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Sample records for nuclear medicine development

  1. Nuclear Medicine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Parents/Teachers Resource Links for Students Glossary Nuclear Medicine What is nuclear medicine? What are radioactive tracers? ... funded researchers advancing nuclear medicine? What is nuclear medicine? Nuclear medicine is a medical specialty that uses ...

  2. Nuclear Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badawi, Ramsey D.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the use of nuclear medicine techniques in diagnosis and therapy. Describes instrumentation in diagnostic nuclear medicine and predicts future trends in nuclear medicine imaging technology. (Author/MM)

  3. Development of Scintillators in Nuclear Medicine.

    PubMed

    Khoshakhlagh, Mohammad; Islamian, Jalil Pirayesh; Abedi, Seyed Mohammad; Mahmoudian, Babak

    2015-01-01

    High-quality image is necessary for accurate diagnosis in nuclear medicine. There are many factors in creating a good image and detector is the most important one. In recent years, several detectors are studied to get a better picture. The aim of this paper is comparison of some type of these detectors such as thallium activated sodium iodide bismuth germinate cesium activated yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG: Ce) YAP: Ce "lutetium aluminum garnet activated by cerium" CRY018 "CRY019" lanthanum bromide and cadmium zinc telluride. We studied different properties of these crystals including density, energy resolution and decay times that are more important factors affecting the image quality. PMID:26420984

  4. Development of Scintillators in Nuclear Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Khoshakhlagh, Mohammad; Islamian, Jalil Pirayesh; Abedi, Seyed Mohammad; Mahmoudian, Babak

    2015-01-01

    High-quality image is necessary for accurate diagnosis in nuclear medicine. There are many factors in creating a good image and detector is the most important one. In recent years, several detectors are studied to get a better picture. The aim of this paper is comparison of some type of these detectors such as thallium activated sodium iodide bismuth germinate cesium activated yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG: Ce) YAP: Ce “lutetium aluminum garnet activated by cerium” CRY018 “CRY019” lanthanum bromide and cadmium zinc telluride. We studied different properties of these crystals including density, energy resolution and decay times that are more important factors affecting the image quality. PMID:26420984

  5. Nuclear medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, H.N. Jr.

    1986-10-17

    In 1985 and 1986 nuclear medicine became more and more oriented toward in vov chemistry, chiefly as a result of advances in positron emission tomography (PET). The most important trend was the extension of PET technology into the care of patients with brain tumors, epilepsy, and heart disease. A second trend was the increasing use of single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT).

  6. Recent developments and future trends in nuclear medicine instrumentation.

    PubMed

    Zaidi, Habib

    2006-01-01

    Molecular imaging using high-resolution single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET) has advanced elegantly and has steadily gained importance in the clinical and research arenas. Continuous efforts to integrate recent research findings for the design of different geometries and various detector technologies of SPECT and PET cameras have become the goal of both the academic comcameras have become the goal of both the academic community and nuclear medicine industry. As PET has recently become of more interest for clinical practice, several different design trends seem to have developed. Systems are being designed for "low cost" clinical applications, very high-resolution research applications (including small-animal imaging), and just about everywhere in-between. The development of dual-modality imaging systems has revolutionized the practice of nuclear medicine. The major advantage being that SPECT/PET data are intrinsically aligned to anatomical information from the X-ray computed tomography (CT), without the use of external markers or internal landmarks. On the other hand, combining PET with Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) technology is scientifically more challenging owing to the strong magnetic fields. Nevertheless, significant progress has been made resulting in the design of a prototype small animal PET scanner coupled to three multichannel photomultipliers via optical fibers, so that the PET detector can be operated within a conventional MR system. Thus, many different design paths are being pursued--which ones are likely to be the main stream of future commercial systems? It will be interesting, indeed, to see which technologies become the most popular in the future. This paper briefly summarizes state-of-the art developments in nuclear medicine instrumentation. Future prospects will also be discussed. PMID:16696367

  7. Training requirements for chemists in radiotracer development for nuclear medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Finn, R.; Fowler, J.

    1988-01-01

    This panel was organized to address the current and anticipated future shortage of chemists with advanced training to fill positions in the nuclear medicine field. Although hard data and statistics are difficult to acquire, we will attempt to highlight the impact of chemistry on nuclear medicine and to describe the growth of the field which has led to an increasing need for chemists resulting in the current manpower shortage. We also will make recommendations for attracting Ph.D. chemists to careers in nuclear medicine research and possible mechanisms for postgraduate training. Solving this problem and establishing a long term committment and mechanism for advanced training is critically important to meet the current needs of the profession and to assure future growth and innovation. 3 tabs.

  8. Development of thyroid anthropomorphic phantoms for use in nuclear medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerqueira, R. A. D.; Maia, A. F.

    2014-02-01

    The objective of this study was to develop thyroid anthropomorphic phantoms to be used in control tests of medical images in scintillation cameras. The main difference among the phantoms was the neck shape: in the first, called OSCT, it was geometrically shaped, while in the second, called OSAP, it was anthropomorphically shaped. In both phantoms, thyroid gland prototypes, which were made of acrylic and anthropomorphically shaped, were constructed to allow the simulation of a healthy thyroid and of thyroids with hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism. Images of these thyroid anthropomorphic phantoms were obtained using iodine 131 with an activity of 8.695 MBq. The iodine 131 was chosen because it is widely used in studies of thyroid scintigraphy. The images obtained proved the effectiveness of the phantoms to simulate normal or abnormal thyroids function. These phantoms can be used in medical imaging quality control programs and, also in the training of professionals involved in the analysis of images in nuclear medicine centers.

  9. Nuclear medicine annual, 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, L.M.; Weissmann, H.S.

    1984-01-01

    The following topics are reviewed in this work: nuclear physicians role in planning for and handling radiation accidents; the role of nuclear medicine in evaluating the hypertensive patient; studies of the heart with radionuclides; role of radionuclide imaging in the patient undergoing chemotherapy; hematologic nuclear medicine; the role of nuclear medicine in sports related injuries; radionuclide evaluation of hepatic function with emphasis on cholestatis.

  10. Technologists for Nuclear Medicine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Huey D.

    1974-01-01

    Physicians need support personnel for work with radioisotopes in diagnosing dangerous diseases. The Nuclear Medicine Technology (NMT) Program at Hillsborough Community College in Tampa, Florida, is described. (MW)

  11. The IAEA technical cooperation programme and nuclear medicine in the developing world: objectives, trends, and contributions.

    PubMed

    Casas-Zamora, Juan Antonio; Kashyap, Ridhi

    2013-05-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency's technical cooperation (TC) programme helps Member States in the developing world with limited infrastructure and human resource capacity to harness the potential of nuclear technologies in meeting socioeconomic development challenges. As a part of its human health TC initiatives, the Agency, through the TC mechanism, has the unique role of promoting nuclear medicine applications of fellowships, scientific visits, and training courses, via technology procurement, and in the past decade has contributed nearly $54 million through 180 projects in supporting technology procurement and human resource capacity development among Member States from the developing world (low- and middle-income countries). There has been a growing demand in nuclear medicine TC, particularly in Africa and ex-Soviet Union States where limited infrastructure presently exists, based on cancer and cardiovascular disease management projects. African Member States received the greatest allocation of TC funds in the past 10 years dedicated to building new or rehabilitating obsolete nuclear medicine infrastructure through procurement support of single-photon emission computed tomography machines. Agency support in Asia and Latin America has emphasized human resource capacity building, as Member States in these regions have already acquired positron emission tomography and hybrid modalities (positron emission tomography/computed tomography and single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography) in their health systems. The strengthening of national nuclear medicine capacities among Member States across different regions has enabled stronger regional cooperation among developing countries who through the Agency's support and within the framework of regional cooperative agreements are sharing expertise and fostering the sustainability and productive integration of nuclear medicine within their health systems.

  12. Development of Career Opportunities for Technicians in the Nuclear Medicine Field. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technical Education Research Center, Cambridge, MA.

    This report describes a nationally coordinated program development project whose purpose was to catalyze the implementation of needed postsecondary educational programs in the field of nuclear medicine technology (NMT). The NMT project was carried out during the six year period 1968-74 in cooperation with more than 36 community/junior colleges and…

  13. Nuclear medicine in oncology

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, J.

    1996-12-31

    Radioactivity was discovered in the late 1890s, and as early as 1903, Alexander Graham Bell advocated that radioactivity be used to treat tumors. In 1913, the first paper describing therapeutic uses of radium was published; in 1936, {sup 24}Na was administered as a therapy to a leukemia patient. Three years later, uptake of {sup 89}Sr was noted in bone metastases. During the 1940s, there was increasing use of iodine therapy for thyroid diseases, including thyroid cancer. Diagnostic {open_quotes}imaging{close_quotes} with radioisotopes was increasingly employed in the 1930s and 40s using probes and grew in importance and utility with the development of scintillation detectors with photorecording systems. Although coincidence counting to detect positron emissions was developed in 1953, the first medical center cyclotron was not installed until 1961. The 1960s saw the development of {sup 99m}Tc-labeled radiopharmaceuticals, emission reconstruction tomography [giving rise to single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET)], and {sup 64}Ga tumor imaging. Nuclear medicine was recognized as a medical specialty in 1971. Radiolabeled antibodies targeting human tumors in animals was reported in 1973; antibody tumor imaging in humans was reported in 1978. Technology has continued to advance, including the development of SPECT cameras with coincidence detection able to perform FDG/PET imaging. With this overview as as backdrop, this paper focuses on the role of nuclear medicine in oncology from three perspectives: nonspecific tumor imaging agents, specific tumor imaging agents, and radioisotopes for tumor therapy. In summary, while tumor diagnosis and treatment were among the first uses explored for radioactivity, these areas have yet to reach their full potential. Development of new radioisotopes and new radiopharmaceuticals, coupled with improvements in technology, make nuclear oncology an area of growth for nuclear medicine.

  14. Your Radiologist Explains Nuclear Medicine

    MedlinePlus

    ... produced by: Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains Nuclear Medicine Transcript Welcome to Radiology Info dot org ... I’d like to talk to you about nuclear medicine. Nuclear medicine offers the potential to identify ...

  15. Nuclear Medicine Annual, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, L.M.; Weissmann, H.S.

    1989-01-01

    Among the highlights of Nuclear Medicine Annual, 1989 are a status report on the thyroid scan in clinical practice, a review of functional and structural brain imaging in dementia, an update on radionuclide renal imaging in children, and an article outlining a quality assurance program for SPECT instrumentation. Also included are discussions on current concepts in osseous sports and stress injury scintigraphy and on correlative magnetic resonance and radionuclide imaging of bone. Other contributors assess the role of nuclear medicine in clinical decision making and examine medicolegal and regulatory aspects of nuclear medicine.

  16. What Is Nuclear Medicine?

    MedlinePlus

    ... known as cosmic radiation, is in the upper atmosphere due to solar and galactic emissions. A typical ... used in medical procedures. 4 Cosmic Radiation Sun - - + - Atmosphere - + +- + + Earth How many nuclear medicine procedures are performed ...

  17. Nuclear medicine annual 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, L.M. )

    1990-01-01

    Two of the major areas of cutting-edge nuclear medicine research, single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) functional brain imaging and monoclonal antibody studies receive attention in this volume. Advances in these areas are critical to the continued growth of our specialty. Fortunately, the current outlook in both areas remains quite optimistic. As has been the policy in the first decade of publication, thorough state-of-the-art reviews on existing procedures are interspersed with chapters dealing with research developments. The editor wishes to express a particular note of appreciation to a very supportive British colleague, Dr. Ignac Fogelman, who is becoming a regular contributor. His exhaustive review of the role of nuclear medicine in the evaluation of osteoporotic patients is packed with extremely useful information that will prove to be fruitful to all readers. The author would like to thank the readers and colleagues who have taken the time to offer useful and constructive comments over the past ten years. The author continue to welcome suggestions that will help to further improve this Annual.

  18. Pediatric nuclear medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    This symposium presented the latest techniques and approaches to the proper medical application of radionuclides in pediatrics. An expert faculty, comprised of specialists in the field of pediatric nuclear medicine, discussed the major indications as well as the advantages and potential hazards of nuclear medicine procedures compared to other diagnostic modalities. In recent years, newer radiopharmaceuticals labeled with technetium-99m and other short-lived radionuclides with relatively favorable radiation characteristics have permitted a variety of diagnostic studies that are very useful clinically and carry a substantially lower radiation burden then many comparable X-ray studies. This new battery of nuclear medicine procedures is now widely available for diagnosis and management of pediatric patients. Many recent research studies in children have yielded data concerning the effacacy of these procedures, and current recommendations will be presented by those involved in conducting such studies. Individual papers are processed separately for the Energy Data Base.

  19. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    MedlinePlus

    ... like? Special camera or imaging devices used in nuclear medicine include the gamma camera and single-photon emission-computed tomography (SPECT). The gamma camera, also called a scintillation camera, detects radioactive energy that is emitted from the patient's body and ...

  20. Traceability in nuclear medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmerman, Brian E.; Judge, Steven

    2007-08-01

    Accurate, reproducible measurement of radioactivity in nuclear medicine applications is vital to ensure the safety and effectiveness of disease diagnosis and treatment using unsealed radioactive sources. The need to maintain a high degree of confidence in those measurements requires that they be carried out so as to be traceable to national and international standards. In addition, measurement traceability for radioactivity in medicine helps ensure international consistency in measurement at all levels of practice (national measurement laboratories, research institutions, isotope producers, radiopharmaceutical manufacturers and clinics). This paper explores the importance of radioactivity measurement in nuclear medicine and demonstrates how traceability can be extended from international standards to the quantity of the drug administered to the patient.

  1. [Development of the software package of the nuclear medicine data processor for education and research].

    PubMed

    Maeda, Hisato; Yamaki, Noriyasu; Azuma, Makoto

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a personal computer-based nuclear medicine data processor for education and research in the field of nuclear medicine. We call this software package "Prominence Processor" (PP). Windows of Microsoft Corporation was used as the operating system of this PP, which have 1024 × 768 image resolution and various 63 applications classified into 6 groups. The accuracy was examined for a lot of applications of the PP. For example, in the FBP reconstruction application, there was visually no difference in the image quality as a result of comparing two SPECT images obtained from the PP and GMS-5500A (Toshiba). Moreover, Normalized MSE between both images showed 0.0003. Therefore the high processing accuracy of the FBP reconstruction application was proven as well as other applications. The PP can be used in an arbitrary place if the software package is installed in note PC. Therefore the PP is used to lecture and to practice on an educational site and used for the purpose of the research of the radiological technologist on a clinical site etc. widely now. PMID:22449907

  2. Nuclear Medicine Annual, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, L.M.; Weissmann, H.S.

    1986-01-01

    Nuclear Medicine Annual, l986 features state-of-the-art reports on the technical aspects and clinical applications of single-photon emission computed tomography, as well as on monoclonal antibodies for radioimmunoimaging and on receptorbinding radiopharmaceuticals. Also included is a review of magnetic resonance imaging of congenital cardiac abnormalities. Other contributions cover bone mineral measurements; skeletal scintigraphy of the hands and wrists; and radionuclide blood-pool imaging in the diagnosis of deep-vein thrombosis of the leg.

  3. Frontiers in nuclear medicine symposium: Nuclear medicine & molecular biology

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    This document contains the abstracts from the American College of Nuclear Physicians 1993 Fall Meeting entitled, `Frontiers in Nuclear Medicine Symposium: Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Biology`. This meeting was sponsored by the US DOE, Office of Health and Environmental Research, Office of Energy Research. The program chairman was Richard C. Reba, M.D.

  4. Nuclear medicine annual

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, L.M.

    1988-01-01

    This book features a state-of-the-art report on single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in abdominal imaging, which highlights the emergency of /sup 99m/Tc-red cell imaging as the procedure of choice for diagnosing heptatic hemangioma. In addition, the use of captropril scinitigraphy in the study of suspected renovascular hypertension is reviewed. Articles survey research on radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies and assess the clinical experience with bone scanning for osseous metastases from breast carcinoma. An article on the role of nuclear medicine in the management of osteoporosis examines the problems that must be overcome before the bone mineral analysis with dual photon absorptiometry gains widespread clinical acceptance.

  5. Nuclear Medicine Technology: A Suggested Postsecondary Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technical Education Research Center, Cambridge, MA.

    The purpose of this curriculum guide is to assist administrators and instructors in establishing nuclear medicine technician programs that will meet the accreditation standards of the American Medical Association (AMA) Council on Medical Education. The guide has been developed to prepare nuclear medicine technicians (NMT's) in two-year…

  6. Nuclear medicine hepatobiliary imaging.

    PubMed

    Ziessman, Harvey A

    2010-02-01

    Nuclear medicine hepatobilary imaging (HIDA) is a time proven imaging methodology that uses radioactive drugs and specialized cameras to make imaging diagnoses based on physiology. HIDA radiopharmaceuticals are extracted by hepatocytes in the liver and cleared through the biliary system similar to bilirubin. The most common indication for HIDA imaging is acute cholecystitis, diagnosed by nonfilling of the gallbladder due to cystic duct obstruction. HIDA can detect high grade biliary obstruction prior to ductal dilatation; images reveal a persistent hepatogram without biliary clearance due to the high backpressure. HIDA also aids in the diagnosis of partial biliary obstruction due to stones, biliary stricture, and sphincter of Oddi obstruction. It can confirm biliary leakage postcholecystectomy and hepatic transplantation. Calculation of a gallbladder ejection fraction after cholecystokinin infusion is commonly used to diagnose chronic acalculous gallbladder disease. Diseased gallbladders do not contract. There are many other less common but valuable diagnostic indications for HIDA imaging. PMID:19879969

  7. The development and use of radionuclide generators in nuclear medicine -- recent advances and future perspectives

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.

    1998-03-01

    Although the trend in radionuclide generator research has declined, radionuclide generator systems continue to play an important role in nuclear medicine. Technetium-99m obtained from the molybdenum-99/technetium-99m generator system is used in over 80% of all diagnostic clinical studies and there is increasing interest and use of therapeutic radioisotopes obtained from generator systems. This paper focuses on a discussion of the major current areas of radionuclide generator research, and the expected areas of future research and applications.

  8. The development of new radionuclide generator systems for nuclear medicine applications

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Callahan, A.P.; Mirzadeh, S. ); Brihaye, C.; Guillaume, M. . Cyclotron Research Center)

    1991-01-01

    Radioisotope generator systems have traditionally played a central role in nuclear medicine in providing radioisotopes for both research and clinical applications. In this paper, the development of several tungsten-188/rhenium-188 prototype generators which provide rhenium-188 for radioimmunotherapy (RAIT) is discussed. The authors have recently demonstrated that carrier-free iridium-194 can be obtained from the activated carbon system from decay of reactor-produced osmium-194 for potential RAIT applications. Instrumentation advances such as the new generation of high-count-rate (fast) gamma camera systems for first-pass technology require the availability of generator-produced ultra short-lived radioisotopes for radionuclide angiography (RNA). The activated carbon generator is an efficient system to obtain ultra short-lived iridium-191 m from osmium-191 for RNA. In addition, the growing number of PET centers has stimulated research in generators which provide positron-emitting radioisotopes. Copper-62, obtained from the zinc-62 generator, is currently used for PET evaluation of organ perfusion. The availability of the parent radioisotopes, the fabrication and use of these generators, and the practical factors for use of these systems in the radiopharmacy are discussed. 74 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

  9. Nucleology, nuclear medicine, molecular nuclear medicine and subspecialties.

    PubMed

    Grammaticos, Philip C

    2005-01-01

    Henry N. Wagner Jr started the presentation of the highlights of the 39th Annual Meeting of the Society of Nuclear Medicine by quoting: "The economist JM Keynes said: "the difficult lies not in new ideas but in escaping from the old ones". Many changes have taken place in the actual term describing our specialty during the last 15 years. Cardiologists have adopted an important chapter of nuclear medicine and to describe that they use the term of "nuclear cardiology". Radiologists have proposed the term "radionuclide radiology". "Nuclear endocrinology", "nuclear oncology", "nuclear nephrology" may be considered as terms describing chapters of nuclear medicine related to other specialties. Will that indicate that our specialty will be divided into smaller chapters and be offered to colleagues working in other specialties leaving to us the role of the supervisor or perhaps the radioprotection officer for in vivo studies? Of course this role is now being exercised by our colleagues in medical physics. It is suggested to use the word " nucleology", instead of "nuclear medicine" where "nuclear" is used as an adjective. Thus, we will avoid being part of another specialty and cardiologists would use the term cardiac nucleology where "cardiac" is the adjective. The proposed term "nucleology" as compared to the existing term "nuclear medicine" has the advantage of being simpler, correct from the grammar point of view and not related to combined terms that may seem to offer part of our specialty to other specialties. At present our specialty faces many problems. The term "nucleology" supports our specialty from the point of view of terminology. During the 3rd International Meeting of Nuclear Medicine of N. Greece which was held in Thessaloniki, Macedonia, Greece on 4-6 November 2005, a discussion arose among participants as to whether the name of "nucleology" could replace the existing name of "nuclear medicine". Finally, a vote (between "yes" and "no") for the new proposed

  10. Nuclear medicine imaging system

    DOEpatents

    Bennett, Gerald W.; Brill, A. Bertrand; Bizais, Yves J.; Rowe, R. Wanda; Zubal, I. George

    1986-01-07

    A nuclear medicine imaging system having two large field of view scintillation cameras mounted on a rotatable gantry and being movable diametrically toward or away from each other is disclosed. In addition, each camera may be rotated about an axis perpendicular to the diameter of the gantry. The movement of the cameras allows the system to be used for a variety of studies, including positron annihilation, and conventional single photon emission, as well as static orthogonal dual multi-pinhole tomography. In orthogonal dual multi-pinhole tomography, each camera is fitted with a seven pinhole collimator to provide seven views from slightly different perspectives. By using two cameras at an angle to each other, improved sensitivity and depth resolution is achieved. The computer system and interface acquires and stores a broad range of information in list mode, including patient physiological data, energy data over the full range detected by the cameras, and the camera position. The list mode acquisition permits the study of attenuation as a result of Compton scatter, as well as studies involving the isolation and correlation of energy with a range of physiological conditions.

  11. Nuclear medicine imaging system

    DOEpatents

    Bennett, Gerald W.; Brill, A. Bertrand; Bizais, Yves J. C.; Rowe, R. Wanda; Zubal, I. George

    1986-01-01

    A nuclear medicine imaging system having two large field of view scintillation cameras mounted on a rotatable gantry and being movable diametrically toward or away from each other is disclosed. In addition, each camera may be rotated about an axis perpendicular to the diameter of the gantry. The movement of the cameras allows the system to be used for a variety of studies, including positron annihilation, and conventional single photon emission, as well as static orthogonal dual multi-pinhole tomography. In orthogonal dual multi-pinhole tomography, each camera is fitted with a seven pinhole collimator to provide seven views from slightly different perspectives. By using two cameras at an angle to each other, improved sensitivity and depth resolution is achieved. The computer system and interface acquires and stores a broad range of information in list mode, including patient physiological data, energy data over the full range detected by the cameras, and the camera position. The list mode acquisition permits the study of attenuation as a result of Compton scatter, as well as studies involving the isolation and correlation of energy with a range of physiological conditions.

  12. Nuclear medicine instrumentation. Historic perspective.

    PubMed

    Croll, M N

    1994-01-01

    Recording the chronology of nuclear medicine instrumentation poses some difficult decisions as does the determination of the "father" of nuclear medicine?. Historians can agree on well-defined dates and events, but many of them are subjective and reside in the memories of those of us who were fortunate to experience the formative years of our field. We all search for the historical truth. The highlights of this story may begin with John Lawrence and phosphorus-32 therapy at Berkeley and continue with Enrico Fermi's sustained nuclear reaction, which lead to the Manhattan Project, then the Atomic Energy Commission, and finally, Sam Seidlin's treatment of thyroid metastases with iodine-131. The rectilinear scanner came to us from Benedict Cassen and was followed by Hal O. Anger and his gamma scintillation camera, one of the most pivotal developments in the field. A plethora of cameras followed: Merrill Benders's digital autofluroscope, Dave Kuhl's efforts for tomographic imaging, and then on to single photon emission computed tomography. Finally, we come back to Hal O. Anger, who suggested and worked with the idea of a positron camera, with positron emission tomography becoming commercially available in 1985. Ours is a variegated history, and I hope that this account speaks the historical truth.

  13. [Costing nuclear medicine diagnostic procedures].

    PubMed

    Markou, Pavlos

    2005-01-01

    To the Editor: Referring to a recent special report about the cost analysis of twenty-nine nuclear medicine procedures, I would like to clarify some basic aspects for determining costs of nuclear medicine procedure with various costing methodologies. Activity Based Costing (ABC) method, is a new approach in imaging services costing that can provide the most accurate cost data, but is difficult to perform in nuclear medicine diagnostic procedures. That is because ABC requires determining and analyzing all direct and indirect costs of each procedure, according all its activities. Traditional costing methods, like those for estimating incomes and expenses per procedure or fixed and variable costs per procedure, which are widely used in break-even point analysis and the method of ratio-of-costs-to-charges per procedure may be easily performed in nuclear medicine departments, to evaluate the variability and differences between costs and reimbursement - charges. PMID:15886748

  14. Interesting Signs in Nuclear Medicine.

    PubMed

    Gnanasegaran, Gopinath; Sit, Cherry; Chen, Ruolei; Agrawal, Kanhaiyalal; Fogelman, Ignac

    2015-11-01

    Classic radiological and nuclear medicine signs have been reported extensively because of a myriad of pathophysiological processes. When encountered, they aid in diagnosis of conditions and add confidence for the reader, at times even hinting at a specific diagnosis. The naming of signs is commonly associated with objects from everyday life to establish familiarity with visual findings. Association of signs and disease comes with regular practice and improves understanding of the image and its underlying cause. In this article, we have collated nuclear medicine signs reported in the literature since 1970.

  15. Nuclear medicine imaging system

    DOEpatents

    Bennett, G.W.; Brill, A.B.; Bizais, Y.J.C.; Rowe, R.W.; Zubal, I.G.

    1983-03-11

    It is an object of this invention to provide a nuclear imaging system having the versatility to do positron annihilation studies, rotating single or opposed camera gamma emission studies, and orthogonal gamma emission studies. It is a further object of this invention to provide an imaging system having the capability for orthogonal dual multipinhole tomography. It is another object of this invention to provide a nuclear imaging system in which all available energy data, as well as patient physiological data, are acquired simultaneously in list mode.

  16. The role of general nuclear medicine in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Greene, Lacey R; Wilkinson, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    The rising incidence of breast cancer worldwide has prompted many improvements to current care. Routine nuclear medicine is a major contributor to a full gamut of clinical studies such as early lesion detection and stratification; guiding, monitoring, and predicting response to therapy; and monitoring progression, recurrence or metastases. Developments in instrumentation such as the high-resolution dedicated breast device coupled with the diagnostic versatility of conventional cameras have reinserted nuclear medicine as a valuable tool in the broader clinical setting. This review outlines the role of general nuclear medicine, concluding that targeted radiopharmaceuticals and versatile instrumentation position nuclear medicine as a powerful modality for patients with breast cancer. PMID:26229668

  17. The role of general nuclear medicine in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Greene, Lacey R; Wilkinson, Deborah

    2015-03-01

    The rising incidence of breast cancer worldwide has prompted many improvements to current care. Routine nuclear medicine is a major contributor to a full gamut of clinical studies such as early lesion detection and stratification; guiding, monitoring, and predicting response to therapy; and monitoring progression, recurrence or metastases. Developments in instrumentation such as the high-resolution dedicated breast device coupled with the diagnostic versatility of conventional cameras have reinserted nuclear medicine as a valuable tool in the broader clinical setting. This review outlines the role of general nuclear medicine, concluding that targeted radiopharmaceuticals and versatile instrumentation position nuclear medicine as a powerful modality for patients with breast cancer. PMID:26229668

  18. The role of general nuclear medicine in breast cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, Lacey R; Wilkinson, Deborah

    2015-03-15

    The rising incidence of breast cancer worldwide has prompted many improvements to current care. Routine nuclear medicine is a major contributor to a full gamut of clinical studies such as early lesion detection and stratification; guiding, monitoring, and predicting response to therapy; and monitoring progression, recurrence or metastases. Developments in instrumentation such as the high-resolution dedicated breast device coupled with the diagnostic versatility of conventional cameras have reinserted nuclear medicine as a valuable tool in the broader clinical setting. This review outlines the role of general nuclear medicine, concluding that targeted radiopharmaceuticals and versatile instrumentation position nuclear medicine as a powerful modality for patients with breast cancer.

  19. Licensing criteria for nuclear medicine.

    PubMed

    Westerman, B R

    1986-07-01

    The use of radioactive materials in medicine is one of the most highly regulated areas the physician has to deal with. There are three basic types of licenses for use of radioactive material defined in the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), chapter 10, part 35. These are the general license, which is mainly applicable to small volume in vitro work; the specific license, which is used in most medical facilities; and the broad license, which is suited for larger research-oriented practices. Licensing requires proof of competence of the user and of adequate provision for protection of public health. Materials used in medicine are grouped for convenience into three diagnostic categories and two therapeutic categories. A sixth group, for sealed implants, is not generally applicable in nuclear medicine. Training and experience of users may be documented in a number of ways, including board certification in nuclear medicine. Therapeutic applications require additional proof of direct personal experience. The radiation safety officer is a pivotal individual in the licensing procedure, being directly responsible for carrying out the highly detailed requirements for protection of personnel and patients. A radiation safety program based on the "as low as reasonably achievable" (ALARA) concept requires personal monitoring, inventory control, detection and control of contamination, and strict adherence to licensing rules. Training of personnel and proper maintenance of equipment and facilities are also vital parts of the licensing process. The requirements of licensing and for renewal are clearly spelled out by the various regulatory agencies and require meticulous record keeping with documentation that all prescribed procedures have been followed and duly recorded.

  20. Development of more efficacious [Tc]-99m organ imaging agents for use in nuclear medicine by analytical characterization of radiopharmaceuticals

    SciTech Connect

    Heineman, W.R.

    1993-05-03

    This research program is detailed at development of more efficacious technetium-99m radiopharmaceuticals for use as imaging agents in diagnostic nuclear medicine. We seek to isolate and develop distinct site imaging agents to provide diagnostic information concerning a given pathological condition. Analytical techniques are being developed to enable complete analysis of radiopharmaceutical preparations so that individual complexes can be characterized with respect to imaging efficacy and to enable a radiopharmaceutical to be monitored after injection into a test animal to determine the species that actually accumulates in an organ to provide the image. Administration of the isolated, single most effective imaging complex, rather than a mixture of technetium-containing complexes, wi-11 minimize radiation exposure to the patient and maximize diagnostic information available to the clinician. This report specifically describes the development of capillary electrophoresis (CE) for characterizating diphosphonate skeletal imaging agents. Advances in the development of electrochemical and fiber optic sensors for Tc and Re imaging agents are described. These sensors will ultimately be capable of monitoring a specific chemical state of an imaging agent in vivo after injection into a test animal by implantation in the organ of interest.

  1. Nuclear medicine applications for the diabetic foot

    SciTech Connect

    Hartshorne, M.F.; Peters, V.

    1987-04-01

    Although not frequently described in the podiatric literature, nuclear medicine imaging may be of great assistance to the clinical podiatrist. This report reviews in detail the use of modern nuclear medicine approaches to the diagnosis and management of the diabetic foot. Nuclear medicine techniques are helpful in evaluating possible osteomyelitis, in determining appropriate amputation levels, and in predicting response to conservative ulcer management. Specific indications for bone, gallium, and perfusion imaging are described.

  2. Converting Energy to Medical Progress [Nuclear Medicine

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    2001-04-01

    For over 50 years the Office of Biological and Environmental Research (BER) of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) has been investing to advance environmental and biomedical knowledge connected to energy. The BER Medical Sciences program fosters research to develop beneficial applications of nuclear technologies for medical diagnosis and treatment of many diseases. Today, nuclear medicine helps millions of patients annually in the United States. Nearly every nuclear medicine scan or test used today was made possible by past BER-funded research on radiotracers, radiation detection devices, gamma cameras, PET and SPECT scanners, and computer science. The heart of biological research within BER has always been the pursuit of improved human health. The nuclear medicine of tomorrow will depend greatly on today's BER-supported research, particularly in the discovery of radiopharmaceuticals that seek specific molecular and genetic targets, the design of advanced scanners needed to create meaningful images with these future radiotracers, and the promise of new radiopharmaceutical treatments for cancers and genetic diseases.

  3. Converting energy to medical progress [nuclear medicine

    SciTech Connect

    2001-04-01

    For over 50 years the Office of Biological and Environmental Research (BER) of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) has been investing to advance environmental and biomedical knowledge connected to energy. The BER Medical Sciences program fosters research to develop beneficial applications of nuclear technologies for medical diagnosis and treatment of many diseases. Today, nuclear medicine helps millions of patients annually in the United States. Nearly every nuclear medicine scan or test used today was made possible by past BER-funded research on radiotracers, radiation detection devices, gamma cameras, PET and SPECT scanners, and computer science. The heart of biological research within BER has always been the pursuit of improved human health. The nuclear medicine of tomorrow will depend greatly on today's BER-supported research, particularly in the discovery of radiopharmaceuticals that seek specific molecular and genetic targets, the design of advanced scanners needed to create meaningful images with these future radiotracers, and the promise of new radiopharmaceutical treatments for cancers and genetic diseases.

  4. Coded-aperture imaging in nuclear medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Warren E.; Barrett, Harrison H.; Aarsvold, John N.

    1989-11-01

    Coded-aperture imaging is a technique for imaging sources that emit high-energy radiation. This type of imaging involves shadow casting and not reflection or refraction. High-energy sources exist in x ray and gamma-ray astronomy, nuclear reactor fuel-rod imaging, and nuclear medicine. Of these three areas nuclear medicine is perhaps the most challenging because of the limited amount of radiation available and because a three-dimensional source distribution is to be determined. In nuclear medicine a radioactive pharmaceutical is administered to a patient. The pharmaceutical is designed to be taken up by a particular organ of interest, and its distribution provides clinical information about the function of the organ, or the presence of lesions within the organ. This distribution is determined from spatial measurements of the radiation emitted by the radiopharmaceutical. The principles of imaging radiopharmaceutical distributions with coded apertures are reviewed. Included is a discussion of linear shift-variant projection operators and the associated inverse problem. A system developed at the University of Arizona in Tucson consisting of small modular gamma-ray cameras fitted with coded apertures is described.

  5. Coded-aperture imaging in nuclear medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Warren E.; Barrett, Harrison H.; Aarsvold, John N.

    1989-01-01

    Coded-aperture imaging is a technique for imaging sources that emit high-energy radiation. This type of imaging involves shadow casting and not reflection or refraction. High-energy sources exist in x ray and gamma-ray astronomy, nuclear reactor fuel-rod imaging, and nuclear medicine. Of these three areas nuclear medicine is perhaps the most challenging because of the limited amount of radiation available and because a three-dimensional source distribution is to be determined. In nuclear medicine a radioactive pharmaceutical is administered to a patient. The pharmaceutical is designed to be taken up by a particular organ of interest, and its distribution provides clinical information about the function of the organ, or the presence of lesions within the organ. This distribution is determined from spatial measurements of the radiation emitted by the radiopharmaceutical. The principles of imaging radiopharmaceutical distributions with coded apertures are reviewed. Included is a discussion of linear shift-variant projection operators and the associated inverse problem. A system developed at the University of Arizona in Tucson consisting of small modular gamma-ray cameras fitted with coded apertures is described.

  6. Software development for ACR-approved phantom-based nuclear medicine tomographic image quality control with cross-platform compatibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Jungsu S.; Choi, Jae Min; Nam, Ki Pyo; Chae, Sun Young; Ryu, Jin-Sook; Moon, Dae Hyuk; Kim, Jae Seung

    2015-07-01

    Quality control and quality assurance (QC/QA) have been two of the most important issues in modern nuclear medicine (NM) imaging for both clinical practices and academic research. Whereas quantitative QC analysis software is common to modern positron emission tomography (PET) scanners, the QC of gamma cameras and/or single-photon-emission computed tomography (SPECT) scanners has not been sufficiently addressed. Although a thorough standard operating process (SOP) for mechanical and software maintenance may help the QC/QA of a gamma camera and SPECT-computed tomography (CT), no previous study has addressed a unified platform or process to decipher or analyze SPECT phantom images acquired from various scanners thus far. In addition, a few approaches have established cross-platform software to enable the technologists and physicists to assess the variety of SPECT scanners from different manufacturers. To resolve these issues, we have developed Interactive Data Language (IDL)-based in-house software for crossplatform (in terms of not only operating systems (OS) but also manufacturers) analyses of the QC data on an ACR SPECT phantom, which is essential for assessing and assuring the tomographical image quality of SPECT. We applied our devised software to our routine quarterly QC of ACR SPECT phantom images acquired from a number of platforms (OS/manufacturers). Based on our experience, we suggest that our devised software can offer a unified platform that allows images acquired from various types of scanners to be analyzed with great precision and accuracy.

  7. Nuclear Medicine Imaging in Pediatric Neurology

    PubMed Central

    Akdemir, Ümit Özgür; Atay Kapucu, Lütfiye Özlem

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear medicine imaging can provide important complementary information in the management of pediatric patients with neurological diseases. Pre-surgical localization of the epileptogenic focus in medically refractory epilepsy patients is the most common indication for nuclear medicine imaging in pediatric neurology. In patients with temporal lobe epilepsy, nuclear medicine imaging is particularly useful when magnetic resonance imaging findings are normal or its findings are discordant with electroencephalogram findings. In pediatric patients with brain tumors, nuclear medicine imaging can be clinically helpful in the diagnosis, directing biopsy, planning therapy, differentiating tumor recurrence from post-treatment sequelae, and assessment of response to therapy. Among other neurological diseases in which nuclear medicine has proved to be useful are patients with head trauma, inflammatory-infectious diseases and hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. PMID:27299282

  8. Nuclear Medicine Imaging in Pediatric Neurology.

    PubMed

    Akdemir, Ümit Özgür; Atay Kapucu, Lütfiye Özlem

    2016-02-01

    Nuclear medicine imaging can provide important complementary information in the management of pediatric patients with neurological diseases. Pre-surgical localization of the epileptogenic focus in medically refractory epilepsy patients is the most common indication for nuclear medicine imaging in pediatric neurology. In patients with temporal lobe epilepsy, nuclear medicine imaging is particularly useful when magnetic resonance imaging findings are normal or its findings are discordant with electroencephalogram findings. In pediatric patients with brain tumors, nuclear medicine imaging can be clinically helpful in the diagnosis, directing biopsy, planning therapy, differentiating tumor recurrence from post-treatment sequelae, and assessment of response to therapy. Among other neurological diseases in which nuclear medicine has proved to be useful are patients with head trauma, inflammatory-infectious diseases and hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy.

  9. Development of radiohalogenated muscarinic ligands for the in vivo imaging of m-AChR by nuclear medicine techniques

    SciTech Connect

    McPherson, D.W.; Luo, H.; Knapp, F.F. Jr.

    1994-06-01

    Alterations in the density of acetylcholinergic muscarinic receptors (m-AChR) have been observed in various dementias. This has spurred interest in the development of radiohalogenated ligands which can be used for the non-invasive in vivo detection of m-AChR by nuclear medicine techniques. We have developed a new ligand 1-azabicyclo[2.2.2]oct-3-yl ({alpha}-hydroxy-{alpha}-(1-iodo-1-propen-3-yl)-{alpha}-phenylacetate (IQNP,12) which demonstrates high affinity for the muscarinic receptor. When labeled with radioiodine it has been shown to be selective and specific for m-ACHR. Initial studies on the separation and in vivo evaluation of the various isomers of IQNP have shown that the stereochemistry of the chiral centers and the configuration around the double bond play an important role in m-AChR subtype specificity. In vivo evaluation of these stereoisomers demonstrate that E-(R,R)-IQNP has a high affinity for the M{sub 1} muscarinic subtype while Z-(R,R)-IQNP demonstrate a high affinity for M{sub 1} and M{sub 2} receptor subtypes. These data demonstrate IQNP (12) has potential for use in the non-evasive in vivo detection of m-AChR by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). A brominated analogue, ``BrQNP,`` in which the iodine has been replaced by a bromine atom, has also been prepared and was shown to block the in vivo uptake of IQNP in the brain and heart and therefore has potential for positron emission tomographic (PET) studies of m-AChR.

  10. The practice of nuclear medicine in common market countries.

    PubMed

    Askienazy, S

    1993-01-01

    There is no politically structured European policy on nuclear medicine, and there are significant discrepancies between the various member states. It is hard to guess whether competing imaging modalities will slow down the process of development that took place in underequipped countries. But it appears likely that with the free circulation of professionals between European Community countries, free competition will stimulate these countries toward major development in nuclear medicine. PMID:8469996

  11. The practice of nuclear medicine in common market countries.

    PubMed

    Askienazy, S

    1993-01-01

    There is no politically structured European policy on nuclear medicine, and there are significant discrepancies between the various member states. It is hard to guess whether competing imaging modalities will slow down the process of development that took place in underequipped countries. But it appears likely that with the free circulation of professionals between European Community countries, free competition will stimulate these countries toward major development in nuclear medicine.

  12. Role of the biomedical engineer in nuclear medicine.

    PubMed

    Llaurado, J G

    1981-01-01

    Throughout the short history of the development of radioactivity applied in the biomedical field, there have been many contributions made by engineers. With the advent of Nuclear Medicine as a well systematized specialty and its mushrooming in hospitals, the opportunities for biomedical engineers have increased. This article is written from the viewpoint of historic perspective in order to display the different aspects and situations where engineers, and particularly biomedical and clinical engineers, can participate in Nuclear Medicine. Finally, a more detailed survey is made of the activities of biomedical engineers in the nuclear medicine department.

  13. Patient dosimetry in nuclear medicine.

    PubMed

    Mattsson, Sören

    2015-07-01

    In diagnostic nuclear medicine, the biokinetics of the radiopharmaceutical (actually of the radionuclide) is determined for a number of representative patients. At therapy, it is essential to determine the patient's individual biokinetics of the radiopharmaceutical in order to calculate the absorbed doses to critical normal organs/tissues and to the target volume(s) with high accuracy. For the diagnostic situations, there is still a lack of quantitative determinations of the organ/tissue contents of radiopharmaceuticals and their variation with time. Planar gamma camera imaging using the conjugate view technique combined with a limited number of SPECT/CT images is the main method for such studies. In a similar way, PET/CT is used for 3D image-based internal dosimetry for PET substances. The transition from stylised reference phantoms to voxel phantoms will lead to improved dose estimates for diagnostic procedures. Examples of dose coefficients and effective doses for diagnostic substances are given. For the therapeutic situation, a pre-therapeutic low activity administration is used for quantitative measurements of organ/tissue distribution data by a gamma camera or a SPECT- or PET-unit. Together with CT and/or MR images this will be the base for individual dose calculations using Monte Carlo technique. Treatments based on administered activity should only be used if biological variations between patients are small or if a pre-therapeutic activity administration is impossible.

  14. An overview of nuclear medicine imaging procedures.

    PubMed

    Hogg, Peter; Lawson, Richard

    2015-11-25

    Nuclear medicine imaging is not generally well understood by nurses who work outside this area. Consequently, nurses can find themselves unable to answer patients' questions about nuclear medicine imaging procedures or give them proper information before they attend for a test. This article aims to explain what is involved in some common diagnostic nuclear medicine imaging procedures so that nurses are able to discuss this with patients. It also addresses some common issues about radiation protection that nurses might encounter in their usual working routine. The article includes links to videos showing some typical nuclear medicine imaging procedures from a patient's point of view and links to an e-Learning for Healthcare online resource that provides detailed information for nurses.

  15. Nuclear medicine training and practice in Poland.

    PubMed

    Teresińska, Anna; Birkenfeld, Bożena; Królicki, Leszek; Dziuk, Mirosław

    2014-10-01

    In Poland, nuclear medicine (NM) has been an independent specialty since 1988. At the end of 2013, the syllabus for postgraduate specialization in NM has been modified to be in close accordance with the syllabus approved by the European Union of Medical Specialists and is expected to be enforced before the end of 2014. The National Consultant in Nuclear Medicine is responsible for the specialization program in NM. The Medical Center of Postgraduate Training is the administrative body which accepts the specialization programs, supervises the training, organizes the examinations, and awards the specialist title. Specialization in NM for physicians lasts for five years. It consists of 36 months of training in a native nuclear medicine department, 12 months of internship in radiology, 3 months in cardiology, 3 months in endocrinology, 3 months in oncology, and 3 months in two other departments of NM. If a NM trainee is a specialist of a clinical discipline and/or is after a long residency in NM departments, the specialization in NM can be shortened to three years. During the training, there are obligatory courses to be attended which include the elements of anatomy imaging in USG, CT, and MR. Currently, there are about 170 active NM specialists working for 38.5 million inhabitants in Poland. For other professionals working in NM departments, it is possible to get the title of a medical physics specialist after completing 3.5 years of training (for those with a master's in physics, technical physics or biomedical engineering) or the title of a radiopharmacy specialist after completing 3 years of training (for those with a master's in chemistry or biology). At present, the specialization program in NM for nurses is being developed by the Medical Centre of Postgraduate Education. Continuing education and professional development are obligatory for all physicians and governed by the Polish Medical Chamber. The Polish Society of Nuclear Medicine (PTMN) organizes regular

  16. Nuclear medicine training and practice in Poland.

    PubMed

    Teresińska, Anna; Birkenfeld, Bożena; Królicki, Leszek; Dziuk, Mirosław

    2014-10-01

    In Poland, nuclear medicine (NM) has been an independent specialty since 1988. At the end of 2013, the syllabus for postgraduate specialization in NM has been modified to be in close accordance with the syllabus approved by the European Union of Medical Specialists and is expected to be enforced before the end of 2014. The National Consultant in Nuclear Medicine is responsible for the specialization program in NM. The Medical Center of Postgraduate Training is the administrative body which accepts the specialization programs, supervises the training, organizes the examinations, and awards the specialist title. Specialization in NM for physicians lasts for five years. It consists of 36 months of training in a native nuclear medicine department, 12 months of internship in radiology, 3 months in cardiology, 3 months in endocrinology, 3 months in oncology, and 3 months in two other departments of NM. If a NM trainee is a specialist of a clinical discipline and/or is after a long residency in NM departments, the specialization in NM can be shortened to three years. During the training, there are obligatory courses to be attended which include the elements of anatomy imaging in USG, CT, and MR. Currently, there are about 170 active NM specialists working for 38.5 million inhabitants in Poland. For other professionals working in NM departments, it is possible to get the title of a medical physics specialist after completing 3.5 years of training (for those with a master's in physics, technical physics or biomedical engineering) or the title of a radiopharmacy specialist after completing 3 years of training (for those with a master's in chemistry or biology). At present, the specialization program in NM for nurses is being developed by the Medical Centre of Postgraduate Education. Continuing education and professional development are obligatory for all physicians and governed by the Polish Medical Chamber. The Polish Society of Nuclear Medicine (PTMN) organizes regular

  17. Structure and Activities of Nuclear Medicine in Kuwait.

    PubMed

    Elgazzar, Abdelhamid H; Owunwanne, Azuwuike; Alenezi, Saud

    2016-07-01

    The practice of nuclear medicine in Kuwait began in 1965 as a clinic for treating thyroid diseases. The practice developed gradually and until 1981 when the Faculty of Medicine established the Division of Nuclear Medicine in the Department of Radiology, which later became a separate department responsible for establishing and managing the practice in all hospitals of Kuwait. In 1987, a nuclear medicine residency program was begun and it is administered by Kuwait Institute for Medical Specializations originally as a 4-year but currently as a 5-year program. Currently there are 11 departments in the ministry of health hospitals staffed by 49 qualified attending physicians, mostly the diplomats of the Kuwait Institute for Medical Specializations nuclear medicine residency program, 4 academic physicians, 2 radiopharmacists, 2 physicists, and 130 technologists. These departments are equipped with 33 dual-head gamma cameras, 10 SPET/CT, 5 PET/CT, 2 cyclotrons, 1 breast-specific gamma imaging, 1 positron-emitting mammography, 10 thyroid uptake units, 8 technegas machines, 7 PET infusion systems, and 8 treadmills. Activities of nuclear medicine in Kuwait include education and training, clinical service, and research. Education includes nuclear medicine technology program in the Faculty of Allied Health Sciences, the 5-year residency program, medical school teaching distributed among different modules of the integrated curriculum with 14 didactic lecture, and other teaching sessions in nuclear medicine MSc program, which run concurrently with the first part of the residency program. The team of Nuclear Medicine in Kuwait has been active in research and has published more than 300 paper, 11 review articles, 12 book chapters, and 17 books in addition to 36 grants and 2 patents. A PhD program approved by Kuwait University Council would begin in 2016. PMID:27237444

  18. Structure and Activities of Nuclear Medicine in Kuwait.

    PubMed

    Elgazzar, Abdelhamid H; Owunwanne, Azuwuike; Alenezi, Saud

    2016-07-01

    The practice of nuclear medicine in Kuwait began in 1965 as a clinic for treating thyroid diseases. The practice developed gradually and until 1981 when the Faculty of Medicine established the Division of Nuclear Medicine in the Department of Radiology, which later became a separate department responsible for establishing and managing the practice in all hospitals of Kuwait. In 1987, a nuclear medicine residency program was begun and it is administered by Kuwait Institute for Medical Specializations originally as a 4-year but currently as a 5-year program. Currently there are 11 departments in the ministry of health hospitals staffed by 49 qualified attending physicians, mostly the diplomats of the Kuwait Institute for Medical Specializations nuclear medicine residency program, 4 academic physicians, 2 radiopharmacists, 2 physicists, and 130 technologists. These departments are equipped with 33 dual-head gamma cameras, 10 SPET/CT, 5 PET/CT, 2 cyclotrons, 1 breast-specific gamma imaging, 1 positron-emitting mammography, 10 thyroid uptake units, 8 technegas machines, 7 PET infusion systems, and 8 treadmills. Activities of nuclear medicine in Kuwait include education and training, clinical service, and research. Education includes nuclear medicine technology program in the Faculty of Allied Health Sciences, the 5-year residency program, medical school teaching distributed among different modules of the integrated curriculum with 14 didactic lecture, and other teaching sessions in nuclear medicine MSc program, which run concurrently with the first part of the residency program. The team of Nuclear Medicine in Kuwait has been active in research and has published more than 300 paper, 11 review articles, 12 book chapters, and 17 books in addition to 36 grants and 2 patents. A PhD program approved by Kuwait University Council would begin in 2016.

  19. A brief overview of nuclear medicine in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, S C; Chou, C E

    1989-04-01

    The year 1956 witnessed the birth of Nuclear Medicine in China, when the first course, Biomedical Applications of Isotopes, was offered in our country by the Peking Union Medical College (PUMC). This course was preceded by a training course in nuclear instruments in which students learned to construct the radiation detection devices required for performing experiments using radioisotopes. In 1958, several courses in clinical nuclear medicine brought up the first generation of nuclear medicine physicians in China. Historically, some of the chief events include: (1) operation of the first reactor, producing 33 radioactive isotopes in 1958; (2) first linear scanner built in 1960; (3) setting up an organization for the control of radiopharmaceuticals in 1961; (4) distribution of the first batch of cyclotron-produced isotopes in 1963; (5) development and use of the first radioimmunoassay (RIA) procedure in 1963; (6) production of tritium in 1964; (7) production of 99.8% enriched heavy water in 1965; (8) supply of 99mTc and 113mIn generators in 1972; (9) first gamma camera imported in 1972 and first homemade gamma camera installed in 1977; (10) founding of Chinese Society of Nuclear Medicine (CSNM) in 1980; (11) publication of the Chinese Journal of Nuclear Medicine beginning in 1981; (12) first single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imported in 1983. At present, there are 556 nuclear medicine departments in China with 4,000 staff.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. [Potential radiation hazard in nuclear medicine].

    PubMed

    Guilabert, Nadine; Ricard, Marcel; Chamoulaud, Karen; Mazelier, Carole; Schlumberger, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear medicine uses unsealed radioisotopes. The potential radiation hazards depend on the amount of radioactivity administered and the type of radionucleide. Thus, radiation safety instructions will minimize radiation exposure and contamination as low as reasonably achievable. National nuclear safety authority requires rules, regulations and exposure limits for both patients and workers. Good practices and training staff contribute to optimize the radioprotection. PMID:25842441

  1. A Training Manual for Nuclear Medicine Technologists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Guy H.; Alexander, George W.

    This manual was prepared for a training program in Nuclear Medicine Technology at the University of Cincinnati. Instructional materials for students enrolled in these courses in the training program include: Nuclear Physics and Instrumentation, Radionuclide Measurements, Radiation Protection, and Tracer Methodology and Radiopharmaceuticals. (CS)

  2. Eigenimage filtering of nuclear medicine image sequences

    SciTech Connect

    Windham, J.P.; Froelich, J.W.; Abd-Allah, M.

    1985-05-01

    In many nuclear medicine imaging sequences the localization of radioactivity in organs other than the target organ interferes with imaging of the desired anatomical structure or physiological process. A filtering technique has been developed which suppresses the interfering process while enhancing the desired process. This technique requires the identification of temporal sequential signatures for both the interfering and desired processes. These signatures are placed in the form of signature vectors. Signature matrices, M/sub D/ and M/sub U/, are formed by taking the outer product expansion of the temporal signature vectors for the desired and interfering processes respectively. By using the transformation from the simultaneous diagonalization of these two signature matrices a weighting vector is obtained. The technique is shown to maximize the projection of the desired process while minimizing the interfering process based upon an extension of Rayleigh's Principle. The technique is demonstrated for first pass renal and cardiac flow studies. This filter offers a potential for simplifying and extending the accuracy of diagnostic nuclear medicine procedures.

  3. Developments in space medicine.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warren, S.

    1973-01-01

    The principal directions and results of space medicine studies are reviewed, starting with the early 1950s. The effects of prolonged inaction, a gravity-free environment, and isolation on the survival and functioning of man in space are examined. Quarantine and other measures developed to guard the health of astronauts during space missions are described. Space radiation hazards and means of overcoming them are discussed. The development of exobiology as a new field of science from our increasing knowledge of the universe is noted, together with some technological and medical advances resulting from space research.

  4. Nuclear Medicine Imaging of Neuroendocrine Tumors.

    PubMed

    Brabander, Tessa; Kwekkeboom, Dik J; Feelders, Richard A; Brouwers, Adrienne H; Teunissen, Jaap J M

    2015-01-01

    An important role is reserved for nuclear imaging techniques in the imaging of neuroendocrine tumors (NETs). Somatostatin receptor scintigraphy (SRS) with (111)In-DTPA-octreotide is currently the most important tracer in the diagnosis, staging and selection for peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT). In the past decade, different positron-emitting tomography (PET) tracers have been developed. The largest group is the (68)Gallium-labeled somatostatin analogs ((68)Ga-SSA). Several studies have demonstrated their superiority compared to SRS in sensitivity and specificity. Furthermore, patient comfort and effective dose are favorable for (68)Ga-SSA. Other PET targets like β-[(11)C]-5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan ((11)C-5-HTP) and 6-(18)F-L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine ((18)F-DOPA) were developed recently. For insulinomas, glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor imaging is a promising new technique. The evaluation of response after PRRT and other therapies is a challenge. Currently, the official follow-up is performed with radiological imaging techniques. The role of nuclear medicine may increase with the newest tracers for PET. In this review, the different nuclear imaging techniques and tracers for the imaging of NETs will be discussed.

  5. IAEA support to medical physics in nuclear medicine.

    PubMed

    Meghzifene, Ahmed; Sgouros, George

    2013-05-01

    Through its programmatic efforts and its publications, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has helped define the role and responsibilities of the nuclear medicine physicist in the practice of nuclear medicine. This paper describes the initiatives that the IAEA has undertaken to support medical physics in nuclear medicine. In 1984, the IAEA provided guidance on how to ensure that the equipment used for detecting, imaging, and quantifying radioactivity is functioning properly (Technical Document [TECDOC]-137, "Quality Control of Nuclear Medicine Instruments"). An updated version of IAEA-TECDOC-137 was issued in 1991 as IAEA-TECDOC-602, and this included new chapters on scanner-computer systems and single-photon emission computed tomography systems. Nuclear medicine physics was introduced as a part of a project on radiation imaging and radioactivity measurements in the 2002-2003 IAEA biennium program in Dosimetry and Medical Radiation Physics. Ten years later, IAEA activities in this field have expanded to cover quality assurance (QA) and quality control (QC) of nuclear medicine equipment, education and clinical training, professional recognition of the role of medical physicists in nuclear medicine physics, and finally, the coordination of research and development activities in internal dosimetry. As a result of these activities, the IAEA has received numerous requests to support the development and implementation of QA or QC programs for radioactivity measurements in nuclear medicine in many Member States. During the last 5 years, support was provided to 20 Member States through the IAEA's technical cooperation programme. The IAEA has also supported education and clinical training of medical physicists. This type of support has been essential for the development and expansion of the Medical Physics profession, especially in low- and middle-income countries. The need for basic as well as specialized clinical training in medical physics was identified as a

  6. Nuclear Medicine Scans for Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... are the possible complications? For the most part, nuclear scans are safe tests. The doses of radiation are very small, and the radionuclides have a ... else should I know about these tests? The radiation exposure from a nuclear scan comes from the radionuclides used – the scanner ...

  7. Justification of the hybrid nuclear medicine examinations.

    PubMed

    Garcheva-Tsacheva, Marina B

    2015-07-01

    The annual frequency of nuclear medicine examinations is increasing worldwide. This is partly a consequence of the recently introduced single photon emission tomography, combined with computed tomography, and positron emission tomography, combined with computed tomography, techniques, which combine functional, metabolic and morphological information important for the diagnosis of many diseases. However, since the effective radiation dose is the sum of the dose of two components, the hybrid examinations result in increased patient exposure. Accordingly, their justification becomes mandatory. It starts with their clinical importance-the opportunity to resolve a clinical problem decisive for patients' management. Knowledge of the indications, contraindications and the examinations' limitations is the responsibility of the nuclear medicine physician, as well as the choice of the most adequate examination and protocol. In conclusion, the cost and the accessibility of the examinations should not be the principal consideration as opposed to the diagnostic value and the exposure. Flexible protocols and algorithms should be used for hybrid nuclear medicine examinations.

  8. Nuclear physics in medicine, minefield and kitchen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moskal, Paweł

    2011-01-01

    Plethora of phenomena discovered and investigated in the Maria Curie laboratories constitute nowadays basis of functioning of various advanced devices used in modern science, industry and medicine. In this article we briefly describe few examples of nuclear physics applications, such as: non-invasive imaging of living organisms by means of Positron Emission Tomography, remote identification of explosives and other dangerous substances, using the technique of atometry, and preservation of food by its exposure to nuclear radiation.

  9. Dosimetry in Nuclear Medicine Diagnosis and Therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noßke, D.; Mattsson, S.; Johansson, L.

    This document is part of Subvolume A 'Fundamentals and Data in Radiobiology, Radiation Biophysics, Dosimetry and Medical Radiological Protection' of Volume 7 'Medical Radiological Physics' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group VIII 'Advanced Materials and Technologies'. It contains the Section '4.7 Necessity of Patient-Specific Dose Planning in Radionuclide Therapy' of the Chapter '4 Dosimetry in Nuclear Medicine Diagnosis and Therapy'.

  10. The Development of Sports Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waddington, Ivan

    1996-01-01

    The development of sports medicine was influenced by medicalization and increasing competitiveness in modern sport, with sports physicians helping to develop performance enhancing drugs and techniques. This paper discusses sports medicine and drug use in Eastern European countries, early development of anabolic steroids in the United States, and…

  11. A nuclear chocolate box: the periodic table of nuclear medicine.

    PubMed

    Blower, Philip J

    2015-03-21

    Radioisotopes of elements from all parts of the periodic table find both clinical and research applications in radionuclide molecular imaging and therapy (nuclear medicine). This article provides an overview of these applications in relation to both the radiological properties of the radionuclides and the chemical properties of the elements, indicating past successes, current applications and future opportunities and challenges for inorganic chemistry. PMID:25406520

  12. A nuclear chocolate box: the periodic table of nuclear medicine.

    PubMed

    Blower, Philip J

    2015-03-21

    Radioisotopes of elements from all parts of the periodic table find both clinical and research applications in radionuclide molecular imaging and therapy (nuclear medicine). This article provides an overview of these applications in relation to both the radiological properties of the radionuclides and the chemical properties of the elements, indicating past successes, current applications and future opportunities and challenges for inorganic chemistry.

  13. Nuclear Medicine Technology: A Suggested Two-Year Curriculum Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, David

    This curriculum guide prescribes an educational program for training nuclear medicine technologists. Following a brief section on program development, the curriculum is both outlined and presented in detail. For each of the 44 courses, the following information is given: (1) sequential placement of the course in the curriculum; (2) course…

  14. Historic images in nuclear medicine: 1976: the first issue of clinical nuclear medicine and the first human FDG study.

    PubMed

    Hess, Søren; Høilund-Carlsen, Poul Flemming; Alavi, Abass

    2014-08-01

    In 1976, 2 major molecular imaging events coincidentally took place: Clinical Nuclear Medicine was first published in June, and in August researchers at the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania created the first images in humans with F-FDG. FDG was initially developed as part of an evolution set in motion by fundamental research studies with positron-emitting tracers in the 1950s by Michel Ter-Pegossian and coworkers at the Washington University. Today, Clinical Nuclear Medicine is a valued scientific contributor to the molecular imaging community, and FDG PET is considered the backbone of this evolving and exciting discipline.

  15. High Performance Organ-Specific Nuclear Medicine Imagers.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majewski, Stan

    2006-04-01

    One of the exciting applications of nuclear science is nuclear medicine. Well-known diagnostic imaging tools such as PET and SPECT (as well as MRI) were developed as spin-offs of basic scientific research in atomic and nuclear physics. Development of modern instrumentation for applications in particle physics experiments offers an opportunity to contribute to development of improved nuclear medicine (gamma and positron) imagers, complementing the present set of standard imaging tools (PET, SPECT, MRI, ultrasound, fMRI, MEG, etc). Several examples of new high performance imagers developed in national laboratories in collaboration with academia will be given to demonstrate this spin-off activity. These imagers are designed to specifically image organs such as breast, heart, head (brain), or prostate. The remaining and potentially most important challenging application field for dedicated nuclear medicine imagers is to assist with cancer radiation treatments. Better control of radiation dose delivery requires development of new compact in-situ imagers becoming integral parts of the radiation delivery systems using either external beams or based on radiation delivery by inserting or injecting radioactive sources (gamma, beta or alpha emitters) into tumors.

  16. Nuclear oncology, a fast growing field of nuclear medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olivier, Pierre

    2004-07-01

    Nuclear Medicine in oncology has been for a long time synonymous with bone scintigraphy, the first ever whole body imaging modality, and with treatment of thyroid cancer with iodine-131. More recently, somatostatin receptor scintigraphy (SRS) using peptides such as 111In-labelled octreotide became a reference imaging method in the detection and staging of neuroendocrine tumors while 131I- and 123I-MIBG remain the tracers of reference for pheochromocytomas and neuroblastomas. Lymphoscintigraphic imaging based on peritumoral injection of 99mTc-labelled colloids supports, in combination with per operative detection, the procedure of sentinel node identification in breast cancers and melanomas. Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is currently experiencing a considerable growth in oncology based on the use of 18F-FDG (fluorodeoxyglucose), a very sensitive, although non-specific, tumor tracer. Development of instrumentation is crucial in this expansion of PET imaging with new crystals being more sensitive and hybrid imagers that permit to reduce the acquisition time and offer fused PET-CT images. Current developments in therapy can be classified into three categories. Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) based on monoclonal antibodies (or fragments) labelled with beta-emitters. This technique has recently made its entrance in clinical practice with a 90Y-labelled anti-CD20 antibody ( 90Y-ibritumomab tiuxetan (Zevalin ®)) approved in US for the treatment of some subtypes of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Radionuclide-bone pain palliation has experienced developments with 153Sm-EDTMP, 186Re-HEDP or 89Sr, efficient in patients with widespread disease. Last, the same peptides, as those used in SRS, are being developed for therapy, labelled with 90Y, 111In or 177Lu in patients who failed to respond to other treatments. Overall, nuclear oncology is currently a fast growing field thanks to the combined developments of radiopharmaceuticals and instrumentation.

  17. Introduction to suspension levels: nuclear medicine.

    PubMed

    Christofides, Stelios; Malone, Lesley; Mattson, Soren; Horton, Pat

    2013-02-01

    In 2007, the European Commission (EC) commissioned a group of experts to undertake the revision of Report Radiation Protection (RP) 91, written in 1997, on 'Criteria for acceptability of radiological (including radiotherapy) and nuclear medicine installations'. The revised draft report was submitted to the EC. Before publication, the EC issued this document for public consultation and has commissioned the same group of experts to consider the comments of the public consultation in further improving the revised report. The EC intends to publish the final report under its Radiation Report Series with the number RP 162. This paper introduces the project and presents the methodology adopted to devise the criteria of acceptability/suspension levels for nuclear medicine equipment.

  18. [Evaluation of thyroid diseases in nuclear medicine].

    PubMed

    Alimanović-Alagić, Rubina; Brković, Amera; Kucukalić-Selimović, Elma

    2008-01-01

    The thyroid is one of the larger endocrine glands in the body. The thyroid size is 15-20 gr. The gland produces hormones that regulate all metabolic processes in large number of tissues in the body, and produces hormones that affect the growth and rate of function of many other systems in the body. Studies of the endocrine system are among the original procedures in nuclear medicine. Thyroid scintigraphy and radio-tracer uptake studies remain an important part of the practice of nuclear medicine. Scintigraphy reveals functional and anatomic status of thyroid gland. A systematic and complete interpretation of the thyroid scintigrams requires assessments of thyroid size and configuration and identification and description of focal abnormalities, including hot and cold nodules and extrathyroidal activity in the neck or mediastinum. Early diagnosis and treatment of thyroid disease have made possible the reduction of morbidity and mortality associated with these disorders. PMID:19469277

  19. Computer Generated Cardiac Model For Nuclear Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hills, John F.; Miller, Tom R.

    1981-07-01

    A computer generated mathematical model of a thallium-201 myocardial image is described which is based on realistic geometric and physiological assumptions. The left ventricle is represented by an ellipsoid truncated by aortic and mitral valve planes. Initially, an image of a motionless left ventricle is calculated with the location, size, and relative activity of perfusion defects selected by the designer. The calculation includes corrections for photon attenuation by overlying structures and the relative distribution of activity within the tissues. Motion of the ventricular walls is simulated either by a weighted sum of images at different stages in the cardiac cycle or by a blurring function whose width varies with position. Camera and collimator blurring are estimated by the MTF of the system measured at a representative depth in a phantom. Statistical noise is added using a Poisson random number generator. The usefulness of this model is due to two factors: the a priori characterization of location and extent of perfusion defects and the strong visual similarity of the images to actual clinical studies. These properties should permit systematic evaluation of image processing algorithms using this model. The principles employed in developing this cardiac image model can readily be applied to the simulation of other nuclear medicine studies and to other medical imaging modalities including computed tomography, ultrasound, and digital radiography.

  20. Nuclear medicine therapy of neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Hoefnagel, C A

    1999-12-01

    Specific targeting of radionuclides to neuroblastoma, a neural crest tumour occurring predominantly in young children and associated with a relatively poor prognosis, may be achieved via the metabolic route (MIBG), receptor binding (peptides) or immunological approach (antibodies). The clinical role of 131I-MIBG therapy and radioimmunotherapy in neuroblastoma is discussed. In recurrent or progressive metastatic disease after conventional treatment modalities have failed, 131I-MIBG therapy, with an overall objective response rate of 35%, is probably the best palliative treatment, as the invasiveness and toxicity of this therapy compare favourably with that of chemotherapy, immunotherapy and external beam radiotherapy. In patients presenting with inoperable stage III and IV neuroblastoma, 131I-MIBG therapy at diagnosis is at least as effective as combination chemotherapy but is associated with much less toxicity. In patients with recurrent disease 131I-MIBG therapy in combination with hyperbaric oxygen therapy proved feasible and encouraging effects on survival have been observed. Attempts to intensify the treatment in relapsed patients by combination of 131I-MIBG therapy with high dose chemotherapy and/or total body irradiation have met with considerable toxicity. Developments in MIBG therapy aiming at improving the therapeutic index are mentioned. Early results of radioimmunotherapy using 131I-UJ13A or 131I-3F8 monoclonal antibodies have shown moderate objective response and considerable side effects in patients with stage IV neuroblastoma, who had relapsed or failed conventional therapy. New developments in radioimmunotherapy of neuroblastoma include the use of chimaeric antibodies, the enhancement of tumour uptake by modulation of antigen expression or by increasing the tumour perfusion/vascularity/permeability, the use of other labels and multistep targeting techniques, e.g. using bispecific monoclonal antibodies.

  1. American College of Nuclear Physics 1991 DOE day symposium: Aids and nuclear medicine

    SciTech Connect

    1991-12-31

    Since first described in 1981, the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) has become the medical dilemma of the century. AIDS retrovirus, and the economic consequences of this exposure are staggering. AIDS has been the topic of conferences and symposia worldwide. This symposium, to be held on January 25, 1991, at the 17th Annual Meeting and Scientific Sessions of the American College of Nuclear Physicians, will expose the Nuclear Medicine Physicians/Radiologists to their role in the diagnosis of AIDS, and will educate them on the socio-economic and ethical issues related to this problem. In addition, the Nuclear Medicine Physicians/Radiologists must be aware of their role in the management of their departments in order to adequately protect the health care professionals working in their laboratories. Strategies are currently being developed to control the spread of bloodborne diseases within the health care setting, and it is incumbent upon the Nuclear Medicine community to be aware of such strategies.

  2. (Radiopharmacokinetics: Utilization of nuclear medicine)

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, W.

    1989-01-01

    The work performed in the 1986/1989 period can be characterized as one of testing and documenting that the Radiopharmacokinetic technique is both feasible and applicable to human studies, as well as developing spectroscopic methods for undertaking noninvasive human studies. Main accomplishments include studies which: show that drug targeting can be monitored noninvasively using radiolabeled drugs. The study that documented this finding involved an analysis of the comparative kinetics of biodistribution of {sup 195m}Pt-cisplatin to brain tumors, when administered intravenously and intra-arterially; show that such differential targeting of Platinum represents a differential quantity of drug and a differential amount of the active component reaching the target site; show that in vivo NMRS studies of drugs are possible, as documented by our studies of 5-fluorouracil; show that 5-fluorouracil can be trapped in tumors, and that such trapping may be directly correlatable to patient response; show that the radiopharmacokinetic technique can also be used effectively for the study of radiopharmaceuticals used for imaging, as documented in our studies with {sup 99m}T{sub c}-DMSA.

  3. [Therapeutic advances of nuclear medicine in oncology].

    PubMed

    Valdés Olmos, R A; Hoefnagel, C A; Bais, E; Boot, H; Taal, B; de Kraker, J; Vote, P A

    2001-12-01

    With the development of new radiopharmaceuticals there is a tendency to apply nuclear medicine therapy for malignancies of higher incidence (lymphoma, prostate) than the ones which have been treated for many years (thyroid cancer, neuroendocrine tumours). One of the most important areas of current development in radionuclide cancer therapy is the monotherapeutic use of new or already available radiopharmaceuticals in preclinical or phase I studies and to a lesser degree in phase II trials. In this context, the radioimmunotherapy is showing important advances in the treatment of medullary thyroid carcinoma, malignant lymphomas en brain tumours with potential extension to neuroblastoma therapy. The development of DOTA as a chelating agent has lead to the use of Y-90-DOTATOC in the treatment of neuroendocrine tumours, particularly carcinoid tumours, and non-I131I-avid thyroid carcinomas. In an effort to improve tumour targeting together with simultaneous reduction of physiological organ uptake, 131I-MIBG is being used in combination with interferon a and pre-targeting with unlabelled MIBG in the treatment of carcinoid tumours. New routes of administration of radiopharmaceuticals (intratumoral, intra-arterial) have enhanced the treatment of malignancies of liver, pancreas and brain as well as the potential use of radioimmunotherapy by intravesical administration for bladder carcinoma. Another significant tendency in radionuclide therapy is its evolution from monotherapy towards a combined application with other anticancer modalities. Some recent examples of combined therapy with demonstrated anti-tumour effect are found in neuroblastoma (131I-MIBG and chemotherapy), bone metastases of prostatic carcinoma (addition of 89Sr to chemotherapy schedules), brain malignancies (adjuvant use of radioimmnunotherapy in relation to surgery and external radiotherapy) and lymphoma (radioimmunotherapy combined with chemotherapy or immunotherapy). Reinforcing this trend in phase II and

  4. Rheumatoid arthritis: Nuclear Medicine state-of-the-art imaging

    PubMed Central

    Rosado-de-Castro, Paulo Henrique; Lopes de Souza, Sergio Augusto; Alexandre, Dângelo; Barbosa da Fonseca, Lea Mirian; Gutfilen, Bianca

    2014-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease, which is associated with systemic and chronic inflammation of the joints, resulting in synovitis and pannus formation. For several decades, the assessment of RA has been limited to conventional radiography, assisting in the diagnosis and monitoring of disease. Nevertheless, conventional radiography has poor sensitivity in the detection of the inflammatory process that happens in the initial stages of RA. In the past years, new drugs that significantly decrease the progression of RA have allowed a more efficient treatment. Nuclear Medicine provides functional assessment of physiological processes and therefore has significant potential for timely diagnosis and adequate follow-up of RA. Several single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET) radiopharmaceuticals have been developed and applied in this field. The use of hybrid imaging, which permits computed tomography (CT) and nuclear medicine data to be acquired and fused, has increased even more the diagnostic accuracy of Nuclear Medicine by providing anatomical localization in SPECT/CT and PET/CT studies. More recently, fusion of PET with magnetic resonance imaging (PET/MRI) was introduced in some centers and demonstrated great potential. In this article, we will review studies that have been published using Nuclear Medicine for RA and examine key topics in the area. PMID:25035834

  5. Society of Nuclear Medicine--57th annual meeting.

    PubMed

    Searle, Ben

    2010-08-01

    The 57th Annual Meeting of the Society of Nuclear Medicine, held in Salt Lake City, UT, USA, included topics covering new developments in imaging agents and radiopharmaceutical therapies in the field of nuclear medicine. This conference report highlights selected presentations related to imaging of the brain, the prediction of heart disease, and the detection and treatment of various cancers. Investigational drugs discussed include TF-2 plus [68Ga]IMP-288 and TF-2 plus [111In]IMP-288 (both Immunomedics Inc), [11C]PBR-170 (Royal Prince Alfred Hospital/Australian Nuclear Science & Technology Organization), [11C]LY-2795050 (Eli Lilly & Co), yttrium (90Y) clivatuzumab tetraxetan (Garden State Cancer Center/Immunomedics Inc), [18F]LMI-1195 (Lantheus Medical Imaging Inc), fluciclovine (18F) (GE Healthcare/Nihon Medi-Physics Co Ltd), [99mTc]MIP-1340 and [99mTc]MIP-1407 (both Molecular Insight Pharmaceuticals Inc).

  6. Nuclear Medicine Imaging in the Pediatric Patient

    PubMed Central

    Loveless, Vivian

    2006-01-01

    Pediatric nuclear medicine provides a wealth of information on a variety of disease states; however, precautions on dosing have to be taken into consideration. Also, expertise in conducting procedures and interpreting the results in pediatric patients is necessary. Emphasis is placed on diagnostic studies involving the central nervous system, musculoskeletal system, genitourinary system, gastrointestinal system, endocrine system, pulmonary system, and cardiovascular system along with a brief explanation of the mechanism of localization of the radiopharmaceuticals involved. Radiation safety issues are addressed when the expectant mother or nursing mother is administered radiopharmaceuticals. PMID:23115536

  7. The A-bomb, 50 years later: The evolution of nuclear medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Kotz, D.

    1995-08-01

    In the wake of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombings, the U.S. government began to invest heavily in its nuclear program. Nuclear medicine stood to gain from these postwar policies, but it also suffered some setbacks. Fifty years ago this month, two atomic bombs were dropped on Japan, killing thousands of civilians and ushering in a quick and final end to World War II. The beginning of the post-war era signaled the birth of nuclear medicine as it is widely applied today. In fact, the same nuclear reactor that produced elements for the A-bomb project was turned over for the mass production of radionuclides for medicine and industry. The link between the A-bomb and nuclear medicine, however, has always been a sensitive subject among nuclear physicians whose patients may associate radionuclide injections with mushroom clouds. Although this link is not justified, the government`s interest in developing nuclear technology following World War II did have a significant impact on nuclear medicine: on the upside, millions of federal dollars were funneled into the production of radionuclides for research and medicine. On the downside, Congress established the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC)-which later became the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)-to oversee safety issues, making nuclear medicine the only medical field regulated by a federal agency.

  8. Progress in the development of large-area modular 64 x 64 CdZnTe imaging arrays for nuclear medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Matherson, K.J.; Barber, H.B.; Barrett, H.H.; Eskin, J.D.; Dereniak, E.L.; Marks, D.G.; Woolfenden, J.M.; Young, E.T.; Augustine, F.L.

    1998-06-01

    Previous efforts by this group have demonstrated the potential of hybrid semiconductor detector arrays for use in gamma-ray imaging applications. In this paper, the author describes progress in the development of a prototype imaging system consisting of a 64 x 64-pixel CdZnTe detector array mated to a multiplexer readout circuit that was custom designed for their nuclear medicine application. The detector array consists of a 0.15 cm thick slab of CdZnTe which has a 64 x 64 array of 380 {micro}m square pixel electrodes on one side produced by photolithography; the other side has a continuous electrode biased at {minus}150 V. Electrical connections between the detector electrodes and corresponding multiplexer bump pads are made with indium bump bonds. Although the CdZnTe detector arrays characterized in this paper are room-temperature devices, a slight amount of cooling is necessary to reduce thermally generated dark current in the detectors. Initial tests show that this prototype imager functions well with more than 90% of its pixels operating. The device is an excellent imager; phantom images have a spatial resolution of 1.5 mm, limited by the collimator bore.

  9. ACR-SNM Task Force on Nuclear Medicine Training: report of the task force.

    PubMed

    Guiberteau, Milton J; Graham, Michael M

    2011-06-01

    The expansion of knowledge and technological advances in nuclear medicine and radiology require physicians to have more expertise in functional and anatomic imaging. The convergence of these two specialties into the new discipline of molecular imaging has also begun to place demands on residency training programs for additional instruction in physiology and molecular biology. These changes have unmasked weaknesses in current nuclear medicine and radiology training programs. Adding to the impetus for change are the attendant realities of the job market and uncertain employment prospects for physicians trained in nuclear medicine but not also trained in diagnostic radiology. With this background, the ACR and the Society of Nuclear Medicine convened the Task Force on Nuclear Medicine Training to define the issues and develop recommendations for resident training.

  10. Nuclear medicine training and practice in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Kamínek, Milan; Koranda, Pavel

    2014-08-01

    Nuclear medicine in the Czech Republic is a full specialty with an exclusive practice. Since the training program was organized and structured in recent years, residents have had access to the specialty of nuclear medicine, starting with a two-year general internship (in internal medicine or radiology). At present, nuclear medicine services are provided in 45 departments. In total, 119 nuclear medicine specialists are currently registered. In order to obtain the title of Nuclear Medicine Specialist, five years of training are necessary; the first two years consist of a general internship in internal medicine or radiology. The remaining three years consist of training in the nuclear medicine specialty itself, but includes three months of practice in radiology. Twenty-one physicians are currently in nuclear medicine training and a mean of three specialists pass the final exam per year. The syllabus is very similar to that of the European Union of Medical Specialists (UEMS), namely concerning the minimum recommended numbers for diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. In principle, the Czech law requires continuous medical education for all practicing doctors. The Czech Medical Chamber has provided a continuing medical education (CME) system. Other national CMEs are not accepted in Czech Republic.

  11. Source Book of Educational Materials for Nuclear Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pijar, Mary Lou, Comp.; Lewis, Jeannine T., Comp.

    The contents of this sourcebook of educational materials are divided into the following sections: Anatomy and Physiology; Medical Terminology; Medical Ethics and Department Management; Patient Care and Medical Decision-Making; Basic Nuclear Medicine; Diagnostic in Vivo; Diagnostic in Vitro; Pediatric Nuclear Medicine; Radiation Detection and…

  12. Common uses of nonradioactive drugs in nuclear medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Ponto, J.A.; Hladik, W.B.

    1984-06-01

    A variety of nonradioactive pharmaceuticals commonly used in patients who receive nuclear medicine diagnostic tests are described. Nonradioactive drugs used in thyroid, brain, hepatobiliary, cardiac, renal, Meckel's diverticulum, gallium, adrenal, and hematological studies are described. Pharmaceutical necessities used as disinfectants, diluents, and anticoagulants are also described. Hospital pharmacists should be familiar with the uses of commonly prescribed nonradioactive drugs in nuclear medicine studies.

  13. Career prospects for graduating nuclear medicine residents: survey of nuclear medicine program directors.

    PubMed

    Harolds, Jay A; Guiberteau, Milton J; Metter, Darlene F; Oates, M Elizabeth

    2013-08-01

    There has been much consternation in the nuclear medicine (NM) community in recent years regarding the difficulty many NM graduates experience in securing initial employment. A survey designed to determine the extent and root causes behind the paucity of career opportunities was sent to all 2010-2011 NM residency program directors. The results of that survey and its implications for NM trainees and the profession are presented and discussed in this article.

  14. Pulmonary nuclear medicine: Techniques in diagnosis of lung disease

    SciTech Connect

    Atkins, H.L.

    1984-01-01

    This book presents papers on the application of nuclear medicine to the diagnosis of lung diseases. Topics considered include lung physiology and anatomy, radiopharmaceuticals in pulmonary medicine, pulmonary embolism, obstructive pulmonary disease, diffuse infiltrative lung disease, pneumoconioses, tumor localization scans in primary lung tumors, the interactions of heart diseases and lung diseases on radionuclide tests of lung anatomy and function, radionuclide imaging in pediatric lung diseases, and future possibilities in pulmonary nuclear medicine.

  15. Japanese consensus guidelines for pediatric nuclear medicine. Part 1: Pediatric radiopharmaceutical administered doses (JSNM pediatric dosage card). Part 2: Technical considerations for pediatric nuclear medicine imaging procedures.

    PubMed

    Koizumi, Kiyoshi; Masaki, Hidekazu; Matsuda, Hiroshi; Uchiyama, Mayuki; Okuno, Mitsuo; Oguma, Eiji; Onuma, Hiroshi; Kanegawa, Kimio; Kanaya, Shinichi; Kamiyama, Hiroshi; Karasawa, Kensuke; Kitamura, Masayuki; Kida, Tetsuo; Kono, Tatsuo; Kondo, Chisato; Sasaki, Masayuki; Terada, Hitoshi; Nakanishi, Atsushi; Hashimoto, Teisuke; Hataya, Hiroshi; Hamano, Shin-ichiro; Hirono, Keishi; Fujita, Yukihiko; Hoshino, Ken; Yano, Masayuki; Watanabe, Seiichi

    2014-06-01

    The Japanese Society of Nuclear Medicine has recently published the consensus guidelines for pediatric nuclear medicine. This article is the English version of the guidelines. Part 1 proposes the dose optimization in pediatric nuclear medicine studies. Part 2 comprehensively discusses imaging techniques for the appropriate conduct of pediatric nuclear medicine procedures, considering the characteristics of imaging in children.

  16. NMR clinical imaging and spectroscopy: Its impact on nuclear medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-02-02

    This is a collection of four papers describing aspects of past and future use of nuclear magnetic resonance as a clinical diagnostic tool. The four papers are entitled (1) What Does NMR Offer that Nuclear Medicine Does Not? by Jerry W. Froelich, (2) Oncological Imaging: Now, Future and Impact Jerry W. Froelich, (3) Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy/Spectroscopic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine: Past, Present and Future by H. Cecil Charles, and (4) MR Cardiology: Now, Future and Impact by Robert J. Herfkens.

  17. NMR clinical imaging and spectroscopy: Its impact on nuclear medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-02-02

    This is a collection of four papers describing aspects of past and future use of nuclear magnetic resonance as a clinical diagnostic tool. The four papers are entitled (1) What Does NMR Offer that Nuclear Medicine Does Not by Jerry W. Froelich, (2) Oncological Imaging: Now, Future and Impact Jerry W. Froelich, (3) Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy/Spectroscopic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine: Past, Present and Future by H. Cecil Charles, and (4) MR Cardiology: Now, Future and Impact by Robert J. Herfkens.

  18. Standardization of Administered Activities in Pediatric Nuclear Medicine: A Report of the First Nuclear Medicine Global Initiative Project, Part 2-Current Standards and the Path Toward Global Standardization.

    PubMed

    Fahey, Frederic H; Bom, Henry Hee-Seung; Chiti, Arturo; Choi, Yun Young; Huang, Gang; Lassmann, Michael; Laurin, Norman; Mut, Fernando; Nuñez-Miller, Rodolfo; O'Keeffe, Darin; Pradhan, Prasanta; Scott, Andrew M; Song, Shaoli; Soni, Nischal; Uchiyama, Mayuki; Vargas, Luis

    2016-07-01

    The Nuclear Medicine Global Initiative (NMGI) was formed in 2012 and consists of 13 international organizations with direct involvement in nuclear medicine. The underlying objectives of the NMGI are to promote human health by advancing the field of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging, encourage global collaboration in education, and harmonize procedure guidelines and other policies that ultimately lead to improvements in quality and safety in the field throughout the world. For its first project, the NMGI decided to consider the issues involved in the standardization of administered activities in pediatric nuclear medicine. It was decided to divide the final report of this project into 2 parts. Part 1 was published in this journal in the spring of 2015. This article presents part 2 of the final report. It discusses current standards for administered activities in children and adolescents that have been developed by various professional organizations. It also presents an evaluation of the current practice of pediatric nuclear medicine specifically with regard to administered activities as determined by an international survey of 313 nuclear medicine clinics and centers from 29 countries. Lastly, it provides recommendations for a path toward global standardization of the administration of radiopharmaceuticals in children.

  19. The birth of nuclear medicine instrumentation: Blumgart and Yens, 1925.

    PubMed

    Patton, Dennis D

    2003-08-01

    In 1925, Hermann Blumgart performed the first diagnostic procedure using radioactive indicators on humans; this first is well recognized. Less well recognized is the fact that Blumgart and his coworker Otto C. Yens, then a medical student, developed the first instrumentation used in a diagnostic procedure involving radioactive indicators. The instrumentation, a modified Wilson cloud chamber, turned out to be the detector most suitable for their purpose. Blumgart also showed remarkable foresight in outlining the requirements both for a satisfactory indicator (tracer) and for a satisfactory detector--requirements that still hold true today. The Blumgart-Yens modified cloud chamber was the birth of nuclear medicine instrumentation. PMID:12902429

  20. Nuclear medicine for imaging of epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Abedi, Seyed Mohammad; Mardanshahi, Alireza; Shahhosseini, Roza; Hosseinimehr, Seyed Jalal

    2016-05-01

    Cancer is one of the leading causes of mortality worldwide. Usually, the diagnosis of cancer at an early stage is important to facilitate proper treatment and survival. Nuclear medicine has been successfully used in the diagnosis, staging, therapy and monitoring of cancers. Single-photon emission computed tomography and PET-based companion imaging agents are in development for use as a companion diagnostic tool for patients with ovarian cancer. The present review discusses the basic and clinical studies related to the use of radiopharmaceuticals in the diagnosis and management of ovarian cancer, focusing on their utility and comparing them with other imaging techniques such as computed tomography and MRI.

  1. Evolving Important Role of Lutetium-177 for Therapeutic Nuclear Medicine.

    PubMed

    Pillai, Ambikalmajan M R; Knapp, Furn F Russ

    2015-01-01

    Lutetium-177 ((177)Lu) is a late entrant into the nuclear medicine therapy arena but is expected to become one of the most widely used therapeutic radionuclides. This paper analyses the reason for the increasing preference of (177)Lu as a therapeutic radionuclide. While the radionuclidic properties favor its use for several therapeutic applications, the potential for large scale production of (177)Lu is also an important aspect for its acceptability as a therapeutic radionuclide. This introductory discussion also summarizes some developing clinical uses and suggested future directions for applications of (177)Lu.

  2. Limits of Tumor Detectability in Nuclear Medicine and PET

    PubMed Central

    Erdi, Yusuf Emre

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Nuclear medicine is becoming increasingly important in the early detection of malignancy. The advantage of nuclear medicine over other imaging modalities is the high sensitivity of the gamma camera. Nuclear medicine counting equipment has the capability of detecting levels of radioactivity which exceed background levels by as little as 2.4 to 1. This translates to only a few hundred counts per minute on a regular gamma camera or as few as 3 counts per minute when using coincidence detection on a positron emission tomography (PET) camera. Material and Methods: We have experimentally measured the limits of detectability using a set of hollow spheres in a Jaszczak phantom at various tumor-to-background ratios. Imaging modalities for this work were (1) planar, (2) SPECT, (3) PET, and (4) planar camera with coincidence detection capability (MCD). Results: When there is no background (infinite contrast) activity present, the detectability of tumors is similar for PET and planar imaging. With the presence of the background activity , PET can detect objects in an order of magnitude smaller in size than that can be seen by conventional planar imaging especially in the typical clinical low (3:1) T/B ratios. The detection capability of the MCD camera lies between a conventional nuclear medicine (planar / SPECT) scans and the detection capability of a dedicated PET scanner. Conclusion: Among nuclear medicine’s armamentarium, PET is the closest modality to CT or MR imaging in terms of limits of detection. Modern clinical PET scanners have a resolution limit of 4 mm, corresponding to the detection of tumors with a volume of 0.2 ml (7 mm diameter) in 5:1 T/B ratio. It is also possible to obtain better resolution limits with dedicated brain and animal scanners. The future holds promise in development of new detector materials, improved camera design, and new reconstruction algorithms which will improve sensitivity, resolution, contrast, and thereby further diminish

  3. IBA-Europhysics Prize in Applied Nuclear Science and Nuclear Methods in Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacGregor, I. J. Douglas

    2014-03-01

    The Nuclear Physics Board of the European Physical Society is pleased to announce that the 2013 IBA-Europhysics Prize in Applied Nuclear Science and Nuclear Methods in Medicine is awarded to Prof. Marco Durante, Director of the Biophysics Department at GSI Helmholtz Center (Darmstadt, Germany); Professor at the Technical University of Darmstadt (Germany) and Adjunct Professor at the Temple University, Philadelphia, USA. The prize was presented in the closing Session of the INPC 2013 conference by Mr. Thomas Servais, R&D Manager for Accelerator Development at the IBA group, who sponsor the IBA Europhysics Prize. The Prize Diploma was presented by Dr. I J Douglas MacGregor, Chair-elect of the EPS Nuclear Physics Division and Chair of the IBA Prize committee.

  4. JPRS report, nuclear developments

    SciTech Connect

    1991-03-28

    This report contains articles concerning the nuclear developments of the following countries: (1) China; (2) Japan, North Korea, South Korea; (3) Bulgaria; (4) Argentina, Brazil, Honduras; (5) India, Iran, Pakistan, Syria; (6) Soviet Union; and (7) France, Germany, Turkey.

  5. Image Reconstruction for Prostate Specific Nuclear Medicine imagers

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Smith

    2007-01-11

    There is increasing interest in the design and construction of nuclear medicine detectors for dedicated prostate imaging. These include detectors designed for imaging the biodistribution of radiopharmaceuticals labeled with single gamma as well as positron-emitting radionuclides. New detectors and acquisition geometries present challenges and opportunities for image reconstruction. In this contribution various strategies for image reconstruction for these special purpose imagers are reviewed. Iterative statistical algorithms provide a framework for reconstructing prostate images from a wide variety of detectors and acquisition geometries for PET and SPECT. The key to their success is modeling the physics of photon transport and data acquisition and the Poisson statistics of nuclear decay. Analytic image reconstruction methods can be fast and are useful for favorable acquisition geometries. Future perspectives on algorithm development and data analysis for prostate imaging are presented.

  6. Labelled compounds and radiopharmaceuticals applied in nuclear medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Balaban, A.; Galateanu, I.; Geogescu, G.; Simionescu, L.

    1986-01-01

    This book includes material on radiopharmacy and nuclear medicine with a section on in vitro assays. Contents are divided into four parts: radioisotopes, labelled compounds and radiopharmaceuticals; radiopharmaceuticals used for diagnostic purposes; in vitro methods of analysis with labelled compounds and applications of radioimmunoassay to medicine.

  7. Pioneers of nuclear medicine, Madame Curie.

    PubMed

    Grammaticos, Philip C

    2004-01-01

    Among those who have made important discoveries in the field of radioactivity and thus helped in the development of nuclear medicine as an identical entity are: Heinrich Hertz who in 1886 demonstrated the existence of radiowaves. In 1895 Wilhelm Röntgen discovered the X-rays. In 1896 H. Becquerel described the phenomenon of radioactivity. He showed that a radioactive uranium salt was emitting radioactivity which passing through a metal foil darkened a photographic plate. An analogous experiment performed by S.Thomson in London was announced to the president of the Royal Society of London before the time H.Becquerel announced his discovery but Thomson never claimed priority for his discovery. Muarie Sklodowska Curie (1867-1934) was undoubtedly the most important person to attribute to the discovery of radioactivity. In 1898 she discovered radium as a natural radioactive element. This is how she describes the hard time she had, working with her husband Pierre Curie (1859-1906) for the discovery of radium and polonium: "During the first year we did not go to the theater or to a concert or visited friends. I miss my relatives, my father and my daughter that I see every morning and only for a little while. But I do not complain...". In presenting her discovery of radium, Madame Curie said: " ...in the hands of a criminal, radium is very dangerous. So we must often ask ourselves: will humanity earn or lose from this discovery? I, myself belong to those who believe the former...". The notebooks that Madame Curie had when she was working with radium and other radioactive elements like polonium, thorium and uranium are now kept in Paris. They are contaminated with radioactive materials having very long half-lives and for this reason anyone who wishes to have access to these notes should sign that he takes full responsibility. There are some more interesting points in Madame Curie's life which may not be widely known like: Although her full name is Maria Sklodowska

  8. Pioneers of nuclear medicine, Madame Curie.

    PubMed

    Grammaticos, Philip C

    2004-01-01

    Among those who have made important discoveries in the field of radioactivity and thus helped in the development of nuclear medicine as an identical entity are: Heinrich Hertz who in 1886 demonstrated the existence of radiowaves. In 1895 Wilhelm Röntgen discovered the X-rays. In 1896 H. Becquerel described the phenomenon of radioactivity. He showed that a radioactive uranium salt was emitting radioactivity which passing through a metal foil darkened a photographic plate. An analogous experiment performed by S.Thomson in London was announced to the president of the Royal Society of London before the time H.Becquerel announced his discovery but Thomson never claimed priority for his discovery. Muarie Sklodowska Curie (1867-1934) was undoubtedly the most important person to attribute to the discovery of radioactivity. In 1898 she discovered radium as a natural radioactive element. This is how she describes the hard time she had, working with her husband Pierre Curie (1859-1906) for the discovery of radium and polonium: "During the first year we did not go to the theater or to a concert or visited friends. I miss my relatives, my father and my daughter that I see every morning and only for a little while. But I do not complain...". In presenting her discovery of radium, Madame Curie said: " ...in the hands of a criminal, radium is very dangerous. So we must often ask ourselves: will humanity earn or lose from this discovery? I, myself belong to those who believe the former...". The notebooks that Madame Curie had when she was working with radium and other radioactive elements like polonium, thorium and uranium are now kept in Paris. They are contaminated with radioactive materials having very long half-lives and for this reason anyone who wishes to have access to these notes should sign that he takes full responsibility. There are some more interesting points in Madame Curie's life which may not be widely known like: Although her full name is Maria Sklodowska

  9. The Society of Nuclear Medicine in the new millennium.

    PubMed

    Carretta, R F

    2000-07-01

    The Society of Nuclear Medicine (SNM), which was first organized in January 1954 by 12 men at the Davenport Hotel in Spokane, WA, has evolved into an international educational organization. It has more than 15,000 members, including physicians, scientists, technologists, and industrialists. The SNM has embarked on a new strategic plan that will make it the premier educational and scientific organization representing the specialty of nuclear medicine. The role of the Society in the new millennium and its relationship with other international nuclear medicine societies continue to evolve. The opportunity for joint educational programs, interchange of ideas, research, an international journal, educational activities, and the sharing of professional experiences awaits the SNM and its members in the new millennium. The Society has also reached out to other organizations and physicians who are involved in the clinical practice of nuclear medicine to forge new alliances that will strengthen the specialty of nuclear medicine. These alliances will allow nuclear medicine physicians to speak with a unified voice when faced with regulatory and reimbursement issues and will help in advancing the research, education, and clinical mission of the SNM. PMID:10928386

  10. Radiation safety audit of a high volume Nuclear Medicine Department

    PubMed Central

    Jha, Ashish Kumar; Singh, Abhijith Mohan; Shetye, Bhakti; Shah, Sneha; Agrawal, Archi; Purandare, Nilendu Chandrakant; Monteiro, Priya; Rangarajan, Venkatesh

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Professional radiation exposure cannot be avoided in nuclear medicine practices. It can only be minimized up to some extent by implementing good work practices. Aim and Objectives: The aim of our study was to audit the professional radiation exposure and exposure rate of radiation worker working in and around Department of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging, Tata Memorial Hospital. Materials and Methods: We calculated the total number of nuclear medicine and positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) procedures performed in our department and the radiation exposure to the radiation professionals from year 2009 to 2012. Results: We performed an average of 6478 PET/CT scans and 3856 nuclear medicine scans/year from January 2009 to December 2012. The average annual whole body radiation exposure to nuclear medicine physician, technologist and nursing staff are 1.74 mSv, 2.93 mSv and 4.03 mSv respectively. Conclusion: Efficient management and deployment of personnel is of utmost importance to optimize radiation exposure in a high volume nuclear medicine setup in order to work without anxiety of high radiation exposure. PMID:25400361

  11. The contribution of medical physics to nuclear medicine: a physician's perspective.

    PubMed

    Ell, Peter J

    2014-12-01

    This paper is the second in a series of invited perspectives by four pioneers of nuclear medicine imaging and physics. A medical physicist and a nuclear medicine clinical specialist each take a backward look and a forward look at the contributions of physics to nuclear medicine. Here is a backward look from a nuclear medicine physician's perspective.

  12. Applications of CdTe to nuclear medicine. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Entine, G.

    1985-05-07

    Uses of cadmium telluride (CdTe) nuclear detectors in medicine are briefly described. They include surgical probes and a system for measuring cerebral blood flow in the intensive care unit. Other uses include nuclear dentistry, x-ray exposure control, cardiology, diabetes, and the testing of new pharmaceuticals. (ACR)

  13. Examining Quality Management Audits in Nuclear Medicine Practice as a lifelong learning process: opportunities and challenges to the nuclear medicine professional and beyond.

    PubMed

    Pascual, Thomas N B

    2016-08-01

    This essay will explore the critical issues and challenges surrounding lifelong learning for professionals, initially exploring within the profession and organizational context of nuclear medicine practice. It will critically examine how the peer-review process called Quality Management Audits in Nuclear Medicine Practice (QUANUM) of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) can be considered a lifelong learning opportunity to instill a culture of quality to improve patient care and elevate the status of the nuclear medicine profession and practice within the demands of social changes, policy, and globalization. This will be explored initially by providing contextual background to the identity of the IAEA as an organization responsible for nuclear medicine professionals, followed by the benefits that QUANUM can offer. Further key debates surrounding lifelong learning, such as compulsification of lifelong learning and impact on professional change, will then be weaved through the discussion using theoretical grounding through a qualitative review of the literature. Keeping in mind that there is very limited literature focusing on the implications of QUANUM as a lifelong learning process for nuclear medicine professionals, this essay uses select narratives and observations of QUANUM as a lifelong learning process from an auditor's perspective and will further provide a comparative perspective of QUANUM on the basis of other lifelong learning opportunities such as continuing professional development activities and observe parallelisms on its benefits and challenges that it will offer to other professionals in other medical speciality fields and in the teaching profession.

  14. Examining Quality Management Audits in Nuclear Medicine Practice as a lifelong learning process: opportunities and challenges to the nuclear medicine professional and beyond.

    PubMed

    Pascual, Thomas N B

    2016-08-01

    This essay will explore the critical issues and challenges surrounding lifelong learning for professionals, initially exploring within the profession and organizational context of nuclear medicine practice. It will critically examine how the peer-review process called Quality Management Audits in Nuclear Medicine Practice (QUANUM) of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) can be considered a lifelong learning opportunity to instill a culture of quality to improve patient care and elevate the status of the nuclear medicine profession and practice within the demands of social changes, policy, and globalization. This will be explored initially by providing contextual background to the identity of the IAEA as an organization responsible for nuclear medicine professionals, followed by the benefits that QUANUM can offer. Further key debates surrounding lifelong learning, such as compulsification of lifelong learning and impact on professional change, will then be weaved through the discussion using theoretical grounding through a qualitative review of the literature. Keeping in mind that there is very limited literature focusing on the implications of QUANUM as a lifelong learning process for nuclear medicine professionals, this essay uses select narratives and observations of QUANUM as a lifelong learning process from an auditor's perspective and will further provide a comparative perspective of QUANUM on the basis of other lifelong learning opportunities such as continuing professional development activities and observe parallelisms on its benefits and challenges that it will offer to other professionals in other medical speciality fields and in the teaching profession. PMID:27195385

  15. Nuclear medicine imaging of bone infections.

    PubMed

    Love, C; Palestro, C J

    2016-07-01

    Osteomyelitis is a broad group of infectious diseases that involve the bone and/or bone marrow. It can arise haematogenously, via extension from a contiguous infection, or by direct inoculation during surgery or trauma. The diagnosis is not always obvious and imaging tests are frequently performed as part of the diagnostic work-up. Commonly performed radionuclide tests include technetium-99m ((99m)Tc)-diphosphonate bone scintigraphy (bone), and gallium-67 ((67)Ga) and in vitro labelled leukocyte (white blood cell; WBC) imaging. Although they are useful, each of these tests has limitations. Bone scintigraphy is sensitive but not specific, especially when underlying osseous abnormalities are present. (67)Ga accumulates in tumour, trauma, and in aseptic inflammation; furthermore, there is typically an interval of 1-3 days between radiopharmaceutical injection of and imaging. Currently, this agent is used primarily for spinal infections. Except for the spine, WBC imaging is the nuclear medicine test of choice for diagnosing complicating osteomyelitis. The in vitro leukocyte labelling process requires skilled personnel, is laborious, and is not always available. Complementary marrow imaging is usually required to maximise accuracy. Not surprisingly, alternative radiopharmaceuticals are continuously being investigated. Radiolabelled anti-granulocyte antibodies and antibody fragments, investigated as in vivo leukocyte labelling agents, have their own limitations and are not widely available. (111)In-biotin is useful for diagnosing spinal infections. Radiolabelled synthetic fragments of ubiquicidin, a naturally occurring human antimicrobial peptide that targets bacteria, have shown promise as infection specific radiopharmaceuticals. 2-[(18)F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose (FDG) positron-emission tomography (PET) with or without computed tomography (CT) is very useful in musculoskeletal infection. Sensitivities of more than 95% and specificities ranging from 75-99% have been

  16. Comparative analysis of dosimetry parameters for nuclear medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Toohey, R.E.; Stabin, M.G.

    1999-01-01

    For years many have employed the concept of ``total-body dose`` or ``whole-body dose,`` i.e., the total energy deposited in the body divided by the mass of the body, when evaluating the risks of different nuclear medicine procedures. The effective dose equivalent (H{sub E}), first described in ICRP Publication 26, has been accepted by some as a better quantity to use in evaluating the total risk of a procedure, but its use has been criticized by others primarily because the tissue weighting factors were intended for use in the radiation worker, rather than the nuclear medicine patient population. Nevertheless, in ICRP Publication 52, the ICRP has suggested that the H{sub E} may be used in nuclear medicine. The ICRP also has published a compendium of dose estimates, including H{sub E} values, for various nuclear medicine procedures at various ages in ICRP Publication 53. The effective dose (E) of ICRP Publication 60 is perhaps more suitable for use in nuclear medicine, with tissue weighting factors based on the entire population. Other comparisons of H{sub E} and E have been published. The authors have used the program MIRDOSE 3.1 to compute total-body dose, H{sub E}, and E for 62 radiopharmaceutical procedures, based on the best current biokinetic data available.

  17. Nuclear Medicine in Pediatric and Adolescent Tumors.

    PubMed

    Kiratli, Pınar Özgen; Tuncel, Murat; Bar-Sever, Zvi

    2016-07-01

    Nuclear medicine has an important role in the management of many cancers in pediatric age group with multiple imaging modalities and radiopharmaceuticals targeting various biological uptake mechanisms. 18-Flourodeoxyglucose is the radiotracer of choice especially in patients with sarcoma and lymphoma. (18)FDG-PET, for sarcoma and lymphomas, is proved to be superior to conventional imaging in staging and therapy response. Although studies are limited in pediatric population, (18)FDG-PET/CT has found its way through international guidelines. Limitations and strengths of PET imaging must be noticed before adapting PET imaging in clinical protocols. Established new response criteria using multiple parameters derived from (18)FDG-PET would increase the accuracy and repeatability of response evaluation. Current data suggest that I-123 metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) remains the tracer of choice in the evaluation of neuroblastoma (NB) because of its high sensitivity, specificity, diagnostic accuracy, and prognostic value. It is valuable in determining the response to therapy, surveillance for disease recurrence, and in selecting patients for I-131 therapy. SPECT/CT improves the diagnostic accuracy and the interpretation confidence of MIBG scans. (18)FDG-PET/CT is an important complementary to MIBG imaging despite its lack of specificity to NB. It is valuable in cases of negative or inconclusive MIBG scans and when MIBG findings underestimate the disease status as determined from clinical and radiological findings. F-18 DOPA is promising tracer that reflects catecholamine metabolism and is both sensitive and specific. F-18 DOPA scintigraphy provides the advantages of PET/CT imaging with early and short imaging times, high spatial resolution, inherent morphologic correlation with CT, and quantitation. Regulatory and production issues currently limit the tracer's availability. PET/CT with Ga-68 DOTA appears to be useful in NB imaging and may have a unique role in selecting

  18. JPRS report, nuclear developments

    SciTech Connect

    1991-03-19

    This report contains articles concerning the nuclear developments of the following countries: (1) China; (2) Japan, North Korea, South Korea, Taiwan; (3) Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia; (4) Argentina, Brazil, Panama; (5) India, Iran, Pakistan, Israel, Afghanistan; (6) Soviet Union; (7) France, Germany, Turkey, Belgium, Canada, Netherlands, Switzerland, United Kingdom; and (8) South Africa.

  19. JPRS report, nuclear developments

    SciTech Connect

    1991-01-04

    This report contains articles concerning the nuclear developments of the following countries: (1) China; (2) Japan, North Korea, South Korea; (3) Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Rumania; (4) Argentina, Brazil, Peru; (5) India, Iraq, Syria, Israel, Egypt, Mauritania, Pakistan; (6) Soviet Union; (7) France, Germany, Austria, Canada, Italy, Spain; and (8) South Africa.

  20. Nuclear medicine in clinical neurology: an update

    SciTech Connect

    Oldendorf, W.H.

    1981-01-01

    Isotope scanning using technetium 99m pertechnetate has fallen into disuse since the advent of x-ray computerized tomography. Regional brain blood flow studies have been pursued on a research basis. Increased regional blood flow during focal seizure activity has been demonstrated and is of use in localizing such foci. Cisternography as a predictive tool in normal pressure hydrocephalus is falling into disuse. Positron tomographic scanning is a potent research tool that can demonstrate both regional glycolysis and blood flow. Unfortunately, it is extremely expensive and complex to apply in a clinical setting. With support from the National Institutes of Health, seven extramural centers have been funded to develop positron tomographic capabilities, and they will greatly advance our knowledge of stroke pathophysiology, seizure disorders, brain tumors, and various degenerative diseases. Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging is a potentially valuable tool since it creates tomographic images representing the distribution of brain water. No tissue ionization is produced, and images comparable to second-generation computerized tomographic scans are already being produced in humans.

  1. The use of personal computers in nuclear medicine.

    PubMed

    Tello, R; Potter, J E; Hill, T C

    1994-01-01

    Consolidating personal computers (PCs) with nuclear medicine technology can create high computational power comparable with that produced by vendor-specific computer equipment, and at more affordable prices. The integration of a standard platform and operating system with a large installed base has enabled our department to maintain itself at the cutting edge of technology with minimal expense. Along with the savings from the purchase of PC software and hardware come the added advantage of rapid training of staff with minimal in-house effort, especially given the vast educational support in the general community. The integration of a standard platform and operating system with a large installed base has provided the nuclear medicine department with computational resources once unheard of because of economies of scale. The acceptance and integration of a pervasive, flexible technology into nuclear medicine have shown that state-of-the-art studies can be performed at low cost. PMID:8122130

  2. Radiological Justification for and Optimization of Nuclear Medicine Practices in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Byung Il

    2016-02-01

    Nuclear medicine is a rapidly growing discipline that employs advanced novel hybrid techniques that provide unique anatomical and functional information, as well as targets for molecular therapy. Concomitantly, there has been an increase in the attention paid to medical radiation exposure. A radiological justification for the practice of nuclear medicine has been implemented mainly through referral guidelines based on research results such as prospective randomized clinical trials. The International Commission on Radiological Protection recommends diagnostic reference levels as a practical mechanism to optimize medical radiation exposure in order to be commensurate with the medical purpose. The Korean Society of Nuclear Medicine has been implementing radiological optimization through a survey of the protocols on how each hospital determines the dose of administration of each radiopharmaceutical. In the case of nuclear medicine, radiation exposure of caregivers and comforters of patients discharged after administration of therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals can occur; therefore, optimization has been implemented through written instructions for patients, based on international recommendations. The development of patient-radiation-dose monitoring software, and a national registry and management system of patient-radiation-dose is needed to implement radiological optimization through diagnostic reference levels. This management system must work in agreement with the "Institute for Quality Management of Nuclear Medicine", and must take into account the medical reality of Korea, such as low medicine fee, in order to implement reasonable radiological justification and optimization.

  3. Role of nuclear medicine in clinical urology and nephrology

    SciTech Connect

    Blaufox, M.D.; Fine, E.; Lee, H.B.; Scharf, S.

    1984-05-01

    The application of radionuclide studies to nephrologic and urologic practice has reached a measurable degree of maturity during the past several years. In spite of this, the utilization of these techniques in many institutions in the United States continues to be far less frequent than one would expect from the clinical advantages. The aim of this editorial is to try to place the role of nuclear medicine in urology and nephrology in perspective. At the present time, in spite of the large number of renal agents that have been developed, there is no practical ideal radiopharmaceutical that can serve as a universal agent. Arbitrarily, one may reduce the chief armamentarium to only four radiopharmaceuticals; technetium-99m DTPA, I-131 OIH (orthoiodohippurate), technetium-99m glucoheptonate and technetium-99m DMSA. These agents are discussed with their relative advantages and disadvantages.

  4. The development of mitochondrial medicine.

    PubMed Central

    Luft, R

    1994-01-01

    Primary defects in mitochondrial function are implicated in over 100 diseases, and the list continues to grow. Yet the first mitochondrial defect--a myopathy--was demonstrated only 35 years ago. The field's dramatic expansion reflects growth of knowledge in three areas: (i) characterization of mitochondrial structure and function, (ii) elucidation of the steps involved in mitochondrial biosynthesis, and (iii) discovery of specific mitochondrial DNA. Many mitochondrial diseases are accompanied by mutations in this DNA. Inheritance is by maternal transmission. The metabolic defects encompass the electron transport complexes, intermediates of the tricarboxylic acid cycle, and substrate transport. The clinical manifestations are protean, most often involving skeletal muscle and the central nervous system. In addition to being a primary cause of disease, mitochondrial DNA mutations and impaired oxidation have now been found to occur as secondary phenomena in aging as well as in age-related degenerative diseases such as Parkinson, Alzheimer, and Huntington diseases, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and cardiomyopathies, atherosclerosis, and diabetes mellitus. Manifestations of both the primary and secondary mitochondrial diseases are thought to result from the production of oxygen free radicals. With increased understanding of the mechanisms underlying the mitochondrial dysfunctions has come the beginnings of therapeutic strategies, based mostly on the administration of antioxidants, replacement of cofactors, and provision of nutrients. At the present accelerating pace of development of what may be called mitochondrial medicine, much more is likely to be achieved within the next few years. Images PMID:8090715

  5. [Positron emission tomography: a new modality in Brazilian nuclear medicine].

    PubMed

    Robilotta, Cecil Chow

    2006-01-01

    In nuclear medicine, radioactive substances are used to diagnose and treat disease. This medical specialty, that can provide information about the human body's physiologic and metabolic processes, has become a key diagnostic tool for the early detection of many different disorders, including various types of cancer. The present article describes the historical milestones in nuclear medicine; the basic physical principles underlying positron emission tomography (PET), which is an imaging method used to map the distribution of radiopharmaceuticals in the body for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes, and the current status of this modality in Brazil.

  6. Internal radiation therapy: a neglected aspect of nuclear medicine in the molecular era

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yansong

    2015-01-01

    Abstract With increasing evidence, internal radiation therapy, also known as brachytherapy, has become a neglected aspect of nuclear medicine in the molecular era. In this paper, recent developments regarding internal radiation therapy, including developments in radioiodine-131 (131I) and thyroid, radioimmunotherapy (RIT) for non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), and radiopharmaceuticals for bone metastases. Relevant differences and status of their applications in China were mentioned as well. These molecular mediated internal radiation therapies are gaining increasing importance by providing palliative and curative treatments for an increasing number of diseases and becoming one of the important parts of molecular nuclear medicine. PMID:26445567

  7. [Homeopathic medicine and its development in Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Barros-St Pasteur, J

    1988-01-01

    After doing a brief recount about Homeopathy, we resume it's development in Venezuela from 1860, and we observe that it has always been of great interest to the teachers of Internal Medicine of the Faculty of Medicine of the Universidad Central de Venezuela. We emphasize the importance so the physicians can be informed about this subject, as so for the conformity of being accepted officially as a specialty of medicine.

  8. Is there a place for music in nuclear medicine?

    PubMed

    Giannouli, Vaitsa; Lytras, Nikolaos; Syrmos, Nikolaos

    2012-01-01

    Music, since the time of ancient Greek Asclepieia is well-known for its influence on men's behavior. Nuclear Medicine can study the effect of music in humans' brain. Positron emission tomography (PET) studies have shown brain areas to be activated after colored hearing vs after hearing to words. Furthermore, PET studies gave evidence that visual imagery of a musical stave is used by some musically untrained subjects in a pitch discrimination task. Listening to music combines intellect and emotion by intimate anatomical and functional connexions between temporal lobe, hippocampus and limbic system. Mozart's music is considered the best for bringing favorable music effects to men. This is called "the Mozart's effect" and by some is attributed to the fact that this kind of music's sequences tend to repeat regularly every 20-30sec, which is about the same length of time as brain-wave patterns. It may be useful to suggest that a certain kind of music played in the waiting room and/or in the examining room of a Nuclear Medicine Department may support patients ' cooperation with their physicians, especially in cardiac nuclear medicine. Furthermore, patients should be calm and not afraid of radioactivity. A long DVD program to be played during working hours can be decided between a music therapist and the Nuclear Medicine physician. PMID:23227458

  9. Essentials of nuclear medicine imaging. 3rd edition

    SciTech Connect

    Mettler, F.A.; Guiberteau, M.J.

    1991-01-01

    This book covers topics ranging from basic physics and instrumentation to various aspects of clinical imaging and regulatory issues. It includes a section on single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). The clinical sections include newer aspects of nuclear medicine, such as antibody imaging, pharmacologic stress, bone mineral analysis, evaluation of renovascular hypertension, and the role of gallium in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

  10. Dictionary/handbook of nuclear medicine and clinical imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Iturralde, M.P. )

    1989-01-01

    This book covers the following topics: Fundamentals of English medical etymology, Abbreviations, acronyms, symbols, denotations, and signs commonly used or defined in the dictionary, Characteristics of the elements, Characteristics of practicable radioisotopes and of selected radionuclides commonly used in nuclear medicine, Properties and production of radionuclides, Radioactive decay, Radiopharmaceuticals, and Radiation dosimetry.

  11. Is there a place for music in nuclear medicine?

    PubMed

    Giannouli, Vaitsa; Lytras, Nikolaos; Syrmos, Nikolaos

    2012-01-01

    Music, since the time of ancient Greek Asclepieia is well-known for its influence on men's behavior. Nuclear Medicine can study the effect of music in humans' brain. Positron emission tomography (PET) studies have shown brain areas to be activated after colored hearing vs after hearing to words. Furthermore, PET studies gave evidence that visual imagery of a musical stave is used by some musically untrained subjects in a pitch discrimination task. Listening to music combines intellect and emotion by intimate anatomical and functional connexions between temporal lobe, hippocampus and limbic system. Mozart's music is considered the best for bringing favorable music effects to men. This is called "the Mozart's effect" and by some is attributed to the fact that this kind of music's sequences tend to repeat regularly every 20-30sec, which is about the same length of time as brain-wave patterns. It may be useful to suggest that a certain kind of music played in the waiting room and/or in the examining room of a Nuclear Medicine Department may support patients ' cooperation with their physicians, especially in cardiac nuclear medicine. Furthermore, patients should be calm and not afraid of radioactivity. A long DVD program to be played during working hours can be decided between a music therapist and the Nuclear Medicine physician.

  12. [Bone-seeking radioactive substances in nuclear medicine].

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, G

    1976-12-01

    The concept of bone affinity of a radioactive tracer is developed on theoretical grounds and is discussed on the basis of the various substances used in nuclear medical diagnosis of bone disease. On the basis of results on the uptake of very short lived nuclides and extremely large molecules, evidence is provided that the incorporation of the tracer in the apatite crystal is not a primary criterion of bone affinity since incorporation cannot take place on timelimiting grounds in the former case and on spatial grounds in the latter. The fixation on bone is therefore more likely the result of non-specific adsorption processes. The utility of a radioactive substance in practical application in nuclear medicine depends on the radioactive characteristics of the nuclide and on its behavior in the organism. In this context the quality of the scintigram is particularly dependent on the mode and rate of elimination of that fraction of the tracer that is not bound by the skeleton. The various mechanism which cause differences in the uptake of tracer by healthy and pathological bone tissue are discussed with special regard to the role of blood flow. PMID:1012921

  13. Radiological Justification for and Optimization of Nuclear Medicine Practices in Korea

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear medicine is a rapidly growing discipline that employs advanced novel hybrid techniques that provide unique anatomical and functional information, as well as targets for molecular therapy. Concomitantly, there has been an increase in the attention paid to medical radiation exposure. A radiological justification for the practice of nuclear medicine has been implemented mainly through referral guidelines based on research results such as prospective randomized clinical trials. The International Commission on Radiological Protection recommends diagnostic reference levels as a practical mechanism to optimize medical radiation exposure in order to be commensurate with the medical purpose. The Korean Society of Nuclear Medicine has been implementing radiological optimization through a survey of the protocols on how each hospital determines the dose of administration of each radiopharmaceutical. In the case of nuclear medicine, radiation exposure of caregivers and comforters of patients discharged after administration of therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals can occur; therefore, optimization has been implemented through written instructions for patients, based on international recommendations. The development of patient-radiation-dose monitoring software, and a national registry and management system of patient-radiation-dose is needed to implement radiological optimization through diagnostic reference levels. This management system must work in agreement with the “Institute for Quality Management of Nuclear Medicine”, and must take into account the medical reality of Korea, such as low medicine fee, in order to implement reasonable radiological justification and optimization. PMID:26908990

  14. Highlights lecture EANM 2015: the search for nuclear medicine's superheroes.

    PubMed

    Buck, Andreas; Decristoforo, Clemens

    2016-09-01

    contributions focused on cardiac inflammation, cardiac sarcoidosis, and specific imaging of large vessel vasculitis. The physics and instrumentation track included many highlights such as novel, high resolution scanners. The most noteworthy news and developments of this meeting were summarized in the highlights lecture. Only 55 scientific contributions were mentioned, and hence they represent only a brief summary, which is outlined in this article. For a more detailed view, all presentations can be accessed by the online version of the European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging (Volume 42, Supplement 1).

  15. Highlights lecture EANM 2015: the search for nuclear medicine's superheroes.

    PubMed

    Buck, Andreas; Decristoforo, Clemens

    2016-09-01

    contributions focused on cardiac inflammation, cardiac sarcoidosis, and specific imaging of large vessel vasculitis. The physics and instrumentation track included many highlights such as novel, high resolution scanners. The most noteworthy news and developments of this meeting were summarized in the highlights lecture. Only 55 scientific contributions were mentioned, and hence they represent only a brief summary, which is outlined in this article. For a more detailed view, all presentations can be accessed by the online version of the European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging (Volume 42, Supplement 1). PMID:27229941

  16. Quality assurance in nuclear medicine facilities; availability of final recommendations--FDA. Notice.

    PubMed

    1985-05-13

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of final recommendations prepared by its Center for Devices and Radiological Health (CDRH) on quality assurance programs in nuclear medicine facilities. The final recommendations include the agency's rationale for the recommendations as well as references that can be used as well as references that can be used as guides in conducting quality control monitoring. These final recommendations are available as a technical report in CDRH's radiation recommendations series. They are intended to encourage and promote the development of voluntary quality assurance programs in nuclear medicine facilities. PMID:10271280

  17. Basic principles of nuclear medicine techniques for detection and evaluation of trauma and sports medicine injuries.

    PubMed

    Matin, P

    1988-04-01

    Nuclear medicine skeletal imaging is a very sensitive technique for evaluating bone and muscle abnormalities because it can detect minor changes in metabolism and blood flow. The specificity of bone imaging, however, depends on the ability of the nuclear medicine physician to make a differential diagnosis. To aid in making a specific diagnosis, this article describes the various patterns of abnormality in stress fractures, tibial stress syndrome (shin splints), compartment syndrome, enthesopathy, and traumatic fractures. The characteristic scintigraphic appearance of joint injuries, muscle injuries (rhabdomyolysis), and radionuclide arthrography is discussed and the way the scan patterns change with time in these various disorders is described. A brief summary of the basic anatomy and physiology of bone and muscle in normal and injured tissue is presented and the basic mechanisms which cause the various abnormal scan patterns is postulated. In addition, a staging system for stress fractures is presented to help direct the referring physician toward the proper management of the injured patient. In most cases, nuclear medicine skeletal imaging can be used to differentiate between acute muscle injury, tibial stress syndrome, skeletal injury (periosteal reaction, stress fracture, and traumatic fracture) or an abnormality that is entirely associated with the joint or connective tissue. This differential diagnosis is easier if the nuclear medicine procedure is performed within a few days after the onset of injury.

  18. Current procedural terminology coding of nuclear medicine procedures.

    PubMed

    McKusick, K A; Quaife, M A

    1993-01-01

    The future of nuclear medicine is dependent on payment for new procedures. Today, the basis of payment by the federal government is a relative value unit (RVU) system; the RVUS employed in this system are for medical services and procedures listed and described in Physicians' Current Procedural Terminology, fourth edition. Current procedural terminology (CPT) is maintained by the AMA; annual revisions include adding new codes or revised or deleted old codes. This process involves all national medical specialty societies. Starting in 1992 a new process, the Relative Updating Committee, which was initiated by the AMA, organized medicine to formalize a method for recommending relative values for physician procedures and services. In this rapidly changing scenario, all nuclear medicine procedure codes are under review by the coding and nomenclature committees of the medical societies interested in imaging. Significant CPT changes and additions were made in the cardiovascular nuclear medicine codes in 1992, reflecting the current imaging protocols and pharmacological agents for performing cardiac stress testing and new codes that recognize combinations of ventricular function measurements in patients undergoing myocardial perfusion imaging with technetium-99m agents.

  19. Discharges of nuclear medicine radioisotopes in Spanish hospitals.

    PubMed

    Krawczyk, E; Piñero-García, F; Ferro-García, M A

    2013-02-01

    Given the increasing use of radiopharmaceuticals in medicine, the aim of this paper is to determine radioactivity levels in the effluents of hospitals with Nuclear Medicine Departments. The radiological study of hospital discharges was carried out by gamma spectrometry, and liquid scintillation spectrometry to determine (14)C and (3)H contents. On March 9th and April 19th, 2010, daily radioactivity levels were monitored from 8:30 a.m. to 7:30 p.m. Each sample was collected at a specific control point of two major public hospitals in Granada (Spain). The analytical results show the presence of radionuclides such as (99m)Tc, (131)I, (67)Ga, and (111)In.They are frequently used in nuclear medicine for diagnostic and/or therapeutic purposes. This study shows the differences between direct and after-storage discharges and also justifies the need of storage tanks in hospitals with nuclear medicine departments. Moreover, monitoring of (99m)Tc released at hospital control points can be a useful tool for optimizing the safety conditions of storage tanks and discharge of radionuclides. PMID:23103581

  20. Impact of the prospective payment system on the delivery of nuclear medicine services

    SciTech Connect

    Crucitti, T.W.; Pappas, V.M.

    1986-07-01

    The study evaluates the effect of the Medicare Prospective Payment System (PPS) on nuclear medicine technologists and services. Since 80% of nuclear medicine technologists work in hospitals, a large segment of the professionals would be affected by the new system. The survey was designed to assess the PPSs effect on nuclear medicine departments at the early implementation stage.

  1. 42 CFR 482.53 - Condition of participation: Nuclear medicine services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Condition of participation: Nuclear medicine... HOSPITALS Optional Hospital Services § 482.53 Condition of participation: Nuclear medicine services. If the hospital provides nuclear medicine services, those services must meet the needs of the patients...

  2. 42 CFR 482.53 - Condition of participation: Nuclear medicine services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Condition of participation: Nuclear medicine... HOSPITALS Optional Hospital Services § 482.53 Condition of participation: Nuclear medicine services. If the hospital provides nuclear medicine services, those services must meet the needs of the patients...

  3. 42 CFR 482.53 - Condition of participation: Nuclear medicine services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condition of participation: Nuclear medicine... HOSPITALS Optional Hospital Services § 482.53 Condition of participation: Nuclear medicine services. If the hospital provides nuclear medicine services, those services must meet the needs of the patients...

  4. 42 CFR 482.53 - Condition of participation: Nuclear medicine services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Condition of participation: Nuclear medicine... HOSPITALS Optional Hospital Services § 482.53 Condition of participation: Nuclear medicine services. If the hospital provides nuclear medicine services, those services must meet the needs of the patients...

  5. 42 CFR 482.53 - Condition of participation: Nuclear medicine services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Condition of participation: Nuclear medicine... HOSPITALS Optional Hospital Services § 482.53 Condition of participation: Nuclear medicine services. If the hospital provides nuclear medicine services, those services must meet the needs of the patients...

  6. Tracking patient radiation exposure: challenges to integrating nuclear medicine with other modalities

    PubMed Central

    Mercuri, Mathew; Rehani, Madan M.; Einstein, Andrew J.

    2013-01-01

    The cumulative radiation exposure to the patient from multiple radiological procedures can place some individuals at significantly increased risk for stochastic effects and tissue reactions. Approaches, such as those in the International Atomic Energy Agency’s Smart Card program, have been developed to track cumulative radiation exposures to individuals. These strategies often rely on the availability of structured dose reports, typically found in the DICOM header. Dosimetry information is currently readily available for many individual x-ray based procedures. Nuclear medicine, of which nuclear cardiology constitutes the majority of the radiation burden in the U.S., currently lags behind x-ray based procedures with respect to reporting of radiation dosimetric information. This paper discusses qualitative differences between nuclear medicine and x-ray based procedures, including differences in the radiation source and measurement of its strength, the impact of biokinetics on dosimetry, and the capability of current scanners to record dosimetry information. These differences create challenges in applying monitoring and reporting strategies used in x-ray based procedures to nuclear medicine, and integrating dosimetry information across modalities. A concerted effort by the medical imaging community, dosimetry specialists and manufacturers of imaging equipment is required to develop strategies to improve the reporting of radiation dosimetry data in nuclear medicine. Some ideas on how to address this issue are suggested. PMID:22695788

  7. Tracking patient radiation exposure: challenges to integrating nuclear medicine with other modalities.

    PubMed

    Mercuri, Mathew; Rehani, Madan M; Einstein, Andrew J

    2012-10-01

    The cumulative radiation exposure to the patient from multiple radiological procedures can place some individuals at significantly increased risk for stochastic effects and tissue reactions. Approaches, such as those in the International Atomic Energy Agency's Smart Card program, have been developed to track cumulative radiation exposures to individuals. These strategies often rely on the availability of structured dose reports, typically found in the DICOM header. Dosimetry information is currently readily available for many individual x-ray-based procedures. Nuclear medicine, of which nuclear cardiology constitutes the majority of the radiation burden in the US, currently lags behind x-ray-based procedures with respect to reporting of radiation dosimetric information. This article discusses qualitative differences between nuclear medicine and x-ray-based procedures, including differences in the radiation source and measurement of its strength, the impact of biokinetics on dosimetry, and the capability of current scanners to record dosimetry information. These differences create challenges in applying, monitoring, and reporting strategies used in x-ray-based procedures to nuclear medicine, and integrating dosimetry information across modalities. A concerted effort by the medical imaging community, dosimetry specialists, and manufacturers of imaging equipment is required to develop strategies to improve the reporting of radiation dosimetry data in nuclear medicine. Some ideas on how to address this issue are suggested. PMID:22695788

  8. Standardization of administered activities in pediatric nuclear medicine: a report of the first nuclear medicine global initiative project, part 1-statement of the issue and a review of available resources.

    PubMed

    Fahey, Frederic H; Bom, Henry Hee-Seong; Chiti, Arturo; Choi, Yun Young; Huang, Gang; Lassmann, Michael; Laurin, Norman; Mut, Fernando; Nuñez-Miller, Rodolfo; O'Keeffe, Darin; Pradhan, Prasanta; Scott, Andrew M; Song, Shaoli; Soni, Nischal; Uchiyama, Mayuki; Vargas, Luis

    2015-04-01

    The Nuclear Medicine Global Initiative (NMGI) was formed in 2012 and consists of 13 international organizations with direct involvement in nuclear medicine. The underlying objectives of the NMGI were to promote human health by advancing the field of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging, encourage global collaboration in education, and harmonize procedure guidelines and other policies that ultimately lead to improvements in quality and safety in the field throughout the world. For its first project, the NMGI decided to consider the issues involved in the standardization of administered activities in pediatric nuclear medicine. This article presents part 1 of the final report of this initial project of the NMGI. It provides a review of the value of pediatric nuclear medicine, the current understanding of the carcinogenic risk of radiation as it pertains to the administration of radiopharmaceuticals in children, and the application of dosimetric models in children. A listing of pertinent educational and reference resources available in print and online is also provided. The forthcoming part 2 report will discuss current standards for administered activities in children and adolescents that have been developed by various organizations and an evaluation of the current practice of pediatric nuclear medicine specifically with regard to administered activities as determined by an international survey of nuclear medicine clinics and centers. Lastly, the part 2 report will recommend a path forward toward global standardization of the administration of radiopharmaceuticals in children. PMID:25766899

  9. Standardization of administered activities in pediatric nuclear medicine: a report of the first nuclear medicine global initiative project, part 1-statement of the issue and a review of available resources.

    PubMed

    Fahey, Frederic H; Bom, Henry Hee-Seong; Chiti, Arturo; Choi, Yun Young; Huang, Gang; Lassmann, Michael; Laurin, Norman; Mut, Fernando; Nuñez-Miller, Rodolfo; O'Keeffe, Darin; Pradhan, Prasanta; Scott, Andrew M; Song, Shaoli; Soni, Nischal; Uchiyama, Mayuki; Vargas, Luis

    2015-04-01

    The Nuclear Medicine Global Initiative (NMGI) was formed in 2012 and consists of 13 international organizations with direct involvement in nuclear medicine. The underlying objectives of the NMGI were to promote human health by advancing the field of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging, encourage global collaboration in education, and harmonize procedure guidelines and other policies that ultimately lead to improvements in quality and safety in the field throughout the world. For its first project, the NMGI decided to consider the issues involved in the standardization of administered activities in pediatric nuclear medicine. This article presents part 1 of the final report of this initial project of the NMGI. It provides a review of the value of pediatric nuclear medicine, the current understanding of the carcinogenic risk of radiation as it pertains to the administration of radiopharmaceuticals in children, and the application of dosimetric models in children. A listing of pertinent educational and reference resources available in print and online is also provided. The forthcoming part 2 report will discuss current standards for administered activities in children and adolescents that have been developed by various organizations and an evaluation of the current practice of pediatric nuclear medicine specifically with regard to administered activities as determined by an international survey of nuclear medicine clinics and centers. Lastly, the part 2 report will recommend a path forward toward global standardization of the administration of radiopharmaceuticals in children.

  10. Nuclear medicine and imaging research (instrumentation and quantitative methods of evaluation)

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, R.N.; Cooper, M.; Chen, C.T.

    1992-07-01

    This document is the annual progress report for project entitled 'Instrumentation and Quantitative Methods of Evaluation.' Progress is reported in separate sections individually abstracted and indexed for the database. Subject areas reported include theoretical studies of imaging systems and methods, hardware developments, quantitative methods of evaluation, and knowledge transfer: education in quantitative nuclear medicine imaging.

  11. Therapeutic radionuclides in nuclear medicine: current and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Yeong, Chai-Hong; Cheng, Mu-hua; Ng, Kwan-Hoong

    2014-10-01

    The potential use of radionuclides in therapy has been recognized for many decades. A number of radionuclides, such as iodine-131 ((131)I), phosphorous-32 ((32)P), strontium-90 ((90)Sr), and yttrium-90 ((90)Y), have been used successfully for the treatment of many benign and malignant disorders. Recently, the rapid growth of this branch of nuclear medicine has been stimulated by the introduction of a number of new radionuclides and radiopharmaceuticals for the treatment of metastatic bone pain and neuroendocrine and other malignant or non-malignant tumours. Today, the field of radionuclide therapy is enjoying an exciting phase and is poised for greater growth and development in the coming years. For example, in Asia, the high prevalence of thyroid and liver diseases has prompted many novel developments and clinical trials using targeted radionuclide therapy. This paper reviews the characteristics and clinical applications of the commonly available therapeutic radionuclides, as well as the problems and issues involved in translating novel radionuclides into clinical therapies.

  12. Therapeutic radionuclides in nuclear medicine: current and future prospects

    PubMed Central

    Yeong, Chai-Hong; Cheng, Mu-hua; Ng, Kwan-Hoong

    2014-01-01

    The potential use of radionuclides in therapy has been recognized for many decades. A number of radionuclides, such as iodine-131 (131I), phosphorous-32 (32P), strontium-90 (90Sr), and yttrium-90 (90Y), have been used successfully for the treatment of many benign and malignant disorders. Recently, the rapid growth of this branch of nuclear medicine has been stimulated by the introduction of a number of new radionuclides and radiopharmaceuticals for the treatment of metastatic bone pain and neuroendocrine and other malignant or non-malignant tumours. Today, the field of radionuclide therapy is enjoying an exciting phase and is poised for greater growth and development in the coming years. For example, in Asia, the high prevalence of thyroid and liver diseases has prompted many novel developments and clinical trials using targeted radionuclide therapy. This paper reviews the characteristics and clinical applications of the commonly available therapeutic radionuclides, as well as the problems and issues involved in translating novel radionuclides into clinical therapies. PMID:25294374

  13. Forensic Medicine: Age Written in Teeth by Nuclear Bomb Tests

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    2005-05-04

    Establishing the age of individuals is an important step in identification and a frequent challenge in forensic medicine. This can be done with high precision up to adolescence by analysis of dentition, but establishing the age of adults has remained difficult. Here we show that measuring {sup 14}C from nuclear bomb tests in tooth enamel provides a sensitive way to establish when a person was born.

  14. [Cost analysis of twenty-nine nuclear medicine procedures].

    PubMed

    Kastanioti, Catherine K; Alphalbouharali, Gihand; Fotopoulos, Andreas

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare actual cost estimates for diagnostic procedures as applied in the nuclear medicine department of our University Hospital, with cost estimates obtained through an analytical activity-based costing methodology. Activity data on the use of twenty-nine nuclear medicine procedures were collected. The actual hospital prices for the fiscal years of 2003-2004 were obtained from the Accounting Department of the Hospital. Cost estimates were calculated per patient. Activity-based data were compared with hospital prices and also with unit costs from the activity-based costing methodology. Our results showed a significant statistical difference between unit cost estimates per patient based on hospital prices, as compared with those based on unit costs. This study shows that in our university hospital, reliance on generic hospital prices for nuclear medicine procedures, considerable underestimates their real cost by a mean value of 40% as derived through the activity-based costing methodology and can lead to substantial financial hospital deficits.

  15. Assessment of OEP health's risk in nuclear medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santacruz-Gomez, K.; Manzano, C.; Melendrez, R.; Castaneda, B.; Barboza-Flores, M.; Pedroza-Montero, M.

    2012-10-01

    The use of ionizing radiation has been increased in recent years within medical applications. Nuclear Medicine Department offers both treatment and diagnosis of diseases using radioisotopes to controlled doses. Despite the great benefits to the patient, there is an inherent risk to workers which remains in contact with radiation sources for long periods. These personnel must be monitored to avoid deterministic effects. In this work, we retrospectively evaluated occupationally exposed personnel (OEP) to ionizing radiation in nuclear medicine during the last five years. We assessed both area and personal dosimetry of this department in a known Clinic in Sonora. Our results show an annual equivalent dose average of 4.49 ± 0.70 mSv in OEP without showing alarming changes in clinical parameters analyzed. These results allow us to conclude that health of OEP in nuclear medicine of this clinic has not been at risk during the evaluated period. However, we may suggest the use of individual profiles based on specific radiosensitivity markers.

  16. Initial experience with a nuclear medicine viewing workstation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witt, Robert M.; Burt, Robert W.

    1992-07-01

    Graphical User Interfaced (GUI) workstations are now available from commercial vendors. We recently installed a GUI workstation in our nuclear medicine reading room for exclusive use of staff and resident physicians. The system is built upon a Macintosh platform and has been available as a DELTAmanager from MedImage and more recently as an ICON V from Siemens Medical Systems. The workstation provides only display functions and connects to our existing nuclear medicine imaging system via ethernet. The system has some processing capabilities to create oblique, sagittal and coronal views from transverse tomographic views. Hard copy output is via a screen save device and a thermal color printer. The DELTAmanager replaced a MicroDELTA workstation which had both process and view functions. The mouse activated GUI has made remarkable changes to physicians'' use of the nuclear medicine viewing system. Training time to view and review studies has been reduced from hours to about 30-minutes. Generation of oblique views and display of brain and heart tomographic studies has been reduced from about 30-minutes of technician''s time to about 5-minutes of physician''s time. Overall operator functionality has been increased so that resident physicians with little prior computer experience can access all images on the image server and display pertinent patient images when consulting with other staff.

  17. [The psychodynamics of work with iodine-131 in nuclear medicine].

    PubMed

    da Silveira, Leila Cunha; Guilam, Maria Cristina Rodrigues; de Oliveira, Sergio Ricardo

    2013-11-01

    This paper seeks to demonstrate to what extent alternative forms adopted in the working process of professionals with iodine-131 in nuclear medicine can assist in managing risks of ionizing radiation. The design is based on the main theoretical concepts of the psychodynamics of work in relation to workers' health. In the case study, data were gathered from 15 workers of a public health institution in the city of Rio de Janeiro by means of semi-structured individual interviews and non-systematic direct observation. Bardin's content analysis method was used for the data analysis. When comparing the results obtained with standard prescribed models, it was found that the respondents had changed their approach. They developed individual defense mechanisms, such as denial of risk, and collective defensive strategies, leading them to tackle the greatest danger as a form of defense. The defensive role of ideologies of the profession are manifest. On the contrary, the acquired knowledge derived from prudence proved effective in minimizing the risks of radiation exposure. The authors discuss the limitations of security management that does not consider the workers' subjectivity and inherent knowledge. PMID:24196882

  18. Preliminary investigations of active pixel sensors in Nuclear Medicine imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ott, Robert; Evans, Noel; Evans, Phil; Osmond, J.; Clark, A.; Turchetta, R.

    2009-06-01

    Three CMOS active pixel sensors have been investigated for their application to Nuclear Medicine imaging. Startracker with 525×525 25 μm square pixels has been coupled via a fibre optic stud to a 2 mm thick segmented CsI(Tl) crystal. Imaging tests were performed using 99mTc sources, which emit 140 keV gamma rays. The system was interfaced to a PC via FPGA-based DAQ and optical link enabling imaging rates of 10 f/s. System noise was measured to be >100e and it was shown that the majority of this noise was fixed pattern in nature. The intrinsic spatial resolution was measured to be ˜80 μm and the system spatial resolution measured with a slit was ˜450 μm. The second sensor, On Pixel Intelligent CMOS (OPIC), had 64×72 40 μm pixels and was used to evaluate noise characteristics and to develop a method of differentiation between fixed pattern and statistical noise. The third sensor, Vanilla, had 520×520 25 μm pixels and a measured system noise of ˜25e. This sensor was coupled directly to the segmented phosphor. Imaging results show that even at this lower level of noise the signal from 140 keV gamma rays is small as the light from the phosphor is spread over a large number of pixels. Suggestions for the 'ideal' sensor are made.

  19. Ethical dilemmas in today's nuclear medicine and radiology practice.

    PubMed

    Barron, Bruce J; Kim, E Edmund

    2003-11-01

    Throughout history, societies have developed their own codes of ethics, including those pertaining to the practice of medicine. In the United States, physicians have adopted a set of ethics based on religious values and historical teachings. We, as physicians, have been presented several codes of ethics, including the American Medical Association Code of Ethics and the American College of Radiology Code of Ethics. Over time, we have learned to appropriately apply these codes to our daily practice. With the advent of new technologies in imaging, we may lose sight as to the transfer of these principles to reflect current conditions. Recent history has shown a trend of new technology leading to potential misuse of this technology and further leading to stricter governmental regulations. It is the purpose of this review to give guidelines for dealing with new technologies, such as PET imaging, and we describe a radiologist's ethical responsibility in a doctor-patient relationship. A historical review of medical ethics will lead to discussions about various issues affecting radiologists and nuclear physicians. To be sure, not all ethical situations are black and white, and therefore there are many gray areas. The opinions expressed in this article are those of the authors and are based on extension of already established rules of ethical conduct.

  20. Computer aided test selection (CATS) for nuclear medicine--a prototype system for renal investigations.

    PubMed

    Houston, A S; Tindale, W B

    1996-01-01

    An expert system for renal test selection in nuclear medicine has been developed as the first stage of a collaborative project on test selection in nuclear medicine. The stages of knowledge elicitation and knowledge representation were addressed by means of a questionnaire which was completed by five experts in the field of renal nuclear medicine. A flow chart was developed from the responses and implemented using a commercially available expert system shell (Crystal 4.5). A menu specifying clinical problems, for which renal nuclear medicine is useful, is displayed to the user who is prompted for a choice. Specific aspects of the chosen problem are then shown and again a choice is requested. Selected tests, in order of expert preference, are displayed and further information on any of these is available, if required, on selection from a menu subdivided into categories such as patient preparation, preliminary investigations, etc. The system provides cross-referencing to other areas of investigation and is currently being evaluated using a structured approach commonly employed in the assessment of user interfaces. PMID:8947892

  1. [Nuclear Medicine in diagnosis of breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Iakovou, Ioannis P; Giannoula, Evanthia

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy among women worldwide, creating a significant need for improved imaging modalities. The advantage of molecular imaging over other imaging methods, as confirmed by clinical experience, is the ability of providing functional information. This process is achieved by labeling a biomarker with an isotope of choice. Therefore imaging methods such as scintimammography (SM), (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose-Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography ((18)F-FDG PET/CT), positron emission mammography (PEM), lymphoscintigraphy, have proved to be extremely efficient compared to morphological imaging of anatomical lesions, as they allow the diagnosis, staging, assessment of therapeutic efficacy and patient monitoring to contribute as much as possible to improve the prognosis. The development of new radiopharmaceuticals in PET imaging, allowing the visualization and quantification of biomarkers, such as (18)F-fluoro-17-estradiol, which is bound by the estrogen receptors (ER), (18)F-fluoro-l-thymidine (FLT) which is a marker of cell proliferation, (18)F-fluoromisonidazole (FISO) a marker of tumor hypoxia and angiogenesis markers such as (18)F-fluoroazomycinarabinoside, may give us additional information on the characteristics and progress of the disease and allow the conduct of targeted therapy. Radioimmunoassay (RIA) using monoclonal antibodies in order to recognize serum markers such as CA 15.3, CEA, cytokeratins TPA, TPS and Cyfra 21.1, are necessary in the diagnosis of a possible recurrence of the disease as well as the degree of response to treatment. Modern research focusing on the development of new specific functional breast imaging methods improves diagnostic and therapeutic management of patients with breast cancer. PMID:25397630

  2. Development of more efficacious Tc-99m organ imaging agents for use in nuclear medicine by analytical characterization of radiopharmaceutical mixtures. Progress report, September 1, 1989--January 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Heineman, W.R.

    1992-01-24

    The long-range objective of this research program is the development of more efficacious technetium-99m radiopharmaceuticals for use as imaging agents in diagnostic nuclear medicine. We seek to isolate and develop distinct site imaging agents, each of which has properties optimized to provide diagnostic information concerning a given pathological condition. The specific objectives during the period (9/1/89 to 8/31/92) include: (1) Development of strategies for improving yields of specific Tc-diphosphonate complexes with optimum imaging properties; (2) Development of electrodes for rapid in situ electrochemical generation of skeletal imaging agents; (3) Development of electrochemical sensors for {Tc} and Re imaging agents; (4) Characterization of stable {Tc}- and Re-diphosphonate complexes obtainable in high yield by structural studies with techniques such as NMR, EXAFS, and Raman spectroscopy; (5) Development of improved separation techniques for the characterization of diphosphonate skeletal imaging agents; (6) Evaluation of the effect of the biological milieu on {Tc}-diphosphonate complexes; and (7) Electrochemical studies of technetium and rhenium complexes synthesized by Professor Deutsch`s research group for heart and brain imaging.

  3. CdZnTe arrays for nuclear medicine imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Barber, H.B.

    1996-12-31

    In nuclear medicine, a gamma-ray-emitting radiotracer is injected into the body, and the resulting biodistribution is imaged using a gamma camera. Current gamma cameras use a design developed by Anger. An Anger camera makes use of a slab of scintillation detector that is viewed by an array of photomultiplier tubes and uses an analog position estimation technique to determine the position of the gamma ray`s interaction. The image-forming optics is usually a multi-bore collimator made of lead. Such cameras are characterized by poor, system spatial resolution ({approximately}1 cm) due to poor detector resolution ({approximately}0.4 cm) and poor collimator performance. Arrays of semiconductor detectors are an attractive alternative to scintillators for use in gamma cameras. Semiconductor detectors have excellent energy resolution. High spatial resolution is also possible because large semiconductor detector arrays with small pixel sizes can be produced using photolithography techniques. A new crystal growth technique (high-pressure vertical Bridgman) allows production of detector grade CdTe and CdZnTe in multikilogram ingots. Although the cost of CdZnTe detectors has come down substantially in the last few years, in part because of economies of scale, costs are still more than an order of magnitude higher than those required for a commercial camera ($20--$50/gram). High detector costs are perhaps the major stumbling block to developing a semiconductor gamma camera. The photolithography techniques required to make large CdZnTe arrays have already been demonstrated. This paper discusses the recent developments made in CdZnTe detectors.

  4. Development of more efficacious {Tc}-99m organ imaging agents for use in nuclear medicine by analytical characterization of radiopharmaceuticals. Annual technical progress report, September 1, 1992--August 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Heineman, W.R.

    1993-05-03

    This research program is detailed at development of more efficacious technetium-99m radiopharmaceuticals for use as imaging agents in diagnostic nuclear medicine. We seek to isolate and develop distinct site imaging agents to provide diagnostic information concerning a given pathological condition. Analytical techniques are being developed to enable complete analysis of radiopharmaceutical preparations so that individual complexes can be characterized with respect to imaging efficacy and to enable a radiopharmaceutical to be monitored after injection into a test animal to determine the species that actually accumulates in an organ to provide the image. Administration of the isolated, single most effective imaging complex, rather than a mixture of technetium-containing complexes, wi-11 minimize radiation exposure to the patient and maximize diagnostic information available to the clinician. This report specifically describes the development of capillary electrophoresis (CE) for characterizating diphosphonate skeletal imaging agents. Advances in the development of electrochemical and fiber optic sensors for Tc and Re imaging agents are described. These sensors will ultimately be capable of monitoring a specific chemical state of an imaging agent in vivo after injection into a test animal by implantation in the organ of interest.

  5. Development of Career Opportunities for Technicians in the Nuclear Medicine Field, Phase I. Interim Report Number 1: Survey of Job Characteristics, Manpower Needs and Training Resources, July 1969.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technical Education Research Center, Cambridge, MA.

    Phase I of a multiphase research program in progress at the Technical Education Research Center, Inc., was conducted to analyze needs and resources in terms of job performance tasks, career opportunities, and training requirements for nuclear medical technicians. Data were gathered through personal interviews with 203 persons, mostly physicians,…

  6. Role of nuclear medicine in chemotherapy of malignant lesions

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, E.E.; Haynie, T.P.

    1985-01-01

    The major role of nuclear medicine in clinical oncology is in tumor imaging, which includes evaluating specific organs or the entire body for the presence of tumor. Nuclear medicine studies have been used clinically in the initial evaluation of the tumor extent and in the subsequent management of the cancer patient to assess response to treatment, to detect early relapse, and to assist in making decisions concerning follow-up treatment. Technetium-99m macroaggregated albumin perfusion study for intraarterial chemotherapy has been helpful in monitoring the catheter tip, providing a map of regional perfusion at the capillary level (tumor vascularity), evaluating the degree of arteriovenous shunt in tumor bed, and optimizing division of the dose of chemotherapeutic agent when bilateral arterial catheters are used. Quantitative and serial radionuclide angiocardiography has been useful in assessing doxorubicin (Adriamycin, Adria Laboratories, Columbus, Ohio) toxicity, and /sup 67/Ga-citrate imaging has been used to monitor chemotherapy effect on lungs and kidneys. Radionuclide venography can demonstrate suspected thrombus, and the delineation of the vascular anatomy also allows proper placement of another catheter for continuous effective chemotherapy. Serial bone scans have been the primary modality to assess the response of bone metastasis to systemic therapy in breast cancer patients, and nuclear hepatic imaging may show tumor response, hepatocellular dysfunction, and cholecystitis related to chemotherapeutic agents. 41 references.

  7. Current global and Korean issues in radiation safety of nuclear medicine procedures.

    PubMed

    Song, H C

    2016-06-01

    In recent years, the management of patient doses in medical imaging has evolved as concern about radiation exposure has increased. Efforts and techniques to reduce radiation doses are focussed not only on the basis of patient safety, but also on the fundamentals of justification and optimisation in cooperation with international organisations such as the International Commission on Radiological Protection, the International Atomic Energy Agency, and the World Health Organization. The Image Gently campaign in children and Image Wisely campaign in adults to lower radiation doses have been initiated in the USA. The European Association of Nuclear Medicine paediatric dosage card, North American consensus guidelines, and Nuclear Medicine Global Initiative have recommended the activities of radiopharmaceuticals that should be administered in children. Diagnostic reference levels (DRLs), developed predominantly in Europe, may be an important tool to manage patient doses. In Korea, overexposure to radiation, even from the use of medical imaging, has become a public issue, particularly since the accident at the Fukushima nuclear power plant. As a result, the Korean Nuclear Safety and Security Commission revised the technical standards for radiation safety management in medical fields. In parallel, DRLs for nuclear medicine procedures have been collected on a nationwide scale. Notice of total effective dose from positron emission tomography-computed tomography for cancer screening has been mandatory since mid-November 2014. PMID:26960820

  8. Current global and Korean issues in radiation safety of nuclear medicine procedures.

    PubMed

    Song, H C

    2016-06-01

    In recent years, the management of patient doses in medical imaging has evolved as concern about radiation exposure has increased. Efforts and techniques to reduce radiation doses are focussed not only on the basis of patient safety, but also on the fundamentals of justification and optimisation in cooperation with international organisations such as the International Commission on Radiological Protection, the International Atomic Energy Agency, and the World Health Organization. The Image Gently campaign in children and Image Wisely campaign in adults to lower radiation doses have been initiated in the USA. The European Association of Nuclear Medicine paediatric dosage card, North American consensus guidelines, and Nuclear Medicine Global Initiative have recommended the activities of radiopharmaceuticals that should be administered in children. Diagnostic reference levels (DRLs), developed predominantly in Europe, may be an important tool to manage patient doses. In Korea, overexposure to radiation, even from the use of medical imaging, has become a public issue, particularly since the accident at the Fukushima nuclear power plant. As a result, the Korean Nuclear Safety and Security Commission revised the technical standards for radiation safety management in medical fields. In parallel, DRLs for nuclear medicine procedures have been collected on a nationwide scale. Notice of total effective dose from positron emission tomography-computed tomography for cancer screening has been mandatory since mid-November 2014.

  9. New filter for iodine applied in nuclear medicine services.

    PubMed

    Ramos, V S; Crispim, V R; Brandão, L E B

    2013-12-01

    In Nuclear Medicine, radioiodine, in various chemical forms, is a key tracer used in diagnostic practices and/or therapy. Medical professionals may incorporate radioactive iodine during the preparation of the dose to be administered to the patient. In radioactive iodine therapy doses ranging from 3.7 to 7.4 GBq per patient are employed. Thus, aiming at reducing the risk of occupational contamination, we developed a low cost filter to be installed at the exit of the exhaust system (where doses of radioiodine are handled within fume hoods, and new filters will be installed at their exit), using domestic technology. The effectiveness of radioactive iodine retention by silver impregnated silica [10%] crystals and natural activated carbon was verified using radiotracer techniques. The results showed that natural activated carbon and silver impregnated silica are effective for I2 capture with large or small amounts of substrate but the use of activated carbon is restricted due to its low flash point (423 K). Besides, when poisoned by organic solvents, this flash point may become lower, causing explosions if absorbing large amounts of nitrates. To hold the CH3I gas, it was necessary to use natural activated carbon since it was not absorbed by SiO2+Ag crystals. We concluded that, for an exhaust flow range of (145 ± 2)m(3)/h, a double stage filter using SiO2+Ag in the first stage and natural activated carbon in the second stage is sufficient to meet radiological safety requirements. PMID:23974306

  10. Nuclear Medicine in Thyroid Diseases in Pediatric and Adolescent Patients

    PubMed Central

    Volkan-Salancı, Bilge; Özgen Kıratlı, Pınar

    2015-01-01

    Both benign and malignant diseases of the thyroid are rare in the pediatric and adolescent population, except congenital hypothyroidism. Nuclear medicine plays a major role, both in the diagnosis and therapy of thyroid pathologies. Use of radioactivity in pediatric population is strictly controlled due to possible side effects such as secondary cancers; therefore, management of pediatric patients requires detailed literature knowledge. This article aims to overview current algorithms in the management of thyroid diseases and use of radionuclide therapy in pediatric and adolescent population. PMID:26316469

  11. Interface requirements in nuclear medicine devices and systems

    SciTech Connect

    Maguire, G.Q. Jr.; Brill, A.B.; Noz, M.E.

    1982-01-01

    Interface designs for three nuclear medicine imaging systems, and computer networking strategies proposed for medical imaging departments are presented. Configurations for two positron-emission-tomography devices (PET III and ECAT) and a general-purpose tomography instrument (the UNICON) are analyzed in terms of specific performance parameters. Interface designs for these machines are contrasted in terms of utilization of standard versus custom modules, cost, and ease of modification, upgrade, and support. The requirements of general purpose systems for medical image analysis, display, and archiving, are considered, and a realizable state-of-the-art system is specfied, including a suggested timetable.

  12. Nuclear medicine technologists and unauthorized self-injections.

    PubMed

    Miller, K L; King, S H; Eggli, D F; Thompson, L K

    2006-02-01

    An Office of Investigation (OI) investigation by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) determined that, on three separate occasions over the past 10 years, technologists in one licensed nuclear medicine program were injected with radiopharmaceuticals without Authorized User knowledge or approval. The most recent instance, the one that precipitated the investigation, was discovered by the licensee and self-reported to the NRC; the other two instances were discovered during the OI investigation and came as a complete surprise to the licensee. In a mediated Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) involving the licensee, a professional, independent mediator and representatives of the NRC, an agreement was worked out whereby the licensee would admit to the violations and work with the NRC to inform other licensees that this is not an acceptable practice and that there are additional precautions that licensees can and should take to assure that such violations do not happen on their watch. PMID:16404185

  13. Necessity of Internal Monitoring for Nuclear Medicine Staff in a Large Specialized Chinese Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hong-Bo; Zhang, Qing-Zhao; Zhang, Zhen; Hou, Chang-Song; Li, Wen-Liang; Yang, Hui; Sun, Quan-Fu

    2016-01-01

    This work intends to quantify the risk of internal contaminations in the nuclear medicine staff of one hospital in Henan province, China. For this purpose, the criteria proposed by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to determine whether it is necessary to conduct internal individual monitoring was applied to all of the 18 nuclear medicine staff members who handled radionuclides. The activity of different radionuclides used during a whole calendar year and the protection measures adopted were collected for each staff member, and the decision as to whether nuclear medicine staff in the hospital should be subjected to internal monitoring was made on the basis of the criteria proposed by IAEA. It is concluded that for all 18 members of the nuclear medicine staff in the hospital, internal monitoring is required. Internal exposure received by nuclear medicine staff should not be ignored, and it is necessary to implement internal monitoring for nuclear medicine staff routinely. PMID:27077874

  14. Necessity of Internal Monitoring for Nuclear Medicine Staff in a Large Specialized Chinese Hospital.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong-Bo; Zhang, Qing-Zhao; Zhang, Zhen; Hou, Chang-Song; Li, Wen-Liang; Yang, Hui; Sun, Quan-Fu

    2016-04-12

    This work intends to quantify the risk of internal contaminations in the nuclear medicine staff of one hospital in Henan province, China. For this purpose, the criteria proposed by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to determine whether it is necessary to conduct internal individual monitoring was applied to all of the 18 nuclear medicine staff members who handled radionuclides. The activity of different radionuclides used during a whole calendar year and the protection measures adopted were collected for each staff member, and the decision as to whether nuclear medicine staff in the hospital should be subjected to internal monitoring was made on the basis of the criteria proposed by IAEA. It is concluded that for all 18 members of the nuclear medicine staff in the hospital, internal monitoring is required. Internal exposure received by nuclear medicine staff should not be ignored, and it is necessary to implement internal monitoring for nuclear medicine staff routinely.

  15. Establishment of a national program for quality control of nuclear medicine instrumentation.

    PubMed

    Coca Perez, Marco A; Torres Aroche, Leonel A; Bejerano, Gladys López; Mayor, Roberto Fraxedas; Corona, Consuelo Varela; López, Adlin

    2008-12-01

    Monitoring the quality of instrumentation used in nuclear medicine is mandatory to guarantee the clinical efficacy of medical practice. A national program for the quality control of nuclear medicine instruments was established in Cuba and was certified and approved by the regulatory authorities. The program, which establishes official regulations and audit services, sets up educational activities, distributes technical documentation, and maintains a national phantom bank, constitutes a valuable and useful tool to guarantee the quality of nuclear medicine instrumentation. PMID:19008290

  16. Problems in detection and measurement in nuclear medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aysun Ugur, Fatma

    2015-07-01

    Nuclear Medicine studies are performed with a variety of types of radiation measurement instruments, depending on the kind of radiation source that is being measured and the type of information sought. For example, some instruments are designed for in vitro measurements on blood samples, urine specimens, and so forth. Others are designed for in vivo measurements of radioactivity in patients. All these instruments have special design characteristics to optimize them for their specific tasks, as described in this study; however, some considerations of design characteristics and performance limitations are common to all of them. An important consideration for any radiation measurement instrument is its detection efficiency. Maximum detection efficiency is desirable because one thus obtains maximum information with a minimum amount of radioactivity. Also important are instrument's counting rate limitations. There are finite counting rate limits for all counting and imaging instruments used in nuclear medicine, above which accurate results are obtained because of data losses and other data distortions. Non penetrating radiations, such as ß particles, have special detection and measurement problems. In this study, some of these general considerations have been discussed.

  17. Technetium-99m chelators in nuclear medicine. A review.

    PubMed

    Hjelstuen, O K

    1995-03-01

    Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical imaging that uses radioactive tracers to examine the function of body systems. The radionuclide used in about 90% of all examinations is 99Tcm, which is available from 99Mo/99Tcm generators at most nuclear medicine departments. In aqueous medium, technetium is chemically stable as pertechnetate, 99TcmO4-. Injected into the human body, pertechnetate will be absorbed by the thyroid gland because of the similarity to iodide in its radius and charge. To reach targets in the human body other than glandula thyreoidea, 99Tcm needs a carrier molecule, usually a chelating agent. Many chelators that form stable complexes with 99Tcm have affinities for certain tissues in the human body. Other chelators can be manipulated by pharmaceutical formation to be retained in certain body systems. In order to form bonds with technetium, the chelator must contain electron donors like nitrogen, oxygen and sulfur. Space between multiple electron donor atoms is required to allow several bonds to form with the central metal. The stability of the complex increases with increasing number of bonds. Today, chelators for the use with 99Tcm exist for a number of highly sensitive scintigraphic studies of the brain, heart, skeleton, kidneys, hepatobiliary system and lungs. This includes chelators such as dimercaptosuccinic acid, 1,2-ethylenediylbis-L-cysteine diethyl ester, methylenediphosphonate, hexamethylpropyleneamineoxime and hexakis(methoxy isobutyl isonitrile).

  18. Java-based PACS and reporting system for nuclear medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slomka, Piotr J.; Elliott, Edward; Driedger, Albert A.

    2000-05-01

    In medical imaging practice, images and reports often need be reviewed and edited from many locations. We have designed and implemented a Java-based Remote Viewing and Reporting System (JaRRViS) for a nuclear medicine department, which is deployed as a web service, at the fraction of the cost dedicated PACS systems. The system can be extended to other imaging modalities. JaRRViS interfaces to the clinical patient databases of imaging workstations. Specialized nuclear medicine applets support interactive displays of data such as 3-D gated SPECT with all the necessary options such as cine, filtering, dynamic lookup tables, and reorientation. The reporting module is implemented as a separate applet using Java Foundation Classes (JFC) Swing Editor Kit and allows composition of multimedia reports after selection and annotation of appropriate images. The reports are stored on the server in the HTML format. JaRRViS uses Java Servlets for the preparation and storage of final reports. The http links to the reports or to the patient's raw images with applets can be obtained from JaRRViS by any Hospital Information System (HIS) via standard queries. Such links can be sent via e-mail or included as text fields in any HIS database, providing direct access to the patient reports and images via standard web browsers.

  19. A background to nuclear transfer and its applications in agriculture and human therapeutic medicine.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Keith H S

    2002-03-01

    The development of a single celled fertilized zygote to an animal capable of reproduction involves not only cell division but the differentiation or specialization to numerous cell types forming each tissue and organ of the adult animal. The technique of nuclear transfer allows the reconstruction of an embryo by the transfer of genetic material from a single donor cell, to an unfertilized egg from which the genetic material has been removed. Successful development of live offspring from such embryos demonstrates that the differentiated state of the donor nucleus is not fixed and can be reprogrammed by the egg cytoplasm to control embryo and fetal development. Nuclear transfer has many applications in agriculture and human medicine. This article will review some of the factors associated with the success of embryo development following nuclear transfer and outline the potential uses of the technology.

  20. A background to nuclear transfer and its applications in agriculture and human therapeutic medicine*

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Keith HS

    2002-01-01

    The development of a single celled fertilized zygote to an animal capable of reproduction involves not only cell division but the differentiation or specialization to numerous cell types forming each tissue and organ of the adult animal. The technique of nuclear transfer allows the reconstruction of an embryo by the transfer of genetic material from a single donor cell, to an unfertilized egg from which the genetic material has been removed. Successful development of live offspring from such embryos demonstrates that the differentiated state of the donor nucleus is not fixed and can be reprogrammed by the egg cytoplasm to control embryo and fetal development. Nuclear transfer has many applications in agriculture and human medicine. This article will review some of the factors associated with the success of embryo development following nuclear transfer and outline the potential uses of the technology. PMID:12033731

  1. Applications of CdTe to nuclear medicine. Annual report, February 1, 1979-January 31, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Entine, G

    1980-01-01

    The application of CdTe gamma detectors in nuclear medicine is reported on. An internal probe was developed which can be inserted into the heart to measure the efficiency of various radiopharmaceuticals in the treatment of heart attacks. A second application is an array of detectors which is light enough to be worn by ambulatory patients and can measure the change in cardiac output over an eight hour period during heart attack treatment. The instrument includes an on board tape recorder. (ACR)

  2. Reactor production and processing of radioisotopes for therapeutic applications in nuclear medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Mirzadeh, S.; Beets, A.L.

    1995-02-01

    Nuclear reactors continue to play an important role in providing radioisotopes for nuclear medicine. Many reactor-produced radioisotopes are ``neutron rich`` and decay by beta-emission and are thus of interest for therapeutic applications. This talk discusses the production and processing of a variety of reactor-produced radioisotopes of current interest, including those produced by the single neutron capture process, double neutron capture and those available from beta-decay of reactorproduced radioisotopes. Generators prepared from reactorproduced radioisotopes are of particular interest since repeated elution inexpensively provides many patient doses. The development of the alumina-based W-188/Re-188 generator system is discussed in detail.

  3. Short- and long-term responses to molybdenum-99 shortages in nuclear medicine.

    PubMed

    Ballinger, J R

    2010-11-01

    Most nuclear medicine studies use (99)Tc(m), which is the decay product of (99)Mo. The world supply of (99)Mo comes from only five nuclear research reactors and availability has been much reduced in recent times owing to problems at the largest reactors. In the short-term there are limited actions that can be taken owing to capacity issues on alternative imaging modalities. In the long-term, stability of (99)Mo supply will rely on a combination of replacing conventional reactors and developing new technologies.

  4. Short- and long-term responses to molybdenum-99 shortages in nuclear medicine

    PubMed Central

    Ballinger, J R

    2010-01-01

    Most nuclear medicine studies use 99Tcm, which is the decay product of 99Mo. The world supply of 99Mo comes from only five nuclear research reactors and availability has been much reduced in recent times owing to problems at the largest reactors. In the short-term there are limited actions that can be taken owing to capacity issues on alternative imaging modalities. In the long-term, stability of 99Mo supply will rely on a combination of replacing conventional reactors and developing new technologies. PMID:20965898

  5. [Internet in medicine--development and perspectives].

    PubMed

    Dezelić, Gjuro

    2002-01-01

    Internet is one of information technologies marking the transition from the second to the third millennium. The present role and expansion of Internet in medicine and healthcare is reviewed together with the perspective of further development. The beginning and initial expansion of the use of Internet in medicine are described. The World Wide Web (WWW or Web) is recognized as a major reason for this expansion, reaching a state described as a Web-pandemic. The rapid increase of the number of papers dealing with Internet in medical literature is presented as well as the appearance of several journals dedicated to Internet in medicine. First specialized symposia, among them MEDNET world conferences, are noted. First uses of Internet in medicine comprised databases, discussion groups, electronic newsletters, software archives and online public access catalogues. The appearance of the Web has led to a significant improvement of the Internet use in medicine, which is reflected in an exponential increase in the number of publications. It is noted that Internet allows "to do old things in new ways", but also "to do new things". It has become clear that the information revolution evoked by the internet shall leave a deep trace in medicine, as health information has become accessible to the public and ceased to be in exclusive control of health professionals. New medical fields--telemedicine and cybermedicine--appeared as the result of the development and global expansion of information and communication technologies, with cybermedicine dealing more specifically with the use of Internet. The advantages and disadvantages of cybermedicine are discussed, and major problems related to the quality of health information are highlighted. Several systems for quality criteria of health related Web-sites are described, indicating that Websites have to conform with the quality criteria such as transparency and honesty, accountability, privacy and data protection, currency

  6. Development of more efficacious Tc-99m organ imaging agents for use in nuclear medicine by characterization of radiopharmaceuticals. Final report, September 1, 1992--June 30, 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Heineman, W.R.; Seliskar, C.J.

    1998-08-04

    The primary goals of this project were twofold: (1) Development of a microsensor that would demonstrate the capability for in vivo monitoring of a radiopharmaceutical after its injection into a test animal; and (2) Exploration of capillary electrophoresis (CE) as a separation technique for the analysis of radiopharmaceuticals that are mixtures of different compounds. The combination of in vivo sensors for real-time monitoring of specific chemical states of a radiopharmaceutical in individual organs and CE for analysis of radiopharmaceuticals prior to injection would provide valuable information regarding the fate of an imaging agent after administration. Such information should give insight into strategies for the development of more efficacious radiopharmaceuticals.

  7. AAPM/SNMMI Joint Task Force: report on the current state of nuclear medicine physics training.

    PubMed

    Harkness, Beth A; Allison, Jerry D; Clements, Jessica B; Coffey, Charles W; Fahey, Frederic H; Gress, Dustin A; Kinahan, Paul E; Nickoloff, Edward L; Mawlawi, Osama R; MacDougall, Robert D; Pizzutiello, Robert J

    2015-09-08

    The American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) and the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging (SNMMI) recognized the need for a review of the current state of nuclear  medicine physics training and the need to explore pathways for improving nuclear medicine physics training opportunities. For these reasons, the two organizations formed a joint AAPM/SNMMI Ad Hoc Task Force on Nuclear Medicine Physics  Training. The mission of this task force was to assemble a representative group of stakeholders to:• Estimate the demand for board-certified nuclear medicine physicists in the next 5-10 years,• Identify the critical issues related to supplying an adequate number of physicists who have received the appropriate level of training in nuclear medicine physics, and• Identify approaches that may be considered to facilitate the training of nuclear medicine physicists.As a result, a task force was appointed and chaired by an active member of both organizations that included representation from the AAPM, SNMMI, the American Board of Radiology (ABR), the American Board of Science in Nuclear Medicine (ABSNM), and the Commission for the Accreditation of Medical Physics Educational Programs (CAMPEP). The Task Force first met at the AAPM Annual Meeting in Charlotte in July 2012 and has met regularly face-to-face, online, and by conference calls. This manuscript reports the findings of the Task Force, as well as recommendations to achieve the stated mission.

  8. Photons across medicine: relating optical and nuclear imaging

    PubMed Central

    Nordstrom, Robert; Cherry, Simon; Azhdarinia, Ali; Sevick-Muraca, Eva; VanBrocklin, Henry

    2013-01-01

    The Optics in the Life Sciences conference sponsored by the Optical Society of America was held in Waikoloa Beach, HI on April 14 – 18, 2013. Papers were presented in the areas of Bio-Optics: Design & Application, Novel Techniques in Microscopy, Optical Molecular Probes, Imaging & Drug Delivery, and Optical Trapping Applications. A focal point of the meeting was a special symposium entitled “Photons Across Medicine”, organized by Adam Wax, Duke University, highlighting activities of joint interest between the Optical Society of America (OSA) and the Society for Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging (SNMMI). This paper is a synopsis of the presentations made at this joint symposium. Central to the special symposium presentations was the fact that the optical and nuclear imaging communities share common interests and challenges. These are highlighted in this article. Also discussed was the fact that the nuclear technologies in imaging have found their way into general clinical utility, a feat that has yet to be achieved by optical methods. Because of the common ground shared by the two technologies, coordination between the two societies should be planned. PMID:24409377

  9. Application for internal dosimetry using biokinetic distribution of photons based on nuclear medicine images*

    PubMed Central

    Leal Neto, Viriato; Vieira, José Wilson; Lima, Fernando Roberto de Andrade

    2014-01-01

    Objective This article presents a way to obtain estimates of dose in patients submitted to radiotherapy with basis on the analysis of regions of interest on nuclear medicine images. Materials and Methods A software called DoRadIo (Dosimetria das Radiações Ionizantes [Ionizing Radiation Dosimetry]) was developed to receive information about source organs and target organs, generating graphical and numerical results. The nuclear medicine images utilized in the present study were obtained from catalogs provided by medical physicists. The simulations were performed with computational exposure models consisting of voxel phantoms coupled with the Monte Carlo EGSnrc code. The software was developed with the Microsoft Visual Studio 2010 Service Pack and the project template Windows Presentation Foundation for C# programming language. Results With the mentioned tools, the authors obtained the file for optimization of Monte Carlo simulations using the EGSnrc; organization and compaction of dosimetry results with all radioactive sources; selection of regions of interest; evaluation of grayscale intensity in regions of interest; the file of weighted sources; and, finally, all the charts and numerical results. Conclusion The user interface may be adapted for use in clinical nuclear medicine as a computer-aided tool to estimate the administered activity. PMID:25741101

  10. A Poisson resampling method for simulating reduced counts in nuclear medicine images.

    PubMed

    White, Duncan; Lawson, Richard S

    2015-05-01

    Nuclear medicine computers now commonly offer resolution recovery and other software techniques which have been developed to improve image quality for images with low counts. These techniques potentially mean that these images can give equivalent clinical information to a full-count image. Reducing the number of counts in nuclear medicine images has the benefits of either allowing reduced activity to be administered or reducing acquisition times. However, because acquisition and processing parameters vary, each user should ideally evaluate the use of images with reduced counts within their own department, and this is best done by simulating reduced-count images from the original data. Reducing the counts in an image by division and rounding off to the nearest integer value, even if additional Poisson noise is added, is inadequate because it gives incorrect counting statistics. This technical note describes how, by applying Poisson resampling to the original raw data, simulated reduced-count images can be obtained while maintaining appropriate counting statistics. The authors have developed manufacturer independent software that can retrospectively generate simulated data with reduced counts from any acquired nuclear medicine image. PMID:25880881

  11. A Poisson resampling method for simulating reduced counts in nuclear medicine images.

    PubMed

    White, Duncan; Lawson, Richard S

    2015-05-01

    Nuclear medicine computers now commonly offer resolution recovery and other software techniques which have been developed to improve image quality for images with low counts. These techniques potentially mean that these images can give equivalent clinical information to a full-count image. Reducing the number of counts in nuclear medicine images has the benefits of either allowing reduced activity to be administered or reducing acquisition times. However, because acquisition and processing parameters vary, each user should ideally evaluate the use of images with reduced counts within their own department, and this is best done by simulating reduced-count images from the original data. Reducing the counts in an image by division and rounding off to the nearest integer value, even if additional Poisson noise is added, is inadequate because it gives incorrect counting statistics. This technical note describes how, by applying Poisson resampling to the original raw data, simulated reduced-count images can be obtained while maintaining appropriate counting statistics. The authors have developed manufacturer independent software that can retrospectively generate simulated data with reduced counts from any acquired nuclear medicine image.

  12. Measurement of doses to the extremities of nuclear medicine staff

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shousha, Hany A.; Farag, Hamed; Hassan, Ramadan A.

    2010-01-01

    Medical uses of ionizing radiation now represent>95% of all man-made radiation exposure, and is the largest single radiation source after natural background radiation. Therefore, it is important to quantify the amount of radiation received by occupational individuals to optimize the working conditions for staff, and further, to compare doses in different departments to ensure compatibility with the recommended standards. For some groups working with unsealed sources in nuclear medicine units, the hands are more heavily exposed to ionizing radiation than the rest of the body. A personal dosimetry service runs extensively in Egypt. But doses to extremities have not been measured to a wide extent. The purpose of this study was to investigate the equivalent radiation doses to the fingers for five different nuclear medicine staff occupational groups for which heavy irradiation of the hands was suspected. Finger doses were measured for (1) nuclear medicine physicians, (2) technologists, (3) nurses and (4) physicists. The fifth group contains three technicians handling 131I, while the others handled 99mTc. Each staff member working with the radioactive material wore two thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) during the whole testing period, which lasted from 1 to 4 weeks. Staff performed their work on a regular basis throughout the month, and mean annual doses were calculated for these groups. Results showed that the mean equivalent doses to the fingers of technologist, nurse and physicist groups were 30.24±14.5, 30.37±17.5 and 16.3±7.7 μSv/GBq, respectively. Equivalent doses for the physicians could not be calculated per unit of activity because they did not handle the radiopharmaceuticals directly. Their doses were reported in millisieverts (mSv) that accumulated in one week. Similarly, the dose to the fingers of individuals in Group 5 was estimated to be 126.13±38.2 μSv/GBq. The maximum average finger dose, in this study, was noted in the technologists who handled

  13. A modular scintillation camera for use in nuclear medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Milster, T.D.; Arendt, J.; Barrett, H.H.; Easton, R.L.; Rossi, G.R.; Selberg, L.A.; Simpson, R.G.

    1984-02-01

    A ''modular'' scintillation camera is discussed as an alternative to using Anger cameras for gamma-ray imaging in nuclear medicine. Each module is an independent gamma camera and consists of a scintillation crystal, light pipe and mask plane, PMT's, and processing electronics. Groups of modules efficiently image radionuclide distributions by effectively utilizing crystal area. Performance of each module is maximized by using Monte-Carlo computer simulations to determine the optical design of the camera, optimizing the signal processing of the PMT signals using maximum-likelihood (ML) estimators, and incorporating digital lookup tables. Each event is completely processed in 2 ..mu..sec, and FWHM of the PSF over the crystal area is expected to be 3 mm. Both one-dimensional and two-dimensional prototypes are tested for spatial and energy resolution

  14. Nuclear medicine imaging in tuberculosis using commercially available radiopharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Sathekge, Mike; Maes, Alex; D'Asseler, Yves; Vorster, Mariza; Van de Wiele, Christophe

    2012-06-01

    In this paper, data available on nuclear medicine imaging using commercially available radiopharmaceuticals for the differentiation, staging, and prediction or assessment of the response to treatment in tuberculosis (TB) are reviewed. Limited available studies suggest that single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) using either 201Tl, 99mTc-sestamibi, or 99mTc-tetrofosmin is accurate (≥85%) and has a high negative predictive value (≥90%) for the differentiation of TB from carcinoma in patients presenting with a solitary pulmonary nodule (SPN). The criteria for detection of TB on 201Tl SPECT are nondepiction of the suspicious lesion in the delayed image or a negative retention index [washout on the delayed images (3–4 h postinjection) vs. the early image (5–15 min postinjection)] and a comparable-to-background uptake on 99mTc-sestamibi or 99mTc-tetrofosmin SPECT. Another SPECT tracer of potential interest for the differentiation of TB from malignant SPN that warrants further exploration, is N-isopropyl-p-[123I]iodoamphetamine (123I-IMP). In contrast, 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) PET is unable to differentiate malignancy from TB and thus cannot be used as a tool to reduce futile biopsy/thoracotomy in these patients. A limited number of studies have reported on the potential of nuclear medicine imaging in assessment of the extent of disease in patients with extrapulmonary TB using 67Ga-citrate SPECT and 18F-FDG PET, respectively. 67Ga-citrate SPECT was shown to be as sensitive as bone scintigraphy for the detection of bone infection and was found to be complementary to computed tomography (CT) imaging. 18F-FDG PET was found to be significantly more efficient when compared with CT, respectively, in over half of patients for the identification of sites of lymph node involvement that were missed by CT and often the only sites of extrapulmonary TB identified. Unfortunately, 18F-FDG PET findings did not lead to alterations in treatment planning in any

  15. Diffusion processes in tumors: A nuclear medicine approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaya, Helman

    2016-07-01

    The number of counts used in nuclear medicine imaging techniques, only provides physical information about the desintegration of the nucleus present in the the radiotracer molecules that were uptaken in a particular anatomical region, but that information is not a real metabolic information. For this reason a mathematical method was used to find a correlation between number of counts and 18F-FDG mass concentration. This correlation allows a better interpretation of the results obtained in the study of diffusive processes in an agar phantom, and based on it, an image from the PETCETIX DICOM sample image set from OsiriX-viewer software was processed. PET-CT gradient magnitude and Laplacian images could show direct information on diffusive processes for radiopharmaceuticals that enter into the cells by simple diffusion. In the case of the radiopharmaceutical 18F-FDG is necessary to include pharmacokinetic models, to make a correct interpretation of the gradient magnitude and Laplacian of counts images.

  16. Nuclear medicine imaging in tuberculosis using commercially available radiopharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Sathekge, Mike; Maes, Alex; D'Asseler, Yves; Vorster, Mariza; Van de Wiele, Christophe

    2012-06-01

    In this paper, data available on nuclear medicine imaging using commercially available radiopharmaceuticals for the differentiation, staging, and prediction or assessment of the response to treatment in tuberculosis (TB) are reviewed. Limited available studies suggest that single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) using either 201Tl, 99mTc-sestamibi, or 99mTc-tetrofosmin is accurate (≥85%) and has a high negative predictive value (≥90%) for the differentiation of TB from carcinoma in patients presenting with a solitary pulmonary nodule (SPN). The criteria for detection of TB on 201Tl SPECT are nondepiction of the suspicious lesion in the delayed image or a negative retention index [washout on the delayed images (3–4 h postinjection) vs. the early image (5–15 min postinjection)] and a comparable-to-background uptake on 99mTc-sestamibi or 99mTc-tetrofosmin SPECT. Another SPECT tracer of potential interest for the differentiation of TB from malignant SPN that warrants further exploration, is N-isopropyl-p-[123I]iodoamphetamine (123I-IMP). In contrast, 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) PET is unable to differentiate malignancy from TB and thus cannot be used as a tool to reduce futile biopsy/thoracotomy in these patients. A limited number of studies have reported on the potential of nuclear medicine imaging in assessment of the extent of disease in patients with extrapulmonary TB using 67Ga-citrate SPECT and 18F-FDG PET, respectively. 67Ga-citrate SPECT was shown to be as sensitive as bone scintigraphy for the detection of bone infection and was found to be complementary to computed tomography (CT) imaging. 18F-FDG PET was found to be significantly more efficient when compared with CT, respectively, in over half of patients for the identification of sites of lymph node involvement that were missed by CT and often the only sites of extrapulmonary TB identified. Unfortunately, 18F-FDG PET findings did not lead to alterations in treatment planning in any

  17. NMINT--introductory courseware for nuclear medicine: database design.

    PubMed

    Mankovich, N J; Verma, R C; Yue, A; Veyne, D; Ratib, O; Bennett, L R

    1991-01-01

    Computer-Aided Instruction (CAI) provides a dynamic and self-paced learning experience to the medical trainee. Microcomputer based hypermedia systems integrate text, graphics, and image information. We present the design of an introductory CAI course for nuclear medicine called NMINT and elaborate on the underlying relational database that contains clinically relevant information and links to local or remote image storage over high speed networks. The IBM PS/2 Windows system uses Toolbook software augmented by C language modules for image and image-overlay database access. The current implementation stores text, graphical lesson material, and image index information on microcomputer magnetic disk; image data are stored on the attached optical disk. The storage architecture is described in detail. We emphasize its multi-access methods and its expandability into department-wide image networks. PMID:1807706

  18. Nuclear medicine in acute and chronic renal failure

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, R.A.; Byun, K.J.

    1982-07-01

    The diagnostic value of renal scintiscans in patients with acute or chronic renal failure has not been emphasized other than for the estimation of renal size. /sup 131/I OIH, /sup 67/gallium, /sup 99m/TcDTPA, glucoheptonate and DMSA all may be valuable in a variety of specific settings. Acute renal failure due to acute tubular necrosis, hepatorenal syndrome, acute interstitial nephritis, cortical necrosis, renal artery embolism, or acute pyelonephritis may be recognized. Data useful in the diagnosis and management of the patient with obstructive or reflux nephropathy may be obtained. Radionuclide studies in patients with chronic renal failure may help make apparent such causes as renal artery stenosis, chronic pyelonephritis or lymphomatous kidney infiltration. Future correlation of scanning results with renal pathology promises to further expand nuclear medicine's utility in the noninvasive diagnosis of renal disease.

  19. Flexible nuclear medicine camera and method of using

    DOEpatents

    Dilmanian, F.A.; Packer, S.; Slatkin, D.N.

    1996-12-10

    A nuclear medicine camera and method of use photographically record radioactive decay particles emitted from a source, for example a small, previously undetectable breast cancer, inside a patient. The camera includes a flexible frame containing a window, a photographic film, and a scintillation screen, with or without a gamma-ray collimator. The frame flexes for following the contour of the examination site on the patient, with the window being disposed in substantially abutting contact with the skin of the patient for reducing the distance between the film and the radiation source inside the patient. The frame is removably affixed to the patient at the examination site for allowing the patient mobility to wear the frame for a predetermined exposure time period. The exposure time may be several days for obtaining early qualitative detection of small malignant neoplasms. 11 figs.

  20. Flexible nuclear medicine camera and method of using

    DOEpatents

    Dilmanian, F. Avraham; Packer, Samuel; Slatkin, Daniel N.

    1996-12-10

    A nuclear medicine camera 10 and method of use photographically record radioactive decay particles emitted from a source, for example a small, previously undetectable breast cancer, inside a patient. The camera 10 includes a flexible frame 20 containing a window 22, a photographic film 24, and a scintillation screen 26, with or without a gamma-ray collimator 34. The frame 20 flexes for following the contour of the examination site on the patient, with the window 22 being disposed in substantially abutting contact with the skin of the patient for reducing the distance between the film 24 and the radiation source inside the patient. The frame 20 is removably affixed to the patient at the examination site for allowing the patient mobility to wear the frame 20 for a predetermined exposure time period. The exposure time may be several days for obtaining early qualitative detection of small malignant neoplasms.

  1. Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Development Risks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Tony

    2015-01-01

    There are clear advantages of development of a Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) for a crewed mission to Mars. NTP for in-space propulsion enables more ambitious space missions by providing high thrust at high specific impulse ((is) approximately 900 sec) that is 2 times the best theoretical performance possible for chemical rockets. Missions can be optimized for maximum payload capability to take more payload with reduced total mass to orbit; saving cost on reduction of the number of launch vehicles needed. Or missions can be optimized to minimize trip time significantly to reduce the deep space radiation exposure to the crew. NTR propulsion technology is a game changer for space exploration to Mars and beyond. However, 'NUCLEAR' is a word that is feared and vilified by some groups and the hostility towards development of any nuclear systems can meet great opposition by the public as well as from national leaders and people in authority. The public often associates the 'nuclear' word with weapons of mass destruction. The development NTP is at risk due to unwarranted public fears and clear honest communication of nuclear safety will be critical to the success of the development of the NTP technology. Reducing cost to NTP development is critical to its acceptance and funding. In the past, highly inflated cost estimates of a full-scale development nuclear engine due to Category I nuclear security requirements and costly regulatory requirements have put the NTP technology as a low priority. Innovative approaches utilizing low enriched uranium (LEU). Even though NTP can be a small source of radiation to the crew, NTP can facilitate significant reduction of crew exposure to solar and cosmic radiation by reducing trip times by 3-4 months. Current Human Mars Mission (HMM) trajectories with conventional propulsion systems and fuel-efficient transfer orbits exceed astronaut radiation exposure limits. Utilizing extra propellant from one additional SLS launch and available

  2. Special Radiation Protection Precautions in Therapeutic Nuclear Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefanoyiannis, A. P.; Gerogiannis, J.

    2010-01-01

    Therapeutic Nuclear Medicine concerns the administration of appropriate amounts of radioactivity of certain isotopes, in order to achieve internal localized irradiation of neoplasmatic cells. Due to the increased level and the specific isotope characteristics of administered radioactivity, special Radiation Protection precautions must be taken. This study addresses such issues, based on national as well as international legislation and guidelines. Application of the principle of optimization is of outmost importance and is based on individual dose planning. The decision about the release of Nuclear Medicine patients after therapy is determined on an individual basis, taking into account patients' pattern of contact with other people, their age and that of persons in the home environment, in addition to other factors. Estimation of the absorbed dose given to the treated organ is based on uptake measurements and other biokinetic data, as well as on the mass of the treated tissue or organ. Concerning pregnant women, the rule of thumb is that they should not be treated, unless the radionuclide therapy is required to save their lives. In that case, the potential absorbed dose and risk to the foetus should be estimated and conveyed to the patient. After radionuclide therapy, a female should be advised to avoid pregnancy for the period of time depending on the specific radionuclide. This is to ensure that the dose to a conceptus/foetus would probably not exceed 1 mGy (the member of the public dose limit). The radiation risk for relatives and caregivers is small and unlikely to exceed the legal dose constraints during the period of the patient's treatment. Solid waste from the patient's stay in hospital is a different matter, and is normally incinerated or held for a period until radioactive decay brings the activity to an acceptable level.

  3. [In vivo mutagenicity and clastogenicity of ionizing radiation in nuclear medicine]. Technical progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-12-31

    The overall goals of our research remains to investigate the mutagenic and clastogenic effects of exposure to low levels of ionizing radiation in human lymphocytes. We are studying hospital patients referred to a nuclear medicine department for diagnostic cardiac imaging and nuclear medicine technologists who administer radionuclides.

  4. (In vivo mutagenicity and clastogenicity of ionizing radiation in nuclear medicine)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    The overall goals of our research remains to investigate the mutagenic and clastogenic effects of exposure to low levels of ionizing radiation in human lymphocytes. We are studying hospital patients referred to a nuclear medicine department for diagnostic cardiac imaging and nuclear medicine technologists who administer radionuclides.

  5. Estimation of internal exposure to 99Mo in nuclear medicine patients.

    PubMed

    Silva, I C O A; Lucena, E A; Souza, W O; Dantas, A L A; Dantas, B M

    2010-01-01

    (99m)Tc is the most widely used radionuclide in nuclear medicine. It is obtained by elution of (99)Mo-(99m)Tc generators. Depending on the quality of the generator and its integrity, (99)Mo may be extracted from the column during the elution process, becoming a radionuclidic impurity in the (99m)Tc eluate. This fact would impart an unnecessary dose to the patients submitted to diagnostic procedures. The aim of this work is to evaluate (99)Mo incorporation and internal effective doses in nuclear medicine patients through bioassay techniques, providing information on the metabolism of molybdenum in humans. A methodology based on in vivo and in vitro measurements was developed. In vivo measurements were performed with a NaI detector installed in the IRD WBC. Urine samples were analysed with a HPGe at the IRD bioassay laboratory. Patients showed detectable activities of (99)Mo in whole body and urine. Results were interpreted with AIDE software. Estimated incorporation was compared to predicted values based on ICRP model. Effective doses were in the order of micro sieverts. Results suggest the need to implement a routine quality control program of radionuclidic impurity of (99)Mo in (99m)Tc eluates to be conducted by radiopharmacy laboratories of nuclear medicine centers.

  6. Nuclear medicine program progress report for quarter ending December 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Beets, A.L.; Boll, R.; Luo, H.; McPherson, D.W.; Mirzadeh, S.

    1997-03-20

    In this report the authors describe the use of an effective method for concentration of the rhenium-188 bolus and the results of the first Phase 1 clinical studies for bone pain palliation with rhenium-188 obtained from the tungsten-188/rhenium-188 generator. Initial studies with therapeutic levels of Re-188-HEDP at the Clinic for Nuclear Medicine at the University of Bonn, Germany, have demonstrated the expected good metastatic uptake of Re-188-HEDP in four patients who presented with skeletal metastases from disseminated prostatic cancer with good pain palliation and minimal marrow suppression. In addition, skeletal metastatic targeting of tracer doses of Re-188(V)-DMSA has been evaluated in several patients with metastases from prostatic cancer at the Department of Nuclear Medicine at the Canterbury and Kent Hospital in Canterbury, England. In this report the authors also describe further studies with the E-(R,R)-IQNP ligand developed in the ORNL Nuclear Medicine Program as a potential imaging agent for detection of changes which may occur in the cerebral muscarinic-cholinergic receptors (mAChR) in Alzheimer`s and other diseases.

  7. Nuclear safeguards research and development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henry, C. N.

    1981-11-01

    The status of a nuclear safeguard research and development program is presented. Topics include nondestructive assay technology development and applications, international safeguards, training courses, technology transfer, analytical chemistry methods for fissionable materials safeguards, the Department of Energy Computer Security Technical Center, and operational security.

  8. Nuclear target development

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, J.P.; Thomas, G.E.

    1995-08-01

    The Physics Division operates a target development laboratory that produces thin foil targets needed for experiments performed at the ATLAS and Dynamitron accelerators. Targets are not only produced for the Physics Division but also for other divisions and occasionally for other laboratories and universities. In the past year, numerous targets were fabricated by vacuum evaporation either as self-supporting foils or on various substrates. Targets produced included Ag, Au, {sup 10,11}B, {sup 138}Ba, Be, {sup 12}C, {sup 40}Ca, {sup 116}Cd, {sup 155,160}Gd, {sup 76}Ge, In, LID, {sup 6}LiH, Melamine, Mg, {sup 142,150}Nd, {sup 58}Ni, {sup 206,208}Pb, {sup 194}Pt, {sup 28}Si, {sup 144,148}Sm, {sup 120,122,124}Sn, Ta, {sup 130}Te, ThF{sub 4}, {sup 46,50}Ti, TiH, U, UF{sub 4}, {sup 182}W and {sup 170}Yb. Polypropylene and aluminized polypropylene, along with metallized Mylar were produced for experiments at ATLAS. A number of targets of {sup 11}B of various thickness were made for the DEP 2-MeV Van de Graff accelerator. An increased output of foils fabricated using our small rolling mill included targets of Au, C, {sup 50}Cr, Cu, {sup 155,160}Gd, Mg, {sup 58}Ni, {sup 208}Pb, {sup 105,110}Pd. Sc, Ti, and {sup 64,66}Zn.

  9. Integrative Medicine in Preventive Medicine Education: Competency and Curriculum Development for Preventive Medicine and Other Specialty Residency Programs.

    PubMed

    Jani, Asim A; Trask, Jennifer; Ali, Ather

    2015-11-01

    During 2012, the USDHHS's Health Resources and Services Administration funded 12 accredited preventive medicine residencies to incorporate an evidence-based integrative medicine curriculum into their training programs. It also funded a national coordinating center at the American College of Preventive Medicine, known as the Integrative Medicine in Preventive Medicine Education (IMPriME) Center, to provide technical assistance to the 12 grantees. To help with this task, the IMPriME Center established a multidisciplinary steering committee, versed in integrative medicine, whose primary aim was to develop integrative medicine core competencies for incorporation into preventive medicine graduate medical education training. The competency development process was informed by central integrative medicine definitions and principles, preventive medicine's dual role in clinical and population-based prevention, and the burgeoning evidence base of integrative medicine. The steering committee considered an interdisciplinary integrative medicine contextual framework guided by several themes related to workforce development and population health. A list of nine competencies, mapped to the six general domains of competence approved by the Accreditation Council of Graduate Medical Education, was operationalized through an iterative exercise with the 12 grantees in a process that included mapping each site's competency and curriculum products to the core competencies. The competencies, along with central curricular components informed by grantees' work presented elsewhere in this supplement, are outlined as a roadmap for residency programs aiming to incorporate integrative medicine content into their curricula. This set of competencies adds to the larger efforts of the IMPriME initiative to facilitate and enhance further curriculum development and implementation by not only the current grantees but other stakeholders in graduate medical education around integrative medicine training.

  10. Integrative Medicine in Preventive Medicine Education: Competency and Curriculum Development for Preventive Medicine and Other Specialty Residency Programs.

    PubMed

    Jani, Asim A; Trask, Jennifer; Ali, Ather

    2015-11-01

    During 2012, the USDHHS's Health Resources and Services Administration funded 12 accredited preventive medicine residencies to incorporate an evidence-based integrative medicine curriculum into their training programs. It also funded a national coordinating center at the American College of Preventive Medicine, known as the Integrative Medicine in Preventive Medicine Education (IMPriME) Center, to provide technical assistance to the 12 grantees. To help with this task, the IMPriME Center established a multidisciplinary steering committee, versed in integrative medicine, whose primary aim was to develop integrative medicine core competencies for incorporation into preventive medicine graduate medical education training. The competency development process was informed by central integrative medicine definitions and principles, preventive medicine's dual role in clinical and population-based prevention, and the burgeoning evidence base of integrative medicine. The steering committee considered an interdisciplinary integrative medicine contextual framework guided by several themes related to workforce development and population health. A list of nine competencies, mapped to the six general domains of competence approved by the Accreditation Council of Graduate Medical Education, was operationalized through an iterative exercise with the 12 grantees in a process that included mapping each site's competency and curriculum products to the core competencies. The competencies, along with central curricular components informed by grantees' work presented elsewhere in this supplement, are outlined as a roadmap for residency programs aiming to incorporate integrative medicine content into their curricula. This set of competencies adds to the larger efforts of the IMPriME initiative to facilitate and enhance further curriculum development and implementation by not only the current grantees but other stakeholders in graduate medical education around integrative medicine training

  11. Systems Medicine in Pharmaceutical Research and Development.

    PubMed

    Kuepfer, Lars; Schuppert, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    The development of new drug therapies requires substantial and ever increasing investments from the pharmaceutical company. Ten years ago, the average time from early target identification and optimization until initial market authorization of a new drug compound took more than 10 years and involved costs in the order of one billion US dollars. Recent studies indicate even a significant growth of costs in the meanwhile, mainly driven by the increasing complexity of diseases addressed by pharmaceutical research.Modeling and simulation are proven approaches to handle highly complex systems; hence, systems medicine is expected to control the spiral of complexity of diseases and increasing costs. Today, the main focus of systems medicine applications in industry is on mechanistic modeling. Biological mechanisms are represented by explicit equations enabling insight into the cooperation of all relevant mechanisms. Mechanistic modeling is widely accepted in pharmacokinetics, but prediction from cell behavior to patients is rarely possible due to lacks in our understanding of the controlling mechanisms. Data-driven modeling aims to compensate these lacks by the use of advanced statistical and machine learning methods. Future progress in pharmaceutical research and development will require integrated hybrid modeling technologies allowing realization of the benefits of both mechanistic and data-driven modeling. In this chapter, we sketch typical industrial application areas for both modeling techniques and derive the requirements for future technology development.

  12. The nuclear medicine therapy care coordination service: a model for radiologist-driven patient-centered care.

    PubMed

    Moncayo, Valeria M; Applegate, Kimberly E; Duszak, Richard; Barron, Bruce J; Fitz, Jim; Halkar, Raghuveer K; Lee, Daniel J; Schuster, David M

    2015-06-01

    We developed a longitudinal care coordination service to proactively deliver high-quality and family-centered care in patients receiving radioiodine therapy for thyroid cancer. In an iterative, multidisciplinary team manner, a pretherapy consultation service, which included scripted interactions, documentation, and checklists for quality control, evolved over time into a robust patient-centered longitudinal care coordination nuclear medicine service. Radiation safety precautions, the rationale for therapy, and management of patient expectations were addressed through the initial consultation, and discharge and posttreatment care were managed during subsequent follow-up. The patient-physician relationship created during longitudinal nuclear medicine therapy care is one tool to help counteract the growing commoditization of radiology. This article describes the process that the nuclear medicine specialists in our department established to enhance radiologist value by providing both exceptional thyroid cancer treatment and continuity of care.

  13. Routine Quality Control of Clinical Nuclear Medicine Instrumentation: A Brief Review*

    PubMed Central

    Zanzonico, Pat

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews routine quality-control (QC) procedures for current nuclear medicine instrumentation, including the survey meter, dose calibrator, well counter, intraoperative probe, organ (“thyroid”) uptake probe, γ-camera, SPECT and SPECT/CT scanner, and PET and PET/CT scanner. It should be particularly useful for residents, fellows, and other trainees in nuclear medicine, nuclear cardiology, and radiology. The procedures described and their respective frequencies are presented only as general guidelines. PMID:18587088

  14. 42 CFR Appendix D to Part 75 - Standards for Accreditation of Educational Programs for Nuclear Medicine Technologists

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... for Nuclear Medicine Technologists D Appendix D to Part 75 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE...—Standards for Accreditation of Educational Programs for Nuclear Medicine Technologists A. Sponsorship 1... of patient care; (b) Radiation safety and protection; (c) Nuclear medicine physics; (d)...

  15. 42 CFR Appendix D to Part 75 - Standards for Accreditation of Educational Programs for Nuclear Medicine Technologists

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... for Nuclear Medicine Technologists D Appendix D to Part 75 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE...—Standards for Accreditation of Educational Programs for Nuclear Medicine Technologists A. Sponsorship 1... of patient care; (b) Radiation safety and protection; (c) Nuclear medicine physics; (d)...

  16. 42 CFR Appendix D to Part 75 - Standards for Accreditation of Educational Programs for Nuclear Medicine Technologists

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... for Nuclear Medicine Technologists D Appendix D to Part 75 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE...—Standards for Accreditation of Educational Programs for Nuclear Medicine Technologists A. Sponsorship 1... of patient care; (b) Radiation safety and protection; (c) Nuclear medicine physics; (d)...

  17. Nuclear medicine and imaging research (instrumentation and quantitative methods of evaluation). Progress report, January 15, 1992--January 14, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, R.N.; Cooper, M.; Chen, C.T.

    1992-07-01

    This document is the annual progress report for project entitled ``Instrumentation and Quantitative Methods of Evaluation.`` Progress is reported in separate sections individually abstracted and indexed for the database. Subject areas reported include theoretical studies of imaging systems and methods, hardware developments, quantitative methods of evaluation, and knowledge transfer: education in quantitative nuclear medicine imaging.

  18. IAIMS development at Baylor College of Medicine.

    PubMed

    Gorry, G A

    1992-07-01

    At Baylor College of Medicine, we are developing the technical and intellectual resources needed to realize the Integrated Academic Information Management System (IAIMS) concept fully. The substantial technical, organizational, and financial commitments involved demand that we align our efforts with the strategic purposes of the college. The support of science, therefore, has become the principal, but not exclusive, focus of Baylor's IAIMS effort. Even so, the information technology architecture we have created for biomedical research is proving valuable in other settings as well. And the infrastructure we are creating--the communications architecture and the linkages to information resources--serves many purposes in addition to those of research. The architecture accommodates a diversity of workstations, networks, and informational and computational servers. This will be the greatest possible chance of transferring the fruits of our Phase III development to other academic medical centers.

  19. IAEA programs in empowering the nuclear medicine profession through online educational resources.

    PubMed

    Pascual, Thomas Nb; Dondi, Maurizio; Paez, Diana; Kashyap, Ravi; Nunez-Miller, Rodolfo

    2013-05-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA) programme in human health aims to enhance the capabilities in Member States to address needs related to the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases through the application of nuclear techniques. It has the specific mission of fostering the application of nuclear medicine techniques as part of the clinical management of certain types of diseases. Attuned to the continuous evolution of this specialty as well as to the advancement and diversity of methods in delivering capacity building efforts in this digital age, the section of nuclear medicine of the IAEA has enhanced its program by incorporating online educational resources for nuclear medicine professionals into its repertoire of projects to further its commitment in addressing the needs of its Member States in the field of nuclear medicine. Through online educational resources such as the Human Health Campus website, e-learning modules, and scheduled interactive webinars, a validation of the commitment by the IAEA in addressing the needs of its Member States in the field of nuclear medicine is strengthened while utilizing the advanced internet and communications technology which is progressively becoming available worldwide. The Human Health Campus (www.humanhealth.iaea.org) is the online educational resources initiative of the Division of Human Health of the IAEA geared toward enhancing professional knowledge of health professionals in radiation medicine (nuclear medicine and diagnostic imaging, radiation oncology, and medical radiation physics), and nutrition. E-learning modules provide an interactive learning environment to its users while providing immediate feedback for each task accomplished. Webinars, unlike webcasts, offer the opportunity of enhanced interaction with the learners facilitated through slide shows where the presenter guides and engages the audience using video and live streaming. This paper explores the IAEA's available online

  20. Applying activity-based costing to the nuclear medicine unit.

    PubMed

    Suthummanon, Sakesun; Omachonu, Vincent K; Akcin, Mehmet

    2005-08-01

    Previous studies have shown the feasibility of using activity-based costing (ABC) in hospital environments. However, many of these studies discuss the general applications of ABC in health-care organizations. This research explores the potential application of ABC to the nuclear medicine unit (NMU) at a teaching hospital. The finding indicates that the current cost averages 236.11 US dollars for all procedures, which is quite different from the costs computed by using ABC. The difference is most significant with positron emission tomography scan, 463 US dollars (an increase of 96%), as well as bone scan and thyroid scan, 114 US dollars (a decrease of 52%). The result of ABC analysis demonstrates that the operational time (machine time and direct labour time) and the cost of drugs have the most influence on cost per procedure. Clearly, to reduce the cost per procedure for the NMU, the reduction in operational time and cost of drugs should be analysed. The result also indicates that ABC can be used to improve resource allocation and management. It can be an important aid in making management decisions, particularly for improving pricing practices by making costing more accurate. It also facilitates the identification of underutilized resources and related costs, leading to cost reduction. The ABC system will also help hospitals control costs, improve the quality and efficiency of the care they provide, and manage their resources better. PMID:16102243

  1. Portable gamma camera for clinical use in nuclear medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Pani, R.; Pellegrini, R.; Scopinaro, F.

    1996-12-31

    Up today Hamamatsu R3292 is the Position Sensitive Photo Multiplier Tube (PSPMT) with the largest sensitive area (10 cm of diameter). At the same time it has the minimum size for clinical application in Nuclear Medicine. A portable gamma camera was realized, based on 5 inches PSPMT coupled to a scintillating array. The head has a light weight (15 Kg.) spatial resolution resulted better than that of Anger Camera with good linearity response, good energy resolution and FOV coincident with intrinsic one of PSPMT. To optimize gamma camera response two different scintillating arrays were tested: YAP:Ce and CsI (Tl). Their overall size cover all photochatode active area, and crystal pixel size was 2 mm x 2 mm. The detection efficiency resulted comparable to that of Anger Camera. The best result was obtained by CsI (Tl) scintillating: an intrinsic spatial resolution of 1.6 mm FWHM and a relative energy resolution of 17% FWHM. With a standard general purpose collimator a spatial resolution of about 2 mm resulted. Some preliminary results were also obtained in breast scintigraphy.

  2. Applying activity-based costing to the nuclear medicine unit.

    PubMed

    Suthummanon, Sakesun; Omachonu, Vincent K; Akcin, Mehmet

    2005-08-01

    Previous studies have shown the feasibility of using activity-based costing (ABC) in hospital environments. However, many of these studies discuss the general applications of ABC in health-care organizations. This research explores the potential application of ABC to the nuclear medicine unit (NMU) at a teaching hospital. The finding indicates that the current cost averages 236.11 US dollars for all procedures, which is quite different from the costs computed by using ABC. The difference is most significant with positron emission tomography scan, 463 US dollars (an increase of 96%), as well as bone scan and thyroid scan, 114 US dollars (a decrease of 52%). The result of ABC analysis demonstrates that the operational time (machine time and direct labour time) and the cost of drugs have the most influence on cost per procedure. Clearly, to reduce the cost per procedure for the NMU, the reduction in operational time and cost of drugs should be analysed. The result also indicates that ABC can be used to improve resource allocation and management. It can be an important aid in making management decisions, particularly for improving pricing practices by making costing more accurate. It also facilitates the identification of underutilized resources and related costs, leading to cost reduction. The ABC system will also help hospitals control costs, improve the quality and efficiency of the care they provide, and manage their resources better.

  3. Nuclear Medicine in the Philippines: A Glance at the Past, a Gaze at the Present, and a Glimpse of the Future.

    PubMed

    Bautista, Patricia A; Luis, Teofilo O L San

    2016-01-01

    While the introduction of radioactive tracers in the study of metabolic pathways has been well-documented in clinical thyroidology as early as 1924, the widespread utilization in other clinical specialties has been hampered by slow developments in radiation-detecting devices and in the production of appropriate radiopharmaceuticals, in addition to the morbid fear of radiation. In the Philippines, the first radioisotope laboratory was established in 1956. Ten years later, the Philippine Society of Nuclear Medicine was formed. Through the years, challenges were overcome, foundations were laid down, growth was encouraged, friendships with other organizations were built, adjustments were made, and rules were enforced. To date, there are approximately 58 nuclear medicine centers randomly distributed from north to south of the Philippines, 7 accredited nuclear medicine training institutions, 95 board-certified nuclear medicine physicians (a few of whom are also internationally recognized), and a regionally-indexed Philippine Journal of Nuclear Medicine. Qualifying examinations for technologists were also recently instated. International relations are constantly strengthened by sending trainees abroad and accepting foreign trainees here, as well as participating in conferences and other endeavors. While the cost of putting up nuclear medicine centers in the Philippines is still prohibitive, it should not pose too much of a constraint as there are foreign and local parties willing to help. With appropriate instrumentation, targeting radiopharmaceuticals and trained human resources, nuclear medicine can indeed contribute much to health care delivery. PMID:27408901

  4. Nuclear Medicine in the Philippines: A Glance at the Past, a Gaze at the Present, and a Glimpse of the Future.

    PubMed

    Bautista, Patricia A; Luis, Teofilo O L San

    2016-01-01

    While the introduction of radioactive tracers in the study of metabolic pathways has been well-documented in clinical thyroidology as early as 1924, the widespread utilization in other clinical specialties has been hampered by slow developments in radiation-detecting devices and in the production of appropriate radiopharmaceuticals, in addition to the morbid fear of radiation. In the Philippines, the first radioisotope laboratory was established in 1956. Ten years later, the Philippine Society of Nuclear Medicine was formed. Through the years, challenges were overcome, foundations were laid down, growth was encouraged, friendships with other organizations were built, adjustments were made, and rules were enforced. To date, there are approximately 58 nuclear medicine centers randomly distributed from north to south of the Philippines, 7 accredited nuclear medicine training institutions, 95 board-certified nuclear medicine physicians (a few of whom are also internationally recognized), and a regionally-indexed Philippine Journal of Nuclear Medicine. Qualifying examinations for technologists were also recently instated. International relations are constantly strengthened by sending trainees abroad and accepting foreign trainees here, as well as participating in conferences and other endeavors. While the cost of putting up nuclear medicine centers in the Philippines is still prohibitive, it should not pose too much of a constraint as there are foreign and local parties willing to help. With appropriate instrumentation, targeting radiopharmaceuticals and trained human resources, nuclear medicine can indeed contribute much to health care delivery.

  5. Nuclear Medicine in the Philippines: A Glance at the Past, a Gaze at the Present, and a Glimpse of the Future

    PubMed Central

    Bautista, Patricia A.; Luis, Teofilo O.L. San

    2016-01-01

    While the introduction of radioactive tracers in the study of metabolic pathways has been well-documented in clinical thyroidology as early as 1924, the widespread utilization in other clinical specialties has been hampered by slow developments in radiation-detecting devices and in the production of appropriate radiopharmaceuticals, in addition to the morbid fear of radiation. In the Philippines, the first radioisotope laboratory was established in 1956. Ten years later, the Philippine Society of Nuclear Medicine was formed. Through the years, challenges were overcome, foundations were laid down, growth was encouraged, friendships with other organizations were built, adjustments were made, and rules were enforced. To date, there are approximately 58 nuclear medicine centers randomly distributed from north to south of the Philippines, 7 accredited nuclear medicine training institutions, 95 board-certified nuclear medicine physicians (a few of whom are also internationally recognized), and a regionally-indexed Philippine Journal of Nuclear Medicine. Qualifying examinations for technologists were also recently instated. International relations are constantly strengthened by sending trainees abroad and accepting foreign trainees here, as well as participating in conferences and other endeavors. While the cost of putting up nuclear medicine centers in the Philippines is still prohibitive, it should not pose too much of a constraint as there are foreign and local parties willing to help. With appropriate instrumentation, targeting radiopharmaceuticals and trained human resources, nuclear medicine can indeed contribute much to health care delivery. PMID:27408901

  6. An alternate approach to the production of radioisotopes for nuclear medicine applications.

    PubMed

    D'Auria, John M; Keller, Roderich; Ladouceur, Keith; Lapi, Suzanne E; Ruth, Thomas J; Schmor, Paul

    2013-03-01

    There is a growing need for the production of radioisotopes for both diagnostic and therapeutic medical applications. Radioisotopes that are produced using the (n,γ) or (γ,n) reactions, however, typically result in samples with low specific activity (radioactivity∕gram) due to the high abundance of target material of the same element. One method to effectively remove the isotopic impurity is electro-magnetic mass separation. An Ion Source Test Facility has been constructed at TRIUMF to develop high-intensity, high-efficiency, reliable ion sources for purification of radioactive isotopes, particularly those used in nuclear medicine. In progress studies are presented.

  7. Recent Developments in Transplantation and Transfusion Medicine.

    PubMed

    Edinur, Hisham A; Chambers, Geoffrey K; Dunn, Paul P J

    2015-07-28

    Transplantation and transfusion are related and clinically important areas of multidisciplinary expertise, including pre-operative treatment, donor recruitment, tissue matching, and post-operative care. We have seen significant developments in these areas, especially in the late 20th and early 21st century. This paper reviews the latest advances in modern transplantation and transfusion medicine, including several new genetic markers (e.g., major histocompatibility complex class I chain-related gene A, killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor, and human platelet antigens) for donor and recipient matching, genotyping platforms (e.g., next-generation sequencer and Luminex technology), donor recruitment strategies, and several clinical applications in which genotyping has advantages over agglutination tests (e.g., genotyping of weakly expressed antigens and determination of blood groups and human leukocyte antigen types in multi-transfused patients). We also highlight the roles of population studies and international collaborations in moving towards more efficient donor recruitment strategies.

  8. [Key issues on the clinical pathway development: a view from Chinese medicine and integrative medicine].

    PubMed

    Wu, Da-Rong; Zhou, Luo-Jing; Wang, Si-Cheng

    2010-11-01

    Comparing with the Western medicine, the clinical pathway development of Chinese medicine (CM)/integrative medicine (IM), on one hand, should follow the basic principles of general clinical pathway; on the other and prior hand, it ought to coordinate with the rule of CM, and display sufficiently the advantages of CM based upon the evidences. Several key issues which may be encountered in the development and the relevant strategies were introduced in this paper.

  9. NCRP report 160 and what it means for medical imaging and nuclear medicine.

    PubMed

    Bolus, Norman E

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to briefly explain report 160 of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurement and the significance of the report to medical imaging as a whole and nuclear medicine specifically. The implications of the findings of report 160 have had repercussions and will continue to affect all of ionizing radiation medical imaging. The nuclear medicine community should have an understanding of why and how report 160 is important. After reading this article, the nuclear medicine technologist will be familiar with the main focus of report 160, the significant change that has occurred since the 1980s in the ionizing radiation exposure of people in the United States, the primary background source of ionizing radiation in the United States, the primary medical exposure to ionizing radiation in the United States, trends in nuclear medicine procedures and patient exposure, and a comparison of population doses between 2006 and the early 1980s as outlined in report 160.

  10. Will the Australian nuclear medicine technologist workforce meet anticipated health care demands?

    PubMed

    Adams, Edwina; Schofield, Deborah; Cox, Jennifer; Adamson, Barbara

    2008-05-01

    Determination of national nuclear medicine technologist workforce size was made from census data in 2001 and 1996 and from the professional body in 2004. A survey conducted by the authors in 2005 provided retention patterns in north-eastern Australia and suggested causes. Utilisation of nuclear medicine diagnostic services was established through the Medicare Benefits Schedule group statistics. More than half the nuclear medicine technologist workforce is under 35 years of age. Attrition commences from age 30, with very few workers over 55 years. In 2005 there was a 12% attrition of the survey workforce. In the past decade, service provision increased while workforce size decreased and the nuclear medicine technologist workforce is at risk of failing to meet the anticipated rise in health service needs. PMID:18447815

  11. Nuclear Medicine at Berkeley Lab: From Pioneering Beginnings to Today (LBNL Summer Lecture Series)

    ScienceCinema

    Budinger, Thomas [LBNL, Center for Functional Imaging

    2016-07-12

    Summer Lecture Series 2006: Thomas Budinger, head of Berkeley Lab's Center for Functional Imaging, discusses Berkeley Lab's rich history pioneering the field of nuclear medicine, from radioisotopes to medical imaging.

  12. Essential medicines for reproductive health: developing evidence based interagency list

    PubMed Central

    Logez, Sophie; Jayasekar, Shalini; Moller, Helene; Ahmed, Kabir; Patel, Margaret Usher

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Although poor reproductive health constitutes a significant proportion of the disease burden in developing countries, essential medicines for reproductive health are often not available to the population. The objective was to analyze the guiding principles for developing national Essential Medicines Lists (EML). The second objective was to compare the reproductive health medicines included on these EMLs to the 2002 WHO/UNFPA list of essential drugs and commodities for reproductive health. Another objective was to compare the medicines included in existing international lists of medicines for reproductive health. Methods: The authors calculated the average number of medicines per clinical groups included in 112 national EMLs and compared these average numbers with the number of medicines per clinical group included on the WHO/UNFPA List. Additionally, they compared the content of the lists of medicines for reproductive health developed by various international agencies. Results: In 2003, the review of the 112 EMLs highlighted that medicines for reproductive health were not consistently included. The review of the international lists identified inconsistencies in their recommendations. The reviews’ outcomes became the catalyst for collaboration among international agencies in the development of the first harmonized Interagency List of Essential Medicines for Reproductive Health. Additionally, WHO, UNFPA and PATH published guidelines to support the inclusion of essential medicines for reproductive health in national medicine policies and EMLs. The Interagency List became a key advocacy tool for countries to review their EMLs. In 2009, a UNFPA/WHO assessment on access to reproductive health medicines in six countries demonstrated that the major challenge was that the Interagency List had not been updated recently and was inconsistently used. Conclusion: The addition of cost-effective medicines for reproductive health to EMLs can result in enhanced equity

  13. PREFACE: International Conference on Image Optimisation in Nuclear Medicine (OptiNM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christofides, Stelios; Parpottas, Yiannis

    2011-09-01

    Conference logo The International Conference on Image Optimisation in Nuclear Medicine was held at the Atlantica Aeneas Resort in Ayia Napa, Cyprus between 23-26 March 2011. It was organised in the framework of the research project "Optimising Diagnostic Value in SPECT Myocardial Perfusion Imaging" (YΓΕΙΑ/ΔYΓΕΙΑ/0308/11), funded by the Cyprus Research Promotion Foundation and the European Regional Development Fund, to present the highlights of the project, discuss the progress and results, and define future related goals. The aim of this International Conference was to concentrate on image optimization approaches in Nuclear Medicine. Experts in the field of nuclear medicine presented their latest research results, exchanged experiences and set future goals for image optimisation while balancing patient dose and diagnostic value. The conference was jointly organized by the Frederick Research Centre in Cyprus, the Department of Medical and Public Health Services of the Cyprus Ministry of Health, the Biomedical Research Foundation in Cyprus and the AGH University of Science and Technology in Poland. It was supported by the Cyprus Association of Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, and the Cyprus Society of Nuclear Medicine. The conference was held under the auspices of the European Federation of Organisations for Medical Physics and the European Association of Nuclear Medicine. The conference scientific programme covered several important topics such as functional imaging; image optimization; quantification for diagnosis; justification; simulations; patient dosimetry, staff exposures and radiation risks; quality assurance and clinical audit; education, training and radiation protection culture; hybrid systems and image registration; and new and competing technologies. The programme consisted of 13 invited and keynote presentations as well as workshops, round table discussions and a number of scientific sessions. A total of 51 speakers presented their

  14. Importance of Bladder Radioactivity for Radiation Safety in Nuclear Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Gültekin, Salih Sinan; Şahmaran, Turan

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Most of the radiopharmaceuticals used in nuclear medicine are excreted via the urinary system. This study evaluated the importance of a reduction in bladder radioactivity for radiation safety. Methods: The study group of 135 patients underwent several organ scintigraphies [40/135; thyroid scintigraphy (TS), 30/135; whole body bone scintigraphy (WBS), 35/135; myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS) and 30/135; renal scintigraphy (RS)] by a technologist within 1 month. In full and empty conditions, static bladder images and external dose rate measurements at 0.25, 0.50, 1, 1.5 and 2 m distances were obtained and decline ratios were calculated from these two data sets. Results: External radiation dose rates were highest in patients undergoing MPS. External dose rates at 0.25 m distance for TS, TKS, MPS and BS were measured to be 56, 106, 191 and 72 μSv h-1 for full bladder and 29, 55, 103 and 37 μSv h-1 for empty bladder, respectively. For TS, WBS, MPS and RS, respectively, average decline ratios were calculated to be 52%, 55%, 53% and 54% in the scintigraphic assessment and 49%, 51%, 49%, 50% and 50% in the assessment with Geiger counter. Conclusion: Decline in bladder radioactivity is important in terms of radiation safety. Patients should be encouraged for micturition after each scintigraphic test. Spending time together with radioactive patients at distances less than 1 m should be kept to a minimum where possible. Conflict of interest:None declared. PMID:24416625

  15. 4.8 Dose to Embryo and Foetuses in Diagnostic Nuclear Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noßke, D.; Mattsson, S.; Johansson, L.

    This document is part of Subvolume A 'Fundamentals and Data in Radiobiology, Radiation Biophysics, Dosimetry and Medical Radiological Protection' of Volume 7 'Medical Radiological Physics' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group VIII 'Advanced Materials and Technologies'. It contains the Section '4.8 Dose to Embryo and Foetuses in Diagnostic Nuclear Medicine' of the Chapter '4 Dosimetry in Nuclear Medicine Diagnosis and Therapy' with the contents:

  16. The effects of the Brazilian regulatory inspection programme on nuclear medicine facilities.

    PubMed

    Alves, C E G R; Azevedo, E M; de Sá, L V; da Rosa, L A R; Mendes, L C G; França, W F L; Gutterres, R F; Gonçalves, M

    2009-12-01

    This paper aims to demonstrate the importance of the regulatory inspections carried out by the Brazilian regulatory body in the area of nuclear medicine. The main aspects observed during the inspections are presented as well as the time evolution of the non-compliances, according to their occurrence by type. We also evaluate factors concerning the working of the nuclear medicine facility responsible for solving the non-compliances. The results suggest a decrease of occurrence of non-compliances with time that can be related to the strictness of the inspections and the awareness of the personnel in the nuclear medicine facilities. An analysis of radiation dose exposure levels for the professionals involved in nuclear medicine was carried out; although dose values are below regulatory dose limits, their occurrence is not decreasing satisfactorily. Results indicate the need for staff training and commitment of the responsible nuclear medicine facility staff to the radiological protection procedures. Our results also emphasise the importance of continuous coercive actions to improve the level of radiological protection in nuclear medicine facilities in compliance with the standards established by the national regulatory authority and international recommendations.

  17. [Development of Social Medicine and Public Health in Germany].

    PubMed

    Wildner, M; Niehoff, J-U; Hoffmann, W

    2016-02-01

    Social medicine in Germany has multiple lines of tradition, which are marked by the presence of 2 German states and their re-unification and by the (re-)establishment of multidisciplinary public health by the end of the twentieth century. At the same time, a differentiation within the applied fields of social medicine into several thematic topics can be observed. These can be grouped in a first step into the domains of clinical social medicine, of social medicine for social insurance purposes and of a population-oriented social medicine. For social medicine as a scientific discipline within the broad context of medicine, the requirement of a context-adequate development, which encompasses the special methods of multidisciplinary public health, poses big challenges. For successfully meeting these challenges and going beyond population-oriented public health and for bridging the gap between the individual and the social medical institutions of the health system, it is indispensable for social medicine to be independent of other disciplines within the array of medical specialties. The present study argues for strengthening social medicine within the medical faculties. Chairs for social medicine and public health are not only in the interest of the applied fields of social medicine, but represent also an indispensable scientific discipline which can relate and contribute to all specialties of medicine. PMID:26906537

  18. Mongolian folk medicine--from traditional practice to scientific development.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chun-hong; Zhao, Zhi-ying; Hasi, Ba-te-er; Li, Zhen-hua; Wu, Mao-mao; Zou, De-zhi; Li, Min-hui

    2015-07-01

    Mongolian folk medicine, the important part of Mongolian medicine, is the main means, method and weapon of disease prevention, treatment and health care. Mongolian materia medicas are the important literatures of guiding the healthy development of the modern Mongolian medicine with a long and dazzling history. Since the founding of new China, a new history chapter of Mongolian folk medicine was opened under the attention and support from all levels of party and government. This paper intends to provide comprehensive insight into the rapid development of Mongolian folk medicine. The resources, phytochemistry, quality standard, pharmacology, dosage forms reform and production were reviewed to expound the process that Mongolian folk medicine was developed from traditional practices to scientific development

  19. The Hotelling Trace Criterion Used for System Optimization and Feature Enhancement in Nuclear Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiete, Robert Dean

    The Hotelling trace criterion (HTC) is a measure of class separability used in pattern recognition to find a set of linear features that optimally separate two classes of objects. In this dissertation we use the HTC not as a figure of merit for features, but as a figure of merit for characterizing imaging systems and designing filters for feature enhancement in nuclear medicine. If the HTC is to be used to optimize systems, then it must correlate with human observer performance. In our first study, a set of images, created by overlapping ellipses, was used to simulate images of livers. Two classes were created, livers with and without tumors, with noise and blur added to each image to simulate nine different imaging systems. Using the ROC parameter d_ {rm a} as our measure, we found that the HTC has a correlation of 0.988 with the ability of humans to separate these two classes of objects. A second study was performed to demonstrate the use of the HTC for system optimization in a realistic task. For this study we used a mathematical model of normal and diseased livers and of the imaging system to generate a realistic set of liver images from nuclear medicine. A method of adaptive, nonlinear filtering which enhances the features that separate two sets of images has also been developed. The method uses the HTC to find the optimal linear feature operator for the Fourier moduli of the images, and uses this operator as a filter so that the features that separate the two classes of objects are enhanced. We demonstrate the use of this filtering method to enhance texture features in simulated liver images from nuclear medicine, after using a training set of images to obtain the filter. We also demonstrate how this method of filtering can be used to reconstruct an object from a single photon-starved image of it, when the object contains a repetitive feature. When power spectrums for real liver scans from nuclear medicine are calculated, we find that the three

  20. Development and future perspectives of behavioral medicine in Japan.

    PubMed

    Nomura, Shinobu

    2016-01-01

    Development and Future Perspectives of Behavioral Medicine in Japan The study of the "Type A behavior pattern and myocardial infarction" was one of the main themes in the early stage of Behavioral Medicine. After that, behavior modification came to be widely applied to the treatment of various kinds of chronic diseases, and a general concept of Behavioral Medicine was subsequently formed. The Japanese Society of Behavioral Medicine was established in 1992 and is comprised of researchers in the fields of clinical medicine, social medicine, and psycho-behavioral science. Recently, we devised a core curriculum for behavioral science and behavioral medicine and have published a Japanese version of the "Textbook of Behavioral Medicine" in conformity with it. It is a primer that includes all of the basics and clinical applications of Behavioral Medicine and is edited as a manual that can be utilized in clinical practice. We hope this book will contribute to the development of Behavioral Medicine in Japan, to a more healthy life for our people, and to the improvement of the QOL of our patients. In this paper, I discuss the future perspectives from my personal opinion while looking back on the history of Behavioral Medicine in Japan.

  1. Exposing Exposure: Enhancing Patient Safety through Automated Data Mining of Nuclear Medicine Reports for Quality Assurance and Organ Dose Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Ikuta, Ichiro; Wasser, Elliot J.; Warden, Graham I.; Gerbaudo, Victor H.; Khorasani, Ramin

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To develop and validate an open-source informatics toolkit capable of creating a radiation exposure data repository from existing nuclear medicine report archives and to demonstrate potential applications of such data for quality assurance and longitudinal patient-specific radiation dose monitoring. Materials and Methods: This study was institutional review board approved and HIPAA compliant. Informed consent was waived. An open-source toolkit designed to automate the extraction of data on radiopharmaceuticals and administered activities from nuclear medicine reports was developed. After iterative code training, manual validation was performed on 2359 nuclear medicine reports randomly selected from September 17, 1985, to February 28, 2011. Recall (sensitivity) and precision (positive predictive value) were calculated with 95% binomial confidence intervals. From the resultant institutional data repository, examples of usage in quality assurance efforts and patient-specific longitudinal radiation dose monitoring obtained by calculating organ doses from the administered activity and radiopharmaceutical of each examination were provided. Results: Validation statistics yielded a combined recall of 97.6% ± 0.7 (95% confidence interval) and precision of 98.7% ± 0.5. Histograms of administered activity for fluorine 18 fluorodeoxyglucose and iodine 131 sodium iodide were generated. An organ dose heatmap which displays a sample patient’s dose accumulation from multiple nuclear medicine examinations was created. Conclusion: Large-scale repositories of radiation exposure data can be extracted from institutional nuclear medicine report archives with high recall and precision. Such repositories enable new approaches in radiation exposure patient safety initiatives and patient-specific radiation dose monitoring. © RSNA, 2012 PMID:22627599

  2. Developing and implementing core competencies for integrative medicine fellowships.

    PubMed

    Ring, Melinda; Brodsky, Marc; Low Dog, Tieraona; Sierpina, Victor; Bailey, Michelle; Locke, Amy; Kogan, Mikhail; Rindfleisch, James A; Saper, Robert

    2014-03-01

    The Consortium of Academic Health Centers for Integrative Medicine defines integrative medicine as "the practice of medicine that reaffirms the importance of the relationship between practitioner and patient, focuses on the whole person, is informed by evidence, and makes use of all appropriate therapeutic approaches, health care professionals, and disciplines to achieve optimal health and healing." Over the past three decades, the U.S. public increasingly has sought integrative medicine approaches. In an effort to train medical professionals to adequately counsel patients on the safe and appropriate use of these approaches, medical schools and residencies have developed curricula on integrative medicine for their trainees. In addition, integrative medicine clinical fellowships for postresidency physicians have emerged to provide training for practitioners interested in gaining greater expertise in this emerging field. Currently, 13 clinical fellowships in integrative medicine exist in the United States, and they are predominantly connected to academic medical centers or teaching affiliate hospitals. In 2010, the Consortium of Academic Health Centers for Integrative Medicine, represented by 56 member academic health care institutions with a shared commitment to advance the principles and practices of integrative medicine, convened a two-year task force to draft integrative medicine fellowship core competencies. These competencies would guide fellowship curriculum development and ensure that graduates possessed a common body of knowledge, skills, and attitudes. In this article, the authors discuss the competencies and the task force's process to develop them, as well as associated teaching and assessment methods, faculty development, potential barriers, and future directions.

  3. 42 CFR Appendix F to Part 75 - Standards for Licensing Radiographers, Nuclear Medicine Technologists, and Radiation Therapy...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Medicine Technologists, and Radiation Therapy Technologists F Appendix F to Part 75 Public Health PUBLIC..., App. F Appendix F to Part 75—Standards for Licensing Radiographers, Nuclear Medicine Technologists... licensed as Radiographers, Nuclear Medicine Technologists, or Radiation Therapy Technologists. 2....

  4. 42 CFR Appendix F to Part 75 - Standards for Licensing Radiographers, Nuclear Medicine Technologists, and Radiation Therapy...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Medicine Technologists, and Radiation Therapy Technologists F Appendix F to Part 75 Public Health PUBLIC..., App. F Appendix F to Part 75—Standards for Licensing Radiographers, Nuclear Medicine Technologists... licensed as Radiographers, Nuclear Medicine Technologists, or Radiation Therapy Technologists. 2....

  5. 42 CFR Appendix F to Part 75 - Standards for Licensing Radiographers, Nuclear Medicine Technologists, and Radiation Therapy...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Medicine Technologists, and Radiation Therapy Technologists F Appendix F to Part 75 Public Health PUBLIC..., App. F Appendix F to Part 75—Standards for Licensing Radiographers, Nuclear Medicine Technologists... licensed as Radiographers, Nuclear Medicine Technologists, or Radiation Therapy Technologists. 2....

  6. 42 CFR Appendix F to Part 75 - Standards for Licensing Radiographers, Nuclear Medicine Technologists, and Radiation Therapy...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Medicine Technologists, and Radiation Therapy Technologists F Appendix F to Part 75 Public Health PUBLIC..., App. F Appendix F to Part 75—Standards for Licensing Radiographers, Nuclear Medicine Technologists... licensed as Radiographers, Nuclear Medicine Technologists, or Radiation Therapy Technologists. 2....

  7. 42 CFR Appendix F to Part 75 - Standards for Licensing Radiographers, Nuclear Medicine Technologists, and Radiation Therapy...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Medicine Technologists, and Radiation Therapy Technologists F Appendix F to Part 75 Public Health PUBLIC..., App. F Appendix F to Part 75—Standards for Licensing Radiographers, Nuclear Medicine Technologists... licensed as Radiographers, Nuclear Medicine Technologists, or Radiation Therapy Technologists. 2....

  8. New developments in education and training in sexual medicine.

    PubMed

    Reisman, Yacov; Eardley, Ian; Porst, Hartmut

    2013-04-01

    INTRODUCTION.: The past 12 months have been historic ones for the field of Sexual Medicine in that we have seen the creation of the European Board examination in Sexual Medicine with the title of "Fellow of the European Committee on Sexual Medicine" (FECSM) offered to successful candidates. AIM.: The study aims to promote a high standard of care in Sexual Medicine. METHODS.: An important way of promoting high standards of care is by the development of training, regulation, and assessment framework. The background to these developments and the recent educational activities of the European Society for Sexual Medicine (ESSM) are described in this article. RESULTS.: The creation of the Multidisciplinary Joint Committee on Sexual Medicine (MJCSM) under the auspices of the European Union of Medical Specialists, with the primary purpose to develop the highest possible standards of training in Sexual Medicine in Europe, made it possible to create a process for qualification in Sexual Medicine. The ESSM educational activities created opportunities to support trainees in Sexual Medicine and the first MJCSM exam was held in Amsterdam with a high overall success rate. CONCLUSION.: These activities are intended to improve quality. The FECSM examination is the first of its type and provides a real opportunity for Sexual Medicine physicians to demonstrate and document their knowledge.

  9. History of nuclear technology development in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Yamashita, Kiyonobu

    2015-04-29

    Nuclear technology development in Japan has been carried out based on the Atomic Energy Basic Act brought into effect in 1955. The nuclear technology development is limited to peaceful purposes and made in a principle to assure their safety. Now, the technologies for research reactors radiation application and nuclear power plants are delivered to developing countries. First of all, safety measures of nuclear power plants (NPPs) will be enhanced based on lesson learned from TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi NPS accident.

  10. History of nuclear technology development in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamashita, Kiyonobu

    2015-04-01

    Nuclear technology development in Japan has been carried out based on the Atomic Energy Basic Act brought into effect in 1955. The nuclear technology development is limited to peaceful purposes and made in a principle to assure their safety. Now, the technologies for research reactors radiation application and nuclear power plants are delivered to developing countries. First of all, safety measures of nuclear power plants (NPPs) will be enhanced based on lesson learned from TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi NPS accident.

  11. Current Status of Nuclear Medicine Practice in the Middle East.

    PubMed

    Paez, Diana; Becic, Tarik; Bhonsle, Uday; Jalilian, Amir R; Nuñez-Miller, Rodolfo; Osso, Joao Alberto

    2016-07-01

    The practice of nuclear medicine (NM) in the Middle East region has experienced an important growth in the last 2 decades and has become crucial in providing healthcare to the region's population of about 395 million people. Even though there are some countries in which the services provided are limited to basic coverage of studies with (99m)Tc and (131)I, most have well-established practices covering most of the available studies in this medical specialty; this is the case in for example, Iran, Israel, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, and Turkey. According to data provided by the NM professionals in the 17 countries included in the present publication, which was collected by the International Atomic Energy Agency in 2015, the total number of gamma cameras in the region is 910 with an average of 2.3 gamma cameras per million inhabitants. Out of these, 107 cameras, or 12%, are SPECT/CT cameras. There are 194 operating PET/CT scanners, translating to one PET/CT scanner for 2.04 million people on average. The availability of PET/CT scanners in relation to population is the highest in Lebanon and Kuwait, with 2.2 and 1.7 scanners per million people, respectively. There is a total of 628 NM centers in the 17 countries, whereas most NM centers belong to the public healthcare system and in most of the countries are widely spread and not confined exclusively to capital cities. As for the radionuclide therapies, (131)I is used regularly in diagnostic workup as well as in therapeutic applications in all the countries included in this analysis. Only five countries have the capability of assembling (99)Mo-(99m)Tc generators (Egypt, Iran, Saudi Arabia, Israel, and Turkey), and cold kits are produced in several countries. Although there are no capabilities in the region to produce (99)Mo from nuclear reactors, a total of 46 cyclotrons are operated for production of PET radionuclides. The most widely used PET tracer in the region is (18)F-FDG followed by (18)F-NaF; concomitantly, the

  12. Current Status of Nuclear Medicine Practice in the Middle East.

    PubMed

    Paez, Diana; Becic, Tarik; Bhonsle, Uday; Jalilian, Amir R; Nuñez-Miller, Rodolfo; Osso, Joao Alberto

    2016-07-01

    The practice of nuclear medicine (NM) in the Middle East region has experienced an important growth in the last 2 decades and has become crucial in providing healthcare to the region's population of about 395 million people. Even though there are some countries in which the services provided are limited to basic coverage of studies with (99m)Tc and (131)I, most have well-established practices covering most of the available studies in this medical specialty; this is the case in for example, Iran, Israel, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, and Turkey. According to data provided by the NM professionals in the 17 countries included in the present publication, which was collected by the International Atomic Energy Agency in 2015, the total number of gamma cameras in the region is 910 with an average of 2.3 gamma cameras per million inhabitants. Out of these, 107 cameras, or 12%, are SPECT/CT cameras. There are 194 operating PET/CT scanners, translating to one PET/CT scanner for 2.04 million people on average. The availability of PET/CT scanners in relation to population is the highest in Lebanon and Kuwait, with 2.2 and 1.7 scanners per million people, respectively. There is a total of 628 NM centers in the 17 countries, whereas most NM centers belong to the public healthcare system and in most of the countries are widely spread and not confined exclusively to capital cities. As for the radionuclide therapies, (131)I is used regularly in diagnostic workup as well as in therapeutic applications in all the countries included in this analysis. Only five countries have the capability of assembling (99)Mo-(99m)Tc generators (Egypt, Iran, Saudi Arabia, Israel, and Turkey), and cold kits are produced in several countries. Although there are no capabilities in the region to produce (99)Mo from nuclear reactors, a total of 46 cyclotrons are operated for production of PET radionuclides. The most widely used PET tracer in the region is (18)F-FDG followed by (18)F-NaF; concomitantly, the

  13. [The nuclear medicine department and the TEP/Biomedical Cyclotron unit].

    PubMed

    Goldman, S; Schoutens, A; Blocklet, D; Dumarey, N; Egrise, D; Lipschutz, B; Monclus, M; Moreno-Reyes, R; Schmitz, F; Van Naemen, J; Wikler, D

    2002-01-01

    During the last 25 years, the clinical and experimental activity in nuclear medicine at Erasme hospital has been influenced by the implementation of positron emission tomography (PET) in 1990 as a method of brain functional investigation. The activity of the PET/biomedical cyclotron unit has been dedicated to various subjects in neurology, neurosciences, psychiatry, oncology and cardiology. This has been made possible by developments in radiochemistry. The radiochemistry laboratory has designed and produced original tracers such as 9-[(3-[18F]fluoro-1-hydroxy-2-propoxy)-methyl]guanine (FHPG), a tracer of viral thymidine kinase activity in gene therapy protocols. We have brought new applications of PET, such as its integration into stereotactic neurosurgical and radioneurosurgical techniques in order to improve their diagnostic and therapeutic performance in neurooncology. We have also conducted multiple studies on brain physiology and pathophysiology, in particular with the use of functional and metabolic brain mapping methods and the use of tracers of neurotransmission systems. The Department of nuclear medicine has also performed studies on bone metabolism and investigated in vivo imaging methods of infectious and immune processes.

  14. A methodology for auto-monitoring of internal contamination by 131I in nuclear medicine workers.

    PubMed

    Vidal, M V S; Dantas, A L A; Dantas, B M

    2007-01-01

    The manipulation of 131I in Nuclear Medicine involves significant risks of internal contamination of the staff. In the event of an accidental contamination, or when the Radiological Protection Program includes routine individual monitoring of internal contamination, it is necessary to implement internal dose estimation through in vivo and in vitro bioassay techniques. Due to the huge extension of the Brazilian country, this type of monitoring becomes unfeasible if all measurements have to be performed at the institutes of the CNEN. Thus, if the Nuclear Medicine Centres (NMC) become able to conduct the monitoring of their employees, this skill would be of great significance. The methodology proposed in this work consists in a simple and inexpensive protocol for auto-monitoring the internal contamination by 131I, using the resources available at the NMC. In order to verify the influence of the phantom in the calibration factor for the measurement of 131I in thyroid, it was performed a comparison among a variety of phantoms commercially available, including the Neck-Thyroid Phantom developed in IRD. A protocol for performing in vivo and in vitro measurements by the NMC was established. The applicability of the individual monitoring techniques was also evaluated by comparing the detection limits with the derived limits associated with the annual dose limits for workers.

  15. Russian practical guidance on radiological support for justification of X-ray and nuclear medicine examinations.

    PubMed

    Balonov, M; Golikov, V; Kalnitsky, S; Zvonova, I; Chipiga, L; Sarycheva, S; Shatskiy, I; Vodovatov, A

    2015-07-01

    An important part of the justification process is assessment of the radiation risks caused by exposure of a patient during examination. The authors developed official national methodology both for medical doctors and sanitary inspectors called 'assessment of radiation risks of patients undergoing diagnostic examinations with the use of ionizing radiation'. The document addresses patients of various age groups and a wide spectrum of modern X-ray and nuclear medicine examinations. International scale of risk categorisation was implemented by the use of effective dose with account for age dependence of radiation risk. The survey of effective doses in radiology, including CT, mammography, and intervention radiology, and nuclear medicine, including single-photon emission tomography and positron emission tomography, for patients of various age groups from several regions of Russia was used for the risk assessment. The output of the methodology is a series of tables for each diagnostic technology with lists of examinations for three age groups (children/adolescents, adults and seniors) corresponding to various radiation risk categories. PMID:25862538

  16. The role of ultrasound and nuclear medicine methods in the preoperative diagnostics of primary hyperparathyroidism.

    PubMed

    Nieciecki, Michał; Cacko, Marek; Królicki, Leszek

    2015-12-01

    Primary hyperparathyroidism (PH) represents one of the most common endocrine diseases. In most cases, the disorder is caused by parathyroid adenomas. Bilateral neck exploration has been a widely used treatment method for adenomas since the 20's of the twentieth century. In the last decade, however, it has been increasingly replaced by a minimally invasive surgical treatment. Smaller extent, shorter duration and lower complication rate of such a procedure are emphasized. Its efficacy depends on a precise location of parathyroid tissue during the preoperative imaging. Scintigraphy and ultrasound play a major role in the diagnostic algorithms. The efficacy of both methods has been repeatedly verified and compared. The still-current guidelines of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (2009) emphasize the complementary role of scintigraphy and ultrasonography in the preoperative diagnostics in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism. At the same time, attempts are made to improve both these techniques by implementing new study protocols or innovative technologies. Publications have emerged in the recent years in the field of ultrasonography, whose authors pointed out the usefulness of elastography and contrast media. Nuclear medicine studies, on the other hand, focus mainly on the assessment of new radiotracers used in the positron emission tomography (PET). The aim of this article is to present, based on literature data, the possibilities of ultrasound and scintigraphy in the preoperative diagnostics in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism. Furthermore, the main directions in the development of imaging techniques in PH patients were evaluated.

  17. Russian practical guidance on radiological support for justification of X-ray and nuclear medicine examinations.

    PubMed

    Balonov, M; Golikov, V; Kalnitsky, S; Zvonova, I; Chipiga, L; Sarycheva, S; Shatskiy, I; Vodovatov, A

    2015-07-01

    An important part of the justification process is assessment of the radiation risks caused by exposure of a patient during examination. The authors developed official national methodology both for medical doctors and sanitary inspectors called 'assessment of radiation risks of patients undergoing diagnostic examinations with the use of ionizing radiation'. The document addresses patients of various age groups and a wide spectrum of modern X-ray and nuclear medicine examinations. International scale of risk categorisation was implemented by the use of effective dose with account for age dependence of radiation risk. The survey of effective doses in radiology, including CT, mammography, and intervention radiology, and nuclear medicine, including single-photon emission tomography and positron emission tomography, for patients of various age groups from several regions of Russia was used for the risk assessment. The output of the methodology is a series of tables for each diagnostic technology with lists of examinations for three age groups (children/adolescents, adults and seniors) corresponding to various radiation risk categories.

  18. Nuclear medicine and ultrasound; correlation in diagnosis of disease of liver and biliary tract.

    PubMed

    Lomonaco, A; Kline, P; Halpern, S; Leopold, G

    1975-10-01

    Even though the radiocolloid scan is nonspecific it will be approximately 70%-80% accurate in predicting the presence or absence of liver disease and somewhat less accurate than that in making statements as to the specific type of disease. This compares well with other modalities. The ability of nuclear medicine techniques to provide a correct diagnosis is improved when additional isotopic techniques such as hepatic blood flow studies and 131I-rose bengal and 67Ga scanning are performed. Ultrasound scanning is also non specific. To date, the major application of ultrasound in the study of the liver has been in deciphering puzzling contour abnormalities seen on nuclear medicine scans and in demonstrating fluid-filled abnormalities. Its usefulness in diffuse and solid focal lesions has been less dramatic. More recently, however, the development of gray scale has necessitated a reevaluation of the technique. Gray scale demonstrates a large number of intrahepatic interfaces that were previously invisible, and it has already been shown to demonstrate focal disorders such as metastasis more easily than the nongray-scale method. It can also demonstrate dilated biliary radicals, the gallbladder, and gallstones. In addition, while routinely studying the liver one can evaluate diaphragmatic motion and various retroperitoneal structures such as the pancreas, lymph nodes, and abdominal vascular structures.

  19. Nuclear medicine in urological cancers: what is new?

    PubMed

    Nanni, Cristina; Zanoni, Lucia; Fanti, Stefano

    2014-10-01

    The diffusion of PET/computed tomography has opened up a new role for nuclear imaging in urological oncology. Prostate cancer is evaluated with choline ((11)C or (18)F) PET due to a lack of sensitivity of (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG). However, many new tracers, such as (18)F-fluorocyclobutane-1-carboxylic acid and (68)Ga-prostate-specific membrane antigen, are under investigation, offering promising results in the particular setting of radically treated patients with biochemical relapse. The performance of (18)F-FDG depends on the histological type; indeed, renal cell cancer may present variable metabolic uptake. In this field, mainly antibodies labeled with positron emitters are under clinical evaluation. Finally, (18)F-FDG PET/computed tomography has been proven to show good accuracy in detecting metastatic testicular and bladder cancers, despite not having valid results in detecting local disease. The urological cancer diagnostic process is currently under continuous development.

  20. A study of technetium-99m wastage in selected private sector nuclear medicine imaging departments

    PubMed Central

    Bresser, Philippa; Teixeira, Nadia

    2013-01-01

    Background South African nuclear medicine imaging departments have been fortunate in being able to receive an uninterrupted supply of molybdenum-99 (99Mo)/technetium-99m (99mTc) generators. Nuclear medicine radiographers practising in private sector services in the northern Gauteng region indicated a possible problem with the quantities of wasted and unused 99mTc radiopharmaceuticals returned to the radiopharmaceutical supply laboratory. Daily radiopharmaceutical deliveries are a combination of ordered packages and standard packages. The purpose of the standard package is to accommodate emergency and after-hours nuclear medicine services. The purpose of the study was to interrogate the unconfirmed reports of 99mTc radiopharmaceutical wastage. Methods A descriptive quantitative research design was conducted in six private sector nuclear medicine imaging practices in the northern Gauteng region. Overt observations of the quantities of radiopharmaceutical supply, usage and wastage were conducted over 2 days in each of these practices. Results Ordered packages comprised 14% of the total 99mTc radiopharmaceutical deliveries to these six nuclear medicine imaging departments. It was identified that: (1) a total of 83.2% of ordered packages and 35.1% of standard packages of preprepared syringes were utilized; (2) a total of 36% of ordered packages and 22.6% of standard packages of bulk 99mTc were utilized; and (3) a total of 70.6% of the total quantity of radiopharmaceuticals was returned to the radiopharmaceutical laboratory. The total wastage represented 45.5% of the ordered packages and 75.8% of the standard packages. Conclusion Wastage of 74 GBq of 99mTc from six sites over 12 days should raise concerns for the nuclear medicine industry. A review of the system framework that supports communication between the radiopharmaceutical supplier/s and the nuclear medicine imaging practices is recommended. PMID:24089081

  1. [Quality of medicines in least developed countries].

    PubMed

    Videau, J Y

    2006-12-01

    Due to worsening economic conditions and poor enforcement of existing pharmaceutical and customs regulations, third world countries are faced with a growing threat from counterfeit and substandard medicines. With the expansion of illicit markets in urban areas, the sales of medicines of uncertain quality and origin are increasing. Most victims of this illicit trade are among the world's poorest populations that cannot afford to buy quality drugs through private-sector distribution channels. National pharmaceutical programs promoting universal access to essential generic medicines at reasonable cost are the key to curbing this problem. A system based on strict, rational pharmaceutical purchasing and distribution policies with quality assurance at every level of the supply chain is needed to guarantee that patients receive safe effective high quality healthcare products. PMID:17286015

  2. [Space flight and the development of aviation medicine].

    PubMed

    Rudnyĭ, N M; Giurdzhan, A A

    1981-01-01

    The paper discusses certain aspects of interaction between aviation and space medicine, contribution of aviation medicine into the development of space biology and medicine, and the role of cosmonautics in current achievements of aviation medicine. The paper describes advances in studies of space flight effects, development of life support and flight safety systems, medical and psychological support of the flight personnel, implementation of new methods and techniques, electronics, computers and automatics. Particular importance is attached to the rapid development of ergonomic approaches to the design and application of new technology, study of psychophysiology and psychology of human efficient activity in the system "man--flying vehicle--environment", i. e. psychophysiological ergonomics. Certain methodological and organizational aspects of the development of aviation and space medicine are briefly described.

  3. Developing Curricula in Spirituality and Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puchalski, Christina M.; Larson, David B.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses one approach to achieving compassionate medical caregiving, the study of spirituality and medicine. Examines the relationship between spirituality and healing and describes studies indicating that patients want to have spiritual issues addressed by their physicians, and noting potential health benefits of spiritual beliefs. Outlines…

  4. BOOK REVIEW: Therapeutic Applications of Monte Carlo Calculations in Nuclear Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coulot, J.

    2003-08-01

    H Zaidi and G Sgouros (eds) Bristol: Institute of Physics Publishing (2002) £70.00, ISBN: 0750308168 Monte Carlo techniques are involved in many applications in medical physics, and the field of nuclear medicine has seen a great development in the past ten years due to their wider use. Thus, it is of great interest to look at the state of the art in this domain, when improving computer performances allow one to obtain improved results in a dramatically reduced time. The goal of this book is to make, in 15 chapters, an exhaustive review of the use of Monte Carlo techniques in nuclear medicine, also giving key features which are not necessary directly related to the Monte Carlo method, but mandatory for its practical application. As the book deals with `therapeutic' nuclear medicine, it focuses on internal dosimetry. After a general introduction on Monte Carlo techniques and their applications in nuclear medicine (dosimetry, imaging and radiation protection), the authors give an overview of internal dosimetry methods (formalism, mathematical phantoms, quantities of interest). Then, some of the more widely used Monte Carlo codes are described, as well as some treatment planning softwares. Some original techniques are also mentioned, such as dosimetry for boron neutron capture synovectomy. It is generally well written, clearly presented, and very well documented. Each chapter gives an overview of each subject, and it is up to the reader to investigate it further using the extensive bibliography provided. Each topic is discussed from a practical point of view, which is of great help for non-experienced readers. For instance, the chapter about mathematical aspects of Monte Carlo particle transport is very clear and helps one to apprehend the philosophy of the method, which is often a difficulty with a more theoretical approach. Each chapter is put in the general (clinical) context, and this allows the reader to keep in mind the intrinsic limitation of each technique

  5. Fostering Competence in Medicines Development: The IFAPP Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Dubois, Dominique J.; Jurczynska, Anna; Kerpel-Fronius, Sandor; Kesselring, Gustavo; Imamura, Kyoko; Nell, Gerfried; Silva, Honorio; Stonier, Peter

    2016-01-01

    IFAPP (International Federation of Associations of Pharmaceutical Physicians and Pharmaceutical Medicine) is a nonprofit organization with the mission to promote Pharmaceutical Medicine & Medicines Development (PM&MD) by enhancing the competencies and maintaining high research ethical standards of Pharmaceutical Physicians and other professionals involved in medicines development worldwide, leading to the availability and appropriate use of medicines for the benefit of patients and society1. About 30 national professional associations related to PM&MD, involving 7000 professionals, are affiliated to IFAPP. Medicines development has traditionally been a challenging enterprise, with high risk, high investment, and potentially high returns in the lengthy and complex process of identifying a new chemical entity as a candidate for development and possibly succeeding in bringing it as a pharmaceutical product to the market. However, the emergence of genomics, translational research, biomarkers, and precision medicine pose challenges going forward involving allocation of resources, price, market access, and cost-effectiveness as opposed to the traditional concepts of “efficacy” and “safety.” Education and Continuing Professional Development (CPD) are a major focus of IFAPP. The International Conference on Pharmaceutical Medicine (ICPM) is the largest event for our organization; ICPM is held every 2 or 3 years and is aimed to provide the state of the art in key areas for our discipline and profession. The paper is a reflection on the role of competency-based education and training for Pharmaceutical Physicians and medicines development scientists, as was discussed during the recent ICPM 2016 held in Sao Paulo, Brazil on April 18–19, with the support of the Brazilian Association of Pharmaceutical Medicine, and gathered around 200 representatives from the pharmaceutical, clinical research and regulatory arenas from all over the world2,3. PMID:27790146

  6. Application of TlBr to nuclear medicine imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cirignano, Leonard; Kim, Hadong; Kargar, Alireza; Churilov, Alexei V.; Ciampi, Guido; Higgins, William; Kim, Suyoung; Barber, Bradford; Haston, Kyle; Shah, Kanai

    2012-10-01

    Thallium bromide (TlBr) has been under development for room temperature gamma ray spectroscopy due to high density, high Z and wide bandgap of the material. Furthermore, its low melting point (460 °C), cubic crystal structure and congruent melting with no solid-solid phase transitions between the melting point and room temperature, TlBr can be grown by relatively simple melt based methods. As a result of improvements in material processing and detector fabrication over the last several years, TlBr with electron mobility-lifetime products (μeτe) in the mid 10-3 cm2/V range has been obtained. In this paper we are going to report on our unipolar charging TlBr results for the application as a small animal imaging. For SPECT application, about 5 mm thick pixellated detectors were fabricated and tested. About 1 % FWHM at 662 keV energy resolution was estimated at room temperature. By applying the depth correction technique, less than 1 % energy resolution was estimated. We are going to report the results from orthogonal strip TlBr detector for PET application. In this paper we also present our latest detector highlights and recent progress made in long term stability of TlBr detectors at or near room temperature. This work is being supported by the Domestic Nuclear Detection Office (DNDO) and the Department of Energy (DOE).

  7. Internal dosimetry of nuclear medicine workers through the analysis of (131)I in aerosols.

    PubMed

    Carneiro, Luana Gomes; de Lucena, Eder Augusto; Sampaio, Camilla da Silva; Dantas, Ana Letícia Almeida; Sousa, Wanderson Oliveira; Santos, Maristela Souza; Dantas, Bernardo Maranhão

    2015-06-01

    (131)I is widely used in nuclear medicine for diagnostic and therapy of thyroid diseases. Depending of workplace safety conditions, routine handling of this radionuclide may result in a significant risk of exposure of the workers subject to chronic intake by inhalation of aerosols. A previous study including in vivo and in vitro measurements performed recently among nuclear medicine personnel in Brazil showed the occurrence of (131)I incorporation by workers involved in the handling of solutions used for radioiodine therapy. The present work describes the development, optimization and application of a methodology to collect and analyze aerosol samples aiming to assess internal doses based on the activity of (131)I present in a radiopharmacy laboratory. Portable samplers were positioned at one meter distant from the place where non-sealed liquid sources of (131)I are handled. Samples were collected over 1h using high-efficiency filters containing activated carbon and analyzed by gamma spectrometry with a high-purity germanium detection system. Results have shown that, although a fume hood is available in the laboratory, (131)I in the form of vapor was detected in the workplace. The average activity concentration was found to be of 7.4Bq/m(3). This value is about three orders of magnitude below the Derived Air Concentration (DAC) of 8.4kBq/m(3). Assuming that the worker is exposed by inhalation of iodine vapor during 1h, (131)I concentration detected corresponds to an intake of 3.6Bq which results in a committed effective dose of 7.13×10(-5)mSv. These results show that the radiopharmacy laboratory evaluated is safe in terms of internal exposure of the workers. However it is recommended that the presence of (131)I should be periodically re-assessed since it may increase individual effective doses. It should also be pointed out that the results obtained so far reflect a survey carried out in a specific workplace. Thus, it is suggested to apply the methodology

  8. Internal dosimetry of nuclear medicine workers through the analysis of (131)I in aerosols.

    PubMed

    Carneiro, Luana Gomes; de Lucena, Eder Augusto; Sampaio, Camilla da Silva; Dantas, Ana Letícia Almeida; Sousa, Wanderson Oliveira; Santos, Maristela Souza; Dantas, Bernardo Maranhão

    2015-06-01

    (131)I is widely used in nuclear medicine for diagnostic and therapy of thyroid diseases. Depending of workplace safety conditions, routine handling of this radionuclide may result in a significant risk of exposure of the workers subject to chronic intake by inhalation of aerosols. A previous study including in vivo and in vitro measurements performed recently among nuclear medicine personnel in Brazil showed the occurrence of (131)I incorporation by workers involved in the handling of solutions used for radioiodine therapy. The present work describes the development, optimization and application of a methodology to collect and analyze aerosol samples aiming to assess internal doses based on the activity of (131)I present in a radiopharmacy laboratory. Portable samplers were positioned at one meter distant from the place where non-sealed liquid sources of (131)I are handled. Samples were collected over 1h using high-efficiency filters containing activated carbon and analyzed by gamma spectrometry with a high-purity germanium detection system. Results have shown that, although a fume hood is available in the laboratory, (131)I in the form of vapor was detected in the workplace. The average activity concentration was found to be of 7.4Bq/m(3). This value is about three orders of magnitude below the Derived Air Concentration (DAC) of 8.4kBq/m(3). Assuming that the worker is exposed by inhalation of iodine vapor during 1h, (131)I concentration detected corresponds to an intake of 3.6Bq which results in a committed effective dose of 7.13×10(-5)mSv. These results show that the radiopharmacy laboratory evaluated is safe in terms of internal exposure of the workers. However it is recommended that the presence of (131)I should be periodically re-assessed since it may increase individual effective doses. It should also be pointed out that the results obtained so far reflect a survey carried out in a specific workplace. Thus, it is suggested to apply the methodology

  9. Development of a novel sports medicine rotation for emergency medicine residents.

    PubMed

    Waterbrook, Anna L; Pritchard, T Gail; Lane, Allison D; Stoneking, Lisa R; Koch, Bryna; McAtee, Robert; Grall, Kristi H; Min, Alice A; Prior, Jessica; Farrell, Isaac; McNulty, Holly G; Stolz, Uwe

    2016-01-01

    Musculoskeletal complaints are the most common reason for patients to visit a physician, yet competency in musculoskeletal medicine is invariably reported as a deficiency in medical education in the USA. Sports medicine clinical rotations improve both medical students' and residents' musculoskeletal knowledge. Despite the importance of this knowledge, a standardized sports medicine curriculum in emergency medicine (EM) does not exist. Hence, we developed a novel sports medicine rotation for EM residents to improve their musculoskeletal educational experience and to improve their knowledge in musculoskeletal medicine by teaching the evaluation and management of many common musculoskeletal disorders and injuries that are encountered in the emergency department. The University of Arizona has two distinct EM residency programs, South Campus (SC) and University Campus (UC). The UC curriculum includes a traditional 4-week orthopedic rotation, which consistently rated poorly on evaluations by residents. Therefore, with the initiation of a new EM residency at SC, we replaced the standard orthopedic rotation with a novel sports medicine rotation for EM interns. This rotation includes attendance at sports medicine clinics with primary care and orthopedic sports medicine physicians, involvement in sport event coverage, assigned reading materials, didactic experiences, and an on-call schedule to assist with reductions in the emergency department. We analyzed postrotation surveys completed by residents, postrotation evaluations of the residents completed by primary care sports medicine faculty and orthopedic chief residents, as well as the total number of dislocation reductions performed by each graduating resident at both programs over the last 5 years. While all residents in both programs exceeded the ten dislocation reductions required for graduation, residents on the sports medicine rotation had a statistically significant higher rate of satisfaction of their educational

  10. Development of a novel sports medicine rotation for emergency medicine residents

    PubMed Central

    Waterbrook, Anna L; Pritchard, T Gail; Lane, Allison D; Stoneking, Lisa R; Koch, Bryna; McAtee, Robert; Grall, Kristi H; Min, Alice A; Prior, Jessica; Farrell, Isaac; McNulty, Holly G; Stolz, Uwe

    2016-01-01

    Musculoskeletal complaints are the most common reason for patients to visit a physician, yet competency in musculoskeletal medicine is invariably reported as a deficiency in medical education in the USA. Sports medicine clinical rotations improve both medical students’ and residents’ musculoskeletal knowledge. Despite the importance of this knowledge, a standardized sports medicine curriculum in emergency medicine (EM) does not exist. Hence, we developed a novel sports medicine rotation for EM residents to improve their musculoskeletal educational experience and to improve their knowledge in musculoskeletal medicine by teaching the evaluation and management of many common musculoskeletal disorders and injuries that are encountered in the emergency department. The University of Arizona has two distinct EM residency programs, South Campus (SC) and University Campus (UC). The UC curriculum includes a traditional 4-week orthopedic rotation, which consistently rated poorly on evaluations by residents. Therefore, with the initiation of a new EM residency at SC, we replaced the standard orthopedic rotation with a novel sports medicine rotation for EM interns. This rotation includes attendance at sports medicine clinics with primary care and orthopedic sports medicine physicians, involvement in sport event coverage, assigned reading materials, didactic experiences, and an on-call schedule to assist with reductions in the emergency department. We analyzed postrotation surveys completed by residents, postrotation evaluations of the residents completed by primary care sports medicine faculty and orthopedic chief residents, as well as the total number of dislocation reductions performed by each graduating resident at both programs over the last 5 years. While all residents in both programs exceeded the ten dislocation reductions required for graduation, residents on the sports medicine rotation had a statistically significant higher rate of satisfaction of their

  11. Development of a novel sports medicine rotation for emergency medicine residents.

    PubMed

    Waterbrook, Anna L; Pritchard, T Gail; Lane, Allison D; Stoneking, Lisa R; Koch, Bryna; McAtee, Robert; Grall, Kristi H; Min, Alice A; Prior, Jessica; Farrell, Isaac; McNulty, Holly G; Stolz, Uwe

    2016-01-01

    Musculoskeletal complaints are the most common reason for patients to visit a physician, yet competency in musculoskeletal medicine is invariably reported as a deficiency in medical education in the USA. Sports medicine clinical rotations improve both medical students' and residents' musculoskeletal knowledge. Despite the importance of this knowledge, a standardized sports medicine curriculum in emergency medicine (EM) does not exist. Hence, we developed a novel sports medicine rotation for EM residents to improve their musculoskeletal educational experience and to improve their knowledge in musculoskeletal medicine by teaching the evaluation and management of many common musculoskeletal disorders and injuries that are encountered in the emergency department. The University of Arizona has two distinct EM residency programs, South Campus (SC) and University Campus (UC). The UC curriculum includes a traditional 4-week orthopedic rotation, which consistently rated poorly on evaluations by residents. Therefore, with the initiation of a new EM residency at SC, we replaced the standard orthopedic rotation with a novel sports medicine rotation for EM interns. This rotation includes attendance at sports medicine clinics with primary care and orthopedic sports medicine physicians, involvement in sport event coverage, assigned reading materials, didactic experiences, and an on-call schedule to assist with reductions in the emergency department. We analyzed postrotation surveys completed by residents, postrotation evaluations of the residents completed by primary care sports medicine faculty and orthopedic chief residents, as well as the total number of dislocation reductions performed by each graduating resident at both programs over the last 5 years. While all residents in both programs exceeded the ten dislocation reductions required for graduation, residents on the sports medicine rotation had a statistically significant higher rate of satisfaction of their educational

  12. Before the long journey. [the development of space biology and medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gazenko, O. G.

    1978-01-01

    One of the leading specialists in space biology and medicine Oleg Geogiyevich Gazenko discusses the development of space biology and medicine and the problems which its specialists solve. The application of space medicine discoveries to terrestrial medicine is also discussed.

  13. (In vivo mutagenicity and clastogenicity of ionizing radiation in nuclear medicine)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The overall goal of our research remains to investigate the mutagenic and clastogenic effects of exposure to low levels of ionizing radiation to human lymphocytes. We are utilizing these endpoints to examine sets of individuals who have been exposed to ionizing radiation as a result of medical procedures. The cohorts we are studying include: nuclear medicine technicians, two set of nuclear medicine patients, sets of controls and a new set of Hodgkins disease patients. Emphasis in the second year has been on measurements of chromosome aberrations in patients imaged with thallium-201, mutant frequencies in patients imaged with technetium-99, mutant frequencies in nuclear medicine technicians and physical therapists, and mutant frequencies in patients treated for Hodgkins disease with radiotherapy. The progress in these areas is described in this report in more detail.

  14. In vivo mutagenicity and clastogenicity of ionizing radiation in nuclear medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Kelsey, K.T.

    1991-01-01

    The overall goal of our research remains to investigate the mutagenic and clastogenic effects of exposure to low levels of ionizing radiation to human lymphocytes. Principally, we are studying hospital patients referred to a nuclear medicine department for diagnostic cardiac imaging and nuclear medicine technologies who administer radionuclides. Emphasis in the first year, as described in the first progress report, was on optimization of the hprt mutation assay, measurement of mutant frequencies in patients imaged with thallium-201, and measurement of mutant frequencies in controls. Emphasis in the second year has been on measurements of (1) chromosome aberrations in patients imaged with thallium-201, (2) mutant frequencies in patients imaged with technetium-99, (3) mutant frequencies in nuclear medicine technicians and physical therapists, (4) mutant frequencies in patients treated for Hodgkins disease with radiotherapy. The progress in these areas is described.

  15. In vivo mutagenicity and clastogenicity of ionizing radiation in nuclear medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Kelsey, K.T.

    1991-01-01

    The overall goal of our research was to investigate the mutagenic and clastogenic effects of exposure to low levels of ionizing radiation to human lymphocytes. Principally, we studied hospital patients referred to a nuclear medicine department for diagnostic cardiac imaging and nuclear medicine technologists who administer radionuclides. Emphasis in the first year, as described in the first progress report, was on optimization of the hprt mutation assay, measurement of mutant frequencies in patients imaged with thallium-201, and measurement of mutant frequencies in controls. Emphasis in the second and third years was on measurements of: (1) chromosome aberrations in patients imaged with thallium-201; (2) mutant frequencies in patients imaged with technetium-99; (3) mutant frequencies in nuclear medicine technicians and physical therapists; and (4) mutant frequencies in patients treated for Hodgkins disease with radiotherapy. The completed work has been published and is described below in more detail.

  16. In vivo mutagenicity and clastogenicity of ionizing radiation in nuclear medicine. Annual technical progress report, [1991

    SciTech Connect

    Kelsey, K.T.

    1991-12-31

    The overall goal of our research remains to investigate the mutagenic and clastogenic effects of exposure to low levels of ionizing radiation to human lymphocytes. Principally, we are studying hospital patients referred to a nuclear medicine department for diagnostic cardiac imaging and nuclear medicine technologies who administer radionuclides. Emphasis in the first year, as described in the first progress report, was on optimization of the hprt mutation assay, measurement of mutant frequencies in patients imaged with thallium-201, and measurement of mutant frequencies in controls. Emphasis in the second year has been on measurements of (1) chromosome aberrations in patients imaged with thallium-201, (2) mutant frequencies in patients imaged with technetium-99, (3) mutant frequencies in nuclear medicine technicians and physical therapists, (4) mutant frequencies in patients treated for Hodgkins disease with radiotherapy. The progress in these areas is described.

  17. Triggering radiation alarm at security checks. Patients should be informed even after diagnostic nuclear medicine procedures.

    PubMed

    Palumbo, Barbara; Neumann, Irmgard; Havlik, Ernst; Palumbo, Renato; Sinzinger, Helmut

    2009-01-01

    During the last few years an increasing number of nuclear medicine patients in various countries evoked a radiation alarm after therapeutic or diagnostic procedures, and even after passive exposure. A prospective calculation of activity retention in the patient's body is difficult due to extremely high variation of uptake and kinetics. Furthermore, different sensitivities and distances of the detectors make a prospective calculation even more difficult. In this article a number of cases are being reported, related problems are discussed and the surprisingly very limited literature reviewed. In order to minimize problems after eventually triggering alarms, we strongly recommend that each patient receives a certificate providing personal data, tracer, dose, half-life of the radionuclide, type and date of procedure applied as well as the nuclear medicine unit to contact for further information. Furthermore, a closer cooperation and exchange of information between the authorities and local nuclear medicine societies, would be welcome. PMID:19330183

  18. 42 CFR Appendix D to Part 75 - Standards for Accreditation of Educational Programs for Nuclear Medicine Technologists

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... of patient care; (b) Radiation safety and protection; (c) Nuclear medicine physics; (d) Radiation physics; (e) Nuclear instrumentation; (f) Statistics; (g) Radionuclide chemistry; (h) Radiopharmacology... courses in the following areas: (1) Human anatomy and physiology; (2) Physics; (3) Mathematics;...

  19. 42 CFR Appendix D to Part 75 - Standards for Accreditation of Educational Programs for Nuclear Medicine Technologists

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... of patient care; (b) Radiation safety and protection; (c) Nuclear medicine physics; (d) Radiation physics; (e) Nuclear instrumentation; (f) Statistics; (g) Radionuclide chemistry; (h) Radiopharmacology... courses in the following areas: (1) Human anatomy and physiology; (2) Physics; (3) Mathematics;...

  20. Assessment of radiation safety awareness among nuclear medicine nurses: a pilot study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yunus, N. A.; Abdullah, M. H. R. O.; Said, M. A.; Ch'ng, P. E.

    2014-11-01

    All nuclear medicine nurses need to have some knowledge and awareness on radiation safety. At present, there is no study to address this issue in Malaysia. The aims of this study were (1) to determine the level of knowledge and awareness on radiation safety among nuclear medicine nurses at Putrajaya Hospital in Malaysia and (2) to assess the effectiveness of a training program provided by the hospital to increase the knowledge and awareness of the nuclear medicine nurses. A total of 27 respondents attending a training program on radiation safety were asked to complete a questionnaire. The questionnaire consists 16 items and were categorized into two main areas, namely general radiation knowledge and radiation safety. Survey data were collected before and after the training and were analyzed using descriptive statistics and paired sample t-test. Respondents were scored out of a total of 16 marks with 8 marks for each area. The findings showed that the range of total scores obtained by the nuclear medicine nurses before and after the training were 6-14 (with a mean score of 11.19) and 13-16 marks (with a mean score of 14.85), respectively. Findings also revealed that the mean score for the area of general radiation knowledge (7.59) was higher than that of the radiation safety (7.26). Currently, the knowledge and awareness on radiation safety among the nuclear medicine nurses are at the moderate level. It is recommended that a national study be conducted to assess and increase the level of knowledge and awareness among all nuclear medicine nurses in Malaysia.

  1. Assessing lay beliefs about generic medicines: Development of the generic medicines scale.

    PubMed

    Figueiras, Maria J; Alves, Nuno C; Marcelino, Dália; Cortes, Maria A; Weinman, John; Horne, Rob

    2009-05-01

    The aims of this study were to develop a scale to assess lay beliefs about generic medicines, and to investigate whether these beliefs differ according to demographic factors in an opportunistic general public sample. In the pilot study, the participants were 92 men and 136 women, and in the main study there were 314 men and 505 women. At both stages, the participants completed a questionnaire measuring beliefs about generic medicines, preference for medicines and demographic information. The scale has good face validity, showing a satisfactory level of internal consistency. An exploratory principal component analysis revealed a two-factor structure concerning beliefs about generic medicines, comprising two core themes (efficacy and similarity to brand medicines), in two different samples. Older participants showed a stronger belief in similarity with brand names than the younger group. Higher educated participants showed a stronger belief in the efficacy of generics. The opportunity to assess beliefs about generic medicines may have implications for adherence, for the implementation of health policies and for decision making about medicines. PMID:19444709

  2. Nuclear medicine dose equivalent a method for determination of radiation risk

    SciTech Connect

    Huda, W.

    1986-12-01

    Conventional nuclear medicine dosimetry involves specifying individual organ doses. The difficulties that can arise with this approach to radiation dosimetry are discussed. An alternative scheme is described that is based on the ICRP effective dose equivalent, H/sub E/, and which is a direct estimate of the average radiation risk to the patient. The mean value of H/sub E/ for seven common /sup 99m/Tc nuclear medicine procedures is 0.46 rem and the average radiation risk from this level of exposure is estimated to be comparable to the risk from smoking approx. 28 packs of cigarettes or driving approx. 1300 miles.

  3. Sources and magnitude of occupational and public exposures from nuclear medicine procedures

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-11

    This Report addresses the sources of exposures incurred in the practice of nuclear medicine and provides the necessary data to evaluate the magnitude of exposures to those directly associated with that practice and to those who provide nursing care to the patients containing radiopharmaceuticals. Exposure to members of the public are also addressed. The primary emphasis of this Report is on these individuals and not on the patient, since the patient receives the direct benefit from the nuclear medicine procedure. It is recognized that the patient also receives the bulk of any potential radiation decrement.

  4. A no-gold-standard technique for objective assessment of quantitative nuclear-medicine imaging methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jha, Abhinav K.; Caffo, Brian; Frey, Eric C.

    2016-04-01

    The objective optimization and evaluation of nuclear-medicine quantitative imaging methods using patient data is highly desirable but often hindered by the lack of a gold standard. Previously, a regression-without-truth (RWT) approach has been proposed for evaluating quantitative imaging methods in the absence of a gold standard, but this approach implicitly assumes that bounds on the distribution of true values are known. Several quantitative imaging methods in nuclear-medicine imaging measure parameters where these bounds are not known, such as the activity concentration in an organ or the volume of a tumor. We extended upon the RWT approach to develop a no-gold-standard (NGS) technique for objectively evaluating such quantitative nuclear-medicine imaging methods with patient data in the absence of any ground truth. Using the parameters estimated with the NGS technique, a figure of merit, the noise-to-slope ratio (NSR), can be computed, which can rank the methods on the basis of precision. An issue with NGS evaluation techniques is the requirement of a large number of patient studies. To reduce this requirement, the proposed method explored the use of multiple quantitative measurements from the same patient, such as the activity concentration values from different organs in the same patient. The proposed technique was evaluated using rigorous numerical experiments and using data from realistic simulation studies. The numerical experiments demonstrated that the NSR was estimated accurately using the proposed NGS technique when the bounds on the distribution of true values were not precisely known, thus serving as a very reliable metric for ranking the methods on the basis of precision. In the realistic simulation study, the NGS technique was used to rank reconstruction methods for quantitative single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) based on their performance on the task of estimating the mean activity concentration within a known volume of interest

  5. A no-gold-standard technique for objective assessment of quantitative nuclear-medicine imaging methods.

    PubMed

    Jha, Abhinav K; Caffo, Brian; Frey, Eric C

    2016-04-01

    The objective optimization and evaluation of nuclear-medicine quantitative imaging methods using patient data is highly desirable but often hindered by the lack of a gold standard. Previously, a regression-without-truth (RWT) approach has been proposed for evaluating quantitative imaging methods in the absence of a gold standard, but this approach implicitly assumes that bounds on the distribution of true values are known. Several quantitative imaging methods in nuclear-medicine imaging measure parameters where these bounds are not known, such as the activity concentration in an organ or the volume of a tumor. We extended upon the RWT approach to develop a no-gold-standard (NGS) technique for objectively evaluating such quantitative nuclear-medicine imaging methods with patient data in the absence of any ground truth. Using the parameters estimated with the NGS technique, a figure of merit, the noise-to-slope ratio (NSR), can be computed, which can rank the methods on the basis of precision. An issue with NGS evaluation techniques is the requirement of a large number of patient studies. To reduce this requirement, the proposed method explored the use of multiple quantitative measurements from the same patient, such as the activity concentration values from different organs in the same patient. The proposed technique was evaluated using rigorous numerical experiments and using data from realistic simulation studies. The numerical experiments demonstrated that the NSR was estimated accurately using the proposed NGS technique when the bounds on the distribution of true values were not precisely known, thus serving as a very reliable metric for ranking the methods on the basis of precision. In the realistic simulation study, the NGS technique was used to rank reconstruction methods for quantitative single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) based on their performance on the task of estimating the mean activity concentration within a known volume of interest

  6. Big data is essential for further development of integrative medicine.

    PubMed

    Li, Guo-zheng; Liu, Bao-yan

    2015-05-01

    To give a short summary on achievements, opportunities and challenges of big data in integrative medicine (IM) and explore the future works on breaking the bottleneck to make IM develop rapidly, this paper presents the growing field of big data from IM, describes the systems of data collection and the techniques of data analytics, introduces the advances, and discusses the future works especially the challenges in this field. Big data is increasing dramatically as the time flies, whatever we face it or not. Big data is evolving into a promising way for deep insight IM, the ancient medicine integrating with modern medicine. We have great achievements in data collection and data analysis, where existing results show it is possible to discover the knowledge and rules behind the clinical records. Transferring from experience-based medicine to evidence-based medicine, IM depends on the big data technology in this great era.

  7. Partnering With Patients in the Development and Lifecycle of Medicines

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, James; Boutin, Marc; Dewulf, Lode; Geissler, Jan; Johnston, Graeme; Joos, Angelika; Metcalf, Marilyn; Regnante, Jeanne; Sargeant, Ifeanyi; Schneider, Roslyn F.; Todaro, Veronica; Tougas, Gervais

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of medicines is to improve patients' lives. Stakeholders involved in the development and lifecycle management of medicines agree that more effective patient involvement is needed to ensure that patient needs and priorities are identified and met. Despite the increasing number and scope of patient involvement initiatives, there is no accepted master framework for systematic patient involvement in industry-led medicines research and development, regulatory review, or market access decisions. Patient engagement is very productive in some indications, but inconsistent and fragmentary on a broader level. This often results in inefficient drug development, increasing evidence requirements, lack of patient-centered outcomes that address unmet medical needs and facilitate adherence, and consequently, lack of required therapeutic options and high costs to society and involved parties. Improved patient involvement can drive the development of innovative medicines that deliver more relevant and impactful patient outcomes and make medicine development faster, more efficient, and more productive. It can lead to better prioritization of early research; improved resource allocation; improved trial protocol designs that better reflect patient needs; and, by addressing potential barriers to patient participation, enhanced recruitment and retention. It may also improve trial conduct and lead to more focused, economically viable clinical trials. At launch and beyond, systematic patient involvement can also improve the ongoing benefit-risk assessment, ensure that public funds prioritize medicines of value to patients, and further the development of the medicine. Progress toward a universal framework for patient involvement requires a joint, precompetitive, and international approach by all stakeholders, working in true partnership to consolidate outputs from existing initiatives, identify gaps, and develop a comprehensive framework. It is essential that all stakeholders

  8. Role of Proteomics in the Development of Personalized Medicine.

    PubMed

    Jain, Kewal K

    2016-01-01

    Advances in proteomic technologies have made import contribution to the development of personalized medicine by facilitating detection of protein biomarkers, proteomics-based molecular diagnostics, as well as protein biochips and pharmacoproteomics. Application of nanobiotechnology in proteomics, nanoproteomics, has further enhanced applications in personalized medicine. Proteomics-based molecular diagnostics will have an important role in the diagnosis of certain conditions and understanding the pathomechanism of disease. Proteomics will be a good bridge between diagnostics and therapeutics; the integration of these will be important for advancing personalized medicine. Use of proteomic biomarkers and combination of pharmacoproteomics with pharmacogenomics will enable stratification of clinical trials and improve monitoring of patients for development of personalized therapies. Proteomics is an important component of several interacting technologies used for development of personalized medicine, which is depicted graphically. Finally, cancer is a good example of applications of proteomic technologies for personalized management of cancer.

  9. Possibilities for the production of radioisotopes for nuclear-medicine problems by means of photonuclear reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Dzhilavyan, L. Z.; Karev, A. I.; Raevsky, V. G.

    2011-12-15

    For electrons of energy about 55 MeV that create an average current of about 40 Micro-Sign A, it is shown that the production of many of the radioisotopes important for nuclear medicine is possible in significant amounts.

  10. A survey of incidents in radiology and nuclear medicine in the West of Scotland.

    PubMed

    Martin, C J

    2005-10-01

    Data on 606 incidents in radiology and nuclear medicine departments reported to a central health physics service have been analysed and causes reviewed. 85% of incidents in radiology departments and 37% in nuclear medicine were overexposures of patients. 80% of these resulted from human error or procedural failure, and of these 32% were mistakes by the referrer. Other incidents in nuclear medicine were contamination events (49%) and failure in management of radioactive materials (10%). Effective doses for patient overexposures covered a broad range with those for CT being 1 mSv and above, while those for other radiology examinations were mostly less than 2 mSv. Reporting of patient overexposure incidents in radiology has increased by four-fold in recent years. The average numbers reported during the last 3 years were 91 per year in radiology and 12 per year in nuclear medicine, for hospitals with a population base of 2.8 million. Incident investigations demonstrated the importance of robust procedures and defences to identify mistakes that could lead to incidents. The central incident reporting and investigation system has raised the awareness of staff about the type of mistakes which could lead to incidents and promoted the introduction of recommended actions to reduce these risks.

  11. What You Should Know About Pediatric Nuclear Medicine and Radiation Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... the Pediatric Imaging Council of the Society of Nuclear Medicine, as well as over 50 other societies, are members of this group. We are a group of over 700,000 health care professionals in radiology, pediatrics, medical physics and radiation protection. More information can be found ...

  12. MSFC Nuclear Propulsion Materials Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, J. R.; Cook, B.

    2004-01-01

    Nuclear propulsion systems for spacecraft applications present numerous technical challenges for propulsion systems. They have been the focus of a recent NRA. Challenges inclue: a nuclear reactor subsystem to produce thermal energy; a power conversion subsystem to convert the thermal energy into electrical energy; a propulsion subsystem that utilizes Hall effect thrusters; thruster technologies and high temperature materials to support subsystems. The MSFC Electrostatic Levitation (ESL) Facility provides an ideal platform for the study of high temperature and reactive materials. An overview of the facility and its capabilities will be presented.

  13. Medical Image Processing Server applied to Quality Control of Nuclear Medicine.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vergara, C.; Graffigna, J. P.; Marino, E.; Omati, S.; Holleywell, P.

    2016-04-01

    This paper is framed within the area of medical image processing and aims to present the process of installation, configuration and implementation of a processing server of medical images (MIPS) in the Fundación Escuela de Medicina Nuclear located in Mendoza, Argentina (FUESMEN). It has been developed in the Gabinete de Tecnologia Médica (GA.TE.ME), Facultad de Ingeniería-Universidad Nacional de San Juan. MIPS is a software that using the DICOM standard, can receive medical imaging studies of different modalities or viewing stations, then it executes algorithms and finally returns the results to other devices. To achieve the objectives previously mentioned, preliminary tests were conducted in the laboratory. More over, tools were remotely installed in clinical enviroment. The appropiate protocols for setting up and using them in different services were established once defined those suitable algorithms. Finally, it’s important to focus on the implementation and training that is provided in FUESMEN, using nuclear medicine quality control processes. Results on implementation are exposed in this work.

  14. ``THE UNVEILED HEART'' a teaching program in cardiovascular nuclear medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itti, Roland; Merabet, Yasmina; Roca, Ramona; Bontemps, Laurence; Itti, Emmanuel

    2004-07-01

    The functional investigation of cardiac diseases using nuclear techniques involves several variables, such as myocardial perfusion, cellular viability or mechanical contraction. The combined, topographical and quantitative assessment of these variables can characterize the functional state of the heart in terms of normal myocardium, ischemia, hibernation or necrosis. The teaching program, "The Unveiled Heart", has been designed in order to help nuclear physicians or cardiologists approaching these concepts and their implications for diagnosis of coronary artery disease, optimization of therapeutic strategies and prognosis evaluation. Anatomical correlations with coronary angiographic results obtained during balloon occlusion at the time of coronary angioplasty demonstrate the complementary role of imaging techniques and highlight the patient to patient variability of risk areas. A sectorial model derived from a polar projection of the myocardium presents for each sector the probability of involvement of a given coronary artery.

  15. Comparison of the activity measurements in nuclear medicine services in the Brazilian northeast region.

    PubMed

    de Farias Fragoso, Maria da Conceição; de Albuquerque, Antônio Morais; de Oliveira, Mércia L; de Lima, Fabiana Farias; Barreto, Flávio Chiappetta Paes; de Andrade Lima, Ricardo

    2013-12-01

    The Northeastern Regional Centre for Nuclear Sciences (CRCN-NE), National Nuclear Energy Commission, has organized for the first time in nuclear medicine services (NMSs) in the Brazilian northeast region a comparison of activity measurements for (99m)Tc, (131)I, (67)Ga, (201)Tl and (57)Co. This tool is widely utilized to evaluate not only the accuracy of radionuclide calibrators, but also the competence of NMSs to measure the activity of the radiopharmaceuticals and the performance of the personnel involved in these measurements. The comparison results showed that 90% of the results received from participants are within the ±10% limit established by the Brazilian Norm.

  16. Radioactivity appearing at landfills in household trash of nuclear medicine patients: much ado about nothing?

    PubMed

    Siegel, Jeffry A; Sparks, Richard B

    2002-03-01

    The U.S. NRC in 1997 removed its arbitrary 1.11 GBq (30 mCi) rule, which had been in existence for almost 50 y, and now many more patients receiving radionuclide therapy in nuclear medicine can be treated as outpatients. However, another problem has the potential to limit the short-lived reality of outpatient treatment unless nuclear medicine practitioners and the health physics community gets involved. Radioactive articles in the household trash of nuclear medicine patients are appearing at solid waste landfills that have installed radiation monitors to prevent the entry of any detectable radioactivity, and alarms are going off around the country. These monitors are set to alarm at extremely low activity levels. Some states may actually hold licensees responsible if a patient's radioactive household trash is discovered in a solid waste stream; this is another major reason [along with continued use of the 1.11 GBq (30 mCi) rule] why many licensees are still not releasing their radionuclide therapy patients. This is in spite of the fact that the radioactivity contained in released nuclear medicine therapy patients, let alone the much lower activity level contained in their potentially radioactive household wastes, poses a minimal hazard to the public health and safety or to the environment. Currently, there are no regulations governing the disposal of low-activity, rapidly-decaying radioactive materials found in the household trash of nuclear medicine patients, the performance of landfill radiation monitors, or the necessity of spectrometry equipment. Resources are, therefore, being unnecessarily expended by regulators and licensees in responding to radiation monitor alarms that are caused by these unregulated short-lived materials that may be mixed with municipal trash. Recommendations are presented that would have the effect of modifying the existing landfill regulations and practices so as to allow the immediate disposal of such wastes.

  17. Development of Curricula for Nuclear Radiation Protection, Nuclear Instrumentation, and Nuclear Materials Processing Technologies. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hull, Daniel M.

    A study was conducted to assist two-year postsecondary educational institutions in providing technical specialty courses for preparing nuclear technicians. As a result of project activities, curricula have been developed for five categories of nuclear technicians and operators: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and…

  18. Traditional Chinese medicine and cancer: History, present situation, and development

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jie; Wang, Shuo; Zhang, Ying; Fan, Hui-ting; Lin, Hong-sheng

    2015-01-01

    Cancer treatment with traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has a long history. Heritage provides general conditions for the innovation and development of TCM in oncology. This article reviews the development of TCM in oncology, interprets the position and function of TCM for cancer prevention and treatment, summarizes the innovations of TCM in oncology over nearly fifty years, and suggests the development direction. PMID:26445604

  19. Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis of biokinetic models for radiopharmaceuticals used in nuclear medicine.

    PubMed

    Li, W B; Hoeschen, C

    2010-01-01

    Mathematical models for kinetics of radiopharmaceuticals in humans were developed and are used to estimate the radiation absorbed dose for patients in nuclear medicine by the International Commission on Radiological Protection and the Medical Internal Radiation Dose (MIRD) Committee. However, due to the fact that the residence times used were derived from different subjects, partially even with different ethnic backgrounds, a large variation in the model parameters propagates to a high uncertainty of the dose estimation. In this work, a method was developed for analysing the uncertainty and sensitivity of biokinetic models that are used to calculate the residence times. The biokinetic model of (18)F-FDG (FDG) developed by the MIRD Committee was analysed by this developed method. The sources of uncertainty of all model parameters were evaluated based on the experiments. The Latin hypercube sampling technique was used to sample the parameters for model input. Kinetic modelling of FDG in humans was performed. Sensitivity of model parameters was indicated by combining the model input and output, using regression and partial correlation analysis. The transfer rate parameter of plasma to other tissue fast is the parameter with the greatest influence on the residence time of plasma. Optimisation of biokinetic data acquisition in the clinical practice by exploitation of the sensitivity of model parameters obtained in this study is discussed. PMID:20185457

  20. Nuclear medicine survey recommendations for a changing regulatory environment.

    PubMed

    Vernig, P G; Schumacher, T A

    2001-11-01

    The revision of 10 CFR 35 approved on 23 September 2000 and due for implementation in 2001, reduces the number of required radiation and contamination surveys to one ambient radiation survey each day when an administration requiring a written directive is used. This paper compares the current requirements in 10 CFR 35; the single, remaining, specific requirement in the revised part 35; the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's guidance in the proposed NUREG SR1556 and the general requirement for surveys to demonstrate compliance with 10 CFR 20. We also make recommendations on what periodic surveys are prudent. PMID:11669196

  1. The development of hyperbaric and diving medicine in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Chng, J; Low, C T; Kang, W L

    2011-12-01

    Hyperbaric oxygen therapy is a noninvasive therapy used in the treatment of diving-related medical illnesses. It is an important adjunct in the management of a variety of medical conditions. The Republic of Singapore Navy Medical Service (NMS) is the main driver of the development of hyperbaric and diving medicine in Singapore. The practice of hyperbaric medicine has inherent risks, and unregulated application of this therapy may do more harm than good. NMS and Singapore General Hospital (SGH) signed a Memorandum of Understanding to combine NMS' experience with the clinical expertise of SGH to provide holistic care for diving and clinical hyperbaric treatment patients. This collaboration would increase the profile of this clinical specialty in Singapore, and help to establish safe clinical practice guidelines, training and accreditation requirements for diving and hyperbaric medicine practitioners in Singapore, thus ensuring that the practice of bona fide hyperbaric medicine is safeguarded and patient care is not compromised.

  2. Observation Leads to Improved Operations in Nuclear Medicine.

    PubMed

    Religioso, Deo G

    2016-01-01

    The concept of observation--going out and seeing what is happening in daily operations---would seem like a normal management activity, but the reality in practice of the philosophy and technique is often underutilized. Once an observation has been determined, the next steps are to test and validate any discoveries on paper. For process change to be implemented, numerical data is needed to back-up observations in order to be heard and taken seriously by the executive team. Boca Raton Regional Hospital saw an opportunity to improve the process for radiopharmaceutical standing orders within its nuclear imaging department. As a result of this observation, the facility realized improved savings and an increase in employee motivation.

  3. Observation Leads to Improved Operations in Nuclear Medicine.

    PubMed

    Religioso, Deo G

    2016-01-01

    The concept of observation--going out and seeing what is happening in daily operations---would seem like a normal management activity, but the reality in practice of the philosophy and technique is often underutilized. Once an observation has been determined, the next steps are to test and validate any discoveries on paper. For process change to be implemented, numerical data is needed to back-up observations in order to be heard and taken seriously by the executive team. Boca Raton Regional Hospital saw an opportunity to improve the process for radiopharmaceutical standing orders within its nuclear imaging department. As a result of this observation, the facility realized improved savings and an increase in employee motivation. PMID:27172652

  4. Family Medicine Educators' Perceptions of the Future of Faculty Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quirk, Mark; Lasser, Daniel; Domino, Frank; Chuman, Alan; Devaney-O'Neil, Sarah

    2002-01-01

    Family medicine faculty participated in focus groups to gather their perceptions about faculty development. They emphasized that faculty development methods must be proven effective, woven into the fabric of clinical practice, and deal with increasing time and financial pressures. Much discussion was related to the need for national and regional…

  5. Radiation risk and nuclear medicine: An interview with a Nobel Prize winner

    SciTech Connect

    Yalow, R.S.

    1995-12-01

    In a speech given years ago at the Veterans Administration Medical Center, Bronx, NY, Rosalyn S. Yalow, 1977 Nobel Prize recipient for her invention of radioimmunoassay, made several salient points on the perception of fear or hazards from exposure to low-level radiation and low-level radioactive wastes. For the past three years, Yalow has been concerned with the general fear of radiation. In this interview, Newsline solicited Yalow`s views on public perceptions on radiation risk and what the nuclear medicine community can do to emphasize the fact that, if properly managed, the use of isotopes in medicine and other cases is not dangerous.

  6. JPRS report: Nuclear developments, [February 25, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    1988-02-25

    This report contains information concerning the nuclear developments of the following countries: Canada, Nigeria, China, Japan, Argentina, Brazil, Jamaica, Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, Egypt, Sudan, Ireland, France, Turkey, United Kingdom, and Federal Republic of Germany.

  7. National Nuclear Forensics Expertise Development Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kentis, Samantha E.; Ulicny, William D.

    2009-08-01

    Over the course of the 2009 Federal Fiscal Year the United States (U.S.) Department of Homeland Security (DHS), in partnership with the Departments of Defense (DoD) and Energy (DOE), is continuing existing programs and introducing new programs designed to maintain a highly qualified, enduring workforce capable of performing the technical nuclear forensics mission. These student and university programs are designed to recruit the best and brightest students, develop university faculty and research capabilities, and engage the national laboratories in fields of study with application in nuclear forensics. This comprehensive effort constitutes the National Nuclear Forensics Expertise Development Program.

  8. Semiconductor detectors for Compton imaging in nuclear medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harkness, LJ; Judson, D. S.; Kennedy, H.; Sweeney, A.; Boston, A. J.; Boston, H. C.; Cresswell, J. R.; Nolan, P. J.; Sampson, J. A.; Burrows, I.; Groves, J.; Headspith, J.; Lazarus, I. H.; Simpson, J.; Bimson, W. E.; Kemp, G. J.

    2012-01-01

    An investigation is underway at the University of Liverpool to assess the suitability of two position sensitive semiconductor detectors as components of a Compton camera for nuclear medical imaging. The ProSPECTus project aims to improve image quality, provide shorter data acquisition times and lower patient doses by replacing conventional Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) systems. These mechanically collimated systems are employed to locate a radioactive tracer that has been administered to a patient to study specifically targeted physiological processes. The ProSPECTus system will be composed of a Si(Li) detector and a High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detector, a configuration deemed optimum using a validated Geant4 simulation package. Characterising the response of the detectors to gamma irradiation is essential in maximising the sensitivity and image resolution of the system. To this end, the performance of the HPGe ProSPECTus detector and a suitable Si(Li) detector has been assessed at the University of Liverpool. The energy resolution of the detectors has been measured and a surface scan of the Si(Li) detector has been performed using a finely collimated 241Am gamma ray source. Results from the investigation will be presented.

  9. Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage Affordable Development Strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doughty, Glen E.; Gerrish, H. P.; Kenny, R. J.

    2014-01-01

    The development of nuclear power for space use in nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) systems will involve significant expenditures of funds and require major technology development efforts. The development effort must be economically viable yet sufficient to validate the systems designed. Efforts are underway within the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage Project (NCPS) to study what a viable program would entail. The study will produce an integrated schedule, cost estimate and technology development plan. This will include the evaluation of various options for test facilities, types of testing and use of the engine, components, and technology developed. A "Human Rating" approach will also be developed and factored into the schedule, budget and technology development approach.

  10. Latest Developments in Nuclear Emulsion Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morishima, Kunihiro

    Nuclear emulsion is high sensitive photographic film used for detection of three-dimensional trajectory of charged particles. These trajectories are recorded as tracks consist of a lot of silver grains. The size of silver grain is about 1 μm, so that nuclear emulsion has submicron three-dimensional spatial resolution, which gives us a few mrad three-dimensional angular resolution. The important technical progress was speed-up of the read-out technique of nuclear emulsions built with optical microscope system. We succeeded in developing a high-speed three-dimensional read-out system named Super Ultra Track Selector (S-UTS) with the operating read-out speed of approximately 50 cm2/h. Nowadays we are developing the nuclear emulsion gel independently in Nagoya University by introducing emulsion gel production machine. Moreover, we are developing nuclear emulsion production technologies (gel production, poring and mass production). In this paper, development of nuclear emulsion technologies for the OPERA experiment, applications by the technologies and current development are described.

  11. Communication of radiation risk in nuclear medicine: Are we saying the right thing?

    PubMed

    Pandit, Manish; Vinjamuri, Sobhan

    2014-07-01

    The radiation risk arising from nuclear medicine investigations represents a small but manageable risk to patients and it needs to be effectively communicated to them. Frequently in the culture of "doctor knows best," patients trust their doctors to do whatever is right and appropriate and leave it to them to worry about any attendant risks associated with any tests involving the use of radiation. The benefit to the patient of having a speedier diagnosis and a further guide to management may not be effectively communicated in a comprehensive, timely and professional manner. In this article, we address the issue of communication of radiation risk and benefits to patients and the basis for such information. While there are different ways of communicating radiation risk, we recognize that certain basic parameters are absolutely essential for patients to enable them to make an informed choice about undergoing a nuclear medicine investigation under the direction of a well-trained and qualified individual. PMID:25210276

  12. Collective effective dose in Europe from X-ray and nuclear medicine procedures.

    PubMed

    Bly, R; Jahnen, A; Järvinen, H; Olerud, H; Vassileva, J; Vogiatzi, S

    2015-07-01

    Population doses from radiodiagnostic (X-ray and nuclear medicine) procedures in Europe were estimated based on data collected from 36 European countries. For X-ray procedures in EU and EFTA countries (except Liechtenstein) the collective effective dose is 547,500 man Sv, resulting in a mean effective dose of 1.06 mSv per caput. For all European countries included in the survey the collective effective dose is 605,000 man Sv, resulting in a mean effective dose of 1.05 mSv per caput. For nuclear medicine procedures in EU countries and EFTA (except Liechtenstein) countries the collective effective dose is 30,700 man Sv, resulting in a mean effective dose of 0.06 mSv per caput. For all European countries included in the survey the collective effective dose is 31,100 man Sv, resulting in a mean effective dose of 0.05 mSv per caput.

  13. NEED FOR INDIVIDUAL CANCER RISK ESTIMATES IN X-RAY AND NUCLEAR MEDICINE IMAGING.

    PubMed

    Mattsson, Sören

    2016-06-01

    To facilitate the justification of an X-ray or nuclear medicine investigation and for informing patients, it is desirable that the individual patient's radiation dose and potential cancer risk can be prospectively assessed and documented. The current dose-reporting is based on effective dose, which ignores body size and does not reflect the strong dependence of risk on the age at exposure. Risk estimations should better be done through individual organ dose assessments, which need careful exposure characterisation as well as anatomical description of the individual patient. In nuclear medicine, reference biokinetic models should also be replaced with models describing individual physiological states and biokinetics. There is a need to adjust population-based cancer risk estimates to the possible risk of leukaemia and solid tumours for the individual depending on age and gender. The article summarises reasons for individual cancer risk estimates and gives examples of methods and results of such estimates. PMID:26994092

  14. [Nationwide survey of nuclear medicine practice and estimation of collective effective dose in Japan.].

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Masaki; Nishizawa, Kanae; Iwai, Kazuo; Akahane, Keiichi; Maruyama, Takashi

    2006-01-01

    For the estimation of collective effective dose from radiopharmaceuticals used in nuclear medicine diagnosis, a national survey was carried out in Japan. The survey contents covered radiopharmaceutical use, sex, age, activity, and so on of each patient in October 1997 and the monthly number of examinations in 1997. The annual number of diagnostic examinations using radiopharmaceuticals was 0.82 million for males and 0.74 million for females. The frequency of examination was about 3% for patients less than 17 years old and about 60% for those more than 60 years old. Effective dose was calculated on the basis of such literature as ICRP publications. The dose used most frequently was 5-6mSv per examination. The collective effective doses from diagnostic nuclear medicine examinations were estimated to be 13100 man .Sv for males and 20200 man .Sv for females. PMID:17164536

  15. Evaluation of 133Xe radiation exposure dosimetry for workers in nuclear medicine laboratories.

    PubMed

    Piltingsrud, H V; Gels, G L

    1982-06-01

    Evaluation of past studies of 133Xe dosimetry and nuclear medicine laboratory air concentrations of 133Xe indicates that significant levels of 133Xe may exist in routine operational environments of a nuclear medicine laboratory. This leads to the question of whether present health physics radiation control methods are adequate to keep occupational personnel exposures within acceptable levels. It would appear that if personnel dosimeters (film and TLD badges) respond properly to the radiation of 133Xe, normal health physics control procedures are probably adequate. If they do not respond adequately, personnel exposures may exceed recommended levels and special instrumentation or administrative procedures are called for. Therefore, the first step in studying potential problems in the subject area is to evaluate the response of a variety of personnel radiation dosimeters to 133Xe. This paper describes the methods and materials used to expose personnel dosimeters to known amounts of 133Xe radiations in an exposure chamber constructed at the BRH Nuclear Medicine Laboratory. Also presented are calculated values for Dose Equivalents (D.E.) in a phantom from external radiation resulting from immersion in clouds having a constant concentration of 133Xe but varying cloud radii. This implies the relative importance of the beta and the X + gamma radiation responses of the personnel dosimeters under various exposure conditions. Results of this study indicate that none of the dosimeter systems evaluated provide adequate performance for use as a primary indicator of the D.E. resulting from 133Xe radiations for a worker in a nuclear medicine laboratory, and that personnel dosimetry considerations in 133Xe-containing atmospheres are very dependent on the radii of the 133Xe clouds.

  16. Faculty Development in Medicine: A Field in Evolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skeff, Kelley M.; Stratos, Georgette A.; Mount, Jane F. S.

    2007-01-01

    This article focuses on the evolution of faculty development in medicine. Of note, improving teaching in medical education is not a new concept. At a minimum, it was seriously discussed by pioneers like George Miller and Steve Abrahamson as early as the 1950s [Simpson & Bland (2002). Stephen Abrahamson, PhD, ScD, educationist: A stranger in a kind…

  17. Workshops for Faculty Development in Family Medicine. Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reineke, Robert A.; Welch, Wayne W.

    An evaluation was conducted of four faculty development workshops sponsored by the Society of Teachers of Family Medicine for faculty in family practice residency programs. Objectives of the evaluation were to determine the extent to which the workshops achieved the specified educational objectives and to assess the operational aspects of the…

  18. Recent developments of 2-aminothiazoles in medicinal chemistry.

    PubMed

    Das, Debasis; Sikdar, Papiya; Bairagi, Moumita

    2016-02-15

    The 2-aminothiazole (2-AT) core is an active pharmacophore and used in medicinal chemistry and drug discovery research. A number of drugs with 2-AT core are in the market, e.g. Famotidine, Cefdinir, Meloxcam etc. Recently, 2-AT core has been explored for many more important therapeutic areas and identified new 2-aminothiazoles with anticancer, antitumor, antidiebatic and anticonvulsant activity. In this review, we discuss the newly identified and developed 2-aminothiazoles in recent years and their use in medicinal chemistry and pharmacology.

  19. Nuclear Concrete Materials Database Phase I Development

    SciTech Connect

    Ren, Weiju; Naus, Dan J

    2012-05-01

    The FY 2011 accomplishments in Phase I development of the Nuclear Concrete Materials Database to support the Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program are summarized. The database has been developed using the ORNL materials database infrastructure established for the Gen IV Materials Handbook to achieve cost reduction and development efficiency. In this Phase I development, the database has been successfully designed and constructed to manage documents in the Portable Document Format generated from the Structural Materials Handbook that contains nuclear concrete materials data and related information. The completion of the Phase I database has established a solid foundation for Phase II development, in which a digital database will be designed and constructed to manage nuclear concrete materials data in various digitized formats to facilitate electronic and mathematical processing for analysis, modeling, and design applications.

  20. Patients' and personnel's perceptions of service quality and patient satisfaction in nuclear medicine.

    PubMed

    De Man, Stefanie; Gemmel, Paul; Vlerick, Peter; Van Rijk, Peter; Dierckx, Rudi

    2002-09-01

    Patients' and personnel's perceptions of service quality were analysed to position nuclear medicine organisations in the service triangle theory of Haywood-Farmer [ Int J Production and Operations Management 1988; 6:19-29]. After distinguishing the service quality dimensions of nuclear medicine, a comparison was made between the service quality perceptions of patients ( n=259) and those of personnel ( n=24). We examined the importance of different service quality dimensions by studying their relationship to patient satisfaction. The proposed five dimensions of SERVQUAL, the most commonly used service quality measurement scale, were not confirmed. Patients considered tangibles and assurance as one dimension, while the original empathy dimension was separated into empathy and convenience. Personnel perceived all service quality dimensions as less good than did patients, except for empathy. Results indicated that patients' perception of service quality was correlated with patient satisfaction, especially in terms of reliability and tangibles-assurance. Based on these service quality dimensions, we suggest that nuclear medicine services need to optimise their physical and process component and the technical skills of personnel.

  1. Dose rate measurements from radiopharmaceuticals: implications for nuclear medicine staff and for children with radioactive parents.

    PubMed

    Greaves, C D; Tindale, W B

    1999-02-01

    Following the introduction of a number of radiopharmaceuticals, we assessed the dose received by staff working in the nuclear medicine department and also by children who may be in close contact with a radioactive parent. We measured departure dose rates (microSv.h-1) at distances of 0.1, 0.5 and 1.0 m from the skin surface at the level of the thyroid, chest and bladder of patients undergoing the following nuclear medicine procedures: MUGA scans using 99Tcm-labelled red blood cells, myocardial perfusion scans using 99Tcm-labelled radiopharmaceuticals, lymphoscintigraphy using colloidal 99Tcm (Re) sulphide, bone scans using 99Tcm-labelled oxidronate, 111In-octreotide scans, 111In-labelled leukocyte studies and cardiac reinjection studies using 201Tl. The maximum dose rates at 0.1 m were those from MUGA studies (167.3 microSv.h-1) and myocardial perfusion studies (one-day protocol = 391.7 microSv.h-1, two-day protocol = 121.8 microSv.h-1). The implications of these dose rates on both technical and nursing staff are assessed. Also, the dose received by an infant in close contact with a parent following a nuclear medicine investigation was estimated.

  2. USE OF RADIOPHARMACEUTICALS IN DIAGNOSTIC NUCLEAR MEDICINE IN THE UNITED STATES: 1960–2010

    PubMed Central

    Drozdovitch, Vladimir; Brill, Aaron B.; Callahan, Ronald J.; Clanton, Jeffrey A.; DePietro, Allegra; Goldsmith, Stanley J.; Greenspan, Bennett S.; Gross, Milton D.; Hays, Marguerite T.; Moore, Stephen C.; Ponto, James A.; Shreeve, Walton W.; Melo, Dunstana R.; Linet, Martha S.; Simon, Steven L.

    2014-01-01

    To reconstruct reliable nuclear medicine-related occupational radiation doses or doses received as patients from radiopharmaceuticals over the last five decades, we assessed which radiopharmaceuticals were used in different time periods, their relative frequency of use, and typical values of the administered activity. This paper presents data on the changing patterns of clinical use of radiopharmaceuticals and documents the range of activity administered to adult patients undergoing diagnostic nuclear medicine procedures in the U.S. between 1960 and 2010. Data are presented for 15 diagnostic imaging procedures that include thyroid scan and thyroid uptake, brain scan, brain blood flow, lung perfusion and ventilation, bone, liver, hepatobiliary, bone marrow, pancreas, and kidney scans, cardiac imaging procedures, tumor localization studies, localization of gastrointestinal bleeding, and non-imaging studies of blood volume and iron metabolism. Data on the relative use of radiopharmaceuticals were collected using key informant interviews and comprehensive literature reviews of typical administered activities of these diagnostic nuclear medicine studies. Responses of key informants on relative use of radiopharmaceuticals are in agreement with published literature. Results of this study will be used for retrospective reconstruction of occupational and personal medical radiation doses from diagnostic radiopharmaceuticals to members of the U.S. radiologic technologist’s cohort and in reconstructing radiation doses from occupational or patient radiation exposures to other U.S. workers or patient populations. PMID:25811150

  3. Radionuclide radiologist directed nuclear medicine services in district general hospitals in the South Thames Region.

    PubMed

    Conry, B G; Burwood, R J

    2001-08-01

    The equipment, staffing levels and imaging workload of all 14 radiologist directed nuclear medicine services in district general hospitals in the South Thames Region are presented. These are generally single camera departments providing a broad range of imaging procedures, including cardiac studies and white cell labelling, as well as the more usual renal, lung, thyroid and bone examinations. All departments have a high throughput, averaging 2358 examinations per year. Departmental staffing levels are variable, with some institutions having inadequate consultant radiology sessions free of other commitments as well as inadequate physics support. Potentially, these are important quality and legal issues that departments may need to address with hospital Trusts and Commissioning Agencies. Four small departments provided a service without any formally contracted radiologist sessions for nuclear medicine in the radiologists' job plans. The three medium sized departments have a closer match between sessions contracted and those actually worked, but in only one of these did the contracted sessional commitment equal the recommendation of the Nuclear Medicine Committee of the Royal College of Physicians. There is a disparity between the number of contracted consultant sessions and those actually worked in most institutions (86%), being at least two sessions in eight hospitals. Recommendations are made regarding the adequacy of some of the elements of provision in South Thames and the legal and safety implications for hospital Trust management and Commissioning Agencies. PMID:11511496

  4. Extremity exposure in nuclear medicine: preliminary results of a European study.

    PubMed

    Sans Merce, M; Ruiz, N; Barth, I; Carnicer, A; Donadille, L; Ferrari, P; Fulop, M; Ginjaume, M; Gualdrini, G; Krim, S; Mariotti, F; Ortega, X; Rimpler, A; Vanhavere, F; Baechler, S

    2011-03-01

    The Work Package 4 of the ORAMED project, a collaborative project (2008-11) supported by the European Commission within its seventh Framework Programme, is concerned with the optimisation of the extremity dosimetry of medical staff in nuclear medicine. To evaluate the extremity doses and dose distributions across the hands of medical staff working in nuclear medicine departments, an extensive measurement programme has been started in 32 nuclear medicine departments in Europe. This was done using a standard protocol recording all relevant information for radiation exposure, i.e. radiation protection devices and tools. This study shows the preliminary results obtained for this measurement campaign. For diagnostic purposes, the two most-used radionuclides were considered: (99m)Tc and (18)F. For therapeutic treatments, Zevalin(®) and DOTATOC (both labelled with (90)Y) were chosen. Large variations of doses were observed across the hands depending on different parameters. Furthermore, this study highlights the importance of the positioning of the extremity dosemeter for a correct estimate of the maximum skin doses.

  5. Patients' and personnel's perceptions of service quality and patient satisfaction in nuclear medicine.

    PubMed

    De Man, Stefanie; Gemmel, Paul; Vlerick, Peter; Van Rijk, Peter; Dierckx, Rudi

    2002-09-01

    Patients' and personnel's perceptions of service quality were analysed to position nuclear medicine organisations in the service triangle theory of Haywood-Farmer [ Int J Production and Operations Management 1988; 6:19-29]. After distinguishing the service quality dimensions of nuclear medicine, a comparison was made between the service quality perceptions of patients ( n=259) and those of personnel ( n=24). We examined the importance of different service quality dimensions by studying their relationship to patient satisfaction. The proposed five dimensions of SERVQUAL, the most commonly used service quality measurement scale, were not confirmed. Patients considered tangibles and assurance as one dimension, while the original empathy dimension was separated into empathy and convenience. Personnel perceived all service quality dimensions as less good than did patients, except for empathy. Results indicated that patients' perception of service quality was correlated with patient satisfaction, especially in terms of reliability and tangibles-assurance. Based on these service quality dimensions, we suggest that nuclear medicine services need to optimise their physical and process component and the technical skills of personnel. PMID:12192553

  6. General comparison of functional imaging in nuclear medicine with other modalities

    SciTech Connect

    Adam, W.E.

    1987-01-01

    New (noninvasive) diagnostic procedures in medicine (ultrasound (US), digital subtraction angiography (DSA), computed tomography (CT), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)) create a need for a review of the clinical utility of functional imaging in nuclear medicine. A general approach that is valid for all imaging procedures is not possible. For this reason, an individual assessment for each class of functional imaging is necessary, taking into account the complexity and sophistication of the various imaging procedures. This leads to a hierarchical order: first order functional imaging: imaging of organ motion (heart, lungs, blood); second order functional imaging: imaging of excretory function (kidneys, liver); and third and fourth order functional imaging: imaging of metabolism (except excretory function). First order functional imaging is possible fundamentally, although with limitations in detail, by all modalities. Second order functional imaging is not possible with US. Third and fourth order functional imaging is a privilege of nuclear medicine alone. Up to now, NMR has not proven clinically useful to produce metabolic images in its true sense. First and second order functional imaging of nonradioactive procedures face severe disadvantages, including difficulties in performing stress investigations, which are essential for coronary heart disease, limited capability for true quantitative information (eg, kidney clearance in mL/min), side effects of contrast media and paramagnetic substances, and high costs. 58 references.

  7. Use of radiopharmaceuticals in diagnostic nuclear medicine in the United States: 1960-2010.

    PubMed

    Drozdovitch, Vladimir; Brill, Aaron B; Callahan, Ronald J; Clanton, Jeffrey A; DePietro, Allegra; Goldsmith, Stanley J; Greenspan, Bennett S; Gross, Milton D; Hays, Marguerite T; Moore, Stephen C; Ponto, James A; Shreeve, Walton W; Melo, Dunstana R; Linet, Martha S; Simon, Steven L

    2015-05-01

    To reconstruct reliable nuclear medicine-related occupational radiation doses or doses received as patients from radiopharmaceuticals over the last five decades, the authors assessed which radiopharmaceuticals were used in different time periods, their relative frequency of use, and typical values of the administered activity. This paper presents data on the changing patterns of clinical use of radiopharmaceuticals and documents the range of activity administered to adult patients undergoing diagnostic nuclear medicine procedures in the U.S. between 1960 and 2010. Data are presented for 15 diagnostic imaging procedures that include thyroid scan and thyroid uptake; brain scan; brain blood flow; lung perfusion and ventilation; bone, liver, hepatobiliary, bone marrow, pancreas, and kidney scans; cardiac imaging procedures; tumor localization studies; localization of gastrointestinal bleeding; and non-imaging studies of blood volume and iron metabolism. Data on the relative use of radiopharmaceuticals were collected using key informant interviews and comprehensive literature reviews of typical administered activities of these diagnostic nuclear medicine studies. Responses of key informants on relative use of radiopharmaceuticals are in agreement with published literature. Results of this study will be used for retrospective reconstruction of occupational and personal medical radiation doses from diagnostic radiopharmaceuticals to members of the U.S. radiologic technologists' cohort and in reconstructing radiation doses from occupational or patient radiation exposures to other U.S. workers or patient populations.

  8. French influence on the development of medicine in Louisiana.

    PubMed

    Duffy, J

    1990-01-01

    The paper presents a brief survey of the state of medicine in the 18th century with an emphasis upon developments in France. In the early nineteenth century the emergence of the Paris Clinical School made France pre-eminent in medicine. Its leaders emphasized localism, correlated symptoms with postmortem reports, and introduced clinical statistics. They also introduced the stethoscope and the techniques of auscultation and palpation and were the first to recognize that excessive bloodletting, purging and other depletory measures were harmful. The French population in Louisiana continued to look to France for educational and intellectual leadership well into the nineteenth century, and the findings of the Paris Clinical School had an immediate impact upon Louisiana medicine, leading to a clash between the French-speaking physicians who emphasized moderation and good nursing and the English-speaking practitioners who believed in drastic intervention.

  9. Nuclear medicine and imaging research: Quantitative studies in radiopharmaceutical science

    SciTech Connect

    Copper, M.; Beck, R.N.

    1991-06-01

    During the past three years the program has undergone a substantial revitalization. There has been no significant change in the scientific direction of this grant, in which emphasis continues to be placed on developing new or improved methods of obtaining quantitative data from radiotracer imaging studies. However, considerable scientific progress has been made in the three areas of interest: Radiochemistry, Quantitative Methodologies, and Experimental Methods and Feasibility Studies, resulting in a sharper focus of perspective and improved integration of the overall scientific effort. Changes in Faculty and staff, including development of new collaborations, have contributed to this, as has acquisition of additional and new equipment and renovations and expansion of the core facilities. 121 refs., 30 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Dosimetry of Radiopharmaceuticals for Diagnostic and Therapeutic Nuclear Medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Smart, Richard

    2011-05-05

    A standard formalism for radionuclide internal radiation dosimetry was developed in the 1960s and continues to be refined today. Early work was based on a mathematical phantom but this is being replaced by phantoms developed from whole-body CT scans to give more realistic dose estimates. The largest contributors to the uncertainties in these dose estimates are the errors associated with in vivo activity quantitation, the variability of the biokinetics between patients and the limited information that can be obtained on these kinetics in individual patients. Despite these limitations, pre-treatment patient-specific dosimetry is being increasing used, particularly to limit the toxicity to non-target organs such as the bone marrow.

  11. Shiraz University School of Medicine: its foundation and development.

    PubMed

    Nasr, Khosrow

    2009-01-01

    The history of Shiraz University School of Medicine (the former Pahlavi University School of Medicine) is important if we are to understand the development of medical education in Iran during the 20th century. This medical school took a unique path to its development including full-time faculty members, use of English as its institutional language, and emphasis on self learning. However, the most important of all is that it applied scientific method and modern knowledge to the problems of Iran and that it emphasized the importance of relevance of medical education to the problems of the region. This article summarizes the foundation and process of development of this school, emphasizing its unique features. This is not the history of individuals who were critical to its development. Nor a history of structures and buildings. Rather, it is the story of its intellectual development, and its process of change as the University became relevant. PMID:19111039

  12. The role of compact PSPMTs for image quality enhancement in nuclear medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cinti, M. N.; Pani, R.; Pellegrini, R.; Garibaldi, F.; Cusanno, F.; Campanini, R.; Lanconelli, N.; Riccardi, A.; Zavattini, G.; Di Domenico, G.; Belcari, N.; Bencivelli, W.; Motta, Alfonso; Vaiano, Angela; Del Guerra, A.

    2003-06-01

    Compact gamma cameras based on arrays of compact Position Sensitive Photomultipliers (PSPMTs) (Hamamatsu R7600-C8/12) were recently developed by several research groups. The previous generation of dedicated gamma cameras (5 in. PSPMT) demonstrated the clinical benefit and general diagnostic value for functional breast imaging in comparison with conventional nuclear medicine technique (Anger Camera prone scintimammography and 99mTc Sestamibi administration). The aim of this paper is to investigate how scintillation material and pixel size of crystal arrays can improve image contrast and tumor SNR values. In this paper we compare tumor Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) results obtained by imagers based on CsI(Tl) and NaI(Tl) array, respectively, by means of a liquid and solid breast phantom. The data collected by NaI(Tl) array show a improvement of SNR values for small tumor size (less than 8 mm). The improvement is also evident in small camera, even though for tumor size less than 6 mm the results are near visibility limit.

  13. Simulation of beta radiator handling procedures in nuclear medicine by means of a movable hand phantom.

    PubMed

    Blunck, Ch; Becker, F; Urban, M

    2011-03-01

    In nuclear medicine therapies, people working with beta radiators such as (90)Y may be exposed to non-negligible partial body doses. For radiation protection, it is important to know the characteristics of the radiation field and possible dose exposures at relevant positions in the working area. Besides extensive measurements, simulations can provide these data. For this purpose, a movable hand phantom for Monte Carlo simulations was developed. Specific beta radiator handling scenarios can be modelled interactively with forward kinematics or automatically with an inverse kinematics procedure. As a first investigation, the dose distribution on a medical doctor's hand injecting a (90)Y solution was measured and simulated with the phantom. Modelling was done with the interactive method based on five consecutive frames from a video recorded during the injection. Owing to the use of only one camera, not each detail of the radiation scenario is visible in the video. In spite of systematic uncertainties, the measured and simulated dose values are in good agreement.

  14. An overview of radioactive waste disposal procedures of a nuclear medicine department.

    PubMed

    Ravichandran, R; Binukumar, J P; Sreeram, Rajan; Arunkumar, L S

    2011-04-01

    Radioactive wastes from hospitals form one of the various types of urban wastes, which are managed in developed countries in a safe and organized way. In countries where growth of nuclear medicine services are envisaged, implementations of existing regulatory policies and guidelines in hospitals in terms of handling of radioactive materials used in the treatment of patients need a good model. To address this issue, a brief description of the methods is presented. A designed prototype waste storage trolley is found to be of great help in decaying the I-131 solid wastes from wards before releasing to waste treatment plant of the city. Two delay tanks with collection time of about 2 months and delay time of 2 months alternately result in 6 releases of urine toilet effluents to the sewage treatment plant (STP) of the hospital annually. Samples of effluents collected at releasing time documented radioactive releases of I-131 much below recommended levels of bi-monthly release. External counting of samples showed good statistical correlation with calculated values. An overview of safe procedures for radioactive waste disposal is presented.

  15. An overview of radioactive waste disposal procedures of a nuclear medicine department.

    PubMed

    Ravichandran, R; Binukumar, J P; Sreeram, Rajan; Arunkumar, L S

    2011-04-01

    Radioactive wastes from hospitals form one of the various types of urban wastes, which are managed in developed countries in a safe and organized way. In countries where growth of nuclear medicine services are envisaged, implementations of existing regulatory policies and guidelines in hospitals in terms of handling of radioactive materials used in the treatment of patients need a good model. To address this issue, a brief description of the methods is presented. A designed prototype waste storage trolley is found to be of great help in decaying the I-131 solid wastes from wards before releasing to waste treatment plant of the city. Two delay tanks with collection time of about 2 months and delay time of 2 months alternately result in 6 releases of urine toilet effluents to the sewage treatment plant (STP) of the hospital annually. Samples of effluents collected at releasing time documented radioactive releases of I-131 much below recommended levels of bi-monthly release. External counting of samples showed good statistical correlation with calculated values. An overview of safe procedures for radioactive waste disposal is presented. PMID:21731225

  16. Criteria for Global Nuclear Energy Development

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence, Michael J.

    2002-07-01

    Global energy consumption will at least double over the next fifty years due to population growth, increased consumption, and an urgent need to improve the standard of living in under-developed countries. Thirty percent of this growth will be for electricity. At the same time, carbon emissions must be significantly reduced to respond to concerns regarding global warming. The use of nuclear energy to meet this growing electricity demand without carbon emissions is an obvious solution to many observers, however real concerns over economics, safety, waste and proliferation must be adequately addressed. The issue is further complicated by the fact that developing countries, which have the most pressing need for additional electricity generation, have the least capability and infrastructure to deploy nuclear energy. Nevertheless, if the specific needs of developing countries are appropriately considered now as new generation reactors are being developed, and institutional arrangements based upon the fundamental principles of President Eisenhower's 1953 Atoms For Peace speech are followed, nuclear energy could be deployed in any country. From a technical perspective, reactor safety and accessibility of special nuclear material are primary concerns. Institutionally, plant and fuel ownership and waste management issues must be addressed. International safety and safeguards authority are prerequisites. While the IAEA's IMPRO program and the United States' Generation IV programs are focusing on technical solutions, institutional issues, particularly with regard to deployment in developing countries, are not receiving corresponding attention. Full-service, cradle-to-grave, nuclear electricity companies that retain custody and responsibility for the plant and materials, including waste, are one possible solution. Small modular reactors such as the Pebble Bed Modular Reactor could be ideal for such an arrangement. While waste disposal remains a major obstacle, this is already

  17. Nuclear medicine and imaging research (quantitative studies in radiopharmaceutical science)

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, M.D.; Beck, R.N.

    1990-09-01

    This is a report of progress in Year Two (January 1, 1990--December 31, 1990) of Grant FG02-86ER60438, Quantitative Studies in Radiopharmaceutical Science,'' awarded for the three-year period January 1, 1989--December 31, 1991 as a competitive renewal following site visit in the fall of 1988. This program addresses the problems involving the basic science and technology underlying the physical and conceptual tools of radioactive tracer methodology as they relate to the measurement of structural and functional parameters of physiologic importance in health and disease. The principal tool is quantitative radionuclide imaging. The overall objective of this program is to further the development and transfer of radiotracer methodology from basic theory to routine clinical practice in order that individual patients and society as a whole will receive the maximum net benefit from the new knowledge gained. The focus of the research is on the development of new instruments and radiopharmaceuticals, and the evaluation of these through the phase of clinical feasibility. 25 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Nuclear medicine and complementary modalities in renal trauma

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, B.C. Jr.

    1982-07-01

    The diagnosis of renal trauma for many years was achieved through history, clinical findings, the performance of a survey film of the abdomen, urinalysis, excretory urography, aortography, and selective renal artery arteriography. The development of the scintillation camera and the availability of /sup 99m/Tc, as well as /sup 99m/Tc labeled pharmaceuticals, approximately fifteen years ago has widened this diagnostic horizon. Exquisite new imaging modalities have become available recently. As a result of constantly improving technology, these techniques--including computed tomography, sonography, with real time enhancement, and digital video subtraction angiography--are utilized more and more frequently. The full impact of these newest wonders is not yet realized. Cost-effectiveness, radiation exposure, accumulative drug side-effects, availability of facilities and personnel and professional and technical training have become major considerations.

  19. Survey of physician requirements in six specialties: manpower needs in anesthesiology, neurology, nuclear medicine, pathology, physical medicine and rehabilitation, radiology. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wills, J.

    1980-07-01

    This report was prepared to assist the Graduate Medical Education National Advisory Committee (GMENAC) in its efforts to model physician manpower requirements in six specialties: anesthesiology, neurology, nuclear medicine, pathology, physical medicine and rehabilitation, and radiology. The purpose of this report is to (1) survey and present the existing literature on manpower requirements in each of these six specialties, and (2) discuss the special problems present in each specialty in modeling manpower requirements, and where possible, suggest possible avenues of resolution.

  20. Electrodiagnostic medicine skills competency in physical medicine and rehabilitation residents: a method for development and assessment.

    PubMed

    Brown, David; Cuccurullo, Sara; Lee, Joseph; Petagna, Ann; Strax, Thomas

    2008-08-01

    This project sought to create an educational module including evaluation methodology to instruct physical medicine and rehabilitation (PM&R) residents in electrodiagnostic evaluation of patients with neuromuscular problems, and to verify acquired competencies in those electrodiagnostic skills through objective evaluation methodology. Sixteen residents were trained by board-certified neuromuscular and electrodiagnostic medicine physicians through technical training, lectures, and review of self-assessment examination (SAE) concepts from the American Academy of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation syllabus provided in the Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. After delivery of the educational module, knowledge acquisition and skill attainment were measured in (1) clinical skill in diagnostic procedures via a procedure checklist, (2) diagnosis and ability to design a patient-care management plan via chart simulated recall (CSR) exams, (3) physician/patient interaction via patient surveys, (4) physician/staff interaction via 360-degree global ratings, and (5) ability to write a comprehensive patient-care report and to document a patient-care management plan in accordance with Medicare guidelines via written patient reports. Assessment tools developed for this program address the basic competencies outlined by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME). To test the success of the standardized educational module, data were collected on an ongoing basis. Objective measures compared resident SAE scores in electrodiagnostics (EDX) before and after institution of the comprehensive EDX competency module in a PM&R residency program. Fifteen of 16 residents (94%) successfully demonstrated proficiency in every segment of the evaluation element of the educational module by the end of their PGY-4 electrodiagnostic rotation. The resident who did not initially pass underwent remedial coursework and passed on the second attempt. Furthermore, the

  1. Neuromuscular medicine competency in physical medicine and rehabilitation residents: a method of development and assessment.

    PubMed

    Lin, Lei; Cuccurullo, Sara J; Innerfield, Caitlin E; Strax, Thomas E; Petagna, Anne

    2013-03-01

    This project endeavored to create an educational module including methodology to instruct physical medicine and rehabilitation residents in the evaluation and appropriate treatment of patients with neuromuscular disorders. It further sought to verify acquired competencies in neuromuscular rehabilitation through objective evaluation methodology. An American Association of Neuromuscular and Electrodiagnostic Medicine board-certified physician with 10 yrs of clinical experience in neuromuscular and general rehabilitation trained 19 residents using a standardized competency-based module. The residents were trained through clinical training, lectures, and review of self-assessment examination concepts from the American Academy of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation syllabus provided in the Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. After delivery of the educational module, knowledge acquisition and skill proficiency were measured in (1) completion of neuromuscular history and physical examination satisfactorily, (2) diagnosis and ability to design a patient care management plan via chart stimulated recall examinations, (3) physician-patient interaction via patient surveys, (4) physician-staff interaction via 360-degree global ratings, and (5) ability to write a comprehensive patient care report and to document a patient care management plan in accordance with Medicare guidelines via written patient reports. Assessment tools developed for this program address the basic competencies outlined by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education. To test the success of the standardized educational module, data were collected on an ongoing basis. The objective measures compared resident self-assessment examination scores in neuromuscular rehabilitation before and after the institution of the comprehensive neuromuscular competency module in the residency program. Nineteen (100%) of 19 residents successfully demonstrated proficiency in every segment of the

  2. Electrodiagnostic medicine skills competency in physical medicine and rehabilitation residents: a method for development and assessment.

    PubMed

    Brown, David; Cuccurullo, Sara; Lee, Joseph; Petagna, Ann; Strax, Thomas

    2008-08-01

    This project sought to create an educational module including evaluation methodology to instruct physical medicine and rehabilitation (PM&R) residents in electrodiagnostic evaluation of patients with neuromuscular problems, and to verify acquired competencies in those electrodiagnostic skills through objective evaluation methodology. Sixteen residents were trained by board-certified neuromuscular and electrodiagnostic medicine physicians through technical training, lectures, and review of self-assessment examination (SAE) concepts from the American Academy of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation syllabus provided in the Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. After delivery of the educational module, knowledge acquisition and skill attainment were measured in (1) clinical skill in diagnostic procedures via a procedure checklist, (2) diagnosis and ability to design a patient-care management plan via chart simulated recall (CSR) exams, (3) physician/patient interaction via patient surveys, (4) physician/staff interaction via 360-degree global ratings, and (5) ability to write a comprehensive patient-care report and to document a patient-care management plan in accordance with Medicare guidelines via written patient reports. Assessment tools developed for this program address the basic competencies outlined by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME). To test the success of the standardized educational module, data were collected on an ongoing basis. Objective measures compared resident SAE scores in electrodiagnostics (EDX) before and after institution of the comprehensive EDX competency module in a PM&R residency program. Fifteen of 16 residents (94%) successfully demonstrated proficiency in every segment of the evaluation element of the educational module by the end of their PGY-4 electrodiagnostic rotation. The resident who did not initially pass underwent remedial coursework and passed on the second attempt. Furthermore, the

  3. Neuromuscular medicine competency in physical medicine and rehabilitation residents: a method of development and assessment.

    PubMed

    Lin, Lei; Cuccurullo, Sara J; Innerfield, Caitlin E; Strax, Thomas E; Petagna, Anne

    2013-03-01

    This project endeavored to create an educational module including methodology to instruct physical medicine and rehabilitation residents in the evaluation and appropriate treatment of patients with neuromuscular disorders. It further sought to verify acquired competencies in neuromuscular rehabilitation through objective evaluation methodology. An American Association of Neuromuscular and Electrodiagnostic Medicine board-certified physician with 10 yrs of clinical experience in neuromuscular and general rehabilitation trained 19 residents using a standardized competency-based module. The residents were trained through clinical training, lectures, and review of self-assessment examination concepts from the American Academy of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation syllabus provided in the Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. After delivery of the educational module, knowledge acquisition and skill proficiency were measured in (1) completion of neuromuscular history and physical examination satisfactorily, (2) diagnosis and ability to design a patient care management plan via chart stimulated recall examinations, (3) physician-patient interaction via patient surveys, (4) physician-staff interaction via 360-degree global ratings, and (5) ability to write a comprehensive patient care report and to document a patient care management plan in accordance with Medicare guidelines via written patient reports. Assessment tools developed for this program address the basic competencies outlined by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education. To test the success of the standardized educational module, data were collected on an ongoing basis. The objective measures compared resident self-assessment examination scores in neuromuscular rehabilitation before and after the institution of the comprehensive neuromuscular competency module in the residency program. Nineteen (100%) of 19 residents successfully demonstrated proficiency in every segment of the

  4. Three new renal simulators for use in nuclear medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dullius, Marcos; Fonseca, Mateus; Botelho, Marcelo; Cunha, Clêdison; Souza, Divanízia

    2014-03-01

    Renal scintigraphy is useful to provide both functional and anatomic information of renal flow of cortical functions and evaluation of pathological collecting system. The objective of this study was develop and evaluate the performance of three renal phantoms: Two anthropomorphic static and another dynamic. The static images of the anthropomorphic phantoms were used for comparison with static renal scintigraphy with 99mTc-DMSA in different concentrations. These static phantoms were manufactured in two ways: one was made of acrylic using as mold a human kidney preserved in formaldehyde and the second was built with ABS (acrylonitrile butadiene styrene) in a 3D printer. The dynamic renal phantom was constructed of acrylic to simulate renal dynamics in scintigraphy with 99mTc-DTPA. These phantoms were scanned with static and dynamic protocols and compared with clinical data. Using these phantoms it is possible to acquire similar renal images as in the clinical scintigraphy. Therefore, these new renal phantoms can be very effective for use in the quality control of renal scintigraphy, and image processing systems.

  5. Nuclear medicine progress report for quarter ending September 30, 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Allred, J.F.; Ambrose, K.R.; Callahan, A.P.; Rice, D.E.; Srivastava, P.C.

    1988-03-01

    In this report the preparation of a new radioiodinated nucleoside as a potential tumor-localizing agent is described. The p-iodophenyl analogue of 5-amino-1-..beta..-D-ribofuranosylimidazole-4-carboxamide (AlCA) was prepared by a 5-step reaction sequence. The iodine-125-labeled analogue was evaluated in rats and nude mice with implanted tumors. This agent crossed the intact blood-brain barrier (0.28% injected dose/gm at 5 min) and also showed some uptake in implanted tumors (0.74% injected dose/gm at 30 min). These preliminary results demonstrate that radioiodinated nucleoside analogues are good candiates for tumor localization. To evaluate the possible formation of 3-R,S-hydroxy-3-methyl metabolites from radioiodinated 15-(p-iodophenyl)-3-R,S-methylpentadecanoic acid (''BMIPP''), a new synthesis of 3-R,S-hydroxy fatty acids has been developed involving C-2 acylation of the ester (''Meldrum's'' acid) formed by condensation of malonic acid with acetone. Treatment with acid forms the methyl ketone which is condensed under Reformatsky conditions to give the racemic ..beta..-hydroxy-..beta..-methyl ester which is then hydrolyzed with base. In this way, the ..beta..-hydroxy analogues of BMIPP and 3-methylheptadecanoic acid have been prepared for the first time and are being used in biological studies. 8 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Emergency medicine systems advancement through community-based development.

    PubMed

    Bloem, Martha M; Bloem, Christina M; Rosentsveyg, Juliana; Arquilla, Bonnie

    2014-02-01

    Humanitarian health programs frequently focus on immediate relief and are supply side oriented or donor driven. More emphasis should be placed on long-term development projects that engage local community leaders to ensure sustainable change in health care systems. With the Emergency Medicine Educational Exchange (EMEDEX) International Rescue, Recover, Rebuild initiative in Northeast Haiti as a model, this paper discusses the opportunities and challenges in using community-based development to establish emergency medical systems in resource-limited settings. PMID:24429185

  7. Emergency medicine systems advancement through community-based development.

    PubMed

    Bloem, Martha M; Bloem, Christina M; Rosentsveyg, Juliana; Arquilla, Bonnie

    2014-02-01

    Humanitarian health programs frequently focus on immediate relief and are supply side oriented or donor driven. More emphasis should be placed on long-term development projects that engage local community leaders to ensure sustainable change in health care systems. With the Emergency Medicine Educational Exchange (EMEDEX) International Rescue, Recover, Rebuild initiative in Northeast Haiti as a model, this paper discusses the opportunities and challenges in using community-based development to establish emergency medical systems in resource-limited settings.

  8. SUS in nuclear medicine in Brazil: analysis and comparison of data provided by Datasus and CNEN*

    PubMed Central

    Pozzo, Lorena; Coura Filho, George; Osso Júnior, João Alberto; Squair, Peterson Lima

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the outpatient access to nuclear medicine procedures by means of the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS), analyzing the correspondence between data provided by this system and those from Comissão Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN) (National Commission of Nuclear Energy). Materials and Methods Data provided by Datasus regarding number of scintillation chambers, outpatient procedures performed from 2008 to 2012, administrative responsibility for such procedures, type of service providers and outsourced services were retrieved and evaluated. Also, such data were compared with those from institutions certified by CNEN. Results The present study demonstrated that the system still lacks maturity in terms of correct data input, particularly regarding equipment available. It was possible to list the most common procedures and check the growth of the specialty along the study period. Private centers are responsible for most of the procedures covered and reimbursed by SUS. However, many healthcare facilities are not certified by CNEN. Conclusion Datasus provides relevant data for analysis as done in the present study, although some issues still require attention. The present study has quantitatively depicted the Brazilian reality regarding access to nuclear medicine procedures offered by/for SUS. PMID:25741070

  9. [Development of traditional Chinese medicine in United States].

    PubMed

    Tian, Xiao-ming

    2012-10-18

    The United States government established Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) to meet the public needs. In 1991, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) approved the first acupuncture clinic for their patients. The National Center of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM) was founded at NIH in 1998 to sponsor and develop CAM research. In 2001, the budget for NCCAM had grown to 130 million USD. Of the 3 300 papers on CAM published in the past ten years, 520 were funded by NIH. NCCAM goals are to focus on "mind and body medicine" and "herbals" for future research. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is one of the major components in CAM. From 1998 to 2012, NCCAM funded 248 research subjects on TCM, with a total budget of 236 million USD. The subjects were as follows: 160 for acupuncture, 36 for Chinese medicine, 33 for Tai Chi, and 19 for Qigong. The American public is increasingly supportive of CAM, including TCM. According to the national survey in 2008, nearly 40% of American used CAM, 11% of them were children, self-spending 33.9 billion USD in 2007. In the same year, 3.7 million people received acupuncture in the United States. The data also indicate that women, higher income and higher educated people used CAM more frequently. An increasing number of allopathic medical professionals are open to CAM, and recommend their patients to use acupuncture and other modalities. TCM, as an important part of CAM, has become a new option for patients in improving their healthcare services in conjunction with allopathic medicine. TCM will have more potential to be utilized in the United States.

  10. The history of the development of Ayurvedic medicine in Russia.

    PubMed

    Ragozin, Boris Vladimirovich

    2016-01-01

    Ayurveda is one of the world's oldest medical sciences, with a history that goes back more than 5,000 years. The knowledge of Ayurveda has at various times had an impact on a number of branches of medicine: From ancient Greek medicine in the West to the Chinese and Tibetan in the East. Ayurveda continues to retain its prominent position in our modern world, being officially recognised by the World Health Organisation (WHO) and enjoying great popularity in the US, Germany, Italy and the Netherlands. In India, Ayurveda is recognised by conventional medicine on a par with modern medical science. In the Soviet Union a strong interest in Ayurveda arose for the first time after the Chernobyl disaster, and since then Ayurveda has been actively developing in Russia. In this article we present the chronology of the development of Ayurvedic medicine in Russia since 1989, explore academic literature on the subject available in Russian and review the existing Ayurvedic products and services offered on the Russian market. PMID:27143798

  11. The history of the development of Ayurvedic medicine in Russia

    PubMed Central

    Ragozin, Boris Vladimirovich

    2016-01-01

    Ayurveda is one of the world's oldest medical sciences, with a history that goes back more than 5,000 years. The knowledge of Ayurveda has at various times had an impact on a number of branches of medicine: From ancient Greek medicine in the West to the Chinese and Tibetan in the East. Ayurveda continues to retain its prominent position in our modern world, being officially recognised by the World Health Organisation (WHO) and enjoying great popularity in the US, Germany, Italy and the Netherlands. In India, Ayurveda is recognised by conventional medicine on a par with modern medical science. In the Soviet Union a strong interest in Ayurveda arose for the first time after the Chernobyl disaster, and since then Ayurveda has been actively developing in Russia. In this article we present the chronology of the development of Ayurvedic medicine in Russia since 1989, explore academic literature on the subject available in Russian and review the existing Ayurvedic products and services offered on the Russian market. PMID:27143798

  12. The history of the development of Ayurvedic medicine in Russia.

    PubMed

    Ragozin, Boris Vladimirovich

    2016-01-01

    Ayurveda is one of the world's oldest medical sciences, with a history that goes back more than 5,000 years. The knowledge of Ayurveda has at various times had an impact on a number of branches of medicine: From ancient Greek medicine in the West to the Chinese and Tibetan in the East. Ayurveda continues to retain its prominent position in our modern world, being officially recognised by the World Health Organisation (WHO) and enjoying great popularity in the US, Germany, Italy and the Netherlands. In India, Ayurveda is recognised by conventional medicine on a par with modern medical science. In the Soviet Union a strong interest in Ayurveda arose for the first time after the Chernobyl disaster, and since then Ayurveda has been actively developing in Russia. In this article we present the chronology of the development of Ayurvedic medicine in Russia since 1989, explore academic literature on the subject available in Russian and review the existing Ayurvedic products and services offered on the Russian market.

  13. Nuclear medicine technology. Progress report, quarter ending March 31, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.

    1980-10-01

    The successful detection of experimentally produced myocardial infarctions in rats and dogs using /sup 123m/Te-9-telluraheptadecanoic acid (9-(/sup 123m/Te)-THDA) is described. Preferential localization of radioactivity in normal myocardial tissue of rats that had experimentally produced infarctions was also demonstrated by tissue distribution studies following injection of 9-(/sup 123m/Te)-THDA. The effects of chain length on the myocardial uptake of /sup 75/Se-labeled long-chain fatty acids was also studied further. Selenium-75-labeled 13-selenaheneicosonic acid (H/sub 3/C-(CH/sub 2/)/sub 7/-/sup 75/Se-(CH/sub 2/)/sub 11/-COOH, 13-(/sup 75/Se)-SHCA) shows the highest heart uptake in rats of the agents studied. These results indicate that myocardial imaging may be possible with 13-(/sup 75/Se)-SHCA and also suggest that potential positron emission tomography of the myocardium with the /sup 73/Se-labeled agent should be explored. The results of continuing studies with /sup 11/C and /sup 195m/Pt-labeled agents are also described. A variety of /sup 11/C-labeled amino acids were prepared and tested as pancreas and tumor localizing agents in a Medical Cooperative Program with the Oak Ridge Associated Universities. The microscale synthesis of /sup 195m/Pt-labeled cis-dichloro-trans-dihydroxy-bis-(isopropylamine)platinum(IV) (/sup 195m/Pt-CHIP) was developed further and preliminary tissue distribution studies with this important second-generation antitumor drug were completed in rats. Platinum-195m-labeled cis-dichlorodiammineplatinum(II) (/sup 195m/Pt-cis-DDP) was supplied for testing to a number of Medical Cooperative Programs. Studies of arsenic trioxide (As/sub 2/O/sub 3/) toxicity for human cells in the diffusion chamber assay system have continued. Further investigation of this arsenic-induced cytotoxicity has demonstrated a linear dose-response relationship and a difference in the permanence of the growth inhibitory effect using different doses.

  14. Robot development for nuclear material processing

    SciTech Connect

    Pedrotti, L.R.; Armantrout, G.A.; Allen, D.C.; Sievers, R.H. Sr.

    1991-07-01

    The Department of Energy is seeking to modernize its special nuclear material (SNM) production facilities and concurrently reduce radiation exposures and process and incidental radioactive waste generated. As part of this program, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) lead team is developing and adapting generic and specific applications of commercial robotic technologies to SNM pyrochemical processing and other operations. A working gantry robot within a sealed processing glove box and a telerobot control test bed are manifestations of this effort. This paper describes the development challenges and progress in adapting processing, robotic, and nuclear safety technologies to the application. 3 figs.

  15. Energetic electron processes fluorescence effects for structured nanoparticles X-ray analysis and nuclear medicine applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taborda, A.; Desbrée, A.; Carvalho, A.; Chaves, P. C.; Reis, M. A.

    2016-08-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticles are widely used as contrast agents for nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and can be modified for improved imaging or to become tissue-specific or even protein-specific. The knowledge of their detailed elemental composition characterisation and potential use in nuclear medicine applications, is, therefore, an important issue. X-ray fluorescence techniques such as particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) or X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF), can be used for elemental characterisation even in problematic situations where very little sample volume is available. Still, the fluorescence coefficient of Fe is such that, during the decay of the inner-shell ionised atomic structure, keV Auger electrons are produced in excess to X-rays. Since cross-sections for ionisation induced by keV electrons, for low atomic number atoms, are of the order of 103 barn, care should be taken to account for possible fluorescence effects caused by Auger electrons, which may lead to the wrong quantification of elements having atomic number lower than the atomic number of Fe. Furthermore, the same electron processes will occur in iron oxide nanoparticles containing 57Co, which may be used for nuclear medicine therapy purposes. In the present work, simple approximation algorithms are proposed for the quantitative description of radiative and non-radiative processes associated with Auger electrons cascades. The effects on analytical processes and nuclear medicine applications are quantified for the case of iron oxide nanoparticles, by calculating both electron fluorescence emissions and energy deposition on cell tissues where the nanoparticles may be embedded.

  16. Radiation chemistry for modern nuclear energy development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chmielewski, Andrzej G.; Szołucha, Monika M.

    2016-07-01

    Radiation chemistry plays a significant role in modern nuclear energy development. Pioneering research in nuclear science, for example the development of generation IV nuclear reactors, cannot be pursued without chemical solutions. Present issues related to light water reactors concern radiolysis of water in the primary circuit; long-term storage of spent nuclear fuel; radiation effects on cables and wire insulation, and on ion exchangers used for water purification; as well as the procedures of radioactive waste reprocessing and storage. Radiation effects on materials and enhanced corrosion are crucial in current (II/III/III+) and future (IV) generation reactors, and in waste management, deep geological disposal and spent fuel reprocessing. The new generation of reactors (III+ and IV) impose new challenges for radiation chemists due to their new conditions of operation and the usage of new types of coolant. In the case of the supercritical water-cooled reactor (SCWR), water chemistry control may be the key factor in preventing corrosion of reactor structural materials. This paper mainly focuses on radiation effects on long-term performance and safety in the development of nuclear power plants.

  17. [Development and status of intensive care medicine in internal medicine at the Karl Marx University in Leipzig].

    PubMed

    Engelmann, L; Schneider, D

    1989-01-15

    Issuing from the accomplishments of Köhler for the development of the intensive medicine in internal medicine-in 1964 he performed the first long-term respiration at the then Medical Clinic of the Karl Marx University, in 1969 he institutionalized the young subdiscipline at the clinic, in 1978 he founded the department for intensive medicine and is at work by his decisions concerning the development of young scientists, by the handbook "Intensive Medicine. Internal Medicine and Adjacent Subjects" as well as a member of the presidium of the GDR Society for Internal Medicine for the development of the internal intensive medicine-a description of the development of the department, its achievements and problems is given. The promotion of the intensive medicine by Köhler results, as we think, also from the comprehension that it has the duty to perform a function integrating the subdisciplines, which the modern internal medicine oriented to organs and systems threatens to lose, which, however, makes its self-apprehension, which the patient wishes and the teaching is demanding. From this and from the charge for a highly specialized care of patients who life-threateningly fell ill with internal diseases as well as from the duty to create a scientific forerunning results the stringent necessity of the development of the non-operative, in reality internal intensive medicine in the clinics for internal medicine of the county hospitals and university institutions as well as the greater identification of the internist with the subdiscipline in the district hospitals dealing with multidisciplinary intensive medicine.

  18. Academic Patents and Access to Medicines in Developing Countries

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    There is a widespread and growing concern that patents hinder access to life-saving drugs in developing countries. Recent student movements and legislative initiatives emphasize the potential role that research universities in developed countries could have in ameliorating this “access gap.” These efforts are based on the assumption that universities own patents on a substantial number of drugs and that patents on these drugs are currently filed in developing countries. I provide empirical evidence regarding these issues and explore the feasibility and desirability of proposals to change university patenting and licensing practices to promote access to medicines in the developing world. PMID:19008514

  19. [Study on sustainable development of industy of ethnic medicine in minority area].

    PubMed

    Ye, Hua; Liu, Shu-Lin; Zhai, Yong-Song; Huang, Ming-Jin; Zhang, Li-Dong

    2014-08-01

    Ethnic medicine industry is facing many problems such as narrow market, exhaustion of resource, decline of ethnic medicine and no qualified successors. Sustainable development theory was utilized to analyse the elements and problems of ethnic medicine industry, and the counter measures were put forward to get rid of the predicament and to realize the sustainable development which depends on the ethnic medicine resources, national medicine, industrial policy, personnel training and modern technology. The development issues of ethnic medicine industry can be solved by the coordination of enterprise, government and public. Finally the ethnic medicine can provide better services for society.

  20. Medical student disaster medicine education: the development of an educational resource

    PubMed Central

    Domres, Bernd D.; Stahl, Wolfgang; Bauer, Andreas; Houser, Christine M.; Himmelseher, Sabine

    2010-01-01

    Background Disaster medicine education is an enormous challenge, but indispensable for disaster preparedness. Aims We aimed to develop and implement a disaster medicine curriculum for medical student education that can serve as a peer-reviewed, structured educational guide and resource. Additionally, the process of designing, approving and implementing such a curriculum is presented. Methods The six-step approach to curriculum development for medical education was used as a formal process instrument. Recognized experts from professional and governmental bodies involved in disaster health care provided input using disaster-related physician training programs, scientific evidence if available, proposals for education by international disaster medicine organizations and their expertise as the basis for content development. Results The final course consisted of 14 modules composed of 2-h units. The concepts of disaster medicine, including response, medical assistance, law, command, coordination, communication, and mass casualty management, are introduced. Hospital preparedness plans and experiences from worldwide disaster assistance are reviewed. Life-saving emergency and limited individual treatment under disaster conditions are discussed. Specifics of initial management of explosive, war-related, radiological/nuclear, chemical, and biological incidents emphasizing infectious diseases and terrorist attacks are presented. An evacuation exercise is completed, and a mass casualty triage is simulated in collaboration with local disaster response agencies. Decontamination procedures are demonstrated at a nuclear power plant or the local fire department, and personal decontamination practices are exercised. Mannequin resuscitation is practiced while personal protective equipment is utilized. An interactive review of professional ethics, stress disorders, psychosocial interventions, and quality improvement efforts complete the training. Conclusions The curriculum offers

  1. Medicines

    MedlinePlus

    ... better. In the United States, the Food and Drug Administration is in charge of assuring the safety ... prescription and over-the-counter medicines. Even safe drugs can cause unwanted side effects or interactions with ...

  2. JPRS report: Nuclear developments, [April 25, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    1989-04-25

    This report contains information concerning the nuclear developments of the following countries: (1) China, (2) East Asia; Japan, Philippines, Vietnam, (3) East Europe; Czechoslovakia, German Democratic Republic, Hungary, (4) Latin America; Argentina, Brazil, (5) Near East and South Asia; India, Iran, Iraq, Pakistan, Israel, Bangladesh, (6) Soviet Union, and (7) West Europe; Federal Republic of Germany, Ireland, United Kingdom.

  3. JPRS report: Nuclear developments, [August 14, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    1989-08-14

    This report presents the nuclear developments of the following countries: (1) China, (2) East Asia; Japan, Taiwan, Indonesia, North Korea, South Korea, (3) Brazil, (4) Near East and South Asia; India, Syria, Pakistan, (5) East Europe; Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Poland, Hungary, Yugoslavia (6) West Europe; Federal Republic of Germany, Austria, United Kingdom, Finland, Italy, Switzerland (7) South Africa, and (8) Soviet Union.

  4. Pharmacologic biomarkers in the development of stratified cancer medicine.

    PubMed

    Figg, William Douglas; Newell, David R

    2014-05-15

    Clinical pharmacologic research plays a vital role in cancer drug development. In recent years, biomarker studies have become integral to this process, specifically the use of pharmacologic biomarkers in the development of targeted therapies and their translation to clinical practice. In this overview, we discuss the validation of pharmacodynamics (PD) biomarkers and highlight the circulating tumor DNA as a promising cancer biomarker to illustrate how PD biomarkers can be powerful tools for guiding treatment strategies. We provide insights into PD biomarker approaches for future development of novel therapies and their role in cancer medicine. See all articles in this CCR focus section, "Progress in pharmacodynamic endpoints."

  5. [Role of Radionuclide Technologies in Medicine].

    PubMed

    Chernyaev, A P; Belousov, A V; Varzar, S M; Borchegovskaya, P Y; Nikolaeva, A A; Krusanov, G A

    2016-01-01

    The paper describes the role of radionuclide technologies among the nuclear-physical methods used in medicine. The condition and prospects of the development of nuclear technology with use of radionuclides in medicine, and in particular, the method of brachytherapy are analyzed. The analysis of the current state of applying radionuclide facilities in medicine is provided.

  6. Design and operation of a nuclear medicine picture archiving and communication system.

    PubMed

    Brown, P H; Krishnamurthy, G T

    1990-07-01

    Construction of a new Veterans Administration Medical Center provided a unique opportunity to design and implement a state-of-the-art nuclear medicine department in a large teaching and research hospital. The new medical center allowed the acquisition of all new gamma cameras and computer systems without any historical need to patch together a system of old and new equipment. The picture archiving and communication system (PACS) was designed to link five gamma cameras to four image viewing areas, followed by digital archive on an optical disc. The gamma cameras' computers and viewing areas' computers are linked to a central networking computer in a manner that provides nine independent but digitally communicating image computers. Each nuclear medicine computer is capable of acquiring gamma camera data while possibly also performing up to three other simultaneous tasks: analysis of image data, transfer of image data from node to node, and patient database manipulation. The nine image computers each appear to the user as a digital file cabinet, containing various folders, which in turn contain patient studies. To transfer a patient study from one location to another, the user simply queues a transfer request by selecting a file drawer-folder combination for the source and destination locations. It takes only a few seconds to queue a transfer request, and the transfer is complete about a minute later without any further user intervention. A computer genie awakens during the early morning off-hours and performs housekeeping tasks, including movement of patient studies (based on date of acquisition) from active viewing folders to inactive archive folders. All scheduling, workload data, patient image reports, etc, are handled by a patient textual information database system. Patient reports and scheduling information are transmitted to the medical center's central computer where they are made readily available throughout the medical center. The PACS, in clinical use

  7. Health concerns related to radiation exposure of the female nuclear medicine patient.

    PubMed Central

    Stabin, M G

    1997-01-01

    The female nuclear medicine patient is of special concern in evaluating radiation dose and risk in nuclear medicine. The female's overall body size and organ sizes generally are smaller than those of her male counterpart (thus her radiation doses will be higher, given the same amounts of administered activity and similar biokinetics); female gonads are inside the body instead of outside and are near several organs often important as source organs in internal dosimetry (urinary bladder, liver, kidneys, intestines); risk of breast cancer is significantly higher among females than males; and in the case of pregnancy, exposure to radiation of the embryo/fetus and the nursing infant are of special concern in such an analysis. All these concerns are addressed in this study through a comparative study of radiation doses for males and females over a large number (approximately 60) of nuclear medicine studies and through a study of what is known about radiation dosimetry in pregnancy and breast feeding. It was found that women's critical organ doses and effective doses (as defined by the International Commission on Radiological Protection 60 [ICRP 60] are about 25% higher than those for men across all these studies. Women's gonad doses, however, may be as much as 10 to 30 times higher than those in men, although 2- to 3-fold differences are common. Many radiopharmaceuticals are administered to women of childbearing age; however, little is known about how much activity crosses the placenta and about the biokinetics in the fetus should it occur. Nonetheless, dose estimates are provided at four stages of pregnancy (early, 3-month, 6-month, and 9-month gestation) for a large number of radiopharmaceuticals, whether or not quantitative estimates of placental crossover can be made. Many radiopharmaceuticals are also excreted in breast milk of nursing mothers. Breast feeding interruption schedules are suggested through analysis of the observed kinetics of these pharmaceuticals and

  8. Space medicine policy development for the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigoriev, Anatoly I.; Williams, Richard S.; Comtois, Jean-Marc; Damann, Volker; Tachibana, Shoichi; Nicogossian, Arnauld E.; Bogomolov, Valery V.; Pool, Sam L.; Sargsyan, Ashot E.; Knowingkov, Oleg L.; Doarn, Charles R.

    2009-09-01

    Providing medical care capability in a multinational setting in space is a daunting challenge. As the International Space Station (ISS) has taken shape over the last decade the space medicine community of the ISS partners has established a foundation with which to govern medical policy, medial processes, and medical care during the ISS Program. This foundation was predicated on a rich history of bilateral and multilateral cooperation among space faring nations. Three key organizations were established, they include the agency or senior level Multilateral Medical Policy Board (MMPB), the Multilateral Space Medicine Board (MSMB), and the Multilateral Medical Operations Panel (MMOP). All three are staffed by senior medical personnel within each of the partner organizations of the ISS and each has specific roles and responsibilities. These three entities strive to protect the human element of spaceflight through highly effective interaction in a multilingual, multicultural program. This paper reviews the creation of this tripartite approach to the development of medical policy for ISS.

  9. Nuclear medicine program progress report for quarter ending September 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Ambrose, K.R.; Beets, A.L.; Luo, H.; McPherson, D.W.; Mirzadeh, S.

    1995-12-31

    In this report, we describe the results for study of the production of lutetium-177 ({sup 177}Lu) in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR). Two pathways for production of {sup 177}Lu were studied which involved both direct neutron capture on enriched {sup 176}Lu, {sup 176}Lu (n,{gamma}){sup 177}Lu, reaction and by decay of ytterbium-177 ({sup 177}Yb) produced by the {sup 176}Yb(n,{gamma}){sup 177}Yb ({beta}{sup {minus}} {sup {yields}}) reaction. Although the direct route is more straight forward and does not involve any separation steps, the indirect method via {beta}{sup {minus}}-decay of {sup 177}Yb has the advantage of providing carrier-free {sup 177}Lu, which would be required for antibody radiolabeling and other applications where very high specific activity is required.Substrates required for preparation of tissue-specific agents and several radioisotopes were also provided during this period through several Medical Cooperative Programs. These include the substrate for preparation of the ``BMIPP`` cardiac imaging which was developed in the ORNL Nuclear Medicine Program, which was provided to Dr. A. Giodamo, M.D. and colleagues at the Catholic University Hospital in Rome, Italy. Tungsten-188 produced in the ORNL HFIR was also provided to the Catholic University Hospital for fabrication of a tungsten-188/rhenium-188 generator to provide carrier-free rhenium-188 which will be used for preparation of rhenium-188 labeled methylenediphosphonate (MDP) for initial clinical evaluation for palliative treatment of bone pain (L. Troncone, M.D.). Samples of substrates for preparation of the new ORNL ``IQNP`` agent for imaging of muscarinic-cholinergic receptors were provided to the Karolinska Institute in Stockholm, Sweden, for preparation of radioiodinated IQNP for initial imaging studies with this new agent in monkeys and for tissue binding studies with human brain samples obtained from autopsy (C. Halldin, Ph.D.).

  10. Nuclear Medicine Program progress report for quarter ending September 30, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Ambrose, K.R.; Callahan, A.P.; McPherson, D.W.; Mirzadeh, S.; Srivastava, P.C.; Hasan, A.; Lambert, C.R.; Lambert, S.J.; Rice, D.E.

    1992-02-01

    Rat tissue distribution properties of IQNP,'' a new radioiodinated cholinergic-muscarinic receptor antagonist, are described. IQNP is the acronym for 1-azabicyclo(2.2.2)oct-3-yl {alpha}-hydroxy-{alpha}-phenyl-{alpha}(1-iodo-1-propen-3-yl) acetate, which is an analogue of the QNB muscarinic antagonist in which the p-iodophenyl moiety has been replaced with the 1-iodo-1-propen-3-yl moiety. The radioiodinated IQNP analogue is easier to prepare in much higher yields than QNB and is thus a candidate for the evaluation of muscarinic receptors by external imaging techniques. Studies in rats demonstrated that IQNP shows high uptake in those cerebral regions rich in muscarinic receptors QNB-treatment of rats either 1 h before (pre) or 2 h after (post) administration of radioiodinated IQNP resulted in significant displacement or blocking of cerebral specific IQNP uptake (% dose/gm) in the cortex and striatum. These studies demonstrate that IQNP has specificity for the cholinergic-muscarinic receptor and is a good candidate for further studies. Also during this period, several agents developed in the ORNL Nuclear Medicine Program were supplied to Medical Cooperative Programs for collaborative studies including the iodine-125-labeled BMIPP and DMIPP fatty acid analogues and the IPM antibody labeling agent. Tin-117m and gold-199 were produced in the ORNL High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) and supplied to the OHER-supported program in the Medical Department at Brookhaven National Laboratory to aid in their research until the re-start of the High Flux Brookhaven Reactor.

  11. Nuclear Medicine Program progress report for quarter ending September 30, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Ambrose, K.R.; Callahan, A.P.; McPherson, D.W.; Mirzadeh, S.; Srivastava, P.C.; Hasan, A.; Lambert, C.R.; Lambert, S.J.; Rice, D.E.

    1992-02-01

    Rat tissue distribution properties of ``IQNP,`` a new radioiodinated cholinergic-muscarinic receptor antagonist, are described. IQNP is the acronym for 1-azabicyclo[2.2.2]oct-3-yl {alpha}-hydroxy-{alpha}-phenyl-{alpha}(1-iodo-1-propen-3-yl) acetate, which is an analogue of the QNB muscarinic antagonist in which the p-iodophenyl moiety has been replaced with the 1-iodo-1-propen-3-yl moiety. The radioiodinated IQNP analogue is easier to prepare in much higher yields than QNB and is thus a candidate for the evaluation of muscarinic receptors by external imaging techniques. Studies in rats demonstrated that IQNP shows high uptake in those cerebral regions rich in muscarinic receptors QNB-treatment of rats either 1 h before (pre) or 2 h after (post) administration of radioiodinated IQNP resulted in significant displacement or blocking of cerebral specific IQNP uptake (% dose/gm) in the cortex and striatum. These studies demonstrate that IQNP has specificity for the cholinergic-muscarinic receptor and is a good candidate for further studies. Also during this period, several agents developed in the ORNL Nuclear Medicine Program were supplied to Medical Cooperative Programs for collaborative studies including the iodine-125-labeled BMIPP and DMIPP fatty acid analogues and the IPM antibody labeling agent. Tin-117m and gold-199 were produced in the ORNL High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) and supplied to the OHER-supported program in the Medical Department at Brookhaven National Laboratory to aid in their research until the re-start of the High Flux Brookhaven Reactor.

  12. Characterisation of crystal matrices and single pixels for nuclear medicine applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herbert, D. J.; Belcari, N.; Camarda, M.; Guerra, A. Del; Vaiano, A.

    2005-01-01

    Commercially constructed crystal matrices are characterised for use with PSPMT detectors for PET system developments and other nuclear medicine applications. The matrices of different scintillation materials were specified with pixel dimensions of 1.5×1.5 mm2 in cross-section and a length corresponding to one gamma ray interaction length at 511 keV. The materials used in this study were BGO, LSO, LYSO, YSO and CsI(Na). Each matrix was constructed using a white TiO loaded epoxy that forms a 0.2 mm septa between each pixel. The white epoxy is not the optimum choice in terms of the reflective properties, but represents a good compromise between cost and the need for optical isolation between pixels. We also tested a YAP matrix that consisted of pixels of the same size specification but was manufactured by a different company, who instead of white epoxy, used a thin aluminium reflective layer for optical isolation that resulted in a septal thickness of just 0.01 mm, resulting in a much higher packing fraction. The characteristics of the scintillation materials, such as the light output and energy resolution, were first studied in the form of individual crystal elements by using a single pixel HPD. A comparison of individual pixels with and without the epoxy/dielectric coatings was also performed. Then the matrices themselves were coupled to a PSPMT in order to study the imaging performance. In particular, the system pixel resolution and the peak to valley ratio were measured at 511 and 122 keV.

  13. A strategy for intensive production of molybdenum-99 isotopes for nuclear medicine using CANDU reactors.

    PubMed

    Morreale, A C; Novog, D R; Luxat, J C

    2012-01-01

    Technetium-99m is an important medical isotope utilized worldwide in nuclear medicine and is produced from the decay of its parent isotope, molybdenum-99. The online fueling capability and compact fuel of the CANDU(®)(1) reactor allows for the potential production of large quantities of (99)Mo. This paper proposes (99)Mo production strategies using modified target fuel bundles loaded into CANDU fuel channels. Using a small group of channels a yield of 89-113% of the weekly world demand for (99)Mo can be obtained.

  14. Role of nuclear medicine bone scans in evaluating pain in athletic injuries

    SciTech Connect

    Martire, J.R.

    1987-10-01

    The utilization of nuclear medicine bone scanning examinations early in the diagnostic process allows physicians to render prompt and correct treatment in urgent or difficult athletic cases. Bone scanning should be performed for athletic injuries whenever (1) x-rays are normal but bone or joint pain persists; (2) x-rays are positive but it cannot be determined if the findings are acute or chronic; (3) soft-tissue injuries present and x-rays are not useful; and (4) bone pain or joint impairment present without a history of trauma.89 references.

  15. Detection of thoracic infections by nuclear medicine techniques in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, E.L.; Sanger, J.J. )

    1989-11-01

    The challenge of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) for nuclear medicine has been the early detection of related intrathoracic opportunistic infections, inflammatory conditions, and neoplasms. Gallium-67 citrate scanning has proved a sensitive test not only for Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia but for many of the other opportunistic infections and malignancies, including mycobacterial infections and lymphoma. Patterns and intensity of gallium uptake may suggest more specific diagnoses. Indium-111-labeled white blood cells may also be a valuable diagnostic tool in the AIDS patient.41 references.

  16. [Current situation and development trend of Chinese medicine information research].

    PubMed

    Dong, Yan; Cui, Meng

    2013-04-01

    Literature resource service was the main service that Chinese medicine (CM) information offered. But in recent years users have started to request the health information knowledge service. The CM information researches and application service mainly included: (1) the need of strength studies on theory, application of technology, information retrieval, and information standard development; (2) Information studies need to support clinical decision making, new drug research; (3) Quick response based on the network monitoring and support to emergency countermeasures. CM information researches have the following treads: (1) developing the theory system structure of CM information; (2) studying the methodology system of CM information; (3) knowledge discovery and knowledge innovation.

  17. Transportation issues in nuclear medicine and the release of radioactivity into the environment.

    PubMed

    Westerman, B R

    1986-07-01

    Large volumes of radioactive materials are shipped daily over the nation's highways, by air, and by other transportation modes for a variety of purposes. These shipments include those intended for nuclear medicine applications. Shipments are governed by the Federal Department of Transportation, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and, for international shipments, the International Atomic Energy Agency. Knowledge of the regulations of these agencies is essential for maintenance of a viable radiation safety program. The use of radioactive materials is invariably accompanied by the potential for release of radioactivity into the environment. This potential is addressed in the recommendations and regulations of several voluntary and governmental agencies. Recently, new concepts have been introduced into these recommendations and regulations that use the concepts of "annual limit of intake," "committed effective dose equivalent," and "derived air concentrations." These concepts improve the applicability of present standards for the release of radioactive materials into the environment and for the protection of individuals from these materials. PMID:3749916

  18. Barriers and countermeasures in developing traditional Chinese medicine in Europe.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yunfang; Yang, Zhiping; Cheng, Jing; Fan, Daiming

    2016-09-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is one of the unique cultural treasures of Chinese; it represents a significant feature and prominent advantage of the healthcare cause in China. Data in this paper were fromWorld Health Organization, Chinese Bureau of Statistics, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and PubMed. In recent years, TCM has established a solid foundation in Europe, which made great strides in legislation, education, research, and international exchange, and has enjoyed a vast development space in the continent. Now, TCM is embracing unprecedented development opportunities in Europe. At the same time, the stiff international competition poses a grave threat to China's TCM industry. With multiple cultural, legal, and institutional challenges, as well as talent shortages in the way, TCM is now facing many difficulties in Europe. To fully prepare and enact active and vigorous steps to seize opportunities, we should have a clear picture about the serious challenges hampering TCM development in Europe. The TCM development at overseas markets has shifted from a spontaneous trade activity into a national strategy spearheaded by the government and participated in by multiple stakeholders. We should make a systematic, comprehensive, and sustainable push in fields such as TCM therapy, healthcare, education, research, culture, and industry development. The ultimate goal is to bring TCMs to the global market and allow them to play a role in safeguarding public health along with modern medicines.

  19. Barriers and countermeasures in developing traditional Chinese medicine in Europe.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yunfang; Yang, Zhiping; Cheng, Jing; Fan, Daiming

    2016-09-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is one of the unique cultural treasures of Chinese; it represents a significant feature and prominent advantage of the healthcare cause in China. Data in this paper were fromWorld Health Organization, Chinese Bureau of Statistics, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and PubMed. In recent years, TCM has established a solid foundation in Europe, which made great strides in legislation, education, research, and international exchange, and has enjoyed a vast development space in the continent. Now, TCM is embracing unprecedented development opportunities in Europe. At the same time, the stiff international competition poses a grave threat to China's TCM industry. With multiple cultural, legal, and institutional challenges, as well as talent shortages in the way, TCM is now facing many difficulties in Europe. To fully prepare and enact active and vigorous steps to seize opportunities, we should have a clear picture about the serious challenges hampering TCM development in Europe. The TCM development at overseas markets has shifted from a spontaneous trade activity into a national strategy spearheaded by the government and participated in by multiple stakeholders. We should make a systematic, comprehensive, and sustainable push in fields such as TCM therapy, healthcare, education, research, culture, and industry development. The ultimate goal is to bring TCMs to the global market and allow them to play a role in safeguarding public health along with modern medicines. PMID:27465827

  20. Medicinal plants: a public resource for metabolomics and hypothesis development.

    PubMed

    Wurtele, Eve Syrkin; Chappell, Joe; Jones, A Daniel; Celiz, Mary Dawn; Ransom, Nick; Hur, Manhoi; Rizshsky, Ludmila; Crispin, Matthew; Dixon, Philip; Liu, Jia; P Widrlechner, Mark; Nikolau, Basil J

    2012-01-01

    Specialized compounds from photosynthetic organisms serve as rich resources for drug development. From aspirin to atropine, plant-derived natural products have had a profound impact on human health. Technological advances provide new opportunities to access these natural products in a metabolic context. Here, we describe a database and platform for storing, visualizing and statistically analyzing metabolomics data from fourteen medicinal plant species. The metabolomes and associated transcriptomes (RNAseq) for each plant species, gathered from up to twenty tissue/organ samples that have experienced varied growth conditions and developmental histories, were analyzed in parallel. Three case studies illustrate different ways that the data can be integrally used to generate testable hypotheses concerning the biochemistry, phylogeny and natural product diversity of medicinal plants. Deep metabolomics analysis of Camptotheca acuminata exemplifies how such data can be used to inform metabolic understanding of natural product chemical diversity and begin to formulate hypotheses about their biogenesis. Metabolomics data from Prunella vulgaris, a species that contains a wide range of antioxidant, antiviral, tumoricidal and anti-inflammatory constituents, provide a case study of obtaining biosystematic and developmental fingerprint information from metabolite accumulation data in a little studied species. Digitalis purpurea, well known as a source of cardiac glycosides, is used to illustrate how integrating metabolomics and transcriptomics data can lead to identification of candidate genes encoding biosynthetic enzymes in the cardiac glycoside pathway. Medicinal Plant Metabolomics Resource (MPM) [1] provides a framework for generating experimentally testable hypotheses about the metabolic networks that lead to the generation of specialized compounds, identifying genes that control their biosynthesis and establishing a basis for modeling metabolism in less studied species. The

  1. Understanding the cause of an unreadable nuclear medicine image: a case of unexpected results with 123I whole-body scintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Skweres, Justin; Yang, Zhiyun; Gonzalez-Toledo, Eduardo

    2014-12-01

    When unexpected results are obtained with standard image collection, the nuclear medicine physician must consider many technical factors that may have contributed. When image quality is poor, prior radiotracer administration, among other things, should always be considered. Our case demonstrates how knowledge of patient history and basic principles of nuclear medicine physics allows recognition of the septal penetration artifact. This allows the nuclear medicine physician to tailor the exam to an individual patient and obtain the most useful diagnostic information for the clinician.

  2. Dose equivalent rate constants and barrier transmission data for nuclear medicine facility dose calculations and shielding design.

    PubMed

    Kusano, Maggie; Caldwell, Curtis B

    2014-07-01

    A primary goal of nuclear medicine facility design is to keep public and worker radiation doses As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA). To estimate dose and shielding requirements, one needs to know both the dose equivalent rate constants for soft tissue and barrier transmission factors (TFs) for all radionuclides of interest. Dose equivalent rate constants are most commonly calculated using published air kerma or exposure rate constants, while transmission factors are most commonly calculated using published tenth-value layers (TVLs). Values can be calculated more accurately using the radionuclide's photon emission spectrum and the physical properties of lead, concrete, and/or tissue at these energies. These calculations may be non-trivial due to the polyenergetic nature of the radionuclides used in nuclear medicine. In this paper, the effects of dose equivalent rate constant and transmission factor on nuclear medicine dose and shielding calculations are investigated, and new values based on up-to-date nuclear data and thresholds specific to nuclear medicine are proposed. To facilitate practical use, transmission curves were fitted to the three-parameter Archer equation. Finally, the results of this work were applied to the design of a sample nuclear medicine facility and compared to doses calculated using common methods to investigate the effects of these values on dose estimates and shielding decisions. Dose equivalent rate constants generally agreed well with those derived from the literature with the exception of those from NCRP 124. Depending on the situation, Archer fit TFs could be significantly more accurate than TVL-based TFs. These results were reflected in the sample shielding problem, with unshielded dose estimates agreeing well, with the exception of those based on NCRP 124, and Archer fit TFs providing a more accurate alternative to TVL TFs and a simpler alternative to full spectral-based calculations. The data provided by this paper should assist

  3. Dose equivalent rate constants and barrier transmission data for nuclear medicine facility dose calculations and shielding design.

    PubMed

    Kusano, Maggie; Caldwell, Curtis B

    2014-07-01

    A primary goal of nuclear medicine facility design is to keep public and worker radiation doses As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA). To estimate dose and shielding requirements, one needs to know both the dose equivalent rate constants for soft tissue and barrier transmission factors (TFs) for all radionuclides of interest. Dose equivalent rate constants are most commonly calculated using published air kerma or exposure rate constants, while transmission factors are most commonly calculated using published tenth-value layers (TVLs). Values can be calculated more accurately using the radionuclide's photon emission spectrum and the physical properties of lead, concrete, and/or tissue at these energies. These calculations may be non-trivial due to the polyenergetic nature of the radionuclides used in nuclear medicine. In this paper, the effects of dose equivalent rate constant and transmission factor on nuclear medicine dose and shielding calculations are investigated, and new values based on up-to-date nuclear data and thresholds specific to nuclear medicine are proposed. To facilitate practical use, transmission curves were fitted to the three-parameter Archer equation. Finally, the results of this work were applied to the design of a sample nuclear medicine facility and compared to doses calculated using common methods to investigate the effects of these values on dose estimates and shielding decisions. Dose equivalent rate constants generally agreed well with those derived from the literature with the exception of those from NCRP 124. Depending on the situation, Archer fit TFs could be significantly more accurate than TVL-based TFs. These results were reflected in the sample shielding problem, with unshielded dose estimates agreeing well, with the exception of those based on NCRP 124, and Archer fit TFs providing a more accurate alternative to TVL TFs and a simpler alternative to full spectral-based calculations. The data provided by this paper should assist

  4. Radiation accidents and their management: emphasis on the role of nuclear medicine professionals

    PubMed Central

    Novruzov, Fuad; Vinjamuri, Sobhan

    2014-01-01

    Large-scale radiation accidents are few in number, but those that have occurred have subsequently led to strict regulation in most countries. Here, different accident scenarios involving exposure to radiation have been reviewed. A triage of injured persons has been summarized and guidance on management has been provided in accordance with the early symptoms. Types of casualty to be expected in atomic blasts have been discussed. Management at the scene of an accident has been described, with explanation of the role of the radiation protection officer, the nature of contaminants, and monitoring for surface contamination. Methods for early diagnosis of radiation injuries have been then described. The need for individualization of treatment according to the nature and grade of the combined injuries has been emphasized, and different approaches to the treatment of internal contamination have been presented. The role of nuclear medicine professionals, including physicians and physicists, has been reviewed. It has been concluded that the management of radiation accidents is a very challenging process and that nuclear medicine physicians have to be well organized in order to deliver suitable management in any type of radiation accident. PMID:25004166

  5. Communication of radiation risk in nuclear medicine: Are we saying the right thing?

    PubMed Central

    Pandit, Manish; Vinjamuri, Sobhan

    2014-01-01

    The radiation risk arising from nuclear medicine investigations represents a small but manageable risk to patients and it needs to be effectively communicated to them. Frequently in the culture of “doctor knows best,” patients trust their doctors to do whatever is right and appropriate and leave it to them to worry about any attendant risks associated with any tests involving the use of radiation. The benefit to the patient of having a speedier diagnosis and a further guide to management may not be effectively communicated in a comprehensive, timely and professional manner. In this article, we address the issue of communication of radiation risk and benefits to patients and the basis for such information. While there are different ways of communicating radiation risk, we recognize that certain basic parameters are absolutely essential for patients to enable them to make an informed choice about undergoing a nuclear medicine investigation under the direction of a well-trained and qualified individual. PMID:25210276

  6. Radiation accidents and their management: emphasis on the role of nuclear medicine professionals.

    PubMed

    Bomanji, Jamshed B; Novruzov, Fuad; Vinjamuri, Sobhan

    2014-10-01

    Large-scale radiation accidents are few in number, but those that have occurred have subsequently led to strict regulation in most countries. Here, different accident scenarios involving exposure to radiation have been reviewed. A triage of injured persons has been summarized and guidance on management has been provided in accordance with the early symptoms. Types of casualty to be expected in atomic blasts have been discussed. Management at the scene of an accident has been described, with explanation of the role of the radiation protection officer, the nature of contaminants, and monitoring for surface contamination. Methods for early diagnosis of radiation injuries have been then described. The need for individualization of treatment according to the nature and grade of the combined injuries has been emphasized, and different approaches to the treatment of internal contamination have been presented. The role of nuclear medicine professionals, including physicians and physicists, has been reviewed. It has been concluded that the management of radiation accidents is a very challenging process and that nuclear medicine physicians have to be well organized in order to deliver suitable management in any type of radiation accident.

  7. Automated motion correction based on target tracking for dynamic nuclear medicine studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Xinhua; Tetrault, Tracy; Fahey, Fred; Treves, Ted

    2008-03-01

    Nuclear medicine dynamic studies of kidneys, bladder and stomach are important diagnostic tools. Accurate generation of time-activity curves from regions of interest (ROIs) requires that the patient remains motionless for the duration of the study. This is not always possible since some dynamic studies may last from several minutes to one hour. Several motion correction solutions have been explored. Motion correction using external point sources is inconvenient and not accurate especially when motion results from breathing, organ motion or feeding rather than from body motion alone. Centroid-based motion correction assumes that activity distribution is only inside the single organ (without background) and uniform, but this approach is impractical in most clinical studies. In this paper, we present a novel technique of motion correction that first tracks the organ of interest in a dynamic series then aligns the organ. The implementation algorithm for target tracking-based motion correction consists of image preprocessing, target detection, target positioning, motion estimation and prediction, tracking (new search region generation) and target alignment. The targeted organ is tracked from the first frame to the last one in the dynamic series to generate a moving trajectory of the organ. Motion correction is implemented by aligning the organ ROIs in the image series to the location of the organ in the first image. The proposed method of motion correction has been applied to several dynamic nuclear medicine studies including radionuclide cystography, dynamic renal scintigraphy, diuretic renography and gastric emptying scintigraphy.

  8. Nuclear Thermal Rocket (NTR) Development Risk Communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Tony

    2014-01-01

    There are clear advantages of development of a Nuclear Thermal Rocket (NTR) for a crewed mission to Mars. NTR for in-space propulsion enables more ambitious space missions by providing high thrust at high specific impulse (approximately 900 sec) that is 2 times the best theoretical performance possible for chemical rockets. Missions can be optimized for maximum payload capability to take more payload with reduced total mass to orbit; saving cost on reduction of the number of launch vehicles needed. Or missions can be optimized to minimize trip time significantly to reduce the deep space radiation exposure to the crew. NTR propulsion technology is a game changer for space exploration. However, "NUCLEAR" is a word that is feared and vilified by some groups and the hostility towards development of any nuclear systems can meet great opposition by the public as well as from national leaders and people in authority. Communication of nuclear safety will be critical to the success of the development of the NTR. Why is there a fear of nuclear? A bomb that can level a city is a scary weapon. The first and only times the Nuclear Bomb was used in a war was on Hiroshima and Nagasaki during World War 2. The "Little Boy" atomic bomb was dropped on Hiroshima on August 6, 1945 and the "Fat Man" on Nagasaki 3 days later on August 9th. Within the first 4 months of bombings, 90- 166 thousand people died in Hiroshima and 60-80 thousand died in Nagasaki. It is important to note for comparison that over 500 thousand people died and 5 million made homeless due to strategic bombing (approximately 150 thousand tons) of Japanese cities and war assets with conventional non-nuclear weapons between 1942- 1945. A major bombing campaign of "firebombing" of Tokyo called "Operation Meetinghouse" on March 9 and 10 consisting of 334 B-29's dropped approximately1,700 tons of bombs around 16 square mile area and over 100 thousand people have been estimated to have died. The declaration of death is very

  9. Development and promotion in translational medicine: perspectives from 2012 sino-american symposium on clinical and translational medicine

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Clinical translational medicine (CTM) is an emerging area comprising multidisciplinary research from basic science to medical applications and entails a close collaboration among hospital, academia and industry. Findings This Session focused discussing on new models for project development and promotion in translational medicine. The conference stimulated the scientific and commercial communication of project development between academies and companies, shared the advanced knowledge and expertise of clinical applications, and created the environment for collaborations. Conclusions Although strategic collaborations between corporate and academic institutions have resulted in a state of resurgence in the market, new cooperation models still need time to tell whether they will improve the translational medicine process. PMID:23369198

  10. Progress and challenges of nuclear science development in Vietnam - an outlook on the occassion of the 10-th anniversary of the Dalat Nuclear Research Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Hien, P.D.

    1994-12-31

    Over ten years since the commissioning of the Dalat nuclear research reactor a number of nuclear techniques have been developed and applied in Vietnam Manufacturing of radioisotopes and nuclear instruments, development of isotope tracer and nuclear analytical techniques for environmental studies, exploitation of filtered neutron beams, ... have been major activities of reactor utilizations. Efforts made during ten years of reactor operation have resulted also in establishing and sustaining the applications of nuclear techniques in medicine, industry, agriculture, etc. The successes achieved and lessons teamed over the past ten years are discussed illustrating the approaches taken for developing the nuclear science in the conditions of a country having a very low national income and experiencing a transition from a centrally planned to a market-oriented economic system.

  11. Perspectives of Nuclear Energy for Human Development

    SciTech Connect

    Rouyer, Jean-Loup

    2002-07-01

    In this period of expectation and short term viewing, everyone has difficulties to draw long term perspectives. A positive global world vision of sustainable development gives confidence in the preparation of energy future in a moving international context. This presentation proposes to share such a long term vision inside which energy scenarios for nuclear development take their right place. It is founded on a specific analysis of an index of countries global development which is representative of a country efficiency. Human Development Index (HDI) is a composite international index recommended and calculated every year since 1990 by the United Nations Development Program (UNDP). This index is still very dependent of GNP, which ignores the disparities of revenues inside the country. That is why a Country Efficiency Index (CEI) has been defined to better represent the capacity of a country to utilize its resources for welfare of its inhabitants. CEI is a ratio of health and education levels to the capacity of the country to satisfy this welfare. CEI has been calculated for the 70 more populated countries of the world for the year 1997. CEI calculation has been also performed for European Countries, the United States, China and India on the period from 1965 to 1997. It is observed a growth of CEI. for France from 0.6 to 0.78, and from 0.7 to 0.85 for USA. In 1997, CEI of China was 0.46, and 0.38 for India. This index is a good tool to measure the progression of development of the countries and the related energy needs. Comparison of the evolutions of CEI of these different countries shows a similar positive trend with some delay between OECD countries and China or India. A positive scenario for the future is based on a similar curve for these developing countries with learning effect which produces development with less energy consumption. This simulation results however in energy needs that exceed fossil fuel today available resources in 2070. Ultimate fossil

  12. In vivo mutagenicity and clastogenicity of ionizing radiation in nuclear medicine. Final performance report, January 1, 1989--December 31, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Kelsey, K.T.

    1991-12-31

    The overall goal of our research was to investigate the mutagenic and clastogenic effects of exposure to low levels of ionizing radiation to human lymphocytes. Principally, we studied hospital patients referred to a nuclear medicine department for diagnostic cardiac imaging and nuclear medicine technologists who administer radionuclides. Emphasis in the first year, as described in the first progress report, was on optimization of the hprt mutation assay, measurement of mutant frequencies in patients imaged with thallium-201, and measurement of mutant frequencies in controls. Emphasis in the second and third years was on measurements of: (1) chromosome aberrations in patients imaged with thallium-201; (2) mutant frequencies in patients imaged with technetium-99; (3) mutant frequencies in nuclear medicine technicians and physical therapists; and (4) mutant frequencies in patients treated for Hodgkins disease with radiotherapy. The completed work has been published and is described below in more detail.

  13. The development of nuclear energy in the Philippines

    SciTech Connect

    Aleta, C. )

    1992-01-01

    The paper traces the development of nuclear energy in the Philippines and outlines the program on the peaceful uses of nuclear energy in the country as well as the problems and prospects of nuclear energy development. Nuclear power is at a standstill but the other areas of nuclear energy development are underway. The projects on the application of nuclear energy in agriculture, industry, public health and safety, are being pursued. Technology transfer to end users is sometimes hampered by public acceptance issues, such as irradiated food being believed to become radioactive, dislike with anything associated with radiation, and plain inherent fear of nuclear energy.

  14. Textbook of respiratory medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, J.F.; Nadel, J.

    1987-01-01

    This book presents a clinical reference of respiratory medicine. It also details basic science aspects of pulmonary physiology and describes recently developed, sophisticated diagnostic tools and therapeutic methods. It also covers anatomy, physiology, pharmacology, and pathology; microbiologic, radiologic, nuclear medicine, and biopsy methods for diagnosis.

  15. Development of Nanomaterials for Nuclear Energetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrunin, V. F.

    Structure and properties peculiarities of the nanocrystalline powders give the opportunity to design new and to develop a modernization of nuclear energy industry materials. It was shown experimentally, that addition of 5-10% uranium dioxide nanocrystalline powder to traditional coarse powder allows to decrease the sintering temperature or to increase the fuel tablets size of grain. Similar perspectives for the technology of neutron absorbing tablets of control-rod modernization are shown by nanopowder of dysprosium hafnate changing instead now using boron carbide. It is powders in nanocrystalline state get an opportunity to sinter them and to receive compact tablet with 8,2-8,4 g/cm2 density for automatic defence system of nuclear reactor. Resource of dysprosium hafnate ceramics can be 18-20 years instead 4-5 years for boron carbide. To step up the radiation-damage stability of fuel element jacket material was suggested to strengthen a heat-resistant ferrite-martensite steel by Y2O3 nanocrystalline powder addition. Nanopowder with size of particles 560 nm and crystallite size 9 nm was prepeared by chemical coprecipitation method. To make lighter the container for transport and provisional disposal of exposed fuel from nuclear reactor a new boron-aluminium alloy called as boral was developed. This composite armed with nanopowders of boron-containing materials and heavy metals oxides can replace succesburnt-up corrosion-resistant steels.

  16. Integrating workplace exposure databases for occupational medicine services and epidemiologic studies at a former nuclear weapons facility.

    PubMed

    Ruttenber, A J; McCrea, J S; Wade, T D; Schonbeck, M F; LaMontagne, A D; Van Dyke, M V; Martyny, J W

    2001-02-01

    We outline methods for integrating epidemiologic and industrial hygiene data systems for the purpose of exposure estimation, exposure surveillance, worker notification, and occupational medicine practice. We present examples of these methods from our work at the Rocky Flats Plant--a former nuclear weapons facility that fabricated plutonium triggers for nuclear weapons and is now being decontaminated and decommissioned. The weapons production processes exposed workers to plutonium, gamma photons, neutrons, beryllium, asbestos, and several hazardous chemical agents, including chlorinated hydrocarbons and heavy metals. We developed a job exposure matrix (JEM) for estimating exposures to 10 chemical agents in 20 buildings for 120 different job categories over a production history spanning 34 years. With the JEM, we estimated lifetime chemical exposures for about 12,000 of the 16,000 former production workers. We show how the JEM database is used to estimate cumulative exposures over different time periods for epidemiological studies and to provide notification and determine eligibility for a medical screening program developed for former workers. We designed an industrial hygiene data system for maintaining exposure data for current cleanup workers. We describe how this system can be used for exposure surveillance and linked with the JEM and databases on radiation doses to develop lifetime exposure histories and to determine appropriate medical monitoring tests for current cleanup workers. We also present time-line-based graphical methods for reviewing and correcting exposure estimates and reporting them to individual workers. PMID:11217711

  17. Integrating workplace exposure databases for occupational medicine services and epidemiologic studies at a former nuclear weapons facility.

    PubMed

    Ruttenber, A J; McCrea, J S; Wade, T D; Schonbeck, M F; LaMontagne, A D; Van Dyke, M V; Martyny, J W

    2001-02-01

    We outline methods for integrating epidemiologic and industrial hygiene data systems for the purpose of exposure estimation, exposure surveillance, worker notification, and occupational medicine practice. We present examples of these methods from our work at the Rocky Flats Plant--a former nuclear weapons facility that fabricated plutonium triggers for nuclear weapons and is now being decontaminated and decommissioned. The weapons production processes exposed workers to plutonium, gamma photons, neutrons, beryllium, asbestos, and several hazardous chemical agents, including chlorinated hydrocarbons and heavy metals. We developed a job exposure matrix (JEM) for estimating exposures to 10 chemical agents in 20 buildings for 120 different job categories over a production history spanning 34 years. With the JEM, we estimated lifetime chemical exposures for about 12,000 of the 16,000 former production workers. We show how the JEM database is used to estimate cumulative exposures over different time periods for epidemiological studies and to provide notification and determine eligibility for a medical screening program developed for former workers. We designed an industrial hygiene data system for maintaining exposure data for current cleanup workers. We describe how this system can be used for exposure surveillance and linked with the JEM and databases on radiation doses to develop lifetime exposure histories and to determine appropriate medical monitoring tests for current cleanup workers. We also present time-line-based graphical methods for reviewing and correcting exposure estimates and reporting them to individual workers.

  18. Precision medicine in oncology drug development: a pharma perspective.

    PubMed

    Hollingsworth, Simon J

    2015-12-01

    A rapid expansion in precision medicine founded on the potential for durable clinical benefit through matching a drug to a predictive marker used to select patients has driven the development of targeted drugs with accompanied companion diagnostics for patient selection. Oncology has been at the forefront, with the improvements in patient survival notable. Increasing numbers of molecular subgroups require an equally increasing number (and new generation) of highly selective agents targeting inevitably lower incidence molecular segments, posing significant challenges for drug development. Innovative trial designs (umbrella or basket studies) are emerging as patient-centric approaches and public-private partnerships, cross-industry, government and non-profit sector collaborations are enabling implementation. Success will require continued innovation, new paradigms in oncology drug development and market approval and continued collaboration.

  19. Veterinary Preventive Medicine Curriculum Development at Louisiana State University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubbert, William T.

    1976-01-01

    The program aims at training veterinarians, with interdepartmental faculty participation the rule rather than the exception. Included in the curriculum are: avian medicine, herd health management, veterinary public health, veterinary food hygiene, and regulatory veterinary medicine. (LBH)

  20. Economic evaluations of personalized medicine: existing challenges and current developments

    PubMed Central

    Shabaruddin, Fatiha H; Fleeman, Nigel D; Payne, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    Personalized medicine, with the aim of safely, effectively, and cost-effectively targeting treatment to a prespecified patient population, has always been a long-time goal within health care. It is often argued that personalizing treatment will inevitably improve clinical outcomes for patients and help achieve more effective use of health care resources. Demand is increasing for demonstrable evidence of clinical and cost-effectiveness to support the use of personalized medicine in health care. This paper begins with an overview of the existing challenges in conducting economic evaluations of genetics- and genomics-targeted technologies, as an example of personalized medicine. Our paper illustrates the complexity of the challenges faced by these technologies by highlighting the variations in the issues faced by diagnostic tests for somatic variations, generally referring to genetic variation in a tumor, and germline variations, generally referring to inherited genetic variation in enzymes involved in drug metabolic pathways. These tests are typically aimed at stratifying patient populations into subgroups on the basis of clinical effectiveness (response) or safety (avoidance of adverse events). The paper summarizes the data requirements for economic evaluations of genetics and genomics-based technologies while outlining that the main challenges relating to data requirements revolve around the availability and quality of existing data. We conclude by discussing current developments aimed to address the challenges of assessing the cost-effectiveness of genetics and genomics-based technologies, which revolve around two central issues that are interlinked: the need to adapt available evaluation methods and identifying who is responsible for generating evidence for these technologies. PMID:26309416

  1. System model development for nuclear thermal propulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Walton, J.T.; Hannan, N.A.; Perkins, K.R.; Buksa, J.J.; Worley, B.A.; Dobranich, D.

    1992-10-01

    A critical enabling technology in the evolutionary development of nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) is the ability to predict the system performance under a variety of operating conditions. Since October 1991, US (DOE), (DOD) and NASA have initiated critical technology development efforts for NTP systems to be used on Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) missions to the Moon and Mars. This paper presents the strategy and progress of an interagency NASA/DOE/DOD team for NTP system modeling. It is the intent of the interagency team to develop several levels of computer programs to simulate various NTP systems. An interagency team was formed for this task to use the best capabilities available and to assure appropriate peer review. The vision and strategy of the interagency team for developing NTP system models will be discussed in this paper. A review of the progress on the Level 1 interagency model is also presented.

  2. Sanitary engineering aspects of nuclear energy developments*

    PubMed Central

    Kenny, A. W.

    1962-01-01

    So many developments have taken place in the field of nuclear energy since 1956, when the author's previous paper on radioactive waste disposal was published in the Bulletin of the World Health Organization, that a fresh review of the subject is now appropriate. The present paper deals with those aspects of the problem which are of most interest to the sanitary engineer. It considers specific points in the latest recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection in relation to public drinking-water supplies, and examines the problem of fall-out, with special reference to the presence and significance of strontium-90 in drinking-water. A general survey of the various uses of radioactive materials is followed by a discussion of the legislative and control measures necessary to ensure safe disposal of wastes. The methods of waste disposal adopted in a number of nuclear energy establishments are described in detail. The paper concludes with some remarks on solid waste disposal, siting of nuclear energy industries and area monitoring. PMID:14455214

  3. Systems approach to nuclear waste glass development

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C M

    1986-01-01

    Development of a host solid for the immobilization of nuclear waste has focused on various vitreous wasteforms. The systems approach requires that parameters affecting product performance and processing be considered simultaneously. Application of the systems approach indicates that borosilicate glasses are, overall, the most suitable glasses for the immobilization of nuclear waste. Phosphate glasses are highly durable; but the glass melts are highly corrosive and the glasses have poor thermal stability and low solubility for many waste components. High-silica glasses have good chemical durability, thermal stability, and mechanical stability, but the associated high melting temperatures increase volatilization of hazardous species in the waste. Borosilicate glasses are chemically durable and are stable both thermally and mechanically. The borosilicate melts are generally less corrosive than commercial glasses, and the melt temperature miimizes excessive volatility of hazardous species. Optimization of borosilicate waste glass formulations has led to their acceptance as the reference nuclear wasteform in the United States, United Kingdom, Belgium, Germany, France, Sweden, Switzerland, and Japan.

  4. Developing clinical practice guidelines for spinal cord medicine. Lessons learned.

    PubMed

    Biddle, A K; Fraher, E P

    2000-02-01

    This article describes the process used by the Consortium for Spinal Cord Medicine to develop evidence-based clinical practice guidelines for managing and treating individuals with spinal cord injury and provides important information on lessons learned and the potential problems to avoid. Issues to consider during the guideline development process include topic selection and explication, methods for selecting the panel chair and panel members, the writing of recommendations and supporting scientific rationales, peer-reviewing guidelines, and the process for disseminating, implementing, and evaluating guidelines. The applicability, advantages, and disadvantages of available evidence and guideline recommendation grading systems and issues arising from the lack of scientific evidence supporting particular recommendations are also discussed.

  5. Key informants' perspectives on development of family medicine training programs in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Gossa, Weyinshet; Wondimagegn, Dawit; Mekonnen, Demeke; Eshetu, Wondwossen; Abebe, Zerihun; Fetters, Michael D

    2016-01-01

    As a very low-income country, Ethiopia faces significant development challenges, though there is great aspiration to dramatically improve health care in the country. Family medicine has recently been recognized through national policy as one potential contributor in addressing Ethiopia's health care challenges. Family medicine is a new specialty in Ethiopia emerging in the context of family medicine development in Sub-Saharan Africa. The Addis Ababa University family medicine residency program started in 2013 and is the first and the only family medicine program in the country as of March 2016. Stakeholders on the ground feel that family medicine is off to a good start and have great enthusiasm and optimism for its success. While the Ministry of Health has a vision for the development of family medicine and a plan for rapid upscaling of family medicine across the country, significant challenges remain. Continuing discussion about the potential roles of family medicine specialists in Ethiopia and policy-level strategic planning to place family medicine at the core of primary health care delivery in the country is needed. In addition, the health care-tier system needs to be restructured to include the family medicine specialists along with appropriately equipped health care facilities for training and practice. Key stakeholders are optimistic that family medicine expansion can be successful in Ethiopia through a coordinated effort by the Ministry of Health and collaboration between institutions within the country, other Sub-Saharan African countries, and international partners supportive of establishing family medicine in Ethiopia. PMID:27175100

  6. Development on dynamic nuclear polarized targets.

    SciTech Connect

    Penttila, S. I.

    2002-01-01

    Our interest in understanding the spin content of the nucleon has left its marks on the recent development, of the dynamic nuclear polarized (DNP) targets. This can be seen from the targets developed at CERN and SLAC for the measurement of the polarized spin structure functions in deep inelastic scattering. The results of the experiments indicated that less than 30% of the nucleon spin is carried by the quarks. This unpredicted small value initiated planning of new polarized target experiments to determine the gluon polarization on the nucleon using polarized real photons and polarized 'LiD targets. In several facilities very intense polarized photon beams are available at a wide energy range. During the next few years these photon beanis with DNP targets will be used to test the fundamental GDH sum rule. Other DNP target developments are also discussed.

  7. System model development for nuclear thermal propulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Hannan, N.A.; Worley, B.A.; Walton, J.T.; Perkins, K.R.; Buksa, J.J.; Dobranich, D.

    1992-11-01

    A critical enabling technology in the evolutionary development of nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) is the ability to predict the system performance under a variety of operating conditions. This is crucial for mission analysis and for control subsystem testing as well as for the modeling of various failure modes. Performance must be accurately predicted during steady-state and transient operation, including startup, shutdown and post operation cooling. The development and application of verified and validated system models has the potential to reduce the design, testing, cost and time required for the technology to reach flight-ready status. Since October 1991, the US Department of Energy (DOE), Department of Defense (DOD) and NASA have initiated critical technology development efforts for NTP systems to be used on Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) missions to the Moon and Mars. This paper presents the strategy and progress of an interagency NASA/DOE/DOD team for NTP system modeling.

  8. The patient as a radioactive source: an intercomparison of survey meters for measurements in nuclear medicine.

    PubMed

    Uhrhan, K; Drzezga, A; Sudbrock, F

    2014-11-01

    In this work, the radiation exposure in nuclear medicine is evaluated by measuring dose rates in the proximity of patients and those in close contact to sources like capsules and syringes. A huge number of different survey meters (SMs) are offered commercially. This topic has recently gained interest since dosemeters and active personal dosemeters (APD) for the new dose quantities (ambient and directional dose equivalent) have become available. One main concern is the practical use of SMs and APD in daily clinical routines. Therefore, the radiation field of four common radiopharmaceuticals containing (18)F, (90)Y, (99m)Tc and (131)I in radioactive sources or after application to the patient was determined. Measurements were carried out with different SMs and for several distances. Dose rates decline significantly with the distance to the patient, and with some restrictions, APD can be used as SMs.

  9. [Effect of changing into slippers on the pollution situation in the nuclear medicine management district].

    PubMed

    Miyashita, Makoto; Takahashi, Yoshimasa; Akiyama, Masayuki; Takase, Tadashi; Kato, Kyoichi; Nitta, Masaru; Nakazawa, Yasuo

    2012-01-01

    Changing into slippers when entering the nuclear medicine management district prevented pollution expansion. Accidents involving patients falling occurred in university facilities. It was thought that changing slippers was the cause. The pollution situation was measured in three facilities by using the smear method and the direct technique to examine the effect of changing slippers. The current state was measured. After pollution prevention guidance was continuously done, pollution expansion was measured; three weeks of measurements were compared. Pollution was detected in the first period of weeks at a frequency of 19 times. For the latter period, it was detected 6 times. Half the pollution was in the restroom. Pollution was reduced by doing pollution prevention guidance for the restroom. Patients' falls occur even if they change slippers. Falling accidents can be decreased.

  10. Recently revised diagnostic reference levels in nuclear medicine in Bulgaria and in Finland.

    PubMed

    Korpela, H; Bly, R; Vassileva, J; Ingilizova, K; Stoyanova, T; Kostadinova, I; Slavchev, A

    2010-01-01

    An EU twinning project entitled 'Strengthening of administrative structures for radiation protection and safe use of ionising radiation in diagnostics and therapy' was established between Bulgaria and Finland, lasting from June 2008 to May 2009. One component of the project was to improve the optimisation of patient protection in nuclear medicine (NM) through revising diagnostic reference levels (DRLs). The revised DRLs are based on national surveys on the numbers of NM procedures and activities given to the patients in different procedures. The survey in Bulgaria was carried out in 2008 and that in Finland in 2007. National DRLs were established for the most frequent and dose-relevant examinations. The proposed DRLs in both countries are in good agreement with other national recommendations in Europe.

  11. [Conservative calibration of a clearance monitor system for waste material from nuclear medicine].

    PubMed

    Wanke, Carsten; Geworski, Lilli

    2014-09-01

    Clearance monitor systems are used for gross gamma measurements of waste potentially contaminated with radioactivity. These measurements are to make sure that legal requirements, e.g. clearance criteria according to the german radiation protection ordinance, are met. This means that measurement results may overestimate, but must not underestimate the true values. This paper describes a pragmatic way using a calibrated Cs-137 point source to generate a conservative calibration for the clearance monitor system used in the Medizinische Hochschule Hannover (MHH). The most important nuclides used in nuclear medicine are considered. The measurement result reliably overestimates the true value of the activity present in the waste. The calibration is compliant with the demands for conservativity and traceability to national standards.

  12. Assessment of metabolic bone disease: review of new nuclear medicine procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Wahner, H.W.

    1985-12-01

    In the management of patients with metabolic bone disease, nuclear medicine laboratories offer two nontraumatic procedures of potential clinical importance: bone mineral measurements and bone scintigraphy. Bone mineral measurements from the radius, lumbar spine, and hip obtained with use of absorptiometry or computed tomography can be used to predict the risk of fracture at these skeletal sites, can determine the severity of bone loss for the assessment of a benefit-versus-risk ratio on which appropriate therapy can be based, and can substantiate the effectiveness of therapy over time. Bone scintigraphy with use of labeled diphosphonate allows assessment of focal and, in defined circumstances, of total skeletal bone turnover in patients with normal kidney function. Both of these techniques have been used successfully in studies of population groups for the evaluation of trends. Their application to the management of individual patients is currently being evaluated. 41 references.

  13. One-year clinical experience with a fully digitized nuclear medicine department: organizational and economical aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anema, P. C.; de Graaf, C. N.; Wilmink, J. B.; Hall, David R.; Hoekstra, A. G.; van Rijk, P. P.; Van Isselt, J. W.; Viergever, Max A.

    1991-07-01

    At the department of nuclear medicine of the University Hospital Utrecht a single-modality PACS has been operational since mid-1990. After one year of operation the functionality, the organizational and economical consequences, and the acceptability of the PACS were evaluated. The functional aspects reviewed were: viewing facilities, patient data management, connectivity, reporting facilities, archiving, privacy, and security. It was concluded that the improved quality of diagnostic viewing and the potential integration with diagnosis, reporting, and archiving are highly appreciated. The many problems that have occurred during the transition period, however, greatly influence the appreciation and acceptability of the PACS. Overall, it is felt that in the long term there will be a positive effect on the quality and efficiency of the work.

  14. [Protection, exploitation and utilization states of specialized Mongolian folk medicine resources and related development strategy].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chun-hong; Man, Da; Wu, Guo-dong; Li, Zhen-hua; Zhao, Dong-dong; Liu, Yong; Li, Min-hui

    2015-03-01

    Mongolian folk medicine resource is the origin of Mongolian medicine development, even more important of which is the specialized Mongolian folk medicine resources with regional and high medicine quality, it processes distinctive national characteristics with irreplaceable important position in traditional Mongolian medicine. Nevertheless, due to the serious destroy of ecological environment and sharp increase of demands, etc. A lot of specialized Mongolian folk medicine resources were endangered, and there still existed some problems in the protection and exploitation and utilization. This paper intends to provide comprehensive insight into the species protection and exploitation and utilization states of specialized Mongolian folk medicine resources. The application and protection status and the existing problems were reviewed, and the development strategies of Mongolian folk medicine resource were analyzed.

  15. Developing the medicinal plants sector in northern India: challenges and opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Kala, Chandra Prakash; Dhyani, Pitamber Prasad; Sajwan, Bikram Singh

    2006-01-01

    The medicinal properties of plant species have made an outstanding contribution in the origin and evolution of many traditional herbal therapies. These traditional knowledge systems have started to disappear with the passage of time due to scarcity of written documents and relatively low income in these traditions. Over the past few years, however, the medicinal plants have regained a wide recognition due to an escalating faith in herbal medicine in view of its lesser side effects compared to allopathic medicine in addition the necessity of meeting the requirements of medicine for an increasing human population. Through the realization of the continuous erosion of traditional knowledge of plants used for medicine in the past and the renewed interest at the present time, a need existed to review this valuable knowledge of medicinal plants with the purpose of developing medicinal plants sectors across the different states in India. Our major objectives therefore were to explore the potential in medicinal plants resources, to understand the challenges and opportunities with the medicinal plants sector, and also to suggest recommendations based upon the present state of knowledge for the establishment and smooth functioning of the medicinal plants sector along with improving the living standards of the underprivileged communities. The review reveals that northern India harbors a rich diversity of valuable medicinal plants, and attempts are being made at different levels for sustainable utilization of this resource in order to develop the medicinal plants sector.

  16. Aviation Medicine: global historical perspectives and the development of Aviation Medicine alongside the growth of Singapore's aviation landscape.

    PubMed

    Gan, W H; Low, R; Singh, J

    2011-05-01

    Aviation Medicine traces its roots to high altitude physiology more than 400 years ago. Since then, great strides have been made in this medical specialty, initially catalysed by the need to reduce pilot medical attrition during the World Wars, and more recently, fuelled by the explosive growth in globalised commercial air travel. This paper traces the historical milestones in Aviation Medicine, and maps its development in Singapore since the 1960s. Advancements in military aviation platforms and technology as well as the establishment of Singapore as an international aviation hub have propelled Aviation Medicine in Singapore to the forefront of many domains. These span Aviation Physiology training, selection medical standards, performance maximisation, as well as crew and passenger protection against communicable diseases arising from air travel. The year 2011 marks the centennial milestone of the first manned flight in Singapore, paving the way for further growth of Aviation Medicine as a mature specialty in Singapore. PMID:21633764

  17. Aviation Medicine: global historical perspectives and the development of Aviation Medicine alongside the growth of Singapore's aviation landscape.

    PubMed

    Gan, W H; Low, R; Singh, J

    2011-05-01

    Aviation Medicine traces its roots to high altitude physiology more than 400 years ago. Since then, great strides have been made in this medical specialty, initially catalysed by the need to reduce pilot medical attrition during the World Wars, and more recently, fuelled by the explosive growth in globalised commercial air travel. This paper traces the historical milestones in Aviation Medicine, and maps its development in Singapore since the 1960s. Advancements in military aviation platforms and technology as well as the establishment of Singapore as an international aviation hub have propelled Aviation Medicine in Singapore to the forefront of many domains. These span Aviation Physiology training, selection medical standards, performance maximisation, as well as crew and passenger protection against communicable diseases arising from air travel. The year 2011 marks the centennial milestone of the first manned flight in Singapore, paving the way for further growth of Aviation Medicine as a mature specialty in Singapore.

  18. The standardization methods of radioactive sources (125I, 131I, 99mTc, and 18F) for calibrating nuclear medicine equipment in Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wurdiyanto, G.; Candra, H.

    2016-03-01

    The standardization of radioactive sources (125I, 131I, 99mTc and 18F) to calibrate the nuclear medicine equipment had been carried out in PTKMR-BATAN. This is necessary because the radioactive sources used in the field of nuclear medicine has a very short half-life in other that to obtain a quality measurement results require special treatment. Besides that, the use of nuclear medicine techniques in Indonesia develop rapidly. All the radioactive sources were prepared by gravimetric methods. Standardization of 125I has been carried out by photon- photon coincidence methods, while the others have been carried out by gamma spectrometry methods. The standar sources are used to calibrate a Capintec CRC-7BT radionuclide calibrator. The results shows that calibration factor for Capintec CRC-7BT dose calibrator is 1,03; 1,02; 1,06; and 1,04 for 125I, 131I, 99mTc and 18F respectively, by about 5 to 6% of the expanded uncertainties.

  19. Normal values and standardization of parameters in nuclear cardiology: Japanese Society of Nuclear Medicine working group database.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Kenichi; Matsumoto, Naoya; Kasai, Tokuo; Matsuo, Shinro; Kiso, Keisuke; Okuda, Koichi

    2016-04-01

    As a 2-year project of the Japanese Society of Nuclear Medicine working group activity, normal myocardial imaging databases were accumulated and summarized. Stress-rest with gated and non-gated image sets were accumulated for myocardial perfusion imaging and could be used for perfusion defect scoring and normal left ventricular (LV) function analysis. For single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with multi-focal collimator design, databases of supine and prone positions and computed tomography (CT)-based attenuation correction were created. The CT-based correction provided similar perfusion patterns between genders. In phase analysis of gated myocardial perfusion SPECT, a new approach for analyzing dyssynchrony, normal ranges of parameters for phase bandwidth, standard deviation and entropy were determined in four software programs. Although the results were not interchangeable, dependency on gender, ejection fraction and volumes were common characteristics of these parameters. Standardization of (123)I-MIBG sympathetic imaging was performed regarding heart-to-mediastinum ratio (HMR) using a calibration phantom method. The HMRs from any collimator types could be converted to the value with medium-energy comparable collimators. Appropriate quantification based on common normal databases and standard technology could play a pivotal role for clinical practice and researches.

  20. The American College of nuclear physicians 18th annual meeting and scientific sessions DOE day: Substance abuse and nuclear medicine abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-02-01

    Despite the enormous personal and social cost Of substance abuse, there is very little knowledge with respect to the mechanisms by which these drugs produce addiction as well as to the mechanisms of toxicity. Similarly, there is a lack of effective therapeutic intervention to treat the drug abusers. In this respect, nuclear medicine could contribute significantly by helping to gather information using brain imaging techniques about mechanisms of drug addiction which, in turn, could help design better therapeutic interventions, and by helping in the evaluation and diagnosis of organ toxicity from the use of drugs of abuse. This volume contains six short descriptions of presentations made at the 18th Meeting of the American College of Nuclear Physicians -- DOE Day: Substance Abuse and Nuclear Medicine.

  1. [About development of All-Russian Service for Disaster Medicine at the present stage].

    PubMed

    Goncharov, S F; Fisun, A Ia; Bobiĭ, B V

    2013-10-01

    The information about foundation, development and main areas of activity of All-Russian Service for Disaster Medicine is given. Almost 20 years professional staff members help to save lives and health of people injured in emergency situations in Russia and other countries. There are 81 territorial centers for disaster medicine. The main center is All-Russian center for disaster medicine Zaschita. Its organizational structure, performance indexes including development of information and communication technology, telehealth, organization of firs-aid in a traffic collision are considered. The main ways of improvement of the whole service for disaster medicine including service for disaster medicine of Ministry of Defense are shown.

  2. Development of underwater and hyperbaric medicine as a medical specialty in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Aktaş, Samil; Toklu, Akin S; Yildiz, Senol; Uzun, Günalp

    2013-01-01

    Underwater and hyperbaric medicine focuses on diving physiology, prevention and treatment of health problems related to the exposure to high ambient pressure and therapeutic use of hyperbaric oxygen for several medical conditions. Adequate educational standards should be developed for physicians working in the field of underwater and hyperbaric medicine. In Turkey, underwater and hyperbaric medicine is one of the medical specialties. The history of underwater and hyperbaric medicine as a medical specialty is dated back to the 1960s. In this paper, we review standards and the development of underwater and hyperbaric medicine as a medical specialty in Turkey.

  3. Self-irradiation of the blood from selected nuclides in nuclear medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hänscheid, H.; Fernández, M.; Eberlein, U.; Lassmann, M.

    2014-03-01

    Nuclear medicine dosimetry and research in biodosimetry often require the knowledge of the absorbed dose to the blood. This study provides coefficients for the absorbed dose rates to the blood related to the activity concentration in the blood as a function of the vessel radius for radionuclides commonly used in targeted radiotherapy and in PET-diagnostics: C-11, F-18, Ga-68, Y-90, Tc-99 m, I-124, I-131, and Lu-177. The energy deposition patterns after nuclear disintegrations in blood vessel lumina (cylinders homogeneously filled with blood) with radii from 0.01 to 25.0 mm were simulated with the Monte-Carlo radiation transport code MCNPX. An additional contribution from photon radiation from activity in blood in the remainder of the body was taken into account based on a reasonable blood distribution model. The fraction of energy absorbed from non-penetrating radiation in the blood is low in thin blood vessels but approaches the total energy emitted by particles with increasing lumen radius. For photon radiation, irradiation to blood in small vessels is almost completely due to radioactive decays in distant blood distributed throughout the body, whereas the contribution from activity in the vessel becomes dominant for lumen radii exceeding 13 mm. The dependences of the absorbed dose rates on the lumen radius can be described with good accuracy by empirical functions which can be used to determine the absorbed doses to the blood and to the surrounding tissue.

  4. [Development of external medicine and dermatology of TCM in the Republican period].

    PubMed

    He, Zhongjun; Wang, Li

    2015-05-01

    The inheritance of the theory in external medicine in the Republican period was mainly derived from Wai ke zheng zong (Orthodox Manual of External Medicine) and Yi zong jin jian (Golden Mirror of Medicine) and the sorting out of medical plasters, pills, and powders from Wai ke shi san fang (Thirteen Recipes of External Medicine). Zhang Shanlei's Yang ke gang yao (Guidelines for Ulcerations), based on the five-year experience of Zhu's family, offers new experience and ideas for syndrome differentiation; Ding Ganren's diagnosis for external medicine is exquisite with many well known formulae prescribed by himself; Monographs on leprosy and syphilis were published by famous physicians. Departments of external medicine and anal diseases, and classes on external medicine and dermatology and venereal diseases were set up in TCM schools in Guangdong and Zhejiang provinces with teaching materials compiled. All these mark the development of external medicine in modern age.

  5. Shielding Development for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caffrey, Jarvis A.; Gomez, Carlos F.; Scharber, Luke L.

    2015-01-01

    Radiation shielding analysis and development for the Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (NCPS) effort is currently in progress and preliminary results have enabled consideration for critical interfaces in the reactor and propulsion stage systems. Early analyses have highlighted a number of engineering constraints, challenges, and possible mitigating solutions. Performance constraints include permissible crew dose rates (shared with expected cosmic ray dose), radiation heating flux into cryogenic propellant, and material radiation damage in critical components. Design strategies in staging can serve to reduce radiation scatter and enhance the effectiveness of inherent shielding within the spacecraft while minimizing the required mass of shielding in the reactor system. Within the reactor system, shield design is further constrained by the need for active cooling with minimal radiation streaming through flow channels. Material selection and thermal design must maximize the reliability of the shield to survive the extreme environment through a long duration mission with multiple engine restarts. A discussion of these challenges and relevant design strategies are provided for the mitigation of radiation in nuclear thermal propulsion.

  6. Ambient Dose Equivalent measured at the Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia Department of Nuclear Medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Avila, O.; Torres-Ulloa, C. L.; Medina, L. A.; Trujillo-Zamudio, F. E.; Gamboa de Buen, I.; Buenfil, A. E.; Brandan, M. E.

    2010-12-07

    Ambient dose equivalent values were determined in several sites at the Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia, Departmento de Medicina Nuclear, using TLD-100 and TLD-900 thermoluminescent dosemeters. Additionally, ambient dose equivalent was measured at a corridor outside the hospitalization room for patients treated with {sup 137}Cs brachytherapy. Dosemeter calibration was performed at the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Laboratorio de Metrologia, to known {sup 137}Cs gamma radiation air kerma. Radionuclides considered for this study are {sup 131}I, {sup 18}F, {sup 67}Ga, {sup 99m}Tc, {sup 111}In, {sup 201}Tl and {sup 137}Cs, with main gamma energies between 93 and 662 keV. Dosemeters were placed during a five month period in the nuclear medicine rooms (containing gamma-cameras), injection corridor, patient waiting areas, PET/CT study room, hot lab, waste storage room and corridors next to the hospitalization rooms for patients treated with {sup 131}I and {sup 137}Cs. High dose values were found at the waste storage room, outside corridor of {sup 137}Cs brachytherapy patients and PET/CT area. Ambient dose equivalent rate obtained for the {sup 137}Cs brachytherapy corridor is equal to (18.51{+-}0.02)x10{sup -3} mSv/h. Sites with minimum doses are the gamma camera rooms, having ambient dose equivalent rates equal to (0.05{+-}0.03)x10{sup -3} mSv/h. Recommendations have been given to the Department authorities so that further actions are taken to reduce doses at high dose sites in order to comply with the ALARA principle (as low as reasonably achievable).

  7. Developing competencies for pediatric hospice and palliative medicine.

    PubMed

    Klick, Jeffrey C; Friebert, Sarah; Hutton, Nancy; Osenga, Kaci; Pituch, Kenneth J; Vesel, Tamara; Weidner, Norbert; Block, Susan D; Morrison, Laura J

    2014-12-01

    In 2006, hospice and palliative medicine (HPM) became an officially recognized subspecialty. This designation helped initiate the Accreditation Council of Graduate Medical Education Outcomes Project in HPM. As part of this process, a group of expert clinician-educators in HPM defined the initial competency-based outcomes for HPM fellows (General HPM Competencies). Concurrently, these experts recognized and acknowledged that additional expertise in pediatric HPM would ensure that the competencies for pediatric HPM were optimally represented. To fill this gap, a group of pediatric HPM experts used a product development method to define specific Pediatric HPM Competencies. This article describes the development process. With the ongoing evolution of HPM, these competencies will evolve. As part of the Next Accreditation System, the Accreditation Council of Graduate Medical Education uses milestones as a framework to better define competency-based, measurable outcomes for trainees. Currently, there are no milestones specific to HPM, although the field is designing curricular milestones with multispecialty involvement, including pediatrics. These competencies are the conceptual framework for the pediatric content in the HPM milestones. They are specific to the pediatric HPM subspecialist and should be integrated into the training of pediatric HPM subspecialists. They will serve a foundational role in HPM and should inform a wide range of emerging innovations, including the next evolution of HPM Competencies, development of HPM curricular milestones, and training of adult HPM and other pediatric subspecialists. They may also inform pediatric HPM outcome measures, as well as standards of practice and performance for pediatric HPM interdisciplinary teams.

  8. System model development for nuclear thermal propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walton, James T.; Hannan, Nelson A.; Perkins, Ken R.; Buksa, John H.; Worley, Brian A.; Dobranich, Dean

    1992-01-01

    A critical enabling technology in the evolutionary development of nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) is the ability to predict the system performance under a variety of operating conditions. This is crucial for mission analysis and for control subsystem testing as well as for the modeling of various failure modes. Performance must be accurately predicted during steady-state and transient operation, including startup, shutdown, and post operation cooling. The development and application of verified and validated system models has the potential to reduce the design, testing, and cost and time required for the technology to reach flight-ready status. Since Oct. 1991, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Department of Defense (DOD), and NASA have initiated critical technology development efforts for NTP systems to be used on Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) missions to the Moon and Mars. This paper presents the strategy and progress of an interagency NASA/DOE/DOD team for NTP system modeling. It is the intent of the interagency team to develop several levels of computer programs to simulate various NTP systems. The first level will provide rapid, parameterized calculations of overall system performance. Succeeding computer programs will provide analysis of each component in sufficient detail to guide the design teams and experimental efforts. The computer programs will allow simulation of the entire system to allow prediction of the integrated performance. An interagency team was formed for this task to use the best capabilities available and to assure appropriate peer review.

  9. Nuclear electric propulsion development and qualification facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dutt, D. S.; Thomassen, K.; Sovey, J.; Fontana, Mario

    1991-01-01

    This paper summarizes the findings of a Tri-Agency panel consisting of members from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) that were charged with reviewing the status and availability of facilities to test components and subsystems for megawatt-class nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) systems. The facilities required to support development of NEP are available in NASA centers, DOE laboratories, and industry. However, several key facilities require significant and near-term modification in order to perform the testing required to meet a 2014 launch date. For the higher powered Mars cargo and piloted missions, the priority established for facility preparation is: (1) a thruster developmental testing facility, (2) a thruster lifetime testing facility, (3) a dynamic energy conversion development and demonstration facility, and (4) an advanced reactor testing facility (if required to demonstrate an advanced multiwatt power system). Facilities to support development of the power conditioning and heat rejection subsystems are available in industry, federal laboratories, and universities. In addition to the development facilities, a new preflight qualifications and acceptance testing facility will be required to support the deployment of NEP systems for precursor, cargo, or piloted Mars missions. Because the deployment strategy for NEP involves early demonstration missions, the demonstration of the SP-100 power system is needed by the early 2000's.

  10. Development of an academic training program in insurance medicine.

    PubMed

    Donceel, Peter

    2008-01-01

    We outline the aims and content of an inter-university academic training program in insurance medicine in Flanders, Belgium. The program leads to the diploma of "Master of Insurance Medicine and Medico-legal Expertise." The program was re-organized in 2005-2006 and is accessible for physicians who want to practice social and/or private insurance medicine as their main medical profession or as an accessory activity. The aim of education is to prepare insurance physicians to provide high quality assessments, advice and decisions. The combined education in both social and private insurance medicine offers a broad perspective on the discipline and promotes collaboration within the specialty. The recent recognition of Insurance Medicine as a medical specialty in Belgium strengthens the position of insurance physicians as they collaborate with other medical specialists and with the management of insurance companies or the social security institute.

  11. Development, Implementation, and Compliance of Treatment Pathways in Radiation Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Potters, Louis; Raince, Jadeep; Chou, Henry; Kapur, Ajay; Bulanowski, Daniel; Stanzione, Regina; Lee, Lucille

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: While much emphasis on safety in the radiation oncology clinic is placed on process, there remains considerable opportunity to increase safety, enhance outcomes, and avoid ad hoc care by instituting detailed treatment pathways. The purpose of this study was to review the process of developing evidence and consensus-based, outcomes-oriented treatment pathways that standardize treatment and patient management in a large multi-center radiation oncology practice. Further, we reviewed our compliance in incorporating these directives into our day-to-day clinical practice. Methods: Using the Institute of Medicine guideline for developing treatment pathways, 87 disease specific pathways were developed and incorporated into the electronic medical system in our multi-facility radiation oncology department. Compliance in incorporating treatment pathways was assessed by mining our electronic medical records (EMR) data from January 1, 2010 through February 2012 for patients with breast and prostate cancer. Results: This retrospective analysis of data from EMR found overall compliance to breast and prostate cancer treatment pathways to be 97 and 99%, respectively. The reason for non-compliance proved to be either a failure to complete the prescribed care based on grade II or III toxicity (n = 1 breast, 3 prostate) or patient elected discontinuance of care (n = 1 prostate) or the physician chose a higher dose for positive/close margins (n = 3 breast). Conclusion: This study demonstrates that consensus and evidence-based treatment pathways can be developed and implemented in a multi-center department of radiation oncology. And that for prostate and breast cancer there was a high degree of compliance using these directives. The development and implementation of these pathways serve as a key component of our safety program, most notably in our effort to facilitate consistent decision-making and reducing variation between physicians. PMID:23653892

  12. [Present situation and development strategies of Chinese medicine preparation in medical institutions].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jie; Qiao, Xi-Yao; Lin, Fei

    2015-11-01

    As the actual clinical reflecting of transform Chinese medicine special curative effect, Chinese medicine preparation not only satisfies the need of hospital clinic, scientific research and teaching, but also plays an important role in deepening medical and health system reform, improving people's health level and contributing to the economic growth. However, some problems about administration and approval (tending to western medicine), contraction of the scale, lack of synchronization for clinic and scientific research, and the imbalance of regional development make Chinese medicine preparation move forwards slowly in contradiction. It has not only reduced the effectiveness of the Chinese medicine preparation in hospital clinic, but also brought bad effect on modernized development of Chinese medicine preparation. Research shows that main influencing factors of status quo of Chinese medicine preparation in medical institution include imperfect laws and regulations, high cost than income, and shortage of talents in preparation research. The analysis indicated that the necessary measures to break the contradiction, improve clinical effect of Chinese medicine, and promote the modernization development of Chinese drugs preparation were as follows: government and related departments should strengthen the supporting force in policy by adjusting the examination and approval policy, speeding up dispensing use, reforming pricing system, including into medicare reimbursement, integrating advantage resources and so on; medical institution should actively carry out research and development of traditional Chinese Medicine through drawing the traditional and modern essence, reserving professional talents, and developing characteristic preparation; companies cooperate with hospitals for complementary advantages, which can rapidly transform Chinese medicine preparation into clinical practice.

  13. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Spectroscopy For Metabolic Profiling of Medicinal Plants and Their Products.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Dinesh

    2016-09-01

    NMR spectroscopy has multidisciplinary applications, including excellent impact in metabolomics. The analytical capacity of NMR spectroscopy provides information for easy qualitative and quantitative assessment of both endogenous and exogenous metabolites present in biological samples. The complexity of a particular metabolite and its contribution in a biological system are critically important for understanding the functional state that governs the organism's phenotypes. This review covers historical aspects of developments in the NMR field, its applications in chemical profiling, metabolomics, and quality control of plants and their derived medicines, foods, and other products. The bottlenecks of NMR in metabolic profiling are also discussed, keeping in view the future scope and further technological interventions.

  14. The Hazards Posed by the Global Development of Nuclear Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Reilly, S. A.

    1976-01-01

    Outlines the growth in the demand for energy on a world-wide basis. Reviews the development of nuclear power and points out the many hazards in the nuclear fuel cycle. Describes the nature of nuclear wastes and explains the quantities involved and the current techniques for waste disposal. (GS)

  15. The Mighty Atom? The Development of Nuclear Power Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Frank

    2014-01-01

    The use of nuclear energy for the generation of electricity started in the 1950s and was viewed, at the time, as a source of virtually free power. Development flourished and some countries adopted the nuclear option as their principal source for producing electrical energy. However, a series of nuclear incidents and concern about the treatment of…

  16. Psychosocial Aspects of Nuclear Developments. Task Force Report 20.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychiatric Association, Washington, DC.

    This is the report of a task force formed to bring psychological understanding to bear on the various aspects of the development of nuclear arms and nuclear energy and the threat they pose to human physical, mental, and emotional health. The first of seven articles considers the sociopsychological aspects of the nuclear arms race. Other articles…

  17. [Insist on the nature of evidence-based medicine for the development of glaucoma clinical trial].

    PubMed

    Ge, Jian

    2015-02-01

    Evidence-based medicine (EBM) has markedly promoted the development of ophthalmology.Glaucoma clinical trials have been developed rapidly. Clinical trial papers have been tremendously increasing in the decade, but unhealthy tendency deviating from the nature of EBM---"conscientious, explicit and judicious" has come into notice by the medical society. It is the time to develop patient based medicine, combining with experience-based, experiment-based, ethics-based, economy-based medicine. Only face up to the fundamental problems can we avoid misleading clinicians and provide better health care of affordable, accessible, accountable medical service for patients. This is the intrinsic value of evidence-based medicine.

  18. Developing competencies for pediatric hospice and palliative medicine.

    PubMed

    Klick, Jeffrey C; Friebert, Sarah; Hutton, Nancy; Osenga, Kaci; Pituch, Kenneth J; Vesel, Tamara; Weidner, Norbert; Block, Susan D; Morrison, Laura J

    2014-12-01

    In 2006, hospice and palliative medicine (HPM) became an officially recognized subspecialty. This designation helped initiate the Accreditation Council of Graduate Medical Education Outcomes Project in HPM. As part of this process, a group of expert clinician-educators in HPM defined the initial competency-based outcomes for HPM fellows (General HPM Competencies). Concurrently, these experts recognized and acknowledged that additional expertise in pediatric HPM would ensure that the competencies for pediatric HPM were optimally represented. To fill this gap, a group of pediatric HPM experts used a product development method to define specific Pediatric HPM Competencies. This article describes the development process. With the ongoing evolution of HPM, these competencies will evolve. As part of the Next Accreditation System, the Accreditation Council of Graduate Medical Education uses milestones as a framework to better define competency-based, measurable outcomes for trainees. Currently, there are no milestones specific to HPM, although the field is designing curricular milestones with multispecialty involvement, including pediatrics. These competencies are the conceptual framework for the pediatric content in the HPM milestones. They are specific to the pediatric HPM subspecialist and should be integrated into the training of pediatric HPM subspecialists. They will serve a foundational role in HPM and should inform a wide range of emerging innovations, including the next evolution of HPM Competencies, development of HPM curricular milestones, and training of adult HPM and other pediatric subspecialists. They may also inform pediatric HPM outcome measures, as well as standards of practice and performance for pediatric HPM interdisciplinary teams. PMID:25404726

  19. [The development of German social medicine in the nineteenth century].

    PubMed

    Lee, J C

    1994-01-01

    In his influential treatise System einer vollständigen medizinischen Polizey, Johann Peter Frank (1745-1821) made significant contributions to the establishment of the concept of medical police, which has been understood as the forerunner of social medicine. Cameralism, the German version of mercantilism, became the very basis on which Frank and other German writers developed the framework of medical police. 'Medical reform' was the catchword of German medical men in the 1840s. The medical reform movement of 1848 was partially caused by a deep political, economic, and social crisis. Although Industrial Revolution began in Germany later than in England and France during the first half of the nineteenth century, by 1848 the formation of German industrial working-class made medical reformers recognize the causal relationships between social and health problems. The outstanding figures in the German medical reform movement of this period were Rudolf Virchow (1821-1902), Solomon Neumann and Rudolf Leubuscher. In his famous Report on the Typhus Epidemic in Upper Silesia, Virchow proposed several radical measures that could be used against the epidemic: the absolute separation of the schools from the church, the establishment of self-government in the state and community, unlimited democracy, road building, and the improvement of agriculture and horticulture. ...

  20. Dose received by occupationally exposed workers at a nuclear medicine department

    SciTech Connect

    Avila, O.; Sanchez-Uribe, N. A.; Rodriguez-Laguna, A.; Medina, L. A.; Estrada, E.; Buenfil, A. E.; Brandan, M. E.

    2012-10-23

    Personal Dose Equivalent (PDE) values were determined for occupational exposed workers (OEW) at the Nuclear Medicine Department (NMD) of 'Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia' (INCan), Mexico, using TLD-100 thermoluminescent dosemeters. OEW at NMD, INCan make use of radiopharmaceuticals for diagnosis and treatment of diseases. Radionuclides associated to a pharmaceutical compound used at this Department are {sup 131}I, {sup 18}F, {sup 68}Ga, {sup 99m}Tc, {sup 111}In and {sup 11}C with main gamma emission energies between 140 and 511 keV. Dosemeter calibration was performed at the metrology department of 'Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares' (ININ), Mexico. Every occupational worker used dark containers with three dosimeters which were replaced monthly for a total of 5 periods. Additionally, control dosemeters were also placed at a site free of radioactive sources in order to determine the background radiation. Results were adjusted to find PDE/day and estimating annual PDE values in the range between 2 mSv (background) and 9 mSv. The mean annual value is 3.51 mSv and the standard deviation SD is 0.78 mSv. Four of the 16 OEW received annual doses higher than the average +1 SD (4.29 mSv). Results depend on OEW daily activities and were consistent for each OEW for the 5 studied periods as well as with PDE values reported by the firm that performs the monthly service. All obtained values are well within the established annual OEW dose limit stated in the {sup R}eglamento General de Seguridad Radiologica{sup ,} Mexico (50 mSv), as well as within the lower limit recommended by the 'International Commission on Radiation Protection' (ICRP), report no.60 (20 mSv). These results verify the adequate compliance of the NMD at INCan, Mexico with the norms given by the national regulatory commission.

  1. New principles in nuclear medicine imaging: a full aperture stereoscopic imaging technique.

    PubMed

    Strocovsky, Sergio G; Otero, Dino

    2010-01-01

    In nuclear medicine, images of planar scintigraphy and single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) obtained through gamma camera (GC) appear to be blurred. Alternatively, coded aperture imaging (CAI) can surpass the quality of GC images, but still it is not extensively used due to the decoding complexity of some images and the difficulty in controlling the noise. Summing up, the images obtained through GC are low quality and it is still difficult to implement CAI technique. Here we present a full aperture imaging (FAI) technique which overcomes the problems of CAI ordinary systems. The gamma radiation transmitted through a large single aperture is edge-encoded, taking advantage of the fact that nuclear radiation is spatially incoherent. The novel technique is tested by means of Monte Carlo method with simple and complex sources. Spatial resolution tests and parallax tests of GC versus FAI were made, and three-dimensional capacities of GC versus FAI were analyzed. Simulations have allowed comparison of both techniques under ideal, identical conditions. The results show that FAI technique has greater sensitivity (approximately 100 times) and greater spatial resolution (>2.6 times at 40 cm source-detector distance) than that of GC. FAI technique allows to obtain images with typical resolution of GC short source-detector distance but at longer source-detector distance. The FAI decoding algorithm simultaneously reconstructs four different projections, while GC produces only one projection per acquisition. Our results show it is possible to apply an extremely simple encoded imaging technique, and get three-dimensional radioactivity information. Thus GC-based systems could be substituted, given that FAI technique is simple and it produces four images which may feed stereoscopic systems, substituting in some cases, tomographic reconstructions.

  2. Current Status of Nuclear Medicine Practice in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Páez, Diana; Orellana, Pilar; Gutiérrez, Claudia; Ramirez, Raúl; Mut, Fernando; Torres, Leonel

    2015-10-01

    The practice of nuclear medicine (NM) in the Latin American and Caribbean region has experienced important growth in the last decade. However, there is great heterogeneity among countries regarding the availability of technology and human resources. According to data collected through June 2014 by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the total number of γ cameras in the region is 1,231, with an average of 2.16 per million inhabitants. Over 90% of the equipment is SPECT cameras; 7.6% of which have hybrid technology. There are 161 operating PET or PET/CT cameras in 12 member states, representing a rate of 0.3 per million people. Most NM centers belong to the private health system and are in capitals or major cities. Only 4 countries have the capability of assembling 99Mo-99mTc generators, and 2 countries produce 99mTc from nuclear reactors. Cold kits are produced in some countries, and therapeutic agents are mostly imported from outside the region. There are 35 operative cyclotrons. In relation to human resources: there is 1 physician per γ camera, 1.6 technologists per γ camera, 0.1 medical physicist per center, and approximately 0.1 radiochemist or radiopharmacist per center. Nearly 94% of the procedures are diagnostic. PET studies represent about 4% of the total. The future of NM in the Latin American and Caribbean region is promising, with great potential and possibilities. Some of the most important factors driving the region toward greater homogeneity in the availability and application of NM, and bridging the gaps between countries, are clinician awareness of the importance of NM in managing diseases prevalent in the region, increased building of capacity, continuous and strong support from international organizations such as the IAEA through national and regional projects, and strong public-private partnerships and government commitment.

  3. Dose received by occupationally exposed workers at a nuclear medicine department

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ávila, O.; Sánchez-Uribe, N. A.; Rodríguez-Laguna, A.; Medina, L. A.; Estrada, E.; Buenfil, A. E.; Brandan, M. E.

    2012-10-01

    Personal Dose Equivalent (PDE) values were determined for occupational exposed workers (OEW) at the Nuclear Medicine Department (NMD) of "Instituto Nacional de Cancerología" (INCan), Mexico, using TLD-100 thermoluminescent dosemeters. OEW at NMD, INCan make use of radiopharmaceuticals for diagnosis and treatment of diseases. Radionuclides associated to a pharmaceutical compound used at this Department are 131I, 18F, 68Ga, 99mTc, 111In and 11C with main gamma emission energies between 140 and 511 keV. Dosemeter calibration was performed at the metrology department of "Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares" (ININ), Mexico. Every occupational worker used dark containers with three dosimeters which were replaced monthly for a total of 5 periods. Additionally, control dosemeters were also placed at a site free of radioactive sources in order to determine the background radiation. Results were adjusted to find PDE/day and estimating annual PDE values in the range between 2 mSv (background) and 9 mSv. The mean annual value is 3.51 mSv and the standard deviation SD is 0.78 mSv. Four of the 16 OEW received annual doses higher than the average +1 SD (4.29 mSv). Results depend on OEW daily activities and were consistent for each OEW for the 5 studied periods as well as with PDE values reported by the firm that performs the monthly service. All obtained values are well within the established annual OEW dose limit stated in the "Reglamento General de Seguridad Radiológica", México (50 mSv), as well as within the lower limit recommended by the "International Commission on Radiation Protection" (ICRP), report no.60 (20 mSv). These results verify the adequate compliance of the NMD at INCan, Mexico with the norms given by the national regulatory commission.

  4. Current Status of Nuclear Medicine Practice in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Páez, Diana; Orellana, Pilar; Gutiérrez, Claudia; Ramirez, Raúl; Mut, Fernando; Torres, Leonel

    2015-10-01

    The practice of nuclear medicine (NM) in the Latin American and Caribbean region has experienced important growth in the last decade. However, there is great heterogeneity among countries regarding the availability of technology and human resources. According to data collected through June 2014 by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the total number of γ cameras in the region is 1,231, with an average of 2.16 per million inhabitants. Over 90% of the equipment is SPECT cameras; 7.6% of which have hybrid technology. There are 161 operating PET or PET/CT cameras in 12 member states, representing a rate of 0.3 per million people. Most NM centers belong to the private health system and are in capitals or major cities. Only 4 countries have the capability of assembling 99Mo-99mTc generators, and 2 countries produce 99mTc from nuclear reactors. Cold kits are produced in some countries, and therapeutic agents are mostly imported from outside the region. There are 35 operative cyclotrons. In relation to human resources: there is 1 physician per γ camera, 1.6 technologists per γ camera, 0.1 medical physicist per center, and approximately 0.1 radiochemist or radiopharmacist per center. Nearly 94% of the procedures are diagnostic. PET studies represent about 4% of the total. The future of NM in the Latin American and Caribbean region is promising, with great potential and possibilities. Some of the most important factors driving the region toward greater homogeneity in the availability and application of NM, and bridging the gaps between countries, are clinician awareness of the importance of NM in managing diseases prevalent in the region, increased building of capacity, continuous and strong support from international organizations such as the IAEA through national and regional projects, and strong public-private partnerships and government commitment. PMID:26229143

  5. Herbal drugs against cardiovascular disease: traditional medicine and modern development.

    PubMed

    Li, Lingjun; Zhou, Xiuwen; Li, Na; Sun, Miao; Lv, Juanxiu; Xu, Zhice

    2015-09-01

    Herbal products have been used as conventional medicines for thousands of years, particularly in Eastern countries. Thousands of clinical and experimental investigations have focused on the effects and mechanisms-of-action of herbal medicine in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Considering the history of clinical practice and the great potentials of herb medicine and/or its ingredients, a review on this topic would be helpful. This article discusses possible effects of herbal remedies in the prevention and treatment of CVDs. Crucially, we also summarize some underlying pharmacological mechanisms for herb products in cardiovascular regulations, which might provide interesting information for further understanding the effects of herbal medicines, and boost the prospect of new herbal products against CVDs.

  6. Herbal drugs against cardiovascular disease: traditional medicine and modern development.

    PubMed

    Li, Lingjun; Zhou, Xiuwen; Li, Na; Sun, Miao; Lv, Juanxiu; Xu, Zhice

    2015-09-01

    Herbal products have been used as conventional medicines for thousands of years, particularly in Eastern countries. Thousands of clinical and experimental investigations have focused on the effects and mechanisms-of-action of herbal medicine in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Considering the history of clinical practice and the great potentials of herb medicine and/or its ingredients, a review on this topic would be helpful. This article discusses possible effects of herbal remedies in the prevention and treatment of CVDs. Crucially, we also summarize some underlying pharmacological mechanisms for herb products in cardiovascular regulations, which might provide interesting information for further understanding the effects of herbal medicines, and boost the prospect of new herbal products against CVDs. PMID:25956424

  7. [Situation of supply and boom of PET imaging: what is the future for technetium-99m in nuclear medicine?].

    PubMed

    Maia, S; Ayachi Hatit, N; Paycha, F

    2011-05-01

    Molecular imaging has shown its interest in the diagnosis, staging and therapy monitoring of many diseases, especially in the field of cancer. This imaging modality can detect non-invasively early molecular changes specific to these diseases. Its expansion includes two aspects linked firstly with the advanced techniques of imaging modalities and secondly with the development of tracers as radio pharmaceuticals for imaging new molecular targets. Technetium-99m ((99m)Tc), because of its physical characteristics, its widespread availability and low cost, is the most used radionuclide in molecular imaging with the technique of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Nevertheless, the current difficulty concerning the supply and the great interest of Positron Emission Tomography (PET), the "competitor" imaging modality-using molecules labelled with fluorine-18 ((18)F), legitimates the question about the future of (99m)Tc, its supremacy and the emergence of new tracer labelled with (99m)Tc. Focusing on the actual and future supply situation, the place of SPECT imaging in nuclear medicine, as well as the development of new molecules labelled with (99m)Tc is necessary to show that this radionuclide will remain essential for the speciality in the next years.

  8. Molecular authentication of the medicinal herb Ruta graveolens (Rutaceae) and an adulterant using nuclear and chloroplast DNA markers.

    PubMed

    Al-Qurainy, F; Khan, S; Tarroum, M; Al-Hemaid, F M; Ali, M A

    2011-11-10

    Dried parts of different plant species often look alike, especially in powdered form, making them very difficult to identify. Ruta graveolens, sold as a dried medicinal herb, can be adulterated with Euphorbia dracunculoides. The genomic DNA was isolated from the leaf powder (100 mg each) using the modified CTAB method. Internal transcribed spacer sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA (nrDNA-ITS), and chloroplast spacer sequences (rpoB and rpoC1) are regarded as potential genes for plant DNA barcoding. We amplified and sequenced these spacer sequences and confirmed the sequences with a BLAST search. Sequence alignment was performed using ClustalX to look for differences in the sequences. A DNA marker was developed based on rpoB and rpoC1 of the nrDNA-ITS for the identification of the adulterant E. dracunculoides in samples of R. graveolens that are sold in local herbal markets. Sequence-characterized amplified region markers of 289 and 264 bp for R. graveolens and 424 bp for E. dracunculoides were developed from dissimilar sequences of this nrDNA-ITS to speed up the authentication process. This marker successfully distinguished these species in extracted samples with as little as 5 ng DNA/μL extract.

  9. Radiation exposure to nuclear medicine staff involved in PET/CT practice in Serbia.

    PubMed

    Antic, V; Ciraj-Bjelac, O; Stankovic, J; Arandjic, D; Todorovic, N; Lucic, S

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this work is to evaluate the radiation exposure to nuclear medicine (NM) staff in the two positron emission tomography-computed tomography centres in Serbia and to investigate the possibilities for dose reduction. Dose levels in terms of Hp(10) for whole body and Hp(0.07) for hands of NM staff were assessed using thermoluminescence and electronic personal dosemeters. The assessed doses per procedure in terms of Hp(10) were 4.2-7 and 5-6 μSv, in two centres, respectively, whereas the extremity doses in terms of Hp(0.07) in one of the centres was 34-126 μSv procedure(-1). The whole-body doses per unit activity were 17-19 and 21-26 μSv GBq(-1) in two centres, respectively, and the normalised finger dose in one centre was 170-680 μSv GBq(-1). The maximal estimated annual whole-body doses in two centres were 3.4 and 2.0 mSv, while the corresponding extremity dose in the later one was 45 mSv. Improvements as introduction of automatic dispensing system and injection and optimisation of working practice resulted in dose reduction ranging from 12 up to 67 %.

  10. Intercomparison of 131I and 99mTc activity measurements in Brazilian nuclear medicine services.

    PubMed

    Iwahara, A; De Oliveira, A E; Tauhata, L; da Silva, C J; Lopes, R T

    2001-03-01

    This work outlines the quality assurance program for the activity measurements of the most used radionuclides at Brazilian Nuclear Medicine Services (NMS). The program aims to guarantee that the patient is given the correct prescribed amount of activity in diagnostic or therapeutic applications. This accurate administration depends upon proper use and calibration of the activity meters by the NMS. Underestimation of administered activity in diagnostic practices could delay correct diagnosis disturbing the value of the investigation. On the other hand, the overestimation would be worse, mainly in therapeutic applications, because an unnecessarily high absorbed dose would be delivered to the patient. The preliminary results of intercomparison for 131I and 99mTc showed that many activity meters used at NMS's present problems giving results up to 41% greater than the reference values determined at the National Metrology Laboratory for Ionizing Radiation (LNMRI) which is recognized as the Brazilian authorized metrology laboratory for ionizing radiation. These results have demonstrated that the NMS should improve the accuracy of the activity measurements of the radionuclides administered to the patients and establish the traceability to the national standards of measurements. These standards are based on a pressurized well-type ionization chamber installed at LNMRI and calibrated with reference sources standardized by absolute methods. The protocol of the intercomparison and recommendations made in order to minimize errors in measuring procedures are described and results are discussed.

  11. Implementation of a national metrology network of radionuclides used in nuclear medicine.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Joyra A; Iwahara, Akira; Nícoli, Iêda G; Corrêa, Rosângela S; Alabarse, Frederico G; dos Santos, Carlos E L; Xavier, Ana M; Garcia, Eloy J; Tauhata, Luiz; Lopes, Ricardo T

    2006-01-01

    The Nuclear Medicine Services (NMS) in Brazil routinely use dose calibrators to measure the activity of solutions containing radiopharmaceuticals. These solutions are administered to patients with the intention to diagnose or treat illnesses. However, for optimal results, the activity of these radiopharmaceuticals must be determined as accurately as possible. The National Laboratory for Ionizing Radiation Metrology (LNMRI) led, since 1998, a comparison program for activity measurements of radiopharmaceuticals administered to patients in the NMS with the purpose promoting quality control. This program has been carried out successfully in Rio de Janeiro, but there is a need to implement it around the country. This can be resolved through the implementation of a network of regional laboratories at various locations throughout the national territory. Currently, such a network is active at a second site, located in Brasília, covering the needs of the Center-West Region, and at a third site, located in Porto Alegre, in the South Region. This work presents the results of comparisons for the radiopharmaceuticals nuclides 131I and 99Tcm and proves that the implementation of a radionuclide metrology network is feasible and viable.

  12. Applicability of radioactive 99mTc-O4- magnetic fluid to nuclear medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jong-Hee; Kim, Seong-Min; Kim, Keun-Ho; Kim, Chong-Oh

    2011-01-01

    Magnetite nanoparticles were synthesized with solution of ferrous and ferric chlorides and ammonia water by sonochemical method. The hydrophilically radioactive magnetic fluids were prepared by labeling technetium pertechnetate (99mTc-O4-) and then adsorbing alginic acid on the magnetite particles. In order to measure some properties of the dispersed particles, the magnetic fluids were freezed down to -70 oC, and were dried in vacuum. The total size of the particles was about 15 nm with the core diameter of 12 nm and their superparamagnetic saturation magnetization was 63 emu/g for the core-shell of Fe3O4/Algin and 52 emu/g for that of Fe3O4/99mTc-O4-/Algin. The labeling of radioactive 99mTc-O4- to the magnetite particles was efficient to about 70 %. The fluid of magnetic particles on which the radioisotopic substance is labeled with such an efficiency level may be applied as a tracer for diagnosis in nuclear medicine.

  13. A Perspective of the Future of Nuclear Medicine Training and Certification.

    PubMed

    Arevalo-Perez, Julio; Paris, Manuel; Graham, Michael M; Osborne, Joseph R

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear Medicine (NM) has evolved from a medical subspecialty using quite basic tests to one using elaborate methods to image organ physiology and has truly become "Molecular Imaging." Concurrently, there has also been a timely debate about who has to be responsible for keeping pace with all of the components of the developmental cycle-imaging, radiopharmaceuticals, and instrumentation. Since the foundation of the American Board of NM, the practice of NM and the process toward certification have undergone major revisions. At present, the debate is focused on the inevitable future convergence of Radiology and NM. The potential for further cooperation or fusion of the American Board of Radiology and the American Board of NM is likely to bring about a new path for NM and Molecular Imaging training. If the merger is done carefully, respecting the strengths of both partners equally, there is an excellent potential to create a hybrid NM-Radiology specialty that combines Physiology and Molecular Biology with detailed anatomical imaging that sustains the innovation that has been central to NM residency and practice. We introduce a few basic trends in imaging use in the United States. These trends do not predict future use, but highlight the need for an appropriately credentialed practitioner to interpret these examination results and provide value to the health care system. PMID:26687859

  14. Investigation of public exposure resulted from the radioiodine delay tank facility of nuclear medicine department

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yusof, Mohd Fahmi Mohd; Ali, Abdul Muhaimin Mat; Abdullah, Reduan; Idris, Abdullah Waidi

    2016-01-01

    The study is carried out to assess the exposure rate that could contribute to public exposure in a radioiodine ward delay tank facility of Radiotherapy, Oncology and Nuclear Medicine, Department, Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM). The exposure rate at several locations including the delay tank room, doorway and at the public walking route was measured using Victoreen 415P-RYR survey meter. The radioactive level of the 131I waste was measured using Captus 3000 well counting system. The results showed that exposure rate and total count of the delay tank sample increased when the radioiodine ward was fully occupied with patient and reduced when the ward was vacant. Occupancy of radioiodine ward for two consecutive weeks had dramatically increased the exposure rate around the delay tank and radioactive level of 131I waste. The highest exposure rate and radioactive level was recorded when the ward was occupied for two consecutive weeks with 177.00 µR/h and 58.36 kcpm respectively. The exposure rate decreased 15.76 % when the door of the delay tank room was closed. The exposure rate at public walking route decreased between 15.58 % and 36.92 % as the distance increased between 1 and 3 m.

  15. National intercomparisons of 131I radioactivity measurements in nuclear medicine centres in India.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Leena; Anuradha, R; Nathuram, R; Shaha, V V; Abani, M C

    2003-01-01

    National intercomparisons of activity measurements of 131I, a radioisotope widely used for diagnosis and therapy of thyroid related ailments, were initiated in 1979 as a quality assurance program, towards improving radiation safety procedures and related dosimetry in Nuclear Medicine Centres (NMCs) in India. Oral administration of a known quantity of radioiodine to patients requires accurate radioactivity measurements to be performed on a well-calibrated isotope calibrators. Under or over estimation of the activity due to a faulty or uncalibrated isotope calibrator could provide misleading results. Calibration of isotope calibrators and the traceablity of subsequent measurements to the national standards laboratory is one of the essential basic radiation safety requirement of the IAEA. In view of the stringent quality assurance requirements for activity measurements imposed by Atomic Energy Regulatory Board, a National Intercomparison Program was initiated and to date ten such intercomparison programs have been conducted by the Radiation Safety Systems Division, of the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre. This program has benefited the participants by making their measurements traceable to the National Primary Standards. Over the years there has been a marked increase in the number of NMCs participating in the intercomparison programs. As a result, the number of institution showing large deviation from the correct value has decreased considerably over the years. This program thus, has enabled participating NMCs to check their isotope calibrators so as to ensure proper delivery of radiation dose to the patients and hence to optimise patient exposure.

  16. A Perspective of the Future of Nuclear Medicine Training and Certification.

    PubMed

    Arevalo-Perez, Julio; Paris, Manuel; Graham, Michael M; Osborne, Joseph R

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear Medicine (NM) has evolved from a medical subspecialty using quite basic tests to one using elaborate methods to image organ physiology and has truly become "Molecular Imaging." Concurrently, there has also been a timely debate about who has to be responsible for keeping pace with all of the components of the developmental cycle-imaging, radiopharmaceuticals, and instrumentation. Since the foundation of the American Board of NM, the practice of NM and the process toward certification have undergone major revisions. At present, the debate is focused on the inevitable future convergence of Radiology and NM. The potential for further cooperation or fusion of the American Board of Radiology and the American Board of NM is likely to bring about a new path for NM and Molecular Imaging training. If the merger is done carefully, respecting the strengths of both partners equally, there is an excellent potential to create a hybrid NM-Radiology specialty that combines Physiology and Molecular Biology with detailed anatomical imaging that sustains the innovation that has been central to NM residency and practice. We introduce a few basic trends in imaging use in the United States. These trends do not predict future use, but highlight the need for an appropriately credentialed practitioner to interpret these examination results and provide value to the health care system.

  17. Affordable Development of a Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, M. G.; Borowski, S. K.; George, J. A.; Kim, T.; Emrich, W. J.; Hickman, R. R.; Broadway, J. W.; Gerrish, H. P.; Adams, R. B.

    2012-01-01

    The fundamental capability of Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) is game changing for space exploration. A first generation Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (NCPS) based on NTP could provide high thrust at a specific impulse above 900 s, roughly double that of state of the art chemical engines. The foundation provided by development and utilization of a NCPS could enable development of extremely high performance systems. The role of the NCPS in the development of advanced nuclear propulsion systems could be analogous to the role of the DC-3 in the development of advanced aviation. Progress made under the NCPS project could help enable both advanced NTP and advanced Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP).

  18. Nuclear Safeguards Infrastructure Development and Integration with Safety and Security

    SciTech Connect

    Kovacic, Donald N; Raffo-Caiado, Ana Claudia; McClelland-Kerr, John; Van sickle, Matthew; Bissani, Mo

    2009-01-01

    Faced with increasing global energy demands, many developing countries are considering building their first nuclear power plant. As a country embarks upon or expands its nuclear power program, it should consider how it will address the 19 issues laid out in the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) document Milestones in Development of a National Infrastructure for Nuclear Power. One of those issues specifically addresses the international nonproliferation treaties and commitments and the implementation of safeguards to prevent diversion of nuclear material from peaceful purposes to nuclear weapons. Given the many legislative, economic, financial, environmental, operational, and other considerations preoccupying their planners, it is often difficult for countries to focus on developing the core strengths needed for effective safeguards implementation. Typically, these countries either have no nuclear experience or it is limited to the operation of research reactors used for radioisotope development and scientific research. As a result, their capacity to apply safeguards and manage fuel operations for a nuclear power program is limited. This paper argues that to address the safeguards issue effectively, a holistic approach must be taken to integrate safeguards with the other IAEA issues including safety and security - sometimes referred to as the '3S' concept. Taking a holistic approach means that a country must consider safeguards within the context of its entire nuclear power program, including operations best practices, safety, and security as well as integration with its larger nonproliferation commitments. The Department of Energy/National Nuclear Security Administration's International Nuclear Safeguards and Engagement Program (INSEP) has been involved in bilateral technical cooperation programs for over 20 years to promote nonproliferation and the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. INSEP is currently spearheading efforts to promote the development of

  19. Pregnane X receptor, constitutive androstane receptor and hepatocyte nuclear factors as emerging players in cancer precision medicine.

    PubMed

    De Mattia, Elena; Cecchin, Erika; Roncato, Rossana; Toffoli, Giuseppe

    2016-09-01

    Great research effort has been focused on elucidating the contribution of host genetic variability on pharmacological outcomes in cancer. Nuclear receptors have emerged as mediators between environmental stimuli and drug pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. The pregnane X receptor, constitutive androstane receptor and hepatocyte nuclear factors have been reported to regulate transcription of genes that encode drug metabolizing enzymes and transporters. Altered nuclear receptor expression has been shown to affect the metabolism and pharmacological profile of traditional chemotherapeutics and targeted agents. Accordingly, polymorphic variants in these genes have been studied as pharmacogenetic markers of outcome variability. This review summarizes the state of knowledge about the roles played by pregnane X receptor, constitutive androstane receptor and hepatocyte nuclear factor expression and genetics as predictive markers of anticancer drug toxicity and efficacy, which can improve cancer precision medicine. PMID:27561454

  20. Pregnane X receptor, constitutive androstane receptor and hepatocyte nuclear factors as emerging players in cancer precision medicine.

    PubMed

    De Mattia, Elena; Cecchin, Erika; Roncato, Rossana; Toffoli, Giuseppe

    2016-09-01

    Great research effort has been focused on elucidating the contribution of host genetic variability on pharmacological outcomes in cancer. Nuclear receptors have emerged as mediators between environmental stimuli and drug pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. The pregnane X receptor, constitutive androstane receptor and hepatocyte nuclear factors have been reported to regulate transcription of genes that encode drug metabolizing enzymes and transporters. Altered nuclear receptor expression has been shown to affect the metabolism and pharmacological profile of traditional chemotherapeutics and targeted agents. Accordingly, polymorphic variants in these genes have been studied as pharmacogenetic markers of outcome variability. This review summarizes the state of knowledge about the roles played by pregnane X receptor, constitutive androstane receptor and hepatocyte nuclear factor expression and genetics as predictive markers of anticancer drug toxicity and efficacy, which can improve cancer precision medicine.

  1. Key informants’ perspectives on development of family medicine training programs in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Gossa, Weyinshet; Wondimagegn, Dawit; Mekonnen, Demeke; Eshetu, Wondwossen; Abebe, Zerihun; Fetters, Michael D

    2016-01-01

    As a very low-income country, Ethiopia faces significant development challenges, though there is great aspiration to dramatically improve health care in the country. Family medicine has recently been recognized through national policy as one potential contributor in addressing Ethiopia’s health care challenges. Family medicine is a new specialty in Ethiopia emerging in the context of family medicine development in Sub-Saharan Africa. The Addis Ababa University family medicine residency program started in 2013 and is the first and the only family medicine program in the country as of March 2016. Stakeholders on the ground feel that family medicine is off to a good start and have great enthusiasm and optimism for its success. While the Ministry of Health has a vision for the development of family medicine and a plan for rapid upscaling of family medicine across the country, significant challenges remain. Continuing discussion about the potential roles of family medicine specialists in Ethiopia and policy-level strategic planning to place family medicine at the core of primary health care delivery in the country is needed. In addition, the health care-tier system needs to be restructured to include the family medicine specialists along with appropriately equipped health care facilities for training and practice. Key stakeholders are optimistic that family medicine expansion can be successful in Ethiopia through a coordinated effort by the Ministry of Health and collaboration between institutions within the country, other Sub-Saharan African countries, and international partners supportive of establishing family medicine in Ethiopia. PMID:27175100

  2. Developing traditional chinese medicine in the era of evidence-based medicine: current evidences and challenges.

    PubMed

    Fung, Foon Yin; Linn, Yeh Ching

    2015-01-01

    Evidence-based medicine (EBM), by integrating individual clinical expertise with the best available clinical evidence from systematic research, has in recent years been established as the standard of modern medical practice for greater treatment efficacy and safety. Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), on the other hand, evolved as a system of medical practice from ancient China more than 2000 years ago based on empirical knowledge as well as theories and concepts which are yet to be mapped by scientific equivalents. Despite the expanding TCM usage and the recognition of its therapeutic benefits worldwide, the lack of robust evidence from the EBM perspective is hindering acceptance of TCM by the Western medicine community and its integration into mainstream healthcare. For TCM to become an integral component of the healthcare system so that its benefits can be rationally harnessed in the best interests of patients, it is essential for TCM to demonstrate its efficacy and safety by high-level evidence in accordance with EBM, though much debate remains on the validity and feasibility of applying the EBM model on this traditional practice. This review aims to discuss the current status of research in TCM, explore the evidences available on its efficacy and safety, and highlight the issues and challenges faced in applying EBM to TCM.

  3. Developing Traditional Chinese Medicine in the Era of Evidence-Based Medicine: Current Evidences and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Fung, Foon Yin; Linn, Yeh Ching

    2015-01-01

    Evidence-based medicine (EBM), by integrating individual clinical expertise with the best available clinical evidence from systematic research, has in recent years been established as the standard of modern medical practice for greater treatment efficacy and safety. Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), on the other hand, evolved as a system of medical practice from ancient China more than 2000 years ago based on empirical knowledge as well as theories and concepts which are yet to be mapped by scientific equivalents. Despite the expanding TCM usage and the recognition of its therapeutic benefits worldwide, the lack of robust evidence from the EBM perspective is hindering acceptance of TCM by the Western medicine community and its integration into mainstream healthcare. For TCM to become an integral component of the healthcare system so that its benefits can be rationally harnessed in the best interests of patients, it is essential for TCM to demonstrate its efficacy and safety by high-level evidence in accordance with EBM, though much debate remains on the validity and feasibility of applying the EBM model on this traditional practice. This review aims to discuss the current status of research in TCM, explore the evidences available on its efficacy and safety, and highlight the issues and challenges faced in applying EBM to TCM. PMID:25949261

  4. Origin and development of forensic medicine in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Kharoshah, Magdy Abdel Azim; Zaki, Mamdouh Kamal; Galeb, Sherien Salah; Moulana, Ashraf Abdel Reheem; Elsebaay, Elsebaay Ahmed

    2011-01-01

    Egyptians are one of the first civilisations to practice the removal and examination of internal organs of humans. Their practices ranged from embalming to faith healing to surgery and autopsy. Modern radiological studies, together with various forensic techniques, allowed scientists unique glimpses of the state of health in Egypt 4000 years ago and discovered one of the earliest applications of autopsy, the main element of forensic medicine practice today. The Egyptian Forensic Medicine Authority handles a relatively large number of cases annually and depends on different assisting laboratories (forensic histopathology, microbiology, serology unit, DNA laboratory, forensic chemistry laboratory) as well as the Counterfeiting and Forgery unit. Crime scene investigations are performed mainly through the criminal laboratory related to the Ministry of Interior. Forensic Medicine is studied thoroughly in the faculty of medicine (undergraduates), as well as by forensic medical examiners at postgraduate level (diploma, master's and doctorate). This review recommends more scientific cooperation with universities in the field of forensic medicine and related sciences to solve various crimes with meticulous detail.

  5. Role of nuclear power in the Philippine power development program

    SciTech Connect

    Aleta, C.R.

    1994-12-31

    The reintroduction of nuclear power in the Philippines is favored by several factors such as: the inclusion of nuclear energy in the energy sector of the science and technology agenda for national development (STAND); the Large gap between electricity demand and available local supply for the medium-term power development plan; the relatively lower health risks in nuclear power fuel cycle systems compared to the already acceptable power systems; the lower environmental impacts of nuclear power systems compared to fossil fuelled systems and the availability of a regulatory framework and trained personnel who could form a core for implementing a nuclear power program. The electricity supply gap of 9600 MW for the period 1993-2005 could be partly supplied by nuclear power. The findings of a recent study are described, as well as the issues that have to be addressed in the reintroduction of nuclear power.

  6. Economic prerequisites for the development of nuclear power

    SciTech Connect

    Chernilin, Y.F.

    1995-10-01

    The development of nuclear power, as no other field of human endeavor, has revealed the need for predicting the consequences of nuclear power not only in the production of energy itself, but also in the ecology, economics, and even politics. On the one hand, the future of nuclear power is determined by a society`s attitude toward nuclear power and depends on economic possibilities. On the other hand, the future society and the economic situation that will develop in the world will largely depend on the amount of energy accessible to mankind and the method used to obtain it, and therefore also the relative contribution of atomic energy to the total balance of energy production. In declaring its attitude toward nuclear power, society is now determining to a definite extent not only the future of nuclear power but also nuclear power itself. This article is an abstract of the entire report.

  7. Proceedings of the DOE workshop on the role of a high-current accelerator in the future of nuclear medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Moody, D.C.; Peterson, E.J.

    1989-05-01

    The meeting was prompted by recent problems with isotope availability from DOE accelerator facilities; these difficulties have resulted from conflicting priorities between physics experiments and isotope production activities. The workshop was a forum in which the nuclear medicine community, isotope producers, industry, and other interested groups could discuss issues associated with isotope availability (including continuous supply options), the role of DOE and industry in isotope production, and the importance of research isotopes to the future of nuclear medicine. The workshop participants endorsed DOE's presence in supplying radioisotopes for research purposes and recommended that DOE should immediately provide additional support for radionuclide production in the form of personnel and supplies, DOE should establish a policy that would allow income from sales of future ''routine'' radionuclide production to be used to support technicians, DOE should obtain a 70-MeV, 500-/mu/A variable-energy proton accelerator as soon as possible, and DOE should also immediately solicit proposals to evaluate the usefulness of a new or upgraded high-energy, high-current machine for production of research radionuclides. This proceedings volume is a summary of workshop sessions that explored the future radionuclide needs of the nuclear medicine community and discussed the DOE production capabilities that would be required to meet these needs.

  8. Nuclear Medicine Program progress report for quarter ending June 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Ambrose, K.R.; Beets, A.L.; Callahan, A.P.; Hsieh, B.T.; McPherson, D.W.; Mirzadeh, S.; Lambert, C.R.

    1993-07-01

    The ``IQNP`` agent is an antagonist for the cholinergic-muscarinic receptor. Since the IQNP molecule has two asymmetric centers and either cis or trans isomerism of the vinyl iodide, there are eight possible isomeric combinations. In this report, the systematic synthesis, purification and animal testing of several isomers of radioiodinated ``IQNP`` are reported. A dramatic and unexpected relation between the absolute configuration at the two asymmetric centers and the stereochemistry of the vinyl iodide on receptor specificity was observed. The E-(R)(R) isomer shows specific and significant localization (per cent dose/gram at 6 hours) in receptor-rich cerebral structures (i.e. Cortex = 1.38 + 0.31; Striatum = 1.22 + 0.20) and low uptake in tissues rich in the M{sub 2} subtype (Heart = 0.10; Cerebellum = 0.04). In contrast, the E-(R)(S) isomer shows very low receptor-specific uptake (Cortex = 0.04; Striatum = 0.02), demonstrating the importance of absolute configuration at the acetate center. An unexpected and important observation is that the stereochemistry of the vinyl iodine appears to affect receptor subtype specificity, since the Z-(R,S)(R) isomer shows much higher uptake in the heart (0.56 + 0.12) and cerebellum (0.17 + 0.04). Studies are now in progress to confirm these exciting results in vitro. Progress has also continued during this period with several collaborative programs. The first large-scale clinical tungsten-188/rhenium-188 generator prototype (500 mCi) was fabricated and supplied to the Center for Molecular Medicine and Immunology (CMMI), in Newark, New Jersey, for Phase I clinical trials of rhenium-188-labeled anti CEA antibodies for patient treatment. Collaborative studies are also continuing in conjunction with the Nuclear Medicine Department at the University of Massachusetts where a generator is in use to compare the biological properties of {open_quotes}direct{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}indirect{close_quotes} labeled antibodies.

  9. Nuclear Energy Readiness Indicator Index (NERI): A benchmarking tool for assessing nuclear capacity in developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Saum-Manning,L.

    2008-07-13

    Declining natural resources, rising oil prices, looming climate change and the introduction of nuclear energy partnerships, such as GNEP, have reinvigorated global interest in nuclear energy. The convergence of such issues has prompted countries to move ahead quickly to deal with the challenges that lie ahead. However, developing countries, in particular, often lack the domestic infrastructure and public support needed to implement a nuclear energy program in a safe, secure, and nonproliferation-conscious environment. How might countries become ready for nuclear energy? What is needed is a framework for assessing a country's readiness for nuclear energy. This paper suggests that a Nuclear Energy Readiness Indicator (NERI) Index might serve as a meaningful basis for assessing a country's status in terms of progress toward nuclear energy utilization under appropriate conditions. The NERI Index is a benchmarking tool that measures a country's level of 'readiness' for nonproliferation-conscious nuclear energy development. NERI first identifies 8 key indicators that have been recognized by the International Atomic Energy Agency as key nonproliferation and security milestones to achieve prior to establishing a nuclear energy program. It then measures a country's progress in each of these areas on a 1-5 point scale. In doing so NERI illuminates gaps or underdeveloped areas in a country's nuclear infrastructure with a view to enable stakeholders to prioritize the allocation of resources toward programs and policies supporting international nonproliferation goals through responsible nuclear energy development. On a preliminary basis, the indicators selected include: (1) demonstrated need; (2) expressed political support; (3) participation in nonproliferation and nuclear security treaties, international terrorism conventions, and export and border control arrangements; (4) national nuclear-related legal and regulatory mechanisms; (5) nuclear infrastructure; (6) the

  10. [Experimental formative tools for the personnel and organizing models for a Nuclear Medicine Service of the public healthcare in Italy].

    PubMed

    Marcolongo, A; Mazzetti, M D; Rubello, D

    2007-12-01

    In the present prospective study started in 2004, we evaluated the potential role of the ''job on site'' model as a formative tool previously proposed by the ''Ministero della Salute'' in Italy and at the moment it is yet in an experimental phase in our Country. We applied this ''job on site'' model for the development of a new Nuclear Medicine Service in Rovigo Hospital (ULSS 18 of Veneto Region Italy). Moreover, there were planned, experimented and applied different organizing working models involving both physicians, technicians and nurses. The indicators of productivity realised in the period August 2004 to June 2007 were taken as end points. In our experience, the ''job on site'' model was particularly useful as a formative tool, and allowed a qualified preparation of the Service personnel as well as a rapid achievement of standard Regional and National indicators of productivity. Moreover, from a cost-effectiveness point of view, the daily working model we applied, that is based on a prolongation of the daily work per operator, proved to be highly effective in our Hospital. The data reported here may be of interest for the future planning of similar Services in the Public National and Regional Healthcare.

  11. A heartrending burden of gynaecological cancers in advance stage at nuclear institute of medicine and radiotherapy Jamshoro Sindh

    PubMed Central

    Bibi, Seema; Ashfaque, Sanober; Laghari, Naeem Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: In Pakistan gynaecological cancers are among the leading causes of women’s morbidity and mortality posing huge financial burden on families, communities and state. Due to lack of national cancer registry exact facts and figures are unknown therefore this study was planned to find out prevalence, age, site and stage of presentation of gynaecological cancers at Nuclear Institute of Medicine and Radiotherapy (NIMRA), Jamshoro. Methods: A retrospective, cross sectional study was conducted from 1st January 2011 to 31st December 2011 at NIMRA Jamshoro. All cases of genital tract cancers were evaluated, required data was entered on predesigned performa and results were analyzed manually. Results: Out of 2401 total registered cancer cases, 231 (9.6%) patients were suffering from gynaecological cancer making it third most common cancer. Ovary was commonest site followed by cervix and uterus. More than 60% cases presented in advanced stage, mostly during 4th and 5th decade of life. Conclusion: Gynecological cancer was among top three cancers at one of the busiest public sector cancer institute in Sindh province and significant number presented in advance stage making treatment difficult and expensive. There is urgent need for development and implementation of an effective health policy regarding cancer prevention and treatment. PMID:27022358

  12. Recent Developments in Nuclear Waste Management in Canada

    SciTech Connect

    King, F.

    2002-02-27

    This paper describes recent developments in the field of nuclear waste management in Canada with a focus on management of nuclear fuel waste. Of particular significance is the April 2001 tabling in the Canadian House of Commons of Bill C-27, An Act respecting the long-term management of nuclear fuel waste. At the time of finalizing this paper (January 15, 2002), Bill C-27 is in Third Reading in the House of Commons and is expected to move to the Senate in February. The Nuclear Fuel Waste Act is expected to come into force later in 2002. This Act requires the three nuclear utilities in Canada owning nuclear fuel waste to form a waste management organization and deposit funds into a segregated fund for nuclear fuel waste long-term management. The waste management organization is then required to perform a study of long-term management approaches for nuclear fuel waste and submit the study to the federal government within three years. The federal government will select an approach for implementation by the waste management organization. The paper discusses the activities that the nuclear fuel waste owners currently have underway to prepare for the formation of the waste management organization. As background, the paper reviews the status of interim storage of nuclear fuel waste in Canada, and describes previous initiatives related to the development of a national strategy for nuclear fuel waste long-term management.

  13. Systems of measurement: their development and use in medicine.

    PubMed

    Oulton, J L

    1976-07-01

    A brief historical review of customary measurements, the resultant chaos and the desirability for a simplified unified measurement system is discussed. The basic units of the International System of Units are described and defined, along with their application in Medicine. PMID:947497

  14. Bulgarian contributions to the development of space biology and medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Serafimov, K.

    1980-01-01

    Several aspects of aerospace medicine are discussed. Particular attention is given to the following: the effects of anoxia; the effects of positive radial acceleration; and the effects of various degrees of athletic conditioning and drugs on the tolerance of space flight factors.

  15. Dosimetry of transmission measurements in nuclear medicine: a study using anthropomorphic phantoms and thermoluminescent dosimeters.

    PubMed

    Almeida, P; Bendriem, B; de Dreuille, O; Peltier, A; Perrot, C; Brulon, V

    1998-10-01

    Quantification in positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission tomographic (SPET) relies on attenuation correction which is generally obtained with an additional transmission measurement. Therefore, the evaluation of the radiation doses received by patients needs to include the contribution of transmission procedures in SPET (SPET-TM) and PET (PET-TM). In this work we have measured these doses for both PET-TM and SPET-TM. PET-TM was performed on an ECAT EXACT HR+ (CTI/Siemens) equipped with three rod sources of germanium-68 (380 MBq total) and extended septa. SPET-TM was performed on a DST (SMV) equipped with two collimated line sources of gadolinium-153 (4 GBq total). Two anthropomorphic phantoms representing a human head and a human torso, were used to estimate the doses absorbed in typical cardiac and brain transmission studies. Measurements were made with thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs, consisting of lithium fluoride) having characteristics suitable for dosimetry investigations in nuclear medicine. Sets of TLDs were placed inside small plastic bags and then attached to different organs of the phantoms (at least two TLDs were assigned to a given organ). Before and after irradiation the TLDs were placed in a 2.5-cm-thick lead container to prevent exposure from occasional sources. Ambient radiation was monitored and taken into account in calculations. Transmission scans were performed for more than 12 h in each case to decrease statistical noise fluctuations. The doses absorbed by each organ were calculated by averaging the values obtained for each corresponding TLD. These values were used to evaluate the effective dose (ED) following guidelines described in ICRP report number 60. The estimated ED values for cardiac acquisitions were 7.7 x 10(-4) +/- 0.4 x 10(-4) mSv/MBq.h and 1.9 x 10(-6) +/- 0.4 x 10(-6) mSv/MBq.h for PET-TM and SPET-TM, respectively. For brain scans, the values of ED were calculated as 2.7 x 10(-4) +/- 0.2 x 10(-4) m

  16. Activity based costing of diagnostic procedures at a nuclear medicine center of a tertiary care hospital

    PubMed Central

    Hada, Mahesh Singh; Chakravarty, Abhijit; Mukherjee, Partha

    2014-01-01

    Context: Escalating health care expenses pose a new challenge to the health care environment of becoming more cost-effective. There is an urgent need for more accurate data on the costs of health care procedures. Demographic changes, changing morbidity profile, and the rising impact of noncommunicable diseases are emphasizing the role of nuclear medicine (NM) in the future health care environment. However, the impact of emerging disease load and stagnant resource availability needs to be balanced by a strategic drive towards optimal utilization of available healthcare resources. Aim: The aim was to ascertain the cost of diagnostic procedures conducted at the NM Department of a tertiary health care facility by employing activity based costing (ABC) method. Materials and Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out over a period of 1 year. ABC methodology was utilized for ascertaining unit cost of different diagnostic procedures and such costs were compared with prevalent market rates for estimating cost effectiveness of the department being studied. Results: The cost per unit procedure for various procedures varied from Rs. 869 (USD 14.48) for a thyroid scan to Rs. 11230 (USD 187.16) for a meta-iodo-benzyl-guanidine (MIBG) scan, the most cost-effective investigations being the stress thallium, technetium-99 m myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) and MIBG scan. The costs obtained from this study were observed to be competitive when compared to prevalent market rates. Conclusion: ABC methodology provides precise costing inputs and should be used for all future costing studies in NM Departments. PMID:25400363

  17. Comparative evaluation of NMR and nuclear medicine in disc space infection: A pilot study

    SciTech Connect

    Modic, M.; Feiglin, D.; Piraino, D.; O'Donnell, J.K.; Go, R.T.; Weinstein, M.; MacIntyre, W.J.

    1984-01-01

    Six patients with proven disc space infection underwent bone scanning with 975MB/sub q/ HDP together with NMR imaging on a 0.6T superconducting magnet to obtain weighted T1 30mSec (TE .3 Sec TR) and T2 (120mSec TE 3 Sec TR) images within a 48 hr. period. All patients had plain radiographic evaluation of the areas involved. Three pts. had Ga-67 Citrate scans using 222MBq activity following the bone scan and 1 patient had CT images of the involved area. All 6 bone scans showed increased bony uptake in at least the adjacent vertebral end plates but did not show any abnormal uptake in the region of the disc. Bony activity distribution was non-specific and could have been consistent with either degenerative or osteomyelitic change. Gallium imaging in one case supported the latter diagnosis but did not indicate presence of disc space involvement. Two other cases showed bony involvement to the extent of the bone scan; one showing minimal uptake due to antibiotic therapy. Plain radiographs were suggestive of disc space infection in all cases. NMR in all cases revealed marked disc space and adjacent bone involvement to the extent shown on bone scans. T1 and T2 weighted images appeared highly specific for either infection or degenerative change and were unaffected by antibiotic therapy. NMR appears to be more sensitive in evaluation of disc space infection than radionuclide studies. NMR is also able to provide significant anatomic information involving thecal sac and neural structures. Nuclear medicine studies appear equally sensitive though less specific in the evaluation of bone involvement except perhaps where antibiotic therapy has been used.

  18. [The development of integrated Chinese and western medicine in recent 5 decades].

    PubMed

    Li, Yue-Feng; Zhang, Heng-Hong

    2013-09-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine was excluded from the governmental system in the Republican period since its establishment. The work of integrating Chinese and western medicine in Taiwan only got its real development until 1958. The founding of the China Medical College in the private sector is considered to be a milestone of the development of integrative medicine in Taiwan. It provided students with practical understanding of both Chinese and western medicine, but achieved little in regard to integrating the two medical systems. In the beginning years, students in the Department of the Medicine in China Medical College actually majored in both Chinese and western medicine. A representative physician of this period is Yun Zi-yu, who was educated at China Medical College. It was not until 1980 when the China Medical College Hospital was founded, the integration of the Chinese and Western medicine began to carry out and take shape within a well-organized clinical field in certain scale. For over 3 decades since its establishment, the Hospital was founded, the executing level of the integration of both medical systems has been gradually descended with different tiers of its executive levels, viz., from the "Chinese and Western Medicine Cooperation Hospital" through the "Center for Integrative Chinese and Western Medicine", to the "Department of Integration of Chinese and Western Medicine". In the same period, more departments of Chinese medicine were set up in the teaching hospitals, private and public, in Taiwan, and the interaction and mutual cooperation of the Chinese and western medicine has been mainly practiced through clinical consultation and research projects.

  19. Development of a Regional Cooperative Off-Campus Education Program in Food Animal Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, Floyd W.; Lincoln, Stuart D.

    1979-01-01

    The University of Idaho, in cooperation with the Washington, Oregon, and Idaho (WOI) Regional Program in Veterinary Medicine, developed an off-campus facility for the study of food animal medicine. The objectives, design, and program of the regional center are described. (BH)

  20. [A contribution to the development of advertising in pharmacy II. Historical development of regulation of advertising of medicinal products].

    PubMed

    Vranová, Vilma

    2012-10-01

    The article deals with the development of regulation of advertising of medicinal products in the Czech Lands of the Habsburg Monarchy and Czechoslovakia in the years 1775-1938. Advertising medicines had and has its specifics and its regulation had been addressed by specific standards and linked to other health laws and regulations. Regulation of advertising of medicinal products has undergone a long process from the initial total ban on advertising to the establishment of clear rules, some of which, such as restrictions on advertising prescription-only medicines only to the professional healthcare press, are still valid.

  1. Development and validation of a questionnaire for evaluation of students' attitudes towards family medicine.

    PubMed

    Šter, Marija Petek; Švab, Igor; Klemenc-Ketiš, Zalika; Kersnik, Janko

    2015-03-01

    The development of the EURACT (European Academy of Teachers in General Practice) Educational Agenda helped many family medicine departments in development of clerkship and the aims and objectives of family medicine teaching. Our aims were to develop and validate a tool for assessment of students' attitudes towards family medicine and to evaluate the impact of the clerkship on students' attitudes regarding the competences of family doctor. In the pilot study, experienced family doctors were asked to describe their attitudes towards family medicine by using the Educational Agenda as a template for brainstorming. The statements were paraphrased and developed into a 164-items questionnaire, which was administered to 176 final-year students in academic year 2007/08. The third phase consisted of development of a final tool using statistical analysis, which resulted in the 60-items questionnaire in six domains which was used for the evaluation of students' attitudes. At the beginning of the clerkship, person-centred care and holistic approach scored lower than the other competences. Students' attitudes regarding the competences at the end of 7 weeks clerkship in family medicine were more positive, with exception of the competence regarding primary care management. The students who named family medicine as his or her future career choice, found holistic approach as more important than the students who did not name it as their future career. With the decision tree, which included students' attitudes to the competences of family medicine, we can successfully predict the future career choice in family medicine in 93.5% of the students. This study reports on the first attempt to develop a valid and reliable tool for measuring attitudes towards family medicine based on EURACT Educational Agenda. The questionnaire could be used for evaluating changes of students' attitudes in undergraduate curricula and for prediction of students' preferences regarding their future professional

  2. Development and validation of a questionnaire for evaluation of students' attitudes towards family medicine.

    PubMed

    Šter, Marija Petek; Švab, Igor; Klemenc-Ketiš, Zalika; Kersnik, Janko

    2015-03-01

    The development of the EURACT (European Academy of Teachers in General Practice) Educational Agenda helped many family medicine departments in development of clerkship and the aims and objectives of family medicine teaching. Our aims were to develop and validate a tool for assessment of students' attitudes towards family medicine and to evaluate the impact of the clerkship on students' attitudes regarding the competences of family doctor. In the pilot study, experienced family doctors were asked to describe their attitudes towards family medicine by using the Educational Agenda as a template for brainstorming. The statements were paraphrased and developed into a 164-items questionnaire, which was administered to 176 final-year students in academic year 2007/08. The third phase consisted of development of a final tool using statistical analysis, which resulted in the 60-items questionnaire in six domains which was used for the evaluation of students' attitudes. At the beginning of the clerkship, person-centred care and holistic approach scored lower than the other competences. Students' attitudes regarding the competences at the end of 7 weeks clerkship in family medicine were more positive, with exception of the competence regarding primary care management. The students who named family medicine as his or her future career choice, found holistic approach as more important than the students who did not name it as their future career. With the decision tree, which included students' attitudes to the competences of family medicine, we can successfully predict the future career choice in family medicine in 93.5% of the students. This study reports on the first attempt to develop a valid and reliable tool for measuring attitudes towards family medicine based on EURACT Educational Agenda. The questionnaire could be used for evaluating changes of students' attitudes in undergraduate curricula and for prediction of students' preferences regarding their future professional

  3. [Developments in tropical veterinary medicine at the Utrecht Faculty of Veterinary Medicine (1915-2013)].

    PubMed

    Paling, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Education in livestock diseases in the tropics at the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine of Utrecht University started in 1915 at the Institute for Parasitic and Infectious Diseases. Subsequently, the Institute for Tropical and Protozoon Diseases was established in 1948 and here students and veterinarians were trained in tropical animal health. Research and training were mainly focused on African livestock diseases such as tick borne diseases and trypanosomosis. Training possibilities for students included an elective course ('Tropencursus'), membership of a debating club ('Tropische Kring'), and a traineeship in a project in a tropical country. From 1987 onwards training, education, research, and management of international collaborative projects in tropical animal health became the shared responsibility of the Department of Infectious Diseases and Immunology and the Office for International Cooperation. This article focuses on the last 50 years and highlights activities such as education, research, newsletters, networks, and project with African and Asian countries.

  4. New developments of the nuclear shell model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poves, Alfredo

    2002-04-01

    More than fifty years ago, the independent particle model of the nucleus was proposed by M. Goeppert-Mayer and H. Jensen. The label "shell model" has since changed meaning and nowadays it applies mainly to the description of the nucleus that results of the mixing of many Slater determinants by an effective "in medium" interaction, usually limited to one and two-body terms. The advent of efficient new algorithms to solve the secular problem, together with the increase in speed and storage capacity of modern computers, has brought into the reach of large scale shell model calculations entire regions of nuclei and of nuclear phenomena traditionally considered to be out of the shell model realm. This enormous extension of its field of practical applications has occurred simultaneously with a regain of experimental interest in the nuclear spectroscopy, in particular in very neutron rich and N=Z nuclei. The shell model work in large model spaces demands a very complete understanding of the effective nuclear interaction, a basic goal of the nuclear theory. Besides, the huge increase of dimensionality that occurs when many valence orbits and valence particles are involved, is a formidable challenge for both the direct diagonalization shell model codes and for the many different approximations, based most often in physically guided truncations of the full shell model basis. In this talk I aim to transmit the effervescence of the field by highlighting the most important recent advances and applications.

  5. Technology Readiness Levels for Advanced Nuclear Fuels and Materials Development

    SciTech Connect

    Jon Carmack

    2014-01-01

    The Technology Readiness Level (TRL) process is used to quantitatively assess the maturity of a given technology. The TRL process has been developed and successfully used by the Department of Defense (DOD) for development and deployment of new technology and systems for defense applications. In addition, NASA has also successfully used the TRL process to develop and deploy new systems for space applications. Advanced nuclear fuels and materials development is a critical technology needed for closing the nuclear fuel cycle. Because the deployment of a new nuclear fuel forms requires a lengthy and expensive research, development, and demonstration program, applying the TRL concept to the advanced fuel development program is very useful as a management and tracking tool. This report provides definition of the technology readiness level assessment process as defined for use in assessing nuclear fuel technology development for the Advanced Fuel Campaign (AFC).

  6. [Present situation and development strategies of Chinese medicine preparation in medical institutions].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jie; Qiao, Xi-Yao; Lin, Fei

    2015-11-01

    As the actual clinical reflecting of transform Chinese medicine special curative effect, Chinese medicine preparation not only satisfies the need of hospital clinic, scientific research and teaching, but also plays an important role in deepening medical and health system reform, improving people's health level and contributing to the economic growth. However, some problems about administration and approval (tending to western medicine), contraction of the scale, lack of synchronization for clinic and scientific research, and the imbalance of regional development make Chinese medicine preparation move forwards slowly in contradiction. It has not only reduced the effectiveness of the Chinese medicine preparation in hospital clinic, but also brought bad effect on modernized development of Chinese medicine preparation. Research shows that main influencing factors of status quo of Chinese medicine preparation in medical institution include imperfect laws and regulations, high cost than income, and shortage of talents in preparation research. The analysis indicated that the necessary measures to break the contradiction, improve clinical effect of Chinese medicine, and promote the modernization development of Chinese drugs preparation were as follows: government and related departments should strengthen the supporting force in policy by adjusting the examination and approval policy, speeding up dispensing use, reforming pricing system, including into medicare reimbursement, integrating advantage resources and so on; medical institution should actively carry out research and development of traditional Chinese Medicine through drawing the traditional and modern essence, reserving professional talents, and developing characteristic preparation; companies cooperate with hospitals for complementary advantages, which can rapidly transform Chinese medicine preparation into clinical practice. PMID:27071242

  7. 21st century natural product research and drug development and traditional medicines.

    PubMed

    Ngo, Linh T; Okogun, Joseph I; Folk, William R

    2013-04-01

    Natural products and related structures are essential sources of new pharmaceuticals, because of the immense variety of functionally relevant secondary metabolites of microbial and plant species. Furthermore, the development of powerful analytical tools based upon genomics, proteomics, metabolomics, bioinformatics and other 21st century technologies are greatly expediting identification and characterization of these natural products. Here we discuss the synergistic and reciprocal benefits of linking these 'omics technologies with robust ethnobotanical and ethnomedical studies of traditional medicines, to provide critically needed improved medicines and treatments that are inexpensive, accessible, safe and reliable. However, careless application of modern technologies can challenge traditional knowledge and biodiversity that are the foundation of traditional medicines. To address such challenges while fulfilling the need for improved (and new) medicines, we encourage the development of Regional Centres of 'omics Technologies functionally linked with Regional Centres of Genetic Resources, especially in regions of the world where use of traditional medicines is prevalent and essential for health.

  8. Current Development of Nuclear Thermal Propulsion technologies at the Center for Space Nuclear Research

    SciTech Connect

    Robert C. O'Brien; Steven K. Cook; Nathan D. Jerred; Steven D. Howe; Ronald Samborsky; Daniel Brasuell

    2012-09-01

    Nuclear power and propulsion has been considered for space applications since the 1950s. Between 1955 and 1972 the US built and tested over twenty nuclear reactors / rocket engines in the Rover/NERVA programs1. The Aerojet Corporation was the prime contractor for the NERVA program. Modern changes in environmental laws present challenges for the redevelopment of the nuclear rocket. Recent advances in fuel fabrication and testing options indicate that a nuclear rocket with a fuel composition that is significantly different from those of the NERVA project can be engineered; this may be needed to ensure public support and compliance with safety requirements. The Center for Space Nuclear Research (CSNR) is pursuing a number of technologies, modeling and testing processes to further the development of safe, practical and affordable nuclear thermal propulsion systems.

  9. RECENT ACTIVITIES AT THE CENTER FOR SPACE NUCLEAR RESEARCH FOR DEVELOPING NUCLEAR THERMAL ROCKETS

    SciTech Connect

    Robert C. O'Brien

    2001-09-01

    Nuclear power has been considered for space applications since the 1960s. Between 1955 and 1972 the US built and tested over twenty nuclear reactors/ rocket-engines in the Rover/NERVA programs. However, changes in environmental laws may make the redevelopment of the nuclear rocket more difficult. Recent advances in fuel fabrication and testing options indicate that a nuclear rocket with a fuel form significantly different from NERVA may be needed to ensure public support. The Center for Space Nuclear Research (CSNR) is pursuing development of tungsten based fuels for use in a NTR, for a surface power reactor, and to encapsulate radioisotope power sources. The CSNR Summer Fellows program has investigated the feasibility of several missions enabled by the NTR. The potential mission benefits of a nuclear rocket, historical achievements of the previous programs, and recent investigations into alternatives in design and materials for future systems will be discussed.

  10. [Clinical practice of integrative medicine in the United States and its development in primary care].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei-jun; Hui, Ka-kit

    2015-04-01

    The field of integrative medicine (IM) has grown tremendously in the United States over last two decades, in terms of clinical practice, research, and education. Its growing popularity among patients has led to increased need for physicians with appropriate counseling skills and a knowledge base of the efficacy and safety of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapies. Family medicine is the first specialty as a whole to embrace IM, which encounters similar ailing conditions and emphasizes similar core values-person centered, evidence based, proactive, and continuous in nature. As integrative family medicine emerges, family medicine educators have developed suggested curriculum guidelines and approved measurable competencies to implement the best of evidence-based CAM and principles of IM. There are currently over 40 family medicine residencies that officially advertise CAM/IM in their programs. Meanwhile, IM centers have also been developing their own primary care programs based on their unique characteristics. This physician-led IM workforce is similar to that of China's IM in the early 1960s. As the Chinese government embarks on repeating its efforts to educate more Western medicine trained physicians in Chinese medicine in primary care training programs, the process and insights related to implementation of their practice in the United States would provide useful food for thought. PMID:26043559

  11. [Clinical practice of integrative medicine in the United States and its development in primary care].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei-jun; Hui, Ka-kit

    2015-04-01

    The field of integrative medicine (IM) has grown tremendously in the United States over last two decades, in terms of clinical practice, research, and education. Its growing popularity among patients has led to increased need for physicians with appropriate counseling skills and a knowledge base of the efficacy and safety of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapies. Family medicine is the first specialty as a whole to embrace IM, which encounters similar ailing conditions and emphasizes similar core values-person centered, evidence based, proactive, and continuous in nature. As integrative family medicine emerges, family medicine educators have developed suggested curriculum guidelines and approved measurable competencies to implement the best of evidence-based CAM and principles of IM. There are currently over 40 family medicine residencies that officially advertise CAM/IM in their programs. Meanwhile, IM centers have also been developing their own primary care programs based on their unique characteristics. This physician-led IM workforce is similar to that of China's IM in the early 1960s. As the Chinese government embarks on repeating its efforts to educate more Western medicine trained physicians in Chinese medicine in primary care training programs, the process and insights related to implementation of their practice in the United States would provide useful food for thought.

  12. Nuclear Waste Disposal: A Cautionary Tale for Shale Gas Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alley, William M.; Cherry, John A.; Parker, Beth L.; Ryan, M. Cathryn

    2014-07-01

    Nuclear energy and shale gas development each began with the promise of cheap, abundant energy and prospects for national energy independence. Nuclear energy was touted as "too cheap to meter," and shale gas promised jobs and other economic benefits during a recession.

  13. Bimodal Nuclear Thermal Rocket Analysis Developments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belair, Michael; Lavelle, Thomas; Saimento, Charles; Juhasz, Albert; Stewart, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear thermal propulsion has long been considered an enabling technology for human missions to Mars and beyond. One concept of operations for these missions utilizes the nuclear reactor to generate electrical power during coast phases, known as bimodal operation. This presentation focuses on the systems modeling and analysis efforts for a NERVA derived concept. The NERVA bimodal operation derives the thermal energy from the core tie tube elements. Recent analysis has shown potential temperature distributions in the tie tube elements that may limit the thermodynamic efficiency of the closed Brayton cycle used to generate electricity with the current design. The results of this analysis are discussed as well as the potential implications to a bimodal NERVA type reactor.

  14. Nuclear Cardiology: 2014 Innovations and Developments

    PubMed Central

    Mahmarian, John J.; Chang, SuMin; Nabi, Faisal

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear cardiac imaging is acknowledged as a robust technique for clinically assessing patients with a wide spectrum of cardiac illnesses. Recent technical, radiotracer, and stressor advancements continue to expand the role of nuclear cardiology for the accurate diagnosis and prognostication of patients with known or suspected coronary artery disease. The introduction of I-123 MIBG represents another advance for assessing risk in patients with congestive heart failure and depressed left ventricular (LV) function. Software and hardware innovations and recent shifts in acquisition protocols have greatly improved image quality, reduced cost and radiation exposure, and continue to promote patient and physician satisfaction. The following article will highlight recent achievements in the field that continue to foster a patient-centered imaging approach. PMID:25574344

  15. Development of nuclear rocket engine technology

    SciTech Connect

    Gunn, S.V.

    1989-01-01

    Research sponsored by the Atomic Energy Commission, the USAF, and NASA (later on) in the area of nuclear rocket propulsion is discussed. It was found that a graphite reactor, loaded with highly concentrated Uranium 235, can be used to heat high pressure liquid hydrogen to temperatures of about 4500 R, and to expand the hydrogen through a high expansion ratio rocket nozzle assembly. The results of 20 reactor tests conducted at the Nevada Test Site between July 1959 and June 1969 are analyzed. On the basis of these results, the feasibility of solid graphite reactor/nuclear rocket engines is revealed. It is maintained that this technology will support future space propulsion requirements, using liquid hydrogen as the propellant, for thrust requirements ranging from 25,000 lbs to 250,000 lbs, with vacuum specific impulses of at least 850 sec and with full engine throttle capability. 12 refs.

  16. Nuclear structure models: Applications and development

    SciTech Connect

    Semmes, P.B.

    1992-07-01

    This report discusses the following topics: Studies of superdeformed States; Signature Inversion in Odd-Odd Nuclei: A fingerprint of Triaxiality; Signature Inversion in {sup 120}Cs - Evidence for a Residual p-n Interaction; Signatures of {gamma} Deformation in Nuclei and an Application to {sup 125}Xe; Nuclear Spins and Moments: Fundamental Structural Information; and Electromagnetic Properties of {sup 181}Ir: Evidence of {beta} Stretching.

  17. The development of laser surgery and medicine in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Mingzhe

    2005-07-01

    The first Chinese ruby laser was created in 1961 and it was adopted for the retina coagulation experiment in 1965. Since 1970's, lasers had been widely applied clinically including the diseases suitable to physical therapy or acupuncture. The Chinese HpD was first produced in 1981 and first case of PDT was treated using Chinese HpD and Chinese lasers in the same year. Its success brought attention establishing a research group supported by the government in 1982. A nationwide systemic research project on PDT was then carried out. The step taken for PDT also accelerated the development of various fields of laser medicine and surgery. Laser treatments had been commonly adopted in the clinics and hospitals for the diseases of the superficial lesions and the lesions can be reached by the endoscopes non-invasively in 1980's. Since 1990's, the interventional laser therapies adopted mainly were percutaneous laser angioplasty, laser treatments through laparoscope, thoracoscope, arthroscope, neuro-endoscope etc. Ultrasound guided percutaneous laser heat coagulation for small hepatic cancer revealed good results and ultrasound guided percutaneous PDT for advanced large liver cancer revealed unexpected results after five years follow-up. At present: There are more long-term follow-up patients in the clinical trial; more advanced commercial available lasers and new techniques are adopted. Since the popularization of scanning electron microscope, laser scanning confocal microscope, laser induced auto-fluorescence system, high sensitivity fluorescence microscopic imaging system etc. in the laboratories, the basic studies can be more advanced and some times, the sub-cellular level can be reached; ultra-structure histo-morphology and gene studies are involved. In dermatology, Q-switched Alexandrite laser and other Q-switched lasers are used mainly for the treatment of skin pigmentation and vascular diseases; pulsed dye laser, ultra-pulsed CO2 laser are used in resurfacing, facial

  18. A Network Model and Computational Approach for the Mo-99 Supply Chain for Nuclear Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagurney, Ladimer; Nagurney, Anna

    2011-11-01

    Technetium-99m, produced from the decay of Molybdenum-99, is the most commonly used radioisotope for medical imaging, specifically in cardiac and cancer diagnostics. The MO-99 is produced in a small number of reactors and is processed and distributed worldwide. We have developed a tractable network model and computational approach for the design and redesign of the MO-99 supply chains. This topic is of special relevance to medical physics given the product's widespread use and the aging of the nuclear reactors where it is produced. This generalized network model, for which we derived formulae for the arc and path multipliers that capture the underlying physics of radioisotope decay, includes total operational cost minimization, and the minimization of cost associated with nuclear waste disposal, coupled with capacity investment (or disinvestment) costs. Its solution yields the optimal link capacities as well as the optimal MO-99 flows so that demand at the medical facilities is satisfied. We illustrate the framework with a Western Hemisphere case study. The framework provides the foundation for further empirical research and the basis for the modeling and analysis of supply chain networks for other very time-sensitive medical products.

  19. Development of Secure and Sustainable Nuclear Infrastructure in Emerging Nuclear Nations Such as Vietnam

    SciTech Connect

    Shipwash, Jacqueline L; Kovacic, Donald N

    2008-01-01

    Infrastructure Preparedness and Vietnam Jacqueline L. Shipwash and Donald N. Kovacic (shipwashjl@ornl.gov, 865-241-9129, and kovacicdn@ornl.gov, 865-576-1459) Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 The global expansion of nuclear energy will require international cooperation to ensure that nuclear materials, facilities, and sensitive technologies are not diverted to non-peaceful uses. Developing countries will require assistance to ensure the effective regulation, management, and operation of their nuclear programs to achieve best practices in nuclear nonproliferation. A developing nation has many hurdles to pass before it can give assurances to the international community that it is capable of implementing a sustainable nuclear energy program. In August of this year, the U.S. Department of Energy and the Ministry of Science and Technology of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam signed an arrangement for Information Exchange and Cooperation on the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy. This event signals an era of cooperation between the U.S. and Vietnam in the area of nuclear nonproliferation. This paper will address how DOE is supporting the development of secure and sustainable infrastructures in emerging nuclear nations such as Vietnam.

  20. Curriculum Development of a Research Laboratory Methodology Course for Complementary and Integrative Medicine Students

    PubMed Central

    Vasilevsky, Nicole; Schafer, Morgan; Tibbitts, Deanne; Wright, Kirsten; Zwickey, Heather

    2015-01-01

    Training in fundamental laboratory methodologies is valuable to medical students because it enables them to understand the published literature, critically evaluate clinical studies, and make informed decisions regarding patient care. It also prepares them for research opportunities that may complement their medical practice. The National College of Natural Medicine's (NCNM) Master of Science in Integrative Medicine Research (MSiMR) program has developed an Introduction to Laboratory Methods course. The objective of the course it to train clinical students how to perform basic laboratory skills, analyze and manage data, and judiciously assess biomedical studies. Here we describe the course development and implementation as it applies to complementary and integrative medicine students. PMID:26500806