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Sample records for nuclear matter saturation

  1. Hot magnetized nuclear matter: Thermodynamic and saturation properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezaei, Z.; Bordbar, G. H.

    2017-03-01

    We have used a realistic nuclear potential, AV_{18}, and a many-body technique, the lowest-order constraint variational (LOCV) approach, to calculate the properties of hot magnetized nuclear matter. By investigating the free energy, spin polarization parameter, and symmetry energy, we have studied the temperature and magnetic field dependence of the saturation properties of magnetized nuclear matter. In addition, we have calculated the equation of state of magnetized nuclear matter at different temperatures and magnetic fields. It was found that the flashing temperature of nuclear matter decreases by increasing the magnetic field. In addition, we have studied the effect of the magnetic field on liquid gas phase transition of nuclear matter. The liquid gas coexistence curves, the order parameter of the liquid gas phase transition, and the properties of critical point at different magnetic fields have been calculated.

  2. Saturated symmetric nuclear matter in strong magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diener, J. P. W.; Scholtz, F. G.

    2013-06-01

    Strongly magnetized symmetric nuclear matter is investigated within the context of effective baryon-meson exchange models. The magnetic field is coupled to the charge as well as the dipole moment of the baryons by including the appropriate terms in the Lagrangian density. The saturation density of magnetized, symmetric nuclear matter ρ0(B) was calculated for magnetic fields of the order of 1017 gauss. For the calculated range of ρ0(B) the binding energy, symmetry energy coefficient a4, and compressibility K of nuclear matter were also calculated. It is found that with an increasing magnetic field ρ0(B) increases, while the system becomes less bound. Furthermore, the depopulation of proton Landau levels leaves a distinct fluctuating imprint on K and a4. The calculations were also performed for increased values of the baryon magnetic dipole moment. By increasing the dipole moment strength ρ0(B) is found to decrease, but the system becomes more tightly bound while the fluctuations in K and a4 persist.

  3. Strong correlations of neutron star radii with the slopes of nuclear matter incompressibility and symmetry energy at saturation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, N.; Agrawal, B. K.; Fortin, M.; Pais, H.; Providência, C.; Raduta, Ad. R.; Sulaksono, A.

    2016-11-01

    We examine the correlations of neutron star radii with the nuclear matter incompressibility, symmetry energy, and their slopes, which are the key parameters of the equation of state (EoS) of asymmetric nuclear matter. The neutron star radii and the EoS parameters are evaluated using a representative set of 24 Skyrme-type effective forces and 18 relativistic mean field models, and two microscopic calculations, all describing 2 M⊙ neutron stars. Unified EoSs for the inner-crust-core region have been built for all the phenomenological models, both relativistic and nonrelativistic. Our investigation shows the existence of a strong correlation of the neutron star radii with the linear combination of the slopes of the nuclear matter incompressibility and the symmetry energy coefficients at the saturation density. Such correlations are found to be almost independent of the neutron star mass in the range 0.6 -1.8 M⊙ . This correlation can be linked to the empirical relation existing between the star radius and the pressure at a nucleonic density between one and two times saturation density, and the dependence of the pressure on the nuclear matter incompressibility, its slope, and the symmetry energy slope. The slopes of the nuclear matter incompressibility and the symmetry energy coefficients as estimated from the finite nuclei data yield the radius of a 1.4 M⊙ neutron star in the range 11.09 -12.86 km.

  4. Hollow nuclear matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yong, Gao-Chan

    2016-01-01

    It is generally considered that an atomic nucleus is always compact. Based on the isospin-dependent Boltzmann nuclear transport model, here I show that large block nuclear matter or excited nuclear matter may both be hollow. The size of the inner bubble in these matter is affected by the charge number of nuclear matter. The existence of hollow nuclear matter may have many implications in nuclear or atomic physics or astrophysics as well as some practical applications.

  5. Orientation of functional groups of soil organic matter on the surface of water repellent soils determined by pulse saturation magic angle spinning (PSTMAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiradate, Syuntaro; Kawamoto, Ken; Senani Wijewardana, Nadeeka; Müller, Karin; Møldrup, Per; Clothier, Brent; Komatsu, Toshiko

    2014-05-01

    Orientation of functional groups of soil organic matter on soil particles plays a crucial role in the occurrence of soil water repellency. In addition to a general method to characterize soil organic matter using cross polarization magic angle spinning (CPMAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technique, we determined the surface orientation of functional groups in water repellent soils by using pulse saturation magic angle spinning (PSTMAS) NMR technique. A preliminary experiment confirmed that the PSTMAS NMR spectrum successfully determined the high mobility of methyl group of octadecylsilylated silica gels when a comparison was made with that of CPMAS NMR. This means that the methyl group oriented towards the outside of the silica gel particle. Similarly, for an experimental system consisting of mixtures of octadecylsilylated silica gel and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), the extremely high mobility of methyl group derived from DMSO was detected using the same methodology. For water repellent soils from Japan and New Zealand, it was found that the methyl and methylene groups were highly mobile. In contrast, the NMR signals of aromatic moiety, another hydrophobic moiety of soil organic matter, were not as intense in PSTMAS compared with CPMAS. From these results, we conclude that alkyl moiety (methyl and methylene groups) would be oriented towards the outside of the soil particle and would play an important role in the appearance of water repellency of soils.

  6. Sub-saturation matter in compact stars: Nuclear modelling in the framework of the extended Thomas-Fermi theory

    SciTech Connect

    Aymard, François; Gulminelli, Francesca; Margueron, Jérôme

    2015-02-24

    A recently introduced analytical model for the nuclear density profile [1] is implemented in the Extended Thomas-Fermi (ETF) energy density functional. This allows to (i) shed a new light on the issue of the sign of surface symmetry energy in nuclear mass formulas, as well as to (ii) show the importance of the in-medium corrections to the nuclear cluster energies in thermodynamic conditions relevant for the description of core-collapse supernovae and (proto)-neutron star crust.

  7. The nuclear matter problem

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, J. A.; Cowell, S.; Morales, J.; Ravenhall, D. G.; Pandharipande, V. R.

    2002-01-01

    We review the present statiis of the many-body theory of nuclear and pure neutron matter based on realistic models of nuclear forces, The current models of two- and three-nucleon interactions are discussed along with recent results obtained with the Brueckner and variatioual methods. New initiatives in the variational method and quantuni Monte Carlo nicthods to study pure neutron matter are described, and finally, the analytic behavior of the energy of piire neutron matter at low densities is cliscussed.

  8. Exotic States of Nuclear Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lombardo, Umberto; Baldo, Marcello; Burgio, Fiorella; Schulze, Hans-Josef

    2008-02-01

    pt. A. Theory of nuclear matter EOS and symmetry energy. Constraining the nuclear equation of state from astrophysics and heavy ion reactions / C. Fuchs. In-medium hadronic interactions and the nuclear equation of state / F. Sammarruca. EOS and single-particle properties of isospin-asymmetric nuclear matter within the Brueckner theory / W. Zuo, U. Lombardo & H.-J. Schulze. Thermodynamics of correlated nuclear matter / A. Polls ... [et al.]. The validity of the LOCV formalism and neutron star properties / H. R. Moshfegh ... [et al.]. Ferromagnetic instabilities of neutron matter: microscopic versus phenomenological approaches / I. Vidaã. Sigma meson and nuclear matter saturation / A. B. Santra & U. Lombardo. Ramifications of the nuclear symmetry energy for neutron stars, nuclei and heavy-ion collisions / A. W. Steiner, B.-A. Li & M. Prakash. The symmetry energy in nuclei and nuclear matter / A. E. L. Dieperink. Probing the symmetry energy at supra-saturation densities / M. Di Toro et al. Investigation of low-density symmetry energy via nucleon and fragment observables / H. H. Wolter et al. Instability against cluster formation in nuclear and compact-star matter / C. Ducoin ... [et al.]. Microscopic optical potentials of nucleon-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus scattering / Z.-Y. Ma, J. Rong & Y.-Q. Ma -- pt. B. The neutron star crust: structure, formation and dynamics. Neutron star crust beyond the Wigner-Seitz approximation / N. Chamel. The inner crust of a neutron star within the Wigner-Seitz method with pairing: from drip point to the bottom / E. E. Saperstein, M. Baldo & S. V. Tolokonnikov. Nuclear superfluidity and thermal properties of neutron stars / N. Sandulescu. Collective excitations: from exotic nuclei to the crust of neutron stars / E. Khan, M. Grasso & J. Margueron. Monte Carlo simulation of the nuclear medium: fermi gases, nuclei and the role of Pauli potentials / M. A. Pérez-García. Low-density instabilities in relativistic hadronic models / C. Provid

  9. Understanding solution-state noncovalent interactions between xenobiotics and natural organic matter using 19F/1H heteronuclear saturation transfer difference nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Longstaffe, James G; Simpson, André J

    2011-08-01

    A combination of forward and reverse heteronuclear ((19)F/(1)H) saturation transfer difference (STD) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic techniques were applied to characterize the noncovalent interactions between perfluorinated aromatic xenobiotics and dissolved humic acid. These NMR techniques produce detailed molecular-level descriptions of weak noncovalent associations between components in complex environmental mixtures, allowing the mechanisms underlying these interactions to be explored; (19)F observed heteronuclear STD (H-STD) is used to describe the average molecular orientation of the xenobiotics during their interactions with humic acid, whereas (1)H observed reverse-heteronuclear STD (RH-STD) is used to both identify and quantify preferences exhibited by xenobiotics for interactions at different types of humic acid moieties. First, by using H-STD, it is shown that selected aromatic organofluorides orient with their nonfluorine functional groups (OH, NH(2), and COOH) directed away from humic acid during the interactions, suggesting that these functional groups are not specifically involved. Second, the RH-STD experiment is shown to be sensitive to subtle differences in preferred interaction sites in humic acid and is used here to demonstrate preferential interactions at aromatic humic acid sites for selected aromatic xenobiotics, C(10)F(7)OH, and C(6)F(4)X(2), (where X = F, OH, NH(2), NO(2), or COOH), that can be predicted from the electrostatic potential density maps of the xenobiotic. Copyright © 2011 SETAC.

  10. Relativity Damps OPEP in Nuclear Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Manoj K.

    1998-09-01

    Using a relativistic Dirac--Brueckner analysis the OPEP contribution to the ground state energy of nuclear matter is studied. In the study the pion is derivative-coupled. We find that the role of the tensor force in the saturation mechanism is substantially reduced compared to its dominant role in a usual nonrelativistic treatment. We show that the damping of derivative-coupled OPEP is actually due to the decrease of M*/M with increasing density. We point out that if derivative-coupled OPEP is the preferred form of nuclear effective Lagrangian nonrelativistic treatment of nuclear matter is in trouble. Lacking the notion of M* it cannot replicate the damping. We suggest an examination of the feasibility of using pseudoscalar coupled πN interaction before reaching a final conclusion about nonrelativistic treatment of nuclear matter.

  11. Relativity damps OPEP in nuclear matter

    SciTech Connect

    Banerjee, M.K.

    1998-06-01

    Using a relativistic Dirac-Brueckner analysis the OPEP contribution to the ground state energy of nuclear matter is studied. In the study the pion is derivative-coupled. The author finds that the role of the tensor force in the saturation mechanism is substantially reduced compared to its dominant role in a usual nonrelativistic treatment. He shows that the damping of derivative-coupled OPEP is actually due to the decrease of M{sup *}/M with increasing density. He points out that if derivative-coupled OPEP is the preferred form of nuclear effective lagrangian nonrelativistic treatment of nuclear matter is in trouble. Lacking the notion of M{sup *} it cannot replicate the damping. He suggests an examination of the feasibility of using pseudoscalar coupled {pi}N interaction before reaching a final conclusion about nonrelativistic treatment of nuclear matter.

  12. Condensed Matter Nuclear Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biberian, Jean-Paul

    2006-02-01

    1. General. A tribute to gene Mallove - the "Genie" reactor / K. Wallace and R. Stringham. An update of LENR for ICCF-11 (short course, 10/31/04) / E. Storms. New physical effects in metal deuterides / P. L. Hagelstein ... [et al.]. Reproducibility, controllability, and optimization of LENR experiments / D. J. Nagel -- 2. Experiments. Electrochemistry. Evidence of electromagnetic radiation from Ni-H systems / S. Focardi ... [et al.]. Superwave reality / I. Dardik. Excess heat in electrolysis experiments at energetics technologies / I. Dardik ... [et al.]. "Excess heat" during electrolysis in platinum/K[symbol]CO[symbol]/nickel light water system / J. Tian ... [et al.]. Innovative procedure for the, in situ, measurement of the resistive thermal coefficient of H(D)/Pd during electrolysis; cross-comparison of new elements detected in the Th-Hg-Pd-D(H) electrolytic cells / F. Celani ... [et al.]. Emergence of a high-temperature superconductivity in hydrogen cycled Pd compounds as an evidence for superstoihiometric H/D sites / A. Lipson ... [et al.]. Plasma electrolysis. Calorimetry of energy-efficient glow discharge - apparatus design and calibration / T. B. Benson and T. O. Passell. Generation of heat and products during plasma electrolysis / T. Mizuno ... [et al.]. Glow discharge. Excess heat production in Pd/D during periodic pulse discharge current in various conditions / A. B. Karabut. Beam experiments. Accelerator experiments and theoretical models for the electron screening effect in metallic environments / A. Huke, K. Czerski, and P. Heide. Evidence for a target-material dependence of the neutron-proton branching ratio in d+d reactions for deuteron energies below 20keV / A. Huke ... [et al.]. Experiments on condensed matter nuclear events in Kobe University / T. Minari ... [et al.]. Electron screening constraints for the cold fusion / K. Czerski, P. Heide, and A. Huke. Cavitation. Low mass 1.6 MHz sonofusion reactor / R. Stringham. Particle detection. Research

  13. Saturation of color forces and nuclear binding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuoka, Hiroshi; Sivers, Dennis

    1986-03-01

    We discuss an approach to understanding the saturation of forces in chromodynamics. Our formulation is suggested by the observation that many lattice-gauge-theory calculations give results well approximated by considering the dynamics of stringlike flux tubes. By looking at multiquark Green's functions in the strong-coupling, quenched, approximations of lattice chromodynamics we find examples of configuration mixing which can allow the binding of color-singlet hadrons into larger composite systems. We surmise that this configuration mixing is crucial to the understanding of nuclear binding. As a simple example we discuss the binding of two mesons composed of heavy, static, quarks into a deuteronlike object. Our results suggest that the magnitude of nuclear binding can be deduced by measuring a finite number of Wilson-loop configurations in lattice QCD.

  14. Condensed Matter Nuclear Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Akito; Ota, Ken-Ichiro; Iwamura, Yashuhiro

    Preface -- 1. General. Progress in condensed matter nuclear science / A. Takahashi. Summary of ICCF-12 / X. Z. Li. Overview of light water/hydrogen-based low-energy nuclear reactions / G. H. Miley and P. J. Shrestha -- 2. Excess heat and He detection. Development of "DS-reactor" as the practical reactor of "cold fusion" based on the "DS-cell" with "DS-cathode" / Y. Arata and Y.-C. Zhang. Progress in excess of power experiments with electrochemical loading of deuterium in palladium / V. Violante ... [et al.]. Anomalous energy generation during conventional electrolysis / T. Mizuno and Y. Toriyabe. "Excess heat" induced by deuterium flux in palladium film / B. Liu ... [et al.]. Abnormal excess heat observed during Mizuno-type experiments / J.-F. Fauvarque, P. P. Clauzon and G. J.-M. Lallevé. Seebeck envelope calorimetry with a Pd|D[symbol]O + H[symbol]SO[symbol] electrolytic cell / W.-S. Zhang, J. Dash and Q. Wang. Observation and investigation of nuclear fusion and self-induced electric discharges in liquids / A. I. Koldamasov ... [et al.]. Description of a sensitive seebeck calorimeter used for cold fusion studies / E. Storms. Some recent results at ENEA / M. Apicella ... [et al.]. Heat measurement during plasma electrolysis / K. Iizumi ... [et al.]. Effect of an additive on thermal output during electrolysis of heavy water with a palladium cathode / Q. Wang and J. Dash. Thermal analysis of calorimetric systems / L. D'Aulerio ... [et al.]. Surface plasmons and low-energy nuclear reactions triggering / E. Castagna ... [et al.]. Production method for violent TCB jet plasma from cavity / F. Amini. New results and an ongoing excess heat controversy / L. Kowalski ... [et al.] -- 3. Transmutation. Observation of surface distribution of products by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry during D[symbol] gas permeation through Pd Complexes / Y. Iwamura ... [et al.]. Discharge experiment using Pd/CaO/Pd multi-layered cathode / S. Narita ... [et al.]. Producing transmutation

  15. Phase transitions in nuclear matter

    SciTech Connect

    Glendenning, N.K.

    1984-11-01

    The rather general circumstances under which a phase transition in hadronic matter at finite temperature to an abnormal phase in which baryon effective masses become small and in which copious baryon-antibaryon pairs appear is emphasized. A preview is also given of a soliton model of dense matter, in which at a density of about seven times nuclear density, matter ceases to be a color insulator and becomes increasingly color conducting. 22 references.

  16. Quark degrees of freedom in nuclear matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldo, Marcello

    2017-06-01

    The microscopic theory of Nuclear Matter has been approached along the years by different many-body methods and different nucleon-nucleon (NN) interactions. The realistic NN interactions can be classified mainly into two categories. One relies on the meson-nucleon coupling scheme, within relativistic or non-relativistic framework. The so-called chiral interactions are based on the assumption that, once the pion exchange contribution has been explicitly isolated, it is possible to expand the NN interaction in a series of point interaction terms which respect the underlying QCD chiral symmetry. In both schemes three-body (TBF) or higher forces can be constructed, which can have different degrees of phenomenological character. The TBF are essential to get the Nuclear Matter saturation point close to the phenomenological one. However the QCD quark degrees of freedom are not explicitly introduced. It will be shown that a realistic NN interaction that is constructed from the quark degrees of freedom can produce the correct saturation point without the need of TBF. The corresponding Equation of State is compatible with all the phenomenological constraints, including the Neutron Star maximum mass limit. Taking this result literally, one can say that quarks have been revealed in Nuclear Matter. Another conclusion is that the effect of TBF is model dependent.

  17. Deuteron distribution in nuclear matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benhar, O.; Fabrocini, A.; Fantoni, S.; Illarionov, A. Yu.; Lykasov, G. I.

    2002-05-01

    We analyze the properties of deuteron-like structures in infinite, correlated nuclear matter, described by a realistic hamiltonian containing the Urbana v14 two-nucleon and the Urbana TNI many-body potentials. The distribution of neutron-proton pairs, carrying the deuteron quantum numbers, is obtained as a function of the total momentum by computing the overlap between the nuclear matter in its ground state and the deuteron wave functions in correlated basis functions theory. We study the differences between the S- and D-wave components of the deuteron and those of the deuteron-like pair in the nuclear medium. The total number of deuteron type pairs is computed and compared with the predictions of Levinger's quasideuteron model. The resulting Levinger's factor in nuclear matter at equilibrium density is 11.63. We use the local density approximation to estimate the Levinger's factor for heavy nuclei, obtaining results which are consistent with the available experimental data from photoreactions.

  18. Particle correlations in saturated QCD matter

    SciTech Connect

    Baier, Rudolf; Kovner, Alex; Nardi, Marzia; Wiedemann, Urs Achim

    2005-11-01

    We study quantitatively angular correlations in the two-particle spectrum produced by an energetic probe scattering off a dense hadronic target with sizable saturation momentum. To this end, two-parton inclusive cross sections for arbitrary projectiles with small color charge density are derived in the eikonal formalism. Our results are the following: For large momenta of the observed particles, the perturbative limit with characteristic back-to-back correlation is recovered. As the trigger momenta get closer to the saturation scale Q{sub s}, the angular distribution broadens. When the momenta are significantly smaller than Q{sub s}, the azimuthal distribution is broad but still peaked back-to-back. However, in a narrow momentum range (0.5 divide 1.5)Q{sub s}, we observe that the azimuthal correlation splits into a double peak with maxima displaced away from 180 deg. We argue that it is the soft multiple scattering physics that is responsible for the appearance of this shift in the angle of maximal correlation. We also point out that when the physical size of the projectile is particularly small, the double peak structure persists in a significantly wider range of final state momenta.

  19. Nuclear matter equation of state and three-body forces

    SciTech Connect

    Mansour, H. M. M.; Algamoudi, A. M. A.

    2012-04-15

    The energy per particle, symmetry energy, pressure, and free energy are calculated for symmetric nuclear matter using BHF approach with modern nucleon-nucleon CD-Bonn, Nijm1, Argonne v{sub 18}, and Reid 93 potentials. To obtain saturation in nuclear matter we add three-body interaction terms which are equivalent to a density-dependent two-nucleon interaction a la Skyrme force. Good agreement is obtained in comparison with previous theoretical estimates and experimental data.

  20. Hot nuclear matter

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, S.

    1992-11-01

    The goal in this thesis is thus twofold: The first is to investigate the feasibility of using heavy ion collisions to create conditions in the laboratory which are ripe for the formation of a quark-gluon plasma. The second is to develop a technique for studying some of the many non-perturbative features of this novel phase of matter.

  1. Heavy hadrons in nuclear matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosaka, Atsushi; Hyodo, Tetsuo; Sudoh, Kazutaka; Yamaguchi, Yasuhiro; Yasui, Shigehiro

    2017-09-01

    Current studies on heavy hadrons in nuclear medium are reviewed with a summary of the basic theoretical concepts of QCD, namely chiral symmetry, heavy quark spin symmetry, and the effective Lagrangian approach. The nuclear matter is an interesting place to study the properties of heavy hadrons from many different points of view. We emphasize the importance of the following topics: (i) charm/bottom hadron-nucleon interaction, (ii) structure of charm/bottom nuclei, and (iii) QCD vacuum properties and hadron modifications in nuclear medium. We pick up three different groups of heavy hadrons, quarkonia (J / ψ, ϒ), heavy-light mesons (D/ D ¯ , B ¯ / B) and heavy baryons (Λc, Λb). The modifications of those hadrons in nuclear matter provide us with important information to investigate the essential properties of heavy hadrons. We also give the discussions about the heavy hadrons, not only in infinite nuclear matter, but also in finite-size atomic nuclei with finite baryon numbers, to serve future experiments.

  2. Thermodynamics of neutron-rich nuclear matter

    SciTech Connect

    López, Jorge A.; Porras, Sergio Terrazas Gutiérrez, Araceli Rodríguez

    2016-07-07

    This manuscript presents methods to obtain properties of neutron-rich nuclear matter from classical molecular dynamics. Some of these are bulk properties of infinite nuclear matter, phase information, the Maxwell construction, spinodal lines and symmetry energy.

  3. Nuclear matter physics at NICA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senger, P.

    2016-08-01

    The exploration of the QCD phase diagram is one of the most exciting and challenging projects of modern nuclear physics. In particular, the investigation of nuclear matter at high baryon densities offers the opportunity to find characteristic structures such as a first-order phase transition with a region of phase coexistence and a critical endpoint. The experimental discovery of these prominent landmarks of the QCD phase diagram would be a major breakthrough in our understanding of the properties of nuclear matter. Equally important is the quantitative experimental information on the properties of hadrons in dense matter which may shed light on chiral symmetry restoration and the origin of hadron masses. Worldwide, substantial efforts at the major heavy-ion accelerators are devoted to the clarification of these fundamental questions, and new dedicated experiments are planned at future facilities like CBM at FAIR in Darmstadt and MPD at NICA/JINR in Dubna. In this article the perspectives for MPD at NICA will be discussed.

  4. Quark description of nuclear matter

    SciTech Connect

    Berges, Jurgen

    2001-07-01

    We discuss the role of an adjoint chiral condensate for color superconducting quark matter. Its presence leads to color-flavor locking in two-flavor quark matter. Color is broken completely as well as chiral symmetry in the two-flavor theory with coexisting adjoint quark-antiquark and antitriplet quark-quark condensates. The qualitative properties of this phase match the properties of ordinary nuclear matter without strange baryons. This complements earlier proposals by Schaefer and Wilczek for a quark description of hadronic phases. We show for a class of models with effective four-fermion interactions that adjoint chiral and diquark condensates do not compete, in the sense that simultaneous condensation occurs for sufficiently strong interactions in the adjoint chiral channel.

  5. Soil Quality of Restinga Forest: Organic Matter and Aluminum Saturation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues Almeida Filho, Jasse; Casagrande, José Carlos; Martins Bonilha, Rodolfo; Soares, Marcio Roberto; Silva, Luiz Gabriel; Colato, Alexandre

    2013-04-01

    The restinga vegetation (sand coastal plain vegetation) consists of a mosaic of plant communities, which are defined by the characteristics of the substrates, resulting from the type and age of the depositional processes. This mosaic complex of vegetation types comprises restinga forest in advanced (high restinga) and medium regeneration stages (low restinga), each with particular differentiating vegetation characteristics. Of all ecosystems of the Atlantic Forest, restinga is the most fragile and susceptible to anthropic disturbances. The purpose of this study was evaluating the organic matter and aluminum saturation effects on soil quality index (SQI). Two locations were studied: State Park of the Serra do Mar, Picinguaba, in the city of Ubatuba (23°20' e 23°22' S / 44°48' e 44°52' W), and State Park of Cardoso Island in the city of Cananéia (25°03'05" e 25°18'18" S / 47°53'48" e 48° 05'42" W). The soil samples were collect at a depth of 0-10 cm, where concentrate 70% of vegetation root system. Was studied an additive model to evaluate soil quality index. The shallow root system development occurs due to low calcium levels, whose disability limits their development, but also can reflect on delay, restriction or even in the failure of the development vegetation. The organic matter is kept in the soil restinga ecosystem by high acidity, which reduces the decomposition of soil organic matter, which is very poor in nutrients. The base saturation, less than 10, was low due to low amounts of Na, K, Ca and Mg, indicating low nutritional reserve into the soil, due to very high rainfall and sandy texture, resulting in high saturation values for aluminum. Considering the critical threshold to 3% organic matter and for aluminum saturation to 40%, the IQS ranged from 0.95 to 0.1 as increased aluminum saturation and decreased the soil organic matter, indicating the main limitation to the growth of plants in this type of soil, when deforested.

  6. Symmetry energy of dilute warm nuclear matter.

    PubMed

    Natowitz, J B; Röpke, G; Typel, S; Blaschke, D; Bonasera, A; Hagel, K; Klähn, T; Kowalski, S; Qin, L; Shlomo, S; Wada, R; Wolter, H H

    2010-05-21

    The symmetry energy of nuclear matter is a fundamental ingredient in the investigation of exotic nuclei, heavy-ion collisions, and astrophysical phenomena. New data from heavy-ion collisions can be used to extract the free symmetry energy and the internal symmetry energy at subsaturation densities and temperatures below 10 MeV. Conventional theoretical calculations of the symmetry energy based on mean-field approaches fail to give the correct low-temperature, low-density limit that is governed by correlations, in particular, by the appearance of bound states. A recently developed quantum-statistical approach that takes the formation of clusters into account predicts symmetry energies that are in very good agreement with the experimental data. A consistent description of the symmetry energy is given that joins the correct low-density limit with quasiparticle approaches valid near the saturation density.

  7. Nuclear Matter from Effective Quark-Quark Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldo, M.; Fukukawa, K.

    2014-12-01

    We study neutron matter and symmetric nuclear matter with the quark-meson model for the two-nucleon interaction. The Bethe-Bruckner-Goldstone many-body theory is used to describe the correlations up to the three hole-line approximation with no extra parameters. At variance with other nonrelativistic realistic interactions, the three hole-line contribution turns out to be non-negligible and to have a substantial saturation effect. The saturation point of nuclear matter, the compressibility, the symmetry energy, and its slope are within the phenomenological constraints. Since the interaction also reproduces fairly well the properties of the three-nucleon system, these results indicate that the explicit introduction of the quark degrees of freedom within the considered constituent quark model is expected to reduce the role of three-body forces.

  8. Nuclear matter from effective quark-quark interaction.

    PubMed

    Baldo, M; Fukukawa, K

    2014-12-12

    We study neutron matter and symmetric nuclear matter with the quark-meson model for the two-nucleon interaction. The Bethe-Bruckner-Goldstone many-body theory is used to describe the correlations up to the three hole-line approximation with no extra parameters. At variance with other nonrelativistic realistic interactions, the three hole-line contribution turns out to be non-negligible and to have a substantial saturation effect. The saturation point of nuclear matter, the compressibility, the symmetry energy, and its slope are within the phenomenological constraints. Since the interaction also reproduces fairly well the properties of the three-nucleon system, these results indicate that the explicit introduction of the quark degrees of freedom within the considered constituent quark model is expected to reduce the role of three-body forces.

  9. Shear viscosity of nuclear matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magner, A. G.; Gorenstein, M. I.; Grygoriev, U. V.; Plujko, V. A.

    2016-11-01

    Shear viscosity η is calculated for the nuclear matter described as a system of interacting nucleons with the van der Waals (VDW) equation of state. The Boltzmann-Vlasov kinetic equation is solved in terms of the plane waves of the collective overdamped motion. In the frequent-collision regime, the shear viscosity depends on the particle-number density n through the mean-field parameter a , which describes attractive forces in the VDW equation. In the temperature region T =15 -40 MeV, a ratio of the shear viscosity to the entropy density s is smaller than 1 at the nucleon number density n =(0.5 -1.5 ) n0 , where n0=0.16 fm-3 is the particle density of equilibrium nuclear matter at zero temperature. A minimum of the η /s ratio takes place somewhere in a vicinity of the critical point of the VDW system. Large values of η /s ≫1 are, however, found in both the low-density, n ≪n0 , and high-density, n >2 n0 , regions. This makes the ideal hydrodynamic approach inapplicable for these densities.

  10. Superfluidity in asymmetric nuclear matter

    SciTech Connect

    Sedrakian, A.; Alm, T.; Lombardo, U.

    1997-02-01

    The onset of superfluidity in isospin-asymmetric nuclear matter is investigated within the BCS theory. A neutron-proton superfluid state in the channel {sup 3}S{sub 1}-{sup 3}D{sub 1} comes about from the interplay between thermal excitations and separation {delta}{mu} of the two Fermi surfaces. The superfluid state disappears above the threshold value of the density-asymmetry parameter {alpha}=(n{sub n}{minus}n{sub p})/n{approx_equal}0.35. For large enough shift between the two Fermi surfaces {delta}{mu}=(1)/(2)({mu}{sub n}{minus}{mu}{sub p}) the transition to the normal state becomes a first-order transition and a second gap solution develops. This solution, however, corresponds to a metastable superfluid state which is unstable with respect to the transition to the normal state. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  11. NUCLEAR MODIFICATION TO PARTON DISTRIBUTION FUNCTIONS AND PARTON SATURATION.

    SciTech Connect

    QIU, J.-W.

    2006-11-14

    We introduce a generalized definition of parton distribution functions (PDFs) for a more consistent all-order treatment of power corrections. We present a new set of modified DGLAP evolution equations for nuclear PDFs, and show that the resummed {alpha}{sub s}A{sup 1/3}/Q{sup 2}-type of leading nuclear size enhanced power corrections significantly slow down the growth of gluon density at small-x. We discuss the relation between the calculated power corrections and the saturation phenomena.

  12. Equation of State for Isospin Asymmetric Nuclear Matter Using Lane Potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, D. N.; Chowdhury, P. Roy; Samanta, C.

    2006-10-01

    A mean field calculation for obtaining the equation of state (EOS) for symmetric nuclear matter from a density dependent M3Y interaction supplemented by a zero-range potential is described. The energy per nucleon is minimized to obtain the ground state of symmetric nuclear matter. The saturation energy per nucleon used for nuclear matter calculations is determined from the co-efficient of the volume term of Bethe--Weizsäcker mass formula which is evaluated by fitting the recent experimental and estimated atomic mass excesses from Audi--Wapstra--Thibault atomic mass table by minimizing the mean square deviation. The constants of density dependence of the effective interaction are obtained by reproducing the saturation energy per nucleon and the saturation density of spin and isospin symmetric cold infinite nuclear matter. The EOS of symmetric nuclear matter, thus obtained, provide reasonably good estimate of nuclear incompressibility. Once the constants of density dependence are determined, EOS for asymmetric nuclear matter is calculated by adding to the isoscalar part, the isovector component of the M3Y interaction that do not contribute to the EOS of symmetric nuclear matter. These EOS are then used to calculate the pressure, the energy density and the velocity of sound in symmetric as well as isospin asymmetric nuclear matter.

  13. From light nuclei to nuclear matter the role of relativity?

    SciTech Connect

    Coester, F.; Physics

    2003-11-10

    The success of non-relativistic quantum dynamics in accounting for the binding energies and spectra of light nuclei with masses up to A=10 raises the question whether the same dynamics applied to infinite nuclear matter agrees with the empirical saturation properties of large nuclei. The simple unambiguous relation between few-nucleon and many-nucleon Hamiltonians is directly related to the Galilean covariance of nonrelativistic dynamics. Relations between the irreducible unitary representations of the Galilei and Poincare groups indicate that the 'nonrelativistic' nuclear Hamiltonians may provide sufficiently accurate approximations to Poincare invariant mass operators. In relativistic nuclear dynamics based on suitable Lagrangeans the intrinsic nucleon parity is an explicit, dynamically relevant, degree of freedom and the emphasis is on properties of nuclear matter. The success of this approach suggests the question how it might account for the spectral properties of light nuclei.

  14. Progress in Condensed Matter Nuclear Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Akito

    Recent studies of condensed matter nuclear science (CMNS) including cold fusion have accumulated some convincing data and theoretical modeling, and we are about to conclude that (1) deuteron-related clean fusion reactions and (2) cold and special transmutations may take place in the environment of condensed matter containing deuterons and protons. This emerging field of CMNS is expected to give us strong impact on the future of basic sciences for energy-application, fundamental nuclear science, and condensed matter sciences.

  15. From holography towards real-world nuclear matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Si-wen; Schmitt, Andreas; Wang, Qun

    2015-07-01

    Quantum chromodynamics is notoriously difficult to solve at nonzero baryon density, and most models or effective theories of dense quark or nuclear matter are restricted to a particular density regime and/or a particular form of matter. Here we study dense (and mostly cold) matter within the holographic Sakai-Sugimoto model, aiming at a strong-coupling framework in the wide density range between nuclear saturation density and ultrahigh quark matter densities. The model contains only three parameters, and we ask whether it fulfills two basic requirements of real-world cold and dense matter, a first-order onset of nuclear matter and a chiral phase transition at high density to quark matter. Such a model would be extremely useful for astrophysical applications because it would provide a single equation of state for all densities relevant in a compact star. Our calculations are based on two approximations for baryonic matter—first, an instanton gas and, second, a homogeneous ansatz for the non-Abelian gauge fields on the flavor branes of the model. While the instanton gas shows chiral restoration at high densities but an unrealistic second-order baryon onset, the homogeneous ansatz behaves exactly the other way around. Our study, thus, provides all ingredients that are necessary for a more realistic model and allows for systematic improvements of the applied approximations.

  16. Nuclear and neutron matter studies

    SciTech Connect

    Wiringa, R.B.; Akmal, A.; Pandharipande, V.R.

    1995-08-01

    We are studying nuclear and neutron matter with the new Argonne v{sub 18} NN and Urbana 3N potentials. We use variational wave functions and a diagrammatic cluster expansion with Fermi hypernetted and single-operator chain (FHNC/SOC) integral equations to evaluate the energy expectation value. Initial results show some interesting differences with our previous calculations with the older Argonne v{sub 14} potential. In particular, there are a number of diagrams involving L{center_dot}S and L{sup 2} terms which were small with the older model and were rather crudely estimated or even neglected. It appears that these terms are more important with the new potential and will have to be evaluated more accurately. Work on this subject is in progress. A simple line of attack is to just add additional diagrams at the three-body cluster level. A longer term approach may be to adapt some of the methods for evaluating nucleon clusters used in the few-body and closed shell nuclei described above.

  17. Past and present of nuclear matter

    SciTech Connect

    Ritter, H.G.

    1994-05-01

    The subject of nuclear matter is interesting for many fields of physics ranging from condensed matter to lattice QCD. Knowing its properties is important for our understanding of neutron stars, supernovae and cosmology. Experimentally, we have the most precise information on ground state nuclear matter from the mass formula and from the systematics of monopole vibrations. This gives us the ground state density, binding energy and the compression modulus k at ground state density. However, those methods can not be extended towards the regime we are most interested in, the regime of high density and high temperature. Additional information can be obtained from the observation of neutron stars and of supernova explosions. In both cases information is limited by the rare events that nature provides for us. High energy heavy ion collisions, on the other hand, allow us to perform controlled experiments in the laboratory. For a very short period in time we can create a system that lets us study nuclear matter properties. Density and temperature of the system depend on the mass of the colliding nuclei, on their energy and on the impact parameter. The system created in nuclear collisions has at best about 200 constituents not even close to infinite nuclear matter, and it lasts only for collision times of {approx} 10{sup {minus}22}sec, not an ideal condition for establishing any kind of equilibrium. Extended size and thermal and chemical equilibrium, however, axe a priori conditions of nuclear matter. As a consequence we need realistic models that describe the collision dynamics and non-equilibrium effects in order to relate experimental observables to properties of nuclear matter. The study of high energy nuclear collisions started at the Bevalac. I will try to summarize the results from the Bevalac studies, the highlights of the continuing program, and extension to higher energies without claiming to be complete.

  18. Thermodynamics of Hot Nuclear Matter: 1978 in the Statistical Bootstrap Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafelski, Johann; Hagedorn, Rolf

    We formulate the statistical bootstrap model for nuclear matter, and study its resulting thermodynamic properties at nuclear densities below the saturation density. We discuss the relevance of limiting temperature and the phase transition gas-`liquid' when the volume of the fireball grows with its energy.

  19. Soliton matter as a model of dense nuclear matter

    SciTech Connect

    Glendenning, N.K.

    1985-01-01

    We employ the hybrid soliton model of the nucleon consisting of a topological meson field and deeply bound quarks to investigate the behavior of the quarks in soliton matter as a function of density. To organize the calculation, we place the solitons on a spatial lattice. The model suggests the transition of matter from a color insulator to a color conductor above a critical density of a few times normal nuclear density. 9 references, 5 figures.

  20. Nuclear Matters. A Practical Guide

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    likelihood of resuming underground nuclear testing, and accelerating dismantlement of retired weapons are all essential elements of a necessary path ...provide assurances that the lack of nuclear testing would not put the U.S. on a path to unintended unilateral disarmament (due to the forced retirement...unusual slant to BlueGene/L’s cabinets is a necessary design element to keep cooled air flowing properly around each cabinet’s 2,000-plus

  1. Nuclear charge and neutron radii and nuclear matter: Trend analysis in Skyrme density-functional-theory approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinhard, P.-G.; Nazarewicz, W.

    2016-05-01

    Background: Radii of charge and neutron distributions are fundamental nuclear properties. They depend on both nuclear interaction parameters related to the equation of state of infinite nuclear matter and on quantal shell effects, which are strongly impacted by the presence of nuclear surface. Purpose: In this work, by studying the correlation of charge and neutron radii, and neutron skin, with nuclear matter parameters, we assess different mechanisms that drive nuclear sizes. Method: We apply nuclear density functional theory using a family of Skyrme functionals obtained by means of optimization protocols, which do not include any radius information. By performing the Monte Carlo sampling of reasonable functionals around the optimal parametrization, we scan all correlations between nuclear matter properties and observables characterizing charge and neutron distributions of spherical closed-shell nuclei 48Ca,208Pb, and 298Fl. Results: By considering the influence of various nuclear matter properties on charge and neutron radii in a multidimensional parameter space of Skyrme functionals, we demonstrate the existence of two strong relationships: (i) between the nuclear charge radii and the saturation density of symmetric nuclear matter ρ0, and (ii) between the neutron skins and the slope of the symmetry energy L . The impact of other nuclear matter properties on nuclear radii is weak or nonexistent. For functionals optimized to experimental binding energies only, proton and neutron radii are found to be weakly correlated due to canceling trends from different nuclear matter characteristics. Conclusion: The existence of only two strong relations connecting nuclear radii with nuclear matter properties has important consequences. First, by requiring that the nuclear functional reproduces the empirical saturation point of symmetric nuclear matter practically fixes the charge (or proton) radii, and vice versa. This explains the recent results of ab initio calculations

  2. Boost-invariant description of nuclear matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Głazek, St.; Shakin, C. M.

    1991-09-01

    We present a self-consistent mean-field description of nuclear matter making use of light front dynamics and focus our attention on a model with nucleons coupled to scalar mesons. We derive the mean-field Dirac equation for nucleon separation energies. The nucleon-meson seagull interactions are included in the calculations. In the mean-field analysis, the nucleon momentum sum rule, which plays an important role in the description of deep-inelastic scattering from heavy nuclei, results from the thermodynamical consistency condition that there is no pressure at zero temperature. We obtain the same energy density of nuclear matter at rest as one derives in the instant form of dynamics. Our light front mean-field formalism describes nuclear matter in uniform motion at any possible velocity.

  3. Extreme States of Nuclear Matter: 1980

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafelski, Johann

    The theory of hot nuclear fireballs consisting of all possible finite-size hadronic constituents in chemical and thermal equilibrium is presented. As a complement of this hadronic gas phase characterized by maximal temperature and energy density, the quark bag description of the hadronic fireball is considered. Preliminary calculations of temperatures and mean transverse momenta of particles emitted in high multiplicity relativistic nuclear collisions together with some considerations on the observability of quark matter are offered.

  4. Probing Cold Dense Nuclear Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subedi, R.; Shneor, R.; Monaghan, P.; Anderson, B. D.; Aniol, K.; Annand, J.; Arrington, J.; Benaoum, H.; Benmokhtar, F.; Boeglin, W.; Chen, J.-P.; Choi, Seonho; Cisbani, E.; Craver, B.; Frullani, S.; Garibaldi, F.; Gilad, S.; Gilman, R.; Glamazdin, O.; Hansen, J.-O.; Higinbotham, D. W.; Holmstrom, T.; Ibrahim, H.; Igarashi, R.; de Jager, C. W.; Jans, E.; Jiang, X.; Kaufman, L. J.; Kelleher, A.; Kolarkar, A.; Kumbartzki, G.; LeRose, J. J.; Lindgren, R.; Liyanage, N.; Margaziotis, D. J.; Markowitz, P.; Marrone, S.; Mazouz, M.; Meekins, D.; Michaels, R.; Moffit, B.; Perdrisat, C. F.; Piasetzky, E.; Potokar, M.; Punjabi, V.; Qiang, Y.; Reinhold, J.; Ron, G.; Rosner, G.; Saha, A.; Sawatzky, B.; Shahinyan, A.; Širca, S.; Slifer, K.; Solvignon, P.; Sulkosky, V.; Urciuoli, G. M.; Voutier, E.; Watson, J. W.; Weinstein, L. B.; Wojtsekhowski, B.; Wood, S.; Zheng, X.-C.; Zhu, L.

    2008-06-01

    The protons and neutrons in a nucleus can form strongly correlated nucleon pairs. Scattering experiments, in which a proton is knocked out of the nucleus with high-momentum transfer and high missing momentum, show that in carbon-12 the neutron-proton pairs are nearly 20 times as prevalent as proton-proton pairs and, by inference, neutron-neutron pairs. This difference between the types of pairs is due to the nature of the strong force and has implications for understanding cold dense nuclear systems such as neutron stars.

  5. Probing cold dense nuclear matter.

    PubMed

    Subedi, R; Shneor, R; Monaghan, P; Anderson, B D; Aniol, K; Annand, J; Arrington, J; Benaoum, H; Benmokhtar, F; Boeglin, W; Chen, J-P; Choi, Seonho; Cisbani, E; Craver, B; Frullani, S; Garibaldi, F; Gilad, S; Gilman, R; Glamazdin, O; Hansen, J-O; Higinbotham, D W; Holmstrom, T; Ibrahim, H; Igarashi, R; de Jager, C W; Jans, E; Jiang, X; Kaufman, L J; Kelleher, A; Kolarkar, A; Kumbartzki, G; Lerose, J J; Lindgren, R; Liyanage, N; Margaziotis, D J; Markowitz, P; Marrone, S; Mazouz, M; Meekins, D; Michaels, R; Moffit, B; Perdrisat, C F; Piasetzky, E; Potokar, M; Punjabi, V; Qiang, Y; Reinhold, J; Ron, G; Rosner, G; Saha, A; Sawatzky, B; Shahinyan, A; Sirca, S; Slifer, K; Solvignon, P; Sulkosky, V; Urciuoli, G M; Voutier, E; Watson, J W; Weinstein, L B; Wojtsekhowski, B; Wood, S; Zheng, X-C; Zhu, L

    2008-06-13

    The protons and neutrons in a nucleus can form strongly correlated nucleon pairs. Scattering experiments, in which a proton is knocked out of the nucleus with high-momentum transfer and high missing momentum, show that in carbon-12 the neutron-proton pairs are nearly 20 times as prevalent as proton-proton pairs and, by inference, neutron-neutron pairs. This difference between the types of pairs is due to the nature of the strong force and has implications for understanding cold dense nuclear systems such as neutron stars.

  6. Probing Cold Dense Nuclear Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Subedi, Ramesh; Shneor, R.; Monaghan, Peter; Anderson, Bryon; Aniol, Konrad; Annand, John; Arrington, John; Benaoum, Hachemi; Benmokhtar, Fatiha; Bertozzi, William; Boeglin, Werner; Chen, Jian-Ping; Choi, Seonho; Cisbani, Evaristo; Craver, Brandon; Frullani, Salvatore; Garibaldi, Franco; Gilad, Shalev; Gilman, Ronald; Glamazdin, Oleksandr; Hansen, Jens-Ole; Higinbotham, Douglas; Holmstrom, Timothy; Ibrahim, Hassan; Igarashi, Ryuichi; De Jager, Cornelis; Jans, Eddy; Jiang, Xiaodong; Kaufman, Lisa; Kelleher, Aidan; Kolarkar, Ameya; Kumbartzki, Gerfried; LeRose, John; Lindgren, Richard; Liyanage, Nilanga; Margaziotis, Demetrius; Markowitz, Pete; Marrone, Stefano; Mazouz, Malek; Meekins, David; Michaels, Robert; Moffit, Bryan; Perdrisat, Charles; Piasetzky, Eliazer; Potokar, Milan; Punjabi, Vina; Qiang, Yi; Reinhold, Joerg; Ron, Guy; Rosner, Guenther; Saha, Arunava; Sawatzky, Bradley; Shahinyan, Albert; Sirca, Simon; Slifer, Karl; Solvignon, Patricia; Sulkosky, Vince; Sulkosky, Vincent; Sulkosky, Vince; Sulkosky, Vincent; Urciuoli, Guido; Voutier, Eric; Watson, John; Weinstein, Lawrence; Wojtsekhowski, Bogdan; Wood, Stephen; Zheng, Xiaochao; Zhu, Lingyan

    2008-06-01

    The protons and neutrons in a nucleus can form strongly correlated nucleon pairs. Scattering experiments, in which a proton is knocked out of the nucleus with high-momentum transfer and high missing momentum, show that in carbon-12 the neutron-proton pairs are nearly 20 times as prevalent as proton-proton pairs and, by inference, neutron-neutron pairs. This difference between the types of pairs is due to the nature of the strong force and has implications for understanding cold dense nuclear systems such as neutron stars.

  7. Nuclear and quark matter at high temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biró, Tamás S.; Jakovác, Antal; Schram, Zsolt

    2017-03-01

    We review important ideas on nuclear and quark matter description on the basis of high-temperature field theory concepts, like resummation, dimensional reduction, interaction scale separation and spectral function modification in media. Statistical and thermodynamical concepts are spotted in the light of these methods concentrating on the -partially still open- problems of the hadronization process.

  8. Relativistic mean-field hadronic models under nuclear matter constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutra, M.; Lourenço, O.; Avancini, S. S.; Carlson, B. V.; Delfino, A.; Menezes, D. P.; Providência, C.; Typel, S.; Stone, J. R.

    2014-11-01

    Background: The microscopic composition and properties of infinite hadronic matter at a wide range of densities and temperatures have been subjects of intense investigation for decades. The equation of state (EoS) relating pressure, energy density, and temperature at a given particle number density is essential for modeling compact astrophysical objects such as neutron stars, core-collapse supernovae, and related phenomena, including the creation of chemical elements in the universe. The EoS depends not only on the particles present in the matter, but, more importantly, also on the forces acting among them. Because a realistic and quantitative description of infinite hadronic matter and nuclei from first principles in not available at present, a large variety of phenomenological models has been developed in the past several decades, but the scarcity of experimental and observational data does not allow a unique determination of the adjustable parameters. Purpose: It is essential for further development of the field to determine the most realistic parameter sets and to use them consistently. Recently, a set of constraints on properties of nuclear matter was formed and the performance of 240 nonrelativistic Skyrme parametrizations was assessed [M. Dutra et al., Phys. Rev. C 85, 035201 (2012), 10.1103/PhysRevC.85.035201] in describing nuclear matter up to about three times nuclear saturation density. In the present work we examine 263 relativistic-mean-field (RMF) models in a comparable approach. These models have been widely used because of several important aspects not always present in nonrelativistic models, such as intrinsic Lorentz covariance, automatic inclusion of spin, appropriate saturation mechanism for nuclear matter, causality, and, therefore, no problems related to superluminal speed of sound in medium. Method: Three different sets of constraints related to symmetric nuclear matter, pure neutron matter, symmetry energy, and its derivatives were used. The

  9. Properties of nuclear matter from macroscopic-microscopic mass formulas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ning; Liu, Min; Ou, Li; Zhang, Yingxun

    2015-12-01

    Based on the standard Skyrme energy density functionals together with the extended Thomas-Fermi approach, the properties of symmetric and asymmetric nuclear matter represented in two macroscopic-microscopic mass formulas: Lublin-Strasbourg nuclear drop energy (LSD) formula and Weizsäcker-Skyrme (WS*) formula, are extracted through matching the energy per particle of finite nuclei. For LSD and WS*, the obtained incompressibility coefficients of symmetric nuclear matter are K∞ = 230 ± 11 MeV and 235 ± 11 MeV, respectively. The slope parameter of symmetry energy at saturation density is L = 41.6 ± 7.6 MeV for LSD and 51.5 ± 9.6 MeV for WS*, respectively, which is compatible with the liquid-drop analysis of Lattimer and Lim [4]. The density dependence of the mean-field isoscalar and isovector effective mass, and the neutron-proton effective masses splitting for neutron matter are simultaneously investigated. The results are generally consistent with those from the Skyrme Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov calculations and nucleon optical potentials, and the standard deviations are large and increase rapidly with density. A better constraint for the effective mass is helpful to reduce uncertainties of the depth of the mean-field potential.

  10. Probing nuclear matter with jet conversions

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, W.; Fries, R. J.

    2008-05-15

    We discuss the flavor of leading jet partons as a valuable probe of nuclear matter. We point out that the coupling of jets to nuclear matter naturally leads to an alteration of jet chemistry even at high transverse momentum p{sub T}. In particular, quantum chromodynamics (QCD) jets coupling to a chemically equilibrated quark gluon plasma in nuclear collisions will lead to hadron ratios at high transverse momentum p{sub T} that can differ significantly from their counterparts in p+p collisions. Flavor measurements could complement energy loss as a way to study interactions of hard QCD jets with nuclear matter. Roughly speaking they probe the inverse mean free path 1/{lambda} while energy loss probes the average squared momentum transfer {mu}{sup 2}/{lambda}. We present some estimates for the rate of jet conversions in a consistent Fokker-Planck framework and their impact on future high-p{sub T} identified hadron measurements at RHIC and LHC. We also suggest some novel observables to test flavor effects.

  11. Wanted! Nuclear Data for Dark Matter Astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Gondolo, P.

    2014-06-15

    Astronomical observations from small galaxies to the largest scales in the universe can be consistently explained by the simple idea of dark matter. The nature of dark matter is however still unknown. Empirically it cannot be any of the known particles, and many theories postulate it as a new elementary particle. Searches for dark matter particles are under way: production at high-energy accelerators, direct detection through dark matter-nucleus scattering, indirect detection through cosmic rays, gamma rays, or effects on stars. Particle dark matter searches rely on observing an excess of events above background, and a lot of controversies have arisen over the origin of observed excesses. With the new high-quality cosmic ray measurements from the AMS-02 experiment, the major uncertainty in modeling cosmic ray fluxes is in the nuclear physics cross sections for spallation and fragmentation of cosmic rays off interstellar hydrogen and helium. The understanding of direct detection backgrounds is limited by poor knowledge of cosmic ray activation in detector materials, with order of magnitude differences between simulation codes. A scarcity of data on nucleon spin densities blurs the connection between dark matter theory and experiments. What is needed, ideally, are more and better measurements of spallation cross sections relevant to cosmic rays and cosmogenic activation, and data on the nucleon spin densities in nuclei.

  12. Wanted! Nuclear Data for Dark Matter Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gondolo, P.

    2014-06-01

    Astronomical observations from small galaxies to the largest scales in the universe can be consistently explained by the simple idea of dark matter. The nature of dark matter is however still unknown. Empirically it cannot be any of the known particles, and many theories postulate it as a new elementary particle. Searches for dark matter particles are under way: production at high-energy accelerators, direct detection through dark matter-nucleus scattering, indirect detection through cosmic rays, gamma rays, or effects on stars. Particle dark matter searches rely on observing an excess of events above background, and a lot of controversies have arisen over the origin of observed excesses. With the new high-quality cosmic ray measurements from the AMS-02 experiment, the major uncertainty in modeling cosmic ray fluxes is in the nuclear physics cross sections for spallation and fragmentation of cosmic rays off interstellar hydrogen and helium. The understanding of direct detection backgrounds is limited by poor knowledge of cosmic ray activation in detector materials, with order of magnitude differences between simulation codes. A scarcity of data on nucleon spin densities blurs the connection between dark matter theory and experiments. What is needed, ideally, are more and better measurements of spallation cross sections relevant to cosmic rays and cosmogenic activation, and data on the nucleon spin densities in nuclei.

  13. Variational calculation for the equation of state of nuclear matter at finite temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanzawa, H.; Oyamatsu, K.; Sumiyoshi, K.; Takano, M.

    2007-07-01

    An equation of state (EOS) for uniform nuclear matter is constructed at zero and finite temperatures with the variational method starting from the realistic nuclear Hamiltonian composed of the Argonne V18 and UIX potentials. The energy is evaluated in the two-body cluster approximation with the three-body-force contribution treated phenomenologically so as to reproduce the empirical saturation conditions. The obtained energies for symmetric nuclear matter and neutron matter at zero temperature are in fair agreement with those by Akmal, Pandharipande and Ravenhall, and the maximum mass of the neutron star is 2.2M. At finite temperatures, a variational method by Schmidt and Pandharipande is employed to evaluate the free energy, which is used to derive various thermodynamic quantities of nuclear matter necessary for supernova simulations. The result of this variational method at finite temperatures is found to be self-consistent.

  14. Nuclear matter properties with nucleon-nucleon forces up to fifth order in the chiral expansion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Jinniu; Zhang, Ying; Epelbaum, Evgeny; Meißner, Ulf-G.; Meng, Jie

    2017-09-01

    The properties of nuclear matter are studied using state-of-the-art nucleon-nucleon forces up to fifth order in chiral effective field theory. The equations of state of symmetric nuclear matter and pure neutron matter are calculated in the framework of the Brueckner-Hartree-Fock theory. We discuss in detail the convergence pattern of the chiral expansion and the regulator dependence of the calculated equations of state and provide an estimation of the truncation uncertainty. For all employed values of the regulator, the fifth-order chiral two-nucleon potential is found to generate nuclear saturation properties similar to the available phenomenological high precision potentials. We also extract the symmetry energy of nuclear matter, which is shown to be quite robust with respect to the chiral order and the value of the regulator.

  15. Neutrinos, Dark Matter and Nuclear Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, W H; Bernstein, A; Craig, W W; Johnson, M

    2007-05-29

    Solutions to problems in nuclear non-proliferation and counter-terrorism may be found at the forefront of modern physics. Neutrino oscillation experiments, dark matter searches, and high energy astrophysics, are based on technology advances that have may also have application to nuclear detection. The detection problems share many characteristics, including energy scales, time structures, particle-type, and, of course, the combination of high backgrounds and low signal levels. This convergence of basic and applied physics is realized in non-proliferation and homeland security projects at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Examples described here include reactor anti-neutrino monitoring, dual-phase noble liquid TPC development, gamma-ray telescopes, and nuclear resonance fluorescence.

  16. Elementary diagrams in nuclear and neutron matter

    SciTech Connect

    Wiringa, R.B.

    1995-08-01

    Variational calculations of nuclear and neutron matter are currently performed using a diagrammatic cluster expansion with the aid of nonlinear integral equations for evaluating expectation values. These are the Fermi hypernetted chain (FHNC) and single-operator chain (SOC) equations, which are a way of doing partial diagram summations to infinite order. A more complete summation can be made by adding elementary diagrams to the procedure. The simplest elementary diagrams appear at the four-body cluster level; there is one such E{sub 4} diagram in Bose systems, but 35 diagrams in Fermi systems, which gives a level of approximation called FHNC/4. We developed a novel technique for evaluating these diagrams, by computing and storing 6 three-point functions, S{sub xyz}(r{sub 12}, r{sub 13}, r{sub 23}), where xyz (= ccd, cce, ddd, dde, dee, or eee) denotes the exchange character at the vertices 1, 2, and 3. All 35 Fermi E{sub 4} diagrams can be constructed from these 6 functions and other two-point functions that are already calculated. The elementary diagrams are known to be important in some systems like liquid {sup 3}He. We expect them to be small in nuclear matter at normal density, but they might become significant at higher densities appropriate for neutron star calculations. This year we programmed the FHNC/4 contributions to the energy and tested them in a number of simple model cases, including liquid {sup 3}He and Bethe`s homework problem. We get reasonable, but not exact agreement with earlier published work. In nuclear and neutron matter with the Argonne v{sub 14} interaction these contributions are indeed small corrections at normal density and grow to only 5-10 MeV/nucleon at 5 times normal density.

  17. Is nuclear matter a quantum crystal?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canuto, V.; Chitre, S. M.

    1973-01-01

    A possible alternative to the ordinary gas-like computation for nuclear matter is investigated under the assumption that the nucleons are arranged in a lattice. BCC, FCC and HCP structures are investigated. Only HCP shows a minimum in the energy vs. density curve with a modest binding energy of -1.5 MeV. The very low density limit is investigated and sensible results are obtained only if the tensor force decreases with the density. A study of the elastic properties indicates that the previous structures are mechanically unstable against shearing stresses.

  18. Hadronization measurements in cold nuclear matter

    SciTech Connect

    Dupre, Raphael

    2015-05-01

    Hadronization is the non-perturbative process of QCD by which partons become hadrons. It has been studied at high energies through various processes, we focus here on the experiments of lepto-production of hadrons in cold nuclear matter. By studying the dependence of observables to the atomic number of the target, these experimentscan give information on the dynamic of the hadronization at the femtometer scale. In particular, we will present preliminary results from JLab Hall B (CLAS collaboration), which give unprecedented statistical precision. Then, we will present results of a phenomenological study showing how HERMES data can be described with pure energyloss models.

  19. Hot nuclear matter in the static fluctuation approximation

    SciTech Connect

    Ghulam, N. M.; Ghassib, H. B.; Al-Sugheir, M. K.

    2007-06-15

    In this work, the bulk and thermodynamic properties of nonrelativistic hot nuclear matter--the mean internal energy per unit volume, the saturation density and the corresponding internal energy per nucleon, the pressure, the entropy per unit volume, the heat capacity per unit volume, and the chemical potential--are studied within the static fluctuation approximation (SFA). The basic input is the well-known Reid68 and Reid93 soft-core potentials, with special emphasis on three channels that have different spin and isospin--namely, the {sup 1}S{sub 0}-channel as well as the {sup 3}S{sub 1}-{sup 3}D{sub 1} and {sup 3}P{sub 2}-{sup 3}F{sub 2} coupled channels. Finally, a full-fledged calculation is presented using the Reid93 potential for all channels J{<=}2. Wherever possible, comparisons are made with previous calculations. It is concluded that SFA is valid for hot nuclear matter over a wide range of temperatures ({<=}50 MeV)

  20. The Thermal Properties of Asymmetric Nuclear Matter within the Extended Brueckner-Hartree-Fock Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassaneen, Khaled; Mansour, Hesham

    2017-02-01

    The single-particle potentials and other properties at absolute zero temperature in isospin asymmetric nuclear matter are investigated in the frame of an extended Brueckner theory. Also thermal quantities are calculated in asymmetric nuclear matter using CD-Bonn potential and the Urbana three-body forces (3BF). Also, the effects of the hole-hole contributions are investigated within the self-consistent Greens function approach. The inclusion of 3BF or the hole-hole contributions improves the predicted saturation property of symmetric nuclear matter within the Brueckner-Hartree-Fock approach and it leads to a significant stiffening of the density dependence of symmetry energy at high densities but the exact saturation point is not reproduced. This is of great importance in astrophysical calculation. A phenomenological term simulating the three-body interaction is introduced to assure the empirical saturation property. The hot properties of asymmetric nuclear matter such as the internal energy and the pressure are analyzed using T2-approximation method at low temperatures.

  1. Covariant and self-consistent vertex corrections for pions and isobars in nuclear matter

    SciTech Connect

    Korpa, C. L.; Lutz, M. F. M.; Riek, F.

    2009-08-15

    We evaluate the pion and isobar propagators in cold nuclear matter self-consistently applying a covariant form of the isobar-hole model. Migdal's vertex correction effects are considered systematically in the absence of phenomenological soft form factors. Saturated nuclear matter is modeled by scalar and vector mean fields for the nucleon. It is shown that the short-range dressing of the {pi}N{delta} vertex has a significant effect on the pion and isobar properties. Using realistic parameters sets we predict a downward shift of about 50 MeV for the {delta} resonance at nuclear saturation density. The pionic soft modes are much less pronounced than in previous studies.

  2. Approximate analytical solution for nuclear matter in a mean-field Walecka model and Coester line behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Delfino, A.; Silva, J.B.; Malheiro, M.

    2006-03-15

    We study nuclear matter, at the mean-field approximation, by considering as equal the values of the scalar and the vector density in the Walecka model, which is a very reasonable approximation up to the nuclear matter saturation density. It turns out that the model has an analytical solution for the scalar and vector couplings as functions only of the nuclear matter density and binding energy. The nuclear matter properties are very close to the original version of the model. This solution allows us to show that the correlation between the binding energy and the saturation density is Coester line like. The liquid-gas phase transition is also studied and the critical and flash temperatures are again very similar to the original ones.

  3. Particle-hole states in nuclear matter

    SciTech Connect

    Matyas, C.A.

    1985-01-01

    This work deals with the collective excitations in nuclear matter, from the point of view of the TDA approximation. Our calculations involved the construction of a Hamiltonian, expressed as a matrix in the space of particle-hole excitations with a given momentum transfer. We used in this Hamiltonian an average single nucleon potential, and (in some cases) an effective interaction obtained for the potential HEA in the relativistic Brueckner-Hartree Fock theory. The eigenvectors of the TDA-Hamiltonian were used to compute the strength of the collective response of nuclear matter to external probes. Our results, succinctly described in the last section, are summarized in a set of figures at the end of this monograph. The specific form of the TDA equations that we used, and the procedure to calculate the degree of collectivity of the solutions, is studied in detail in the fifth chapter. A derivation of the TDA equations, and a discussion of the solutions for a separable potential, is given in the fourth chapter. The structure of a non-relativistic potential for a system of two nucleons is examined in the third chapter, in several representations. On the other hand, the particle-hole states relevant to our discussions on the TDA equations are introduced in the first two chapters.

  4. Parametrization of light nuclei quasiparticle energy shifts and composition of warm and dense nuclear matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Röpke, G.

    2011-10-01

    Correlations and the formation of bound states (nuclei) are essential for the properties of nuclear matter in equilibrium as well as in nonequilibrium. In a quantum statistical approach, quasiparticle energies are obtained for the light elements that reflect the influence of the medium. We present analytical fits for the quasiparticle energy shifts of light nuclei that can be used in various applications. This is a prerequisite for the investigation of warm and dense matter that reproduces the nuclear statistical equilibrium and virial expansions in the low-density limit as well as relativistic mean field and Brueckner Hartree-Fock approaches near saturation density.

  5. Angular correlations from particle-particle propagation in symmetric nuclear matter

    SciTech Connect

    Arellano, H. F.; Delaroche, J.-P.

    2010-08-04

    Angular correlations arising from particle-particle propagation in nuclear matter are presented. Their account emerges from an exact treatment of the Pauli blocking on intermediate states while retaining the angular structure of the energy denominator. As a result, a correlation form factor appears from the Cauchy principal-value of the particle-particle propagator, while the imaginary part becomes structurally different from those in Lippmann-Schwinger-type equations. In selfconsistent runs these features alter the behavior of the mass operator near the Fermi surface, modifying the saturation properties of infinite nuclear matter.

  6. Unveiling saturation effects from nuclear structure function measurements at the EIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marquet, Cyrille; Moldes, Manoel R.; Zurita, Pía

    2017-09-01

    We analyze the possibility of extracting a clear signal of non-linear parton saturation effects from future measurements of nuclear structure functions at the Electron-Ion Collider (EIC), in the small-x region. Our approach consists in generating pseudodata for electron-gold collisions, using the running-coupling Balitsky-Kovchegov evolution equation, and in assessing the compatibility of these saturated pseudodata with existing sets of nuclear parton distribution functions (nPDFs), extrapolated if necessary. The level of disagreement between the two is quantified by applying a Bayesian reweighting technique. This allows to infer the parton distributions needed in order to describe the pseudodata, which we find quite different from the actual distributions, especially for sea quarks and gluons. This tension suggests that, should saturation effects impact the future nuclear structure function data as predicted, a successful refitting of the nPDFs may not be achievable, which would unambiguously signal the presence of non-linear effects.

  7. Relativistic calculation of the pion loop correlation energy in nuclear matter in a theory including confinement

    SciTech Connect

    Massot, E.; Chanfray, G.

    2009-07-15

    We present a relativistic calculation of the saturation properties of nuclear matter which contains the correlation energy. Pion loops are incorporated on top of a relativistic Hartree-Fock (RHF) approach based on a chiral theory. It includes the effect of nucleon structure through its response to the background chiral invariant scalar field. All the parameters which enter the RHF calculation are fixed or strongly constrained by hadron phenomenology or lattice data. The new input for the correlation energy is the Landau-Migdal parameter g{sup '} governing the short-range part of the spin-isospin interaction. We find that the inclusion of the correlation energy improves the description of the saturation properties of nuclear matter.

  8. Recent progress on dense nuclear matter in skyrmion approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, YongLiang; Rho, Mannque

    2017-03-01

    The Skyrme model provides a novel unified approach to nuclear physics. In this approach, single baryon, baryonic matter and medium-modified hadron properties are treated on the same footing. Intrinsic density dependence (IDD) reflecting the change of vacuum by compressed baryonic matter figures naturally in the approach. In this article, we review the recent progress on accessing dense nuclear matter by putting baryons treated as solitons, namely, skyrmions, on crystal lattice with accents on the implications in compact stars.

  9. Recent progress on dense nuclear matter in skyrmion approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, YongLiang; Rho, Mannque

    2017-03-01

    The Skyrme model provides a novel unified approach to nuclear physics. In this approach, single baryon, baryonic matter and medium-modified hadron properties are treated on the same footing. Intrinsic density dependence (IDD) reflecting the change of vacuum by compressed baryonic matter figures naturally in the approach. In this article, we review the recent progress on accessing dense nuclear matter by putting baryons treated as solitons, namely, skyrmions, on crystal lattice with accents on the implications in compact stars.

  10. Nuclear matter properties from local chiral interactions with Δ isobar intermediate states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Logoteta, Domenico; Bombaci, Ignazio; Kievsky, Alejandro

    2016-12-01

    Using two-nucleon and three-nucleon interactions derived in the framework of chiral perturbation theory (ChPT) with and without the explicit Δ isobar contributions, we calculate the energy per particle of symmetric nuclear matter and pure neutron matter in the framework of the microscopic Brueckner-Hartree-Fock approach. In particular, we present for the first time nuclear matter calculations using the new fully local in coordinate-space two-nucleon interaction at the next-to-next-to-next-to-leading-order (N3LO) of ChPT with Δ isobar intermediate states (N 3 LO Δ ) recently developed by Piarulli et al. [arXiv:1606.06335]. We find that using this N 3 LO Δ potential, supplemented with a local N2LO three-nucleon interaction with explicit Δ isobar degrees of freedom, it is possible to obtain a satisfactory saturation point of symmetric nuclear matter. For this combination of two- and three-nucleon interactions we also calculate the nuclear symmetry energy and we compare our results with the empirical constraints on this quantity obtained using the excitation energies to isobaric analog states in nuclei and using experimental data on the neutron skin thickness of heavy nuclei, finding a very good agreement in all the considered nucleonic density range. In addition, we find that the explicit inclusion of Δ isobars diminishes the strength of the three-nucleon interactions needed to get a good saturation point of symmetric nuclear matter. We also compare the results of our calculations with those obtained by other research groups using chiral nuclear interactions with different many-body methods, finding in many cases a very satisfactory agreement.

  11. Phases of kinky holographic nuclear matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliot-Ripley, Matthew; Sutcliffe, Paul; Zamaklar, Marija

    2016-10-01

    Holographic QCD at finite baryon number density and zero temperature is studied within the five-dimensional Sakai-Sugimoto model. We introduce a new approximation that models a smeared crystal of solitonic baryons by assuming spatial homogeneity to obtain an effective kink theory in the holographic direction. The kink theory correctly reproduces a first order phase transition to lightly bound nuclear matter. As the density is further increased the kink splits into a pair of half-kink constituents, providing a concrete realization of the previously suggested dyonic salt phase, where the bulk soliton splits into constituents at high density. The kink model also captures the phenomenon of baryonic popcorn, in which a first order phase transition generates an additional soliton layer in the holographic direction. We find that this popcorn transition takes place at a density below the dyonic salt phase, making the latter energetically unfavourable. However, the kink model predicts only one pop, rather than the sequence of pops suggested by previous approximations. In the kink model the two layers produced by the single pop form the surface of a soliton bag that increases in size as the baryon chemical potential is increased. The interior of the bag is filled with abelian electric potential and the instanton charge density is localized on the surface of the bag. The soliton bag may provide a holographic description of a quarkyonic phase.

  12. Sigma meson in vacuum and nuclear matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menchaca-Maciel, M. C.; Morones-Ibarra, J. R.

    2013-04-01

    We have obtained the value of the interaction constant g σππ that adjusts the values obtained in the E791 Collaboration at Fermilab and BES Collaboration at the Beijing Electron Positron Collider experiments. To get this we have used the concept of critical width to make compatible the parameters obtained from the Breit-Wigner formula and those obtained from the density function. Also, the total width and effective mass modification of the sigma meson in nuclear matter has been studied in the Walecka model, assuming that the sigma couples to a pair of nucleon-antinucleon states and to particle-hole states, including the in-medium effect of sigma-omega mixing. We have considered, for completeness, the coupling of sigma to two virtual pions. We have found that the sigma meson mass decreases with respect to its value in vacuum and that the contribution of the sigma-omega mixing effect on the mass shift is relevant.

  13. Scattering of dressed nucleons in nuclear matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickhoff, W. H.

    1998-11-01

    The scattering of dressed nucleons in nuclear matter is studied. By casting the conventional asymptotic analysis of scattering in free space in the language of the two-body propagator, it becomes possible to develop modifications of this analysis due to the dressing of the scattering nucleons in the medium. While the scattering energy singles out a unique (on-shell) momentum characterizing the relative wave function of free or mean-field nucleons, this uniqueness is no longer maintained for dressed nucleons. The resulting distribution of momenta in the relative wave function leads to a localization in coordinate space of the influence of the scattering process which can be expressed as a healing of the wave function to the noninteracting one. An analytic approximation to the noninteracting propagator of the dressed nucleons is utilized to illustrate these points. The localization of the scattered wave implies that the particles no longer ``remember'' their scattering event beyond some finite distance. This feature suggests that the strict notion of a cross section in the medium is a tenuous concept. Approximate expressions are developed to characterize the strength of the interaction in the medium in terms of phase shifts and cross sections to facilitate comparisons with results of calculations involving mean-field nucleons.

  14. Realistic calculations of excitations in nuclear matter

    SciTech Connect

    Kwong, N.H.

    1983-01-01

    A numerical method has been developed to solve the RPA equation, exchange term included, in nuclear matter. The dynamic form factor S(q,w) is extracted for several v4 and v6 phenomenological potentials, including the d1-potential of Gogny et al. The limits of validity of the long-wavelength (Landau) approximation and the often adopted local-kernel approximation are discussed. Substantial disagreements with the exact results are found for the latter. The method is then applied to solve a Jastrow-correlated extension of the RPA equation, using the hardcore OMY potential. Results of calculations performed in two-body cluster approximation and Fermi-Hypernetted-Chain (FHNC) approximation are compared. The two-body results predict an instability against density fluctuations, which disappears at the FHNC level. The validity and consequences of employing the FHNC effective potential within the self-consistent HF/RPA framework are discussed. Future developments include applying the method to other Fermi systems such as liquid /sup 3/He and the microscopic calculation of Landau parameters.

  15. Effect of Natural Organic Matter on Lincomycin Transport in Saturated Porous Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, W.; Zhao, Y.; Lin, K.; Ding, Y.; Tian, Y.; Li, H.

    2012-12-01

    Antibiotics such as lincomycin are often administered in animal feeding operations and secreted into animal manure, and therefore are becoming contaminants of emerging concerns. Once released into the environment, antibiotics are very likely exposed to natural organic matter (NOM). Considering elevated environmental concentrations of antibiotics and the spreading of antibiotic resistance among microorganisms, understanding antibiotics transport processes becomes very important to assessing environmental impact of pharmaceutical release and protecting human and ecological health. This study aims to investigate how NOM influences the transport of lincomycin in saturated Ottawa sand through column experiments with and without the presence of Na- or Ca-saturated Elliott Soil Humic Acid (ESHA) at three pH levels (i.e., 4, 7, 9). Our preliminary results indicated that at near neutral pH lincomycin was more retained in the presence of 7 mg C/L Na-saturated ESHA compared to the experiments in the deionized water of pH 7. Since the Na-saturated ESHA was less retained compared to lincomycin, it is likely that the ESHA adsorbed on the sand surface facilitated the lincomycin retention due to lincomyin-NOM interaction. Future study will examine the effect of solution pH and the different type of saturating cations (Na or Ca). This study will help better understand the fate and transport of lincomycin in the subsurface environment.

  16. Soil organic matter and land use change: the effect of soil carbon saturation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Six, J. W.; Carrington, E. M.

    2011-12-01

    Land management affects soil organic carbon (SOC) storage through the balance between inputs and outputs, the structural and functional complexity of plant and microbial communities, alterations to microbial processes and activity, and changes to edaphic soil conditions. An ultimate determinant on the rate of accumulation and total C storage potential of a soil, however, is its inherent capacity to protect organic matter within the soil matrix, i.e. soil C saturation. As a soil approaches its soil C saturation level, i.e. finite aggregate and mineral protective capacity, limits the C sequestration potential of a soil. For this reason, the preexisting amount and distribution of soil C in protected soil C pools, in addition to the soil's capacity for stabilization, must be considered when predicting effects of land management change on SOC stocks. Evidence points to the amount, type, and location of silt and clay-sized particles, as well as the soil's inherent potential for aggregate formation, as the main controlling factors of soil C saturation. The innate biochemistry of uncomplexed soil organic matter does not appear to affect soil C saturation, nor does it interact with protective mechanisms at high SOC loadings. This confirms that C saturation level cannot be modified though management of C input quality. Land use induced changes to a soil's physical matrix, such as preferential erosion of smaller particles or soil compaction, could, however, have irreversible threshold effects on a soil's potential for organic matter stabilization. Experiments in agricultural and grassland systems have determined saturating responses of soils and functional soil fractions (i.e. chemical-protection by associations with silt and clay, physical-protection by occlusion in aggregates, and a combination of physical and chemical protection in aggregated silt and clay) to equilibrium C inputs, or C input proxies, such as CO2 or total SOC. Estimates of C saturation parameters for

  17. Equation of state for nucleonic matter and its quark mass dependence from the nuclear force in lattice QCD.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Takashi; Aoki, Sinya; Doi, Takumi; Hatsuda, Tetsuo; Ikeda, Yoichi; Ishii, Noriyoshi; Murano, Keiko; Nemura, Hidekatsu; Sasaki, Kenji

    2013-09-13

    Quark mass dependence of the equation of state (EOS) for nucleonic matter is investigated, on the basis of the Brueckner-Hartree-Fock method with the nucleon-nucleon interaction extracted from lattice QCD simulations. We observe saturation of nuclear matter at the lightest available quark mass corresponding to the pseudoscalar meson mass ≃469  MeV. Mass-radius relation of the neutron stars is also studied with the EOS for neutron-star matter from the same nuclear force in lattice QCD. We observe that the EOS becomes stiffer and thus the maximum mass of neutron star increases as the quark mass decreases toward the physical point.

  18. Nuclear Matter Stability in a Soliton Model for Finite Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derreth, Ch.; Elze, H.-Th.; Greiner, W.

    A relativistic band structure method for the computation of the electronic structure of atomic clusters is adapter to the Friedberg-Lee nontopological soliton model. Thus, finite nuclei can be studied in the soliton model. As a verification of our method, we calculated the equation of state of nuclear matter. In order to achieve nuclear matter stability, we added the colour magnetic interaction for an inhomogeneous dielectric medium as well as a phenomenological residual interaction to the soliton model. Both modifications are examined in detail. Nuclear matter stability near the empirical ground state density and binding energy has been achieved.

  19. Functional renormalization group study of nuclear and neutron matter

    SciTech Connect

    Drews, Matthias; Weise, Wolfram

    2016-01-22

    A chiral model based on nucleons interacting via boson exchange is investigated. Fluctuation effects are included consistently beyond the mean-field approximation in the framework of the functional renormalization group. The liquid-gas phase transition of symmetric nuclear matter is studied in detail. No sign of a chiral restoration transition is found up to temperatures of about 100 MeV and densities of at least three times the density of normal nuclear matter. Moreover, the model is extended to asymmetric nuclear matter and the constraints from neutron star observations are discussed.

  20. Functional renormalization group studies of nuclear and neutron matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drews, Matthias; Weise, Wolfram

    2017-03-01

    Functional renormalization group (FRG) methods applied to calculations of isospin-symmetric and asymmetric nuclear matter as well as neutron matter are reviewed. The approach is based on a chiral Lagrangian expressed in terms of nucleon and meson degrees of freedom as appropriate for the hadronic phase of QCD with spontaneously broken chiral symmetry. Fluctuations beyond mean-field approximation are treated solving Wetterich's FRG flow equations. Nuclear thermodynamics and the nuclear liquid-gas phase transition are investigated in detail, both in symmetric matter and as a function of the proton fraction in asymmetric matter. The equations of state at zero temperature of symmetric nuclear matter and pure neutron matter are found to be in good agreement with advanced ab-initio many-body computations. Contacts with perturbative many-body approaches (in-medium chiral perturbation theory) are discussed. As an interesting test case, the density dependence of the pion mass in the medium is investigated. The question of chiral symmetry restoration in nuclear and neutron matter is addressed. A stabilization of the phase with spontaneously broken chiral symmetry is found to persist up to high baryon densities once fluctuations beyond mean-field are included. Neutron star matter including beta equilibrium is discussed under the aspect of the constraints imposed by the existence of two-solar-mass neutron stars.

  1. Nuclear overhauser enhancement mediated chemical exchange saturation transfer imaging at 7 Tesla in glioblastoma patients.

    PubMed

    Paech, Daniel; Zaiss, Moritz; Meissner, Jan-Eric; Windschuh, Johannes; Wiestler, Benedikt; Bachert, Peter; Neumann, Jan Oliver; Kickingereder, Philipp; Schlemmer, Heinz-Peter; Wick, Wolfgang; Nagel, Armin Michael; Heiland, Sabine; Ladd, Mark Edward; Bendszus, Martin; Radbruch, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear Overhauser Enhancement (NOE) mediated chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) is a novel magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique on the basis of saturation transfer between exchanging protons of tissue proteins and bulk water. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the information provided by three dimensional NOE mediated CEST at 7 Tesla (7T) and standard MRI in glioblastoma patients. Twelve patients with newly diagnosed histologically proven glioblastoma were enrolled in this prospective ethics committee-approved study. NOE mediated CEST contrast was acquired with a modified three-dimensional gradient-echo sequence and asymmetry analysis was conducted at 3.3 ppm (B1 = 0.7 µT) to calculate the magnetization transfer ratio asymmetry (MTR(asym)). Contrast enhanced T1 (CE-T1) and T2-weighted images were acquired at 3T and used for data co-registration and comparison. Mean NOE mediated CEST signal based on MTR(asym) values over all patients was significantly increased (p<0.001) in CE-T1 tumor (-1.99 ± 1.22%), tumor necrosis (-1.36 ± 1.30%) and peritumoral CEST hyperintensities (PTCH) within T2 edema margins (-3.56 ± 1.24%) compared to contralateral normal appearing white matter (-8.38 ± 1.19%). In CE-T1 tumor (p = 0.015) and tumor necrosis (p<0.001) mean MTR(asym) values were significantly higher than in PTCH. Extent of the surrounding tumor hyperintensity was smaller in eight out of 12 patients on CEST than on T2-weighted images, while four displayed at equal size. In all patients, isolated high intensity regions (0.40 ± 2.21%) displayed on CEST within the CE-T1 tumor that were not discernible on CE-T1 or T2-weighted images. NOE mediated CEST Imaging at 7 T provides additional information on the structure of peritumoral hyperintensities in glioblastoma and displays isolated high intensity regions within the CE-T1 tumor that cannot be acquired on CE-T1 or T2-weighted images. Further research is needed to determine the origin of NOE

  2. Nuclear Overhauser Enhancement Mediated Chemical Exchange Saturation Transfer Imaging at 7 Tesla in Glioblastoma Patients

    PubMed Central

    Paech, Daniel; Zaiss, Moritz; Meissner, Jan-Eric; Windschuh, Johannes; Wiestler, Benedikt; Bachert, Peter; Neumann, Jan Oliver; Kickingereder, Philipp; Schlemmer, Heinz-Peter; Wick, Wolfgang; Nagel, Armin Michael; Heiland, Sabine; Ladd, Mark Edward; Bendszus, Martin; Radbruch, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Nuclear Overhauser Enhancement (NOE) mediated chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) is a novel magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique on the basis of saturation transfer between exchanging protons of tissue proteins and bulk water. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the information provided by three dimensional NOE mediated CEST at 7 Tesla (7T) and standard MRI in glioblastoma patients. Patients and Methods Twelve patients with newly diagnosed histologically proven glioblastoma were enrolled in this prospective ethics committee–approved study. NOE mediated CEST contrast was acquired with a modified three-dimensional gradient-echo sequence and asymmetry analysis was conducted at 3.3ppm (B1 = 0.7 µT) to calculate the magnetization transfer ratio asymmetry (MTRasym). Contrast enhanced T1 (CE-T1) and T2-weighted images were acquired at 3T and used for data co-registration and comparison. Results Mean NOE mediated CEST signal based on MTRasym values over all patients was significantly increased (p<0.001) in CE-T1 tumor (−1.99±1.22%), tumor necrosis (−1.36±1.30%) and peritumoral CEST hyperintensities (PTCH) within T2 edema margins (−3.56±1.24%) compared to contralateral normal appearing white matter (−8.38±1.19%). In CE-T1 tumor (p = 0.015) and tumor necrosis (p<0.001) mean MTRasym values were significantly higher than in PTCH. Extent of the surrounding tumor hyperintensity was smaller in eight out of 12 patients on CEST than on T2-weighted images, while four displayed at equal size. In all patients, isolated high intensity regions (0.40±2.21%) displayed on CEST within the CE-T1 tumor that were not discernible on CE-T1 or T2-weighted images. Conclusion NOE mediated CEST Imaging at 7T provides additional information on the structure of peritumoral hyperintensities in glioblastoma and displays isolated high intensity regions within the CE-T1 tumor that cannot be acquired on CE-T1 or T2-weighted

  3. Isovector response function of hot nuclear matter with Skyrme interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Braghin, F.L.; Vautherin, D.; Abada, A.

    1995-11-01

    We investigate the role of the effective nucleon-nucleon interaction in the description of giant dipole resonances in hot nuclei. For this purpose we calculate the response function of hot nuclear matter to a small isovector external perturbation using various effective Skyrme interactions. We find that for Skyrme forces with an effective mass close to unity an undamped zero sound mode occurs at zero temperature. This mode gives rise in finite nuclei (calculated via the Steinwedel-Jenssen model) to a resonance whose energy agrees with the observed value. We find that zero sound disappears at a temperature of a few MeV, leaving only a broad peak in the dipole strength. For Skyrme forces with a small value of the effective mass (0.4), there is no zero sound at zero temperature but only a weak peak located too high in energy. The strength distribution in this case is nearly independent of temperature and shows small collective effects. The relevance of these results for the saturation of photon multiplicities observed in recent experiments is pointed out.

  4. Nucleons, Nuclear Matter and Quark Matter: A unified NJL approach

    SciTech Connect

    S. Lawley; W. Bentz; A.W. Thomas

    2006-02-10

    We use an effective quark model to describe both hadronic matter and deconfined quark matter. By calculating the equations of state and the corresponding neutron star properties, we show that the internal properties of the nucleon have important implications for the properties of these systems.

  5. K meson-nucleus interactions: strangeness and nuclear matter

    SciTech Connect

    Kahana, S.

    1985-01-01

    A brief review is provided of some straightforward K-nuclear and ..lambda..-hypernuclear systems. A discussion of less straightforward speculations on H-dibaryons and strange quark matter by many authors, is also given. 28 refs., 6 figs.

  6. Linear response of homogeneous nuclear matter with energy density functionals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pastore, A.; Davesne, D.; Navarro, J.

    2015-03-01

    Response functions of infinite nuclear matter with arbitrary isospin asymmetry are studied in the framework of the random phase approximation. The residual interaction is derived from a general nuclear Skyrme energy density functional. Besides the usual central, spin-orbit and tensor terms it could also include other components as new density-dependent terms or three-body terms. Algebraic expressions for the response functions are obtained from the Bethe-Salpeter equation for the particle-hole propagator. Applications to symmetric nuclear matter, pure neutron matter and asymmetric nuclear matter are presented and discussed. Spin-isospin strength functions are analyzed for varying conditions of density, momentum transfer, isospin asymmetry, and temperature for some representative Skyrme functionals. Particular attention is paid to the discussion of instabilities, either real or unphysical, which could manifest in finite nuclei.

  7. Interplay of electron heating and saturable absorption in ultrafast extreme ultraviolet transmission of condensed matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Cicco, Andrea; Hatada, Keisuke; Giangrisostomi, Erika; Gunnella, Roberto; Bencivenga, Filippo; Principi, Emiliano; Masciovecchio, Claudio; Filipponi, Adriano

    2014-12-01

    High intensity pulses obtained by modern extreme ultraviolet (EUV) and x-ray photon sources allows the observation of peculiar phenomena in condensed matter. Experiments performed at the Fermi@Elettra FEL-1 free-electron-laser source at 23.7, 33.5, and 37.5 eV on Al thin films, for an intermediate-fluence range up to about 20 J /cm2, show evidence for a nonmonotonic EUV transmission trend. A decreasing transmission up to about 5 -10 J /cm2 is followed by an increase at higher fluence, associated with saturable absorption effects. The present findings are interpreted within a simplified three-channel model, showing that an account of the interplay between ultrafast electron heating and saturation effects is required to explain the observed transmission trend.

  8. Effect of water saturation in soil organic matter on the partition of organic compounds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rutherford, D.W.; Chlou, G.T.

    1992-01-01

    The sorption of benzene, trichloroethylene, and carbon tetrachloride at room temperature from water solution and from vapor on two high-organic-content soils (peat and muck) was determined in order to evaluate the effect of water saturation on the solute partition in soil organic matter (SOM). The uptake of water vapor was similarly determined to define the amounts of water in the saturated soil samples. In such high-organic-content soils the organic vapor sorption and the respective solute sorption from water exhibit linear isotherms over a wide range of relative concentrations. This observation, along with the low BET surface areas of the samples, suggests that partition in the SOM of the samples is the dominant process in the uptake of these liquids. A comparison of the sorption from water solution and from vapor phase shows that water saturation reduces the sorption (partition) efficiency of SOM by ?? 42%; the saturated water content is ??38% by weight of dry SOM. This reduction is relatively small when compared with the almost complete suppression by water of organic compound adsorption on soil minerals. While the effect of water saturation on solute uptake by SOM is much expected in terms of solute partition in SOM, the influence of water on the solubility behavior of polar SOM can be explained only qualitatively by regular solution theory. The results suggest that the major effect of water in a drying-wetting cycle on the organic compound uptake by normal low-organic-content soils (and the associated compound's activity) is the suppression of adsorption by minerals rather than the mitigation of the partition effect in SOM.

  9. Medium polarization and pairing in asymmetric nuclear matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, J. M.; Lombardo, U.; Zhang, H. F.; Zuo, W.

    2017-01-01

    The many-body theory of asymmetric nuclear matter is developed beyond the Brueckner-Hartree-Fock approximation to incorporate the medium polarization effects. The extension is performed within the Babu-Brown induced interaction theory. After deriving the particle-hole interaction in the form of Landau-Migdal parameters, the effects of the induced component on the symmetry energy are investigated along with the screening of 1 S 0 proton-proton and 3 PF 2 neutron-neutron pairing, which are relevant for the neutron-star cooling. The crossover from repulsive (screening) to attractive (anti-screening) interaction going from pure neutron matter to symmetric nuclear matter is discussed.

  10. Low energy overlineKN interaction in nuclear matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waas, T.; Kaiser, N.; Weise, W.

    1996-02-01

    We investigate the low-energy overlineKN interaction in nuclear matter including Pauli blocking, Fermi motion and binding effects. We use a coupled-channel approach based on the Chiral SU(3) Effective Lagrangian which describes all available low energy data of the coupled overlineKN, πΣ, πΛ system. Due to the dynamics of the Λ (1405) resonance we find a strong non-linear density dependence of the K -p scattering amplitude in nuclear matter. The real part of the K -p scattering length changes sign already at a small fraction of nuclear matter density, less than 0.2 po. This may explain the striking behaviour of the K - -nuclear optical potential found in the analysis of kaonic atom data.

  11. Equation of state for {beta}-stable hot nuclear matter

    SciTech Connect

    Moustakidis, Ch. C.; Panos, C. P.

    2009-04-15

    We provide an equation of state for hot nuclear matter in {beta} equilibrium by applying a momentum-dependent effective interaction. We focus on the study of the equation of state of high-density and high-temperature nuclear matter, containing leptons (electrons and muons) under the chemical equilibrium condition in which neutrinos have left the system. The conditions of charge neutrality and equilibrium under the {beta}-decay process lead first to the evaluation of proton and lepton fractions and then to the evaluation of internal energy, free energy, and pressure, and in total to the equation of state of hot nuclear matter. Thermal effects on the properties and equation of state of nuclear matter are assessed and analyzed in the framework of the proposed effective interaction model. Special attention is given to the study of the contribution of the components of {beta}-stable nuclear matter to the entropy per particle, a quantity of great interest in the study of structure and collapse of supernova.

  12. MR imaging of protein folding in vitro employing nuclear-Overhauser-mediated saturation transfer.

    PubMed

    Zaiss, Moritz; Kunz, Patrick; Goerke, Steffen; Radbruch, Alexander; Bachert, Peter

    2013-12-01

    MR Z-spectroscopy allows enhanced imaging contrast on the basis of saturation transfer between the proton pools of cellular compounds and water, occurring via chemical exchange (chemical exchange saturation transfer, CEST) or dipole-dipole coupling (nuclear Overhauser effect, NOE). In previous studies, signals observed in the aliphatic proton region of Z-spectra have been assigned to NOEs between protons in water molecules and protons at the surface of proteins. We investigated a possible relationship between the signal strength of NOE peaks in Z-spectra obtained at B0 = 7 T and protein structure. Here, we report a correlation of NOE-mediated saturation transfer with the structural state of bovine serum albumin (BSA), which was monitored by fluorescence spectroscopy. Encouraged by CEST signal changes observed in tumor tissue, our observation also points to a possible contrast mechanism for MRI sensitive to the structural integrity of proteins in cells. Therefore, protein folding should be considered as an additional property affecting saturation transfer between water and proteins, in combination with the microenvironment and physiological quantities, such as metabolite concentration, temperature and pH. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. $J/\\Psi$ mass shift in nuclear matter

    SciTech Connect

    Gastao Krein, Anthony Thomas, Kazuo Tsushima

    2011-02-01

    The $J/\\Psi$ mass shift in cold nuclear matter is computed using an effective Lagrangian approach. The mass shift is computed by evaluating $D$ and $D^*$ meson loop contributions to the $J/\\Psi$ self-energy employing medium-modified meson masses. The modification of the $D$ and $D^*$ masses in nuclear matter is obtained using the quark-meson coupling model. The loop integrals are regularized with dipole form factors and the sensitivity of the results to the values of form-factor cutoff masses is investigated. The $J/\\Psi$ mass shift arising from the modification of the $D$ and $D^*$ loops at normal nuclear matter density is found to range from $-16$~MeV to $-24$~MeV under a wide variation of values of the cutoff masses. Experimental perspectives for the formation of a bound state of $J/\\Psi$ to a nucleus are investigated.

  14. Nuclear matter in nontopological soliton models with quark-meson coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnea, Nir; Walhout, Timothy S.

    2000-09-01

    A system of nontopological solitons interacting through meson exchange is used to model dense nuclear matter. The models studied are of the Friedberg-Lee type, which exhibit dynamical bag formation due to the coupling of quarks to a scalar composite gluon field σ. It is shown in the Wigner-Seitz approximation that the high density behavior of such models depends essentially on the leading power of the quark- σ coupling vertex. By insisting that the parameters of any soliton model be chosen to reproduce single nucleon properties, this high-density behavior then selects a promising class of models that better fit the empirical results — the chiral chromodielectric models. The presence of a scalar meson is shown to provide saturation as well as an increase of the proton charge radius with nuclear density. We go beyond the usual Wigner-Seitz approximation by introducing the disorder necessary to reproduce the liquid state, using the significant structure theory of physical chemistry. We study nuclear matter, with particular interest in the transition to a quark plasma, showing that even the simplest version of the model provides a reasonable qualitative fit to both the empirical nuclear matter equation of state and single nucleon properties.

  15. Supernovae and high density nuclear matter

    SciTech Connect

    Kahana, S.

    1986-01-01

    The role of the nuclear equation of state (EOS) in producing prompt supernova explosions is examined. Results of calculations of Baron, Cooperstein, and Kahana incorporating general relativity and a new high density EOS are presented, and the relevance of these calculations to laboratory experiments with heavy ions considered. 31 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Monte Carlo approach to nuclei and nuclear matter

    SciTech Connect

    Fantoni, Stefano; Gandolfi, Stefano; Illarionov, Alexey Yu.; Schmidt, Kevin E.; Pederiva, Francesco

    2008-10-13

    We report on the most recent applications of the Auxiliary Field Diffusion Monte Carlo (AFDMC) method. The equation of state (EOS) for pure neutron matter in both normal and BCS phase and the superfluid gap in the low-density regime are computed, using a realistic Hamiltonian containing the Argonne AV8' plus Urbana IX three-nucleon interaction. Preliminary results for the EOS of isospin-asymmetric nuclear matter are also presented.

  17. Recent Developments in Cold Fusion / Condensed Matter Nuclear Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krivit, Steven B.

    2006-03-01

    Krivit is recognized internationally as an expert on the subject matter of cold fusion / condensed matter nuclear science. He is the editor of New Energy Times, the leading source of information for the field of cold fusion. He is the author of the 2005 book, The Rebirth of Cold Fusion and founder of New Energy Institute, an independent nonprofit public benefit corporation dedicated to accelerating the progress of new, sustainable and environmentally friendly energy sources.

  18. Energy-range relations for hadrons in nuclear matter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strugalski, Z.

    1985-01-01

    Range-energy relations for hadrons in nuclear matter exist similarly to the range-energy relations for charged particles in materials. When hadrons of GeV kinetic energies collide with atomic nuclei massive enough, events occur in which incident hadron is stopped completely inside the target nucleus without causing particle production - without pion production in particular. The stoppings are always accompanied by intensive emission of nucleons with kinetic energy from about 20 up to about 400 MeV. It was shown experimentally that the mean number of the emitted nucleons is a measure of the mean path in nuclear matter in nucleons on which the incident hadrons are stopped.

  19. Climate Change, Nuclear Power and Nuclear Proliferation: Magnitude Matters

    SciTech Connect

    Robert J. Goldston

    2010-03-03

    Integrated energy, environment and economics modeling suggests electrical energy use will increase from 2.4 TWe today to 12 TWe in 2100. It will be challenging to provide 40% of this electrical power from combustion with carbon sequestration, as it will be challenging to provide 30% from renewable energy sources. Thus nuclear power may be needed to provide ~30% by 2100. Calculations of the associated stocks and flows of uranium, plutonium and minor actinides indicate that the proliferation risks at mid-century, using current light-water reactor technology, are daunting. There are institutional arrangements that may be able to provide an acceptable level of risk mitigation, but they will be difficult to implement. If a transition is begun to fast-spectrum reactors at mid-century, without a dramatic change in the proliferation risks of such systems, at the end of the century proliferation risks are much greater, and more resistant to mitigation. The risks of nuclear power should be compared with the risks of the estimated 0.64oC long-term global surface-average temperature rise predicted if nuclear power were replaced with coal-fired power plants without carbon sequestration. Fusion energy, if developed, would provide a source of nuclear power with much lower proliferation risks than fission.

  20. Nuclear Physics of Dark Matter Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engel, J.; Pittel, S.; Vogel, P.

    We describe the elastic scattering of weakly interacting dark matter particles from nuclei, with laboratory detection in mind. We focus on the lightest neutralino (a neutral fermion predicted by supersymmetry) as a likely candidate and discuss the physics needed to calculate its elastic scattering cross section and interpret experimental results. Particular emphasis is placed on a proper description of the structure of the proposed detector nuclei. We include a brief discussion of expected count rates in some detectors.

  1. Integrating plant litter quality, soil organic matter stabilization, and the carbon saturation concept.

    PubMed

    Castellano, Michael J; Mueller, Kevin E; Olk, Daniel C; Sawyer, John E; Six, Johan

    2015-09-01

    Labile, 'high-quality', plant litters are hypothesized to promote soil organic matter (SOM) stabilization in mineral soil fractions that are physicochemically protected from rapid mineralization. However, the effect of litter quality on SOM stabilization is inconsistent. High-quality litters, characterized by high N concentrations, low C/N ratios, and low phenol/lignin concentrations, are not consistently stabilized in SOM with greater efficiency than 'low-quality' litters characterized by low N concentrations, high C/N ratios, and high phenol/lignin concentrations. Here, we attempt to resolve these inconsistent results by developing a new conceptual model that links litter quality to the soil C saturation concept. Our model builds on the Microbial Efficiency-Matrix Stabilization framework (Cotrufo et al., 2013) by suggesting the effect of litter quality on SOM stabilization is modulated by the extent of soil C saturation such that high-quality litters are not always stabilized in SOM with greater efficiency than low-quality litters. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Effect of nuclear saturation parameters on a possible maximum mass of neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sotani, Hajime

    2017-02-01

    To systematically examine the possible maximum mass of neutron stars, which is one of the important properties characterizing the physics in high-density regions, I construct neutron star models by adopting phenomenological equations of state with various values of nuclear saturation parameters for low-density regions, which are connected to the equation of state for high-density regions characterized by the possible maximum sound velocity in medium. I derive an empirical formula for the possible maximum mass of neutron stars. If massive neutron stars are observed, it could be possible to get a constraint on the possible maximum sound velocity for high-density regions.

  3. Climate Change, Nuclear Power and Nuclear Proliferation: Magnitude Matters

    SciTech Connect

    Robert J. Goldston

    2011-04-28

    Integrated energy, environment and economics modeling suggests that worldwide electrical energy use will increase from 2.4 TWe today to ~12 TWe in 2100. It will be challenging to provide 40% of this electrical power from combustion with carbon sequestration, as it will be challenging to provide 30% from renewable energy sources derived from natural energy flows. Thus nuclear power may be needed to provide ~30%, 3600 GWe, by 2100. Calculations of the associated stocks and flows of uranium, plutonium and minor actinides indicate that the proliferation risks at mid-century, using current light-water reactor technology, are daunting. There are institutional arrangements that may be able to provide an acceptable level of risk mitigation, but they will be difficult to implement. If a transition is begun to fast-spectrum reactors at mid-century, without a dramatic change in the proliferation risks of such systems, at the end of the century global nuclear proliferation risks are much greater, and more resistant to mitigation. Fusion energy, if successfully demonstrated to be economically competitive, would provide a source of nuclear power with much lower proliferation risks than fission.

  4. Medium modifications of baryon properties in nuclear matter and hypernuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, J. S.; Shen, H.

    2013-09-01

    We study the medium modifications of baryon properties in nuclear many-body systems, especially in Λ hypernuclei. The nucleon and the Λ hyperon are described in the Friedberg-Lee model as nontopological solitons which interact through the self-consistent exchange of scalar and vector mesons. The quark degrees of freedom are explicitly considered in the model, so that the medium effects on baryons could be investigated. It is found that the model can provide reasonable descriptions for nuclear matter, finite nuclei, and Λ hypernuclei. The present model predicts a significant increase of the baryon radius in nuclear medium.

  5. Extended Skyrme interactions for nuclear matter, finite nuclei, and neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhen; Chen, Lie-Wen

    2016-12-01

    Recent progress in theory, experiment, and observation challenges the mean-field models by using the conventional Skyrme interaction, suggesting that the extension of the conventional Skyrme interaction is necessary. In this work, by fitting the experimental data of a number of finite nuclei together with a few additional constraints on nuclear matter using the simulated annealing method, we construct three Skyrme interaction parameter sets; namely, eMSL07, eMSL08, and eMSL09, based on an extended Skyrme interaction which includes additional momentum and density-dependent two-body forces to effectively simulate the momentum dependence of the three-body force. The three new interactions (i) can reasonably describe the ground-state properties and the isoscalar giant monopole resonance energies of various spherical nuclei used in the fit as well as the ground-state properties of many other spherical nuclei, (ii) nicely conform to the current knowledge on the equation of state of asymmetric nuclear matter, (iii) eliminate the notorious unphysical instabilities of symmetric nuclear matter and pure neutron matter up to a very high density of 1.2 fm-3 , and (iv) simultaneously support heavier neutron stars with mass larger than two times the solar mass. One important difference of the three new interactions involves the prediction of the symmetry energy at supra-saturation densities, and these new interactions are thus potentially useful for the future determination of the largely uncertain high-density symmetry energy. In addition, the predictions of nuclear matter, finite nuclei, and neutron stars made using the three new interactions are compared with those made using the three typical interactions BSk22, BSk24, and BSk26 from the Brussels group.

  6. Phase transitions of nuclear matter beyond mean field theory

    SciTech Connect

    Tran Huu Phat; Nguyen Tuan Anh; Nguyen Van Long; Le Viet Hoa

    2007-10-15

    The Cornwall-Jackiw-Tomboulis (CJT) effective action approach is applied to study the phase transition of nuclear matter modeled by the four-nucleon interaction. It is shown that in the Hartree-Fock approximation (HFA) a first-order phase transition takes place at low temperature, whereas the phase transition is of second order at higher temperature.

  7. The coexistence curve of finite charged nuclear matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliott, J. B.; Moretto, L. G.; Phair, L.; Wozniak, G. J.; Beaulieu, L.; Breuer, H.; Korteling, R. G.; Kwiatkowski, K.; Lefort, T.; Pienkowski, L.; Ruangma, A.; Viola, V. E.; Yennello, S. J.; Albergo, S.; Bieser, F.; Brady, F. P.; Caccia, Z.; Cebra, D. A.; Chacon, A. D.; Chance, J. L.; Choi, Y.; Costa, S.; Gilkes, M. L.; Hauger, J. A.; Hirsch, A. S.; Hjort, E. L.; Insolia, A.; Justice, M.; Keane, D.; Kintner, J. C.; Lindenstruth, V.; Lisa, M. A.; Matis, H. S.; McMahan, M.; McParland, C.; Müller, W. F. J.; Olson, D. L.; Partlan, M. D.; Porile, N. T.; Potenza, R.; Rai, G.; Rasmussen, J.; Ritter, H. G.; Romanski, J.; Romero, J. L.; Russo, G. V.; Sann, H.; Scharenberg, R. P.; Scott, A.; Shao, Y.; Srivastava, B. K.; Symons, T. J. M.; Tincknell, M.; Tuvé, C.; Wang, S.; Warren, P.; Wieman, H. H.; Wienold, T.; Wolf, K.

    2002-04-01

    The multifragmentation data of the ISiS Collaboration and the EOS Collaboration are examined. Fisher's droplet formalism, modified to account for Coulomb energy, is used to determine the critical exponents τ and σ, the surface energy coefficient c0, the pressure-temperature-density coexistence curve of finite nuclear matter and the location of the critical point. .

  8. Matter in extremis: Ultrarelativistic nuclear collisions at RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobs, Peter; Wang, Xin-Nian

    2004-08-20

    We review the physics of nuclear matter at high energy density and the experimental search for the Quark-Gluon Plasma at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The data obtained in the first three years of the RHIC physics program provide several lines of evidence that a novel state of matter has been created in the most violent, head-on collisions of Au nuclei at {radical}s = 200 GeV. Jet quenching and global measurements show that the initial energy density of the strongly interacting medium generated in the collision is about two orders of magnitude larger than that of cold nuclear matter, well above the critical density for the deconfinement phase transition predicted by lattice QCD. The observed collective flow patterns imply that the system thermalizes early in its evolution, with the dynamics of its expansion consistent with ideal hydrodynamic flow based on a Quark-Gluon Plasma equation of state.

  9. Nuclear techniques in studies of condensed matter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Jag J.

    1987-01-01

    Nuclear techniques have played an important role in the studies of materials over the past several decades. For example, X-ray diffraction, neutron diffraction, neutron activation, and particle- or photon-induced X-ray emission techniques have been used extensively for the elucidation of structural and compositional details of materials. Several new techniques have been developed recently. Four such techniques are briefly reviewed which have great potential in the study and development of new materials. Of these four, Mossbauer spectroscopy, muon spin rotation, and positron annihilation spectroscopy techniques exploit their great sensitivity to the local atomic environments in the test materials. Interest in synchrotron radiation, on the other hand, stems from its special properties, such as high intensity, high degree of polarization, and high monochromaticity. It is hoped that this brief review will stimulate interest in the exploitation of these newer techniques for the development of improved materials.

  10. The properties of nuclear matter with lattice NN potential in relativistic Brueckner-Hartree-Fock theory

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Jinniu; Toki, Hiroshi; Shen, Hong

    2016-01-01

    We study the properties of nuclear matter with lattice nucleon-nucleon (NN) potential in the relativistic Brueckner-Hartree-Fock (RBHF) theory. To use this potential in such a microscopic many-body theory, we firstly have to construct a one-boson-exchange potential (OBEP) based on the latest lattice NN potential. Three mesons, pion, σ meson, and ω meson, are considered. Their coupling constants and cut-off momenta are determined by fitting the on-shell behaviors and phase shifts of the lattice force, respectively. Therefore, we obtain two parameter sets of the OBEP potential (named as LOBEP1 and LOBEP2) with these two fitting ways. We calculate the properties of symmetric and pure neutron matter with LOBEP1 and LOBEP2. In non-relativistic Brueckner-Hartree-Fock case, the binding energies of symmetric nuclear matter are around −3 and −5 MeV at saturation density, while it becomes −8 and −12 MeV in relativistic framework with 1S0, 3S1, and 3D1 channels using our two parameter sets. For the pure neutron matter, the equations of state in non-relativistic and relativistic cases are very similar due to only consideration 1S0 channel with isospin T = 1 case. PMID:27752124

  11. The properties of nuclear matter with lattice NN potential in relativistic Brueckner-Hartree-Fock theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Jinniu; Toki, Hiroshi; Shen, Hong

    2016-10-01

    We study the properties of nuclear matter with lattice nucleon-nucleon (NN) potential in the relativistic Brueckner-Hartree-Fock (RBHF) theory. To use this potential in such a microscopic many-body theory, we firstly have to construct a one-boson-exchange potential (OBEP) based on the latest lattice NN potential. Three mesons, pion, σ meson, and ω meson, are considered. Their coupling constants and cut-off momenta are determined by fitting the on-shell behaviors and phase shifts of the lattice force, respectively. Therefore, we obtain two parameter sets of the OBEP potential (named as LOBEP1 and LOBEP2) with these two fitting ways. We calculate the properties of symmetric and pure neutron matter with LOBEP1 and LOBEP2. In non-relativistic Brueckner-Hartree-Fock case, the binding energies of symmetric nuclear matter are around ‑3 and ‑5 MeV at saturation density, while it becomes ‑8 and ‑12 MeV in relativistic framework with 1S0, 3S1, and 3D1 channels using our two parameter sets. For the pure neutron matter, the equations of state in non-relativistic and relativistic cases are very similar due to only consideration 1S0 channel with isospin T = 1 case.

  12. Empirical information on nuclear matter fourth-order symmetry energy from an extended nuclear mass formula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Rui; Chen, Lie-Wen

    2017-10-01

    We establish a relation between the equation of state of nuclear matter and the fourth-order symmetry energy asym,4 (A) of finite nuclei in a semi-empirical nuclear mass formula by self-consistently considering the bulk, surface and Coulomb contributions to the nuclear mass. Such a relation allows us to extract information on nuclear matter fourth-order symmetry energy Esym,4 (ρ0) at normal nuclear density ρ0 from analyzing nuclear mass data. Based on the recent precise extraction of asym,4 (A) via the double difference of the ;experimental; symmetry energy extracted from nuclear masses, for the first time, we estimate a value of Esym,4 (ρ0) = 20.0 ± 4.6 MeV. Such a value of Esym,4 (ρ0) is significantly larger than the predictions from mean-field models and thus suggests the importance of considering the effects of beyond the mean-field approximation in nuclear matter calculations.

  13. Spin-dependent structure functions in nuclear matter and the polarized EMC effect

    SciTech Connect

    I.C. Cloet; W. Bentz; A.W. Thomas

    2005-04-01

    An excellent description of both spin-independent and spin-dependent quark distributions and structure functions has been obtained with a modified Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model, which is free of unphysical thresholds for nucleon decay into quarks--hence incorporating an important aspect of confinement. We utilize this model to investigate nuclear medium modifications to structure functions, and find that we are readily able to reproduce both nuclear matter saturation and the experimental F{sub 2N}{sup A}/F{sub 2N} ratio, that is, the EMC effect. Applying this framework to determine g{sub 1p}{sup A}, we find that the ratio g{sub 1p}{sup A}/g{sub 1p} differs significantly from 1, with the quenching caused by the nuclear medium being about twice that of the spin-independent case. This represents an exciting result, which if confirmed experimentally, will reveal much about the quark structure of nuclear matter.

  14. Nuclear matter in the early universe

    SciTech Connect

    Barros, Celso de Camargo; Cunha, Ivan Eugênio da

    2015-12-17

    Recently, extreme conditions have been obtained in ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions at RHIC and at the Large Hadron collider. It is believed that these conditions are similar to the ones of the early Universe, in the time between 10{sup −6}s and 1s, approximately. In this work, the hadrons produced in this range of time will be studied, considering some aspects of the systems produced in the heavy-ion collisions. We will study a phase posterior to the phase transition (in fact it is believed to be a crossover) from the quark-gluon plasma, that is the hadronic phase of the Universe. We will show the model proposed in [1], considering the hadronic matter described by a relativistic model (similar to the Walecka model), considering particles described by quantum equations in a curved spacetime. This curvature is due to the mass and to the strong interactions that appears in the energy-momentum tensor. The set of the equations is proposed in the Robertson-Walker metric, and some approximate solutions are obtained.

  15. Cluster-virial expansion for nuclear matter within a quasiparticle statistical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Röpke, G.; Bastian, N.-U.; Blaschke, D.; Klähn, T.; Typel, S.; Wolter, H. H.

    2013-01-01

    Correlations in interacting many-particle systems can lead to the formation of clusters, in particular bound states and resonances. Systematic quantum statistical approaches allow to combine the nuclear statistical equilibrium description (law of mass action) with mean-field concepts. A chemical picture, which treats the clusters as distinct entities, serves as an intuitive concept to treat the low-density limit. Within a generalized Beth-Uhlenbeck approach, the quasiparticle-virial expansion is extended to include arbitrary clusters, where special attention must be paid to avoid inconsistencies such as double counting. Correlations are suppressed with increasing density due to Pauli blocking. The contribution of the continuum to the virial coefficients can be reduced by considering clusters explicitly and introducing quasiparticle energies. The cluster-virial expansion for nuclear matter joins known benchmarks at low densities with those near saturation density.

  16. Connecting neutron star observations to three-body forces in neutron matter and to the nuclear symmetry energy.

    PubMed

    Steiner, A W; Gandolfi, S

    2012-02-24

    Using a phenomenological form of the equation of state of neutron matter near the saturation density which has been previously demonstrated to be a good characterization of quantum Monte Carlo simulations, we show that currently available neutron star mass and radius measurements provide a significant constraint on the equation of state of neutron matter. At higher densities we model the equation of state by using polytropes and a quark matter model. We show that observations offer an important constraint on the strength of the three-body force in neutron matter, and thus some theoretical models of the three-body force may be ruled out by currently available astrophysical data. In addition, we obtain an estimate of the symmetry energy of nuclear matter and its slope that can be directly compared to the experiment and other theoretical calculations.

  17. Study of nuclear matter density distributions using hadronic probes

    SciTech Connect

    Kohama, Akihisa; Iida, Kei; Oyamatsu, Kazuhiro

    2011-05-06

    We briefly review our formula for a proton-nucleus total reaction cross section, {sigma}{sub R}, constructed in the black-sphere approximation of nuclei, in which a nucleus is viewed as a 'black' sphere of radius 'a'. Some years ago, using the Glauber model, one of the authors (A.K.) and his collaborators performed numerical simulations to examine the possibility to probe the nuclear matter density distributions of neutron-rich unstable nuclei from proton elastic scatterings 'model-independently'. The present study is another attempt to seek a 'model-independent' framework for systematically analyzing scattering data for studying the matter density distributions of atomic nuclei.

  18. Nuclear matter radii determined by interaction cross sections

    SciTech Connect

    Ozawa, A.

    2005-10-19

    Experimental studies on nuclear matter radii determined by the interaction cross sections ({sigma}I) are reviewed. In particular, the procedure to determine the root-mean square matter radii from the measured {sigma}I by Galuber model analysis is described. Future {sigma}I measurements at the RI beam factory (RIBF) in RIKEN are introduced. As new calculations, the sensitivity of the skin is discussed in the case with a proton target based on Glauber-model calculations. In the energy region of RIBF, {sigma}I is sensitive for the skin; however, measurements with high accuracies are needed.

  19. Cold exposure rapidly induces virtual saturation of brown adipose tissue nuclear T sub 3 receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Bianco, A.C.; Silva, J.E. Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA )

    1988-10-01

    Cold exposure induces a rapid increase in uncoupling protein (UCP) concentration in the brown adipose tissue (BAT) of euthyroid, but not hypothyroid, rats. To normalize this response with exogenous 3,5,3{prime}-triiodothyronine (T{sub 3}), it is necessary to cause systemic hyperthyroidism. In contrast, the same result can be obtained with just replacement doses of thyroxine (T{sub 4}) and, in euthyroid rats, the normal response of UCP to cold occurs without hyperthyroid plasma T{sub 3} levels. Consequently, the authors explored the possibility that the cold-induced activation of the type II 5{prime}-deiodinase resulted in high levels of nuclear T{sub 3} receptor occupancy in euthyroid rats. Studies were performed with pulse injections of tracer T{sub 3} or T{sub 4} in rats exposed to 4{degree}C for different lengths of time (1 h-3 wk). Within 4 h of cold exposure, they observed a significant increase in the nuclear ({sup 125}I)T{sub 3} derived from the tracer ({sup 125}I)T{sub 4} injections (T{sub 3}(T{sub 4})) and a significant reduction in the nuclear ({sup 125}I)T{sub 3} derived from ({sup 125}I)T{sub 3} injections (T{sub 3}(T{sub 3})). The number of BAT nuclear T{sub 3} receptors did not increase for up to 3 wk of observation at 4{degree}C. The mass of nuclear-bound T{sub 3} was calculated from the nuclear tracer ({sup 125}I)T{sub 3}(T{sub 3}) and ({sup 125}I)T{sub 3}(T{sub 4}) at equilibrium and the specific activity of serum T{sub 3} and T{sub 4}, respectively. By 4 h after the initiation of the cold exposure, the receptors were >95% occupied and remained so for the 3 weeks of observation. They conclude that the simultaneous activation of the deiodinase with adrenergic BAT stimulation serves the purpose of nearly saturating the nuclear T{sub 3} receptors. This makes possible the realization of the full thermogenic potential of the tissue without causing systemic hyperthyroidism.

  20. Nucleon propagation through nuclear matter in chiral effective field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallik, S.; Mishra, H.

    2007-05-01

    We treat the propagation of a nucleon in nuclear matter by evaluating the ensemble average of the two-point function of the nucleon currents in the framework of chiral effective field theory. We first derive the effective parameters of the nucleon to one loop. The resulting formula for the effective mass has been known since before and gives an absurd value at normal nuclear density. We then modify it following Weinberg’s method for the two-nucleon system in the effective theory. Our results for the effective mass and the width of the nucleon are compared with those in the literature.

  1. Speed of sound in nuclear matter and Skyrme effective interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Su, R.K.; Kuo, T.T.S.

    1987-02-01

    Using a nuclear equation of state derived from a finite-temperature Green's function method and the Skyrme effective interactions SkI, SkIII and SkM*, the authors have calculated the speed of sound in symmetric nuclear matter. For certain densities and temperatures, this speed is found to become super-luminous. Causal boundaries in the density-temperature plane are determined, and they indicate that SkM* is a more desirable effective interaction than SkI and SkIII. Comparison with a similar calculation by Osnes and Strottman is made.

  2. Properties of nucleon in nuclear matter: once more

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azizi, K.; Er, N.

    2014-05-01

    We calculate the mass and residue of the nucleon in nuclear matter in the frame work of QCD sum rules using the nucleon's interpolating current with an arbitrary mixing parameter. We evaluate the effects of the nuclear medium on these quantities and compare the results obtained with the existing theoretical predictions. The results are also compared with those obtained in vacuum to find the shifts in the quantities under consideration. Our calculations show that these shifts in the mass and residue are about and , respectively.

  3. Three-body properties in nuclear matter at thermal equilibrium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyer, M.; Schadow, W.; Kuhrts, C.; Röpke, G.

    1999-09-01

    We derive three-body equations valid at finite densities and temperatures. The equations are based on the cluster mean field approach consistently including proper self-energy corrections and Pauli blocking. As an application we investigate the binding energies of triton and determine the Mott densities and momenta relevant for a many particle description of nuclear matter in a generalized Beth-Uhlenbeck approach. The method, however, is not restricted to nuclear physics problems but may also be relevant, e.g., to treat three-particle correlations in weakly doped semiconductors or strongly coupled dense plasmas.

  4. Phase structure in a chiral model of nuclear matter

    SciTech Connect

    Phat, Tran Huu; Anh, Nguyen Tuan; Tam, Dinh Thanh

    2011-08-15

    The phase structure of symmetric nuclear matter in the extended Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (ENJL) model is studied by means of the effective potential in the one-loop approximation. It is found that chiral symmetry gets restored at high nuclear density and a typical first-order phase transition of the liquid-gas transition occurs at zero temperature, T=0, which weakens as T grows and eventually ends up with a second-order critical point at T=20 MeV. This phase transition scenario is confirmed by investigating the evolution of the effective potential versus the effective nucleon mass and the equation of state.

  5. Anti-saturation system for surface nuclear magnetic resonance in efficient groundwater detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jun; Zhang, Yang; Yang, Yujing; Sun, Yong; Lin, Tingting

    2017-06-01

    Compared to other geophysical techniques, the surface nuclear magnetic resonance (SNMR) method could provide unique insights into the hydrologic properties of groundwater in the subsurface. However, the SNMR signal is in the order of nanovolts (10-9 V), and the complex environmental noise, i.e., the spike and the harmony noise (10-4 V), can reach up to 105 times the signal amplitude. Saturation of the amplifier is therefore a serious problem in current SNMR systems. In this study, we propose an anti-saturation method based on an instantaneous floating-point amplifier. The gain of a programmable amplifier is controlled by the value of the input signal. A regulating speed of 50 kS/s is thus achieved to satisfy the self-adaptive adjustment of the real-time SNMR system, which replaces the original man-made setting gain. A large dynamic range of 192.65 dB with a 24-bit high speed analog-digital converter module is then implemented. Compared to traditional SNMR instruments, whose magnification factor is fixed during the experiment, our system can effectively inhibit the distortion of the SNMR signal in both laboratory and field settings. Furthermore, an improved SNR, which is realized by the real-time SNMR system, enables the accurate inversion of the aquifer. Our study broadens the applicability of SNMR systems to use in and around developed areas.

  6. Anti-saturation system for surface nuclear magnetic resonance in efficient groundwater detection.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jun; Zhang, Yang; Yang, Yujing; Sun, Yong; Lin, Tingting

    2017-06-01

    Compared to other geophysical techniques, the surface nuclear magnetic resonance (SNMR) method could provide unique insights into the hydrologic properties of groundwater in the subsurface. However, the SNMR signal is in the order of nanovolts (10(-9) V), and the complex environmental noise, i.e., the spike and the harmony noise (10(-4) V), can reach up to 10(5) times the signal amplitude. Saturation of the amplifier is therefore a serious problem in current SNMR systems. In this study, we propose an anti-saturation method based on an instantaneous floating-point amplifier. The gain of a programmable amplifier is controlled by the value of the input signal. A regulating speed of 50 kS/s is thus achieved to satisfy the self-adaptive adjustment of the real-time SNMR system, which replaces the original man-made setting gain. A large dynamic range of 192.65 dB with a 24-bit high speed analog-digital converter module is then implemented. Compared to traditional SNMR instruments, whose magnification factor is fixed during the experiment, our system can effectively inhibit the distortion of the SNMR signal in both laboratory and field settings. Furthermore, an improved SNR, which is realized by the real-time SNMR system, enables the accurate inversion of the aquifer. Our study broadens the applicability of SNMR systems to use in and around developed areas.

  7. Scattering and stopping of hadrons in nuclear matter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strugalski, Z.

    1985-01-01

    It was observed, in the 180 litre xenon bubble chamber, that when hadrons with kinetic energy higher than the pion production threshold fall on a layer of nuclear matter - on an atomic nucleus in other words - in many cases they can pass through it without causing particles production but they are deflected through some deflection angles; if the energy is lower than a few GeV and the nuclear matter layer is thick enough, the hadrons can be stopped in it. The amount of the deflection at a given incident hadron energy varies with the way the hadron strikes the atomic nucleus; the probability of the occurrence of stopping depends on the incident hadron identity and energy, and on the way the hadron passed through the nucleus, as well.

  8. Electric-dipole sum rule in nuclear matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabrocini, A.; Fantoni, S.

    1985-03-01

    The enhancement factor K in the electric-dipole sum rule for some realistic models of symmetrical nuclear matter is calculated using variational theory. The nuclear-matter wave function used contains central, spin, isospin, tensor and spin-orbit pair correlations. The non-central correlations, particularly the tensor one, give the major contribution to K. At experimental equilibrium density K. turns out to be ≈ 1.8, of which 65% comes from OPEP and 30% from the short-range part of the interaction. The two-pion-exchange three-nucleon interaction contributes ≈ 0.2% and is cancelled, to a large extent, by the contribution due to the intermediate-range two-body potential. The relationship of the summed oscillator strength with the effective mass is also discussed.

  9. Nuclear matter in the crystal soliton bag model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achtzehnter, Joachim; Scheid, Werner; Wilets, Lawrence

    1985-11-01

    A model for nuclear matter is introduced as consisting of an infinite number of bags placed on a spatial cubic lattice. Using the soliton bag model of Friedberg and Lee in the self-consistent mean-field approximation we study the properties of the system as a function of the lattice constant. At low densities the hadronic matter is well described by the solutions of isolated nucleons. With decreasing lattice constant the energies of the quarks spread out into bands and the quark wave functions of different bags start to overlap. At a certain critical density an abrupt phase transition to a uniform quark distribution occurs. The model yields a critical density of the order of the normal nuclear density which shows that the model cannot adequately describe the repulsive part of the nucleon-nucleon interaction at small relative distances.

  10. Suppression of the {Lambda}-{Sigma} coupling in nuclear matter

    SciTech Connect

    Bodmer, A.R.; Usmani, Q.N.

    1995-08-01

    We initiated a study of the modification of the coupling of the {Lambda}N to the {Sigma}N channel in nuclear matter with the Fermi hypernetted-chain variational approach. This modification of the {Lambda}N-{Sigma}N coupling is a central problem in hypernuclear physics and is related closely to the strongly repulsive three-body forces which are needed to account for hypernuclear binding energies. All earlier calculations have only considered this problem in the so-called G-matrix approximation which neglects important higher-order effects. An important result of this work will be a better understanding of the density dependence of {Lambda} binding in nuclear matter, which can then be tested in the calculation of the {Lambda} single-particle energies.

  11. Effects of Induced Surface Tension in Nuclear and Hadron Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sagun, V. V.; Bugaev, K. A.; Ivanytskyi, A. I.; Oliinychenko, D. R.; Mishustin, I. N.

    2017-03-01

    Short range particle repulsion is rather important property of the hadronic and nuclear matter equations of state. We present a novel equation of state which is based on the virial expansion for the multicomponent mixtures with hard-core repulsion. In addition to the hard-core repulsion taken into account by the proper volumes of particles, this equation of state explicitly contains the surface tension which is induced by another part of the hard-core repulsion between particles. At high densities the induced surface tension vanishes and the excluded volume treatment of hard-core repulsion is switched to its proper volume treatment. Possible applications of this equation of state to a description of hadronic multiplicities measured in A+A collisions, to an investigation of the nuclear matter phase diagram properties and to the neutron star interior modeling are discussed.

  12. Determination of nuclear-matter temperature and density

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, K.L.

    1980-01-01

    Some of the things learned about nuclear matter under extreme conditions during the past few years in relativistic heavy ion studies are reviewed. Two developments are discussed. The completion of analyses and publication of results from the impact parameter selected, single-particle inclusive experiments have proven to be important. Preliminary results from the new generation of two-particle correlation and particle-exclusive measurements, especially those using streamer chambers, look even more definitive. Also the measurement of more exotic ejectiles with long mean free paths in nuclear matter promises to provide more basic information. Calculations are offering real guidance and are providing explanations of high energy collisions. The Monte Carlo and intranuclear cascade calculations discussed are especially informative.

  13. Heating of nuclear matter and multifragmentation : antiprotons vs. pions.

    SciTech Connect

    Back, B.; Beaulieu, L.; Breuer, H.; Gushue, S.; Hsi, W.-C.; Korteling, R. G.; Kwiatkowski, K.; Laforest, R.; Lefort, T.; Martin, E.; Pienkowski, L.; Ramakrishnan, E.; Remsberg, L. P.; Rowland, D.; Ruangma, A.; Viola, V. E.; Winchester, E.; Yennello, S. J.

    1999-05-03

    Heating of nuclear matter with 8 GeV/c {bar p} and {pi}{sup {minus}} beams has been investigated in an experiment conducted at BNL AGS accelerator. All charged particles from protons to Z {approx_equal} 16 were detected using the Indiana Silicon Sphere 4{pi} array. Significant enhancement of energy deposition in high multiplicity events is observed for antiprotons compared to other hadron beams. The experimental trends are qualitatively consistent with predictions from an intranuclear cascade code.

  14. Investigation of the organic matter in inactive nuclear tank liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Schenley, R.L.; Griest, W.H.

    1990-08-01

    Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) methodology for regulatory organics fails to account for the organic matter that is suggested by total organic carbon (TOC) analysis in the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) inactive nuclear waste-tank liquids and sludges. Identification and measurement of the total organics are needed to select appropriate waste treatment technologies. An initial investigation was made of the nature of the organics in several waste-tank liquids. This report details the analysis of ORNL wastes.

  15. Constructing the phase diagram of finite neutral nuclear matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliott, J. B.; Moretto, L. G.; Phair, L.; Wozniak, G. J.; Albergo, S.; Bieser, F.; Brady, F. P.; Caccia, Z.; Cebra, D. A.; Chacon, A. D.; Chance, J. L.; Choi, Y.; Costa, S.; Gilkes, M. L.; Hauger, J. A.; Hirsch, A. S.; Hjort, E. L.; Insolia, A.; Justice, M.; Keane, D.; Kintner, J. C.; Lindenstruth, V.; Lisa, M. A.; Matis, H. S.; McMahan, M.; McParland, C.; Müller, W. F.; Olson, D. L.; Partlan, M. D.; Porile, N. T.; Potenza, R.; Rai, G.; Rasmussen, J.; Ritter, H. G.; Romanski, J.; Romero, J. L.; Russo, G. V.; Sann, H.; Scharenberg, R. P.; Scott, A.; Shao, Y.; Srivastava, B. K.; Symons, T. J.; Tincknell, M.; Tuvé, C.; Wang, S.; Warren, P.; Wieman, H. H.; Wienold, T.; Wolf, K.

    2003-02-01

    The fragment yields from the multifragmentation of gold, lanthanum, and krypton nuclei obtained by the EOS Collaboration are examined in terms of Fisher’s droplet formalism modified to account for Coulomb energy. The critical exponents σ and τ and the surface energy coefficient c0 are obtained. Estimates are made of the pressure-temperature and temperature-density coexistence curve of finite neutral nuclear matter as well as the location of the critical point.

  16. Nuclear Matter Phase Transition in Infinite and Finite Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terranova, S.; Bonasera, A.

    2005-04-01

    A new "semiclassical" model of the nuclear matter, composed of u, d colored quarks, is proposed. The approach, named Constrained Molecular Dynamics (CoMD) is based on the molecular dynamics simulation of the quarks, which interact through the Richardson's potential, and on a constraint due to Pauli blocking. With a suitable choice of the quark masses, some possible Equation of State (EOS) of the nuclear matter, at temperature equal to zero and finite baryon density, are obtained. These equations of state, not only present some known properties of the nuclear matter, as the Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP) phase transition, but also shown the existence of a new state, the Exotic Color Clustering (ECC) state, in which cluster of quarks with the same color are formed. Some new quantities, "indicators" of the phase transition, are introduced: three order parameters, Mc2, Mc3, Mc4 defined trough the Gell-Mann matrices λα, and the lifetime of the J/Ψ particle. The behavior of the J/Ψ particle is studied also in the "finite" systems, obtained by expanding the corresponding "infinite" systems. It seems that the dynamics and the finite size effects do not wash completely the phase transition occurred in infinite systems, and the J/Ψ particle is still a good signature.

  17. Effective kaon masses in dense nuclear and neutron matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waas, T.; Kaiser, N.; Weise, W.

    1996-02-01

    The effective mass and decay width of kaonic modes in baryonic matter are studied within a coupled-channel approach based on the Chiral SU(3) Effective Lagrangian which describes all available low energy data of the coupled overlineKN, π∑, πΛ system. Including Pauli blocking and Fermi motion in the kaon dispersion relation, we find a strong non-linear density dependence of the K - effective mass and decay width in symmetric nuclear matter at densities around 0.1 times normal nuclear matter density ϱ0 due to the in-medium dynamics of the Λ(1405) resonance. At higher densities the K - effective mass decreases slowly but stays above 0.5 mK at least up to densities below 3 ϱ0. In neutron matter the K - effective mass decreases almost linearly with increasing density but remains relatively large ( m K∗ > 0.65 m K) for ϱn ≲ 3 ϱ0. The K + effective mass turns out to increase very slowly with rising density.

  18. Magnetization transfer contrast-suppressed imaging of amide proton transfer and relayed nuclear overhauser enhancement chemical exchange saturation transfer effects in the human brain at 7T.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiang; Yadav, Nirbhay N; Zeng, Haifeng; Jones, Craig K; Zhou, Jinyuan; van Zijl, Peter C M; Xu, Jiadi

    2016-01-01

    To use the variable delay multipulse (VDMP) chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) approach to obtain clean amide proton transfer (APT) and relayed Nuclear Overhauser enhancement (rNOE) CEST images in the human brain by suppressing the conventional magnetization transfer contrast (MTC) and reducing the direct water saturation contribution. The VDMP CEST scheme consists of a train of RF pulses with a specific mixing time. The CEST signal with respect to the mixing time shows distinguishable characteristics for protons with different exchange rates. Exchange rate filtered CEST images are generated by subtracting images acquired at two mixing times at which the MTC signals are equal, while the APT and rNOE-CEST signals differ. Because the subtraction is performed at the same frequency offset for each voxel and the CEST signals are broad, no B0 correction is needed. MTC-suppressed APT and rNOE-CEST images of human brain were obtained using the VDMP method. The APT-CEST data show hyperintensity in gray matter versus white matter, whereas the rNOE-CEST images show negligible contrast between gray and white matter. The VDMP approach provides a simple and rapid way of recording MTC-suppressed APT-CEST and rNOE-CEST images without the need for B0 field correction. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Thermodynamic instabilities in hot and dense nuclear matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavagno, A.

    2016-11-01

    We study the presence of thermodynamic instabilities in a hot and dense nuclear medium where a nuclear phase transition can take place. Similarly to the low density nuclear liquid-gas phase transition, we show that such a phase transition is characterized by pure hadronic matter with both mechanical instability (fluctuations on the baryon density) that by chemical-diffusive instability (fluctuations on the strangeness concentration). The analysis is performed by requiring the global conservation of baryon number and zero net strangeness in the framework of an effective relativistic mean field theory with the inclusion of the Δ(1232)-isobars, hyperons and the lightest pseudoscalar and vector meson degrees of freedom. It turns out that in this situation hadronic phases with different values of strangeness content may coexist, altering significantly meson-antimeson ratios.

  20. 76 FR 31992 - In the Matter of Nine Mile Point Nuclear Station, LLC; Nine Mile Point Nuclear Station...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-02

    ... is collocated with a power reactor may choose to comply with the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION In the Matter of Nine Mile Point Nuclear Station, LLC; Nine Mile Point Nuclear Station...

  1. 75 FR 10833 - In the Matter of Entergy Nuclear Operations; Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Station; Demand for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION In the Matter of Entergy Nuclear Operations; Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Station; Demand for.... The license authorizes the operation of the Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Station (Vermont Yankee) in...

  2. Influence of dietary saturated fat content on adiposity, macrophage behavior, inflammation, and metabolism: composition matters.

    PubMed

    Enos, Reilly T; Davis, J Mark; Velázquez, Kandy T; McClellan, Jamie L; Day, Stani D; Carnevale, Kevin A; Murphy, E Angela

    2013-01-01

    We examined the effects of three high-fat diets (HFD), differing in the percentage of total calories from saturated fat (SF) (6%, 12%, and 24%) but identical in total fat (40%), on body composition, macrophage behavior, inflammation, and metabolic dysfunction in mice. Diets were administered for 16 weeks. Body composition and metabolism [glucose, insulin, triglycerides, LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C), HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C), total cholesterol (TC)] were examined monthly. Adipose tissue (AT) expression of marker genes for M1 and M2 macrophages and inflammatory mediators [Toll-like receptor (TLR)-2, TLR-4, MCP-1, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS)1, IFN-γ] was measured along with activation of nuclear factor kappa-B (NFκB), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and p38- mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). AT macrophage infiltration was examined using immunohistochemistry. Circulating MCP-1, IL-6, adiponectin, and leptin were also measured. SF content, independent of total fat, can profoundly affect adiposity, macrophage behavior, inflammation, and metabolic dysfunction. In general, the 12%-SF diet, most closely mimicking the standard American diet, led to the greatest adiposity, macrophage infiltration, and insulin resistance (IR), whereas the 6%-SF and 24%-SF diets produced lower levels of these variables, with the 24%-SF diet resulting in the least degree of IR and the highest TC/HDL-C ratio. Macrophage behavior, inflammation, and IR following HFD are heavily influenced by dietary SF content; however, these responses are not necessarily proportional to the SF percentage.

  3. Influence of dietary saturated fat content on adiposity, macrophage behavior, inflammation, and metabolism: composition matters

    PubMed Central

    Enos, Reilly T.; Davis, J. Mark; Velázquez, Kandy T.; McClellan, Jamie L.; Day, Stani D.; Carnevale, Kevin A.; Murphy, E. Angela

    2013-01-01

    We examined the effects of three high-fat diets (HFD), differing in the percentage of total calories from saturated fat (SF) (6%, 12%, and 24%) but identical in total fat (40%), on body composition, macrophage behavior, inflammation, and metabolic dysfunction in mice. Diets were administered for 16 weeks. Body composition and metabolism [glucose, insulin, triglycerides, LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C), HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C), total cholesterol (TC)] were examined monthly. Adipose tissue (AT) expression of marker genes for M1 and M2 macrophages and inflammatory mediators [Toll-like receptor (TLR)-2, TLR-4, MCP-1, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS)1, IFN-γ] was measured along with activation of nuclear factor kappa-B (NFκB), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and p38- mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). AT macrophage infiltration was examined using immunohistochemistry. Circulating MCP-1, IL-6, adiponectin, and leptin were also measured. SF content, independent of total fat, can profoundly affect adiposity, macrophage behavior, inflammation, and metabolic dysfunction. In general, the 12%-SF diet, most closely mimicking the standard American diet, led to the greatest adiposity, macrophage infiltration, and insulin resistance (IR), whereas the 6%-SF and 24%-SF diets produced lower levels of these variables, with the 24%-SF diet resulting in the least degree of IR and the highest TC/HDL-C ratio. Macrophage behavior, inflammation, and IR following HFD are heavily influenced by dietary SF content; however, these responses are not necessarily proportional to the SF percentage. PMID:23103474

  4. Variable delay multi-pulse train for fast chemical exchange saturation transfer and relayed-nuclear overhauser enhancement MRI.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jiadi; Yadav, Nirbhay N; Bar-Shir, Amnon; Jones, Craig K; Chan, Kannie W Y; Zhang, Jiangyang; Walczak, P; McMahon, Michael T; van Zijl, Peter C M

    2014-05-01

    Chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) imaging is a new MRI technology allowing the detection of low concentration endogenous cellular proteins and metabolites indirectly through their exchangeable protons. A new technique, variable delay multi-pulse CEST (VDMP-CEST), is proposed to eliminate the need for recording full Z-spectra and performing asymmetry analysis to obtain CEST contrast. The VDMP-CEST scheme involves acquiring images with two (or more) delays between radiofrequency saturation pulses in pulsed CEST, producing a series of CEST images sensitive to the speed of saturation transfer. Subtracting two images or fitting a time series produces CEST and relayed-nuclear Overhauser enhancement CEST maps without effects of direct water saturation and, when using low radiofrequency power, minimal magnetization transfer contrast interference. When applied to several model systems (bovine serum albumin, crosslinked bovine serum albumin, l-glutamic acid) and in vivo on healthy rat brain, VDMP-CEST showed sensitivity to slow to intermediate range magnetization transfer processes (rate < 100-150 Hz), such as amide proton transfer and relayed nuclear Overhauser enhancement-CEST. Images for these contrasts could be acquired in short scan times by using a single radiofrequency frequency. VDMP-CEST provides an approach to detect CEST effect by sensitizing saturation experiments to slower exchange processes without interference of direct water saturation and without need to acquire Z-spectra and perform asymmetry analysis. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Variable Delay Multi-Pulse Train for Fast Chemical Exchange Saturation Transfer and Relayed-Nuclear Overhauser Enhancement MRI

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jiadi; Yadav, Nirbhay N.; Bar-Shir, Amnon; Jones, Craig K.; Chan, Kannie W. Y.; Zhang, Jiangyang; Walczak, P.; McMahon, Michael T.; van Zijl, Peter C. M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) imaging is a new MRI technology allowing the detection of low concentration endogenous cellular proteins and metabolites indirectly through their exchangeable protons. A new technique, variable delay multi-pulse CEST (VDMP-CEST), is proposed to eliminate the need for recording full Z-spectra and performing asymmetry analysis to obtain CEST contrast. Methods The VDMP-CEST scheme involves acquiring images with two (or more) delays between radiofrequency saturation pulses in pulsed CEST, producing a series of CEST images sensitive to the speed of saturation transfer. Subtracting two images or fitting a time series produces CEST and relayed-nuclear Overhauser enhancement CEST maps without effects of direct water saturation and, when using low radiofrequency power, minimal magnetization transfer contrast interference. Results When applied to several model systems (bovine serum albumin, crosslinked bovine serum albumin, l-glutamic acid) and in vivo on healthy rat brain, VDMP-CEST showed sensitivity to slow to intermediate range magnetization transfer processes (rate < 100–150 Hz), such as amide proton transfer and relayed nuclear Overhauser enhancement-CEST. Images for these contrasts could be acquired in short scan times by using a single radiofrequency frequency. Conclusions VDMP-CEST provides an approach to detect CEST effect by sensitizing saturation experiments to slower exchange processes without interference of direct water saturation and without need to acquire Z-spectra and perform asymmetry analysis. PMID:23813483

  6. Relativistic mean-field models and nuclear matter constraints

    SciTech Connect

    Dutra, M.; Lourenco, O.; Carlson, B. V.; Delfino, A.; Menezes, D. P.; Avancini, S. S.; Stone, J. R.; Providencia, C.; Typel, S.

    2013-05-06

    This work presents a preliminary study of 147 relativistic mean-field (RMF) hadronic models used in the literature, regarding their behavior in the nuclear matter regime. We analyze here different kinds of such models, namely: (i) linear models, (ii) nonlinear {sigma}{sup 3}+{sigma}{sup 4} models, (iii) {sigma}{sup 3}+{sigma}{sup 4}+{omega}{sup 4} models, (iv) models containing mixing terms in the fields {sigma} and {omega}, (v) density dependent models, and (vi) point-coupling ones. In the finite range models, the attractive (repulsive) interaction is described in the Lagrangian density by the {sigma} ({omega}) field. The isospin dependence of the interaction is modeled by the {rho} meson field. We submit these sets of RMF models to eleven macroscopic (experimental and empirical) constraints, used in a recent study in which 240 Skyrme parametrizations were analyzed. Such constraints cover a wide range of properties related to symmetric nuclear matter (SNM), pure neutron matter (PNM), and both SNM and PNM.

  7. Assessing controls on perched saturated zones beneath the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mirus, Benjamin B.; Perkins, Kim S.; Nimmo, John R.

    2011-01-01

    Waste byproducts associated with operations at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) have the potential to contaminate the eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP) aquifer. Recharge to the ESRP aquifer is controlled largely by the alternating stratigraphy of fractured volcanic rocks and sedimentary interbeds within the overlying vadose zone and by the availability of water at the surface. Beneath the INTEC facilities, localized zones of saturation perched on the sedimentary interbeds are of particular concern because they may facilitate accelerated transport of contaminants. The sources and timing of natural and anthropogenic recharge to the perched zones are poorly understood. Simple approaches for quantitative characterization of this complex, variably saturated flow system are needed to assess potential scenarios for contaminant transport under alternative remediation strategies. During 2009-2011, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, employed data analysis and numerical simulations with a recently developed model of preferential flow to evaluate the sources and quantity of recharge to the perched zones. Piezometer, tensiometer, temperature, precipitation, and stream-discharge data were analyzed, with particular focus on the possibility of contributions to the perched zones from snowmelt and flow in the neighboring Big Lost River (BLR). Analysis of the timing and magnitude of subsurface dynamics indicate that streamflow provides local recharge to the shallow, intermediate, and deep perched saturated zones within 150 m of the BLR; at greater distances from the BLR the influence of streamflow on recharge is unclear. Perched water-level dynamics in most wells analyzed are consistent with findings from previous geochemical analyses, which suggest that a combination of annual snowmelt and anthropogenic sources (for example, leaky pipes and drainage ditches) contribute to recharge of shallow and

  8. Reducible chiral four-body interactions in nuclear matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaiser, N.; Milkus, R.

    2016-01-01

    The method of unitary transformations generates five classes of leading-order reducible chiral four-nucleon interactions which involve pion exchanges and a spin-spin contact term. Their first-order contributions to the energy per particle of isospin-symmetric nuclear matter and pure neutron matter are evaluated in detail. For most of the closed four-loop diagrams the occurring integrals over four Fermi spheres can be reduced to easily manageable one- or two-parameter integrals. One finds substantial compensations among the different contributions arising from 2-ring and 1-ring diagrams. Altogether, the net attraction generated by the chiral four-nucleon interaction does not exceed values of -1.3 MeV for densities ρ < 2ρ0.

  9. Three nucleon forces in nuclear matter in QCD sum rules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drukarev, E. G.; Ryskin, M. G.; Sadovnikova, V. A.

    2017-03-01

    We calculate the single-particle nucleon characteristics in symmetric nuclear matter with inclusion of the 3N interactions. The contributions of the 3N forces to nucleon self energies are expressed in terms of the nonlocal scalar condensate (d = 3) and of the configuration of the four-quark condensates (d = 6) in which two diquark operators act on two different nucleons of the matter. The most important part of the contribution of the four-quark condensate is calculated in a model-independent way. We employed a relativistic quark model of nucleon for calculation of the other parts. The density dependence of the vector and scalar nucleon self energies and of the single-particle potential energy are obtained. Estimations on contributions of the 4N forces to the nucleon self energies are made.

  10. Nuclear matter symmetry energy from polarizabilities at low density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braghin, Fábio L.

    2010-03-01

    The nuclear matter polarizability had been proposed as a suitable framework to investigate the symmetry energy [F.L. Braghin, Nucl. Phys. A 665 (2000) 13; 696 (2001) 413; Err709 (2002) 487; F.L. Braghin, Phys. Rev. C 71 064303 (2005); Phys. Rev. C 79 069902(E) (2009); Proc. of XXX Braz. Meeting on Nucl. Phys. 2007, ed. by A. Suaide, Braz. Phys. Soc. (2008)]. It provides an original and rich conceptual framework yielding the simultaneous dependences of the symmetry energy on diverse variables. We present few different results for the symmetry energy dependence mainly on: temperature and momentum at low nuclear densities (ρ=0.1ρ). Based on the form of the polarizability we present an argument supporting that, due to the behavior of the density fluctuations, a third order term in the n-p asymmetry can yield a more reasonable result than a linear term.

  11. Nucleon spectral function at finite temperature and the onset of superfluidity in nuclear matter

    SciTech Connect

    Alm, T.; Roepke, G.; Schnell, A.; Kwong, N.H.; Koehler, H.S.

    1996-05-01

    Nucleon self-energies and spectral functions are calculated at the saturation density of symmetric nuclear matter at finite temperatures. In particular, the behavior of these quantities at temperatures above and close to the critical temperature for the superfluid phase transition in nuclear matter is discussed. It is shown how the singularity in the thermodynamic {ital T} matrix at the critical temperature for superfluidity (Thouless criterion) reflects in the self-energy and correspondingly in the spectral function. The real part of the on-shell self-energy (optical potential) shows an anomalous behavior for momenta near the Fermi momentum and temperatures close to the critical temperature related to the pairing singularity in the imaginary part. For comparison the self-energy derived from the {ital K} matrix of Brueckner theory is also calculated. It is found that there is no pairing singularity in the imaginary part of the self-energy in this case, which is due to the neglect of hole-hole scattering in the {ital K} matrix. From the self-energy the spectral function and the occupation numbers for finite temperatures are calculated. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  12. Influence of Density-Dependent Coupling Constants on Equation of State of Infinite Symmetric Nuclear Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hua-Ju; Ye, Xian-Mei; Chen, Wei

    2016-11-01

    In the mean field approximation of nonlinear relativistic σ—ω—ρ model, we have studied the influence of density-dependent coupling constants between nucleons and mesons on the equation of state (EOS) of infinite symmetric nuclear matter in different conditions. We find that the EOS of nuclear matter will become stiffer as c, d in the self-interaction of σ meson increase when the coefficients except aω in Γω, in which the opposite occurs, are fixed. On the other hand, greater values of aσ, bσ, cσ, aω, dω and smaller values of dσ, bω, cω will lead to stiffer EOS if c and d are fixed. Besides, greater values of Γσ,ω lead to stiffer EOS in high density region for the EOS with same incompressibility coefficient at saturation density. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 11275073

  13. Accuracy in the quantification of chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) and relayed nuclear Overhauser enhancement (rNOE) saturation transfer effects.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Yong; Wang, Feng; Li, Hua; Xu, Junzhong; Gochberg, Daniel F; Gore, John C; Zu, Zhongliang

    2017-03-08

    Accurate quantification of chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) effects, including dipole-dipole mediated relayed nuclear Overhauser enhancement (rNOE) saturation transfer, is important for applications and studies of molecular concentration and transfer rate (and thereby pH or temperature). Although several quantification methods, such as Lorentzian difference (LD) analysis, multiple-pool Lorentzian fits, and the three-point method, have been extensively used in several preclinical and clinical applications, the accuracy of these methods has not been evaluated. Here we simulated multiple-pool Z spectra containing the pools that contribute to the main CEST and rNOE saturation transfer signals in the brain, numerically fit them using the different methods, and then compared their derived CEST metrics with the known solute concentrations and exchange rates. Our results show that the LD analysis overestimates contributions from amide proton transfer (APT) and intermediate exchanging amine protons; the three-point method significantly underestimates both APT and rNOE saturation transfer at -3.5 ppm (NOE(-3.5)). The multiple-pool Lorentzian fit is more accurate than the other two methods, but only at lower irradiation powers (≤1 μT at 9.4 T) within the range of our simulations. At higher irradiation powers, this method is also inaccurate because of the presence of a fast exchanging CEST signal that has a non-Lorentzian lineshape. Quantitative parameters derived from in vivo images of rodent brain tumor obtained using an irradiation power of 1 μT were also compared. Our results demonstrate that all three quantification methods show similar contrasts between tumor and contralateral normal tissue for both APT and the NOE(-3.5). However, the quantified values of the three methods are significantly different. Our work provides insight into the fitting accuracy obtainable in a complex tissue model and provides guidelines for evaluating other newly developed

  14. A high saturation factor in Overhauser DNP with nitroxide derivatives: the role of (14)N nuclear spin relaxation.

    PubMed

    Enkin, Nikolay; Liu, Guoquan; Gimenez-Lopez, Maria Del Carmen; Porfyrakis, Kyriakos; Tkach, Igor; Bennati, Marina

    2015-05-07

    Overhauser DNP enhancements of toluene were measured at a magnetic field of 0.35 Tesla in a series of chemically functionalized nitroxide radicals. We observe that the enhancements increase systematically with polarizer size and rotational correlation time. Examination of the saturation factor of (14)N nitroxides by pulsed ELDOR spectroscopy led to a quantitative interpretation of the enhancements, for which the saturation factor increases up to almost unity due to enhanced nuclear ((14)N) relaxation in the nitroxide radical. The observation has a direct impact on the choice of optimum DNP polarizers in liquids.

  15. Applications of modern chiral interactions in nuclear matter and nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sammarruca, Francesca

    2016-09-01

    Experimental investigations are in progress, and more are planned for the near future, to set reliable constraints on the isospin asymmetric part of the nuclear equation of state. The latter plays a fundamental role in a broad spectrum of systems and phenomena, including the skins of neutron-rich nuclei and the location of the neutron drip lines. From the theoretical standpoint, microscopic calculations with statistically meaningful uncertainties are essential to guide experiments. We will discuss recent calculations of the nuclear and neutron matter equations of state at different orders of the chiral expansion. We will present applications and discuss the significance of those predictions as a foundation for future studies of convergence of the chiral perturbation series. Anticipating future experiments which may provide reliable information on the weak charge density in nuclei, we discuss the possibility of constraining the size of three-neutron forces in neutron matter. Supported by the U.S. Department of Energy under Grant No. DE-FG02-03ER41270.

  16. Discovery potential for directional dark matter detection with nuclear emulsions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guler, A. M.; NEWSdm Collaboration

    2017-06-01

    Direct Dark Matter searches are nowadays one of the most exciting research topics. Several Experimental efforts are concentrated on the development, construction, and operation of detectors looking for the scattering of target nuclei with Weakly Interactive Massive Particles (WIMPs). In this field a new frontier can be opened by directional detectors able to reconstruct the direction of the WIMP-recoiled nucleus thus allowing to extend dark matter searches beyond the neutrino floor. Exploiting directionality would also give a proof of the galactic origin of dark matter making it possible to have a clear and unambiguous signal to background separation. The angular distribution of WIPM-scattered nuclei is indeed expected to be peaked in the direction of the motion of the Solar System in the Galaxy, i.e. toward the Cygnus constellation, while the background distribution is expected to be isotropic. Current directional experiments are based on the use of gas TPC whose sensitivity is limited by the small achievable detector mass. In this paper we show the potentiality in terms of exclusion limit of a directional experiment based on the use of a solid target made by newly developed nuclear emulsions and read-out systems reaching sub-micrometric resolution.

  17. Neutron-proton effective mass splitting in neutron-rich matter and its impacts on nuclear reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Bao-An; Chen, Lie-Wen

    2015-04-01

    The neutron-proton effective mass splitting in neutron-rich nucleonic matter reflects the spacetime nonlocality of the isovector nuclear interaction. It affects the neutron/proton ratio during the earlier evolution of the Universe, cooling of proto-neutron stars, structure of rare isotopes and dynamics of heavy-ion collisions. While there is still no consensus on whether the neutron-proton effective mass splitting is negative, zero or positive and how it depends on the density as well as the isospin-asymmetry of the medium, significant progress has been made in recent years in addressing these issues. There are different kinds of nucleon effective masses. In this mini-review, we focus on the total effective masses often used in the non-relativistic description of nuclear dynamics. We first recall the connections among the neutron-proton effective mass splitting, the momentum dependence of the isovector potential and the density dependence of the symmetry energy. We then make a few observations about the progress in calculating the neutron-proton effective mass splitting using various nuclear many-body theories and its effects on the isospin-dependence of in-medium nucleon-nucleon cross-sections. Perhaps, our most reliable knowledge so far about the neutron-proton effective mass splitting at saturation density of nuclear matter comes from optical model analyses of huge sets of nucleon-nucleus scattering data accumulated over the last five decades. The momentum dependence of the symmetry potential from these analyses provide a useful boundary condition at saturation density for calibrating nuclear many-body calculations. Several observables in heavy-ion collisions have been identified as sensitive probes of the neutron-proton effective mass splitting in dense neutron-rich matter based on transport model simulations. We review these observables and comment on the latest experimental findings.

  18. The effect of elastic properties of nuclear matter on nuclear fission

    SciTech Connect

    Bastrukov, S.I.; Molodtsova, I.V.; Yuldashbaeva, E.Kh.

    1994-07-01

    Spheroidal nuclear vibrations are considered using a macroscopic model based on the assumption that nuclear matter possesses the properties of elastic medium. Emphasis is laid on the analysis of instability of the quadrupole configuration. It is presumed that the onset of this instability is associated with the commencement of fission. The proposed fluid-dynamics model predicts the values of the parameters of nuclear fission that differ somewhat from the values given by the standard liquid drop-model. In particular, the obtained critical ratio Z{sup 2}/A, which characterizes the loss of stability of the quadrupole mode, is equal to 35. It follows from this estimate that fission induced by an external perturbation should be expected for nuclei (from the {beta}-stability valley) with A{>=}230. 16 refs.

  19. Modification of the omega-meson lifetime in nuclear matter.

    PubMed

    Kotulla, M; Trnka, D; Mühlich, P; Anton, G; Bacelar, J C S; Bartholomy, O; Bayadilov, D; Beloglazov, Y A; Bogendörfer, R; Castelijns, R; Crede, V; Dutz, H; Ehmanns, A; Elsner, D; Ewald, R; Fabry, I; Fuchs, M; Essig, K; Funke, Ch; Gothe, R; Gregor, R; Gridnev, A B; Gutz, E; Höffgen, S; Hoffmeister, P; Horn, I; Hössl, J; Jaegle, I; Junkersfeld, J; Kalinowsky, H; Klein, Frank; Klein, Fritz; Klempt, E; Konrad, M; Kopf, B; Krusche, B; Langheinrich, J; Löhner, H; Lopatin, I V; Lotz, J; Lugert, S; Menze, D; Messchendorp, J G; Mertens, T; Metag, V; Mosel, U; Nanova, M; Novotny, R; Ostrick, M; Pant, L M; van Pee, H; Pfeiffer, M; Roy, A; Radkov, A; Schadmand, S; Schmidt, Ch; Schmieden, H; Schoch, B; Shende, S; Suft, G; Sumachev, V V; Szczepanek, T; Süle, A; Thoma, U; Varma, R; Walther, D; Weinheimer, Ch; Wendel, Ch

    2008-05-16

    Information on hadron properties in the nuclear medium has been derived from the photoproduction of omega mesons on the nuclei C, Ca, Nb, and Pb using the Crystal Barrel/TAPS detector at the ELSA tagged photon facility in Bonn. The dependence of the omega-meson cross section on the nuclear mass number has been compared with three different types of models: a Glauber analysis, a Boltzmann-Uehling-Uhlenbeck analysis of the Giessen theory group, and a calculation by the Valencia theory group. In all three cases, the inelastic omega width is found to be 130-150 MeV/c(2) at normal nuclear matter density for an average 3-momentum of 1.1 GeV/c. In the rest frame of the omega meson, this inelastic omega width corresponds to a reduction of the omega lifetime by a factor approximately 30. For the first time, the momentum dependent omegaN cross section has been extracted from the experiment and is in the range of 70 mb.

  20. Modification of the ω-Meson Lifetime in Nuclear Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotulla, M.; Trnka, D.; Mühlich, P.; Anton, G.; Bacelar, J. C. S.; Bartholomy, O.; Bayadilov, D.; Beloglazov, Y. A.; Bogendörfer, R.; Castelijns, R.; Crede, V.; Dutz, H.; Ehmanns, A.; Elsner, D.; Ewald, R.; Fabry, I.; Fuchs, M.; Essig, K.; Funke, Ch.; Gothe, R.; Gregor, R.; Gridnev, A. B.; Gutz, E.; Höffgen, S.; Hoffmeister, P.; Horn, I.; Hössl, J.; Jaegle, I.; Junkersfeld, J.; Kalinowsky, H.; Klein, Frank; Klein, Fritz; Klempt, E.; Konrad, M.; Kopf, B.; Krusche, B.; Langheinrich, J.; Löhner, H.; Lopatin, I. V.; Lotz, J.; Lugert, S.; Menze, D.; Messchendorp, J. G.; Mertens, T.; Metag, V.; Mosel, U.; Nanova, M.; Novotny, R.; Ostrick, M.; Pant, L. M.; van Pee, H.; Pfeiffer, M.; Roy, A.; Radkov, A.; Schadmand, S.; Schmidt, Ch.; Schmieden, H.; Schoch, B.; Shende, S.; Suft, G.; Sumachev, V. V.; Szczepanek, T.; Süle, A.; Thoma, U.; Varma, R.; Walther, D.; Weinheimer, Ch.; Wendel, Ch.

    2008-05-01

    Information on hadron properties in the nuclear medium has been derived from the photoproduction of ω mesons on the nuclei C, Ca, Nb, and Pb using the Crystal Barrel/TAPS detector at the ELSA tagged photon facility in Bonn. The dependence of the ω-meson cross section on the nuclear mass number has been compared with three different types of models: a Glauber analysis, a Boltzmann-Uehling-Uhlenbeck analysis of the Giessen theory group, and a calculation by the Valencia theory group. In all three cases, the inelastic ω width is found to be 130 150MeV/c2 at normal nuclear matter density for an average 3-momentum of 1.1GeV/c. In the rest frame of the ω meson, this inelastic ω width corresponds to a reduction of the ω lifetime by a factor ≈30. For the first time, the momentum dependent ωN cross section has been extracted from the experiment and is in the range of 70 mb.

  1. Engineering of Condensed Matter Nuclear Physics: Heterodyne Behavior in Condensed Matter Nuclear Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swartz, Mitchell R.

    2007-03-01

    Previously, we reported methods to semi-quantitatively measure and control tardive thermal power (TTP) which develops long after the termination of electric input power in condensed matter high-deuteron-flux Phusor devices providing (Pt/D2O/Pd; 0.5 cm^3) peak excess power ratios circa 2.30+/-.84 ^2^,^3. Now we report one method to improve excess energy using heterodyned CMN systems using both normal and TTD operation - heterodyne operation (that is, ` hetero ' for other, and ` dyne ' for power). By augmenting the conventional excess energy produced by CMN active systems (normal operation) with the additional energy (``other power'') resulting from the time integral of TTP (``heat after death''), the net time-integrated excess energy (output energy beyond that applied as the input energy) is greater than we have previously reported^2 and may be maximized using TTD drive techniques^1. Initial experiments of heterodyned active samples, capable of excess heat operation at the optimal operating point, have yielded excess energy increases of up to four times beyond that obtained without heterodyned operation. M.R. Swartz, Bull. of the APS, 50, #1, part 2, 1203 (2005). M.R.Swartz, Proc ICCF10, 29-44; 45-54, and 213-226 (2006).

  2. Impact of natural organic matter on uranium transport through saturated geologic materials: from molecular to column scale.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yu; Saiers, James E; Xu, Na; Minasian, Stefan G; Tyliszczak, Tolek; Kozimor, Stosh A; Shuh, David K; Barnett, Mark O

    2012-06-05

    The risk stemming from human exposure to actinides via the groundwater track has motivated numerous studies on the transport of radionuclides within geologic environments; however, the effects of waterborne organic matter on radionuclide mobility are still poorly understood. In this study, we compared the abilities of three humic acids (HAs) (obtained through sequential extraction of a peat soil) to cotransport hexavalent uranium (U) within water-saturated sand columns. Relative breakthrough concentrations of U measured upon elution of 18 pore volumes increased from undetectable levels (<0.001) in an experiment without HAs to 0.17 to 0.55 in experiments with HAs. The strength of the HA effect on U mobility was positively correlated with the hydrophobicity of organic matter and NMR-detected content of alkyl carbon, which indicates the possible importance of hydrophobic organic matter in facilitating U transport. Carbon and uranium elemental maps collected with a scanning transmission X-ray microscope (STXM) revealed uneven microscale distribution of U. Such molecular- and column-scale data provide evidence for a critical role of hydrophobic organic matter in the association and cotransport of U by HAs. Therefore, evaluations of radionuclide transport within subsurface environments should consider the chemical characteristics of waterborne organic substances, especially hydrophobic organic matter.

  3. A study of nuclear recoil backgrounds in dark matter detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westerdale, Shawn S.

    Despite the great success of the Standard Model of particle physics, a preponderance of astrophysical evidence suggests that it cannot explain most of the matter in the universe. This so-called dark matter has eluded direct detection, though many theoretical extensions to the Standard Model predict the existence of particles with a mass on the 1-1000 GeV scale that interact only via the weak nuclear force. Particles in this class are referred to as Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs), and their high masses and low scattering cross sections make them viable dark matter candidates. The rarity of WIMP-nucleus interactions makes them challenging to detect: any background can mask the signal they produce. Background rejection is therefore a major problem in dark matter detection. Many experiments greatly reduce their backgrounds by employing techniques to reject electron recoils. However, nuclear recoil backgrounds, which produce signals similar to what we expect from WIMPs, remain problematic. There are two primary sources of such backgrounds: surface backgrounds and neutron recoils. Surface backgrounds result from radioactivity on the inner surfaces of the detector sending recoiling nuclei into the detector. These backgrounds can be removed with fiducial cuts, at some cost to the experiment's exposure. In this dissertation we briefly discuss a novel technique for rejecting these events based on signals they make in the wavelength shifter coating on the inner surfaces of some detectors. Neutron recoils result from neutrons scattering off of nuclei in the detector. These backgrounds may produce a signal identical to what we expect from WIMPs and are extensively discussed here. We additionally present a new tool for calculating (alpha, n) yields in various materials. We introduce the concept of a neutron veto system designed to shield against, measure, and provide an anti-coincidence veto signal for background neutrons. We discuss the research and development

  4. A Study of Nuclear Recoil Backgrounds in Dark Matter Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Westerdale, Shawn S.

    2016-01-01

    Despite the great success of the Standard Model of particle physics, a preponderance of astrophysical evidence suggests that it cannot explain most of the matter in the universe. This so-called dark matter has eluded direct detection, though many theoretical extensions to the Standard Model predict the existence of particles with a mass on the $1-1000$ GeV scale that interact only via the weak nuclear force. Particles in this class are referred to as Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs), and their high masses and low scattering cross sections make them viable dark matter candidates. The rarity of WIMP-nucleus interactions makes them challenging to detect: any background can mask the signal they produce. Background rejection is therefore a major problem in dark matter detection. Many experiments greatly reduce their backgrounds by employing techniques to reject electron recoils. However, nuclear recoil backgrounds, which produce signals similar to what we expect from WIMPs, remain problematic. There are two primary sources of such backgrounds: surface backgrounds and neutron recoils. Surface backgrounds result from radioactivity on the inner surfaces of the detector sending recoiling nuclei into the detector. These backgrounds can be removed with fiducial cuts, at some cost to the experiment's exposure. In this dissertation we briefly discuss a novel technique for rejecting these events based on signals they make in the wavelength shifter coating on the inner surfaces of some detectors. Neutron recoils result from neutrons scattering from nuclei in the detector. These backgrounds may produce a signal identical to what we expect from WIMPs and are extensively discussed here. We additionally present a new tool for calculating ($\\alpha$, n)yields in various materials. We introduce the concept of a neutron veto system designed to shield against, measure, and provide an anti-coincidence veto signal for background neutrons. We discuss the research and development

  5. Nuclear matter equation of state from a quark-model nucleon-nucleon interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukukawa, K.; Baldo, M.; Burgio, G. F.; Lo Monaco, L.; Schulze, H.-J.

    2015-12-01

    Starting from a realistic constituent quark model for the nucleon-nucleon interaction, we derive the equation of state (EOS) of nuclear matter within the Bethe-Brueckner-Goldstone approach up to the three-hole-line level, without the need to introduce three-nucleon forces. To estimate the uncertainty of the calculations both the gap and the continuous choices for the single-particle potential are considered and compared. The resultant EOS is compatible with the phenomenological analysis of the saturation point, the incompressibility, the symmetry energy at a low density, and its slope at saturation, together with the high-density pressure extracted from flow data on heavy-ion collisions. Although the symmetry energy is appreciably higher in the gap choice in the high-density region, the maximum neutron star masses derived from the continuous-choice EOS and the gap-choice EOS are similar and close to two solar masses, which is again compatible with recent observational data. A comparison with other microscopic equations of state is presented and discussed.

  6. Bulk Properties of Nuclear Matter From Excitations of Nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Shlomo, Shalom

    2007-10-26

    We consider the predictive power of Hartree-Fock (HF) approximation in determining properties of finite nuclei and thereby in extracting bulk properties of infinite nuclear matter (NM) by extrapolation. In particular, we review the current status of determining the value of NM incompressibility coefficient K, considering the most sensitive method of analyzing the recent accurate experimental data on excitation strengths of compression modes of nuclei within microscopic relativistic and non-relativistic theoretical models. We discuss the consequences of common violations of self-consistency in HF based random-phase-approximation calculations of strength functions and present results of highly accurate calculations of centroid energies and excitation cross sections of giant resonances. Explanations (resolutions) of long standing discrepancies in the value of K are presented.

  7. Dynamics of hot and dense nuclear and partonic matter

    SciTech Connect

    Bratkovskaya, E. L.; Cassing, W.; Linnyk, O.; Konchakovski, V. P.; Voronyuk, V.; Ozvenchuk, V.

    2012-06-15

    The dynamics of hot and dense nuclear matter is discussed from the microscopic transport point of view. The basic concepts of the Hadron-String-Dynamical transport model (HSD)-derived from Kadanoff-Baym equations in phase phase-are presented as well as 'highlights' of HSD results for different observables in heavy-ion collisions from 100 A MeV (SIS) to 21 A TeV(RHIC) energies. Furthermore, a novel extension of the HSD model for the description of the partonic phase-the Parton-Hadron-String-Dynamics (PHSD) approach-is introduced. PHSD includes a nontrivial partonic equation of state-in line with lattice QCD-as well as covariant transition rates from partonic to hadronic degrees of freedom. The sensitivity of hadronic observables to the partonic phase is demonstrated for relativistic heavy-ion collisions from the FAIR/NICA up to the RHIC energy regime.

  8. Neutrino mean free paths in cold symmetric nuclear matter

    SciTech Connect

    Cowell, S.; Pandharipande, V.R.

    2004-09-01

    The neutrino mean free paths (NMFP) for scattering and absorption in cold symmetric nuclear matter (SNM) are calculated using two-body effective interactions and one-body effective weak operators obtained from realistic models of nuclear forces using correlated basis theory. The infinite system is modeled in a box with periodic boundary conditions and the one particle-hole (p-h) response functions are calculated using the Tamm-Dancoff approximation (TDA). For the densities {rho}=(1/2), 1 (3/2){rho}{sub 0}, where {rho}{sub 0} is the equilibrium density of SNM, the strength of the response is shifted to higher energy transfers when compared to a noninteracting Fermi gas (FG). This and the weakness of effective operators compared to the bare operators, significantly reduces the cross sections, enhancing the NMFP by factors of {approx}2.5-3.5 at the densities considered. The NMFP at the equilibrium density {rho}{sub 0} are also calculated using the TDA and random phase approximation (RPA) using zero range Skyrme-like effective interactions with parameters chosen to reproduce the equation of state and spin-isospin susceptibilities of matter. Their results indicate that RPA corrections to correlated TDA may further increase the NMFP by {approx}25% to 3-4 times those in a noninteracting FG. Finally, the sums and the energy weighted sums of the Fermi and Gamow-Teller responses obtained from the correlated ground state are compared with those of the 1 p-h response functions to extract the sum and mean energies of multi p-h contributions to the weak response. The relatively large mean energy of the multi p-h excitations suggests that they may not contribute significantly to low energy NMFP.

  9. Empirical observations on the unpredictable behavior of nuclear matter

    SciTech Connect

    Tannenbaum, M.J.

    1994-01-19

    While many aspects of matter are unpredictable from basic principles, there are some that are susceptible to empirical descriptions which can be quite accurate and beautiful. One such example from the field of ``Nuclear Matter Under Extreme Conditions`` is the distribution of the number of particles produced, or alternatively, of the energy carried by these particles, in energetic collisions of atomic nuclei. The present work consists of a series of published scientific papers on measurements of the distribution of particles produced, or the energy carried by these particles, in collisions of various nuclei, spanning more than a decade of research. Due to the unpredictability of the theory, the work includes empirical studies of the regularity of the measured distributions from which significant knowledge is gained. The aesthetics of this subject derives from the physical beauty of the measured curves, the characteristic changes of shape with different species of nuclei, and the deep understanding obtained by the use of a simple and elegant mathematical function to describe the data.

  10. Width of the {phi} meson in nuclear matter

    SciTech Connect

    Polyanskiy, A. Yu.; Hartmann, M.; Kiselev, Yu. T.; Paryev, E. Ya.; Buescher, M.; Chiladze, D.; Dymov, S. N.; Dzyuba, A. A.; Gebel, R.; Hejny, V.; Kaempfer, B.; Keshelashvili, I.; Koptev, V. P.; Lorentz, B.; Maeda, Y.; Merzliakov, S. I.; and others

    2012-01-15

    The ratios of the cross sections for {phi}-meson production induced by 2.83-GeV protons on Cu, Ag, and Au nuclei to the respective cross section for C nuclei were measured at the ANKE-COSY facility in the momentum range of 0.6-1.6 GeV/c and the angular range of 0 Degree-Sign -8 Degree-Sign . The product {phi} mesons were identified by their decay {phi} {yields} K{sup +}K{sup -}. The procedure used to separate kaon pairs was described in detail, and all sources of the background and their contribution to the resulting error in the values found for the above cross-section ratios were analyzed. The A dependence of the cross section for {phi}-meson production was shown to obey the A{sup 0.56{+-}0.03} law. The total width of the {phi} meson at a normal nuclear density was extracted from a comparison of the measured cross-section ratios with the results of calculations based on two theoretical models. The resulting width value exceeds substantially both the vacuum width and the width expected in the absence of the nuclear-matter effect on the properties of the {phi} meson.

  11. Determination of the equation of state of asymmetric nuclear matter

    SciTech Connect

    Tsang, Manyee Betty

    2016-12-30

    A new Time Projection Chamber (TPC), called the SπRIT (SAMURAI pion Reconstruction Ion Tracker) TPC was constructed and used successfully in two experiments with the SAMURAI spectrometer at RIKEN, Japan to study the equation of state of neutron rich matter. As a result of the project, the SπRIT collaboration, an international collaboration consisting of groups from US, Japan, Korea, Poland, China and Germany, has been formed to pursue the science opportunities provided by the SπRIT TPC. After completion of the TPC and the two experiments, the collaboration continues to develop the software to analyze the SπRIT experiments and extract constraints of symmetry energy at supra-saturation densities. Over 250 TB of data have been obtained in the last SπRIT TPC experimental campaign. Construction of the TPC provided opportunities for the scientists to develop new designs for the light-weight and thin-walled field cage for the large pad plane and for the gating grid. Two PhD students (1 US and 1 Korea) graduated in 2016 based on their research on the TPC. At least four more doctoral theses (2 US, 1 Japan and 1 Korea) based on physics from the SπRIT experiments are expected.

  12. Dynamical properties of nuclear and stellar matter and the symmetry energy

    SciTech Connect

    Pais, Helena; Santos, Alexandre; Brito, Lucilia; Providencia, Constanca

    2010-08-15

    The effects of density dependence of the symmetry energy on the collective modes and dynamical instabilities of cold and warm nuclear and stellar matter are studied in the framework of relativistic mean-field hadron models. The existence of the collective isovector and possibly an isoscalar collective mode above saturation density is discussed. It is shown that soft equations of state do not allow for a high-density isoscalar collective mode; however, if the symmetry energy is hard enough, an isovector mode will not disappear at high densities. The crust-core transition density and pressure are obtained as a function of temperature for {beta}-equilibrium matter with and without neutrino trapping. Estimations of the size of the clusters formed in the nonhomogeneous phase, as well as the corresponding growth rates and distillation effect, are made. It is shown that cluster sizes increase with temperature, that the distillation effect close to the inner edge of the crust-core transition is very sensitive to the symmetry energy, and that, within a dynamical instability calculation, the pasta phase exists in warm compact stars up to 10-12 MeV.

  13. Stability and size of a chiral soliton immersed in nuclear matter

    SciTech Connect

    Kahana, S.

    1985-01-01

    The alteration in nucleon substructure when nucleons are placed in nuclear matter is addressed in a Wigner-Seitz approximation by treating nuclei as a collection of chiral solitons. In the limit of strong coupling between quarks and the binding chiral fields, and for low density nuclear matter, it is found the solitons decrease slightly in size. 19 refs., 3 figs.

  14. Integrating plant litter quality, soil organic matter stablilization, and the carbon saturation concept

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Recent research suggests labile plant litters promote the stabilization of soil organic matter (SOM) in physico-chemically protected fractions with relatively slow turnover. However, the effect of litter quality on SOM stabilization is inconsistent. Labile, ‘high quality’ litters characterized by hi...

  15. From asymmetric nuclear matter to neutron stars: A functional renormalization group study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drews, Matthias; Weise, Wolfram

    2015-03-01

    A previous study of nuclear matter in a chiral nucleon-meson model is extended to isospin-asymmetric matter. Fluctuations beyond mean-field approximation are treated in the framework of the functional renormalization group. The nuclear liquid-gas phase transition is investigated in detail as a function of the proton fraction in asymmetric matter. The equations of state at zero temperature of both symmetric nuclear matter and pure neutron matter are found to be in good agreement with realistic many-body computations. We also study the density dependence of the pion mass in the medium. The question of chiral symmetry restoration in neutron matter is addressed; we find a stabilization of the phase with spontaneously broken chiral symmetry once fluctuations are included. Finally, neutron-star matter including β equilibrium is discussed. The model satisfies the constraints imposed by the existence of two-solar mass neutron stars.

  16. 77 FR 5853 - In the Matter of Entergy Nuclear Operations Inc; Confirmatory Order Modifying License (Effective...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY...-47; DPR-28; NFP-38; EA-10-090; EA-10-248; EA-11-160] In the Matter of Entergy Nuclear Operations Inc; Confirmatory Order Modifying License (Effective Immediately) I Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc. (Entergy...

  17. Stabilization mechanisms of protected versus unprotected soil organic matter: Implications for C-saturation of soils.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Six, J.; Conant, R.; Paul, E. A.; Paustian, K.

    2001-05-01

    The relationship between soil structure and the ability of soil to stabilize organic matter (SOM) is a key element in soil C dynamics that has either been overlooked or treated in a cursory fashion when developing SOM models. The purpose of this paper is to review current knowledge of SOM dynamics within the framework of a new conceptual model. Initially we distinguish SOM that is protected against decomposition by various mechanisms from that which is not protected from decomposition. Quantification, characteristics, and responses to changes in land use or land management are described for two measures of SOM we defined as unprotected - light fraction OM and coarse particulate organic matter (> 250 mm sized POM). Similarly, methods of quantification and characteristics of three SOM pools defined as protected are discussed. Soil organic matter can be physically stabilized, or protected from decomposition, through (micro)-aggregation or intimate association with silt and clay particles and can be biochemically stabilized through the formation of recalcitrant SOM compounds. Our conclusions are illustrated in a conceptual model that differs from most SOM models in that the model state variables are measurable SOM pools. The conceptual model suggests that physical characteristics inherent to soils define the maximum physical protective capacity of soil that limits increases in SOM (i.e. C sequestration) with increased OM inputs.

  18. Effect of a strong magnetic field on the energy yield of nuclear reactions in dense nuclear matter

    SciTech Connect

    Sekerzhitskii, V.S.

    1995-01-01

    According to modern concepts, the electron-neutron-nuclear (Aen) phase of dense highly degenerate matter can be realized in the shells of neutron stars. This phase has relatively stable and absolutely stable states of thermodynamic equilibrium. Strong magnetic fields can exist in neutron stars. For this reason, analysis of their effect on the characteristics of the Aen phase is of great interest. It is specially important to study the influence of strong magnetic fields on the energy yield of nuclear reactions in dense nuclear matter because the transition to the absolute equilibrium state proceeds through these reactions.

  19. Family matters: happiness in nuclear families and twins.

    PubMed

    Nes, Ragnhild Bang; Czajkowski, N; Tambs, K

    2010-09-01

    Biometric studies have shown that happiness is strongly affected by genes. The findings are mainly based on twin data, however, and the full validity of the results has been debated. To overcome some limitations in classical twin research, we examined aetiological sources of subjective well-being (SWB), using two independent population-based samples, one including nuclear families (N = 54,540) and one including twins (N = 6,620). Biometric modelling using R was conducted to test for a data structure implying either non-additive genetic effects or higher environmental co-twin correlation in MZ than DZ pairs (violation of the EEA). We also estimated non-random mating, cultural transmission and shared environments specific for regular siblings and twins. Two sets of nested models were fitted and compared. The best explanatory model shows that family matters for happiness predominantly due to quantitative sex-specific genetic effects, a moderate spousal correlation and a shared twin environment. Upper limits for broad-sense heritability were estimated to be 0.33 (females) and 0.36 (males). Our study constitutes the most elaborate biometric study of SWB to date and illustrates the utility of including responses from multiple types of relatives in quantitative genetic analyses.

  20. Impact of Natural Organic Matter on Uranium Transport through Saturated Geologic Materials: From Molecular to Column Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Y.; Saiers, J. E.; Xu, N.; Shuh, D.; Tyliszczak, T.; Barnett, M.

    2011-12-01

    The transport of radionuclides within geologic environments is of considerable concern. Actinides migrate in association with mineral particles and organic matter that occur naturally in nearly all groundwaters. The role of mineral colloids in facilitating radionuclide transport has been reported in numerous studies, but the effects of waterborne organic matter on radionuclide mobility have received less attention. In this study, we compared the abilities of three humic acids (HAs) (obtained through sequential extraction of a peat soil) to co-transport uranium (U) within water-saturated sand columns. We also measured kinetics of U desorption from the HAs in separate experiments by using a novel, continuously stirred flow system (CSFS). Maximum relative breakthrough concentrations of U in our column experiments increased from undetectable levels (<0.001) in the absence of HAs to 0.17 to 0.54 with HAs. The strength of the HA effect on U mobility was positively correlated with the NMR-detected content of paraffinic carbon and the hydrophobicity of HAs, which indicates the importance of hydrophobic organic matter in facilitating U transport. Consistently, near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectra coupled with scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) show that bound U was concentrated in micro areas of the HA that were composed of more hydrophobic carbon. Further analyses of the breakthrough data together with the data from the CSFS experiments revealed that the rates of U desorption from the HAs decreased with decreasing hydrophobicity of the HAs. This finding suggests that U association with hydrophilic moieties of the HAs was irreversible or very-slowly reversible, possibly due to the formation of strong, inner-sphere surface complexes. Using information gleaned from the CSFS experiments on U-HA interactions, model simulations for U and HA transport indicate that colloidal HAs may play a more important role than dissolved HAs in mobilizing and

  1. Carbon black retention in saturated natural soils: Effects of flow conditions, soil surface roughness and soil organic matter.

    PubMed

    Lohwacharin, J; Takizawa, S; Punyapalakul, P

    2015-10-01

    We evaluated factors affecting the transport, retention, and re-entrainment of carbon black nanoparticles (nCBs) in two saturated natural soils under different flow conditions and input concentrations using the two-site transport model and Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM). Soil organic matter (SOM) was found to create unfavorable conditions for the retention. Despite an increased flow velocity, the relative stability of the estimated maximum retention capacity in soils may suggest that flow-induced shear stress forces were insufficient to detach nCB. The KPFM observation revealed that nCBs were retained at the grain boundary and on surface roughness, which brought about substantial discrepancy between theoretically-derived attachment efficiency factors and the ones obtained by the experiments using the two-site transport model. Thus, decreasing ionic strength and increasing solution pH caused re-entrainment of only a small fraction of retained nCB in the soil columns.

  2. Organic matter induced mobilization of polymer-coated silver nanoparticles from water-saturated sand.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xinyao; Yin, Ziyi; Chen, Fangmin; Hu, Jingjing; Yang, Yuesuo

    2015-10-01

    Mobilization of polymer-coated silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) by anionic surfactant (sodium dodecylbenzenesulphonate: SDBS), amino acid derivative (N-acetylcysteine: NAC), and chelate (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid: EDTA) in water-saturated sand medium was explored based on carefully designed column tests. Exposure experiments monitoring the size evolution of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) coated AgNPs in organic solutions confirm the capacity of SDBS, NAC and EDTA to partly displace PVP. Single Pulse Column Experiment (SPCE) results show both the PVP polymer and the silver core controlled AgNP deposition while the effect of the PVP was dominant. Results of Co-injected Pulse Column Experiments (CPCEs) where AgNP and SDBS or NAC were co-injected into the column following a very short mixing (<1 s) disprove our hypothesis that coating-alternation by particle associated organic would mobilize irreversibly deposited particles from the uncoated sand, while surface charge modification by adsorbed NAC was identified as a potential mobilizing mechanism for AgNP from the iron-oxide-coated sand. Triple Pulse Column Experiment (TPCE) results confirm that such a charging effect of the adsorbed organic molecules may enable SDBS and NAC to mobilize AgNPs from the iron-oxide-coated sands. TPCE results with five distinct levels of SDBS indicate that concentration-stimulated change in the SDBS format from an individual to a micelle significantly increased the mobilizing efficiency and site blockage of SDBS. Although being an electrolyte, EDTA did not mobilize AgNPs, as the case with SDBS or NAC, as it dissolved the iron oxides which in turn prevented EDTA adsorption on sand. The findings have implications for better understanding the behavior of polymer-coated nanoparticles in organic-presented groundwater systems, i.e., detachment-associated uncertainty in exposure prediction of the nanomaterials.

  3. Asymmetric nuclear matter and neutron star properties within the extended Brueckner theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassaneen, Khaled S. A.

    2017-01-01

    Microscopically, the equation of state (EOS) and other properties of asymmetric nuclear matter at zero temperature have been investigated extensively by adopting the non-relativistic Brueckner-Hartree-Fock (BHF) and the extended BHF approaches by using the self-consistent Green's function approach or by including a phenomenological three-body force. Once three-body forces are introduced, the phenomenological saturation point is reproduced and the theory is applied to the study of neutron star properties. We can calculate the total mass and radius for neutron stars using various equations of state at high densities in β-equilibrium without hyperons. A comparison with other microscopic predictions based on non-relativistic and density-dependent relativistic mean-field calculations has been done. It is found that relativistic EOS yields however larger mass and radius for neutron star than predictions based on non-relativistic approaches. Also the three-body force plays a crucial role to deduce the theoretical value of the maximum mass of neutron stars in agreement with recent measurements of the neutron star mass.

  4. The Heart of Matter: A Nuclear Chemistry Module. Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viola, Vic; Hearle, Robert

    This teacher's guide is designed to provide science teachers with the necessary guidance and suggestions for teaching nuclear chemistry. In this book, the fundamental concepts of nuclear science and the applications of nuclear energy are discussed. The material in this book can be integrated with the other modules in a sequence that helps students…

  5. Do Skyrme forces that fit nuclear matter work well in finite nuclei?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevenson, P. D.; Goddard, P. M.; Stone, J. R.; Dutra, M.

    2013-05-01

    A short list of Skyrme force parameterizations, recently found to have passed a series of constraints relating to nuclear matter properties is analyzed for their ability to reproduce data in finite nuclei. We analyse binding energies, isotope shifts, neutron skin thicknesses and fission barriers. We find that the subset of forces have no common ability to reproduce(or otherwise)properties of finite nuclei, despite passing the extensive range of nuclear matter constraints.

  6. Nuclear Pasta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva Schneider, Andre; Horowitz, Charles; Berry, Don; Briggs, Christian

    2014-03-01

    For decades it has been theorized that just below nuclear saturation density matter undergoes a series of phase transitions. These phases, which are expected to exist in core-collapse supernovae and neutron stars, involve a range of exotic nuclear shapes collectively known as nuclear pasta. Recently, Jose Pons and collaborators suggested that ``the maximum period of isolated X-ray pulsars may be the first observational evidence for an amorphous inner crust, ..., possibly owing to the existence of a nuclear pasta phase.'' In this talk we present results of semi-classical molecular dynamics simulations of nuclear pasta and discuss how each phase might contribute to neutron star crust properties.

  7. A new mathematical model for the equation of state of an asymmetric infinite nuclear matter

    SciTech Connect

    Zoghi-Foumani, N. Shojaei, M. R.

    2016-04-21

    In this paper, the average energy variation with respect to the density of a system of nucleons is studied. A new formula is presented for the nuclear equation of state. This formula is related to an infinite system of protons and neutrons with relatively small thermal excitations. It is shown that the proposed formulation for the nuclear equation of state reproduces the results obtained in the Skyrme-Hartree-Fock (SHF) and Relativistic Mean-Field (RMF) models of nuclear matter. It should be realized that the consistency of the obtained results for nuclear matter with the predictions of well-known SHF and RMF models for symmetric and asymmetric system of nucleons indicates the reliability of this formulation for different types of nuclear matter in large scales such as neutron stars.

  8. Microscopic calculations of nuclear and neutron matter, symmetry energy and neutron stars

    DOE PAGES

    Gandolfi, S.

    2015-02-01

    We present Quantum Monte Carlo calculations of the equation of state of neutron matter. The equation of state is directly related to the symmetry energy and determines the mass and radius of neutron stars, providing then a connection between terrestrial experiments and astronomical observations. As a result, we also show preliminary results of the equation of state of nuclear matter.

  9. Low-momentum NN interactions and all-order summation of ring diagrams of symmetric nuclear matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siu, L.-W.; Holt, J. W.; Kuo, T. T. S.; Brown, G. E.

    2009-05-01

    We study the equation of state for symmetric nuclear matter using a ring-diagram approach in which the particle-particle hole-hole (pphh) ring diagrams within a momentum model space of decimation scale Λ are summed to all orders. The calculation is carried out using the renormalized low-momentum nucleon-nucleon (NN) interaction Vlow-k, which is obtained from a bare NN potential by integrating out the high-momentum components beyond Λ. The bare NN potentials of CD-Bonn, Nijmegen, and Idaho have been employed. The choice of Λ and its influence on the single particle spectrum are discussed. Ring-diagram correlations at intermediate momenta (k≃2fm-1) are found to be particularly important for nuclear saturation, suggesting the necessity of using a sufficiently large decimation scale so that the above momentum region is not integrated out. Using Vlow-k with Λ~3fm-1, we perform a ring-diagram computation with the above potentials, which all yield saturation energies E/A and Fermi momenta kF(0) considerably larger than the empirical values. On the other hand, similar computations with the medium-dependent Brown-Rho scaled NN potentials give satisfactory results of E/A≃-15 MeV and kF(0)≃1.4fm-1. The effect of this medium dependence is well reproduced by an empirical three-body force of the Skyrme type.

  10. Fraunhofer diffraction of coherent and incoherent nuclear matter waves by complementary screens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silveira, R.; Leclercq-Willain, Ch.

    2013-06-01

    The analogy between Fraunhofer diffraction effects observed in nuclear and subnuclear collisions and those observed with light diffracted by complementary screens is revisited. Emphasis will be put on the collision mechanisms playing a role analogous to that of an aperture in light diffraction. These analogies are illustrated with examples involving coherent and incoherent nuclear matter waves.

  11. Kaon properties in dense nuclear matter: are there experimental evidences of in medio effects?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangiarotti, A.

    2009-06-01

    Beyond the general interest for nuclear matter theory, the K- in medio mass modification could have important astrophysical consequences. Experimental evidences of how a nuclear medium affects K+ and K- properties will be summarised. To reach a firm conclusion about the K-, the missing information on the flow will be shown to be still relevant.

  12. Water hammer phenomena occurring in nuclear power installations while filling horizontal pipe containing saturated steam with liquid

    SciTech Connect

    Selivanov, Y.F.; Kirillov, P.L.; Yefanov, A.D.

    1995-09-01

    The potentiality of the water hammer occurrence in nuclear reactor loop components has been considered under the conditions of filling a steam-containing pipeline leg involving horizontal and vertical sections with liquid subcooled to the saturation temperature. As a result of free discharging from the tank, the liquid enters the horizontal pipeline. When the liquid slug formation in the pipeline is fulfilled. The pressure drop being occurred in steam flowing along the pipelines causes the liquid slug to move to the pipeline inlet. When the liquid slug decelerates, a water hammer occurs. This mechanism of water hammer occurrence is tested by experiments. The regimes of the occurrence of multiple considerable water hammers were identified.

  13. Micron-Scale MIC of Alloy 22 After Long Term Incubation in Saturated Nuclear Waste Repository Microcosms

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, S; Horn, J; Carrillo, C

    2003-10-29

    The effects of potential microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) on candidate packaging materials for nuclear waste containment are being assessed. Coupons of Alloy 22, the outer barrier candidate for waste packaging, were exposed to a simulated, saturated repository environment consisting of crushed rock from the repository site and a continual flow of simulated groundwater for periods up to five years. Coupons were incubated with YM tuff under both sterile and non-sterile conditions. Surfacial analysis of the biotically-incubated coupons show development of both submicron-sized pinholes and pores; these features were not present on either sterile or untreated control coupons. Quantification of these effects will help define the overall contribution of MIC to the integrity of the containment system over a period of 10,000 years.

  14. Unified description of equation of state and transport properties of nuclear matter

    SciTech Connect

    Benhar, Omar; Farina, Nicola; Valli, Marco; Fiorilla, Salvatore

    2008-10-13

    Correlated basis function perturbation theory and the formalism of cluster expansions have been recently employed to obtain an effective interaction from a state-of-the-art nucleon nucleon potential model. The approach based on the effective interaction allows for a consistent description of the nuclear matter ground state and nucleon-nucleon scattering in the nuclear medium. This paper reports the the results of numerical calculations of different properties of nuclear and neutron matter, including the equation of state and the shear viscosity and thermal conductivity transport coefficients, carried out using the effective interaction.

  15. Numerical studies of fluid and heat flow near high-level nuclear waste packages emplaced in partially saturated fractured tuff

    SciTech Connect

    Pruess, K.; Tsang, Y.W.; Wang, J.S.Y.

    1984-11-01

    We have performed modeling studies on the simultaneous transport of heat, liquid water, vapor, and air in partially saturated fractured porous rock. Formation parameters were chosen as representative of the potential repository horizon in the Topopah Spring Unit of the Yucca Mountain tuffs. The presence of fractures makes the transport problem very complex, both in terms of flow geometry and physics. The numerical simulator "TOUGH" used for our flow calculations takes into account most of the physical effects which are important in multi-phase fluid and heat flow. It has provisions for handling the extreme non-linearities which arise in phase transitions, component disappearances, and capillary discontinuities at fracture faces. We model a region around an infinite linear string of nuclear waste canisters, taking into account both the discrete fractures and the porous matrix. From an analysis of the results obtained with explicit fractures, we develop equivalent continuum models which can reproduce the temperature, saturation, and pressure variation, and gas and liquid flow rates of the discrete fracture-porous matrix calculations. The equivalent continuum approach makes use of a generalized relative permeability concept to take into account the fracture effects. This results in a substantial simplification of the flow problem which makes larger scale modeling of complicated unsaturated fractured porous systems feasible. Potential applications for regional scale simulations and limitations of the continuum approach are discussed. 35 refs., 14 figs., 4 tabs.

  16. 78 FR 41805 - In the Matter of FirstEnergy Nuclear Operating Company; Beaver Valley Power Station; Independent...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-11

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of FirstEnergy Nuclear Operating Company; Beaver Valley Power Station; Independent... fingerprinting for unescorted access to FirstEnergy Nuclear Operating Company. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: L..., the NRC is providing notice in the matter of FirstEnergy Nuclear Operating Company, Beaver Valley...

  17. Toward an actual account for the angular dependence of the Brueckner-Bethe-Goldstone propagator in nuclear matter

    SciTech Connect

    Arellano, H. F.

    2011-04-15

    Angular correlations arising from particle-particle (pp) propagation in symmetric nuclear matter are investigated. Their account follows a detailed treatment of the angular dependence of the energy denominator of the propagator in the Brueckner-Bethe-Goldstone (BBG) equation, in conjunction with the Pauli exclusion principle for intermediate states. As a result, taking a monopole approximation for the propagator, a correlation form factor emerges from the Cauchy principal-value integral of the pp propagator, while the imaginary part becomes structurally different from those in Lippmann-Schwinger-type equations. These features are investigated within the continuous choice of the single-particle potential considering the Argonne v{sub 18} and Paris two-nucleon potentials. We find that the behavior of the mass operator is affected, deepening slightly the saturation point of symmetric nuclear matter relative to those based on angle-averaged energy denominators. Implications of these angular correlations were also investigated in the context of proton-nucleus scattering, showing clear effects on scattering observables below 100 MeV.

  18. Influence of natural organic matter on fate and transport of silver nanoparticles in saturated porous media: laboratory experiments and modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanel, Sushil R.; Flory, Jason; Meyerhoefer, Allie; Fraley, Jessica L.; Sizemore, Ioana E.; Goltz, Mark N.

    2015-03-01

    Understanding the fate and transport of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) is of importance due to their widespread use and potential harmful effects on humans and the environment. The present study investigates the fate and transport of widely used Creighton AgNPs in saturated porous media. Previous investigations of AgNP transport in the presence of natural organic matter (NOM) report contradictory results regarding how the presence of NOM affected the stability and mobility of AgNPs. In this work, a nonreactive tracer, AgNPs and a mixture of AgNPs and NOM were injected into a background solution (0.01 mM of NaNO3) flowing through laboratory columns packed with water-saturated glass beads to obtain concentration versus time breakthrough curves. Transport of AgNPs in the presence of NOM was simulated with a model that accounted for both reversible and irreversible attachment. Based upon an analysis of the AgNP breakthrough curves, it was found that addition of NOM at concentrations ranging from 1 to 40 mg L-1 resulted in significant decreases in both the zeroth and first moments of the breakthrough curves. These observations may be attributed to NOM promoting AgNP aggregation and irreversible attachment. Raman and surface-enhanced Raman scattering analysis of NOM-AgNP mixtures revealed that a possible interaction of NOM with AgNP occurred through the carboxylic moieties (-COO-) located in the immediate vicinity of the metallic surface. At higher concentrations of NOM, both the zeroth and first moments of the breakthrough curves increased. Based on modeling and the literature, we hypothesize that as the NOM concentration increases, it begins to coat both the AgNPs and the glass beads, leading to a situation where AgNP transport may be described in the same way that transport of a sorbing hydrophobic compound partitioning to an immobile organic phase is typically described, assuming reversible, rate-limited sorption.

  19. Neutron drip line and the equation of state of nuclear matter

    SciTech Connect

    Oyamatsu, Kazuhiro; Iida, Kei; Koura, Hiroyuki

    2010-08-15

    We investigate how the neutron drip line is related to the density dependence of the symmetry energy by using a macroscopic nuclear model that allows us to calculate nuclear masses in a way that is dependent on the equation of state of asymmetric nuclear matter. The neutron drip line obtained from these masses is shown to appreciably shift to a neutron-rich side in a nuclear chart as the density derivative of the symmetry energy increases. Such a shift is clearly seen for light nuclei, a feature coming mainly from the surface property of neutron-rich nuclei.

  20. Probing the low and high density nuclear matter by hadron scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliseev, S. M.; Kosmachev, O. S.

    2017-03-01

    The subject of this report is connected with the widely discussed manifestation of in-medium effect in nuclear collisions. At present, the medium modification of hadron properties in the normal and in a dense nuclear matter is one of the fundamental questions of strong interaction physics. A new Glauber Monte Carlo model for hadron-nuclei interaction at intermediate energy is proposed. We utilized the principal assumptions as in the approaches of other authors describing nuclear collisions at high energy in the framework of the models without QGP. Yet, a number of new ingredients (noneikonal corrections, correlations of nucleons, in the nuclei, the nuclear Fermi motion, etc.) are introduced.

  1. Influence of organic matter on the transport of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts in a ferric oxyhydroxide-coated quartz sand saturated porous medium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Abudalo, R.A.; Ryan, J.N.; Harvey, R.W.; Metge, D.W.; Landkamer, L.

    2010-01-01

    To assess the effect of organic matter on the transport of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts in a geochemically heterogeneous saturated porous medium, we measured the breakthrough and collision efficiencies of oocysts as a function of dissolved organic matter concentration in a flow-through column containing ferric oxyhydroxide-coated sand. We characterized the surface properties of the oocysts and ferric oxyhydroxide-coated sand using microelectrophoresis and streaming potential, respectively, and the amount of organic matter adsorbed on the ferric oxyhydroxide-coated sand as a function of the concentration of dissolved organic matter (a fulvic acid isolated from Florida Everglades water). The dissolved organic matter had no significant effect on the zeta potential of the oocysts. Low concentrations of dissolved organic matter were responsible for reversing the charge of the ferric oxyhydroxide-coated sand surface from positive to negative. The charge reversal and accumulation of negative charge on the ferric oxyhydroxide-coated sand led to increases in oocyst breakthrough and decreases in oocyst collision efficiency with increasing dissolved organic matter concentration. The increase in dissolved organic matter concentration from 0 to 20 mg L-1 resulted in a two-fold decrease in the collision efficiency. ?? 2009 Elsevier Ltd.

  2. 78 FR 19535 - In the Matter of Entergy Operations, Inc. (Arkansas Nuclear One, Unit 1); Confirmatory Order...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION In the Matter of Entergy Operations, Inc. (Arkansas Nuclear One, Unit 1); Confirmatory Order Modifying License I Entergy Operations, Inc. (Entergy, licensee), is the holder of Renewed...

  3. Intron or no intron: a matter for nuclear pore complexes

    PubMed Central

    Bonnet, Amandine; Palancade, Benoit

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) have been shown to regulate distinct steps of the gene expression process, from transcription to mRNA export. In particular, mRNAs expressed from intron-containing genes are surveyed by a specific NPC-dependent quality control pathway ensuring that unspliced mRNAs are retained within the nucleus. In this Extra View, we summarize the different approaches that have been developed to evaluate the contribution of various NPC components to the expression of intron-containing genes. We further present the mechanistic models that could account for pre-mRNA retention at the nuclear side of NPCs. Finally, we discuss the possibility that other stages of intron-containing gene expression could be regulated by nuclear pores, in particular through the regulation of mRNA biogenesis factors by the NPC-associated SUMO protease Ulp1. PMID:26709543

  4. Sigma omega meson coupling and properties of nuclei and nuclear matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haidari, Maryam M.; Sharma, Madan M.

    2008-05-01

    We have constructed a Lagrangian model with a coupling of σ and ω mesons in the relativistic mean-field theory. Properties of finite nuclei and nuclear matter are explored with the new Lagrangian model SIG-OM. The study shows that an excellent description of binding energies and charge radii of nuclei over a large range of isospin is achieved with SIG-OM. With an incompressibility of nuclear matter K=265 MeV, it is also able to describe the breathing-mode isoscalar giant monopole resonance energies appropriately. It is shown that the high-density behaviour of the equation of state of nuclear and neutron matter with the σ-ω coupling is much softer than that of the non-linear scalar coupling model.

  5. Tabulated equation of state for supernova matter including full nuclear ensemble

    SciTech Connect

    Buyukcizmeci, N.; Botvina, A. S.; Mishustin, I. N.

    2014-07-01

    This is an introduction to the tabulated database of stellar matter properties calculated within the framework of the Statistical Model for Supernova Matter (SMSM). The tables present thermodynamical characteristics and nuclear abundances for 31 values of baryon density (10{sup –8} < ρ/ρ{sub 0} < 0.32, ρ{sub 0} = 0.15 fm{sup –3} is the normal nuclear matter density), 35 values of temperature (0.2 MeV < T < 25 MeV), and 28 values of electron-to-baryon ratio (0.02 < Y{sub e} < 0.56). The properties of stellar matter in β equilibrium are also considered. The main ingredients of the SMSM are briefly outlined, and the data structure and content of the tables are explained.

  6. Experimental Determination of η /s for Finite Nuclear Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mondal, Debasish; Pandit, Deepak; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Pal, Surajit; Dey, Balaram; Bhattacharya, Srijit; De, A.; Bhattacharya, Soumik; Bhattacharyya, S.; Roy, Pratap; Banerjee, K.; Banerjee, S. R.

    2017-05-01

    We present, for the first time, simultaneous determination of shear viscosity (η ) and entropy density (s ) and thus, η /s for equilibrated nuclear systems from A ˜30 to A ˜208 at different temperatures. At finite temperature, η is estimated by utilizing the γ decay of the isovector giant dipole resonance populated via fusion evaporation reaction, while s is evaluated from the nuclear level density parameter (a ) and nuclear temperature (T ), determined precisely by the simultaneous measurements of the evaporated neutron energy spectra and the compound nuclear angular momenta. The transport parameter η and the thermodynamic parameter s both increase with temperature, resulting in a mild decrease of η /s with temperature. The extracted η /s is also found to be independent of the neutron-proton asymmetry at a given temperature. Interestingly, the measured η /s values are comparable to that of the high-temperature quark-gluon plasma, pointing towards the fact that strong fluidity may be the universal feature of the strong interaction of many-body quantum systems.

  7. 7T Magnetization Transfer and Chemical Exchange Saturation Transfer MRI of Cortical Gray Matter: Can We Detect Neurochemical and Macromolecular Abnormalities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    Saturation Transfer (CEST) • Magnetization Transfer (MT) • Brain • Cortical Gray Matter (cGM) • Multiple Sclerosis (MS) • Functional MRI (fMRI) • Pool Size ...obtained high-resolution selective inversion recovery (SIR) qMT and analyzed the data according to (10) to generate the pool size ratio (PSR), exchange...magnetization transfer is present. For every voxel, the SIR signal equation was fit to the recovery curve and the exchange rate (kmf), pool size

  8. Ionization yield from nuclear recoils in liquid-xenon dark matter detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mu, Wei; Ji, Xiangdong

    2015-03-01

    The ionization yield in a two-phase liquid xenon dark-matter detector has been studied in keV nuclear recoil energy region. The newly obtained nuclear quenching as well as the average energy required to produce an electron-ion pair from the measurement in Seguinot (1992) are used to calculate the total electric charges produced. To estimate the fraction of the electron charges collected, the Thomas-Imel model is generalized to describe the field dependence for nuclear recoils in liquid xenon. With free parameters fitted to experimentally measured 56.5 keV nuclear recoils, the energy dependence of ionization yield for nuclear recoils is predicted, which increases as recoil energy decreases and reaches the maximum value at 2∼3 keV. This prediction agrees well with existing data and may help to lower the energy detection threshold for nuclear recoils to ∼1 keV.

  9. Covariant mean-field calculations of finite-temperature nuclear matter

    SciTech Connect

    R. J. Furnstahl; Brian D. Serot

    1990-01-01

    Hot nuclear matter is studied in the framework of quantum hadrodynamics. General principles of covariant thermodynamics and thermodynamic consistency are discussed, and these principles are illustrated by computing nuclear matter properties in an arbitrary reference frame, using the mean-field approximation to the Walecka model. The results are shown to be Lorentz covariant, and thermodynamic consistency is demonstrated by proving the equality of the ‘‘thermodynamic’’ and ‘‘hydrostatic’’ pressures. The mean-field results are used in a simple hydrodynamic picture to discuss the phenomenology of heavy-ion collisions and astrophysical systems, with an emphasis on new features that arise in a covariant approach.

  10. Temperature and density dependence of properties of nuclear matter deduced from heavy ion collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Shlomo, Shalom

    2010-11-24

    Heavy-ion collision experiments are often employed to determine properties of nuclear matter under extreme conditions of temperature and density. This has been the subject of many investigations in recent decades, since understanding the equation of state of hot nuclear matter is very important in the study supernovae, neutron stars and nuclei. We present a short and limited review of the theoretical and experimental status of determining the temperature and density of the disassembling hot nucleus from ratios of the yields of emitted fragments.

  11. Equation of state of hot polarized nuclear matter using the generalized Skyrme interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abd-Alla, M.; Hager, S. A.

    2000-04-01

    We used the generalized Skyrme potential to study the equation of state of polarized nuclear matter in the frame of the Thomas-Fermi model. The critical temperature of the liquid-gas phase transition is found to be Tc=16.2 MeV. This critical temperature was found to decease with the asymmetry, spin, and spin-isospin excess parameters. The isothermal compressibility of polarized nuclear matter was also studied. The volume compressibility Kv was found to decrease with temperature. The symmetry compressibility Kx, the spin symmetry compressibility Ky, and the spin-isospin symmetry compressibility Kz were found to have a little increasing behavior with temperature.

  12. Nuclear matter at high temperature and low net baryonic density

    SciTech Connect

    Costa, R. S.; Duarte, S. B.; Oliveira, J. C. T.; Chiapparini, M.

    2010-11-12

    We study the effect of the {sigma}-{omega} mesons interaction on nucleon-antinucleon matter properties. This interaction is employed in the context of the linear Walecka model to discuss the behavior of this system at high temperature and low net baryonic density regime. The field equations are solved in the relativistic mean-field approximation and our results show that the phase transition pointed out in the literature for this regime is eliminated when the meson interaction are considered.

  13. ERK5 and Cell Proliferation: Nuclear Localization Is What Matters.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Nestor; Erazo, Tatiana; Lizcano, Jose M

    2016-01-01

    ERK5, the last MAP kinase family member discovered, is activated by the upstream kinase MEK5 in response to growth factors and stress stimulation. MEK5-ERK5 pathway has been associated to different cellular processes, playing a crucial role in cell proliferation in normal and cancer cells by mechanisms that are both dependent and independent of its kinase activity. Thus, nuclear ERK5 activates transcription factors by either direct phosphorylation or acting as co-activator thanks to a unique transcriptional activation TAD domain located at its C-terminal tail. Consequently, ERK5 has been proposed as an interesting target to tackle different cancers, and either inhibitors of ERK5 activity or silencing the protein have shown antiproliferative activity in cancer cells and to block tumor growth in animal models. Here, we review the different mechanisms involved in ERK5 nuclear translocation and their consequences. Inactive ERK5 resides in the cytosol, forming a complex with Hsp90-Cdc37 superchaperone. In a canonical mechanism, MEK5-dependent activation results in ERK5 C-terminal autophosphorylation, Hsp90 dissociation, and nuclear translocation. This mechanism integrates signals such as growth factors and stresses that activate the MEK5-ERK5 pathway. Importantly, two other mechanisms, MEK5-independent, have been recently described. These mechanisms allow nuclear shuttling of kinase-inactive forms of ERK5. Although lacking kinase activity, these forms activate transcription by interacting with transcription factors through the TAD domain. Both mechanisms also require Hsp90 dissociation previous to nuclear translocation. One mechanism involves phosphorylation of the C-terminal tail of ERK5 by kinases that are activated during mitosis, such as Cyclin-dependent kinase-1. The second mechanism involves overexpression of chaperone Cdc37, an oncogene that is overexpressed in cancers such as prostate adenocarcinoma, where it collaborates with ERK5 to promote cell proliferation

  14. ERK5 and Cell Proliferation: Nuclear Localization Is What Matters

    PubMed Central

    Gomez, Nestor; Erazo, Tatiana; Lizcano, Jose M.

    2016-01-01

    ERK5, the last MAP kinase family member discovered, is activated by the upstream kinase MEK5 in response to growth factors and stress stimulation. MEK5-ERK5 pathway has been associated to different cellular processes, playing a crucial role in cell proliferation in normal and cancer cells by mechanisms that are both dependent and independent of its kinase activity. Thus, nuclear ERK5 activates transcription factors by either direct phosphorylation or acting as co-activator thanks to a unique transcriptional activation TAD domain located at its C-terminal tail. Consequently, ERK5 has been proposed as an interesting target to tackle different cancers, and either inhibitors of ERK5 activity or silencing the protein have shown antiproliferative activity in cancer cells and to block tumor growth in animal models. Here, we review the different mechanisms involved in ERK5 nuclear translocation and their consequences. Inactive ERK5 resides in the cytosol, forming a complex with Hsp90-Cdc37 superchaperone. In a canonical mechanism, MEK5-dependent activation results in ERK5 C-terminal autophosphorylation, Hsp90 dissociation, and nuclear translocation. This mechanism integrates signals such as growth factors and stresses that activate the MEK5-ERK5 pathway. Importantly, two other mechanisms, MEK5-independent, have been recently described. These mechanisms allow nuclear shuttling of kinase-inactive forms of ERK5. Although lacking kinase activity, these forms activate transcription by interacting with transcription factors through the TAD domain. Both mechanisms also require Hsp90 dissociation previous to nuclear translocation. One mechanism involves phosphorylation of the C-terminal tail of ERK5 by kinases that are activated during mitosis, such as Cyclin-dependent kinase-1. The second mechanism involves overexpression of chaperone Cdc37, an oncogene that is overexpressed in cancers such as prostate adenocarcinoma, where it collaborates with ERK5 to promote cell proliferation

  15. Anomalous Solute Transport in Saturated Porous Media: Linking Transport Model Parameters to Electrical and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swanson, R. D.; Binley, A. M.; Keating, K.; France, S.; Osterman, G. K.; Day-Lewis, F. D.; Singha, K.

    2013-12-01

    The advection-dispersion equation fails to describe non-Fickian solute transport in saturated porous media, necessitating the use of other models. The dual-domain mass transfer (DDMT) model partitions the total porosity into mobile and less-mobile domains with solute exchange between the domains; consequently, the DDMT model can produce a better fit to breakthrough curves (BTCs) in systems defined by more- and less-mobile components. However, direct experimental estimation of DDMT model parameters such as rate of exchange and the mobile and less-mobile porosities remains elusive. Consequently, model parameters are often calculated purely as a model fitting exercise. There is a clear need for material characterization techniques that can offer some insight into the pore space geometrical arrangement, particularly if such techniques can be extended to the field scale. Here, we interpret static direct-current (DC) resistivity, complex resistivity (CR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) geophysical measurements in the characterization of mass transfer parameters. We use two different samples of the zeolite clinoptilolite, a material shown to demonstrate solute mass transfer due to a significant intragranular porosity, along with glass beads as a control. We explore the relation between geophysical and DDMT parameters in conjunction with supporting material characterization methods. Our results reveal how these geophysical measurements can offer some insight into the pore structures controlling the observed anomalous transport behavior.

  16. Nuclear recoil energy scale in liquid xenon with application to the direct detection of dark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Sorensen, P; Dahl, C E

    2011-02-14

    We show for the first time that the quenching of electronic excitation from nuclear recoils in liquid xenon is well-described by Lindhard theory, if the nuclear recoil energy is reconstructed using the combined (scintillation and ionization) energy scale proposed by Shutt et al.. We argue for the adoption of this perspective in favor of the existing preference for reconstructing nuclear recoil energy solely from primary scintillation. We show that signal partitioning into scintillation and ionization is well-described by the Thomas-Imel box model. We discuss the implications for liquid xenon detectors aimed at the direct detection of dark matter.

  17. Nuclear recoil energy scale in liquid xenon with application to the direct detection of dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorensen, Peter; Dahl, Carl Eric

    2011-03-01

    We show for the first time that the quenching of electronic excitation from nuclear recoils in liquid xenon is well-described by Lindhard theory, if the nuclear recoil energy is reconstructed using the combined (scintillation and ionization) energy scale proposed by Shutt et al. We argue for the adoption of this perspective in favor of the existing preference for reconstructing nuclear recoil energy solely from primary scintillation. We show that signal partitioning into scintillation and ionization is well described by the Thomas-Imel box model. We discuss the implications for liquid xenon detectors aimed at the direct detection of dark matter.

  18. Shell effects in hot nuclei and their influence on nuclear composition in supernova matter

    SciTech Connect

    Nishimura, Suguru; Takano, Masatoshi

    2014-05-02

    We calculate nuclear composition in supernova (SN) matter explicitly taking into account the temperature dependence of nuclear shell effects. The abundance of nuclei in SN matter is important in the dynamics of core-collapse supernovae and, in recently constructed equations of state (EOS) for SN matter, the composition of nuclei are calculated assuming nuclear statistical equilibrium wherein the nuclear internal free energies govern the composition. However, in these EOS, thermal effects on the shell energy are not explicitly taken into account. To address this shortfall, we calculate herein the shell energies of hot nuclei and examine their influence on the composition of SN matter. Following a simplified macroscopic-microscopic approach, we first calculate single-particle (SP) energies by using a spherical Woods-Saxon potential. Then we extract shell energies at finite temperatures using Strutinsky method with the Fermi distribution as the average occupation probability of the SP levels. The results show that at relatively low temperatures, shell effects are still important and magic nuclei are abundant. However, at temperatures above approximately 2 MeV, shell effects are almost negligible, and the mass fractions with shell energies including the thermal effect are close to those obtained from a simple liquid drop model at finite temperatures.

  19. Nuclear magnetic biosignatures in the carbonaceous matter of ancient cherts: comparison with carbonaceous meteorites.

    PubMed

    Gourier, Didier; Delpoux, Olivier; Binet, Laurent; Vezin, Hervé

    2013-10-01

    The search for organic biosignatures is motivated by the hope of understanding the conditions of emergence of life on Earth and the perspective of finding traces of extinct life in martian sediments. Paramagnetic radicals, which exist naturally in amorphous carbonaceous matter fossilized in Precambrian cherts, were used as local structural probes and studied by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. The nuclear magnetic resonance transitions of elements inside and around these radicals were detected by monitoring the nuclear modulations of electron spin echo in pulsed EPR. We found that the carbonaceous matter of fossilized microorganisms with age up to 3.5 billion years gives specific nuclear magnetic signatures of hydrogen (¹H), carbon (¹³C), and phosphorus (³¹P) nuclei. We observed that these potential biosignatures of extinct life are found neither in the carbonaceous matter of carbonaceous meteorites (4.56 billion years), the most ancient objects of the Solar System, nor in any carbonaceous matter resulting from carbonization of organic and bioorganic precursors. These results indicate that these nuclear signatures are sensitive to thermal episodes and can be used for Archean cherts with metamorphism not higher than the greenschist facies.

  20. Intrinsic neutron background of nuclear emulsions for directional Dark Matter searches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexandrov, A.; Asada, T.; Buonaura, A.; Consiglio, L.; D'Ambrosio, N.; De Lellis, G.; Di Crescenzo, A.; Di Marco, N.; Di Vacri, M. L.; Furuya, S.; Galati, G.; Gentile, V.; Katsuragawa, T.; Laubenstein, M.; Lauria, A.; Loverre, P. F.; Machii, S.; Monacelli, P.; Montesi, M. C.; Naka, T.; Pupilli, F.; Rosa, G.; Sato, O.; Strolin, P.; Tioukov, V.; Umemoto, A.; Yoshimoto, M.

    2016-07-01

    Recent developments of the nuclear emulsion technology led to the production of films with nanometric silver halide grains suitable to track low energy nuclear recoils with submicrometric length. This improvement opens the way to a directional Dark Matter detection, thus providing an innovative and complementary approach to the on-going WIMP searches. An important background source for these searches is represented by neutron-induced nuclear recoils that can mimic the WIMP signal. In this paper we provide an estimation of the contribution to this background from the intrinsic radioactive contamination of nuclear emulsions. We also report the neutron-induced background as a function of the read-out threshold, by using a GEANT4 simulation of the nuclear emulsion, showing that it amounts to about 0.06 per year per kilogram, fully compatible with the design of a 10 kg × year exposure.

  1. Effect of the {delta} meson on the instabilities of nuclear matter under strong magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Rabhi, A.; Providencia, C.; Da Providencia, J.

    2009-08-15

    We study the influence of the isovector-scalar meson on the spinodal instabilities and the distillation effect in asymmetric nonhomogenous nuclear matter under strong magnetic fields of the order of 10{sup 18}-10{sup 19} G. Relativistic nuclear models both with constant couplings (NLW) and with density-dependent parameters (DDRH) are considered. A strong magnetic field can have large effects on the instability regions giving rise to bands of instability and wider unstable regions. It is shown that for neutron-rich matter the inclusion of the {delta} meson increases the size of the instability region for NLW models and decreases it for the DDRH models. The effect of the {delta} meson on the transition density to homogeneous {beta}-equilibrium matter is discussed. The DDRH{delta} model predicts the smallest transition pressures, about half the values obtained for NL{delta}.

  2. Probing the equation of state of nuclear matter via neutron star asteroseismology.

    PubMed

    Sotani, Hajime; Nakazato, Ken'ichiro; Iida, Kei; Oyamatsu, Kazuhiro

    2012-05-18

    We general-relativistically calculate the frequency of fundamental torsional oscillations of neutron star crusts, where we focus on the crystalline properties obtained from macroscopic nuclear models in a way that is dependent on the equation of state of nuclear matter. We find that the calculated frequency is sensitive to the density dependence of the symmetry energy, but almost independent of the incompressibility of symmetric nuclear matter. By identifying the lowest-frequency quasiperiodic oscillation in giant flares observed from soft gamma-ray repeaters as the fundamental torsional mode and allowing for the dependence of the calculated frequency on stellar models, we provide a lower limit of the density derivative of the symmetry energy as L≃50  MeV.

  3. Cold Nuclear Matter Effects on J/psi Production: Intrinsic and Extrinsic Transverse Momentum Effects

    SciTech Connect

    Ferreiro, E.G.; Fleuret, F.; Lansberg, J.P.; Rakotozafindrabe, A.; /SPhN, DAPNIA, Saclay

    2010-08-26

    Cold nuclear matter effects on J/{psi} production in proton-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions are evaluated taking into account the specific J/{psi}-production kinematics at the partonic level, the shadowing of the initial parton distributions and the absorption in the nuclear matter. We consider two different parton processes for the c{bar c}-pair production: one with collinear gluons and a recoiling gluon in the final state and the other with initial gluons carrying intrinsic transverse momentum. Our results are compared to RHIC observables. The smaller values of the nuclear modification factor R{sub AA} in the forward rapidity region (with respect to the mid rapidity region) are partially explained, therefore potentially reducing the need for recombination effects.

  4. Nuclear matter at high density: Phase transitions, multiquark states, and supernova outbursts

    SciTech Connect

    Krivoruchenko, M. I.; Nadyozhin, D. K.; Rasinkova, T. L.; Simonov, Yu. A.; Trusov, M. A. Yudin, A. V.

    2011-03-15

    Phase transition from hadronic matter to quark-gluon matter is discussed for various regimes of temperature and baryon number density. For small and medium densities, the phase transition is accurately described in the framework of the Field Correlation Method, whereas at high density predictions are less certain and leave room for the phenomenological models. We study formation of multiquark states (MQS) at zero temperature and high density. Relevant MQS components of the nuclear matter can be described using a previously developed formalism of the quark compound bags (QCB). Partialwave analysis of nucleon-nucleon scattering indicates the existence of 6QS which manifest themselves as poles of P matrix. In the framework of the QCB model, we formulate a self-consistent system of coupled equations for the nucleon and 6QS propagators in nuclear matter and the G matrix. The approach provides a link between high-density nuclear matter with the MQS components and the cumulative effect observed in reactions on the nuclei, which requires the admixture of MQS in the wave functions of nuclei kinematically. 6QS determines the natural scale of the density for a possible phase transition into theMQS phase of nuclear matter. Such a phase transition can lead to dynamic instability of newly born protoneutron stars and dramatically affect the dynamics of supernovae. Numerical simulations show that the phase transition may be a good remedy for the triggering supernova explosions in the spherically symmetric supernovamodels. A specific signature of the phase transition is an additional neutrino peak in the neutrino light curve. For a Galactic core-collapse supernova, such a peak could be resolved by the present neutrino detectors. The possibility of extracting the parameters of the phase of transition from observation of the neutrino signal is discussed also.

  5. Onset of nuclear matter expansion in Au+Au collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crochet, P.; Rami, F.; Gobbi, A.; Dona, R.; Coffin, J. P.; Fintz, P.; Guillaume, G.; Jundt, F.; Kuhn, C.; Roy, C.; de Schauenburg, B.; Tizniti, L.; Wagner, P.; Alard, J. P.; Amouroux, V.; Andronic, A.; Basrak, Z.; Bastid, N.; Belyaev, I.; Best, D.; Biegansky, J.; Buta, A.; Čaplar, R.; Cindro, N.; Dupieux, P.; Dželalija, M.; Fan, Z. G.; Fodor, Z.; Fraysse, L.; Freifelder, R. P.; Berrmann, N.; Hildenbrand, K. D.; Hong, B.; Jeong, S. C.; Kecskemeti, J.; Kirejczyk, M.; Koncz, P.; Korolija, M.; Kotte, R.; Lebedev, A.; Leifels, Y.; Manko, V.; Moisa, D.; Mösner, J.; Neubert, W.; Pelte, D.; Petrovici, M.; Pinkenburg, C.; Pras, P.; Ramillien, V.; Reisdorf, W.; Ritman, J. L.; Sadchikov, A. G.; Schüll, D.; Seres, Z.; Sikora, B.; Simion, V.; Siwek-Wilczyńska, K.; Sodan, U.; Teh, K. M.; Trzaska, M.; Vasiliev, M.; Wang, G. S.; Wessels, J. P.; Wienold, T.; Wisniewski, K.; Wohlfarth, D.; Zhilin, A.; FOPI Collaboration

    1997-02-01

    Using the FOPI detector at GSI Darmstadt, excitation functions of collective flow components were measured for the Au+Au system, in the reaction plane and out of this plane, at seven incident energies ranging from 100 A MeV to 800 A MeV. The threshold energies, corresponding to the onset of sideward-flow (balance energy) and squeeze-out effect (transition energy), are extracted from extrapolations of these excitation functions toward lower beam energies for charged products with Z ⩾ 2. The transition energy is found to be larger than the balance energy. The impact parameter dependence of both balance and transition energies, when extrapolated to central collisions, suggests comparable although slightly higher values than the threshold energy for the radial flow. The relevant parameter seems to be the energy deposited into the system in order to overcome the attractive nuclear forces.

  6. Anomalous solute transport in saturated porous media: Relating transport model parameters to electrical and nuclear magnetic resonance properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swanson, Ryan D.; Binley, Andrew; Keating, Kristina; France, Samantha; Osterman, Gordon; Day-Lewis, Frederick D.; Singha, Kamini

    2015-02-01

    The advection-dispersion equation (ADE) fails to describe commonly observed non-Fickian solute transport in saturated porous media, necessitating the use of other models such as the dual-domain mass-transfer (DDMT) model. DDMT model parameters are commonly calibrated via curve fitting, providing little insight into the relation between effective parameters and physical properties of the medium. There is a clear need for material characterization techniques that can provide insight into the geometry and connectedness of pore spaces related to transport model parameters. Here, we consider proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), direct-current (DC) resistivity, and complex conductivity (CC) measurements for this purpose, and assess these methods using glass beads as a control and two different samples of the zeolite clinoptilolite, a material that demonstrates non-Fickian transport due to intragranular porosity. We estimate DDMT parameters via calibration of a transport model to column-scale solute tracer tests, and compare NMR, DC resistivity, CC results, which reveal that grain size alone does not control transport properties and measured geophysical parameters; rather, volume and arrangement of the pore space play important roles. NMR cannot provide estimates of more-mobile and less-mobile pore volumes in the absence of tracer tests because these estimates depend critically on the selection of a material-dependent and flow-dependent cutoff time. Increased electrical connectedness from DC resistivity measurements are associated with greater mobile pore space determined from transport model calibration. CC was hypothesized to be related to length scales of mass transfer, but the CC response is unrelated to DDMT.

  7. Deformation of Lattice in a Solid Nuclear Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, K.

    1994-02-01

    The effect of the deformation of lattice in the three dimensional (3D) ALS (i.e., alternating layer spin) solid of neutron matter is investigated, taking the elastic-, spin- and isospin-wave excitations into account in the model with Pandharipande-Smith (PS)'s potential and non-vanishing classical pion field. The q-number part of pion-field is replaced by the effective one-pion-exchange potential (OPEP). The tetragonal structure of lattice is presumed. Solutions of the equation of motion (EOM) for the ground state are sought by the variational method for two cases in which c-number part of π--field is non-vanishing and is supposed to be propagating either (i) perpendicularly to or (ii) within layers of 3D ALS solid. The phonon and magnon sectors of Hamiltonian are diagonalized for case (i) and the phonon sector for case (ii). The criterion of the stability is the absence of imaginary part in the dispersion relations of phonon and of magnon. In both cases, tetragonal lattices have energies about 40 MeV/nucleon lower than the simple cubic (sc) lattices in the density region of [0.35 fm-3, 0.75 fm-3]. In (i), the zero-point energy of magnon is a few percent of phonon. Both in (i) and (ii), the charged pion condensations are negligible.

  8. Specific heat of matter formed in relativistic nuclear collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, Sumit; Chatterjee, Sandeep; Chatterjee, Rupa; Nayak, Tapan K.; Nandi, Basanta K.

    2016-10-01

    We report the excitation energy dependence of specific heat (cv) of hadronic matter at freeze-out in Au+Au and Cu+Cu collisions at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider energies by analyzing the published data on event-by-event mean transverse momentum ( ) distributions. The distributions in finite pT ranges are converted to distributions of effective temperatures, and dynamical fluctuations in temperature are extracted by subtracting widths of the corresponding mixed event distributions. The heat capacity per particle at the kinetic freeze-out surface is presented as a function of collision energy, which shows a sharp rise in cv below √{sN N}=62.4 GeV. We employ the hadron resonance gas (HRG) model to estimate cv at the chemical and kinetic freeze-out surfaces. The experimental results are compared to the HRG and other theoretical model calculations. HRG results show good agreement with data. Model predictions for cv at the CERN Large Hadron Collider energy are presented.

  9. 75 FR 24998 - In the Matter of Florida Power and Light Company: Turkey Point Nuclear Plant; Independent Spent...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-06

    .... Licensees whose ISFSI is collocated with a power reactor may choose to comply with the U.S. Nuclear... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION In the Matter of Florida Power and Light Company: Turkey Point Nuclear Plant; Independent...

  10. 78 FR 41425 - In the Matter of Duke Energy Carolinas, LLC; (Oconee Nuclear Station, Units 1, 2, and 3...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY...; EA-13-010] In the Matter of Duke Energy Carolinas, LLC; (Oconee Nuclear Station, Units 1, 2, and 3... Facility Operating License Nos. DPR-38, DPR-47, and DPR-55 issued by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory...

  11. 78 FR 47795 - In the Matter of Entergy Nuclear Generation Company Pilgrim Power Station Independent Spent Fuel...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-06

    .... Licensees whose ISFSI is collocated with a power reactor may choose to comply with the U.S. Nuclear... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION In the Matter of Entergy Nuclear Generation Company Pilgrim Power Station Independent Spent...

  12. 75 FR 35846 - In the Matter of Babcock & Wilcox Nuclear Operations Group, Inc., Lynchburg, VA; Order Imposing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION In the Matter of Babcock & Wilcox Nuclear Operations Group, Inc., Lynchburg, VA; Order Imposing Civil Monetary Penalty I Babcock & Wilcox Nuclear Operations Group, Inc., (Licensee) is the holder...

  13. 78 FR 13384 - In the Matter of FirstEnergy Nuclear Operating Co. (Beaver Valley Units 1 and 2); Confirmatory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-27

    ... Matter of FirstEnergy Nuclear Operating Co. (Beaver Valley Units 1 and 2); Confirmatory Order Modifying License I FirstEnergy Nuclear Operating Company (FENOC, the licensee) is the holder of Renewed Facility... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY...

  14. Pinning down QCD-matter shear viscosity in A + A collisions via EbyE fluctuations using pQCD + saturation + hydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niemi, H.; Eskola, K. J.; Paatelainen, R.; Tuominen, K.

    2016-12-01

    We compute the initial energy densities produced in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions from NLO perturbative QCD using a saturation conjecture to control soft particle production, and describe the subsequent space-time evolution of the system with hydrodynamics, event by event. The resulting centrality dependence of the low-pT observables from this pQCD + saturation + hydro ("EKRT") framework are then compared simultaneously to the LHC and RHIC measurements. With such an analysis we can test the initial state calculation, and constrain the temperature dependence of the shear viscosity-to-entropy ratio η / s of QCD matter. Using these constraints from the current RHIC and LHC measurements we then predict the charged hadron multiplicities and flow coefficients for the 5 TeV Pb + Pb collisions.

  15. Explicit Energy Functional for Infinite Nuclear Matter with the Tensor Force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takano, M.; Kato, K.; Yamada, M.

    2014-08-01

    We have applied the variational method using explicit energy functionals (EEFs) to energy calculations of infinite nuclear matter. In EEFs, the energy per nucleon is explicitly expressed with spin-isospin-dependent two-body distribution functions, which are regarded as variational functions, and fully minimized energies are conveniently calculated with the EEF. A remarkable feature of this approach is that EEFs guarantee non-negativeness of structure functions. In this study, we extend the EEF variational method so as to consider state- independent three-body forces for neutron matter at finite temperatures following the procedure proposed by Schmidt and Pandharipande. For neutron matter, the free energies obtained with the Argonne v4' two-body potential and the repulsive part of the Urbana IX (UIX) three- body potential are quite reasonable. Furthermore, we improve the EEF of nuclear matter using the two-body central and tensor forces by considering the main three-body cluster terms and guaranteeing non-negativeness of tensor structure functions. In addition, healing distances are introduced for two-body distribution functions so that Mayer's condition is satisfied. The obtained energies per neutron of neutron matter with the Argonne v6' two-body potential and the repulsive part of the UIX potential are in good agreement with those obtained by auxiliary field diffusion Monte Carlo calculations.

  16. Constraining the symmetry energy content of nuclear matter from nuclear masses: A covariance analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mondal, C.; Agrawal, B. K.; De, J. N.

    2015-08-01

    Elements of nuclear symmetry energy evaluated from different energy density functionals parametrized by fitting selective bulk properties of few representative nuclei are seen to vary widely. Those obtained from experimental data on nuclear masses across the periodic table, however, show that they are better constrained. A possible direction in reconciling this paradox may be gleaned from comparison of results obtained from use of the binding energies in the fitting protocol within a microscopic model with two sets of nuclei, one a representative standard set and another where very highly asymmetric nuclei are additionally included. A covariance analysis reveals that the additional fitting protocol reduces the uncertainties in the nuclear symmetry energy coefficient, its slope parameter, as well as the neutron-skin thickness in 208Pb nucleus by ˜50 % . The central values of these entities are also seen to be slightly reduced.

  17. Gap-bridging enhancement of modified Urca processes in nuclear matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alford, Mark G.; Pangeni, Kamal

    2017-01-01

    In nuclear matter at neutron-star densities and temperatures, Cooper pairing leads to the formation of a gap in the nucleon excitation spectra resulting in exponentially strong Boltzmann suppression of many transport coefficients. Previous calculations have shown evidence that density oscillations of sufficiently large amplitude can overcome this suppression for flavor-changing β processes, via the mechanism of "gap bridging." We address the simplifications made in that initial work, and show that gap bridging can counteract Boltzmann suppression of neutrino emissivity for the realistic case of modified Urca processes in matter with P32 neutron pairing.

  18. Collective Sideward Flow of Nuclear Matter in Violent High-Energy Heavy-Ion Collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Stöcker, Horst; Maruhn, Jouchim A.; Greiner, Walter

    1980-03-01

    The nuclear fluid dynamical model with final thermal breakup is used to study the reactions {sup 20}Ne + {sup 238}U and {sup 40} Ar + {sup 40}Ca at E{sub LAB}=390 MeV/n. Calculated double differential cross sections d{sup 2}{sigma}/d{Omega}dE are in agreement with recent experimental data. It is shown that azimuthally dependent triple differential cross sections d{sup 3}{sigma}/dEd cos{theta}d{phi} yield considerably deeper insight into the collision process and allow for snapshots of the reactions. Strongly correlated jets of nuclear matter are predicted.

  19. Nuclear collisions from AMeV to ATeV: from nuclear to quark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Gyulassy, M.

    1982-10-01

    The maximum energy density achieved in nuclear collisions is estimated in this energy range. Stopping power and longitudinal growth are discussed. We show that for lab energies > 100 AGeV energy densities high enough to produce a plasma can be reached. Cosmic-ray data support these calculations and suggest a possible novel signature of the plasma phase transition.

  20. np Pairing Correlations in Low-Density Region of Nuclear Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Isayev, A.A.; Bastrukov, S.I.; Yang, J.

    2004-10-01

    In the framework of Green's function formalism at finite temperatures, superfluidity of nuclear matter with np pairing correlations is studied. It is shown that, at low densities, equations for the energy gap in the spectrum of quasiparticles and chemical potentials of protons and neutrons allow solutions with negative chemical potential, which corresponds to appearance of Bose-Einstein condensation of deuterons in the low-density region of nuclear matter. In this region, np pairing correlations survive even for large isospin asymmetry. Interaction between nucleons is described by the effective zero range force, developed to reproduce the energy gap in the isospin singlet pairing channel, calculated with the use of the Paris NN potential. The obtained results may be of importance for description of thermal properties of outer low-density regions of neutron stars.

  1. Kondo effect of D\\xAFs and D\\xAFs* mesons in nuclear matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasui, Shigehiro; Sudoh, Kazutaka

    2017-03-01

    We study the Kondo effect for D¯s and D¯s* mesons as impurity particles in nuclear matter. The spin-exchange interaction between the D¯s or D¯s* meson and the nucleon induces the enhancement of the effective coupling in the low-energy scattering in the infrared region, whose energy scale of singularity is given by the Kondo scale. We investigate the Kondo scale in the renormalization group equation at nucleon one-loop level. We furthermore study the ground state with the Kondo effect in the mean-field approach, and present that the Kondo scale is related to the mixing strength between the D¯s or D¯s* meson and the nucleon in nuclear matter. We show the spectral function of the impurity when the Kondo effect occurs.

  2. Warm unstable asymmetric nuclear matter: Critical properties and the density dependence of the symmetry energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, N.; Pais, H.; Providência, C.; Agrawal, B. K.

    2017-05-01

    The spinodal instabilities in hot asymmetric nuclear matter and some important critical parameters derived thereof are studied by using six different families of relativistic mean-field models. The slopes of the symmetry energy coefficient vary over a wide range within each family. The critical densities and proton fractions are more sensitive to the symmetry energy slope parameter at temperatures much below its critical value (Tc˜14 -16 MeV ). The spread in the critical proton fraction at a given symmetry energy slope parameter is noticeably larger near Tc, indicating that the equation of state of warm asymmetric nuclear matter at subsaturation densities is not sufficiently constrained. The distillation effects are sensitive to the density dependence of the symmetry energy at low temperatures which tend to wash out with increasing temperature.

  3. Landau parameters of nuclear matter in the spin and spin-isospin channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuo, W.; Shen, Caiwan; Lombardo, U.

    2003-03-01

    The equation of state of spin and isospin polarized nuclear matter is determined in the framework of the Brueckner theory including three-body forces. The Landau parameters in the spin and spin-isospin sectors are derived as a function of the baryonic density. The results are compared with the Gamow-Teller collective modes. The relevance of G0 and G'0 for neutron stars is shortly discussed, including the magnetic susceptibility and the neutron star cooling.

  4. Effective contact pairing forces from realistic calculations in infinite homogeneous nuclear matter

    SciTech Connect

    Chamel, N.

    2010-07-15

    Nonempirical effective contact pairing forces to be used in self-consistent mean-field calculations are presented. These pairing forces, constructed so as to reproduce exactly any given microscopic pairing gaps in infinite homogeneous nuclear matter for any isospin asymmetry, are given in analytical form. As a by-product, this work provides an analytical solution of the BCS gap equations which could be applied to describe various many-body systems.

  5. Robert Vivian Pound and the Discovery of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance in Condensed Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlish, Ursula

    2010-06-01

    This paper is based upon five interviews I conducted with Robert Vivian Pound in 2006-2007 and covers his childhood interest in radios, his time at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Radiation Laboratory during the Second World War, his work on the discovery of nuclear magnetic resonance in condensed matter, his travels as a professor at Harvard University, and his social interactions with other physicists.

  6. Investigation of the organic matter in inactive nuclear tank liquids. Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Schenley, R.L.; Griest, W.H.

    1990-08-01

    Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) methodology for regulatory organics fails to account for the organic matter that is suggested by total organic carbon (TOC) analysis in the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) inactive nuclear waste-tank liquids and sludges. Identification and measurement of the total organics are needed to select appropriate waste treatment technologies. An initial investigation was made of the nature of the organics in several waste-tank liquids. This report details the analysis of ORNL wastes.

  7. Simulation of electromagnetic and strange probes of dense nuclear matter at NICA/MPD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zinchenko, A.; Kolesnikov, V.; Vasendina, V.

    2016-01-01

    The main task of the NICA/MPD physics program is a study of the properties of nuclear matter under extreme conditions achieved in collisions of heavy ions. These properties can reveal themselves through different probes, the most promising among those being the lepton-antilepton pairs and strange hadrons. In this paper the MPD performance for measuring the electron-positron pairs and strange hyperons in central Au+Au collisions at NICA energies is presented.

  8. Nuclear Forces and Their Impact on Neutron-Rich Nuclei and Neutron-Rich Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hebeler, K.; Holt, J. D.; Menéndez, J.; Schwenk, A.

    2015-10-01

    We review the impact of nuclear forces on matter at neutron-rich extremes. Recent results have shown that neutron-rich nuclei become increasingly sensitive to three-nucleon forces, which are at the forefront of theoretical developments based on effective field theories of quantum chromodynamics. These developments include the formation of shell structure, the spectroscopy of exotic nuclei, and the location of the neutron drip line. Nuclear forces also constrain the properties of neutron-rich matter, including the neutron skin, the symmetry energy, and the structure of neutron stars. First, we review our understanding of three-nucleon forces and show how chiral effective field theory makes unique predictions for many-body forces. Then, we survey results with three-nucleon forces in neutron-rich oxygen and calcium isotopes and neutron-rich matter, which have been explored with a range of many-body methods. Three-nucleon forces therefore provide an exciting link between theoretical, experimental, and observational nuclear physics frontiers.

  9. Pore-scale petrophysical models for the simulation and combined interpretation of nuclear magnetic resonance and wide-band electromagnetic measurements of saturated rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toumelin, Emmanuel

    The interpretation of well logs in terms of hydraulic permeability, irreducible and free fluid saturations, hydrocarbon grades, and wettability is currently approached with oversimplified models of electrical resistivity and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Inconsistent interpretations arise in the presence of clay, complex rock morphologies, and mixed wettabilities. Wide-band electromagnetic (WBEM) measurements in the kHz-GHz range are sensitive to all these petrophysical attributes but cannot be interpreted in an independent fashion. New interpretation methods are necessary that can effectively combine the resolving capabilities of NMR and WBEM measurements performed under complex petrophysical conditions. This dissertation develops numerical models to simulate NMR and WBEM measurements in saturated rocks using explicit pore-scale spatial distributions of grains and saturating fluids. The purpose of such models is three-fold: (1) to describe the fundamental properties of NMR and electromagnetic measurements using pore-scale physics; (2) to benchmark the accuracy and reliability of standard macroscopic models used for the interpretation of NMR and WBEM measurements; and (3) to show the complementary nature of NMR and WBEM measurements for the petrophysical evaluation of complex petrophysical conditions. Two geometrical models are developed to simulate electrical conductivity, NMR, and WBEM measurements in saturated rocks. The first model consists of continuous 3-dimensional dense packs of grains. Immiscible fluids are distributed in the ensuing pore-space with adherence to capillary and saturation history. Random walkers diffusing throughout these pore geometries accurately reproduce DC conductivity and NMR magnetization decay as functions of porosity, rock morphology, saturation history, fluid types, wettability, rock surface relaxation, and NMR pulse sequences. The second model is constructed with 2-dimensional digital pore maps, where pixels are assigned

  10. Holographic Quark Matter and Neutron Stars.

    PubMed

    Hoyos, Carlos; Jokela, Niko; Rodríguez Fernández, David; Vuorinen, Aleksi

    2016-07-15

    We use a top-down holographic model for strongly interacting quark matter to study the properties of neutron stars. When the corresponding equation of state (EOS) is matched with state-of-the-art results for dense nuclear matter, we consistently observe a first-order phase transition at densities between 2 and 7 times the nuclear saturation density. Solving the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkov equations with the resulting hybrid EOSs, we find maximal stellar masses in excess of two solar masses, albeit somewhat smaller than those obtained with simple extrapolations of the nuclear matter EOSs. Our calculation predicts that no quark matter exists inside neutron stars.

  11. Equation of state of neutron star matter, and the nuclear symmetry energy

    SciTech Connect

    Loan, Doan Thi; Tan, Ngo Hai; Khoa, Dao T.; Margueron, Jerome

    2011-06-15

    The nuclear mean-field potentials obtained in the Hartree-Fock method with different choices of the in-medium nucleon-nucleon (NN) interaction have been used to study the equation of state (EOS) of the neutron star (NS) matter. The EOS of the uniform NS core has been calculated for the npe{mu} composition in the {beta} equilibrium at zero temperature, using version Sly4 of the Skyrme interaction as well as two density-dependent versions of the finite-range M3Y interaction (CDM3Yn and M3Y-Pn), and versions D1S and D1N of the Gogny interaction. Although the considered effective NN interactions were proven to be quite realistic in numerous nuclear structure and/or reaction studies, they give quite different behaviors of the symmetry energy of nuclear matter at supranuclear densities that lead to the soft and stiff scenarios discussed recently in the literature. Different EOS's of the NS core and the EOS of the NS crust given by the compressible liquid drop model have been used as input of the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkov equations to study how the nuclear symmetry energy affects the model prediction of different NS properties, like the cooling process as well as the gravitational mass, radius, and moment of inertia.

  12. Measurement of Quark Energy Loss in Cold Nuclear Matter at Fermilab E906/SeaQuest

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Po-Ju

    2017-01-01

    Parton energy loss is a process within QCD that draws considerable interest. The measurement of parton energy loss can provide valuable information for other hard-scattering processes in nuclei, and also serves as an important tool for exploring the properties of the quark-gluon plasma (QGP). Quantifying the energy loss in cold nuclear matter will help to set a baseline relative to energy loss in the QGP. With the Drell-Yan process, the energy loss of incoming quarks in cold nuclear matter can be ideally investigated since the final state interaction is expected to be minimal. E906/SeaQuest is a fixed-target experiment using the 120 GeV proton beam from the Fermilab Main Injector and has been collecting data from p+p, p+d, p+C, p+Fe, and p+W collisions. Within the E906 kinematic coverage of Drell-Yan production via the dimuon channel, the quark energy loss can be measured in a regime where other nuclear effects are expected to be small. In this thesis, the study of quark ener gy loss from different cold nuclear targets is presented.

  13. New Kohn-Sham density functional based on microscopic nuclear and neutron matter equations of state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldo, M.; Robledo, L. M.; Schuck, P.; Viñas, X.

    2013-06-01

    A new version of the Barcelona-Catania-Paris energy functional is applied to a study of nuclear masses and other properties. The functional is largely based on calculated ab initio nuclear and neutron matter equations of state. Compared to typical Skyrme functionals having 10-12 parameters apart from spin-orbit and pairing terms, the new functional has only 2 or 3 adjusted parameters, fine tuning the nuclear matter binding energy and fixing the surface energy of finite nuclei. An energy rms value of 1.58 MeV is obtained from a fit of these three parameters to the 579 measured masses reported in the Audi and Wapstra [Nucl. Phys. ANUPABL0375-947410.1016/j.nuclphysa.2003.11.003 729, 337 (2003)] compilation. This rms value compares favorably with the one obtained using other successful mean field theories, which range from 1.5 to 3.0 MeV for optimized Skyrme functionals and 0.7 to 3.0 for the Gogny functionals. The other properties that have been calculated and compared to experiment are nuclear radii, the giant monopole resonance, and spontaneous fission lifetimes.

  14. Substitution saturation and nuclear paralogs of commonly employed phylogenetic markers in the Caryophyllidea, an unusual group of non-segmented tapeworms (Platyhelminthes).

    PubMed

    Brabec, Jan; Scholz, Tomáš; Králová-Hromadová, Ivica; Bazsalovicsová, Eva; Olson, Peter D

    2012-01-01

    Caryophyllidean cestodes (Platyhelminthes) represent an unusual group of tapeworms lacking serially repeated body parts that potentially diverged from the common ancestor of the Eucestoda prior to the evolution of segmentation. Here we evaluate the utility of two nuclear and two mitochondrial molecular markers (ssrDNA and lsrDNA, nad3 and cox1) for use in circumscribing generic boundaries and estimating interrelationships in the group. We show that these commonly employed markers do not contain sufficient signal to infer well-supported phylogenetic estimates due to substitution saturation. Moreover, we detected multiple trnK+nad3+trnS+trnW+cox1 haplotypes within individuals, indicating a history of gene exchange between the mitochondrial and nuclear genomes. The presence of such nuclear paralogs (i.e. numts), to our knowledge described here in cestodes for the first time, together with the results of phylogenetic, saturation and split-decomposition analyses all suggest that finding informative markers for estimating caryophyllidean evolution is unusually problematic in comparison to other major lineages of tapeworms.

  15. Many-particle theory of nuclear system with application to neutron-star matter and other systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, C. H.

    1978-01-01

    General problems in nuclear-many-body theory were considered. Superfluid states of neutron star matter and other strongly interacting many-fermion systems were analyzed by using the soft-core potential of Reid. The pion condensation in neutron star matter was also treated.

  16. 76 FR 11522 - In the Matter of Progress Energy Florida, Inc. (Combined License Application, Levy County Nuclear...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION In the Matter of Progress Energy Florida, Inc. (Combined License Application, Levy County Nuclear Power Plant, Units 1 and 2); Notice of Appointment of Adjudicatory Employee Commissioners: Gregory...

  17. 77 FR 11169 - In the Matter of Exelon Corporation; Constellation Energy Group, Inc.; R.E. Ginna Nuclear Power...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-24

    ... License] In the Matter of Exelon Corporation; Constellation Energy Group, Inc.; R.E. Ginna Nuclear Power... (Exelon), and Exelon Ventures Company, LLC (Exelon Ventures), and Constellation Energy Nuclear Group, LLC...'s parent companies, Constellation Energy Group, Inc. (CEG), whereby CEG would be merged into...

  18. 78 FR 68102 - Atomic Safety and Licensing Board; In the Matter of Nuclear Innovation North America LLC (South...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Atomic Safety and Licensing Board; In the Matter of Nuclear Innovation North America LLC (South Texas Project Units 3 and 4); Notice of Hearing (Application for Combined Licenses) November 6, 2013. Before Administrative Judges: Michael M....

  19. Self-consistent calculation of the nuclear composition in hot and dense stellar matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furusawa, Shun; Mishustin, Igor

    2017-03-01

    We investigate the mass fractions and in-medium properties of heavy nuclei in stellar matter at characteristic densities and temperatures for supernova (SN) explosions. The individual nuclei are described within the compressible liquid-drop model taking into account modifications of bulk, surface, and Coulomb energies. The equilibrium properties of nuclei and the full ensemble of heavy nuclei are calculated self-consistently. It is found that heavy nuclei in the ensemble are either compressed or decompressed depending on the isospin asymmetry of the system. The compression or decompression has a little influence on the binding energies, total mass fractions, and average mass numbers of heavy nuclei, although the equilibrium densities of individual nuclei themselves are changed appreciably above one-hundredth of normal nuclear density. We find that nuclear structure in the single-nucleus approximation deviates from the actual one obtained in the multinucleus description, since the density of free nucleons is different between these two descriptions. This study indicates that a multinucleus description is required to realistically account for in-medium effects on the nuclear structure in supernova matter.

  20. Cold Nuclear Matter Effects on J/psi and Upsilon Production at the LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Vogt, R

    2009-06-23

    The charmonium yields are expected to be considerably suppressed if a deconfined medium is formed in high-energy heavy-ion collisions. In addition, the bottomonium states, with the possible exception of the {Upsilon}(1S) state, are also expected to be suppressed in heavy-ion collisions. However, in proton-nucleus collisions the quarkonium production cross sections, even those of the {Upsilon}(1S), scale less than linearly with the number of binary nucleon-nucleon collisions. These 'cold nuclear matter' effects need to be accounted for before signals of the high density QCD medium can be identified in the measurements made in nucleus-nucleus collisions. We identify two cold nuclear matter effects important for midrapidity quarkonium production: 'nuclear absorption', typically characterized as a final-state effect on the produced quarkonium state and shadowing, the modification of the parton densities in nuclei relative to the nucleon, an initial-state effect. We characterize these effects and study their energy and rapidity dependence.

  1. ϕ meson self-energy in nuclear matter from ϕ N resonant interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabrera, D.; Hiller Blin, A. N.; Vicente Vacas, M. J.

    2017-01-01

    The ϕ -meson properties in cold nuclear matter are investigated by implementing resonant ϕ N interactions as described in effective approaches including the unitarization of scattering amplitudes. Several N*-like states are dynamically generated in these models around 2 GeV, in the vicinity of the ϕ N threshold. We find that both these states and the non-resonant part of the amplitude contribute sizably to the ϕ collisional self-energy at finite nuclear density. These contributions are of a similar strength as the widely studied medium effects from the K ¯K cloud. Depending on model details (position of the resonances and strength of the coupling to ϕ N ) we report a ϕ broadening up to about 40-50 MeV, to be added to the ϕ →K ¯K in-medium decay width, and an attractive optical potential at threshold up to about 35 MeV at normal matter density. The ϕ spectral function develops a double peak structure as a consequence of the mixing of resonance-hole modes with the ϕ quasiparticle peak. The former results point in the direction of making up for missing absorption as reported in ϕ nuclear production experiments.

  2. Dark matter RNA: an intelligent scaffold for the dynamic regulation of the nuclear information landscape

    PubMed Central

    St. Laurent, Georges; Savva, Yiannis A.; Kapranov, Philipp

    2012-01-01

    Perhaps no other topic in contemporary genomics has inspired such diverse viewpoints as the 95+% of the genome, previously known as “junk DNA,” that does not code for proteins. Here, we present a theory in which dark matter RNA plays a role in the generation of a landscape of spatial micro-domains coupled to the information signaling matrix of the nuclear landscape. Within and between these micro-domains, dark matter RNAs additionally function to tether RNA interacting proteins and complexes of many different types, and by doing so, allow for a higher performance of the various processes requiring them at ultra-fast rates. This improves signal to noise characteristics of RNA processing, trafficking, and epigenetic signaling, where competition and differential RNA binding among proteins drives the computational decisions inherent in regulatory events. PMID:22539933

  3. Does fairness matter in the context of anger about nuclear energy decision making?

    PubMed

    Besley, John C

    2012-01-01

    Several recent studies have questioned whether nonoutcome forms of fairness matter in decision-making situations where individuals feel strongly engaged by the issue at hand. This survey-based study focuses on perceptions about a decision-making process related to a proposal to expand a nuclear power plant in the U.S. Southeast. It finds that anger moderates the impacts of outcome and procedural fairness on willingness to accept a decision process as satisfactory and legitimate. The more anger a person said he or she would feel if a decision were to contradict that person's point of view, the more perceived outcome and procedural fairness mattered. The study also finds that interpersonal fairness is also moderated by anger, but in the opposite direction. Interpersonal fairness had less of an impact on willingness to accept a decision for those who said they would feel angry if the decision did not go their preferred way. © 2011 Society for Risk Analysis.

  4. Transverse isospin response function of asymmetric nuclear matter from a local isospin density functional

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipparini, Enrico; Pederiva, Francesco

    2016-08-01

    The time dependent local isospin density approximation (TDLIDA) has been extended to the study of the transverse isospin response function in nuclear matter with an arbitrary neutron-proton asymmetry parameter ξ . The energy density functional has been chosen in order to fit existing accurate quantum Monte Carlo calculations with a density dependent potential. The evolution of the response with ξ in the Δ Tz=±1 channels is quite different. While the strength of the Δ Tz=+1 channel disappears rather quickly by increasing the asymmetry, the Δ Tz=-1 channel develops a stronger and stronger collective mode that in the regime typical of neutron star matter at β equilibrium almost completely exhausts the excitation spectrum of the system. The neutrino mean free paths obtained from the TDLIDA responses are strongly dependent on ξ and on the presence of collective modes, leading to a sizable difference with respect to the prediction of the Fermi gas model.

  5. Towards Dense Nuclear Matter in A Modified Sakai-Sugimoto Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Youngman; Rho, Mannque; Tsukioka, Takuya; Yi, Deokhyun

    2012-02-01

    As a part of the attempt to address dense baryonic matter, we first review holographic approaches to QCD. The big advantage of the holographic approaches is that they render strongly coupled 4D gauge theories as duals of certain weakly coupled string/supergravity that are well understood. Its relevance to real QCD is one of the central problems in hadron/nuclear physics as well as in the context of applied string theory. None of the models based on these holographic approaches presently available can adequately describe the system we are interested in, namely dense baryonic matter. Nevertheless, some aspects of the holographic approach are found to describe certain processes both in vacuum and in medium. In this talk we only present the structure of a model that appears to be closest to QCD, and has the potential to address the problem.

  6. Cold Nuclear Matter Effects on Heavy Quark Production in Relativistic Heavy Ion Collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durham, John Matthew

    2011-12-01

    The experimental collaborations at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) have established that dense nuclear matter with partonic degrees of freedom is formed in collisions of heavy nuclei at 200 GeV. Information from heavy quarks has given significant insight into the dynamics of this matter. Charm and bottom quarks are dominantly produced by gluon fusion in the early stages of the collision, and thus experience the complete evolution of the medium. The production baseline measured in p + p collisions can be described by fixed order plus next to leading log perturbative QCD calculations within uncertainties. In central Au+Au collisions, suppression has been measured relative to the yield in p + p scaled by the number of nucleon-nucleon collisions, indicating a significant energy loss by heavy quarks in the medium. The large elliptic flow amplitude v2 provides evidence that the heavy quarks flow along with the lighter partons. The suppression and elliptic flow of these quarks are in qualitative agreement with calculations based on Langevin transport models that imply a viscosity to entropy density ratio close to the conjectured quantum lower bound of 1/4pi. However, a full understanding of these phenomena requires measurements of cold nuclear matter (CNM) effects, which should be present in Au+Au collisions but are difficult to distinguish experimentally from effects due to interactions with the medium. This thesis presents measurements of electrons at midrapidity from the decays of heavy quarks produced in d+Au collisions at RHIC. A significant enhancement of these electrons is seen at a transverse momentum below 5 GeV/c, indicating strong CNM effects on charm quarks that are not present for lighter quarks. A simple model of CNM effects in Au+Au collisions suggests that the level of suppression in the hot nuclear medium is comparable for all quark flavors.

  7. Transport Properties in Nuclear Pasta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caplan, Matthew; Horowitz, Charles; Berry, Donald; da Silva Schneider, Andre

    2016-09-01

    At the base of the inner crust of neutron stars, where matter is near the nuclear saturation density, nuclear matter arranges itself into exotic shapes such as cylinders and slabs, called `nuclear pasta.' Lepton scattering from these structures may govern the transport properties of the inner crust; electron scattering from protons in the pasta determines the thermal and electrical conductivity, as well as the shear viscosity of the inner crust. These properties may vary in pasta structures which form at various densities, temperatures, and proton fractions. In this talk, we report on our calculations of lepton transport in nuclear pasta and the implication for neutron star observables.

  8. Update report on fracture flow in saturated tuff: Dynamic transport task for the Nevada Nuclear Waste Investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Janecky, D.R.; Rundberg, R.S.; Ott, M.; Mitchell, A.

    1990-11-01

    This report summarizes the results of continuing experiments on the behavior of tracers during fracture flow in saturated, welded tuff. These experiments were completed during the past year as part of the Dynamic Transport Task of geochemical investigations for the Yucca Mountain Project sponsored by the US Department of Energy. These experiments are designed to investigate the effects of fluid movement in fractures when coupled with matrix diffusion and sorption but isolated from the effects of capillary suction and two-phase flow characteristic of unsaturated conditions. The experiments reported here are continuations of experimental efforts reported previously. The behavior of three tracers [HTO (tritiated water), TcO{sub 4}{sup {minus}} (pertechnetate), and sulforhodamine B dye] have been investigated during flow through a saturated column of densely welded tuff from the Topopah Spring Member of the Paintbrush Tuff, Yucca Mountain, Nye County, southern Nevada. 31 refs., 26 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Spinodal instabilities and the distillation effect in nuclear matter under strong magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Rabhi, A.; Providencia, C.; Providencia, J. Da

    2009-01-15

    We study the effect of strong magnetic fields, of the order of 10{sup 18}-10{sup 19} G, on the instability region of nuclear matter at subsaturation densities. Relativistic nuclear models both with constant couplings and with density-dependent parameters are considered. It is shown that a strong magnetic field can have large effects on the instability regions giving rise to bands of instability and wider unstable regions. As a consequence, we predict larger transition densities at the inner edge of the crust of compact stars with strong magnetic fields. The direction of instability gives rise to a very strong distillation effect if the last Landau level is only partially filled. However, for almost completed Landau levels, an antidistillation effect may occur.

  10. Scintillation efficiency for low energy nuclear recoils in liquid xenon dark matter detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mu, Wei; Xiong, Xiaonu; Ji, Xiangdong

    2015-02-01

    We perform a theoretical study of the scintillation efficiency of the low energy region crucial for liquid xenon dark matter detectors. We develop a computer program to simulate the cascading process of the recoiling xenon nucleus in liquid xenon and calculate the nuclear quenching effect due to atomic collisions. We use the electronic stopping power extrapolated from experimental data to the low energy region, and take into account the effects of electron escape from electron-ion pair recombination using the generalized Thomas-Imel model fitted to scintillation data. Our result agrees well with the experiments from neutron scattering and vanishes rapidly as the recoil energy drops below 3 keV.

  11. An Application of Functional Renormalization Group Method for Superdense Nuclear Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnaföldi, G. G.; Jakovác, A.; Pósfay, P.

    2017-01-01

    We proposed a method, using the expansion of the effective potential in a base of harmonic functions, to study the Functional Renormalization Group (FRG) method at finite chemical potential. Within this theoretical framework we determined the equation of state and the phase diagram of a simple model of massless fermions coupled to scalars through Yukawa-couling at the zero-temperature limit. Here, we use our FRG-based equation of state to describe the superdense nuclear matter inside compact astrophysical objects. We calculated the mass-radius relation for a compact star using the TOV equation, which was compared to other results.

  12. Nonextensive statistical effects and strangeness production in hot and dense nuclear matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavagno, A.; Pigato, D.

    2012-12-01

    By means of an effective relativistic nuclear equation of state in the framework of the nonextensive statistical mechanics, characterized by power-law quantum distributions, we study the phase transition from hadronic matter to quark-gluon plasma at finite temperature and baryon density. The analysis is performed by requiring the Gibbs conditions on the global conservation of baryon number, electric charge fraction and zero net strangeness. We show that nonextensive statistical effects strongly influence the strangeness production during the pure hadronic phase and the hadron-quark-gluon mixed phase transition, also for small deviations from the standard Boltzmann-Gibbs statistics.

  13. Nuclear magnetic resonance characterization of the stationary dynamics of partially saturated media during steady-state infiltration flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rassi, Erik M.; Codd, Sarah L.; Seymour, Joseph D.

    2011-01-01

    Flow in porous media and the resultant hydrodynamics are important in fields including but not limited to the hydrology, chemical, medical and petroleum industries. The observation and understanding of the hydrodynamics in porous media are critical to the design and optimal utilization of porous media, such as those seen in trickle-bed reactors, medical filters, subsurface flows and carbon sequestration. Magnetic resonance (MR) provides for a non-invasive technique that can probe the hydrodynamics on pore and bulk scale lengths; many previous works have characterized fully saturated porous media, while rapid MR imaging (MRI) methods in particular have previously been applied to partially saturated flows. We present time- and ensemble-averaged MR measurements to observe the effects on a bead pack partially saturated with air under flowing water conditions. The 10 mm internal diameter bead pack was filled with 100 μm borosilicate glass beads. Air was injected into the bead pack as water flowed simultaneously through the sample at 25 ml h-1. The initial partially saturated state was characterized with MRI density maps, free induction decay (FID) experiments, propagators and velocity maps before the water flow rate was increased incrementally from 25 to 500 ml h-1. After the maximum flow rate of 500 ml h-1, the MRI density maps, FID experiments, propagators and velocity maps were repeated and compared to the data taken before the maximum flow rate. This work shows that a partially saturated single-phase flow has global flow dynamics that return to characteristic flow statistics once a steady-state high flow rate has been reached. This high flow rate pushed out a significant amount of the air in the bead pack and caused the return of a preferential flow pattern. Velocity maps indicated that local flow statistics were not the same for the before and after blow out conditions. It has been suggested and shown previously that a flow pattern can return to

  14. Leaf saturation isothermal remanent magnetization (SIRM) as a proxy for particulate matter monitoring: Inter-species differences and in-season variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kardel, F.; Wuyts, K.; Maher, B. A.; Hansard, R.; Samson, R.

    2011-09-01

    In recent studies, the saturation isothermal remanent magnetization (SIRM) of leaves has been used for monitoring of atmospheric particulate matter. This study examined leaf SIRM of tree species with different leaf surface characteristics in the urban environment of Gent (Belgium). Leaf SIRM was measured from co-located trees of Carpinus betulus (with 'hairy' leaves) and Tilia sp. ('non-hairy' leaves) at locations with contrasting traffic density (and particulate pollution level). The measurements were conducted twice during the growing season (June and September 2009). The highest SIRM values were observed for C. betulus, and the lowest for the non-hairy Tilia sp. leaves. The SIRM was significantly higher in locations with high traffic density and in September. Differences between species were independent of pollution level and sampling time, except between hairy and non-hairy Tilia sp. Monthly measurements of leaf SIRM on Tilia platyphyllos and C. betulus trees revealed high in-season variation, which may be due to a combination of short and long-term leaf surface processes. It is concluded that the leaf SIRM, a proxy for particulate matter deposition, depends on leaf surface structure, leaf maturity, and particulate pollution level.

  15. Exploring the Quark-Gluon Content of Hadrons: From Mesons to Nuclear Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Matevosyan, Hrayr

    2007-08-01

    Even though Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) was formulated over three decades ago, it poses enormous challenges for describing the properties of hadrons from the underlying quark-gluon degrees of freedom. Moreover, the problem of describing the nuclear force from its quark-gluon origin is still open. While a direct solution of QCD to describe the hadrons and nuclear force is not possible at this time, we explore a variety of developed approaches ranging from phenomenology to first principle calculations at one or other level of approximation in linking the nuclear force to QCD. The Dyson Schwinger formulation (DSE) of coupled integral equations for the QCD Green’s functions allows a non-perturbative approach to describe hadronic properties, starting from the level of QCD n-point functions. A significant approximation in this method is the employment of a finite truncation of the system of DSEs, that might distort the physical picture. In this work we explore the effects of including a more complete truncation of the quark-gluon vertex function on the resulting solutions for the quark 2-point functions as well as the pseudoscalar and vector meson masses. The exploration showed strong indications of possibly large contributions from the explicit inclusion of the gluon 3- and 4-point functions that are omitted in this and previous analyses. We then explore the possibility of extrapolating state of the art lattice QCD calculations of nucleon form factors to the physical regime using phenomenological models of nucleon structure. Finally, we further developed the Quark Meson Coupling model for describing atomic nuclei and nuclear matter, where the quark-gluon structure of nucleons is modeled by the MIT bag model and the nucleon many body interaction is mediated by the exchange of scalar and vector mesons. This approach allows us to formulate a fully relativistic theory, which can be expanded in the nonrelativistic limit to reproduce the well known phenomenological Skyrme

  16. ϕ meson mass and decay width in nuclear matter and nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cobos-Martínez, J. J.; Tsushima, K.; Krein, G.; Thomas, A. W.

    2017-08-01

    The mass and decay width of the ϕ meson in cold nuclear matter are computed in an effective Lagrangian approach. The medium dependence of these properties are obtained by evaluating kaon-antikaon loop contributions to the ϕ self-energy, employing the medium-modified kaon masses, calculated using the quark-meson coupling model. The loop integral is regularized with a dipole form factor, and the sensitivity of the results to the choice of cutoff mass in the form factor is investigated. At normal nuclear matter density we find a downward shift of the ϕ mass by a few percent, while the decay width is enhanced by an order of magnitude. For a large variation of the cutoff mass parameter, the results for the ϕ mass and the decay width turn out to vary very little. Our results support results in the literature which suggest that one should observe a small downward mass shift and a large broadening of the decay width. In order to explore the possibility of studying the binding and absorption of ϕ mesons in nuclei, we also present the single-particle binding energies and half-widths of ϕ-nucleus bound states for some selected nuclei.

  17. Characterization of sewage sludge organic matter using solid-state carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Smernik, Ronald J; Oliver, Ian W; Merrington, Graham

    2003-01-01

    Six sewage sludges from five sewage treatment plants in Australia were characterized using solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Spectra were acquired both before and after removal of mineral components through treatment with hydrofluoric acid (HF). Carbon mass balance indicated that little organic matter was lost on HF treatment, which significantly improved NMR sensitivity and spectral resolution, and decreased acquisition time and hence cost of NMR analysis. Two NMR techniques were used, the standard cross polarization (CP) technique and Bloch decay (BD). The BD technique had not been applied previously to the analysis of sewage sludge. For each sludge sample, both before and after HF treatment, the BD spectrum contained significantly more alkyl carbon. Spin counting, another technique applied to sewage sludge here for the first time, showed that the BD spectra of the HF-treated sludges were quantitative, while approximately 30% of the CP NMR signal went undetected. The discrepancy between CP and BD spectra was attributed to the presence of alkyl carbon with such high molecular mobility that the efficiency of cross polarization is affected. This study shows that sewage sludge organic matter is significantly different in chemistry to soil organic matter and has implications for the application of sewage sludge to agricultural land.

  18. Mass predictions of atomic nuclei in the infinite nuclear matter model

    SciTech Connect

    Nayak, R.C.; Satpathy, L.

    2012-07-15

    We present here the mass excesses, binding energies, one- and two-neutron, one- and two-proton and {alpha}-particle separation energies of 6727 nuclei in the ranges 4{<=}Z{<=}120 and 8{<=}A{<=}303 calculated in the infinite nuclear matter model. Compared to our predictions of 1999 mass table, the present ones are obtained using larger data base of 2003 mass table of Wapstra and Audi and resorting to higher accuracy in the solutions of the {eta}-differential equations of the INM model. The local energy {eta}'s supposed to carry signature of the characteristic properties of nuclei are found to possess the predictive capability. In fact {eta}-systematics reveal new magic numbers in the drip-line regions giving rise to new islands of stability supported by relativistic mean field theoretic calculations. This is a manifestation of a new phenomenon where shell-effect overcomes the instability due to repulsive components of the nucleon-nucleon force broadening the stability peninsula. The two-neutron separation energy-systematics derived from the present mass predictions reveal a general new feature for the existence of islands of inversion in the exotic neutron-rich regions of nuclear landscape, apart from supporting the presently known islands around {sup 31}Na and {sup 62}Ti. The five global parameters representing the properties of infinite nuclear matter, the surface, the Coulomb and the pairing terms are retained as per our 1999 mass table. The root-mean-square deviation of the present mass-fit to 2198 known masses is 342 keV, while the mean deviation is 1.3 keV, reminiscent of no left-over systematic effects. This is a substantive improvement over our 1999 mass table having rms deviation of 401 keV and mean deviation of 9 keV for 1884 data nuclei.

  19. Mass predictions of atomic nuclei in the infinite nuclear matter model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nayak, R. C.; Satpathy, L.

    2012-07-01

    We present here the mass excesses, binding energies, one- and two-neutron, one- and two-proton and α-particle separation energies of 6727 nuclei in the ranges 4≤Z≤120 and 8≤A≤303 calculated in the infinite nuclear matter model. Compared to our predictions of 1999 mass table, the present ones are obtained using larger data base of 2003 mass table of Wapstra and Audi and resorting to higher accuracy in the solutions of the η-differential equations of the INM model. The local energy η's supposed to carry signature of the characteristic properties of nuclei are found to possess the predictive capability. In fact η-systematics reveal new magic numbers in the drip-line regions giving rise to new islands of stability supported by relativistic mean field theoretic calculations. This is a manifestation of a new phenomenon where shell-effect overcomes the instability due to repulsive components of the nucleon-nucleon force broadening the stability peninsula. The two-neutron separation energy-systematics derived from the present mass predictions reveal a general new feature for the existence of islands of inversion in the exotic neutron-rich regions of nuclear landscape, apart from supporting the presently known islands around 31Na and 62Ti. The five global parameters representing the properties of infinite nuclear matter, the surface, the Coulomb and the pairing terms are retained as per our 1999 mass table. The root-mean-square deviation of the present mass-fit to 2198 known masses is 342 keV, while the mean deviation is 1.3 keV, reminiscent of no left-over systematic effects. This is a substantive improvement over our 1999 mass table having rms deviation of 401 keV and mean deviation of 9 keV for 1884 data nuclei.

  20. A systematic study of J/psi suppression in cold nuclear matter

    SciTech Connect

    Arleo, Francois; Tram, Vi-Nham

    2008-04-05

    Understanding the effects of cold nuclear matter on J/psi production is a key requirement in order to interpret the J/psi suppression reported in heavy-ion collisions. Based on a Glauber model, the J/psi-nucleon inelastic cross section is determined from a statistical analysis of J/psi world data on nuclear targets. The global fit of all data gives sigmaJ/psiN = 3.4 +/- 0.2 mb, significantly smaller than previous estimates, yet the chi2 of the fit is pretty large, chi2/ndf = 1.5. A similar value, sigmaJ/psiN = 3.5 +/- 0.2 +/- 1.7 mb, is obtained when the De Florian-Sassot modifications of the nuclear parton densities are included in the analysis, although we emphasize that the present uncertainties on gluon (anti)shadowing do not allow for a precise determination of sigmaJ/psiN. Finally, the possible energy dependence of the J/psi-nucleon inelastic cross section is investigated within this framework. No significant energy dependence of the J/psi-N interaction is observed.

  1. Effect of variable soil texture, metal saturation of soil organic matter (SOM) and tree species composition on spatial distribution of SOM in forest soils in Poland.

    PubMed

    Gruba, Piotr; Socha, Jarosław; Błońska, Ewa; Lasota, Jarosław

    2015-07-15

    In this study we investigated the effect of fine (ϕ<0.05mm) fraction, i.e., silt+clay (FF) content in soils, site moisture, metal (Al and Fe) of soil organic matter (SOM) and forest species composition on the spatial distribution of carbon (C) pools in forest soils at the landscape scale. We established 275 plots in regular 200×200m grid in a forested area of 14.4km(2). Fieldwork included soil sampling of the organic horizon, mineral topsoil and subsoil down to 40cm deep. We analysed the vertical and horizontal distribution of soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks, as well as the quantity of physically separated fractions including the free light (fLF), occluded light (oLF) and mineral associated fractions (MAF) in the mineral topsoil (A, AE) horizons. Distribution of C in soils was predominantly affected by the variation in the FF content. In soils richer in the FF more SOC was accumulated in mineral horizons and less in the organic horizons. Accumulation of SOC in mineral soil was also positively affected by the degree of saturation of SOM with Al and Fe. The increasing share of beech influenced the distribution of C stock in soil profiles by reducing the depth of O horizon and increasing C stored in mineral soil. The content of FF was positively correlated with the content of C in MAF and fLF fractions. The content of oLF and MAF fractions was also positively influenced by a higher degree of metal saturation, particularly Al. Our results confirmed that Al plays an important role in the stabilization of SOM inside aggregates (CoLF) and as in CMAF fractions. We also found a significant, positive effect of beech on the CfLF and fir on the CoLF content. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Connection between the nuclear matter mean-field equation of state and the quark and gluon condensates at high density

    SciTech Connect

    Malheiro, M.; Dey, M.; Delfino, A.; Dey, J. |||

    1997-01-01

    It is known now that chiral symmetry restoration requires the meson-nucleon couplings to be density-dependent in nuclear-matter mean-field models. We further show that, quite generally, the quark and gluon condensates in medium are related to the trace of the energy-momentum tensor of nuclear matter and in these models the incompressibility K must be less than 3 times the chemical potential {mu}. In the critical density {rho}{sub c}, the gluon condensate is only reduced by 20{percent}, indicating a larger effective nucleon mass. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  3. On the measurement of 15N-{1H} nuclear Overhauser effects. 2. Effects of the saturation scheme and water signal suppression

    PubMed Central

    Ferrage, Fabien; Reichel, Amy; Battacharya, Shibani; Cowburn, David; Ghose, Ranajeet

    2013-01-01

    Measurement of steady-state 15N-{1H} nuclear Overhauser effects forms a cornerstone of most methods to determine protein backbone dynamics from spin-relaxation data, since it is the most reliable probe of very fast motions on the ps-ns timescale. We have, in two previous publications (J. Magn. Reson. 192 (2008), 302-313; J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131 (2009), 6048-6049) reevaluated spin-dynamics during steady-state (or “saturated”) and reference experiments, both of which are required to determine the NOE ratio. Here we assess the performance of several windowed and windowless sequences to achieve effective saturation of protons in steady-state experiments. We also evaluate the influence of the residual water signal due to radiation damping on the NOE ratio. We suggest a recipe that allows one to determine steady-state 15N-{1H} NOE's without artifacts and with the highest possible accuracy. PMID:20951618

  4. Certification of the reference material of water content in water saturated 1-octanol by Karl Fischer coulometry, Karl Fischer volumetry and quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haifeng; Ma, Kang; Zhang, Wei; Li, Jia; Sun, Guohua; Li, Hongmei

    2012-10-15

    Certified reference materials (CRMs) of water content are widely used in the calibration and validation of Karl Fischer coulometry and volumetry. In this study, the water content of the water saturated 1-octanol (WSO) CRM was certified by Karl Fischer coulometry, volumetry and quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance (Q NMR). The water content recovery by coulometry was 99.76% with a diaphragm-less electrode and Coulomat AG anolyte. The relative bias between the coulometry and volumetry results was 0.06%. In Q NMR, the water content of WSO is traceable to the International System (SI) of units through the purity of internal standard. The relative bias of water content in WSO between Q NMR and volumetry was 0.50%. The consistency of results for these three independent methods improves the accuracy of the certification of the RM. The certified water content of the WSO CRM was 4.76% with an expanded uncertainty of 0.09%.

  5. On the measurement of ¹⁵N-{¹H} nuclear Overhauser effects. 2. Effects of the saturation scheme and water signal suppression.

    PubMed

    Ferrage, Fabien; Reichel, Amy; Battacharya, Shibani; Cowburn, David; Ghose, Ranajeet

    2010-12-01

    Measurement of steady-state (15)N-{(1)H} nuclear Overhauser effects forms a cornerstone of most methods to determine protein backbone dynamics from spin-relaxation data, since it is the most reliable probe of very fast motions on the ps-ns timescale. We have, in two previous publications (J. Magn. Reson. 192 (2008) 302-313; J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131 (2009) 6048-6049) reevaluated spin-dynamics during steady-state (or "saturated") and reference experiments, both of which are required to determine the NOE ratio. Here we assess the performance of several windowed and windowless sequences to achieve effective saturation of protons in steady-state experiments. We also evaluate the influence of the residual water signal due to radiation damping on the NOE ratio. We suggest a recipe that allows one to determine steady-state (15)N-{(1)H} NOE's without artifacts and with the highest possible accuracy. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Measurement of Nuclear Recoils in the CDMS II Dark Matter Search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fallows, Scott M.

    The Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) experiment is designed to directly detect elastic scatters of weakly-interacting massive dark matter particles (WIMPs), on target nuclei in semiconductor crystals composed of Si and Ge. These scatters would occur very rarely, in an overwhelming background composed primarily of electron recoils from photons and electrons, as well as a smaller but non-negligible background of WIMP-like nuclear recoils from neutrons. The CDMS~II generation of detectors simultaneously measure ionization and athermal phonon signals from each scatter, allowing discrimination against virtually all electron recoils in the detector bulk. Pulse-shape timing analysis allows discrimination against nearly all remaining electron recoils taking place near detector surfaces. Along with carefully limited neutron backgrounds, this experimental program allowed for "background-free'' operation of CDMS~II at Soudan, with less than one background event expected in each WIMP-search analysis. As a result, exclusionary upper-limits on WIMP-nucleon interaction cross section were placed over a wide range of candidate WIMP masses, ruling out large new regions of parameter space. These results, like any others, are subject to a variety of systematic effects that may alter their final interpretations. A primary focus of this dissertation will be difficulties in precisely calibrating the energy scale for nuclear recoil events like those from WIMPs. Nuclear recoils have suppressed ionization signals relative to electron recoils of the same recoil energy, so the response of the detectors is calibrated differently for each recoil type. The overall normalization and linearity of the energy scale for electron recoils in CDMS~II detectors is clearly established by peaks of known gamma energy in the ionization spectrum of calibration data from a 133Ba source. This electron-equivalent keVee) energy scale enables calibration of the total phonon signal (keVt) by enforcing unity

  7. Assessing atmospheric particulate matter distribution based on Saturation Isothermal Remanent Magnetization of herbaceous and tree leaves in a tropical urban environment.

    PubMed

    Barima, Yao Sadaiou Sabas; Angaman, Djédoux Maxime; N'gouran, Kobenan Pierre; Koffi, N'guessan Achille; Kardel, Fatemeh; De Cannière, Charles; Samson, Roeland

    2014-02-01

    Particulate matter (PM) emissions, and the associated human health risks, are likely to continue increasing in urban environments of developing countries like Abidjan (Ivory Cost). This study evaluated the potential of leaves of several herbaceous and tree species as bioindicators of urban particulate matter pollution, and its variation over different land use classes, in a tropical area. Four species well distributed (presence frequencies >90%) over all land use classes, easy to harvest and whose leaves are wide enough to be easily scanned were selected, i.e.: Amaranthus spinosus (Amaranthaceae), Eleusine indica (Poaceae), Panicum maximum (Poaceae) and Ficus benjamina (Moraceae). Leaf sampling of these species was carried out at 3 distances from the road and at 3 height levels. Traffic density was also noted and finally biomagnetic parameters of these leaves were determined. Results showed that Saturation Isothermal Remanent Magnetization (SIRM) of leaves was at least 4 times higher (27.5×10(-6)A) in the vicinity of main roads and industrial areas than in parks and residential areas. The main potential sources of PM pollution were motor vehicles and industries. The slightly hairy leaves of the herbaceous plant A. spinosus and the waxy leaves of the tree F. benjamina showed the highest SIRM (25×10(-6)A). Leaf SIRM increased with distance to road (R(2)>0.40) and declined with sampling height (R(2)=0.17). The distance between 0 and 5m from the road seemed to be the most vulnerable in terms of PM pollution. This study has showed that leaf SIRM of herbaceous and tree species can be used to assess PM exposure in tropical urban environments. © 2013.

  8. The activity of creatine kinase in frog skeletal muscle studied by saturation-transfer nuclear magnetic resonance.

    PubMed Central

    Gadian, D G; Radda, G K; Brown, T R; Chance, E M; Dawson, M J; Wilkie, D R

    1981-01-01

    1. The activity of creatine kinase in intact anaerobic frog muscle at 4 degrees C at rest and during contraction was investigated by using saturation-transfer 31P n.m.r. 2. At rest, the measured forward (phosphocreatine to ATP) reaction flux was 1.7 X 10(-3) M . s-1 and the backward flux was 1.2 X 10(-3) M . s-1. The large magnitude of both fluxes shows that creatine kinase is active in resting muscle, so the observed constancy of [phosphocreatine] demonstrates that the enzyme and its substrates are at equilibrium. 3. The apparent discrepancy between the fluxes must arise largely from an underestimation of the backward flux resulting from interaction of ATP with other systems, e.g. via adenylate kinase. For purposes of further calculation we have therefore adopted 1.6 X 10(-3) M . s-1 as an estimate of both fluxes. 4. During contraction, when the creatine kinase reaction is no longer at equilibrium, the net rate of phosphocreatine breakdown, estimated directly from the change in area of the inorganic phosphate peak, was 0.75 X 10(-3) M . s-1. Saturation transfer indicates that the forward reaction flux remains at approx. 1.6 X 10(-3) M . s-1 and the backward flux decreases to about 0.85 X 10(-3) M . s-1. 5. The activity of creatine kinase during contraction is large enough to account for the well-established observation that, during contraction, the concentration of ATP falls by less than 2-3%. The reaction catalysed by creatine kinase is driven forward during contraction by the large relative increase in the concentration of free ADP, which is more than doubled. 6. The observation that the forward flux does not increase during contraction and that the backward flux decreases can most simply be explained on the basis of competition of reactants for a limited amount of enzyme. PMID:6975619

  9. Nuclear physics insights for new-physics searches using nuclei: Neutrinoless ββ decay and dark matter direct detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menéndez, Javier

    2017-03-01

    Experiments using nuclei to probe new physics beyond the Standard Model, such as neutrinoless ββ decay searches testing whether neutrinos are their own antiparticle, and direct detection experiments aiming to identify the nature of dark matter, require accurate nuclear physics input for optimizing their discovery potential and for a correct interpretation of their results. This demands a detailed knowledge of the nuclear structure relevant for these processes. For instance, neutrinoless ββ decay nuclear matrix elements are very sensitive to the nuclear correlations in the initial and final nuclei, and the spin-dependent nuclear structure factors of dark matter scattering depend on the subtle distribution of the nuclear spin among all nucleons. In addition, nucleons are composite and strongly interacting, which implies that many-nucleon processes are necessary for a correct description of nuclei and their interactions. It is thus crucial that theoretical studies and experimental analyses consider β decays and dark matter interactions with a coupling to two nucleons, called two-nucleon currents.

  10. Measurements of hadron mean free path for the particle-producing collisions in nuclear matter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strugalski, Z.

    1985-01-01

    It is not obvious a priority that the cross-section for a process in hadron collisions with free nucleons is the same as that for the process in hadron collisions with nucleons inside a target nucleus. The question arises: what is the cross-section for a process in a hadron collision with nucleon on inside the atomic nucleus. The answer to it must be found in experiments. The mean free path for particle-producing collisions of pions in nuclear matter is determined experimentally using pion-xenon nucleus collisions at 3.5 GeV/c momentum. Relation between the mean free path in question lambda sub in nucleons fm squared and the cross-section in units of fm squared/nucleon for collisions of the hadron with free nucleon is: lambda sub i = k/cross section sub i, where k = 3.00 plus or minus 0.26.

  11. Transverse momentum dependence of spectra of cumulative particles produced from droplets of dense nuclear matter

    SciTech Connect

    Vechernin, Vladimir

    2016-01-22

    The transverse momentum dependence of the yields of particles produced from the clusters of dense cold nuclear matter in nuclei is calculated in the approach based on perturbative QCD calculations of the corresponding quark diagrams near the thresholds. It is shown that the transverse momentum dependence of the pion and proton spectra at different values of the Feynman variable x in the cumulative region, x > 1, can be described by the only parameter - the constituent quark mass, taken to be equal 300 MeV. It is found that the cumulative protons are formed predominantly via a coherent coalescence of three fast cluster quarks, whereas the production of cumulative pions is dominated by one fast cluster quark hadronization. This enabled to explain the experimentally observed more slow increase of the mean transverse momentum of cumulative protons with the increase of the cumulative variable x, compared to pions.

  12. What can HELIOS tell us on phase transition of nuclear matter

    SciTech Connect

    En'yo, H.

    1987-01-01

    Transverse energy (E/sub t/) distributions and P/sub t/ spectra of negative particles and photons measured by the HELIOS experiment in 200 GeVN and 60 GeVN oxygen-nucleus reactions are presented. The E/sub t/ distributions are compared to a geometrical parametrization and a Montereverse arrowCarlo calculation, particle spectra to the proton-nucleus reaction case. The comparisons show that yet the results can be understood without assuming quark-gluon plasma formation. A discussion is made based on these comparisons together with an estimate of the energy density of the reaction, attempting to know how close we are to the detection of a phase transition of nuclear matter. 21 refs., 15 figs.

  13. Competition between fermions and bosons in nuclear matter at low densities and finite temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mabiala, J.; Zheng, H.; Bonasera, A.; Kohley, Z.; Yennello, S. J.

    2016-12-01

    We derive the free energy for fermions and bosons from fragmentation data. Inspired by the symmetry and pairing energy of the Weizsäcker mass formula, we obtain the free energy of fermions (nucleons) and bosons (alphas and deuterons) using Landau's free-energy approach. We confirm previously obtained results for fermions and show that the free energy for α particles is negative and close to the free energy for ideal Bose gases and in perfect agreement with the free energy of an interacting Bose gas under the repulsive Coulomb force. Deuterons behave more similarly to fermions (positive free energy) rather than bosons, which is probably due to their low binding energy. We show that the α -particle fraction is dominant at all temperatures and densities explored in this work. This is consistent with their negative free energy, which favors clusterization of nuclear matter into α particles at subsaturation densities and finite temperatures.

  14. Nuclear matter incompressibility from a semi-empirical analysis of breathing-mode energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, M. M.; Stocker, W.; Gleissl, P.; Brack, M.

    1989-11-01

    We check the validity and applicability of a liquid-drop model type expansion for the incompressibility KA of finite nuclei: K A = K V + K SA {-1}/{3} + (higher-order terms). Our theoretical considerations are based upon calculations of breathing-mode energies following from a density variational framework taking into account various Skyrme interactions. Using a semi-empirical procedure based upon this expansion of KA, we corroborate that new precision data for the monopole energies favour a volume coefficient KV (300±25) MeV and an appreciable surface coefficient KS (-750±80) MeV. We discuss the implication of this result for the incompressibility K∞ of infinite nuclear matter.

  15. Onset Transition to Cold Nuclear Matter from Lattice QCD with Heavy Quarks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fromm, M.; Langelage, J.; Lottini, S.; Neuman, M.; Philipsen, O.

    2013-03-01

    Lattice QCD at finite density suffers from a severe sign problem, which has so far prohibited simulations of the cold and dense regime. Here we study the onset of nuclear matter employing a three-dimensional effective theory derived by combined strong coupling and hopping expansions, which is valid for heavy but dynamical quarks and has a mild sign problem only. Its numerical evaluations agree between a standard Metropolis and complex Langevin algorithm, where the latter is free of the sign problem. Our continuum extrapolated data approach a first order phase transition at μB≈mB as the temperature approaches zero. An excellent description of the data is achieved by an analytic solution in the strong coupling limit.

  16. Onset transition to cold nuclear matter from lattice QCD with heavy quarks.

    PubMed

    Fromm, M; Langelage, J; Lottini, S; Neuman, M; Philipsen, O

    2013-03-22

    Lattice QCD at finite density suffers from a severe sign problem, which has so far prohibited simulations of the cold and dense regime. Here we study the onset of nuclear matter employing a three-dimensional effective theory derived by combined strong coupling and hopping expansions, which is valid for heavy but dynamical quarks and has a mild sign problem only. Its numerical evaluations agree between a standard Metropolis and complex Langevin algorithm, where the latter is free of the sign problem. Our continuum extrapolated data approach a first order phase transition at μ(B) ≈ m(B) as the temperature approaches zero. An excellent description of the data is achieved by an analytic solution in the strong coupling limit.

  17. Temperature and momentum dependence of single-particle properties in hot asymmetric nuclear matter

    SciTech Connect

    Moustakidis, Ch. C.

    2008-11-15

    We have studied the effects of momentum-dependent interactions on the single-particle properties of hot asymmetric nuclear matter. In particular, the single-particle potential of protons and neutrons as well as the symmetry potential have been studied within a self-consistent model using a momentum-dependent effective interaction. In addition, the isospin splitting of the effective mass has been derived from the above model. In each case temperature effects have been included and analyzed. The role of the specific parametrization of the effective interaction used in the present work has been investigated. It has been concluded that the behavior of the symmetry potential depends strongly on the parametrization of the interaction part of the energy density and the momentum dependence of the regulator function. The effects of the parametrization have been found to be less pronounced on the isospin mass splitting.

  18. Stimulation of hepatic mitochondrial alpha-glycerophosphate dehydrogenase and malic enzyme by L-triiodothyronine. Characteristics of the response with specific nuclear thyroid hormone binding sites fully saturated.

    PubMed Central

    Oppenheimer, J H; Silva, E; Schwartz, H L; Surks, M I

    1977-01-01

    Experiments were designed to analyze the relationship of a single i.v. dose of triiodothyronine (T3), the level of plasma and hepatic nuclear T3 attained, and the tissue response as reflected in increased activity of hepatic mitochondrial alpha-glycerophosphate dehydrogenase (alpha-GPD) and cytosol "malic enzyme" (ME). These studied were carried out in euthyroid rats by varying the dose of T3 injected and the time at which the animals were killed and the enzyme levels measured. The plasma T3 concentration was determined and the fraction of nuclear sites occupied at any time t was calculated from the known plasma:nuclear relationship. As a first step, the analysis was confined to the limiting situation in which all nuclear sites were effectively saturated. The following additional information was required and obtained: A proportional relationship between the half-neutralizing volume of a specific antiserum to malic enzyme and the activity of malic enzyme was established, thus confirming previous reports that the increase in enzyme activity induced by T3 is due to increased enzyme mass. The absolute refractory period immediately after i.v. injection of T3, during which no enzyme response could be detected, was determined. This was shown to be 13.4 h for alpha-GPD and 8.2 h for ME. Lastly, the t1/2 of the enzyme decay after pulse injection of T3 was measured. This was similar for both enzymes, 2.8+/-0.6 (SD) days for alpha-GPD and 2.7+/-0.6 (SD) days for ME. The results of these studies indicated that the extent of hepatic response appears limited by full occupancy of a set of intracellular receptor sites by T3 which is in rapid equilibrium with the plasma hormone pool. The kinetic properties of the receptors, as functionally defined in these studies, resemble those associated with the recently described specific nuclear T3 sites. These data per se are thus compatible with but do not prove a nuclear site of initiation of hormone effect. Thye do allow the development

  19. Measurement of Nuclear Recoils in the CDMS II Dark Matter Search

    SciTech Connect

    Fallows, Scott Mathew

    2014-12-01

    The Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) experiment is designed to directly detect elastic scatters of weakly-interacting massive dark matter particles (WIMPs), on target nuclei in semiconductor crystals composed of Si and Ge. These scatters would occur very rarely, in an overwhelming background composed primarily of electron recoils from photons and electrons, as well as a smaller but non-negligible background of WIMP-like nuclear recoils from neutrons. The CDMS II generation of detectors simultaneously measure ionization and athermal phonon signals from each scatter, allowing discrimination against virtually all electron recoils in the detector bulk. Pulse-shape timing analysis allows discrimination against nearly all remaining electron recoils taking place near detector surfaces. Along with carefully limited neutron backgrounds, this experimental program allowed for \\background- free" operation of CDMS II at Soudan, with less than one background event expected in each WIMP-search analysis. As a result, exclusionary upper-limits on WIMP-nucleon interaction cross section were placed over a wide range of candidate WIMP masses, ruling out large new regions of parameter space.

  20. Thermodynamic coupling of heat and matter flows in near-field regions of nuclear waste repositories

    SciTech Connect

    Carnahan, C.L.

    1983-11-01

    In near-field regions of nuclear waste repositories, thermodynamically coupled flows of heat and matter can occur in addition to the independent flows in the presence of gradients of temperature, hydraulic potential, and composition. The following coupled effects can occur: thermal osmosis, thermal diffusion, chemical osmosis, thermal filtration, diffusion thermal effect, ultrafiltration, and coupled diffusion. Flows of heat and matter associated with these effects can modify the flows predictable from the direct effects, which are expressed by Fourier's law, Darcy's law, and Fick's law. The coupled effects can be treated quantitatively together with the direct effects by the methods of the thermodynamics of irreversible processes. The extent of departure of fully coupled flows from predictions based only on consideration of direct effects depends on the strengths of the gradients driving flows, and may be significant at early times in backfills and in near-field geologic environments of repositories. Approximate calculations using data from the literature and reasonable assumptions of repository conditions indicate that thermal-osmotic and chemical-osmotic flows of water in semipermeable backfills may exceed Darcian flows by two to three orders of magnitude, while flows of solutes may be reduced greatly by ultrafiltration and chemical osmosis, relative to the flows predicted by advection and diffusion alone. In permeable materials, thermal diffusion may contribute to solute flows to a smaller, but still significant, extent.

  1. First measurement of nuclear recoil head-tail sense in a fiducialised WIMP dark matter detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battat, J. B. R.; Daw, E.; Ezeribe, A. C.; Gauvreau, J.-L.; Harton, J. L.; Lafler, R.; Lee, E. R.; Loomba, D.; Lumnah, A.; Miller, E. H.; Mouton, F.; Murphy, A. StJ.; Paling, S. M.; Phan, N. S.; Robinson, M.; Sadler, S. W.; Scarff, A.; Schuckman, F. G., II; Snowden-Ifft, D. P.; Spooner, N. J. C.

    2016-10-01

    Recent computational results suggest that directional dark matter detectors have potential to probe for WIMP dark matter particles below the neutrino floor. The DRIFT-IId detector used in this work is a leading directional WIMP search time projection chamber detector. We report the first measurements of the detection of the directional nuclear recoils in a fully fiducialised low-pressure time projection chamber. In this new operational mode, the distance between each event vertex and the readout plane is determined by the measurement of minority carriers produced by adding a small amount of oxygen to the nominal CS2+CF4 target gas mixture. The CS2+CF4+O2 mixture has been shown to enable background-free operation at current sensitivities. Sulfur, fluorine, and carbon recoils were generated using neutrons emitted from a 252Cf source positioned at different locations around the detector. Measurement of the relative energy loss along the recoil tracks allowed the track vector sense, or the so-called head-tail asymmetry parameter, to be deduced. Results show that the previously reported observation of head-tail sensitivity in pure CS2 is well retained after the addition of oxygen to the gas mixture.

  2. Low density instabilities in asymmetric nuclear matter within the quark-meson coupling (QMC) model with the {delta} meson

    SciTech Connect

    Santos, Alexandre M.; Providencia, Constanca; Panda, Prafulla K.

    2009-04-15

    In the present work we include the isovector-scalar {delta} meson in the quark-meson coupling (QMC) model and study the properties of asymmetric nuclear within QMC without and with the {delta} meson. Recent constraints set by isospin diffusion on the slope parameter of the nuclear symmetry energy at saturation density are used to adjust the model parameters. The thermodynamical spinodal surfaces are obtained and the instability region at subsaturation densities within QMC and QMC{delta} models are compared with mean-field relativistic models. The distillation effect in the QMC model is discussed.

  3. van der Waals Interactions in Hadron Resonance Gas: From Nuclear Matter to Lattice QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vovchenko, Volodymyr; Gorenstein, Mark I.; Stoecker, Horst

    2017-05-01

    An extension of the ideal hadron resonance gas (HRG) model is constructed which includes the attractive and repulsive van der Waals (VDW) interactions between baryons. This VDW-HRG model yields the nuclear liquid-gas transition at low temperatures and high baryon densities. The VDW parameters a and b are fixed by the ground state properties of nuclear matter, and the temperature dependence of various thermodynamic observables at zero chemical potential are calculated within the VDW-HRG model. Compared to the ideal HRG model, the inclusion of VDW interactions between baryons leads to a qualitatively different behavior of second and higher moments of fluctuations of conserved charges, in particular in the so-called crossover region T ˜140 - 190 MeV . For many observables this behavior resembles closely the results obtained from lattice QCD simulations. This hadronic model also predicts nontrivial behavior of net-baryon fluctuations in the region of phase diagram probed by heavy-ion collision experiments. These results imply that VDW interactions play a crucial role in the thermodynamics of hadron gas. Thus, the commonly performed comparisons of the ideal HRG model with the lattice and heavy-ion data may lead to misconceptions and misleading conclusions.

  4. van der Waals Interactions in Hadron Resonance Gas: From Nuclear Matter to Lattice QCD.

    PubMed

    Vovchenko, Volodymyr; Gorenstein, Mark I; Stoecker, Horst

    2017-05-05

    An extension of the ideal hadron resonance gas (HRG) model is constructed which includes the attractive and repulsive van der Waals (VDW) interactions between baryons. This VDW-HRG model yields the nuclear liquid-gas transition at low temperatures and high baryon densities. The VDW parameters a and b are fixed by the ground state properties of nuclear matter, and the temperature dependence of various thermodynamic observables at zero chemical potential are calculated within the VDW-HRG model. Compared to the ideal HRG model, the inclusion of VDW interactions between baryons leads to a qualitatively different behavior of second and higher moments of fluctuations of conserved charges, in particular in the so-called crossover region T∼140-190  MeV. For many observables this behavior resembles closely the results obtained from lattice QCD simulations. This hadronic model also predicts nontrivial behavior of net-baryon fluctuations in the region of phase diagram probed by heavy-ion collision experiments. These results imply that VDW interactions play a crucial role in the thermodynamics of hadron gas. Thus, the commonly performed comparisons of the ideal HRG model with the lattice and heavy-ion data may lead to misconceptions and misleading conclusions.

  5. A review on the relativistic effective field theory with parameterized couplings for nuclear matter and neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasconcellos, C. A. Zen

    2015-12-01

    Nuclear science has developed many excellent theoretical models for many-body systems in the domain of the baryon-meson strong interaction for the nucleus and nuclear matter at low, medium and high densities. However, a full microscopic understanding of nuclear systems in the extreme density domain of compact stars is still lacking. The aim of this contribution is to shed some light on open questions facing the nuclear many-body problem at the very high density domain. Here we focus our attention on the conceptual issue of naturalness and its role in shaping the baryon-meson phase space dynamics in the description of the equation of state (EoS) of nuclear matter and neutrons stars. In particular, in order to stimulate possible new directions of research, we discuss relevant aspects of a recently developed relativistic effective theory for nuclear matter within Quantum Hadrodynamics (QHD) with genuine many-body forces and derivative natural parametric couplings. Among other topics we discuss in this work the connection of this theory with other known effective QHD models of the literature and its potentiality in describing a new physics for dense matter. The model with parameterized couplings exhausts the whole fundamental baryon octet (n, p, Σ-, Σ0, Σ+, Λ, Ξ-, Ξ0) and simulates n-order corrections to the minimal Yukawa baryon couplings by considering nonlinear self-couplings of meson fields and meson-meson interaction terms coupled to the baryon fields involving scalar-isoscalar (σ, σ∗), vector-isoscalar (ω, ɸ), vector-isovector (ϱ) and scalar-isovector (δ) virtual sectors. Following recent experimental results, we consider in our calculations the extreme case where the Σ- experiences such a strong repulsion that its influence in the nuclear structure of a neutron star is excluded at all. A few examples of calculations of properties of neutron stars are shown and prospects for the future are discussed.

  6. Nuclear matter properties in the relativistic mean-field theory at finite temperature with interaction between sigma-omega mesons

    SciTech Connect

    Costa, R. S.; Duarte, S. B.; Oliveira, J. C. T.; Chiapparini, M.

    2010-05-21

    We study the nuclear matter properties in the regime of high temperatures using a relativistic mean-field theory. Contrasting with the usual linear Walecka model, we include the sigma-omega meson coupling in order to investigate the role of this interaction in the nucleon effective mass behavior. Some numerical results are presented and discussed.

  7. A study of intrinsic statistical variation for low-energy nuclear recoils in liquid xenon detector for dark matter searches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lu; Wei, Wenzhao; Mei, Dongming; Cubed Collaboration

    2015-10-01

    Noble liquid xenon experiments, such as XENON100, LUX, XENON 1-Ton, and LZ are large dark matter experiments directly searches for weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs). One of the most important features is to discriminate nuclear recoils from electronic recoils. Detector response is generally calibrated with different radioactive sources including 83mKr, tritiated methane, 241AmBe, 252Cf, and DD-neutrons. The electronic recoil and nuclear recoil bands have been determined by these calibrations. However, the width of nuclear recoil band needs to be fully understood. We derive a theoretical model to understand the correlation of the width of nuclear recoil band and intrinsic statistical variation. In addition, we conduct experiments to validate the theoretical model. In this paper, we present the study of intrinsic statistical variation contributing to the width of nuclear recoil band. DE-FG02-10ER46709 and the state of South Dakota.

  8. Saturation with chiral interactions and consequences for finite nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonis, J.; Stroberg, S. R.; Hebeler, K.; Holt, J. D.; Schwenk, A.

    2017-07-01

    We explore the impact of nuclear matter saturation on the properties and systematics of finite nuclei across the nuclear chart. By using the ab initio in-medium similarity renormalization group (IM-SRG), we study ground-state energies and charge radii of closed-shell nuclei from 4He to 78Ni based on a set of low-resolution two- and three-nucleon interactions that predict realistic saturation properties. We first investigate in detail the convergence properties of these Hamiltonians with respect to model-space truncations for both two- and three-body interactions. We find one particular interaction that reproduces well the ground-state energies of all closed-shell nuclei studied. As expected from their saturation points relative to this interaction, the other Hamiltonians underbind nuclei but lead to a remarkably similar systematics of ground-state energies. Extending our calculations to complete isotopic chains in the s d and p f shells with the valence-space IM-SRG, the same interaction reproduces not only experimental ground states but two-neutron-separation energies and first-excited 2+ states. We also extend the valence-space IM-SRG to calculate radii. Since this particular interaction saturates at too high density, charge radii are still too small compared with experiment. Except for this underprediction, the radius systematics is, however, well reproduced. Our results highlight the renewed importance of nuclear matter as a theoretical benchmark for the development of next-generation chiral interactions.

  9. 77 FR 6598 - In the Matter of Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., Palisades Nuclear Plant, 27780 Blue Star...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-08

    .... 3-2011-003) associated with an at- the-controls reactor operator at the Palisades Nuclear Plant who... reactor operator in the Entergy nuclear fleet (in Entergy's employ as of the date of the letter) re... executive shall send a letter to each licensed reactor operator in the Entergy nuclear fleet (in...

  10. Constraining the equation of state of nuclear matter from fusion hindrance in reactions leading to the production of superheavy elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veselsky, M.; Klimo, J.; Ma, Yu-Gang; Souliotis, G. A.

    2016-12-01

    The mechanism of fusion hindrance, an effect preventing the synthesis of superheavy elements in the reactions of cold and hot fusion, is investigated using the Boltzmann-Uehling-Uhlenbeck equation, where Coulomb interaction is introduced. A strong sensitivity is observed both to the modulus of incompressibility of symmetric nuclear matter, controlling the competition of surface tension and Coulomb repulsion, and to the stiffness of the density-dependence of symmetry energy, influencing the formation of the neck prior to scission. The experimental fusion probabilities were for the first time used to derive constraints on the nuclear equation of state. A strict constraint on the modulus of incompressibility of nuclear matter K0=240 -260 MeV is obtained while the stiff density-dependences of the symmetry energy (γ >1 ) are rejected.

  11. Saturation meter

    DOEpatents

    Gregurech, S.

    1984-08-01

    A saturation meter for use in a pressurized water reactor plant comprising a differential pressure transducer having a first and second pressure sensing means and an alarm. The alarm is connected to the transducer and is preset to activate at a level of saturation prior to the formation of a steam void in the reactor vessel.

  12. Numerical analysis of the Balitsky-Kovchegov equation with running coupling: Dependence of the saturation scale on nuclear size and rapidity

    SciTech Connect

    Albacete, J.L.; Armesto, N.; Salgado, C.A.; Wiedemann, U.A.; Milhano, J.G.

    2005-01-01

    We study the effects of including a running coupling constant in high-density QCD evolution. For fixed coupling constant, QCD evolution preserves the initial dependence of the saturation momentum Q{sub s} on the nuclear size A and results in an exponential dependence on rapidity Y, Q{sub s}{sup 2}(Y)=Q{sub s}{sup 2}(Y{sub 0})exp[{alpha}{sub s}d(Y-Y{sub 0})]. For the running coupling case, we rederive analytical estimates for the A and Y dependences of the saturation scale and test them numerically. The A dependence of Q{sub s} vanishes {proportional_to}1/{radical}(Y) for large A and Y. The Y dependence is reduced to Q{sub s}{sup 2}(Y){proportional_to}exp({delta}{sup '}{radical}(Y+X)), where we find numerically {delta}{sup '}{approx_equal}3.2. We study the behavior of the gluon distribution at large transverse momentum, characterizing it by an anomalous dimension 1-{gamma}, which we define in a fixed region of small dipole sizes. In contrast to previous analytical work, we find a marked difference between the fixed coupling ({gamma}{approx_equal}0.65) and running coupling ({gamma}{approx}0.85) results. Our numerical findings show that both a scaling function depending only on the variable rQ{sub s} and the perturbative double-leading-logarithmic expression provide equally good descriptions of the numerical solutions for very small r values below the so-called scaling window.

  13. Equation of state in the pion condensation phase in asymmetric nuclear matter using a holographic QCD model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishihara, Hiroki; Harada, Masayasu

    2014-12-01

    We study the asymmetric nuclear matter using a holographic QCD model by introducing a baryonic charge in the infrared boundary. We first show that, in the normal hadron phase, the predicted values of the symmetry energy and its slope parameter are comparable with the empirical values. We find that the phase transition from the normal phase to the pion condensation phase is delayed compared with the pure mesonic matter: the critical chemical potential is larger than the pion mass which is obtained for the pure mesonic matter. We also show that, in the pion condensation phase, the pion contribution to the isospin number density increases with the chemical potential, while the baryonic contribution is almost constant. Furthermore, the value of chiral condensation implies that the enhancement of the chiral symmetry breaking occurs in the asymmetric nuclear matter as in the pure mesonic matter. We also give a discussion on how to understand the delay in terms of the four-dimensional chiral Lagrangian including the rho and omega mesons based on the hidden local symmetry.

  14. First measurement of proton-induced low-momentum dielectron radiation off cold nuclear matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    HADES Collaboration; Agakishiev, G.; Balanda, A.; Belver, D.; Belyaev, A.; Berger-Chen, J. C.; Blanco, A.; Böhmer, M.; Boyard, J. L.; Cabanelas, P.; Chernenko, S.; Dybczak, A.; Epple, E.; Fabbietti, L.; Fateev, O.; Finocchiaro, P.; Fonte, P.; Friese, J.; Fröhlich, I.; Galatyuk, T.; Garzón, J. A.; Gernhäuser, R.; Göbel, K.; Golubeva, M.; González-Díaz, D.; Guber, F.; Gumberidze, M.; Heinz, T.; Hennino, T.; Holzmann, R.; Ierusalimov, A.; Iori, I.; Ivashkin, A.; Jurkovic, M.; Kämpfer, B.; Karavicheva, T.; Koenig, I.; Koenig, W.; Kolb, B. W.; Kornakov, G.; Kotte, R.; Krása, A.; Krizek, F.; Krücken, R.; Kuc, H.; Kühn, W.; Kugler, A.; Kurepin, A.; Ladygin, V.; Lalik, R.; Lang, S.; Lapidus, K.; Lebedev, A.; Liu, T.; Lopes, L.; Lorenz, M.; Maier, L.; Mangiarotti, A.; Markert, J.; Metag, V.; Michalska, B.; Michel, J.; Mishra, D.; Müntz, C.; Naumann, L.; Pachmayer, Y. C.; Palka, M.; Parpottas, Y.; Pechenov, V.; Pechenova, O.; Pietraszko, J.; Przygoda, W.; Ramstein, B.; Reshetin, A.; Rustamov, A.; Sadovsky, A.; Salabura, P.; Schmah, A.; Schwab, E.; Siebenson, J.; Sobolev, Yu. G.; Spataro, S.; Spruck, B.; Ströbele, H.; Stroth, J.; Sturm, C.; Tarantola, A.; Teilab, K.; Tlusty, P.; Traxler, M.; Trebacz, R.; Tsertos, H.; Vasiliev, T.; Wagner, V.; Weber, M.; Wendisch, C.; Wüstenfeld, J.; Yurevich, S.; Zanevsky, Y.

    2012-09-01

    We present data on dielectron emission in proton induced reactions on a Nb target at 3.5 GeV kinetic beam energy measured with HADES installed at GSI. The data represent the first high statistics measurement of proton-induced dielectron radiation from cold nuclear matter in a kinematic regime, where strong medium effects are expected. Combined with the good mass resolution of 2%, it is the first measurement sensitive to changes of the spectral functions of vector mesons, as predicted by models for hadrons at rest or small relative momenta. Comparing the e+e- invariant mass spectra to elementary p + p data, we observe for e+e- momenta Pee<0.8 GeV/c a strong modification of the shape of the spectrum, which we attribute to an additional ρ-like contribution and a decrease of ω yield. These opposite trends are tentatively interpreted as a strong coupling of the ρ meson to baryonic resonances and an absorption of the ω meson, which are two aspects of in-medium modification of vector mesons.

  15. Low-density homogeneous symmetric nuclear matter: Disclosing dinucleons in coexisting phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arellano, Hugo F.; Delaroche, Jean-Paul

    2015-01-01

    The effect of in-medium dinucleon bound states on self-consistent single-particle fields in Brueckner, Bethe and Goldstone theory is investigated in symmetric nuclear matter at zero temperature. To this end, dinucleon bound state occurences in the 1 S 0 and 3 SD 1 channels are explicitly accounted for --within the continuous choice for the auxiliary fields-- while imposing self-consistency in Brueckner-Hartree-Fock approximation calculations. Searches are carried out at Fermi momenta in the range fm-1, using the Argonne bare nucleon-nucleon potential without resorting to the effective-mass approximation. As a result, two distinct solutions meeting the self-consistency requirement are found with overlapping domains in the interval 0.130 fm-1 0.285 fm-1, corresponding to mass densities between and g cm-3. Effective masses as high as three times the nucleon mass are found in the coexistence domain. The emergence of superfluidity in relationship with BCS pairing gap solutions is discussed.

  16. Light clusters in nuclear matter: Excluded volume versus quantum many-body approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hempel, Matthias; Schaffner-Bielich, Jürgen; Typel, Stefan; Röpke, Gerd

    2011-11-01

    The formation of clusters in nuclear matter is investigated, which occurs, e.g., in low-energy heavy-ion collisions or core-collapse supernovae. In astrophysical applications, the excluded volume concept is commonly used for the description of light clusters. Here we compare a phenomenological excluded volume approach to two quantum many-body models, the quantum statistical model and the generalized relativistic mean-field model. All three models contain bound states of nuclei with mass number A≤4. It is explored to which extent the complex medium effects can be mimicked by the simpler excluded volume model, regarding the chemical composition and thermodynamic variables. Furthermore, the role of heavy nuclei and excited states is investigated by use of the excluded volume model. At temperatures of a few MeV the excluded volume model gives a poor description of the medium effects on the light clusters, but there the composition is actually dominated by heavy nuclei. At larger temperatures there is a rather good agreement, whereas some smaller differences and model dependencies remain.

  17. First measurement of surface nuclear recoil background for argon dark matter searches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jingke; Stanford, Chris; Westerdale, Shawn; Calaprice, Frank; Wright, Alexander; Shi, Zhiming

    2017-09-01

    One major background in direct searches for weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) comes from the deposition of radon progeny on detector surfaces. A dangerous surface background is the 206Pb nuclear recoils produced by 210Po decays. In this paper, we report the first characterization of this background in liquid argon. The scintillation signal of low energy Pb recoils is measured to be highly quenched in argon, and we estimate that the 103 keV 206Pb recoil background will produce a signal equal to that of a ˜5 keV (30 keV) electron recoil (40Ar recoil). In addition, we demonstrate that this dangerous 210Po surface background can be suppressed, using pulse shape discrimination methods, by a factor of ˜100 or higher, which can make argon dark matter detectors near background-free and enhance their potential for discovery of medium- and high-mass WIMPs. We also discuss the impact on other low background experiments.

  18. Asymmetric nuclear matter and neutron skin in an extended relativistic mean-field model

    SciTech Connect

    Agrawal, B. K.

    2010-03-15

    The density dependence of the symmetry energy, instrumental in understanding the behavior of the asymmetric nuclear matter, is investigated within the extended relativistic mean-field (ERMF) model, which includes the contributions from the self- and mixed-interaction terms for the scalar-isoscalar ({sigma}), vector-isoscalar ({omega}), and vector-isovector ({rho}) mesons up to the quartic order. Each of the 26 different parametrizations of the ERMF model employed is compatible with the bulk properties of the finite nuclei. The behavior of the symmetry energy for several parameter sets is found to be consistent with the empirical constraints on them as extracted from the analyses of the isospin diffusion data. The neutron-skin thickness in the {sup 208}Pb nucleus for these parameter sets of the ERMF model lies in the range of {approx}0.20-0.24 fm, which is in harmony with the thickness predicted by the Skyrme Hartree-Fock model. We also investigate the role of various mixed-interaction terms that are crucial for the density dependence of the symmetry energy.

  19. ON THE FATE OF THE MATTER REINSERTED WITHIN YOUNG NUCLEAR STELLAR CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Hueyotl-Zahuantitla, Filiberto; Palous, Jan; Wuensch, Richard; Tenorio-Tagle, Guillermo; Silich, Sergiy

    2013-04-01

    This paper presents a hydrodynamical model describing the evolution of the gas reinserted by stars within a rotating young nuclear star cluster (NSC). We explicitly consider the impact of the stellar component on the flow by means of a uniform insertion of mass and energy within the stellar cluster. The model includes the gravity force of the stellar component and a central supermassive black hole (SMBH), and accounts for the heating from the central source of radiation and the radiative cooling of the thermalized gas. By using a set of parameters typical for NSCs and SMBHs in Seyfert galaxies, our simulations show that a filamentary/clumpy structure is formed in the inner part of the cluster. This 'torus' is Compton-thick and covers a large fraction of the sky (as seen from the SMBH). In the outer parts of the cluster a powerful wind is produced that inhibits the infall of matter from larger scales and thus the NSC-SMBH interplay occurs in isolation.

  20. Indications for a critical end point in the phase diagram for hot and dense nuclear matter.

    PubMed

    Lacey, Roy A

    2015-04-10

    Excitation functions for the Gaussian emission source radii difference (R_{out}^{2}-R_{side}^{2}) obtained from two-pion interferometry measurements in Au+Au (sqrt[s_{NN}]=7.7-200  GeV) and Pb+Pb (sqrt[s_{NN}]=2.76  TeV) collisions are studied for a broad range of collision centralities. The observed nonmonotonic excitation functions validate the finite-size scaling patterns expected for the deconfinement phase transition and the critical end point (CEP), in the temperature versus baryon chemical potential (T,μ_{B}) plane of the nuclear matter phase diagram. A finite-size scaling (FSS) analysis of these data suggests a second order phase transition with the estimates T^{cep}∼165  MeV and μ_{B}^{cep}∼95  MeV for the location of the critical end point. The critical exponents (ν≈0.66 and γ≈1.2) extracted via the same FSS analysis place this CEP in the 3D Ising model universality class.

  1. Gluon saturation in a saturated environment

    SciTech Connect

    Kopeliovich, B. Z.; Potashnikova, I. K.; Schmidt, Ivan

    2011-07-15

    A bootstrap equation for self-quenched gluon shadowing leads to a reduced magnitude of broadening for partons propagating through a nucleus. Saturation of small-x gluons in a nucleus, which has the form of transverse momentum broadening of projectile gluons in pA collisions in the nuclear rest frame, leads to a modification of the parton distribution functions in the beam compared with pp collisions. In nucleus-nucleus collisions all participating nucleons acquire enhanced gluon density at small x, which boosts further the saturation scale. Solution of the reciprocity equations for central collisions of two heavy nuclei demonstrate a significant, up to several times, enhancement of Q{sub sA}{sup 2}, in AA compared with pA collisions.

  2. Measurement of the ionization produced by sub-keV silicon nuclear recoils in a CCD dark matter detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chavarria, A. E.; Collar, J. I.; Peña, J. R.; Privitera, P.; Robinson, A. E.; Scholz, B.; Sengul, C.; Zhou, J.; Estrada, J.; Izraelevitch, F.; Tiffenberg, J.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; Torres Machado, D.

    2016-10-01

    We report a measurement of the ionization efficiency of silicon nuclei recoiling with sub-keV kinetic energy in the bulk silicon of a charge-coupled device (CCD). Nuclear recoils are produced by low-energy neutrons (<24 keV ) from a 124Sb-9Be photoneutron source, and their ionization signal is measured down to 60 eV electron equivalent. This energy range, previously unexplored, is relevant for the detection of low-mass dark matter particles. The measured efficiency is found to deviate from the extrapolation to low energies of the Lindhard model. This measurement also demonstrates the sensitivity to nuclear recoils of CCDs employed by DAMIC, a dark matter direct detection experiment located in the SNOLAB underground laboratory.

  3. Measurement of the ionization produced by sub-keV silicon nuclear recoils in a CCD dark matter detector

    DOE PAGES

    Chavarria, A. E.; Collar, J. I.; Peña, J. R.; ...

    2016-10-15

    We report a measurement of the ionization efficiency of silicon nuclei recoiling with sub-keV kinetic energy in the bulk silicon of a charge-coupled device (CCD). Nuclear recoils are produced by low-energy neutrons (<24 keV) from a 124Sb–9Be photoneutron source, and their ionization signal is measured down to 60 eV electron equivalent. This energy range, previously unexplored, is relevant for the detection of low-mass dark matter particles. The measured efficiency is found to deviate from the extrapolation to low energies of the Lindhard model. Furthermore, this measurement also demonstrates the sensitivity to nuclear recoils of CCDs employed by DAMIC, a darkmore » matter direct detection experiment located in the SNOLAB underground laboratory.« less

  4. Measurement of the ionization produced by sub-keV silicon nuclear recoils in a CCD dark matter detector

    SciTech Connect

    Chavarria, A. E.; Collar, J. I.; Peña, J. R.; Privitera, P.; Robinson, A. E.; Scholz, B.; Sengul, C.; Zhou, J.; Estrada, J.; Izraelevitch, F.; Tiffenberg, J.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; Machado, D. Torres

    2016-10-15

    We report a measurement of the ionization efficiency of silicon nuclei recoiling with sub-keV kinetic energy in the bulk silicon of a charge-coupled device (CCD). Nuclear recoils are produced by low-energy neutrons (<24 keV) from a 124Sb–9Be photoneutron source, and their ionization signal is measured down to 60 eV electron equivalent. This energy range, previously unexplored, is relevant for the detection of low-mass dark matter particles. The measured efficiency is found to deviate from the extrapolation to low energies of the Lindhard model. Furthermore, this measurement also demonstrates the sensitivity to nuclear recoils of CCDs employed by DAMIC, a dark matter direct detection experiment located in the SNOLAB underground laboratory.

  5. Relating the strangeness content of the nucleon with the mass shift of the ϕ meson in nuclear matter

    SciTech Connect

    Gubler, Philipp; Ohtani, Keisuke

    2016-01-22

    The behavior of the ϕ meson at finite density is studied, making use of a QCD sum rule approach in combination with the maximum entropy method. It is demonstrated that a possible mass shift of the ϕ in nuclear matter is strongly correlated to the strangeness content of the nucleon, which is proportional to the strange sigma term, σ{sub sN}. In contrast to earlier studies, our results show that, depending on the value of σ{sub sN}, the ϕ meson could receive both a positive or negative mass shift at nuclear matter density. We find that these results depend only weakly on potential modifications of the width of the ϕ meson peak and on assumptions made on the behavior of four-quark condensates at finite density.

  6. Transport, retention, and long-term release behavior of polymer-coated silver nanoparticles in saturated quartz sand: The impact of natural organic matters and electrolyte.

    PubMed

    Hou, Jun; Zhang, Mingzhi; Wang, Peifang; Wang, Chao; Miao, Lingzhan; Xu, Yi; You, Guoxiang; Lv, Bowen; Yang, Yangyang; Liu, Zhilin

    2017-10-01

    This study investigated the transport and long-term release of stabilized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), including polyvinylpyrrolidone-coated AgNPs (PVP-AgNPs) and bare AgNPs (Bare-AgNPs), in the presence of natural organic matters (NOMs; both humic acids (HA) and alginate (Alg)) and an electrolyte (Ca(2+)) in a sand-packed column. Very low breakthrough rate (C/C0) of AgNPs (below 0.04) occurred in the absence of NOM and the electrolyte. Increasing the concentration of NOM and decreasing the influent NOM solution's ionic strength (IS) reduced the retention of AgNPs. The reduced NP retention at high NOM and low IS was mainly attributed to the increased energy barrier between the AgNPs and the sand grain surface. Notably, the retention of PVP-AgNPs was enhanced at high Alg concentration and low IS, which mainly resulted from the improved hydrophobicity that could increase the interaction between the PVP-AgNPs and the collector. The total release amount of PVP-AgNPs (10.03%, 9.50%, 28.42%, 6.37%) and Bare-AgNPs (3.28%, 2.58%, 10.36%, 1.54%) were gained when exposed to four kinds of NOM solutions, including deionized water, an electrolyte solution (1 mM Ca(2+)), HA with an electrolyte (1 mM Ca(2+)), and a Alg (40 mg/L) solution with an electrolyte (1 mM Ca(2+)). The long-term release of retained silver nanoparticles in the quartz sand was mostly through the form of released Ag NPs. The factors that increased the mobility of AgNPs in quartz sand could improve the release of the AgNPs. The release of AgNPs had no significant change in the presence Ca(2+) but were increased in the presence of HA. The Alg slightly decreased the release of AgNPs by increasing the hydrophobicity of AgNPs. The results of the study indicated that all the tested NOM and Ca(2+) have prominent influence on the transport and long-term release behavior of silver nanoparticles in saturated quartz sand. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. 76 FR 14997 - In the Matter of Entergy Nuclear Vermont Yankee, LLC and Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-18

    ... for the radioactive nuclide hydrogen-3. Tritium occurs naturally in the environment because of cosmic ray interactions. It is also ] produced by nuclear reactor operations, and can be legally discharged...

  8. A review on the relativistic effective field theory with parameterized couplings for nuclear matter and neutron stars

    SciTech Connect

    Vasconcellos, C. A. Zen

    2015-12-17

    Nuclear science has developed many excellent theoretical models for many-body systems in the domain of the baryon-meson strong interaction for the nucleus and nuclear matter at low, medium and high densities. However, a full microscopic understanding of nuclear systems in the extreme density domain of compact stars is still lacking. The aim of this contribution is to shed some light on open questions facing the nuclear many-body problem at the very high density domain. Here we focus our attention on the conceptual issue of naturalness and its role in shaping the baryon-meson phase space dynamics in the description of the equation of state (EoS) of nuclear matter and neutrons stars. In particular, in order to stimulate possible new directions of research, we discuss relevant aspects of a recently developed relativistic effective theory for nuclear matter within Quantum Hadrodynamics (QHD) with genuine many-body forces and derivative natural parametric couplings. Among other topics we discuss in this work the connection of this theory with other known effective QHD models of the literature and its potentiality in describing a new physics for dense matter. The model with parameterized couplings exhausts the whole fundamental baryon octet (n, p, Σ{sup −}, Σ{sup 0}, Σ{sup +}, Λ, Ξ{sup −}, Ξ{sup 0}) and simulates n-order corrections to the minimal Yukawa baryon couplings by considering nonlinear self-couplings of meson fields and meson-meson interaction terms coupled to the baryon fields involving scalar-isoscalar (σ, σ∗), vector-isoscalar (ω, Φ), vector-isovector (ϱ) and scalar-isovector (δ) virtual sectors. Following recent experimental results, we consider in our calculations the extreme case where the Σ{sup −} experiences such a strong repulsion that its influence in the nuclear structure of a neutron star is excluded at all. A few examples of calculations of properties of neutron stars are shown and prospects for the future are discussed.

  9. Spectral functions for D ¯ and D¯0* mesons in nuclear matter with partial restoration of chiral symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suenaga, Daiki; Yasui, Shigehiro; Harada, Masayasu

    2017-07-01

    We investigate the in-medium masses of a D ¯(0-) meson and a D¯0*(0+) meson, and spectral functions for D ¯ and D¯0* meson channels in nuclear matter. These mesons are introduced as chiral partners in the chiral-symmetry-broken vacuum, hence they are useful to explore the partial restoration of the broken chiral symmetry in nuclear matter. We consider the linear sigma model to describe the chiral symmetry breaking and to investigate a qualitative tendency of changes of D ¯ mesons at low density. Our study shows that the loop corrections to D ¯ and D¯0* meson masses provide a smaller mass splitting at finite density than that in vacuum, a result that indicates a tendency of the restoration of the chiral symmetry. We investigate also the spectral function for D¯0* meson channel, and find three peaks. The first peak, which corresponds to the resonance of the D¯0* meson, is broadened by collisions with nucleons in medium, and the peak position shifts to lower mass due to the partial restoration of chiral symmetry as the density increases. The second peak is identified as a threshold enhancement which shows a remarkable enhancement as the density increases. The third peak is Landau damping. The obtained properties of D ¯ and D¯0* mesons in nuclear matter will provide useful information for experiments.

  10. Theoretical studies in medium-energy nuclear and hadronic physics

    SciTech Connect

    Horowitz, C.J.; Macfarlane, M.H.; Matsui, Tetsuo; Serot, B.D.

    1991-12-03

    In the period covered by this report (April 1, 1991 to March 31, 1992), work focused on six main areas: (1) Relativistic Theories of Nuclear Structure and Saturation, (2) Relativistic Descriptions of Proton-Nucleus and Electron-Nucleus Scattering, (3) Nonrelativistic Theory of Nucleon-Nucleus Reactions, (4) Relativistic Many-Body Theory at Finite Temperature and Density, (5) Neutrino Interactions in Dense Matter, (6) Quark Models of Nuclear and Quark Matter.

  11. 76 FR 54499 - In the Matter of Entergy Operations, Inc. and Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Confirmatory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-01

    ... Fitzpatrick Nuclear Power Plant, Grand Gulf Nuclear Station, Unit 1, Indian Point Nuclear Generating, Units 2... Committees (both for Boiling Water Reactors and Pressurized Water Reactors) will conduct an effectiveness... the issuance of this CO, subcommittees of Entergy's Safety Review Committees (both for Boiling...

  12. The nuclear symmetry energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldo, M.; Burgio, G. F.

    2016-11-01

    The nuclear symmetry energy characterizes the variation of the binding energy as the neutron to proton ratio of a nuclear system is varied. This is one of the most important features of nuclear physics in general, since it is just related to the two component nature of the nuclear systems. As such it is one of the most relevant physical parameters that affect the physics of many phenomena and nuclear processes. This review paper presents a survey of the role and relevance of the nuclear symmetry energy in different fields of research and of the accuracy of its determination from the phenomenology and from the microscopic many-body theory. In recent years, a great interest was devoted not only to the Nuclear Matter symmetry energy at saturation density but also to its whole density dependence, which is an essential ingredient for our understanding of many phenomena. We analyze the nuclear symmetry energy in different realms of nuclear physics and astrophysics. In particular we consider the nuclear symmetry energy in relation to nuclear structure, astrophysics of Neutron Stars and supernovae, and heavy ion collision experiments, trying to elucidate the connections of these different fields on the basis of the symmetry energy peculiarities. The interplay between experimental and observational data and theoretical developments is stressed. The expected future developments and improvements are schematically addressed, together with most demanded experimental and theoretical advances for the next few years.

  13. Source dynamics of radiocesium-contaminated particulate matter deposited in an agricultural water reservoir after the Fukushima nuclear accident.

    PubMed

    Huon, Sylvain; Hayashi, Seiji; Laceby, J Patrick; Tsuji, Hideki; Onda, Yuichi; Evrard, Olivier

    2017-09-06

    The Fukushima nuclear accident in Japan resulted in the deposition of radiocesium over forested and rural landscapes northwest of the power plant. Although there have been several investigations into the dynamics of contaminated river sediment, less attention has been paid to the sources of deposited particulate matter in dams and reservoirs. In the Fukushima Prefecture, there are 10 significant dams and over a 1000 reservoirs for both agricultural and surface water management. These reservoirs may have trapped a significant volume of radiocesium-contaminated sediment. Therefore, characterizing the sources of contaminated particulate matter is important for the ongoing management of contamination in the region. Accordingly, the composition of particulate matter deposited in the Mano Dam reservoir, approximately 40km northwest of the power plant, was investigated with the analyses and modelling of carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios (δ(13)C and δ(15)N), total organic carbon (TOC) and total nitrogen (TN) concentrations. Four sediment cores, with lengths ranging 29-41cm, were sampled in the Mano Dam. Source samples from 46 forest soils, 28 cultivated soils and 25 subsoils were used to determine the source contributions of particulate matter. Carbon and nitrogen parameters were analyzed on all samples and a concentration-dependent distribution modelling approach was used to apportion source contributions. Three of the four cores sampled in the Mano Dam reservoir had distinct radiocesium peaks representative of the initial post-accident wash-off phase. Cultivated sources were responsible for 48±7% of the deposited fine particulate matter whereas forests were modelled to contribute 27±6% and subsoil sources 25±4%. Ongoing decontamination of cultivated sources in the Fukushima region should result in a decrease of contaminated matter deposition in reservoirs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Characterization of clay minerals and organic matter in shales: Application to high-level nuclear waste isolation

    SciTech Connect

    Gueven, N.; Landis, C.R.; Jacobs, G.K.

    1988-10-01

    The objective of the Sedimentary Rock Program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory is to conduct investigations to assess the potential for shale to serve as a host medium for the isolation of high-level nuclear wastes. The emphasis on shale is a result of screening major sedimentary rock types (shale, sandstone, carbonate , anhydrite, and chalk) for a variety of attributes that affect the performance of repositories. The retardation of radionuclides was recognized as one of the potentially favorable features of shale. Because shale contains both clay minerals and organic matter, phases that may provide significant sorption of radioelement, the characterization of these phases is essential. In addition, the organic matter in shale has been identified as a critical area for study because of its potential to play either a favorable (reductant) or deleterious (organic ligands) role in the performance of a repository sited in shale. 36 refs., 36 figs., 10 tabs.

  15. Self-consistency and quasi-particle approximation in π- and Δ-propagation in nuclear matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cenni, R.; Dillon, G.

    1983-01-01

    The equations for the self-consistent π- and Δ-propagation in nuclear matter are solved numerically in the quasi-particle approximation. We have taken into account the full complexity of nucleon recoil and Fermi motion as well as the effects of binding and short-range correlations. Because of the much smoother behaviour of the self-consistent π and Δ self-energies it turns out that the quasi-particle approximation is still a good one even at normal nuclear density, whereas for kF ⩾ 1 fm -1 the first-order solution displays a multiple eigenmode propagation for the pion in the resonance region. The self-consistent π- and Δ-dispersion relations in the medium are then obtained for increasing densities by an iterative procedure which takes as a starting point, each time, the final result at the preceding density.

  16. Analysis of colliding nuclear matter in terms of symmetry energy and cross-section using computational method

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, Arun Bharti, Arun; Gautam, Sakshi

    2015-08-28

    Here we perform a systematic study to extract the information for colliding nuclear matter via symmetry energy and nucleon-nucleon cross section in the fragmentation of some asymmetric colliding nuclei (O{sup 16}+Br{sup 80,} {sup 84,} {sup 92}) in the energy range between 50-200 MeV/nucleon. The simulations are carried out using isospin-dependent quantum-molecular dynamics (IQMD) computational approach for central collisions. Our study reveals that fragmentation pattern of neutron-rich colliding nuclei is sensitive to symmetry energy at lower incident energies, whereas isospin dependence of nucleon-nucleon cross section becomes dominant for reactions at higher incident energies.

  17. Nuclear matter properties in the non-linear Walecka model at finite temperature with interaction between the σ - ω mesons

    SciTech Connect

    Costa, R. S.; Cortes, M. R.; Nunes, D. R.; Batista, A. S. A.

    2014-11-11

    In this work in contrast to the usual Walecka model [1] we include the interaction between the σ – ω mesons [2,3] with the aim of studying the nuclear matter properties in the relativistic mean-field theory in the regime of high temperatures. Therefore in our work we use the non-linear Walecka model. We investigate whether the phase transition characteristic of other models without these interactions vanishes for a given value of chemical potential μ and baryon density ρ{sub N}.

  18. Distributed Saturation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chung, Ming-Ying; Ciardo, Gianfranco; Siminiceanu, Radu I.

    2007-01-01

    The Saturation algorithm for symbolic state-space generation, has been a recent break-through in the exhaustive veri cation of complex systems, in particular globally-asyn- chronous/locally-synchronous systems. The algorithm uses a very compact Multiway Decision Diagram (MDD) encoding for states and the fastest symbolic exploration algo- rithm to date. The distributed version of Saturation uses the overall memory available on a network of workstations (NOW) to efficiently spread the memory load during the highly irregular exploration. A crucial factor in limiting the memory consumption during the symbolic state-space generation is the ability to perform garbage collection to free up the memory occupied by dead nodes. However, garbage collection over a NOW requires a nontrivial communication overhead. In addition, operation cache policies become critical while analyzing large-scale systems using the symbolic approach. In this technical report, we develop a garbage collection scheme and several operation cache policies to help on solving extremely complex systems. Experiments show that our schemes improve the performance of the original distributed implementation, SmArTNow, in terms of time and memory efficiency.

  19. Cosmological bang as a consequence of a sudden change in the quantum statistics of nuclear matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avetissian, A. K.

    2008-01-01

    An heuristic hypothesis is advanced about dominant Bose statistics during the transition from the radiation era to the matter era in the early universe. It is shown that large scale Bose condensation of matter from baryon-antibaryon pairs is possible, as a result of which a colossal amount of mass may accumulate in a volume of cosmic scale. At a threshold density of matter, the structural bosons decay into the fermions of which they are composed, so that a sudden change in the symmetry of the wave functions of the particles causes a jump from Bose-Einstein to Fermi-Dirac statistics. This involves a large scale phase transition with an enormous pressure jump which may show up as a cosmological bang at the beginning of the matter era.

  20. Many-particle theory of nuclear systems with application to neutron star matter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chakkalakal, D. A.; Yang, C.

    1973-01-01

    The research is reported concerning energy-density relation for the normal state of neutron star matter, and the effects of superfluidity and polarization on neutron star matter. Considering constraints on variation, and the theory of quantum fluids, three methods for calculating the energy-density range are presented. The effects of polarization on neutron star structure, and polarization effects on condensation and superfluid-state energy are discussed.

  1. Chiral symmetry and effective field theories for hadronic, nuclear and stellar matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holt, Jeremy W.; Rho, Mannque; Weise, Wolfram

    2016-03-01

    Chiral symmetry, first entering in nuclear physics in the 1970s for which Gerry Brown played a seminal role, has led to a stunningly successful framework for describing strongly-correlated nuclear dynamics both in finite and infinite systems. We review how the early, germinal idea conceived with the soft-pion theorems in the pre-QCD era has evolved into a highly predictive theoretical framework for nuclear physics, aptly assessed by Steven Weinberg: "it (chiral effective field theory) allows one to show in a fairly convincing way that what they (nuclear physicists) have been doing all along... is the correct first step in a consistent approximation scheme". Our review recounts both how the theory presently fares in confronting Nature and how one can understand its extremely intricate workings in terms of the multifaceted aspects of chiral symmetry, namely, chiral perturbation theory, skyrmions, Landau Fermi-liquid theory, the Cheshire cat phenomenon, and hidden local and mended symmetries.

  2. Big Bang Nucleosynthesis: Impact of Nuclear Physics Uncertainties on Baryonic Matter Density

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Michael Scott; Roberts, Luke F; Hix, William Raphael; Bruner, Blake D; Kozub, R. L.; Tytler, David; Fuller, George M; Lingerfelt, Eric J; Nesaraja, Caroline D

    2008-01-01

    We performed new Big Bang Nucleosynthesis simulations with the bigbangonline.org suite of codes to determine, from the nuclear physics perspective, the highest achievable precision of the constraint on the baryon-to-photo ratio {eta} given current observational uncertainties. We also performed sensitivity studies to determine the impact that particular nuclear physics measurements would have on the uncertainties of predicted abundances and on the {eta} constraint.

  3. Big Bang Nucleosynthesis: Impact of Nuclear Physics Uncertainties on Baryonic Matter Density Constraints

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Michael Scott; Bruner, Blake D; KOZUB, RAYMOND L; Roberts, Luke F; Tytler, David; Fuller, George M; Lingerfelt, Eric J; Hix, William Raphael; Nesaraja, Caroline D

    2008-01-01

    We ran new Big Bang Nucleosynthesis simulations with the bigbangonline.org suite of codes to determine, from the nuclear physics perspective, the highest achievable precision of the constraint on the baryon-to-photo ratio eta given current observational uncertainties. We also ran sensitivity studies to determine the impact that particular nuclear physics measurements would have on the uncertainties of predicted abundances and on the eta constraint.

  4. Economy, Speed and Size Matter: Evolutionary Forces Driving Nuclear Genome Miniaturization and Expansion

    PubMed Central

    CAVALIER-SMITH, THOMAS

    2005-01-01

    • Background Nuclear genome size varies 300 000-fold, whereas transcriptome size varies merely 17-fold. In the largest genomes nearly all DNA is non-genic secondary DNA, mostly intergenic but also within introns. There is now compelling evidence that secondary DNA is functional, i.e. positively selected by organismal selection, not the purely neutral or ‘selfish’ outcome of mutation pressure. The skeletal DNA theory argued that nuclear volumes are genetically determined primarily by nuclear DNA amounts, modulated somewhat by genes affecting the degree of DNA packing or unfolding; the huge spread of nuclear genome sizes is the necessary consequence of the origin of the nuclear envelope and the nucleation of its assembly by DNA, plus the adaptively significant 300 000-fold range of cell volumes and selection for balanced growth by optimizing karyoplasmic volume ratios (essentially invariant with cell volume in growing/multiplying cells). This simple explanation of the C-value paradox is refined here in the light of new insights into the nature of heterochromatin and the nuclear lamina, the genetic control of cell volume, and large-scale eukaryote phylogeny, placing special emphasis on protist test cases of the basic principles of nuclear genome size evolution. • Genome Miniaturization and Expansion Intracellular parasites (e.g. Plasmodium, microsporidia) dwarfed their genomes by gene loss and eliminating virtually all secondary DNA. The primary driving forces for genome reduction are metabolic and spatial economy and cell multiplication speed. Most extreme nuclear shrinkage yielded genomes as tiny as 0·38 Mb (making the nuclear genome size range effectively 1·8 million-fold!) in some minute enslaved nuclei (nucleomorphs) of cryptomonads and chlorarachneans, chimaeric cells that also retain a separate normal large nucleus. The latter shows typical correlation between genome size and cell volume, but nucleomorphs do not despite co-existing in the same cell

  5. Economy, speed and size matter: evolutionary forces driving nuclear genome miniaturization and expansion.

    PubMed

    Cavalier-Smith, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    Nuclear genome size varies 300 000-fold, whereas transcriptome size varies merely 17-fold. In the largest genomes nearly all DNA is non-genic secondary DNA, mostly intergenic but also within introns. There is now compelling evidence that secondary DNA is functional, i.e. positively selected by organismal selection, not the purely neutral or 'selfish' outcome of mutation pressure. The skeletal DNA theory argued that nuclear volumes are genetically determined primarily by nuclear DNA amounts, modulated somewhat by genes affecting the degree of DNA packing or unfolding; the huge spread of nuclear genome sizes is the necessary consequence of the origin of the nuclear envelope and the nucleation of its assembly by DNA, plus the adaptively significant 300 000-fold range of cell volumes and selection for balanced growth by optimizing karyoplasmic volume ratios (essentially invariant with cell volume in growing/multiplying cells). This simple explanation of the C-value paradox is refined here in the light of new insights into the nature of heterochromatin and the nuclear lamina, the genetic control of cell volume, and large-scale eukaryote phylogeny, placing special emphasis on protist test cases of the basic principles of nuclear genome size evolution. and Expansion Intracellular parasites (e.g. Plasmodium, microsporidia) dwarfed their genomes by gene loss and eliminating virtually all secondary DNA. The primary driving forces for genome reduction are metabolic and spatial economy and cell multiplication speed. Most extreme nuclear shrinkage yielded genomes as tiny as 0.38 Mb (making the nuclear genome size range effectively 1.8 million-fold!) in some minute enslaved nuclei (nucleomorphs) of cryptomonads and chlorarachneans, chimaeric cells that also retain a separate normal large nucleus. The latter shows typical correlation between genome size and cell volume, but nucleomorphs do not despite co-existing in the same cell for >500 My. Thus mutation pressure does not

  6. Advanced solid-state carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic studies of sewage sludge organic matter: detection of organic "domains".

    PubMed

    Smernik, Ronald J; Oliver, Ian W; Merrington, Graham

    2003-01-01

    Two novel solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic techniques, PSRE (proton spin relaxation editing) and RESTORE [Restoration of Spectra via T(CH) and T(1rho)H (T One Rho H) Editing], were used to provide detailed chemical characterization of the organic matter from six Australian sewage sludges. These methods were used to probe the submicrometer heterogeneity of sludge organic matter, and identify and quantify spatially distinct components. Analysis of the T1H relaxation behavior of the sludges indicated that each sludge contained two types of organic domains. Carbon-13 PSRE NMR subspectra were generated to determine the chemical nature of these domains. The rapidly relaxing component of each sludge was rich in protein and alkyl carbon, and was identified as dead bacterial material. The slowly relaxing component of each sludge was rich in carbohydrate and lignin structures, and was identified as partly degraded plant material. The bacterial domains were shown, using the RESTORE technique, to also have characteristically rapid T(1rho)H relaxation rates. This rapid T(1rho)H relaxation was identified as the main cause of underrepresentation of these domains in standard 13C cross polarization (CP) NMR spectra of sludges. The heterogeneous nature of sewage sludge organic matter has implications for land application of sewage sludge, since the two components are likely to have different capacities for sorbing organic and inorganic toxicants present in sewage sludge, and will decompose at different rates.

  7. Modeling the effects of surfactant, hardness, and natural organic matter on deposition and mobility of silver nanoparticles in saturated porous media.

    PubMed

    Park, Chang Min; Heo, Jiyong; Her, Namguk; Chu, Kyoung Hoon; Jang, Min; Yoon, Yeomin

    2016-10-15

    This study aims to provide insights into the mechanisms governing the deposition and retention of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in saturated porous media. Column experiments were conducted with quartz sand under saturated conditions to investigate the deposition kinetics of AgNPs, their mobility at different groundwater hardnesses (10-400 mg/L as CaCO3), and humic acid (HA, 0-50 mg/L as dissolved organic carbon [DOC]). An anionic surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), was used as a dispersing agent to prepare a SDS-AgNPs suspension. The deposition kinetics of AgNPs were highly sensitive to the surfactant concentration, ionic strength, and cation type in solution. The breakthrough curves (BTCs) of SDS-AgNPs suggested that the transport and retention were influenced by groundwater hardness and HA. At low water hardness and high HA, high mobility of SDS-AgNPs was observed in saturated conditions. However, the retention of SDS-AgNPs increased substantially in very hard water with a low concentration of HA, because of a decreased primary energy barrier and the straining effect during the course of transport experiments. A modified clean-bed filtration theory and a two-site kinetic attachment model showed good fits with the BTCs of SDS-AgNPs. The fitted model parameters (katt and kstr) could be used successfully to describe that the retention behaviors were dominated by electrostatic and electrosteric repulsion, based on extended Derjaguin-Landau-Vaerwey-Overbeek calculations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Plasma Time in Discriminating Nuclear Recoils in Germanium Detector for Dark Matter Searches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mei, Dongming; Barker, D'ann

    2012-10-01

    In the detection of WIMP-induced nuclear recoils with high-purity germanium detectors, CDMS-type bolometers are often used in measuring the ionization yield. For this technology, the detector is operated in the milli-Kelvin temperature range, which requires high priced detectors. Alternative electron/nuclear recoil discrimination using pulse shape has been widely utilized in the energy range of MeV in neutrinoless double-beta decay experiments with germanium detectors. However, the nuclear recoils induced by WIMPs are in the energy range of keV, and their pulse shape difference with electronic recoils in the same energy range has not proven to be visible in a commercially available germanium detector. This paper presents a new idea of using plasma time difference in pulse shape to discriminate nuclear recoils from electronic recoils. We show the plasma time difference as a function of nuclear recoil energy. The technique using plasma time will be discussed with a generic germanium detector.

  9. Nuclear emulsions as a very high resolution detector for directional dark matter search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Ambrosio, N.; Di Marco, N.; Pupilli, F.; Alexandrov, A.; De Lellis, G.; Di Crescenzo, A.; Tioukov, V.; Sirignano, C.; Naka, T.; Asada, T.; Katsuragawa, T.; Yoshimoto, M.; Hakamata, K.; Ishikawa, M.; Kuwabara, K.; Umemoto, A.; Furuya, S.; Machii, S.; Tawara, Y.

    2014-01-01

    The use of nuclear emulsions in particle physics dates back to the very early stages. They are now used when an extremely high position resolution is required like in the search for short lived particles. The capability to detect nuclear recoils induced by WIMPs relies on the possibility to detect sub-micrometric trajectories. Recently nuclear emulsions with silver grains of 20 nm diameter were developed, opening the way for the reconstruction of nanometric particles. This challenging purpose requires the development of fully automated optical readout systems for a fast scanning of the emulsion films. This is meant for a pre-selection of recoil candidates. Once candidates have been identified, a fine grained X-ray microscope is used to detect the grains making up the tracks. We report here the present results on the current development along this line.

  10. -Saturated Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliyan, Faysal Fayez; Alfantazi, Akram

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents an electrochemical study on the corrosion behavior of API-X100 steel, heat-treated to have microstructures similar to those of the heat-affected zones (HAZs) of pipeline welding, in bicarbonate-CO2 saturated solutions. The corrosion reactions, onto the surface and through the passive films, are simulated by cyclic voltammetry. The interrelation between bicarbonate concentration and CO2 hydration is analyzed during the filming process at the open-circuit potentials. In dilute bicarbonate solutions, H2CO3 drives more dominantly the cathodic reduction and the passive films form slowly. In the concentrated solutions, bicarbonate catalyzes both the anodic and cathodic reactions, only initially, after which it drives a fast-forming thick passivation that inhibits the underlying dissolution and impedes the cathodic reduction. The significance of the substrate is as critical as that of passivation in controlling the course of the corrosion reactions in the dilute solutions. For fast-cooled (heat treatment) HAZs, its metallurgical significance becomes more comparable to that of slower-cooled HAZs as the bicarbonate concentration is higher.

  11. Nuclear Matter Properties with the Re-evaluated Coefficients of Liquid Drop Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdhury, P. Roy; Basu, D. N.

    2006-06-01

    The coefficients of the volume, surface, Coulomb, asymmetry and pairing energy terms of the semiempirical liquid drop model mass formula have been determined by furnishing best fit to the observed mass excesses. Slightly different sets of the weighting parameters for liquid drop model mass formula have been obtained from minimizations of \\chi 2 and mean square deviation. The most recent experimental and estimated mass excesses from Audi-Wapstra-Thibault atomic mass table have been used for the least square fitting procedure. Equation of state, nuclear incompressibility, nuclear mean free path and the most stable nuclei for corresponding atomic numbers, all are in good agreement with the experimental results.

  12. Saturated fat (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... saturated fats. Vegetable sources of saturated fat include coconut and palm oils. When looking at a food ... saturated fats. Vegetable sources of saturated fat include coconut and palm oils. When looking at a food ...

  13. Variational theory of hot dense matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Abhishek

    of state is calculated for temperatures less than 30 MeV and densities less than three times the saturation density of nuclear matter. The behavior of the nucleon effective mass in medium is also discussed.

  14. NUCLEAR PHYSICS: Equation of State for Isospin Asymmetric Matter of Nucleons and Deltas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Xiao-Hua; Zhang, Ying-Xun; Li, Zhu-Xia; Zhao, Zhi-Xiang

    2008-11-01

    An investigation on the equation of state of the isospin asymmetric, hot, dense matter of nucleons and deltas is performed based on the relativistic mean Geld theory. The QHD-II-type effective Lagrangian extending to the delta degree of freedom is adopted. Our results show that the equation of state is softened due to the inclusion of the delta degree of freedom. The baryon resonance isomer may occur depending on the delta-meson coupling. The results show that the densities for appearing the baryon resonance isomer, the densities for starting softening the equation of state and the extent of the softening depend not only on the temperature, the coupling strengths but also the isospin asymmetry of the baryon matter.

  15. Practical matters for the control of contamination in a nuclear medicine department.

    PubMed

    Nicol, A; Robertson, J; McCurrach, A

    2011-03-01

    A practicable and safe methodology is required for the control of contamination arising due to work in nuclear medicine departments, taking account of the range of radionuclides used for diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. A method for categorising radionuclides is proposed, based on their contamination derived limits. The categories utilised are: low energy gamma, imaging gamma, high energy gamma with beta, low energy beta, high energy beta and (51)Cr. A framework for the preparation of a risk assessment for the control of contamination in a nuclear medicine department is presented. This includes assessment of the procedures performed, occupancies and workflows for the department and a review of control measures. A risk assessment should also include a contamination monitoring programme and a practicable approach is presented.

  16. Exchange current corrections to neutrino-nucleus scattering. I. Nuclear matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umino, Y.; Udias, J. M.

    1995-12-01

    Relativistic exchange current corrections to the impulse approximation in low and intermediate energy neutrino-nucleus scattering are presented assuming nonvanishing strange quark form factors for constituent nucleons. Two-body exchange current operators which treat all SU(3) vector and axial currents on an equal footing are constructed by generalizing the soft-pion dominance method of Chemtob and Rho. For charged current reactions, exchange current corrections can reduce the impulse approximation results by 5 to 10 % depending on the nuclear density. A finite strange quark form factor may change the total cross section for neutral current scattering by 20% while exchange current corrections are found to be sensitive to the nuclear density. Implications on the current LSND experiment to extract the strange quark axial form factor of the nucleon are discussed.

  17. Phase transition of the baryon-antibaryon plasma in hot and dense nuclear matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavagno, A.; Iazzi, F.; Pigato, D.

    2014-02-01

    We investigate the presence of thermodynamic instabilities in a hot and dense nuclear medium where a phase transition from a gas of massive hadrons to a nearly massless baryon, antibaryon plasma can take place. The analysis is performed by requiring the global conservation of baryon number and zero net strangeness in the framework of an effective relativistic mean field theory with the inclusion of the Δ(1232)-isobars, hyperons and the lightest pseudoscalar and vector meson degrees of freedom. Similarly to the low density nuclear liquid-gas phase transition, we show that such a phase transition is characterized by both mechanical instability (fluctuations on the baryon density) that by chemical- diffusive instability (fluctuations on the strangeness concentration). It turns out that, in this situation, phases with different values of antibaryon-baryon ratios and strangeness content may coexist.

  18. Cold and hot nuclear matter effects on charmonium production in p+Pb collisions at LHC energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Baoyi; Guo, Tiecheng; Liu, Yunpeng; Zhuang, Pengfei

    2017-02-01

    We study cold and hot nuclear matter effects on charmonium production in p+Pb collisions at √{sNN} = 5.02 TeV in a transport approach. At the forward rapidity, the cold medium effect on all the c c bar states and the hot medium effect on the excited c c bar states only can explain well the J / ψ and ψ‧ yield and transverse momentum distribution measured by the ALICE collaboration, and we predict a significantly larger ψ‧pT broadening in comparison with J / ψ. However, we can not reproduce the J / ψ and ψ‧ data at the backward rapidity with reasonable cold and hot medium effects.

  19. Field theoretical model for nuclear and neutron matter. IV - Radial oscillations of warm cores in neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marti, Jose M.; Miralles, Juan A.; Ibanez, Jose M.; Diaz Alonso, J.

    1988-06-01

    The relativistic equations for the radial oscillations of warm cores in neutron stars have been solved and the eigenfrequencies of the fundamental modes have been obtained for a large sample of configurations in relativistic thermal equilibrium. The equation of state used was derived in the frame of a field theoretical model for the analysis of relativistic nuclear and neutron matter at nonzero temperatures. The Lagrangian describing the microdynamics has been introduced by coupling the nucleons to sigma, pi, omega, and rho meson fields in a renormalizable way. Moreover, the results of this paper allow the so-called static stability criterion to be reviewed and a 'central temperature-central density' diagram to be built which displays a well-defined region of stability and admits an evolutive interpretation.

  20. Strange Baryonic Matter and Kaon Condensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gazda, D.; Friedman, E.; Gal, A.; Mareš, J.

    In this contribution we address the question whether kaon condensation could occur in strongly interacting self-bound strange hadronic matter. In our comprehensive dynamical relativistic mean-field (RMF) calculations of nuclear and hypernuclear systems containing several antikaons we found saturation of bar K separation energy as well as the associated nuclear and bar K density distributions upon increasing the number of bar K mesons. The saturation pattern was found to be a universal feature of these multi-strangeness configurations. Since in all cases the bar K separation energy does not exceed 200 MeV, we conclude that bar K mesons do not provide the physical "strangeness" degrees of freedom for self-bound strange hadronic matter.

  1. The nuclear equation of state

    SciTech Connect

    Kahana, S.

    1986-01-01

    The role of the nuclear equation of state in determining the fate of the collapsing cores of massive stars is examined in light of both recent theoretical advances in this subject and recent experimental measurements with relativistic heavy ions. The difficulties existing in attempts to bring the softer nuclear matter apparently required by the theory of Type II supernovae into consonance with the heavy ion data are discussed. Relativistic mean field theory is introduced as a candidate for derivation of the equation of state, and a simple form for the saturation compressibility is obtained. 28 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Scalar quanta in Fermi liquids: Zero sounds, instabilities, Bose condensation, and a metastable state in dilute nuclear matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolomeitsev, E. E.; Voskresensky, D. N.

    2016-12-01

    The spectrum of bosonic scalar-mode excitations in a normal Fermi liquid with local scalar interaction is investigated for various values and momentum dependence of the scalar Landau parameter f0 in the particle-hole channel. For f0 > 0 the conditions are found when the phase velocity on the spectrum of zero sound acquires a minimum at non-zero momentum. For -1 < f0 < 0 there are only damped excitations, and for f0 < -1 the spectrum becomes unstable against the growth of scalar-mode excitations. An effective Lagrangian for the scalar excitation modes is derived after performing a bosonization procedure. We demonstrate that the instability may be tamed by the formation of a static Bose condensate of the scalar modes. The condensation may occur in a homogeneous or inhomogeneous state relying on the momentum dependence of the scalar Landau parameter. We show that in the isospin-symmetric nuclear matter there may appear a metastable state at subsaturation nuclear density owing to the condensate. Then we consider a possibility of the condensation of the zero-sound-like excitations in a state with a non-zero momentum in Fermi liquids moving with overcritical velocities, provided an appropriate momentum dependence of the Landau parameter f0(k) > 0. We also argue that in peripheral heavy-ion collisions the Pomeranchuk instability may occur already for f0 > -1.

  3. Transport properties of isospin asymmetric nuclear matter using the time-dependent Hartree-Fock method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umar, A. S.; Simenel, C.; Ye, W.

    2017-08-01

    Background: The study of deep-inelastic reactions of nuclei provides a vehicle to explore nuclear transport phenomena for a full range of equilibration dynamics. These investigations provide us the ingredients to model such phenomena and help answer important questions about the nuclear equation of state and its evolution as a function of neutron-to-proton (N /Z ) ratio. Purpose: The motivation is to examine the real-time dynamics of nuclear transport phenomena and its dependence on N /Z asymmetry from a microscopic point of view to avoid any pre-conceived assumptions about the involved processes. Method: The time-dependent Hartree-Fock (TDHF) method in full three dimensions is employed to calculate deep-inelastic reactions of 78Kr+208Pb and 92Kr+208Pb systems at 8.5 MeV/nucleon. The impact parameter and energy-loss dependence of relevant observables are calculated. In addition, the density-constrained TDHF method is used to compute excitation energies of the primary fragments. The statistical deexcitation code gemini is utilized to examine the final reaction products. Results: The kinetic energy loss and sticking times as a function of impact parameter are calculated. The final properties of the fragments (charge, mass, scattering angle, and kinetic energy) are computed. Their evolution as a function of energy loss is studied and various intra-relations are investigated. The fragment excitation energy sharing is computed. Conclusions: We find a smooth dependence of the energy loss, Eloss, on the impact parameter for both systems. However, the transfer properties for low Eloss values are very different for the two systems but become similar in the higher Eloss regime. The mean lifetime of the charge equilibration process, obtained from the final (N -Z )/A value of the fragments, is shown to be ˜0.5 zs. This value is slightly larger than (but of the same order as) the value obtained from reactions at Fermi energies.

  4. Exploring the nuclear pasta phase in core-collapse supernova matter.

    PubMed

    Pais, Helena; Stone, Jirina R

    2012-10-12

    The core-collapse supernova phenomenon, one of the most explosive events in the Universe, presents a challenge to theoretical astrophysics. Of the large variety of forms of matter present in core-collapse supernova, we focus on the transitional region between homogeneous (uniform) and inhomogeneous (pasta) phases. A three-dimensional, finite temperature Skyrme-Hartree-Fock (3D-SHF)+BCS calculation yields, for the first time fully self-consistently, the critical density and temperature of both the onset of the pasta in inhomogeneous matter, consisting of neutron-rich heavy nuclei and a free neutron and electron gas, and its dissolution to a homogeneous neutron, proton, and electron liquid. We also identify density regions for different pasta formations between the two limits. We employ four different forms of the Skyrme interaction, SkM*, SLy4, NRAPR, and SQMC700 and find subtle variations in the low density and high density transitions into and out of the pasta phase. One new stable pasta shape has been identified, in addition to the classic ones, on the grid of densities and temperatures used in this work. Our results are critically compared to recent calculations of pasta formation in the quantum molecular dynamics approach and Thomas-Fermi and coexisting phase approximations to relativistic mean-field models.

  5. Triton-{sup 3}He relative and differential flows as probes of the nuclear symmetry energy at supra-saturation densities

    SciTech Connect

    Yong Gaochan; Li Baoan; Chen Liewen; Zhang Xunchao

    2009-10-15

    Using a transport model coupled with a phase-space coalescence afterburner, we study the triton-{sup 3}He (t-{sup 3}He) ratio with both relative and differential transverse flows in semicentral {sup 132}Sn+{sup 124}Sn reactions at a beam energy of 400 MeV/nucleon. The neutron-proton ratios with relative and differential flows are also discussed as a reference. We find that similar to the neutron-proton pairs, the t-{sup 3}He pairs also carry interesting information regarding the density dependence of the nuclear symmetry energy. Moreover, the nuclear symmetry energy affects more strongly the t-{sup 3}He relative and differential flows than the {pi}{sup -}/{pi}{sup +} ratio in the same reaction. The t-{sup 3}He relative flow can be used as a particularly powerful probe of the high-density behavior of the nuclear symmetry energy.

  6. Toroidal Nuclear Matter Distributions of Superheavy Nuclei from Constrained Skyrme-HFB Calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Kosior, Amelia; Staszczak, A.; Wong, Cheuk-Yin

    2017-01-01

    Using the Hartree Fock Bogoliubov (HFB) self-consistent mean-field theory with the SkM* Skyrme energy-density functional, we study nuclear structure properties of even even superheavy nuclei (SHN) of Z = 120 isotopes and N = 184 isotones. The shape of the nucleus along the lowest energy curve as a function of the quadrupole moment Q20 makes a sud- den transition from the oblate spheroids (biconcave discs) to the toroidal shapes, in the region of large oblate quadrupole moments.

  7. Toward order-by-order calculations of the nuclear and neutron matter equations of state in chiral effective field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sammarruca, F.; Coraggio, L.; Holt, J. W.; Itaco, N.; Machleidt, R.; Marcucci, L. E.

    2015-05-01

    We calculate the nuclear and neutron matter equations of state from microscopic nuclear forces at different orders in chiral effective field theory and with varying momentum-space cutoff scales. We focus attention on how the order-by-order convergence depends on the choice of resolution scale and the implications for theoretical uncertainty estimates on the isospin asymmetry energy. Specifically we study the equations of state using consistent NLO and N2LO (next-to-next-to-leading order) chiral potentials where the low-energy constants cD and cE associated with contact vertices in the N2LO chiral three-nucleon force are fitted to reproduce the binding energies of H3 and He3 as well as the beta-decay lifetime of H3 . At these low orders in the chiral expansion there is little sign of convergence, while an exploratory study employing the N3LO two-nucleon force together with the N2LO three-nucleon force give first indications for (slow) convergence with low-cutoff potentials and poor convergence with higher-cutoff potentials. The consistent NLO and N2LO potentials described in the present work provide the basis for estimating theoretical uncertainties associated with the order-by-order convergence of nuclear many-body calculations in chiral effective field theory.

  8. Implications of the Oklo Phenomenon in a Chiral Approach to Nuclear Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Edward D.

    2015-09-01

    It has been customary to use data from the Oklo natural nuclear reactor to place bounds on the change that has occurred in the electromagnetic fine structure constant α over the last 2 billion years. Alternatively, an analysis could be based on a recently proposed expression for shifts in resonance energies which relates them to changes in both α and the average m q of the u and d current quark masses, and which makes explicit the dependence on mass number A and atomic number Z. (Recent model independent results on hadronic -terms suggest sensitivity to the strange quark mass is negligible.) The most sophisticated analysis, to date, of the quark mass term invokes a calculation of the nuclear mean-field within the Walecka model of quantum hadrodynamics. We comment on this study and consider an alternative in which the link to low-energy quantum chromodynamics and its pattern of chiral symmetry-breaking is more readily discernible. Specifically, we investigate the sensitivity to changes in the pion mass of a single nucleon potential determined by an in-medium chiral perturbation theory (PT) calculation which includes virtual -excitations. Subject to some reasonable assumptions about low-energy constants, we confirm that the m q -contribution to resonance shifts is enhanced by a factor of 10 or so relative to the -term and deduce that the Oklo data for Sm imply that.

  9. Investigating the low-energy K- interactions in nuclear matter with AMADEUS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Grande, R.; Bazzi, M.; Belloti, G.; Berucci, C.; Bragadireanu, A. M.; Bosnar, D.; Butt, A. D.; Cargnelli, M.; Curceanu, C.; Fabbietti, L.; Fiorini, C.; Ghio, F.; Guaraldo, C.; Hayano, R. S.; Iliescu, M.; Iwasaki, M.; Levi Sandri, P.; Marton, J.; Miliucci, M.; Okada, S.; Pietreanu, D.; Piscicchia, K.; Romero Vidal, A.; Scordo, A.; Shi, H.; Sirghi, D. L.; Sirghi, F.; Tucakovic, I.; Vazquez Doce, O.; Widmann, E.; Wycech, S.; Zmeskal, J.; Mandaglio, G.; Martini, M.; Moskal, P.

    2017-05-01

    The AMADEUS collaboration studies low-energy K- interactions with light nuclei in order to clarify some aspects related to the behaviour of hadrons containing strangeness in nuclear medium. One of the main topics is the quest about the possible formation of Kaonic Nuclear Clusters (KNC), which depends on the strength of the anti-kaons interaction with nucleons. In kaonic absorption experiments, the search for KNC is strictly connected with the measurement of the yields of the so-called multi-nucleon absorption processes. In this paper, the study of Σ0p correlated production from K- absorption in 12C, using the KLOE 2004-2005 data set, is reported. The yield of the two nucleon absorption (2NA), when the produced Σ0 and p particles are free from any final state interaction process, was measured for the first time. The contribution of a ppK- bound state was also tested. The best fit is obtained for a ppK- state with a binding energy of 45 MeV and a width of 30 MeV, but the statistical significance is at the level of 1σ only.

  10. Seasonal and temporal characterization of dissolved organic matter in rainwater by proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seaton, Pamela J.; Kieber, Robert J.; Willey, Joan D.; Avery, G. Brooks; Dixon, Joshua L.

    2013-02-01

    Dissolved organic carbon in rainwater was concentrated by two separate techniques and characterized by 1H-NMR. The total 1H-NMR integral of lyophilized rainwater was higher in every rain sample than that of C18 solid phase extracted samples and always contained a higher percentage integral in the region of protons bound to carbon atoms singly bound to oxygen (H-C-O), such as alcohols, polyols and carbohydrate-like compounds. C18 extracted samples had higher % integral in the alkyl region, consistent with reverse phase extraction of more hydrophobic components in rainwater. Differences in both the 1H-NMR integration and spectral pattern of lyophilized rainwater samples were especially apparent between spring and winter rains, with spring samples having higher percent carbohydrate (H-C-O) signal and winter rains having higher percent alkyl protons and a spectral pattern consistent with the presence of saturated fatty acids. Spring rains are characterized by lower % Alkyl signal coupled with higher % H-C-O than all other events while marine winter events appear in regions characterized by relatively high % Alkyl and average % H-C-O, consistent with increased abundance of fatty acids or fatty acid oxidation products. The 1H-NMR data presented in this manuscript are important because they provide spectral data relating to the source and chemical characteristics of dissolved organic carbon in rainwater as a function of season and air mass back trajectory.

  11. Nuclear Matter Effects on ϕ Production in Cu+Au Collisions at √{s}NN = 200 GeV with the PHENIX Muon Arms at RHIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jezghani, Margaret; Phenix Collaboration

    2015-10-01

    A major objective in the field of high-energy nuclear physics is to quantify and characterize the quark-gluon plasma formed in relativistic heavy-ion collisions. The ϕ meson is an excellent probe for studying this hot and dense state of nuclear matter due to its very short lifetime, and the absence of strong interactions between muons and the surrounding hot hadronic matter makes the ϕ to dimuon decay channel particularly interesting. Since the ϕ meson is composed of a strange and antistrange quark, its nuclear modification in heavy-ion collisions may provide insight on strangeness enhancement in-medium. Additionally, the rapidity dependence of ϕ production in asymmetric heavy-ion collisions provides a unique means to study the entanglement of hot and cold nuclear matter effects. In this talk, we present the measurement of ϕ meson production and nuclear modification in asymmetric Cu+Au heavy-ion collisions at √{s}NN = 200 GeV at both forward (Cu-going direction) and backward (Au-going direction) rapidities. This material is based upon work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Science, Office of Workforce Development for Teachers and Scientists, Office of Science Graduate Student Research (SCGSR) award program.

  12. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Shift Reagents: Abnormal 13C Shifts Produced by Complexation of Lanthanide Chelates with Saturated Amines and n-Butyl Isocyanide

    PubMed Central

    Marzin, Claude; Leibfritz, Dieter; Hawkes, Geoffrey E.; Roberts, John D.

    1973-01-01

    Lanthanide-induced shfits of 13C nuclear magnetic resonances are reported for several amines and n-butyl isocyanide. Contact contributions to such shifts, especially of β carbons, are clearly important for the chelates of Eu+3 and Pr+3. The importance of contact terms is shown to change in a rather predictable manner with the structure of the amine. PMID:16592062

  13. Effect of medium dependent binding energies on inferring the temperatures and freeze-out density of disassembling hot nuclear matter from cluster yields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shlomo, S.; Röpke, G.; Natowitz, J. B.; Qin, L.; Hagel, K.; Wada, R.; Bonasera, A.

    2009-03-01

    We explore the abundance of light clusters in asymmetric nuclear matter at subsaturation density. With increasing density, binding energies and wave functions are modified due to medium effects. The method of Albergo, Costa, Costanzo, and Rubbino (ACCR) for determining the temperature and free nucleon density of a disassembling hot nuclear source from fragment yields is modified to include, in addition to Coulomb effects and flow, also effects of medium modifications of cluster properties, which become of importance when the nuclear matter density is above 10-3fm-3. We show how the analysis of cluster yields, to infer temperature and nucleon densities, is modified if the shifts in binding energies of in medium clusters are included. Although, at low densities, the temperature calculated from given yields changes only modestly if medium effects are taken into account, larger discrepancies are observed when the nucleon densities are determined from measured yields.

  14. Nuclear Reaction Recoil Fragments as Probes of Electronic Structure in Condensed Matter.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bishop, Judith Lance

    Ambiguities in the stopping powers of many solids are frequently observed. When the cross-sections for constituent atoms are reliable, the deviations can be discussed meaningfully. This work measures cross-sections for boron, hexagonal boron -nitride, cubic boron-nitride (borazon) and cubic boron -phosphide and suggests that these samples may provide reasonable atomic cross-sections. Intermolecular deviations may exist, but molecular deviations appear to be absent. The method used for measuring cross-sections is based on information obtained from radiating Li('7) projectiles, whose motion and internal excitation are initiated by the thermal nuclear reaction ('10)B(n,(alpha))('7)Li* These projectiles have well defined initial momentum and spend their entire lives confined to the stopping medium.

  15. Nuclear-reaction recoil fragments as probes of electronic structure in condensed matter

    SciTech Connect

    Bishop, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    Ambiguities in the stopping powers of many solids are frequently observed. When the cross-sections for constituent atoms are reliable, the deviations can be discussed meaningfully. This work measures cross-sections for boron, hexagonal boron-nitride, cubic boron-nitride (borazon) and cubic boron-phosphide and suggests that these samples may provide reasonable atomic cross-sections. Intermolecular deviations may exist, but molecular deviations appear to be absent. The method used for measuring cross-sections is based on information obtained from radiating Li{sup 7} projectiles, whose motion and internal excitation are initiated by the thermal nuclear reaction {sup 10}B(n,{alpha}){sup 7}Li{sup *}. These projectiles have well defined initial momentum and spend their entire lives confined to the stopping medium.

  16. Investigation of Nuclear Partonic Structure. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, Henry J.; Engelage, J. M.

    2016-08-30

    Our research program had two primary goals during the period of this grant, to search for new and rare particles produced in high-energy nuclear collisions and to understand the internal structure of nuclear matter. We have developed electronics to pursue these goals at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) in the Solenoidal Tracker at RHIC (STAR) experiment and the AnDY experiment. Our results include discovery of the anti-hyper-triton, anti- 3Λ-barH, which opened a new branch on the chart of the nuclides, and the anti-alpha, anti- 4He, the heaviest form of anti-matter yet seen, as well as uncovering hints of gluon saturation in cold nuclear matter and observation of jets in polarized proton-proton collisions that will be used to probe orbital motion inside protons.

  17. Looking for quark saturation in proton and nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Wei; Wang, Rong; Ruan, Jianhong

    The quark saturation behavior at low Q2 is shown in a numeric solution of the DGLAP equation with parton recombination corrections, which resembles the widely discussed JIMWLK saturation of gluons. Our calculation suggests that the partonic saturation can be interpreted as a dynamical balance between the splitting and the fusion processes of partons, without any other condensation mechanisms added. The nuclear shadowing saturation at small x resulted from the proposed quark saturation is also discussed.

  18. Theoretical studies in medium-energy nuclear and hadronic physics. Annual technical progress report, April 1, 1991--March 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Horowitz, C.J.; Macfarlane, M.H.; Matsui, Tetsuo; Serot, B.D.

    1991-12-03

    In the period covered by this report (April 1, 1991 to March 31, 1992), work focused on six main areas: (1) Relativistic Theories of Nuclear Structure and Saturation, (2) Relativistic Descriptions of Proton-Nucleus and Electron-Nucleus Scattering, (3) Nonrelativistic Theory of Nucleon-Nucleus Reactions, (4) Relativistic Many-Body Theory at Finite Temperature and Density, (5) Neutrino Interactions in Dense Matter, (6) Quark Models of Nuclear and Quark Matter.

  19. Quantification of elemental and organic carbon in atmospheric particulate matter using color space sensing-hue, saturation, and value (HSV) coordinates.

    PubMed

    Olson, Michael R; Graham, Eric; Hamad, Samera; Uchupalanun, Pajean; Ramanathan, Nithya; Schauer, James J

    2016-04-01

    A fast and cost effective application of color sensing was used to quantify color coordinates of atmospheric particulate matter collected on filters to quantify elemental and organic carbon (EC/OC) loading. This is a unique and novel approach for estimating OC composition. The method used a colorimeter and digital photography to obtain XYZ color space values and mathematically transformed them to HSV cylindrical-coordinates; a quantification method was applied to estimate the NIOSH and IMPROVE (TOR) EC/OC loadings from a set of globally diverse PM samples. When applied to 315 samples collected at three US EPA Chemical Speciation Network (CSN) sampling sites, the HSV model proved to be a robust method for EC measurement with an R(2)=0.917 for predicted versus measured loading results and a CV(RMSE)=16.1%. The OC quantified from the same sample filters had an R(2)=0.671 and a CV(RMSE)=24.8% between the predicted and measured results. The method was applied to NIOSH EC/OC results from a set of samples from rural China, Bagdad, and the San Joaquin Valley, CA, and the EC and OC CV(RMSE) were 30.8% and 49.3%, respectively. Additionally, the method was applied to samples with color quantified by a digital photographic image (DPI) with EC results showing good agreement with a CV(RMSE) of 22.6%. OC concentrations were not captured as accurately with the DPI method, with a CV(RMSE) of 77.5%. The method's low analytical cost makes it a valuable tool for estimating EC/OC exposure in developing regions and for large scale monitoring campaigns. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Interaction between Wine Phenolic Acids and Salivary Proteins by Saturation-Transfer Difference Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (STD-NMR) and Molecular Dynamics Simulations.

    PubMed

    Ferrer-Gallego, Raúl; Hernández-Hierro, José Miguel; Brás, Natércia F; Vale, Nuno; Gomes, Paula; Mateus, Nuno; de Freitas, Victor; Heredia, Francisco J; Escribano-Bailón, María Teresa

    2017-03-10

    The interaction between phenolic compounds and salivary proteins is highly related to the astringency perception. Recently, it has been proven the existence of synergisms on the perceived astringency when phenolic acids were tested as mixtures in comparison to individual compounds, maintaining constant the total amount of the stimulus. The interactions between wine phenolic acids and the peptide fragment IB712 have been studied by saturation-transfer difference (STD) NMR spectroscopy. This technique provided the dissociation constants and the percentage of interaction between both individual and mixtures of hydroxybenzoic and hydroxycinnamic acids and the model peptide. It is noteworthy that hydroxybenzoic acids showed higher affinity for the peptide than hydroxycinnamic acids. To obtain further insights into the mechanisms of interaction, molecular dynamics simulations have been performed. Results obtained not only showed the ability of these compounds to interact with salivary proteins but also may justify the synergistic effect observed in previous sensory studies.

  1. Dark matter, light mediators, and the neutrino floor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dent, James B.; Dutta, Bhaskar; Newstead, Jayden L.; Strigari, Louis E.

    2017-03-01

    We analyze direct dark matter detection experiments for ≲100 MeV mass mediators with general interactions. We compare the nuclear recoil energy spectra from these interactions to the solar neutrino spectrum. A set of interactions that generate spectra similar to the neutrino background is identified; however, this set is distinct from those that mimic the neutrino background for ≳100 MeV mass mediators. We outline a classification scheme based on momentum dependence of the dark matter-nucleus interaction to determine how strong the discovery limit for each interaction saturates due to the neutrino background. Our results motivate experimental progress towards lower nuclear recoil energy thresholds.

  2. Multiparticle Correlation Functions: A probe for the High Energy Density Nuclear Matter created at RHIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holzmann, Wolf

    2002-04-01

    In a recent publication [1], the PHENIX collaboration has reported on the transverse momentum spectra for charged hadrons and for neutral pions in the range 1 < pT < 5 GeV/c. The spectra from peripheral nuclear collisions were found to be consistent with a simple scaling of the spectra from p+p collisions by the average number of nucleon-nucleon binary collisions. In contrast, the spectra from central collisions appeared to be significantly suppressed when compared to that from peripheral collisions as well as to the scaled p+p expectation. These observations have been interpreted as an important signature for jet quenching( [1],[2]) in central Au + Au collisions at RHIC. Significant jet production should also lead to discernable multi-particle correlations. Thus, the study of such correlations and their possible modification due to quenching, offers a promising opportunity for the investigation and study of QGP formation at RHIC. The multiparticle correlation analysis technique will be presented in conjunction with possible results for Au + Au data (sqrt(s) = 200GeV/c) obtained with the PHENIX detector at RHIC [1] Adcox et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 022301 (2001) [2] M. Gyulassy and X.-N. Wang, Nucl. Phys. B420, 583 (1994)X.-N. Wang, M.Gyulassy and M. Pluemer, Phys. Rev. D 51, 3436 (1995)

  3. Neutron matter, symmetry energy and neutron stars

    SciTech Connect

    Stefano, Gandolfi; Steiner, Andrew W

    2016-01-01

    Recent progress in quantum Monte Carlo with modern nucleon-nucleon interactions have enabled the successful description of properties of light nuclei and neutron-rich matter. Of particular interest is the nuclear symmetry energy, the energy cost of creating an isospin asymmetry, and its connection to the structure of neutron stars. Combining these advances with recent observations of neutron star masses and radii gives insight into the equation of state of neutron-rich matter near and above the saturation density. In particular, neutron star radius measurements constrain the derivative of the symmetry energy.

  4. Neutron matter, symmetry energy and neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gandolfi, S.; Steiner, A. W.

    2016-01-01

    Recent progress in quantum Monte Carlo with modern nucleon-nucleon interactions have enabled the successful description of properties of light nuclei and neutron- rich matter. Of particular interest is the nuclear symmetry energy, the energy cost of creating an isospin asymmetry, and its connection to the structure of neutron stars. Combining these advances with recent observations of neutron star masses and radii gives insight into the equation of state of neutron-rich matter near and above the saturation density. In particular, neutron star radius measurements constrain the derivative of the symmetry energy.

  5. Phase diagram of nuclear 'pasta' and its uncertainties in supernova cores

    SciTech Connect

    Sonoda, Hidetaka; Watanabe, Gentaro; Sato, Katsuhiko; Yasuoka, Kenji; Ebisuzaki, Toshikazu

    2008-03-15

    We examine the model dependence of the phase diagram of inhomogeneous nulcear matter in supernova cores using the quantum molecular dynamics (QMD). Inhomogeneous matter includes crystallized matter with nonspherical nuclei--''pasta'' phases--and the liquid-gas phase-separating nuclear matter. Major differences between the phase diagrams of the QMD models can be explained by the energy of pure neutron matter at low densities and the saturation density of asymmetric nuclear matter. We show the density dependence of the symmetry energy is also useful to understand uncertainties of the phase diagram. We point out that, for typical nuclear models, the mass fraction of the pasta phases in the later stage of the collapsing cores is higher than 10-20%.

  6. Simulations of the nuclear recoil head-tail signature in gases relevant to directional dark matter searches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spooner, N. J. C.; Majewski, P.; Muna, D.; Snowden-Ifft, D. P.

    2010-12-01

    We present the first detailed simulations of the so-called head-tail effect of nuclear recoils in gas, the presence of which is vital to directional WIMP dark matter searches. We include comparison simulations of the range and straggling of carbon, sulphur and fluorine recoils in low pressure gas. However, the prime focus is a detailed investigation of carbon and sulphur recoils in 40 Torr negative ion carbon disulfide, a gas proposed for use in large scale directional detectors. The focus is to determine whether the location of the majority of the ionization charge released and observed from a recoil track in carbon disulfide is at the beginning (tail) of the track, at the end (head) or evenly distributed. We used the SRIM simulation program, together with a purpose-written Monte Carlo generator to model production of ionizing pairs, diffusion and basic readout geometries relevant to potential real detector scenarios, such as under development for the DRIFT experiment. The results indicate the likely existence of a head-tail track asymmetry but with a magnitude critically influenced by several competing factors, notably the W-value assumed, the drift distance and diffusion, and the recoil energy.

  7. Determination of dry matter content in potato tubers by low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (LF-NMR).

    PubMed

    Hansen, Christian Lyndgaard; Thybo, Anette Kistrup; Bertram, Hanne Christine; Viereck, Nanna; van den Berg, Frans; Engelsen, Søren Balling

    2010-10-13

    The objective of this study was to develop a calibration model between time-domain low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (LF-NMR) measurements and dry matter (DM) content in single potatoes. An extensive sampling procedure was used to collect 210 potatoes from eight cultivars with a wide range in DM content, ranging from 16 to 28%. The exponential NMR relaxation curves were resolved into four mono-exponential components using a number of solution diagnostics. Partial least-squares (PLS) regression between NMR parameters (relaxation time constants T(2,1-4) and magnitudes M(0,1-4)) and DM content resulted in a model with low error (RMSECV, 0.71; RMSEP, 0.60) and high correlation (r(CV), 0.97; r(test), 0.98) between predicted and actual DM content. Correlation between DM content and each of the proton populations revealed that M(0,1) (T(2,1), 3.6 ms; SD, 0.3 ms; r, 0.95) and M(0,4) (T(2,4), 508 ms; SD, 53 ms; r, -0.90) were the major contributors to the PLS regression model.

  8. Study of the influence of a strong magnetic field on the composition of nuclear matter at high densities and zero temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Coelho, Eduardo L.; Chiapparini, Marcelo; Bracco, Mirian E.

    2013-03-25

    Magnetars are neutron stars with a strong surface magnetic field. Observations of soft gamma-ray and anomalous X-ray pulsars pointed out that the surface magnetic field of magnetars is equal or even greater than 10{sup 15} G. In this work we study the influence of a strong magnetic field on the composition of nuclear matter at high densities and zero temperature. We describe the matter through a relativistic mean-field model with eight light baryons (baryon octet), electrons, muons and with magnetic field. As output of the numerical calculations, we obtain the relative population of each species of particles as function of baryon density.

  9. Structure of radical cations of saturated heterocyclic compounds with two heteroatoms as studied by electron paramagnetic resonance, electron-nuclear double resonance, and density functional theory calculations.

    PubMed

    Nuzhdin, Kirill B; Nesterov, Sergej V; Tyurin, Daniil A; Feldman, Vladimir I; Wei, Liu; Lund, Anders

    2005-07-21

    The radical cations of piperazine, morpholine, thiomorpholine, and thioxane were investigated by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and electron-nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) spectroscopy in a solid Freon matrix. Optimized geometry and magnetic parameters of the radical cations were calculated using a density functional theory (DFT)/Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof (PBE) method. Both experimental and theoretical results suggest that all the studied species adopt chair (or distorted chair) conformations. No evidence for the boat conformers with intramolecular sigma-bonding between heteroatoms were obtained. In the cases of morpholine and thioxane, the oxygen atoms are characterized by relatively small spin populations, whereas a major part of spin density is located at N and S atoms, respectively. The thiomorpholine radical cation exhibits nearly equal spin population of N and S atoms. In most cases (except for thioxane), the calculated magnetic parameters agree with the experimental data reasonably well.

  10. 75 FR 5357 - In the Matter of Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., et al.; Order Extending the Effectiveness of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-02

    ... Nuclear Power Station (Pilgrim). Pilgrim is a boiling water nuclear reactor that is owned by Entergy... and IP3 are both pressurized water nuclear reactors that are owned by ENIP2 and ENIP3, respectively... (FitzPatrick). FitzPatrick is a boiling water nuclear reactor that is owned by EN-FitzPatrick...

  11. Nuclear symmetry energy in terms of single-nucleon potential and its effect on the proton fraction of β-stable npeμ matter

    SciTech Connect

    Sahoo, Babita; Chakraborty, Suparna; Sahoo, Sukadev

    2016-01-15

    Momentum and density dependence of single-nucleon potential u{sub τ} (k, ρ, β) is analyzed using a density dependent finite range effective interaction of the Yukawa form. Depending on the choice of the strength parameters of exchange interaction, two different trends of the momentum dependence of nuclear symmetry potential are noticed which lead to two opposite types of neutron and proton effective mass splitting. The 2nd-order and 4th-order symmetry energy of isospin asymmetric nuclear matter are expressed analytically in terms of the single-nucleon potential. Two distinct behavior of the density dependence of 2nd-order and 4th-order symmetry energy are observed depending on neutron and proton effective mass splitting. It is also found that the 4th-order symmetry energy has a significant contribution towards the proton fraction of β-stable npeμ matter at high densities.

  12. Directional detection of dark matter in universal bound states

    SciTech Connect

    Laha, Ranjan

    2015-10-06

    It has been suggested that several small-scale structure anomalies in Λ CDM cosmology can be solved by strong self-interaction between dark matter particles. It was shown in Ref. [1] that the presence of a near threshold S-wave resonance can make the scattering cross section at nonrelativistic speeds come close to saturating the unitarity bound. This can result in the formation of a stable bound state of two asymmetric dark matter particles (which we call darkonium). Ref. [2] studied the nuclear recoil energy spectrum in dark matter direct detection experiments due to this incident bound state. Here we study the angular recoil spectrum, and show that it is uniquely determined up to normalization by the S-wave scattering length. Furthermore, observing this angular recoil spectrum in a dark matter directional detection experiment will uniquely determine many of the low-energy properties of dark matter independent of the underlying dark matter microphysics.

  13. Cold nuclear matter effects on J/ψ yields as a function of rapidity and nuclear geometry in d+A collisions at sqrt[s(NN)]=200  GeV.

    PubMed

    Adare, A; Afanasiev, S; Aidala, C; Ajitanand, N N; Akiba, Y; Al-Bataineh, H; Alexander, J; Angerami, A; Aoki, K; Apadula, N; Aphecetche, L; Aramaki, Y; Asai, J; Atomssa, E T; Averbeck, R; Awes, T C; Azmoun, B; Babintsev, V; Bai, M; Baksay, G; Baksay, L; Baldisseri, A; Barish, K N; Barnes, P D; Bassalleck, B; Basye, A T; Bathe, S; Batsouli, S; Baublis, V; Baumann, C; Bazilevsky, A; Belikov, S; Belmont, R; Bennett, R; Berdnikov, A; Berdnikov, Y; Bhom, J H; Bickley, A A; Blau, D S; Boissevain, J G; Bok, J S; Borel, H; Boyle, K; Brooks, M L; Buesching, H; Bumazhnov, V; Bunce, G; Butsyk, S; Camacho, C M; Campbell, S; Caringi, A; Chang, B S; Chang, W C; Charvet, J-L; Chen, C-H; Chernichenko, S; Chi, C Y; Chiu, M; Choi, I J; Choi, J B; Choudhury, R K; Christiansen, P; Chujo, T; Chung, P; Churyn, A; Chvala, O; Cianciolo, V; Citron, Z; Cole, B A; Conesa del Valle, Z; Connors, M; Constantin, P; Csanád, M; Csörgo, T; Dahms, T; Dairaku, S; Danchev, I; Das, K; Datta, A; David, G; Dayananda, M K; Denisov, A; d'Enterria, D; Deshpande, A; Desmond, E J; Dharmawardane, K V; Dietzsch, O; Dion, A; Donadelli, M; Drapier, O; Drees, A; Drees, K A; Dubey, A K; Durham, J M; Durum, A; Dutta, D; Dzhordzhadze, V; D'Orazio, L; Edwards, S; Efremenko, Y V; Ellinghaus, F; Engelmore, T; Enokizono, A; En'yo, H; Esumi, S; Eyser, K O; Fadem, B; Fields, D E; Finger, M; Finger, M; Fleuret, F; Fokin, S L; Fraenkel, Z; Frantz, J E; Franz, A; Frawley, A D; Fujiwara, K; Fukao, Y; Fusayasu, T; Garishvili, I; Glenn, A; Gong, H; Gonin, M; Gosset, J; Goto, Y; Granier de Cassagnac, R; Grau, N; Greene, S V; Grim, G; Grosse Perdekamp, M; Gunji, T; Gustafsson, H-Å; Hadj Henni, A; Haggerty, J S; Hahn, K I; Hamagaki, H; Hamblen, J; Han, R; Hanks, J; Hartouni, E P; Haruna, K; Haslum, E; Hayano, R; He, X; Heffner, M; Hemmick, T K; Hester, T; Hill, J C; Hohlmann, M; Holzmann, W; Homma, K; Hong, B; Horaguchi, T; Hornback, D; Huang, S; Ichihara, T; Ichimiya, R; Iinuma, H; Ikeda, Y; Imai, K; Imrek, J; Inaba, M; Isenhower, D; Ishihara, M; Isobe, T; Issah, M; Isupov, A; Ivanischev, D; Iwanaga, Y; Jacak, B V; Jia, J; Jiang, X; Jin, J; Johnson, B M; Jones, T; Joo, K S; Jouan, D; Jumper, D S; Kajihara, F; Kametani, S; Kamihara, N; Kamin, J; Kang, J H; Kapustinsky, J; Karatsu, K; Kasai, M; Kawall, D; Kawashima, M; Kazantsev, A V; Kempel, T; Khanzadeev, A; Kijima, K M; Kikuchi, J; Kim, A; Kim, B I; Kim, D H; Kim, D J; Kim, E; Kim, E J; Kim, S H; Kim, Y-J; Kinney, E; Kiriluk, K; Kiss, Á; Kistenev, E; Klay, J; Klein-Boesing, C; Kochenda, L; Komkov, B; Konno, M; Koster, J; Kozlov, A; Král, A; Kravitz, A; Kunde, G J; Kurita, K; Kurosawa, M; Kweon, M J; Kwon, Y; Kyle, G S; Lacey, R; Lai, Y S; Lajoie, J G; Layton, D; Lebedev, A; Lee, D M; Lee, J; Lee, K B; Lee, K S; Lee, T; Leitch, M J; Leite, M A L; Lenzi, B; Li, X; Lichtenwalner, P; Liebing, P; Linden Levy, L A; Liška, T; Litvinenko, A; Liu, H; Liu, M X; Love, B; Lynch, D; Maguire, C F; Makdisi, Y I; Malakhov, A; Malik, M D; Manko, V I; Mannel, E; Mao, Y; Mašek, L; Masui, H; Matathias, F; McCumber, M; McGaughey, P L; McGlinchey, D; Means, N; Meredith, B; Miake, Y; Mibe, T; Mignerey, A C; Mikeš, P; Miki, K; Milov, A; Mishra, M; Mitchell, J T; Mohanty, A K; Moon, H J; Morino, Y; Morreale, A; Morrison, D P; Moukhanova, T V; Mukhopadhyay, D; Murakami, T; Murata, J; Nagamiya, S; Nagle, J L; Naglis, M; Nagy, M I; Nakagawa, I; Nakamiya, Y; Nakamura, K R; Nakamura, T; Nakano, K; Nam, S; Newby, J; Nguyen, M; Nihashi, M; Niita, T; Nouicer, R; Nyanin, A S; Oakley, C; O'Brien, E; Oda, S X; Ogilvie, C A; Oka, M; Okada, K; Onuki, Y; Oskarsson, A; Ouchida, M; Ozawa, K; Pak, R; Palounek, A P T; Pantuev, V; Papavassiliou, V; Park, I H; Park, J; Park, S K; Park, W J; Pate, S F; Pei, H; Peng, J-C; Pereira, H; Peresedov, V; Peressounko, D Yu; Petti, R; Pinkenburg, C; Pisani, R P; Proissl, M; Purschke, M L; Purwar, A K; Qu, H; Rak, J; Rakotozafindrabe, A; Ravinovich, I; Read, K F; Rembeczki, S; Reygers, K; Riabov, V; Riabov, Y; Richardson, E; Roach, D; Roche, G; Rolnick, S D; Rosati, M; Rosen, C A; Rosendahl, S S E; Rosnet, P; Rukoyatkin, P; Ružička, P; Rykov, V L; Sahlmueller, B; Saito, N; Sakaguchi, T; Sakai, S; Sakashita, K; Samsonov, V; Sano, S; Sato, T; Sawada, S; Sedgwick, K; Seele, J; Seidl, R; Semenov, A Yu; Semenov, V; Seto, R; Sharma, D; Shein, I; Shibata, T-A; Shigaki, K; Shimomura, M; Shoji, K; Shukla, P; Sickles, A; Silva, C L; Silvermyr, D; Silvestre, C; Sim, K S; Singh, B K; Singh, C P; Singh, V; Slunečka, M; Soldatov, A; Soltz, R A; Sondheim, W E; Sorensen, S P; Sourikova, I V; Staley, F; Stankus, P W; Stenlund, E; Stepanov, M; Ster, A; Stoll, S P; Sugitate, T; Suire, C; Sukhanov, A; Sziklai, J; Takagui, E M; Taketani, A; Tanabe, R; Tanaka, Y; Taneja, S; Tanida, K; Tannenbaum, M J; Tarafdar, S; Taranenko, A; Tarján, P; Themann, H; Thomas, D; Thomas, T L; Togawa, M; Toia, A; Tomášek, L; Tomita, Y; Torii, H; Towell, R S; Tram, V-N; Tserruya, I; Tsuchimoto, Y; Vale, C; Valle, H; van Hecke, H W; Vazquez-Zambrano, E; Veicht, A; Velkovska, J; Vértesi, R; Vinogradov, A A; Virius, M; Vossen, A; Vrba, V; Vznuzdaev, E; Wang, X R; Watanabe, D; Watanabe, K; Watanabe, Y; Wei, F; Wei, R; Wessels, J; White, S N; Winter, D; Woody, C L; Wright, R M; Wysocki, M; Xie, W; Yamaguchi, Y L; Yamaura, K; Yang, R; Yanovich, A; Ying, J; Yokkaichi, S; You, Z; Young, G R; Younus, I; Yushmanov, I E; Zajc, W A; Zaudtke, O; Zhang, C; Zhou, S; Zolin, L

    2011-09-30

    We present measurements of J/ψ yields in d+Au collisions at sqrt[s(NN)]=200  GeV recorded by the PHENIX experiment and compare them with yields in p+p collisions at the same energy per nucleon-nucleon collision. The measurements cover a large kinematic range in J/ψ rapidity (-2.2nuclear shadowing combined with final state breakup and one with coherent gluon saturation effects. In order to remove model dependent systematic uncertainties we also compare the data to a simple geometric model. The forward rapidity data are inconsistent with nuclear modifications that are linear or exponential in the density weighted longitudinal thickness, such as those from the final state breakup of the bound state.

  14. 77 FR 40914 - In the Matter of Indiana Michigan Power Company, D. C. Cook Nuclear Power Plant; Confirmatory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY... of Indiana Michigan Power Company, D. C. Cook Nuclear Power Plant; Confirmatory Order Modifying License (Effective Immediately) I Indiana Michigan Power Company (Licensee) is the holder of...

  15. Whole-brain amide proton transfer (APT) and nuclear overhauser enhancement (NOE) imaging in glioma patients using low-power steady-state pulsed chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) imaging at 7T.

    PubMed

    Heo, Hye-Young; Jones, Craig K; Hua, Jun; Yadav, Nirbhay; Agarwal, Shruti; Zhou, Jinyuan; van Zijl, Peter C M; Pillai, Jay J

    2016-07-01

    To explore the relationship of amide proton transfer (APT) and nuclear Overhauser enhancement (NOE) signal intensities with respect to different World Health Organization (WHO) brain tumor grades (II to IV) at 7T. APT-based and NOE-based signals at 7T using low-power steady-state chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) were compared among de novo primary gliomas of different WHO grades (II to IV). The quantitative APT and NOE signals, calculated by fitting approach using extrapolated semisolid MT reference (EMR) signals, were compared with the magnetization transfer ratio asymmetry (MTRasym ) analysis, commonly used in APT-weighted MRI. The observed NOE signals of all glioma grades were significantly lower than normal brain tissue (P < 0.01). NOE signals significantly differed between low-grade (II) gliomas and high-grade (III, IV) gliomas (P < 0.05). APT signals showed no difference between the tumor regions for any glioma grades (M = 3.08%, 2.64%, and 3.10%, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.81% ∼ 3.33%, 2.36% ∼ 2.91%, and 2.85% ∼ 3.36% for grade II, III, and IV, respectively), and between normal brain tissue and all glioma grades (P = 0.08, M = 4.29% and 2.94%, 95% CI = 3.57% ∼ 4.99% and 2.47% ∼ 3.41% for normal and average grade II, III, and IV), while MTRasym differed significantly between normal tissue and all glioma grades (P < 0.05). NOE contributes substantially to APT-weighted MRI at 7T at low RF saturation power and provides a promising biomarker for glioma grading.J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2016;44:41-50. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Investigation of the binding and cleavage characteristics of N1 neuraminidases from avian, seasonal, and pandemic influenza viruses using saturation transfer difference nuclear magnetic resonance

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Jean-Michel; Lai, Jimmy C C; Haselhorst, Thomas; Choy, Ka Tim; Yen, Hui-Ling; Peiris, Joseph S M; von Itzstein, Mark; Nicholls, John M

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The main function of influenza neuraminidase (NA) involves enzymatic cleavage of sialic acid from the surface of host cells resulting in the release of the newly produced virions from infected cells, as well as aiding the movement of virions through sialylated mucus present in the respiratory tract. However, there has previously been little information on the binding affinity of different forms of sialylated glycan with NA. Our objectives were then to investigate both sialic acid binding and cleavage of neuraminidase at an atomic resolution level. Design Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy was used to investigate pH and temperature effects on binding and cleavage as well as to interrogate the selectivity of human-like or avian-like receptors for influenza neuraminidase N1 derived from a range of different influenza virus strains including human seasonal H1N1, H1N1pdm09 and avian H5N1. Results We demonstrated that an acidic pH and physiological temperature are required for efficient NA enzymatic activity; however a change in the pH had a minimum effect on the NA-sialic acid binding affinity. Our data comparing α-2,3- and α-2,6-sialyllactose indicated that the variation in neuraminidase activity on different ligands correlated with a change in binding affinity. Epitope mapping of the sialylglycans interacting with NAs from different viral origin showed different binding profiles suggesting that different binding conformations were adopted. Conclusions The data presented in this study demonstrated that physicochemical conditions (pH in particular) could affect the NA enzymatic activity with minor effect on ligand binding. NA cleavage specificity seemed to be associated with a difference in binding affinity to different ligands, suggesting a relationship between the two events. These findings have implications regarding the replication cycle of influenza infection in the host where different sialidase activities would influence penetration

  17. A Study of Nuclear Recoils in Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber for the Direct Detection of WIMP Dark Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, Huajie

    2014-11-01

    Robust results of WIMP direct detection experiments depend on rm understandings of nuclear recoils in the detector media. This thesis documents the most comprehensive study to date on nuclear recoils in liquid argon - a strong candidate for the next generation multi-ton scale WIMP detectors. This study investigates both the energy partition from nuclear recoil energy to secondary modes (scintillation and ionization) and the pulse shape characteristics of scintillation from nuclear recoils.

  18. Saturated fats (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Saturated fats are found predominantly in animal products such as meat and dairy products, and are strongly associated with higher cholesterol levels. Tropical oils such as palm, coconut, and coconut butter, are also high in saturated fats.

  19. 75 FR 74750 - In the Matter of Toshiba America Nuclear Energy Corporation and All Other Persons Who Seek or...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-01

    ... Register notice contains specific requirements for applicants for new nuclear power reactors. To assist... and Section III.C.2 above to the Director, Office of New Reactors, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission... 2010. For the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Michael R. Johnson, Director, Office of New...

  20. Phase Diagrams of Nuclear Pasta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caplan, Matthew; Horowitz, Chuck; Berry, Don; da Silva Schneider, Andre

    2016-03-01

    In the inner crust of neutrons stars, where matter is near the saturation density, protons and neutrons arrange themselves into complex structures called nuclear pasta. Early theoretical work predicted a simple graduated hierarchy of pasta phases, consisting of spheres, cylinders, slabs, and uniform matter with voids. Previous work has simulated these phases with a simple classical model and has shown that the formation of these structures is dependent on the temperature, density, and proton fraction. However, previous work only studied a limited range of these parameters due to computational limitations. Thanks to recent advances in computing it is now possible to survey the structure of nuclear pasta for a larger range of parameters. By simulating nuclear pasta with constant temperature and proton fraction in an expanding simulation volume we are able to study the phase transitions in nuclear pasta, and thus produce a set of phase diagrams. We report on these phase diagrams as well as newly identified phases of nuclear pasta and discuss their implications for neutron star observables.

  1. Correcting for Incomplete Saturation and Off-Resonance Effects in Multiple-Site Saturation-Transfer Kinetic Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kingsley, Peter B.; Monahan, W. Gordon

    2000-09-01

    The effects of incomplete saturation and off-resonance irradiation on nuclear magnetic resonance saturation-transfer measurements of three-site chemical-exchange rates are discussed. A new method that uses double-saturation measurements is compared with two published methods, one that uses single-saturation measurements and one that uses a single-saturation measurement and a double-saturation measurement. Several formulas are compared for measuring the exchange rate constant kDE for exchange from a detected spin D to an exchanging spin E in the presence of exchange from spin D to a competing spin C. For each method, formulas are derived with corrections for incomplete saturation or off-resonance effects, with both corrections, and with neither correction. Exact formulas are available for three exchanging sites with incomplete saturation if there are no off-resonance effects. Off-resonance corrections are imperfect even with complete saturation.

  2. Gluon Evolution and Saturation Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    McLerran, L.D.

    2010-05-26

    Almost 40 years ago, Gribov and colleagues at the Leningrad Nuclear Physics Institute developed the ideas that led to the Dokhsitzer-Gribov-Altarelli-Parisi the Baltisky-Fadin-Kuraev-Lipatov equations. These equations describe the evolution of the distributions for quarks and gluon inside a hadron to increased resolution scale of a probe or to smaller values of the fractional momentum of a hadronic constituent. I motivate and discuss the generalization required of these equations needed for high energy processes when the density of constituents is large. This leads to a theory of saturation realized by the Color Glass Condensate

  3. 77 FR 11168 - In the Matter of Exelon Corporation; Constellation Energy Group, Inc.; Nine Mile Nuclear Station...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-24

    ... Exelon Corporation; Constellation Energy Group, Inc.; Nine Mile Nuclear Station, LLC; Nine Mile Point... Ventures), and Constellation Energy Nuclear Group, LLC (CENG), acting on behalf of itself, and the licensee..., Constellation Energy Group, Inc. (CEG), whereby CEG would be merged into Exelon and ownership of CEG's...

  4. Pulse Shape Discrimination of Nuclear Recoil and Electron Recoil Events With a NaI(Tl) Crystal for Dark Matter Search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, K. W.; Adhikari, G.; Adhikari, P.; Choi, S.; Ha, C.; Hahn, I. S.; Jeon, E. J.; Joo, H. W.; Kang, W. G.; Kim, H. J.; Kim, N. Y.; Kim, S. K.; Kim, Y. D.; Kim, Y. H.; Lee, H. S.; Lee, M. H.; Leonard, D. S.; Oh, S. Y.; Olsen, S. L.; Park, H. K.; Park, H. S.; Park, K. S.; Shim, J. H.; So, J. H.; Yoon, Y. S.

    2016-04-01

    In order to investigate discrimination between nuclear recoil and electron recoil events for the KIMS-NaI dark matter search experiment, we measured the pulse shapes produced by neutrons and gamma rays in a NaI(Tl) crystal. Relatively good pulse shape discrimination (PSD) power due to high light output of recently developed crystals makes it possible to test whether the annual modulation signal observed by the DAMA/LIBRA experiment is caused by nuclear recoil events. We applied the PSD to underground data taken with a 9.15 kg low-background and high-light-output NaI(Tl) crystal for 134 days. Good agreement between underground data and electron recoil events was observed.

  5. Nuclear matter effects on J/ψ production in asymmetric Cu + Au collisions at \\(\\sqrt{s_{\\mathrm{NN}}} = 200\\) GeV

    SciTech Connect

    Adare, A.; Aidala, C.; Ajitanand, N. N.; Akiba, Y.; Akimoto, R.; Alexander, J.; Alfred, M.; Aoki, K.; Apadula, N.; Aramaki, Y.; Asano, H.; Atomssa, E. T.; Awes, T. C.; Azmoun, B.; Babintsev, V.; Bai, M.; Bai, X.; Bandara, N. S.; Bannier, B.; Barish, K. N.; Bathe, S.; Baublis, V.; Baumann, C.; Baumgart, S.; Bazilevsky, A.; Beaumier, M.; Beckman, S.; Belmont, R.; Berdnikov, A.; Berdnikov, Y.; Bing, X.; Black, D.; Blau, D. S.; Bok, J. S.; Boyle, K.; Brooks, M. L.; Bryslawskyj, J.; Buesching, H.; Bumazhnov, V.; Butsyk, S.; Campbell, S.; Chen, C. -H.; Chi, C. Y.; Chiu, M.; Choi, I. J.; Choi, J. B.; Choi, S.; Christiansen, P.; Chujo, T.; Cianciolo, V.; Citron, Z.; Cole, B. A.; Cronin, N.; Crossette, N.; Csanád, M.; Csörgő, T.; Datta, A.; Daugherity, M. S.; David, G.; DeBlasio, K.; Dehmelt, K.; Denisov, A.; Deshpande, A.; Desmond, E. J.; Ding, L.; Dion, A.; Do, J. H.; Drapier, O.; Drees, A.; Drees, K. A.; Durham, J. M.; Durum, A.; D'Orazio, L.; Engelmore, T.; Enokizono, A.; En'yo, H.; Esumi, S.; Eyser, K. O.; Fadem, B.; Feege, N.; Fields, D. E.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; Fleuret, F.; Fokin, S. L.; Frantz, J. E.; Franz, A.; Frawley, A. D.; Fukao, Y.; Gainey, K.; Gal, C.; Gallus, P.; Garg, P.; Garishvili, A.; Garishvili, I.; Ge, H.; Giordano, F.; Glenn, A.; Gong, X.; Gonin, M.; Goto, Y.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Grau, N.; Greene, S. V.; Grosse Perdekamp, M.; Gu, Y.; Gunji, T.; Guragain, H.; Hachiya, T.; Haggerty, J. S.; Hahn, K. I.; Hamagaki, H.; Han, S. Y.; Hanks, J.; Hasegawa, S.; Hashimoto, K.; Hayano, R.; He, X.; Hemmick, T. K.; Hester, T.; Hill, J. C.; Hollis, R. S.; Homma, K.; Hong, B.; Hoshino, T.; Huang, J.; Huang, S.; Ichihara, T.; Ikeda, Y.; Imai, K.; Imazu, Y.; Inaba, M.; Iordanova, A.; Isenhower, D.; Isinhue, A.; Ivanishchev, D.; Jacak, B. V.; Jeon, S. J.; Jezghani, M.; Jia, J.; Jiang, X.; Johnson, B. M.; Joo, E.; Joo, K. S.; Jouan, D.; Jumper, D. S.; Kamin, J.; Kanda, S.; Kang, B. H.; Kang, J. H.; Kang, J. S.; Kapustinsky, J.; Kawall, D.; Kazantsev, A. V.; Key, J. A.; Khachatryan, V.; Khandai, P. K.; Khanzadeev, A.; Kihara, K.; Kijima, K. M.; Kim, C.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, D. J.; Kim, E. -J.; Kim, H. -J.; Kim, M.; Kim, Y. -J.; Kim, Y. K.; Kistenev, E.; Klatsky, J.; Kleinjan, D.; Kline, P.; Koblesky, T.; Kofarago, M.; Komkov, B.; Koster, J.; Kotchetkov, D.; Kotov, D.; Krizek, F.; Kurita, K.; Kurosawa, M.; Kwon, Y.; Lacey, R.; Lai, Y. S.; Lajoie, J. G.; Lebedev, A.; Lee, D. M.; Lee, G. H.; Lee, J.; Lee, K. B.; Lee, K. S.; Lee, S. H.; Leitch, M. J.; Leitgab, M.; Lewis, B.; Li, X.; Lim, S. H.; Liu, M. X.; Lynch, D.; Maguire, C. F.; Makdisi, Y. I.; Makek, M.; Manion, A.; Manko, V. I.; Mannel, E.; Maruyama, T.; McCumber, M.; McGaughey, P. L.; McGlinchey, D.; McKinney, C.; Meles, A.; Mendoza, M.; Meredith, B.; Miake, Y.; Mibe, T.; Mignerey, A. C.; Miller, A. J.; Milov, A.; Mishra, D. K.; Mitchell, J. T.; Miyasaka, S.; Mizuno, S.; Mohanty, A. K.; Montuenga, P.; Moon, T.; Morrison, D. P.; Moskowitz, M.; Moukhanova, T. V.; Murakami, T.; Murata, J.; Mwai, A.; Nagae, T.; Nagamiya, S.; Nagle, J. L.; Nagy, M. I.; Nakagawa, I.; Nakagomi, H.; Nakamiya, Y.; Nakamura, K. R.; Nakamura, T.; Nakano, K.; Nattrass, C.; Netrakanti, P. K.; Nihashi, M.; Niida, T.; Nouicer, R.; Novak, T.; Novitzky, N.; Nyanin, A. S.; O'Brien, E.; Ogilvie, C. A.; Oide, H.; Okada, K.; Orjuela Koop, J. D.; Oskarsson, A.; Ozaki, H.; Ozawa, K.; Pak, R.; Pantuev, V.; Papavassiliou, V.; Park, I. H.; Park, S.; Park, S. K.; Pate, S. F.; Patel, L.; Patel, M.; Peng, J. -C.; Perepelitsa, D. V.; Perera, G. D. N.; Peressounko, D. Yu.; Perry, J.; Petti, R.; Pinkenburg, C.; Pinson, R.; Pisani, R. P.; Purschke, M. L.; Qu, H.; Rak, J.; Ravinovich, I.; Read, K. F.; Reynolds, D.; Riabov, V.; Riabov, Y.; Richardson, E.; Riveli, N.; Roach, D.; Rolnick, S. D.; Rosati, M.; Rowan, Z.; Rubin, J. G.; Ryu, M. S.; Sahlmueller, B.; Saito, N.; Sakaguchi, T.; Sako, H.; Samsonov, V.; Sarsour, M.; Sato, S.; Sawada, S.; Schaefer, B.; Schmoll, B. K.; Sedgwick, K.; Seele, J.; Seidl, R.; Sekiguchi, Y.; Sen, A.; Seto, R.; Sett, P.; Sexton, A.; Sharma, D.; Shaver, A.; Shein, I.; Shibata, T. -A.; Shigaki, K.; Shimomura, M.; Shoji, K.; Shukla, P.; Sickles, A.; Silva, C. L.; Silvermyr, D.; Singh, B. K.; Singh, C. P.; Singh, V.; Skolnik, M.; Slunečka, M.; Solano, S.; Soltz, R. A.; Sondheim, W. E.; Sorensen, S. P.; Soumya, M.; Sourikova, I. V.; Stankus, P. W.; Steinberg, P.; Stenlund, E.; Stepanov, M.; Ster, A.; Stoll, S. P.; Stone, M. R.; Sugitate, T.; Sukhanov, A.; Sumita, T.; Sun, J.; Sziklai, J.; Takahara, A.; Taketani, A.; Tanida, K.; Tannenbaum, M. J.; Tarafdar, S.; Taranenko, A.; Tennant, E.; Timilsina, A.; Todoroki, T.; Tomášek, M.; Torii, H.; Towell, M.; Towell, R.; Towell, R. S.; Tserruya, I.; van Hecke, H. W.; Vargyas, M.; Vazquez-Zambrano, E.; Veicht, A.; Velkovska, J.; Vértesi, R.; Virius, M.; Vrba, V.; Vznuzdaev, E.; Wang, X. R.; Watanabe, D.; Watanabe, K.; Watanabe, Y.; Watanabe, Y. S.; Wei, F.; Whitaker, S.; Wolin, S.; Woody, C. L.; Wysocki, M.; Xia, B.; Xue, L.; Yalcin, S.; Yamaguchi, Y. L.; Yanovich, A.; Yokkaichi, S.; Yoon, I.; You, Z.; Younus, I.; Yushmanov, I. E.; Zajc, W. A.; Zelenski, A.; Zhou, S.

    2014-12-18

    We report on J/ψ production from asymmetric Cu+Au heavy-ion collisions at \\(\\sqrt{s_{\\mathrm{NN}}} = 200\\) GeV at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at both forward (Cu-going direction) and backward (Au-going direction) rapidities. The nuclear modification of J/ψ yields in Cu+Au collisions in the Au-going direction is found to be comparable to that in Au+Au collisions when plotted as a function of the number of participating nucleons. In the Cu-going direction, J/ψ production shows a stronger suppression. This difference is comparable in magnitude and has the same sign as the difference expected from shadowing effects due to stronger low-x gluon suppression in the larger Au nucleus. Thus, the relative suppression is opposite to that expected from hot nuclear matter dissociation, since a higher energy density is expected in the Au-going direction.

  6. CORE SATURATION BLOCKING OSCILLATOR

    DOEpatents

    Spinrad, R.J.

    1961-10-17

    A blocking oscillator which relies on core saturation regulation to control the output pulse width is described. In this arrangement an external magnetic loop is provided in which a saturable portion forms the core of a feedback transformer used with the thermionic or semi-conductor active element. A first stationary magnetic loop establishes a level of flux through the saturation portion of the loop. A second adjustable magnet moves the flux level to select a saturation point giving the desired output pulse width. (AEC)

  7. Self Assembly and Elasticity of Nuclear Pasta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caplan, Matthew; Horowitz, Chuck; Berry, Don; da Silva Schneider, Andre

    2015-10-01

    While the outer crust of a neutron star is likely a solid ion lattice, the core consists of uniform nuclear matter at or above saturation density. In between, nuclei adopt exotic non-spherical geometries called ``nuclear pasta'' in order to minimize the nuclear attraction and Coulomb repulsion between protons. These structures have been well studied with both classical and quantum molecular dynamics, and their geometry can be predicted from the density, temperature, and proton fraction. Recent classical molecular dynamics simulations find evidence for a phase transition at T ~ 0 . 5 MeV, where simulations with low proton fractions undergo a solid-liquid phase transition, while simulations with high proton fractions under a glass-rubber phase transition. This is expected to have nontrivial consequences for the elastic properties of the pasta. Additionally, recent observations indicate that the structure of nuclear pasta may be related to structures observed in biophysics, specifically self assembling lipid membranes.

  8. From bare interactions, low-energy constants, and unitary gas to nuclear density functionals without free parameters: Application to neutron matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacroix, Denis; Boulet, Antoine; Grasso, Marcella; Yang, C.-J.

    2017-05-01

    We further progress along the line of Ref. [D. Lacroix, Phys. Rev. A 94, 043614 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevA.94.043614] where a functional for Fermi systems with anomalously large s -wave scattering length as was proposed that has no free parameters. The functional is designed to correctly reproduce the unitary limit in Fermi gases together with the leading-order contributions in the s - and p -wave channels at low density. The functional is shown to be predictive up to densities ˜0.01 fm-3 that is much higher densities compared to the Lee-Yang functional, valid for ρ <10-6 fm-3. The form of the functional retained in this work is further motivated. It is shown that the new functional corresponds to an expansion of the energy in (askF) and (rekF) to all orders, where re is the effective range and kF is the Fermi momentum. One conclusion from the present work is that, except in the extremely low-density regime, nuclear systems can be treated perturbatively in -(askF) -1 with respect to the unitary limit. Starting from the functional, we introduce density-dependent scales and show that scales associated with the bare interaction are strongly renormalized by medium effects. As a consequence, some of the scales at play around saturation are dominated by the unitary gas properties and not directly by low-energy constants. For instance, we show that the scale in the s -wave channel around saturation is proportional to the so-called Bertsch parameter ξ0 and becomes independent of as. We also point out that these scales are of the same order of magnitude than those empirically obtained in the Skyrme energy density functional. We finally propose a slight modification of the functional such that it becomes accurate up to the saturation density ρ ≃0.16 fm-3.

  9. 77 FR 134 - In the Matter of Yankee Atomic Electric Company; Northeast Utilities; NSTAR (Yankee Nuclear Power...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-03

    ... and hold the license. No physical changes to the Yankee Nuclear Power Station facility or operational changes are being proposed in the application. Approval of the transfer of the license is requested by the...

  10. Code Saturation Versus Meaning Saturation: How Many Interviews Are Enough?

    PubMed

    Hennink, Monique M; Kaiser, Bonnie N; Marconi, Vincent C

    2017-03-01

    Saturation is a core guiding principle to determine sample sizes in qualitative research, yet little methodological research exists on parameters that influence saturation. Our study compared two approaches to assessing saturation: code saturation and meaning saturation. We examined sample sizes needed to reach saturation in each approach, what saturation meant, and how to assess saturation. Examining 25 in-depth interviews, we found that code saturation was reached at nine interviews, whereby the range of thematic issues was identified. However, 16 to 24 interviews were needed to reach meaning saturation where we developed a richly textured understanding of issues. Thus, code saturation may indicate when researchers have "heard it all," but meaning saturation is needed to "understand it all." We used our results to develop parameters that influence saturation, which may be used to estimate sample sizes for qualitative research proposals or to document in publications the grounds on which saturation was achieved.

  11. Nuclear-matter radius studies from 58Ni(α ,α ) experiments at the GSI Experimental Storage Ring with the EXL facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamora, J. C.; Aumann, T.; Bagchi, S.; Bönig, S.; Csatlós, M.; Dillmann, I.; Dimopoulou, C.; Egelhof, P.; Eremin, V.; Furuno, T.; Geissel, H.; Gernhäuser, R.; Harakeh, M. N.; Hartig, A.-L.; Ilieva, S.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kiselev, O.; Kollmus, H.; Kozhuharov, C.; Krasznahorkay, A.; Kröll, Th.; Kuilman, M.; Litvinov, S.; Litvinov, Yu. A.; Mahjour-Shafiei, M.; Mutterer, M.; Nagae, D.; Najafi, M. A.; Nociforo, C.; Nolden, F.; Popp, U.; Rigollet, C.; Roy, S.; Scheidenberger, C.; von Schmid, M.; Steck, M.; Streicher, B.; Stuhl, L.; Thürauf, M.; Uesaka, T.; Weick, H.; Winfield, J. S.; Winters, D.; Woods, P. J.; Yamaguchi, T.; Yue, K.; Zenihiro, J.

    2017-09-01

    A novel method for measuring nuclear reactions in inverse kinematics with stored ion beams was successfully used to extract the nuclear-matter radius of 58Ni. The experiment was performed at the experimental heavy-ion storage ring at the GSI facility using a stored 58Ni beam at energies of 100 and 150 MeV/u and an internal helium gas-jet target. Elastically scattered α -recoils at low momentum transfers were measured with an in-ring detector system compatible with ultrahigh vacuum. Experimental angular distributions were fitted using density-dependent optical model potentials within the eikonal approximation. This permitted the extraction of the point-matter root-mean-square radius of 58Ni with an average value of 3.70(7) fm. Results from this work are in good agreement with several experiments performed in the past in normal kinematics. This pioneering experiment demonstrates a major breakthrough towards future investigations with far-from-stability stored beams using the present technique.

  12. Pools and fluxes of organic matter in a boreal landscape: implications for a safety assessment of a repository for nuclear waste.

    PubMed

    Kumblad, Linda; Söderbäck, Björn; Löfgren, Anders; Lindborg, Tobias; Wijnbladh, Erik; Kautsky, Ulrik

    2006-12-01

    To provide information necessary for a license application for a deep repository for spent nuclear fuel, the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co is carrying out site investigations, including extensive studies of different parts of the surface ecosystems, at two sites in Sweden. Here we use the output from detailed modeling of the carbon dynamics in the terrestrial, limnic and marine ecosystems to describe and compare major pools and fluxes of organic matter in the Simpevarp area, situated on the southeast coast of Sweden. In this study, organic carbon is used as a proxy for radionuclides incorporated into organic matter. The results show that the largest incorporation of carbon into living tissue occurs in terrestrial catchments. Carbon is accumulated in soil or sediments in all ecosystems, but the carbon pool reaches the highest values in shallow near-land marine basins. The marine basins, especially the outer basins, are dominated by large horizontal water fluxes that transport carbon and any associated contaminants into the Baltic Sea. The results suggest that the near-land shallow marine basins have to be regarded as focal points for accumulation of radionuclides in the Simpevarp area, as they receive a comparatively large amount of carbon as discharge from terrestrial catchments, having a high NPP and a high detrital accumulation in sediments. These focal points may constitute a potential risk for exposure to humans in a future landscape as, due to post-glacial land uplift, previous accumulation bottoms are likely to be used for future agricultural purposes.

  13. New State of Nuclear Matter: Nearly Perfect Fluid of Quarks and Gluons in Heavy Ion Collisions at RHIC Energies From Charged Particle Density to Jet Quenching

    SciTech Connect

    Nouicer, R.

    2016-03-28

    This article reviews several important results from RHIC experiments and discusses their implications. They were obtained in a unique environment for studying QCD matter at temperatures and densities that exceed the limits wherein hadrons can exist as individual entities and raises to prominence the quark-gluon degrees of freedom. These findings are supported by major experimental observations via measuring of the bulk properties of particle production, particle ratios and chemical freeze-out conditions, and elliptic ow; followed by hard probe measurements: high-pT hadron suppression, dijet fragment azimuthal correlations, and heavy favor probes. These measurements are presented for particles of different species as a function of system sizes, collision centrality, and energy carried out in RHIC experiments. The results reveal that a dense, strongly-interacting medium is created in central Au + Au collisions at p sNN = 200 GeV at RHIC. This revelation of a new state of nuclear matter has also been observed in measurements at the LHC. Further, the IP-Glasma model coupled with viscous hydrodynamic models, which assumes the formation of a QGP, reproduces well the experimental ow results from Au + Au at p sNN = 200 GeV. This implies that the fluctuations in the initial geometry state are important and the created medium behaves as a nearly perfect liquid of nuclear matter because it has an extraordinarily low ratio of shear viscosity to entropy density, =s 0.12. However, these discoveries are far from being fully understood. Furthermore, recent experimental results from RHIC and LHC in small p + A, d + Au and 3He+Au collision systems provide brand new insight into the role of initial and final state effects. These have proven to be interesting and more surprising than originally anticipated; and could conceivably shed new light in our understanding of collective behavior in heavy-ion physics. Accordingly, the focus of the experiments at both facilities RHIC and the LHC

  14. New State of Nuclear Matter: Nearly Perfect Fluid of Quarks and Gluons in Heavy Ion Collisions at RHIC Energies From Charged Particle Density to Jet Quenching

    DOE PAGES

    Nouicer, R.

    2016-03-28

    This article reviews several important results from RHIC experiments and discusses their implications. They were obtained in a unique environment for studying QCD matter at temperatures and densities that exceed the limits wherein hadrons can exist as individual entities and raises to prominence the quark-gluon degrees of freedom. These findings are supported by major experimental observations via measuring of the bulk properties of particle production, particle ratios and chemical freeze-out conditions, and elliptic ow; followed by hard probe measurements: high-pT hadron suppression, dijet fragment azimuthal correlations, and heavy favor probes. These measurements are presented for particles of different species asmore » a function of system sizes, collision centrality, and energy carried out in RHIC experiments. The results reveal that a dense, strongly-interacting medium is created in central Au + Au collisions at p sNN = 200 GeV at RHIC. This revelation of a new state of nuclear matter has also been observed in measurements at the LHC. Further, the IP-Glasma model coupled with viscous hydrodynamic models, which assumes the formation of a QGP, reproduces well the experimental ow results from Au + Au at p sNN = 200 GeV. This implies that the fluctuations in the initial geometry state are important and the created medium behaves as a nearly perfect liquid of nuclear matter because it has an extraordinarily low ratio of shear viscosity to entropy density, =s 0.12. However, these discoveries are far from being fully understood. Furthermore, recent experimental results from RHIC and LHC in small p + A, d + Au and 3He+Au collision systems provide brand new insight into the role of initial and final state effects. These have proven to be interesting and more surprising than originally anticipated; and could conceivably shed new light in our understanding of collective behavior in heavy-ion physics. Accordingly, the focus of the experiments at both facilities RHIC and

  15. New state of nuclear matter: Nearly perfect fluid of quarks and gluons in heavy-ion collisions at RHIC energies. From charged particle density to jet quenching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nouicer, R.

    2016-03-01

    This article reviews several important results from RHIC experiments and discusses their implications. They were obtained in a unique environment for studying QCD matter at temperatures and densities that exceed the limits wherein hadrons can exist as individual entities and raises to prominence the quark-gluon degrees of freedom. These findings are supported by major experimental observations via measuring of the bulk properties of particle production, particle ratios and chemical freeze-out conditions, and elliptic flow; followed by hard probe measurements: high- pT hadron suppression, dijet fragment azimuthal correlations, and heavy-flavor probes. These measurements are presented for particles of different species as a function of system sizes, collision centrality, and energy carried out in RHIC experiments. The results reveal that a dense, strongly interacting medium is created in central Au+Au collisions at sqrt{s_{NN}} = 200 GeV at RHIC. This revelation of a new state of nuclear matter has also been observed in measurements at the LHC. Further, the IP-Glasma model coupled with viscous hydrodynamic models, which assumes the formation of a QGP, reproduces well the experimental flow results from Au+Au at sqrt{s_{NN}} = 200 GeV. This implies that the fluctuations in the initial geometry state are important and the created medium behaves as a nearly perfect liquid of nuclear matter because it has an extraordinarily low ratio of shear viscosity to entropy density, η/s≈ 0.12. However, these discoveries are far from being fully understood. Furthermore, recent experimental results from RHIC and LHC in small p+A, d+ Au and 3He+Au collision systems provide brand new insight into the role of initial and final state effects. These have proven to be interesting and more surprising than originally anticipated; and could conceivably shed new light in our understanding of collective behavior in heavy-ion physics. Accordingly, the focus of the experiments at both

  16. Characterization of Nuclear Recoils in High Pressure Xenon Gas: Towards a Simultaneous Search for WIMP Dark Matter and Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay

    SciTech Connect

    Renner, J.; Gehman, V. M.; Goldschmidt, A.; Oliveira, C. A.B.; Nygren, D.

    2015-03-24

    Xenon has recently been the medium of choice in several large scale detectors searching for WIMP dark matter and neutrinoless double beta decay. Though present-day large scale experiments use liquid xenon, the gas phase offers advantages favorable to both types of searches such as improved intrinsic energy resolution and fewer fluctuations in the partition of deposited energy between scintillation and ionization channels. We recently constructed a high pressure xenon gas TPC as a prototype for the NEXT (Neutrino Experiment with a Xenon TPC) neutrinoless double beta decay experiment and have demonstrated the feasibility of 0.5% FWHM energy resolution at the 136Xe double beta Q-value with 3-D tracking capabilities. We now present results from this prototype on the simultaneous observation of scintillation and ionization produced by nuclear recoils at approximately 14 bar pressure. The recoils were produced by neutrons of approximately 2-6 MeV emitted from a radioisotope plutonium-beryllium source, and primary scintillation (S1) and electroluminescent photons produced by ionization (S2) were observed. We discuss the potential of gaseous xenon to distinguish between electron and nuclear recoils through the ratio of these two signals S2/S1. From these results combined with the possibility of using columnar recombination to sense nuclear recoil directionality at high pressures we envision a dual-purpose, ton-scale gaseous xenon detector capable of a combined search for WIMP dark matter and neutrinoless double beta decay. This work has been performed within the context of the NEXT collaboration.

  17. Characterization of Nuclear Recoils in High Pressure Xenon Gas: Towards a Simultaneous Search for WIMP Dark Matter and Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay

    DOE PAGES

    Renner, J.; Gehman, V. M.; Goldschmidt, A.; ...

    2015-03-24

    Xenon has recently been the medium of choice in several large scale detectors searching for WIMP dark matter and neutrinoless double beta decay. Though present-day large scale experiments use liquid xenon, the gas phase offers advantages favorable to both types of searches such as improved intrinsic energy resolution and fewer fluctuations in the partition of deposited energy between scintillation and ionization channels. We recently constructed a high pressure xenon gas TPC as a prototype for the NEXT (Neutrino Experiment with a Xenon TPC) neutrinoless double beta decay experiment and have demonstrated the feasibility of 0.5% FWHM energy resolution at themore » 136Xe double beta Q-value with 3-D tracking capabilities. We now present results from this prototype on the simultaneous observation of scintillation and ionization produced by nuclear recoils at approximately 14 bar pressure. The recoils were produced by neutrons of approximately 2-6 MeV emitted from a radioisotope plutonium-beryllium source, and primary scintillation (S1) and electroluminescent photons produced by ionization (S2) were observed. We discuss the potential of gaseous xenon to distinguish between electron and nuclear recoils through the ratio of these two signals S2/S1. From these results combined with the possibility of using columnar recombination to sense nuclear recoil directionality at high pressures we envision a dual-purpose, ton-scale gaseous xenon detector capable of a combined search for WIMP dark matter and neutrinoless double beta decay. This work has been performed within the context of the NEXT collaboration.« less

  18. Cold-nuclear-matter effects on heavy-quark production in d+Au collisions at sqrt[S(NN)]=200 GeV.

    PubMed

    Adare, A; Aidala, C; Ajitanand, N N; Akiba, Y; Al-Bataineh, H; Alexander, J; Angerami, A; Aoki, K; Apadula, N; Aramaki, Y; Atomssa, E T; Averbeck, R; Awes, T C; Azmoun, B; Babintsev, V; Bai, M; Baksay, G; Baksay, L; Barish, K N; Bassalleck, B; Basye, A T; Bathe, S; Baublis, V; Baumann, C; Bazilevsky, A; Belikov, S; Belmont, R; Bennett, R; Berdnikov, A; Berdnikov, Y; Bhom, J H; Blau, D S; Bok, J S; Boyle, K; Brooks, M L; Buesching, H; Bumazhnov, V; Bunce, G; Butsyk, S; Campbell, S; Caringi, A; Chen, C-H; Chi, C Y; Chiu, M; Choi, I J; Choi, J B; Choudhury, R K; Christiansen, P; Chujo, T; Chung, P; Chvala, O; Cianciolo, V; Citron, Z; Cole, B A; Conesa Del Valle, Z; Connors, M; Csanád, M; Csörgő, T; Dahms, T; Dairaku, S; Danchev, I; Das, K; Datta, A; David, G; Dayananda, M K; Denisov, A; Deshpande, A; Desmond, E J; Dharmawardane, K V; Dietzsch, O; Dion, A; Donadelli, M; Drapier, O; Drees, A; Drees, K A; Durham, J M; Durum, A; Dutta, D; D'Orazio, L; Edwards, S; Efremenko, Y V; Ellinghaus, F; Engelmore, T; Enokizono, A; En'yo, H; Esumi, S; Fadem, B; Fields, D E; Finger, M; Finger, M; Fleuret, F; Fokin, S L; Fraenkel, Z; Frantz, J E; Franz, A; Frawley, A D; Fujiwara, K; Fukao, Y; Fusayasu, T; Garishvili, I; Glenn, A; Gong, H; Gonin, M; Goto, Y; Granier de Cassagnac, R; Grau, N; Greene, S V; Grim, G; Grosse Perdekamp, M; Gunji, T; Gustafsson, H-Å; Haggerty, J S; Hahn, K I; Hamagaki, H; Hamblen, J; Han, R; Hanks, J; Haslum, E; Hayano, R; He, X; Heffner, M; Hemmick, T K; Hester, T; Hill, J C; Hohlmann, M; Holzmann, W; Homma, K; Hong, B; Horaguchi, T; Hornback, D; Huang, S; Ichihara, T; Ichimiya, R; Ikeda, Y; Imai, K; Inaba, M; Isenhower, D; Ishihara, M; Issah, M; Ivanischev, D; Iwanaga, Y; Jacak, B V; Jia, J; Jiang, X; Jin, J; Johnson, B M; Jones, T; Joo, K S; Jouan, D; Jumper, D S; Kajihara, F; Kamin, J; Kang, J H; Kapustinsky, J; Karatsu, K; Kasai, M; Kawall, D; Kawashima, M; Kazantsev, A V; Kempel, T; Khanzadeev, A; Kijima, K M; Kikuchi, J; Kim, A; Kim, B I; Kim, D J; Kim, E-J; Kim, Y-J; Kinney, E; Kiss, A; Kistenev, E; Kleinjan, D; Kochenda, L; Komkov, B; Konno, M; Koster, J; Král, A; Kravitz, A; Kunde, G J; Kurita, K; Kurosawa, M; Kwon, Y; Kyle, G S; Lacey, R; Lai, Y S; Lajoie, J G; Lebedev, A; Lee, D M; Lee, J; Lee, K B; Lee, K S; Leitch, M J; Leite, M A L; Li, X; Lichtenwalner, P; Liebing, P; Linden Levy, L A; Liška, T; Liu, H; Liu, M X; Love, B; Lynch, D; Maguire, C F; Makdisi, Y I; Malik, M D; Manko, V I; Mannel, E; Mao, Y; Masui, H; Matathias, F; McCumber, M; McGaughey, P L; Means, N; Meredith, B; Miake, Y; Mibe, T; Mignerey, A C; Miki, K; Milov, A; Mitchell, J T; Mohanty, A K; Moon, H J; Morino, Y; Morreale, A; Morrison, D P; Moukhanova, T V; Murakami, T; Murata, J; Nagamiya, S; Nagle, J L; Naglis, M; Nagy, M I; Nakagawa, I; Nakamiya, Y; Nakamura, K R; Nakamura, T; Nakano, K; Nam, S; Newby, J; Nguyen, M; Nihashi, M; Nouicer, R; Nyanin, A S; Oakley, C; O'Brien, E; Oda, S X; Ogilvie, C A; Oka, M; Okada, K; Onuki, Y; Oskarsson, A; Ouchida, M; Ozawa, K; Pak, R; Pantuev, V; Papavassiliou, V; Park, I H; Park, S K; Park, W J; Pate, S F; Pei, H; Peng, J-C; Pereira, H; Peressounko, D Yu; Petti, R; Pinkenburg, C; Pisani, R P; Proissl, M; Purschke, M L; Qu, H; Rak, J; Ravinovich, I; Read, K F; Rembeczki, S; Reygers, K; Riabov, V; Riabov, Y; Richardson, E; Roach, D; Roche, G; Rolnick, S D; Rosati, M; Rosen, C A; Rosendahl, S S E; Ružička, P; Sahlmueller, B; Saito, N; Sakaguchi, T; Sakashita, K; Samsonov, V; Sano, S; Sato, T; Sawada, S; Sedgwick, K; Seele, J; Seidl, R; Seto, R; Sharma, D; Shein, I; Shibata, T-A; Shigaki, K; Shimomura, M; Shoji, K; Shukla, P; Sickles, A; Silva, C L; Silvermyr, D; Silvestre, C; Sim, K S; Singh, B K; Singh, C P; Singh, V; Slunečka, M; Soltz, R A; Sondheim, W E; Sorensen, S P; Sourikova, I V; Stankus, P W; Stenlund, E; Stoll, S P; Sugitate, T; Sukhanov, A; Sziklai, J; Takagui, E M; Taketani, A; Tanabe, R; Tanaka, Y; Taneja, S; Tanida, K; Tannenbaum, M J; Tarafdar, S; Taranenko, A; Themann, H; Thomas, D; Thomas, T L; Togawa, M; Toia, A; Tomášek, L; Torii, H; Towell, R S; Tserruya, I; Tsuchimoto, Y; Vale, C; Valle, H; van Hecke, H W; Vazquez-Zambrano, E; Veicht, A; Velkovska, J; Vértesi, R; Virius, M; Vrba, V; Vznuzdaev, E; Wang, X R; Watanabe, D; Watanabe, K; Watanabe, Y; Wei, F; Wei, R; Wessels, J; White, S N; Winter, D; Woody, C L; Wright, R M; Wysocki, M; Yamaguchi, Y L; Yamaura, K; Yang, R; Yanovich, A; Ying, J; Yokkaichi, S; You, Z; Young, G R; Younus, I; Yushmanov, I E; Zajc, W A; Zhou, S

    2012-12-14

    The PHENIX experiment has measured electrons and positrons at midrapidity from the decays of hadrons containing charm and bottom quarks produced in d+Au and p+p collisions at sqrt[S(NN)]=200 GeV in the transverse-momentum range 0.85 ≤ p(T)(e) ≤ 8.5 GeV/c. In central d+Au collisions, the nuclear modification factor R(dA) at 1.5nuclear-matter effects on light- and heavy-flavor mesons could contribute to the observed differences between the π(0) and heavy-flavor-electron nuclear modification factors R(AA).

  19. Variational Theory of Hot Dense Matter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mukherjee, Abhishek

    2009-01-01

    We develop a variational theory of hot nuclear matter in neutron stars and supernovae. It can also be used to study charged, hot nuclear matter which may be produced in heavy-ion collisions. This theory is a generalization of the variational theory of cold nuclear and neutron star matter based on realistic models of nuclear forces and pair…

  20. Variational Theory of Hot Dense Matter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mukherjee, Abhishek

    2009-01-01

    We develop a variational theory of hot nuclear matter in neutron stars and supernovae. It can also be used to study charged, hot nuclear matter which may be produced in heavy-ion collisions. This theory is a generalization of the variational theory of cold nuclear and neutron star matter based on realistic models of nuclear forces and pair…

  1. Nuclear "waffles"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, A. S.; Berry, D. K.; Briggs, C. M.; Caplan, M. E.; Horowitz, C. J.

    2014-11-01

    Background: The dense neutron-rich matter found in supernovae and inside neutron stars is expected to form complex nonuniform phases, often referred to as nuclear pasta. The pasta shapes depend on density, temperature and proton fraction and determine many transport properties in supernovae and neutron star crusts. Purpose: To characterize the topology and compute two observables, the radial distribution function (RDF) g (r ) and the structure factor S (q ) , for systems with proton fractions Yp=0.10 ,0.20 ,0.30 , and 0.40 at about one-third of nuclear saturation density, n =0.050 fm-3 , and temperatures near k T =1 MeV . Methods: We use two recently developed hybrid CPU/GPU codes to perform large scale molecular dynamics (MD) simulations with 51 200 and 409 600 nucleons. From the output of the MD simulations we obtain the two desired observables. Results: We compute and discuss the differences in topology and observables for each simulation. We observe that the two lowest proton fraction systems simulated, Yp=0.10 and 0.20 , equilibrate quickly and form liquidlike structures. Meanwhile, the two higher proton fraction systems, Yp=0.30 and 0.40 , take a longer time to equilibrate and organize themselves in solidlike periodic structures. Furthermore, the Yp=0.40 system is made up of slabs, lasagna phase, interconnected by defects while the Yp=0.30 systems consist of a stack of perforated plates, the nuclear waffle phase. Conclusions: The periodic configurations observed in our MD simulations for proton fractions Yp≥0.30 have important consequences for the structure factors S (q ) of protons and neutrons, which relate to many transport properties of supernovae and neutron star crust. A detailed study of the waffle phase and how its structure depends on temperature, size of the simulation, and the screening length showed that finite-size effects appear to be under control and, also, that the plates in the waffle phase merge at temperatures slightly above 1.0 MeV and

  2. Density-Dependent Relations among Properties of Hadronic Matter and Applications to Hadron-Quark Stars

    SciTech Connect

    Uechi, Hiroshi; Uechi, Schun T.

    2011-05-06

    Density-dependent relations among the saturation properties of symmetric nuclear matter and hyperonic matter, and properties of hadron-(strange) quark stars are shown by applying the conserving nonlinear {sigma}-{omega}-{rho} hadronic mean-field theory. Nonlinear interactions are renormalized self-consistently as effective coupling constants, effective masses, and sources of equations of motion by maintaining thermodynamic consistency to the mean-field approximation. Effective masses and coupling constants at the saturation point of symmetric nuclear matter simultaneously determine the binding energy and saturation properties of hyperonic matter. The coupling constants expected from the hadronic mean-field model and SU(6) quark model for the vector coupling constants are compared by calculating masses of hadron-quark neutron stars. The nonlinear {sigma}-{omega}-{rho} mean-field approximation with vacuum fluctuation corrections and strange quark matter defined by the MIT-bag model were employed to examine properties of hadron-(strange) quark stars. We found that hadron-(strange) quark stars become more stable at high densities compared to pure hadronic and strange quark stars.

  3. INTERACTION OF LASER RADIATION WITH MATTER. LASER PLASMA: Excitation of nuclear isomers by X rays from laser plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreev, Aleksandr A.; Platonov, Konstantin Yu; Rozhdestvenskii, Yu V.; Karpeshin, F.; Trzhaskovskaya, M. B.

    2010-06-01

    The possibility of obtaining isomer nuclei is studied by the example of the molybdenum isomer 93Mo upon irradiation of a niobium 93Nb target by ~50-J, 100-fs laser pulses. It is shown that the modern laser technique allows production of isomer nuclei by accelerated protons and radiative de-excitation of isomer nuclear states by thermal or line X-rays from laser plasma.

  4. The role of nuclear physics in supernovae and the evolution of neutron stars Neutrino Opacities, Equation of State, Transport Coefficients, and Dark Matter Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rrapaj, Ermal

    A massive star, of at least eight solar masses, end their life cycle in a sudden, catastrophic collapse under its own gravity. In a thousandth of a second, it can shrink from thousands of kilometers across to a ball of ultra-condensed matter just a few kilometers across. Ultimately, it all ends in a cataclysmic explosion known as a supernova, and for a few short weeks it burns as brightly as several billion suns, briefly outshining the star's entire home galaxy. The visible light of a supernova, though, represents only about 1% of the released energy, the vast majority being in the form of ultraviolet light, x-rays, gamma rays and, especially neutrinos. In the first chapter of work, I study neutrino - nucleon interactions and their role in the nucleosynthesis of heavy elements. Another key ingredient is the equation of state, which relates the thermodynamic properties of these extreme environments to the micro physics of nuclear interactions, explored in the second chapter. As a supernova cools, a new neutron star is born. The thermal, electric properties and the shear viscosity of this object are analyzed in terms of a newly discovered interaction, among electrons and neutrons, in the third chapter. Given the enormous amount of energy released during the explosion, I study the possibility of producing light massive particles, candidates for what is commonly called dark matter, in the last chapter of this work. I find that supernovae are ideal environments where the interplay of all forces in nature can be observed, nuclear forces playing a paramount role.

  5. 13C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Electron Paramagnetic Spectroscopic Comparison of Hydrophobic Acid, Transphilic Acid, and Reverse Osmosis May 2012 Isolates of Organic Matter from the Suwannee River

    PubMed Central

    Nwosu, Ugwumsinachi G.; Cook, Robert L.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Dissolved organic matter (DOM) is found in most natural waters at concentrations low enough to make DOM isolation methodologies critical to full analytical characterization and preservation. During the last few decades, two major protocols have been developed for the extraction of DOM isolates from natural waters. These methods utilize XAD resins and reverse osmosis (RO). In this work, the hydrophobic acid (May 2012 HPOA) and transphilic acid (May 2012 TPIA) isolates from XAD-8 and XAD-4 resins, respectively, were compared with the RO (May 2012 RO) natural organic matter isolate of the Suwannee River water using 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopies. 13C NMR analysis showed that the May 2012 RO isolate could be viewed as a hybrid of the more hydrophobic May 2012 HPOA isolate and more hydrophilic May 2012 TPIA isolate. The May 2012 HPOA isolate is shown to be higher in alkyl and aromatic moieties, while the May 2012 TPIA isolate is higher in O-alkyl moieties. EPR analysis revealed that the May 2012 TPIA and, in particular, May 2012 HPOA isolates had higher radical concentrations than the May 2012 RO isolate. It is postulated that some of the radical concentrations came from the use of base during the isolation procedures, especially in the XAD method. PMID:25565761

  6. (13)C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Electron Paramagnetic Spectroscopic Comparison of Hydrophobic Acid, Transphilic Acid, and Reverse Osmosis May 2012 Isolates of Organic Matter from the Suwannee River.

    PubMed

    Nwosu, Ugwumsinachi G; Cook, Robert L

    2015-01-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) is found in most natural waters at concentrations low enough to make DOM isolation methodologies critical to full analytical characterization and preservation. During the last few decades, two major protocols have been developed for the extraction of DOM isolates from natural waters. These methods utilize XAD resins and reverse osmosis (RO). In this work, the hydrophobic acid (May 2012 HPOA) and transphilic acid (May 2012 TPIA) isolates from XAD-8 and XAD-4 resins, respectively, were compared with the RO (May 2012 RO) natural organic matter isolate of the Suwannee River water using (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopies. (13)C NMR analysis showed that the May 2012 RO isolate could be viewed as a hybrid of the more hydrophobic May 2012 HPOA isolate and more hydrophilic May 2012 TPIA isolate. The May 2012 HPOA isolate is shown to be higher in alkyl and aromatic moieties, while the May 2012 TPIA isolate is higher in O-alkyl moieties. EPR analysis revealed that the May 2012 TPIA and, in particular, May 2012 HPOA isolates had higher radical concentrations than the May 2012 RO isolate. It is postulated that some of the radical concentrations came from the use of base during the isolation procedures, especially in the XAD method.

  7. Nuclear spin transitions in the kHz range in Rydberg matter clusters give precise values of the internal magnetic field from orbiting Rydberg electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmlid, Leif

    2009-03-01

    Clusters of the electronically excited condensed matter Rydberg matter (RM) are planar and sixfold symmetric with specific magic numbers N as shown by rotational spectroscopy of potassium K N clusters [L. Holmlid, Mol. Phys. 105 (2007) 933; L. Holmlid, J. Mol. Struct. 885 (2008) 122]. In radio frequency emission spectra from such clusters, features are observed that are due to the hyperfine interaction between the atomic nucleus 39K and two Rydberg electrons. These electrons exist in a doubly excited K atom at n″ = 5 or 6 in a "sleeping-top" type rotating cluster. Such low excited electrons were observed recently in optical intra-cavity experiments in K(RM), where the electrons in the conduction band are involved in the angular momentum conservation in the stimulated emission. Here we show that the agreement with the theoretical description of circular Rydberg states is excellent within ±0.2% in the magnetic field, invoking angular momentum conservation by electrons in the condensed phase. Sleeping-top clusters may form stacks of clusters, and it is likely that such stacks are the emitting entities involved in the two nuclear spin series observed.

  8. High-sensitivity nuclear magnetic resonance at Giga-Pascal pressures: a new tool for probing electronic and chemical properties of condensed matter under extreme conditions.

    PubMed

    Meier, Thomas; Haase, Jürgen

    2014-10-10

    Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) is one of the most important techniques for the study of condensed matter systems, their chemical structure, and their electronic properties. The application of high pressure enables one to synthesize new materials, but the response of known materials to high pressure is a very useful tool for studying their electronic structure and developing theories. For example, high-pressure synthesis might be at the origin of life; and understanding the behavior of small molecules under extreme pressure will tell us more about fundamental processes in our universe. It is no wonder that there has always been great interest in having NMR available at high pressures. Unfortunately, the desired pressures are often well into the Giga-Pascal (GPa) range and require special anvil cell devices where only very small, secluded volumes are available. This has restricted the use of NMR almost entirely in the past, and only recently, a new approach to high-sensitivity GPa NMR, which has a resonating micro-coil inside the sample chamber, was put forward. This approach enables us to achieve high sensitivity with experiments that bring the power of NMR to Giga-Pascal pressure condensed matter research. First applications, the detection of a topological electronic transition in ordinary aluminum metal and the closing of the pseudo-gap in high-temperature superconductivity, show the power of such an approach. Meanwhile, the range of achievable pressures was increased tremendously with a new generation of anvil cells (up to 10.1 GPa), that fit standard-bore NMR magnets. This approach might become a new, important tool for the investigation of many condensed matter systems, in chemistry, geochemistry, and in physics, since we can now watch structural changes with the eyes of a very versatile probe.

  9. High-Sensitivity Nuclear Magnetic Resonance at Giga-Pascal Pressures: A New Tool for Probing Electronic and Chemical Properties of Condensed Matter under Extreme Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Meier, Thomas; Haase, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) is one of the most important techniques for the study of condensed matter systems, their chemical structure, and their electronic properties. The application of high pressure enables one to synthesize new materials, but the response of known materials to high pressure is a very useful tool for studying their electronic structure and developing theories. For example, high-pressure synthesis might be at the origin of life; and understanding the behavior of small molecules under extreme pressure will tell us more about fundamental processes in our universe. It is no wonder that there has always been great interest in having NMR available at high pressures. Unfortunately, the desired pressures are often well into the Giga-Pascal (GPa) range and require special anvil cell devices where only very small, secluded volumes are available. This has restricted the use of NMR almost entirely in the past, and only recently, a new approach to high-sensitivity GPa NMR, which has a resonating micro-coil inside the sample chamber, was put forward. This approach enables us to achieve high sensitivity with experiments that bring the power of NMR to Giga-Pascal pressure condensed matter research. First applications, the detection of a topological electronic transition in ordinary aluminum metal and the closing of the pseudo-gap in high-temperature superconductivity, show the power of such an approach. Meanwhile, the range of achievable pressures was increased tremendously with a new generation of anvil cells (up to 10.1 GPa), that fit standard-bore NMR magnets. This approach might become a new, important tool for the investigation of many condensed matter systems, in chemistry, geochemistry, and in physics, since we can now watch structural changes with the eyes of a very versatile probe. PMID:25350694

  10. Saturation in coupled oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roman, Ahmed; Hanna, James

    2015-03-01

    We consider a weakly nonlinear system consisting of a resonantly forced oscillator coupled to an unforced oscillator. It has long been known that, for quadratic nonlinearities and a 2:1 resonance between the oscillators, a perturbative solution of the dynamics exhibits a phenomenon known as saturation. At low forcing, the forced oscillator responds, while the unforced oscillator is quiescent. Above a critical value of the forcing, the forced oscillator's steady-state amplitude reaches a plateau, while that of the unforced oscillator increases without bound. We show that, contrary to established folklore, saturation is not unique to quadratically nonlinear systems. We present conditions on the form of the nonlinear couplings and resonance that lead to saturation. Our results elucidate a mechanism for localization or diversion of energy in systems of coupled oscillators, and suggest new approaches for the control or suppression of vibrations in engineered systems.

  11. Nuclear matter effects on J/ψ production in asymmetric Cu + Au collisions at \\(\\sqrt{s_{\\mathrm{NN}}} = 200\\) GeV

    DOE PAGES

    Adare, A.; Aidala, C.; Ajitanand, N. N.; ...

    2014-12-18

    We report on J/ψ production from asymmetric Cu+Au heavy-ion collisions at \\(\\sqrt{s_{\\mathrm{NN}}} = 200\\) GeV at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at both forward (Cu-going direction) and backward (Au-going direction) rapidities. The nuclear modification of J/ψ yields in Cu+Au collisions in the Au-going direction is found to be comparable to that in Au+Au collisions when plotted as a function of the number of participating nucleons. In the Cu-going direction, J/ψ production shows a stronger suppression. This difference is comparable in magnitude and has the same sign as the difference expected from shadowing effects due to stronger low-x gluon suppression inmore » the larger Au nucleus. Thus, the relative suppression is opposite to that expected from hot nuclear matter dissociation, since a higher energy density is expected in the Au-going direction.« less

  12. Small things matter: Implications of APP intracellular domain AICD nuclear signaling in the progression and pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Bukhari, Hassan; Glotzbach, Annika; Kolbe, Katharina; Leonhardt, Gregor; Loosse, Christina; Müller, Thorsten

    2017-09-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disease with tens of millions of people affected worldwide. The pathogenesis is still poorly understood and various therapeutical approaches targeting the amyloid β (Aβ) peptide, a product of the amyloidogenic cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein (APP), failed. Moreover, a couple of studies critically questioned the relevance of Aβ in the pathogenesis of AD. Thus, new ideas need to be studied and one highly interesting hypothesis is the APP mediated signal transduction to the nucleus. As a consequence nuclear -potentially toxic- structures emerge, which were recently found to a high extent in human AD tissue and thus, may contribute to neurodegeneration. Relevant for the signaling machinery are modifications at the very C-terminal end of the precursor protein, the APP intracellular domain (AICD). In this review we update the knowledge on mechanisms on AICD referring to our 2008 article: The amyloid precursor protein intracellular domain (AICD) as modulator of gene expression, apoptosis, and cytoskeletal dynamics-Relevance for Alzheimer's disease (T. Muller, et al., 2008). We summarize how AICD is generated and degraded, we describe its intramolecular motifs, translational modifications, and how those as well as APP dimerization influence AICD generation and function. Moreover, we resume the AICD interactome and elucidate AICDs involvement in nuclear signaling, transcriptional regulation, cell death, DNA repair and cell cycle re-entry and we give insights in its physiological function. Results are summarized in the comprehensive poster "The world of AICD". Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Venous oxygen saturation.

    PubMed

    Hartog, Christiane; Bloos, Frank

    2014-12-01

    Early detection and rapid treatment of tissue hypoxia are important goals. Venous oxygen saturation is an indirect index of global oxygen supply-to-demand ratio. Central venous oxygen saturation (ScvO2) measurement has become a surrogate for mixed venous oxygen saturation (SvO2). ScvO2 is measured by a catheter placed in the superior vena cava. After results from a single-center study suggested that maintaining ScvO2 values >70% might improve survival rates in septic patients, international practice guidelines included this target in a bundle strategy to treat early sepsis. However, a recent multicenter study with >1500 patients found that the use of central hemodynamic and ScvO2 monitoring did not improve long-term survival when compared to the clinical assessment of the adequacy of circulation. It seems that if sepsis is recognized early, a rapid initiation of antibiotics and adequate fluid resuscitation are more important than measuring venous oxygen saturation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Nuclear Data Matters - The obvious case of a bad mixing ratio for 58Co

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, R. D.; Nesaraja, Caroline D.; Mattoon, Caleb

    2015-05-13

    We present results of modeled cross sections for neutron- and proton-induced reactions leading to the final product nucleus 58Co. In each case the gamma-cascade branching ratios given in the ENSDF database circa 2014 predict modeled nuclear cross sections leading to the ground and first excited metastable state that are incompatible with measured cross sections found in the NNDC experimental cross section database EXFOR. We show that exploring the uncertainty in the mixing ratio used to calculate the gamma-cascade branching ratios for the 53.15 keV 2nd excited state leads to changes in the predicted partial cross sections by amounts that give good agreement with measured data.

  15. The XENON100 Dark Matter Experiment: Design, Construction, Calibration and 2010 Search Results with Improved Measurement of the Scintillation Response of Liquid Xenon to Low-Energy Nuclear Recoils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plante, Guillaume

    An impressive array of astrophysical observations suggest that 83% of the matter in the universe is in a form of non-luminous, cold, collisionless, non-baryonic dark matter. Several extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics aimed at solving the hierarchy problem predict stable weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) that could naturally have the right cosmological relic abundance today to compose most of the dark matter if their interactions with normal matter are on the order of a weak scale cross section. These candidates also have the added benefit that their properties and interaction rates can be computed in a well defined particle physics model. A considerable experimental effort is currently under way to uncover the nature of dark matter. One method of detecting WIMP dark matter is to look for its interactions in terrestrial detectors where it is expected to scatter off nuclei. In 2007, the XENON10 experiment took the lead over the most sensitive direct detection dark matter search in operation, the CDMS II experiment, by probing spin-independent WIMP-nucleon interaction cross sections down to sigmachi N ˜ 5 x 10-44 cm 2 at 30 GeV/c2. Liquefied noble gas detectors are now among the technologies at the forefront of direct detection experiments. Liquid xenon (LXe), in particular, is a well suited target for WIMP direct detection. It is easily scalable to larger target masses, allows discrimination between nuclear recoils and electronic recoils, and has an excellent stopping power to shield against external backgrounds. A particle losing energy in LXe creates both ionization electrons and scintillation light. In a dual-phase LXe time projection chamber (TPC) the ionization electrons are drifted and extracted into the gas phase where they are accelerated to amplify the charge signal into a proportional scintillation signal. These two signals allow the three-dimensional localization of events with millimeter precision and the ability to

  16. Low energy electron and nuclear recoil thresholds in the DRIFT-II negative ion TPC for dark matter searches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgos, S.; Daw, E.; Forbes, J.; Ghag, C.; Gold, M.; Hagemann, C.; Kudryavtsev, V. A.; Lawson, T. B.; Loomba, D.; Majewski, P.; Muna, D.; Murphy, A. St. J.; Paling, S. M.; Petkov, A.; Plank, S. J. S.; Robinson, M.; Sanghi, N.; Snowden-Ifft, D. P.; Spooner, N. J. C.; Turk, J.; Tziaferi, E.

    2009-04-01

    Understanding the ability to measure and discriminate particle events at the lowest possible energy is an essential requirement in developing new experiments to search for weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP) dark matter. In this paper we detail an assessment of the potential sensitivity below 10 keV in the 1 m3 DRIFT-II directionally sensitive, low pressure, negative ion time projection chamber (NITPC), based on event-by-event track reconstruction and calorimetry in the multiwire proportional chamber (MWPC) readout. By application of a digital smoothing polynomial it is shown that the detector is sensitive to sulfur and carbon recoils down to 2.9 and 1.9 keV respectively, and 1.2 keV for electron induced events. The energy sensitivity is demonstrated through the 5.9 keV gamma spectrum of 55Fe, where the energy resolution is sufficient to identify the escape peak. The effect of a lower energy sensitivity on the WIMP exclusion limit is demonstrated. In addition to recoil direction reconstruction for WIMP searches this sensitivity suggests new prospects for applications also in KK axion searches.

  17. Capillary saturation and desaturation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilfer, R.; Armstrong, R. T.; Berg, S.; Georgiadis, A.; Ott, H.

    2015-12-01

    Capillary desaturation experiments produce disconnected (trapped) ganglia of mesoscopic sizes intermediate between pore size and system size. Experimental evidence for interactions between these mesoscale clusters during desaturation is analyzed and discussed within the established microscopic and macroscopic laws of Newton, Young-Laplace, and Darcy. A theoretical expression for capillary number correlations is introduced that seems to have remained unnoticed. It expresses capillary desaturation curves in terms of stationary capillary pressures and relative permeabilities. The theoretical expression shows that the plateau saturation in capillary desaturation curves may in general differ from the residual nonwetting saturation defined through the saturation limit of the main hysteresis loop. Hysteresis effects as well as the difference between wetting and nonwetting fluids are introduced into the analysis of capillary desaturation experiments. The article examines experiments with different desaturation protocols and discusses the existence of a mesoscopic length scale intermediate between pore scale and sample scale. The theoretical expression is derived entirely within the existing traditional theory of two-phase flow in porous media and compared to a recent experiment.

  18. Capillary saturation and desaturation.

    PubMed

    Hilfer, R; Armstrong, R T; Berg, S; Georgiadis, A; Ott, H

    2015-12-01

    Capillary desaturation experiments produce disconnected (trapped) ganglia of mesoscopic sizes intermediate between pore size and system size. Experimental evidence for interactions between these mesoscale clusters during desaturation is analyzed and discussed within the established microscopic and macroscopic laws of Newton, Young-Laplace, and Darcy. A theoretical expression for capillary number correlations is introduced that seems to have remained unnoticed. It expresses capillary desaturation curves in terms of stationary capillary pressures and relative permeabilities. The theoretical expression shows that the plateau saturation in capillary desaturation curves may in general differ from the residual nonwetting saturation defined through the saturation limit of the main hysteresis loop. Hysteresis effects as well as the difference between wetting and nonwetting fluids are introduced into the analysis of capillary desaturation experiments. The article examines experiments with different desaturation protocols and discusses the existence of a mesoscopic length scale intermediate between pore scale and sample scale. The theoretical expression is derived entirely within the existing traditional theory of two-phase flow in porous media and compared to a recent experiment.

  19. Molecular Dynamics of Nuclear Pasta in Neutron Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briggs, Christian; da Silva Schneider, Andre

    2014-09-01

    During a core collapse supernova, a massive star undergoes rapid contraction followed by a massive explosion on the order of a hundred trillion trillion nuclear bombs in less than a second. While most matter is expelled at high speeds, what remains can form a neutron star. The bulk of a neutron star does not contain separate nuclei but is itself a single nucleus of radius ~10 km. In the crust of a neutron star, density is low enough that some matter exists as distinct nuclei arranged into crystalline lattice dominated by electromagnetic forces. Between the crust and core lies an interesting interface where matter is neither a single nucleus nor separate nuclei. It exists in a frustrated phase; competition between electromagnetic and strong nuclear forces causes exotic shapes to emerge, referred to as nuclear pasta. We use Molecular Dynamics (MD) to simulate nuclear pasta, with densities between nuclear saturation density and approximately one-tenth saturation density. Using MD particle trajectories, we compute the static structure factor S(q) and dynamical response function to describe both electron-pasta and neutrino-pasta scattering. We relate the structure and properties of nuclear pasta phases to features in S(q). Finally, one can integrate over S(q) to determine transport properties such as the electrical and thermal conductivity. This may help provide a better understanding of X-ray observations of neutron stars. During a core collapse supernova, a massive star undergoes rapid contraction followed by a massive explosion on the order of a hundred trillion trillion nuclear bombs in less than a second. While most matter is expelled at high speeds, what remains can form a neutron star. The bulk of a neutron star does not contain separate nuclei but is itself a single nucleus of radius ~10 km. In the crust of a neutron star, density is low enough that some matter exists as distinct nuclei arranged into crystalline lattice dominated by electromagnetic forces

  20. Nonrelativistic nucleon effective masses in nuclear matter: Brueckner-Hartree-Fock model versus relativistic Hartree-Fock model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, A.; Hu, J. N.; Shang, X. L.; Zuo, W.

    2016-01-01

    The density and isospin dependencies of nonrelativistic nucleon effective mass (mN*) are studied, which is a measure of the nonlocality of the single particle (s.p.) potential. It can be decoupled as the so-called k mass (mk*, i.e., the nonlocality in space) and E mass (mE*, i.e., the nonlocality in time). Both k mass and E mass are determined and compared by using the latest versions of the nonrelativistic Brueckner-Hartree-Fock (BHF) model and the relativistic Hartree-Fock (RHF) model. The latter is achieved based on the corresponding Schrödinger equivalent s.p. potential in a relativistic framework. We demonstrate the origins of different effective masses and discuss also their neutron-proton splitting in the asymmetric matter in different models. We find that the neutron-proton splittings of both the k mass and the E mass have the same asymmetry dependencies at the densities considered; namely, mk,n *>mk,p * and mE,p *>mE,n * . However, the resulting splittings of nucleon effective masses could have different asymmetry dependencies in these two models because they could be dominated either by the k mass (then we have mn*>mp* in the BHF model), or by the E mass (then we have mp*>mn* in the RHF model). The isospin splitting in the BHF model is more consistent with the recent analysis from the nucleon-nucleus-scattering data, while the small E mass mE* in the RHF case as a result of the missing ladder summation finally leads to an opposite splitting behavior.

  1. Soil organic matter composition from correlated thermal analysis and nuclear magnetic resonance data in Australian national inventory of agricultural soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, T. S.; Sanderman, J.; Baldock, J.; Plante, A. F.

    2016-12-01

    National-scale inventories typically include soil organic carbon (SOC) content, but not chemical composition or biogeochemical stability. Australia's Soil Carbon Research Programme (SCaRP) represents a national inventory of SOC content and composition in agricultural systems. The program used physical fractionation followed by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. While these techniques are highly effective, they are typically too expensive and time consuming for use in large-scale SOC monitoring. We seek to understand if analytical thermal analysis is a viable alternative. Coupled differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and evolved gas analysis (CO2- and H2O-EGA) yields valuable data on SOC composition and stability via ramped combustion. The technique requires little training to use, and does not require fractionation or other sample pre-treatment. We analyzed 300 agricultural samples collected by SCaRP, divided into four fractions: whole soil, coarse particulates (POM), untreated mineral associated (HUM), and hydrofluoric acid (HF)-treated HUM. All samples were analyzed by DSC-EGA, but only the POM and HF-HUM fractions were analyzed by NMR. Multivariate statistical analyses were used to explore natural clustering in SOC composition and stability based on DSC-EGA data. A partial least-squares regression (PLSR) model was used to explore correlations among the NMR and DSC-EGA data. Correlations demonstrated regions of combustion attributable to specific functional groups, which may relate to SOC stability. We are increasingly challenged with developing an efficient technique to assess SOC composition and stability at large spatial and temporal scales. Correlations between NMR and DSC-EGA may demonstrate the viability of using thermal analysis in lieu of more demanding methods in future large-scale surveys, and may provide data that goes beyond chemical composition to better approach quantification of biogeochemical stability.

  2. Theoretical constraints on the properties of low-mass neutron stars from the equation of state of nuclear matter in the inner crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Yong-Mei; Wen, De-Hua

    2017-06-01

    By employing four typical equation of states (EOSs) of nuclear matter in the inner crust, the properties of low-mass neutron stars are investigated theoretically. Based on the well-known fact that there is a big gap between the neutron stars and white dwarfs in the mass-radius sequence of compact stars, according to the mass-radius relations of the four adopted EOSs, we conclude that there is a rough forbidden region for the central density and stellar radius to form a compact star; that is, there is no compact star in nature having central density in the region from about 1012kgm-3 to 1017kgm-3 , and there is also no compact star having a radius in the region from about 400 km to 2000 km. Moreover, the properties of the low-mass neutron stars are also explored. It is shown that for a stable neutron star near the minimum mass point, the stellar size (with radius >200 km) is much larger than that of normal neutron stars, and there is a compact "core" concentrated at about 95% of the stellar mass in the inner core with a radius of about 13 km and density higher than the neutron-drip point (4.3 ×1014kgm-3) . This property totally differs from that of normal neutron stars and white dwarfs. Furthermore, the Keplerian period, the moment of inertia, and the surface gravitational redshift of the star near the minimum-mass point are also investigated.

  3. Saturated logistic avalanche model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aielli, G.; Camarri, P.; Cardarelli, R.; Di Ciaccio, A.; Liberti, B.; Paoloni, A.; Santonico, R.

    2003-08-01

    The search for an adequate avalanche RPC working model evidenced that the simple exponential growth can describe the electron multiplication phenomena in the gas with acceptable accuracy until the external electric field is not perturbed by the growing avalanche. We present here a model in which the saturated growth induced by the space charge effects is explained in a natural way by a constant coefficient non-linear differential equation, the Logistic equation, which was originally introduced to describe the evolution of a biological population in a limited resources environment. The RPCs, due to the uniform and intense field, proved to be an ideal device to test experimentally the presented model.

  4. Reviews DVD: Nuclear Radiation Books: The Theoretical Minimum and Time Reborn Equipment: Cobra4 Data Logger Book: Stuff Matters Book: Hunting the Higgs Book: My Brief History Apps Web Watch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-01-01

    WE RECOMMEND Nuclear Radiation DVD is an excellent introduction to nuclear radiation WORTH A LOOK The Theoretical Minimum and Time Reborn Can mathematics be the key to reality? Cobra4 Data Logger Apparatus provides an extensive collection of sensors Stuff Matters Materials book deserves a wide readership Hunting the Higgs Higgs book a bit light on detail but good for visits to CERN My Brief History Hawking's book is readable but inconclusive APPS Using apps to help students visualize fields WEB WATCH Vintage film of Eric Laithwaite ... induction hobs as an example of electromagnetic induction ... the deconstruction of a CRO tube ... the Brocken spectre ... the Square Kilometre Array telescope

  5. Nuclear equation of state in a relativistic independent quark model with chiral symmetry and dependence on quark masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barik, N.; Mishra, R. N.; Mohanty, D. K.; Panda, P. K.; Frederico, T.

    2013-07-01

    We have calculated the properties of nuclear matter in a self-consistent manner with a quark-meson coupling mechanism incorporating the structure of nucleons in vacuum through a relativistic potential model; where the dominant confining interaction for the free independent quarks inside a nucleon is represented by a phenomenologically average potential in equally mixed scalar-vector harmonic form. Corrections due to spurious center of mass motion as well as those due to other residual interactions, such as the one gluon exchange at short distances and quark-pion coupling arising out of chiral symmetry restoration, have been considered in a perturbative manner to obtain the nucleon mass in vacuum. The nucleon-nucleon interaction in nuclear matter is then realized by introducing additional quark couplings to σ and ω mesons through mean field approximations. The relevant parameters of the interaction are obtained self-consistently while realizing the saturation properties such as the binding energy, pressure, and compressibility of the nuclear matter. We also discuss some implications of chiral symmetry in nuclear matter along with the nucleon and nuclear σ term and the sensitivity of nuclear matter binding energy with variations in the light quark mass.

  6. Nuclear analytical chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Brune, D.; Forkman, B.; Persson, B.

    1984-01-01

    This book covers the general theories and techniques of nuclear chemical analysis, directed at applications in analytical chemistry, nuclear medicine, radiophysics, agriculture, environmental sciences, geological exploration, industrial process control, etc. The main principles of nuclear physics and nuclear detection on which the analysis is based are briefly outlined. An attempt is made to emphasise the fundamentals of activation analysis, detection and activation methods, as well as their applications. The book provides guidance in analytical chemistry, agriculture, environmental and biomedical sciences, etc. The contents include: the nuclear periodic system; nuclear decay; nuclear reactions; nuclear radiation sources; interaction of radiation with matter; principles of radiation detectors; nuclear electronics; statistical methods and spectral analysis; methods of radiation detection; neutron activation analysis; charged particle activation analysis; photon activation analysis; sample preparation and chemical separation; nuclear chemical analysis in biological and medical research; the use of nuclear chemical analysis in the field of criminology; nuclear chemical analysis in environmental sciences, geology and mineral exploration; and radiation protection.

  7. Probing the phases of cold ultra-dense matter using neutron star physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmoodifar, Simin

    Matter at very high densities and low temperatures is predicted to be in a "color superconducting" phase. At high enough densities, quark matter is in the Color-Flavor-Locked (CFL) phase, but the possible phases of matter at intermediate densities are unknown. Since the density at the core of a neutron star can be as high as a few times the nuclear saturation density, it is the most likely place to find these exotic forms of matter in the real world. The main goal of this thesis is to probe the phases of cold dense matter using neutron star physics. Studying the transport properties of different phases of dense matter that may occur in a compact star is particularly important because transport properties such as viscosity, in addition to depending on the equation of state of matter, also depend on the low-energy degrees of freedom and therefore can discriminate between different phases of dense matter more efficiently. In the first part of this thesis we calculate the mean free path and kaonic contribution to the shear viscosity of kaon-condensed color-flavor-locked (CFL-K0) phase of quark matter. In the second part we calculate the large-amplitude enhancement of the bulk viscosity of dense matter. We obtain general analytic solutions as well as numerical solutions for the amplitude-dependent bulk viscosity of dense matter which are valid for any equations of state where equilibration occurs via fermions. In the third and fourth parts, we use our general results for the bulk viscosity to calculate the damping timescales of r-mode oscillations of neutron stars due to small-amplitude and large-amplitude bulk viscosity, the instability window of the r-modes and the saturation amplitude due to "supra-thermal" enhancement of the bulk viscosity for different cases of strange quark stars, hadronic stars and hybrid stars.

  8. Saturated Zone Colloid Transport

    SciTech Connect

    H. S. Viswanathan

    2004-10-07

    This scientific analysis provides retardation factors for colloids transporting in the saturated zone (SZ) and the unsaturated zone (UZ). These retardation factors represent the reversible chemical and physical filtration of colloids in the SZ. The value of the colloid retardation factor, R{sub col} is dependent on several factors, such as colloid size, colloid type, and geochemical conditions (e.g., pH, Eh, and ionic strength). These factors are folded into the distributions of R{sub col} that have been developed from field and experimental data collected under varying geochemical conditions with different colloid types and sizes. Attachment rate constants, k{sub att}, and detachment rate constants, k{sub det}, of colloids to the fracture surface have been measured for the fractured volcanics, and separate R{sub col} uncertainty distributions have been developed for attachment and detachment to clastic material and mineral grains in the alluvium. Radionuclides such as plutonium and americium sorb mostly (90 to 99 percent) irreversibly to colloids (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170025], Section 6.3.3.2). The colloid retardation factors developed in this analysis are needed to simulate the transport of radionuclides that are irreversibly sorbed onto colloids; this transport is discussed in the model report ''Site-Scale Saturated Zone Transport'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170036]). Although it is not exclusive to any particular radionuclide release scenario, this scientific analysis especially addresses those scenarios pertaining to evidence from waste-degradation experiments, which indicate that plutonium and americium may be irreversibly attached to colloids for the time scales of interest. A section of this report will also discuss the validity of using microspheres as analogs to colloids in some of the lab and field experiments used to obtain the colloid retardation factors. In addition, a small fraction of colloids travels with the groundwater without any significant retardation

  9. Exploring s d -shell nuclei from two- and three-nucleon interactions with realistic saturation properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonis, J.; Hebeler, K.; Holt, J. D.; Menéndez, J.; Schwenk, A.

    2016-01-01

    We study ground- and excited-state properties of all s d -shell nuclei with neutron and proton numbers 8 ≤N ,Z ≤20 , based on a set of low-resolution two- and three-nucleon interactions that predict realistic saturation properties of nuclear matter. We focus on estimating the theoretical uncertainties due to variation of the resolution scale, the low-energy couplings, as well as from the many-body method. The experimental two-neutron and two-proton separation energies are reasonably well reproduced, with an uncertainty range of ˜5 MeV . The first excited 2+ energies also show overall agreement, with a more narrow uncertainty range of ˜500 keV . In most cases, this range is dominated by the uncertainties in the Hamiltonian.

  10. Symmetry energy of nucleonic matter with tensor correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hen, Or; Li, Bao-An; Guo, Wen-Jun; Weinstein, L. B.; Piasetzky, Eli

    2015-02-01

    The nuclear symmetry energy (Esym(ρ ) ) is a vital ingredient of our understanding of many processes, from heavy-ion collisions to neutron stars structure. While the total nuclear symmetry energy at nuclear saturation density (ρ0) is relatively well determined, its value at supranuclear densities is not. The latter can be better constrained by separately examining its kinetic and potential terms and their density dependencies. The kinetic term of the symmetry energy, Esymkin(ρ0) , equals the difference in the per-nucleon kinetic energy between pure neutron matter (PNM) and symmetric nuclear matter (SNM), often calculated using a simple Fermi gas model. However, experiments show that tensor force induced short-range correlations (SRC) between proton-neutron pairs shift nucleons to high momentum in SNM, where there are equal numbers of neutrons and protons, but have almost no effect in PNM. We present an approximate analytical expression for Esymkin(ρ0) of correlated nucleonic matter. In our model, Esymkin(ρ0) =-10 MeV, which differs significantly from +12.5 MeV for the widely-used free Fermi gas model. This result is consistent with our analysis of recent data on the free proton-to-neutron ratios measured in intermediate energy nucleus-nucleus collisions as well as with microscopic many-body calculations, and previous phenomenological extractions. We then use our calculated Esymkin(ρ ) in combination with the known total symmetry energy and its density dependence at saturation density to constrain the value and density dependence of the potential part and to extrapolate the total symmetry energy to supranuclear densities.

  11. Cold-nuclear-matter effects on heavy-quark production at forward and backward rapidity in d + Au collisions at √sNN = 200  GeV.

    PubMed

    Adare, A; Aidala, C; Ajitanand, N N; Akiba, Y; Akimoto, R; Al-Bataineh, H; Al-Ta'ani, H; Alexander, J; Andrews, K R; Angerami, A; Aoki, K; Apadula, N; Appelt, E; Aramaki, Y; Armendariz, R; Aschenauer, E C; Atomssa, E T; Averbeck, R; Awes, T C; Azmoun, B; Babintsev, V; Bai, M; Baksay, G; Baksay, L; Bannier, B; Barish, K N; Bassalleck, B; Basye, A T; Bathe, S; Baublis, V; Baumann, C; Bazilevsky, A; Belikov, S; Belmont, R; Ben-Benjamin, J; Bennett, R; Bhom, J H; Blau, D S; Bok, J S; Boyle, K; Brooks, M L; Broxmeyer, D; Buesching, H; Bumazhnov, V; Bunce, G; Butsyk, S; Campbell, S; Caringi, A; Castera, P; Chen, C-H; Chi, C Y; Chiu, M; Choi, I J; Choi, J B; Choudhury, R K; Christiansen, P; Chujo, T; Chung, P; Chvala, O; Cianciolo, V; Citron, Z; Cole, B A; Conesa Del Valle, Z; Connors, M; Csanád, M; Csörgő, T; Dahms, T; Dairaku, S; Danchev, I; Das, K; Datta, A; David, G; Dayananda, M K; Denisov, A; Deshpande, A; Desmond, E J; Dharmawardane, K V; Dietzsch, O; Dion, A; Donadelli, M; Drapier, O; Drees, A; Drees, K A; Durham, J M; Durum, A; Dutta, D; D'Orazio, L; Edwards, S; Efremenko, Y V; Ellinghaus, F; Engelmore, T; Enokizono, A; En'yo, H; Esumi, S; Fadem, B; Fields, D E; Finger, M; Finger, M; Fleuret, F; Fokin, S L; Fraenkel, Z; Frantz, J E; Franz, A; Frawley, A D; Fujiwara, K; Fukao, Y; Fusayasu, T; Gal, C; Garishvili, I; Glenn, A; Gong, H; Gong, X; Gonin, M; Goto, Y; Granier de Cassagnac, R; Grau, N; Greene, S V; Grim, G; Grosse Perdekamp, M; Gunji, T; Guo, L; Gustafsson, H-Å; Haggerty, J S; Hahn, K I; Hamagaki, H; Hamblen, J; Han, R; Hanks, J; Harper, C; Hashimoto, K; Haslum, E; Hayano, R; He, X; Heffner, M; Hemmick, T K; Hester, T; Hill, J C; Hohlmann, M; Hollis, R S; Holzmann, W; Homma, K; Hong, B; Horaguchi, T; Hori, Y; Hornback, D; Huang, S; Ichihara, T; Ichimiya, R; Iinuma, H; Ikeda, Y; Imai, K; Inaba, M; Iordanova, A; Isenhower, D; Ishihara, M; Issah, M; Ivanischev, D; Iwanaga, Y; Jacak, B V; Jia, J; Jiang, X; Jin, J; John, D; Johnson, B M; Jones, T; Joo, K S; Jouan, D; Jumper, D S; Kajihara, F; Kamin, J; Kaneti, S; Kang, B H; Kang, J H; Kang, J S; Kapustinsky, J; Karatsu, K; Kasai, M; Kawall, D; Kawashima, M; Kazantsev, A V; Kempel, T; Khanzadeev, A; Kijima, K M; Kikuchi, J; Kim, A; Kim, B I; Kim, D J; Kim, E-J; Kim, Y-J; Kim, Y K; Kinney, E; Kiss, A; Kistenev, E; Kleinjan, D; Kline, P; Kochenda, L; Komkov, B; Konno, M; Koster, J; Kotov, D; Král, A; Kravitz, A; Kunde, G J; Kurita, K; Kurosawa, M; Kwon, Y; Kyle, G S; Lacey, R; Lai, Y S; Lajoie, J G; Lebedev, A; Lee, D M; Lee, J; Lee, K B; Lee, K S; Lee, S H; Lee, S R; Leitch, M J; Leite, M A L; Li, X; Lichtenwalner, P; Liebing, P; Lim, S H; Linden Levy, L A; Liška, T; Liu, H; Liu, M X; Love, B; Lynch, D; Maguire, C F; Makdisi, Y I; Malik, M D; Manion, A; Manko, V I; Mannel, E; Mao, Y; Masui, H; Matathias, F; McCumber, M; McGaughey, P L; McGlinchey, D; McKinney, C; Means, N; Mendoza, M; Meredith, B; Miake, Y; Mibe, T; Mignerey, A C; Miki, K; Milov, A; Mitchell, J T; Miyachi, Y; Mohanty, A K; Moon, H J; Morino, Y; Morreale, A; Morrison, D P; Motschwiller, S; Moukhanova, T V; Murakami, T; Murata, J; Nagamiya, S; Nagle, J L; Naglis, M; Nagy, M I; Nakagawa, I; Nakamiya, Y; Nakamura, K R; Nakamura, T; Nakano, K; Nam, S; Newby, J; Nguyen, M; Nihashi, M; Nouicer, R; Nyanin, A S; Oakley, C; O'Brien, E; Oda, S X; Ogilvie, C A; Oka, M; Okada, K; Onuki, Y; Oskarsson, A; Ouchida, M; Ozawa, K; Pak, R; Pantuev, V; Papavassiliou, V; Park, B H; Park, I H; Park, S K; Park, W J; Pate, S F; Patel, L; Pei, H; Peng, J-C; Pereira, H; Peressounko, D Yu; Petti, R; Pinkenburg, C; Pisani, R P; Proissl, M; Purschke, M L; Qu, H; Rak, J; Ravinovich, I; Read, K F; Rembeczki, S; Reygers, K; Riabov, V; Riabov, Y; Richardson, E; Roach, D; Roche, G; Rolnick, S D; Rosati, M; Rosen, C A; Rosendahl, S S E; Ružička, P; Sahlmueller, B; Saito, N; Sakaguchi, T; Sakashita, K; Samsonov, V; Sano, S; Sarsour, M; Sato, T; Savastio, M; Sawada, S; Sedgwick, K; Seele, J; Seidl, R; Seto, R; Sharma, D; Shein, I; Shibata, T-A; Shigaki, K; Shim, H H; Shimomura, M; Shoji, K; Shukla, P; Sickles, A; Silva, C L; Silvermyr, D; Silvestre, C; Sim, K S; Singh, B K; Singh, C P; Singh, V; Slunečka, M; Sodre, T; Soltz, R A; Sondheim, W E; Sorensen, S P; Sourikova, I V; Stankus, P W; Stenlund, E; Stoll, S P; Sugitate, T; Sukhanov, A; Sun, J; Sziklai, J; Takagui, E M; Takahara, A; Taketani, A; Tanabe, R; Tanaka, Y; Taneja, S; Tanida, K; Tannenbaum, M J; Tarafdar, S; Taranenko, A; Tennant, E; Themann, H; Thomas, D; Thomas, T L; Togawa, M; Toia, A; Tomášek, L; Tomášek, M; Torii, H; Towell, R S; Tserruya, I; Tsuchimoto, Y; Utsunomiya, K; Vale, C; Valle, H; van Hecke, H W; Vazquez-Zambrano, E; Veicht, A; Velkovska, J; Vértesi, R; Virius, M; Vossen, A; Vrba, V; Vznuzdaev, E; Wang, X R; Watanabe, D; Watanabe, K; Watanabe, Y; Watanabe, Y S; Wei, F; Wei, R; Wessels, J; White, S N; Winter, D; Woody, C L; Wright, R M; Wysocki, M; Yamaguchi, Y L; Yamaura, K; Yang, R; Yanovich, A; Ying, J; Yokkaichi, S; Yoo, J S; You, Z; Young, G R; Younus, I; Yushmanov, I E; Zajc, W A; Zelenski, A; Zhou, S

    2014-06-27

    The PHENIX experiment has measured open heavy-flavor production via semileptonic decay over the transverse momentum range 1 < p(T) < 6  GeV/c at forward and backward rapidity (1.4 < |y| < 2.0) in d+Au and p + p collisions at √sNN = 200  GeV. In central d+Au collisions, relative to the yield in p + p collisions scaled by the number of binary nucleon-nucleon collisions, a suppression is observed at forward rapidity (in the d-going direction) and an enhancement at backward rapidity (in the Au-going direction). Predictions using nuclear-modified-parton-distribution functions, even with additional nuclear-p(T) broadening, cannot simultaneously reproduce the data at both rapidity ranges, which implies that these models are incomplete and suggests the possible importance of final-state interactions in the asymmetric d + Au collision system. These results can be used to probe cold-nuclear-matter effects, which may significantly affect heavy-quark production, in addition to helping constrain the magnitude of charmonia-breakup effects in nuclear matter.

  12. Directional detection of dark matter in universal bound states

    DOE PAGES

    Laha, Ranjan

    2015-10-06

    It has been suggested that several small-scale structure anomalies in Λ CDM cosmology can be solved by strong self-interaction between dark matter particles. It was shown in Ref. [1] that the presence of a near threshold S-wave resonance can make the scattering cross section at nonrelativistic speeds come close to saturating the unitarity bound. This can result in the formation of a stable bound state of two asymmetric dark matter particles (which we call darkonium). Ref. [2] studied the nuclear recoil energy spectrum in dark matter direct detection experiments due to this incident bound state. Here we study the angularmore » recoil spectrum, and show that it is uniquely determined up to normalization by the S-wave scattering length. Furthermore, observing this angular recoil spectrum in a dark matter directional detection experiment will uniquely determine many of the low-energy properties of dark matter independent of the underlying dark matter microphysics.« less

  13. Nuclear reactions in deuterium-saturated palladium under irradiation by 10 MeV γ-quanta, in dense molecular deuterium at 1.2 kbar pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Didyk, A. Yu.; Wisniewski, R. S.

    2013-08-01

    A high-pressure chamber with a Pd-rod inside was filled up with 1.2 kbar molecular deuterium (DHPC). Then the saturated by deuterium palladium rod was irradiated during 18 hours by 11 MeV braking γ-quanta at 11-13 μA electron beam using the MT-25 electron accelerator. The element compositions of all the DHPC surfaces which had been in contact with dense deuterium gas were studied using scanning electronic microscopes with Roentgen microprobe analysis. It was determined that all the surfaces, including surfaces of the high-purity Pd-rod (99.995%), were covered either by a partially homogeneous layer or large microparticles of lead. Also, light elements as C, O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn and heavy metals as Ag, Ta, W, Pt, Au and Pb were observed on the chambers inner surfaces.

  14. 78 FR 42560 - In the Matter of Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power, Co., Ltd. and All Other Persons Who Seek or...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-16

    ... specific requirements for applicants for new nuclear power reactors can be found in Section V of the....(1) and C.(2) above to the Director, Office of New Reactors, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission... the Director, Office of New Reactors, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC...

  15. Influence of saturation properties on shell-model calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abzouzi, A.; Caurier, E.; Zuker, A. P.

    1991-03-01

    It is shown that the nuclear Hamiltonian scrH separates rigorously into a monopole field scrHm and a multipole part scrHm. scrHm is entirely responsible for saturation properties and can be treated phenomenologically with few parameters. When realistic interactions are used for scrHM in regions from the p shell to the N=82 isotones, shell-model calculations yield excellent spectroscopy and demand nuclear radii very close to the observed ones.

  16. Apparatus Makes Precisely Saturated Solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pusey, Marc L.

    1989-01-01

    Simple laboratory apparatus establishes equilibrium conditions of temperature and concentration in solutions for use in precise measurements of saturation conditions. With equipment typical measurement of saturation concentration of protein in solution established and measured within about 24 hours. Precisely saturated solution made by passing solvent or solution slowly along column packed with solute at precisely controlled temperature. If necessary, flow stopped for experimentally determined interval to allow equilibrium to be established in column.

  17. Saturated fats: what dietary intake?

    PubMed

    German, J Bruce; Dillard, Cora J

    2004-09-01

    Public health recommendations for the US population in 1977 were to reduce fat intake to as low as 30% of calories to lower the incidence of coronary artery disease. These recommendations resulted in a compositional shift in food materials throughout the agricultural industry, and the fractional content of fats was replaced principally with carbohydrates. Subsequently, high-carbohydrate diets were recognized as contributing to the lipoprotein pattern that characterizes atherogenic dyslipidemia and hypertriacylglycerolemia. The rising incidences of metabolic syndrome and obesity are becoming common themes in the literature. Current recommendations are to keep saturated fatty acid, trans fatty acid, and cholesterol intakes as low as possible while consuming a nutritionally adequate diet. In the face of such recommendations, the agricultural industry is shifting food composition toward lower proportions of all saturated fatty acids. To date, no lower safe limit of specific saturated fatty acid intakes has been identified. This review summarizes research findings and observations on the disparate functions of saturated fatty acids and seeks to bring a more quantitative balance to the debate on dietary saturated fat. Whether a finite quantity of specific dietary saturated fatty acids actually benefits health is not yet known. Because agricultural practices to reduce saturated fat will require a prolonged and concerted effort, and because the world is moving toward more individualized dietary recommendations, should the steps to decrease saturated fatty acids to as low as agriculturally possible not wait until evidence clearly indicates which amounts and types of saturated fatty acids are optimal?

  18. Contribution of radioactive (137)Cs discharge by suspended sediment, coarse organic matter, and dissolved fraction from a headwater catchment in Fukushima after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    PubMed

    Iwagami, Sho; Onda, Yuichi; Tsujimura, Maki; Abe, Yutaka

    2017-01-01

    Radiocesium ((137)Cs) migration from headwaters in forested areas provides important information, as the output from forest streams subsequently enters various land-use areas and downstream rivers. Thus, it is important to determine the composition of (137)Cs fluxes (dissolved fraction, suspended sediment, or coarse organic matter) that migrate through a headwater stream. In this study, the (137)Cs discharge by suspended sediment and coarse organic matter from a forest headwater catchment was monitored. The (137)Cs concentrations in suspended sediment and coarse organic matter, such as leaves and branches, and the amounts of suspended sediment and coarse organic matter were measured at stream sites in three headwater catchments in Yamakiya District, located ∼35 km northwest of Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) from August 2012 to September 2013, following the earthquake and tsunami disaster. Suspended sediment and coarse organic matter were sampled at intervals of approximately 1-2 months. The (137)Cs concentrations of suspended sediment and coarse organic matter were 2.4-49 kBq/kg and 0.85-14 kBq/kg, respectively. The (137)Cs concentrations of the suspended sediment were closely correlated with the average deposition density of the catchment. The annual proportions of contribution of (137)Cs discharge by suspended sediment, coarse organic matter, and dissolved fraction were 96-99%, 0.0092-0.069%, and 0.73-3.7%, respectively. The total annual (137)Cs discharge from the catchment was 0.02-0.3% of the deposition.

  19. 10 CFR 820.8 - Evidentiary matters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Evidentiary matters. 820.8 Section 820.8 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROCEDURAL RULES FOR DOE NUCLEAR ACTIVITIES General § 820.8 Evidentiary matters. (a... matter related to a DOE nuclear activity or for any decision required by this part. A DOE Official...

  20. 10 CFR 820.8 - Evidentiary matters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Evidentiary matters. 820.8 Section 820.8 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROCEDURAL RULES FOR DOE NUCLEAR ACTIVITIES General § 820.8 Evidentiary matters. (a... matter related to a DOE nuclear activity or for any decision required by this part. A DOE Official...

  1. 10 CFR 820.8 - Evidentiary matters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Evidentiary matters. 820.8 Section 820.8 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROCEDURAL RULES FOR DOE NUCLEAR ACTIVITIES General § 820.8 Evidentiary matters. (a... matter related to a DOE nuclear activity or for any decision required by this part. A DOE Official...

  2. 10 CFR 820.8 - Evidentiary matters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Evidentiary matters. 820.8 Section 820.8 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROCEDURAL RULES FOR DOE NUCLEAR ACTIVITIES General § 820.8 Evidentiary matters. (a... matter related to a DOE nuclear activity or for any decision required by this part. A DOE Official...

  3. 10 CFR 820.8 - Evidentiary matters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Evidentiary matters. 820.8 Section 820.8 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROCEDURAL RULES FOR DOE NUCLEAR ACTIVITIES General § 820.8 Evidentiary matters. (a... matter related to a DOE nuclear activity or for any decision required by this part. A DOE Official...

  4. Centrality, Rapidity And Transverse-Momentum Dependence of Cold Nuclear Matter Effects on J/Psi Production in D Au, Cu Cu And Au Au Collisions at S(NN)**(1/2)

    SciTech Connect

    Ferreiro, E.G.; Fleuret, F.; Lansberg, J.P.; Rakotozafindrabe, A.; /SPhN, DAPNIA, Saclay

    2011-11-11

    We have carried out a wide study of Cold Nuclear Matter (CNM) effects on J/{Psi} = production in dAu, CuCu and AuAu collisions at {radical}s{sub NN} = 200 GeV. We have studied the effects of three different gluon-shadowing parameterizations, using the usual simplified kinematics for which the momentum of the gluon recoiling against the J/{Psi} is neglected as well as an exact kinematics for a 2 {yields} 2 process, namely g + g {yields} J/{psi} + g as expected from LO pQCD. We have shown that the rapidity distribution of the nuclear modification factor R{sub dAu}, and particularly its anti-shadowing peak, is systematically shifted toward larger rapidities in the 2 {yields} 2 kinematics, irrespective of which shadowing parameterization is used. In turn, we have noted differences in the effective final-state nuclear absorption needed to fit the PHENIX dAu data. Taking advantage of our implementation of a 2 {yields} 2 kinematics, we have also computed the transverse momentum dependence of the nuclear modification factor, which cannot be predicted with the usual simplified kinematics. All the corresponding observables have been computed for CuCu and AuAu collisions and compared to the PHENIX and STAR data. Finally, we have extracted the effective nuclear absorption from the recent measurements of RCP in dAu collisions by the PHENIX collaboration.

  5. Centrality, rapidity, and transverse-momentum dependence of cold nuclear matter effects on J/psi production in dAu, CuCu, and AuAu collisions at sq root(s{sub NN})=200 GeV

    SciTech Connect

    Ferreiro, E. G.; Fleuret, F.; Rakotozafindrabe, A.

    2010-06-15

    We have carried out a wide study of cold nuclear matter (CNM) effects on J/psi production in dAu, CuCu and AuAu collisions at sq root(s{sub NN})=200 GeV. We have studied the effects of three different gluon-shadowing parametrizations, using the usual simplified kinematics for which the momentum of the gluon recoiling against the J/psi is neglected as well as an exact kinematics for a 2->2 process; namely g+g->J/psi+g as expected from LO pQCD. We have shown that the rapidity distribution of the nuclear modification factor R{sub dAu}, and particularly its antishadowing peak, is systematically shifted toward larger rapidities in the 2->2 kinematics, irrespective of which shadowing parametrization is used. In turn, we have noted differences in the effective final-state nuclear absorption needed to fit the PHENIX dAu data. Taking advantage of our implementation of 2->2 kinematics, we have also computed the transverse momentum dependence of the nuclear modification factor, which cannot be predicted with the usual simplified kinematics. All the corresponding observables have been computed for CuCu and AuAu collisions and compared to the PHENIX and STAR data. Finally, we have extracted the effective nuclear absorption from the recent measurements of R{sub CP} in dAu collisions by the PHENIX collaboration.

  6. Constraining the density slope of nuclear symmetry energy at subsaturation densities using electric dipole polarizability in 208Pb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhen; Chen, Lie-Wen

    2014-12-01

    Nuclear structure observables usually most effectively probe the properties of nuclear matter at subsaturation densities rather than at saturation density. We demonstrate that the electric dipole polarizibility αD in 208Pb is sensitive to both the magnitude Esym(ρc) and density slope L (ρc) of the symmetry energy at the subsaturation cross density ρc=0.11 fm-3. Using the experimental data of αD in 208Pb from RCNP (Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Osaka University) and the recent accurate constraint of Esym(ρc) from the binding energy difference of heavy isotope pairs, we extract a value of L (ρc)=47.3 ±7.8 MeV. The implication of the present constraint of L (ρc) to the symmetry energy at saturation density, the neutron skin thickness of 208Pb and the core-crust transition density in neutron stars is discussed.

  7. Saturation of Zonal Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Eun-Jin

    2002-11-01

    Zonal flows (ZF) are generated by drift wave (DW) turbulence and then regulate it near marginality by shear suppression. Since collisions damp ZF while ZF suppress DW, the amplitude of DW turbulence (i.e. turbulent transport) is, in turn, proportional to collisionality. A key question is then what happens away from marginality, namely what is the saturation mechanism of ZF in that regime? This raises the interesting physical question of how ZF interact with mne 0, poloidally non-axisymmetric modes [1], both linearly and non linearly. We investigate this issue by exploring the nonlinear excitation of GKH modes by modulational instability in the background of finite amplitude of DW turbulence, as well as the linear inflection-type instability of ZF. In a simple model with cold ions, we show that ZF can grow faster than the linear GKH for γ/ω

  8. Carbon storage in soil: how different land uses affect particulate organic matter composition. A molecular approach using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panettieri, Marco; Courtier-Murias, Denis; Rumpel, Cornelia; Dignac, Marie-France; Doumert, Bertrand; Chabbi, Abad

    2017-04-01

    The future soil carbon stocks in a climate change scenario is being closely monitored. However, the huge edaphoclimatic variability impedes to disclose the mechanisms which underlie the cycle of accumulation/mineralization of soil organic matter (SOM). Soil environment could be described as a complex three phases matrix in which gases, liquids, and solids are not uniformly mixed, and in which microbes, fungi, vegetal residues, and roots are continuously interacting with the soil matrix and with each other. Molecular analyses on soil samples are crucial to estimate how stable those pools are and to predict which practices may accumulate larger C stocks. However, the study of land use impact through molecular characterization of a complex mixture like SOM is a challenge that requires a multidisciplinary approach. The present study applied a combination of soil physical fractionation (separation by density of the particulate organic matter (POM) within water stable aggregate fractions) followed by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy as a way to overcome spatial variability and to quantify the changes in the composition of SOM induced by land-use changes. The objective of the study was to assess, at a molecular level, the impact of different land managements, i.e. the introduction of temporary (ley) grassland into cropping cycles, on the chemical composition of SOM. Soil samples were collected at the long-term experimental observatory in Lusignan (http://www.soere-acbb.com/), in which control plots under permanent grassland, permanent cropland, and bare fallow are part of the experiment. To improve the signal-to-noise ratio (especially in the aromatic-C region), samples were analyzed using a ramped cross polarization-single pulse/magic angle spinning (CPSP/MAS) experiment. Peak integrals of different spectral regions (indicating different compound classes) were compared between treatments and two different molecular mixing models, calibrated against standard

  9. Understanding NMR relaxometry of partially water-saturated rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohnke, O.; Nordlund, C.; Jorand, R.; Klitzsch, N.

    2014-11-01

    Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) relaxometry measurements are commonly used to characterize the storage and transport properties of water-saturated rocks. These assessments are based on the proportionality of NMR signal amplitude and relaxation time to porosity (water content) and pore size, respectively. The relationship between pore size and NMR relaxation time depends on pore shape, which is usually assumed to be spherical or cylindrical. However, the NMR response at partial water saturation for natural sediments and rocks differs strongly from the response calculated for spherical or cylindrical pores, because these pore shapes cannot account for water menisci remaining in the corners of de-saturated angular pores. Therefore, we consider a bundle of pores with triangular cross-sections. We introduce analytical solutions of the NMR equations at partial saturation of these pores, which account for water menisci of de-saturated pores. After developing equations that describe the water distribution inside the pores, we calculate the NMR response at partial saturation for imbibition and drainage based on the deduced water distributions. For this pore model, NMR amplitude and NMR relaxation time at partial water saturation strongly depend on pore shape even so the NMR relaxation time at full saturation only depends on the surface to volume ratio of the pore. The pore-shape-dependence at partial saturation arises from the pore shape and capillary pressure dependent water distribution in pores with triangular cross-sections. Moreover, we show the qualitative agreement of the saturation dependent relaxation time distributions of our model with those observed for rocks and soils.

  10. Dynamic Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hohner, Jack

    2003-05-01

    First postulate: Following the Big Bang, quarks, born from zero point mass, did not acquire a constant size. They are growing. Atomic distances remain relative to increasing quark diameter resulting in molecular density remaining constant. Current rate of quark growth results in an increase of Earth radius of approximately 2.8 cm/year. The perpetual growth is sustained by the conversion of space to matter. The equality of space to matter is algebraically derived from Newton's law of gravity. There results an inward flow of space at each quark. This creates a vector field of space flowing inward at the Earth. Next postulate: Einstein space curvature is actually inward flow of space. Although this appears as an ether theory, it does not conflict with relativity. The combined vector fields of all stars in the universe create a scalar field equal to C. Inward velocity of space at the surface of the Earth is calculated at 1.46 cm/sec. This is derived from space curvature formula from relativity. This value accelerates toward the nucleus of each atom until it terminates at C at the diameter of a quark. These two predictions of the velocity C demonstrate why it is the universal constant. This work predicts the gravitational constant from a derivation based on C. Several unifying aspects emerge including; equivalence principle, 5 dimensions, time, strong nuclear force, decreasing rotational velocity of Earth, dark matter, red shift and quantum mechanics. This theory is an extension of Einstein and Newton.

  11. Amide hydrogen exchange rates of peptides in H2O solution by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance transfer of solvent saturation method. Conformations of oxytocin and lysine vasopressin in aqueous solution.

    PubMed Central

    Krishna, N R; Huang, D H; Glickson, J D; Rowan, R; Walter, R

    1979-01-01

    The NH exchange rates in aqueous media of oxytocin and 8-lysine vasopressin (LVP) have been measured by using transfer of solvent saturation method. The data are consistent with a "highly motile" dynamic equilibrium between folded and highly solvated conformations. The highly-motility limit applies to the exchange of NH hydrogens of oxytocin and LVP. Folded structures are more prevalent in oxytocin than in LVP. Partial shielding is indicated for peptide hydrogens of Asn5 and perhaps also Cys6 of oxytocin and for Cys6 of LVP. It is tentatively proposed that the folded conformation of oxytocin in aqueous media may contain a parallel beta-structure in the tocinamide ring consisting of two hydrogen bonds: one between the Tyr2 C = O and Asn5 peptide NH as originally proposed for the preferred conformation of oxytocin in dimethyl sulfoxide (D. W. Urry and R. Walter), and the second between he Cys1 C = O and the Cys6 NH. In LVP the hydrogen bond between the Tyr2 C = O and Asn5 peptide NH appears to be absent. The acylic tripeptide sequences (-Pro-X-Gly-NH2) of both hormones appear to be predominantly solvated. The second-order rate constants for acid catalyzed exchange of the primary amide hydrogens of Gln4, Asn5, and Gly9 of oxytocin are consistently greater for the trans NH than for the corresponding cis NH. This observation can be rationalized in terms of mechanisms involving protonation of either the amide oxygen, or the amide nitrogen, but with limited rotation about the C - N bond. PMID:262422

  12. Understanding NMR relaxometry of partially water-saturated rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohnke, O.; Jorand, R.; Nordlund, C.; Klitzsch, N.

    2015-06-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxometry measurements are commonly used to characterize the storage and transport properties of water-saturated rocks. Estimations of these properties are based on the direct link of the initial NMR signal amplitude to porosity (water content) and of the NMR relaxation time to pore size. Herein, pore shapes are usually assumed to be spherical or cylindrical. However, the NMR response at partial water saturation for natural sediments and rocks may differ strongly from the responses calculated for spherical or cylindrical pores, because these pore shapes do not account for water menisci remaining in the corners of desaturated angular pores. Therefore, we consider a bundle of pores with triangular cross sections. We introduce analytical solutions of the NMR equations at partial saturation of these pores, which account for water menisci of desaturated pores. After developing equations that describe the water distribution inside the pores, we calculate the NMR response at partial saturation for imbibition and drainage based on the deduced water distributions. For this pore model, the NMR amplitudes and NMR relaxation times at partial water saturation strongly depend on pore shape, i.e., arising from the capillary pressure and pore shape-dependent water distribution in desaturated pores with triangular cross sections. Even so, the NMR relaxation time at full saturation only depends on the surface-to-volume ratio of the pore. Moreover, we show the qualitative agreement of the saturation-dependent relaxation-time distributions of our model with those observed for rocks and soils.

  13. Saturation current spikes eliminated in saturable core transformers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwarz, F. C.

    1971-01-01

    Unsaturating composite magnetic core transformer, consisting of two separate parallel cores designed so impending core saturation causes signal generation, terminates high current spike in converter primary circuit. Simplified waveform, demonstrates transformer effectiveness in eliminating current spikes.

  14. Landsliding in partially saturated materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Godt, J.W.; Baum, R.L.; Lu, N.

    2009-01-01

    [1] Rainfall-induced landslides are pervasive in hillslope environments around the world and among the most costly and deadly natural hazards. However, capturing their occurrence with scientific instrumentation in a natural setting is extremely rare. The prevailing thinking on landslide initiation, particularly for those landslides that occur under intense precipitation, is that the failure surface is saturated and has positive pore-water pressures acting on it. Most analytic methods used for landslide hazard assessment are based on the above perception and assume that the failure surface is located beneath a water table. By monitoring the pore water and soil suction response to rainfall, we observed shallow landslide occurrence under partially saturated conditions for the first time in a natural setting. We show that the partially saturated shallow landslide at this site is predictable using measured soil suction and water content and a novel unified effective stress concept for partially saturated earth materials. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

  15. Saturation of CVD Diamond Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Lucile S. Dauffy; Richard A. Lerche; Greg J. Schmid; Jeffrey A. Koch; Christopher Silbernagel

    2005-01-01

    A 5 x 0.25 mm Chemical Vapor Deposited (CVD) diamond detector, with a voltage bias of + 250V, was excited by a 400 nm laser (3.1 eV photons) in order to study the saturation of the wafer and its surrounding electronics. In a first experiment, the laser beam energy was increased from a few tens of a pJ to about 100 µJ, and the signal from the diamond was recorded until full saturation of the detection system was achieved. Clear saturation of the detection system was observed at about 40 V, which corresponds with the expected saturation at 10% of the applied bias (250V). The results indicate that the interaction mechanism of the 3.1 eV photons in the diamond (Ebandgap = 5.45 eV) is not a multi-photon process but is linked to the impurities and defects of the crystal. In a second experiment, the detector was irradiated by a saturating first laser pulse and then by a delayed laser pulse of equal or smaller amplitude with delays of 5, 10, and 20 ns. The results suggest that the diamond and associated electronics recover within 10 to 20 ns after a strong saturating pulse.

  16. Graphene-clad microfibre saturable absorber for ultrafast fibre lasers

    PubMed Central

    Liu, X. M.; Yang, H. R.; Cui, Y. D.; Chen, G. W.; Yang, Y.; Wu, X. Q.; Yao, X. K.; Han, D. D.; Han, X. X.; Zeng, C.; Guo, J.; Li, W. L.; Cheng, G.; Tong, L. M.

    2016-01-01

    Graphene, whose absorbance is approximately independent of wavelength, allows broadband light–matter interactions with ultrafast responses. The interband optical absorption of graphene can be saturated readily under strong excitation, thereby enabling scientists to exploit the photonic properties of graphene to realize ultrafast lasers. The evanescent field interaction scheme of the propagating light with graphene covered on a D-shaped fibre or microfibre has been employed extensively because of the nonblocking configuration. Obviously, most of the fibre surface is unused in these techniques. Here, we exploit a graphene-clad microfibre (GCM) saturable absorber in a mode-locked fibre laser for the generation of ultrafast pulses. The proposed all-surface technique can guarantee a higher efficiency of light–graphene interactions than the aforementioned techniques. Our GCM-based saturable absorber can generate ultrafast optical pulses within 1.5 μm. This saturable absorber is compatible with current fibre lasers and has many merits such as low saturation intensities, ultrafast recovery times, and wide wavelength ranges. The proposed saturable absorber will pave the way for graphene-based wideband photonics. PMID:27181419

  17. Graphene-clad microfibre saturable absorber for ultrafast fibre lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, X. M.; Yang, H. R.; Cui, Y. D.; Chen, G. W.; Yang, Y.; Wu, X. Q.; Yao, X. K.; Han, D. D.; Han, X. X.; Zeng, C.; Guo, J.; Li, W. L.; Cheng, G.; Tong, L. M.

    2016-05-01

    Graphene, whose absorbance is approximately independent of wavelength, allows broadband light–matter interactions with ultrafast responses. The interband optical absorption of graphene can be saturated readily under strong excitation, thereby enabling scientists to exploit the photonic properties of graphene to realize ultrafast lasers. The evanescent field interaction scheme of the propagating light with graphene covered on a D-shaped fibre or microfibre has been employed extensively because of the nonblocking configuration. Obviously, most of the fibre surface is unused in these techniques. Here, we exploit a graphene-clad microfibre (GCM) saturable absorber in a mode-locked fibre laser for the generation of ultrafast pulses. The proposed all-surface technique can guarantee a higher efficiency of light–graphene interactions than the aforementioned techniques. Our GCM-based saturable absorber can generate ultrafast optical pulses within 1.5 μm. This saturable absorber is compatible with current fibre lasers and has many merits such as low saturation intensities, ultrafast recovery times, and wide wavelength ranges. The proposed saturable absorber will pave the way for graphene-based wideband photonics.

  18. Isospin quartic term in the kinetic energy of neutron-rich nucleonic matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Bao-Jun; Li, Bao-An

    2015-07-01

    The energy of a free gas of neutrons and protons is well known to be approximately isospin parabolic with a negligibly small quartic term of only 0.45 MeV at the saturation density of nuclear matter ρ0=0.16 fm-3 . Using an isospin-dependent single-nucleon momentum distribution including a high (low) momentum tail (depletion) with its shape parameters constrained by recent high-energy electron scattering and medium-energy nuclear photodisintegration experiments as well as the state-of-the-art calculations of the deuteron wave function and the equation of state of pure neutron matter near the unitary limit within several modern microscopic many-body theories, we show for the first time that the kinetic energy of interacting nucleons in neutron-rich nucleonic matter has a significant quartic term of 7.18 ±2.52 MeV. Such a large quartic term has broad ramifications in determining the equation of state of neutron-rich nucleonic matter using observables of nuclear reactions and neutron stars.

  19. Nucleon effective E-mass in neutron-rich matter from the Migdal–Luttinger jump

    DOE PAGES

    Cai, Bao-Jun; Li, Bao-An

    2016-03-25

    The well-known Migdal-Luttinger theorem states that the jump of the single-nucleon momentum distribution at the Fermi surface is equal to the inverse of the nucleon effective E-mass. Recent experiments studying short-range correlations (SRC) in nuclei using electron-nucleus scatterings at the Jefferson National Laboratory (JLAB) together with model calculations constrained significantly the Migdal-Luttinger jump at saturation density of nuclear matter. We show that the corresponding nucleon effective E-mass is consequently constrained to M-0(*,E)/M approximate to 2.22 +/- 0.35 in symmetric nuclear matter (SNM) and the E-mass of neutrons is smaller than that of protons in neutron-rich matter. Moreover, the average depletionmore » of the nucleon Fermi sea increases (decreases) approximately linearly with the isospin asymmetry delta according to kappa(p/n) approximate to 0.21 +/- 0.06 +/- (0.19 +/- 0.08)delta for protons (neutrons). These results will help improve our knowledge about the space-time non-locality of the single-nucleon potential in neutron-rich nucleonic matter Useful in both nuclear physics and astrophysics. (C) 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/). Funded by SCOAP(3).« less

  20. From dilute matter to the equilibrium point in the energy-density-functional theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, C. J.; Grasso, M.; Lacroix, D.

    2016-09-01

    Due to the large value of the scattering length in nuclear systems, standard density-functional theories based on effective interactions usually fail to reproduce the nuclear Fermi-liquid behavior both at very low densities and close to equilibrium. Guided on one side by the success of the Skyrme density functional and, on the other side, by resummation techniques used in effective field theories for systems with large scattering lengths, a new energy-density functional is proposed. This functional, adjusted on microscopic calculations, reproduces the nuclear equations of state of neutron and symmetric matter at various densities. Furthermore, it provides reasonable saturation properties as well as an appropriate density dependence for the symmetry energy.

  1. Thermal effects in supernova matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Constantinou, Constantinos

    A crucial ingredient in simulations of core collapse supernova (SN) explosions is the equation of state (EOS) of nucleonic matter for densities extending from 10-7 fm-3 to 1 ffm-3, temperatures up to 50 MeV, and proton-to-baryon fraction in the range 0 to 1/2. SN explosions release 99% of the progenitor star's gravitational potential energy in the form of neutrinos and, additionally, they are responsible for populating the universe with elements heavier than 56Fe. Therefore, the importance of understanding this phenomenon cannot be overstated as it could shed light onto the underlying nuclear and neutrino physics. A realistic EOS of SN matter must incorporate the nucleon-nucleon interaction in a many-body environment. We treat this problem with a non-relativistic potential model as well as relativistic mean-field theoretical one. In the former approach, we employ the Skyrme-like Hamiltonian density constructed by Akmal, Pandharipande, and Ravenhall which takes into account the long scattering lengths of nucleons that determine the low density characteristics. In the latter, we use a Walecka-like Lagrangian density supplemented by non-linear interactions involving scalar, vector, and isovector meson exchanges, calibrated so that known properties of nuclear matter are reproduced. We focus on the bulk homogeneous phase and calculate its thermodynamic properties as functions of baryon density, temperature, and proton-to-baryon ratio. The exact numerical results are then compared to those in the degenerate and non-degenerate limits for which analytical formulae have been derived. We find that the two models bahave similarly for densities up to nuclear saturation but exhibit differences at higher densities most notably in the isospin susceptibilities, the chemical potentials, and the pressure. The importance of the correct momentum dependence in the single particle potential that fits optical potentials of nucleon-nucleus scattering was highlighted in the context of

  2. Quark matter droplets in neutron stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heiselberg, H.; Pethick, C. J.; Staubo, E. F.

    1993-01-01

    We show that, for physically reasonable bulk and surface properties, the lowest energy state of dense matter consists of quark matter coexisting with nuclear matter in the presence of an essentially uniform background of electrons. We estimate the size and nature of spatial structure in this phase, and show that at the lowest densities the quark matter forms droplets embedded in nuclear matter, whereas at higher densities it can exhibit a variety of different topologies. A finite fraction of the interior of neutron stars could consist of matter in this new phase, which would provide new mechanisms for glitches and cooling.

  3. Quark matter droplets in neutron stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heiselberg, H.; Pethick, C. J.; Staubo, E. F.

    1993-01-01

    We show that, for physically reasonable bulk and surface properties, the lowest energy state of dense matter consists of quark matter coexisting with nuclear matter in the presence of an essentially uniform background of electrons. We estimate the size and nature of spatial structure in this phase, and show that at the lowest densities the quark matter forms droplets embedded in nuclear matter, whereas at higher densities it can exhibit a variety of different topologies. A finite fraction of the interior of neutron stars could consist of matter in this new phase, which would provide new mechanisms for glitches and cooling.

  4. Transport of Intrinsic Plutonium Colloids in Saturated Porous Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, D.; Abdel-Fattah, A.; Boukhalfa, H.; Ware, S. D.; Tarimala, S.; Keller, A. A.

    2011-12-01

    Actinide contaminants were introduced to the subsurface environment as a result of nuclear weapons development and testing, as well as for nuclear power generation and related research activities for defense and civilian applications. Even though most actinide species were believed to be fairly immobile once in the subsurface, recent studies have shown the transport of actinides kilometers away from their disposal sites. For example, the treated liquid wastes released into Mortandad Canyon at the Los Alamos National Laboratory were predicted to travel less than a few meters; however, plutonium and americium have been detected 3.4 km away from the waste outfall. A colloid-facilitated mechanism has been suggested to account for this unexpected transport of these radioactive wastes. Clays, oxides, organic matters, and actinide hydroxides have all been proposed as the possible mobile phase. Pu ions associated with natural colloids are often referred to as pseudo-Pu colloids, in contrast with the intrinsic Pu colloids that consist of Pu oxides. Significant efforts have been made to investigate the role of pseudo-Pu colloids, while few studies have evaluated the environmental behavior of the intrinsic Pu colloids. Given the fact that Pu (IV) has extremely low solubility product constant, it can be inferred that the transport of Pu in the intrinsic form is highly likely at suitable environmental conditions. This study investigates the transport of intrinsic Pu colloids in a saturated alluvium material packed in a cylindrical column (2.5-cm Dia. x 30-cm high) and compares the results to previous data on the transport of pseudo Pu colloids in the same material. A procedure to prepare a stable intrinsic Pu colloid suspension that produced consistent and reproducible electrokinetic and stability data was developed. Electrokinetic properties and aggregation stability were characterized. The Pu colloids, together with trillium as a conservative tracer, were injected into the

  5. Slow light and saturable absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selden, A. C.

    2009-06-01

    Quantitative analysis of slow light experiments utilising coherent population oscillation (CPO) in a range of saturably absorbing media, including ruby and alexandrite, Er3+:Y2SiO5, bacteriorhodopsin, semiconductor quantum devices and erbium-doped optical fibres, shows that the observations may be more simply interpreted as saturable absorption phenomena. A basic two-level model of a saturable absorber displays all the effects normally associated with slow light, namely phase shift and modulation gain of the transmitted signal, hole burning in the modulation frequency spectrum and power broadening of the spectral hole, each arising from the finite response time of the non-linear absorption. Only where hole-burning in the optical spectrum is observed (using independent pump and probe beams), or pulse delays exceeding the limits set by saturable absorption are obtained, can reasonable confidence be placed in the observation of slow light in such experiments. Superluminal (“fast light”) phenomena in media with reverse saturable absorption (RSA) may be similarly explained.

  6. Theory of graphene saturable absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marini, A.; Cox, J. D.; García de Abajo, F. J.

    2017-03-01

    Saturable absorption is a nonperturbative nonlinear optical phenomenon that plays a pivotal role in the generation of ultrafast light pulses. Here we show that this effect emerges in graphene at unprecedentedly low light intensities, thus opening avenues to new nonlinear physics and applications in optical technology. Specifically, we theoretically investigate saturable absorption in extended graphene by developing a semianalytical nonperturbative single-particle approach, describing electron dynamics in the atomically-thin material using the two-dimensional Dirac equation for massless Dirac fermions, which is recast in the form of generalized Bloch equations. By solving the electron dynamics nonperturbatively, we account for both interband and intraband contributions to the intensity-dependent saturated conductivity and conclude that the former dominates regardless of the intrinsic doping state of the material. We obtain results in qualitative agreement with atomistic quantum-mechanical simulations of graphene nanoribbons including electron-electron interactions, finite-size, and higher-band effects. Remarkably, such effects are found to affect mainly the linear absorption, while the predicted saturation intensities are in good quantitative agreement in the limit of extended graphene. Additionally, we find that the modulation depth of saturable absorption in graphene can be electrically manipulated through an externally applied gate voltage. Our results are relevant for the development of graphene-based optoelectronic devices, as well as for applications in mode-locking and random lasers.

  7. Quantum nuclear pasta and nuclear symmetry energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fattoyev, F. J.; Horowitz, C. J.; Schuetrumpf, B.

    2017-05-01

    Complex and exotic nuclear geometries, collectively referred to as "nuclear pasta," are expected to appear naturally in dense nuclear matter found in the crusts of neutron stars and supernovae environments. The pasta geometries depend on the average baryon density, proton fraction, and temperature and are critically important in the determination of many transport properties of matter in supernovae and the crusts of neutron stars. Using a set of self-consistent microscopic nuclear energy density functionals, we present the first results of large scale quantum simulations of pasta phases at baryon densities 0.03 ≤ρ ≤0.10 fm-3 , proton fractions 0.05 ≤Yp≤0.40 , and zero temperature. The full quantum simulations, in particular, allow us to thoroughly investigate the role and impact of the nuclear symmetry energy on pasta configurations. We use the Sky3D code that solves the Skyrme Hartree-Fock equations on a three-dimensional Cartesian grid. For the nuclear interaction we use the state-of-the-art UNEDF1 parametrization, which was introduced to study largely deformed nuclei, hence is suitable for studies of the nuclear pasta. Density dependence of the nuclear symmetry energy is simulated by tuning two purely isovector observables that are insensitive to the current available experimental data. We find that a minimum total number of nucleons A =2000 is necessary to prevent the results from containing spurious shell effects and to minimize finite size effects. We find that a variety of nuclear pasta geometries are present in the neutron star crust, and the result strongly depends on the nuclear symmetry energy. The impact of the nuclear symmetry energy is less pronounced as the proton fractions increase. Quantum nuclear pasta calculations at T =0 MeV are shown to get easily trapped in metastable states, and possible remedies to avoid metastable solutions are discussed.

  8. Saturation and pulsed FEL dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Giannessi, L.; Mezi, L.

    1995-12-31

    The behavior of a FEL operating in the saturated pulsed regime, may be reproduced by the linear FEL integral equation, suitably modified to include saturation effects through a gain depression coefficient depending on the laser intensity. This simple method allows to evaluate several FEL parameters like gain, efficiency, band-width and optical pulse duration as functions of the optical cavity length, only with a numerical integration. The predictions have been compared with available experimental and numerical data, and the method has been applied to estimate the operating characteristics of some planned FEL experiments.

  9. Nuclear Terrorism.

    SciTech Connect

    Hecker, Siegfried S.

    2001-01-01

    As pointed out by several speakers, the level of violence and destruction in terrorist attacks has increased significantly during the past decade. Fortunately, few have involved weapons of mass destruction, and none have achieved mass casualties. The Aum Shinrikyo release of lethal nerve agent, sarin, in the Tokyo subway on March 20, 1995 clearly broke new ground by crossing the threshold in attempting mass casualties with chemical weapons. However, of all weapons of mass destruction, nuclear weapons still represent the most frightening threat to humankind. Nuclear weapons possess an enormous destructive force. The immediacy and scale of destruction are unmatched. In addition to destruction, terrorism also aims to create fear among the public and governments. Here also, nuclear weapons are unmatched. The public's fear of nuclear weapons or, for that matter, of all radioactivity is intense. To some extent, this fear arises from a sense of unlimited vulnerability. That is, radioactivity is seen as unbounded in three dimensions - distance, it is viewed as having unlimited reach; quantity, it is viewed as having deadly consequences in the smallest doses (the public is often told - incorrectly, of course - that one atom of plutonium will kill); and time, if it does not kill you immediately, then it will cause cancer decades hence.

  10. Saturated Zone Flow and Transport Expert Elicitation Project

    SciTech Connect

    Coppersmith, Kevin J.; Perman, Roseanne C.

    1998-01-01

    This report presents results of the Saturated Zone Flow and Transport Expert Elicitation (SZEE) project for Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This project was sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and managed by Geomatrix Consultants, Inc. (Geomatrix), for TRW Environmental Safety Systems, Inc. The DOE's Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (referred to as the YMP) is intended to evaluate the suitability of the site for construction of a mined geologic repository for the permanent disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. The SZEE project is one of several that involve the elicitation of experts to characterize the knowledge and uncertainties regarding key inputs to the Yucca Mountain Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA). The objective of the current project was to characterize the uncertainties associated with certain key issues related to the saturated zone system in the Yucca Mountain area and downgradient region. An understanding of saturated zone processes is critical to evaluating the performance of the potential high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. A major goal of the project was to capture the uncertainties involved in assessing the saturated flow processes, including uncertainty in both the models used to represent the physical processes controlling saturated zone flow and transport, and the parameter values used in the models. So that the analysis included a wide range of perspectives, multiple individual judgments were elicited from members of an expert panel. The panel members, who were experts from within and outside the Yucca Mountain project, represented a range of experience and expertise. A deliberate process was followed in facilitating interactions among the experts, in training them to express their uncertainties, and in eliciting their interpretations. The resulting assessments and probability distributions, therefore, provide a reasonable aggregate representation of the knowledge and

  11. Quark matter or new particles?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michel, F. Curtis

    1988-01-01

    It has been argued that compression of nuclear matter to somewhat higher densities may lead to the formation of stable quark matter. A plausible alternative, which leads to radically new astrophysical scenarios, is that the stability of quark matter simply represents the stability of new particles compounded of quarks. A specific example is the SU(3)-symmetric version of the alpha particle, composed of spin-zero pairs of each of the baryon octet (an 'octet' particle).

  12. Gain saturation in neodymium glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brodov, M. E.; Epatko, I. V.; Ivanov, A. V.; Pashinin, P. P.; Serov, R. V.

    1987-12-01

    A theoretical model of gain saturation in Nd glasses is chosen which is based on minimum standard deviation from experimental data. It is shown that the laser-active-medium parameters cannot be determined effectively using this minimization. The possibility of using multipass schemes to choose the theoretical model is assessed.

  13. Decompression sickness during saturation dives.

    PubMed

    Berghage, T E

    1976-12-01

    Available Navy saturation diving data were analyzed for an evaluation of the therapeutic adequacy of decompression sickness treatment procedures and for delineation of precipitant factors in the etiology and treatment of decompression sickness during saturation dives. None of the cases of decompression sickness recorded during saturation dives involved more than musculoskeletal or joint pain, and in 96% of the cases the joint pain was confined to the diver's knees. In 89% of the cases symptoms appeared while the divers were still under pressure. The subsequent recompression treatment of these cases resulted in full relief in only 35% of the cases; the remaining 65% completed the therapy and subsequent decompression with residual pain which diminished over a period of weeks. The adequacy of the recompression appears to be inversely proportional to the depth of reported onset of symptoms and the time required to obtain even partial relief is directly related to the magnitude of the recompression ratio used. Four explanations are suggested for the limited recompression therapy common in saturation diving: increase in musculoskeletal pain with recompression, peer pressure to avoid extension of the chamber confinement, lack of severe neurological symptoms, and the tremendous depths required to obtain a reasonable recompression ratio. The author further suggests that future treatment procedures will require a departure from the accepted concept of radically decreasing the volume of inert gas bubbles by increasing pressure.

  14. Phases of dense matter with holographic instantons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preis, Florian; Schmitt, Andreas

    2017-03-01

    We discuss nuclear matter and the transition to quark matter in the decompactified limit of the Sakai-Sugimoto model. Nuclear matter is included through instantons on the flavor branes of the model. Our approximation is based on the flat-space solution, but we allow for a dynamical instanton width and deformation and compute the energetically preferred number of instanton layers in the bulk as a function of the baryon chemical potential. We determine the regions in parameter space where the binding energy of nuclear matter is like in QCD, and compute the phase diagram in the plane of temperature and chemical potential.

  15. Resource Letter FNP-1: Frontiers of nuclear physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertsch, G. F.

    2004-08-01

    This Resource Letter provides a bibliography of the current research activities in nuclear physics and also a guide for finding useful nuclear data. The major areas included are nuclear structure and reactions, symmetry tests, nuclear astrophysics, nuclear theory, high-density matter, and nuclear instrumentation.

  16. Kalman filter-based fast track reconstruction for charged particles in a Compressed Baryonic Matter experiment using parallel computing on a multicore server at the Laboratory of Information Technologies, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ablyazimov, T. O.; Zyzak, M. V.; Ivanov, V. V.; Kisel, P. I.

    2015-05-01

    One of the main goals in the Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment (GSI, Germany) is to find parameters of charged particle trajectories. An online full event reconstruction is planned to be carried out in this experiment, thus demanding fast algorithms be developed, which make the most of the capabilities of modern CPU and GPU architectures. This paper presents the results of an analysis of the Kalman filter-based track reconstruction for charged particles implemented by using various code parallelization methods. A multicore server located at the Laboratory of Information Technologies, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (LIT JINR), with two CPU Intel Xeon X5660 processors and a GPU Nvidia GTX 480 video card is used.

  17. Nuclear theory progress report, April 1991--April 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    This report discusses research in nuclear theory on the following topics: nuclear astrophysics; quantum chromodynamics; quark matter; symmetry breaking; heavy ion reactions; hadronic form factors; neutrino processes; nuclear structure; weak interaction physics; and other related topics. (LSP)

  18. Nuclear theory progress report, April 1991--April 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-01

    This report discusses research in nuclear theory on the following topics: nuclear astrophysics; quantum chromodynamics; quark matter; symmetry breaking; heavy ion reactions; hadronic form factors; neutrino processes; nuclear structure; weak interaction physics; and other related topics. (LSP)

  19. Helium Saturation of Liquid Propellants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yavrouian, A. H.; Moran, Clifford M.

    1990-01-01

    The research is in three areas which are: (1) techniques were devised for achieving the required levels of helium (He) saturation in liquid propellants (limited to monomethylhydrazine (MMH) and nitrogen tetroxide (NTO)); (2) the values were evaluated for equilibrium solubilities of He in liquid propellants as currently used in the industry; and (3) the He dissolved in liquid propellants were accurately measured. Conclusions drawn from these studies include: (1) Techniques for dissolving He in liquid propellants depending upon the capabilities of the testing facility (Verification of the quantity of gas dissolved is essential); (2) Until greater accuracy is obtained, the equilibrium solubility values of He in MMH and NTO as cited in the Air Force Propellant Handbooks should be accepted as standard (There are still enough uncertainties in the He saturation values to warrant further basic experimental studies); and (3) The manometric measurement of gas volume from a frozen sample of propellant should be the accepted method for gas analysis.

  20. Saturation of the turbulent dynamo.

    PubMed

    Schober, J; Schleicher, D R G; Federrath, C; Bovino, S; Klessen, R S

    2015-08-01

    The origin of strong magnetic fields in the Universe can be explained by amplifying weak seed fields via turbulent motions on small spatial scales and subsequently transporting the magnetic energy to larger scales. This process is known as the turbulent dynamo and depends on the properties of turbulence, i.e., on the hydrodynamical Reynolds number and the compressibility of the gas, and on the magnetic diffusivity. While we know the growth rate of the magnetic energy in the linear regime, the saturation level, i.e., the ratio of magnetic energy to turbulent kinetic energy that can be reached, is not known from analytical calculations. In this paper we present a scale-dependent saturation model based on an effective turbulent resistivity which is determined by the turnover time scale of turbulent eddies and the magnetic energy density. The magnetic resistivity increases compared to the Spitzer value and the effective scale on which the magnetic energy spectrum is at its maximum moves to larger spatial scales. This process ends when the peak reaches a characteristic wave number k☆ which is determined by the critical magnetic Reynolds number. The saturation level of the dynamo also depends on the type of turbulence and differs for the limits of large and small magnetic Prandtl numbers Pm. With our model we find saturation levels between 43.8% and 1.3% for Pm≫1 and between 2.43% and 0.135% for Pm≪1, where the higher values refer to incompressible turbulence and the lower ones to highly compressible turbulence.