2015-08-01

    We present simulations of a four-component mixture of HCNO with orbital free molecular dynamics (OFMD). These simulations were conducted for 5-200 eV with densities ranging between 0.184 and 36.8 g/cm3. We extract the equation of state from the simulations and compare to average atom models. We found that we only need to add a cold curve model to find excellent agreement. Additionally, we studied mass transport properties. We present fits to the self-diffusion and shear viscosity that are able to reproduce the transport properties over the parameter range studied. We compare these OFMD results to models based on the Coulomb coupling parameter and one-component plasmas.

  1. Transport properties and equation of state for HCNO mixtures in and beyond the warm dense matter regime

    SciTech Connect

    Ticknor, Christopher; Collins, Lee A.; Kress, Joel D.

    2015-08-04

    We present simulations of a four component mixture of HCNO with orbital free molecular dynamics (OFMD). These simulations were conducted for 5–200 eV with densities ranging between 0.184 and 36.8 g/cm3. We extract the equation of state from the simulations and compare to average atom models. We found that we only need to add a cold curve model to find excellent agreement. In addition, we studied mass transport properties. We present fits to the self-diffusion and shear viscosity that are able to reproduce the transport properties over the parameter range studied. We compare these OFMD results to models based on the Coulomb coupling parameter and one-component plasmas.

  2. Core Versus Nuclear Gauge Methods of Determining Soil Bulk Density and Moisture Content

    Treesearch

    Jacqueline G. Steele; Jerry L. Koger; Albert C. Trouse; Donald L. Sirois

    1983-01-01

    Soil bulk and moisture content measurements were obtained using two nuclear gauge systems and those compared to those obtained from soil cores. The soils, a Hiwassee sandy loam, a Lakeland loamy sand, and a Loyd clay, were free of organic matter and uniform in mechanical composition. The regression equations developed for the nuclear guages for the first phase of the...

  3. Sub-saturation matter in compact stars: Nuclear modelling in the framework of the extended Thomas-Fermi theory

    SciTech Connect

    Aymard, François; Gulminelli, Francesca; Margueron, Jérôme

    2015-02-24

    A recently introduced analytical model for the nuclear density profile [1] is implemented in the Extended Thomas-Fermi (ETF) energy density functional. This allows to (i) shed a new light on the issue of the sign of surface symmetry energy in nuclear mass formulas, as well as to (ii) show the importance of the in-medium corrections to the nuclear cluster energies in thermodynamic conditions relevant for the description of core-collapse supernovae and (proto)-neutron star crust.

  4. 77 FR 11168 - In the Matter of Exelon Corporation; Constellation Energy Group, Inc.; Nine Mile Nuclear Station...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-24

    ... Exelon Corporation; Constellation Energy Group, Inc.; Nine Mile Nuclear Station, LLC; Nine Mile Point... Ventures), and Constellation Energy Nuclear Group, LLC (CENG), acting on behalf of itself, and the licensee..., Constellation Energy Group, Inc. (CEG), whereby CEG would be merged into Exelon and ownership of CEG's...

  5. Pulse Shape Discrimination of Nuclear Recoil and Electron Recoil Events With a NaI(Tl) Crystal for Dark Matter Search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, K. W.; Adhikari, G.; Adhikari, P.; Choi, S.; Ha, C.; Hahn, I. S.; Jeon, E. J.; Joo, H. W.; Kang, W. G.; Kim, H. J.; Kim, N. Y.; Kim, S. K.; Kim, Y. D.; Kim, Y. H.; Lee, H. S.; Lee, M. H.; Leonard, D. S.; Oh, S. Y.; Olsen, S. L.; Park, H. K.; Park, H. S.; Park, K. S.; Shim, J. H.; So, J. H.; Yoon, Y. S.

    2016-04-01

    In order to investigate discrimination between nuclear recoil and electron recoil events for the KIMS-NaI dark matter search experiment, we measured the pulse shapes produced by neutrons and gamma rays in a NaI(Tl) crystal. Relatively good pulse shape discrimination (PSD) power due to high light output of recently developed crystals makes it possible to test whether the annual modulation signal observed by the DAMA/LIBRA experiment is caused by nuclear recoil events. We applied the PSD to underground data taken with a 9.15 kg low-background and high-light-output NaI(Tl) crystal for 134 days. Good agreement between underground data and electron recoil events was observed.

  6. Nuclear matter effects on J/ψ production in asymmetric Cu + Au collisions at \\(\\sqrt{s_{\\mathrm{NN}}} = 200\\) GeV

    SciTech Connect

    Adare, A.; Aidala, C.; Ajitanand, N. N.; Akiba, Y.; Akimoto, R.; Alexander, J.; Alfred, M.; Aoki, K.; Apadula, N.; Aramaki, Y.; Asano, H.; Atomssa, E. T.; Awes, T. C.; Azmoun, B.; Babintsev, V.; Bai, M.; Bai, X.; Bandara, N. S.; Bannier, B.; Barish, K. N.; Bathe, S.; Baublis, V.; Baumann, C.; Baumgart, S.; Bazilevsky, A.; Beaumier, M.; Beckman, S.; Belmont, R.; Berdnikov, A.; Berdnikov, Y.; Bing, X.; Black, D.; Blau, D. S.; Bok, J. S.; Boyle, K.; Brooks, M. L.; Bryslawskyj, J.; Buesching, H.; Bumazhnov, V.; Butsyk, S.; Campbell, S.; Chen, C. -H.; Chi, C. Y.; Chiu, M.; Choi, I. J.; Choi, J. B.; Choi, S.; Christiansen, P.; Chujo, T.; Cianciolo, V.; Citron, Z.; Cole, B. A.; Cronin, N.; Crossette, N.; Csanád, M.; Csörgő, T.; Datta, A.; Daugherity, M. S.; David, G.; DeBlasio, K.; Dehmelt, K.; Denisov, A.; Deshpande, A.; Desmond, E. J.; Ding, L.; Dion, A.; Do, J. H.; Drapier, O.; Drees, A.; Drees, K. A.; Durham, J. M.; Durum, A.; D'Orazio, L.; Engelmore, T.; Enokizono, A.; En'yo, H.; Esumi, S.; Eyser, K. O.; Fadem, B.; Feege, N.; Fields, D. E.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; Fleuret, F.; Fokin, S. L.; Frantz, J. E.; Franz, A.; Frawley, A. D.; Fukao, Y.; Gainey, K.; Gal, C.; Gallus, P.; Garg, P.; Garishvili, A.; Garishvili, I.; Ge, H.; Giordano, F.; Glenn, A.; Gong, X.; Gonin, M.; Goto, Y.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Grau, N.; Greene, S. V.; Grosse Perdekamp, M.; Gu, Y.; Gunji, T.; Guragain, H.; Hachiya, T.; Haggerty, J. S.; Hahn, K. I.; Hamagaki, H.; Han, S. Y.; Hanks, J.; Hasegawa, S.; Hashimoto, K.; Hayano, R.; He, X.; Hemmick, T. K.; Hester, T.; Hill, J. C.; Hollis, R. S.; Homma, K.; Hong, B.; Hoshino, T.; Huang, J.; Huang, S.; Ichihara, T.; Ikeda, Y.; Imai, K.; Imazu, Y.; Inaba, M.; Iordanova, A.; Isenhower, D.; Isinhue, A.; Ivanishchev, D.; Jacak, B. V.; Jeon, S. J.; Jezghani, M.; Jia, J.; Jiang, X.; Johnson, B. M.; Joo, E.; Joo, K. S.; Jouan, D.; Jumper, D. S.; Kamin, J.; Kanda, S.; Kang, B. H.; Kang, J. H.; Kang, J. S.; Kapustinsky, J.; Kawall, D.; Kazantsev, A. V.; Key, J. A.; Khachatryan, V.; Khandai, P. K.; Khanzadeev, A.; Kihara, K.; Kijima, K. M.; Kim, C.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, D. J.; Kim, E. -J.; Kim, H. -J.; Kim, M.; Kim, Y. -J.; Kim, Y. K.; Kistenev, E.; Klatsky, J.; Kleinjan, D.; Kline, P.; Koblesky, T.; Kofarago, M.; Komkov, B.; Koster, J.; Kotchetkov, D.; Kotov, D.; Krizek, F.; Kurita, K.; Kurosawa, M.; Kwon, Y.; Lacey, R.; Lai, Y. S.; Lajoie, J. G.; Lebedev, A.; Lee, D. M.; Lee, G. H.; Lee, J.; Lee, K. B.; Lee, K. S.; Lee, S. H.; Leitch, M. J.; Leitgab, M.; Lewis, B.; Li, X.; Lim, S. H.; Liu, M. X.; Lynch, D.; Maguire, C. F.; Makdisi, Y. I.; Makek, M.; Manion, A.; Manko, V. I.; Mannel, E.; Maruyama, T.; McCumber, M.; McGaughey, P. L.; McGlinchey, D.; McKinney, C.; Meles, A.; Mendoza, M.; Meredith, B.; Miake, Y.; Mibe, T.; Mignerey, A. C.; Miller, A. J.; Milov, A.; Mishra, D. K.; Mitchell, J. T.; Miyasaka, S.; Mizuno, S.; Mohanty, A. K.; Montuenga, P.; Moon, T.; Morrison, D. P.; Moskowitz, M.; Moukhanova, T. V.; Murakami, T.; Murata, J.; Mwai, A.; Nagae, T.; Nagamiya, S.; Nagle, J. L.; Nagy, M. I.; Nakagawa, I.; Nakagomi, H.; Nakamiya, Y.; Nakamura, K. R.; Nakamura, T.; Nakano, K.; Nattrass, C.; Netrakanti, P. K.; Nihashi, M.; Niida, T.; Nouicer, R.; Novak, T.; Novitzky, N.; Nyanin, A. S.; O'Brien, E.; Ogilvie, C. A.; Oide, H.; Okada, K.; Orjuela Koop, J. D.; Oskarsson, A.; Ozaki, H.; Ozawa, K.; Pak, R.; Pantuev, V.; Papavassiliou, V.; Park, I. H.; Park, S.; Park, S. K.; Pate, S. F.; Patel, L.; Patel, M.; Peng, J. -C.; Perepelitsa, D. V.; Perera, G. D. N.; Peressounko, D. Yu.; Perry, J.; Petti, R.; Pinkenburg, C.; Pinson, R.; Pisani, R. P.; Purschke, M. L.; Qu, H.; Rak, J.; Ravinovich, I.; Read, K. F.; Reynolds, D.; Riabov, V.; Riabov, Y.; Richardson, E.; Riveli, N.; Roach, D.; Rolnick, S. D.; Rosati, M.; Rowan, Z.; Rubin, J. G.; Ryu, M. S.; Sahlmueller, B.; Saito, N.; Sakaguchi, T.; Sako, H.; Samsonov, V.; Sarsour, M.; Sato, S.; Sawada, S.; Schaefer, B.; Schmoll, B. K.; Sedgwick, K.; Seele, J.; Seidl, R.; Sekiguchi, Y.; Sen, A.; Seto, R.; Sett, P.; Sexton, A.; Sharma, D.; Shaver, A.; Shein, I.; Shibata, T. -A.; Shigaki, K.; Shimomura, M.; Shoji, K.; Shukla, P.; Sickles, A.; Silva, C. L.; Silvermyr, D.; Singh, B. K.; Singh, C. P.; Singh, V.; Skolnik, M.; Slunečka, M.; Solano, S.; Soltz, R. A.; Sondheim, W. E.; Sorensen, S. P.; Soumya, M.; Sourikova, I. V.; Stankus, P. W.; Steinberg, P.; Stenlund, E.; Stepanov, M.; Ster, A.; Stoll, S. P.; Stone, M. R.; Sugitate, T.; Sukhanov, A.; Sumita, T.; Sun, J.; Sziklai, J.; Takahara, A.; Taketani, A.; Tanida, K.; Tannenbaum, M. J.; Tarafdar, S.; Taranenko, A.; Tennant, E.; Timilsina, A.; Todoroki, T.; Tomášek, M.; Torii, H.; Towell, M.; Towell, R.; Towell, R. S.; Tserruya, I.; van Hecke, H. W.; Vargyas, M.; Vazquez-Zambrano, E.; Veicht, A.; Velkovska, J.; Vértesi, R.; Virius, M.; Vrba, V.; Vznuzdaev, E.; Wang, X. R.; Watanabe, D.; Watanabe, K.; Watanabe, Y.; Watanabe, Y. S.; Wei, F.; Whitaker, S.; Wolin, S.; Woody, C. L.; Wysocki, M.; Xia, B.; Xue, L.; Yalcin, S.; Yamaguchi, Y. L.; Yanovich, A.; Yokkaichi, S.; Yoon, I.; You, Z.; Younus, I.; Yushmanov, I. E.; Zajc, W. A.; Zelenski, A.; Zhou, S.

    2014-12-18

    We report on J/ψ production from asymmetric Cu+Au heavy-ion collisions at \\(\\sqrt{s_{\\mathrm{NN}}} = 200\\) GeV at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at both forward (Cu-going direction) and backward (Au-going direction) rapidities. The nuclear modification of J/ψ yields in Cu+Au collisions in the Au-going direction is found to be comparable to that in Au+Au collisions when plotted as a function of the number of participating nucleons. In the Cu-going direction, J/ψ production shows a stronger suppression. This difference is comparable in magnitude and has the same sign as the difference expected from shadowing effects due to stronger low-x gluon suppression in the larger Au nucleus. Thus, the relative suppression is opposite to that expected from hot nuclear matter dissociation, since a higher energy density is expected in the Au-going direction.

  7. Neutron-star matter within the energy-density functional theory and neutron-star structure

    SciTech Connect

    Fantina, A. F.; Chamel, N.; Goriely, S.; Pearson, J. M.

    2015-02-24

    In this lecture, we will present some nucleonic equations of state of neutron-star matter calculated within the nuclear energy-density functional theory using generalized Skyrme functionals developed by the Brussels-Montreal collaboration. These equations of state provide a consistent description of all regions of a neutron star. The global structure of neutron stars predicted by these equations of state will be discussed in connection with recent astrophysical observations.

  8. Effective Interactions in Neutron-Rich Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Sammarruca, F.; Krastev, P.; Barredo, W.

    2005-10-14

    We are generally concerned with probing the behavior of the isospin-asymmetric equation of state. In particular, we will discuss the one-body potentials for protons and neutrons obtained from our Dirac-Brueckner-Hartree-Fock calculations of neutron-rich matter properties. We will also present predictions of proton-proton and neutron-neutron cross sections in the isospin-asymmetric nuclear medium.

  9. Study of the vibrational characteristics of the homonuclear diatomic nuclear schrödinger equation with a numerov method using a number of empirical potential functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heidari, Alireza; Anwar Bég, O.; Ghorbani, Mohammadali

    2013-02-01

    Many empirical potential energy functions have been modeled to represent the potential energy function of a diatomic molecule along whole range of internuclear distance coordinate, whereby one can determine certain molecular constants. Here we employ various potential functions such as Morse, Rydberg, Varshni(II), Varshni(III), Varshni(VI), Pöschl-Teller, Hulburt-Hirschfelder, Lippincott, Frost-Musulin, Linnet, and Rosen-Morse, and the Numerov method to solve the nuclear Schrödinger equation for F2, as an example of a homonuclear diatomic molecule. Herewith, the vibrational and vibration-rotation energy levels are obtained and excellent accuracy is achieved. The potential of employing the Numerov method in engineering physics computations is emphasized.

  10. 77 FR 134 - In the Matter of Yankee Atomic Electric Company; Northeast Utilities; NSTAR (Yankee Nuclear Power...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-03

    ... and hold the license. No physical changes to the Yankee Nuclear Power Station facility or operational changes are being proposed in the application. Approval of the transfer of the license is requested by the...

  11. Nuclear-matter radius studies from 58Ni(α ,α ) experiments at the GSI Experimental Storage Ring with the EXL facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamora, J. C.; Aumann, T.; Bagchi, S.; Bönig, S.; Csatlós, M.; Dillmann, I.; Dimopoulou, C.; Egelhof, P.; Eremin, V.; Furuno, T.; Geissel, H.; Gernhäuser, R.; Harakeh, M. N.; Hartig, A.-L.; Ilieva, S.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kiselev, O.; Kollmus, H.; Kozhuharov, C.; Krasznahorkay, A.; Kröll, Th.; Kuilman, M.; Litvinov, S.; Litvinov, Yu. A.; Mahjour-Shafiei, M.; Mutterer, M.; Nagae, D.; Najafi, M. A.; Nociforo, C.; Nolden, F.; Popp, U.; Rigollet, C.; Roy, S.; Scheidenberger, C.; von Schmid, M.; Steck, M.; Streicher, B.; Stuhl, L.; Thürauf, M.; Uesaka, T.; Weick, H.; Winfield, J. S.; Winters, D.; Woods, P. J.; Yamaguchi, T.; Yue, K.; Zenihiro, J.

    2017-09-01

    A novel method for measuring nuclear reactions in inverse kinematics with stored ion beams was successfully used to extract the nuclear-matter radius of 58Ni. The experiment was performed at the experimental heavy-ion storage ring at the GSI facility using a stored 58Ni beam at energies of 100 and 150 MeV/u and an internal helium gas-jet target. Elastically scattered α -recoils at low momentum transfers were measured with an in-ring detector system compatible with ultrahigh vacuum. Experimental angular distributions were fitted using density-dependent optical model potentials within the eikonal approximation. This permitted the extraction of the point-matter root-mean-square radius of 58Ni with an average value of 3.70(7) fm. Results from this work are in good agreement with several experiments performed in the past in normal kinematics. This pioneering experiment demonstrates a major breakthrough towards future investigations with far-from-stability stored beams using the present technique.

  12. Pools and fluxes of organic matter in a boreal landscape: implications for a safety assessment of a repository for nuclear waste.

    PubMed

    Kumblad, Linda; Söderbäck, Björn; Löfgren, Anders; Lindborg, Tobias; Wijnbladh, Erik; Kautsky, Ulrik

    2006-12-01

    To provide information necessary for a license application for a deep repository for spent nuclear fuel, the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co is carrying out site investigations, including extensive studies of different parts of the surface ecosystems, at two sites in Sweden. Here we use the output from detailed modeling of the carbon dynamics in the terrestrial, limnic and marine ecosystems to describe and compare major pools and fluxes of organic matter in the Simpevarp area, situated on the southeast coast of Sweden. In this study, organic carbon is used as a proxy for radionuclides incorporated into organic matter. The results show that the largest incorporation of carbon into living tissue occurs in terrestrial catchments. Carbon is accumulated in soil or sediments in all ecosystems, but the carbon pool reaches the highest values in shallow near-land marine basins. The marine basins, especially the outer basins, are dominated by large horizontal water fluxes that transport carbon and any associated contaminants into the Baltic Sea. The results suggest that the near-land shallow marine basins have to be regarded as focal points for accumulation of radionuclides in the Simpevarp area, as they receive a comparatively large amount of carbon as discharge from terrestrial catchments, having a high NPP and a high detrital accumulation in sediments. These focal points may constitute a potential risk for exposure to humans in a future landscape as, due to post-glacial land uplift, previous accumulation bottoms are likely to be used for future agricultural purposes.

  13. Symmetry energy at subnuclear densities deduced from nuclear masses

    SciTech Connect

    Oyamatsu, Kazuhiro; Iida, Kei

    2010-05-15

    We examine how nuclear masses are related to the density dependence of the symmetry energy. Using a macroscopic nuclear model we calculate nuclear masses in a way dependent on the equation of state of asymmetric nuclear matter. We find by comparison with empirical two-proton separation energies that a smaller symmetry energy at subnuclear densities, corresponding to a larger density symmetry coefficient L, is favored. This tendency, which is clearly seen for nuclei that are neutron-rich, nondeformed, and light, can be understood from the property of the surface symmetry energy in a compressible liquid-drop picture.

  14. Nuclear Pasta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva Schneider, Andre; Horowitz, Charles; Berry, Don; Briggs, Christian

    2014-03-01

    For decades it has been theorized that just below nuclear saturation density matter undergoes a series of phase transitions. These phases, which are expected to exist in core-collapse supernovae and neutron stars, involve a range of exotic nuclear shapes collectively known as nuclear pasta. Recently, Jose Pons and collaborators suggested that ``the maximum period of isolated X-ray pulsars may be the first observational evidence for an amorphous inner crust, ..., possibly owing to the existence of a nuclear pasta phase.'' In this talk we present results of semi-classical molecular dynamics simulations of nuclear pasta and discuss how each phase might contribute to neutron star crust properties.

  15. New State of Nuclear Matter: Nearly Perfect Fluid of Quarks and Gluons in Heavy Ion Collisions at RHIC Energies From Charged Particle Density to Jet Quenching

    SciTech Connect

    Nouicer, R.

    2016-03-28

    This article reviews several important results from RHIC experiments and discusses their implications. They were obtained in a unique environment for studying QCD matter at temperatures and densities that exceed the limits wherein hadrons can exist as individual entities and raises to prominence the quark-gluon degrees of freedom. These findings are supported by major experimental observations via measuring of the bulk properties of particle production, particle ratios and chemical freeze-out conditions, and elliptic ow; followed by hard probe measurements: high-pT hadron suppression, dijet fragment azimuthal correlations, and heavy favor probes. These measurements are presented for particles of different species as a function of system sizes, collision centrality, and energy carried out in RHIC experiments. The results reveal that a dense, strongly-interacting medium is created in central Au + Au collisions at p sNN = 200 GeV at RHIC. This revelation of a new state of nuclear matter has also been observed in measurements at the LHC. Further, the IP-Glasma model coupled with viscous hydrodynamic models, which assumes the formation of a QGP, reproduces well the experimental ow results from Au + Au at p sNN = 200 GeV. This implies that the fluctuations in the initial geometry state are important and the created medium behaves as a nearly perfect liquid of nuclear matter because it has an extraordinarily low ratio of shear viscosity to entropy density, =s 0.12. However, these discoveries are far from being fully understood. Furthermore, recent experimental results from RHIC and LHC in small p + A, d + Au and 3He+Au collision systems provide brand new insight into the role of initial and final state effects. These have proven to be interesting and more surprising than originally anticipated; and could conceivably shed new light in our understanding of collective behavior in heavy-ion physics. Accordingly, the focus of the experiments at both facilities RHIC and the LHC

  16. New State of Nuclear Matter: Nearly Perfect Fluid of Quarks and Gluons in Heavy Ion Collisions at RHIC Energies From Charged Particle Density to Jet Quenching

    DOE PAGES

    Nouicer, R.

    2016-03-28

    This article reviews several important results from RHIC experiments and discusses their implications. They were obtained in a unique environment for studying QCD matter at temperatures and densities that exceed the limits wherein hadrons can exist as individual entities and raises to prominence the quark-gluon degrees of freedom. These findings are supported by major experimental observations via measuring of the bulk properties of particle production, particle ratios and chemical freeze-out conditions, and elliptic ow; followed by hard probe measurements: high-pT hadron suppression, dijet fragment azimuthal correlations, and heavy favor probes. These measurements are presented for particles of different species asmore » a function of system sizes, collision centrality, and energy carried out in RHIC experiments. The results reveal that a dense, strongly-interacting medium is created in central Au + Au collisions at p sNN = 200 GeV at RHIC. This revelation of a new state of nuclear matter has also been observed in measurements at the LHC. Further, the IP-Glasma model coupled with viscous hydrodynamic models, which assumes the formation of a QGP, reproduces well the experimental ow results from Au + Au at p sNN = 200 GeV. This implies that the fluctuations in the initial geometry state are important and the created medium behaves as a nearly perfect liquid of nuclear matter because it has an extraordinarily low ratio of shear viscosity to entropy density, =s 0.12. However, these discoveries are far from being fully understood. Furthermore, recent experimental results from RHIC and LHC in small p + A, d + Au and 3He+Au collision systems provide brand new insight into the role of initial and final state effects. These have proven to be interesting and more surprising than originally anticipated; and could conceivably shed new light in our understanding of collective behavior in heavy-ion physics. Accordingly, the focus of the experiments at both facilities RHIC and

  17. New state of nuclear matter: Nearly perfect fluid of quarks and gluons in heavy-ion collisions at RHIC energies. From charged particle density to jet quenching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nouicer, R.

    2016-03-01

    This article reviews several important results from RHIC experiments and discusses their implications. They were obtained in a unique environment for studying QCD matter at temperatures and densities that exceed the limits wherein hadrons can exist as individual entities and raises to prominence the quark-gluon degrees of freedom. These findings are supported by major experimental observations via measuring of the bulk properties of particle production, particle ratios and chemical freeze-out conditions, and elliptic flow; followed by hard probe measurements: high- pT hadron suppression, dijet fragment azimuthal correlations, and heavy-flavor probes. These measurements are presented for particles of different species as a function of system sizes, collision centrality, and energy carried out in RHIC experiments. The results reveal that a dense, strongly interacting medium is created in central Au+Au collisions at sqrt{s_{NN}} = 200 GeV at RHIC. This revelation of a new state of nuclear matter has also been observed in measurements at the LHC. Further, the IP-Glasma model coupled with viscous hydrodynamic models, which assumes the formation of a QGP, reproduces well the experimental flow results from Au+Au at sqrt{s_{NN}} = 200 GeV. This implies that the fluctuations in the initial geometry state are important and the created medium behaves as a nearly perfect liquid of nuclear matter because it has an extraordinarily low ratio of shear viscosity to entropy density, η/s≈ 0.12. However, these discoveries are far from being fully understood. Furthermore, recent experimental results from RHIC and LHC in small p+A, d+ Au and 3He+Au collision systems provide brand new insight into the role of initial and final state effects. These have proven to be interesting and more surprising than originally anticipated; and could conceivably shed new light in our understanding of collective behavior in heavy-ion physics. Accordingly, the focus of the experiments at both

  18. Neutron matter, symmetry energy and neutron stars

    SciTech Connect

    Stefano, Gandolfi; Steiner, Andrew W

    2016-01-01

    Recent progress in quantum Monte Carlo with modern nucleon-nucleon interactions have enabled the successful description of properties of light nuclei and neutron-rich matter. Of particular interest is the nuclear symmetry energy, the energy cost of creating an isospin asymmetry, and its connection to the structure of neutron stars. Combining these advances with recent observations of neutron star masses and radii gives insight into the equation of state of neutron-rich matter near and above the saturation density. In particular, neutron star radius measurements constrain the derivative of the symmetry energy.

  19. Neutron matter, symmetry energy and neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gandolfi, S.; Steiner, A. W.

    2016-01-01

    Recent progress in quantum Monte Carlo with modern nucleon-nucleon interactions have enabled the successful description of properties of light nuclei and neutron- rich matter. Of particular interest is the nuclear symmetry energy, the energy cost of creating an isospin asymmetry, and its connection to the structure of neutron stars. Combining these advances with recent observations of neutron star masses and radii gives insight into the equation of state of neutron-rich matter near and above the saturation density. In particular, neutron star radius measurements constrain the derivative of the symmetry energy.

  20. Orientation of functional groups of soil organic matter on the surface of water repellent soils determined by pulse saturation magic angle spinning (PSTMAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiradate, Syuntaro; Kawamoto, Ken; Senani Wijewardana, Nadeeka; Müller, Karin; Møldrup, Per; Clothier, Brent; Komatsu, Toshiko

    2014-05-01

    Orientation of functional groups of soil organic matter on soil particles plays a crucial role in the occurrence of soil water repellency. In addition to a general method to characterize soil organic matter using cross polarization magic angle spinning (CPMAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technique, we determined the surface orientation of functional groups in water repellent soils by using pulse saturation magic angle spinning (PSTMAS) NMR technique. A preliminary experiment confirmed that the PSTMAS NMR spectrum successfully determined the high mobility of methyl group of octadecylsilylated silica gels when a comparison was made with that of CPMAS NMR. This means that the methyl group oriented towards the outside of the silica gel particle. Similarly, for an experimental system consisting of mixtures of octadecylsilylated silica gel and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), the extremely high mobility of methyl group derived from DMSO was detected using the same methodology. For water repellent soils from Japan and New Zealand, it was found that the methyl and methylene groups were highly mobile. In contrast, the NMR signals of aromatic moiety, another hydrophobic moiety of soil organic matter, were not as intense in PSTMAS compared with CPMAS. From these results, we conclude that alkyl moiety (methyl and methylene groups) would be oriented towards the outside of the soil particle and would play an important role in the appearance of water repellency of soils.