Science.gov

Sample records for nuclear reactor regulation

  1. 10 CFR 1.43 - Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation. 1.43 Section 1.43... Program Offices § 1.43 Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation. The Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation— (a... health and safety, the environment, or the safeguarding of nuclear reactor facilities; (c) Assesses...

  2. 10 CFR 1.43 - Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation. 1.43 Section 1.43... Program Offices § 1.43 Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation. The Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation— (a... health and safety, the environment, or the safeguarding of nuclear reactor facilities; (c) Assesses...

  3. 10 CFR 1.43 - Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation. 1.43 Section 1.43 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STATEMENT OF ORGANIZATION AND GENERAL INFORMATION Headquarters Program Offices § 1.43 Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation. The Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation—...

  4. 10 CFR 1.43 - Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation. 1.43 Section 1.43 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STATEMENT OF ORGANIZATION AND GENERAL INFORMATION Headquarters Program Offices § 1.43 Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation. The Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation—...

  5. 10 CFR 1.43 - Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation. 1.43 Section 1.43 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STATEMENT OF ORGANIZATION AND GENERAL INFORMATION Headquarters Program Offices § 1.43 Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation. The Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation—...

  6. 78 FR 71675 - Update of the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation's Electronic Operating Reactor Correspondence

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Update of the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation's Electronic Operating Reactor Correspondence... Regulatory Commission. Michele G. Evans, Director, Division of Operating Reactor Licensing, Office of...

  7. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Treshow, M.

    1961-09-01

    A boiling-water nuclear reactor is described wherein control is effected by varying the moderator-to-fuel ratio in the reactor core. This is accomplished by providing control tubes containing a liquid control moderator in the reactor core and providing means for varying the amount of control moderatcr within the control tubes.

  8. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Sherman, J.; Sharbaugh, J.E.; Fauth, W.L. Jr.; Palladino, N.J.; DeHuff, P.G.

    1962-10-23

    A nuclear reactor incorporating seed and blanket assemblies is designed. Means are provided for obtaining samples of the coolant from the blanket assemblies and for varying the flow of coolant through the blanket assemblies. (AEC)

  9. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, C.R.

    1962-07-24

    A fluidized bed nuclear reactor and a method of operating such a reactor are described. In the design means are provided for flowing a liquid moderator upwardly through the center of a bed of pellets of a nentron-fissionable material at such a rate as to obtain particulate fluidization while constraining the lower pontion of the bed into a conical shape. A smooth circulation of particles rising in the center and falling at the outside of the bed is thereby established. (AEC)

  10. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Grebe, J.J.

    1959-07-14

    High temperature reactors which are uniquely adapted to serve as the heat source for nuclear pcwered rockets are described. The reactor is comprised essentially of an outer tubular heat resistant casing which provides the main coolant passageway to and away from the reactor core within the casing and in which the working fluid is preferably hydrogen or helium gas which is permitted to vaporize from a liquid storage tank. The reactor core has a generally spherical shape formed entirely of an active material comprised of fissile material and a moderator material which serves as a diluent. The active material is fabricated as a gas permeable porous material and is interlaced in a random manner with very small inter-connecting bores or capillary tubes through which the coolant gas may flow. The entire reactor is divided into successive sections along the direction of the temperature gradient or coolant flow, each section utilizing materials of construction which are most advantageous from a nuclear standpoint and which at the same time can withstand the operating temperature of that particular zone. This design results in a nuclear reactor characterized simultaneously by a minimum critiral size and mass and by the ability to heat a working fluid to an extremely high temperature.

  11. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Miller, H.I.; Smith, R.C.

    1958-01-21

    This patent relates to nuclear reactors of the type which use a liquid fuel, such as a solution of uranyl sulfate in ordinary water which acts as the moderator. The reactor is comprised of a spherical vessel having a diameter of about 12 inches substantially surrounded by a reflector of beryllium oxide. Conventionnl control rods and safety rods are operated in slots in the reflector outside the vessel to control the operation of the reactor. An additional means for increasing the safety factor of the reactor by raising the ratio of delayed neutrons to prompt neutrons, is provided and consists of a soluble sulfate salt of beryllium dissolved in the liquid fuel in the proper proportion to obtain the result desired.

  12. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Christy, R.F.

    1958-07-15

    A nuclear reactor of the homogeneous liquid fuel type is described wherein the fissionable isotope is suspended or dissolved in a liquid moderator such as water. The reactor core is comprised essentially of a spherical vessel for containing the reactive composition surrounded by a reflector, preferably of beryllium oxide. The reactive composition may be an ordinary water solution of a soluble salt of uranium, the quantity of fissionable isotope in solution being sufficient to provide a critical mass in the vessel. The liquid fuel is stored in a tank of non-crtttcal geometry below the reactor vessel and outside of the reflector and is passed from the tank to the vessel through a pipe connecting the two by air pressure means. Neutron absorbing control and safety rods are operated within slots in the reflector adjacent to the vessel.

  13. NUCLEAR REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Long, E.; Ashby, J.W.

    1958-09-16

    ABS>A graphite moderator structure is presented for a nuclear reactor compriscd of an assembly of similarly orientated prismatic graphite blocks arranged on spaced longitudinal axes lying in common planes wherein the planes of the walls of the blocks are positioned so as to be twisted reintive to the planes of said axes so thatthe unlmpeded dtrect paths in direction wholly across the walls of the blocks are limited to the width of the blocks plus spacing between the blocks.

  14. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Grebe, J.J.

    1959-12-15

    A reactor which is particularly adapted tu serve as a heat source for a nuclear powered alrcraft or rocket is described. The core of this reactor consists of a porous refractory modera;or body which is impregnated with fissionable nuclei. The core is designed so that its surface forms tapered inlet and outlet ducts which are separated by the porous moderator body. In operation a gaseous working fluid is circulated through the inlet ducts to the surface of the moderator, enters and passes through the porous body, and is heated therein. The hot gas emerges into the outlet ducts and is available to provide thrust. The principle advantage is that tremendous quantities of gas can be quickly heated without suffering an excessive pressure drop.

  15. Nuclear reactor

    DOEpatents

    Wade, Elman E.

    1979-01-01

    A nuclear reactor including two rotatable plugs and a positive top core holddown structure. The top core holddown structure is divided into two parts: a small core cover, and a large core cover. The small core cover, and the upper internals associated therewith, are attached to the small rotating plug, and the large core cover, with its associated upper internals, is attached to the large rotating plug. By so splitting the core holddown structures, under-the-plug refueling is accomplished without the necessity of enlarging the reactor pressure vessel to provide a storage space for the core holddown structure during refueling. Additionally, the small and large rotating plugs, and their associated core covers, are arranged such that the separation of the two core covers to permit rotation is accomplished without the installation of complex lifting mechanisms.

  16. NUCLEAR REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Long, E.; Ashley, J.W.

    1958-12-16

    A graphite moderator structure is described for a gas-cooled nuclear reactor having a vertical orlentation wherein the structure is physically stable with regard to dlmensional changes due to Wigner growth properties of the graphite, and leakage of coolant gas along spaces in the structure is reduced. The structure is comprised of stacks of unlform right prismatic graphite blocks positioned in layers extending in the direction of the lengths of the blocks, the adjacent end faces of the blocks being separated by pairs of tiles. The blocks and tiles have central bores which are in alignment when assembled and are provided with cooperatlng keys and keyways for physical stability.

  17. SELF-REGULATING BOILING-WATER NUCLEAR REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Ransohoff, J.A.; Plawchan, J.D.

    1960-08-16

    A boiling-water reactor was designed which comprises a pressure vessel containing a mass of water, a reactor core submerged within the water, a reflector tank disposed within the reactor, the reflector tank being open at the top to the interior of the pressure vessel, and a surge tank connected to the reflector tank. In operation the reflector level changes as a function of the pressure witoin the reactor so that the reactivity of the reactor is automatically controlled.

  18. An underground nuclear power station using self-regulating heat-pipe controlled reactors

    DOEpatents

    Hampel, V.E.

    1988-05-17

    A nuclear reactor for generating electricity is disposed underground at the bottom of a vertical hole that can be drilled using conventional drilling technology. The primary coolant of the reactor core is the working fluid in a plurality of thermodynamically coupled heat pipes emplaced in the hole between the heat source at the bottom of the hole and heat exchange means near the surface of the earth. Additionally, the primary coolant (consisting of the working fluid in the heat pipes in the reactor core) moderates neutrons and regulates their reactivity, thus keeping the power of the reactor substantially constant. At the end of its useful life, the reactor core may be abandoned in place. Isolation from the atmosphere in case of accident or for abandonment is provided by the operation of explosive closures and mechanical valves emplaced along the hole. This invention combines technology developed and tested for small, highly efficient, space-based nuclear electric power plants with the technology of fast- acting closure mechanisms developed and used for underground testing of nuclear weapons. This invention provides a nuclear power installation which is safe from the worst conceivable reactor accident, namely, the explosion of a nuclear weapon near the ground surface of a nuclear power reactor. 5 figs.

  19. Underground nuclear power station using self-regulating heat-pipe controlled reactors

    DOEpatents

    Hampel, Viktor E.

    1989-01-01

    A nuclear reactor for generating electricity is disposed underground at the bottom of a vertical hole that can be drilled using conventional drilling technology. The primary coolant of the reactor core is the working fluid in a plurality of thermodynamically coupled heat pipes emplaced in the hole between the heat source at the bottom of the hole and heat exchange means near the surface of the earth. Additionally, the primary coolant (consisting of the working flud in the heat pipes in the reactor core) moderates neutrons and regulates their reactivity, thus keeping the power of the reactor substantially constant. At the end of its useful life, the reactor core may be abandoned in place. Isolation from the atmosphere in case of accident or for abandonment is provided by the operation of explosive closures and mechanical valves emplaced along the hole. This invention combines technology developed and tested for small, highly efficient, space-based nuclear electric power plants with the technology of fast-acting closure mechanisms developed and used for underground testing of nuclear weapons. This invention provides a nuclear power installation which is safe from the worst conceivable reactor accident, namely, the explosion of a nuclear weapon near the ground surface of a nuclear power reactor.

  20. Nuclear reactor

    DOEpatents

    Pennell, William E.; Rowan, William J.

    1977-01-01

    A nuclear reactor in which the core components, including fuel-rod assemblies, control-rod assemblies, fertile rod-assemblies, and removable shielding assemblies, are supported by a plurality of separate inlet modular units. These units are referred to as inlet module units to distinguish them from the modules of the upper internals of the reactor. The modular units are supported, each removable independently of the others, in liners in the supporting structure for the lower internals of the reactor. The core assemblies are removably supported in integral receptacles or sockets of the modular units. The liners, units, sockets and assmblies have inlet openings for entry of the fluid. The modular units are each removably mounted in the liners with fluid seals interposed between the opening in the liner and inlet module into which the fluid enters and the upper and lower portion of the liner. Each assembly is similarly mounted in a corresponding receptacle with fluid seals interposed between the openings where the fluid enters and the lower portion of the receptacle or fitting closely in these regions. As fluid flows along each core assembly a pressure drop is produced along the fluid so that the fluid which emerges from each core assembly is at a lower pressure than the fluid which enters the core assembly. However because of the seals interposed in the mountings of the units and assemblies the pressures above and below the units and assemblies are balanced and the units are held in the liners and the assemblies are held in the receptacles by their weights as they have a higher specific gravity than the fluid. The low-pressure spaces between each module and its liner and between each core assembly and its module is vented to the low-pressure regions of the vessel to assure that fluid which leaks through the seals does not accumulate and destroy the hydraulic balance.

  1. Nuclear reactor

    DOEpatents

    Yant, Howard W.; Stinebiser, Karl W.; Anzur, Gregory C.

    1977-01-01

    A nuclear reactor, particularly a liquid-metal breeder reactor, whose upper internals include outlet modules for channeling the liquid-metal coolant from selected areas of the outlet of the core vertically to the outlet plenum. The modules are composed of a highly-refractory, high corrosion-resistant alloy, for example, INCONEL-718. Each module is disposed to confine and channel generally vertically the coolant emitted from a subplurality of core-component assemblies. Each module has a grid with openings, each opening disposed to receive the coolant from an assembly of the subplurality. The grid in addition serves as a holdown for the assemblies of the corresponding subplurality preventing their excessive ejection upwardly from the core. In the region directly over the core the outlet modules are of such peripheral form that they nest forming a continuum over the core-component assemblies whose outlet coolant they confine. Each subassembly includes a chimney which confines the coolant emitted by its corresponding subassemblies to generally vertical flow between the outlet of the core and the outlet plenum. Each subplurality of assemblies whose emitted coolant is confined by an outlet module includes assemblies which emit lower-temperature coolant, for example, a control-rod assembly, or fertile assemblies, and assemblies which emit coolant of substantially higher temperature, for example, fuel-rod assemblies. The coolants of different temperatures are mixed in the chimneys reducing the effect of stripping (hot-cold temperature fluctuations) on the remainder of the upper internals which are composed typically of AISI-304 or AISI-316 stainless steel.

  2. Nuclear reactor

    DOEpatents

    Thomson, Wallace B.

    2004-03-16

    A nuclear reactor comprising a cylindrical pressure vessel, an elongated annular core centrally disposed within and spaced from the pressure vessel, and a plurality of ducts disposed longitudinally of the pressure vessel about the periphery thereof, said core comprising an annular active portion, an annular reflector just inside the active portion, and an annular reflector just outside the active a portion, said annular active portion comprising rectangular slab, porous fuel elements radially disposed around the inner reflector and extending the length of the active portion, wedge-shaped, porous moderator elements disposed adjacent one face of each fuel element and extending the length of the fuel element, the fuel and moderator elements being oriented so that the fuel elements face each other and the moderator elements do likewise, adjacent moderator elements being spaced to provide air inlet channels, and adjacent fuel elements being spaced to provide air outlet channels which communicate with the interior of the peripheral ducts, and means for introducing air into the air inlet channels which passes through the porous moderator elements and porous fuel elements to the outlet channel.

  3. Applying and adapting the Swedish regulatory system for decommissioning to nuclear power reactors - The regulator's perspective.

    PubMed

    Amft, Martin; Leisvik, Mathias; Carroll, Simon

    2017-03-16

    Half of the original 13 Swedish nuclear power reactors will be shut down by 2020. The decommissioning of these reactors is a challenge for all parties involved, including the licensees, the waste management system, the financing system, and the Swedish Radiation Safety Authority (SSM). This paper presents an overview of the Swedish regulations for decommissioning of nuclear facilities. It describes some of the experiences that SSM has gained from the application of these regulations. The focus of the present paper is on administrative aspects of decommissioning, such as SSM's guidelines, the definition of fundamental concepts in the regulatory framework, and a proposed revision of the licensing process according to the Environmental Act. These improvements will help to streamline the administration of the commercial nuclear power plant decommissioning projects that are anticipated to commence in Sweden in the near future.

  4. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Moore, R.V.; Bowen, J.H.; Dent, K.H.

    1958-12-01

    A heterogeneous, natural uranium fueled, solid moderated, gas cooled reactor is described, in which the fuel elements are in the form of elongated rods and are dlsposed within vertical coolant channels ln the moderator symmetrically arranged as a regular lattice in groups. This reactor employs control rods which operate in vertical channels in the moderator so that each control rod is centered in one of the fuel element groups. The reactor is enclosed in a pressure vessel which ls provided with access holes at the top to facilitate loading and unloadlng of the fuel elements, control rods and control rod driving devices.

  5. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Breden, C.R.; Dietrich, J.R.

    1961-06-20

    A water-soluble non-volatile poison may be introduced into a reactor to nullify excess reactivity. The poison is removed by passing a side stream of the water containing the soluble poison to an evaporation chamber. The vapor phase is returned to the reactor to decrease the concentration of soluble poison and the liquid phase is returned to increase the concentration of soluble poison.

  6. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Treshow, M.

    1958-08-19

    A neuclear reactor is described of the heterogeneous type and employing replaceable tubular fuel elements and heavy water as a coolant and moderator. A pluraltty of fuel tubesa having their axes parallel, extend through a tank type pressure vessel which contatns the liquid moderator. The fuel elements are disposed within the fuel tubes in the reaetive portion of the pressure vessel during normal operation and the fuel tubes have removable plug members at each end to permit charging and discharging of the fuel elements. The fuel elements are cylindrical strands of jacketed fissionable material having helical exterior ribs. A bundle of fuel elements are held within each fuel tube with their longitudinal axes parallel, the ribs serving to space them apart along their lengths. Coolant liquid is circulated through the fuel tubes between the spaced fuel elements. Suitable control rod and monitoring means are provided for controlling the reactor.

  7. NUCLEAR REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Koch, L.J.; Rice, R.E. Jr.; Denst, A.A.; Rogers, A.J.; Novick, M.

    1961-12-01

    An active portion assembly for a fast neutron reactor is described wherein physical distortions resulting in adverse changes in the volume-to-mass ratio are minimized. A radially expandable locking device is disposed within a cylindrical tube within each fuel subassembly within the active portion assembly, and clamping devices expandable toward the center of the active portion assembly are disposed around the periphery thereof. (AEC)

  8. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Grebe, J.J.

    1961-01-24

    A core structure for neutronic reactors adapted for the propulsion of aircraft and rockets is offered. The core is designed for cooling by gaseous media, and comprises a plurality of hollow tapered tubular segments of a porous moderating material impregniated with fissionable fuel nested about a common axis. Alternate ends of the segments are joined. In operation a coolant gas passes through the porous structure and is heated.

  9. NUCLEAR REACTOR CONTROL SYSTEM

    DOEpatents

    Epler, E.P.; Hanauer, S.H.; Oakes, L.C.

    1959-11-01

    A control system is described for a nuclear reactor using enriched uranium fuel of the type of the swimming pool and other heterogeneous nuclear reactors. Circuits are included for automatically removing and inserting the control rods during the course of normal operation. Appropriate safety circuits close down the nuclear reactor in the event of emergency.

  10. Nuclear reactor overflow line

    DOEpatents

    Severson, Wayne J.

    1976-01-01

    The overflow line for the reactor vessel of a liquid-metal-cooled nuclear reactor includes means for establishing and maintaining a continuous bleed flow of coolant amounting to 5 to 10% of the total coolant flow through the overflow line to prevent thermal shock to the overflow line when the reactor is restarted following a trip. Preferably a tube is disposed concentrically just inside the overflow line extending from a point just inside the reactor vessel to an overflow tank and a suction line is provided opening into the body of liquid metal in the reactor vessel and into the annulus between the overflow line and the inner tube.

  11. Nuclear reactor apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Wade, Elman E.

    1978-01-01

    A lifting, rotating and sealing apparatus for nuclear reactors utilizing rotating plugs above the nuclear reactor core. This apparatus permits rotation of the plugs to provide under the plug refueling of a nuclear core. It also provides a means by which positive top core holddown can be utilized. Both of these operations are accomplished by means of the apparatus lifting the top core holddown structure off the nuclear core while stationary, and maintaining this structure in its elevated position during plug rotation. During both of these operations, the interface between the rotating member and its supporting member is sealingly maintained.

  12. HOMOGENEOUS NUCLEAR POWER REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    King, L.D.P.

    1959-09-01

    A homogeneous nuclear power reactor utilizing forced circulation of the liquid fuel is described. The reactor does not require fuel handling outside of the reactor vessel during any normal operation including complete shutdown to room temperature, the reactor being selfregulating under extreme operating conditions and controlled by the thermal expansion of the liquid fuel. The liquid fuel utilized is a uranium, phosphoric acid, and water solution which requires no gus exhaust system or independent gas recombining system, thereby eliminating the handling of radioiytic gas.

  13. Nuclear reactor reflector

    DOEpatents

    Hopkins, Ronald J.; Land, John T.; Misvel, Michael C.

    1994-01-01

    A nuclear reactor reflector is disclosed that comprises a stack of reflector blocks with vertical water flow passages to cool the reflector. The interface between blocks is opposite support points for reactor fuel rods. Water flows between the reflector and the reactor barrel from passages in a bottom block. The top block contains a flange to limit this flow and the flange has a slot to receive an alignment pin that is welded to the barrel. The pin is held in the slot by two removable shims. Alignment bars extend the length of the stack in slots machined in each block when the stack is assembled.

  14. Nuclear reactor reflector

    DOEpatents

    Hopkins, R.J.; Land, J.T.; Misvel, M.C.

    1994-06-07

    A nuclear reactor reflector is disclosed that comprises a stack of reflector blocks with vertical water flow passages to cool the reflector. The interface between blocks is opposite support points for reactor fuel rods. Water flows between the reflector and the reactor barrel from passages in a bottom block. The top block contains a flange to limit this flow and the flange has a slot to receive an alignment pin that is welded to the barrel. The pin is held in the slot by two removable shims. Alignment bars extend the length of the stack in slots machined in each block when the stack is assembled. 12 figs.

  15. Nuclear reactor control column

    DOEpatents

    Bachovchin, Dennis M.

    1982-01-01

    The nuclear reactor control column comprises a column disposed within the nuclear reactor core having a variable cross-section hollow channel and containing balls whose vertical location is determined by the flow of the reactor coolant through the column. The control column is divided into three basic sections wherein each of the sections has a different cross-sectional area. The uppermost section of the control column has the greatest cross-sectional area, the intermediate section of the control column has the smallest cross-sectional area, and the lowermost section of the control column has the intermediate cross-sectional area. In this manner, the area of the uppermost section can be established such that when the reactor coolant is flowing under normal conditions therethrough, the absorber balls will be lifted and suspended in a fluidized bed manner in the upper section. However, when the reactor coolant flow falls below a predetermined value, the absorber balls will fall through the intermediate section and into the lowermost section, thereby reducing the reactivity of the reactor core and shutting down the reactor.

  16. Nuclear Reactors and Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Cason, D.L.; Hicks, S.C.

    1992-01-01

    This publication Nuclear Reactors and Technology (NRT) announces on a monthly basis the current worldwide information available from the open literature on nuclear reactors and technology, including all aspects of power reactors, components and accessories, fuel elements, control systems, and materials. This publication contains the abstracts of DOE reports, journal articles, conference papers, patents, theses, and monographs added to the Energy Science and Technology Database during the past month. Also included are US information obtained through acquisition programs or interagency agreements and international information obtained through the International Energy Agency`s Energy Technology Data Exchange or government-to-government agreements. The digests in NRT and other citations to information on nuclear reactors back to 1948 are available for online searching and retrieval on the Energy Science and Technology Database and Nuclear Science Abstracts (NSA) database. Current information, added daily to the Energy Science and Technology Database, is available to DOE and its contractors through the DOE Integrated Technical Information System. Customized profiles can be developed to provide current information to meet each user`s needs.

  17. Experience of the nuclear reactors (environmental impact assessment for decommissioning) regulations 1999, as amended, in Great Britain

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Sarah; Mattress, Elaine; Nettleton, Jo

    2007-07-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: In Great Britain, the Nuclear Reactors (Environmental Impact Assessment for Decommissioning) Regulations 1999 as amended 2006 (EIADR) requires assessment of the potential environmental impacts of projects to decommission nuclear power stations and reactors. The Health and Safety Executive (HSE) is the competent authority for EIADR. The EIADR implement European Council Directive 85/337/EEC (the EIA Directive) as amended by Council Directive 97/11/EC and Council Directive 2003/35/EC the (Public Participation Directive). The purpose of the EIADR is to assess environmental effects of nuclear reactor decommissioning projects, involve the public through consultation, and make the decision-making process open and transparent. Under the regulations, any licensee wishing to begin to decommission or dismantle a nuclear power station, or other civil nuclear reactor, must apply to HSE for consent to carry out the decommissioning project, undertake an environmental impact assessment and prepare an environmental statement that summarises the environmental effects of the project. HSE will consult on the environmental statement. So far under the EIADR there have been six consents granted for decommissioning projects for Magnox Power Stations. These stations have been required as a condition of consent to submit an Environmental Management Plan on an annual basis. This allows the project to be continually reviewed and assessed to ensure that the licensee can provide detail as agreed during the review of the environmental statement and that any changes to mitigation measures are detailed. This paper summarises the EIADR process, giving particular emphasis to public participation and the decision making process, and discusses HSE's experience of EIADR with reference to specific environmental issues raised by stakeholders and current developments. (authors)

  18. THERMAL NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Fenning, F.W.; Jackson, R.F.

    1957-09-24

    Nuclear reactors of the graphite moderated air cooled type in which canned slugs or rods of fissile material are employed are discussed. Such a reactor may be provided with a means for detecting dust particles in the exhausted air. The means employed are lengths of dust absorbent cord suspended in vertical holes in the shielding structure above each vertical coolant flow channel to hang in the path of the cooling air issuing from the channels, and associated spindles and drive motors for hauling the cords past detectors, such as Geiger counters, for inspecting the cords periodically. This design also enables detecting the individual channel in which a fault condition may have occurred.

  19. Heat dissipating nuclear reactor

    DOEpatents

    Hunsbedt, A.; Lazarus, J.D.

    1985-11-21

    Disclosed is a nuclear reactor containment adapted to retain and cool core debris in the unlikely event of a core meltdown and subsequent breach in the reactor vessel. The reactor vessel is seated in a cavity which has a thick metal sidewall that is integral with a thick metal basemat at the bottom of the cavity. The basemat extends beyond the perimeter of the cavity sidewall. Underneath the basemat is a porous bed with water pipes and steam pipes running into it. Water is introduced into the bed and converted into steam which is vented to the atmosphere. A plurality of metal pilings in the form of H-beams extend from the metal base plate downwardly and outwardly into the earth.

  20. Nuclear reactor safety device

    DOEpatents

    Hutter, Ernest

    1986-01-01

    A safety device is disclosed for use in a nuclear reactor for axially repositioning a control rod with respect to the reactor core in the event of an upward thermal excursion. Such safety device comprises a laminated helical ribbon configured as a tube-like helical coil having contiguous helical turns with slidably abutting edges. The helical coil is disclosed as a portion of a drive member connected axially to the control rod. The laminated ribbon is formed of outer and inner laminae. The material of the outer lamina has a greater thermal coefficient of expansion than the material of the inner lamina. In the event of an upward thermal excursion, the laminated helical coil curls inwardly to a smaller diameter. Such inward curling causes the total length of the helical coil to increase by a substantial increment, so that the control rod is axially repositioned by a corresponding amount to reduce the power output of the reactor.

  1. Heat dissipating nuclear reactor

    DOEpatents

    Hunsbedt, Anstein; Lazarus, Jonathan D.

    1987-01-01

    Disclosed is a nuclear reactor containment adapted to retain and cool core debris in the unlikely event of a core meltdown and subsequent breach in the reactor vessel. The reactor vessel is seated in a cavity which has a thick metal sidewall that is integral with a thick metal basemat at the bottom of the cavity. The basemat extends beyond the perimeter of the cavity sidewall. Underneath the basemat is a porous bed with water pipes and steam pipes running into it. Water is introduced into the bed and converted into steam which is vented to the atmosphere. A plurality of metal pilings in the form of H-beams extends from the metal base plate downwardly and outwardly into the earth.

  2. Fast neutron nuclear reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Cabrillat, M. Th.; Lions, N.

    1985-01-08

    The invention relates to a fast neutron nuclear reactor of the integrated type comprising a cylindrical inner vessel. The inner vessel comprises two concentric ferrules and the connection between the hot collector defined within this vessel and the inlet port of the exchangers is brought about by a hot structure forming a heat baffle and supported by the inner ferrule and by a cold structure surrounding the hot structure, supported by the outer ferrule and sealingly connected to the exchanger. Application to the generation of electric power in nuclear power stations.

  3. ESTABLISHING FINAL END STATE FOR A RETIRED NUCLEAR WEAPONS PRODUCTION REACTOR; COLLABORATION BETWEEN STAKEHOLDERS, REGULATORS AND THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Bergren, C

    2009-01-16

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is a 310-square-mile United States Department of Energy nuclear facility located along the Savannah River (SRS) near Aiken, South Carolina. Nuclear weapons material production began in the early 1950s, utilizing five production reactors. In the early 1990s all SRS production reactor operations were terminated. The first reactor closure end state declaration was recently institutionalized in a Comprehensive Environmental Response and Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) Early Action Record of Decision. The decision for the final closure of the 318,000 square foot 105-P Reactor was determined to be in situ decommissioning (ISD). ISD is an acceptable and cost effective alternative to off-site disposal for the reactor building, which will allow for consolidation of remedial action wastes generated from other cleanup activities within the P Area. ISD is considered protective by the regulators, U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) and the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC), public and stakeholders as waste materials are stabilized/immobilized, and radioactivity is allowed to naturally decay, thus preventing future exposure to the environment. Stakeholder buy-in was critical in the upfront planning in order to achieve this monumental final decision. Numerous public meetings and workshops were held in two different states (covering a 200 mile radius) with stakeholder and SRS Citizens Advisory Board participation. These meetings were conducted over an eight month period as the end state decision making progressed. Information provided to the public evolved from workshop to workshop as data became available and public input from the public meetings were gathered. ISD is being considered for the balance of the four SRS reactors and other hardened facilities such as the chemical processing canyons.

  4. ESTABLISHING FINAL END STATE FOR A RETIRED NUCLEAR WEAPONS PRODUCTION REACTOR; COLLABORATION BETWEEN STAKEHOLDERS, REGULATORS, AND THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT - 11052

    SciTech Connect

    Bergren, C.; Flora, M.; Belencan, H.

    2010-11-17

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is a 310-square-mile United States Department of Energy nuclear facility located along the Savannah River (SRS) near Aiken, South Carolina. Nuclear weapons material production began in the early 1950s, utilizing five production reactors. In the early 1990s all SRS production reactor operations were terminated. The first reactor closure end state declaration was recently institutionalized in a Comprehensive Environmental Response and Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) Early Action Record of Decision. The decision for the final closure of the 318,000 square foot 105-P Reactor was determined to be in situ decommissioning (ISD). ISD is an acceptable and cost effective alternative to off-site disposal for the reactor building, which will allow for consolidation of remedial action wastes generated from other cleanup activities within the P Area. ISD is considered protective by the regulators, U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) and the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC), public and stakeholders as waste materials are stabilized/immobilized, and radioactivity is allowed to naturally decay, thus preventing future exposure to the environment. Stakeholder buy-in was critical in the upfront planning in order to achieve this monumental final decision. Numerous public meetings and workshops were held in two different states (covering a 200 mile radius) with stakeholder and SRS Citizens Advisory Board participation. These meetings were conducted over an eight month period as the end state decision making progressed. Information provided to the public evolved from workshop to workshop as data became available and public input from the public meetings were gathered. ISD is being considered for the balance of the four SRS reactors and other hardened facilities such as the chemical Separation Facilities (canyons).

  5. Licensed reactor nuclear safety criteria applicable to DOE reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    This document is a compilation and source list of nuclear safety criteria that the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) applies to licensed reactors; it can be used by DOE and DOE contractors to identify NRC criteria to be evaluated for application to the DOE reactors under their cognizance. The criteria listed are those that are applied to the areas of nuclear safety addressed in the safety analysis report of a licensed reactor. They are derived from federal regulations, USNRC regulatory guides, Standard Review Plan (SRP) branch technical positions and appendices, and industry codes and standards.

  6. Licensed reactor nuclear safety criteria applicable to DOE reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-04-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Order DOE 5480.6, Safety of Department of Energy-Owned Nuclear Reactors, establishes reactor safety requirements to assure that reactors are sited, designed, constructed, modified, operated, maintained, and decommissioned in a manner that adequately protects health and safety and is in accordance with uniform standards, guides, and codes which are consistent with those applied to comparable licensed reactors. This document identifies nuclear safety criteria applied to NRC (Nuclear Regulatory Commission) licensed reactors. The titles of the chapters and sections of USNRC Regulatory Guide 1.70, Standard Format and Content of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants, Rev. 3, are used as the format for compiling the NRC criteria applied to the various areas of nuclear safety addressed in a safety analysis report for a nuclear reactor. In each section the criteria are compiled in four groups: (1) Code of Federal Regulations, (2) US NRC Regulatory Guides, SRP Branch Technical Positions and Appendices, (3) Codes and Standards, and (4) Supplemental Information. The degree of application of these criteria to a DOE-owned reactor, consistent with their application to comparable licensed reactors, must be determined by the DOE and DOE contractor.

  7. Nuclear reactor sealing system

    DOEpatents

    McEdwards, James A.

    1983-01-01

    A liquid metal-cooled nuclear reactor sealing system. The nuclear reactor includes a vessel sealed at its upper end by a closure head. The closure head comprises at least two components, one of which is rotatable; and the two components define an annulus therebetween. The sealing system includes at least a first and second inflatable seal disposed in series in an upper portion of the annulus. The system further includes a dip seal extending into a body of insulation located adjacent a bottom portion of the closure head. The dip seal comprises a trough formed by a lower portion of one of the components, and a seal blade pendently supported from the other component and extending downwardly into the trough. A body of liquid metal is contained in the trough which submerges a portion of the seal blade. The seal blade is provided with at least one aperture located above the body of liquid metal for providing fluid communication between the annulus intermediate the dip seal and the inflatable seals, and a body of cover gas located inside the vessel. There also is provided means for introducing a purge gas into the annulus intermediate the inflatable seals and the seal blade. The purge gas is introduced in an amount sufficient to substantially reduce diffusion of radioactive cover gas or sodium vapor up to the inflatable seals. The purge gas mixes with the cover gas in the reactor vessel where it can be withdrawn from the vessel for treatment and recycle to the vessel.

  8. Nuclear reactor installation

    SciTech Connect

    Straub, H.

    1987-09-29

    A nuclear reactor installation is described comprising a pressure vessel having a pair of concentric walls defining a peripheral chamber therebetween; a reactor core disposed within the pressure vessel for heating a primary coolant; a cooling circuit for conveying a secondary coolant in heat exchange relation with the primary coolant. The circuit includes at least one primary heat exchanger within the pressure vessel, at least one secondary heat exchanger outside the pressure vessel, coolant lines extending through the pressure vessel and connecting the heat exchanges together, and circulating means for circulating a secondary coolant through the heat exchangers; a heat sink extending around the pressure vessel; a source of at least one flowable heat-insulating agent outside the pressure vessel; a source of at least one flowable heat-conductive agent outside the pressure vessel; first means communicating the source of heat-insulating agent with the peripheral chamber during normal operation of the reactor core; and second means communicating the source of heat-conductive agent with the peripheral chamber to fill the chamber with heat-conductive agent in response to a disturbance in reactor core cooling.

  9. Nuclear reactor building

    DOEpatents

    Gou, Perng-Fei; Townsend, Harold E.; Barbanti, Giancarlo

    1994-01-01

    A reactor building for enclosing a nuclear reactor includes a containment vessel having a wetwell disposed therein. The wetwell includes inner and outer walls, a floor, and a roof defining a wetwell pool and a suppression chamber disposed thereabove. The wetwell and containment vessel define a drywell surrounding the reactor. A plurality of vents are disposed in the wetwell pool in flow communication with the drywell for channeling into the wetwell pool steam released in the drywell from the reactor during a LOCA for example, for condensing the steam. A shell is disposed inside the wetwell and extends into the wetwell pool to define a dry gap devoid of wetwell water and disposed in flow communication with the suppression chamber. In a preferred embodiment, the wetwell roof is in the form of a slab disposed on spaced apart support beams which define therebetween an auxiliary chamber. The dry gap, and additionally the auxiliary chamber, provide increased volume to the suppression chamber for improving pressure margin.

  10. Nuclear reactor building

    DOEpatents

    Gou, P.F.; Townsend, H.E.; Barbanti, G.

    1994-04-05

    A reactor building for enclosing a nuclear reactor includes a containment vessel having a wetwell disposed therein. The wetwell includes inner and outer walls, a floor, and a roof defining a wetwell pool and a suppression chamber disposed there above. The wetwell and containment vessel define a drywell surrounding the reactor. A plurality of vents are disposed in the wetwell pool in flow communication with the drywell for channeling into the wetwell pool steam released in the drywell from the reactor during a LOCA for example, for condensing the steam. A shell is disposed inside the wetwell and extends into the wetwell pool to define a dry gap devoid of wetwell water and disposed in flow communication with the suppression chamber. In a preferred embodiment, the wetwell roof is in the form of a slab disposed on spaced apart support beams which define there between an auxiliary chamber. The dry gap, and additionally the auxiliary chamber, provide increased volume to the suppression chamber for improving pressure margin. 4 figures.

  11. Nuclear reactor safety device

    DOEpatents

    Hutter, E.

    1983-08-15

    A safety device is described for use in a nuclear reactor for axially repositioning a control rod with respect to the reactor core in the event of a thermal excursion. It comprises a laminated strip helically configured to form a tube, said tube being in operative relation to said control rod. The laminated strip is formed of at least two materials having different thermal coefficients of expansion, and is helically configured such that the material forming the outer lamina of the tube has a greater thermal coefficient of expansion than the material forming the inner lamina of said tube. In the event of a thermal excursion the laminated strip will tend to curl inwardly so that said tube will increase in length, whereby as said tube increases in length it exerts a force on said control rod to axially reposition said control rod with respect to said core.

  12. HOMOGENEOUS NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Hammond, R.P.; Busey, H.M.

    1959-02-17

    Nuclear reactors of the homogeneous liquid fuel type are discussed. The reactor is comprised of an elongated closed vessel, vertically oriented, having a critical region at the bottom, a lower chimney structure extending from the critical region vertically upwardly and surrounded by heat exchanger coils, to a baffle region above which is located an upper chimney structure containing a catalyst functioning to recombine radiolyticallydissociated moderator gages. In operation the liquid fuel circulates solely by convection from the critical region upwardly through the lower chimney and then downwardly through the heat exchanger to return to the critical region. The gases formed by radiolytic- dissociation of the moderator are carried upwardly with the circulating liquid fuel and past the baffle into the region of the upper chimney where they are recombined by the catalyst and condensed, thence returning through the heat exchanger to the critical region.

  13. Nuclear reactor shutdown system

    DOEpatents

    Bhate, Suresh K.; Cooper, Martin H.; Riffe, Delmar R.; Kinney, Calvin L.

    1981-01-01

    An inherent shutdown system for a nuclear reactor having neutron absorbing rods affixed to an armature which is held in an upper position by a magnetic flux flowing through a Curie temperature material. The Curie temperature material is fixedly positioned about the exterior of an inner duct in an annular region through which reactor coolant flows. Elongated fuel rods extending from within the core upwardly toward the Curie temperature material are preferably disposed within the annular region. Upon abnormal conditions which result in high neutron flux and coolant temperature, the Curie material loses its magnetic permeability, breaking the magnetic flux path and allowing the armature and absorber rods to drop into the core, thus shutting down the fissioning reaction. The armature and absorber rods are retrieved by lowering the housing for the electromagnet forming coils which create a magnetic flux path which includes the inner duct wall. The coil housing then is raised, resetting the armature.

  14. Nuclear reactor fuel element

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Carl E.; Crouthamel, Carl E.

    1980-01-01

    A nuclear reactor fuel element is described which has an outer cladding, a central core of fissionable or mixed fissionable and fertile fuel material and a layer of oxygen gettering material on the inner surface of the cladding. The gettering material reacts with oxygen released by the fissionable material during irradiation of the core thereby preventing the oxygen from reacting with and corroding the cladding. Also described is an improved method for coating the inner surface of the cladding with a layer of gettering material.

  15. Nuclear reactor control apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Sridhar, Bettadapur N.

    1983-11-01

    Nuclear reactor core safety rod release apparatus comprises a control rod having a detent notch in the form of an annular peripheral recess at its upper end, a control rod support tube for raising and lowering the control rod under normal conditions, latches pivotally mounted on the control support tube with free ends thereof normally disposed in the recess in the control rod, and cam means for pivoting the latches out of the recess in the control rod when a scram condition occurs. One embodiment of the invention comprises an additional magnetically-operated latch for releasing the control rod under two different conditions, one involving seismic shock.

  16. Graphite for nuclear reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Virgiliev, Yu.S.; Kalyagina, I.P.

    1993-12-31

    Relative dimensional changes and physical properties of structural graphites - {Gamma}p-280 (nuclear graphite) and {Gamma}p{Pi}-2 (modificated variety of nuclear graphite for the rings of elastic contact) irradiated at temperatures ranging from 320 to 1900K with a fluence of about 2.5.10{sup 22}nvt (E {ge} 0.18 MeV) are represented. In order to ensure a long-time serviceability of the VGM - reactor blocks the high-strength graphite of {Gamma}p-1 grade are developed. The properties and its irradiation changes of {Gamma}p-1 graphite are represented. A secondary swelling of the graphite develops similar to the swelling of metals, alloys and high-melting compounds.

  17. NUCLEAR REACTOR CORE DESIGN

    DOEpatents

    Mahlmeister, J.E.; Peck, W.S.; Haberer, W.V.; Williams, A.C.

    1960-03-22

    An improved core design for a sodium-cooled, graphitemoderated nuclear reactor is described. The improved reactor core comprises a number of blocks of moderator material, each block being in the shape of a regular prism. A number of channels, extending the length of each block, are disposed around the periphery. When several blocks are placed in contact to form the reactor core, the channels in adjacent blocks correspond with each other to form closed conduits extending the length of the core. Fuel element clusters are disposed in these closed conduits, and liquid coolant is forced through the annulus between the fuel cluster and the inner surface of the conduit. In a preferred embodiment of the invention, the moderator blocks are in the form of hexagonal prisms with longitudinal channels cut into the corners of the hexagon. The main advantage of an "edge-loaded" moderator block is that fewer thermal neutrons are absorbed by the moderator cladding, as compared with a conventional centrally loaded moderator block.

  18. EMERGENCY SHUTDOWN FOR NUCLEAR REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Paget, J.A.; Koutz, S.L.; Stone, R.S.; Stewart, H.B.

    1963-12-24

    An emergency shutdown or scram apparatus for use in a nuclear reactor that includes a neutron absorber suspended from a temperature responsive substance that is selected to fail at a preselected temperature in excess of the normal reactor operating temperature, whereby the neutron absorber is released and allowed to fall under gravity to a preselected position within the reactor core is presented. (AEC)

  19. Nuclear Reactors. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogerton, John F.

    This publication is one of a series of information booklets for the general public published by the United States Atomic Energy Commission. Among the topics discussed are: How Reactors Work; Reactor Design; Research, Teaching, and Materials Testing; Reactors (Research, Teaching and Materials); Production Reactors; Reactors for Electric Power…

  20. Nuclear reactor control apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Sridhar, Bettadapur N.

    1983-10-25

    Nuclear reactor safety rod release apparatus comprises a ring which carries detents normally positioned in an annular recess in outer side of the rod, the ring being held against the lower end of a drive shaft by magnetic force exerted by a solenoid carried by the drive shaft. When the solenoid is de-energized, the detent-carrying ring drops until the detents contact a cam surface associated with the lower end of the drive shaft, at which point the detents are cammed out of the recess in the safety rod to release the rod from the drive shaft. In preferred embodiments of the invention, an additional latch is provided to release a lower portion of a safety rod under conditions that may interfere with movement of the entire rod.

  1. NUCLEAR REACTOR CONTROL SYSTEM

    DOEpatents

    Howard, D.F.; Motta, E.E.

    1961-06-27

    A method for controlling the excess reactivity in a nuclear reactor throughout the core life while maintaining the neutron flux distribution at the desired level is described. The control unit embodies a container having two electrodes of different surface area immersed in an electrolytic solution of a good neutron sbsorbing metal ion such as boron, gadolinium, or cadmium. Initially, the neutron absorber is plated on the larger electrode to control the greater neutron flux of a freshly refueled core. As the fuel burns up, the excess reactivity decreases and the neutron absorber is then plated onto the smaller electrode so that the number of neutrons absorbed also decreases. The excess reactivity in the core may thus be maintained without the introduction of serious perturbations in the neutron flux distributibn.

  2. GAS COOLED NUCLEAR REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Long, E.; Rodwell, W.

    1958-06-10

    A gas-cooled nuclear reactor consisting of a graphite reacting core and reflector structure supported in a containing vessel is described. A gas sealing means is included for sealing between the walls of the graphite structure and containing vessel to prevent the gas coolant by-passing the reacting core. The reacting core is a multi-sided right prismatic structure having a pair of parallel slots around its periphery. The containing vessel is cylindrical and has a rib on its internal surface which supports two continuous ring shaped flexible web members with their radially innermost ends in sealing engagement within the radially outermost portion of the slots. The core structure is supported on ball bearings. This design permits thermal expansion of the core stracture and vessel while maintainirg a peripheral seal between the tvo elements.

  3. Nuclear reactor control

    DOEpatents

    Cawley, William E.; Warnick, Robert F.

    1982-01-01

    1. In a nuclear reactor incorporating a plurality of columns of tubular fuel elements disposed in horizontal tubes in a mass of graphite wherein water flows through the tubes to cool the fuel elements, the improvement comprising at least one control column disposed in a horizontal tube including fewer fuel elements than in a normal column of fuel elements and tubular control elements disposed at both ends of said control column, and means for varying the horizontal displacement of the control column comprising a winch at the upstream end of the control column and a cable extending through the fuel and control elements and attached to the element at the downstream end of the column.

  4. Fast reactors and nuclear nonproliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Avrorin, E.N.; Rachkov, V.I.; Chebeskov, A.N.

    2013-07-01

    Problems are discussed with regard to nuclear fuel cycle resistance in fast reactors to nuclear proliferation risk due to the potential for use in military programs of the knowledge, technologies and materials gained from peaceful nuclear power applications. Advantages are addressed for fast reactors in the creation of a more reliable mode of nonproliferation in the closed nuclear fuel cycle in comparison with the existing fully open and partially closed fuel cycles of thermal reactors. Advantages and shortcomings are also discussed from the point of view of nonproliferation from the start with fast reactors using plutonium of thermal reactor spent fuel and enriched uranium fuel to the gradual transition using their own plutonium as fuel. (authors)

  5. Job task and functional analysis of the Division of Reactor Projects, office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Morzinski, J.A.; Gilmore, W.; Hahn, H.A.

    1998-07-10

    A job task and functional analysis was recently completed for the positions that make up the regional Divisions of Reactor Projects. Among the conclusions of that analysis was a recommendation to clarify roles and responsibilities among site, regional, and headquarters personnel. As that analysis did not cover headquarters personnel, a similar analysis was undertaken of three headquarters positions within the Division of Reactor Projects: Licensing Assistants, Project Managers, and Project Directors. The goals of this analysis were to systematically evaluate the tasks performed by these headquarters personnel to determine job training requirements, to account for variations due to division/regional assignment or differences in several experience categories, and to determine how, and by which positions, certain functions are best performed. The results of this analysis include recommendations for training and for job design. Data to support this analysis was collected by a survey instrument and through several sets of focus group meetings with representatives from each position.

  6. Nuclear Reactors and Technology; (USA)

    SciTech Connect

    Cason, D.L.; Hicks, S.C.

    1991-01-01

    Nuclear Reactors and Technology (NRT) announces on a monthly basis the current worldwide information available from the open literature on nuclear reactors and technology, including all aspects of power reactors, components and accessories, fuel elements, control systems, and materials. This publication contains the abstracts of DOE reports, journal articles, conference papers, patents, theses, and monographs added to the Energy Science and Technology Database (EDB) during the past month. Also included are US information obtained through acquisition programs or interagency agreements and international information obtained through the International Energy Agency's Energy Technology Data Exchange or government-to-government agreements. The digests in NRT and other citations to information on nuclear reactors back to 1948 are available for online searching and retrieval on EDB and Nuclear Science Abstracts (NSA) database. Current information, added daily to EDB, is available to DOE and its contractors through the DOE integrated Technical Information System. Customized profiles can be developed to provide current information to meet each user's needs.

  7. Nuclear reactor I

    DOEpatents

    Ference, Edward W.; Houtman, John L.; Waldby, Robert N.

    1977-01-01

    A nuclear reactor, particularly a liquid-metal breeder reactor whose upper internals include provision for channeling the liquid metal flowing from the core-component assemblies to the outlet plenum in vertical paths in direction generally along the direction of the respective assemblies. The metal is channeled by chimneys, each secured to, and extending from, a grid through whose openings the metal emitted by a plurality of core-component assemblies encompassed by the grid flows. To reduce the stresses resulting from structural interaction, or the transmissive of thermal strains due to large temperature differences in the liquid metal emitted from neighboring core-component assemblies, throughout the chimneys and the other components of the upper internals, the grids and the chimneys are supported from the heat plate and the core barrel by support columns (double portal support) which are secured to the head plate at the top and to a member, which supports the grids and is keyed to the core barrel, at the bottom. In addition to being restrained from lateral flow by the chimneys, the liquid metal is also restrained from flowing laterally by a peripheral seal around the top of the core. This seal limits the flow rate of liquid metal, which may be sharply cooled during a scram, to the outlet nozzles. The chimneys and the grids are formed of a highly-refractory, high corrosion-resistant nickel-chromium-iron alloy which can withstand the stresses produced by temperature differences in the liquid metal. The chimneys are supported by pairs of plates, each pair held together by hollow stubs coaxial with, and encircling, the chimneys. The plates and stubs are a welded structure but, in the interest of economy, are composed of stainless steel which is not weld compatible with the refractory metal. The chimneys and stubs are secured together by shells of another nickel-chromium-iron alloy which is weld compatible with, and is welded to, the stubs and has about the same

  8. NUCLEAR REACTOR FUEL SYSTEMS

    DOEpatents

    Thamer, B.J.; Bidwell, R.M.; Hammond, R.P.

    1959-09-15

    Homogeneous reactor fuel solutions are reported which provide automatic recombination of radiolytic gases and exhibit large thermal expansion characteristics, thereby providing stability at high temperatures and enabling reactor operation without the necessity of apparatus to recombine gases formed by the radiolytic dissociation of water in the fuel and without the necessity of liquid fuel handling outside the reactor vessel except for recovery processes. The fuels consist of phosphoric acid and water solutions of enriched uranium, wherein the uranium is in either the hexavalent or tetravalent state.

  9. Reactor antineutrinos and nuclear physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balantekin, A. B.

    2016-11-01

    Short-baseline reactor neutrino experiments successfully measured the neutrino parameters they set out to measure, but they also identified a shape distortion in the 5-7 MeV range as well as a reduction from the predicted value of the flux. Nuclear physics input into the calculations of reactor antineutrino spectra needs to be better refined if this anomaly is to be interpreted as due to sterile neutrino states.

  10. RADIATION FACILITY FOR NUCLEAR REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Currier, E.L. Jr.; Nicklas, J.H.

    1961-12-12

    A radiation facility is designed for irradiating samples in close proximity to the core of a nuclear reactor. The facility comprises essentially a tubular member extending through the biological shield of the reactor and containing a manipulatable rod having the sample carrier at its inner end, the carrier being longitudinally movable from a position in close proximity to the reactor core to a position between the inner and outer faces of the shield. Shield plugs are provided within the tubular member to prevent direct radiation from the core emanating therethrough. In this device, samples may be inserted or removed during normal operation of the reactor without exposing personnel to direct radiation from the reactor core. A storage chamber is also provided within the radiation facility to contain an irradiated sample during the period of time required to reduce the radioactivity enough to permit removal of the sample for external handling. (AEC)

  11. Nuclear reactor downcomer flow deflector

    DOEpatents

    Gilmore, Charles B.; Altman, David A.; Singleton, Norman R.

    2011-02-15

    A nuclear reactor having a coolant flow deflector secured to a reactor core barrel in line with a coolant inlet nozzle. The flow deflector redirects incoming coolant down an annulus between the core barrel and the reactor vessel. The deflector has a main body with a front side facing the fluid inlet nozzle and a rear side facing the core barrel. The rear side of the main body has at least one protrusion secured to the core barrel so that a gap exists between the rear side of the main body adjacent the protrusion and the core barrel. Preferably, the protrusion is a relief that circumscribes the rear side of the main body.

  12. NUCLEAR REACTOR FUEL ELEMENT

    DOEpatents

    Currier, E.L. Jr.; Nicklas, J.H.

    1963-06-11

    A fuel plate is designed for incorporation into control rods of the type utilized in high-flux test reactors. The fuel plate is designed so that the portion nearest the poison section of the control rod contains about one-half as much fissionable material as in the rest of the plate, thereby eliminating dangerous flux peaking in that portion. (AEC)

  13. NUCLEAR REACTOR COOLANT

    DOEpatents

    Colichman, E.L.

    1959-10-20

    The formation of new reactor coolants which suppress polymerization resulting from pyrolytic and radiation decomposition is described. The coolants consist of polyphenyls and condensed ring compounds having from two to about four carbon rings and from 0.1 to about 5% of beryllium or magnesium dispersed in the hydrocarbon.

  14. NUCLEAR REACTOR COOLANT

    DOEpatents

    Colichman, E.L.

    1959-10-20

    The formation of new reactor coolants which suppress polymerization resulting from pyrolitic and radiation decomposition is described. The coolants consist of polyphenyls and condensed ring compounds having from two to about four carbon rings and from 0.1 to about 10% of an alkall metal dispersed in the hydrocarbon.

  15. Gaseous fuel nuclear reactor research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwenk, F. C.; Thom, K.

    1975-01-01

    Gaseous-fuel nuclear reactors are described; their distinguishing feature is the use of fissile fuels in a gaseous or plasma state, thereby breaking the barrier of temperature imposed by solid-fuel elements. This property creates a reactor heat source that may be able to heat the propellant of a rocket engine to 10,000 or 20,000 K. At this temperature level, gas-core reactors would provide the breakthrough in propulsion needed to open the entire solar system to manned and unmanned spacecraft. The possibility of fuel recycling makes possible efficiencies of up to 65% and nuclear safety at reduced cost, as well as high-thrust propulsion capabilities with specific impulse up to 5000 sec.

  16. METHOD OF OPERATING NUCLEAR REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Untermyer, S.

    1958-10-14

    A method is presented for obtaining enhanced utilization of natural uranium in heavy water moderated nuclear reactors by charging the reactor with an equal number of fuel elements formed of natural uranium and of fuel elements formed of uranium depleted in U/sup 235/ to the extent that the combination will just support a chain reaction. The reactor is operated until the rate of burnup of plutonium equals its rate of production, the fuel elements are processed to recover plutonium, the depleted uranium is discarded, and the remaining uranium is formed into fuel elements. These fuel elements are charged into a reactor along with an equal number of fuel elements formed of uranium depleted in U/sup 235/ to the extent that the combination will just support a chain reaction, and reuse of the uranium is continued as aforesaid until it wlll no longer support a chain reaction when combined with an equal quantity of natural uranium.

  17. NUCLEAR REACTOR FUEL ELEMENT

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, W.F.; Tellefson, D.R.; Shimazaki, T.T.

    1962-04-10

    A plate type fuel element which is particularly useful for organic cooled reactors is described. Generally, the fuel element comprises a plurality of fissionable fuel bearing plates held in spaced relationship by a frame in which the plates are slidably mounted in grooves. Clearance is provided in the grooves to allow the plates to expand laterally. The plates may be rigidly interconnected but are floatingly supported at their ends within the frame to allow for longi-tudinal expansion. Thus, this fuel element is able to withstand large temperature differentials without great structural stresses. (AEC)

  18. Nuclear reactor effluent monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Minns, J.L.; Essig, T.H.

    1993-12-31

    Radiological environmental monitoring and effluent monitoring at nuclear power plants is important both for normal operations, as well as in the event of an accident. During normal operations, environmental monitoring verifies the effectiveness of in-plant measures for controlling the release of radioactive materials in the plant. Following an accident, it would be an additional mechanism for estimating doses to members of the general public. This paper identifies the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulatory basis for requiring radiological environmental and effluent monitoring, licensee conditions for effluent and environmental monitoring, NRC independent oversight activities, and NRC`s program results.

  19. NUCLEAR REACTOR FUEL ELEMENT

    DOEpatents

    Wheelock, C.W.; Baumeister, E.B.

    1961-09-01

    A reactor fuel element utilizing fissionable fuel materials in plate form is described. This fuel element consists of bundles of fuel-bearing plates. The bundles are stacked inside of a tube which forms the shell of the fuel element. The plates each have longitudinal fins running parallel to the direction of coolant flow, and interspersed among and parallel to the fins are ribs which position the plates relative to each other and to the fuel element shell. The plate bundles are held together by thin bands or wires. The ex tended surface increases the heat transfer capabilities of a fuel element by a factor of 3 or more over those of a simple flat plate.

  20. A Compilation of Boiling Water Reactor Operational Experience for the United Kingdom's Office for Nuclear Regulation's Advanced Boiling Water Reactor Generic Design Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Wheeler, Timothy A.; Liao, Huafei

    2014-12-01

    United States nuclear power plant Licensee Event Reports (LERs), submitted to the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) under law as required by 10 CFR 50.72 and 50.73 were evaluated for reliance to the United Kingdom’s Health and Safety Executive – Office for Nuclear Regulation’s (ONR) general design assessment of the Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR) design. An NRC compendium of LERs, compiled by Idaho National Laboratory over the time period January 1, 2000 through March 31, 2014, were sorted by BWR safety system and sorted into two categories: those events leading to a SCRAM, and those events which constituted a safety system failure. The LERs were then evaluated as to the relevance of the operational experience to the ABWR design.

  1. Horizontal baffle for nuclear reactors

    DOEpatents

    Rylatt, John A.

    1978-01-01

    A horizontal baffle disposed in the annulus defined between the core barrel and the thermal liner of a nuclear reactor thereby physically separating the outlet region of the core from the annular area below the horizontal baffle. The horizontal baffle prevents hot coolant that has passed through the reactor core from thermally damaging apparatus located in the annulus below the horizontal baffle by utilizing the thermally induced bowing of the horizontal baffle to enhance sealing while accommodating lateral motion of the baffle base plate.

  2. Propellant actuated nuclear reactor steam depressurization valve

    DOEpatents

    Ehrke, Alan C.; Knepp, John B.; Skoda, George I.

    1992-01-01

    A nuclear fission reactor combined with a propellant actuated depressurization and/or water injection valve is disclosed. The depressurization valve releases pressure from a water cooled, steam producing nuclear reactor when required to insure the safety of the reactor. Depressurization of the reactor pressure vessel enables gravity feeding of supplementary coolant water through the water injection valve to the reactor pressure vessel to prevent damage to the fuel core.

  3. Automatically scramming nuclear reactor system

    DOEpatents

    Ougouag, Abderrafi M.; Schultz, Richard R.; Terry, William K.

    2004-10-12

    An automatically scramming nuclear reactor system. One embodiment comprises a core having a coolant inlet end and a coolant outlet end. A cooling system operatively associated with the core provides coolant to the coolant inlet end and removes heated coolant from the coolant outlet end, thus maintaining a pressure differential therebetween during a normal operating condition of the nuclear reactor system. A guide tube is positioned within the core with a first end of the guide tube in fluid communication with the coolant inlet end of the core, and a second end of the guide tube in fluid communication with the coolant outlet end of the core. A control element is positioned within the guide tube and is movable therein between upper and lower positions, and automatically falls under the action of gravity to the lower position when the pressure differential drops below a safe pressure differential.

  4. 77 FR 26321 - Reed College, Reed Research Nuclear Reactor, Renewed Facility Operating License No. R-112

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-03

    ... COMMISSION Reed College, Reed Research Nuclear Reactor, Renewed Facility Operating License No. R-112 AGENCY..., Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Rockville, MD 20852. Telephone..., Research and Test Reactors Licensing Branch, Division of Policy and Rulemaking, Office of Nuclear...

  5. 76 FR 14436 - University of Wisconsin, University of Wisconsin Nuclear Reactor; Notice of Issuance of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-16

    ... COMMISSION University of Wisconsin, University of Wisconsin Nuclear Reactor; Notice of Issuance of... which would authorize continued operation of the University of Wisconsin Nuclear Reactor. This action is... CONTACT: Geoffrey A. Wertz, Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory...

  6. Reactors for nuclear electric propulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Buden, D.; Angelo, J.A. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Propulsion is the key to space exploitation and power is the key to propulsion. This paper examines the role of nuclear fission reactors as the primary power source for high specific impulse electric propulsion systems for space missions of the 1980s and 1990s. Particular mission applications include transfer to and a reusable orbital transfer vehicle from low-Earth orbit to geosynchronous orbit, outer planet exploration and reconnaissance missions, and as a versatile space tug supporting lunar resource development. Nuclear electric propulsion is examined as an indispensable component in space activities of the next two decades.

  7. FUEL ELEMENT FOR NUCLEAR REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Bassett, C.H.

    1961-05-16

    A fuel element particularly adapted for use in nuclear reactors of high power density is offered. It has fissionable fuel pellet segments mounted in a tubular housing and defining a central passage in the fuel element. A burnable poison element extends through the central passage, which is designed to contain more poison material at the median portion than at the end portions thereby providing a more uniform hurnup and longer reactivity life.

  8. Flow duct for nuclear reactors

    DOEpatents

    Straalsund, Jerry L.

    1978-01-01

    Improved liquid sodium flow ducts for nuclear reactors are described wherein the improvement comprises varying the wall thickness of each of the walls of a polygonal tubular duct structure so that each of the walls is of reduced cross-section along the longitudinal center line and of a greater cross-section along wall junctions with the other walls to form the polygonal tubular configuration.

  9. Reactivity control assembly for nuclear reactor

    DOEpatents

    Bollinger, Lawrence R.

    1984-01-01

    Reactivity control assembly for nuclear reactor comprises supports stacked above reactor core for holding control rods. Couplers associated with the supports and a vertically movable drive shaft have lugs at their lower ends for engagement with the supports.

  10. Essential infrastructure: national nuclear regulation.

    PubMed

    Paperiello, Carl J

    2011-01-01

    In order for nuclear power to expand to many countries that do not currently have it, it will be essential for these countries to have laws, regulations, guidance and organizations that can license or permit nuclear power plants and support nuclear facilities, ensure compliance by inspection, and enforce nuclear regulations. The viability of nuclear power worldwide depends on an extremely high level of safety everywhere, and compliance with a number of international treaties is required before supplier nations will provide the material, both hardware and software, to build and operate nuclear power plants. While infrastructure support can be obtained from the IAEA and other countries, an essential core of expertise must exist in the country seeking to establish domestic nuclear power generation. While some reliance can be placed on the safety reviews of standard reactor designs by the nuclear regulators in supplier nations, the certification of fuel design, the quality of instruments, and the matching of a new reactor to a proposed site in the importing nation will require site-specific reviews. National arrangements are also needed for emergency preparedness, environmental protection, fuel transportation and the storage, transportation and disposal of radioactive waste. If foreign contractors and consultants are engaged to perform much of the technical work for the regulatory body(s) that has to be performed by the importing nation, that nation must have a core cadre of technically knowledgeable regulators and an organization to provide management and oversight of the contractors and consultants. Consistency in national nuclear regulations, the deployment of standardized nuclear power plant designs and standardized supporting material infrastructure can promote the safe and secure worldwide growth in nuclear power.

  11. STEAM STIRRED HOMOGENEOUS NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Busey, H.M.

    1958-06-01

    A homogeneous nuclear reactor utilizing a selfcirculating liquid fuel is described. The reactor vessel is in the form of a vertically disposed tubular member having the lower end closed by the tube walls and the upper end closed by a removal fianged assembly. A spherical reaction shell is located in the lower end of the vessel and spaced from the inside walls. The reaction shell is perforated on its lower surface and is provided with a bundle of small-diameter tubes extending vertically upward from its top central portion. The reactor vessel is surrounded in the region of the reaction shell by a neutron reflector. The liquid fuel, which may be a solution of enriched uranyl sulfate in ordinary or heavy water, is mainiained at a level within the reactor vessel of approximately the top of the tubes. The heat of the reaction which is created in the critical region within the spherical reaction shell forms steam bubbles which more upwardly through the tubes. The upward movement of these bubbles results in the forcing of the liquid fuel out of the top of these tubes, from where the fuel passes downwardly in the space between the tubes and the vessel wall where it is cooled by heat exchangers. The fuel then re-enters the critical region in the reaction shell through the perforations in the bottom. The upper portion of the reactor vessel is provided with baffles to prevent the liquid fuel from splashing into this region which is also provided with a recombiner apparatus for recombining the radiolytically dissociated moderator vapor and a control means.

  12. FUEL ELEMENT FOR NUCLEAR REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Bassett, C.H.

    1961-05-01

    A nuclear reactor fuel element comprising high density ceramic fissionable material enclosed in a tubular cladding of corrosion-resistant material is described. The fissionable material is in the form of segments of a tube which have cooperating tapered interfaces which produce outward radial displacement when the segments are urged axially together. A resilient means is provided within the tubular housing to constantly urge the fuel segments axially. This design maintains the fuel material in tight contacting engagement against the inner surface of the outer cladding tube to eliminate any gap therebetween which may be caused by differential thermal expansion between the fuel material and the material of the tube.

  13. Proliferation Resistant Nuclear Reactor Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, L W; Moody, K J; Bradley, K S; Lorenzana, H E

    2011-02-18

    Global appetite for fission power is projected to grow dramatically this century, and for good reason. Despite considerable research to identify new sources of energy, fission remains the most plentiful and practical alternative to fossil fuels. The environmental challenges of fossil fuel have made the fission power option increasingly attractive, particularly as we are forced to rely on reserves in ecologically fragile or politically unstable corners of the globe. Caught between a globally eroding fossil fuel reserve as well as the uncertainty and considerable costs in the development of fusion power, most of the world will most likely come to rely on fission power for at least the remainder of the 21st century. Despite inevitable growth, fission power faces enduring challenges in sustainability and security. One of fission power's greatest hurdles to universal acceptance is the risk of potential misuse for nefarious purposes of fissionable byproducts in spent fuel, such as plutonium. With this issue in mind, we have discussed intrinsic concepts in this report that are motivated by the premise that the utility, desirability, and applicability of nuclear materials can be reduced. In a general sense, the intrinsic solutions aim to reduce or eliminate the quantity of existing weapons usable material; avoid production of new weapons-usable material through enrichment, breeding, extraction; or employ engineering solutions to make the fuel cycle less useful or more difficult for producing weapons-usable material. By their nature, these schemes require modifications to existing fuel cycles. As such, the concomitants of these modifications require engagement from the nuclear reactor and fuel-design community to fully assess their effects. Unfortunately, active pursuit of any scheme that could further complicate the spread of domestic nuclear power will probably be understandably unpopular. Nevertheless, the nonproliferation and counterterrorism issues are paramount, and

  14. Non-equilibrium radiation nuclear reactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thom, K.; Schneider, R. T. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    An externally moderated thermal nuclear reactor is disclosed which is designed to provide output power in the form of electromagnetic radiation. The reactor is a gaseous fueled nuclear cavity reactor device which can operate over wide ranges of temperature and pressure, and which includes the capability of processing and recycling waste products such as long-lived transuranium actinides. The primary output of the device may be in the form of coherent radiation, so that the reactor may be utilized as a self-critical nuclear pumped laser.

  15. Digital computer operation of a nuclear reactor

    DOEpatents

    Colley, R.W.

    1982-06-29

    A method is described for the safe operation of a complex system such as a nuclear reactor using a digital computer. The computer is supplied with a data base containing a list of the safe state of the reactor and a list of operating instructions for achieving a safe state when the actual state of the reactor does not correspond to a listed safe state, the computer selects operating instructions to return the reactor to a safe state.

  16. Digital computer operation of a nuclear reactor

    DOEpatents

    Colley, Robert W.

    1984-01-01

    A method is described for the safe operation of a complex system such as a nuclear reactor using a digital computer. The computer is supplied with a data base containing a list of the safe state of the reactor and a list of operating instructions for achieving a safe state when the actual state of the reactor does not correspond to a listed safe state, the computer selects operating instructions to return the reactor to a safe state.

  17. Liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor plant system

    DOEpatents

    Hunsbedt, Anstein; Boardman, Charles E.

    1993-01-01

    A liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor having a passive cooling system for removing residual heat resulting for fuel decay during reactor shutdown, or heat produced during a mishap. The reactor system is enhanced with sealing means for excluding external air from contact with the liquid metal coolant leaking from the reactor vessel during an accident. The invention also includes a silo structure which resists attack by leaking liquid metal coolant, and an added unique cooling means.

  18. NUCLEAR REACTOR FUEL ELEMENT ASSEMBLY

    DOEpatents

    Stengel, F.G.

    1963-12-24

    A method of fabricating nuclear reactor fuel element assemblies having a plurality of longitudinally extending flat fuel elements in spaced parallel relation to each other to form channels is presented. One side of a flat side plate is held contiguous to the ends of the elements and a welding means is passed along the other side of the platertransverse to the direction of the longitudinal extension of the elements. The setting and speed of travel of the welding means is set to cause penetration of the side plate with welds at bridge the gap in each channel between adjacent fuel elements with a weld-through bubble of predetermined size. The fabrication of a high strength, dependable fuel element is provided, and the reduction of distortion and high production costs are facilitated by this method. (AEC)

  19. Nuclear reactor internals alignment configuration

    DOEpatents

    Gilmore, Charles B.; Singleton, Norman R.

    2009-11-10

    An alignment system that employs jacking block assemblies and alignment posts around the periphery of the top plate of a nuclear reactor lower internals core shroud to align an upper core plate with the lower internals and the core shroud with the core barrel. The distal ends of the alignment posts are chamfered and are closely received within notches machined in the upper core plate at spaced locations around the outer circumference of the upper core plate. The jacking block assemblies are used to center the core shroud in the core barrel and the alignment posts assure the proper orientation of the upper core plate. The alignment posts may alternately be formed in the upper core plate and the notches may be formed in top plate.

  20. Nuclear reactor composite fuel assembly

    DOEpatents

    Burgess, Donn M.; Marr, Duane R.; Cappiello, Michael W.; Omberg, Ronald P.

    1980-01-01

    A core and composite fuel assembly for a liquid-cooled breeder nuclear reactor including a plurality of elongated coextending driver and breeder fuel elements arranged to form a generally polygonal bundle within a thin-walled duct. The breeder elements are larger in cross section than the driver elements, and each breeder element is laterally bounded by a number of the driver elements. Each driver element further includes structure for spacing the driver elements from adjacent fuel elements and, where adjacent, the thin-walled duct. A core made up of the fuel elements can advantageously include fissile fuel of only one enrichment, while varying the effective enrichment of any given assembly or core region, merely by varying the relative number and size of the driver and breeder elements.

  1. Daddy, What's a Nuclear Reactor?

    SciTech Connect

    Reisenweaver, Dennis W.

    2008-01-15

    No matter what we think of the nuclear industry, it is part of mankind's heritage. The decommissioning process is slowly making facilities associated with this industry disappear and not enough is being done to preserve the information for future generations. This paper provides some food for thought and provides a possible way forward. Industrial archaeology is an ever expanding branch of archaeology that is dedicated to preserving, interpreting and documenting our industrial past and heritage. Normally it begins with analyzing an old building or ruins and trying to determine what was done, how it was done and what changes might have occurred during its operation. We have a unique opportunity to document all of these issues and provide them before the nuclear facility disappears. Entombment is an acceptable decommissioning strategy; however we would have to change our concept of entombment. It is proposed that a number of nuclear facilities be entombed or preserved for future generations to appreciate. This would include a number of different types of facilities such as different types of nuclear power and research reactors, a reprocessing plant, part of an enrichment plant and a fuel manufacturing plant. One of the main issues that would require resolution would be that of maintaining information of the location of the buried facility and the information about its operation and structure, and passing this information on to future generations. This can be done, but a system would have to be established prior to burial of the facility so that no information would be lost. In general, our current set of requirements and laws may need to be re-examined and modified to take into account these new situations. As an alternative, and to compliment the above proposal, it is recommended that a study and documentation of the nuclear industry be considered as part of twentieth century industrial archaeology. This study should not only include the power and fuel cycle

  2. Gas-cooled nuclear reactor

    DOEpatents

    Peinado, Charles O.; Koutz, Stanley L.

    1985-01-01

    A gas-cooled nuclear reactor includes a central core located in the lower portion of a prestressed concrete reactor vessel. Primary coolant gas flows upward through the core and into four overlying heat-exchangers wherein stream is generated. During normal operation, the return flow of coolant is between the core and the vessel sidewall to a pair of motor-driven circulators located at about the bottom of the concrete pressure vessel. The circulators repressurize the gas coolant and return it back to the core through passageways in the underlying core structure. If during emergency conditions the primary circulators are no longer functioning, the decay heat is effectively removed from the core by means of natural convection circulation. The hot gas rising through the core exits the top of the shroud of the heat-exchangers and flows radially outward to the sidewall of the concrete pressure vessel. A metal liner covers the entire inside concrete surfaces of the concrete pressure vessel, and cooling tubes are welded to the exterior or concrete side of the metal liner. The gas coolant is in direct contact with the interior surface of the metal liner and transfers its heat through the metal liner to the liquid coolant flowing through the cooling tubes. The cooler gas is more dense and creates a downward convection flow in the region between the core and the sidewall until it reaches the bottom of the concrete pressure vessel when it flows radially inward and up into the core for another pass. Water is forced to flow through the cooling tubes to absorb heat from the core at a sufficient rate to remove enough of the decay heat created in the core to prevent overheating of the core or the vessel.

  3. Fast-acting nuclear reactor control device

    DOEpatents

    Kotlyar, Oleg M.; West, Phillip B.

    1993-01-01

    A fast-acting nuclear reactor control device for moving and positioning a fety control rod to desired positions within the core of the reactor between a run position in which the safety control rod is outside the reactor core, and a shutdown position in which the rod is fully inserted in the reactor core. The device employs a hydraulic pump/motor, an electric gear motor, and solenoid valve to drive the safety control rod into the reactor core through the entire stroke of the safety control rod. An overrunning clutch allows the safety control rod to freely travel toward a safe position in the event of a partial drive system failure.

  4. Shutdown system for a nuclear reactor

    DOEpatents

    Groh, Edward F.; Olson, Arne P.; Wade, David C.; Robinson, Bryan W.

    1984-01-01

    An ultimate shutdown system is provided for termination of neutronic activity in a nuclear reactor. The shutdown system includes bead chains comprising spherical containers suspended on a flexible cable. The containers are comprised of mating hemispherical shells which provide a ruggedized enclosure for reactor poison material. The bead chains, normally suspended above the reactor core on storage spools, are released for downward travel upon command from an external reactor monitor. The chains are capable of horizontal movement, so as to flow around obstructions in the reactor during their downward motion.

  5. Shutdown system for a nuclear reactor

    DOEpatents

    Groh, E.F.; Olson, A.P.; Wade, D.C.; Robinson, B.W.

    1984-06-05

    An ultimate shutdown system is provided for termination of neutronic activity in a nuclear reactor. The shutdown system includes bead chains comprising spherical containers suspended on a flexible cable. The containers are comprised of mating hemispherical shells which provide a ruggedized enclosure for reactor poison material. The bead chains, normally suspended above the reactor core on storage spools, are released for downward travel upon command from an external reactor monitor. The chains are capable of horizontal movement, so as to flow around obstructions in the reactor during their downward motion. 8 figs.

  6. Pulsed deuterium lithium nuclear reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, A.G.

    1980-01-08

    A nuclear reactor that burns hydrogen bomb material 6-lithium deuterotritide to helium in successive microexplosions which are ignited electrically and enclosed by this same molten material, and that permits the conversion of the reaction heat into useful electrical power. A specially-constructed high-current pulse machine is discharged via a thermally-preformed highly conducting path through a mass of the molten salt 6lid1-xtx (0nuclear fire is extinguished in the surrounding cold matter. The energy set free is insufficient to convert the blanket into a hot plasma in which chain reactions could propagate and escalate. The liquid blanket also serves as a neutron radiation shield. The shock wave is attenuated in it by a curtain of rising deuterium bubbles. The heat shock is buffered by partial melting of the external solid crust. The reaction heat is carried by the liquid metal of the external cooling jacket to the heat exchanger of the associated turbo-generator. Every few seconds, a new pulse can take place.

  7. Initial Experiments on Fuzzy Control for Nuclear Reactor Operations at the Belgian Reactor 1

    SciTech Connect

    Da Ruan

    2003-08-15

    The application of fuzzy logic control (FLC) in the domain of the nuclear industry presents a tremendous challenge. The main reason for this is the public awareness of the risks of nuclear reactors and the very strict safety regulations in force for nuclear power plants. The very same regulations prevent a researcher from quickly introducing novel control methods into this field. On the other hand, the application of FLC has, despite the ominous sound of the word 'fuzzy' to nuclear engineers, a number of very desirable advantages over classical control, e.g., its robustness and the capability to include human experience into the controller. In this paper an FLC for controlling the power level of a nuclear reactor is described. The study is intended to assess the applicability of FLC in this domain. The final goal is to develop an optimized and intrinsically safe controller. After reviewing some available literature on FLC in nuclear reactors, an FLC is proposed and first tested by comparing it with the classical controller of the Belgian reactor 1 (BR1). In the next step the BR1 at the Belgian Nuclear Research Center (SCK-CEN) was used as a test bed to implement a programmable logic controller-based hardware controller. The BR1 reactor is internationally regarded as a nuclear calibration reference. It therefore provides an excellent environment for this type of experiment because over the years considerable knowledge of the static and dynamic properties of the reactor has been accumulated. The project (1995-1999) aimed at investigating the added value and technical limits of FLC for nuclear reactor operations. The progress made in these experiments including closed-loop experiments are presented and discussed in this paper.

  8. Historical civilian nuclear accident based Nuclear Reactor Condition Analyzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCoy, Kaylyn Marie

    There are significant challenges to successfully monitoring multiple processes within a nuclear reactor facility. The evidence for this observation can be seen in the historical civilian nuclear incidents that have occurred with similar initiating conditions and sequences of events. Because there is a current lack within the nuclear industry, with regards to the monitoring of internal sensors across multiple processes for patterns of failure, this study has developed a program that is directed at accomplishing that charge through an innovation that monitors these systems simultaneously. The inclusion of digital sensor technology within the nuclear industry has appreciably increased computer systems' capabilities to manipulate sensor signals, thus making the satisfaction of these monitoring challenges possible. One such manipulation to signal data has been explored in this study. The Nuclear Reactor Condition Analyzer (NRCA) program that has been developed for this research, with the assistance of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Graduate Fellowship, utilizes one-norm distance and kernel weighting equations to normalize all nuclear reactor parameters under the program's analysis. This normalization allows the program to set more consistent parameter value thresholds for a more simplified approach to analyzing the condition of the nuclear reactor under its scrutiny. The product of this research provides a means for the nuclear industry to implement a safety and monitoring program that can oversee the system parameters of a nuclear power reactor facility, like that of a nuclear power plant.

  9. Nuclear propulsion apparatus with alternate reactor segments

    DOEpatents

    Szekely, Thomas

    1979-04-03

    1. Nuclear propulsion apparatus comprising: A. means for compressing incoming air; B. nuclear fission reactor means for heating said air; C. means for expanding a portion of the heated air to drive said compressing means; D. said nuclear fission reactor means being divided into a plurality of radially extending segments; E. means for directing a portion of the compressed air for heating through alternate segments of said reactor means and another portion of the compressed air for heating through the remaining segments of said reactor means; and F. means for further expanding the heated air from said drive means and the remaining heated air from said reactor means through nozzle means to effect reactive thrust on said apparatus.

  10. Autonomous Control of Space Nuclear Reactors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merk, John

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear reactors to support future robotic and manned missions impose new and innovative technological requirements for their control and protection instrumentation. Long-duration surface missions necessitate reliable autonomous operation, and manned missions impose added requirements for failsafe reactor protection. There is a need for an advanced instrumentation and control system for space-nuclear reactors that addresses both aspects of autonomous operation and safety. The Reactor Instrumentation and Control System (RICS) consists of two functionally independent systems: the Reactor Protection System (RPS) and the Supervision and Control System (SCS). Through these two systems, the RICS both supervises and controls a nuclear reactor during normal operational states, as well as monitors the operation of the reactor and, upon sensing a system anomaly, automatically takes the appropriate actions to prevent an unsafe or potentially unsafe condition from occurring. The RPS encompasses all electrical and mechanical devices and circuitry, from sensors to actuation device output terminals. The SCS contains a comprehensive data acquisition system to measure continuously different groups of variables consisting of primary measurement elements, transmitters, or conditioning modules. These reactor control variables can be categorized into two groups: those directly related to the behavior of the core (known as nuclear variables) and those related to secondary systems (known as process variables). Reliable closed-loop reactor control is achieved by processing the acquired variables and actuating the appropriate device drivers to maintain the reactor in a safe operating state. The SCS must prevent a deviation from the reactor nominal conditions by managing limitation functions in order to avoid RPS actions. The RICS has four identical redundancies that comply with physical separation, electrical isolation, and functional independence. This architecture complies with the

  11. Fuel handling apparatus for a nuclear reactor

    DOEpatents

    Hawke, Basil C.

    1987-01-01

    Fuel handling apparatus for transporting fuel elements into and out of a nuclear reactor and transporting them within the reactor vessel extends through a penetration in the side of the reactor vessel. A lateral transport device carries the fuel elements laterally within the vessel and through the opening in the side of the vessel, and a reversible lifting device raises and lowers the fuel elements. In the preferred embodiment, the lifting device is supported by a pair of pivot arms.

  12. Nuclear reactor shield including magnesium oxide

    DOEpatents

    Rouse, Carl A.; Simnad, Massoud T.

    1981-01-01

    An improvement in nuclear reactor shielding of a type used in reactor applications involving significant amounts of fast neutron flux, the reactor shielding including means providing structural support, neutron moderator material, neutron absorber material and other components as described below, wherein at least a portion of the neutron moderator material is magnesium in the form of magnesium oxide either alone or in combination with other moderator materials such as graphite and iron.

  13. Reactivity Transients in Nuclear Research Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    2015-01-01

    Version 01 AIREMOD-RR is a point kinetics code which can simulate fast transients in nuclear research reactor cores. It can also be used for theoretical reactor dynamics studies. It is used for research reactor kinetic analysis and provides a point neutron kinetic capability. The thermal hydraulic behavior is governed by a one-dimensional heat balance equation. The calculations are restricted to a single equivalent unit cell which consists of fuel, clad and coolant.

  14. Fission control system for nuclear reactor

    DOEpatents

    Conley, G.H.; Estes, G.P.

    Control system for nuclear reactor comprises a first set of reactivity modifying rods fixed in a reactor core with their upper ends stepped in height across the core, and a second set of reactivity modifying rods movable vertically within the reactor core and having their lower ends stepped to correspond with the stepped arrangement of the first set of rods, pairs of the rods of the first and second sets being in coaxial alignment.

  15. Removal of hydrogen bubbles from nuclear reactors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenkins, R. V.

    1980-01-01

    Method proposed for removing large hydrogen bubbles from nuclear environment uses, in its simplest form, hollow spheres of palladium or platinum. Methods would result in hydrogen bubble being reduced in size without letting more radioactivity outside reactor.

  16. Nuclear data requirements for fusion reactor nucleonics

    SciTech Connect

    Bhat, M.R.; Abdou, M.A.

    1980-01-01

    Nuclear data requirements for fusion reactor nucleonics are reviewed and the present status of data are assessed. The discussion is divided into broad categories dealing with data for Fusion Materials Irradiation Test Facility (FMIT), D-T Fusion Reactors, Alternate Fuel Cycles and the Evaluated Data Files that are available or would be available in the near future.

  17. MODERATOR ELEMENTS FOR UNIFORM POWER NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Balent, R.

    1963-03-12

    This patent describes a method of obtaining a flatter flux and more uniform power generation across the core of a nuclear reactor. The method comprises using moderator elements having differing moderating strength. The elements have an increasing amount of the better moderating material as a function of radial and/or axial distance from the reactor core center. (AEC)

  18. Nuclear reactor vessel fuel thermal insulating barrier

    DOEpatents

    Keegan, C. Patrick; Scobel, James H.; Wright, Richard F.

    2013-03-19

    The reactor vessel of a nuclear reactor installation which is suspended from the cold leg nozzles in a reactor cavity is provided with a lower thermal insulating barrier spaced from the reactor vessel that has a hemispherical lower section that increases in volume from the center line of the reactor to the outer extent of the diameter of the thermal insulating barrier and smoothly transitions up the side walls of the vessel. The space between the thermal insulating harrier and the reactor vessel forms a chamber which can be flooded with cooling water through passive valving to directly cool the reactor vessel in the event of a severe accident. The passive inlet valve for the cooling water includes a buoyant door that is normally maintained sealed under its own weight and floats open when the cavity is Hooded. Passively opening steam vents are also provided.

  19. Nuclear reactor construction with bottom supported reactor vessel

    DOEpatents

    Sharbaugh, John E.

    1987-01-01

    An improved liquid metal nuclear reactor construction has a reactor core and a generally cylindrical reactor vessel for holding a large pool of low pressure liquid metal coolant and housing the core within the pool. The reactor vessel has an open top end, a closed flat bottom end wall and a continuous cylindrical closed side wall interconnecting the top end and bottom end wall. The reactor also has a generally cylindrical concrete containment structure surrounding the reactor vessel and being formed by a cylindrical side wall spaced outwardly from the reactor vessel side wall and a flat base mat spaced below the reactor vessel bottom end wall. A central support pedestal is anchored to the containment structure base mat and extends upwardly therefrom to the reactor vessel and upwardly therefrom to the reactor core so as to support the bottom end wall of the reactor vessel and the lower end of the reactor core in spaced apart relationship above the containment structure base mat. Also, an annular reinforced support structure is disposed in the reactor vessel on the bottom end wall thereof and extends about the lower end of the core so as to support the periphery thereof. In addition, an annular support ring having a plurality of inward radially extending linear members is disposed between the containment structure base mat and the bottom end of the reactor vessel wall and is connected to and supports the reactor vessel at its bottom end on the containment structure base mat so as to allow the reactor vessel to expand radially but substantially prevent any lateral motions that might be imposed by the occurrence of a seismic event. The reactor construction also includes a bed of insulating material in sand-like granular form, preferably being high density magnesium oxide particles, disposed between the containment structure base mat and the bottom end wall of the reactor vessel and uniformly supporting the reactor vessel at its bottom end wall on the containment

  20. Arkansas Tech University TRIGA nuclear reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Sankoorikal, J.; Culp, R.; Hamm, J.; Elliott, D.; Hodgson, L.; Apple, S.

    1990-07-01

    This paper describes the TRIGA nuclear reactor (ATUTR) proposed for construction on the campus of Arkansas Tech University in Russellville, Arkansas. The reactor will be part of the Center for Energy Studies located at Arkansas Tech University. The reactor has a steady state power level of 250 kW and can be pulsed with a maximum reactivity insertion of $2.0. Experience gained in dismantling and transporting some of the components from Michigan State University, and the storage of these components will be presented. The reactor will be used for education, training, and research. (author)

  1. Heat dissipating nuclear reactor with metal liner

    DOEpatents

    Gluekler, E.L.; Hunsbedt, A.; Lazarus, J.D.

    1985-11-21

    A nuclear reactor containment including a reactor vessel disposed within a cavity with capability for complete inherent decay heat removal in the earth and surrounded by a cast steel containment member which surrounds the vessel is described in this disclosure. The member has a thick basemat in contact with metal pilings. The basemat rests on a bed of porous particulate material, into which water is fed to produce steam which is vented to the atmosphere. There is a gap between the reactor vessel and the steel containment member. The containment member holds any sodium or core debris escaping from the reactor vessel if the core melts and breaches the vessel.

  2. Heat dissipating nuclear reactor with metal liner

    DOEpatents

    Gluekler, Emil L.; Hunsbedt, Anstein; Lazarus, Jonathan D.

    1987-01-01

    Disclosed is a nuclear reactor containment including a reactor vessel disposed within a cavity with capability for complete inherent decay heat removal in the earth and surrounded by a cast steel containment member which surrounds the vessel. The member has a thick basemat in contact with metal pilings. The basemat rests on a bed of porous particulate material, into which water is fed to produce steam which is vented to the atmosphere. There is a gap between the reactor vessel and the steel containment member. The containment member holds any sodium or core debris escaping from the reactor vessel if the core melts and breaches the vessel.

  3. Design change management in regulation of nuclear fleets: World nuclear association's working groups on Cooperation in Reactor Design Evaluation and Licensing (CORDEL)

    SciTech Connect

    Swinburn, R.; Borysova, I.; Waddington, J.; Head, J. G.; Raidis, Z.

    2012-07-01

    The 60 year life of a reactor means that a plant will undergo change during its life. To ensure continuing safety, changes must be made with a full understanding of the design intent. With this aim, regulators require that each operating organisation should have a formally designated entity responsible for complete design knowledge in regard to plant safety. INSAG-19 calls such an entity 'Design Authority'. This requirement is difficult to achieve, especially as the number of countries and utilities operating plants increases. Some of these operating organisations will be new, and some will be small. For Gen III plants sold on a turnkey basis, it is even more challenging for the operating company to develop and retain the full knowledge needed for this role. CORDEL's Task Force entitled 'Design Change Management' is investigating options for effective design change management with the aim to support design standardization throughout a fleet's lifetime by means of enhanced international cooperation within industry and regulators. This paper starts with considering the causes of design change and identifies reasons for the increased beneficial involvement of the plant's original vendor in the design change process. A key central theme running through the paper is the definition of responsibilities for design change. Various existing mechanisms of vendor-operator interfaces over design change and how they are managed in different organisational and regulatory environments around the world are considered, with the functionality of Owners Groups and Design Authority being central. The roles played in the design change process by vendors, utilities, regulators, owners' groups and other organisations such as WANO are considered The aerospace industry approach to Design Authority has been assessed to consider what lessons might be learned. (authors)

  4. Reactivity control assembly for nuclear reactor. [LMFBR

    DOEpatents

    Bollinger, L.R.

    1982-03-17

    This invention, which resulted from a contact with the United States Department of Energy, relates to a control mechanism for a nuclear reactor and, more particularly, to an assembly for selectively shifting different numbers of reactivity modifying rods into and out of the core of a nuclear reactor. It has been proposed heretofore to control the reactivity of a breeder reactor by varying the depth of insertion of control rods (e.g., rods containing a fertile material such as ThO/sub 2/) in the core of the reactor, thereby varying the amount of neutron-thermalizing coolant and the amount of neutron-capturing material in the core. This invention relates to a mechanism which can advantageously be used in this type of reactor control system.

  5. Nuclear Power from Fission Reactors. An Introduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC. Technical Information Center.

    The purpose of this booklet is to provide a basic understanding of nuclear fission energy and different fission reaction concepts. Topics discussed are: energy use and production, current uses of fuels, oil and gas consumption, alternative energy sources, fossil fuel plants, nuclear plants, boiling water and pressurized water reactors, the light…

  6. Actinide transmutation in nuclear reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Ganev, I.K.; Lopatkin, A.V.; Naumov, V.V.; Tocheny, L.V.

    1993-12-31

    Of some interest is the comparison between the actinide nuclide burning up (fission) rates such as americium 241, americium 242, curium 244, and neptunium 237, in the reactors with fast or thermal neutron spectra.

  7. STEAM GENERATOR FOR NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Kinyon, B.W.; Whitman, G.D.

    1963-07-16

    The steam generator described for use in reactor powergenerating systems employs a series of concentric tubes providing annular passage of steam and water and includes a unique arrangement for separating the steam from the water. (AEC)

  8. MOLTEN FLUORIDE NUCLEAR REACTOR FUEL

    DOEpatents

    Barton, C.J.; Grimes, W.R.

    1960-01-01

    Molten-salt reactor fuel compositions consisting of mixtures of fluoride salts are reported. In its broadest form, the composition contains an alkali fluoride such as sodium fluoride, zirconium tetrafluoride, and a uranium fluoride, the latter being the tetrafluoride or trifluoride or a mixture of the two. An outstanding property of these fuel compositions is a high coeffieient of thermal expansion which provides a negative temperature coefficient of reactivity in reactors in which they are used.

  9. Optimally moderated nuclear fission reactor and fuel source therefor

    DOEpatents

    Ougouag, Abderrafi M.; Terry, William K.; Gougar, Hans D.

    2008-07-22

    An improved nuclear fission reactor of the continuous fueling type involves determining an asymptotic equilibrium state for the nuclear fission reactor and providing the reactor with a moderator-to-fuel ratio that is optimally moderated for the asymptotic equilibrium state of the nuclear fission reactor; the fuel-to-moderator ratio allowing the nuclear fission reactor to be substantially continuously operated in an optimally moderated state.

  10. Cooling system for a nuclear reactor

    DOEpatents

    Amtmann, Hans H.

    1982-01-01

    A cooling system for a gas-cooled nuclear reactor is disclosed which includes at least one primary cooling loop adapted to pass coolant gas from the reactor core and an associated steam generator through a duct system having a main circulator therein, and at least one auxiliary cooling loop having communication with the reactor core and adapted to selectively pass coolant gas through an auxiliary heat exchanger and circulator. The main and auxiliary circulators are installed in a common vertical cavity in the reactor vessel, and a common return duct communicates with the reactor core and intersects the common cavity at a junction at which is located a flow diverter valve operative to effect coolant flow through either the primary or auxiliary cooling loops.

  11. 78 FR 64028 - Decommissioning of Nuclear Power Reactors

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-25

    ... COMMISSION Decommissioning of Nuclear Power Reactors AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION... regulatory guide (RG) 1.184 ``Decommissioning of Nuclear Power Reactors.'' This guide describes a method NRC... decommissioning process for nuclear power reactors. The revision takes advantage of the 13 years...

  12. Nuclear reactor alignment plate configuration

    SciTech Connect

    Altman, David A; Forsyth, David R; Smith, Richard E; Singleton, Norman R

    2014-01-28

    An alignment plate that is attached to a core barrel of a pressurized water reactor and fits within slots within a top plate of a lower core shroud and upper core plate to maintain lateral alignment of the reactor internals. The alignment plate is connected to the core barrel through two vertically-spaced dowel pins that extend from the outside surface of the core barrel through a reinforcement pad and into corresponding holes in the alignment plate. Additionally, threaded fasteners are inserted around the perimeter of the reinforcement pad and into the alignment plate to further secure the alignment plate to the core barrel. A fillet weld also is deposited around the perimeter of the reinforcement pad. To accomodate thermal growth between the alignment plate and the core barrel, a gap is left above, below and at both sides of one of the dowel pins in the alignment plate holes through with the dowel pins pass.

  13. The siting of UK nuclear reactors.

    PubMed

    Grimston, Malcolm; Nuttall, William J; Vaughan, Geoff

    2014-06-01

    Choosing a suitable site for a nuclear power station requires the consideration and balancing of several factors. Some 'physical' site characteristics, such as the local climate and the potential for seismic activity, will be generic to all reactors designs, while others, such as the availability of cooling water, the area of land required and geological conditions capable of sustaining the weight of the reactor and other buildings will to an extent be dependent on the particular design of reactor chosen (or alternatively the reactor design chosen may to an extent be dependent on the characteristics of an available site). However, one particularly interesting tension is a human and demographic one. On the one hand it is beneficial to place nuclear stations close to centres of population, to reduce transmission losses and other costs (including to the local environment) of transporting electricity over large distances from generator to consumer. On the other it is advantageous to place nuclear stations some distance away from such population centres in order to minimise the potential human consequences of a major release of radioactive materials in the (extremely unlikely) event of a major nuclear accident, not only in terms of direct exposure but also concerning the management of emergency planning, notably evacuation.This paper considers the emergence of policies aimed at managing this tension in the UK. In the first phase of nuclear development (roughly speaking 1945-1965) there was a highly cautious attitude, with installations being placed in remote rural locations with very low population density. The second phase (1965-1985) saw a more relaxed approach, allowing the development of AGR nuclear power stations (which with concrete pressure vessels were regarded as significantly safer) closer to population centres (in 'semi-urban' locations, notably at Hartlepool and Heysham). In the third phase (1985-2005) there was very little new nuclear development, Sizewell

  14. Nuclear reactor shutdown control rod assembly

    DOEpatents

    Bilibin, Konstantin

    1988-01-01

    A temperature responsive, self-actuated nuclear reactor shutdown control rod assembly 10. The upper end 18 of a lower drive line 17 fits within the lower end of an upper drive line 12. The lower end (not shown) of the lower drive line 17 is connected to a neutron absorber. During normal temperature conditions the lower drive line 17 is supported by detent means 22,26. When an overtemperature condition occurs thermal actuation means 34 urges ring 26 upwardly sufficiently to allow balls 22 to move radially outwardly thereby allowing lower drive line 17 to move downwardly toward the core of the nuclear reactor resulting in automatic reduction of the reactor powder.

  15. Current Abstracts Nuclear Reactors and Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Bales, J.D.; Hicks, S.C.

    1993-01-01

    This publication Nuclear Reactors and Technology (NRT) announces on a monthly basis the current worldwide information available from the open literature on nuclear reactors and technology, including all aspects of power reactors, components and accessories, fuel elements, control systems, and materials. This publication contains the abstracts of DOE reports, journal articles, conference papers, patents, theses, and monographs added to the Energy Science and Technology Database during the past month. Also included are US information obtained through acquisition programs or interagency agreements and international information obtained through acquisition programs or interagency agreements and international information obtained through the International Energy Agency`s Energy Technology Data Exchange or government-to-government agreements. The digests in NRT and other citations to information on nuclear reactors back to 1948 are available for online searching and retrieval on the Energy Science and Technology Database and Nuclear Science Abstracts (NSA) database. Current information, added daily to the Energy Science and Technology Database, is available to DOE and its contractors through the DOE Integrated Technical Information System. Customized profiles can be developed to provide current information to meet each user`s needs.

  16. Damper mechanism for nuclear reactor control elements

    DOEpatents

    Taft, William Elwood

    1976-01-01

    A damper mechanism which provides a nuclear reactor control element decelerating function at the end of the scram stroke. The total damping function is produced by the combination of two assemblies, which operate in sequence. First, a tapered dashram assembly decelerates the control element to a lower velocity, after which a spring hydraulic damper assembly takes over to complete the final damping.

  17. NUCLEAR REACTOR FUEL-BREEDER FUEL ELEMENT

    DOEpatents

    Currier, E.L. Jr.; Nicklas, J.H.

    1962-08-14

    A fuel-breeder fuel element was developed for a nuclear reactor wherein discrete particles of fissionable material are dispersed in a matrix of fertile breeder material. The fuel element combines the advantages of a dispersion type and a breeder-type. (AEC)

  18. Heat pipe nuclear reactor for space power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koening, D. R.

    1976-01-01

    A heat-pipe-cooled nuclear reactor has been designed to provide 3.2 MWth to an out-of-core thermionic conversion system. The reactor is a fast reactor designed to operate at a nominal heat-pipe temperature of 1675 K. Each reactor fuel element consists of a hexagonal molybdenum block which is bonded along its axis to one end of a molybdenum/lithium-vapor heat pipe. The block is perforated with an array of longitudinal holes which are loaded with UO2 pellets. The heat pipe transfers heat directly to a string of six thermionic converters which are bonded along the other end of the heat pipe. An assembly of 90 such fuel elements forms a hexagonal core. The core is surrounded by a thermal radiation shield, a thin thermal neutron absorber, and a BeO reflector containing boron-loaded control drums.

  19. Synfuel production in nuclear reactors

    DOEpatents

    Henning, C.D.

    Apparatus and method for producing synthetic fuels and synthetic fuel components by using a neutron source as the energy source, such as a fusion reactor. Neutron absorbers are disposed inside a reaction pipe and are heated by capturing neutrons from the neutron source. Synthetic fuel feedstock is then placed into contact with the heated neutron absorbers. The feedstock is heated and dissociates into its constituent synfuel components, or alternatively is at least preheated sufficiently to use in a subsequent electrolysis process to produce synthetic fuels and synthetic fuel components.

  20. Five Lectures on Nuclear Reactors Presented at Cal Tech

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Weinberg, Alvin M.

    1956-02-10

    The basic issues involved in the physics and engineering of nuclear reactors are summarized. Topics discussed include theory of reactor design, technical problems in power reactors, physical problems in nuclear power production, and future developments in nuclear power. (C.H.)

  1. FUEL ELEMENT FOR NUCLEAR REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Dickson, J.J.

    1963-09-24

    A method is described whereby fuel tubes or pins are cut, loaded with fuel pellets and a heat transfer medium, sealed at each end with slotted fittings, and assembled into a rectangular tube bundle to form a fuel element. The tubes comprising the fuel element are laterally connected between their ends by clips and tabs to form a linear group of spaced parallel tubes, which receive their vertical support by resting on a grid. The advantages of this method are that it permits elimination of structural material (e.g., fuel-element cans) within the reactor core, and removal of at least one fuel pin from an element and replacement thereof so that a burnable poison may be utilized during the core lifetime. (AEC)

  2. FUEL ELEMENT FOR NUCLEAR REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Bassett, C.H.

    1961-11-21

    A fuel element is designed which is particularly adapted for reactors of high power density used to generate steam for the production of electricity. The fuel element consists of inner and outer concentric tubes forming an annular chamber within which is contained fissionable fuel pellet segments, wedge members interposed between the fuel segments, and a spring which, acting with wedge members, urges said fuel pellets radially into contact against the inner surface of the outer tube. The wedge members may be a fertile material convertible into fissionable fuel material by absorbing neutrons emitted from the fissionable fuel pellet segments. The costly grinding of cylindrical fuel pellets to close tolerances for snug engagement is reduced because the need to finish the exact size is eliminated. (AEC)

  3. FUEL COMPOSITION FOR NUCLEAR REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Andersen, J.C.

    1963-08-01

    A process for making refractory nuclear fuel elements involves heating uranium and silicon powders in an inert atmosphere to 1600 to 1800 deg C to form USi/sub 3/; adding silicon carbide, carbon, 15% by weight of nickel and aluminum, and possibly also molybdenum and silicon powders; shaping the mixture; and heating to 1700 to 2050 deg C again in an inert atmosphere. Information on obtaining specific compositions is included. (AEC)

  4. Nuclear reactor control room construction

    DOEpatents

    Lamuro, Robert C.; Orr, Richard

    1993-01-01

    A control room 10 for a nuclear plant is disclosed. In the control room, objects 12, 20, 22, 26, 30 are no less than four inches from walls 10.2. A ceiling 32 contains cooling fins 35 that extend downwards toward the floor from metal plates 34. A concrete slab 33 is poured over the plates. Studs 36 are welded to the plates and are encased in the concrete.

  5. Nuclear reactor control room construction

    DOEpatents

    Lamuro, R.C.; Orr, R.

    1993-11-16

    A control room for a nuclear plant is disclosed. In the control room, objects labelled 12, 20, 22, 26, 30 in the drawing are no less than four inches from walls labelled 10.2. A ceiling contains cooling fins that extend downwards toward the floor from metal plates. A concrete slab is poured over the plates. Studs are welded to the plates and are encased in the concrete. 6 figures.

  6. Rodded shutdown system for a nuclear reactor

    DOEpatents

    Golden, Martin P.; Govi, Aldo R.

    1978-01-01

    A top mounted nuclear reactor diverse rodded shutdown system utilizing gas fed into a pressure bearing bellows region sealed at the upper extremity to an armature. The armature is attached to a neutron absorber assembly by a series of shafts and connecting means. The armature is held in an uppermost position by an electromagnet assembly or by pressurized gas in a second embodiment. Deenergizing the electromagnet assembly, or venting the pressurized gas, causes the armature to fall by the force of gravity, thereby lowering the attached absorber assembly into the reactor core.

  7. HIGH TEMPERATURE, HIGH POWER HETEROGENEOUS NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Hammond, R.P.; Wykoff, W.R.; Busey, H.M.

    1960-06-14

    A heterogeneous nuclear reactor is designed comprising a stationary housing and a rotatable annular core being supported for rotation about a vertical axis in the housing, the core containing a plurality of radial fuel- element supporting channels, the cylindrical empty space along the axis of the core providing a central plenum for the disposal of spent fuel elements, the core cross section outer periphery being vertically gradated in radius one end from the other to provide a coolant duct between the core and the housing, and means for inserting fresh fuel elements in the supporting channels under pressure and while the reactor is in operation.

  8. Acoustic transducer for nuclear reactor monitoring

    DOEpatents

    Ahlgren, Frederic F.; Scott, Paul F.

    1977-01-01

    A transducer to monitor a parameter and produce an acoustic signal from which the monitored parameter can be recovered. The transducer comprises a modified Galton whistle which emits a narrow band acoustic signal having a frequency dependent upon the parameter being monitored, such as the temperature of the cooling media of a nuclear reactor. Multiple locations within a reactor are monitored simultaneously by a remote acoustic receiver by providing a plurality of transducers each designed so that the acoustic signal it emits has a frequency distinct from the frequencies of signals emitted by the other transducers, whereby each signal can be unambiguously related to a particular transducer.

  9. Distributed computing and nuclear reactor analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, F.B.; Derstine, K.L.; Blomquist, R.N.

    1994-03-01

    Large-scale scientific and engineering calculations for nuclear reactor analysis can now be carried out effectively in a distributed computing environment, at costs far lower than for traditional mainframes. The distributed computing environment must include support for traditional system services, such as a queuing system for batch work, reliable filesystem backups, and parallel processing capabilities for large jobs. All ANL computer codes for reactor analysis have been adapted successfully to a distributed system based on workstations and X-terminals. Distributed parallel processing has been demonstrated to be effective for long-running Monte Carlo calculations.

  10. Reactor design for nuclear electric propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koenig, D. R.; Ranken, W. A.

    1979-01-01

    The paper analyzes the consequences of heat pipe failures, that resulted in modifications to the basic design of a heat-pipe cooled, fast spectrum nuclear reactor and led to consideration of an entirely different core design. The new design features an integral laminated core configuration consisting of alternating layers of UO2 and molybdenum sheets that span the diameter of the core. Design characteristics are presented and compared for two reactors. A conceptual design for a heat exchanger between the core and the thermionic converter assembly is described. This heat exchanger would provide design and fabrication decoupling of these two assemblies.

  11. Nuclear reactors for research and radioisotope production in Argentina

    SciTech Connect

    Duran, H.H.

    1981-01-01

    In Argentina, the construction, operation, and use of research and radioisotope production reactors is and has been an important method of personnel preparation for the nuclear power program. Moreover, it is a very suitable means for technology transfer to countries developing their own nuclear programs. At present, the following research reactors are in operation in Argentina: Argentine Reactor 0 (RA-0); Argentine Reactor 1 (RA-1); Argentine Reactor 2 (RA-2); Argentine Reactor 3 (RA-3); Argentine Reactor 4 (RA-4). The Argentine Reactor 6 (RA-6), under construction, should reach criticality in 1981.

  12. Wire core reactor for nuclear thermal propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harty, Richard B.; Brengle, Robert G.

    1993-01-01

    Studies have been performed of a compact high-performance nuclear rocket reactor that incorporates a tungsten alloy wire fuel element. This reactor, termed the wire core reactor, can deliver a specific impulse of 1,000 s using an expander cycle and a nozzle expansion ratio of 500 to 1. The core is constructed of layers of 0.8-mm-dia fueled tungsten wires wound over alternate layers of spacer wires, which forms a rugged annular lattice. Hydrogen flow in the core is annular, flowing from inside to outside. In addition to the concepts compact size and good heat transfer, the core has excellent power-flow matching features and can resist vibration and thermal stresses during star-up and shutdown.

  13. Method for automatically scramming a nuclear reactor

    DOEpatents

    Ougouag, Abderrafi M.; Schultz, Richard R.; Terry, William K.

    2005-12-27

    An automatically scramming nuclear reactor system. One embodiment comprises a core having a coolant inlet end and a coolant outlet end. A cooling system operatively associated with the core provides coolant to the coolant inlet end and removes heated coolant from the coolant outlet end, thus maintaining a pressure differential therebetween during a normal operating condition of the nuclear reactor system. A guide tube is positioned within the core with a first end of the guide tube in fluid communication with the coolant inlet end of the core, and a second end of the guide tube in fluid communication with the coolant outlet end of the core. A control element is positioned within the guide tube and is movable therein between upper and lower positions, and automatically falls under the action of gravity to the lower position when the pressure differential drops below a safe pressure differential.

  14. Muon trackers for imaging a nuclear reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kume, N.; Miyadera, H.; Morris, C. L.; Bacon, J.; Borozdin, K. N.; Durham, J. M.; Fuzita, K.; Guardincerri, E.; Izumi, M.; Nakayama, K.; Saltus, M.; Sugita, T.; Takakura, K.; Yoshioka, K.

    2016-09-01

    A detector system for assessing damage to the cores of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear reactors by using cosmic-ray muon tomography was developed. The system consists of a pair of drift-tube tracking detectors of 7.2× 7.2-m2 area. Each muon tracker consists of 6 x-layer and 6 y-layer drift-tube detectors. Each tracker is capable of measuring muon tracks with 12 mrad angular resolutions, and is capable of operating under 50-μ Sv/h radiation environment by removing gamma induced background with a novel time-coincidence logic. An estimated resolution to observe nuclear fuel debris at Fukushima Daiichi is 0.3 m when the core is imaged from outside the reactor building.

  15. Dismantling the nuclear research reactor Thetis

    SciTech Connect

    Michiels, P.

    2013-07-01

    The research reactor Thetis, in service since 1967 and stopped in 2003, is part of the laboratories of the institution of nuclear science of the University of Ghent. The reactor, of the pool-type, was used as a neutron-source for the production of radio-isotopes and for activation analyses. The reactor is situated in a water pool with inner diameter of 3 m. and a depth of 7.5 m. The reactor core is situated 5.3 m under water level. Besides the reactor, the pool contains pneumatic loops, handling tools, graphite blocks for neutron moderation and other experimental equipment. The building houses storage rooms for fissile material and sources, a pneumatic circuit for transportation of samples, primary and secondary cooling circuits, water cleaning resin circuits, a ventilation system and other necessary devices. Because of the experimental character of the reactor, laboratories with glove boxes and other tools were needed and are included in the dismantling program. The building is in 3 levels with a crawl-space. The ground-floor contains the ventilation installation, the purification circuits with tanks, cooling circuits and pneumatic transport system. On the first floor, around the reactor hall, the control-room, visiting area, end-station for pneumatic transport, waste-storage room, fuel storage room and the labs are located. The second floor contains a few laboratories and end stations of the two high speed transfer tubes. The lowest level of the pool is situated under ground level. The reactor has been operated at a power of 150 kW and had a max operating power of 250 kW. Belgoprocess has been selected to decommission the reactor, the labs, storage halls and associated circuits to free release the building for conventional reuse and for the removal of all its internals as legal defined. Besides the dose-rate risk and contamination risk, there is also an asbestos risk of contamination. During construction of the installation, asbestos-containing materials were

  16. Power conditioning for space nuclear reactor systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berman, Baruch

    1987-01-01

    This paper addresses the power conditioning subsystem for both Stirling and Brayton conversion of space nuclear reactor systems. Included are the requirements summary, trade results related to subsystem implementation, subsystem description, voltage level versus weight, efficiency and operational integrity, components selection, and shielding considerations. The discussion is supported by pertinent circuit and block diagrams. Summary conclusions and recommendations derived from the above studies are included.

  17. Some views on nuclear reactor safety

    SciTech Connect

    Tanguy, P.Y.

    1995-04-01

    This document is the text of a speech given by Pierre Y. Tanguy (Electricite de France) at the 22nd Water Reactor Safety Meeting held in Bethesda, MD in 1994. He describes the EDF nuclear program in broad terms and proceeds to discuss operational safety results with EDF plants. The speaker also outlines actions to enhance safety planned for the future, and he briefly mentions French cooperation with the Chinese on the Daya Bay project.

  18. NUCLEAR REACTOR AND THERMIONIC FUEL ELEMENT THEREFOR

    DOEpatents

    Rasor, N.S.; Hirsch, R.L.

    1963-12-01

    The patent relates to the direct conversion of fission heat to electricity by use of thermionic plasma diodes having fissionable material cathodes, said diodes arranged to form a critical mass in a nuclear reactor. The patent describes a fuel element comprising a plurality of diodes each having a fissionable material cathode, an anode around said cathode, and an ionizable gas therebetween. Provision is made for flowing the gas and current serially through the diodes. (AEC)

  19. Study Gives Good Odds on Nuclear Reactor Safety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Cristine

    1974-01-01

    Summarized is data from a recent study on nuclear reactor safety completed by Norman C. Rasmussen and others. Non-nuclear events are about 10,000 times more likely to produce large accidents than nuclear plants. (RH)

  20. Thermoacoustic Thermometry for Nuclear Reactor Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    James A. Smith; Dale K. Kotter; Steven L. Garrett; Randall A. Ali

    2013-06-01

    On Friday, March 11, 2011, at 2:46pm (Japan Standard Trme), the Tohoku region on the east coast of northern Japan experi­enced what would become known as the largest earthquake in the country's history at magnitude 9.0 on the Richter scale. The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant suffered exten­sive and irreversible damage. Six operating units were at the site, each with a boiling water reactor. When the earthquake struck, three of the six reactors were operating and the others were in a periodic inspection outage phase. In one reactor, all of the fuel had been relocated to a spent fuel pool in the reactor building. The seismic acceleration caused by the earthquake brought the three operating units to an automatic shutdown. Since there was damage to the power transmission lines, the emergency diesel generators (EDG) were automat­ically started to ensure continued cooling of the reactors and spent fuel pools. The situation was under control until the tsunami hit about forty-five minutes later with a maximum wave height of approximately 15 meters, which was three times taller than the sea wall of 5m. The influx of water submerged the EDGs, the electrical switchgear, and dc batteries, resulting in the total loss of power to five of the six reactors. The flooding also resulted in the loss of instrumentation that would have other­ wise been used to monitor and control the emergency. The ugly aftermath included high radiation exposure to operators at the nuclear power plants and early contamina­tion of food supplies and water within several restricted areas in Japan, where high radiation levels have rendered them un­safe for human habitation. While the rest of the story will remain a tragic history, it is this part of the series of unfortunate events that has inspired our research. It has indubitably highlighted the need for a novel sensor and instrumentation system that can withstand similar or worse conditions to avoid future catastrophe and assume damage

  1. Actinide nuclear data for reactor physics calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Brady, M.C.; Wright, R.Q. ); England, T.R. )

    1991-07-01

    Calculational methodologies and data sources used to predict and recommend fission-product yields and delayed neutron and prompt neutron data for a number of actinide nuclides are presented and discussed. This compilation of nuclear data is the result of a nearly three-year effort under the Japan/US Actinide Program (JUSAP) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to provide nuclear data supporting the preliminary design of an actinide burner reactor. In this type of reactor, minor actinides are the major components of the fuel. Nuclear data for these minor actinides are, therefore, essential in the design of such reactors. Fission yield, delayed neutron, and prompt neutron data are presented in the report for the following nuclides: Neptumium-237, Plutonium-238, -240, and -242, Americium-241 and -243, and Curium-242, -243, -244, -246, and -248. Additionally, prompt neutron data are also presented for these nuclides (except Plutonium-240, -242 and Curium-242) and for Curium-245 and -247. As in all compilations of nuclear data, the information in this report is subject to change as newer data become available. Most of the data presented here are based on calculational methodologies and should be revised as experimental data become available. The release of Version 6 of the Evaluated Nuclear Data Files (ENDF/B-6) is expected to be completed in 1991 and should replace this evaluation in areas of overlap although no serious discrepancies are expected between this compilation and ENDF/B-6. Because of the large amount of data comprising this compilation and limitations in publishing such a voluminous report, a complete listing of the explicit data is not included in this report. The data are, however, available from the authors on 5 {1/2}-in. high-density (1.2-Mbyte) diskettes. The file contents and formats are described in the text, and examples are given in the appendices. 34 refs., 18 tabs.

  2. Software reliability and safety in nuclear reactor protection systems

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence, J.D.

    1993-11-01

    Planning the development, use and regulation of computer systems in nuclear reactor protection systems in such a way as to enhance reliability and safety is a complex issue. This report is one of a series of reports from the Computer Safety and Reliability Group, Lawrence Livermore that investigates different aspects of computer software in reactor National Laboratory, that investigates different aspects of computer software in reactor protection systems. There are two central themes in the report, First, software considerations cannot be fully understood in isolation from computer hardware and application considerations. Second, the process of engineering reliability and safety into a computer system requires activities to be carried out throughout the software life cycle. The report discusses the many activities that can be carried out during the software life cycle to improve the safety and reliability of the resulting product. The viewpoint is primarily that of the assessor, or auditor.

  3. Designed porosity materials in nuclear reactor components

    DOEpatents

    Yacout, A. M.; Pellin, Michael J.; Stan, Marius

    2016-09-06

    A nuclear fuel pellet with a porous substrate, such as a carbon or tungsten aerogel, on which at least one layer of a fuel containing material is deposited via atomic layer deposition, and wherein the layer deposition is controlled to prevent agglomeration of defects. Further, a method of fabricating a nuclear fuel pellet, wherein the method features the steps of selecting a porous substrate, depositing at least one layer of a fuel containing material, and terminating the deposition when the desired porosity is achieved. Also provided is a nuclear reactor fuel cladding made of a porous substrate, such as silicon carbide aerogel or silicon carbide cloth, upon which layers of silicon carbide are deposited.

  4. Nuclear fuel in a reactor accident.

    PubMed

    Burns, Peter C; Ewing, Rodney C; Navrotsky, Alexandra

    2012-03-09

    Nuclear accidents that lead to melting of a reactor core create heterogeneous materials containing hundreds of radionuclides, many with short half-lives. The long-lived fission products and transuranium elements within damaged fuel remain a concern for millennia. Currently, accurate fundamental models for the prediction of release rates of radionuclides from fuel, especially in contact with water, after an accident remain limited. Relatively little is known about fuel corrosion and radionuclide release under the extreme chemical, radiation, and thermal conditions during and subsequent to a nuclear accident. We review the current understanding of nuclear fuel interactions with the environment, including studies over the relatively narrow range of geochemical, hydrological, and radiation environments relevant to geological repository performance, and discuss priorities for research needed to develop future predictive models.

  5. Advanced nuclear reactor public opinion project

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, B.

    1991-07-25

    This Interim Report summarizes the findings of our first twenty in-depth interviews in the Advanced Nuclear Reactor Public Opinion Project. We interviewed 6 industry trade association officials, 3 industry attorneys, 6 environmentalists/nuclear critics, 3 state officials, and 3 independent analysts. In addition, we have had numerous shorter discussions with various individuals concerned about nuclear power. The report is organized into the four categories proposed at our April, 1991, Advisory Group meeting: safety, cost-benefit analysis, science education, and communications. Within each category, some change of focus from that of the Advisory Group has been required, to reflect the findings of our interviews. This report limits itself to describing our findings. An accompanying memo draws some tentative conclusions.

  6. Nuclear reactor pressure vessel support system

    DOEpatents

    Sepelak, George R.

    1978-01-01

    A support system for nuclear reactor pressure vessels which can withstand all possible combinations of stresses caused by a postulated core disrupting accident during reactor operation. The nuclear reactor pressure vessel is provided with a flange around the upper periphery thereof, and the flange includes an annular vertical extension formed integral therewith. A support ring is positioned atop of the support ledge and the flange vertical extension, and is bolted to both members. The plug riser is secured to the flange vertical extension and to the top of a radially outwardly extension of the rotatable plug. This system eliminates one joint through which fluids contained in the vessel could escape by making the fluid flow path through the joint between the flange and the support ring follow the same path through which fluid could escape through the plug risers. In this manner, the sealing means to prohibit the escape of contained fluids through the plug risers can also prohibit the escape of contained fluid through the securing joint.

  7. NEW EMPLOYEES ON THE JOB - DONALD E HEGBERG OF THE NUCLEAR REACTOR DIVISION DISCUSSES NUCLEAR ROCKET

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    NEW EMPLOYEES ON THE JOB - DONALD E HEGBERG OF THE NUCLEAR REACTOR DIVISION DISCUSSES NUCLEAR ROCKET FUEL ELEMENT EXPERIMENT WITH CHARLES L YOUNGER - THE DISCUSSION IS PREPATORY TO CONDUCTING THE EXPERIMENT AT THE PLUM BROOK STATION REACTOR FACILITY

  8. Nuclear reactor flow control method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Church, John P.

    1993-01-01

    Method and apparatus for improving coolant flow in a nuclear reactor during accident as well as nominal conditions. The reactor has a plurality of fuel elements in sleeves and a plenum above the fuel and through which the sleeves penetrate. Holes are provided in the sleeve so that coolant from the plenum can enter the sleeve and cool the fuel. The number and size of the holes are varied from sleeve to sleeve with the number and size of holes being greater for sleeves toward the center of the core and less for sleeves toward the periphery of the core. Preferably the holes are all the same diameter and arranged in rows and columns, the rows starting from the bottom of every sleeve and fewer rows in peripheral sleeves and more rows in the central sleeves.

  9. Fuel handling system for a nuclear reactor

    DOEpatents

    Saiveau, James G.; Kann, William J.; Burelbach, James P.

    1986-01-01

    A pool type nuclear fission reactor has a core, with a plurality of core elements and a redan which confines coolant as a hot pool at a first end of the core separated from a cold pool at a second end of the core by the redan. A fuel handling system for use with such reactors comprises a core element storage basket located outside of the redan in the cold pool. An access passage is formed in the redan with a gate for opening and closing the passage to maintain the temperature differential between the hot pool and the cold pool. A mechanism is provided for opening and closing the gate. A lifting arm is also provided for manipulating the fuel core elements through the access passage between the storage basket and the core when the redan gate is open.

  10. Fuel handling system for a nuclear reactor

    DOEpatents

    Saiveau, James G.; Kann, William J.; Burelbach, James P.

    1986-12-02

    A pool type nuclear fission reactor has a core, with a plurality of core elements and a redan which confines coolant as a hot pool at a first end of the core separated from a cold pool at a second end of the core by the redan. A fuel handling system for use with such reactors comprises a core element storage basket located outside of the redan in the cold pool. An access passage is formed in the redan with a gate for opening and closing the passage to maintain the temperature differential between the hot pool and the cold pool. A mechanism is provided for opening and closing the gate. A lifting arm is also provided for manipulating the fuel core elements through the access passage between the storage basket and the core when the redan gate is open.

  11. Nuclear reactor insulation and preheat system

    DOEpatents

    Wampole, Nevin C.

    1978-01-01

    An insulation and preheat system for preselected components of a fluid cooled nuclear reactor. A gas tight barrier or compartment of thermal insulation surrounds the selected components and includes devices to heat the internal atmosphere of the compartment. An external surface of the compartment or enclosure is cooled, such as by a circulating fluid. The heating devices provide for preheating of the components, as well as maintenance of a temperature sufficient to ensure that the reactor coolant fluid will not solidify during shutdown. The external cooling limits the heat transferred to other plant structures, such as supporting concrete and steel. The barrier is spaced far enough from the surrounded components so as to allow access for remote or manual inspection, maintenance, and repair.

  12. Nuclear reactor flow control method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Church, J.P.

    1993-03-30

    Method and apparatus for improving coolant flow in a nuclear reactor during accident as well as nominal conditions. The reactor has a plurality of fuel elements in sleeves and a plenum above the fuel and through which the sleeves penetrate. Holes are provided in the sleeve so that coolant from the plenum can enter the sleeve and cool the fuel. The number and size of the holes are varied from sleeve to sleeve with the number and size of holes being greater for sleeves toward the center of the core and less for sleeves toward the periphery of the core. Preferably the holes are all the same diameter and arranged in rows and columns, the rows starting from the bottom of every sleeve and fewer rows in peripheral sleeves and more rows in the central sleeves.

  13. Closure head for a nuclear reactor

    DOEpatents

    Wade, Elman E.

    1980-01-01

    A closure head for a nuclear reactor includes a stationary outer ring integral with the reactor vessel with a first rotatable plug disposed within the stationary outer ring and supported from the stationary outer ring by a bearing assembly. A sealing system is associated with the bearing assembly to seal the annulus defined between the first rotatable plug and the stationary outer ring. The sealing system comprises tubular seal elements disposed in the annulus with load springs contacting the tubular seal elements so as to force the tubular seal elements against the annulus in a manner to seal the annulus. The sealing system also comprises a sealing fluid which is pumped through the annulus and over the tubular seal elements causing the load springs to compress thereby reducing the friction between the tubular seal elements and the rotatable components while maintaining a gas-tight seal therebetween.

  14. MEANS FOR CONTROLLING A NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, V.C.; Overbeck, W.P.; Slotin, L.; Froman, D.K.

    1957-12-17

    This patent relates to nuclear reactors of the type using a solid neutron absorbing material as a means for controlling the reproduction ratio of the system and thereby the power output. Elongated rods of neutron absorbing material, such as boron steel for example, are adapted to be inserted and removed from the core of tae reactor by electronic motors and suitable drive means. The motors and drive means are controlled by means responsive to the neutron density, such as ionization chambers. The control system is designed to be responsive also to the rate of change in neutron density to automatically maintain the total power output at a substantially constant predetermined value. A safety rod means responsive to neutron density is also provided for keeping the power output below a predetermined maximum value at all times.

  15. REACTOR PHYSICS MODELING OF SPENT NUCLEAR RESEARCH REACTOR FUEL FOR SNM ATTRIBUTION AND NUCLEAR FORENSICS

    SciTech Connect

    Sternat, M.; Beals, D.; Webb, R.; Nichols, T.

    2010-06-09

    Nuclear research reactors are the least safeguarded type of reactor; in some cases this may be attributed to low risk and in most cases it is due to difficulty from dynamic operation. Research reactors vary greatly in size, fuel type, enrichment, power and burnup providing a significant challenge to any standardized safeguard system. If a whole fuel assembly was interdicted, based on geometry and other traditional forensics work, one could identify the material's origin fairly accurately. If the material has been dispersed or reprocessed, in-depth reactor physics models may be used to help with the identification. Should there be a need to attribute research reactor fuel material, the Savannah River National Laboratory would perform radiochemical analysis of samples of the material as well as other non-destructive measurements. In depth reactor physics modeling would then be performed to compare to these measured results in an attempt to associate the measured results with various reactor parameters. Several reactor physics codes are being used and considered for this purpose, including: MONTEBURNS/ORIGEN/MCNP5, CINDER/MCNPX and WIMS. In attempt to identify reactor characteristics, such as time since shutdown, burnup, or power, various isotopes are used. Complexities arise when the inherent assumptions embedded in different reactor physics codes handle the isotopes differently and may quantify them to different levels of accuracy. A technical approach to modeling spent research reactor fuel begins at the assembly level upon acquiring detailed information of the reactor to be modeled. A single assembly is run using periodic boundary conditions to simulate an infinite lattice which may be repeatedly burned to produce input fuel isotopic vectors of various burnups for a core level model. A core level model will then be constructed using the assembly level results as inputs for the specific fuel shuffling pattern in an attempt to establish an equilibrium cycle. The

  16. Dielectric Heaters for Testing Spacecraft Nuclear Reactors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sims, William Herbert; Bitteker, Leo; Godfroy, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    A document proposes the development of radio-frequency-(RF)-driven dielectric heaters for non-nuclear thermal testing of the cores of nuclear-fission reactors for spacecraft. Like the electrical-resistance heaters used heretofore for such testing, the dielectric heaters would be inserted in the reactors in place of nuclear fuel rods. A typical heater according to the proposal would consist of a rod of lossy dielectric material sized and shaped like a fuel rod and containing an electrically conductive rod along its center line. Exploiting the dielectric loss mechanism that is usually considered a nuisance in other applications, an RF signal, typically at a frequency .50 MHz and an amplitude between 2 and 5 kV, would be applied to the central conductor to heat the dielectric material. The main advantage of the proposal is that the wiring needed for the RF dielectric heating would be simpler and easier to fabricate than is the wiring needed for resistance heating. In some applications, it might be possible to eliminate all heater wiring and, instead, beam the RF heating power into the dielectric rods from external antennas.

  17. Shielding Analysis of a Small Compact Space Nuclear Reactor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-08-01

    there will be a need for a power source that’s reliable, has a high pow,-- density, and, in some cases, portable. These reasons, and many more, make...Conventional power sources are not able to reasonably obtain these higher power levels. The Space Power 100 kWe (SP-100) space nuclear reactor is the...space nuclear reactors an attractive power source for future space missions. The idea of using space nuclear reactors in space is not new. The United

  18. Measuring Neutrino Oscillations with Nuclear Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    McKeown, R. D.

    2007-10-26

    Since the first direct observations of antineutrino events by Reines and Cowan in the 1950's, nuclear reactors have been an important tool in the study of neutrino properties. More recently, the study of neutrino oscillations has been a very active area of research. The pioneering observation of oscillations by the KamLAND experiment has provided crucial information on the neutrino mixing matrix. New experiments to study the remaining unknown mixing angle are currently under development. These recent studies and potential future developments will be discussed.

  19. Nuclear reactor fuel rod attachment system

    DOEpatents

    Not Available

    1980-09-17

    A reusable system is described for removably attaching a nuclear reactor fuel rod to a support member. A locking cap is secured to the fuel rod and a locking strip is fastened to the support member. The locking cap has two opposing fingers shaped to form a socket having a body portion. The locking strip has an extension shaped to rigidly attach to the socket's body portion. The locking cap's fingers are resiliently deflectable. For attachment, the locking cap is longitudinally pushed onto the locking strip causing the extension to temporarily deflect open the fingers to engage the socket's body portion. For removal, the process is reversed.

  20. Liquid metal pump for nuclear reactors

    DOEpatents

    Allen, H.G.; Maloney, J.R.

    1975-10-01

    A pump for use in pumping high temperature liquids at high pressures, particularly liquid metals used to cool nuclear reactors is described. It is of the type in which the rotor is submerged in a sump but is fed by an inlet duct which bypasses the sump. A chamber, kept full of fluid, surrounds the pump casing into which fluid is bled from the pump discharge and from which fluid is fed to the rotor bearings and hence to the sump. This equalizes pressure inside and outside the pump casing and reduces or eliminates the thermal shock to the bearings and sump tank.

  1. Analysis of nuclear reactor instability phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    Lahey, R.T. Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The phenomena known as density-wave instability often occurs in phase change systems, such as boiling water nuclear reactors (BWRS). Our current understanding of density-wave oscillations is in fairly good shape for linear phenomena (eg, the onset of instabilities) but is not very advanced for non-linear phenomena [Lahey and Podowski, 1989]. In particular, limit cycle and chaotic instability modes are not well understood in boiling systems such as current and advanced generation BWRs (eg, SBWR). In particular, the SBWR relies on natural circulation and is thus inherently prone to problems with density-wave instabilities. The purpose of this research is to develop a quantitative understanding of nonlinear nuclear-coupled density-wave instability phenomena in BWRS. This research builds on the work of Achard et al [1985] and Clausse et al [1991] who showed, respectively, that Hopf bifurcations and chaotic oscillations may occur in boiling systems.

  2. Fluid sampling system for a nuclear reactor

    DOEpatents

    Lau, Louis K.; Alper, Naum I.

    1994-01-01

    A system of extracting fluid samples, either liquid or gas, from the interior of a nuclear reactor containment utilizes a jet pump. To extract the sample fluid, a nonradioactive motive fluid is forced through the inlet and discharge ports of a jet pump located outside the containment, creating a suction that draws the sample fluid from the containment through a sample conduit connected to the pump suction port. The mixture of motive fluid and sample fluid is discharged through a return conduit to the interior of the containment. The jet pump and means for removing a portion of the sample fluid from the sample conduit can be located in a shielded sample grab station located next to the containment. A non-nuclear grade active pump can be located outside the grab sampling station and the containment to pump the nonradioactive motive fluid through the jet pump.

  3. Fluid sampling system for a nuclear reactor

    DOEpatents

    Lau, L.K.; Alper, N.I.

    1994-11-22

    A system of extracting fluid samples, either liquid or gas, from the interior of a nuclear reactor containment utilizes a jet pump. To extract the sample fluid, a nonradioactive motive fluid is forced through the inlet and discharge ports of a jet pump located outside the containment, creating a suction that draws the sample fluid from the containment through a sample conduit connected to the pump suction port. The mixture of motive fluid and sample fluid is discharged through a return conduit to the interior of the containment. The jet pump and means for removing a portion of the sample fluid from the sample conduit can be located in a shielded sample grab station located next to the containment. A non-nuclear grade active pump can be located outside the grab sampling station and the containment to pump the nonradioactive motive fluid through the jet pump. 1 fig.

  4. Neutron transport analysis for nuclear reactor design

    DOEpatents

    Vujic, J.L.

    1993-11-30

    Replacing regular mesh-dependent ray tracing modules in a collision/transfer probability (CTP) code with a ray tracing module based upon combinatorial geometry of a modified geometrical module (GMC) provides a general geometry transfer theory code in two dimensions (2D) for analyzing nuclear reactor design and control. The primary modification of the GMC module involves generation of a fixed inner frame and a rotating outer frame, where the inner frame contains all reactor regions of interest, e.g., part of a reactor assembly, an assembly, or several assemblies, and the outer frame, with a set of parallel equidistant rays (lines) attached to it, rotates around the inner frame. The modified GMC module allows for determining for each parallel ray (line), the intersections with zone boundaries, the path length between the intersections, the total number of zones on a track, the zone and medium numbers, and the intersections with the outer surface, which parameters may be used in the CTP code to calculate collision/transfer probability and cross-section values. 28 figures.

  5. Neutron transport analysis for nuclear reactor design

    DOEpatents

    Vujic, Jasmina L.

    1993-01-01

    Replacing regular mesh-dependent ray tracing modules in a collision/transfer probability (CTP) code with a ray tracing module based upon combinatorial geometry of a modified geometrical module (GMC) provides a general geometry transfer theory code in two dimensions (2D) for analyzing nuclear reactor design and control. The primary modification of the GMC module involves generation of a fixed inner frame and a rotating outer frame, where the inner frame contains all reactor regions of interest, e.g., part of a reactor assembly, an assembly, or several assemblies, and the outer frame, with a set of parallel equidistant rays (lines) attached to it, rotates around the inner frame. The modified GMC module allows for determining for each parallel ray (line), the intersections with zone boundaries, the path length between the intersections, the total number of zones on a track, the zone and medium numbers, and the intersections with the outer surface, which parameters may be used in the CTP code to calculate collision/transfer probability and cross-section values.

  6. Electrochemistry of Water-Cooled Nuclear Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Macdonald, Dgiby; Urquidi-Macdonald, Mirna; Pitt, Jonathan

    2006-08-08

    This project developed a comprehensive mathematical and simulation model for calculating thermal hydraulic, electrochemical, and corrosion parameters, viz. temperature, fluid flow velocity, pH, corrosion potential, hydrogen injection, oxygen contamination, stress corrosion cracking, crack growth rate, and other important quantities in the coolant circuits of water-cooled nuclear power plants, including both Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs) and Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs). The model is being used to assess the three major operational problems in Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR), which include mass transport, activity transport, and the axial offset anomaly, and provide a powerful tool for predicting the accumulation of SCC damage in BWR primary coolant circuits as a function of operating history. Another achievement of the project is the development of a simulation tool to serve both as a training tool for plant operators and as an engineering test-bed to evaluate new equipment and operating strategies (normal operation, cold shut down and others). The development and implementation of the model allows us to estimate the activity transport or "radiation fields" around the primary loop and the vessel, as a function of the operating parameters and the water chemistry.

  7. Minimizing or eliminating refueling of nuclear reactor

    DOEpatents

    Doncals, Richard A.; Paik, Nam-Chin; Andre, Sandra V.; Porter, Charles A.; Rathbun, Roy W.; Schwallie, Ambrose L.; Petras, Diane S.

    1989-01-01

    Demand for refueling of a liquid metal fast nuclear reactor having a life of 30 years is eliminated or reduced to intervals of at least 10 years by operating the reactor at a low linear-power density, typically 2.5 kw/ft of fuel rod, rather than 7.5 or 15 kw/ft, which is the prior art practice. So that power of the same magnitude as for prior art reactors is produced, the volume of the core is increased. In addition, the height of the core and it diameter are dimensioned so that the ratio of the height to the diameter approximates 1 to the extent practicable considering the requirement of control and that the pressure drop in the coolant shall not be excessive. The surface area of a cylinder of given volume is a minimum if the ratio of the height to the diameter is 1. By minimizing the surface area, the leakage of neutrons is reduced. By reducing the linear-power density, increasing core volume, reducing fissile enrichment and optimizing core geometry, internal-core breeding of fissionable fuel is substantially enhanced. As a result, core operational life, limited by control worth requirements and fuel burnup capability, is extended up to 30 years of continuous power operation.

  8. Request for Naval Reactors Comment on Proposed Prometheus Space Flight Nuclear Reactor High Tier Reactor Safety Requirements and for Naval Reactors Approval to Transmit These Requirements to JPL

    SciTech Connect

    D. Kokkinos

    2005-04-28

    The purpose of this letter is to request Naval Reactors comments on the nuclear reactor high tier requirements for the PROMETHEUS space flight reactor design, pre-launch operations, launch, ascent, operation, and disposal, and to request Naval Reactors approval to transmit these requirements to Jet Propulsion Laboratory to ensure consistency between the reactor safety requirements and the spacecraft safety requirements. The proposed PROMETHEUS nuclear reactor high tier safety requirements are consistent with the long standing safety culture of the Naval Reactors Program and its commitment to protecting the health and safety of the public and the environment. In addition, the philosophy on which these requirements are based is consistent with the Nuclear Safety Policy Working Group recommendations on space nuclear propulsion safety (Reference 1), DOE Nuclear Safety Criteria and Specifications for Space Nuclear Reactors (Reference 2), the Nuclear Space Power Safety and Facility Guidelines Study of the Applied Physics Laboratory.

  9. Nonlinear Ultrasonic Measurements in Nuclear Reactor Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinhardt, Brian T.

    Several Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) programs, such as the Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCRD), Advanced Reactor Concepts (ARC), Light Water Reactor Sustainability, and Next Generation Nuclear Power Plants (NGNP), are investigating new fuels, materials, and inspection paradigms for advanced and existing reactors. A key objective of such programs is to understand the performance of these fuels and materials during irradiation. In DOE-NE's FCRD program, ultrasonic based technology was identified as a key approach that should be pursued to obtain the high-fidelity, high-accuracy data required to characterize the behavior and performance of new candidate fuels and structural materials during irradiation testing. The radiation, high temperatures, and pressure can limit the available tools and characterization methods. In this thesis, two ultrasonic characterization techniques will be explored. The first, finite amplitude wave propagation has been demonstrated to be sensitive to microstructural material property changes. It is a strong candidate to determine fuel evolution; however, it has not been demonstrated for in-situ reactor applications. In this thesis, finite amplitude wave propagation will be used to measure the microstructural evolution in Al-6061. This is the first demonstration of finite amplitude wave propagation at temperatures in excess of 200 °C and during an irradiation test. Second, a method based on contact nonlinear acoustic theory will be developed to identify compressed cracks. Compressed cracks are typically transparent to ultrasonic wave propagation; however, by measuring harmonic content developed during finite amplitude wave propagation, it is shown that even compressed cracks can be characterized. Lastly, piezoelectric transducers capable of making these measurements are developed. Specifically, three piezoelectric sensors (Bismuth Titanate, Aluminum Nitride, and Zinc Oxide) are tested in the Massachusetts

  10. Determination of parameters of a nuclear reactor through noise measurements

    DOEpatents

    Cohn, C.E.

    1975-07-15

    A method of measuring parameters of a nuclear reactor by noise measurements is described. Noise signals are developed by the detectors placed in the reactor core. The polarity coincidence between the noise signals is used to develop quantities from which various parameters of the reactor can be calculated. (auth)

  11. Nuclear reactors built, being built, or planned 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    Nuclear Reactors Built, Being Built, or Planned contains unclassified information about facilities built, being built, or planned in the United States for domestic use or export as of December 31, 1993. The Office of Scientific and Technical Information, US Department of Energy, gathers this information annually from Washington headquarters and field offices of DOE; from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC); from the US reactor manufacturers who are the principal nuclear embassies; and from foreign governmental nuclear departments. The book consists of three divisions, as follows: (1) a commercial reactor locator map and tables of the characteristic and statistical data that follow; a table of abbreviations; (2) tables of data for reactors operating, being built, or planned; and (3) tables of data for reactors that have been shut down permanently or dismantled. The reactors are subdivided into the following parts: civilian, production, military, export, and critical assembly.

  12. Nuclear waste disposal utilizing a gaseous core reactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paternoster, R. R.

    1975-01-01

    The feasibility of a gaseous core nuclear reactor designed to produce power to also reduce the national inventories of long-lived reactor waste products through nuclear transmutation was examined. Neutron-induced transmutation of radioactive wastes is shown to be an effective means of shortening the apparent half life.

  13. Coupled IVPs to Investigate a Nuclear Reactor Poison Burn Up

    SciTech Connect

    Faghihi, F.

    2009-09-09

    A set of coupled IVPs that describe the change rate of an important poison, in a nuclear reactor, has been written herein. Specifically, in this article, we have focused on the samarium-149 (as a poison) burnup in a desired pressurized water nuclear reactor and its concentration are given using our MATLAB-linked 'solver'.

  14. Spent nuclear fuel discharges from U.S. reactors 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    Spent Nuclear Fuel Discharges from US Reactors 1994 provides current statistical data on fuel assemblies irradiated at commercial nuclear reactors operating in the US. This year`s report provides data on the current inventories and storage capacities at these reactors. Detailed statistics on the data are presented in four chapters that highlight 1994 spent fuel discharges, storage capacities and inventories, canister and nonfuel component data, and assembly characteristics. Five appendices, a glossary, and bibliography are also included. 10 figs., 34 tabs.

  15. Uncertainties in the Anti-neutrino Production at Nuclear Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Djurcic, Zelimir; Detwiler, Jason A.; Piepke, Andreas; Foster Jr., Vince R.; Miller, Lester; Gratta, Giorgio

    2008-08-06

    Anti-neutrino emission rates from nuclear reactors are determined from thermal power measurements and fission rate calculations. The uncertainties in these quantities for commercial power plants and their impact on the calculated interaction rates in {bar {nu}}{sub e} detectors is examined. We discuss reactor-to-reactor correlations between the leading uncertainties, and their relevance to reactor {bar {nu}}{sub e} experiments.

  16. SPRING DRIVEN ACTUATING MECHANISM FOR NUCLEAR REACTOR CONTROL

    DOEpatents

    Bevilacqua, F.; Uecker, D.F.; Groh, E.F.

    1962-01-23

    l962. rod in a nuclear reactor to shut it down. The control rod or an extension thereof is wound on a drum as it is withdrawn from the reactor. When an emergency occurs requiring the reactor to be shut down, the drum is released so as to be free to rotate, and the tendency of the control rod or its extension coiled on the drum to straighten itself is used for quickly returning the control rod to the reactor. (AEC)

  17. Drive of nuclear reactor's control element

    SciTech Connect

    Anikin, A.A.; But, V.G.; Nikolaev, V.P.; Silvanovich, A.A.

    1980-12-09

    According to the invention, the drive of a nuclear reactor's control element comprises an electromotor having a stator and a rotor composed lengthwise of two parts whose total length is equal to that of the active part of the stator. One part of the rotor is a solid cylinder-shaped member. The other part of the rotor comprises at least three double-arm rocking levers, the pivot axes of which are parallel to the axis of a drive screw. One arm of each of said levers is a rotor pole. The other arm of each of said levers carries a roller, the axis of rotation of which is parallel to the axis of the drive screw. Said rollers make up a detachable roller nut which interacts with the drive screw under the action of an electromagnetic field.

  18. Nuclear reactor fuel rod attachment system

    DOEpatents

    Christiansen, David W.

    1982-01-01

    A reusable system for removably attaching a nuclear reactor fuel rod (12) to a support member (14). A locking cap (22) is secured to the fuel rod (12) and a locking strip (24) is fastened to the support member (14). The locking cap (22) has two opposing fingers (24a and 24b) shaped to form a socket having a body portion (26). The locking strip has an extension (36) shaped to rigidly attach to the socket's body portion (26). The locking cap's fingers are resiliently deflectable. For attachment, the locking cap (22) is longitudinally pushed onto the locking strip (24) causing the extension (36) to temporarily deflect open the fingers (24a and 24b) to engage the socket's body portion (26). For removal, the process is reversed.

  19. Cover for a nuclear reactor pressure vessel

    SciTech Connect

    Gross, H.

    1980-03-11

    A pressure vessel, containment or burst shield for a nuclear reactor has a substantially circular cover surmounting the cylindrical part (Shell) of the vessel and is preferably comprised of a plurality of circular or polylateral segments arranged concentrically and stressed inwardly by annular prestressing means. At least the outer polylateral segments and preferably all of the circular segments are provided on the upper surface with upwardly open circular grooves receiving the prestressing arrangement. The latter can comprise an outwardly open channel-shaped (U-section) supporting member receiving the stressing cables and means for transferring the radial stress of the annular stressing arrangement to the ring segment. The latter means may be wedges inserted between the support and a wall of the groove after the stressing arrangement has been placed under stress, E.G. By hydraulic means for spreading the annular stressing arrangement.

  20. Control rod for a nuclear reactor

    DOEpatents

    Roman, Walter G.; Sutton, Jr., Harry G.

    1979-01-01

    A control rod assembly for a nuclear reactor is disclosed having a remotely disengageable coupling between the control rod and the control rod drive shaft. The coupling is actuated by first lowering then raising the drive shaft. The described motion causes axial repositioning of a pin in a grooved rotatable cylinder, each being attached to different parts of the drive shaft which are axially movable relative to each other. In one embodiment, the relative axial motion of the parts of the drive shaft is used either to couple or to uncouple the connection by forcing resilient members attached to the drive shaft into or out of shouldered engagement, respectively, with an indentation formed in the control rod.

  1. Structural integrity of nuclear reactor pressure vessels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knott, John F.

    2013-09-01

    The paper starts from concerns expressed by Sir Alan Cottrell, in the early 1970s, related to the safety of the pressurized water reactor (PWR) proposed at that time for the next phase of electrical power generation. It proceeds to describe the design and operation of nuclear generation plant and gives details of the manufacture of PWR reactor pressure vessels (RPVs). Attention is paid to stress-relief cracking and under-clad cracking, experienced with early RPVs, explaining the mechanisms for these forms of cracking and the means taken to avoid them. Particular note is made of the contribution of non-destructive inspection to structural integrity. Factors affecting brittle fracture in RPV steels are described: in particular, effects of neutron irradiation. The use of fracture mechanics to assess defect tolerance is explained, together with the failure assessment diagram embodied in the R6 procedure. There is discussion of the Master Curve and how it incorporates effects of irradiation on fracture toughness. Dangers associated with extrapolation of data to low probabilities are illustrated. The treatment of fatigue-crack growth is described, in the context of transients that may be experienced in the operation of PWR plant. Detailed attention is paid to the thermal shock associated with a large loss-of-coolant accident. The final section reviews the arguments advanced to justify 'Incredibility of Failure' and how these are incorporated in assessments of the integrity of existing plant and proposed 'new build' PWR pressure vessels.

  2. Nuclear reactor cooling system decontamination reagent regeneration

    DOEpatents

    Anstine, Larry D.; James, Dean B.; Melaika, Edward A.; Peterson, Jr., John P.

    1985-01-01

    An improved method for decontaminating the coolant system of water-cooled nuclear power reactors and for regenerating the decontamination solution. A small amount of one or more weak-acid organic complexing agents is added to the reactor coolant, and the pH is adjusted to form a decontamination solution which is circulated throughout the coolant system to dissolve metal oxides from the interior surfaces and complex the resulting metal ions and radionuclide ions. The coolant containing the complexed metal ions and radionuclide ions is passed through a strong-base anion exchange resin bed which has been presaturated with a solution containing the complexing agents in the same ratio and having the same pH as the decontamination solution. As the decontamination solution passes through the resin bed, metal-complexed anions are exchanged for the metal-ion-free anions on the bed, while metal-ion-free anions in the solution pass through the bed, thus removing the metal ions and regenerating the decontamination solution.

  3. NRC - regulator of nuclear safety

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) was formed in 1975 to regulate the various commercial and institutional uses of nuclear energy, including nuclear power plants. The agency succeeded the Atomic Energy Commission, which previously had responsibility for both developing and regulating nuclear activities. Federal research and development work for all energy sources, as well as nuclear weapons production, is now conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy. Under its responsibility to protect public health and safety, the NRC has three principal regulatory functions: (1) establish standards and regulations, (2) issue licenses for nuclear facilities and users of nuclear materials, and (3) inspect facilities and users of nuclear materials to ensure compliance with the requirements. These regulatory functions relate to both nuclear power plants and to other uses of nuclear materials - like nuclear medicine programs at hospitals, academic activities at educational institutions, research work, and such industrial applications as gauges and testing equipment. The NRC places a high priority on keeping the public informed of its work. The agency recognizes the interest of citizens in what it does through such activities as maintaining public document rooms across the country and holding public hearings, public meetings in local areas, and discussions with individuals and organizations.

  4. Nuclear Energy Enabling Technologies (NEET) Reactor Materials: News for the Reactor Materials Crosscut, May 2016

    SciTech Connect

    Maloy, Stuart Andrew

    2016-09-26

    In this newsletter for Nuclear Energy Enabling Technologies (NEET) Reactor Materials, pages 1-3 cover highlights from the DOE-NE (Nuclear Energy) programs, pages 4-6 cover determining the stress-strain response of ion-irradiated metallic materials via spherical nanoindentation, and pages 7-8 cover theoretical approaches to understanding long-term materials behavior in light water reactors.

  5. Nuclear reactor safety research since Three Mile Island

    SciTech Connect

    Mynatt, F.R.

    1982-04-09

    The Three Mile Island nuclear power plant accident has resulted in redirection of reactor safety research priorities. The small release to the environment of radioactive iodine-13 to 17 curies in a total radioactivity release of 2.4 million to 13 million curies-has led to a new emphasis on the physical chemistry of fission product behavior in accidents; the fact that the nuclear core was severely damaged but did not melt down has opened a new accident regime-that of the degraded core; the role of the operators in the progression and severity of the accident has shifted emphasis from equipment reliability to human reliability. As research progresses in these areas, the technical base for regulation and risk analysis will change substantially.

  6. Nuclear reactor safety research since three mile island.

    PubMed

    Mynatt, F R

    1982-04-09

    The Three Mile Island nuclear power plant accident has resulted in redirection of reactor safety research priorities. The small release to the environment of radioactive iodine-13 to 17 curies in a total radioactivity release of 2.4 million to 13 million curies-has led to a new emphasis on the physical chemistry of fission product behavior in accidents; the fact that the nuclear core was severely damaged but did not melt down has opened a new accident regime-that of the degraded core; the role of the operators in the progression and severity of the accident has shifted emphasis from equipment reliability to human reliability. As research progresses in these areas, the technical base for regulation and risk analysis will change substantially.

  7. A brief history of design studies on innovative nuclear reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Sekimoto, Hiroshi

    2014-09-30

    In a short period after the success of CP1, many types of nuclear reactors were proposed and investigated. However, soon only a small number of reactors were selected for practical use. Around 1970, only LWRs with small number of CANDUs were operated in the western world, and FBRs were under development. It was about the time when Apollo moon landing was accomplished. However, at the same time, the future of human being was widely considered pessimistic and Limits to Growth was published. In the end of 1970’s the TMI accident occurred and many nuclear reactor contracts were cancelled in USA and any more contracts had not been concluded until recent years. From the reflection of this accident, many Inherent Safe Reactors (ISRs) were proposed, though none of them were constructed. A common idea of ISRs is smallness of their size. Tokyo Institute of Technology (TokyoTech) held a symposium on small reactors, SR/TIT, in 1991, where many types of small ISRs were presented. Recently small reactors attract interest again. The most ideas employed in these reactors were the same discussed in SR/TIT. In 1980’s the radioactive wastes from fuel cycle became a severe problem around the world. In TokyoTech, this issue was discussed mainly from the viewpoint of nuclear transmutations. The neutron economy became inevitable for these innovative nuclear reactors especially small long-life reactors and transmutation reactors.

  8. Nuclear reactors built, being built, or planned, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, B.

    1992-07-01

    This document contains unclassified information about facilities built, being built, or planned in the United States for domestic use or export as of December 31, 1991. The book is divided into three major sections: Section 1 consists of a reactor locator map and reactor tables; Section 2 includes nuclear reactors that are operating, being built, or planned; and Section 3 includes reactors that have been shut down permanently or dismantled. Sections 2 and 3 contain the following classification of reactors: Civilian, Production, Military, Export, and Critical Assembly. Export reactor refers to a reactor for which the principal nuclear contractor is an American company -- working either independently or in cooperation with a foreign company (Part 4, in each section). Critical assembly refers to an assembly of fuel and assembly of fuel and moderator that requires an external source of neutrons to initiate and maintain fission. A critical assembly is used for experimental measurements (Part 5).

  9. Assessment of nuclear reactor concepts for low power space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, Andrew C.; Gedeon, Stephen R.; Morey, Dennis C.

    1988-01-01

    The results of a preliminary small reactor concepts feasibility and safety evaluation designed to provide a first order validation of the nuclear feasibility and safety of six small reactor concepts are given. These small reactor concepts have potential space applications for missions in the 1 to 20 kWe power output range. It was concluded that low power concepts are available from the U.S. nuclear industry that have the potential for meeting both the operational and launch safety space mission requirements. However, each design has its uncertainties, and further work is required. The reactor concepts must be mated to a power conversion technology that can offer safe and reliable operation.

  10. The necessity of nuclear reactors for targeted radionuclide therapies.

    PubMed

    Krijger, Gerard C; Ponsard, Bernard; Harfensteller, Mark; Wolterbeek, Hubert T; Nijsen, Johannes W F

    2013-07-01

    Nuclear medicine has been contributing towards personalized therapies. Nuclear reactors are required for the working horses of both diagnosis and treatment, i.e., Tc-99m and I-131. In fact, reactors will remain necessary to fulfill the demand for a variety of radionuclides and are essential in the expanding field of targeted radionuclide therapies for cancer. However, the main reactors involved in the global supply are ageing and expected to shut down before 2025. Therefore, the fields of (nuclear) medicine, nuclear industry and politics share a global responsibility, faced with the task to secure future access to suitable nuclear reactors. At the same time, alternative production routes should be industrialized. For this, a coordinating entity should be put into place.

  11. Role of nuclear reactors in future military satellites

    SciTech Connect

    Buden, D.; Angelo, J.A. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Future military capabilities will be profoundly influenced by emerging Shuttle Era space technology. Regardless of the specific direction or content of tomorrow's military space program, it is clear that advanced space transportation systems, orbital support facilities, and large-capacity power subsystems will be needed to create the generally larger, more sophisticated military space systems of the future. This paper explores the critical role that space nuclear reactors should play in America's future space program and reviews the current state of nuclear reactor power plant technology. Space nuclear reactor technologies have the potential of satisfying power requirements ranging from 10 kW/sub (e)/ to 100 MW/sub (e)/.

  12. Passive cooling safety system for liquid metal cooled nuclear reactors

    DOEpatents

    Hunsbedt, Anstein; Boardman, Charles E.; Hui, Marvin M.; Berglund, Robert C.

    1991-01-01

    A liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor having a passive cooling system for removing residual heat resulting from fuel decay during reactor shutdown. The passive cooling system comprises a plurality of partitions surrounding the reactor vessel in spaced apart relation forming intermediate areas for circulating heat transferring fluid which remove and carry away heat from the reactor vessel. The passive cooling system includes a closed primary fluid circuit through the partitions surrounding the reactor vessel and a partially adjoining secondary open fluid circuit for carrying transferred heat out into the atmosphere.

  13. Nuclear safety as applied to space power reactor systems

    SciTech Connect

    Cummings, G.E.

    1987-01-01

    Current space nuclear power reactor safety issues are discussed with respect to the unique characteristics of these reactors. An approach to achieving adequate safety and a perception of safety is outlined. This approach calls for a carefully conceived safety program which makes uses of lessons learned from previous terrestrial power reactor development programs. This approach includes use of risk analyses, passive safety design features, and analyses/experiments to understand and control off-design conditions. The point is made that some recent accidents concerning terrestrial power reactors do not imply that space power reactors cannot be operated safety.

  14. Indirect passive cooling system for liquid metal cooled nuclear reactors

    DOEpatents

    Hunsbedt, Anstein; Boardman, Charles E.

    1990-01-01

    A liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor having a passive cooling system for removing residual heat resulting from fuel decay during reactor shutdown. The passive cooling system comprises a plurality of partitions surrounding the reactor vessel in spaced apart relation forming intermediate areas for circulating heat transferring fluid which remove and carry away heat from the reactor vessel. The passive cooling system includes a closed primary fluid circuit through the partitions surrounding the reactor vessel and a partially adjoining secondary open fluid circuit for carrying transferred heat out into the atmosphere.

  15. Nuclear reactors built, being built, or planned 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1997-08-01

    This publication contains unclassified information about facilities, built, being built, or planned in the United States for domestic use or export as of December 31, 1996. The Office of Scientific and Technical Information, U.S. Department of Energy, gathers this information annually from Washington headquarters, and field offices of DOE; from the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC); from the U. S. reactor manufacturers who are the principal nuclear contractors for foreign reactor locations; from U.S. and foreign embassies; and from foreign governmental nuclear departments. The book consists of three divisions, as follows: (1) a commercial reactor locator map and tables of the characteristic and statistical data that follow; a table of abbreviations; (2) tables of data for reactors operating, being built, or planned; and (3) tables of data for reactors that have been shut down permanently or dismantled.

  16. Nuclear reactor operator training for disadvantaged Americans

    SciTech Connect

    Farrar, J.P.; Mulder, R.U.

    1992-12-01

    The Nuclear Engineering and Engineering Physics Department of the University of Virginia was awarded a grant by the US Department of Energy in 1984 to establish and administer a reactor operator training program for disadvantaged Americans. Stipends were provided by the US DOE for five trainees with the anticipation that four other educational facilities would participate in the program. Sub-contracts were awarded to four other Universities: Massachusetts Institute of Technology, The University of Missouri at Columbia, Oregon State University, and The State University of New York at Buffalo. The initial two year program was very successful and the grant was renewed in late 1986 for another two years. MIT declined to participate in the second program and was replaced by Ohio State University. U.VA. was notified in September, 1987 that new funding would no longer be provided for this program after December, 1987. U.VA. requested and was granted a no cost extention for the program through December, 1990, since sufficient funds remained in the initial grant to pursue the program further. DOE subsequently approved a no cost extension through November, 1992.

  17. Plutonium Discharge Rates and Spent Nuclear Fuel Inventory Estimates for Nuclear Reactors Worldwide

    SciTech Connect

    Brian K. Castle; Shauna A. Hoiland; Richard A. Rankin; James W. Sterbentz

    2012-09-01

    This report presents a preliminary survey and analysis of the five primary types of commercial nuclear power reactors currently in use around the world. Plutonium mass discharge rates from the reactors’ spent fuel at reload are estimated based on a simple methodology that is able to use limited reactor burnup and operational characteristics collected from a variety of public domain sources. Selected commercial reactor operating and nuclear core characteristics are also given for each reactor type. In addition to the worldwide commercial reactors survey, a materials test reactor survey was conducted to identify reactors of this type with a significant core power rating. Over 100 material or research reactors with a core power rating >1 MW fall into this category. Fuel characteristics and spent fuel inventories for these material test reactors are also provided herein.

  18. Secrecy, Simultaneous Discovery, and the Theory of Nuclear Reactors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weart, Spencer

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the simultaneous discovery of the four-factor formula in various countries, the influence of secrecy in preventing the sharing of discovery, and the resultant direction in the development of nuclear reactor theory. (SL)

  19. Solid0Core Heat-Pipe Nuclear Batterly Type Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Ehud Greenspan

    2008-09-30

    This project was devoted to a preliminary assessment of the feasibility of designing an Encapsulated Nuclear Heat Source (ENHS) reactor to have a solid core from which heat is removed by liquid-metal heat pipes (HP).

  20. 78 FR 49305 - Luminant Generation Company LLC, Comanche Peak Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-13

    ... Operating Reactor Licensing, Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission... Operating Reactor Licensing, Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation. BILLING CODE 7590-01-P ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR...

  1. Radioactive fallout from the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident

    SciTech Connect

    Beiriger, J.M.; Failor, R.A.; Marsh, K.V.; Shaw, G.E.

    1987-08-01

    This report describes the detection of fallout in the United States from the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident. As part of its environmental surveillance program, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory maintained detectors for gamma-emitting radionuclides. Following the reactor accident, additional air filters were set out. Several uncommon isotopes were detected at the time the plume passed into the US. (TEM)

  2. Supplying the nuclear arsenal: American production reactors, 1942--1992

    SciTech Connect

    Carlisle, R.P.; Zenzen, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    Although the history of commercial-power nuclear reactors is well known, the story of the government reactors that produce weapons-grade plutonium and tritium has been shrouded in secrecy. In the first detailed look at the origin and development of these production reactors, the authors describe a fifty-year government effort no less complex, expensive, and technologically demanding than the Polaris or Apollo programs--yet one about which most Americans know virtually nothing. The book describes the evolution of the early reactors, the atomic weapons establishment that surrounded them, and the sometimes bitter struggles between business and political constituencies for their share of 'nuclear pork.' They show how, since the 1980s, aging production reactors have increased the risk of radioactive contamination of the atmosphere and water table. And they describe how the Department of Energy mounted a massive effort to find the right design for a new generation of reactors, only to abandon that effort with the end of the Cold War. Today, all American production reactors remain closed. Due to short half-life, the nation's supply of tritium, crucial to modern weapons, is rapidly dwindling. As countries like Iraq and North Korea threaten to join the nuclear club, the authors contend, the United States needs to revitalize tritium production capacity in order to maintain a viable nuclear deterrent. Meanwhile, as slowly decaying artifacts of the Cold War, the closed production reactors at Hanford, Washington, and Savannah River, South Carolina, loom ominously over the landscape.

  3. Thermophotovoltaic Energy Conversion in Space Nuclear Reactor Power Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-12-01

    Franklin Chang-Diaz of NASA Johnson’s Advanced Space Propulsion Laboratory led me pursue this topic when he asked about the best way to get megawatts of...wise to remember the words of ADM Hyman G. Rickover, the first Director of Naval Nuclear Propulsion . An academic reactor or reactor plant almost always

  4. OVERVIEW OF NUCLEAR PHYSICS LABORATORY (IMMEDIATELY EAST OF SPSE REACTOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERVIEW OF NUCLEAR PHYSICS LABORATORY (IMMEDIATELY EAST OF SP-SE REACTOR ROOM), LEVEL -15’, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. NOTE SLIDING STEEL PLATE DOOR BETWEEN LABORATORY AND REACTOR ROOM - Physics Assembly Laboratory, Area A/M, Savannah River Site, Aiken, Aiken County, SC

  5. Nuclear reactors built, being built, or planned, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    This document contains unclassified information about facilities built, being built, or planned in the United States for domestic use or export as of December 31, 1994. The Office of Scientific and Technical Information, US Department of Energy, gathers this information annually from Washington headquarters and field offices of DOE; from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC); from the US reactor manufacturers who are the principal nuclear contractors for foreign reactor locations; from US and foreign embassies; and from foreign governmental nuclear departments. The book consists of three divisions, as follows: a commercial reactor locator map and tables of the characteristic and statistical data that follow; a table of abbreviations; tables of data for reactors operating, being built, or planned; and tables of data for reactors that have been shut down permanently or dismantled. The reactors are subdivided into the following parts: Civilian, Production, Military, Export, and Critical Assembly. Export reactor refers to a reactor for which the principal nuclear contractor is a US company -- working either independently or in cooperation with a foreign company (Part 4). Critical assembly refers to an assembly of fuel and moderator that requires an external source of neutrons to initiate and maintain fission. A critical assembly is used for experimental measurements (Part 5).

  6. Nuclear reactors built, being built, or planned: 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    This report contains unclassified information about facilities built, being built, or planned in the US for domestic use or export as of December 31, 1995. The Office of Scientific and Technical Information, US Department of Energy, gathers this information annually from Washington headquarters and field offices of DOE; from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC); from the US reactor manufacturers who are the principal nuclear contractors for foreign reactor locations; from US and foreign embassies; and from foreign governmental nuclear departments. The book consists of three divisions, as follows: (1) a commercial reactor locator map and tables of the characteristic and statistical data that follow; a table of abbreviations; (2) tables of data for reactors operating, being built, or planned; and (3) tables of data for reactors that have been shut down permanently or dismantled. The reactors are subdivided into the following parts: Civilian, Production, Military, Export, and Critical Assembly. Export reactor refers to a reactor for which the principal nuclear contractor is a US company--working either independently or in cooperation with a foreign company (Part 4). Critical assembly refers to an assembly of fuel and moderator that requires an external source of neutrons to initiate and maintain fission. A critical assembly is used for experimental measurements (Part 5).

  7. Liquid metal cooled nuclear reactors with passive cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Hunsbedt, Anstein; Fanning, Alan W.

    1991-01-01

    A liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor having a passive cooling system for removing residual heat resulting from fuel decay during reactor shutdown. The passive cooling system comprises a plurality of cooling medium flow circuits which cooperate to remove and carry heat away from the fuel core upon loss of the normal cooling flow circuit to areas external thereto.

  8. Programming for a nuclear reactor instrument simulator

    SciTech Connect

    Cohn, C.E.

    1989-01-01

    A new computerized control system for a transient test reactor incorporates a simulator for pre-operational testing of control programs. The part of the simulator pertinent to the discussion here consists of two microprocessors. An 8086/8087 reactor simulator calculates simulated reactor power by solving the reactor kinetics equations. An 8086 instrument simulator takes the most recent power value developed by the reactor simulator and simulates the appropriate reading on each of the eleven reactor instruments. Since the system is required to run on a one millisecond cycle, careful programming was required to take care of all eleven instruments in that short time. This note describes the special programming techniques used to attain the needed performance.

  9. Soviet space nuclear reactor incidents - Perception versus reality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, Gary L.

    1992-01-01

    Since the Soviet Union reportedly began flying nuclear power sources in 1965 it has had four publicly known accidents involving space reactors, two publicly known accidents involving radioisotope power sources and one close call with a space reactor (Cosmos 1900). The reactor accidents, particularly Cosmos 954 and Cosmos 1402, indicated that the Soviets had adopted burnup as their reentry philosophy which is consistent with the U.S. philosophy from the 1960s and 1970s. While quantitative risk analyses have shown that the Soviet accidents have not posed a serious risk to the world's population, concerns still remain about Soviet space nuclear safety practices.

  10. A Wide Range Neutron Detector for Space Nuclear Reactor Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Nassif, Eduardo; Sismonda, Miguel; Matatagui, Emilio; Pretorius, Stephan

    2007-01-30

    We propose here a versatile and innovative solution for monitoring and controlling a space-based nuclear reactor that is based on technology already proved in ground based reactors. A Wide Range Neutron Detector (WRND) allows for a reduction in the complexity of space based nuclear instrumentation and control systems. A ground model, predecessor of the proposed system, has been installed and is operating at the OPAL (Open Pool Advanced Light Water Research Reactor) in Australia, providing long term functional data. A space compatible Engineering Qualification Model of the WRND has been developed, manufactured and verified satisfactorily by analysis, and is currently under environmental testing.

  11. Reliability assurance for regulation of advanced reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Fullwood, R.; Lofaro, R.; Samanta, P.

    1991-12-31

    The advanced nuclear power plants must achieve higher levels of safety than the first generation of plants. Showing that this is indeed true provides new challenges to reliability and risk assessment methods in the analysis of the designs employing passive and semi-passive protection. Reliability assurance of the advanced reactor systems is important for determining the safety of the design and for determining the plant operability. Safety is the primary concern, but operability is considered indicative of good and safe operation. This paper discusses several concerns for reliability assurance of the advanced design encompassing reliability determination, level of detail required in advanced reactor submittals, data for reliability assurance, systems interactions and common cause effects, passive component reliability, PRA-based configuration control system, and inspection, training, maintenance and test requirements. Suggested approaches are provided for addressing each of these topics.

  12. Fuel leak detection apparatus for gas cooled nuclear reactors

    DOEpatents

    Burnette, Richard D.

    1977-01-01

    Apparatus is disclosed for detecting nuclear fuel leaks within nuclear power system reactors, such as high temperature gas cooled reactors. The apparatus includes a probe assembly that is inserted into the high temperature reactor coolant gaseous stream. The probe has an aperture adapted to communicate gaseous fluid between its inside and outside surfaces and also contains an inner tube for sampling gaseous fluid present near the aperture. A high pressure supply of noncontaminated gas is provided to selectively balance the pressure of the stream being sampled to prevent gas from entering the probe through the aperture. The apparatus includes valves that are operable to cause various directional flows and pressures, which valves are located outside of the reactor walls to permit maintenance work and the like to be performed without shutting down the reactor.

  13. Reactor design and integration into a nuclear electric spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, W. M.; Koenig, D. R.

    1978-01-01

    One of the well-defined applications for nuclear power in space is nuclear electric propulsion (NEP). Mission studies have identified the optimum power level (400 kWe). A single Shuttle launch requirement and science-package integration have added additional constraints to the design. A reactor design which will meet these constraints has been studied. The reactor employs 90 fuel elements, each heat pipe cooled. Reactor control is obtained with BeO/B4C drums in a BeO reflector. The balance of the spacecraft is shielded from the reactor with LiH. Power conditioning and reactor control drum drives are located behind the LiH with the power conditioning. Launch safety, mechanical design and integration with the power conversion subsystem are discussed.

  14. Pellet bed reactor for nuclear propelled vehicles: Part 1: Reactor technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    El-Genk, Mohamed S.

    1991-01-01

    The pellet bed reactor (PBR) for nuclear propelled vehicles is briefly discussed. Much of the information is given in viewgraph form. Viewgraphs include information on the layout for a Mars mission using a PBR nuclear thermal rocket, the rocket reactor layout, the fuel pellet design, materials compatibility, fuel microspheres, microsphere coating, melting points in quasibinary systems, stress analysis of microspheres, safety features, and advantages of the PBR concept.

  15. Generating unstructured nuclear reactor core meshes in parallel

    DOE PAGES

    Jain, Rajeev; Tautges, Timothy J.

    2014-10-24

    Recent advances in supercomputers and parallel solver techniques have enabled users to run large simulations problems using millions of processors. Techniques for multiphysics nuclear reactor core simulations are under active development in several countries. Most of these techniques require large unstructured meshes that can be hard to generate in a standalone desktop computers because of high memory requirements, limited processing power, and other complexities. We have previously reported on a hierarchical lattice-based approach for generating reactor core meshes. Here, we describe efforts to exploit coarse-grained parallelism during reactor assembly and reactor core mesh generation processes. We highlight several reactor coremore » examples including a very high temperature reactor, a full-core model of the Korean MONJU reactor, a ¼ pressurized water reactor core, the fast reactor Experimental Breeder Reactor-II core with a XX09 assembly, and an advanced breeder test reactor core. The times required to generate large mesh models, along with speedups obtained from running these problems in parallel, are reported. A graphical user interface to the tools described here has also been developed.« less

  16. PROCESS FOR COOLING A NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Borst, L.B.

    1962-12-11

    This patent relates to the operation of a reactor cooled by liquid sulfur dioxide. According to the invention the pressure on the sulfur dioxide in the reactor is maintained at least at the critical pressure of the sulfur dioxide. Heating the sulfur dioxide to its critical temperature results in vaporization of the sulfur dioxide without boiling. (AEC)

  17. Nuclear Technology Series. Course 8: Reactor Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This technical specialty course is one of thirty-five courses designed for use by two-year postsecondary institutians in five nuclear technician curriculum areas: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and control technician, (3) nuclear materials processing technician, (4) nuclear quality-assurance/quality-control…

  18. Nuclear Technology Series. Course 12: Reactor Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This technical specialty course is one of thirty-five courses designed for use by two-year postsecondary institutions in five nuclear technician curriculum areas: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and control technician, (3) nuclear materials processing technician, (4) nuclear quality-assurance/quality-control…

  19. Nuclear Technology Series. Course 7: Reactor Operations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This technical specialty course is one of thirty-five courses designed for use by two-year postsecondary institutions in five nuclear technician curriculum areas: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and control technician, (3) nuclear materials processing technician, (4) nuclear quality-assurance/quality-control…

  20. 76 FR 65541 - Assuring the Availability of Funds for Decommissioning Nuclear Reactors

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-21

    ... COMMISSION Assuring the Availability of Funds for Decommissioning Nuclear Reactors AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory... Decommissioning Nuclear Reactors.'' This guide provides guidance to applicants and licensees of nuclear power, research, and test reactors concerning methods acceptable to the staff of the U.S. Nuclear...

  1. Fuel element concept for long life high power nuclear reactors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdonald, G. E.; Rom, F. E.

    1969-01-01

    Nuclear reactor fuel elements have burnups that are an order of magnitude higher than can currently be achieved by conventional design practice. Elements have greater time integrated power producing capacity per unit volume. Element design concept capitalizes on known design principles and observed behavior of nuclear fuel.

  2. 76 FR 14437 - Economic Simplified Boiling Water Reactor Standard Design: GE Hitachi Nuclear Energy; Issuance of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Economic Simplified Boiling Water Reactor Standard Design: GE Hitachi Nuclear Energy; Issuance of... GE Hitachi Nuclear Energy (GEH) for the economic simplified boiling water reactor (ESBWR)...

  3. New reactor technology: safety improvements in nuclear power systems.

    PubMed

    Corradini, M L

    2007-11-01

    Almost 450 nuclear power plants are currently operating throughout the world and supplying about 17% of the world's electricity. These plants perform safely, reliably, and have no free-release of byproducts to the environment. Given the current rate of growth in electricity demand and the ever growing concerns for the environment, nuclear power can only satisfy the need for electricity and other energy-intensive products if it can demonstrate (1) enhanced safety and system reliability, (2) minimal environmental impact via sustainable system designs, and (3) competitive economics. The U.S. Department of Energy with the international community has begun research on the next generation of nuclear energy systems that can be made available to the market by 2030 or earlier, and that can offer significant advances toward these challenging goals; in particular, six candidate reactor system designs have been identified. These future nuclear power systems will require advances in materials, reactor physics, as well as thermal-hydraulics to realize their full potential. However, all of these designs must demonstrate enhanced safety above and beyond current light water reactor systems if the next generation of nuclear power plants is to grow in number far beyond the current population. This paper reviews the advanced Generation-IV reactor systems and the key safety phenomena that must be considered to guarantee that enhanced safety can be assured in future nuclear reactor systems.

  4. Evaluating Russian space nuclear reactor technology for United States applications

    SciTech Connect

    Polansky, G.F.; Schmidt, G.L.; Voss, S.S.; Reynolds, E.L.

    1994-08-01

    Space nuclear power and nuclear electric propulsion are considered important technologies for planetary exploration, as well as selected earth orbit applications. The Nuclear Electric Propulsion Space Test Program (NEPSTP) was intended to provide an early flight demonstration of these technologies at relatively low cost through extensive use of existing Russian technology. The key element of Russian technology employed in the program was the Topaz II reactor. Refocusing of the activities of the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization (BMDO), combined with budgetary pressures, forced the cancellation of the NEPSTP at the end of the 1993 fiscal year. The NEPSTP was faced with many unique flight qualification issues. In general, the launch of a spacecraft employing a nuclear reactor power system complicates many spacecraft qualification activities. However, the NEPSTP activities were further complicated because the reactor power system was a Russian design. Therefore, this program considered not only the unique flight qualification issues associated with space nuclear power, but also with differences between Russian and United States flight qualification procedures. This paper presents an overview of the NEPSTP. The program goals, the proposed mission, the spacecraft, and the Topaz II space nuclear power system are described. The subject of flight qualification is examined and the inherent difficulties of qualifying a space reactor are described. The differences between United States and Russian flight qualification procedures are explored. A plan is then described that was developed to determine an appropriate flight qualification program for the Topaz II reactor to support a possible NEPSTP launch.

  5. Spent nuclear fuel discharges from US reactors 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-05

    This report provides current statistical data on every fuel assembly irradiated in commercial nuclear reactors operating in the United States. It also provides data on the current inventories and storage capacities of those reactors to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the nuclear and electric industries and the general public. It uses data from the mandatory, ``Nuclear Fuel Data`` survey, Form RW-859 for 1992 and historical data collected by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) on previous Form RW-859 surveys. The report was prepared by the EIA under a Memorandum of Understanding with the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management.

  6. Spent nuclear fuel discharges from US reactors 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-02-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) administers the Nuclear Fuel Data Survey, Form RW-859. This form is used to collect data on fuel assemblies irradiated at commercial nuclear reactors operating in the United States, and the current inventories and storage capacities of those reactors. These data are important to the design and operation of the equipment and facilities that DOE will use for the future acceptance, transportation, and disposal of spent fuels. The data collected and presented identifies trends in burnup, enrichment, and spent nuclear fuel discharged form commercial light-water reactor as of December 31, 1993. The document covers not only spent nuclear fuel discharges; but also site capacities and inventories; canisters and nonfuel components; and assembly type characteristics.

  7. Technology, Safety and Costs of Decommissioning Nuclear Reactors At Multiple-Reactor Stations

    SciTech Connect

    Wittenbrock, N. G.

    1982-01-01

    Safety and cost information is developed for the conceptual decommissioning of large (1175-MWe) pressurized water reactors (PWRs) and large (1155-MWe) boiling water reactors {BWRs) at multiple-reactor stations. Three decommissioning alternatives are studied: DECON (immediate decontamination), SAFSTOR (safe storage followed by deferred decontamination), and ENTOMB (entombment). Safety and costs of decommissioning are estimated by determining the impact of probable features of multiple-reactor-station operation that are considered to be unavailable at a single-reactor station, and applying these estimated impacts to the decommissioning costs and radiation doses estimated in previous PWR and BWR decommissioning studies. The multiple-reactor-station features analyzed are: the use of interim onsite nuclear waste storage with later removal to an offsite nuclear waste disposal facility, the use of permanent onsite nuclear waste disposal, the dedication of the site to nuclear power generation, and the provision of centralized services. Five scenarios for decommissioning reactors at a multiple-reactor station are investigated. The number of reactors on a site is assumed to be either four or ten; nuclear waste disposal is varied between immediate offsite disposal, interim onsite storage, and immediate onsite disposal. It is assumed that the decommissioned reactors are not replaced in one scenario but are replaced in the other scenarios. Centralized service facilities are provided in two scenarios but are not provided in the other three. Decommissioning of a PWR or a BWR at a multiple-reactor station probably will be less costly and result in lower radiation doses than decommissioning an identical reactor at a single-reactor station. Regardless of whether the light water reactor being decommissioned is at a single- or multiple-reactor station: • the estimated occupational radiation dose for decommissioning an LWR is lowest for SAFSTOR and highest for DECON • the estimated

  8. Glassy materials investigated for nuclear reactor applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lynch, E. D.

    1968-01-01

    Studies determine the feasibility of preparing fuel-bearing glasses and glasses bearing neutron-absorbing materials for use as crystalline fuel and control rods for reactors. Properties investigated were devitrification resistance, urania solubility, and density.

  9. Nuclear reactor decommissioning: an analysis of the regulatory environments

    SciTech Connect

    Cantor, R.

    1986-08-01

    In the next several decades, the electric utility industry will be faced withthe retirement of 50,000 megawatts (mW) of nuclear capacity. Responsibility for the financial and technical burdens this activity entails has been delegated to the utilities operating the reactors. However, the operators will have to perform the tasks of reactor decommissioning within the regulatory environment dictated by federal, state and local regulations. The purpose of this study was to highlight some of the current and likely trends in regulations and regulatory practices that will significantly affect the costs, technical alternatives and financing schemes encountered by the electric utilities and their customers. To identify significant trends and practices among regulatory bodies and utilities, a reviw of these factors was undertaken at various levels in the regulatory hierarchy. The technical policies were examined in reference to their treatment of allowed technical modes, restoration of the plant site including any specific recognition of the residual radioactivity levels, and planning requirements. The financial policies were examined for specification of acceptable financing arrangements, mechanisms which adjust for changes in the important parameters used to establish the fund, tax and rate-base treatments of the payments to and earnings on the fund, and whether or not escalation and/or discounting were considered in the estimates of decommissioning costs. The attitudes of regulators toward financial risk, the tax treatment of the decommissioning fund, and the time distribution of the technical mode were found to have the greatest effect on the discounted revenue requirements. Under plausible assumptions, the cost of a highly restricted environment is about seven times that of the minimum revenue requirement environment for the plants that must be decommissioned in the next three decades.

  10. 10 CFR 71.97 - Advance notification of shipment of irradiated reactor fuel and nuclear waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... notification of shipment of irradiated reactor fuel and nuclear waste. (a) As specified in paragraphs (b), (c... advance notification of shipment of irradiated reactor fuel or nuclear waste must contain the following... irradiated reactor fuel or nuclear waste shipment; (2) A description of the irradiated reactor fuel...

  11. REACTOR PHYSICS MODELING OF SPENT RESEARCH REACTOR FUEL FOR TECHNICAL NUCLEAR FORENSICS

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, T.; Beals, D.; Sternat, M.

    2011-07-18

    Technical nuclear forensics (TNF) refers to the collection, analysis and evaluation of pre- and post-detonation radiological or nuclear materials, devices, and/or debris. TNF is an integral component, complementing traditional forensics and investigative work, to help enable the attribution of discovered radiological or nuclear material. Research is needed to improve the capabilities of TNF. One research area of interest is determining the isotopic signatures of research reactors. Research reactors are a potential source of both radiological and nuclear material. Research reactors are often the least safeguarded type of reactor; they vary greatly in size, fuel type, enrichment, power, and burn-up. Many research reactors are fueled with highly-enriched uranium (HEU), up to {approx}93% {sup 235}U, which could potentially be used as weapons material. All of them have significant amounts of radiological material with which a radioactive dispersal device (RDD) could be built. Therefore, the ability to attribute if material originated from or was produced in a specific research reactor is an important tool in providing for the security of the United States. Currently there are approximately 237 operating research reactors worldwide, another 12 are in temporary shutdown and 224 research reactors are reported as shut down. Little is currently known about the isotopic signatures of spent research reactor fuel. An effort is underway at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to analyze spent research reactor fuel to determine these signatures. Computer models, using reactor physics codes, are being compared to the measured analytes in the spent fuel. This allows for improving the reactor physics codes in modeling research reactors for the purpose of nuclear forensics. Currently the Oak Ridge Research reactor (ORR) is being modeled and fuel samples are being analyzed for comparison. Samples of an ORR spent fuel assembly were taken by SRNL for analytical and radiochemical

  12. Dual annular rotating "windowed" nuclear reflector reactor control system

    DOEpatents

    Jacox, Michael G.; Drexler, Robert L.; Hunt, Robert N. M.; Lake, James A.

    1994-01-01

    A nuclear reactor control system is provided in a nuclear reactor having a core operating in the fast neutron energy spectrum where criticality control is achieved by neutron leakage. The control system includes dual annular, rotatable reflector rings. There are two reflector rings: an inner reflector ring and an outer reflector ring. The reflectors are concentrically assembled, surround the reactor core, and each reflector ring includes a plurality of openings. The openings in each ring are capable of being aligned or non-aligned with each other. Independent driving means for each of the annular reflector rings is provided so that reactor criticality can be initiated and controlled by rotation of either reflector ring such that the extent of alignment of the openings in each ring controls the reflection of neutrons from the core.

  13. Nuclear Technology Series. Nuclear Reactor (Plant) Operator Trainee. A Suggested Program Planning Guide. Revised June 80.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This program planning guide for a two-year postsecondary nuclear reactor (plant) operator trainee program is designed for use with courses 1-16 of thirty-five in the Nuclear Technology Series. The purpose of the guide is to describe the nuclear power field and its job categories for specialists, technicians and operators; and to assist planners,…

  14. Integral Fast Reactor: A future source of nuclear energy

    SciTech Connect

    Southon, R.

    1993-09-01

    Argonne National Laboratory is developing a reactor concept that would be an important part of the worlds energy future. This report discusses the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) concept which provides significant improvements over current generation reactors in reactor safety, plant complexity, nuclear proliferation, and waste generation. Two major facilities, a reactor and a fuel cycle facility, make up the IFR concept. The reactor uses fast neutrons and metal fuel in a sodium coolant at atmospheric pressure that relies on laws of physics to keep it safe. The fuel cycle facility is a hot cell using remote handling techniques for fabricating reactor fuel. The fuel feed stock includes spent fuel from the reactor, and potentially, spent light water reactor fuel and plutonium from weapons. This paper discusses the unique features of the IFR concept and the differences the quality assurance program has from current commercial practices. The IFR concept provides an opportunity to design a quality assurance program that makes use of the best contemporary ideas on management and quality.

  15. Regulatory process for decommissioning nuclear power reactors. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-03-01

    This report provides regulatory guidance for utilities consistent with the changes in the decommissioning rule, 10 CFR50.82 as revised in July 1996. The purpose of this report is to explain the new rule in the context of related industry experience and to provide practical guidance to licensees contemplating or implementing a shutdown. Because the regulatory process is still rapidly evolving, this report reflects only a current status of the acceptable methods and practices derived from a review of the current regulations, guidance documents and industry experience for decommissioning a nuclear power reactor. EPRI anticipates periodic updates of this document to incorporate various utility experiences with decommissioning, and also to reflect any regulatory changes. The report provides a summary of ongoing federal agency and industry activities and the regulatory requirements that are currently applicable, or no longer applicable, to nuclear power plants at the time of permanent shutdown through the early decommissioning stage. The report describes the major components of a typical decommissioning action plan, providing industry experience and guidance for licensees considering or implementing permanent shutdown.

  16. Shielding considerations for advanced space nuclear reactor systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angelo, J. P., Jr.; Buden, D.

    To meet the anticipated future space power needs, the Los Alamos National Laboratory is developing components for a compact, 100 kW/sub e/-class heat pipe nuclear reactor. The reactor uses uranium dioxide (UO2) as its fuel, and is designed to operate around 1500 k. Heat pipes are used to remove thermal energy from the core without the use of pumps or compressors. The reactor heat pipes transfer mal energy to thermoelectric conversion elements that are advanced versions of the converters used on the enormously successful Voyager missions to the outer planets. Advanced versions of this heat pipe reactor could also be used to provide megawatt-level power plants. The status of this advanced heat pipe reactor is reviewed and the radiation environments and shielding requirements for representative manned and unmanned applications are explored.

  17. Shielding considerations for advanced space nuclear reactor systems

    SciTech Connect

    Angelo, J.P. Jr.; Buden, D.

    1982-01-01

    To meet the anticipated future space power needs, the Los Alamos National Laboratory is developing components for a compact, 100 kW/sub e/-class heat pipe nuclear reactor. The reactor uses uranium dioxide (UO/sub 2/) as its fuel, and is designed to operate around 1500 k. Heat pipes are used to remove thermal energy from the core without the use of pumps or compressors. The reactor heat pipes transfer mal energy to thermoelectric conversion elements that are advanced versions of the converters used on the enormously successful Voyager missions to the outer planets. Advanced versions of this heat pipe reactor could also be used to provide megawatt-level power plants. The paper reviews the status of this advanced heat pipe reactor and explores the radiation environments and shielding requirements for representative manned and unmanned applications.

  18. Analysis of Nuclear Reactor Background Radiation for Neutrino Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leblanc, Ricky; Blackmon, J. C.; Rasco, B. C.; Mumm, H. P.; mTC; NuLat Collaboration

    2015-10-01

    Prior measurements of reactor antineutrinos have found a lower flux than expected. Precision measurements of antineutrino energy spectra are important for understanding the anomaly, reactor safeguards, and nuclear nonproliferation. Antineutrino detector designs rely on good characterization of gamma-ray and neutron backgrounds near the reactor core. To study the gamma-ray background at the NIST research reactor, spectra were collected using a 6.25 cm diameter × 5.5 cm germanium detector. We analyzed the measured spectra using simulations of the detector response using the GEANT4 toolkit to determine background fluxes and build a background model that will be used to understand shielding requirements and the impact of backgrounds on potential short-baseline reactor antineutrino studies at NIST. This work supported by the National Science Foundation and LSU.

  19. Low exchange element for nuclear reactor

    DOEpatents

    Brogli, Rudolf H.; Shamasunder, Bangalore I.; Seth, Shivaji S.

    1985-01-01

    A flow exchange element is presented which lowers temperature gradients in fuel elements and reduces maximum local temperature within high temperature gas-cooled reactors. The flow exchange element is inserted within a column of fuel elements where it serves to redirect coolant flow. Coolant which has been flowing in a hotter region of the column is redirected to a cooler region, and coolant which has been flowing in the cooler region of the column is redirected to the hotter region. The safety, efficiency, and longevity of the high temperature gas-cooled reactor is thereby enhanced.

  20. 10 CFR 73.58 - Safety/security interface requirements for nuclear power reactors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Safety/security interface requirements for nuclear power reactors. 73.58 Section 73.58 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF... requirements for nuclear power reactors. (a) Each operating nuclear power reactor licensee with a...

  1. 10 CFR 50.72 - Immediate notification requirements for operating nuclear power reactors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... power reactors. 50.72 Section 50.72 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING OF... notification requirements for operating nuclear power reactors. (a) General requirements. 1 (1) Each nuclear... requirements for immediate notification of the NRC by licensed operating nuclear power reactors are...

  2. 10 CFR 110.26 - General license for the export of nuclear reactor components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General license for the export of nuclear reactor... NUCLEAR EQUIPMENT AND MATERIAL Licenses § 110.26 General license for the export of nuclear reactor... nuclear power or research reactor in the United States: Austria Belgium Bulgaria Canada Czech...

  3. 10 CFR 110.26 - General license for the export of nuclear reactor components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false General license for the export of nuclear reactor... NUCLEAR EQUIPMENT AND MATERIAL Licenses § 110.26 General license for the export of nuclear reactor...) of this section any nuclear reactor component of U.S. origin described in paragraphs (5) through...

  4. 10 CFR 50.72 - Immediate notification requirements for operating nuclear power reactors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... power reactors. 50.72 Section 50.72 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING OF... notification requirements for operating nuclear power reactors. (a) General requirements. 1 (1) Each nuclear... requirements for immediate notification of the NRC by licensed operating nuclear power reactors are...

  5. 10 CFR 73.58 - Safety/security interface requirements for nuclear power reactors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Safety/security interface requirements for nuclear power reactors. 73.58 Section 73.58 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF... requirements for nuclear power reactors. (a) Each operating nuclear power reactor licensee with a...

  6. 10 CFR 73.58 - Safety/security interface requirements for nuclear power reactors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Safety/security interface requirements for nuclear power reactors. 73.58 Section 73.58 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF... requirements for nuclear power reactors. (a) Each operating nuclear power reactor licensee with a...

  7. 10 CFR 73.58 - Safety/security interface requirements for nuclear power reactors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Safety/security interface requirements for nuclear power reactors. 73.58 Section 73.58 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF... requirements for nuclear power reactors. (a) Each operating nuclear power reactor licensee with a...

  8. 10 CFR 73.58 - Safety/security interface requirements for nuclear power reactors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Safety/security interface requirements for nuclear power reactors. 73.58 Section 73.58 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF... requirements for nuclear power reactors. (a) Each operating nuclear power reactor licensee with a...

  9. 10 CFR 71.97 - Advance notification of shipment of irradiated reactor fuel and nuclear waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... notification of shipment of irradiated reactor fuel and nuclear waste. (a)(1) As specified in paragraphs (b... shipment of irradiated reactor fuel or nuclear waste must contain the following information: (1) The name... nuclear waste shipment; (2) A description of the irradiated reactor fuel or nuclear waste contained in...

  10. 10 CFR 71.97 - Advance notification of shipment of irradiated reactor fuel and nuclear waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... notification of shipment of irradiated reactor fuel and nuclear waste. (a)(1) As specified in paragraphs (b... shipment of irradiated reactor fuel or nuclear waste must contain the following information: (1) The name... nuclear waste shipment; (2) A description of the irradiated reactor fuel or nuclear waste contained in...

  11. Spectral structure of electron antineutrinos from nuclear reactors.

    PubMed

    Dwyer, D A; Langford, T J

    2015-01-09

    Recent measurements of the positron energy spectrum obtained from inverse beta decay interactions of reactor electron antineutrinos show an excess in the 4 to 6 MeV region relative to current predictions. First-principles calculations of fission and beta decay processes within a typical pressurized water reactor core identify prominent fission daughter isotopes as a possible origin for this excess. These calculations also predict percent-level substructures in the antineutrino spectrum due to Coulomb effects in beta decay. Precise measurement of these substructures can elucidate the nuclear processes occurring within reactors. These substructures can be a systematic issue for measurements utilizing the detailed spectral shape.

  12. Secondary heat transfer circuit for a nuclear reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Brachet, A.; Figuet, J.; Guidez, J.; Lions, N.

    1985-05-28

    The invention relates to a secondary heat transfer circuit for a liquid metal nuclear reactor. Each loop of the main circuit has in order a steam generator, a pump, and at least one heat exchanger positioned in the reactor vessel. A downstream buffer tank is located in the pipe connecting the generator to the pump, whilst the upstream buffer tank can be positioned either in the generator, or outside the latter. Application to the generation of electric power by means of a fast neutron reactor.

  13. Emergency heat removal system for a nuclear reactor

    DOEpatents

    Dunckel, Thomas L.

    1976-01-01

    A heat removal system for nuclear reactors serving as a supplement to an Emergency Core Cooling System (ECCS) during a Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) comprises a plurality of heat pipes having one end in heat transfer relationship with either the reactor pressure vessel, the core support grid structure or other in-core components and the opposite end located in heat transfer relationship with a heat exchanger having heat transfer fluid therein. The heat exchanger is located external to the pressure vessel whereby excessive core heat is transferred from the above reactor components and dissipated within the heat exchanger fluid.

  14. Imaging a nuclear reactor using cosmic ray muons

    SciTech Connect

    Perry, John; Azzouz, Mara; Bacon, Jeffrey; Borozdin, Konstantin; Chen, Elliott; Fabritius, Joseph II; Milner, Edward; Miyadera, Haruo; Morris, Christopher; Roybal, Jonathan; Wang, Zhehui; Busch, Bob; Carpenter, Ken; Hecht, Adam A.; Masuda, Koji; Spore, Candace; Toleman, Nathan; Aberle, Derek; Lukic, Zarija

    2013-05-14

    The passage of muons through matter is dominated by the Coulomb interaction with electrons and nuclei. The muon interaction with electrons leads to continuous energy loss and stopping of the muons. The muon interaction with nuclei leads to angular diffusion. We present experimental images of a nuclear reactor, the AGN-201M reactor at the University of New Mexico, using data measured with a particle tracker built from a set of sealed drift tubes. The data are compared with a geant4 model. In both the data and simulation, we identify specific regions corresponding to elements of the reactor structure, including its core, moderator, and shield.

  15. Robotic system for remote maintenance of a pulsed nuclear reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Thunborg, S.

    1986-01-01

    Guidelines recently established for occupational radiation exposure specify that exposure should be as low as reasonably achievable. In conformance with these guidelines, SNL has developed a remote maintenance robot (RMR) system for use in the Sandia Pulse Reactor III (SPR III) facility. The RMR should reduce occupational radiation exposure by a factor of 4 and decrease reactor downtime. Other goals include developing a technology base for a more advanced pulse reactor and for the nuclear fuel cycle programs of the US Department of Energy and US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The RMR has five major subsystems: (a) a chain-driven cart to bring the system into the reactor room; (b) a Puma 560 robot to perform dextrous operations; (c) a programmable turntable to orient the robot to any of the reactor's four sides; (d) a programmable overhead hoist for lifting components weighing up to 400 lb onto or off of the reactor; and (e) a supervisory control console for the system operator. Figure 1 is a schematic diagram of the turntable, hoist, and robot system in position around the SPR III reactor.

  16. Support vector machines for nuclear reactor state estimation

    SciTech Connect

    Zavaljevski, N.; Gross, K. C.

    2000-02-14

    Validation of nuclear power reactor signals is often performed by comparing signal prototypes with the actual reactor signals. The signal prototypes are often computed based on empirical data. The implementation of an estimation algorithm which can make predictions on limited data is an important issue. A new machine learning algorithm called support vector machines (SVMS) recently developed by Vladimir Vapnik and his coworkers enables a high level of generalization with finite high-dimensional data. The improved generalization in comparison with standard methods like neural networks is due mainly to the following characteristics of the method. The input data space is transformed into a high-dimensional feature space using a kernel function, and the learning problem is formulated as a convex quadratic programming problem with a unique solution. In this paper the authors have applied the SVM method for data-based state estimation in nuclear power reactors. In particular, they implemented and tested kernels developed at Argonne National Laboratory for the Multivariate State Estimation Technique (MSET), a nonlinear, nonparametric estimation technique with a wide range of applications in nuclear reactors. The methodology has been applied to three data sets from experimental and commercial nuclear power reactor applications. The results are promising. The combination of MSET kernels with the SVM method has better noise reduction and generalization properties than the standard MSET algorithm.

  17. Nuclear Safeguards Considerations For The Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR)

    SciTech Connect

    Phillip Casey Durst; David Beddingfield; Brian Boyer; Robert Bean; Michael Collins; Michael Ehinger; David Hanks; David L. Moses; Lee Refalo

    2009-10-01

    High temperature reactors (HTRs) have been considered since the 1940s, and have been constructed and demonstrated in the United Kingdom (Dragon), United States (Peach Bottom and Fort Saint Vrain), Japan (HTTR), Germany (AVR and THTR-300), and have been the subject of conceptual studies in Russia (VGM). The attraction to these reactors is that they can use a variety of reactor fuels, including abundant thorium, which upon reprocessing of the spent fuel can produce fissile U-233. Hence, they could extend the stocks of available uranium, provided the fuel is reprocessed. Another attractive attribute is that HTRs typically operate at a much higher temperature than conventional light water reactors (LWRs), because of the use of pyrolytic carbon and silicon carbide coated (TRISO) fuel particles embedded in ceramic graphite. Rather than simply discharge most of the unused heat from the working fluid in the power plant to the environment, engineers have been designing reactors for 40 years to recover this heat and make it available for district heating or chemical conversion plants. Demonstrating high-temperature nuclear energy conversion was the purpose behind Fort Saint Vrain in the United States, THTR-300 in Germany, HTTR in Japan, and HTR-10 and HTR-PM, being built in China. This resulted in nuclear reactors at least 30% or more thermodynamically efficient than conventional LWRs, especially if the waste heat can be effectively utilized in chemical processing plants. A modern variant of high temperature reactors is the Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR). Originally developed in the United States and Germany, it is now being redesigned and marketed by the Republic of South Africa and China. The team examined historical high temperature and high temperature gas reactors (HTR and HTGR) and reviewed safeguards considerations for this reactor. The following is a preliminary report on this topic prepared under the ASA-100 Advanced Safeguards Project in support of the NNSA Next

  18. CONTROL MEANS FOR A NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Teitel, R.J.

    1961-09-01

    A control means is described for a reactor which employs a liquid fuel consisting of a fissile isotope in a liquid bismuth solvent. The liquid fuel is contained in a plurality of tubular vessels. Control is effected by inserting plungers in the vessels to displace the liquid fuel and provide a critical or non- critical fuel configuration as desired.

  19. Neutrino oscillation experiments at nuclear reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grassi, Marco

    2000-08-01

    The current status of the search for neutrino oscillations at reactors is reviewed, with a particular emphasis given to the final results recently published by the CHOOZ experiment. The results of the Bugey experiments and the status of the Palo Verde experiment are also discussed.

  20. Nuclear Phosphoinositide Regulation of Chromatin.

    PubMed

    Hamann, Bree L; Blind, Raymond D

    2017-03-03

    Phospholipid signaling has clear connections to a wide array of cellular processes, particularly in gene expression and in controlling the chromatin biology of cells. However, most of the work elucidating how phospholipid signaling pathways contribute to cellular physiology have studied cytoplasmic membranes, while relatively little attention has been paid to the role of phospholipid signaling in the nucleus. Recent work from several labs has shown that nuclear phospholipid signaling can have important roles that are specific to this cellular compartment. This review focuses on the nuclear phospholipid functions and the activities of phospholipid signaling enzymes that regulate metazoan chromatin and gene expression. In particular, we highlight the roles that nuclear phosphoinositides play in several nuclear-driven physiological processes, such as differentiation, proliferation, and gene expression. Taken together, the recent discovery of several specifically nuclear phospholipid functions could have dramatic impact on our understanding of the fundamental mechanisms that enable tight control of cellular physiology. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  1. The role of integral experiments and nuclear cross section evaluations in space nuclear reactor design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moses, David L.; McKnight, Richard D.

    The importance of the nuclear and neutronic properties of candidate space reactor materials to the design process has been acknowledged as has been the use of benchmark reactor physics experiments to verify and qualify analytical tools used in design, safety, and performance evaluation. Since June 1966, the Cross Section Evaluation Working Group (CSEWG) has acted as an interagency forum for the assessment and evaluation of nuclear reaction data used in the nuclear design process. CSEWG data testing has involved the specification and calculation of benchmark experiments which are used widely for commercial reactor design and safety analysis. These benchmark experiments preceded the issuance of the industry standards for acceptance, but the benchmarks exceed the minimum acceptance criteria for such data. Thus, a starting place has been provided in assuring the accuracy and uncertainty of nuclear data important to space reactor applications.

  2. University Reactor Conversion Lessons Learned Workshop for Texas A&M University Nuclear Science Center Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Eric C. Woolstenhulme; Dana M. Meyer

    2007-04-01

    The objectives of this meeting were to capture the observations, insights, issues, concerns, and ideas of those involved in the Texas A&M University Nuclear Science Center (TAMU NSC) TRIGA Reactor Conversion so that future efforts can be conducted with greater effectiveness, efficiency, and with fewer challenges. This workshop was held in conjunction with a similar workshop for the University of Florida Reactor Conversion. Some of the generic lessons from that workshop are included in this report for completeness.

  3. Production capabilities in US nuclear reactors for medical radioisotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Mirzadeh, S.; Callahan, A.P.; Knapp, F.F. Jr. ); Schenter, R.E. )

    1992-11-01

    The availability of reactor-produced radioisotopes in the United States for use in medical research and nuclear medicine has traditionally depended on facilities which are an integral part of the US national laboratories and a few reactors at universities. One exception is the reactor in Sterling Forest, New York, originally operated as part of the Cintichem (Union Carbide) system, which is currently in the process of permanent shutdown. Since there are no industry-run reactors in the US, the national laboratories and universities thus play a critical role in providing reactor-produced radioisotopes for medical research and clinical use. The goal of this survey is to provide a comprehensive summary of these production capabilities. With the temporary shutdown of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) in November 1986, the radioisotopes required for DOE-supported radionuclide generators were made available at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) High Flux Beam Reactor (HFBR). In March 1988, however, the HFBR was temporarily shut down which forced investigators to look at other reactors for production of the radioisotopes. During this period the Missouri University Research Reactor (MURR) played an important role in providing these services. The HFIR resumed routine operation in July 1990 at 85 MW power, and the HFBR resumed operation in June 1991, at 30 MW power. At the time of the HFBR shutdown, there was no available comprehensive overview which could provide information on status of the reactors operating in the US and their capabilities for radioisotope production. The obvious need for a useful overview was thus the impetus for preparing this survey, which would provide an up-to-date summary of those reactors available in the US at both the DOE-funded national laboratories and at US universities where service irradiations are currently or expected to be conducted.

  4. Global risk of radioactive fallout after major nuclear reactor accidents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lelieveld, J.; Kunkel, D.; Lawrence, M. G.

    2012-05-01

    Major reactor accidents of nuclear power plants are rare, yet the consequences are catastrophic. But what is meant by "rare"? And what can be learned from the Chernobyl and Fukushima incidents? Here we assess the cumulative, global risk of exposure to radioactivity due to atmospheric dispersion of gases and particles following severe nuclear accidents (the most severe ones on the International Nuclear Event Scale, INES 7), using particulate 137Cs and gaseous 131I as proxies for the fallout. Our results indicate that previously the occurrence of INES 7 major accidents and the risks of radioactive contamination have been underestimated. Using a global model of the atmosphere we compute that on average, in the event of a major reactor accident of any nuclear power plant worldwide, more than 90% of emitted 137Cs would be transported beyond 50 km and about 50% beyond 1000 km distance before being deposited. This corroborates that such accidents have large-scale and trans-boundary impacts. Although the emission strengths and atmospheric removal processes of 137Cs and 131I are quite different, the radioactive contamination patterns over land and the human exposure due to deposition are computed to be similar. High human exposure risks occur around reactors in densely populated regions, notably in West Europe and South Asia, where a major reactor accident can subject around 30 million people to radioactive contamination. The recent decision by Germany to phase out its nuclear reactors will reduce the national risk, though a large risk will still remain from the reactors in neighbouring countries.

  5. Flying Reactors: The Political Feasibility of Nuclear Power in Space

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-04-01

    date , NASA has safely devel- oped, tested, and flown radioisotope power systems on 17 mis- sions and the United States successfully launched a nuclear...subject to a penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE ...APR 2005 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Flying Reactors. The Political Feasibility of Nuclear Power in Space 5a

  6. Synergistic Smart Fuel For In-pile Nuclear Reactor Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    James A. Smith; Dale K. Kotter; Randall A. Ali; Steven L . Garrett

    2013-10-01

    In March 2011, an earthquake of magnitude 9.0 on the Richter scale struck Japan with its epicenter on the northeast coast, near the Tohoku region. In addition to the immense physical destruction and casualties across the country, several nuclear power plants (NPP) were affected. It was the Fukushima Daiichi NPP that experienced the most severe and irreversible damage. The earthquake brought the reactors at Fukushima to an automatic shutdown and because the power transmission lines were damaged, emergency diesel generators (EDGs) were activated to ensure that there was continued cooling of the reactors and spent fuel pools. The situation was being successfully managed until the tsunami hit about forty-five minutes later with a maximum wave height of approximately 15 m. The influx of water submerged the EDGs, the electrical switchgear, and dc batteries, resulting in the total loss of power to the reactors.2 At this point, the situation became critical. There was a loss of the sensors and instrumentation within the reactor that could have provided valuable information to guide the operators to make informed decisions and avoid the unfortunate events that followed. In the light of these events, we have developed and tested a potential self-powered thermoacoustic system, which will have the ability to serve as a temperature sensor and can transmit data independently of electronic networks. Such a device is synergistic with the harsh environment of the nuclear reactor as it utilizes the heat from the nuclear fuel to provide the input power.

  7. Foundational development of an advanced nuclear reactor integrated safety code.

    SciTech Connect

    Clarno, Kevin; Lorber, Alfred Abraham; Pryor, Richard J.; Spotz, William F.; Schmidt, Rodney Cannon; Belcourt, Kenneth; Hooper, Russell Warren; Humphries, Larry LaRon

    2010-02-01

    This report describes the activities and results of a Sandia LDRD project whose objective was to develop and demonstrate foundational aspects of a next-generation nuclear reactor safety code that leverages advanced computational technology. The project scope was directed towards the systems-level modeling and simulation of an advanced, sodium cooled fast reactor, but the approach developed has a more general applicability. The major accomplishments of the LDRD are centered around the following two activities. (1) The development and testing of LIME, a Lightweight Integrating Multi-physics Environment for coupling codes that is designed to enable both 'legacy' and 'new' physics codes to be combined and strongly coupled using advanced nonlinear solution methods. (2) The development and initial demonstration of BRISC, a prototype next-generation nuclear reactor integrated safety code. BRISC leverages LIME to tightly couple the physics models in several different codes (written in a variety of languages) into one integrated package for simulating accident scenarios in a liquid sodium cooled 'burner' nuclear reactor. Other activities and accomplishments of the LDRD include (a) further development, application and demonstration of the 'non-linear elimination' strategy to enable physics codes that do not provide residuals to be incorporated into LIME, (b) significant extensions of the RIO CFD code capabilities, (c) complex 3D solid modeling and meshing of major fast reactor components and regions, and (d) an approach for multi-physics coupling across non-conformal mesh interfaces.

  8. Neutron Capture and the Antineutrino Yield from Nuclear Reactors.

    PubMed

    Huber, Patrick; Jaffke, Patrick

    2016-03-25

    We identify a new, flux-dependent correction to the antineutrino spectrum as produced in nuclear reactors. The abundance of certain nuclides, whose decay chains produce antineutrinos above the threshold for inverse beta decay, has a nonlinear dependence on the neutron flux, unlike the vast majority of antineutrino producing nuclides, whose decay rate is directly related to the fission rate. We have identified four of these so-called nonlinear nuclides and determined that they result in an antineutrino excess at low energies below 3.2 MeV, dependent on the reactor thermal neutron flux. We develop an analytic model for the size of the correction and compare it to the results of detailed reactor simulations for various real existing reactors, spanning 3 orders of magnitude in neutron flux. In a typical pressurized water reactor the resulting correction can reach ∼0.9% of the low energy flux which is comparable in size to other, known low-energy corrections from spent nuclear fuel and the nonequilibrium correction. For naval reactors the nonlinear correction may reach the 5% level by the end of cycle.

  9. Alloying of steel and graphite by hydrogen in nuclear reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasikov, E.

    2017-02-01

    In traditional power engineering hydrogen may be one of the first primary source of equipment damage. This problem has high actuality for both nuclear and thermonuclear power engineering. Study of radiation-hydrogen embrittlement of the steel raises the question concerning the unknown source of hydrogen in reactors. Later unexpectedly high hydrogen concentrations were detected in irradiated graphite. It is necessary to look for this source of hydrogen especially because hydrogen flakes were detected in reactor vessels of Belgian NPPs. As a possible initial hypothesis about the enigmatical source of hydrogen one can propose protons generation during beta-decay of free neutrons поскольку inasmuch as protons detected by researches at nuclear reactors as witness of beta-decay of free neutrons.

  10. Piezoelectric material for use in a nuclear reactor core

    SciTech Connect

    Parks, D. A.; Reinhardt, Brian; Tittmann, B. R.

    2012-05-17

    In radiation environments ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation has great potential for improving reactor safety and furthering the understanding of radiation effects and materials. In both nuclear power plants and materials test reactors, elevated temperatures and high levels of radiation present challenges to ultrasonic NDE methodologies. The challenges are primarily due to the degradation of the ultrasonic sensors utilized. We present results from the operation of a ultrasonic piezoelectric transducer, composed of bulk single crystal AlN, in a nuclear reactor core for over 120 MWHrs. The transducer was coupled to an aluminum cylinder and operated in pulse echo mode throughout the irradiation. In addition to the pulse echo testing impedance data were obtained. Further, the piezoelectric coefficient d{sub 33} was measured prior to irradiation and found to be 5.5 pC/N which is unchanged from as-grown samples, and in fact higher than the measured d{sub 33} for many as-grown samples.

  11. Selecting and using materials for a nuclear rocket engine reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanin, Anatolii G.; Fedik, Ivan I.

    2011-03-01

    This paper provides a historical account of how the nuclear rocket engine reactor was created and discusses the problem of selecting materials for a gas environment at a temperature of up to 3100 K and energy release of 30 MW per liter.

  12. Packed rod neutron shield for fast nuclear reactors

    DOEpatents

    Eck, John E.; Kasberg, Alvin H.

    1978-01-01

    A fast neutron nuclear reactor including a core and a plurality of vertically oriented neutron shield assemblies surrounding the core. Each assembly includes closely packed cylindrical rods within a polygonal metallic duct. The shield assemblies are less susceptible to thermal stresses and are less massive than solid shield assemblies, and are cooled by liquid coolant flow through interstices among the rods and duct.

  13. Flying Reactors: The Political Feasibility of Nuclear Power in Space

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-04-01

    accomplish is summarized well in the following quote from Glenn Seaborg , then the chairman of the Atomic Energy Commission. What we are attempting to...minutes.81 Glenn Seaborg AEC Chairman, 1958 Early Space Propulsion Reactor Programs Initial studies on nuclear rocket propulsion had begun as far back

  14. METHOD OF FORMING A FUEL ELEMENT FOR A NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Layer, E.H. Jr.; Peet, C.S.

    1962-01-23

    A method is given for preparing a fuel element for a nuclear reactor. The method includes the steps of sandblasting a body of uranium dioxide to roughen the surface thereof, depositing a thin layer of carbon thereon by thermal decomposition of methane, and cladding the uranium dioxide body with zirconium by gas pressure bonding. (AEC)

  15. Method of controlling crystallite size in nuclear-reactor fuels

    DOEpatents

    Lloyd, Milton H.; Collins, Jack L.; Shell, Sam E.

    1985-01-01

    Improved spherules for making enhanced forms of nuclear-reactor fuels are prepared by internal gelation procedures within a sol-gel operation and are accomplished by first boiling the concentrated HMTA-urea feed solution before engaging in the spherule-forming operation thereby effectively controlling crystallite size in the product spherules.

  16. Natural circulating passive cooling system for nuclear reactor containment structure

    DOEpatents

    Gou, Perng-Fei; Wade, Gentry E.

    1990-01-01

    A passive cooling system for the contaminant structure of a nuclear reactor plant providing protection against overpressure within the containment attributable to inadvertent leakage or rupture of the system components. The cooling system utilizes natural convection for transferring heat imbalances and enables the discharge of irradiation free thermal energy to the atmosphere for heat disposal from the system.

  17. Passive cooling system for nuclear reactor containment structure

    DOEpatents

    Gou, Perng-Fei; Wade, Gentry E.

    1989-01-01

    A passive cooling system for the contaminant structure of a nuclear reactor plant providing protection against overpressure within the containment attributable to inadvertent leakage or rupture of the system components. The cooling system utilizes natural convection for transferring heat imbalances and enables the discharge of irradiation free thermal energy to the atmosphere for heat disposal from the system.

  18. CONTROL ROD FOR A NUCLEAR REACTOR AND METHOD OF PREPARATION

    DOEpatents

    Hausner, H.H.

    1958-12-30

    BS>An improved control rod is presented for a nuclear reactor. This control rod is comprised of a rare earth metal oxide or rare earth metal carbide such as gadolinium oxide or gadolinium carbide, uniformly distributed in a metal matrix having a low cross sectional area of absorption for thermal neutrons, such as aluminum, beryllium, and zirconium.

  19. 10. Photocopy of drawing, February 1958, NUCLEAR REACTOR FACILITY, STRUCTURAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Photocopy of drawing, February 1958, NUCLEAR REACTOR FACILITY, STRUCTURAL CROSS SECTION. Giffals & Vallet, Inc., L. Rosetti, Associated Architects and Engineers, Detroit, Michigan; and U.S. Army Engineer Division, New England Corps of Engineers, Boston, Massachusetts. Drawing Number 35-84-04. (Original: AMTL Engineering Division, Watertown). - Watertown Arsenal, Building No. 100, Wooley Avenue, Watertown, Middlesex County, MA

  20. Method of controlling crystallite size in nuclear-reactor fuels

    DOEpatents

    Lloyd, M.H.; Collins, J.L.; Shell, S.E.

    Improved spherules for making enhanced forms of nuclear-reactor fuels are prepared by internal gelation procedures within a sol-gel operation and are accomplished by first boiling the concentrated HMTA-urea feed solution before engaging in the spherule-forming operation thereby effectively controlling crystallite size in the product spherules.

  1. Global risk of radioactive fallout after nuclear reactor accidents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunkel, D.; Lelieveld, J.; Lawrence, M. G.

    2012-04-01

    Reactor core meltdowns of nuclear power plants are rare, yet the consequences are catastrophic. But what is meant by "rare"? And what can be learned from the Chernobyl and Fukushima incidents? Here we assess the risk of exposure to radioactivity due to atmospheric dispersion of gases and particles following severe nuclear accidents, using particulate 137Cs and gaseous 131I as proxies for the fallout. It appears that previously the occurrence of major accidents and the risks of radioactive contamination have been underestimated. Using a global model of the atmosphere we compute that on average, in the event of a core melt of any nuclear power plant worldwide, more than 90 % of emitted 137Cs would be transported beyond 50 km and about 50 % beyond 1000 km distance. This corroborates that such accidents have large-scale and trans-boundary impacts. Although the emission strengths and atmospheric removal processes of 137Cs and 131I are quite different, the radioactive contamination patterns over land and the human deposition exposure are computed to be similar. High human exposure risks occur around reactors in densely populated regions, notably in southern Asia where a core melt can subject 55 million people to radioactive contamination. The recent decision by Germany to phase out its nuclear reactors will reduce the national risk, though a large risk will still remain from the reactors in neighbouring countries.

  2. Global risk of radioactive fallout after nuclear reactor accidents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lelieveld, J.; Kunkel, D.; Lawrence, M. G.

    2011-11-01

    Reactor core meltdowns of nuclear power plants are rare, yet the consequences are catastrophic. But what is meant by "rare"? And what can be learned from the Chernobyl and Fukushima incidents? Here we assess the risk of exposure to radioactivity due to atmospheric dispersion of gases and particles following severe nuclear accidents, using particulate 137Cs and gaseous 131I as proxies for the fallout. It appears that previously the occurrence of major accidents and the risks of radioactive contamination have been underestimated. Using a global model of the atmosphere we compute that on average, in the event of a core melt of any nuclear power plant worldwide, more than 90% of emitted 137Cs would be transported beyond 50km and about 50% beyond 1000 km distance. This corroborates that such accidents have large-scale and trans-boundary impacts. Although the emission strengths and atmospheric removal processes of 137Cs and 131I are quite different, the radioactive contamination patterns over land and the human deposition exposure are computed to be similar. High human exposure risks occur around reactors in densely populated regions, notably in southern Asia where a core melt can subject 55 million people to radioactive contamination. The recent decision by Germany to phase out its nuclear reactors will reduce the national risk, though a large risk will still remain from the reactors in neighbouring countries.

  3. METHOD OF PREPARING A FUEL ELEMENT FOR A NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Hauth, J.J.; Anicetti, R.J.

    1962-12-01

    A method is described for preparing a fuel element for a nuclear reactor. According to the patent uranium dioxide is compacted in a metal tabe by directlng intense sound waves at the tabe prior to tamp packing or vibration compaction of the powder. (AEC)

  4. Automatic coolant flow control device for a nuclear reactor assembly

    DOEpatents

    Hutter, E.

    1984-01-27

    A device which controls coolant flow through a nuclear reactor assembly comprises a baffle means at the exit end of said assembly having a plurality of orifices, and a bimetallic member in operative relation to the baffle means such that at increased temperatures said bimetallic member deforms to unblock some of said orifices and allow increased coolant flow therethrough.

  5. Improved Nuclear Reactor and Shield Mass Model for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robb, Kevin

    2004-01-01

    New technologies are being developed to explore the distant reaches of the solar system. Beyond Mars, solar energy is inadequate to power advanced scientific instruments. One technology that can meet the energy requirements is the space nuclear reactor. The nuclear reactor is used as a heat source for which a heat-to-electricity conversion system is needed. Examples of such conversion systems are the Brayton, Rankine, and Stirling cycles. Since launch cost is proportional to the amount of mass to lift, mass is always a concern in designing spacecraft. Estimations of system masses are an important part in determining the feasibility of a design. I worked under Michael Barrett in the Thermal Energy Conversion Branch of the Power & Electric Propulsion Division. An in-house Closed Cycle Engine Program (CCEP) is used for the design and performance analysis of closed-Brayton-cycle energy conversion systems for space applications. This program also calculates the system mass including the heat source. CCEP uses the subroutine RSMASS, which has been updated to RSMASS-D, to estimate the mass of the reactor. RSMASS was developed in 1986 at Sandia National Laboratories to quickly estimate the mass of multi-megawatt nuclear reactors for space applications. In response to an emphasis for lower power reactors, RSMASS-D was developed in 1997 and is based off of the SP-100 liquid metal cooled reactor. The subroutine calculates the mass of reactor components such as the safety systems, instrumentation and control, radiation shield, structure, reflector, and core. The major improvements in RSMASS-D are that it uses higher fidelity calculations, is easier to use, and automatically optimizes the systems mass. RSMASS-D is accurate within 15% of actual data while RSMASS is only accurate within 50%. My goal this summer was to learn FORTRAN 77 programming language and update the CCEP program with the RSMASS-D model.

  6. Nuclear Data Measurements for 21st Century Reactor Physics Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Rahmat Aryaeinejad; Jerald D. Cole; Mark W. Drigert; James K. Jewell; Christopher A. McGrath; David W. Nigg; Edward L. Reber

    2003-03-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Nuclear Energy (NE) has embarked on a long-term program to significantly advance the science and technology of nuclear energy. This is in response to the overall national plan for accelerated development of domestic energy resources on several fronts, punctuated by recent dramatic events that have emphasized the need for the US to reduce its dependence on foreign petroleum supplies. Key aspects of the DOE-NE agenda are embodied in the Generation-IV (Gen-IV) advanced nuclear energy systems development program and in the Advanced Fuel Cycle (AFC) program. The planned efforts involve near-term and intermediate-term improvements in fuel utilization and recycling in current nuclear power reactor systems as well as the longer-term development of new nuclear energy systems that offer much improved fuel utilization and proliferation resistance, along with continued advances in operational safety. The success of the overall NE effort will depend not only on sophisticated system development and engineering, but also on the advances in the supporting sciences and technologies. Of these, one of the most important is the improvement of the relevant fundamental nuclear science data bases, especially the evaluated neutron interaction cross section files that serve as the foundation of all reactor system designs, operating strategies, and fuel cycle engineering activities. The new concepts for reactors and fuel cycles involve the use of transuranic nuclides that were previously of little interest, and where experimentally measured information is lacking. The current state of the cross section database for some of these nuclides is such that design computations for advanced fast-spectrum reactor systems and fuel cycles that incorporate such materials in significant quantities are meaningful only for approximate conceptual applications. No actual system could reliably be designed according to currently accepted standards, nor

  7. Antineutrino analysis for continuous monitoring of nuclear reactors: Sensitivity study

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, Christopher; Erickson, Anna

    2015-10-28

    This paper explores the various contributors to uncertainty on predictions of the antineutrino source term which is used for reactor antineutrino experiments and is proposed as a safeguard mechanism for future reactor installations. The errors introduced during simulation of the reactor burnup cycle from variation in nuclear reaction cross sections, operating power, and other factors are combined with those from experimental and predicted antineutrino yields, resulting from fissions, evaluated, and compared. The most significant contributor to uncertainty on the reactor antineutrino source term when the reactor was modeled in 3D fidelity with assembly-level heterogeneity was found to be the uncertainty on the antineutrino yields. Using the reactor simulation uncertainty data, the dedicated observation of a rigorously modeled small, fast reactor by a few-ton near-field detector was estimated to offer reduction of uncertainty on antineutrino yields in the 3.0–6.5 MeV range to a few percent for the primary power-producing fuel isotopes, even with zero prior knowledge of the yields.

  8. Fast neutron fluence of yonggwang nuclear unit 1 reactor pressure vessel

    SciTech Connect

    Yoo, C.; Km, B.; Chang, K.; Leeand, S.; Park, J.

    2006-07-01

    The Code of Federal Regulations, Title 10, Part 50, Appendix H, requires that the neutron dosimetry be present to monitor the reactor vessel throughout plant life. The Ex-Vessel Neutron Dosimetry System has been installed for Yonggwang Nuclear Unit 1 after complete withdrawal of all six in-vessel surveillance capsules. This system has been installed in the reactor cavity annulus in order to measure the fast neutron spectrum coming out through the reactor pressure vessel. Cycle specific neutron transport calculations were performed to obtain the energy dependent neutron flux throughout the reactor geometry including dosimetry positions. Comparisons between calculations and measurements were performed for the reaction rates of each dosimetry sensors and results show good agreements. (authors)

  9. Five Requirements for Nuclear Energy and CANDLE Fast Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Sekimoto, Hiroshi

    2010-06-22

    The Center for Research into Innovative Nuclear Energy Systems (CRINES) was established in order to succeed the COE-INES mission after finishing this program in Tokyo Tech. CRINES considers nuclear energy should satisfy 5 requirements; sustainability as basic energy, solving 3 problems inherent to accidents, radioactive waste and nuclear bomb, and economical acceptance. Characteristics of CANDLE fast reactor are discussed for these requirements. It satisfies 4 requirements; sustainability and solving 3 inherent problems. For the remaining requirement for economy, a high potential to satisfy this requirement is also shown.

  10. Five Requirements for Nuclear Energy and CANDLE Fast Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekimoto, Hiroshi

    2010-06-01

    The Center for Research into Innovative Nuclear Energy Systems (CRINES) was established in order to succeed the COE-INES mission after finishing this program in Tokyo Tech. CRINES considers nuclear energy should satisfy 5 requirements; sustainability as basic energy, solving 3 problems inherent to accidents, radioactive waste and nuclear bomb, and economical acceptance. Characteristics of CANDLE fast reactor are discussed for these requirements. It satisfies 4 requirements; sustainability and solving 3 inherent problems. For the remaining requirement for economy, a high potential to satisfy this requirement is also shown.

  11. SNAP (Space Nuclear Auxiliary Power) Reactor Overview

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-08-01

    Although the program did not proceed past the developmental stage, Pratt and Whitney were commended by the Chairman of the AEC, Dr. Glenn Seaborg , for a...34Shift is Urged from CANEL on Nuclear Project," HTFG Courant, May 1965. 17. Seaborg Says CANEL Halt No Reflection on Its Work, Middletown Press, 7-6-65

  12. 10 CFR 71.97 - Advance notification of shipment of irradiated reactor fuel and nuclear waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... notification of shipment of irradiated reactor fuel and nuclear waste. (a) As specified in paragraphs (b), (c... of the shipper, carrier, and receiver of the irradiated reactor fuel or nuclear waste shipment; (2) A description of the irradiated reactor fuel or nuclear waste contained in the shipment, as specified in...

  13. 10 CFR 50.44 - Combustible gas control for nuclear power reactors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Combustible gas control for nuclear power reactors. 50.44... for nuclear power reactors. (a) Definitions—(1) Inerted atmosphere means a containment atmosphere with... pressurized water nuclear power reactor with an operating license on October 16, 2003, except for...

  14. 10 CFR 50.44 - Combustible gas control for nuclear power reactors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Combustible gas control for nuclear power reactors. 50.44... for nuclear power reactors. (a) Definitions—(1) Inerted atmosphere means a containment atmosphere with... pressurized water nuclear power reactor with an operating license on October 16, 2003, except for...

  15. 77 FR 39521 - Application for a License To Export Nuclear Reactor Major Components and Equipment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Application for a License To Export Nuclear Reactor Major Components and Equipment Pursuant to 10... Reactor internals, Components and For use in Braka nuclear power Company LLC reactor coolant equipment...

  16. 10 CFR 71.97 - Advance notification of shipment of irradiated reactor fuel and nuclear waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... notification of shipment of irradiated reactor fuel and nuclear waste. (a) As specified in paragraphs (b), (c... of the shipper, carrier, and receiver of the irradiated reactor fuel or nuclear waste shipment; (2) A description of the irradiated reactor fuel or nuclear waste contained in the shipment, as specified in...

  17. Breeding nuclear fuels with accelerators: replacement for breeder reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Grand, P.; Takahashi, H.

    1984-01-01

    One application of high energy particle accelerators has been, and still is, the production of nuclear fuel for the nuclear energy industry; tantalizing because it would create a whole new industry. This approach to producing fissile from fertile material was first considered in the early 1950's in the context of the nuclear weapons program. A considerable development effort was expended before discovery of uranium ore in New Mexico put an end to the project. Later, US commitment to the Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactors (LMFBR) killed any further interest in pursuing accelerator breeder technology. Interest in the application of accelerators to breed nuclear fuels, and possibly burn nuclear wastes, revived in the late 1970's, when the LMFBR came under attack during the Carter administration. This period gave the opportunity to revisit the concept in view of the present state of the technology. This evaluation and the extensive calculational modeling of target designs that have been carried out are promising. In fact, a nuclear fuel cycle of Light Water Reactors and Accelerator Breeders is competitive to that of the LMFBR. At this time, however, the relative abundance of uranium reserves vs electricity demand and projected growth rate render this study purely academic. It will be for the next generation of accelerator builders to demonstate the competitiveness of this technology versus that of other nuclear fuel cycles, such as LMFBR's or Fusion Hybrid systems. 22 references, 1 figure, 5 tables.

  18. NUCLEAR SUPERHEATER FOR BOILING WATER REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Holl, R.J.; Klecker, R.W.; Graham, C.B.

    1962-05-15

    A description is given of a boiling water reactor having a superheating region integral with the core. The core consists essentially of an annular boiling region surrounding an inner superheating region. Both regions contain fuel elements and are separated by a cylindrical wall, perforations being provided in the lower portion of the cylindrical wall to permit circulation of a common water moderator between the two regions. The superheater region comprises a plurality of tubular fuel assemblies through which the steam emanating from the boiling region passes to the steam outlet. Each superheater fuel assembly has an outer double-walled cylinder, the double walls being concentrically spaced and connected together at their upper ends but open at the bottom to provide for differential thermal expansion of the inner and outer walls. Gas is entrapped in the annulus between the walls which acts as an insulating space between the fissionable material inside and the moderator outside. (AEC)

  19. Nuclear reactor melt arrest and coolability device

    DOEpatents

    Theofanous, Theo G.; Dinh, Nam Truc; Wachowiak, Richard M.

    2016-06-14

    Example embodiments provide a Basemat-Internal Melt Arrest and Coolability device (BiMAC) that offers improved spatial and mechanical characteristics for use in damage prevention and risk mitigation in accident scenarios. Example embodiments may include a BiMAC having an inclination of less than 10-degrees from the basemat floor and/or coolant channels of less than 4 inches in diameter, while maintaining minimum safety margins required by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission.

  20. Parallelization and automatic data distribution for nuclear reactor simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Liebrock, L.M.

    1997-07-01

    Detailed attempts at realistic nuclear reactor simulations currently take many times real time to execute on high performance workstations. Even the fastest sequential machine can not run these simulations fast enough to ensure that the best corrective measure is used during a nuclear accident to prevent a minor malfunction from becoming a major catastrophe. Since sequential computers have nearly reached the speed of light barrier, these simulations will have to be run in parallel to make significant improvements in speed. In physical reactor plants, parallelism abounds. Fluids flow, controls change, and reactions occur in parallel with only adjacent components directly affecting each other. These do not occur in the sequentialized manner, with global instantaneous effects, that is often used in simulators. Development of parallel algorithms that more closely approximate the real-world operation of a reactor may, in addition to speeding up the simulations, actually improve the accuracy and reliability of the predictions generated. Three types of parallel architecture (shared memory machines, distributed memory multicomputers, and distributed networks) are briefly reviewed as targets for parallelization of nuclear reactor simulation. Various parallelization models (loop-based model, shared memory model, functional model, data parallel model, and a combined functional and data parallel model) are discussed along with their advantages and disadvantages for nuclear reactor simulation. A variety of tools are introduced for each of the models. Emphasis is placed on the data parallel model as the primary focus for two-phase flow simulation. Tools to support data parallel programming for multiple component applications and special parallelization considerations are also discussed.

  1. Chemistry of fission product iodine under nuclear reactor accident conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Malinauskas, A.P.; Bell, J.T.

    1986-01-01

    The radioisotopes of iodine are generally acknowledged to be the species whose release into the biosphere as a result of a nuclear reactor accident is of the greatest concern. In the course of its release, the fission product is subjected to differing chemical environments; these can alter the physicochemical form of the fission product and thus modify the manner and extent to which release occurs. Both the chemical environments which are characteristic of reactor accidents and their effect in determining physical and chemical form of fission product iodine have been studied extensively, and are reviewed in this report. 76 refs.

  2. Transient behavior of a nuclear reactor coupled to an accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadineni, Suresh Babu

    Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS) present one of the most viable solutions for transmutation and effective utilization of nuclear fuel. Spent fuel from reactors will be partitioned to separate plutonium and other minor actinides to be transmuted in the ADS. Without the ADS, minor actinides must be stored at a geologic repository for long periods of time. One problem with ADS is understanding the control issues that arise when coupling an accelerator to a reactor. "ADSTRANS" was developed to predict the transient behavior of a nuclear reactor coupled to an accelerator. It was based on MCNPX, a radiation transport code developed at the LANL, and upon a numerical model of the neutron transport equation. MCNPX was used to generate the neutron "source" term that occurs when the accelerator is fired. ADSTRANS coupled MCNPX to a separate finite difference code that solved the transient neutron transport equation. A cylindrical axisymmetric reactor with steel shielding was considered for this analysis. Multiple neutron energy groups, neutron precursor groups and neutron poisons were considered. ENDF/B cross-section data obtained through MCNPX was also employed. The reactor was assumed to be isothermal and near zero power level. Unique features of this code are: (1) it predicts the neutron behavior of an ADS for different reactor geometry, material concentration, both electron and proton particle accelerators, and target material, (2) it develops input files for MCNPX to simulate neutron production, runs MCNPX, and retrieves information from the MCNPX output files. Neutron production predicted by MCNPX for a 20 MeV electron accelerator and lead target was compared with experimental data from the Idaho Accelerator Center and found to be in good agreement. The spatial neutron flux distribution and transient neutron flux in the reactor as predicted by the code were compared with analytical solutions and found to be in good agreement. Fuel burnup and poison buildup were also as

  3. Nuclear reactor for breeding U.sup.233

    DOEpatents

    Bohanan, Charles S.; Jones, David H.; Raab, Jr., Harry F.; Radkowsky, Alvin

    1976-01-01

    A light-water-cooled nuclear reactor capable of breeding U.sup.233 for use in a light-water breeder reactor includes physically separated regions containing U.sup.235 fissile material and U.sup.238 fertile material and Th.sup.232 fertile material and Pu.sup.239 fissile material, if available. Preferably the U.sup.235 fissile material and U.sup.238 fertile material are contained in longitudinally movable seed regions and the Pu.sup.239 fissile material and Th.sup.232 fertile material are contained in blanket regions surrounding the seed regions.

  4. Fascin regulates nuclear actin during Drosophila oogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Kelpsch, Daniel J.; Groen, Christopher M.; Fagan, Tiffany N.; Sudhir, Sweta; Tootle, Tina L.

    2016-01-01

    Drosophila oogenesis provides a developmental system with which to study nuclear actin. During Stages 5–9, nuclear actin levels are high in the oocyte and exhibit variation within the nurse cells. Cofilin and Profilin, which regulate the nuclear import and export of actin, also localize to the nuclei. Expression of GFP-tagged Actin results in nuclear actin rod formation. These findings indicate that nuclear actin must be tightly regulated during oogenesis. One factor mediating this regulation is Fascin. Overexpression of Fascin enhances nuclear GFP-Actin rod formation, and Fascin colocalizes with the rods. Loss of Fascin reduces, whereas overexpression of Fascin increases, the frequency of nurse cells with high levels of nuclear actin, but neither alters the overall nuclear level of actin within the ovary. These data suggest that Fascin regulates the ability of specific cells to accumulate nuclear actin. Evidence indicates that Fascin positively regulates nuclear actin through Cofilin. Loss of Fascin results in decreased nuclear Cofilin. In addition, Fascin and Cofilin genetically interact, as double heterozygotes exhibit a reduction in the number of nurse cells with high nuclear actin levels. These findings are likely applicable beyond Drosophila follicle development, as the localization and functions of Fascin and the mechanisms regulating nuclear actin are widely conserved. PMID:27535426

  5. Heat barrier for use in a nuclear reactor facility

    DOEpatents

    Keegan, Charles P.

    1988-01-01

    A thermal barrier for use in a nuclear reactor facility is disclosed herein. Generally, the thermal barrier comprises a flexible, heat-resistant web mounted over the annular space between the reactor vessel and the guard vessel in order to prevent convection currents generated in the nitrogen atmosphere in this space from entering the relatively cooler atmosphere of the reactor cavity which surrounds these vessels. Preferably, the flexible web includes a blanket of heat-insulating material formed from fibers of a refractory material, such as alumina and silica, sandwiched between a heat-resistant, metallic cloth made from stainless steel wire. In use, the web is mounted between the upper edges of the guard vessel and the flange of a sealing ring which surrounds the reactor vessel with a sufficient enough slack to avoid being pulled taut as a result of thermal differential expansion between the two vessels. The flexible web replaces the rigid and relatively complicated structures employed in the prior art for insulating the reactor cavity from the convection currents generated between the reactor vessel and the guard vessel.

  6. Nuclear reactor spacer grid and ductless core component

    DOEpatents

    Christiansen, David W.; Karnesky, Richard A.

    1989-01-01

    The invention relates to a nuclear reactor spacer grid member for use in a liquid cooled nuclear reactor and to a ductless core component employing a plurality of these spacer grid members. The spacer grid member is of the egg-shell type and is constructed so that the walls of the cell members of the grid member are formed of a single thickness of metal to avoid tolerance problems. Within each cell member is a hydraulic spring which laterally constrains the nuclear material bearing rod which passes through each cell member against a hardstop in response to coolant flow through the cell member. This hydraulic spring is also suitable for use in a water cooled nuclear reactor. A core component constructed of, among other components, a plurality of these spacer grid members, avoids the use of a full length duct by providing spacer sleeves about the sodium tubes passing through the spacer grid members at locations between the grid members, thereby maintaining a predetermined space between adjacent grid members.

  7. Synergistic smart fuel for in-pile nuclear reactor measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.A.; Kotter, D.K.; Ali, R.A.; Garrett, S.L.

    2013-07-01

    The thermo-acoustic fuel rod sensor developed in this research has demonstrated a novel technique for monitoring the temperature within the core of a nuclear reactor or the temperature of the surrounding heat-transfer fluid. It uses the heat from the nuclear fuel to generate sustained acoustic oscillations whose frequency will be indicative of the temperature. Converting a nuclear fuel rod into this type of thermo-acoustic sensor simply requires the insertion of a porous material (stack). This sensor has demonstrated a synergy with the elevated temperatures that exist within the nuclear reactor using materials that have only minimal susceptibility to high-energy particle fluxes. When the sensor is in operation, the sound waves radiated from the fuel rod resonator will propagate through the surrounding cooling fluid. The frequency of these oscillations is directly correlated with an effective temperature within the fuel rod resonator. This device is self-powered and is operational even in case of total loss of power of the reactor.

  8. Requirements for advanced simulation of nuclear reactor and chemicalseparation plants.

    SciTech Connect

    Palmiotti, G.; Cahalan, J.; Pfeiffer, P.; Sofu, T.; Taiwo, T.; Wei,T.; Yacout, A.; Yang, W.; Siegel, A.; Insepov, Z.; Anitescu, M.; Hovland,P.; Pereira, C.; Regalbuto, M.; Copple, J.; Willamson, M.

    2006-12-11

    This report presents requirements for advanced simulation of nuclear reactor and chemical processing plants that are of interest to the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) initiative. Justification for advanced simulation and some examples of grand challenges that will benefit from it are provided. An integrated software tool that has its main components, whenever possible based on first principles, is proposed as possible future approach for dealing with the complex problems linked to the simulation of nuclear reactor and chemical processing plants. The main benefits that are associated with a better integrated simulation have been identified as: a reduction of design margins, a decrease of the number of experiments in support of the design process, a shortening of the developmental design cycle, and a better understanding of the physical phenomena and the related underlying fundamental processes. For each component of the proposed integrated software tool, background information, functional requirements, current tools and approach, and proposed future approaches have been provided. Whenever possible, current uncertainties have been quoted and existing limitations have been presented. Desired target accuracies with associated benefits to the different aspects of the nuclear reactor and chemical processing plants were also given. In many cases the possible gains associated with a better simulation have been identified, quantified, and translated into economical benefits.

  9. CATALYTIC RECOMBINER FOR A NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    King, L.D.P.

    1960-07-01

    A hydrogen-oxygen recombiner is described for use with water-boiler type reactors. The catalyst used is the wellknown platinized alumina, and the novelty lies in the structural arrangement used to prevent flashback through the gas input system. The recombiner is cylindrical, the gases at the input end being deflected by a baffle plate through a first flashback shield of steel shot into an annular passage adjacent to and extending the full length of the housing. Below the baffle plate the gases flow first through an outer annular array of alumina pellets which serve as a second flashback shield, a means of distributing the flowing gases evenly and as a means of reducing radiation losses to the walls. Thereafter the gases flow inio the centrally disposed catalyst bed where recombination is effected. The steam and uncombined gases flow into a centrally disposed cylindrical passage inside the catalyst bod and thereafter out through the exit port. A high rate of recombination is effected.

  10. Classification of spent reactor fuel for nuclear forensics.

    PubMed

    Jones, Andrew E; Turner, Phillip; Zimmerman, Colin; Goulermas, John Y

    2014-06-03

    In this paper we demonstrate the use of pattern recognition and machine learning techniques to determine the reactor type from which spent reactor fuel has originated. This has been done using the isotopic and elemental measurements of the sample and proves to be very useful in the field of nuclear forensics. Nuclear materials contain many variables (impurities and isotopes) that are very difficult to consider individually. A method that considers all material parameters simultaneously is advantageous. Currently the field of nuclear forensics focuses on the analysis of key material properties to determine details about the materials processing history, for example, utilizing known half-lives of isotopes can determine when the material was last processed (Stanley, F. E. J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 2012, 27, 1821; Varga, Z.; Wallenius, M.; Mayer, K.; Keegan, E.; Millet, S. Anal. Chem. 2009, 81, 8327-8334). However, it has been demonstrated that multivariate statistical analysis of isotopic concentrations can complement these method and are able to make use of a greater level of information through dimensionality reduction techniques (Robel, M.; Kristo, M. J. J. Environ. Radioact. 2008, 99, 1789-1797; Robel, M.; Kristo, M. J.; Heller, M. A. Nuclear Forensic Inferences Using Iterative Multidimensional Statistics. In Proceedings of the Institute of Nuclear Materials Management 50th Annual Meeting, Tucson, AZ, July 2009; 12 pages; Nicolaou, G. J. Environ. Radioact. 2006, 86, 313-318; Pajo, L.; Mayer, K.; Koch, L. Fresenius' J. Anal. Chem. 2001, 371, 348-352). There has been some success in using such multidimensional statistical methods to determine details about the history of spent reactor fuel (Robel, M.; Kristo, M. J. J. Environ. Radioact. 2008, 99, 1789-1797). Here, we aim to expand on these findings by pursuing more robust dimensionality reduction techniques based on manifold embedding which are able to better capture the intrinsic data set information. Furthermore, we

  11. Projects of High-Temperature Nuclear Reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekmanis, J.; Tomsons, E.; Zeltiņš, N.

    2013-04-01

    Part 2 of the overview gives emphasis to the projects of high-temperature NRs, whose development is an area of active engagement for the specialists from the USA, France, Japan, Russia, China, the Netherlands, and Germany. Projects of several powerful NRs of the HTGR type for commercial use had been worked out in the USA and Germany already by 1970 but not yet implemented. Augstas temperatūras ar gāzes dzesēšanu HTGR (High Temperature Gas cooled Reactor) tipa kodolreaktoru (KR) izstrādes koncepcija bija piedāvāta 1956. gadā Lielbritānijā. Apmēram tanī pašā laikā minētā tipa KR izstrādi uzsāka Vācijā un ASV. HTGR tipa KR kodoldegviela un kodoldegvielas atražošanas materiāla sīkās daļiņas ar diametru apmēram 0.5 mm pārklātas ar vairākām aizsargkārtām un atrodas grafīta neitronu palēninātājā, kas aizsargā daļiņas no neitronu palēninātāja un dzesētāja iedarbes. Augstas temperatūras KR bez hēlija gāzes siltumnesēja var izmantot šķidrus metālus (nātriju, svinu vai svina-bismuta sakausējumu) un izkausētu sāli. Pašlaik darbojās divi augstas temperatūras ar hēlija gāzi dzesēti eksperimentālie HTGR tipa KR. Viens Japānā "HTTR" no 1998. gada oktobra (sākts būvēt 1991. gada 15. martā) ar 30 MWth siltuma jaudu. Otrs Ķīnā "HTR-10" no 2000.gada decembra (sākts būvēt 1995. gada14. jūnijā) ar 10 MWth siltuma jaudu. Ķīnā Shandong provincē 2011.gada aprīlī uzsāka augstas temperatūras "HTR-PM" (High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor - Pebble bed Module) tipa kodolreaktora celtniecību ar 250 MWth siltuma jaudu. Augstas temperatūras kodolreaktoru izstrādē pašlaik aktīvi iesaistīti ASV, Francijas, Japānas, Krievijas, Ķīnas, Nīderlandes un Vācijas speciālisti.

  12. Support arrangement for core modules of nuclear reactors

    DOEpatents

    Bollinger, Lawrence R.

    1987-01-01

    A support arrangement is provided for the core modules of a nuclear reactor which provides support access through the control drive mechanisms of the reactor. This arrangement provides axial support of individual reactor core modules from the pressure vessel head in a manner which permits attachment and detachment of the modules from the head to be accomplished through the control drive mechanisms after their leadscrews have been removed. The arrangement includes a module support nut which is suspended from the pressure vessel head and screw threaded to the shroud housing for the module. A spline lock prevents loosening of the screw connection. An installation tool assembly, including a cell lifting and preloading tool and a torquing tool, fits through the control drive mechanism and provides lifting of the shroud housing while disconnecting the spline lock, as well as application of torque to the module support nut.

  13. Collecting and recirculating condensate in a nuclear reactor containment

    DOEpatents

    Schultz, T.L.

    1993-10-19

    An arrangement passively cools a nuclear reactor in the event of an emergency, condensing and recycling vaporized cooling water. The reactor is surrounded by a containment structure and has a storage tank for cooling liquid, such as water, vented to the containment structure by a port. The storage tank preferably is located inside the containment structure and is thermally coupleable to the reactor, e.g. by a heat exchanger, such that water in the storage tank is boiled off to carry away heat energy. The water is released as a vapor (steam) and condenses on the cooler interior surfaces of the containment structure. The condensed water flows downwardly due to gravity and is collected and routed back to the storage tank. One or more gutters are disposed along the interior wall of the containment structure for collecting the condensate from the wall. Piping is provided for communicating the condensate from the gutters to the storage tank. 3 figures.

  14. A probabilistic safety analysis of incidents in nuclear research reactors.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Valdir Maciel; Agostinho Angelo Sordi, Gian Maria; Moralles, Mauricio; Filho, Tufic Madi

    2012-06-01

    This work aims to evaluate the potential risks of incidents in nuclear research reactors. For its development, two databases of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) were used: the Research Reactor Data Base (RRDB) and the Incident Report System for Research Reactor (IRSRR). For this study, the probabilistic safety analysis (PSA) was used. To obtain the result of the probability calculations for PSA, the theory and equations in the paper IAEA TECDOC-636 were used. A specific program to analyse the probabilities was developed within the main program, Scilab 5.1.1. for two distributions, Fischer and chi-square, both with the confidence level of 90 %. Using Sordi equations, the maximum admissible doses to compare with the risk limits established by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) were obtained. All results achieved with this probability analysis led to the conclusion that the incidents which occurred had radiation doses within the stochastic effects reference interval established by the ICRP-64.

  15. Support arrangements for core modules of nuclear reactors. [PWR

    DOEpatents

    Bollinger, L.R.

    1983-11-03

    A support arrangement is provided for the core modules of a nuclear reactor which provides support access through the control drive mechanisms of the reactor. This arrangement provides axial support of individual reactor core modules from the pressure vessel head in a manner which permits attachment and detachment of the modules from the head to be accomplished through the control drive mechanisms after their leadscrews have been removed. The arrangement includes a module support nut which is suspended from the pressure vessel head and screw threaded to the shroud housing for the module. A spline lock prevents loosening of the screw connection. An installation tool assembly, including a cell lifting and preloading tool and a torquing tool, fits through the control drive mechanism and provides lifting of the shroud housing while disconnecting the spline lock, as well as application of torque to the module support nut.

  16. Passive heat-transfer means for nuclear reactors. [LMFBR

    DOEpatents

    Burelbach, J.P.

    1982-06-10

    An improved passive cooling arrangement is disclosed for maintaining adjacent or related components of a nuclear reactor within specified temperature differences. Specifically, heat pipes are operatively interposed between the components, with the vaporizing section of the heat pipe proximate the hot component operable to cool it and the primary condensing section of the heat pipe proximate the other and cooler component operable to heat it. Each heat pipe further has a secondary condensing section that is located outwardly beyond the reactor confinement and in a secondary heat sink, such as air ambient the containment, that is cooler than the other reactor component. By having many such heat pipes, an emergency passive cooling system is defined that is operative without electrical power.

  17. Collecting and recirculating condensate in a nuclear reactor containment

    DOEpatents

    Schultz, Terry L.

    1993-01-01

    An arrangement passively cools a nuclear reactor in the event of an emergency, condensing and recycling vaporized cooling water. The reactor is surrounded by a containment structure and has a storage tank for cooling liquid, such as water, vented to the containment structure by a port. The storage tank preferably is located inside the containment structure and is thermally coupleable to the reactor, e.g. by a heat exchanger, such that water in the storage tank is boiled off to carry away heat energy. The water is released as a vapor (steam) and condenses on the cooler interior surfaces of the containment structure. The condensed water flows downwardly due to gravity and is collected and routed back to the storage tank. One or more gutters are disposed along the interior wall of the containment structure for collecting the condensate from the wall. Piping is provided for communicating the condensate from the gutters to the storage tank.

  18. COMSOL-based Nuclear Reactor Kinetics Studies at the HFIR

    SciTech Connect

    Chandler, David; Freels, James D; Maldonado, G Ivan; Primm, Trent

    2011-01-01

    The computational ability to accurately predict the dynamic behavior of a nuclear reactor core in response to reactivity-induced perturbations is an important subject in reactor physics. Space-time and point kinetics methodologies were developed for the purpose of studying the transient-induced behavior of the High Flux Isotope Reactor s (HFIR) compact core. The space-time simulations employed the three-energy-group neutron diffusion equations, and transients initiated by control cylinder and hydraulic tube rabbit ejections were studied. The work presented here is the first step towards creating a comprehensive multiphysics methodology for studying the dynamic behavior of the HFIR core during reactivity perturbations. The results of these studies show that point kinetics is adequate for small perturbations in which the power distribution is assumed to be time-independent, but space-time methods must be utilized to determine localized effects.

  19. Advanced Space Nuclear Reactors from Fiction to Reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popa-Simil, L.

    The advanced nuclear power sources are used in a large variety of science fiction movies and novels, but their practical development is, still, in its early conceptual stages, some of the ideas being confirmed by collateral experiments. The novel reactor concept uses the direct conversion of nuclear energy into electricity, has electronic control of reactivity, being surrounded by a transmutation blanket and very thin shielding being small and light that at its very limit may be suitable to power an autonomously flying car. It also provides an improved fuel cycle producing minimal negative impact to environment. The key elements started to lose the fiction attributes, becoming viable actual concepts and goals for the developments to come, and on the possibility to achieve these objectives started to become more real because the theory shows that using the novel nano-technologies this novel reactor might be achievable in less than a century.

  20. Fission-Produced (99)Mo Without a Nuclear Reactor.

    PubMed

    Youker, Amanda J; Chemerisov, Sergey D; Tkac, Peter; Kalensky, Michael; Heltemes, Thad A; Rotsch, David A; Vandegrift, George F; Krebs, John F; Makarashvili, Vakho; Stepinski, Dominique C

    2017-03-01

    (99)Mo, the parent of the widely used medical isotope (99m)Tc, is currently produced by irradiation of enriched uranium in nuclear reactors. The supply of this isotope is encumbered by the aging of these reactors and concerns about international transportation and nuclear proliferation. Methods: We report results for the production of (99)Mo from the accelerator-driven subcritical fission of an aqueous solution containing low enriched uranium. The predominately fast neutrons generated by impinging high-energy electrons onto a tantalum convertor are moderated to thermal energies to increase fission processes. The separation, recovery, and purification of (99)Mo were demonstrated using a recycled uranyl sulfate solution. Conclusion: The (99)Mo yield and purity were found to be unaffected by reuse of the previously irradiated and processed uranyl sulfate solution. Results from a 51.8-GBq (99)Mo production run are presented.

  1. Systems and methods for dismantling a nuclear reactor

    DOEpatents

    Heim, Robert R; Adams, Scott Ryan; Cole, Matthew Denver; Kirby, William E; Linnebur, Paul Damon

    2014-10-28

    Systems and methods for dismantling a nuclear reactor are described. In one aspect the system includes a remotely controlled heavy manipulator ("manipulator") operatively coupled to a support structure, and a control station in a non-contaminated portion of a workspace. The support structure provides the manipulator with top down access into a bioshield of a nuclear reactor. At least one computing device in the control station provides remote control to perform operations including: (a) dismantling, using the manipulator, a graphite moderator, concrete walls, and a ceiling of the bioshield, the manipulator being provided with automated access to all internal portions of the bioshield; (b) loading, using the manipulator, contaminated graphite blocks from the graphite core and other components from the bioshield into one or more waste containers; and (c) dispersing, using the manipulator, dust suppression and contamination fixing spray to contaminated matter.

  2. Temperature measuring analysis of the nuclear reactor fuel assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Urban, F. E-mail: zdenko.zavodny@stuba.sk; Kučák, L. E-mail: zdenko.zavodny@stuba.sk; Bereznai, J. E-mail: zdenko.zavodny@stuba.sk; Závodný, Z. E-mail: zdenko.zavodny@stuba.sk; Muškát, P. E-mail: zdenko.zavodny@stuba.sk

    2014-08-06

    Study was based on rapid changes of measured temperature values from the thermocouple in the VVER 440 nuclear reactor fuel assembly. Task was to determine origin of fluctuations of the temperature values by experiments on physical model of the fuel assembly. During an experiment, heated water was circulating in the system and cold water inlet through central tube to record sensitivity of the temperature sensor. Two positions of the sensor was used. First, just above the central tube in the physical model fuel assembly axis and second at the position of the thermocouple in the VVER 440 nuclear reactor fuel assembly. Dependency of the temperature values on time are presented in the diagram form in the paper.

  3. Westinghouse Small Modular Reactor nuclear steam supply system design

    SciTech Connect

    Memmott, M. J.; Harkness, A. W.; Van Wyk, J.

    2012-07-01

    The Westinghouse Small Modular Reactor (SMR) is an 800 MWt (>225 MWe) integral pressurized water reactor (iPWR), in which all of the components typically associated with the nuclear steam supply system (NSSS) of a nuclear power plant are incorporated within a single reactor pressure vessel. This paper is the first in a series of four papers which describe the design and functionality of the Westinghouse SMR. Also described in this series are the key drivers influencing the design of the Westinghouse SMR and the unique passive safety features of the Westinghouse SMR. Several critical motivators contributed to the development and integration of the Westinghouse SMR design. These design driving motivators dictated the final configuration of the Westinghouse SMR to varying degrees, depending on the specific features under consideration. These design drivers include safety, economics, AP1000{sup R} reactor expertise and experience, research and development requirements, functionality of systems and components, size of the systems and vessels, simplicity of design, and licensing requirements. The Westinghouse SMR NSSS consists of an integral reactor vessel within a compact containment vessel. The core is located in the bottom of the reactor vessel and is composed of 89 modified Westinghouse 17x17 Robust Fuel Assemblies (RFA). These modified fuel assemblies have an active core length of only 2.4 m (8 ft) long, and the entirety of the core is encompassed by a radial reflector. The Westinghouse SMR core operates on a 24 month fuel cycle. The reactor vessel is approximately 24.4 m (80 ft) long and 3.7 m (12 ft) in diameter in order to facilitate standard rail shipping to the site. The reactor vessel houses hot and cold leg channels to facilitate coolant flow, control rod drive mechanisms (CRDM), instrumentation and cabling, an intermediate flange to separate flow and instrumentation and facilitate simpler refueling, a pressurizer, a straight tube, recirculating steam

  4. Testing piezoelectric sensors in a nuclear reactor environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinhardt, Brian T.; Suprock, Andy; Tittmann, Bernhard

    2017-02-01

    Several Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) programs, such as the Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCRD), Advanced Reactor Concepts (ARC), Light Water Reactor Sustainability, and Next Generation Nuclear Power Plants (NGNP), are investigating new fuels, materials, and inspection paradigms for advanced and existing reactors. A key objective of such programs is to understand the performance of these fuels and materials during irradiation. In DOE-NE's FCRD program, ultrasonic based technology was identified as a key approach that should be pursued to obtain the high-fidelity, high-accuracy data required to characterize the behavior and performance of new candidate fuels and structural materials during irradiation testing. The radiation, high temperatures, and pressure can limit the available tools and characterization methods. In this work piezoelectric transducers capable of making these measurements are developed. Specifically, three piezoelectric sensors (Bismuth Titanate, Aluminum Nitride, and Zinc Oxide) are tested in the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Research reactor to a fast neutron fluence of 8.65×1020 nf/cm2. It is demonstrated that Bismuth Titanate is capable of transduction up to 5 × 1020 nf/cm2, Zinc Oxide is capable of transduction up to at least 6.27 × 1020 nf/cm2, and Aluminum Nitride is capable of transduction up to at least 8.65 × 1020 nf/cm2.

  5. Variable flow control for a nuclear reactor control rod

    DOEpatents

    Carleton, Richard D.; Bhattacharyya, Ajay

    1978-01-01

    A variable flow control for a control rod assembly of a nuclear reactor that depends on turbulent friction though an annulus. The annulus is formed by a piston attached to the control rod drive shaft and a housing or sleeve fitted to the enclosure housing the control rod. As the nuclear fuel is burned up and the need exists for increased reactivity, the control rods are withdrawn, which increases the length of the annulus and decreases the rate of coolant flow through the control rod assembly.

  6. Systems aspects of a space nuclear reactor power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaffe, L.; Fujita, T.; Beatty, R.; Bhandari, P.; Chow, E.; Deininger, W.; Ewell, R.; Grossman, M.; Bloomfield, H.; Heller, J.

    1988-01-01

    Various system aspects of a 300-kW nuclear reactor power system for spacecraft have been investigated. Special attention is given to the cases of a reusable OTV and a space-based radar. It is demonstrated that the stowed length of the power system is important to mission design, and that orbital storage for months to years may be needed for missions involving orbital assembly.

  7. Fuel rod retention device for a nuclear reactor

    DOEpatents

    Hylton, Charles L.

    1984-01-01

    A device is described for supporting a nuclear fuel rod in a fuel rod assembly which allows the rod to be removed without disturbing other rods in the assembly. A fuel rod cap connects the rod to a bolt which is supported in the assembly end fitting by means of a locking assembly. The device is designed so that the bolt is held securely during normal reactor operation yet may be easily disengaged and the fuel rod removed when desired.

  8. Evaluation of nuclear-reactor-produced iodine-123

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blue, J. W.; Sodd, V. J.

    1976-01-01

    Iodine-123 has such great potential for nuclear medicine that all possible production methods should be considered. In this report, an experimental study related to I-123 production at a high-intensity fast-flux reactor using the reaction Xe-124(n,2n)Xe-123 is considered. The conclusion is that I-123 could be made in small quantities and the cost would be higher than the cyclotron methods presently used.

  9. FUEL ELEMENTS FOR THERMAL-FISSION NUCLEAR REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Flint, O.

    1961-01-10

    Fuel elements for thermal-fission nuclear reactors are described. The fuel element is comprised of a core of alumina, a film of a metal of the class consisting of copper, silver, and nickel on the outer face of the core, and a coating of an oxide of a metal isotope of the class consisting of Un/sup 235/, U/ sup 233/, and Pu/sup 239/ on the metal f ilm.

  10. Detachable connection for a nuclear reactor fuel assembly

    DOEpatents

    Christiansen, David W.; Karnesky, Richard A.

    1986-01-01

    A locking connection for releasably attaching a handling socket to the duct tube of a fuel assembly for a nuclear reactor. The connection comprises a load pad housing mechanically attached to the duct tube and a handling socket threadably secured within the housing. A retaining ring is interposed between the housing and the handling socket and is formed with a projection and depression engageable within a cavity and groove of the housing and handling socket, respectively, to form a detachable interlocked connection assembly.

  11. Detachable connection for a nuclear reactor fuel assembly

    DOEpatents

    Christiansen, D.W.; Karnesky, R.A.

    1983-08-29

    A locking connection for releasably attaching a handling socket to the duct tube of a fuel assembly for a nuclear reactor. The connection comprises a load pad housing mechanically attached to the duct tube and a handling socket threadably secured within the housing. A retaining ring is interposed between the housing and the handling socket and is formed with a projection and depression engagable within a cavity and groove of the housing and handling socket, respectively, to form a detachable interlocked connection assembly.

  12. Expert system for online surveillance of nuclear reactor coolant pumps

    DOEpatents

    Gross, Kenny C.; Singer, Ralph M.; Humenik, Keith E.

    1993-01-01

    An expert system for online surveillance of nuclear reactor coolant pumps. This system provides a means for early detection of pump or sensor degradation. Degradation is determined through the use of a statistical analysis technique, sequential probability ratio test, applied to information from several sensors which are responsive to differing physical parameters. The results of sequential testing of the data provide the operator with an early warning of possible sensor or pump failure.

  13. Neutron dose estimation in a zero power nuclear reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Triviño, S.; Vedelago, J.; Cantargi, F.; Keil, W.; Figueroa, R.; Mattea, F.; Chautemps, A.; Santibañez, M.; Valente, M.

    2016-10-01

    This work presents the characterization and contribution of neutron and gamma components to the absorbed dose in a zero power nuclear reactor. A dosimetric method based on Fricke gel was implemented to evaluate the separation between dose components in the mixed field. The validation of this proposed method was performed by means of direct measurements of neutron flux in different positions using Au and Mg-Ni activation foils. Monte Carlo simulations were conversely performed using the MCNP main code with a dedicated subroutine to incorporate the exact complete geometry of the nuclear reactor facility. Once nuclear fuel elements were defined, the simulations computed the different contributions to the absorbed dose in specific positions inside the core. Thermal/epithermal contributions of absorbed dose were assessed by means of Fricke gel dosimetry using different isotopic compositions aimed at modifying the sensitivity of the dosimeter for specific dose components. Clear distinctions between gamma and neutron capture dose were obtained. Both Monte Carlo simulations and experimental results provided reliable estimations about neutron flux rate as well as dose rate during the reactor operation. Simulations and experimental results are in good agreement in every positions measured and simulated in the core.

  14. Reactivity Control Schemes for Fast Spectrum Space Nuclear Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Craft, Aaron E.; King, Jeffrey C.

    2008-01-21

    Several different reactivity control schemes are considered for future space nuclear reactor power systems. Each of these control schemes uses a combination of boron carbide absorbers and/or beryllium oxide reflectors to achieve sufficient reactivity swing to keep the reactor subcritical during launch and to provide sufficient excess reactivity to operate the reactor over its expected 7-15 year lifetime. The size and shape of the control system directly impacts the size and mass of the space reactor's reflector and shadow shield, leading to a tradeoff between reactivity swing and total system mass. This paper presents a trade study of drum, shutter, and petal control schemes based on reactivity swing and mass effects for a representative fast-spectrum, gas-cooled reactor. For each control scheme, the dimensions and composition of the core are constant, and the reflector is sized to provide $5 of cold-clean excess reactivity with each configuration in its most reactive state. The advantages and disadvantages of each configuration are discussed, along with optimization techniques and novel geometric approaches for each scheme.

  15. Transcriptional regulation at the yeast nuclear envelope

    PubMed Central

    Steglich, Babett; Sazer, Shelley; Ekwall, Karl

    2013-01-01

    The spatial organization of the genome inside the nucleus affects many nuclear processes, such as DNA replication, DNA repair, and gene transcription. In metazoans, the nuclear periphery harbors mainly repressed genes that associate with the nuclear lamina. This review discusses how peripheral positioning is connected to transcriptional regulation in yeasts. Tethering of reporter genes to the nuclear envelope was found to result in transcriptional silencing. Similarly, repression of the silent mating type loci and subtelomeric genes is influenced by their position close to the nuclear envelope. In contrast, active genes are bound by nucleoporins and inducible genes associate with the nuclear pore complex upon activation. Taken together, these results portray the nuclear envelope as a platform for transcriptional regulation, both through activation at nuclear pores and silencing at the nuclear envelope. PMID:24021962

  16. 10 CFR 50.46 - Acceptance criteria for emergency core cooling systems for light-water nuclear power reactors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... light-water nuclear power reactors. 50.46 Section 50.46 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC... reactors. (a)(1)(i) Each boiling or pressurized light-water nuclear power reactor fueled with uranium oxide... evaluation model. This section does not apply to a nuclear power reactor facility for which...

  17. 10 CFR 50.60 - Acceptance criteria for fracture prevention measures for lightwater nuclear power reactors for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... lightwater nuclear power reactors for normal operation. 50.60 Section 50.60 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY... lightwater nuclear power reactors for normal operation. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, all light-water nuclear power reactors, other than reactor facilities for which...

  18. 10 CFR Appendix A to Part 110 - Illustrative List of Nuclear Reactor Equipment Under NRC Export Licensing Authority

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Illustrative List of Nuclear Reactor Equipment Under NRC... List of Nuclear Reactor Equipment Under NRC Export Licensing Authority Note—A nuclear reactor basically... nuclear reactor and capable of withstanding the operating pressure of the primary coolant. (2) On-line...

  19. 10 CFR 50.60 - Acceptance criteria for fracture prevention measures for lightwater nuclear power reactors for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... lightwater nuclear power reactors for normal operation. 50.60 Section 50.60 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY... lightwater nuclear power reactors for normal operation. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, all light-water nuclear power reactors, other than reactor facilities for which...

  20. 10 CFR 50.46 - Acceptance criteria for emergency core cooling systems for light-water nuclear power reactors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... light-water nuclear power reactors. 50.46 Section 50.46 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC... reactors. (a)(1)(i) Each boiling or pressurized light-water nuclear power reactor fueled with uranium oxide... evaluation model. This section does not apply to a nuclear power reactor facility for which...

  1. 10 CFR Appendix A to Part 110 - Illustrative List of Nuclear Reactor Equipment Under NRC Export Licensing Authority

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Illustrative List of Nuclear Reactor Equipment Under NRC... List of Nuclear Reactor Equipment Under NRC Export Licensing Authority Note—A nuclear reactor basically... nuclear reactor and capable of withstanding the operating pressure of the primary coolant. (2) On-line...

  2. 10 CFR 50.46 - Acceptance criteria for emergency core cooling systems for light-water nuclear power reactors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... light-water nuclear power reactors. 50.46 Section 50.46 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC... reactors. (a)(1)(i) Each boiling or pressurized light-water nuclear power reactor fueled with uranium oxide... evaluation model. This section does not apply to a nuclear power reactor facility for which...

  3. 10 CFR 50.46 - Acceptance criteria for emergency core cooling systems for light-water nuclear power reactors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... light-water nuclear power reactors. 50.46 Section 50.46 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC... reactors. (a)(1)(i) Each boiling or pressurized light-water nuclear power reactor fueled with uranium oxide... evaluation model. This section does not apply to a nuclear power reactor facility for which...

  4. 10 CFR 50.46 - Acceptance criteria for emergency core cooling systems for light-water nuclear power reactors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... light-water nuclear power reactors. 50.46 Section 50.46 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC... reactors. (a)(1)(i) Each boiling or pressurized light-water nuclear power reactor fueled with uranium oxide... evaluation model. This section does not apply to a nuclear power reactor facility for which...

  5. Nuclear fuel for liquid metal cooled nuclear reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Duncombe, E.; Adamson, J.; Gratton, C.P.

    1983-11-22

    In a cluster of nuclear fuel rods cooled by liquid metal an obstruction to coolant flow results in overheating in the wake of the obstruction. By the provision of open ended heat transfer tubes in the flow channels, a guaranteed supply of coolant is maintained and this supply holds the temperature to below saturation. Heat transfer via the tubes is highly efficient and ensures that a sufficient temperature rise occurs at the cluster exit to provoke a response from the outlet temperature transducer sensing average temperature.

  6. Nuclear track membranes: Production in nuclear reactors and prospects of application

    SciTech Connect

    Fursov, B.I.; Kryuchkov, E.A.; Mironov, N.N.

    1993-12-31

    Nuclear track membranes are produced by a physico-chemical treatment of polymeric films exposed to fission fragments in nuclear reactors or to heavy ion beams. Heavy charged particles form in the solids along their trajectories regions of high ionization density where polymer destruction takes place. Selective dissolution of damaged material converts the initial film into a microfiltration membrane with cylindrical through pores. The main feature of nuclear membranes are a small thickness and uniformity of pore size. The qualities of the nuclear membranes promise good prospects for applications in many areas.

  7. 76 FR 19148 - PSEG Nuclear, LLC, Hope Creek Generating Station and Salem Nuclear Generating Station, Units 1...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-06

    ..., Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Mail Stop O-11F1, Washington... Nuclear Reactor Regulation. BILLING CODE 7590-01-P ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR...

  8. 77 FR 8902 - Draft Regulatory Guide: Issuance, Availability Decommissioning of Nuclear Power Reactors

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-15

    ... COMMISSION Draft Regulatory Guide: Issuance, Availability Decommissioning of Nuclear Power Reactors AGENCY... ``Decommissioning of Nuclear Power Reactors.'' This guide describes a method NRC considers acceptable for use in decommissioning power reactors. DATES: Submit comments by April 16, 2012. Comments received after this date...

  9. Regulatory process for nuclear power reactors: A review

    SciTech Connect

    Ahearne, J.F.

    1999-08-01

    This report examines Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) operational practices and its regulation of nuclear plants. The report focuses on 13 issues that affect interactions among NRC, industry, and the public: Issues of implementation include safety philosophy, the assessment process, the inspection process, and the enforcement process; Emerging issues include decommissioning of nuclear plants, license transfer, license renewal, and the move toward risk-informed regulation; NRC processes include the license amendment process, the hearing process, petitions under 10 CFR 2.206, the rule-making process, and the backfit rule.

  10. The MAUS nuclear space reactor with ion propulsion system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mainardi, Enrico

    2006-06-01

    MAUS (Moltiplicatore Avanzato Ultracompatto Spaziale) is a nuclear reactor concept design capable to ensure a reliable, long-lasting, low-mass, compact energy supply needed for advanced, future space missions. The exploration of the solar system and the space beyond requires the development of nuclear energy generators for supplying electricity to space-bases, spacecrafts, probes or satellites, as well as for propelling ships in long space missions. For propulsion, the MAUS nuclear reactor could be used to power electric ion drive engines. An ion engine is able to build up to very high velocities, far greater than chemical propulsion systems, but has high power and long service requirements. The MAUS concept is described, together with the ion propulsion engine and together with the reference thermoionic process used to convert the thermal power into electricity. The design work has been performed at the Nuclear Engineering and Energy Conversion Department of the University of Rome "La Sapienza" starting from 1992 on an issue submitted by the Italian Space Agency (ASI), in cooperation with the research laboratories of ENEA.

  11. Research in nondestructive evaluation techniques for nuclear reactor concrete structures

    SciTech Connect

    Clayton, Dwight; Smith, Cyrus

    2014-02-18

    The purpose of the Materials Aging and Degradation (MAaD) Pathway of the Department of Energy's Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program is to develop the scientific basis for understanding and predicting longterm environmental degradation behavior of material in nuclear power plants and to provide data and methods to assess the performance of systems, structures, and components (SSCs) essential to safe and sustained nuclear power plant operations. The understanding of aging-related phenomena and their impacts on SSCs is expected to be a significant issue for any nuclear power plant planning for long-term operations (i.e. service beyond the initial license renewal period). Management of those phenomena and their impacts during long-term operations can be better enable by improved methods and techniques for detection, monitoring, and prediction of SSC degradation. The MAaD Pathway R and D Roadmap for Concrete, 'Light Water Reactor Sustainability Nondestructive Evaluation for Concrete Research and Development Roadmap', focused initial research efforts on understanding the recent concrete issues at nuclear power plants and identifying the availability of concrete samples for NDE techniques evaluation and testing. [1] An overview of the research performed by ORNL in these two areas is presented here.

  12. Research in nondestructive evaluation techniques for nuclear reactor concrete structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clayton, Dwight; Smith, Cyrus

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of the Materials Aging and Degradation (MAaD) Pathway of the Department of Energy's Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program is to develop the scientific basis for understanding and predicting longterm environmental degradation behavior of material in nuclear power plants and to provide data and methods to assess the performance of systems, structures, and components (SSCs) essential to safe and sustained nuclear power plant operations. The understanding of aging-related phenomena and their impacts on SSCs is expected to be a significant issue for any nuclear power plant planning for long-term operations (i.e. service beyond the initial license renewal period). Management of those phenomena and their impacts during long-term operations can be better enable by improved methods and techniques for detection, monitoring, and prediction of SSC degradation. The MAaD Pathway R&D Roadmap for Concrete, "Light Water Reactor Sustainability Nondestructive Evaluation for Concrete Research and Development Roadmap", focused initial research efforts on understanding the recent concrete issues at nuclear power plants and identifying the availability of concrete samples for NDE techniques evaluation and testing. [1] An overview of the research performed by ORNL in these two areas is presented here.

  13. Investigation of Thermal Hydraulics of a Nuclear Reactor Moderator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarchami, Araz

    A three-dimensional numerical modeling of the thermo hydraulics of Canadian Deuterium Uranium (CANDU) nuclear reactor is conducted. The moderator tank is a Pressurized heavy water reactor which uses heavy water as moderator in a cylindrical tank. The main use of the tank is to bring the fast neutrons to the thermal neutron energy levels. The moderator tank compromises of several bundled tubes containing nuclear rods immersed inside the heavy water. It is important to keep the water temperature in the moderator at sub-cooled conditions, to prevent potential failure due to overheating of the tubes. Because of difficulties in measuring flow characteristics and temperature conditions inside a real reactor moderator, tests are conducted using a scaled moderator in moderator test facility (MTF) by Chalk River Laboratories of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (CRL, AECL). MTF tests are conducted using heating elements to heat tube surfaces. This is different than the real reactor where nuclear radiation is the source of heating which results in a volumetric heating of the heavy water. The data recorded inside the MTF tank have shown levels of fluctuations in the moderator temperatures and requires in depth investigation of causes and effects. The purpose of the current investigation is to determine the causes for, and the nature of the moderator temperature fluctuations using three-dimensional simulation of MTF with both (surface heating and volumetric heating) modes. In addition, three dimensional simulation of full scale actual moderator tank with volumetric heating is conducted to investigate the effects of scaling on the temperature distribution. The numerical simulations are performed on a 24-processor cluster using parallel version of the FLUENT 12. During the transient simulation, 55 points of interest inside the tank are monitored for their temperature and velocity fluctuations with time.

  14. 77 FR 69506 - Exelon Generation Company, LLC., Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station; Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-19

    ... erroneous information. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: John G. Lamb, Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation.... For the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Michele G. Evans, Director, Division of Operating Reactor Licensing, Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation. BILLING CODE 7590-01-P...

  15. Method for passive cooling liquid metal cooled nuclear reactors, and system thereof

    DOEpatents

    Hunsbedt, Anstein; Busboom, Herbert J.

    1991-01-01

    A liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor having a passive cooling system for removing residual heat resulting from fuel decay during reactor shutdown. The passive cooling system comprises a plurality of partitions surrounding the reactor vessel in spaced apart relation forming intermediate areas for circulating heat transferring fluid which remove and carry away heat from the reactor vessel.

  16. Spectral Shift Absorbers for Fast Spectrum Space Nuclear Reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Jeffrey C.; El-Genk, Mohamed S.

    2005-02-01

    The space nuclear reactors being considered to support the Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO-1) mission-1 sometime in the next decade are compact and fast spectrum with void fractions ranging from 20-40%. In order to secure launch approval, it has to be demonstrated that these reactors will remain sufficiently subcritical when submerged in water or wet sand and subsequently flooded with water, following a launch abort accident. The resulting shift in the neutron spectrum towards thermal increases reactivity, potentially making the reactors supercritical. Incorporating ``Spectral Shift Absorbers'' (or SSAs), elements such as boron, europium, gadolinium or rhenium, which have significantly higher absorption cross-sections for thermal versus fast neutrons, can offset the reactivity increase. It has always been the assumption that the worst-case submersion accident is with a fully flooded reactor; however, this work shows that, depending on the type and amount of SSA in the reactor, a submerged but unflooded reactor core could be more reactive, raising a safety concern. This condition, referred to as ``reactivity inversion'', is investigated for the following SSA elements: boron, boron-10, samarium-149, europium, europium-151, gadolinium, gadolinium-155, gadolinium-157 and rhenium, by varying the ratio of SSA to fissile atoms in the reactor. The effect of placing a coating of SSA material on the outside of the reactor vessel is also investigated. Gadolinium-157 is the most effective SSA material investigated as a core additive, yielding the greatest increase in the safety worth of a submerged space reactor with a comparatively small decrease in excess reactivity. Samarium-149 yields a similar increase in safety worth, but with a much larger decrease in excess reactivity. Natural europium and gadolinium are also promising: however, the decrease in the excess reactivity is greater with europium than with gadolinium. Boron and boron-10 are not particularly attractive as

  17. Advanced nuclear reactor public opinion project. Interim report

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, B.

    1991-07-25

    This Interim Report summarizes the findings of our first twenty in-depth interviews in the Advanced Nuclear Reactor Public Opinion Project. We interviewed 6 industry trade association officials, 3 industry attorneys, 6 environmentalists/nuclear critics, 3 state officials, and 3 independent analysts. In addition, we have had numerous shorter discussions with various individuals concerned about nuclear power. The report is organized into the four categories proposed at our April, 1991, Advisory Group meeting: safety, cost-benefit analysis, science education, and communications. Within each category, some change of focus from that of the Advisory Group has been required, to reflect the findings of our interviews. This report limits itself to describing our findings. An accompanying memo draws some tentative conclusions.

  18. In-reactor testing of the closed cycle gas core reactor: The Nuclear Light Bulb concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauntt, R. O.; Slutz, S. A.; Harms, G. A.; Latham, T. S.; Roman, W. C.; Rodgers, R. J.

    1992-10-01

    The Nuclear Light Bulb (NLB) concept is an advanced closed cycle space propulsion rocket engine design that offers unprecidented performance characteristics in terms of specific impulse (greater than 1800 s) and thrust (greater than 445 kN). The NLB is a gas-core nuclear reactor making use of thermal radiation from a high temperature U-plasma core to heat the hydrogen propellant to very high temperatures (greater than 4000 K). Analyses performed in support of the design of in-reactor tests that are planned to be performed in the Annular Core Research Reactor (ACRR) at Sandia National Laboratories in order to demonstrate the technical feasibility of this advanced concept are described. The tests will examine the stability of a hydrodynamically confined fissioning U-plasma under steady and transient conditions. Testing will also involve study of propellant heating by thermal radiation from the plasma and materials performance in the nuclear environment of the NLB. The analyses presented include neutronic performance studies and U-plasma radiation heat-transport studies of small vortex-confined fissioning U-plasma experiments that are irradiated in the ACRE. These analyses indicate that high U-plasma temperatures (4000 to 9000 K) can be sustained in the ACRE for periods of time on the order of 5 to 20 s. These testing conditions are well suited to examine the stability and performance requirements necessary to demonstrate the feasibility of this concept.

  19. Flow instability in particle-bed nuclear reactors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerrebrock, Jack L.

    1993-01-01

    The particle-bed core offers mitigation of some of the problems of solid-core nuclear rocket reactors. Dividing the fuel elements into small spherical particles contained in a cylindrical bed through which the propellant flows radially, may reduce the thermal stress in the fuel elements, allowing higher propellant temperatures to be reached. The high temperature regions of the reactor are confined to the interior of cylindrical fuel assemblies, so most of the reactor can be relatively cool. This enables the use of structural and moderating materials which reduce the minimum critical size and mass of the reactor. One of the unresolved questions about this concept is whether the flow through the particle-bed will be well behaved, or will be subject to destructive flow instabilities. Most of the recent analyses of the stability of the particle-bed reactor have been extensions of the approach of Bussard and Delauer, where the bed is essentially treated as an array of parallel passages, so that the mass flow is continuous from inlet to outlet through any one passage. A more general three dimensional model of the bed is adopted, in which the fluid has mobility in three dimensions. Comparison of results of the earlier approach to the present one shows that the former does not accurately represent the stability at low Re. The more complete model presented should be capable of meeting this deficiency while accurately representing the effects of the cold and hot frits, and of heat conduction and radiation in the particle-bed. It can be extended to apply to the cylindrical geometry of particle-bed reactors without difficulty. From the exemplary calculations which were carried out, it can be concluded that a particle-bed without a cold frit would be subject to instability if operated at the high temperatures desired for nuclear rockets, and at power densities below about 4 megawatts per liter. Since the desired power density is about 40 megawatts per liter, it can be concluded

  20. Nuclear reactor power for an electrically powered orbital transfer vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaffe, L.; Beatty, R.; Bhandari, P.; Chow, E.; Deininger, W.; Ewell, R.; Fujita, T.; Grossman, M.; Kia, T.; Nesmith, B.

    1987-01-01

    To help determine the systems requirements for a 300-kWe space nuclear reactor power system, a mission and spacecraft have been examined which utilize electric propulsion and this nuclear reactor power for multiple transfers of cargo between low earth orbit (LEO) and geosynchronous earth orbit (GEO). A propulsion system employing ion thrusters and xenon propellant was selected. Propellant and thrusters are replaced after each sortie to GEO. The mass of the Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OTV), empty and dry, is 11,000 kg; nominal propellant load is 5000 kg. The OTV operates between a circular orbit at 925 km altitude, 28.5 deg inclination, and GEO. Cargo is brought to the OTV by Shuttle and an Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV); the OTV then takes it to GEO. The OTV can also bring cargo back from GEO, for transfer by OMV to the Shuttle. OTV propellant is resupplied and the ion thrusters are replaced by the OMV before each trip to GEO. At the end of mission life, the OTV's electric propulsion is used to place it in a heliocentric orbit so that the reactor will not return to earth. The nominal cargo capability to GEO is 6000 kg with a transit time of 120 days; 1350 kg can be transferred in 90 days, and 14,300 kg in 240 days. These capabilities can be considerably increased by using separate Shuttle launches to bring up propellant and cargo, or by changing to mercury propellant.

  1. Operating margin of Soviet RBMK-1000 nuclear power reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, J.M.; Robinson, G.E. . Dept. of Nuclear Engineering); Hochreiter, L.E. )

    1991-12-01

    This paper reports on a coupled thermal- hydraulic analysis that is performed for the Soviet-designed RBMK-1000 nuclear power reactor to assess the operating margin to critical heat flux (CHF); the Chernobyl-4 reactor serves as the principal model for this study. Calculations are performed using a simplified subchannel analysis. The overall analysis involves an iterative search to determine the individual subchannel flow rates, and a boiling transition analysis is performed to obtain a measure of the core operating margin. The operating margin is determined via two distinct methods. The first involves a calculation of the core critical power ratio (CPR) using an empirically derived correlation that the Soviets developed expressly for the RBMK-1000. Additionally, various subchannel CHF correlations typical of those used in the design of nuclear-powered reactors in the United States are also employed. When the Soviet critical power correlation is used, the calculations carried out for both normal operating and reference overpower conditions result in CPRs of 1.115 and 1.019, respectively. In most cases, the subchannel CHF correlations indicate that additional operating margin over that calculated by the Soviet critical power correlation exists for this design.

  2. Development of Improved Burnable Poisons for Commercial Nuclear Power Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    M. L. Grossbeck J-P.A. Renier Tim Bigelow

    2003-09-30

    Burnable poisons are used in nuclear reactors to produce a more level distribution of power in the reactor core and to reduce to necessity for a large control system. An ideal burnable poison would burn at the same rate as the fuel. In this study, separation of neutron-absorbing isotopes was investigated in order to eliminate isotopes that remain as absorbers at the end of fuel life, thus reducing useful fuel life. The isotopes Gd-157, Dy-164, and Er-167 were found to have desirable properties. These isotopes were separated from naturally occurring elements by means of plasma separation to evaluate feasibility and cost. It was found that pure Gd-157 could save approximately $6 million at the end of four years. However, the cost of separation, using the existing facility, made separation cost- ineffective. Using a magnet with three times the field strength is expected to reduce the cost by a factor of ten, making isotopically separated burnable poisons a favorable method of increasing fuel life in commercial reactors, in particular Generation-IV reactors. The project also investigated various burnable poison configurations, and studied incorporation of metallic burnable poisons into fuel cladding.

  3. Monitoring system for a liquid-cooled nuclear fission reactor

    DOEpatents

    DeVolpi, Alexander

    1987-01-01

    A monitoring system for detecting changes in the liquid levels in various regions of a water-cooled nuclear power reactor, viz., in the downcomer, in the core, in the inlet and outlet plenums, at the head, and elsewhere; and also for detecting changes in the density of the liquid in these regions. A plurality of gamma radiation detectors are used, arranged vertically along the outside of the reactor vessel, and collimator means for each detector limits the gamma-radiation it receives as emitting from only isolated regions of the vessel. Excess neutrons produced by the fission reaction will be captured by the water coolant, by the steel reactor walls, or by the fuel or control structures in the vessel. Neutron capture by steel generates gamma radiation having an energy level of the order of 5-12 MeV, whereas neutron capture by water provides an energy level of approximately 2.2 MeV, and neutron capture by the fission fuel or its cladding provides an energy level of 1 MeV or less. The intensity of neutron capture thus changes significantly at any water-metal interface. Comparative analysis of adjacent gamma detectors senses changes from the normal condition with liquid coolant present to advise of changes in the presence and/or density of the coolant at these specific regions. The gamma detectors can also sense fission-product gas accumulation at the reactor head to advise of a failure of fuel-pin cladding.

  4. Commercial US nuclear reactors and waste: the current status

    SciTech Connect

    Platt, A.M.; Robinson, J.V.

    1980-09-01

    Between March 1 and June 15, 1980, the declared size of the commercial light waste reactor (LWR) nuclear power industry in the US has decreased another 9 GWe. For the presently declared size: the 165 declared reactors will peak at a capacity of 153 GWe in 2001 and will consume about 870,000 MTU as enrichment feed; the theoretical rate of enrichment requirements will peak at about 19,000,000 SWUs/y in the year 2014; as few as two repositories each with capacity equivalent to 100,000 MTU would hold the waste; and predisposal storage reactor basins and AFRs (away-from-reactor basins) would peak at <85,000 MTU in the year 2020 if the two respositories were commissioned in the years 1997 and 2020. It should be noted that the number of declared LWRs has dropped from 226 on December 31, 1974 to 165 as of this writing. The oil equivalent of the energy loss, assuming a 50% efficiency in use as in cars, is 17,000 million barrels. This is about 10 years of the current rate of US consumption of OPEC oil.

  5. Development of an automated core model for nuclear reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Mosteller, R.D.

    1998-12-31

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The objective of this project was to develop an automated package of computer codes that can model the steady-state behavior of nuclear-reactor cores of various designs. As an added benefit, data produced for steady-state analysis also can be used as input to the TRAC transient-analysis code for subsequent safety analysis of the reactor at any point in its operating lifetime. The basic capability to perform steady-state reactor-core analysis already existed in the combination of the HELIOS lattice-physics code and the NESTLE advanced nodal code. In this project, the automated package was completed by (1) obtaining cross-section libraries for HELIOS, (2) validating HELIOS by comparing its predictions to results from critical experiments and from the MCNP Monte Carlo code, (3) validating NESTLE by comparing its predictions to results from numerical benchmarks and to measured data from operating reactors, and (4) developing a linkage code to transform HELIOS output into NESTLE input.

  6. Reactor Vessel and Reactor Vessel Internals Segmentation at Zion Nuclear Power Station - 13230

    SciTech Connect

    Cooke, Conrad; Spann, Holger

    2013-07-01

    Zion Nuclear Power Station (ZNPS) is a dual-unit Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) nuclear power plant located on the Lake Michigan shoreline, in the city of Zion, Illinois approximately 64 km (40 miles) north of Chicago, Illinois and 67 km (42 miles) south of Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Each PWR is of the Westinghouse design and had a generation capacity of 1040 MW. Exelon Corporation operated both reactors with the first unit starting production of power in 1973 and the second unit coming on line in 1974. The operation of both reactors ceased in 1996/1997. In 2010 the Nuclear Regulatory Commission approved the transfer of Exelon Corporation's license to ZionSolutions, the Long Term Stewardship subsidiary of EnergySolutions responsible for the decommissioning of ZNPS. In October 2010, ZionSolutions awarded Siempelkamp Nuclear Services, Inc. (SNS) the contract to plan, segment, remove, and package both reactor vessels and their respective internals. This presentation discusses the tools employed by SNS to remove and segment the Reactor Vessel Internals (RVI) and Reactor Vessels (RV) and conveys the recent progress. SNS's mechanical segmentation tooling includes the C-HORCE (Circumferential Hydraulically Operated Cutting Equipment), BMT (Bolt Milling Tool), FaST (Former Attachment Severing Tool) and the VRS (Volume Reduction Station). Thermal segmentation of the reactor vessels will be accomplished using an Oxygen- Propane cutting system. The tools for internals segmentation were designed by SNS using their experience from other successful reactor and large component decommissioning and demolition (D and D) projects in the US. All of the designs allow for the mechanical segmentation of the internals remotely in the water-filled reactor cavities. The C-HORCE is designed to saw seven circumferential cuts through the Core Barrel and Thermal Shield walls with individual thicknesses up to 100 mm (4 inches). The BMT is designed to remove the bolts that fasten the Baffle Plates to

  7. 10 CFR 50.36a - Technical specifications on effluents from nuclear power reactors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... reactors. 50.36a Section 50.36a Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING OF PRODUCTION AND...; Ineligibility of Certain Applicants § 50.36a Technical specifications on effluents from nuclear power reactors..., including expected occurrences, as low as is reasonably achievable, each licensee of a nuclear power...

  8. 10 CFR 50.36a - Technical specifications on effluents from nuclear power reactors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... reactors. 50.36a Section 50.36a Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING OF PRODUCTION AND...; Ineligibility of Certain Applicants § 50.36a Technical specifications on effluents from nuclear power reactors..., including expected occurrences, as low as is reasonably achievable, each licensee of a nuclear power...

  9. 10 CFR 50.44 - Combustible gas control for nuclear power reactors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Combustible gas control for nuclear power reactors. 50.44 Section 50.44 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING OF PRODUCTION AND UTILIZATION... for nuclear power reactors. (a) Definitions—(1) Inerted atmosphere means a containment atmosphere...

  10. 10 CFR 50.44 - Combustible gas control for nuclear power reactors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Combustible gas control for nuclear power reactors. 50.44 Section 50.44 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING OF PRODUCTION AND UTILIZATION... for nuclear power reactors. (a) Definitions—(1) Inerted atmosphere means a containment atmosphere...

  11. 10 CFR 50.44 - Combustible gas control for nuclear power reactors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Combustible gas control for nuclear power reactors. 50.44 Section 50.44 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING OF PRODUCTION AND UTILIZATION... for nuclear power reactors. (a) Definitions—(1) Inerted atmosphere means a containment atmosphere...

  12. 10 CFR 50.36a - Technical specifications on effluents from nuclear power reactors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... reactors. 50.36a Section 50.36a Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING OF PRODUCTION AND...; Ineligibility of Certain Applicants § 50.36a Technical specifications on effluents from nuclear power reactors..., including expected occurrences, as low as is reasonably achievable, each licensee of a nuclear power...

  13. 76 FR 74630 - Making Changes to Emergency Plans for Nuclear Power Reactors

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION 10 CFR Parts 50 and 52 RIN 3150-AI10 Making Changes to Emergency Plans for Nuclear Power Reactors... Emergency Plans for Nuclear Power Reactors.'' This guide describes a method that the NRC staff...

  14. Thermal barrier and support for nuclear reactor fuel core

    DOEpatents

    Betts, Jr., William S.; Pickering, J. Larry; Black, William E.

    1987-01-01

    A thermal barrier/core support for the fuel core of a nuclear reactor having a metallic cylinder secured to the reactor vessel liner and surrounded by fibrous insulation material. A top cap is secured to the upper end of the metallic cylinder that locates and orients a cover block and post seat. Under normal operating conditions, the metallic cylinder supports the entire load exerted by its associated fuel core post. Disposed within the metallic cylinder is a column of ceramic material, the height of which is less than that of the metallic cylinder, and thus is not normally load bearing. In the event of a temperature excursion beyond the design limits of the metallic cylinder and resulting in deformation of the cylinder, the ceramic column will abut the top cap to support the fuel core post.

  15. Pressurized water nuclear reactor system with hot leg vortex mitigator

    DOEpatents

    Lau, Louis K. S.

    1990-01-01

    A pressurized water nuclear reactor system includes a vortex mitigator in the form of a cylindrical conduit between the hot leg conduit and a first section of residual heat removal conduit, which conduit leads to a pump and a second section of residual heat removal conduit leading back to the reactor pressure vessel. The cylindrical conduit is of such a size that where the hot leg has an inner diameter D.sub.1, the first section has an inner diameter D.sub.2, and the cylindrical conduit or step nozzle has a length L and an inner diameter of D.sub.3 ; D.sub.3 /D.sub.1 is at least 0.55, D.sub.2 is at least 1.9, and L/D.sub.3 is at least 1.44, whereby cavitation of the pump by a vortex formed in the hot leg is prevented.

  16. SUPPORT DEVICE FOR USE IN A NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Greenhalgh, F.G.; Long, E.

    1959-03-10

    A shock absorbing support device for fuel elements in a nuclear reactor is described. The device is adapted to support a column of moderator material on a lower support plate of a reactor structure and to axially locate the column of moderator with respect to the coolant fluid entry port in the support plate. Located centrally of the device is a vestically extending shaft member telescopingly engaged at its lower end with a tubular member and connected to the tubular member by a shear pin. Below the shear pin embedded in the end of the shaft member are blade members which are adapted to cut into the side of the tubular member in the went the shear pin is destroyed by the impact or a falling fuel element. The cutting action of the blades in the tube absorbes the shock of the fallen element.

  17. Retrievable fuel pin end member for a nuclear reactor

    DOEpatents

    Rosa, Jerry M.

    1982-01-01

    A bottom end member (17b) on a retrievable fuel pin (13b) secures the pin (13b) within a nuclear reactor (12) by engaging on a transverse attachment rail (18) with a spring clip type of action. Removal and reinstallation if facilitated as only axial movement of the fuel pin (13b) is required for either operation. A pair of resilient axially extending blades (31) are spaced apart to define a slot (24) having a seat region (34) which receives the rail (18) and having a land region (37), closer to the tips (39) of the blades (31) which is normally of less width than the rail (18). Thus an axially directed force sufficient to wedge the resilient blades (31) apart is required to emplace or release the fuel pin (13b) such force being greater than the axial forces on the fuel pins (13b) which occur during operation of the reactor (12).

  18. Summary of space nuclear reactor power systems, 1983--1992

    SciTech Connect

    Buden, D.

    1993-08-11

    This report summarizes major developments in the last ten years which have greatly expanded the space nuclear reactor power systems technology base. In the SP-100 program, after a competition between liquid-metal, gas-cooled, thermionic, and heat pipe reactors integrated with various combinations of thermoelectric thermionic, Brayton, Rankine, and Stirling energy conversion systems, three concepts:were selected for further evaluation. In 1985, the high-temperature (1,350 K), lithium-cooled reactor with thermoelectric conversion was selected for full scale development. Since then, significant progress has been achieved including the demonstration of a 7-y-life uranium nitride fuel pin. Progress on the lithium-cooled reactor with thermoelectrics has progressed from a concept, through a generic flight system design, to the design, development, and testing of specific components. Meanwhile, the USSR in 1987--88 orbited a new generation of nuclear power systems beyond the, thermoelectric plants on the RORSAT satellites. The US has continued to advance its own thermionic fuel element development, concentrating on a multicell fuel element configuration. Experimental work has demonstrated a single cell operating time of about 1 1/2-y. Technology advances have also been made in the Stirling engine; an advanced engine that operates at 1,050 K is ready for testing. Additional concepts have been studied and experiments have been performed on a variety of systems to meet changing needs; such as powers of tens-to-hundreds of megawatts and highly survivable systems of tens-of-kilowatts power.

  19. A combined gas cooled nuclear reactor and fuel cell cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmer, David J.

    Rising oil costs, global warming, national security concerns, economic concerns and escalating energy demands are forcing the engineering communities to explore methods to address these concerns. It is the intention of this thesis to offer a proposal for a novel design of a combined cycle, an advanced nuclear helium reactor/solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) plant that will help to mitigate some of the above concerns. Moreover, the adoption of this proposal may help to reinvigorate the Nuclear Power industry while providing a practical method to foster the development of a hydrogen economy. Specifically, this thesis concentrates on the importance of the U.S. Nuclear Navy adopting this novel design for its nuclear electric vessels of the future with discussion on efficiency and thermodynamic performance characteristics related to the combined cycle. Thus, the goals and objectives are to develop an innovative combined cycle that provides a solution to the stated concerns and show that it provides superior performance. In order to show performance, it is necessary to develop a rigorous thermodynamic model and computer program to analyze the SOFC in relation with the overall cycle. A large increase in efficiency over the conventional pressurized water reactor cycle is realized. Both sides of the cycle achieve higher efficiencies at partial loads which is extremely important as most naval vessels operate at partial loads as well as the fact that traditional gas turbines operating alone have poor performance at reduced speeds. Furthermore, each side of the cycle provides important benefits to the other side. The high temperature exhaust from the overall exothermic reaction of the fuel cell provides heat for the reheater allowing for an overall increase in power on the nuclear side of the cycle. Likewise, the high temperature helium exiting the nuclear reactor provides a controllable method to stabilize the fuel cell at an optimal temperature band even during transients helping

  20. Physical particularities of nuclear reactors using heavy moderators of neutrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulikov, G. G.; Shmelev, A. N.

    2016-12-01

    In nuclear reactors, thermal neutron spectra are formed using moderators with small atomic weights. For fast reactors, inserting such moderators in the core may create problems since they efficiently decelerate the neutrons. In order to form an intermediate neutron spectrum, it is preferable to employ neutron moderators with sufficiently large atomic weights, using 233U as a fissile nuclide and 232Th and 231Pa as fertile ones. The aim of the work is to investigate the properties of heavy neutron moderators and to assess their advantages. The analysis employs the JENDL-4.0 nuclear data library and the SCALE program package for simulating the variation of fuel composition caused by irradiation in the reactor. The following main results are obtained. By using heavy moderators with small neutron moderation steps, one is able to (1) increase the rate of resonance capture, so that the amount of fertile material in the fuel may be reduced while maintaining the breeding factor of the core; (2) use the vacant space for improving the fuel-element properties by adding inert, strong, and thermally conductive materials and by implementing dispersive fuel elements in which the fissile material is self-replenished and neutron multiplication remains stable during the process of fuel burnup; and (3) employ mixtures of different fertile materials with resonance capture cross sections in order to increase the resonance-lattice density and the probability of resonance neutron capture leading to formation of fissile material. The general conclusion is that, by forming an intermediate neutron spectrum with heavy neutron moderators, one can use the fuel more efficiently and improve nuclear safety.

  1. Quality management in BNCT at a nuclear research reactor.

    PubMed

    Sauerwein, Wolfgang; Moss, Raymond; Stecher-Rasmussen, Finn; Rassow, Jürgen; Wittig, Andrea

    2011-12-01

    Each medical intervention must be performed respecting Health Protection directives, with special attention to Quality Assurance (QA) and Quality Control (QC). This is the basis of safe and reliable treatments. BNCT must apply QA programs as required for performance and safety in (conventional) radiotherapy facilities, including regular testing of performance characteristics (QC). Furthermore, the well-established Quality Management (QM) system of the nuclear reactor used has to be followed. Organization of these complex QM procedures is offered by the international standard ISO 9001:2008.

  2. Nuclear reactor containment structure with continuous ring tunnel at grade

    DOEpatents

    Seidensticker, Ralph W.; Knawa, Robert L.; Cerutti, Bernard C.; Snyder, Charles R.; Husen, William C.; Coyer, Robert G.

    1977-01-01

    A nuclear reactor containment structure which includes a reinforced concrete shell, a hemispherical top dome, a steel liner, and a reinforced-concrete base slab supporting the concrete shell is constructed with a substantial proportion thereof below grade in an excavation made in solid rock with the concrete poured in contact with the rock and also includes a continuous, hollow, reinforced-concrete ring tunnel surrounding the concrete shell with its top at grade level, with one wall integral with the reinforced concrete shell, and with at least the base of the ring tunnel poured in contact with the rock.

  3. Fuel subassembly leak test chamber for a nuclear reactor

    DOEpatents

    Divona, Charles J.

    1978-04-04

    A container with a valve at one end is inserted into a nuclear reactor coolant pool. Once in the pool, the valve is opened by a mechanical linkage. An individual fuel subassembly is lifted into the container by a gripper; the valve is then closed providing an isolated chamber for the subassembly. A vacuum is drawn on the chamber to encourage gaseous fission product leakage through any defects in the cladding of the fuel rods comprising the subassembly; this leakage may be detected by instrumentation, and the need for replacement of the assembly ascertained.

  4. Nuclear safety as applied to space power reactor systems

    SciTech Connect

    Cummings, G.E.

    1987-01-01

    To develop a strategy for incorporating and demonstrating safety, it is necessary to enumerate the unique aspects of space power reactor systems from a safety standpoint. These features must be differentiated from terrestrial nuclear power plants so that our experience can be applied properly. Some ideas can then be developed on how safe designs can be achieved so that they are safe and perceived to be safe by the public. These ideas include operating only after achieving a stable orbit, developing an inherently safe design, ''designing'' in safety from the start and managing the system development (design) so that it is perceived safe. These and other ideas are explored further in this paper.

  5. High pressure, high-temperature vessel, especially for nuclear reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Mitterbacher, P.; Schoning, J.; Schwiers, H.G.

    1980-09-23

    A pressure vessel susceptible to high temperatures, especially for containment of a nuclear-reactor core, is constituted of a cylindrical shell from a cast material such as cast steel, cast iron or concrete, and is prestressed by vertical cables which extend parallel to generatrices of the shell. Peripheral (Circumferential) prestressing cables are provided around the shell which can be externally insulated. The peripheral tensioning cables are exposed externally of the insulation material and bear upon the shell of the vessel with heatresistant elements of high compressive strength which extend through the external insulation.

  6. Nuclear reactor fuel element with vanadium getter on cladding

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Carl E.; Carroll, Kenneth G.

    1977-01-01

    A nuclear reactor fuel element is described which has an outer cladding, a central core of fissionable or mixed fissionable and fertile fuel material and a layer of vanadium as an oxygen getter on the inner surface of the cladding. The vanadium reacts with oxygen released by the fissionable material during irradiation of the core to prevent the oxygen from reacting with and corroding the cladding. Also described is a method for coating the inner surface of small diameter tubes of cladding with a layer of vanadium.

  7. Radioactive fallout from the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident

    SciTech Connect

    Beiriger, J.M.; Failor, R.A.; Marsh, K.V.; Shaw, G.E.

    1987-03-23

    Following the accident at the nuclear reactor at Chernobyl, in the Soviet Union on April 26, 1986, we performed a variety of measurements to determine the level of the radioactive fallout on the western United States. We used gamma-spectroscopy to analyze air filters from the areas around Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), California, and Barrow and Fairbanks, Alaska. Milk from California and imported vegetables were also analyzed. The levels of the various fission products detected were far below the maximum permissible concentration levels.

  8. Nuclear reactor remote disconnect control rod coupling indicator

    DOEpatents

    Vuckovich, Michael

    1977-01-01

    A coupling indicator for use with nuclear reactor control rod assemblies which have remotely disengageable couplings between the control rod and the control rod drive shaft. The coupling indicator indicates whether the control rod and the control rod drive shaft are engaged or disengaged. A resistive network, utilizing magnetic reed switches, senses the position of the control rod drive mechanism lead screw and the control rod position indicating tube, and the relative position of these two elements with respect to each other is compared to determine whether the coupling is engaged or disengaged.

  9. FABRICATION OF TUBE TYPE FUEL ELEMENT FOR NUCLEAR REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Loeb, E.; Nicklas, J.H.

    1959-02-01

    A method of fabricating a nuclear reactor fuel element is given. It consists essentially of fixing two tubes in concentric relationship with respect to one another to provide an annulus therebetween, filling the annulus with a fissionablematerial-containing powder, compacting the powder material within the annulus and closing the ends thereof. The powder material is further compacted by swaging the inner surface of the inner tube to increase its diameter while maintaining the original size of the outer tube. This process results in reduced fabrication costs of powdered fissionable material type fuel elements and a substantial reduction in the peak core temperatures while materially enhancing the heat removal characteristics.

  10. DIRECT-CYCLE, BOILING-WATER NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Harrer, J.M.; Fromm, L.W. Jr.; Kolba, V.M.

    1962-08-14

    A direct-cycle boiling-water nuclear reactor is described that employs a closed vessel and a plurality of fuel assemblies, each comprising an outer tube closed at its lower end, an inner tube, fuel rods in the space between the tubes and within the inner tube. A body of water lying within the pressure vessel and outside the fuel assemblies is converted to saturated steam, which enters each fuel assembly at the top and is converted to superheated steam in the fuel assembly while it is passing therethrough first downward through the space between the inner and outer tubes of the fuel assembly and then upward through the inner tube. (AEC)

  11. Reactor Subsystem Simulation for Nuclear Hybrid Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Shannon Bragg-Sitton; J. Michael Doster; Alan Rominger

    2012-09-01

    Preliminary system models have been developed by Idaho National Laboratory researchers and are currently being enhanced to assess integrated system performance given multiple sources (e.g., nuclear + wind) and multiple applications (i.e., electricity + process heat). Initial efforts to integrate a Fortran-based simulation of a small modular reactor (SMR) with the balance of plant model have been completed in FY12. This initial effort takes advantage of an existing SMR model developed at North Carolina State University to provide initial integrated system simulation for a relatively low cost. The SMR subsystem simulation details are discussed in this report.

  12. THE INDIUM-GALLIUM RADIATION LOOP OF THE IRT NUCLEAR REACTOR,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    NUCLEAR REACTORS, *ISOTOPES), (*INDIUM, *GALLIUM), GAMMA RAYS, NEUTRONS, INTERMETALLIC COMPOUNDS, ALUMINUM, SHIELDING, GENERATORS, EUTECTICS, ARGON, OXALIC ACID , ELECTROMAGNETIC PUMPS, HALF LIFE, HEAT TRANSFER

  13. 76 FR 11521 - Prairie Island Nuclear Generating Plant, Unit 1, Northern States Power Company-Minnesota; Notice...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-02

    ... CONTACT: Thomas J. Wengert, Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission..., Plant Licensing Branch III-1, Division of Operating Reactor Licensing, Office of Nuclear Reactor... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR...

  14. Means for supporting fuel elements in a nuclear reactor

    DOEpatents

    Andrews, Harry N.; Keller, Herbert W.

    1980-01-01

    A grid structure for a nuclear reactor fuel assembly comprising a plurality of connecting members forming at least one longitudinally extending opening peripheral and inner fuel element openings through each of which openings at least one nuclear fuel element extends, said connecting members forming wall means surrounding said each peripheral and inner fuel element opening, a pair of rigid projections longitudinally spaced from one another extending from a portion of said wall means into said each peripheral and inner opening for rigidly engaging said each fuel element, respectively, yet permit individual longitudinal slippage thereof, and resilient means formed integrally on and from said wall means and positioned in said each peripheral and inner opening in opposed relationship with said projections and located to engage said fuel element to bias the latter into engagement with said rigid projections, respectively

  15. Monitoring nuclear reactors for safeguards purposes using anti-neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carroll, J.; Coleman, J.; Lockwood, M.; Metelko, C.; Murdoch, M.; Touramanis, C.; Davies, G.; Roberts, A.

    2015-04-01

    Preventing nuclear proliferation is a high priority for the international community. Monitoring of nuclear facilities to detect unauthorised removal of fissile materials from operational cores is central to this. Neutrino detection devices can be used to remotely monitor the core of operating reactors in a safe, reliable manner. Technology developed for the T2K experiment can be adapted to make a small footprint, reliable, anti-neutrino detector. Through, characterisation of the anti-neutrino spectrum there is a possibility to provide core material accountancy. A prototype of such a device has been developed and demonstrated at the University of Liverpool. Based on the design of the T2K Near Detector Calorimeter, the device will detect anti-neutrinos through the distinctive delayed coincidence signal of inverse beta decay interactions. This poster presented data from detector commissioning. The detector is currently deployed at Wylfa power station, UK for field testing.

  16. A cermet fuel reactor for nuclear thermal propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kruger, Gordon

    1991-01-01

    Work on the cermet fuel reactor done in the 1960's by General Electric (GE) and the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) that had as its goal the development of systems that could be used for nuclear rocket propulsion as well as closed cycle propulsion system designs for ship propulsion, space nuclear propulsion, and other propulsion systems is reviewed. It is concluded that the work done in the 1960's has demonstrated that we can have excellent thermal and mechanical performance with cermet fuel. Thousands of hours of testing were performed on the cermet fuel at both GE and AGL, including very rapid transients and some radiation performance history. We conclude that there are no feasibility issues with cermet fuel. What is needed is reactivation of existing technology and qualification testing of a specific fuel form. We believe this can be done with a minimum development risk.

  17. Analysis of nuclear reactor instability phenomena. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Lahey, R.T. Jr.

    1993-03-01

    The phenomena known as density-wave instability often occurs in phase change systems, such as boiling water nuclear reactors (BWRS). Our current understanding of density-wave oscillations is in fairly good shape for linear phenomena (eg, the onset of instabilities) but is not very advanced for non-linear phenomena [Lahey and Podowski, 1989]. In particular, limit cycle and chaotic instability modes are not well understood in boiling systems such as current and advanced generation BWRs (eg, SBWR). In particular, the SBWR relies on natural circulation and is thus inherently prone to problems with density-wave instabilities. The purpose of this research is to develop a quantitative understanding of nonlinear nuclear-coupled density-wave instability phenomena in BWRS. This research builds on the work of Achard et al [1985] and Clausse et al [1991] who showed, respectively, that Hopf bifurcations and chaotic oscillations may occur in boiling systems.

  18. High-intensity power-resolved radiation imaging of an operational nuclear reactor.

    PubMed

    Beaumont, Jonathan S; Mellor, Matthew P; Villa, Mario; Joyce, Malcolm J

    2015-10-09

    Knowledge of the neutron distribution in a nuclear reactor is necessary to ensure the safe and efficient burnup of reactor fuel. Currently these measurements are performed by in-core systems in what are extremely hostile environments and in most reactor accident scenarios it is likely that these systems would be damaged. Here we present a compact and portable radiation imaging system with the ability to image high-intensity fast-neutron and gamma-ray fields simultaneously. This system has been deployed to image radiation fields emitted during the operation of a TRIGA test reactor allowing a spatial visualization of the internal reactor conditions to be obtained. The imaged flux in each case is found to scale linearly with reactor power indicating that this method may be used for power-resolved reactor monitoring and for the assay of ongoing nuclear criticalities in damaged nuclear reactors.

  19. High-intensity power-resolved radiation imaging of an operational nuclear reactor

    PubMed Central

    Beaumont, Jonathan S.; Mellor, Matthew P.; Villa, Mario; Joyce, Malcolm J.

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of the neutron distribution in a nuclear reactor is necessary to ensure the safe and efficient burnup of reactor fuel. Currently these measurements are performed by in-core systems in what are extremely hostile environments and in most reactor accident scenarios it is likely that these systems would be damaged. Here we present a compact and portable radiation imaging system with the ability to image high-intensity fast-neutron and gamma-ray fields simultaneously. This system has been deployed to image radiation fields emitted during the operation of a TRIGA test reactor allowing a spatial visualization of the internal reactor conditions to be obtained. The imaged flux in each case is found to scale linearly with reactor power indicating that this method may be used for power-resolved reactor monitoring and for the assay of ongoing nuclear criticalities in damaged nuclear reactors. PMID:26450669

  20. High-intensity power-resolved radiation imaging of an operational nuclear reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaumont, Jonathan S.; Mellor, Matthew P.; Villa, Mario; Joyce, Malcolm J.

    2015-10-01

    Knowledge of the neutron distribution in a nuclear reactor is necessary to ensure the safe and efficient burnup of reactor fuel. Currently these measurements are performed by in-core systems in what are extremely hostile environments and in most reactor accident scenarios it is likely that these systems would be damaged. Here we present a compact and portable radiation imaging system with the ability to image high-intensity fast-neutron and gamma-ray fields simultaneously. This system has been deployed to image radiation fields emitted during the operation of a TRIGA test reactor allowing a spatial visualization of the internal reactor conditions to be obtained. The imaged flux in each case is found to scale linearly with reactor power indicating that this method may be used for power-resolved reactor monitoring and for the assay of ongoing nuclear criticalities in damaged nuclear reactors.

  1. Flow instability in particle-bed nuclear reactors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerrebrock, J. L.; Kalamas, J.

    1993-01-01

    A three-dimensional model of the stability of the particle-bed reactor is presented, in which the fluid has mobility in three dimensions. The model accurately represents the stability at low Re numbers as well as the effects of the cold and hot frits and of the heat conduction and radiation in the particle bed. The model can be easily extended to apply to the cylindrical geometry of particle-bed reactors. Exemplary calculations are carried out, showing that a particle bed without a cold frit would be subject to instability if operated at the high-temperature ratios used for nuclear rockets and at power densities below about 4 MW/l; since the desired power density for such a reactor is about 40 MW/l, the operation at design exit temperature but at reduced power could be hazardous. Calculations show however that it might be possible to remove the instability problem by appropriate combinations of cold and hot frits.

  2. Space nuclear reactor shields for manned and unmanned applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckissock, Barbara I.; Bloomfield, Harvey S.

    1990-01-01

    Missions which use nuclear reactor power systems require radiation shielding of payload and/or crew areas to predetermined dose rates. Since shielding can become a significant fraction of the total mass of the system, it is of interest to show the effect of various parameters on shield thickness and mass for manned and unmanned applications. Algorithms were developed to give the thicknesses needed if reactor thermal power, separation distances, and dose rates are given as input. The thickness algorithms were combined with models for four different shield geometries to allow tradeoff studies of shield volume and mass for a variety of manned and unmanned missions. Shield design tradeoffs presented in this study include the effects of: higher allowable dose rates; radiation hardened electronics; shorter crew exposure times; shield geometry; distance of the payload and/or crew from the reactor; and changes in the size of the shielded area. Specific NASA missions that were considered in this study include unmanned outer planetary exploration, manned advanced/evolutionary Space Station, and advanced manned lunar base.

  3. Space nuclear reactor shields for manned and unmanned applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckissock, Barbara I.; Bloomfield, Harvey S.

    1989-01-01

    Missions which use nuclear reactor power systems require radiation shielding of payload and/or crew areas to predetermined dose rates. Since shielding can become a significant fraction of the total mass of the system, it is of interest to show the effect of various parameters on shield thickness and mass for manned and unmanned applications. Algorithms were developed to give the thicknesses needed if reactor thermal power, separation distances, and dose rates are given as input. The thickness algorithms were combined with models for four different shield geometries to allow tradeoff studies of shield volume and mass for a variety of manned and unmanned missions. Shield design tradeoffs presented in this study include the effects of: higher allowable dose rates; radiation hardened electronics; shorter crew exposure times; shield geometry; distance of the payload and/or crew from the reactor; and changes in the size of the shielded area. Specific NASA missions that were considered in this study include unmanned outer planetary exploration, manned advanced/evolutionary space station, and advanced manned lunar base.

  4. Space nuclear reactor shields for manned and unmanned applications

    SciTech Connect

    McKissock, B.I.; Bloomfield, H.S.

    1994-09-01

    Missions which use nuclear reactor power systems require radiation shielding of payload and/or crew areas to predetermined dose rates. Since shielding can become a significant fraction of the total mass of the system, it is of interest to show the effect of various parameters on shield thickness and mass for manned and unmanned applications. Algorithms were developed to give the thicknesses needed if reactor thermal power, separation distances, and dose rates are given as input. The thickness algorithms were combined with models for four different shield geometries to allow tradeoff studies of shield volume and mass for a variety of manned and unmanned missions. Shield design tradeoffs presented in this study include the effects of: Higher allowable dose rates; radiation hardened electronics; shorter crew exposure times; shield geometry; distance of the payload and/or crew from the reactor; and changes in the size of the shielded area. Specific NASA missions that were considered in this study include unmanned outer planetary exploration, manned advanced/evolutionary space station, and advanced manned lunar base.

  5. Gas tagging and cover gas combination for nuclear reactor

    DOEpatents

    Gross, Kenny C.; Laug, Matthew T.

    1985-01-01

    The invention discloses the use of stable isotopes of neon and argon, that are grouped in preselected different ratios one to the other and are then sealed as tags in different cladded nuclear fuel elements to be used in a liquid metal fast breeder reactor. Failure of the cladding of any fuel element allows fission gases generated in the reaction and these tag isotopes to escape and to combine with the cover gas held in the reactor over the fuel elements. The isotopes specifically are Ne.sup.20, Ne.sup.21 and Ne.sup.22 of neon and Ar.sup.36, Ar.sup.38 and Ar.sup.40 of argon, and the cover gas is helium. Serially connected cryogenically operated charcoal beds are used to clean the cover gas and to separate out the tags. The first or cover gas cleanup bed is held between approximately 0.degree. and -25.degree. C. operable to remove the fission gases from the cover gas and tags and the second or tag recovery system bed is held between approximately -170.degree. and -185.degree. C. operable to isolate the tags from the cover gas. Spectrometric analysis further is used to identify the specific tags that are recovered, and thus the specific leaking fuel element. By cataloging the fuel element tags to the location of the fuel elements in the reactor, the location of the leaking fuel element can then be specifically determined.

  6. Closed Brayton cycle power conversion systems for nuclear reactors :

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, Steven A.; Lipinski, Ronald J.; Vernon, Milton E.; Sanchez, Travis

    2006-04-01

    This report describes the results of a Sandia National Laboratories internally funded research program to study the coupling of nuclear reactors to gas dynamic Brayton power conversion systems. The research focused on developing integrated dynamic system models, fabricating a 10-30 kWe closed loop Brayton cycle, and validating these models by operating the Brayton test-loop. The work tasks were performed in three major areas. First, the system equations and dynamic models for reactors and Closed Brayton Cycle (CBC) systems were developed and implemented in SIMULINKTM. Within this effort, both steady state and dynamic system models for all the components (turbines, compressors, reactors, ducting, alternators, heat exchangers, and space based radiators) were developed and assembled into complete systems for gas cooled reactors, liquid metal reactors, and electrically heated simulators. Various control modules that use proportional-integral-differential (PID) feedback loops for the reactor and the power-conversion shaft speed were also developed and implemented. The simulation code is called RPCSIM (Reactor Power and Control Simulator). In the second task an open cycle commercially available Capstone C30 micro-turbine power generator was modified to provide a small inexpensive closed Brayton cycle test loop called the Sandia Brayton test-Loop (SBL-30). The Capstone gas-turbine unit housing was modified to permit the attachment of an electrical heater and a water cooled chiller to form a closed loop. The Capstone turbine, compressor, and alternator were used without modification. The Capstone systems nominal operating point is 1150 K turbine inlet temperature at 96,000 rpm. The annular recuperator and portions of the Capstone control system (inverter) and starter system also were reused. The rotational speed of the turbo-machinery is controlled by adjusting the alternator load by using the electrical grid as the load bank. The SBL-30 test loop was operated at

  7. Application of gaseous core reactors for transmutation of nuclear waste

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schnitzler, B. G.; Paternoster, R. R.; Schneider, R. T.

    1976-01-01

    An acceptable management scheme for high-level radioactive waste is vital to the nuclear industry. The hazard potential of the trans-uranic actinides and of key fission products is high due to their nuclear activity and/or chemical toxicity. Of particular concern are the very long-lived nuclides whose hazard potential remains high for hundreds of thousands of years. Neutron induced transmutation offers a promising technique for the treatment of problem wastes. Transmutation is unique as a waste management scheme in that it offers the potential for "destruction" of the hazardous nuclides by conversion to non-hazardous or more manageable nuclides. The transmutation potential of a thermal spectrum uranium hexafluoride fueled cavity reactor was examined. Initial studies focused on a heavy water moderated cavity reactor fueled with 5% enriched U-235-F6 and operating with an average thermal flux of 6 times 10 to the 14th power neutrons/sq cm-sec. The isotopes considered for transmutation were I-129, Am-241, Am-242m, Am-243, Cm-243, Cm-244, Cm-245, and Cm-246.

  8. Selecting a radiation tolerant piezoelectric material for nuclear reactor applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parks, D. A.; Reinhardt, B. T.; Tittmann, B. R.

    2013-01-01

    Bringing systems for online monitoring of nuclear reactors to fruition has been delayed by the lack of suitable ultrasonic sensors. Recent work has demonstrated the capability of an AlN sensor to perform ultrasonic evaluation in an actual nuclear reactor. Although the AlN demonstrated sustainability, no loss in signal amplitude and d33 up to a fast and thermal neutron fluence of 1.85×1018 n/cm2 and 5.8×1018 n/cm2 respectively, no formal process to selecting a suitable sensor material was made. It would be ideal to use first principles approaches to somehow reduce each candidate piezoelectric material to a simple ranking showing directly which materials one should expect to be most radiation tolerant. However, the complexity of the problem makes such a ranking impractical and one must appeal to experimental observations. This should not be of any surprise to one whom is familiar with material science as most material properties are obtained in this manner. Therefore, this work adopts a similar approach, the mechanisms affecting radiation tolerance are discussed and a good engineering sense is used for material qualification of the candidate piezoelectric materials.

  9. Selecting a radiation tolerant piezoelectric material for nuclear reactor applications

    SciTech Connect

    Parks, D. A.; Reinhardt, B. T.; Tittmann, B. R.

    2013-01-25

    Bringing systems for online monitoring of nuclear reactors to fruition has been delayed by the lack of suitable ultrasonic sensors. Recent work has demonstrated the capability of an AlN sensor to perform ultrasonic evaluation in an actual nuclear reactor. Although the AlN demonstrated sustainability, no loss in signal amplitude and d{sub 33} up to a fast and thermal neutron fluence of 1.85 Multiplication-Sign 1018 n/cm{sup 2} and 5.8 Multiplication-Sign 1018 n/cm{sup 2} respectively, no formal process to selecting a suitable sensor material was made. It would be ideal to use first principles approaches to somehow reduce each candidate piezoelectric material to a simple ranking showing directly which materials one should expect to be most radiation tolerant. However, the complexity of the problem makes such a ranking impractical and one must appeal to experimental observations. This should not be of any surprise to one whom is familiar with material science as most material properties are obtained in this manner. Therefore, this work adopts a similar approach, the mechanisms affecting radiation tolerance are discussed and a good engineering sense is used for material qualification of the candidate piezoelectric materials.

  10. Nuclear Design of the HOMER-15 Mars Surface Fission Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Poston, David I.

    2002-07-01

    The next generation of robotic missions to Mars will most likely require robust power sources in the range of 3 to 20 kWe. Fission systems are well suited to provide safe, reliable, and economic power within this range. The goal of this study is to design a compact, low-mass fission system that meets Mars surface power requirements, while maintaining a high level of safety and reliability at a relatively low cost. The Heat pipe Power System (HPS) is one possible approach for producing near-term, low-cost, space fission power. The goal of the HPS project is to devise an attractive space fission system that can be developed quickly and affordably. The primary ways of doing this are by using existing technology and by designing the system for inexpensive testing. If the system can be designed to allow highly prototypic testing with electrical heating, then an exhaustive test program can be carried out quickly and inexpensively, and thorough testing of the actual flight unit can be performed - which is a major benefit to reliability. Over the past 4 years, three small HPS proof-of-concept technology demonstrations have been conducted, and each has been highly successful. The Heat pipe-Operated Mars Exploration Reactor (HOMER) is a derivative of the HPS designed especially for producing power on the surface of Mars. The HOMER-15 is a 15-kWt reactor that couples with a 3-kWe Stirling engine power system. The reactor contains stainless-steel (SS)-clad uranium nitride (UN) fuel pins that are structurally and thermally bonded to SS/sodium heat pipes. Fission energy is conducted from the fuel pins to the heat pipes, which then carry the heat to the Stirling engine. This paper describes conceptual design and nuclear performance the HOMER-15 reactor. (author)

  11. 10 CFR 73.55 - Requirements for physical protection of licensed activities in nuclear power reactors against...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... activities in nuclear power reactors against radiological sabotage. 73.55 Section 73.55 Energy NUCLEAR... power reactors against radiological sabotage. (a) Introduction. (1) By March 31, 2010, each nuclear... this section as applicable to operating nuclear power reactor facilities. (6) Applicants for...

  12. 10 CFR 73.55 - Requirements for physical protection of licensed activities in nuclear power reactors against...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... activities in nuclear power reactors against radiological sabotage. 73.55 Section 73.55 Energy NUCLEAR... power reactors against radiological sabotage. (a) Introduction. (1) By March 31, 2010, each nuclear... this section as applicable to operating nuclear power reactor facilities. (6) Applicants for...

  13. 10 CFR 2.103 - Action on applications for byproduct, source, special nuclear material, facility and operator...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation, Director, Office of New Reactors, Director, Office of Federal and..., Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation, Director, Office of New Reactors, Director, Office of Nuclear... of this chapter, see § 2.106(d). (b) If the Director, Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation,...

  14. 10 CFR 2.103 - Action on applications for byproduct, source, special nuclear material, facility and operator...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation, Director, Office of New Reactors, Director, Office of Federal and..., Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation, Director, Office of New Reactors, Director, Office of Nuclear... of this chapter, see § 2.106(d). (b) If the Director, Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation,...

  15. 10 CFR 2.103 - Action on applications for byproduct, source, special nuclear material, facility and operator...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation, Director, Office of New Reactors, Director, Office of Federal and..., Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation, Director, Office of New Reactors, Director, Office of Nuclear... of this chapter, see § 2.106(d). (b) If the Director, Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation,...

  16. Dynamic simulation platform to verify the performance of the reactor regulating system for a research reactor

    SciTech Connect

    2015-07-01

    Digital instrumentation and controls system technique is being introduced in new constructed research reactor or life extension of older research reactor. Digital systems are easy to change and optimize but the validated process for them is required. Also, to reduce project risk or cost, we have to make it sure that configuration and control functions is right before the commissioning phase on research reactor. For this purpose, simulators have been widely used in developing control systems in automotive and aerospace industries. In these literatures, however, very few of these can be found regarding test on the control system of research reactor with simulator. Therefore, this paper proposes a simulation platform to verify the performance of RRS (Reactor Regulating System) for research reactor. This simulation platform consists of the reactor simulation model and the interface module. This simulation platform is applied to I and C upgrade project of TRIGA reactor, and many problems of RRS configuration were found and solved. And it proved that the dynamic performance testing based on simulator enables significant time saving and improves economics and quality for RRS in the system test phase. (authors)

  17. A New Approach to Nuclear Power The Multi-Module Reactor (MMR) Concept

    SciTech Connect

    Vernon, Milton E.

    2002-07-01

    While fuel cost for nuclear power is incredibly low relative to fossil fuel, the capital investment needed to build today's nuclear power plant is substantial. Utilities are reluctant to build new nuclear power plants because of the long construction time and the associated uncertainty of investment recovery. This paper introduces a new modular reactor concept, the Multi-Module Reactor (MMR), that reduces both the construction cost and time in an attempt to renew commercial interest in nuclear power. (authors)

  18. A Spouted Bed Reactor Monitoring System for Particulate Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    D. S. Wendt; R. L. Bewley; W. E. Windes

    2007-06-01

    Conversion and coating of particle nuclear fuel is performed in spouted (fluidized) bed reactors. The reactor must be capable of operating at temperatures up to 2000°C in inert, flammable, and coating gas environments. The spouted bed reactor geometry is defined by a graphite retort with a 2.5 inch inside diameter, conical section with a 60° included angle, and a 4 mm gas inlet orifice diameter through which particles are removed from the reactor at the completion of each run. The particles may range from 200 µm to 2 mm in diameter. Maintaining optimal gas flow rates slightly above the minimum spouting velocity throughout the duration of each run is complicated by the variation of particle size and density as conversion and/or coating reactions proceed in addition to gas composition and temperature variations. In order to achieve uniform particle coating, prevent agglomeration of the particle bed, and monitor the reaction progress, a spouted bed monitoring system was developed. The monitoring system includes a high-sensitivity, low-response time differential pressure transducer paired with a signal processing, data acquisition, and process control unit which allows for real-time monitoring and control of the spouted bed reactor. The pressure transducer is mounted upstream of the spouted bed reactor gas inlet. The gas flow into the reactor induces motion of the particles in the bed and prevents the particles from draining from the reactor due to gravitational forces. Pressure fluctuations in the gas inlet stream are generated as the particles in the bed interact with the entering gas stream. The pressure fluctuations are produced by bulk movement of the bed, generation and movement of gas bubbles through the bed, and the individual motion of particles and particle subsets in the bed. The pressure fluctuations propagate upstream to the pressure transducer where they can be monitored. Pressure fluctuation, mean differential pressure, gas flow rate, reactor

  19. NUCLEAR DATA NEEDS FOR ADVANCED REACTOR SYSTEMS. A NEA NUCLEAR SCIENCE COMMITTEE INITIATIVE.

    SciTech Connect

    SALVATORES,J.M.; ALIBERTI, G.; PALMIOTTI, G.; ROCHMAN, D.; OBLOZINSKY, P.; HERMANN, M.; TALOU, P.; KAWANO, T.; LEAL, L.; KONING, A.; KODELI, I.

    2007-04-22

    The Working Party on Evaluation Cooperation (WPEC) of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency Nuclear Science Committee has established an International Subgroup to perform an activity in order to develop a systematic approach to define data needs for Gen-IV and, in general, for advanced reactor systems. A methodology, based on sensitivity analysis has been agreed and representative core configurations for Sodium, Gas and Lead cooled Fast Reactors (SFR, GFR, LFR) have been defined as well as a high burn-up VHTR and a high burn-up PWR. In the case of SFRs, both a TRU burner (called in fact SFR) and a core configuration with homogeneous recycling of not separated TRU (called EFR) have been considered.

  20. Methods for manufacturing porous nuclear fuel elements for high-temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactors

    DOEpatents

    Youchison, Dennis L.; Williams, Brian E.; Benander, Robert E.

    2010-02-23

    Methods for manufacturing porous nuclear fuel elements for use in advanced high temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactors (HTGR's). Advanced uranium bi-carbide, uranium tri-carbide and uranium carbonitride nuclear fuels can be used. These fuels have high melting temperatures, high thermal conductivity, and high resistance to erosion by hot hydrogen gas. Tri-carbide fuels, such as (U,Zr,Nb)C, can be fabricated using chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) to simultaneously deposit each of the three separate carbides, e.g., UC, ZrC, and NbC in a single CVI step. By using CVI, a thin coating of nuclear fuel may be deposited inside of a highly porous skeletal structure made, for example, of reticulated vitreous carbon foam.

  1. Porous nuclear fuel element with internal skeleton for high-temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactors

    DOEpatents

    Youchison, Dennis L.; Williams, Brian E.; Benander, Robert E.

    2013-09-03

    Porous nuclear fuel elements for use in advanced high temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactors (HTGR's), and to processes for fabricating them. Advanced uranium bi-carbide, uranium tri-carbide and uranium carbonitride nuclear fuels can be used. These fuels have high melting temperatures, high thermal conductivity, and high resistance to erosion by hot hydrogen gas. Tri-carbide fuels, such as (U,Zr,Nb)C, can be fabricated using chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) to simultaneously deposit each of the three separate carbides, e.g., UC, ZrC, and NbC in a single CVI step. By using CVI, the nuclear fuel may be deposited inside of a highly porous skeletal structure made of, for example, reticulated vitreous carbon foam.

  2. Porous nuclear fuel element for high-temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactors

    DOEpatents

    Youchison, Dennis L [Albuquerque, NM; Williams, Brian E [Pacoima, CA; Benander, Robert E [Pacoima, CA

    2011-03-01

    Porous nuclear fuel elements for use in advanced high temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactors (HTGR's), and to processes for fabricating them. Advanced uranium bi-carbide, uranium tri-carbide and uranium carbonitride nuclear fuels can be used. These fuels have high melting temperatures, high thermal conductivity, and high resistance to erosion by hot hydrogen gas. Tri-carbide fuels, such as (U,Zr,Nb)C, can be fabricated using chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) to simultaneously deposit each of the three separate carbides, e.g., UC, ZrC, and NbC in a single CVI step. By using CVI, the nuclear fuel may be deposited inside of a highly porous skeletal structure made of, for example, reticulated vitreous carbon foam.

  3. Vital area identification for U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission nuclear power reactor licensees and new reactor applicants.

    SciTech Connect

    Whitehead, Donnie Wayne; Varnado, G. Bruce

    2008-09-01

    U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission nuclear power plant licensees and new reactor applicants are required to provide protection of their plants against radiological sabotage, including the placement of vital equipment in vital areas. This document describes a systematic process for the identification of the minimum set of areas that must be designated as vital areas in order to ensure that all radiological sabotage scenarios are prevented. Vital area identification involves the use of logic models to systematically identify all of the malicious acts or combinations of malicious acts that could lead to radiological sabotage. The models available in the plant probabilistic risk assessment and other safety analyses provide a great deal of the information and basic model structure needed for the sabotage logic model. Once the sabotage logic model is developed, the events (or malicious acts) in the model are replaced with the areas in which the events can be accomplished. This sabotage area logic model is then analyzed to identify the target sets (combinations of areas the adversary must visit to cause radiological sabotage) and the candidate vital area sets (combinations of areas that must be protected against adversary access to prevent radiological sabotage). Any one of the candidate vital area sets can be selected for protection. Appropriate selection criteria will allow the licensee or new reactor applicant to minimize the impacts of vital area protection measures on plant safety, cost, operations, or other factors of concern.

  4. Sumoylation and transcription regulation at nuclear pores.

    PubMed

    Texari, Lorane; Stutz, Françoise

    2015-03-01

    Increasing evidence indicates that besides promoters, enhancers, and epigenetic modifications, nuclear organization is another parameter contributing to optimal control of gene expression. Although differences between species exist, the influence of gene positioning on expression seems to be a conserved feature from yeast to Drosophila and mammals. The nuclear periphery is one of the nuclear compartments implicated in gene regulation. It consists of the nuclear envelope (NE) and the nuclear pore complexes (NPC), which have distinct roles in the control of gene expression. The NPC has recently been shown to tether proteins involved in the sumoylation pathway. Here, we will focus on the importance of gene positioning and NPC-linked sumoylation/desumoylation in transcription regulation. We will mainly discuss observations made in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae model system and highlight potential parallels in metazoan species.

  5. Application of Molten Salt Reactor Technology to Nuclear Electric Propulsion Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patton, Bruce; Sorensen, Kirk; Rodgers, Stephen L. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) and planetary surface power missions require reactors that are lightweight, operationally robust, and scalable in power for widely varying scientific mission objectives. Molten salt reactor technology meets all of these requirements and offers an interesting alternative to traditional gas cooled, liquid metal, and heat pipe space reactors.

  6. Liquid level, void fraction, and superheated steam sensor for nuclear-reactor cores. [PWR; BWR

    DOEpatents

    Tokarz, R.D.

    1981-10-27

    This disclosure relates to an apparatus for monitoring the presence of coolant in liquid or mixed liquid and vapor, and superheated gaseous phases at one or more locations within an operating nuclear reactor core, such as pressurized water reactor or a boiling water reactor.

  7. On fundamental quality of fission chain reaction to oppose rapid runaways of nuclear reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulikov, G. G.; Shmelev, A. N.; Apse, V. A.; Kulikov, E. G.

    2017-01-01

    It has been shown that the in-hour equation characterizes the barriers and resistibility of fission chain reaction (FCR) against rapid runaways in nuclear reactors. Traditionally, nuclear reactors are characterized by the presence of barriers based on delayed and prompt neutrons. A new barrier based on the reflector neutrons that can occur when the fast reactor core is surrounded by a weakly absorbing neutron reflector with heavy atomic weight was proposed. It has been shown that the safety of this fast reactor is substantially improved, and considerable elongation of prompt neutron lifetime "devalues" the role of delayed neutron fraction as the maximum permissible reactivity for the reactor safety.

  8. Determination of the neutron flux for the Yankee Rowe experiment in the Ford Nuclear Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Cacciapouti, R.J.; Petrusha, L.

    1994-12-31

    Yankee Atomic Electric Company undertook a Test Irradiation Program at the Ford Nuclear Reactor of the University of Michigan. The program was implemented to characterize the irradiation response of representative Yankee Rowe reactor vessel beltline plate materials. The program was also intended to remove uncertainties in the existing reactor vessel fluence and damage predictions on the Yankee Rowe reactor vessel steel. Since this is the first in-core experiment of this type for the Ford Nuclear Reactor, the measurement of the reaction rate and the estimate of the fluence are presented.

  9. Heat Pipe Space Nuclear Reactor Design Assessment. Volume 1. Design Status of the SP-100 Heat Pipe Space Nuclear Reactor System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-08-01

    design studies for a higher power , unmanned nuclear reactor space power source with a long design lifetime (7 yr). A 100 kWe , high temperature...reactors are potentially the best source of high power levels (in excess of 100 kWe ) for space. Other possible sources are chemical combustion...configured as a com- pact power source of greater than 10 kWe . Table 1 compares solar to nuclear power at three

  10. Nuclear data needs for advanced reactor systems. A NEA nuclear science committee initiative.

    SciTech Connect

    Salvatores, M.; Aliberti, G.; Palmiotti, G.; Rochman, D.; Oblozinsky, P.; Hermann, M.; Talou, P.; Kawano, T.; Leal, L.; Koning, A.; Kodeli, I.; Nuclear Engineering Division; CEA Cadarache; BNL; LANL; ORNL; NRG-Petten; NEA-Databank

    2008-01-01

    The Working Party on Evaluation Cooperation (WPEC) of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency Nuclear Science Committee has established an International Subgroup to perform an activity in order to develop a systematic approach to define data needs for Gen-IV and, in general, for advanced reactor systems. A methodology, based on sensitivity analysis has been agreed and representative core configurations for Sodium, Gas and Lead cooled Fast Reactors (SFR, GFR, LFR) have been defined as well as a high burn-up VHTR and a high burn-up PWR. In the case of SFRs, both a TRU burner (called in fact SFR) and a core configuration with homogeneous recycling of not separated TRU (called EFR) have been considered. The methodology, the systems considered and the sensitivity approach are consistent with the work reported in ref. [1]. For the present study, the approach has been extended to the ABTR Na-cooled core, recently studied within the GNEP initiative [2]. Sensitivity coefficients (in a 15 energy group structure) have been calculated at ANL with the ERANOS code system [3] for all reactors and for the parameters most sensitive to nuclear data uncertainties: Multiplication factor, Power peak, Burn-up {Delta}k/k, Coolant void reactivity coefficient, Doppler reactivity coefficient, Nuclide density at end of cycle (transmutation potential), Neutron source at fuel fabrication, Dose in a repository.

  11. Heterogeneous Nuclear Reactor Models for Optimal Xenon Control.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gondal, Ishtiaq Ahmad

    Nuclear reactors are generally modeled as homogeneous mixtures of fuel, control, and other materials while in reality they are heterogeneous-homogeneous configurations comprised of fuel and control rods along with other materials. Similarly, for space-time studies of a nuclear reactor, homogeneous, usually one-group diffusion theory, models are used, and the system equations are solved by either nodal or modal expansion approximations. Study of xenon-induced problems has also been carried out using similar models and with the help of dynamic programming or classical calculus of variations or the minimum principle. In this study a thermal nuclear reactor is modeled as a two-dimensional lattice of fuel and control rods placed in an infinite-moderator in plane geometry. The two-group diffusion theory approximation is used for neutron transport. Space -time neutron balance equations are written for two groups and reduced to one space-time algebraic equation by using the two-dimensional Fourier transform. This equation is written at all fuel and control rod locations. Iodine -xenon and promethium-samarium dynamic equations are also written at fuel rod locations only. These equations are then linearized about an equilibrium point which is determined from the steady-state form of the original nonlinear system equations. After studying poisonless criticality, with and without control, and the stability of the open-loop system and after checking its controllability, a performance criterion is defined for the xenon-induced spatial flux oscillation problem in the form of a functional to be minimized. Linear -quadratic optimal control theory is then applied to solve the problem. To perform a variety of different additional useful studies, this formulation has potential for various extensions and variations; for example, different geometry of the problem, with possible extension to three dimensions, heterogeneous -homogeneous formulation to include, for example, homogeneously

  12. 77 FR 3009 - Knowledge and Abilities Catalog for Nuclear Power Plant Operators: Advanced Boiling Water Reactors

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-20

    ... COMMISSION Knowledge and Abilities Catalog for Nuclear Power Plant Operators: Advanced Boiling Water Reactors..., ``Knowledge and Abilities Catalog for Nuclear Power Plant Operators: Advanced Boiling Water Reactors.'' DATES... developed using this Catalog along with the Operator Licensing Examination Standards for Power...

  13. 10 CFR 110.26 - General license for the export of nuclear reactor components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false General license for the export of nuclear reactor components. 110.26 Section 110.26 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) EXPORT AND IMPORT OF NUCLEAR EQUIPMENT AND MATERIAL Licenses § 110.26 General license for the export of nuclear...

  14. 10 CFR 110.26 - General license for the export of nuclear reactor components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false General license for the export of nuclear reactor components. 110.26 Section 110.26 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) EXPORT AND IMPORT OF NUCLEAR EQUIPMENT AND MATERIAL Licenses § 110.26 General license for the export of nuclear...

  15. 10 CFR 110.26 - General license for the export of nuclear reactor components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false General license for the export of nuclear reactor components. 110.26 Section 110.26 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) EXPORT AND IMPORT OF NUCLEAR EQUIPMENT AND MATERIAL Licenses § 110.26 General license for the export of nuclear...

  16. Nuclear Research Reactor IEA-R1 - A Study of the Preparing for Decommissioning

    SciTech Connect

    Lopes, Valdir Maciel; Filho, Tufic Madi; Ricci, Walter; Martins, Mauro Onofre; Pereira, Maria da Conceicao

    2015-07-01

    The Institute of Energy and Nuclear Research (IPEN), Sao Paulo, according to the assignments given by the National Commission of Nuclear Energy (CNEN), enabled the development of this study, especially operational reports about refurbishing carried out on 2013, involving the production of radioisotopes and research in the areas of Radiochemistry and Nuclear Physics. These reports are made in accordance with established standard procedures to meet the requirements of CNEN (National Nuclear Energy Commission, the regulator the nuclear area activities in Brazil) and IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency). This study presents an assessment of the procedures and methods of treatments for decontamination of the refrigeration primary circuit and changes parts, equipment and tubes of the of the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor, pool type, power between 3,5 and 4,5 MW. In order to have a sequence in the work, the well-known contaminant radioisotopes were evaluated firstly, using Geiger- Muller equipment. In the second phase, the decontamination was done manually together with the ultrasound cleaning and washing equipment. From the several water solutions of citric acid assessment, the concentration with better confidence was obtained; in order to achieve the best results for decontamination. This study intends to define the best process for decontamination with low taxes of waste and without expensive costs. (authors)

  17. MPP: A modular library of models of nuclear reactor components

    SciTech Connect

    Abdalla, M.A.; Guimaraes, L.; Ugolini, D. ); March-Leuba, C.; Nypaver, D.J. ); Ford, C.E. )

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents the Modular Power Plant (MPP) library and its application to simulate the Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor. The MPP library is being developed as part of the Advanced Controls Program of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The general purpose of the library is to provide a set of modular models of components needed to simulate nuclear power plants. To give the MPP models modularity characteristics, each model is developed as a stand-alone system. The MPP contains 28 models coded in either the Advanced Continuous Simulation Language (ACSL), or the Generalized Object-Oriented Simulation Environment (GOOSE). The MPP development is parallel to the GOOSE development, and we are currently translating the MPP components from ACSL to GOOSE.

  18. MPP: A modular library of models of nuclear reactor components

    SciTech Connect

    Abdalla, M.A.; Guimaraes, L.; Ugolini, D.; March-Leuba, C.; Nypaver, D.J.; Ford, C.E.

    1992-05-01

    This paper presents the Modular Power Plant (MPP) library and its application to simulate the Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor. The MPP library is being developed as part of the Advanced Controls Program of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The general purpose of the library is to provide a set of modular models of components needed to simulate nuclear power plants. To give the MPP models modularity characteristics, each model is developed as a stand-alone system. The MPP contains 28 models coded in either the Advanced Continuous Simulation Language (ACSL), or the Generalized Object-Oriented Simulation Environment (GOOSE). The MPP development is parallel to the GOOSE development, and we are currently translating the MPP components from ACSL to GOOSE.

  19. Nuclear Computerized Library for Assessing Reactor Reliability (NUCLARR): Programmer's guide

    SciTech Connect

    Call, O. J.; Jacobson, J. A.

    1988-09-01

    The Nuclear Computerized Library for Assessing Reactor Reliability (NUCLARR) is an automated data base management system for processing and storing human error probability and hardware component failure data. The NUCLARR system software resides on an IBM (or compatible) personal micro-computer and can be used to furnish data inputs for both human and hardware reliability analysis in support of a variety of risk assessment activities. The NUCLARR system is documented in a five-volume series of reports. Volume 2 of this series is the Programmer's Guide for maintaining the NUCLARR system software. This Programmer's Guide provides, for the software engineer, an orientation to the software elements involved, discusses maintenance methods, and presents useful aids and examples. 4 refs., 75 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Very high temperature measurements: Application to nuclear reactor safety tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parga, Clemente Jose

    This PhD dissertation focuses on the improvement of very high temperature thermometry (1100ºC to 2480ºC), with special emphasis on the application to the field of nuclear reactor safety and severe accident research. Two main projects were undertaken to achieve this objective: -The development, testing and transposition of high-temperature fixed point (HTFP) metal-carbon eutectic cells, from metrology laboratory precision (+/-0.001ºC) to applied research with a reasonable degradation of uncertainties (+/-3-5ºC). -The corrosion study and metallurgical characterization of Type-C thermocouple (service temp. 2300ºC) prospective sheath material was undertaken to extend the survivability of TCs used for molten metallic/oxide corium thermometry (below 2000ºC).

  1. Nuclear reactor fuel element having improved heat transfer

    DOEpatents

    Garnier, J.E.; Begej, S.; Williford, R.E.; Christensen, J.A.

    1982-03-03

    A nuclear reactor fuel element having improved heat transfer between fuel material and cladding is described. The element consists of an outer cladding tube divided into an upper fuel section containing a central core of fissionable or mixed fissionable and fertile fuel material, slightly smaller in diameter than the inner surface of the cladding tube and a small lower accumulator section, the cladding tube being which is filled with a low molecular weight gas to transfer heat from fuel material to cladding during irradiation. A plurality of essentially vertical grooves in the fuel section extend downward and communicate with the accumulator section. The radial depth of the grooves is sufficient to provide a thermal gradient between the hot fuel surface and the relatively cooler cladding surface to allow thermal segregation to take place between the low molecular weight heat transfer gas and high molecular weight fission product gases produced by the fuel material during irradiation.

  2. Preloading of bolted connections in nuclear reactor component supports

    SciTech Connect

    Yahr, G T

    1984-10-01

    A number of failures of threaded fasteners in nuclear reactor component supports have been reported. Many of those failures were attributed to stress corrosion cracking. This report discusses how stress corrosion cracking can be avoided in bolting by controlling the maximum bolt preloads so that the sustained stresses in the bolts are below the level required to cause stress corrosion cracking. This is a basic departure from ordinary bolted joint design where the only limits on preload are on the minimum preload. Emphasis is placed on the importance of detailed analysis to determine the acceptable range of preload and the selection of a method for measuring the preload that is sufficiently accurate to ensure that the preload is actually within the acceptable range. Procedures for determining acceptable preload range are given, and the accuracy of various methods of measuring preload is discussed.

  3. Temperature actuated shutdown assembly for a nuclear reactor

    DOEpatents

    Sowa, Edmund S.

    1976-01-01

    Three identical bimetallic disks, each shaped as a spherical cap with its convex side composed of a layer of metal such as molybdenum and its concave side composed of a metal of a relatively higher coefficient of thermal expansion such as stainless steel, are retained within flanges attached to three sides of an inner hexagonal tube containing a neutron absorber to be inserted into a nuclear reactor core. Each disk holds a metal ball against its normally convex side so that the ball projects partially through a hole in the tube located concentrically with the center of each disk; at a predetermined temperature an imbalance of thermally induced stresses in at least one of the disks will cause its convex side to become concave and its concave side to become convex, thus pulling the ball from the hole in which it is located. The absorber has a conical bottom supported by the three balls and is small enough in relation to the internal dimensions of the tube to allow it to slip toward the removed ball or balls, thus clearing the unremoved balls or ball so that it will fall into the reactor core.

  4. Above-ground Antineutrino Detection for Nuclear Reactor Monitoring

    DOE PAGES

    Sweany, Melinda; Brennan, James S.; Cabrera-Palmer, Belkis; ...

    2014-08-01

    Antineutrino monitoring of nuclear reactors has been demonstrated many times, however the technique has not as of yet been developed into a useful capability for treaty verification purposes. The most notable drawback is the current requirement that detectors be deployed underground, with at least several meters-water-equivalent of shielding from cosmic radiation. In addition, the deployment of liquid-based detector media presents a challenge in reactor facilities. We are currently developing a detector system that has the potential to operate above ground and circumvent deployment problems associated with a liquid detection media: the system is composed of segments of plastic scintillator surroundedmore » by 6LiF/ZnS:Ag. ZnS:Ag is a radio-luminescent phosphor used to detect the neutron capture products of lithium-6. Because of its long decay time compared to standard plastic scintillators, pulse-shape discrimination can be used to distinguish positron and neutron interactions resulting from the inverse beta decay (IBD) of antineutrinos within the detector volume, reducing both accidental and correlated backgrounds. Segmentation further reduces backgrounds by identifying the positron’s annihilation gammas, which are absent for most correlated and uncorrelated backgrounds. This work explores different configurations in order to maximize the size of the detector segments without reducing the intrinsic neutron detection efficiency. We believe this technology will ultimately be applicable to potential safeguards scenarios such as those recently described.« less

  5. Self-actuating and locking control for nuclear reactor

    DOEpatents

    Chung, Dong K.

    1982-01-01

    A self-actuating, self-locking flow cutoff valve particularly suited for use in a nuclear reactor of the type which utilizes a plurality of fluid support neutron absorber elements to provide for the safe shutdown of the reactor. The valve comprises a substantially vertical elongated housing and an aperture plate located in the housing for the flow of fluid therethrough, a substantially vertical elongated nozzle member located in the housing and affixed to the housing with an opening in the bottom for receiving fluid and apertures adjacent a top end for discharging fluid. The nozzle further includes two sealing means, one located above and the other below the apertures. Also located in the housing and having walls surrounding the nozzle is a flow cutoff sleeve having a fluid opening adjacent an upper end of the sleeve, the sleeve being moveable between an upper open position wherein the nozzle apertures are substantially unobstructed and a closed position wherein the sleeve and nozzle sealing surfaces are mated such that the flow of fluid through the apertures is obstructed. It is a particular feature of the present invention that the valve further includes a means for utilizing any increase in fluid pressure to maintain the cutoff sleeve in a closed position. It is another feature of the invention that there is provided a means for automatically closing the valve whenever the flow of fluid drops below a predetermined level.

  6. Improved gas tagging and cover gas combination for nuclear reactor

    DOEpatents

    Gross, K.C.; Laug, M.T.

    1983-09-26

    The invention discloses the use of stable isotopes of neon and argon, sealed as tags in different cladding nuclear fuel elements to be used in a liquid metal fast breeder reactor. Cladding failure allows fission gases and these tag isotopes to escape and to combine with the cover gas. The isotopes are Ne/sup 20/, Ne/sup 21/ and Ne/sup 22/ and Ar/sup 36/, Ar/sup 38/ and Ar/sup 40/, and the cover gas is He. Serially connected cryogenically operated charcoal beds are used to clean the cover gas and to separate out the tags. The first or cover gas cleanup bed is held between 0 and -25/sup 0/C to remove the fission gases from the cover gas and tags, and the second or tag recovery system bed between -170 and -185/sup 0/C to isolate the tags from the cover gas. Spectrometric analysis is used to identify the specific tags that are recovered, and thus the specific leaking fuel element. By cataloging the fuel element tags to the location of the fuel elements in the reactor, the location of the leaking fuel element can then be determined.

  7. Nuclear reactor cooling system decontamination reagent regeneration. [PWR; BWR

    DOEpatents

    Anstine, L.D.; James, D.B.; Melaika, E.A.; Peterson, J.P. Jr.

    1980-06-06

    An improved method for decontaminating the coolant system of water-cooled nuclear power reactors and for regenerating the decontamination solution is described. A small amount of one or more weak-acid organic complexing agents is added to the reactor coolant, and the pH is adjusted to form a decontamination solution which is circulated throughout the coolant system to dissolve metal oxides from the interior surfaces and complex the resulting metal ions and radionuclide ions. The coolant containing the complexed metal ions and radionuclide ions is passed through a strong-base anion exchange resin bed which has been presaturated with a solution containing the complexing agents in the same ratio and having the same pH as the decontamination solution. As the decontamination solution passes through the resin bed, metal-complexed anions are exchanged for the metal-ion-free anions on the bed, while metal-ion-free anions in the solution pass through the bed, thus removing the metal ions and regenerating the decontamination solution.

  8. Above-ground Antineutrino Detection for Nuclear Reactor Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Sweany, Melinda; Brennan, James S.; Cabrera-Palmer, Belkis; Kiff, Scott D.; Reyna, David; Throckmorton, Daniel J.

    2014-08-01

    Antineutrino monitoring of nuclear reactors has been demonstrated many times, however the technique has not as of yet been developed into a useful capability for treaty verification purposes. The most notable drawback is the current requirement that detectors be deployed underground, with at least several meters-water-equivalent of shielding from cosmic radiation. In addition, the deployment of liquid-based detector media presents a challenge in reactor facilities. We are currently developing a detector system that has the potential to operate above ground and circumvent deployment problems associated with a liquid detection media: the system is composed of segments of plastic scintillator surrounded by 6LiF/ZnS:Ag. ZnS:Ag is a radio-luminescent phosphor used to detect the neutron capture products of lithium-6. Because of its long decay time compared to standard plastic scintillators, pulse-shape discrimination can be used to distinguish positron and neutron interactions resulting from the inverse beta decay (IBD) of antineutrinos within the detector volume, reducing both accidental and correlated backgrounds. Segmentation further reduces backgrounds by identifying the positron’s annihilation gammas, which are absent for most correlated and uncorrelated backgrounds. This work explores different configurations in order to maximize the size of the detector segments without reducing the intrinsic neutron detection efficiency. We believe this technology will ultimately be applicable to potential safeguards scenarios such as those recently described.

  9. Fabry Perot sensor for in-pile nuclear reactor metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheymol, Guy; Aubisse, Chloé; Brichard, Benoit; Jacobs, Marijke

    2008-04-01

    Optical fibre sensors are attractive devices that can bring substantial advantages over conventional sensing approaches for fission Material Testing Reactors (MTRs), such as high accuracy capabilities with limited intrusiveness and the ability to withstand high temperature. In the framework of the Joint Instrumentation laboratory (JIL), CEA and SCK CEN have joined their resources to develop, in particular, an OFS prototype with the aim to measure dimensional changes on nuclear materials irradiated in MTRs. We briefly present the objectives and the workplan of that project, in which the first phase addressed an analysis of the different measurement systems considered towards the specific environmental conditions encountered in a fission reactor. Among them, radiation is responsible for the biggest error source through the density change of silica glass due to neutron-induced compaction. The analysis has leaded us to focus mainly on an Extrinsic Fabry Perot design based on low coherence interferometry. As part of the current development, we present the results of table top experiments that allow appreciating the variation with different parameters of the response, especially the modulation of the signal returned. That permits to set partially the design and brings some tolerances data. A home made signal conditioning allows to extract the cavity length and then the change in the dimension of the sample to test.

  10. Spain-Chile and Spain-Ecuador cooperation in the field of research nuclear reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Avendano, G.; Rodriguez, M.L.; Manas, L.; Masalleras, E.; Montes, J.

    1981-01-01

    The Spanish Board of Nuclear Energy (JEN) has been cooperating for the last several years with the Comision Chilena de Energia Nuclear (Chilean Commission of Nuclear Energy (CCHEN)), on the one hand, and with the Comision Ecuatoriana de Energia Atomica (Ecuadorian Commission of Atomic Energy (CEEA)), on the other. The result of this cooperation has been the implementation of projects in both countries to create research centers around a nuclear reactor as the main working tool: the Lo Aguirre reactor in Chile and the Ruminahui reactor in Ecuador.

  11. Progress in space nuclear reactor power systems technology development - The SP-100 program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, H. S.

    1984-01-01

    Activities related to the development of high-temperature compact nuclear reactors for space applications had reached a comparatively high level in the U.S. during the mid-1950s and 1960s, although only one U.S. nuclear reactor-powered spacecraft was actually launched. After 1973, very little effort was devoted to space nuclear reactor and propulsion systems. In February 1983, significant activities toward the development of the technology for space nuclear reactor power systems were resumed with the SP-100 Program. Specific SP-100 Program objectives are partly related to the determination of the potential performance limits for space nuclear power systems in 100-kWe and 1- to 100-MW electrical classes. Attention is given to potential missions and applications, regimes of possible space power applicability, safety considerations, conceptual system designs, the establishment of technical feasibility, nuclear technology, materials technology, and prospects for the future.

  12. Thermal insulating barrier and neutron shield providing integrated protection for a nuclear reactor vessel

    DOEpatents

    Schreiber, Roger B.; Fero, Arnold H.; Sejvar, James

    1997-01-01

    The reactor vessel of a nuclear reactor installation which is suspended from the cold leg nozzles in a reactor cavity is provided with a lower thermal insulating barrier spaced from the reactor vessel to form a chamber which can be flooded with cooling water through passive valving to directly cool the reactor vessel in the event of a severe accident. The passive valving also includes bistable vents at the upper end of the thermal insulating barrier for releasing steam. A removable, modular neutron shield extending around the upper end of the reactor cavity below the nozzles forms with the upwardly and outwardly tapered transition on the outer surface of the reactor vessel, a labyrinthine channel which reduces neutron streaming while providing a passage for the escape of steam during a severe accident, and for the cooling air which is circulated along the reactor cavity walls outside the thermal insulating barrier during normal operation of the reactor.

  13. Thermal insulating barrier and neutron shield providing integrated protection for a nuclear reactor vessel

    DOEpatents

    Schreiber, R.B.; Fero, A.H.; Sejvar, J.

    1997-12-16

    The reactor vessel of a nuclear reactor installation which is suspended from the cold leg nozzles in a reactor cavity is provided with a lower thermal insulating barrier spaced from the reactor vessel to form a chamber which can be flooded with cooling water through passive valving to directly cool the reactor vessel in the event of a severe accident. The passive valving also includes bistable vents at the upper end of the thermal insulating barrier for releasing steam. A removable, modular neutron shield extending around the upper end of the reactor cavity below the nozzles forms with the upwardly and outwardly tapered transition on the outer surface of the reactor vessel, a labyrinthine channel which reduces neutron streaming while providing a passage for the escape of steam during a severe accident, and for the cooling air which is circulated along the reactor cavity walls outside the thermal insulating barrier during normal operation of the reactor. 8 figs.

  14. Cell Shape Dependent Regulation of Nuclear Morphology

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Bo; Co, Carlos; Ho, Chia-Chi

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that actin filaments are essential in how a cell controls its nuclear shape. However, little is known about the relative importance of membrane tension in determining nuclear morphology. In this study, we used adhesive micropatterned substrates to alter the cellular geometry (aspect ratio, size, and shape) that allowed direct membrane tension or without membrane lateral contact with the nucleus and investigate nuclear shape remodeling and orientation on a series of rectangular shapes. Here we showed that at low cell aspect ratios the orientation of the nucleus was regulated by actin filaments while cells with high aspect ratios can maintain nuclear shape and orientation even when actin polymerization was blocked. A model adenocarcinoma cell showed similar behavior in the regulation of nuclear shape in response to changes in cell shape but actin filaments were essential in maintaining cell shape. Our results highlight the two distinct mechanisms to regulate nuclear shape through cell shape control and the difference between fibroblasts and a model cancerous cell in cell adhesion and cell shape control. PMID:26210179

  15. Development of Improved Burnable Poisons for Commercial Nuclear Power Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Renier, J.A.

    2002-04-17

    Burnable poisons are used in all modern nuclear reactors to permit higher loading of fuel without the necessity of an overly large control rod system. This not only permits a longer core life but can also be used to level the power distribution. Commercial nuclear reactors commonly use B{sub 4}C in separate non-fueled rods and more recently, zirconium boride coatings on the fuel pellets or gadolinium oxide mixed with the fuel. Although the advantages are great, there are problems with using these materials. Boron, which is an effective neutron absorber, transmutes to lithium and helium upon absorption of a neutron. Helium is insoluble and is eventually released to the interior of the fuel rod, where it produces an internal pressure. When sufficiently high, this pressure stress could cause separation of the cladding from the fuel, causing overly high centerline temperatures. Gadolinium has several very strongly absorbing isotopes, but not all have large cross sections and result in residual burnable poison reactivity worth at the end of the fuel life. Even if the amount of this residual absorber is small and the penalty in operation small, the cost of this penalty, even if only several days, can be very high. The objective of this investigation was to study the performance of single isotopes in order to reduce the residual negative reactivity left over at the end of the fuel cycle. Since the behavior of burnable poisons can be strongly influenced by their configuration, four forms for the absorbers were studied: homogeneously mixed with the fuel, mixed with only the outer one-third of the fuel pellet, coated on the perimeter of the fuel pellets, and alloyed with the cladding. In addition, the numbers of fuel rods containing burnable poison were chosen as 8, 16, 64, and 104. Other configurations were chosen for a few special cases. An enrichment of 4.5 wt% {sup 235}U was chosen for most cases for study in order to achieve a 4-year fuel cycle. A standard pressurized

  16. System aspects of a Space Nuclear Reactor Power System

    SciTech Connect

    Jaffe, L.; Fujita, T.; Beatty, R.; Bhandari, P.; Chow, E.; Deininger, W.; Ewell, R.; Grossman, M.; Kia, T.; Nesmith, B.

    1988-01-01

    Selected systems aspects of a 300 kW nuclear reactor power system for spacecraft have been studied. The approach included examination of two candidate missions and their associated spacecraft, and a number of special topics dealing with the power system design and operation. The missions considered were a reusable orbital transfer vehicle and a space-based radar. The special topics included: power system configuration and scaling, launch vehicle integration, operating altitude, orbital storage, start-up, thawing, control, load following, procedures in case of malfunction, restart, thermal and nuclear radiation to other portions of the spacecraft, thermal stresses between subsystems, boom and cable designs, vibration modes, altitude control, reliability, and survivability. Among the findings are that the stowed length of the power system is important to mission design and that orbital storage for months to years may be needed for missions involving orbital assembly. The power system design evolved during the study and has continued to evolve; the current design differs somewhat from that examined in this paper.

  17. CONVECTION REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Hammond, R.P.; King, L.D.P.

    1960-03-22

    An homogeneous nuclear power reactor utilizing convection circulation of the liquid fuel is proposed. The reactor has an internal heat exchanger looated in the same pressure vessel as the critical assembly, thereby eliminating necessity for handling the hot liquid fuel outside the reactor pressure vessel during normal operation. The liquid fuel used in this reactor eliminates the necessity for extensive radiolytic gas rocombination apparatus, and the reactor is resiliently pressurized and, without any movable mechanical apparatus, automatically regulates itself to the condition of criticality during moderate variations in temperature snd pressure and shuts itself down as the pressure exceeds a predetermined safe operating value.

  18. Reactor Fuel Isotopics and Code Validation for Nuclear Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Francis, Matthew W.; Weber, Charles F.; Pigni, Marco T.; Gauld, Ian C.

    2015-02-01

    Experimentally measured isotopic concentrations of well characterized spent nuclear fuel (SNF) samples have been collected and analyzed by previous researchers. These sets of experimental data have been used extensively to validate the accuracy of depletion code predictions for given sets of burnups, initial enrichments, and varying power histories for different reactor types. The purpose of this report is to present the diversity of data in a concise manner and summarize the current accuracy of depletion modeling. All calculations performed for this report were done using the Oak Ridge Isotope GENeration (ORIGEN) code, an internationally used irradiation and decay code solver within the SCALE comprehensive modeling and simulation code. The diversity of data given in this report includes key actinides, stable fission products, and radioactive fission products. In general, when using the current ENDF/B-VII.0 nuclear data libraries in SCALE, the major actinides are predicted to within 5% of the measured values. Large improvements were seen for several of the curium isotopes when using improved cross section data found in evaluated nuclear data file ENDF/B-VII.0 as compared to ENDF/B-V-based results. The impact of the flux spectrum on the plutonium isotope concentrations as a function of burnup was also shown. The general accuracy noted for the actinide samples for reactor types with burnups greater than 5,000 MWd/MTU was not observed for the low-burnup Hanford B samples. More work is needed in understanding these large discrepancies. The stable neodymium and samarium isotopes were predicted to within a few percent of the measured values. Large improvements were seen in prediction for a few of the samarium isotopes when using the ENDF/B-VII.0 libraries compared to results obtained with ENDF/B-V libraries. Very accurate predictions were obtained for 133Cs and 153Eu. However, the predicted values for the stable ruthenium and rhodium isotopes varied

  19. Worldwide advanced nuclear power reactors with passive and inherent safety: What, why, how, and who

    SciTech Connect

    Forsberg, C.W.; Reich, W.J.

    1991-09-01

    The political controversy over nuclear power, the accidents at Three Mile Island (TMI) and Chernobyl, international competition, concerns about the carbon dioxide greenhouse effect and technical breakthroughs have resulted in a segment of the nuclear industry examining power reactor concepts with PRIME safety characteristics. PRIME is an acronym for Passive safety, Resilience, Inherent safety, Malevolence resistance, and Extended time after initiation of an accident for external help. The basic ideal of PRIME is to develop power reactors in which operator error, internal sabotage, or external assault do not cause a significant release of radioactivity to the environment. Several PRIME reactor concepts are being considered. In each case, an existing, proven power reactor technology is combined with radical innovations in selected plant components and in the safety philosophy. The Process Inherent Ultimate Safety (PIUS) reactor is a modified pressurized-water reactor, the Modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (MHTGR) is a modified gas-cooled reactor, and the Advanced CANDU Project is a modified heavy-water reactor. In addition to the reactor concepts, there is parallel work on super containments. The objective is the development of a passive box'' that can contain radioactivity in the event of any type of accident. This report briefly examines: why a segment of the nuclear power community is taking this new direction, how it differs from earlier directions, and what technical options are being considered. A more detailed description of which countries and reactor vendors have undertaken activities follows. 41 refs.

  20. Underground collocation of nuclear power plant reactors and repository to facilitate the post-renaissance expansion of nuclear power

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, Carl W; Elkins, Ned Z

    2008-01-01

    Underground collocation of nuclear power reactors and the nuclear waste management facilities supporting those reactors, termed an underground nuclear park (UNP), appears to have several advantages compared to the conventional approach to siting reactors and waste management facilities. These advantages include the potential to lower reactor capital and operating cost, lower nuclear waste management cost, and increase margins of physical security and safety. Envirorunental impacts related to worker health, facility accidents, waste transportation, and sabotage and terrorism appear to be lower for UNPs compared to the current approach. In-place decommissioning ofUNP reactors appears to have cost, safety, envirorunental and waste disposal advantages. The UNP approach has the potential to lead to greater public acceptance for the deployment of new power reactors. Use of the UNP during the post-nuclear renaissance time frame has the potential to enable a greater expansion of U.S. nuclear power generation than might otherwise result. Technical and economic aspects of the UNP concept need more study to determine the viability of the concept.

  1. Solid State Track Recorder applications in United States nuclear reactor energy programs

    SciTech Connect

    Gold, R.; Ruddy, F.H.; Roberts, J.H.

    1980-01-01

    The domain of Solid State Track Recorder (SSTR) applications in United States nuclear reactor energy programs extends from the harsh high temperature environments found in high power reactor cores to very low flux environments arising in out-of-core locations, critical assemblies, or away from reactors (AFR) experiments. The neutron energy region arising in these applications is very broad, covering more than eight orders of magnitude from thermal up to fusion energies. The range of neutron flux/fluence intensity is even greater, extending over more than thirteen orders of magnitude. As a consequence, use of a variety of SSTR is entailed in US nuclear reactor energy programs.

  2. Design Concept for a Nuclear Reactor-Powered Mars Rover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliott, John O.; Lipinski, Ronald J.; Poston, David I.

    2003-01-01

    A study was recently carried out by a team from JPL and the DOE to investigate the utility of a DOE-developed 3 kWe surface fission power system for Mars missions. The team was originally tasked to perform a study to evaluate the usefulness and feasibility of incorporation of such a power system into a landed mission. In the course of the study it became clear that the application of such a power system was enabling to a wide variety of potential missions. Of these, two missions were developed, one for a stationary lander and one for a reactor-powered rover. This paper discusses the design of the rover mission, which was developed around the concept of incorporating the fission power system directly into a large rover chassis to provide high power, long range traverse capability. The rover design is based on a minimum extrapolation of technology, and adapts existing concepts developed at JPL for the 2009 Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover, lander and EDL systems. The small size of the reactor allowed its incorporation directly into an existing large MSL rover chassis design, allowing direct use of MSL aeroshell and pallet lander elements, beefed up to support the significantly greater mass involved in the nuclear power system and its associated shielding. This paper describes the unique design challenges encountered in the development of this mission architecture and incorporation of the fission power system in the rover, and presents a detailed description of the final design of this innovative concept for providing long range, long duration mobility on Mars.

  3. Modelling oxidation behaviour in operating defective nuclear reactor fuel elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higgs, Jamie D.

    CANDU nuclear reactors are powered by ceramic uranium dioxide (UO 2) fuel pellets encased in a zirconium-alloy sheath. Occasionally, holes develop in the sheath, allowing steam ingress into the fuel-to-sheath gap, thus exposing the fuel to an oxidizing environment. Oxidation of UO2 fuel may lead to a reduction of fuel thermal conductivity and melting point, both reducing the margin to prevent fuel centre-line melting during transient or even normal operating conditions. Along with increasing fuel temperature, fuel oxidation also enhances the release of radioactive fission products into the reactor coolant. For the first time, a mechanistic treatment has been considered to predict fuel oxidation behaviour in operating defective fuel elements by coupling fuel oxidation kinetics, interstitial oxygen diffusion and heat transfer with sheath oxidation and hydriding rates and gas phase transport in both the fuel-to-sheath gap and within the fuel cracks. The three highly non-linear phenomena (solid-state oxygen diffusion, gas-phase transport and heat transfer) coupled in this treatment were modelled using a finite element technique. The result is a numerical tool that can provide predictions of both the temperature and oxygen-to-uranium (O/U) ratio profile both radially and axially along the fuel element length. The two-dimensional (azimuthally-symmetric) model has been compared to oxygen profile measurements from commercial reactor defective fuel with operating linear power ratings ranging from 26 to 51 kW m-1. Model predictions agree well with experimental observations. Defect size, linear power rating and post-defect residence time (PDRT) appear to be the factors that most influence the extent and rate of fuel oxidation. Thermodynamic modelling of hyperstoichiometric fuel provided the boundary conditions for the fuel oxidation kinetics model. A refined thermodynamic treatment for hyperstoichiometric UO2 has been established. Neutron diffraction experiments at Los Alamos

  4. Human Factors Engineering Review Model for advanced nuclear power reactors

    SciTech Connect

    O'Hara, J.; Higgins, J. ); Goodman, C.; Galletti, G.: Eckenrode, R. )

    1993-01-01

    One of the major issues to emerge from the initial design reviews under the certification process was that detailed human-systems interface (HSI) design information was not available for staff review. To address the lack of design detail issue. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is performing the design certification reviews based on a design process plan which describes the human factors engineering (HFE) program elements that are necessary and sufficient to develop an acceptable detailed design specification. Since the review of a design process is unprecedented in the nuclear industry. The criteria for review are not addressed by current regulations or guidance documents and. therefore, had to be developed. Thus, an HFE Program Review Model was developed. This paper will describe the model's rationale, scope, objectives, development, general characteristics. and application.

  5. Human Factors Engineering Review Model for advanced nuclear power reactors

    SciTech Connect

    O`Hara, J.; Higgins, J.; Goodman, C.; Galletti, G.: Eckenrode, R.

    1993-05-01

    One of the major issues to emerge from the initial design reviews under the certification process was that detailed human-systems interface (HSI) design information was not available for staff review. To address the lack of design detail issue. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is performing the design certification reviews based on a design process plan which describes the human factors engineering (HFE) program elements that are necessary and sufficient to develop an acceptable detailed design specification. Since the review of a design process is unprecedented in the nuclear industry. The criteria for review are not addressed by current regulations or guidance documents and. therefore, had to be developed. Thus, an HFE Program Review Model was developed. This paper will describe the model`s rationale, scope, objectives, development, general characteristics. and application.

  6. 10 CFR 50.36a - Technical specifications on effluents from nuclear power reactors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Technical specifications on effluents from nuclear power reactors. 50.36a Section 50.36a Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING OF PRODUCTION AND...; Ineligibility of Certain Applicants § 50.36a Technical specifications on effluents from nuclear power...

  7. 10 CFR 50.36a - Technical specifications on effluents from nuclear power reactors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Technical specifications on effluents from nuclear power reactors. 50.36a Section 50.36a Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING OF PRODUCTION AND...; Ineligibility of Certain Applicants § 50.36a Technical specifications on effluents from nuclear power...

  8. Turbulence coefficients and stability studies for the coaxial flow or dissimiliar fluids. [gaseous core nuclear reactors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinstein, H.; Lavan, Z.

    1975-01-01

    Analytical investigations of fluid dynamics problems of relevance to the gaseous core nuclear reactor program are presented. The vortex type flow which appears in the nuclear light bulb concept is analyzed along with the fluid flow in the fuel inlet region for the coaxial flow gaseous core nuclear reactor concept. The development of numerical methods for the solution of the Navier-Stokes equations for appropriate geometries is extended to the case of rotating flows and almost completes the gas core program requirements in this area. The investigations demonstrate that the conceptual design of the coaxial flow reactor needs further development.

  9. Development concept for a small, split-core, heat-pipe-cooled nuclear reactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lantz, E.; Breitwieser, R.; Niederauer, G. F.

    1974-01-01

    There have been two main deterrents to the development of semiportable nuclear reactors. One is the high development costs; the other is the inability to satisfy with assurance the questions of operational safety. This report shows how a split-core, heat-pipe cooled reactor could conceptually eliminate these deterrents, and examines and summarizes recent work on split-core, heat-pipe reactors. A concept for a small reactor that could be developed at a comparatively low cost is presented. The concept would extend the technology of subcritical radioisotope thermoelectric generators using 238 PuO2 to the evolution of critical space power reactors using 239 PuO2.

  10. Safety of evolutionary and innovative nuclear reactors: IAEA activities and world efforts

    SciTech Connect

    Saito, T.; Gasparini, M.

    2004-07-01

    'Defence in Depth' approach constitutes the basis of the IAEA safety standards for nuclear power plants. Lessons learned from the current generation of reactors suggest that, for the next generation of reactor designs, the Defence in Depth philosophy should be retained, and that its implementation should be guided by the probabilistic insights. Recent developments in the area of general safety requirements based on Defence in Depth approach are examined and summarized. Global efforts to harmonize safety requirements for evolutionary nuclear power plants have involved many countries and organizations such as IAEA, US EPRI and European Utility EUR Organization. In recent years, developments of innovative nuclear power plants are also being discussed. The IAEA is currently developing a safety approach specifically for innovative nuclear reactors. This approach will eventually lead to a proposal of safety requirements for innovative reactors. Such activities related to safety requirements of evolutionary and innovative reactors are introduced. Various evolutionary and innovative reactor designs are reported in the world. The safety design features of evolutionary large LWRs, innovative LWRs, Modular High Temperature Gas Reactors and Small Liquid Metal Cooled LMRs are also introduced. Enhanced safety features proposed in such reactors are discussed and summarized according to the levels of Defence in Depth. For future nuclear plants, international cooperation and harmonization, especially in the area of safety, appear to be inevitable. Based on the past experience with many member states, the IAEA believes itself to be the uniquely positioned international organization to play this key role. (authors)

  11. Nuclear Security: Action May Be Needed to Reassess the Security of NRC-Licensed Research Reactors. Report to the Ranking Member, Subcommittee on National Security and Foreign Affairs, Committee on Oversight and Government Reform, House of Representatives. GAO-08-403

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aloise, Gene

    2008-01-01

    There are 37 research reactors in the United States, mostly located on college campuses. Of these, 33 reactors are licensed and regulated by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Four are operated by the Department of Energy (DOE) and are located at three national laboratories. Although less powerful than commercial nuclear power reactors,…

  12. Nuclear transport factors: global regulation of mitosis.

    PubMed

    Forbes, Douglass J; Travesa, Anna; Nord, Matthew S; Bernis, Cyril

    2015-08-01

    The unexpected repurposing of nuclear transport proteins from their function in interphase to an equally vital and very different set of functions in mitosis was very surprising. The multi-talented cast when first revealed included the import receptors, importin alpha and beta, the small regulatory GTPase RanGTP, and a subset of nuclear pore proteins. In this review, we report that recent years have revealed new discoveries in each area of this expanding story in vertebrates: (a) The cast of nuclear import receptors playing a role in mitotic spindle regulation has expanded: both transportin, a nuclear import receptor, and Crm1/Xpo1, an export receptor, are involved in different aspects of spindle assembly. Importin beta and transportin also regulate nuclear envelope and pore assembly. (b) The role of nucleoporins has grown to include recruiting the key microtubule nucleator - the γ-TuRC complex - and the exportin Crm1 to the mitotic kinetochores of humans. Together they nucleate microtubule formation from the kinetochores toward the centrosomes. (c) New research finds that the original importin beta/RanGTP team have been further co-opted by evolution to help regulate other cellular and organismal activities, ranging from the actual positioning of the spindle within the cell perimeter, to regulation of a newly discovered spindle microtubule branching activity, to regulation of the interaction of microtubule structures with specific actin structures. (d) Lastly, because of the multitudinous roles of karyopherins throughout the cell cycle, a recent large push toward testing their potential as chemotherapeutic targets has begun to yield burgeoning progress in the clinic.

  13. Nuclear Transport Factors: Global Regulation of Mitosis

    PubMed Central

    Forbes, Douglass J.; Travesa, Anna; Nord, Matthew; Bernis, Cyril

    2015-01-01

    The unexpected repurposing of nuclear transport proteins from their function in interphase to an equally vital and very different set of functions in mitosis was very surprising. The multi-talented cast when first revealed included the import receptors, importin alpha and beta, the small regulatory GTPase RanGTP, and a subset of nuclear pore proteins. In this review, we report that recent years have revealed new discoveries in each area of this expanding story in vertebrates: (a) The cast of nuclear transport receptors playing a role in mitotic spindle regulation has expanded: both transportin, a nuclear import receptor, and Crm1/Xpo1, an export receptor, are involved in different aspects of spindle assembly. Importin beta and transportin also regulate nuclear envelope and pore assembly. (b) The role of nucleoporins has grown to include recruiting the key microtubule nucleator the γ-TuRC complex and the exportin Crm1 to the mitotic kinetochores of humans. Together they nucleate microtubule formation from the kinetochores towards the centrosomes. (c) New research finds that the original importin beta/RanGTP team have been further co-opted by evolution to help regulate other cellular and organismal activities, ranging from the actual positioning of the spindle within the cell perimeter, to regulation of a newly discovered spindle microtubule branching activity, to regulation of the interaction of microtubule structures with specific actin structures. (d) Lastly, because of the multitudinous roles of karyopherins throughout the cell cycle, a recent large push toward testing their potential as chemotherapeutic targets has begun to yield burgeoning progress in the clinic. PMID:25982429

  14. Knowledge and abilities catalog for nuclear power plant operators: Boiling water reactors, Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    The Knowledge and Abilities Catalog for Nuclear Power Plant Operators: Boiling-Water Reactors (BWRs) (NUREG-1123, Revision 1) provides the basis for the development of content-valid licensing examinations for reactor operators (ROs) and senior reactor operators (SROs). The examinations developed using the BWR Catalog along with the Operator Licensing Examiner Standards (NUREG-1021) and the Examiner`s Handbook for Developing Operator Licensing Written Examinations (NUREG/BR-0122), will cover the topics listed under Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 55 (10 CFR 55). The BWR Catalog contains approximately 7,000 knowledge and ability (K/A) statements for ROs and SROs at BWRs. The catalog is organized into six major sections: Organization of the Catalog, Generic Knowledge and Ability Statements, Plant Systems grouped by Safety Functions, Emergency and Abnormal Plant Evolutions, Components, and Theory. Revision 1 to the BWR Catalog represents a modification in form and content of the original catalog. The K/As were linked to their applicable 10 CFR 55 item numbers. SRO level K/As were identified by 10 CFR 55.43 item numbers. The plant-wide generic and system generic K/As were combined in one section with approximately one hundred new K/As. Component Cooling Water and Instrument Air Systems were added to the Systems Section. Finally, High Containment Hydrogen Concentration and Plant Fire On Site evolutions added to the Emergency and Abnormal Plant Evolutions section.

  15. Role of fast reactor and its cycle to reduce nuclear waste burden

    SciTech Connect

    Arie, Kazuo; Oomori, Takashi; Okita, Takeshi; Kawashima, Masatoshi; Kotake, Shoji; Fuji-ie, Yoichi

    2013-07-01

    The role of the metal fuel fast reactor with recycling of actinides and the five long-lived fission products based on the concept of the Self-Consistent Nuclear Energy System has been examined by evaluating the reduction of nuclear wastes during the transition period to this reactor system. The evaluation was done in comparison to an LWR once-through case and a conventional actinide recycling oxide fast reactor. As a result, it is quantitatively clarified that a metal fuel fast reactor with actinide and the five long-lived fission products (I{sup 129}, Tc{sup 99}, Zr{sup 93}, Cs{sup 135} and Sn{sup 126}) recycling could play a significant role in reducing the nuclear waste burden including the current LWR wastes. This can be achieved by using a fast neutron spectrum reactor enhanced with metal fuel that brings high capability as a 'waste burner'. (authors)

  16. 75 FR 30078 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Entergy Nuclear Vermont Yankee, LLC; Vermont Yankee Nuclear...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-28

    ... Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation (NRR). By letter dated May 20, 2010, the Director denied the... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Entergy Nuclear Vermont Yankee, LLC; Vermont Yankee...

  17. Cracked shaft detection on large vertical nuclear reactor coolant pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenkins, L. S.

    1985-01-01

    Due to difficulty and radiation exposure associated with examination of the internals of large commercial nuclear reactor coolant pumps, it is necessary to be able to diagnose the cause of an excessive vibration problem quickly without resorting to extensive trial and error efforts. Consequently, it is necessary to make maximum use of all available data to develop a consistent theory which locates the problem area in the machine. This type of approach was taken at Three Mile Island, Unit #1, in February 1984 to identify and locate the cause of a continuously climbing vibration level of the pump shaft. The data gathered necessitated some in-depth knowledge of the pump internals to provide proper interpretation and avoid misleading conclusions. Therefore, the raw data included more than just the vibration characteristics. Pertinent details of the data gathered is shown and is necessary and sufficient to show that the cause of the observed vibration problem could logically only be a cracked pump shaft in the shaft overhang below the pump bearing.

  18. Hybrid nuclear reactor grey rod to obtain required reactivity worth

    DOEpatents

    Miller, John V.; Carlson, William R.; Yarbrough, Michael B.

    1991-01-01

    Hybrid nuclear reactor grey rods are described, wherein geometric combinations of relatively weak neutron absorber materials such as stainless steel, zirconium or INCONEL, and relatively strong neutron absorber materials, such as hafnium, silver-indium cadmium and boron carbide, are used to obtain the reactivity worths required to reach zero boron change load follow. One embodiment includes a grey rod which has combinations of weak and strong neutron absorber pellets in a stainless steel cladding. The respective pellets can be of differing heights. A second embodiment includes a grey rod with a relatively thick stainless steel cladding receiving relatively strong neutron absorber pellets only. A third embodiment includes annular relatively weak netron absorber pellets with a smaller diameter pellet of relatively strong absorber material contained within the aperture of each relatively weak absorber pellet. The fourth embodiment includes pellets made of a homogeneous alloy of hafnium and a relatively weak absorber material, with the percentage of hafnium chosen to obtain the desired reactivity worth.

  19. Characterization of nuclear reactor containment penetrations. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Shackelford, M.H.; Bump, T.R.; Seidensticker, R.W.

    1985-02-01

    This report concludes a preliminary report prepared by ANL for Sandia, published as NUREG/CR-3855, in June 1984. The preliminary report, NUREG/CR-3855, presented the results of a survey of nuclear reactor containment penetrations, covering the number of plants surveyed at that time (22 total). Since that time, an additional 26 plants have been included in the survey. This final report serves two purposes: (1) to add the summary data sheets and penetration details for the additional plants now included in the survey; and (2) to confirm, revise, or add to analyses and discussions presented in the first report which, of course, were based solely on the earlier sample of 22 plants. This final report follows the outline and format of the preliminary survey report. In general, changes and additions to the preliminary report are implied, rather than stated as such to avoid repeated reference to that report. If no changes have been made in a section the title of the section of the previous report is simply repeated followed by ''No Changes''. Some repetition is used for continuity and clarity.

  20. Reactor/Brayton power systems for nuclear electric spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Layton, J. P.

    1980-01-01

    Studies are currently underway to assess the technological feasibility of a nuclear-reactor-powered spacecraft propelled by electric thrusters. This vehicle would be capable of performing detailed exploration of the outer planets of the solar system during the remainder of this century. The purpose of this study was to provide comparative information on a closed cycle gas turbine power conversion system. The results have shown that the performance is very competitive and that a 400 kWe space power system is dimensionally compatible with a single Space Shuttle launch. Performance parameters of system mass and radiator area were determined for systems from 100 to 1000 kWe. A 400 kWe reference system received primary attention. The components of this system were defined and a conceptual layout was developed with encouraging results. The preliminary mass determination for the complete power system was very close to the desired goal of 20 kg/kWe. Use of more advanced technology (higher turbine inlet temperature) will substantially improve system performance characteristics.