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Sample records for nuclear rna polymerases

  1. RNA Polymerases of Maize: Nuclear RNA Polymerases*

    PubMed Central

    Strain, Gustave C.; Mullinix, Kathleen P.; Bogorad, Lawrence

    1971-01-01

    Two DNA-dependent RNA polymerases of nuclear origin have been purified from leaves of Zea mays. The two enzymes can be separated on DEAE-cellulose columns. Enzymes I and II are eluted with 0.08 and 0.20 M (NH4)2SO4, respectively. Both enzymes prefer maize nuclear DNA as a template; they are also more active in the presence of Mg++ than Mn++ and are inhibited by (NH4)2-SO4 or KCl. Neither enzyme is inhibited by rifamycin SV. Enzyme II is strongly inhibited by α-amanitin, whereas enzyme I is not significantly affected. Their ability to use native and denatured DNA as templates varies according to the extent and method of purification of the polymerase. Furthermore, enzyme II can be resolved by DEAE-chromatography or glycerol-gradient centrifugation into two components, one of which prefers native DNA, while the other prefers denatured DNA. PMID:5288239

  2. Persistent nuclear actin filaments inhibit transcription by RNA polymerase II.

    PubMed

    Serebryannyy, Leonid A; Parilla, Megan; Annibale, Paolo; Cruz, Christina M; Laster, Kyle; Gratton, Enrico; Kudryashov, Dmitri; Kosak, Steven T; Gottardi, Cara J; de Lanerolle, Primal

    2016-09-15

    Actin is abundant in the nucleus and it is clear that nuclear actin has important functions. However, mystery surrounds the absence of classical actin filaments in the nucleus. To address this question, we investigated how polymerizing nuclear actin into persistent nuclear actin filaments affected transcription by RNA polymerase II. Nuclear filaments impaired nuclear actin dynamics by polymerizing and sequestering nuclear actin. Polymerizing actin into stable nuclear filaments disrupted the interaction of actin with RNA polymerase II and correlated with impaired RNA polymerase II localization, dynamics, gene recruitment, and reduced global transcription and cell proliferation. Polymerizing and crosslinking nuclear actin in vitro similarly disrupted the actin-RNA-polymerase-II interaction and inhibited transcription. These data rationalize the general absence of stable actin filaments in mammalian somatic nuclei. They also suggest a dynamic pool of nuclear actin is required for the proper localization and activity of RNA polymerase II.

  3. Nuclear Distribution of RNA Polymerase II and mRNA Processing Machinery in Early Mammalian Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Bogolyubova, Irina O.; Bogolyubov, Dmitry S.

    2014-01-01

    Spatial distribution of components of nuclear metabolism provides a significant impact on regulation of the processes of gene expression. While distribution of the key nuclear antigens and their association with the defined nuclear domains were thoroughly traced in mammalian somatic cells, similar data for the preimplantation embryos are scanty and fragmental. However, the period of cleavage is characterized by the most drastic and dynamic nuclear reorganizations accompanying zygotic gene activation. In this minireview, we try to summarize the results of studies concerning distribution of major factors involved in RNA polymerase II-dependent transcription, pre-mRNA splicing mRNA export that have been carried out on early embryos of mammals. PMID:24868542

  4. Nuclear import of RNA polymerase II is coupled with nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of the RNA polymerase II-associated protein 2.

    PubMed

    Forget, Diane; Lacombe, Andrée-Anne; Cloutier, Philippe; Lavallée-Adam, Mathieu; Blanchette, Mathieu; Coulombe, Benoit

    2013-08-01

    The RNA polymerase II (RNAP II)-associated protein (RPAP) 2 has been discovered through its association with various subunits of RNAP II in affinity purification coupled with mass spectrometry experiments. Here, we show that RPAP2 is a mainly cytoplasmic protein that shuttles between the cytoplasm and the nucleus. RPAP2 shuttling is tightly coupled with nuclear import of RNAP II, as RPAP2 silencing provokes abnormal accumulation of RNAP II in the cytoplasmic space. Most notably, RPAP4/GPN1 silencing provokes the retention of RPAP2 in the nucleus. Our results support a model in which RPAP2 enters the nucleus in association with RNAP II and returns to the cytoplasm in association with the GTPase GPN1/RPAP4. Although binding of RNAP II to RPAP2 is mediated by an N-terminal domain (amino acids 1-170) that contains a nuclear retention domain, and binding of RPAP4/GPN1 to RPAP2 occurs through a C-terminal domain (amino acids 156-612) that has a dominant cytoplasmic localization domain. In conjunction with previously published data, our results have important implications, as they indicate that RPAP2 controls gene expression by two distinct mechanisms, one that targets RNAP II activity during transcription and the other that controls availability of RNAP II in the nucleus.

  5. T7-RNA Polymerase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    T7-RNA Polymerase grown on STS-81. Structure-Function Relationships of RNA Polymerase: DNA-dependent RNA polymerase is the key enzyme responsible for the biosynthesis of RNA, a process known as transcription. Principal Investigator's include Dr. Dan Carter, Dr. B.C. Wang, and Dr. John Rose of New Century Pharmaceuticals.

  6. Identifying the RNA polymerases that synthesize specific transcripts of the Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus.

    PubMed

    Huh, N E; Weaver, R F

    1990-01-01

    Nuclear run-on assays carried out in the presence and absence of the RNA polymerase II inhibitor, alpha-amanitin, were used to determine the exact timing of the switch from inhibitor-sensitive transcription catalysed by host RNA polymerase II, to inhibitor-resistant transcription catalysed by the baculovirus-induced RNA polymerase. These studies revealed that the onset of alpha-amanitin-resistant transcription is just after 6 h post-infection, simultaneous with the beginning of the late phase of infection. They also showed that transcripts from the p26 gene in the HindIII Q/P region and the p35 gene in the HindIII K/Q region of the viral genome are synthesized by the host RNA polymerase II both early and late in infection. On the other hand, transcripts of the p10 gene in the HindIII Q/P region and the gamma transcripts in the HindIII K region are synthesized by the alpha-amanitin-resistant, virus-induced RNA polymerase late in infection. PMID:2106003

  7. A serine/arginine-rich nuclear matrix cyclophilin interacts with the C-terminal domain of RNA polymerase II.

    PubMed Central

    Bourquin, J P; Stagljar, I; Meier, P; Moosmann, P; Silke, J; Baechi, T; Georgiev, O; Schaffner, W

    1997-01-01

    The largest subunit of RNA polymerase II shows a striking difference in the degree of phosphorylation, depending on its functional state: initiating and elongating polymerases are unphosphorylated and highly phosphorylated respectively. Phosphorylation mostly occurs at the C-terminal domain (CTD), which consists of a repetitive heptapeptide structure. Using the yeast two-hybrid system, we have selected for mammalian proteins that interact with the phosphorylated CTD of mammalian RNA polymerase II. A prominent isolate, designated SRcyp/CASP10, specifically interacts with the CTD not only in vivo but also in vitro . It contains a serine/arginine-rich (SR) domain, similar to that found in the SR protein family of pre-mRNA splicing factors, which is required for interaction with the CTD. Most remarkably, the N-terminal region of SRcyp includes a peptidyl-prolyl cis - trans isomerase domain characteristic of immunophilins/cyclophilins (Cyp), a protein family implicated in protein folding, assembly and transport. SRcyp is a nuclear protein with a characteristic distribution in large irregularly shaped nuclear speckles and co-localizes perfectly with the SR domain-containing splicing factor SC35. Recent independent investigations have provided complementary data, such as an association of the phosphorylated form of RNA polymerase II with the nuclear speckles, impaired splicing in a CTD deletion background and inhibition of in vitro splicing by CTD peptides. Taken together, these data indicate that factors directly or indirectly involved in splicing are associated with the elongating RNA polymerases, from where they might translocate to the nascent transcripts to ensure efficient splicing, concomitant with transcription. PMID:9153302

  8. Binding sites for abundant nuclear factors modulate RNA polymerase I-dependent enhancer function in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Kang, J J; Yokoi, T J; Holland, M J

    1995-12-01

    The 190-base pair (bp) rDNA enhancer within the intergenic spacer sequences of Saccharomyces cerevisiae rRNA cistrons activates synthesis of the 35S-rRNA precursor about 20-fold in vivo (Mestel,, R., Yip, M., Holland, J. P., Wang, E., Kang, J., and Holland, M. J. (1989) Mol. Cell. Biol. 9, 1243-1254). We now report identification and analysis of transcriptional activities mediated by three cis-acting sites within a 90-bp portion of the rDNA enhancer designated the modulator region. In vivo, these sequences mediated termination of transcription by RNA polymerase I and potentiated the activity of the rDNA enhancer element. Two trans-acting factors, REB1 and REB2, bind independently to sites within the modulator region (Morrow, B. E., Johnson, S. P., and Warner, J. R. (1989) J. Biol. Chem. 264, 9061-9068). We show that REB2 is identical to the ABF1 protien. Site-directed mutagenesis of REB1 and ABF1 binding sites demonstrated uncoupling of RNA polymerase I-dependent termination from transcriptional activation in vivo. We conclude that REB1 and ABF1 are required for RNA polymerase I-dependent termination and enhancer function, respectively, Since REB1 and ABF1 proteins also regulate expression of class II genes and other nuclear functions, our results suggest further similarities between RNA polymerase I and II regulatory mechanisms. Two rDNA enhancers flanking a rDNA minigene stimulated RNA polymerase I transcription in a "multiplicative" fashion. Deletion mapping analysis showed that similar cis-acting sequences were required for enhancer function when positioned upstream or downstream from a rDNA minigene.

  9. RNA polymerase II mediated transcription from the polymerase III promoters in short hairpin RNA expression vector

    SciTech Connect

    Rumi, Mohammad; Ishihara, Shunji . E-mail: si360405@med.shimane-u.ac.jp; Aziz, Monowar; Kazumori, Hideaki; Ishimura, Norihisa; Yuki, Takafumi; Kadota, Chikara; Kadowaki, Yasunori; Kinoshita, Yoshikazu

    2006-01-13

    RNA polymerase III promoters of human ribonuclease P RNA component H1, human U6, and mouse U6 small nuclear RNA genes are commonly used in short hairpin RNA (shRNA) expression vectors due their precise initiation and termination sites. During transient transfection of shRNA vectors, we observed that H1 or U6 promoters also express longer transcripts enough to express several reporter genes including firefly luciferase, green fluorescent protein EGFP, and red fluorescent protein JRed. Expression of such longer transcripts was augmented by upstream RNA polymerase II enhancers and completely inhibited by downstream polyA signal sequences. Moreover, the transcription of firefly luciferase from human H1 promoter was sensitive to RNA polymerase II inhibitor {alpha}-amanitin. Our findings suggest that commonly used polymerase III promoters in shRNA vectors are also prone to RNA polymerase II mediated transcription, which may have negative impacts on their targeted use.

  10. Insect small nuclear RNA gene promoters evolve rapidly yet retain conserved features involved in determining promoter activity and RNA polymerase specificity.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Genaro; Valafar, Faramarz; Stumph, William E

    2007-01-01

    In animals, most small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs) are synthesized by RNA polymerase II (Pol II), but U6 snRNA is synthesized by RNA polymerase III (Pol III). In Drosophila melanogaster, the promoters for the Pol II-transcribed snRNA genes consist of approximately 21 bp PSEA and approximately 8 bp PSEB. U6 genes utilize a PSEA but have a TATA box instead of the PSEB. The PSEAs of the two classes of genes bind the same protein complex, DmSNAPc. However, the PSEAs that recruit Pol II and Pol III differ in sequence at a few nucleotide positions that play an important role in determining RNA polymerase specificity. We have now performed a bioinformatic analysis to examine the conservation and divergence of the snRNA gene promoter elements in other species of insects. The 5' half of the PSEA is well-conserved, but the 3' half is divergent. Moreover, within each species positions exist where the PSEAs of the Pol III-transcribed genes differ from those of the Pol II-transcribed genes. Interestingly, the specific positions vary among species. Nevertheless, we speculate that these nucleotide differences within the 3' half of the PSEA act similarly to induce conformational alterations in DNA-bound SNAPc that result in RNA polymerase specificity.

  11. Influenza A Virus Polymerase Recruits the RNA Helicase DDX19 to Promote the Nuclear Export of Viral mRNAs

    PubMed Central

    Diot, Cédric; Fournier, Guillaume; Dos Santos, Mélanie; Magnus, Julie; Komarova, Anastasia; van der Werf, Sylvie; Munier, Sandie; Naffakh, Nadia

    2016-01-01

    Enhancing the knowledge of host factors that are required for efficient influenza A virus (IAV) replication is essential to address questions related to pathogenicity and to identify targets for antiviral drug development. Here we focused on the interplay between IAV and DExD-box RNA helicases (DDX), which play a key role in cellular RNA metabolism by remodeling RNA-RNA or RNA-protein complexes. We performed a targeted RNAi screen on 35 human DDX proteins to identify those involved in IAV life cycle. DDX19 was a major hit. In DDX19-depleted cells the accumulation of viral RNAs and proteins was delayed, and the production of infectious IAV particles was strongly reduced. We show that DDX19 associates with intronless, unspliced and spliced IAV mRNAs and promotes their nuclear export. In addition, we demonstrate an RNA-independent association between DDX19 and the viral polymerase, that is modulated by the ATPase activity of DDX19. Our results provide a model in which DDX19 is recruited to viral mRNAs in the nucleus of infected cells to enhance their nuclear export. Information gained from this virus-host interaction improves the understanding of both the IAV replication cycle and the cellular function of DDX19. PMID:27653209

  12. Reticulocyte RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase

    PubMed Central

    Downey, Kathleen M.; Byrnes, John J.; Jurmark, Bonnie S.; So, Antero G.

    1973-01-01

    A cytoplasmic, microsomal bound RNA-dependent RNA polymerase has been purified 2500-fold from rabbit reticulocyte lysates. The synthesis of RNA with the purified enzyme is absolutely dependent on the addition of an RNA template. The best template is hemoglobin messenger RNA, while bacteriophage RNA and poly(A,G) are less active, and DNA is completely inactive as a template. With poly(A,G) as a template, only UTP and CTP are incorporated into polynucleotide chains, indicating that the RNA polymerase is an RNA replicase and not a terminal transferase. With messenger RNA as a template, all four ribonucleoside triphosphates are required for maximal activity. The RNA-dependent RNA polymerase reaction is extremely sensitive to low concentrations of heme, rifamycin AF/013, and ribonuclease and resistant to actinomycin D and DNase. The discovery of RNA-directed RNA synthesis in reticulocytes offers an additional site for control of gene expression in mammalian cells and provides a possible mechanism for amplification of the expression of specific genes. PMID:4519633

  13. Multisubunit RNA Polymerases IV and V: Purveyors of Non-Coding RNA for Plant Gene Silencing

    SciTech Connect

    Haag, Jeremy R.; Pikaard, Craig S.

    2011-08-01

    In all eukaryotes, nuclear DNA-dependent RNA polymerases I, II and III synthesize the myriad RNAs that are essential for life. Remarkably, plants have evolved two additional multisubunit RNA polymerases, RNA polymerases IV and V, which orchestrate non-coding RNA-mediated gene silencing processes affecting development, transposon taming, antiviral defence and allelic crosstalk. Biochemical details concerning the templates and products of RNA polymerases IV and V are lacking. However, their subunit compositions reveal that they evolved as specialized forms of RNA polymerase II, which provides the unique opportunity to study the functional diversification of a eukaryotic RNA polymerase family.

  14. Base-pair-resolution genome-wide mapping of active RNA polymerases using precision nuclear run-on (PRO-seq).

    PubMed

    Mahat, Dig Bijay; Kwak, Hojoong; Booth, Gregory T; Jonkers, Iris H; Danko, Charles G; Patel, Ravi K; Waters, Colin T; Munson, Katie; Core, Leighton J; Lis, John T

    2016-08-01

    We provide a protocol for precision nuclear run-on sequencing (PRO-seq) and its variant, PRO-cap, which map the location of active RNA polymerases (PRO-seq) or transcription start sites (TSSs) (PRO-cap) genome-wide at high resolution. The density of RNA polymerases at a particular genomic locus directly reflects the level of nascent transcription at that region. Nuclei are isolated from cells and, under nuclear run-on conditions, transcriptionally engaged RNA polymerases incorporate one or, at most, a few biotin-labeled nucleotide triphosphates (biotin-NTPs) into the 3' end of nascent RNA. The biotin-labeled nascent RNA is used to prepare sequencing libraries, which are sequenced from the 3' end to provide high-resolution positional information for the RNA polymerases. PRO-seq provides much higher sensitivity than ChIP-seq, and it generates a much larger fraction of usable sequence reads than ChIP-seq or NET-seq (native elongating transcript sequencing). Similarly to NET-seq, PRO-seq maps the RNA polymerase at up to base-pair resolution with strand specificity, but unlike NET-seq it does not require immunoprecipitation. With the protocol provided here, PRO-seq (or PRO-cap) libraries for high-throughput sequencing can be generated in 4-5 working days. The method has been applied to human, mouse, Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans cells and, with slight modifications, to yeast. PMID:27442863

  15. A nuclear export sequence in GPN-loop GTPase 1, an essential protein for nuclear targeting of RNA polymerase II, is necessary and sufficient for nuclear export.

    PubMed

    Reyes-Pardo, Humberto; Barbosa-Camacho, Angel A; Pérez-Mejía, Ana E; Lara-Chacón, Bárbara; Salas-Estrada, Leslie A; Robledo-Rivera, Angélica Y; Montero-Morán, Gabriela M; Lara-González, Samuel; Calera, Mónica R; Sánchez-Olea, Roberto

    2012-10-01

    XAB1/Gpn1 is a GTPase that associates with RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) in a GTP-dependent manner. Although XAB1/Gpn1 is essential for nuclear accumulation of RNAPII, the underlying mechanism is not known. A XAB1/Gpn1-EYFP fluorescent protein, like endogenous XAB1/Gpn1, localized to the cytoplasm but it rapidly accumulated in the cell nucleus in the presence of leptomycin B, a chemical inhibitor of the nuclear transport receptor Crm1. Crm1 recognizes short peptides in substrate proteins called nuclear export sequences (NES). Here, we employed site-directed mutagenesis and fluorescence microscopy to assess the functionality of all six putative NESs in XAB1/Gpn1. Mutating five of the six putative NESs did not alter the cytoplasmic localization of XAB1/Gpn1-EYFP. However, a V302A/L304A double mutant XAB1/Gpn1-EYFP protein was clearly accumulated in the cell nucleus, indicating the disruption of a functional NES. This functional XAB1/Gpn1 NES displays all features present in most common and potent NESs, including, in addition to Φ1-Φ4, a critical fifth hydrophobic amino acid Φ0. Therefore, in human Gpn1 this NES spans amino acids 292-LERLRKDMGSVAL-304. XAB1/Gpn1 NES is remarkably conserved during evolution. XAB1/Gpn1 NES was sufficient for nuclear export activity, as it caused a complete exclusion of EYFP from the cell nucleus. Molecular modeling of XAB1/Gpn1 provided a mechanistic reason for NES selection, as functionality correlated with accessibility, and it also suggested a mechanism for NES inhibition by intramolecular masking. In conclusion, we have identified a highly active, evolutionarily conserved NES in XAB1/Gpn1 that is critical for nucleo-cytoplasmic shuttling and steady-state cytoplasmic localization of XAB1/Gpn1.

  16. The nuclear matrix protein p255 is a highly phosphorylated form of RNA polymerase II largest subunit which associates with spliceosomes.

    PubMed Central

    Vincent, M; Lauriault, P; Dubois, M F; Lavoie, S; Bensaude, O; Chabot, B

    1996-01-01

    The monoclonal antibody CC-3 recognizes a phosphodependent epitope on a 255 kDa nuclear matrix protein (p255) recently shown to associate with splicing complexes as part of the [U4/U6.U5] tri-snRNP particle [Chabot et al. (1995) Nucleic Acids Res. 23, 3206-3213]. In mouse and Drosophila cultured cells the electrophoretic mobility of p255, faster in the latter species, was identical to that of the hyperphosphorylated form of RNA polymerase II largest subunit (IIo). The CC-3 immunoreactivity of p255 was abolished by 5,6-dichloro-1-beta-D-ribofuranosylbenzimidazole, which is known to cause the dephosphorylation of the C-terminal domain of subunit IIo by inhibiting the TFIIH-associated kinase. The identity of p255 was confirmed by showing that CC-3-immunoprecipitated p255 was recognized by POL3/3 and 8WG16, two antibodies specific to RNA polymerase II largest subunit. Lastly, the recovery of RNA polymerase II largest subunit from HeLa splicing mixtures was compromised by EDTA, which prevents the interaction of p255 with splicing complexes and inhibits splicing. Our results indicate that p255 represents a highly phosphorylated form of RNA polymerase II largest subunit physically associated with spliceosomes and possibly involved in coupling transcription to RNA processing. PMID:8972849

  17. A Conserved Nuclear Cyclophilin Is Required for Both RNA Polymerase II Elongation and Co-transcriptional Splicing in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Jeong H; Rechsteiner, Andreas; Strome, Susan; Kelly, William G

    2016-08-01

    The elongation phase of transcription by RNA Polymerase II (Pol II) involves numerous events that are tightly coordinated, including RNA processing, histone modification, and chromatin remodeling. RNA splicing factors are associated with elongating Pol II, and the interdependent coupling of splicing and elongation has been documented in several systems. Here we identify a conserved, multi-domain cyclophilin family member, SIG-7, as an essential factor for both normal transcription elongation and co-transcriptional splicing. In embryos depleted for SIG-7, RNA levels for over a thousand zygotically expressed genes are substantially reduced, Pol II becomes significantly reduced at the 3' end of genes, marks of transcription elongation are reduced, and unspliced mRNAs accumulate. Our findings suggest that SIG-7 plays a central role in both Pol II elongation and co-transcriptional splicing and may provide an important link for their coordination and regulation. PMID:27541139

  18. A Conserved Nuclear Cyclophilin Is Required for Both RNA Polymerase II Elongation and Co-transcriptional Splicing in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Jeong H.; Rechsteiner, Andreas; Strome, Susan; Kelly, William G.

    2016-01-01

    The elongation phase of transcription by RNA Polymerase II (Pol II) involves numerous events that are tightly coordinated, including RNA processing, histone modification, and chromatin remodeling. RNA splicing factors are associated with elongating Pol II, and the interdependent coupling of splicing and elongation has been documented in several systems. Here we identify a conserved, multi-domain cyclophilin family member, SIG-7, as an essential factor for both normal transcription elongation and co-transcriptional splicing. In embryos depleted for SIG-7, RNA levels for over a thousand zygotically expressed genes are substantially reduced, Pol II becomes significantly reduced at the 3’ end of genes, marks of transcription elongation are reduced, and unspliced mRNAs accumulate. Our findings suggest that SIG-7 plays a central role in both Pol II elongation and co-transcriptional splicing and may provide an important link for their coordination and regulation. PMID:27541139

  19. Molecular Evolution of Multi-subunit RNA Polymerases: Sequence Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lane, William J.; Darst, Seth A.

    2009-01-01

    Transcription in all cellular organisms is performed by multi-subunit, DNA-dependent RNA polymerases that synthesize RNA from DNA templates. Previous sequence and structural studies have elucidated the importance of shared regions common to all multi-subunit RNA polymerases. In addition RNA polymerases contain multiple lineage-specific domain insertions involved in protein-protein and protein-nucleic acid interactions. We have created comprehensive multiple sequence alignments using all available sequence data for the multi-subunit RNA polymerase large subunits, including the bacterial β and β′ subunits and their homologues from archaebacterial RNA polymerases, the eukaryotic RNA polymerases I, II, and III, the nuclear-cytoplasmic large double-stranded DNA Virus RNA polymerases, and plant plastid RNA polymerases. In order to overcome technical difficulties inherent to the large subunit sequences, including large sequence length, small and large lineage-specific insertions, split subunits, and fused proteins, we created an automated and customizable sequence retrieval and processing system. In addition, we used our alignments to create a more expansive set of shared sequence regions and bacterial lineage-specific domain insertions. We also analyzed the intergenic gap between the bacterial β and β′ genes. PMID:19895820

  20. A third mitochondrial RNA polymerase in the moss Physcomitrella patens.

    PubMed

    Richter, Uwe; Richter, Björn; Weihe, Andreas; Börner, Thomas

    2014-02-01

    In most organisms, the mitochondrial genes are transcribed by RNA polymerases related to the single-subunit RNA polymerases of bacteriophages like T3 and T7. In flowering plants, duplication(s) of the RpoTm gene coding for the mitochondrial RNA polymerase (RPOTm) led to the evolution of additional RNA polymerases transcribing genes in plastids (RPOTp) or in both mitochondria and plastids (RPOTmp). Two putative RPOTmp enzymes were previously described to be encoded by the nuclear genes RpoTmp1 and RpoTmp2 in the moss Physcomitrella patens. Here, we report on a third Physcomitrella RpoT gene. We determined the sequence of the cDNA. Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequence with sequences of plant organellar RNA polymerases suggests that this gene encodes a functional phage-type RNA polymerase. The 78 N-terminal amino acids of the putative RNA polymerase were fused to GFP and found to target the fusion protein exclusively to mitochondria in Arabidopsis protoplasts. P. patens is the only known organism to possess three mitochondrial RNA polymerases.

  1. Use of RNA polymerase molecular beacon assay to measure RNA polymerase interactions with model promoter fragments.

    PubMed

    Mekler, Vladimir; Severinov, Konstantin

    2015-01-01

    RNA polymerase-promoter interactions that keep the transcription initiation complex together are complex and multipartite, and formation of the RNA polymerase-promoter complex proceeds through multiple intermediates. Short promoter fragments can be used as a tool to dissect RNA polymerase-promoter interactions and to pinpoint elements responsible for specific properties of the entire promoter complex. A recently developed fluorometric molecular beacon assay allows one to monitor the enzyme interactions with various DNA probes and quantitatively characterize partial RNA polymerase-promoter interactions. Here, we present detailed protocols for the preparation of an Escherichia coli molecular beacon and its application to study RNA polymerase interactions with model promoter fragments.

  2. RNA Polymerases of Maize. Purification and Molecular Structure of DNA-dependent RNA Polymerase II*

    PubMed Central

    Mullinix, Kathleen P.; Strain, Gustave C.; Bogorad, Lawrence

    1973-01-01

    Nuclear DNA-dependent RNA polymerase II has been purified from leaves of Zea mays by a new procedure that improves enzyme stability and thus permits more manipulation during purification. The purification procedure includes a heating step, gel filtration on Sepharose 6B and 4B, and chromatography on DEAE- and DNA-celluloses. This method of purification yields an enzyme that exhibits maximal activity when denatured DNA is used as a template. Electrophoresis of highly purified enzyme on polyacrylamide gels containing sodium dodecyl sulfate indicates that maize RNA polymerase IIa is composed of several polypeptide subunits. The most highly purified preparations contain polypeptides with molecular weights of 200,000, 160,000, 35,000, 25,000, 20,000, and 17,000. Images PMID:4525172

  3. RNA polymerase gene, microorganism having said gene and the production of RNA polymerase by the use of said microorganism

    DOEpatents

    Kotani, Hirokazu; Hiraoka, Nobutsugu; Obayashi, Akira

    1991-01-01

    SP6 bacteriophage RNA polymerase is produced by cultivating a new microorganism (particularly new strains of Escherichia coli) harboring a plasmid that carries SP6 bacteriophage RNA polymerase gene and recovering SP6 bacteriophage RNA polymerase from the culture broth. SP6 bacteriophage RNA polymerase gene is provided as are new microorganisms harboring a plasmid that carries SP6 bacteriophage RNA polymerase gene.

  4. DNA-dependent RNA polymerase from Crithidia oncopelti kinetoplasts

    SciTech Connect

    Zaitseva, G.N.; Levchenko, I.V.; Tarasov, I.A.; Kuz'min, E.V.

    1986-03-10

    Mitochondrial DNA-dependent RNA polymerase was isolated from Crithidia oncopelti kinetoplasts, and its properties were studied. RNA polymerase was solubilized from the structures with 2% digitonin in 0.25 M KCl. The enzyme was purified 550-fold according to activity by gel filtration through Sephadex 4B, followed by chromatography on heparin-Sepharose 4B, phosphocellulose, and DEAE-Sephadex A-50. The optimum conditions of the RNA polymerase reaction (time of incubation, temperature, Mg/sup 2 +/, K/sup +/ concentrations, etc) were determined. It was established that the activity of the enzyme is not inhibited by ..cap alpha..-amanitin, rifampicin, and streptolidigin, but is strongly suppressed by Mn/sup 2 +/ ions, a high KCl concentrations, as well as ethidium bromide. The RNA polymerase isolated transcribes denatured DNA substantially better than the native form. The enzyme utilizes mtDNA (in hybrid plasmids) as a substrate appreciably more actively than the nuclear form. Among the substrates used, the greatest template activity is possessed by single-stranded poly(dAT). In all the properties studied, DNA-dependent RNA polymerase from C. oncopelti kinetoplasts is similar to the mitochondrial enzymes of other eukaryotes but differs from the nuclear enzymes of this organism and from bacterial RNA polymerases.

  5. Norovirus Proteinase-Polymerase and Polymerase Are Both Active Forms of RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase

    PubMed Central

    Belliot, Gaël; Sosnovtsev, Stanislav V.; Chang, Kyeong-Ok; Babu, Vijay; Uche, Uzo; Arnold, Jamie J.; Cameron, Craig E.; Green, Kim Y.

    2005-01-01

    In vitro mapping studies of the MD145 norovirus (Caliciviridae) ORF1 polyprotein identified two stable cleavage products containing the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) domains: ProPol (a precursor comprised of both the proteinase and polymerase) and Pol (the mature polymerase). The goal of this study was to identify the active form (or forms) of the norovirus polymerase. The recombinant ProPol (expressed as Pro−Pol with an inactivated proteinase domain to prevent autocleavage) and recombinant Pol were purified after synthesis in bacteria and shown to be active RdRp enzymes. In addition, the mutant His-E1189A-ProPol protein (with active proteinase but with the natural ProPol cleavage site blocked) was active as an RdRp, confirming that the norovirus ProPol precursor could possess two enzymatic activities simultaneously. The effects of several UTP analogs on the RdRp activity of the norovirus and feline calicivirus Pro−Pol enzymes were compared and found to be similar. Our data suggest that the norovirus ProPol is a bifunctional enzyme during virus replication. The availability of this recombinant ProPol enzyme might prove useful in the development of antiviral drugs for control of the noroviruses associated with acute gastroenteritis. PMID:15681440

  6. The Selenocysteine tRNA Gene in Leishmania major Is Transcribed by both RNA Polymerase II and RNA Polymerase III

    PubMed Central

    Padilla-Mejía, Norma E.; Florencio-Martínez, Luis E.; Moreno-Campos, Rodrigo; Vizuet-de-Rueda, Juan C.; Cevallos, Ana M.; Hernández-Rivas, Rosaura; Manning-Cela, Rebeca

    2014-01-01

    Eukaryotic tRNAs, transcribed by RNA polymerase III (Pol III), contain boxes A and B as internal promoter elements. One exception is the selenocysteine (Sec) tRNA (tRNA-Sec), whose transcription is directed by an internal box B and three extragenic sequences in vertebrates. Here we report on the transcriptional analysis of the tRNA-Sec gene in the protozoan parasite Leishmania major. This organism has unusual mechanisms of gene expression, including Pol II polycistronic transcription and maturation of mRNAs by trans splicing, a process that attaches a 39-nucleotide miniexon to the 5′ end of all the mRNAs. In L. major, tRNA-Sec is encoded by a single gene inserted into a Pol II polycistronic unit, in contrast to most tRNAs, which are clustered at the boundaries of polycistronic units. 5′ rapid amplification of cDNA ends and reverse transcription-PCR experiments showed that some tRNA-Sec transcripts contain the miniexon at the 5′ end and a poly(A) tail at the 3′ end, indicating that the tRNA-Sec gene is polycistronically transcribed by Pol II and processed by trans splicing and polyadenylation, as was recently reported for the tRNA-Sec genes in the related parasite Trypanosoma brucei. However, nuclear run-on assays with RNA polymerase inhibitors and with cells that were previously UV irradiated showed that the tRNA-Sec gene in L. major is also transcribed by Pol III. Thus, our results indicate that RNA polymerase specificity in Leishmania is not absolute in vivo, as has recently been found in other eukaryotes. PMID:25548151

  7. RNA polymerase and the regulation of transcription

    SciTech Connect

    Reznikoff, W.S.; Gross, C.A.; Burgess, R.R.; Record, M.T.; Dahlberg, J.E.; Wickens, M.P.

    1987-01-01

    This book consists of eight sections, each containing several papers. The section titles are: RNA Polymerases; Transcription Initiation - Bacterial; Regulation of Bacterial Transcription Initiation; Stable RNA Synthesis in Eukaryotes: Chromatin Structure; Promoters; Enhancers; and the Global Control of Eukaryotic Transcription; Specific Eukaryotic Transcription Factors; Termination of Transcription; and Short Communications.

  8. Amplification of RNA by an RNA polymerase ribozyme.

    PubMed

    Horning, David P; Joyce, Gerald F

    2016-08-30

    In all extant life, genetic information is stored in nucleic acids that are replicated by polymerase proteins. In the hypothesized RNA world, before the evolution of genetically encoded proteins, ancestral organisms contained RNA genes that were replicated by an RNA polymerase ribozyme. In an effort toward reconstructing RNA-based life in the laboratory, in vitro evolution was used to improve dramatically the activity and generality of an RNA polymerase ribozyme by selecting variants that can synthesize functional RNA molecules from an RNA template. The improved polymerase ribozyme is able to synthesize a variety of complex structured RNAs, including aptamers, ribozymes, and, in low yield, even tRNA. Furthermore, the polymerase can replicate nucleic acids, amplifying short RNA templates by more than 10,000-fold in an RNA-catalyzed form of the PCR. Thus, the two prerequisites of Darwinian life-the replication of genetic information and its conversion into functional molecules-can now be accomplished with RNA in the complete absence of proteins. PMID:27528667

  9. [RNA polymerase as a molecular machine].

    PubMed

    Spirin, A S

    2002-01-01

    Structure and function of DNA-dependent RNA polymerase is considered in terms of a conveying molecular machine. The use of mechanical energy and mechanical devices, such as "power-stroke motor", is supposed unlikely in the conveying function of RNA polymerase, as well as other molecular machines. Brownian motion and thermal mobility of macromolecules and their parts are postulated as the only motive impulse at the molecular level. Binding of substrates and subsequent chemical reaction as the energy input may provide successive selection and fixation of alternative conformational states of the enzyme complex thus providing the directionality of the conveyance ("Brownian ratchet mechanism"). The following sequence of events "substrate binding--fixation of a certain conformational state--chemical reaction--fixation of an alternative conformational state--translocation (dissociation and downstream reassociation) of product-template duplex" is proposed as the principal scheme of the forward movement of RNA polymerase along DNA template.

  10. Biogenesis of RNA polymerases II and III requires the conserved GPN small GTPases in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Minaker, Sean W; Filiatrault, Megan C; Ben-Aroya, Shay; Hieter, Philip; Stirling, Peter C

    2013-03-01

    The GPN proteins are a poorly characterized and deeply evolutionarily conserved family of three paralogous small GTPases, Gpn1, 2, and 3. The founding member, GPN1/NPA3/XAB1, is proposed to function in nuclear import of RNA polymerase II along with a recently described protein called Iwr1. Here we show that the previously uncharacterized protein Gpn2 binds both Gpn3 and Npa3/Gpn1 and that temperature-sensitive alleles of Saccharomyces cerevisiae GPN2 and GPN3 exhibit genetic interactions with RNA polymerase II mutants, hypersensitivity to transcription inhibition, and defects in RNA polymerase II nuclear localization. Importantly, we identify previously unrecognized RNA polymerase III localization defects in GPN2, GPN3, and IWR1 mutant backgrounds but find no localization defects of unrelated nuclear proteins or of RNA polymerase I. Previously, it was unclear whether the GPN proteins and Iwr1 had overlapping function in RNA polymerase II assembly or import. In this study, we show that the nuclear import defect of iwr1Δ, but not the GPN2 or GPN3 mutant defects, is partially suppressed by fusion of a nuclear localization signal to the RNA polymerase II subunit Rpb3. These data, combined with strong genetic interactions between GPN2 and IWR1, suggest that the GPN proteins function upstream of Iwr1 in RNA polymerase II and III biogenesis. We propose that the three GPN proteins execute a common, and likely essential, function in RNA polymerase assembly and transport.

  11. Biogenesis of RNA Polymerases II and III Requires the Conserved GPN Small GTPases in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Minaker, Sean W.; Filiatrault, Megan C.; Ben-Aroya, Shay; Hieter, Philip; Stirling, Peter C.

    2013-01-01

    The GPN proteins are a poorly characterized and deeply evolutionarily conserved family of three paralogous small GTPases, Gpn1, 2, and 3. The founding member, GPN1/NPA3/XAB1, is proposed to function in nuclear import of RNA polymerase II along with a recently described protein called Iwr1. Here we show that the previously uncharacterized protein Gpn2 binds both Gpn3 and Npa3/Gpn1 and that temperature-sensitive alleles of Saccharomyces cerevisiae GPN2 and GPN3 exhibit genetic interactions with RNA polymerase II mutants, hypersensitivity to transcription inhibition, and defects in RNA polymerase II nuclear localization. Importantly, we identify previously unrecognized RNA polymerase III localization defects in GPN2, GPN3, and IWR1 mutant backgrounds but find no localization defects of unrelated nuclear proteins or of RNA polymerase I. Previously, it was unclear whether the GPN proteins and Iwr1 had overlapping function in RNA polymerase II assembly or import. In this study, we show that the nuclear import defect of iwr1Δ, but not the GPN2 or GPN3 mutant defects, is partially suppressed by fusion of a nuclear localization signal to the RNA polymerase II subunit Rpb3. These data, combined with strong genetic interactions between GPN2 and IWR1, suggest that the GPN proteins function upstream of Iwr1 in RNA polymerase II and III biogenesis. We propose that the three GPN proteins execute a common, and likely essential, function in RNA polymerase assembly and transport. PMID:23267056

  12. Structural biology of bacterial RNA polymerase.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Katsuhiko S

    2015-05-11

    Since its discovery and characterization in the early 1960s (Hurwitz, J. The discovery of RNA polymerase. J. Biol. Chem. 2005, 280, 42477-42485), an enormous amount of biochemical, biophysical and genetic data has been collected on bacterial RNA polymerase (RNAP). In the late 1990s, structural information pertaining to bacterial RNAP has emerged that provided unprecedented insights into the function and mechanism of RNA transcription. In this review, I list all structures related to bacterial RNAP (as determined by X-ray crystallography and NMR methods available from the Protein Data Bank), describe their contributions to bacterial transcription research and discuss the role that small molecules play in inhibiting bacterial RNA transcription.

  13. A movie of RNA polymerase II transcription.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Alan C M; Cramer, Patrick

    2012-06-22

    We provide here a molecular movie that captures key aspects of RNA polymerase II initiation and elongation. To create the movie, we combined structural snapshots of the initiation-elongation transition and of elongation, including nucleotide addition, translocation, pausing, proofreading, backtracking, arrest, reactivation, and inhibition. The movie reveals open questions about the mechanism of transcription and provides a useful teaching tool.

  14. Nucleolin Is Required for RNA Polymerase I Transcription In Vivo▿

    PubMed Central

    Rickards, Brenden; Flint, S. J.; Cole, Michael D.; LeRoy, Gary

    2007-01-01

    Eukaryotic genomes are packaged with histones and accessory proteins in the form of chromatin. RNA polymerases and their accessory proteins are sufficient for transcription of naked DNA, but not of chromatin, templates in vitro. In this study, we purified and identified nucleolin as a protein that allows RNA polymerase II to transcribe nucleosomal templates in vitro. As immunofluorescence confirmed that nucleolin localizes primarily to nucleoli with RNA polymerase I, we demonstrated that nucleolin allows RNA polymerase I transcription of chromatin templates in vitro. The results of chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments established that nucleolin is associated with chromatin containing rRNA genes transcribed by RNA polymerase I but not with genes transcribed by RNA polymerase II or III. Knockdown of nucleolin by RNA interference resulted in specific inhibition of RNA polymerase I transcription. We therefore propose that an important function of nucleolin is to permit RNA polymerase I to transcribe nucleolar chromatin. PMID:17130237

  15. A Cross-chiral RNA Polymerase Ribozyme

    PubMed Central

    Sczepanski, Jonathan T.; Joyce, Gerald F.

    2014-01-01

    Thirty years ago it was shown that the non-enzymatic, template-directed polymerization of activated mononucleotides proceeds readily in a homochiral system, but is severely inhibited by the presence of the opposing enantiomer.1 This finding poses a severe challenge for the spontaneous emergence of RNA-based life, and has led to the suggestion that either RNA was preceded by some other genetic polymer that is not subject to chiral inhibition2 or chiral symmetry was broken through chemical processes prior to the origin of RNA-based life.3,4 Once an RNA enzyme arose that could catalyze the polymerization of RNA, it would have been possible to distinguish among the two enantiomers, enabling RNA replication and RNA-based evolution to occur. It is commonly thought that the earliest RNA polymerase and its substrates would have been of the same handedness, but this is not necessarily the case. Replicating D-and L-RNA molecules may have emerged together, based on the ability of structured RNAs of one handedness to catalyze the templated polymerization of activated mononucleotides of the opposite handedness. Such a cross-chiral RNA polymerase has now been developed using in vitro evolution. The D-RNA enzyme, consisting of 83 nucleotides, catalyzes the joining of L-mono- or oligonucleotide substrates on a complementary L-RNA template, and similarly for the L-enzyme with D-substrates and a D-template. Chiral inhibition is avoided because the 106-fold rate acceleration of the enzyme only pertains to cross-chiral substrates. The enzyme's activity is sufficient to generate full-length copies of its enantiomer through the templated joining of 11 component oligonucleotides. PMID:25363769

  16. RNA Polymerase Pausing during Initial Transcription.

    PubMed

    Duchi, Diego; Bauer, David L V; Fernandez, Laurent; Evans, Geraint; Robb, Nicole; Hwang, Ling Chin; Gryte, Kristofer; Tomescu, Alexandra; Zawadzki, Pawel; Morichaud, Zakia; Brodolin, Konstantin; Kapanidis, Achillefs N

    2016-09-15

    In bacteria, RNA polymerase (RNAP) initiates transcription by synthesizing short transcripts that are either released or extended to allow RNAP to escape from the promoter. The mechanism of initial transcription is unclear due to the presence of transient intermediates and molecular heterogeneity. Here, we studied initial transcription on a lac promoter using single-molecule fluorescence observations of DNA scrunching on immobilized transcription complexes. Our work revealed a long pause ("initiation pause," ∼20 s) after synthesis of a 6-mer RNA; such pauses can serve as regulatory checkpoints. Region sigma 3.2, which contains a loop blocking the RNA exit channel, was a major pausing determinant. We also obtained evidence for RNA backtracking during abortive initial transcription and for additional pausing prior to escape. We summarized our work in a model for initial transcription, in which pausing is controlled by a complex set of determinants that modulate the transition from a 6- to a 7-nt RNA. PMID:27618490

  17. RNA Polymerase Pausing during Initial Transcription.

    PubMed

    Duchi, Diego; Bauer, David L V; Fernandez, Laurent; Evans, Geraint; Robb, Nicole; Hwang, Ling Chin; Gryte, Kristofer; Tomescu, Alexandra; Zawadzki, Pawel; Morichaud, Zakia; Brodolin, Konstantin; Kapanidis, Achillefs N

    2016-09-15

    In bacteria, RNA polymerase (RNAP) initiates transcription by synthesizing short transcripts that are either released or extended to allow RNAP to escape from the promoter. The mechanism of initial transcription is unclear due to the presence of transient intermediates and molecular heterogeneity. Here, we studied initial transcription on a lac promoter using single-molecule fluorescence observations of DNA scrunching on immobilized transcription complexes. Our work revealed a long pause ("initiation pause," ∼20 s) after synthesis of a 6-mer RNA; such pauses can serve as regulatory checkpoints. Region sigma 3.2, which contains a loop blocking the RNA exit channel, was a major pausing determinant. We also obtained evidence for RNA backtracking during abortive initial transcription and for additional pausing prior to escape. We summarized our work in a model for initial transcription, in which pausing is controlled by a complex set of determinants that modulate the transition from a 6- to a 7-nt RNA.

  18. Purification and Characterization of Recombinant Deinococcus radiodurans RNA Polymerase.

    PubMed

    Esyunina, D M; Kulbachinskiy, A V

    2015-10-01

    The radioresistant bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans is one of the most interesting models for studies of cell stress resistance. Analysis of the mechanisms of gene expression in D. radiodurans revealed some specific features of the transcription apparatus that might play a role in cell resistance to DNA-damaging conditions. In particular, RNA polymerase from D. radiodurans forms unstable promoter complexes and during transcription elongation has a much higher rate of RNA cleavage than RNA polymerase from Escherichia coli. Analysis of the structure and functions of D. radiodurans RNA polymerase is complicated due to the absence of convenient genetic systems for making mutations in the RNA polymerase genes and difficulties with enzyme purification. In this work, we developed a system for expression of D. radiodurans RNA polymerase in E. coli cells. We obtained an expression vector encoding all core RNA polymerase subunits and defined optimal conditions for the expression and purification of the RNA polymerase. It was found that D. radiodurans RNA polymerase has much higher rates of RNA cleavage than E. coli RNA polymerase under a wide range of conditions, including variations in the concentration of catalytic magnesium ions and pH values of the reaction buffer. The expression system can be used for further studies of the RNA cleavage reaction and the mechanisms of transcription regulation in D. radiodurans, including analysis of mutant RNA polymerase variants.

  19. Solving the RNA polymerase I structural puzzle

    SciTech Connect

    Moreno-Morcillo, María; Taylor, Nicholas M. I.; Gruene, Tim; Legrand, Pierre; Rashid, Umar J.; Ruiz, Federico M.; Steuerwald, Ulrich; Müller, Christoph W.; Fernández-Tornero, Carlos

    2014-10-01

    Details of the RNA polymerase I crystal structure determination provide a framework for solution of the structures of other multi-subunit complexes. Simple crystallographic experiments are described to extract relevant biological information such as the location of the enzyme active site. Knowing the structure of multi-subunit complexes is critical to understand basic cellular functions. However, when crystals of these complexes can be obtained they rarely diffract beyond 3 Å resolution, which complicates X-ray structure determination and refinement. The crystal structure of RNA polymerase I, an essential cellular machine that synthesizes the precursor of ribosomal RNA in the nucleolus of eukaryotic cells, has recently been solved. Here, the crucial steps that were undertaken to build the atomic model of this multi-subunit enzyme are reported, emphasizing how simple crystallographic experiments can be used to extract relevant biological information. In particular, this report discusses the combination of poor molecular replacement and experimental phases, the application of multi-crystal averaging and the use of anomalous scatterers as sequence markers to guide tracing and to locate the active site. The methods outlined here will likely serve as a reference for future structural determination of large complexes at low resolution.

  20. RNA polymerase molecular beacon as tool for studies of RNA polymerase-promoter interactions.

    PubMed

    Mekler, Vladimir; Severinov, Konstantin

    2015-09-15

    The molecular details of formation of transcription initiation complex upon the interaction of bacterial RNA polymerase (RNAP) with promoters are not completely understood. One way to address this problem is to understand how RNAP interacts with different parts of promoter DNA. A recently developed fluorometric RNAP molecular beacon assay allows one to monitor the RNAP interactions with various unlabeled DNA probes and quantitatively characterize partial RNAP-promoter interactions. This paper focuses on methodological aspects of application of this powerful assay to study the mechanism of transcription initiation complex formation by Escherichia coli RNA polymerase σ(70) holoenzyme and its regulation by bacterial and phage encoded factors.

  1. RNA polymerase molecular beacon as tool for studies of RNA polymerase - promoter interactions

    PubMed Central

    Mekler, Vladimir; Severinov, Konstantin

    2015-01-01

    The molecular details of formation of transcription initiation complex upon the interaction of bacterial RNA polymerase (RNAP) with promoters are not completely understood. One way to address this problem is to understand how RNAP interacts with different parts of promoter DNA. A recently developed fluorometric RNAP molecular beacon assay allows one to monitor the RNAP interactions with various unlabeled DNA probes and quantitatively characterize partial RNAP-promoter interactions. This paper focuses on methodological aspects of application of this powerful assay to study the mechanism of transcription initiation complex formation by Escherichia coli RNA polymerase σ70 holoenzyme and its regulation by bacterial and phage encoded factors. PMID:25956222

  2. Intergenic transcriptional interference is blocked by RNA polymerase III transcription factor TFIIIB in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Korde, Asawari; Rosselot, Jessica M; Donze, David

    2014-02-01

    The major function of eukaryotic RNA polymerase III is to transcribe transfer RNA, 5S ribosomal RNA, and other small non-protein-coding RNA molecules. Assembly of the RNA polymerase III complex on chromosomal DNA requires the sequential binding of transcription factor complexes TFIIIC and TFIIIB. Recent evidence has suggested that in addition to producing RNA transcripts, chromatin-assembled RNA polymerase III complexes may mediate additional nuclear functions that include chromatin boundary, nucleosome phasing, and general genome organization activities. This study provides evidence of another such "extratranscriptional" activity of assembled RNA polymerase III complexes, which is the ability to block progression of intergenic RNA polymerase II transcription. We demonstrate that the RNA polymerase III complex bound to the tRNA gene upstream of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATG31 gene protects the ATG31 promoter against readthrough transcriptional interference from the upstream noncoding intergenic SUT467 transcription unit. This protection is predominately mediated by binding of the TFIIIB complex. When TFIIIB binding to this tRNA gene is weakened, an extended SUT467-ATG31 readthrough transcript is produced, resulting in compromised ATG31 translation. Since the ATG31 gene product is required for autophagy, strains expressing the readthrough transcript exhibit defective autophagy induction and reduced fitness under autophagy-inducing nitrogen starvation conditions. Given the recent discovery of widespread pervasive transcription in all forms of life, protection of neighboring genes from intergenic transcriptional interference may be a key extratranscriptional function of assembled RNA polymerase III complexes and possibly other DNA binding proteins.

  3. ppGpp: magic beyond RNA polymerase.

    PubMed

    Dalebroux, Zachary D; Swanson, Michele S

    2012-02-16

    During stress, bacteria undergo extensive physiological transformations, many of which are coordinated by ppGpp. Although ppGpp is best known for enhancing cellular resilience by redirecting the RNA polymerase (RNAP) to certain genes, it also acts as a signal in many other cellular processes in bacteria. After a brief overview of ppGpp biosynthesis and its impact on promoter selection by RNAP, we discuss how bacteria exploit ppGpp to modulate the synthesis, stability or activity of proteins or regulatory RNAs that are crucial in challenging environments, using mechanisms beyond the direct regulation of RNAP activity.

  4. Modification of RNA polymerase IIO subspecies after poliovirus infection.

    PubMed Central

    Rangel, L M; Fernandez-Tomas, C; Dahmus, M E; Gariglio, P

    1987-01-01

    Infection of HeLa cells with poliovirus results in a shutdown of host transcription. In an effort to understand the mechanism(s) that underlies this process, we analyzed the distribution of RNA polymerase IIO before and after viral infection. Analysis of free and chromatin-bound enzyme indicated that there is a significant reduction in RNA polymerase IIO following infection. This observation, together with increasing evidence that transcription is catalyzed by RNA polymerase IIO, supports the hypothesis that poliovirus-induced inhibition of host transcription occurs at the level of RNA chain initiation and involves the direct modification of RNA polymerase II. Images PMID:3029396

  5. Inhibition of RNA polymerase by streptolydigin: no cycling allowed.

    PubMed

    Kyzer, Scotty; Zhang, Jinwei; Landick, Robert

    2005-08-26

    Bacterial RNA polymerase is a common target for many antibiotics. In two recent papers in Cell and Molecular Cell, and describe a structural basis for inhibition of bacterial RNA polymerase by the antibiotic streptolydigin. Streptolydigin may prevent distortion of a "bridge" alpha helix postulated to occur during the nucleotide addition cycle of RNA polymerase or may block a small movement of the bridge helix that helps load nucleotide triphosphates into the active site. PMID:16122417

  6. Subunit Compositions of the RNA-Silencing Enzymes Pol IV and Pol V Reveal Their Origins as Specialized Forms of RNA Polymerase II

    SciTech Connect

    Ream, Thomas S.; Haag, J. R.; Wierzbicki, A. T.; Nicora, Carrie D.; Norbeck, Angela D.; Zhu, J. K.; Hagen, G.; Guilfoyle, T. J.; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana; Pikaard, Craig S.

    2009-01-30

    In addition to RNA polymerases I, II and III, which are multi-subunit RNA polymerases found in all eukaryotes, plants have catalytic subunits for two additional nuclear RNA polymerases, abbreviated as Pol IV and Pol V (formerly Pol IVa and Pol IVb, respectively). Pol IV and Pol V play non-redundant roles in siRNA-directed DNA methylation and gene silencing pathways.

  7. Site size of cooperative single-stranded RNA binding by poliovirus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase.

    PubMed

    Beckman, M T; Kirkegaard, K

    1998-03-20

    The poliovirus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase binds cooperatively to single-stranded RNA. We have determined the minimal RNA-binding site size of the poliovirus polymerase using binding titration with oligonucleotides of increasing length. A dramatic increase in affinity was observed when the length of the oligo(U) increased from 8 to 10 nucleotides (nt), arguing that the minimal size of RNA for polymerase binding is 10 nt. Another increase in affinity seen as the oligo(U) reached 24 nt suggests that a 24-nucleotide RNA can be occupied by two polymerase molecules. Direct binding of wild-type polymerase to oligo(U)12 and oligo(U)24 RNAs showed differences in affinity and cooperativity consistent with this model. The increase in binding affinity seen for oligo(U)10 suggests either that the RNA-binding determinants are widely spaced on the polymerase structure or that a substantial conformational change in the polymerase occurs upon the filling of its RNA-binding site.

  8. Identification of host factors that regulate the influenza virus RNA polymerase activity.

    PubMed

    Momose, F; Handa, H; Nagata, K

    1996-01-01

    Transcription and replication of the influenza virus RNA genome take place in the nuclei of infected cells. Ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complexes consisting of viral RNA, RNA polymerase, and nucleocapsid protein (NP) are proven to be the catalytic unit for RNA synthesis, while it has been indicated that the viral RNA polymerase activity is modulated by host-derived nuclear factors. Here we have identified such host factors present in nuclear extracts prepared from uninfected HeLa cells with biochemical complementation assays using the in vitro RNA synthesis system. The stimulatory activity was not absorbed to phosphocellulose but was tightly bound to Q-Sepharose. The eluate recovered from Q-Sepharose was able to stimulate the RNA synthesis catalyzed by both RNP complexes and purified RNA polymerase and NP. The stimulatory activity was further separated into two distinct fractions, designated RAF-1 (RNA polymerase activating factor-1) and RAF-2 fractions, through phenyl-Sepharose column chromatography. When these fractions were fractionated through a gel filtration column, RAF-1 and RAF-2 activities were recovered in fractions corresponding to the molecular mass of 350 kDa and 60 kDa, respectively. Furthermore, the RAF-2 fraction was shown to contain an inhibitory activity, tentatively designated RIF-1 (RNA polymerase inhibitory factor-1). RIF-1 sedimented as fast as bovine serum albumin in glycerol density gradient centrifugation. Roles of these host factors are discussed in the context of viral RNA transcription and replication.

  9. Recruitment of RNA polymerase III in vivo.

    PubMed

    Kenneth, Niall S; Marshall, Lynne; White, Robert J

    2008-06-01

    RNA polymerase (pol) III contains a dissociable subcomplex that is required for initiation, but not for elongation or termination of transcription. This subcomplex is composed of subunits RPC3, RPC6 and RPC7, and interacts with TFIIIB, a factor that is necessary and sufficient to support accurate pol III transcription in vitro. Direct binding of TFIIIB to RPC6 is believed to recruit pol III to its genetic templates. However, this has never been tested in vivo. Here we combine chromatin immunoprecipitation with RNA interference to demonstrate that the RPC3/6/7 subcomplex is required for pol III recruitment in mammalian cells. Specific knockdown of RPC6 by RNAi results in post-transcriptional depletion of the other components of the subcomplex, RPC3 and RPC7, without destabilizing core pol III subunits or TFIIIB. The resultant core enzyme is defective in associating with TFIIIB and target genes in vivo. Promoter occupancy by pol II is unaffected, despite sharing five subunits with the pol III core. These observations provide evidence for the validity in vivo of the model for pol III recruitment that was built on biochemical data.

  10. Unusual promoter-independent transcription reactions with bacteriophage RNA polymerases.

    PubMed Central

    Krupp, G

    1989-01-01

    Efficient transcription reactions of DNA-dependent RNA polymerases require the presence of a specific promoter sequence. This report shows that in the absence of their cognate promoter, two bacteriophage RNA polymerases are capable of performing unusual transcription reactions: (i) the DNA template serves also as a primer for RNA synthesis and this leads to hybrid DNA/RNA molecules, (ii) if the DNA template forms a hairpin structure, the linear DNA can be transcribed via the 'rolling circle' mechanism. Images PMID:2471146

  11. The RNA Polymerase of Marine Cyanophage Syn5*

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Bin; Tabor, Stanley; Raytcheva, Desislava A.; Hernandez, Alfredo; King, Jonathan A.; Richardson, Charles C.

    2013-01-01

    A single subunit DNA-dependent RNA polymerase was identified and purified to apparent homogeneity from cyanophage Syn5 that infects the marine cyanobacteria Synechococcus. Syn5 is homologous to bacteriophage T7 that infects Escherichia coli. Using the purified enzyme its promoter has been identified by examining transcription of segments of Syn5 DNA and sequencing the 5′-termini of the transcripts. Only two Syn5 RNAP promoters, having the sequence 5′-ATTGGGCACCCGTAA-3′, are found within the Syn5 genome. One promoter is located within the Syn5 RNA polymerase gene and the other is located close to the right genetic end of the genome. The purified enzyme and its promoter have enabled a determination of the requirements for transcription. Unlike the salt-sensitive bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase, this marine RNA polymerase requires 160 mm potassium for maximal activity. The optimal temperature for Syn5 RNA polymerase is 24 °C, much lower than that for T7 RNA polymerase. Magnesium is required as a cofactor although some activity is observed with ferrous ions. Syn5 RNA polymerase is more efficient in utilizing low concentrations of ribonucleotides than T7 RNA polymerase. PMID:23258537

  12. Global analysis of transcriptionally engaged yeast RNA polymerase III reveals extended tRNA transcripts

    PubMed Central

    Turowski, Tomasz W.; Leśniewska, Ewa; Delan-Forino, Clementine; Sayou, Camille; Boguta, Magdalena; Tollervey, David

    2016-01-01

    RNA polymerase III (RNAPIII) synthesizes a range of highly abundant small stable RNAs, principally pre-tRNAs. Here we report the genome-wide analysis of nascent transcripts attached to RNAPIII under permissive and restrictive growth conditions. This revealed strikingly uneven polymerase distributions across transcription units, generally with a predominant 5′ peak. This peak was higher for more heavily transcribed genes, suggesting that initiation site clearance is rate-limiting during RNAPIII transcription. Down-regulation of RNAPIII transcription under stress conditions was found to be uneven; a subset of tRNA genes showed low response to nutrient shift or loss of the major transcription regulator Maf1, suggesting potential “housekeeping” roles. Many tRNA genes were found to generate long, 3′-extended forms due to read-through of the canonical poly(U) terminators. The degree of read-through was anti-correlated with the density of U-residues in the nascent tRNA, and multiple, functional terminators can be located far downstream. The steady-state levels of 3′-extended pre-tRNA transcripts are low, apparently due to targeting by the nuclear surveillance machinery, especially the RNA binding protein Nab2, cofactors for the nuclear exosome, and the 5′-exonuclease Rat1. PMID:27206856

  13. The Rapid Turnover of RNA Polymerase of Rat Liver Nucleolus, and of Its Messenger RNA

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Fu-Li; Feigelson, Philip

    1972-01-01

    Turnover rates of the components of systems for RNA synthesis of rat-liver nucleus, nucleolus, and nucleoplasm were investigated. Cycloheximide administered in vivo selectively diminished nucleolar RNA synthesis in vitro. In contrast to the relatively stable nucleoplasmic RNA polymerase, nucleolar RNA polymerase (polymerase I) from rat liver decays rapidly upon cycloheximide administration, following pseudo-first order kinetics with a half-life of about 1.3 hr. Cycloheximide elicits this effect not through direct interaction with nucleolar RNA polymerase itself, nor by alteration of template function, but rather by inhibition of de novo synthesis of one or more of the protein components of nucleolar RNA polymerase. Similarly, when actinomycin-D was administered in vivo to inhibit RNA synthesis, the rate of decay of nucleolar RNA polymerase, assayed in the presence of exogenous poly d(A-T) template, was similar to that observed after cycloheximide administration. Thus, the messenger RNA(s) that codes for one or more of the catalytically essential polypeptide components of this enzyme turn over very rapidly with a half-life considerably shorter than 1.3 hr. The rapidity of turnover of both the enzyme protein and its messenger RNA(s) renders nucleolar RNA polymerase highly responsive to altered transcriptional, translational, or post-translational modulation. The marked differences in turnover rates of nucleolar and nucleoplasmic RNA polymerases indicate that at least certain of the protomeric components of nucleolar RNA polymerase I are distinct from those of nucleoplasmic RNA polymerases II and III. PMID:4507607

  14. Template-free generation of RNA species that replicate with bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase.

    PubMed Central

    Biebricher, C K; Luce, R

    1996-01-01

    A large variety of different RNA species that are replicated by DNA-dependent RNA polymerase from bacteriophage T7 have been generated by incubating high concentrations of this enzyme with substrate for extended time periods. The products differed from sample to sample in molecular weight and sequence, their chain lengths ranging from 60 to 120. The mechanism of autocatalytic amplification of RNA by T7 RNA polymerase proved to be analogous to that observed with viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (replicases): only single-stranded templates are accepted and complementary replica strands are synthesized. With enzyme in excess, exponential growth was observed; linear growth resulted when the enzyme was saturated by RNA template. The plus strands, present at 90% of the replicating RNA species, were found to have GG residues at both termini. Consensus sequences were not found among the sequences of the replicating RNA species. The secondary structures of all species sequenced turned out to be hairpins. The RNA species were specifically replicated by T7 RNA polymerase; they were not accepted as templates by the RNA polymerases from Escherichia coli or bacteriophage SP6 or by Qbeta replicase; T3 RNA polymerase was partially active. Template-free production of RNA was completely suppressed by addition of DNA to the incubation mixture. When both DNA and RNA templates were present, transcription and replication competed, but T7 RNA polymerase preferred DNA as a template. No replicating RNA species were detected in vivo in cells expressing T7 RNA polymerase. Images PMID:8670848

  15. A new family of polymerases related to superfamily A DNA polymerases and T7-like DNA-dependent RNA polymerases.

    PubMed

    Iyer, Lakshminarayan M; Abhiman, Saraswathi; Aravind, L

    2008-01-01

    Using sequence profile methods and structural comparisons we characterize a previously unknown family of nucleic acid polymerases in a group of mobile elements from genomes of diverse bacteria, an algal plastid and certain DNA viruses, including the recently reported Sputnik virus. Using contextual information from domain architectures and gene-neighborhoods we present evidence that they are likely to possess both primase and DNA polymerase activity, comparable to the previously reported prim-pol proteins. These newly identified polymerases help in defining the minimal functional core of superfamily A DNA polymerases and related RNA polymerases. Thus, they provide a framework to understand the emergence of both DNA and RNA polymerization activity in this class of enzymes. They also provide evidence that enigmatic DNA viruses, such as Sputnik, might have emerged from mobile elements coding these polymerases. PMID:18834537

  16. Evolutionary connection between the catalytic subunits of DNA-dependent RNA polymerases and eukaryotic RNA-dependent RNA polymerases and the origin of RNA polymerases

    PubMed Central

    Iyer, Lakshminarayan M; Koonin, Eugene V; Aravind, L

    2003-01-01

    Background The eukaryotic RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RDRP) is involved in the amplification of regulatory microRNAs during post-transcriptional gene silencing. This enzyme is highly conserved in most eukaryotes but is missing in archaea and bacteria. No evolutionary relationship between RDRP and other polymerases has been reported so far, hence the origin of this eukaryote-specific polymerase remains a mystery. Results Using extensive sequence profile searches, we identified bacteriophage homologs of the eukaryotic RDRP. The comparison of the eukaryotic RDRP and their homologs from bacteriophages led to the delineation of the conserved portion of these enzymes, which is predicted to harbor the catalytic site. Further, detailed sequence comparison, aided by examination of the crystal structure of the DNA-dependent RNA polymerase (DDRP), showed that the RDRP and the β' subunit of DDRP (and its orthologs in archaea and eukaryotes) contain a conserved double-psi β-barrel (DPBB) domain. This DPBB domain contains the signature motif DbDGD (b is a bulky residue), which is conserved in all RDRPs and DDRPs and contributes to catalysis via a coordinated divalent cation. Apart from the DPBB domain, no similarity was detected between RDRP and DDRP, which leaves open two scenarios for the origin of RDRP: i) RDRP evolved at the onset of the evolution of eukaryotes via a duplication of the DDRP β' subunit followed by dramatic divergence that obliterated the sequence similarity outside the core catalytic domain and ii) the primordial RDRP, which consisted primarily of the DPBB domain, evolved from a common ancestor with the DDRP at a very early stage of evolution, during the RNA world era. The latter hypothesis implies that RDRP had been subsequently eliminated from cellular life forms and might have been reintroduced into the eukaryotic genomes through a bacteriophage. Sequence and structure analysis of the DDRP led to further insights into the evolution of RNA polymerases

  17. In-ice evolution of RNA polymerase ribozyme activity

    PubMed Central

    Attwater, James; Wochner, Aniela; Holliger, Philipp

    2014-01-01

    Mechanisms of molecular self-replication have the potential to shed light upon the origins of life. In particular, self-replication through RNA-catalysed templated RNA synthesis is thought to have supported a primordial ‘RNA World’. However, existing polymerase ribozymes lack the capacity to synthesise RNAs approaching their own size. Here we report the in vitro evolution of such catalysts directly in the RNA-stabilising medium of water-ice, which yielded RNA polymerase ribozymes specifically adapted to sub-zero temperatures and able to synthesise RNA in ices at temperatures as low as −19°C. Combination of cold-adaptive mutations with a previously described 5′ extension operating at ambient temperatures enabled the design of a first polymerase ribozyme capable of catalysing the accurate synthesis of an RNA sequence longer than itself (adding up to 206 nucleotides), an important stepping stone towards RNA self-replication. PMID:24256864

  18. In-ice evolution of RNA polymerase ribozyme activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Attwater, James; Wochner, Aniela; Holliger, Philipp

    2013-12-01

    Mechanisms of molecular self-replication have the potential to shed light on the origins of life. In particular, self-replication through RNA-catalysed templated RNA synthesis is thought to have supported a primordial ‘RNA world’. However, existing polymerase ribozymes lack the capacity to synthesize RNAs approaching their own size. Here, we report the in vitro evolution of such catalysts directly in the RNA-stabilizing medium of water ice, which yielded RNA polymerase ribozymes specifically adapted to sub-zero temperatures and able to synthesize RNA in ices at temperatures as low as -19 °C. The combination of cold-adaptive mutations with a previously described 5‧ extension operating at ambient temperatures enabled the design of a first polymerase ribozyme capable of catalysing the accurate synthesis of an RNA sequence longer than itself (adding up to 206 nucleotides), an important stepping stone towards RNA self-replication.

  19. In-ice evolution of RNA polymerase ribozyme activity.

    PubMed

    Attwater, James; Wochner, Aniela; Holliger, Philipp

    2013-12-01

    Mechanisms of molecular self-replication have the potential to shed light on the origins of life. In particular, self-replication through RNA-catalysed templated RNA synthesis is thought to have supported a primordial 'RNA world'. However, existing polymerase ribozymes lack the capacity to synthesize RNAs approaching their own size. Here, we report the in vitro evolution of such catalysts directly in the RNA-stabilizing medium of water ice, which yielded RNA polymerase ribozymes specifically adapted to sub-zero temperatures and able to synthesize RNA in ices at temperatures as low as -19 °C. The combination of cold-adaptive mutations with a previously described 5' extension operating at ambient temperatures enabled the design of a first polymerase ribozyme capable of catalysing the accurate synthesis of an RNA sequence longer than itself (adding up to 206 nucleotides), an important stepping stone towards RNA self-replication. PMID:24256864

  20. Dysregulation of RNA polymerase I transcription during disease.

    PubMed

    Hannan, K M; Sanij, E; Rothblum, L I; Hannan, R D; Pearson, R B

    2013-01-01

    Transcription of the ribosomal RNA genes by the dedicated RNA polymerase I enzyme and subsequent processing of the ribosomal RNA are fundamental control steps in the synthesis of functional ribosomes. Dysregulation of Pol I transcription and ribosome biogenesis is linked to the etiology of a broad range of human diseases. Diseases caused by loss of function mutations in the molecular constituents of the ribosome, or factors intimately associated with RNA polymerase I transcription and processing are collectively termed ribosomopathies. Ribosomopathies are generally rare and treatment options are extremely limited tending to be more palliative than curative. Other more common diseases are associated with profound changes in cellular growth such as cardiac hypertrophy, atrophy or cancer. In contrast to ribosomopathies, altered RNA polymerase I transcriptional activity in these diseases largely results from dysregulated upstream oncogenic pathways or by direct modulation by oncogenes or tumor suppressors at the level of the RNA polymerase I transcription apparatus itself. Ribosomopathies associated with mutations in ribosomal proteins and ribosomal RNA processing or assembly factors have been covered by recent excellent reviews. In contrast, here we review our current knowledge of human diseases specifically associated with dysregulation of RNA polymerase I transcription and its associated regulatory apparatus, including some cases where this dysregulation is directly causative in disease. We will also provide insight into and discussion of possible therapeutic approaches to treat patients with dysregulated RNA polymerase I transcription. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Transcription by Odd Pols. PMID:23153826

  1. Cloning the Horse RNA Polymerase I Promoter and Its Application to Studying Influenza Virus Polymerase Activity.

    PubMed

    Lu, Gang; He, Dong; Wang, Zengchao; Ou, Shudan; Yuan, Rong; Li, Shoujun

    2016-01-01

    An influenza virus polymerase reconstitution assay based on the human, dog, or chicken RNA polymerase I (PolI) promoter has been developed and widely used to study the polymerase activity of the influenza virus in corresponding cell types. Although it is an important member of the influenza virus family and has been known for sixty years, no studies have been performed to clone the horse PolI promoter or to study the polymerase activity of equine influenza virus (EIV) in horse cells. In our study, the horse RNA PolI promoter was cloned from fetal equine lung cells. Using the luciferase assay, it was found that a 500 bp horse RNA PolI promoter sequence was required for efficient transcription. Then, using the developed polymerase reconstitution assay based on the horse RNA PolI promoter, the polymerase activity of two EIV strains was compared, and equine myxovirus resistance A protein was identified as having the inhibiting EIV polymerase activity function in horse cells. Our study enriches our knowledge of the RNA PolI promoter of eukaryotic species and provides a useful tool for the study of influenza virus polymerase activity in horse cells. PMID:27258298

  2. Cloning the Horse RNA Polymerase I Promoter and Its Application to Studying Influenza Virus Polymerase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Gang; He, Dong; Wang, Zengchao; Ou, Shudan; Yuan, Rong; Li, Shoujun

    2016-01-01

    An influenza virus polymerase reconstitution assay based on the human, dog, or chicken RNA polymerase I (PolI) promoter has been developed and widely used to study the polymerase activity of the influenza virus in corresponding cell types. Although it is an important member of the influenza virus family and has been known for sixty years, no studies have been performed to clone the horse PolI promoter or to study the polymerase activity of equine influenza virus (EIV) in horse cells. In our study, the horse RNA PolI promoter was cloned from fetal equine lung cells. Using the luciferase assay, it was found that a 500 bp horse RNA PolI promoter sequence was required for efficient transcription. Then, using the developed polymerase reconstitution assay based on the horse RNA PolI promoter, the polymerase activity of two EIV strains was compared, and equine myxovirus resistance A protein was identified as having the inhibiting EIV polymerase activity function in horse cells. Our study enriches our knowledge of the RNA PolI promoter of eukaryotic species and provides a useful tool for the study of influenza virus polymerase activity in horse cells. PMID:27258298

  3. Role of DNA-Dependent RNA Polymerases II and III in Transcription of the Adenovirus Genome Late in Productive Infection

    PubMed Central

    Weinmann, Roberto; Raskas, Heschel J.; Roeder, Robert G.

    1974-01-01

    DNA-dependent RNA polymerases I, II, and III were isolated and partially purified from KB (human) cells 18 hr after infection with adenovirus 2. As reported previously for the enzymes from other animal cells, RNA polymerase II was completely sensitive to low concentrations of α-amanitin (50% inhibition at 0.02 μg/ml), RNA polymerase III was completely sensitive to high concentrations of α-amanitin (50% inhibition at 20 μg/ml) and RNA polymerase I was totally resistant to concentrations of α-amanitin less than or equal to 200 μg/ml. RNA synthesis by the endogenous RNA polymerase activities in nuclei isolated from infected cells was completely sensitive to α-amanitin, thus suggesting that RNA polymerase I is not involved in viral DNA transcription even though it is present in these cells. The α-amanitin inhibition curve was biphasic and showed inflection points at about 0.02 and 20 μg/ml, suggesting the participation of both RNA polymerases II and III in the synthesis of RNA in these nuclei. Furthermore, at least a large fraction of the synthesis of the nuclear precursors to viral mRNA, monitored by hybridization to viral DNA, showed the same sensitivity to α-amanitin as did RNA polymerase II; and the synthesis of both viral 5.5S RNA and (presumably cellular) 5S RNA in the isolated nuclei exhibited the same sensitivity to α-amanitin as did purified RNA polymerase III. Thus, these data provide strong supporting evidence for previous studies which suggested the involvement of an RNA polymerase II in transcription of the adenovirus genome and demonstrate the role of an RNA polymerase III activity in the synthesis of viral 5.5S RNA and cellular 5S RNA. PMID:4530313

  4. Prokaryotic and eukaryotic RNA polymerases have homologous core subunits.

    PubMed Central

    Sweetser, D; Nonet, M; Young, R A

    1987-01-01

    Eukaryotic RNA polymerases are complex aggregates whose component subunits are functionally ill-defined. The gene that encodes the 140,000-dalton subunit of Saccharomyces cerevisiae RNA polymerase II was isolated and studied in detail to obtain clues to the protein's function. This gene, RPB2, exists in a single copy in the haploid genome. Disruption of the gene is lethal to the yeast cell. RPB2 encodes a protein of 138,750 daltons, which contains sequences implicated in binding purine nucleotides and zinc ions and exhibits striking sequence homology with the beta subunit of Escherichia coli RNA polymerase. These observations suggest that the yeast and the E. coli subunit have similar roles in RNA synthesis, as the beta subunit contains binding sites for nucleotide substrates and a portion of the catalytic site for RNA synthesis. The subunit homologies reported here, and those observed previously with the largest RNA polymerase subunit, indicate that components of the prokaryotic RNA polymerase "core" enzyme have counterparts in eukaryotic RNA polymerases. PMID:3547406

  5. Temperature-Sensitive Mutants in the Influenza A Virus RNA Polymerase: Alterations in the PA Linker Reduce Nuclear Targeting of the PB1-PA Dimer and Result in Viral Attenuation

    PubMed Central

    Da Costa, Bruno; Sausset, Alix; Munier, Sandie; Ghounaris, Alexandre; Naffakh, Nadia; Le Goffic, Ronan

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The influenza virus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase catalyzes genome replication and transcription within the cell nucleus. Efficient nuclear import and assembly of the polymerase subunits PB1, PB2, and PA are critical steps in the virus life cycle. We investigated the structure and function of the PA linker (residues 197 to 256), located between its N-terminal endonuclease domain and its C-terminal structured domain that binds PB1, the polymerase core. Circular dichroism experiments revealed that the PA linker by itself is structurally disordered. A large series of PA linker mutants exhibited a temperature-sensitive (ts) phenotype (reduced viral growth at 39.5°C versus 37°C/33°C), suggesting an alteration of folding kinetic parameters. The ts phenotype was associated with a reduced efficiency of replication/transcription of a pseudoviral reporter RNA in a minireplicon assay. Using a fluorescent-tagged PB1, we observed that ts and lethal PA mutants did not efficiently recruit PB1 to reach the nucleus at 39.5°C. A protein complementation assay using PA mutants, PB1, and β-importin IPO5 tagged with fragments of the Gaussia princeps luciferase showed that increasing the temperature negatively modulated the PA-PB1 and the PA-PB1-IPO5 interactions or complex stability. The selection of revertant viruses allowed the identification of different types of compensatory mutations located in one or the other of the three polymerase subunits. Two ts mutants were shown to be attenuated and able to induce antibodies in mice. Taken together, our results identify a PA domain critical for PB1-PA nuclear import and that is a “hot spot” to engineer ts mutants that could be used to design novel attenuated vaccines. IMPORTANCE By targeting a discrete domain of the PA polymerase subunit of influenza virus, we were able to identify a series of 9 amino acid positions that are appropriate to engineer temperature-sensitive (ts) mutants. This is the first time that a large

  6. The RNA polymerase II CTD coordinates transcription and RNA processing

    PubMed Central

    Hsin, Jing-Ping; Manley, James L.

    2012-01-01

    The C-terminal domain (CTD) of the RNA polymerase II largest subunit consists of multiple heptad repeats (consensus Tyr1–Ser2–Pro3–Thr4–Ser5–Pro6–Ser7), varying in number from 26 in yeast to 52 in vertebrates. The CTD functions to help couple transcription and processing of the nascent RNA and also plays roles in transcription elongation and termination. The CTD is subject to extensive post-translational modification, most notably phosphorylation, during the transcription cycle, which modulates its activities in the above processes. Therefore, understanding the nature of CTD modifications, including how they function and how they are regulated, is essential to understanding the mechanisms that control gene expression. While the significance of phosphorylation of Ser2 and Ser5 residues has been studied and appreciated for some time, several additional modifications have more recently been added to the CTD repertoire, and insight into their function has begun to emerge. Here, we review findings regarding modification and function of the CTD, highlighting the important role this unique domain plays in coordinating gene activity. PMID:23028141

  7. RNA-dependent DNA polymerase activity of RNA tumor virus. VI. Processive mode of action of avian myeloblastosis virus polymerase.

    PubMed Central

    Leis, J P

    1976-01-01

    Purified avian myeloblastosis virus (AMV) polymerase consisting of alpha,beta subunits has been shown to act processively in catalyzing DNA synthesis primed with 34S AMV RNA oligo(dT), poly(A)-poly(dT), and poly(I)-poly(dC). DNA transcripts prepared with 34S AMV RNA-oligo(dT)14 and AMV polymerase (alphabeta) have been shown to have a molecular weight of 1.05 X 10(6), or approximately one-third the size of the 34S RNA genome. Polymerase subunit alpha acts nonprocessively with the above templates. PMID:61286

  8. Structural insights into transcription initiation by RNA polymerase II

    PubMed Central

    Grünberg, Sebastian; Hahn, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Transcriptional regulation is one of the most important steps in control of cell identity, growth, differentiation and development. Many signaling pathways controlling these processes ultimately target the core transcription machinery that, for protein coding genes, consists of RNA polymerase II (Pol II) and the general transcription factors (GTFs). New studies on the structure and mechanism of the core assembly and how it interfaces with promoter DNA and coactivator complexes have given tremendous insight into early steps in the initiation process, genome-wide binding, and mechanisms conserved for all nuclear and archaeal Pols. Here we review recent developments in dissecting the architecture of the Pol II core machinery with a focus on early and regulated steps in transcription initiation. PMID:24120742

  9. Euglena gracilis DNA dependent RNA polymerase II: a zinc metalloenzyme.

    PubMed

    Falchuk, K H; Mazus, B; Ulpino, L; Vallee, B L

    1976-10-01

    Zinc is essential for cellular proliferation. Zinc deficiency of Euglena gracilis results in arrest of cell division and deranges nucleic acid and protein metabolism pointing to a decisive role of zinc in transcription and translation. We have, therefore, investigated the role of zinc in the function of the DNA-dependent RNA polymerases of this organism. Two RNA polymerases from zinc sufficient organisms were purified first by affinity chromatography on a DNA cellulose column and subsequently separated on diethylaminoethyl (DEAE)-Sephadex A-25. The two fractions were characterized as polymerase I and II by their elution pattern from DEAE-Sephadex and sensitivity to alpha-amanitin. RNA polymerase II has a provisional molecular weight of 700 000 and contains an average of 2.2 g=atoms of zinc per mol of enzyme, but not Mn, Cu, or Fe, as measured by microwave emission spectroscopy. Chelating agents, such as 1,10-phenanthroline, 8-hydroxyquinoline, 8-hydroxyquinoline-5-sulfonic acid, and lomofungin, inhibit activity. In contrast, the nonchelating analogues, 1,7-and 4,7-phenanthroline, do not affect activity. Inhibition by 1,10-phenanthroline is instantaneous and fully reversible by dilution. 1,10-Phenanthroline also inhibits RNA polymerase I, suggesting a role of zinc in its function. The demonstration that RNA polymerase II is a zinc enzyme indicates the involvement of zinc in eukaryotic RNA synthesis and serves as a further basis for the definition of the role of this element in eukaryotic cell growth, division, and differentiation.

  10. Purification of bacterial RNA polymerase: tools and protocols

    PubMed Central

    Svetlov, Vladimir; Artsimovitch, Irina

    2014-01-01

    Summary Bacterial RNA polymerase is the first point of gene expression and a validated target for antibiotics. Studied for several decades, the Escherichia coli transcriptional apparatus is by far the best characterized, with numerous RNA polymerase mutants and auxiliary factors isolated and analyzed in great detail. Since the E. coli enzyme was refractory to crystallization, structural studies have been focused on Thermus RNA polymerase s, revealing atomic details of the catalytic center and RNA polymerase interactions with nucleic acids, antibiotics, and regulatory proteins. However, numerous differences between these enzymes, including resistance of Thermus RNA polymerases to some antibiotics, underscored the importance of the E. coli enzyme structures. Three groups published the se long awaited structures in 2013, enabling functional and structural studies of the same model system. This progress was made possible, in large part, by the use of multicistronic vectors for expression of the E. coli enzyme in large quantities and in a highly active form. Here we describe the commonly used vectors and procedures for purification of the E. coli RNA polymerase. PMID:25665556

  11. Role of DNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase III in the Transcription of the tRNA and 5S RNA Genes

    PubMed Central

    Weinmann, Roberto; Roeder, Robert G.

    1974-01-01

    Mouse myeloma cells have previously been shown (L. B. Schwartz, V. E. F. Sklar, J. A. Jaehning, R. Weinmann & R. G. Roeder, submitted for publication) to contain two chromatographically distinct forms of RNA polymerase III (designated IIIA and IIIB). The enzymes are unaffected by low α-amanitin concentrations which completely inhibit RNA polymerase II, but they exhibit characteristic inhibition curves (identical for IIIA and IIIB) at higher toxin concentrations. RNA polymerase I was unaffected at all α-amanitin concentrations tested. Myeloma RNA polymerases II, IIIA, and IIIB appear to be inhibited by the same mechanism, since the toxin rapidly blocks chain elongation by each enzyme. The characteristic α-amanitin sensitivity of RNA polymerase III has been employed in studies of the function(s) of the class III RNA polymerases. Isolated myeloma nuclei and nucleoli contińue to synthesize RNA via the endogenous RNA polymerases when incubated in vitro. With nuclei, newly synthesized 4S precursor (pre-4S) and 5S RNA species were detected by electrophoretic analysis either of the total nuclear RNA or of the RNA released into the supernatant during incubation. The synthesis of both pre-4S and 5S RNA species was inhibited by α-amanitin, but only at high concentrations; and the α-amanitin inhibition curves for these RNAs were identical to those obtained for solubilized RNA polymerases IIIA and IIIB. In control experiments it was shown that the endogenous RNA polymerase II activity of isolated nuclei was inhibited by α-amanitin concentrations similar to those required to inhibit purified enzyme II. However, 40-50% of the endogenous activity of nuclei and 100% of the endogenous activity of purified nucleoli was completely resistant to the high α-amanitin concentrations necessary to inhibit the RNA polymerase III activities. These experiments rule out nonspecific inhibitory effects in the endogenous systems. These results unequivocally demonstrate the role of RNA

  12. Evolution of Tertiary Structure of Viral RNA Dependent Polymerases

    PubMed Central

    Černý, Jiří; Černá Bolfíková, Barbora; Valdés, James J.; Grubhoffer, Libor; Růžek, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Viral RNA dependent polymerases (vRdPs) are present in all RNA viruses; unfortunately, their sequence similarity is too low for phylogenetic studies. Nevertheless, vRdP protein structures are remarkably conserved. In this study, we used the structural similarity of vRdPs to reconstruct their evolutionary history. The major strength of this work is in unifying sequence and structural data into a single quantitative phylogenetic analysis, using powerful a Bayesian approach. The resulting phylogram of vRdPs demonstrates that RNA-dependent DNA polymerases (RdDPs) of viruses within Retroviridae family cluster in a clearly separated group of vRdPs, while RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RdRPs) of dsRNA and +ssRNA viruses are mixed together. This evidence supports the hypothesis that RdRPs replicating +ssRNA viruses evolved multiple times from RdRPs replicating +dsRNA viruses, and vice versa. Moreover, our phylogram may be presented as a scheme for RNA virus evolution. The results are in concordance with the actual concept of RNA virus evolution. Finally, the methods used in our work provide a new direction for studying ancient virus evolution. PMID:24816789

  13. Continuous in vitro evolution of bacteriophage RNA polymerase promoters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breaker, R. R.; Banerji, A.; Joyce, G. F.

    1994-01-01

    Rapid in vitro evolution of bacteriophage T7, T3, and SP6 RNA polymerase promoters was achieved by a method that allows continuous enrichment of DNAs that contain functional promoter elements. This method exploits the ability of a special class of nucleic acid molecules to replicate continuously in the presence of both a reverse transcriptase and a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase. Replication involves the synthesis of both RNA and cDNA intermediates. The cDNA strand contains an embedded promoter sequence, which becomes converted to a functional double-stranded promoter element, leading to the production of RNA transcripts. Synthetic cDNAs, including those that contain randomized promoter sequences, can be used to initiate the amplification cycle. However, only those cDNAs that contain functional promoter sequences are able to produce RNA transcripts. Furthermore, each RNA transcript encodes the RNA polymerase promoter sequence that was responsible for initiation of its own transcription. Thus, the population of amplifying molecules quickly becomes enriched for those templates that encode functional promoters. Optimal promoter sequences for phage T7, T3, and SP6 RNA polymerase were identified after a 2-h amplification reaction, initiated in each case with a pool of synthetic cDNAs encoding greater than 10(10) promoter sequence variants.

  14. RNA polymerase II subunit composition, stoichiometry, and phosphorylation.

    PubMed Central

    Kolodziej, P A; Woychik, N; Liao, S M; Young, R A

    1990-01-01

    RNA polymerase II subunit composition, stoichiometry, and phosphorylation were investigated in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by attaching an epitope coding sequence to a well-characterized RNA polymerase II subunit gene (RPB3) and by immunoprecipitating the product of this gene with its associated polypeptides. The immunopurified enzyme catalyzed alpha-amanitin-sensitive RNA synthesis in vitro. The 10 polypeptides that immunoprecipitated were identical in size and number to those previously described for RNA polymerase II purified by conventional column chromatography. The relative stoichiometry of the subunits was deduced from knowledge of the sequence of the subunits and from the extent of labeling with [35S]methionine. Immunoprecipitation from 32P-labeled cell extracts revealed that three of the subunits, RPB1, RPB2, and RPB6, are phosphorylated in vivo. Phosphorylated and unphosphorylated forms of RPB1 could be distinguished; approximately half of the RNA polymerase II molecules contained a phosphorylated RPB1 subunit. These results more precisely define the subunit composition and phosphorylation of a eucaryotic RNA polymerase II enzyme. Images PMID:2183013

  15. The LEF-4 subunit of baculovirus RNA polymerase has RNA 5'-triphosphatase and ATPase activities.

    PubMed

    Jin, J; Dong, W; Guarino, L A

    1998-12-01

    The baculovirus Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus encodes a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase that is required for transcription of viral late genes. This polymerase is composed of four equimolar subunits, LEF-8, LEF-4, LEF-9, and p47. The LEF-4 subunit has guanylyltransferase activity, suggesting that baculoviruses may encode a full complement of capping enzymes. Here we show that LEF-4 is a bifunctional enzyme that hydrolyzes the gamma phosphates of triphosphate-terminated RNA and also hydrolyzes ATP and GTP to the respective diphosphate forms. Alanine substitution of five residues previously shown to be essential for vaccinia virus RNA triphosphatase activity inactivated the triphosphatase component of LEF-4 but not the guanylyltransferase domain. Conversely, mutation of the invariant lysine in the guanylyltransferase domain abolished the guanylyltransferase activity without affecting triphosphatase function. We also investigated the effects of substituting phenylalanine for leucine at position 105, a mutation that results in a virus that is temperature sensitive for late gene expression. We found that this mutation had no significant effect on the ATPase or guanylyltransferase activity of LEF-4 but resulted in a modest decrease in RNA triphosphatase activity. PMID:9811739

  16. RNA polymerase II pauses at the 5 prime end of the transcriptionally induced Drosophila hsp70 gene

    SciTech Connect

    O'Brien, T.; Lis, J.T. )

    1991-10-01

    An RNA polymerase II molecule is associated with the 5{prime} end of the Drosophila melanogaster hsp70 gene under non-heat shock conditions. This polymerase is engaged in transcription but has paused, or arrested, after synthesizing about 25 nucleotides. Resumption of elongation by this paused polymerase appears to be the rate-limiting step in hsp70 transcription in uninduced cells. Here the authors report results of nuclear run-on assays that measure the distribution of elongating and paused RNA polymerase molecules on the hsp70 gene in induced cells. Pausing of polymerase was detected at the 5{prime} end of hsp70 was transcribed approximately five times during the 25-min heat shock that they used. Therefore, once the hsp70 gene is induced to an intermediate level, initiation of transcription by RNA polymerase II remains more rapid than the resumption of elongation by a paused polymerase molecule.

  17. Inhibitory effect of modified 5'-capped short RNA fragments on influenza virus RNA polymerase gene expression.

    PubMed

    Tado, M; Abe, T; Hatta, T; Ishikawa, M; Nakada, S; Yokota, T; Takaku, H

    2001-11-01

    We have shown previously that the 5'-capped short phosphodiester RNA fragments, Cap decoy, (Gm 12 nt) are potent inhibitors of influenza virus RNA polymerase gene expression. Here we investigate the modified capped RNA derivative containing phosphorothioate oligonucleotides (Cap decoy) as a potential influenza virus RNA polymerase inhibitor. The modified 5'-capped short phosphorothioate RNA fragments (Gms 12-15 nt) with the 5'-capped structure (m7GpppGm) were synthesized by T7 RNA polymerase. The 5'-capped short RNA fragments (Gms 12-15 nt) were encapsulated in liposome particulates and tested for their inhibitory effects on influenza virus RNA polymerase gene expression in the clone 76 cells. The 12-15 nt long Gms RNA fragments showed highly inhibitory effects. By contrast, the inhibitory effects of the 13 nt long short RNA fragments (Gm 13 nt) were considerably less in comparison with the 5'-capped short phosphorothioate RNA fragments (Gms 12-15 nt). In particular, the various Gms RNA chain lengths showed no significant differences in the inhibition of influenza virus RNA polymerase gene expression. Furthermore, the capped RNA with a phosphorothioate backbone was resistant to nuclease activity. These phosphorothioate RNA fragments exhibited higher inhibitory activity than the 5'-capped short RNA fragments (Gm 12 nt). These decoys may prove to be useful in anti-influenza virus therapeutics. PMID:12018680

  18. Genetics of eukaryotic RNA polymerases I, II, and III.

    PubMed Central

    Archambault, J; Friesen, J D

    1993-01-01

    The transcription of nucleus-encoded genes in eukaryotes is performed by three distinct RNA polymerases termed I, II, and III, each of which is a complex enzyme composed of more than 10 subunits. The isolation of genes encoding subunits of eukaryotic RNA polymerases from a wide spectrum of organisms has confirmed previous biochemical and immunological data indicating that all three enzymes are closely related in structures that have been conserved in evolution. Each RNA polymerase is an enzyme complex composed of two large subunits that are homologous to the two largest subunits of prokaryotic RNA polymerases and are associated with smaller polypeptides, some of which are common to two or to all three eukaryotic enzymes. This remarkable conservation of structure most probably underlies a conservation of function and emphasizes the likelihood that information gained from the study of RNA polymerases from one organism will be applicable to others. The recent isolation of many mutations affecting the structure and/or function of eukaryotic and prokaryotic RNA polymerases now makes it feasible to begin integrating genetic and biochemical information from various species in order to develop a picture of these enzymes. The picture of eukaryotic RNA polymerases depicted in this article emphasizes the role(s) of different polypeptide regions in interaction with other subunits, cofactors, substrates, inhibitors, or accessory transcription factors, as well as the requirement for these interactions in transcription initiation, elongation, pausing, termination, and/or enzyme assembly. Most mutations described here have been isolated in eukaryotic organisms that have well-developed experimental genetic systems as well as amenable biochemistry, such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Drosophila melanogaster, and Caenorhabditis elegans. When relevant, mutations affecting regions of Escherichia coli RNA polymerase that are conserved among eukaryotes and prokaryotes are also presented

  19. Regulation of Human RNA Polymerase III Transcription by DNMT1 and DNMT3a DNA Methyltransferases*

    PubMed Central

    Selvakumar, Tharakeswari; Gjidoda, Alison; Hovde, Stacy L.; Henry, R. William

    2012-01-01

    The human small nuclear RNA (snRNA) and small cytoplasmic RNA (scRNA) gene families encode diverse non-coding RNAs that influence cellular growth and division. Many snRNA and scRNA genes are related via their compact and yet powerful promoters that support RNA polymerase III transcription. We have utilized the human U6 snRNA gene family to examine the mechanism for regulated transcription of these potent transcription units. Analysis of nine U6 family members showed enriched CpG density within the promoters of actively transcribed loci relative to inert genes, implying a relationship between gene potency and DNA methylation. Indeed, both pharmacological inhibition of DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) activity and the forced diminution of DNMT-1, DNMT-3a, and DNMT-3b by siRNA targeting resulted in increased U6 levels in asynchronously growing MCF7 adenocarcinoma cells. In vitro transcription assays further showed that template methylation impedes U6 transcription by RNA polymerase III. Both DNMT-1 and DNMT-3a were detected at the U6-1 locus by chromatin immunoprecipitation directly linking these factors to RNA polymerase III regulation. Despite this association, the endogenous U6-1 locus was not substantially methylated in actively growing cells. However, both DNMT occupancy and low frequency methylation were correlated with increased Retinoblastoma tumor suppressor (RB) expression, suggesting that the RB status can influence specific epigenetic marks. PMID:22219193

  20. Characterization of four nuclear-encoded plastid RNA polymerase sigma factor genes in the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha: blue-light- and multiple stress-responsive SIG5 was acquired early in the emergence of terrestrial plants.

    PubMed

    Kanazawa, Takehiko; Ishizaki, Kimitsune; Kohchi, Takayuki; Hanaoka, Mitsumasa; Tanaka, Kan

    2013-10-01

    The plastids of plant cells each contain their own genome, and a bacterial-type RNA polymerase called plastid-encoded plastid RNA polymerase (PEP) is involved in transcription of this genome. While the catalytic core subunits are encoded by the plastid genome, the specificity subunit of PEP, sigma, is generally encoded by the nuclear genome and imported into plastids from the cytoplasm after translation. In this study, we identified and analyzed four sigma factor genes from the nuclear genome of a liverwort, Marchantia polymorpha. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that three of the four genes were orthologous to vascular plant genes and thus they were named MpSIG1, MpSIG2 and MpSIG5. The remaining gene was named MpSIGX. The gene products were predicted to localize to the plastid, and this prediction was experimentally demonstrated by expressing yellow fluorescent protein fusion genes in vivo. As with SIG5 genes of other plant species, expression of MpSIG5 was induced by blue-light irradiation and also under various stress conditions, indicating that the regulatory mechanism responsible is conserved among divergent plant species. However, while the major role of SIG5 in vascular plants is to repair the damaged PSII reaction center through psbD gene transcription, the relevant blue-light-responsive promoter (psbD-BLRP) was not found in M. polymorpha and psbD transcript accumulation did not occur in conjunction with MpSIG5 induction. Thus, the physiological role of SIG5 is probably divergent among plant phyla.

  1. Control of Transcriptional Elongation by RNA Polymerase II: A Retrospective.

    PubMed

    Brannan, Kris; Bentley, David L

    2012-01-01

    The origins of our current understanding of control of transcription elongation lie in pioneering experiments that mapped RNA polymerase II on viral and cellular genes. These studies first uncovered the surprising excess of polymerase molecules that we now know to be situated at the at the 5' ends of most genes in multicellular organisms. The pileup of pol II near transcription start sites reflects a ubiquitous bottle-neck that limits elongation right at the start of the transcription elongation. Subsequent seminal work identified conserved protein factors that positively and negatively control the flux of polymerase through this bottle-neck, and make a major contribution to control of gene expression. PMID:22567377

  2. Direct Characterization of Transcription Elongation by RNA Polymerase I

    PubMed Central

    Ucuncuoglu, Suleyman; Engel, Krysta L.; Purohit, Prashant K.; Dunlap, David D.; Schneider, David A.

    2016-01-01

    RNA polymerase I (Pol I) transcribes ribosomal DNA and is responsible for more than 60% of transcription in a growing cell. Despite this fundamental role that directly impacts cell growth and proliferation, the kinetics of transcription by Pol I are poorly understood. This study provides direct characterization of S. Cerevisiae Pol I transcription elongation using tethered particle microscopy (TPM). Pol I was shown to elongate at an average rate of approximately 20 nt/s. However, the maximum speed observed was, in average, about 60 nt/s, comparable to the rate calculated based on the in vivo number of active genes, the cell division rate and the number of engaged polymerases observed in EM images. Addition of RNA endonucleases to the TPM elongation assays enhanced processivity. Together, these data suggest that additional transcription factors contribute to efficient and processive transcription elongation by RNA polymerase I in vivo. PMID:27455049

  3. Direct Characterization of Transcription Elongation by RNA Polymerase I.

    PubMed

    Ucuncuoglu, Suleyman; Engel, Krysta L; Purohit, Prashant K; Dunlap, David D; Schneider, David A; Finzi, Laura

    2016-01-01

    RNA polymerase I (Pol I) transcribes ribosomal DNA and is responsible for more than 60% of transcription in a growing cell. Despite this fundamental role that directly impacts cell growth and proliferation, the kinetics of transcription by Pol I are poorly understood. This study provides direct characterization of S. Cerevisiae Pol I transcription elongation using tethered particle microscopy (TPM). Pol I was shown to elongate at an average rate of approximately 20 nt/s. However, the maximum speed observed was, in average, about 60 nt/s, comparable to the rate calculated based on the in vivo number of active genes, the cell division rate and the number of engaged polymerases observed in EM images. Addition of RNA endonucleases to the TPM elongation assays enhanced processivity. Together, these data suggest that additional transcription factors contribute to efficient and processive transcription elongation by RNA polymerase I in vivo. PMID:27455049

  4. Conformational selection and induced fit for RNA polymerase and RNA/DNA hybrid backtracked recognition

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jian; Ye, Wei; Yang, Jingxu; Chen, Hai-Feng

    2015-01-01

    RNA polymerase catalyzes transcription with a high fidelity. If DNA/RNA mismatch or DNA damage occurs downstream, a backtracked RNA polymerase can proofread this situation. However, the backtracked mechanism is still poorly understood. Here we have performed multiple explicit-solvent molecular dynamics (MD) simulations on bound and apo DNA/RNA hybrid to study backtracked recognition. MD simulations at room temperature suggest that specific electrostatic interactions play key roles in the backtracked recognition between the polymerase and DNA/RNA hybrid. Kinetics analysis at high temperature shows that bound and apo DNA/RNA hybrid unfold via a two-state process. Both kinetics and free energy landscape analyses indicate that bound DNA/RNA hybrid folds in the order of DNA/RNA contracting, the tertiary folding and polymerase binding. The predicted Φ-values suggest that C7, G9, dC12, dC15, and dT16 are key bases for the backtracked recognition of DNA/RNA hybrid. The average RMSD values between the bound structures and the corresponding apo ones and Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS) P-test analyses indicate that the recognition between DNA/RNA hybrid and polymerase might follow an induced fit mechanism for DNA/RNA hybrid and conformation selection for polymerase. Furthermore, this method could be used to relative studies of specific recognition between nucleic acid and protein. PMID:26594643

  5. ALFALFA MOSAIC VIRUS COAT PROTEIN BRIDGES RNA AND RNA-DEPENDENT RNA POLYMERASE IN VITRO

    PubMed Central

    Reichert, Vienna L.; Choi, Mehee; Petrillo, Jessica E.; Gehrke, Lee

    2007-01-01

    Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) RNA replication requires the viral coat protein (CP). AMV CP is an integral component of the viral replicase; moreover, it binds to the viral RNA 3' termini and induces the formation of multiple new base pairs that organize the RNA conformation. The results described here suggest that AMV coat protein binding defines template selection by organizing the 3'-terminal RNA conformation and by positioning the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) at the initiation site for minus strand synthesis. RNA-protein interactions were analyzed by using a modified northwestern blotting protocol that included both viral coat protein and labeled RNA in the probe solution (“far-northwestern blotting”). We observed that labeled RNA alone bound the replicase proteins poorly; however, complex formation was enhanced significantly in the presence of AMV CP. The RNA-replicase bridging function of the AMV CP may represent a mechanism for accurate de novo initiation in the absence of canonical 3' transfer RNA signals. PMID:17400272

  6. Growth hormone and drug metabolism. Acute effects on nuclear ribonucleic acid polymerase activity and chromatin.

    PubMed Central

    Spelsberg, T C; Wilson, J T

    1976-01-01

    Adult male rats, subjected either to sham operation or to hypophysectomy and adrenalectomy were maintained for 10 days before treatment with growth hormone. Results of the acute effects of growth hormone on the rat liver nuclear RNA polymerase I (nucleolar) and II (nucleoplasmic) activities as well as the chromatin template capacity were then studied and compared with the growth-hormone effects on the drug metabolism described in the preceding paper (Wilson & Spelsberg, 1976). 2. Conditions for isolation and storage of nuclei for maintenance of optimal polymerase activities are described. It is verified that the assays for polymerase activities require a DNA template, all four nucleoside triphosphates, and a bivalent cation, and that the acid-insoluble radioactive product represents RNA. Proof is presented that under high-salt conditions DNA-like RNA (polymerase II) is synthesized, and that under low-salt conditions in the presence of alpha-amanitin, rRNA (polymerase I) is synthesized. 3. In the livers of hypophysectomized/adrenalectomized rats, growth hormone increases the activity of both RNA polymerase enzymes and the chromatin template capacity within 1h after treatment. The effects last for 12h in the case of polymerase II but for only 6h in the case of polymerase I. Sham-operated rats respond to growth hormone in a manner somewhat similar to that shown by hypophysectomized/adrenalectomized rats. These results, which demonstrate an enhancement of RNA polymerase I activity in response to growth hormone, support those from other laboratories. 4. Growth-hormone enhancement of the chromatin template capacity in the liver of hypophysectomized/adrenalectomized rats contrasts with previous reports. The growth-hormone-induced de-repression of the chromatin DNA could represent the basis of the growth-hormone-induced enhancement of RNA polymerase II activity in the hypophysectomized/adrenalectomized rats, although some effect of growth-hormone on the polymerase enzymes

  7. Stochastic resetting in backtrack recovery by RNA polymerases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roldán, Édgar; Lisica, Ana; Sánchez-Taltavull, Daniel; Grill, Stephan W.

    2016-06-01

    Transcription is a key process in gene expression, in which RNA polymerases produce a complementary RNA copy from a DNA template. RNA polymerization is frequently interrupted by backtracking, a process in which polymerases perform a random walk along the DNA template. Recovery of polymerases from the transcriptionally inactive backtracked state is determined by a kinetic competition between one-dimensional diffusion and RNA cleavage. Here we describe backtrack recovery as a continuous-time random walk, where the time for a polymerase to recover from a backtrack of a given depth is described as a first-passage time of a random walker to reach an absorbing state. We represent RNA cleavage as a stochastic resetting process and derive exact expressions for the recovery time distributions and mean recovery times from a given initial backtrack depth for both continuous and discrete-lattice descriptions of the random walk. We show that recovery time statistics do not depend on the discreteness of the DNA lattice when the rate of one-dimensional diffusion is large compared to the rate of cleavage.

  8. Stochastic resetting in backtrack recovery by RNA polymerases.

    PubMed

    Roldán, Édgar; Lisica, Ana; Sánchez-Taltavull, Daniel; Grill, Stephan W

    2016-06-01

    Transcription is a key process in gene expression, in which RNA polymerases produce a complementary RNA copy from a DNA template. RNA polymerization is frequently interrupted by backtracking, a process in which polymerases perform a random walk along the DNA template. Recovery of polymerases from the transcriptionally inactive backtracked state is determined by a kinetic competition between one-dimensional diffusion and RNA cleavage. Here we describe backtrack recovery as a continuous-time random walk, where the time for a polymerase to recover from a backtrack of a given depth is described as a first-passage time of a random walker to reach an absorbing state. We represent RNA cleavage as a stochastic resetting process and derive exact expressions for the recovery time distributions and mean recovery times from a given initial backtrack depth for both continuous and discrete-lattice descriptions of the random walk. We show that recovery time statistics do not depend on the discreteness of the DNA lattice when the rate of one-dimensional diffusion is large compared to the rate of cleavage. PMID:27415302

  9. Modeling RNA polymerase interaction in mitochondria of chordates

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In previous work, we introduced a concept, a mathematical model and its computer realization that describe the interaction between bacterial and phage type RNA polymerases, protein factors, DNA and RNA secondary structures during transcription, including transcription initiation and termination. The model accurately reproduces changes of gene transcription level observed in polymerase sigma-subunit knockout and heat shock experiments in plant plastids. The corresponding computer program and a user guide are available at http://lab6.iitp.ru/en/rivals. Here we apply the model to the analysis of transcription and (partially) translation processes in the mitochondria of frog, rat and human. Notably, mitochondria possess only phage-type polymerases. We consider the entire mitochondrial genome so that our model allows RNA polymerases to complete more than one circle on the DNA strand. Results Our model of RNA polymerase interaction during transcription initiation and elongation accurately reproduces experimental data obtained for plastids. Moreover, it also reproduces evidence on bulk RNA concentrations and RNA half-lives in the mitochondria of frog, human with or without the MELAS mutation, and rat with normal (euthyroid) or hyposecretion of thyroid hormone (hypothyroid). The transcription characteristics predicted by the model include: (i) the fraction of polymerases terminating at a protein-dependent terminator in both directions (the terminator polarization), (ii) the binding intensities of the regulatory protein factor (mTERF) with the termination site and, (iii) the transcription initiation intensities (initiation frequencies) of all promoters in all five conditions (frog, healthy human, human with MELAS syndrome, healthy rat, and hypothyroid rat with aberrant mtDNA methylation). Using the model, absolute levels of all gene transcription can be inferred from an arbitrary array of the three transcription characteristics, whereas, for selected genes only

  10. Back-priming mode of phi6 RNA-dependent RNA polymerase.

    PubMed

    Laurila, Minni R L; Salgado, Paula S; Stuart, David I; Grimes, Jonathan M; Bamford, Dennis H

    2005-02-01

    The RNA-dependent RNA polymerase of the double-stranded RNA bacteriophage phi6 is capable of primer-independent initiation, as are many RNA polymerases. The structure of this polymerase revealed an initiation platform, composed of a loop in the C-terminal domain (QYKW, aa 629-632), that was essential for de novo initiation. A similar element has been identified in hepatitis C virus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. Biochemical studies have addressed the role of this platform, revealing that a mutant version can utilize a back-priming initiation mechanism, where the 3' terminus of the template adopts a hairpin-like conformation. Here, the mechanism of back-primed initiation is studied further by biochemical and structural methods.

  11. Single-molecule Studies of RNA Polymerase: Motoring Along

    PubMed Central

    Herbert, Kristina M.; Greenleaf, William J.; Block, Steven M.

    2010-01-01

    Single-molecule techniques have advanced our understanding of transcription by RNA polymerase. A new arsenal of approaches, including single-molecule fluorescence, atomic-force microscopy, magnetic tweezers, and optical traps have been employed to probe the many facets of the transcription cycle. These approaches supply fresh insights into the means by which RNA polymerase identifies a promoter; initiates transcription, translocates and pauses along the DNA template, proofreads errors, and ultimately terminates transcription. Results from single-molecule experiments complement knowledge gained from biochemical and genetic assays by facilitating the observation of states that are otherwise obscured by ensemble averaging, such as those resulting from heterogeneity in molecular structure, elongation rate, or pause propensity. Most studies to date have been performed with bacterial RNA polymerase, but work is also being carried out with eukaryotic polymerase (Pol II) and single-subunit polymerases from bacteriophages. We discuss recent progress achieved by single-molecule studies, highlighting some of the unresolved questions and ongoing debates. PMID:18410247

  12. The human RNA polymerase II interacts with the terminal stem-loop regions of the hepatitis delta virus RNA genome

    SciTech Connect

    Greco-Stewart, Valerie S.; Miron, Paul; Abrahem, Abrahem; Pelchat, Martin . E-mail: mpelchat@uottawa.ca

    2007-01-05

    The hepatitis delta virus (HDV) is an RNA virus that depends on DNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RNAP) for its transcription and replication. While it is generally accepted that RNAP II is involved in HDV replication, its interaction with HDV RNA requires confirmation. A monoclonal antibody specific to the carboxy terminal domain of the largest subunit of RNAP II was used to establish the association of RNAP II with both polarities of HDV RNA in HeLa cells. Co-immunoprecipitations using HeLa nuclear extract revealed that RNAP II interacts with HDV-derived RNAs at sites located within the terminal stem-loop domains of both polarities of HDV RNA. Analysis of these regions revealed a strong selection to maintain a rod-like conformation and demonstrated several conserved features. These results provide the first direct evidence of an association between human RNAP II and HDV RNA and suggest two transcription start sites on both polarities of HDV RNA.

  13. Glycosylation of RNA polymerase II from wheat germ.

    PubMed

    Cervoni, L; Turano, C; Ferraro, A; Ciavatta, P; Marmocchi, F; Eufemi, M

    1997-11-10

    RNA polymerase II from wheat germ was analyzed for the presence of sugars. The two largest subunits and the 27 and 25 kDa subunits were found to be glycosylated by a variety of sugars. However, no N-acetylglucosamine was detected, which was found by Kelly et al. (J. Biol. Chem. (1993) 268, 10416-10424) in the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II from calf thymus. Thus it appears that the regulatory function of this sugar, postulated by Kelly et al., is performed in the wheat germ enzyme by other monosaccharides. Carbohydrate analysis of the two largest subunits of the calf thymus enzyme also revealed the presence, beside N-acetylglucosamine, of other sugars. Some similarities in the features of glycosylation of the two polymerases, isolated from very different organisms, suggest that the sugar moieties have an important role in the structure and/or function of these enzymes. PMID:9395301

  14. Mechanisms of backtrack recovery by RNA polymerases I and II

    PubMed Central

    Lisica, Ana; Engel, Christoph; Jahnel, Marcus; Roldán, Édgar; Galburt, Eric A.; Cramer, Patrick; Grill, Stephan W.

    2016-01-01

    During DNA transcription, RNA polymerases often adopt inactive backtracked states. Recovery from backtracks can occur by 1D diffusion or cleavage of backtracked RNA, but how polymerases make this choice is unknown. Here, we use single-molecule optical tweezers experiments and stochastic theory to show that the choice of a backtrack recovery mechanism is determined by a kinetic competition between 1D diffusion and RNA cleavage. Notably, RNA polymerase I (Pol I) and Pol II recover from shallow backtracks by 1D diffusion, use RNA cleavage to recover from intermediary depths, and are unable to recover from extensive backtracks. Furthermore, Pol I and Pol II use distinct mechanisms to avoid nonrecoverable backtracking. Pol I is protected by its subunit A12.2, which decreases the rate of 1D diffusion and enables transcript cleavage up to 20 nt. In contrast, Pol II is fully protected through association with the cleavage stimulatory factor TFIIS, which enables rapid recovery from any depth by RNA cleavage. Taken together, we identify distinct backtrack recovery strategies of Pol I and Pol II, shedding light on the evolution of cellular functions of these key enzymes. PMID:26929337

  15. A Perspective on the Enhancer Dependent Bacterial RNA Polymerase

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Nan; Buck, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Here we review recent findings and offer a perspective on how the major variant RNA polymerase of bacteria, which contains the sigma54 factor, functions for regulated gene expression. We consider what gaps exist in our understanding of its genetic, biochemical and biophysical functioning and how they might be addressed. PMID:26010401

  16. Mammalian Cells with Altered Forms of RNA Polymerase II

    PubMed Central

    Chan, V. L.; Whitmore, G. F.; Siminovitch, Louis

    1972-01-01

    Mutants of Chinese hamster ovary cells that are resistant to α-amanitin can be isolated. At least some of these mutants contain an altered form of DNA-dependent RNA polymerase II, as indicated by its resistance to α-amanitin. These results indicate that mutation to α-amanitin resistance involves a change of a structural gene. PMID:4508306

  17. A perspective on the enhancer dependent bacterial RNA polymerase.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Nan; Buck, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Here we review recent findings and offer a perspective on how the major variant RNA polymerase of bacteria, which contains the sigma54 factor, functions for regulated gene expression. We consider what gaps exist in our understanding of its genetic, biochemical and biophysical functioning and how they might be addressed. PMID:26010401

  18. RNA cleavage and chain elongation by Escherichia coli DNA-dependent RNA polymerase in a binary enzyme.RNA complex.

    PubMed Central

    Altmann, C R; Solow-Cordero, D E; Chamberlin, M J

    1994-01-01

    In the absence of DNA, Escherichia coli RNA polymerase (EC 2.7.7.6) can bind RNA to form an equimolar binary complex with the concomitant release of the sigma factor. We show now that E. coli RNA polymerase binds at a region near the 3' terminus of the RNA and that an RNA in such RNA.RNA polymerase complexes undergoes reactions previously thought to be unique to nascent RNA in ternary complexes with DNA. These include GreA/GreB-dependent cleavage of the RNA and elongation by 3'-terminal addition of NMP from NTP. Both of these reactions are inhibited by rifampicin. Hence, by several criteria, the RNA in binary complexes is bound to the polymerase in a manner quite similar to that in ternary complexes. These findings can be explained by a model for the RNA polymerase ternary complex in which the RNA is bound at the 3' terminus through two protein binding sites located up to 10 nt apart. In this model, the stability of RNA binding to the polymerase in the ternary complex is due primarily to its interaction with the protein. Images PMID:7513426

  19. Transcription termination by the eukaryotic RNA polymerase III

    PubMed Central

    Arimbasseri, Aneeshkumar G.; Rijal, Keshab; Maraia, Richard J.

    2012-01-01

    RNA polymerase (pol) III transcribes a multitude of tRNA and 5S rRNA genes as well as other small RNA genes distributed through the genome. By being sequence-specific, precise and efficient, transcription termination by pol III not only defines the 3′ end of the nascent RNA which directs subsequent association with the stabilizing La protein, it also prevents transcription into downstream DNA and promotes efficient recycling. Each of the RNA polymerases appears to have evolved unique mechanisms to initiate the process of termination in response to different types of termination signals. However, in eukaryotes much less is known about the final stage of termination, destabilization of the elongation complex with release of the RNA and DNA from the polymerase active center. By comparison to pols I & II, pol III exhibits the most direct coupling of the initial and final stages of termination, both of which occur at a short oligo(dT) tract on the non-template strand (dA on the template) of the DNA. While pol III termination is autonomous involving the core subunits C2 and probably C1, it also involves subunits C11, C37 and C53, which act on the pol III catalytic center and exhibit homology to the pol II elongation factor TFIIS, and TFIIFα/β respectively. Here we compile knowledge of pol III termination and associate mutations that affect this process with structural elements of the polymerase that illustrate the importance of C53/37 both at its docking site on the pol III lobe and in the active center. The models suggest that some of these features may apply to the other eukaryotic pols. PMID:23099421

  20. Eucaryotic RNA polymerase conditional mutant that rapidly ceases mRNA synthesis.

    PubMed Central

    Nonet, M; Scafe, C; Sexton, J; Young, R

    1987-01-01

    We have isolated a yeast conditional mutant which rapidly ceases synthesis of mRNA when subjected to the nonpermissive temperature. This mutant (rpb1-1) was constructed by replacing the wild-type chromosomal copy of the gene encoding the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II with one mutagenized in vitro. The rapid cessation of mRNA synthesis in vivo and the lack of RNA polymerase II activity in crude extracts indicate that the mutant possesses a functionally defective, rather than an assembly-defective, RNA polymerase II. The shutdown in mRNA synthesis in the rpb1-1 mutant has pleiotropic effects on the synthesis of other RNAs and on the heat shock response. This mutant provides direct evidence that the RPB1 protein has a functional role in mRNA synthesis. Images PMID:3299050

  1. Structural and Functional Characterization of an Influenza Virus RNA Polymerase-Genomic RNA Complex ▿

    PubMed Central

    Resa-Infante, Patricia; Recuero-Checa, María Ángeles; Zamarreño, Noelia; Llorca, Óscar; Ortín, Juan

    2010-01-01

    The replication and transcription of influenza A virus are carried out by ribonucleoproteins (RNPs) containing each genomic RNA segment associated with nucleoprotein monomers and the heterotrimeric polymerase complex. These RNPs are responsible for virus transcription and replication in the infected cell nucleus. Here we have expressed, purified, and analyzed, structurally and functionally, for the first time, polymerase-RNA template complexes obtained after replication in vivo. These complexes were generated by the cotransfection of plasmids expressing the polymerase subunits and a genomic plasmid expressing a minimal template of positive or negative polarity. Their generation in vivo was strictly dependent on the polymerase activity; they contained mainly negative-polarity viral RNA (vRNA) and could transcribe and replicate in vitro. The three-dimensional structure of the monomeric polymerase-vRNA complexes was similar to that of the RNP-associated polymerase and distinct from that of the polymerase devoid of template. These results suggest that the interaction with the template is sufficient to induce a significant conformation switch in the polymerase complex. PMID:20702645

  2. PPNDS inhibits murine Norovirus RNA-dependent RNA-polymerase mimicking two RNA stacking bases.

    PubMed

    Croci, Romina; Tarantino, Delia; Milani, Mario; Pezzullo, Margherita; Rohayem, Jacques; Bolognesi, Martino; Mastrangelo, Eloise

    2014-05-01

    Norovirus (NV) is a major cause of gastroenteritis worldwide. Antivirals against such important pathogens are on demand. Among the viral proteins that orchestrate viral replication, RNA-dependent-RNA-polymerase (RdRp) is a promising drug development target. From an in silico-docking search focused on the RdRp active site, we selected the compound PPNDS, which showed low micromolar IC50vs. murine NV-RdRp in vitro. We report the crystal structure of the murine NV-RdRp/PPNDS complex showing that two molecules of the inhibitor bind in antiparallel stacking interaction, properly oriented to block exit of the newly synthesized RNA. Such inhibitor-binding mode mimics two stacked nucleotide-bases of the RdRp/ssRNA complex.

  3. Regulation of nucleolus assembly by non-coding RNA polymerase II transcripts.

    PubMed

    Caudron-Herger, Maïwen; Pankert, Teresa; Rippe, Karsten

    2016-05-01

    The nucleolus is a nuclear subcompartment for tightly regulated rRNA production and ribosome subunit biogenesis. It also acts as a cellular stress sensor and can release enriched factors in response to cellular stimuli. Accordingly, the content and structure of the nucleolus change dynamically, which is particularly evident during cell cycle progression: the nucleolus completely disassembles during mitosis and reassembles in interphase. Although the mechanisms that drive nucleolar (re)organization have been the subject of a number of studies, they are only partly understood. Recently, we identified Alu element-containing RNA polymerase II transcripts (aluRNAs) as important for nucleolar structure and rRNA synthesis. Integrating these findings with studies on the liquid droplet-like nature of the nucleolus leads us to propose a model on how RNA polymerase II transcripts could regulate the assembly of the nucleolus in response to external stimuli and during cell cycle progression.

  4. Regulation of nucleolus assembly by non-coding RNA polymerase II transcripts.

    PubMed

    Caudron-Herger, Maïwen; Pankert, Teresa; Rippe, Karsten

    2016-05-01

    The nucleolus is a nuclear subcompartment for tightly regulated rRNA production and ribosome subunit biogenesis. It also acts as a cellular stress sensor and can release enriched factors in response to cellular stimuli. Accordingly, the content and structure of the nucleolus change dynamically, which is particularly evident during cell cycle progression: the nucleolus completely disassembles during mitosis and reassembles in interphase. Although the mechanisms that drive nucleolar (re)organization have been the subject of a number of studies, they are only partly understood. Recently, we identified Alu element-containing RNA polymerase II transcripts (aluRNAs) as important for nucleolar structure and rRNA synthesis. Integrating these findings with studies on the liquid droplet-like nature of the nucleolus leads us to propose a model on how RNA polymerase II transcripts could regulate the assembly of the nucleolus in response to external stimuli and during cell cycle progression. PMID:27416361

  5. Single molecule studies of RNA polymerase II transcription in vitro.

    PubMed

    Horn, Abigail E; Goodrich, James A; Kugel, Jennifer F

    2014-01-01

    Eukaryotic mRNA transcription by RNA polymerase II (RNAP II) is the first step in gene expression and a key determinant of cellular regulation. Elucidating the mechanism by which RNAP II synthesizes RNA is therefore vital to determining how genes are controlled under diverse biological conditions. Significant advances in understanding RNAP II transcription have been achieved using classical biochemical and structural techniques; however, aspects of the transcription mechanism cannot be assessed using these approaches. The application of single-molecule techniques to study RNAP II transcription has provided new insight only obtainable by studying molecules in this complex system one at a time.

  6. Regulating RNA polymerase pausing and transcription elongation in embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Min, Irene M; Waterfall, Joshua J; Core, Leighton J; Munroe, Robert J; Schimenti, John; Lis, John T

    2011-04-01

    Transitions between pluripotent stem cells and differentiated cells are executed by key transcription regulators. Comparative measurements of RNA polymerase distribution over the genome's primary transcription units in different cell states can identify the genes and steps in the transcription cycle that are regulated during such transitions. To identify the complete transcriptional profiles of RNA polymerases with high sensitivity and resolution, as well as the critical regulated steps upon which regulatory factors act, we used genome-wide nuclear run-on (GRO-seq) to map the density and orientation of transcriptionally engaged RNA polymerases in mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). In both cell types, progression of a promoter-proximal, paused RNA polymerase II (Pol II) into productive elongation is a rate-limiting step in transcription of ∼40% of mRNA-encoding genes. Importantly, quantitative comparisons between cell types reveal that transcription is controlled frequently at paused Pol II's entry into elongation. Furthermore, "bivalent" ESC genes (exhibiting both active and repressive histone modifications) bound by Polycomb group complexes PRC1 (Polycomb-repressive complex 1) and PRC2 show dramatically reduced levels of paused Pol II at promoters relative to an average gene. In contrast, bivalent promoters bound by only PRC2 allow Pol II pausing, but it is confined to extremely 5' proximal regions. Altogether, these findings identify rate-limiting targets for transcription regulation during cell differentiation.

  7. Separation of lymphocyte chromatin into template-active fractions with specificity for eukaryotic RNA polymerase II or prokaryotic RNA polymerase.

    PubMed Central

    Magee, B B; Paoletti, J; Magee, P T

    1975-01-01

    When chromatin prepared from WI-L2 lymphocytes by low salt extraction and shearing is centrifuged on a glycerol gradient, one area of the gradient yields chromatin enriched in template activity for Escherichia coli DNA-dependent RNA polymerase (EC 2.7.7.6; nucleosidetriphosphate:RNA nucleotidyltransferase) as compared to Saccharomyces cerevisiae RNA polymerase II (or B). Another area yields chromatin preferred by the eukaryotic enzyme. Kinetic studies indicate that the differences in activity cannot be explained by differences in affinity of the enzymes for the various templates. The DNA isolated from either fraction has a molecular weight of 8.5 X 106. The "yeast active" fraction seems enriched in proteins. Mixing experiments indicate that the yeast enzyme does not alter the template in such a way as to improve it for the bacterial enzyme. PMID:1108005

  8. Structure-Function Relationships Underlying the Replication Fidelity of Viral RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerases

    PubMed Central

    Campagnola, Grace; McDonald, Seth; Beaucourt, Stéphanie; Vignuzzi, Marco

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerases are considered to be low-fidelity enzymes, providing high mutation rates that allow for the rapid adaptation of RNA viruses to different host cell environments. Fidelity is tuned to provide the proper balance of virus replication rates, pathogenesis, and tissue tropism needed for virus growth. Using our structures of picornaviral polymerase-RNA elongation complexes, we have previously engineered more than a dozen coxsackievirus B3 polymerase mutations that significantly altered virus replication rates and in vivo fidelity and also provided a set of secondary adaptation mutations after tissue culture passage. Here we report a biochemical analysis of these mutations based on rapid stopped-flow kinetics to determine elongation rates and nucleotide discrimination factors. The data show a spatial separation of fidelity and replication rate effects within the polymerase structure. Mutations in the palm domain have the greatest effects on in vitro nucleotide discrimination, and these effects are strongly correlated with elongation rates and in vivo mutation frequencies, with faster polymerases having lower fidelity. Mutations located at the top of the finger domain, on the other hand, primarily affect elongation rates and have relatively minor effects on fidelity. Similar modulation effects are seen in poliovirus polymerase, an inherently lower-fidelity enzyme where analogous mutations increase nucleotide discrimination. These findings further our understanding of viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase structure-function relationships and suggest that positive-strand RNA viruses retain a unique palm domain-based active-site closure mechanism to fine-tune replication fidelity. IMPORTANCE Positive-strand RNA viruses represent a major class of human and animal pathogens with significant health and economic impacts. These viruses replicate by using a virally encoded RNA-dependent RNA polymerase enzyme that has low fidelity, generating

  9. A heteromeric transcription factor required for mammalian RNA polymerase II.

    PubMed Central

    Kitajima, S; Tanaka, Y; Kawaguchi, T; Nagaoka, T; Weissman, S M; Yasukochi, Y

    1990-01-01

    A general transcription factor, FC, essential for specific initiation of in vitro transcription by mammalian RNA polymerase II was identified and a procedure developed to purify it to near homogeneity from HeLa cell nuclei. Purified FC is composed of two polypeptides of apparent molecular masses 80 kDa and 30 kDa, on SDS-PAGE, and has a native size of 280 kDa estimated by gel filtration column. Both polypeptides were shown to be essential for reconstituting in vitro transcription activity. Biochemical analysis showed that the 80 kDa and 30 kDa components were present in a 1:1 molar ratio. FC was also demonstrated to interact directly or indirectly with purified RNA polymerase II. Similarities between FC and transcription factors reported by others from human, rat or Drosophila cells are discussed. Images PMID:2395645

  10. Functional Diversification of Maize RNA Polymerase IV and V subtypes via Alternative Catalytic Subunits

    SciTech Connect

    Haag, Jeremy R.; Brower-Toland, Brent; Krieger, Elysia K.; Sidorenko, Lyudmila; Nicora, Carrie D.; Norbeck, Angela D.; Irsigler, Andre; LaRue, Huachun; Brzeski, Jan; Mcginnis, Karen A.; Ivashuta, Sergey; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana; Chandler, Vicki L.; Pikaard, Craig S.

    2014-10-01

    Unlike nuclear multisubunit RNA polymerases I, II, and III, whose subunit compositions are conserved throughout eukaryotes, plant RNA polymerases IV and V are nonessential, Pol II-related enzymes whose subunit compositions are still evolving. Whereas Arabidopsis Pols IV and V differ from Pol II in four or five of their 12 subunits, respectively, and differ from one another in three subunits, proteomic ana- lyses show that maize Pols IV and V differ from Pol II in six subunits but differ from each other only in their largest subunits. Use of alternative catalytic second subunits, which are nonredundant for development and paramutation, yields at least two sub- types of Pol IV and three subtypes of Pol V in maize. Pol IV/Pol V associations with MOP1, RMR1, AGO121, Zm_DRD1/CHR127, SHH2a, and SHH2b extend parallels between paramutation in maize and the RNA-directed DNA methylation pathway in Arabidopsis.

  11. RNA Polymerase Backtracking in Gene Regulation and Genome Instability

    PubMed Central

    Nudler, Evgeny

    2013-01-01

    RNA polymerase is a ratchet machine that oscillates between productive and backtracked states at numerous DNA positions. The amount of backtracking (reversible sliding of the enzyme along DNA and RNA) varies from one to many nucleotides. Since its first description 15 years ago, backtracking has been implicated in a plethora of critical processes in bacteria and eukaryotic cells. Here we review the most fundamental roles of this phenomenon in controlling transcription elongation, pausing, termination, fidelity, and genome instability. We also discuss recent progress in understanding the structural and mechanistic properties of the backtracking process. PMID:22726433

  12. Mechanism of histone survival during transcription by RNA polymerase II.

    PubMed

    Kulaeva, Olga I; Studitsky, Vasily M

    2010-01-01

    This work is related to and stems from our recent NSMB paper, "Mechanism of chromatin remodeling and recovery during passage of RNA polymerase II" (December 2009). Synopsis. Recent genomic studies from many laboratories have suggested that nucleosomes are not displaced from moderately transcribed genes. Furthermore, histones H3/H4 carrying the primary epigenetic marks are not displaced or exchanged (in contrast to H2A/H2B histones) during moderate transcription by RNA polymerase II (Pol II) in vivo. These exciting observations suggest that the large molecule of Pol II passes through chromatin structure without even transient displacement of H3/H4 histones. The most recent analysis of the RNA polymerase II (Pol II)-type mechanism of chromatin remodeling in vitro (described in our NSMB 2009 paper) suggests that nucleosome survival is tightly coupled with formation of a novel intermediate: a very small intranucleosomal DNA loop (Ø-loop) containing transcribing Pol II. In the submitted manuscript we critically evaluate one of the key predictions of this model: the lack of even transient displacement of histones H3/H4 during Pol II transcription in vitro. The data suggest that, indeed, histones H3/H4 are not displaced during Pol II transcription in vitro. These studies are directly connected with the observation in vivo on the lack of exchange of histones H3/H4 during Pol II transcription.

  13. Nascent transcription affected by RNA polymerase IV in Zea mays.

    PubMed

    Erhard, Karl F; Talbot, Joy-El R B; Deans, Natalie C; McClish, Allison E; Hollick, Jay B

    2015-04-01

    All eukaryotes use three DNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RNAPs) to create cellular RNAs from DNA templates. Plants have additional RNAPs related to Pol II, but their evolutionary role(s) remain largely unknown. Zea mays (maize) RNA polymerase D1 (RPD1), the largest subunit of RNA polymerase IV (Pol IV), is required for normal plant development, paramutation, transcriptional repression of certain transposable elements (TEs), and transcriptional regulation of specific alleles. Here, we define the nascent transcriptomes of rpd1 mutant and wild-type (WT) seedlings using global run-on sequencing (GRO-seq) to identify the broader targets of RPD1-based regulation. Comparisons of WT and rpd1 mutant GRO-seq profiles indicate that Pol IV globally affects transcription at both transcriptional start sites and immediately downstream of polyadenylation addition sites. We found no evidence of divergent transcription from gene promoters as seen in mammalian GRO-seq profiles. Statistical comparisons identify genes and TEs whose transcription is affected by RPD1. Most examples of significant increases in genic antisense transcription appear to be initiated by 3'-proximal long terminal repeat retrotransposons. These results indicate that maize Pol IV specifies Pol II-based transcriptional regulation for specific regions of the maize genome including genes having developmental significance.

  14. Nascent Transcription Affected by RNA Polymerase IV in Zea mays

    PubMed Central

    Erhard, Karl F.; Talbot, Joy-El R. B.; Deans, Natalie C.; McClish, Allison E.; Hollick, Jay B.

    2015-01-01

    All eukaryotes use three DNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RNAPs) to create cellular RNAs from DNA templates. Plants have additional RNAPs related to Pol II, but their evolutionary role(s) remain largely unknown. Zea mays (maize) RNA polymerase D1 (RPD1), the largest subunit of RNA polymerase IV (Pol IV), is required for normal plant development, paramutation, transcriptional repression of certain transposable elements (TEs), and transcriptional regulation of specific alleles. Here, we define the nascent transcriptomes of rpd1 mutant and wild-type (WT) seedlings using global run-on sequencing (GRO-seq) to identify the broader targets of RPD1-based regulation. Comparisons of WT and rpd1 mutant GRO-seq profiles indicate that Pol IV globally affects transcription at both transcriptional start sites and immediately downstream of polyadenylation addition sites. We found no evidence of divergent transcription from gene promoters as seen in mammalian GRO-seq profiles. Statistical comparisons identify genes and TEs whose transcription is affected by RPD1. Most examples of significant increases in genic antisense transcription appear to be initiated by 3ʹ-proximal long terminal repeat retrotransposons. These results indicate that maize Pol IV specifies Pol II-based transcriptional regulation for specific regions of the maize genome including genes having developmental significance. PMID:25653306

  15. Recent advances in understanding transcription termination by RNA polymerase II

    PubMed Central

    Loya, Travis J.; Reines, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Transcription termination is a fundamental process in which RNA polymerase ceases RNA chain extension and dissociates from the chromatin template, thereby defining the end of the transcription unit. Our understanding of the biological role and functional importance of termination by RNA polymerase II and the range of processes in which it is involved has grown significantly in recent years. A large set of nucleic acid-binding proteins and enzymes have been identified as part of the termination machinery. A greater appreciation for the coupling of termination to RNA processing and metabolism has been recognized. In addition to serving as an essential step at the end of the transcription cycle, termination is involved in the regulation of a broad range of cellular processes. More recently, a role for termination in pervasive transcription, non-coding RNA regulation, genetic stability, chromatin remodeling, the immune response, and disease has come to the fore. Interesting mechanistic questions remain, but the last several years have resulted in significant insights into termination and an increasing recognition of its biological importance. PMID:27408690

  16. Favipiravir (T-705), a novel viral RNA polymerase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Furuta, Yousuke; Gowen, Brian B; Takahashi, Kazumi; Shiraki, Kimiyasu; Smee, Donald F; Barnard, Dale L

    2013-11-01

    Favipiravir (T-705; 6-fluoro-3-hydroxy-2-pyrazinecarboxamide) is an antiviral drug that selectively inhibits the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase of influenza virus. It is phosphoribosylated by cellular enzymes to its active form, favipiravir-ribofuranosyl-5'-triphosphate (RTP). Its antiviral effect is attenuated by the addition of purine nucleic acids, indicating the viral RNA polymerase mistakenly recognizes favipiravir-RTP as a purine nucleotide. Favipiravir is active against a broad range of influenza viruses, including A(H1N1)pdm09, A(H5N1) and the recently emerged A(H7N9) avian virus. It also inhibits influenza strains resistant to current antiviral drugs, and shows a synergistic effect in combination with oseltamivir, thereby expanding influenza treatment options. A Phase III clinical evaluation of favipiravir for influenza therapy has been completed in Japan and two Phase II studies have been completed in the United States. In addition to its anti-influenza activity, favipiravir blocks the replication of many other RNA viruses, including arenaviruses (Junin, Machupo and Pichinde); phleboviruses (Rift Valley fever, sandfly fever and Punta Toro); hantaviruses (Maporal, Dobrava, and Prospect Hill); flaviviruses (yellow fever and West Nile); enteroviruses (polio- and rhinoviruses); an alphavirus, Western equine encephalitis virus; a paramyxovirus, respiratory syncytial virus; and noroviruses. With its unique mechanism of action and broad range of antiviral activity, favipiravir is a promising drug candidate for influenza and many other RNA viral diseases for which there are no approved therapies.

  17. Favipiravir (T-705), a novel viral RNA polymerase inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Furuta, Yousuke; Gowen, Brian B.; Takahashi, Kazumi; Shiraki, Kimiyasu; Smee, Donald F.; Barnard, Dale L.

    2013-01-01

    Favipiravir (T-705; 6-fluoro-3-hydroxy-2-pyrazinecarboxamide) is an antiviral drug that selectively inhibits the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase of influenza virus. It is phosphoribosylated by cellular enzymes to its active form, favipiravir-ribofuranosyl-5′-triphosphate (RTP). Its antiviral effect is attenuated by the addition of purine nucleic acids, indicating the viral RNA polymerase mistakenly recognizes favipiravir-RTP as a purine nucleotide. Favipiravir is active against a broad range of influenza viruses, including A(H1N1)pdm09, A(H5N1) and the recently emerged A(H7N9) avian virus. It also inhibits influenza strains resistant to current antiviral drugs, and shows a synergistic effect in combination with oseltamivir, thereby expanding influenza treatment options. A Phase III clinical evaluation of favipiravir for influenza therapy has been completed in Japan and two Phase II studies have been completed in the United States. In addition to its anti-influenza activity, favipiravir blocks the replication of many other RNA viruses, including arenaviruses (Junin, Machupo and Pichinde); phleboviruses (Rift Valley fever, sandfly fever and Punta Toro); hantaviruses (Maporal, Dobrava, and Prospect Hill); flaviviruses (yellow fever and West Nile); enteroviruses (polio- and rhinoviruses); an alphavirus, Western equine encephalitis virus; a paramyxovirus, respiratory syncytial virus; and noroviruses. With its unique mechanism of action and broad range of antiviral activity, favipiravir is a promising drug candidate for influenza and many other RNA viral diseases for which there are no approved therapies. PMID:24084488

  18. Subunit Compositions of the RNA-Silencing Enzymes Pol IV and Pol V Reveal Their Origins as Specialized Forms of RNA Polymerase II

    SciTech Connect

    Ream, Thomas S.; Haag, J. R.; Wierzbicki, A. T.; Nicora, Carrie D.; Norbeck, Angela D.; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Hagen, Gretchen; Guilfoyle, Thomas J.; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana; Pikaard, Craig S.

    2009-01-30

    In addition to RNA polymerases I, II, and III, the essential RNA polymerases present in all eukaryotes, plants have two additional nuclear RNA polymerases, abbreviated as Pol IV and Pol V, that play nonredundant roles in siRNA-directed DNA methylation and gene silencing. We show that Arabidopsis Pol IV and Pol V are composed of subunits that are paralogous or identical to the 12 subunits of Pol II. Four subunits of Pol IV are distinct from their Pol II paralogs, six subunits of Pol V are distinct from their Pol II paralogs, and four subunits differ between Pol IV and Pol V. Importantly, the subunit differences occur in key positions relative to the template entry and RNA exit paths. Our findings support the hypothesis that Pol IV and Pol V are Pol II-like enzymes that evolved specialized roles in the production of noncoding transcripts for RNA silencing and genome defense.

  19. Comparative overview of RNA polymerase II and III transcription cycles, with focus on RNA polymerase III termination and reinitiation.

    PubMed

    Arimbasseri, Aneeshkumar G; Rijal, Keshab; Maraia, Richard J

    2014-01-01

    In eukaryotes, RNA polymerase (RNAP) III transcribes hundreds of genes for tRNAs and 5S rRNA, among others, which share similar promoters and stable transcription initiation complexes (TIC), which support rapid RNAP III recycling. In contrast, RNAP II transcribes a large number of genes with highly variable promoters and interacting factors, which exert fine regulatory control over TIC lability and modifications of RNAP II at different transitional points in the transcription cycle. We review data that illustrate a relatively smooth continuity of RNAP III initiation-elongation-termination and reinitiation toward its function to produce high levels of tRNAs and other RNAs that support growth and development.

  20. Molecular structures of unbound and transcribing RNA polymerase III

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, Niklas A.; Jakobi, Arjen J.; Moreno-Morcillo, Maria; Glatt, Sebastian; Kosinski, Jan; Hagen, Wim J. H.; Sachse, Carsten; Müller, Christoph W.

    2015-01-01

    Transcription of genes encoding small structured RNAs such as tRNAs, spliceosomal U6 snRNA and ribosomal 5S RNA is carried out by RNA polymerase III (Pol III), the largest yet structurally least characterized eukaryotic RNA polymerase. The cryo-EM structures of the S. cerevisiae Pol III elongating complex at 3.9 Å resolution and the apo Pol III enzyme in two different conformations at 4.6 and 4.7 Å resolution, respectively, allow for the first time to build a 17-subunit atomic model of Pol III. The reconstructions reveal the precise orientation of the C82/C34/C31 heterotrimer in close proximity to the stalk. The C53/C37 heterodimer positions residues involved in transcription termination close to the non-template DNA strand. In the apo Pol III structures, the stalk adopts different orientations coupled with closed and open conformations of the clamp. Our results provide novel insights into Pol III-specific transcription and the adaptation of Pol III towards its small transcriptional targets. PMID:26605533

  1. An alternative RNA polymerase I structure reveals a dimer hinge.

    PubMed

    Kostrewa, Dirk; Kuhn, Claus-D; Engel, Christoph; Cramer, Patrick

    2015-09-01

    RNA polymerase I (Pol I) is the central, 14-subunit enzyme that synthesizes the ribosomal RNA (rRNA) precursor in eukaryotic cells. The recent crystal structure of Pol I at 2.8 Å resolution revealed two novel elements: the `expander' in the active-centre cleft and the `connector' that mediates Pol I dimerization [Engel et al. (2013), Nature (London), 502, 650-655]. Here, a Pol I structure in an alternative crystal form that was solved by molecular replacement using the original atomic Pol I structure is reported. The resulting alternative structure lacks the expander but still shows an expanded active-centre cleft. The neighbouring Pol I monomers form a homodimer with a relative orientation distinct from that observed previously, establishing the connector as a hinge between Pol I monomers.

  2. De Novo RNA Synthesis by RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase Activity of Telomerase Reverse Transcriptase.

    PubMed

    Maida, Yoshiko; Yasukawa, Mami; Masutomi, Kenkichi

    2016-04-01

    RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP) plays key roles in RNA silencing to generate double-stranded RNAs. In model organisms, such as Caenorhabditis elegans and Neurospora crassa, two types of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), primary siRNAs and secondary siRNAs, are expressed; RdRP produces secondary siRNAs de novo, without using either Dicer or primers, while primary siRNAs are processed by Dicer. We reported that human telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) has RdRP activity and produces endogenous siRNAs in a Dicer-dependent manner. However, de novo synthesis of siRNAs by human TERT has not been elucidated. Here we show that the TERT RdRP generates short RNAs that are complementary to template RNAs and have 5'-triphosphorylated ends, which indicates de novo synthesis of the RNAs. In addition, we confirmed short RNA synthesis by TERT in several human carcinoma cell lines and found that TERT protein levels are positively correlated with RdRP activity. PMID:26830230

  3. Synergistic action of RNA polymerases in overcoming the nucleosomal barrier.

    PubMed

    Jin, Jing; Bai, Lu; Johnson, Daniel S; Fulbright, Robert M; Kireeva, Maria L; Kashlev, Mikhail; Wang, Michelle D

    2010-06-01

    During gene expression, RNA polymerase (RNAP) encounters a major barrier at a nucleosome and yet must access the nucleosomal DNA. Previous in vivo evidence has suggested that multiple RNAPs might increase transcription efficiency through nucleosomes. Here we have quantitatively investigated this hypothesis using Escherichia coli RNAP as a model system by directly monitoring its location on the DNA via a single-molecule DNA-unzipping technique. When an RNAP encountered a nucleosome, it paused with a distinctive 10-base pair periodicity and backtracked by approximately 10-15 base pairs. When two RNAPs elongate in close proximity, the trailing RNAP apparently assists in the leading RNAP's elongation, reducing its backtracking and enhancing its transcription through a nucleosome by a factor of 5. Taken together, our data indicate that histone-DNA interactions dictate RNAP pausing behavior, and alleviation of nucleosome-induced backtracking by multiple polymerases may prove to be a mechanism for overcoming the nucleosomal barrier in vivo.

  4. Chromosomal localization of human RNA polymerase II subunit genes

    SciTech Connect

    Acker, J.; Wintzerith, M.; Vigneron, M.; Kedinger, C. ); Mattei, M.G.; Roeckel, N.; Depetris, D. )

    1994-04-01

    The eukaryotic DNA-dependent RNA polymerase II (or B) is composed of 10 to 14 polypeptides ranging from 220 to 10 kDa. To gain further insight into the molecular structure and function of these subunits, the authors have undertaken the molecular cloning of nucleotide sequences corresponding to the human enzyme. The cDNAs of five subunits (hRPB220, hRPB140, hRPB33, hRPB25, and hRPB14.5) have been isolated. Using in situ hybridization, they show that the genes of these subunits have distinct chromosomal locations (17p13, 4q12, 16q13-q21, 19p13.3, and 19q12, respectively). Thus, if assembly of active polymerase molecules requires coordinated expression from these independent genes, mechanisms that ensure tight coregulation of the corresponding promoters must exist. 20 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Synthesis of infectious poliovirus RNA by purified T7 RNA polymerase.

    PubMed Central

    van der Werf, S; Bradley, J; Wimmer, E; Studier, F W; Dunn, J J

    1986-01-01

    Plasmids containing the entire cDNA sequence of poliovirus type 1 (Mahoney strain) under control of a promoter for T7 RNA polymerase have been constructed. Purified T7 RNA polymerase efficiently transcribes the entire poliovirus cDNA in either direction to produce full-length poliovirus RNA [(+)RNA] or its complement [(-)RNA]. The (+)RNA produced initially had 60 nucleotides on the 5' side of the poliovirus RNA sequence, including a string of 18 consecutive guanine residues generated in the original cloning and an additional 626 nucleotides of pBR322 sequence beyond the poly(A) tract at the 3' end. Such RNA, while much more infectious than the plasmid DNA, is only about 0.1% as infectious as RNA isolated from the virus. Subsequently, a T7 promoter was placed only 2 base pairs ahead of the poliovirus sequence, so that T7 RNA polymerase synthesizes poliovirus RNA with only 2 additional guanine residues at the 5' end and no more than seven nucleotides past the poly(A) tract at the 3' end. Such RNA has much higher specific infectivity, about 5% that of RNA isolated from the virus. The ability to make infectious poliovirus RNA efficiently from cloned DNA makes it possible to apply techniques of in vitro mutagenesis to the analysis of poliovirus functions and the construction of novel and perhaps useful derivatives of poliovirus. A source of variant RNAs should also allow detailed study of the synthesis and processing of poliovirus proteins in vitro. Images PMID:3010307

  6. Mechanism of Poly(A) Signal Transduction to RNA Polymerase II In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Dong P.; Kim, Steven J.; Park, Noh Jin; Jew, Tiffany M.; Martinson, Harold G.

    2001-01-01

    Termination of transcription by RNA polymerase II usually requires the presence of a functional poly(A) site. How the poly(A) site signals its presence to the polymerase is unknown. All models assume that the signal is generated after the poly(A) site has been extruded from the polymerase, but this has never been tested experimentally. It is also widely accepted that a “pause” element in the DNA stops the polymerase and that cleavage at the poly(A) site then signals termination. These ideas also have never been tested. The lack of any direct tests of the poly(A) signaling mechanism reflects a lack of success in reproducing the poly(A) signaling phenomenon in vitro. Here we describe a cell-free transcription elongation assay that faithfully recapitulates poly(A) signaling in a crude nuclear extract. The assay requires the use of citrate, an inhibitor of RNA polymerase II carboxyl-terminal domain phosphorylation. Using this assay we show the following. (i) Wild-type but not mutant poly(A) signals instruct the polymerase to stop transcription on downstream DNA in a manner that parallels true transcription termination in vivo. (ii) Transcription stops without the need of downstream elements in the DNA. (iii) cis-antisense inhibition blocks signal transduction, indicating that the signal to stop transcription is generated following extrusion of the poly(A) site from the polymerase. (iv) Signaling can be uncoupled from processing, demonstrating that signaling does not require cleavage at the poly(A) site. PMID:11585929

  7. Polycistronic RNA polymerase II expression vectors for RNA interference based on BIC/miR-155.

    PubMed

    Chung, Kwan-Ho; Hart, Christopher C; Al-Bassam, Sarmad; Avery, Adam; Taylor, Jennifer; Patel, Paresh D; Vojtek, Anne B; Turner, David L

    2006-01-01

    Vector-based RNA interference (RNAi) has emerged as a valuable tool for analysis of gene function. We have developed new RNA polymerase II expression vectors for RNAi, designated SIBR vectors, based upon the non-coding RNA BIC. BIC contains the miR-155 microRNA (miRNA) precursor, and we find that expression of a short region of the third exon of mouse BIC is sufficient to produce miR-155 in mammalian cells. The SIBR vectors use a modified miR-155 precursor stem-loop and flanking BIC sequences to express synthetic miRNAs complementary to target RNAs. Like RNA polymerase III driven short hairpin RNA vectors, the SIBR vectors efficiently reduce target mRNA and protein expression. The synthetic miRNAs can be expressed from an intron, allowing coexpression of a marker or other protein with the miRNAs. In addition, intronic expression of a synthetic miRNA from a two intron vector enhances RNAi. A SIBR vector can express two different miRNAs from a single transcript for effective inhibition of two different target mRNAs. Furthermore, at least eight tandem copies of a synthetic miRNA can be expressed in a polycistronic transcript to increase the inhibition of a target RNA. The SIBR vectors are flexible tools for a variety of RNAi applications.

  8. Polycistronic RNA polymerase II expression vectors for RNA interference based on BIC/miR-155

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Kwan-Ho; Hart, Christopher C.; Al-Bassam, Sarmad; Avery, Adam; Taylor, Jennifer; Patel, Paresh D.; Vojtek, Anne B.; Turner, David L.

    2006-01-01

    Vector-based RNA interference (RNAi) has emerged as a valuable tool for analysis of gene function. We have developed new RNA polymerase II expression vectors for RNAi, designated SIBR vectors, based upon the non-coding RNA BIC. BIC contains the miR-155 microRNA (miRNA) precursor, and we find that expression of a short region of the third exon of mouse BIC is sufficient to produce miR-155 in mammalian cells. The SIBR vectors use a modified miR-155 precursor stem–loop and flanking BIC sequences to express synthetic miRNAs complementary to target RNAs. Like RNA polymerase III driven short hairpin RNA vectors, the SIBR vectors efficiently reduce target mRNA and protein expression. The synthetic miRNAs can be expressed from an intron, allowing coexpression of a marker or other protein with the miRNAs. In addition, intronic expression of a synthetic miRNA from a two intron vector enhances RNAi. A SIBR vector can express two different miRNAs from a single transcript for effective inhibition of two different target mRNAs. Furthermore, at least eight tandem copies of a synthetic miRNA can be expressed in a polycistronic transcript to increase the inhibition of a target RNA. The SIBR vectors are flexible tools for a variety of RNAi applications. PMID:16614444

  9. Purification and Properties of Two RNA Polymerases from Physarum polycephalum

    PubMed Central

    Burgess, Ann Baker; Burgess, Richard R.

    1974-01-01

    Two RNA polymerases have been purified from the slime mold Physarum polycephalum, one sensitive and one resistant to α-amanitin. Both enzymes are more active with denatured DNA than native DNA as a template and prefer Mn++ rather than Mg++ as a divalent cation. The α-amanitin-sensitive enzyme shows maximum activity at 0.15 M KCl, whereas the resistant enzyme is most active at very low ionic strength. Analysis of the resistant enzyme on polyacrylamide gels containing sodium dodecyl sulfate shows two subunits present in a 1:1 ratio with molecular weights of 205,000 and 125,000. Images PMID:4524629

  10. Double strand breaks: hurdles for RNA polymerase II transcription?

    PubMed

    Pankotai, Tibor; Soutoglou, Evi

    2013-01-01

    DNA lesions pose a physical obstacle to DNA-dependent cellular transactions such as replication and transcription. A great deal is known regarding RNA polymerase II (RNAP II) transcription stalling in the presence of lesions induced by UV, but recent studies have uncovered previously uncharacterized behavior of the RNAP II machinery in the presence of double strand breaks (DSBs). These new data, although contradictory, contribute to our understanding of a vital cellular mechanism that defends against the production of aberrant transcripts and protects cell viability.

  11. Chromatin modification by the RNA Polymerase II elongation complex

    PubMed Central

    Tanny, Jason C.

    2014-01-01

    Transcription elongation by RNA polymerase II (RNAP II) involves the coordinated action of numerous regulatory factors. Among these are chromatin-modifying enzymes, which generate a stereotypic and conserved pattern of histone modifications along transcribed genes. This pattern implies a precise coordination between regulators of histone modification and the RNAP II elongation complex. Here I review the pathways and molecular events that regulate co-transcriptional histone modifications. Insight into these events will illuminate the assembly of functional RNAP II elongation complexes and how the chromatin landscape influences their composition and function. PMID:25494544

  12. Paused RNA polymerase II as a developmental checkpoint.

    PubMed

    Levine, Michael

    2011-05-13

    The textbook view of gene activation is that the rate-limiting step is the interaction of RNA polymerase II (Pol II) with the gene's promoter. However, studies in a variety of systems, including human embryonic stem cells and the early Drosophila embryo, have begun to challenge this view. There is increasing evidence that differential gene expression often depends on the regulation of transcription elongation via the release of Pol II from the proximal promoter. I review the implications of this mechanism of gene activation with respect to the orderly unfolding of complex gene networks governing animal development. PMID:21565610

  13. Cloning and expression of the gene for bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase

    DOEpatents

    Studier, F. William; Davanloo, Parichehre; Rosenberg, Alan H.; Moffatt, Barbara A.; Dunn, John J.

    1997-12-02

    This application describes a means to clone a functional gene for bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase. Active T7 RNA polymerase is produced from the cloned gene, and a plasmid has been constructed that can produce the active enzyme in large amounts. T7 RNA polymerase transcribes DNA very efficiently and is highly selective for a relatively long promoter sequence. This enzyme is useful for synthesizing large amounts of RNA in vivo or in vitro, and is capable of producing a single RNA selectively from a complex mixture of DNAs. The procedure used to obtain a clone of the R7 RNA polymerase gene can be applied to other T7-like phages to obtain clones that produce RNA polymerases having different promoter specificities, different bacterial hosts, or other desirable properties. T7 RNA polymerase is also used in a system for selective, high-level synthesis of RNAs and proteins in suitable host cells.

  14. Cloning and expression of the gene for bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase

    DOEpatents

    Studier, F.W.; Davanloo, P.; Rosenberg, A.H.; Moffatt, B.A.; Dunn, J.J.

    1997-12-02

    This application describes a means to clone a functional gene for bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase. Active T7 RNA polymerase is produced from the cloned gene, and a plasmid has been constructed that can produce the active enzyme in large amounts. T7 RNA polymerase transcribes DNA very efficiently and is highly selective for a relatively long promoter sequence. This enzyme is useful for synthesizing large amounts of RNA in vivo or in vitro, and is capable of producing a single RNA selectively from a complex mixture of DNAs. The procedure used to obtain a clone of the R7 RNA polymerase gene can be applied to other T7-like phages to obtain clones that produce RNA polymerases having different promoter specificities, different bacterial hosts, or other desirable properties. T7 RNA polymerase is also used in a system for selective, high-level synthesis of RNAs and proteins in suitable host cells. 10 figs.

  15. Cloning and expression of the gene for bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase

    DOEpatents

    Studier, F.W.; Davanloo, P.; Rosenberg, A.H.; Moffatt, B.A.; Dunn, J.J.

    1999-02-09

    This application describes a means to clone a functional gene for bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase. Active T7 RNA polymerase is produced from the cloned gene, and a plasmid has been constructed that can produce the active enzyme in large amounts. T7 RNA polymerase transcribes DNA very efficiently and is highly selective for a relatively long promoter sequence. This enzyme is useful for synthesizing large amounts of RNA in vivo or in vitro, and is capable of producing a single RNA selectively from a complex mixture of DNAs. The procedure used to obtain a clone of the R7 RNA polymerase gene can be applied to other T7-like phages to obtain clones that produce RNA polymerases having different promoter specificities, different bacterial hosts, or other desirable properties. T7 RNA polymerase is also used in a system for selective, high-level synthesis of RNAs and proteins in suitable host cells. 10 figs.

  16. Cloning and expression of the gene for bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase

    DOEpatents

    Studier, F. William; Davanloo, Parichehre; Rosenberg, Alan H.; Moffatt, Barbara A.; Dunn, John J.

    1999-02-09

    This application describes a means to clone a functional gene for bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase. Active T7 RNA polymerase is produced from the cloned gene, and a plasmid has been constructed that can produce the active enzyme in large amounts. T7 RNA polymerase transcribes DNA very efficiently and is highly selective for a relatively long promoter sequence. This enzyme is useful for synthesizing large amounts of RNA in vivo or in vitro, and is capable of producing a single RNA selectively from a complex mixture of DNAs. The procedure used to obtain a clone of the R7 RNA polymerase gene can be applied to other T7-like phages to obtain clones that produce RNA polymerases having different promoter specificities, different bacterial hosts, or other desirable properties. T7 RNA polymerase is also used in a system for selective, high-level synthesis of RNAs and proteins in suitable host cells.

  17. Cloning and expression of the gene for bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase

    DOEpatents

    Studier, F. William; Davanloo, Parichehre; Rosenberg, Alan H.; Moffatt, Barbara A.; Dunn, John J.

    1990-01-01

    This application describes a means to clone a functional gene for bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase. Active T7 RNA polymerase is produced from the cloned gene, and a plasmid has been constructed that can produce the active enzyme in large amounts. T7 RNA polymerase transcribes DNA very efficiently and is highly selective for a relatively long promoter sequence. This enzyme is useful for synthesizing large amounts of RNA in vivo or in vitro, and is capable of producing a single RNA selectively from a complex mixture of DNAs. The procedure used to obtain a clone of the T7 RNA polymerase gene can be applied to other T7-like phages to obtain clones that produce RNA polymerases having different promoter specificities, different bacterial hosts, or other desirable properties. T7 RNA polymerase is also used in a system for selective, high-level synthesis of RNAs and proteins in suitable host cells.

  18. Analysis of S. cerevisiae RNA Polymerase I Transcription In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Pilsl, Michael; Merkl, Philipp E; Milkereit, Philipp; Griesenbeck, Joachim; Tschochner, Herbert

    2016-01-01

    RNA polymerase I (Pol I) activity is crucial to provide cells with sufficient amounts of ribosomal RNA (rRNA). Synthesis of rRNA takes place in the nucleolus, is tightly regulated and is coordinated with synthesis and assembly of ribosomal proteins, finally resulting in the formation of mature ribosomes. Many studies on Pol I mechanisms and regulation in the model organism S. cerevisiae were performed using either complex in vitro systems reconstituted from more or less purified fractions or genetic analyses. While providing many valuable insights these strategies did not always discriminate between direct and indirect effects in transcription initiation and termination, when mutated forms of Pol I subunits or transcription factors were investigated. Therefore, a well-defined minimal system was developed which allows to reconstitute highly efficient promoter-dependent Pol I initiation and termination of transcription. Transcription can be initiated at a minimal promoter only in the presence of recombinant core factor and extensively purified initiation competent Pol I. Addition of recombinant termination factors triggers transcriptional pausing and release of the ternary transcription complex. This minimal system represents a valuable tool to investigate the direct impact of (lethal) mutations in components of the initiation and termination complexes on the mechanism and regulation of rRNA synthesis. PMID:27576713

  19. Cloning and expression of autogenes encoding RNA polymerases of T7-like bacteriophages

    DOEpatents

    Studier, F.W.; Dubendorff, J.W.

    1998-11-03

    This invention relates to the cloning and expression of autogenes encoding RNA polymerases of T7 and T7-like bacteriophages, in which the RNA polymerase gene is transcribed from a promoter which is recognized by the encoded RNA polymerase. Cloning of T7 autogenes was achieved by reducing the activity of the RNA polymerase sufficiently to permit host cell growth. T7 RNA polymerase activity was controlled by combining two independent methods: lac-repression of the recombinant lac operator-T7 promoter in the autogene and inhibition of the polymerase by T7 lysozyme. Expression systems for producing the RNA polymerases of T7 and other T7-like bacteriophages, and expression systems for producing selected gene products are described, as well as other related materials and methods. 12 figs.

  20. Cloning and expression of autogenes encoding RNA polymerases of T7-like bacteriophages

    DOEpatents

    Studier, F.W.; Dubendorff, J.W.

    1998-10-20

    This invention relates to the cloning and expression of autogenes encoding RNA polymerases of T7 and T7-like bacteriophages, in which the RNA polymerase gene is transcribed from a promoter which is recognized by the encoded RNA polymerase. Cloning of T7 autogenes was achieved by reducing the activity of the RNA polymerase sufficiently to permit host cell growth. T7 RNA polymerase activity was controlled by combining two independent methods: lac-repression of the recombinant lac operator-T7 promoter in the autogene and inhibition of the polymerase by T7 lysozyme. Expression systems for producing the RNA polymerases of T7 and other T7-like bacteriophages, and expression systems for producing selected gene products are described, as well as other related materials and methods. 12 figs.

  1. Cloning and expression of autogenes encoding RNA polymerases of T7-like bacteriophages

    DOEpatents

    Studier, F. William; Dubendorff, John W.

    1998-01-01

    This invention relates to the cloning and expression of autogenes encoding RNA polymerases of T7 and T7-like bacteriophages, in which the RNA polymerase gene is transcribed from a promoter which is recognized by the encoded RNA polymerase. Cloning of T7 autogenes was achieved by reducing the activity of the RNA polymerase sufficiently to permit host cell growth. T7 RNA polymerase activity was controlled by combining two independent methods: lac-repression of the recombinant lac operator-T7 promoter in the autogene and inhibition of the polymerase by T7 lysozyme. Expression systems for producing the RNA polymerases of T7 and other T7-like bacteriophages, and expression systems for producing selected gene products are described, as well as other related materials and methods.

  2. Nuclear RNA Isolation and Sequencing.

    PubMed

    Dhaliwal, Navroop K; Mitchell, Jennifer A

    2016-01-01

    Most transcriptome studies involve sequencing and quantification of steady-state mRNA by isolating and sequencing poly (A) RNA. Although this type of sequencing data is informative to determine steady-state mRNA levels it does not provide information on transcriptional output and thus may not always reflect changes in transcriptional regulation of gene expression. Furthermore, sequencing poly (A) RNA may miss transcribed regions of the genome not usually modified by polyadenylation which includes many long noncoding RNAs. Here, we describe nuclear-RNA sequencing (nucRNA-seq) which investigates the transcriptional landscape through sequencing and quantification of nuclear RNAs which are both unspliced and spliced transcripts for protein-coding genes and nuclear-retained long noncoding RNAs.

  3. Initiation of minus-strand RNA synthesis by the brome mosaicvirus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase: use of oligoribonucleotide primers.

    PubMed Central

    Kao, C C; Sun, J H

    1996-01-01

    Various DNA- and RNA-dependent RNA polymerases have been reported to use oligoribonucleotide primers to initiate nucleic acid synthesis. For the brome mosaic virus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), we determined that in reactions performed with limited GTP concentrations, minus-strand RNA synthesis can be stimulated by the inclusion of guanosine monophosphate or specific oligoribonucleotides. Furthermore, guanylyl-3',5'-guanosine (GpG) was incorporated into minus-strand RNA and increased the rate of minus-strand RNA synthesis. In the presence of GpG, RdRp's Km for GTP decreased from 50 microM to approximately 3 microM while the Kms for other nucleotides were unaffected. These results have implications for the mechanism of initiation by RdRp. PMID:8794323

  4. Unusual properties of adenovirus E2E transcription by RNA polymerase III.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wenlin; Flint, S J

    2003-04-01

    In adenovirus type 5-infected cells, RNA polymerase III transcription of a gene superimposed on the 5' end of the E2E RNA polymerase II transcription unit produces two small (<100-nucleotide) RNAs that accumulate to low steady-state concentrations (W. Huang, R. Pruzan, and S. J. Flint, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 91:1265-1269, 1984). To gain a better understanding of the function of this RNA polymerase III transcription, we have examined the properties of the small E2E RNAs and E2E RNA polymerase III transcription in more detail. The accumulation of cytoplasmic E2E RNAs and the rates of E2E transcription by the two RNA polymerases during the infectious cycle were analyzed by using RNase T(1) protection and run-on transcription assays, respectively. Although the RNA polymerase III transcripts were present at significantly lower concentrations than E2E mRNA throughout the period examined, E2E transcription by RNA polymerase III was found to be at least as efficient as that by RNA polymerase II. The short half-lifes of the small E2E RNAs estimated by using the actinomycin D chase method appear to account for their limited accumulation. The transcription of E2E sequences by RNA polymerase II and III in cells infected by recombinant adenoviruses carrying ectopic E2E-CAT (chloramphenicol transferase) reporter genes with mutations in E2E promoter sequences was also examined. The results of these experiments indicate that recognition of the E2E promoter by the RNA polymerase II transcriptional machinery in infected cells limits transcription by RNA polymerase III, and vice versa. Such transcriptional competition and the properties of E2E RNAs made by RNA polymerase III suggest that the function of this viral RNA polymerase III transcription unit is unusual. PMID:12634361

  5. Genetic exploration of interactive domains in RNA polymerase II subunits.

    PubMed Central

    Martin, C; Okamura, S; Young, R

    1990-01-01

    The two large subunits of RNA polymerase II, RPB1 and RPB2, contain regions of extensive homology to the two large subunits of Escherichia coli RNA polymerase. These homologous regions may represent separate protein domains with unique functions. We investigated whether suppressor genetics could provide evidence for interactions between specific segments of RPB1 and RPB2 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A plasmid shuffle method was used to screen thoroughly for mutations in RPB2 that suppress a temperature-sensitive mutation, rpb1-1, which is located in region H of RPB1. All six RPB2 mutations that suppress rpb1-1 were clustered in region I of RPB2. The location of these mutations and the observation that they were allele specific for suppression of rpb1-1 suggests an interaction between region H of RPB1 and region I of RPB2. A similar experiment was done to isolate and map mutations in RPB1 that suppress a temperature-sensitive mutation, rpb2-2, which occurs in region I of RPB2. These suppressor mutations were not clustered in a particular region. Thus, fine structure suppressor genetics can provide evidence for interactions between specific segments of two proteins, but the results of this type of analysis can depend on the conditional mutation to be suppressed. Images PMID:2183012

  6. Plastid RNA polymerases: orchestration of enzymes with different evolutionary origins controls chloroplast biogenesis during the plant life cycle.

    PubMed

    Pfannschmidt, Thomas; Blanvillain, Robert; Merendino, Livia; Courtois, Florence; Chevalier, Fabien; Liebers, Monique; Grübler, Björn; Hommel, Elisabeth; Lerbs-Mache, Silva

    2015-12-01

    Chloroplasts are the sunlight-collecting organelles of photosynthetic eukaryotes that energetically drive the biosphere of our planet. They are the base for all major food webs by providing essential photosynthates to all heterotrophic organisms including humans. Recent research has focused largely on an understanding of the function of these organelles, but knowledge about the biogenesis of chloroplasts is rather limited. It is known that chloroplasts develop from undifferentiated precursor plastids, the proplastids, in meristematic cells. This review focuses on the activation and action of plastid RNA polymerases, which play a key role in the development of new chloroplasts from proplastids. Evolutionarily, plastids emerged from the endosymbiosis of a cyanobacterium-like ancestor into a heterotrophic eukaryote. As an evolutionary remnant of this process, they possess their own genome, which is expressed by two types of plastid RNA polymerase, phage-type and prokaryotic-type RNA polymerase. The protein subunits of these polymerases are encoded in both the nuclear and plastid genomes. Their activation and action therefore require a highly sophisticated regulation that controls and coordinates the expression of the components encoded in the plastid and nucleus. Stoichiometric expression and correct assembly of RNA polymerase complexes is achieved by a combination of developmental and environmentally induced programmes. This review highlights the current knowledge about the functional coordination between the different types of plastid RNA polymerases and provides working models of their sequential expression and function for future investigations. PMID:26355147

  7. Improved crystallization of the coxsackievirus B3 RNA-dependent RNA polymerase

    SciTech Connect

    Jabafi, Ilham; Selisko, Barbara; Coutard, Bruno; De Palma, Armando M.; Neyts, Johan; Egloff, Marie-Pierre; Grisel, Sacha; Dalle, Karen; Campanacci, Valerie; Spinelli, Silvia; Cambillau, Christian; Canard, Bruno; Gruez, Arnaud

    2007-06-01

    The first crystal of a coxsackievirus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase is reported. The Picornaviridae virus family contains a large number of human pathogens such as poliovirus, hepatitis A virus and rhinoviruses. Amongst the viruses belonging to the genus Enterovirus, several serotypes of coxsackievirus coexist for which neither vaccine nor therapy is available. Coxsackievirus B3 is involved in the development of acute myocarditis and dilated cardiomyopathy and is thought to be an important cause of sudden death in young adults. Here, the first crystal of a coxsackievirus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase is reported. Standard crystallization methods yielded crystals that were poorly suited to X-ray diffraction studies, with one axis being completely disordered. Crystallization was improved by testing crystallization solutions from commercial screens as additives. This approach yielded crystals that diffracted to 2.1 Å resolution and that were suitable for structure determination.

  8. Amitochondriate amoebae and the evolution of DNA-dependent RNA polymerase II.

    PubMed

    Stiller, J W; Duffield, E C; Hall, B D

    1998-09-29

    Unlike parasitic protist groups that are defined by the absence of mitochondria, the Pelobiontida is composed mostly of free-living species. Because of the presence of ultrastructural and cellular features that set them apart from all other eukaryotic organisms, it has been suggested that pelobionts are primitively amitochondriate and may represent the earliest-evolved lineage of extant protists. Analyses of rRNA genes, however, have suggested that the group arose well after the diversification of the earliest-evolved protists. Here we report the sequence of the gene encoding the largest subunit of DNA-dependent RNA polymerase II (RPB1) from the pelobiont Mastigamoeba invertens. Sequences within RPB1 encompass several of the conserved catalytic domains that are common to eubacterial, archaeal, and eukaryotic nuclear-encoded RNA polymerases. In RNA polymerase II, these domains catalyze the transcription of all nuclear pre-mRNAs, as well as the majority of small nuclear RNAs. In contrast with rDNA-based trees, phylogenetic analyses of RPB1 sequences indicate that Mastigamoeba represents an early branch of eukaryotic evolution. Unlike sequences from parasitic amitochondriate protists that were included in our study, there is no indication that Mastigamoeba RPB1 is attracted to the base of the eukaryotic tree artifactually. In addition, the presence of introns and a heptapeptide C-terminal repeat in the Mastigamoeba RPB1 sequence, features that are typically associated with more recently derived eukaryotic groups, raise provocative questions regarding models of protist evolution that depend almost exclusively on rDNA sequence analyses.

  9. Characterization of new RNA polymerase III and RNA polymerase II transcriptional promoters in the Bovine Leukemia Virus genome.

    PubMed

    Van Driessche, Benoit; Rodari, Anthony; Delacourt, Nadège; Fauquenoy, Sylvain; Vanhulle, Caroline; Burny, Arsène; Rohr, Olivier; Van Lint, Carine

    2016-01-01

    Bovine leukemia virus latency is a viral strategy used to escape from the host immune system and contribute to tumor development. However, a highly expressed BLV micro-RNA cluster has been reported, suggesting that the BLV silencing is not complete. Here, we demonstrate the in vivo recruitment of RNA polymerase III to the BLV miRNA cluster both in BLV-latently infected cell lines and in ovine BLV-infected primary cells, through a canonical type 2 RNAPIII promoter. Moreover, by RPC6-knockdown, we showed a direct functional link between RNAPIII transcription and BLV miRNAs expression. Furthermore, both the tumor- and the quiescent-related isoforms of RPC7 subunits were recruited to the miRNA cluster. We showed that the BLV miRNA cluster was enriched in positive epigenetic marks. Interestingly, we demonstrated the in vivo recruitment of RNAPII at the 3'LTR/host genomic junction, associated with positive epigenetic marks. Functionally, we showed that the BLV LTR exhibited a strong antisense promoter activity and identified cis-acting elements of an RNAPII-dependent promoter. Finally, we provided evidence for an in vivo collision between RNAPIII and RNAPII convergent transcriptions. Our results provide new insights into alternative ways used by BLV to counteract silencing of the viral 5'LTR promoter. PMID:27545598

  10. Characterization of new RNA polymerase III and RNA polymerase II transcriptional promoters in the Bovine Leukemia Virus genome

    PubMed Central

    Van Driessche, Benoit; Rodari, Anthony; Delacourt, Nadège; Fauquenoy, Sylvain; Vanhulle, Caroline; Burny, Arsène; Rohr, Olivier; Van Lint, Carine

    2016-01-01

    Bovine leukemia virus latency is a viral strategy used to escape from the host immune system and contribute to tumor development. However, a highly expressed BLV micro-RNA cluster has been reported, suggesting that the BLV silencing is not complete. Here, we demonstrate the in vivo recruitment of RNA polymerase III to the BLV miRNA cluster both in BLV-latently infected cell lines and in ovine BLV-infected primary cells, through a canonical type 2 RNAPIII promoter. Moreover, by RPC6-knockdown, we showed a direct functional link between RNAPIII transcription and BLV miRNAs expression. Furthermore, both the tumor- and the quiescent-related isoforms of RPC7 subunits were recruited to the miRNA cluster. We showed that the BLV miRNA cluster was enriched in positive epigenetic marks. Interestingly, we demonstrated the in vivo recruitment of RNAPII at the 3′LTR/host genomic junction, associated with positive epigenetic marks. Functionally, we showed that the BLV LTR exhibited a strong antisense promoter activity and identified cis-acting elements of an RNAPII-dependent promoter. Finally, we provided evidence for an in vivo collision between RNAPIII and RNAPII convergent transcriptions. Our results provide new insights into alternative ways used by BLV to counteract silencing of the viral 5′LTR promoter. PMID:27545598

  11. Post-Transcriptional Regulation of RNA Polymerase II Levels in Caenorhabditis Elegans

    PubMed Central

    Dalley, B. K.; Rogalski, T. M.; Tullis, G. E.; Riddle, D. L.; Golomb, M.

    1993-01-01

    To investigate the regulation of RNA polymerase II levels in Caenorhabditis elegans, we have constructed nematode strains having one, two, or three copies of ama-1, the gene for the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II. Steady-state levels of RNA polymerase II polypeptides and solubilized enzyme activity are invariant with gene dosage, indicating regulatory compensation. However, steady-state levels of ama-1 mRNA are directly proportional to gene dosage. These results imply that RNA polymerase II levels in C. elegans are regulated post-transcriptionally. PMID:8436272

  12. Regulation of the Nucleolar DNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase by Amino Acids in Ehrlich Ascites Tumor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Franze-Fernández, M. T.; Pogo, A. O.

    1971-01-01

    Experiments were performed to ascertain the degree to which the amount of amino acids might be one of the regulatory factors that control the activity of the nucleolar RNA polymerase. Assays of the enzymatic activity were done with isolated nuclei from cells incubated with low and high concentrations of amino acids. Soon after the cells were exposed to a medium enriched in amino acids, a rapid increase of nucleolar RNA polymerase activity occurred. A similar result was obtained in cells incubated with lower concentrations of amino acids. However, the rate of ribosomal RNA synthesized was regularly much higher in cells incubated in a medium enriched with amino acids than in a medium low in amino acids. Apparently, the amino acids only controlled ribosomal RNA synthesis. Thus, neither maturation, processing, and transport of nuclear precursors into cytoplasmic ribosomal RNA, nor the synthesis of rapidly labeled RNA was affected. PMID:4108870

  13. The Prefoldin Bud27 Mediates the Assembly of the Eukaryotic RNA Polymerases in an Rpb5-Dependent Manner

    PubMed Central

    Mirón-García, María Carmen; Garrido-Godino, Ana Isabel; García-Molinero, Varinia; Hernández-Torres, Francisco; Rodríguez-Navarro, Susana; Navarro, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    The unconventional prefoldin URI/RMP, in humans, and its orthologue in yeast, Bud27, have been proposed to participate in the biogenesis of the RNA polymerases. However, this role of Bud27 has not been confirmed and is poorly elucidated. Our data help clarify the mechanisms governing biogenesis of the three eukaryotic RNA pols. We show evidence that Bud27 is the first example of a protein that participates in the biogenesis of the three eukaryotic RNA polymerases and the first example of a protein modulating their assembly instead of their nuclear transport. In addition we demonstrate that the role of Bud27 in RNA pols biogenesis depends on Rpb5. In fact, lack of BUD27 affects growth and leads to a substantial accumulation of the three RNA polymerases in the cytoplasm, defects offset by the overexpression of RPB5. Supporting this, our data demonstrate that the lack of Bud27 affects the correct assembly of Rpb5 and Rpb6 to the three RNA polymerases, suggesting that this process occurs in the cytoplasm and is a required step prior to nuclear import. Also, our data support the view that Rpb5 and Rpb6 assemble somewhat later than the rest of the complexes. Furthermore, Bud27 Rpb5-binding but not PFD-binding domain is necessary for RNA polymerases biogenesis. In agreement, we also demonstrate genetic interactions between BUD27, RPB5, and RPB6. Bud27 shuttles between the nucleus and the cytoplasm in an Xpo1-independent manner, and also independently of microtubule polarization and possibly independently of its association with the RNA pols. Our data also suggest that the role of Bud27 in RNA pols biogenesis is independent of the chaperone prefoldin (PFD) complex and of Iwr1. Finally, the role of URI seems to be conserved in humans, suggesting conserved mechanisms in RNA pols biogenesis. PMID:23459708

  14. Organization, Function, and Therapeutic Targeting of the Morbillivirus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase Complex

    PubMed Central

    Sourimant, Julien; Plemper, Richard K.

    2016-01-01

    The morbillivirus genus comprises major human and animal pathogens, including the highly contagious measles virus. Morbilliviruses feature single stranded negative sense RNA genomes that are wrapped by a plasma membrane-derived lipid envelope. Genomes are encapsidated by the viral nucleocapsid protein forming ribonucleoprotein complexes, and only the encapsidated RNA is transcribed and replicated by the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp). In this review, we discuss recent breakthroughs towards the structural and functional understanding of the morbillivirus polymerase complex. Considering the clinical burden imposed by members of the morbillivirus genus, the development of novel antiviral therapeutics is urgently needed. The viral polymerase complex presents unique structural and enzymatic properties that can serve as attractive candidates for druggable targets. We evaluate distinct strategies for therapeutic intervention and examine how high-resolution insight into the organization of the polymerase complex may pave the path towards the structure-based design and optimization of next-generation RdRp inhibitors. PMID:27626440

  15. Organization, Function, and Therapeutic Targeting of the Morbillivirus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase Complex.

    PubMed

    Sourimant, Julien; Plemper, Richard K

    2016-01-01

    The morbillivirus genus comprises major human and animal pathogens, including the highly contagious measles virus. Morbilliviruses feature single stranded negative sense RNA genomes that are wrapped by a plasma membrane-derived lipid envelope. Genomes are encapsidated by the viral nucleocapsid protein forming ribonucleoprotein complexes, and only the encapsidated RNA is transcribed and replicated by the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp). In this review, we discuss recent breakthroughs towards the structural and functional understanding of the morbillivirus polymerase complex. Considering the clinical burden imposed by members of the morbillivirus genus, the development of novel antiviral therapeutics is urgently needed. The viral polymerase complex presents unique structural and enzymatic properties that can serve as attractive candidates for druggable targets. We evaluate distinct strategies for therapeutic intervention and examine how high-resolution insight into the organization of the polymerase complex may pave the path towards the structure-based design and optimization of next-generation RdRp inhibitors. PMID:27626440

  16. Positive modulation of RNA polymerase III transcription by ribosomal proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Dieci, Giorgio; Carpentieri, Andrea; Amoresano, Angela; Ottonello, Simone

    2009-02-06

    A yeast nuclear fraction of unknown composition, named TFIIIE, was reported previously to enhance transcription of tRNA and 5S rRNA genes in vitro. We show that TFIIIE activity co-purifies with a specific subset of ribosomal proteins (RPs) which, as revealed by chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis, generally interact with tRNA and 5S rRNA genes, but not with a Pol II-specific promoter. Only Rpl6Ap and Rpl6Bp, among the tested RPs, were found associated to a TATA-containing tRNA{sup Ile}(TAT) gene. The RPL6A gene also emerged as a strong multicopy suppressor of a conditional mutation in the basal transcription factor TFIIIC, while RPL26A and RPL14A behaved as weak suppressors. The data delineate a novel extra-ribosomal role for one or a few RPs which, by influencing 5S rRNA and tRNA synthesis, could play a key role in the coordinate regulation of the different sub-pathways required for ribosome biogenesis and functionality.

  17. Real-time dynamics of RNA Polymerase II clustering in live human cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cisse, Ibrahim

    2014-03-01

    Transcription is the first step in the central dogma of molecular biology, when genetic information encoded on DNA is made into messenger RNA. How this fundamental process occurs within living cells (in vivo) is poorly understood,[1] despite extensive biochemical characterizations with isolated biomolecules (in vitro). For high-order organisms, like humans, transcription is reported to be spatially compartmentalized in nuclear foci consisting of clusters of RNA Polymerase II, the enzyme responsible for synthesizing all messenger RNAs. However, little is known of when these foci assemble or their relative stability. We developed an approach based on photo-activation localization microscopy (PALM) combined with a temporal correlation analysis, which we refer to as tcPALM. The tcPALM method enables the real-time characterization of biomolecular spatiotemporal organization, with single-molecule sensitivity, directly in living cells.[2] Using tcPALM, we observed that RNA Polymerase II clusters form transiently, with an average lifetime of 5.1 (+/- 0.4) seconds. Stimuli affecting transcription regulation yielded orders of magnitude changes in the dynamics of the polymerase clusters, implying that clustering is regulated and plays a role in the cells ability to effect rapid response to external signals. Our results suggest that the transient crowding of enzymes may aid in rate-limiting steps of genome regulation.

  18. Relationship between RNA polymerase II and efficiency of vaccinia virus replication.

    PubMed Central

    Wilton, S; Dales, S

    1989-01-01

    It is clear from previous studies that host transcriptase or RNA polymerase II (pol II) has a role in poxvirus replication. To elucidate the participation of this enzyme further, in this study we examined several parameters related to pol II during the cycle of vaccinia virus infection in L-strain fibroblasts, HeLa cells, and L6H9 rat myoblasts. Nucleocytoplasmic transposition of pol II into virus factories and virions was assessed by immunofluorescence and immunoblotting by using anti-pol II immunoglobulin G. RNA polymerase activities were compared in nuclear extracts containing crude enzyme preparations. Rates of translation into cellular or viral polypeptides were ascertained by labeling with [35S]methionine. In L and HeLa cells, which produced vaccinia virus more abundantly, the rates of RNA polymerase and translation in controls and following infection were higher than in myoblasts. The data on synthesis and virus formation could be correlated with observations on transmigration of pol II, which was more efficient and complete in L and HeLa cells. The stimulus for pol II to leave the nucleus required the expression of both early and late viral functions. On the basis of current and past information, we suggest that mobilization of pol II depends on the efficiency of vaccina virus replication and furthermore that control over vaccinia virus production by the host is related to the content or availability (or both) of pol II in different cell types. Images PMID:2648021

  19. Relationship between RNA polymerase II and efficiency of vaccinia virus replication

    SciTech Connect

    Wilton, S.; Dales, S.

    1989-04-01

    It is clear from previous studies that host transcriptase or RNA polymerase II (pol II) has a role in poxvirus replication. To elucidate the participation of this enzyme further, in this study the authors examined several parameters related to pol II during the cycle of vaccinia virus infection in L-strain fibroblasts, HeLa cells, and L/sub 6/H/sub 9/ rat myoblasts. Nucleocytoplasmic transposition of pol II into virus factories and virions was assessed by immunofluorescence and immunoblotting by using anti-pol II immunoglobulin G. RNA polymerase activities were compared in nuclear extracts containing cured enzyme preparations. Rates of translation into cellular or viral polypeptides were ascertained by labeling with (/sup 35/S)methionine. In L and HeLa cells, which produced vaccinia virus more abundantly, the rate of RNA polymerase and translation in controls and following infection were higher than in myoblasts. The data on synthesis and virus formation could be correlated with observations on transmigration of pol II, which was more efficient and complete in L and HeLa cells. The stimulus for pol II to leave the nucleus required the expression of both early and late viral functions. On the basis of current and past information, the authors suggest that mobilization of pol II depends on the efficiency of vaccinia virus replication and furthermore that control over vaccinia virus production by the host is related to the content or availability (or both) of pol II in different cell types.

  20. Transcriptional bypass of regioisomeric ethylated thymidine lesions by T7 RNA polymerase and human RNA polymerase II

    PubMed Central

    You, Changjun; Wang, Pengcheng; Dai, Xiaoxia; Wang, Yinsheng

    2014-01-01

    Alkylative damage to DNA can be induced by environmental chemicals, endogenous metabolites and some commonly prescribed chemotherapeutic agents. The regioisomeric N3-, O2- and O4-ethylthymidine (N3-, O2- and O4-EtdT, respectively) represent an important class of ethylated DNA lesions. Using nonreplicative double-stranded vectors containing an N3-EtdT, O2-EtdT or O4-EtdT at a defined site in the template strand, herein we examined the effects of these lesions on DNA transcription mediated by single-subunit T7 RNA polymerase or multisubunit human RNA polymerase II in vitro and in human cells. We found that O4-EtdT is highly mutagenic and exclusively induces the misincorporation of guanine opposite the lesion, whereas N3-EtdT and O2-EtdT display promiscuous miscoding properties during transcription. In addition, N3-EtdT and O2-EtdT were found to inhibit strongly DNA transcription in vitro and in certain human cells. Moreover, N3-EtdT, but not O2-EtdT or O4-EtdT, is an efficient substrate for transcription-coupled nucleotide excision repair. These findings provide new important insights into how these alkylated DNA lesions compromise the flow of genetic information, which may help to understand the risk of these lesions in living cells. PMID:25404131

  1. Nuclear Export of Messenger RNA

    PubMed Central

    Katahira, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Transport of messenger RNA (mRNA) from the nucleus to the cytoplasm is an essential step of eukaryotic gene expression. In the cell nucleus, a precursor mRNA undergoes a series of processing steps, including capping at the 5' ends, splicing and cleavage/polyadenylation at the 3' ends. During this process, the mRNA associates with a wide variety of proteins, forming a messenger ribonucleoprotein (mRNP) particle. Association with factors involved in nuclear export also occurs during transcription and processing, and thus nuclear export is fully integrated into mRNA maturation. The coupling between mRNA maturation and nuclear export is an important mechanism for providing only fully functional and competent mRNA to the cytoplasmic translational machinery, thereby ensuring accuracy and swiftness of gene expression. This review describes the molecular mechanism of nuclear mRNA export mediated by the principal transport factors, including Tap-p15 and the TREX complex. PMID:25836925

  2. DNA Bending and Wrapping around RNA Polymerase: a “Revolutionary” Model Describing Transcriptional Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Coulombe, Benoit; Burton, Zachary F.

    1999-01-01

    A model is proposed in which bending and wrapping of DNA around RNA polymerase causes untwisting of the DNA helix at the RNA polymerase catalytic center to stimulate strand separation prior to initiation. During elongation, DNA bending through the RNA polymerase active site is proposed to lower the energetic barrier to the advance of the transcription bubble. Recent experiments with mammalian RNA polymerase II along with accumulating evidence from studies of Escherichia coli RNA polymerase indicate the importance of DNA bending and wrapping in transcriptional mechanisms. The DNA-wrapping model describes specific roles for general RNA polymerase II transcription factors (TATA-binding protein [TBP], TFIIB, TFIIF, TFIIE, and TFIIH), provides a plausible explanation for preinitiation complex isomerization, suggests mechanisms underlying the synergy between transcriptional activators, and suggests an unforseen role for TBP-associating factors in transcription. PMID:10357858

  3. Characterization of a 7-kilodalton subunit of vaccinia virus DNA-dependent RNA polymerase with structural similarities to the smallest subunit of eukaryotic RNA polymerase II.

    PubMed

    Amegadzie, B Y; Ahn, B Y; Moss, B

    1992-05-01

    A previously unrecognized 7-kDa polypeptide copurified with the DNA-dependent RNA polymerase of vaccinia virus virions. Internal amino acid sequences of the small protein matched a viral genomic open reading frame of 63 codons. Antipeptide antiserum was used to confirm the specific and complete association of the 7-kDa protein with RNA polymerase. The amino acid sequence predicted from the viral gene, named rpo7, was 23% identical to that of the smallest subunit of Saccharomyces cerevisiae RNA polymerase II, and a metal-binding motif, Cys-X-X-Cys-Gly, was located at precisely the same location near the N terminus in the two proteins. RNA analyses demonstrated early transcriptional initiation and termination signals in the rpo7 gene sequence. The viral RNA polymerase subunit was synthesized during the early phase of infection and continued to accumulate during the late phase.

  4. Structure of a bacterial RNA polymerase holoenzyme open promoter complex

    DOE PAGES

    Bae, Brian; Feklistov, Andrey; Lass-Napiorkowska, Agnieszka; Landick, Robert; Darst, Seth A.

    2015-09-08

    Initiation of transcription is a primary means for controlling gene expression. In bacteria, the RNA polymerase (RNAP) holoenzyme binds and unwinds promoter DNA, forming the transcription bubble of the open promoter complex (RPo). We have determined crystal structures, refined to 4.14 Å-resolution, of RPo containing Thermus aquaticus RNAP holoenzyme and promoter DNA that includes the full transcription bubble. The structures, combined with biochemical analyses, reveal key features supporting the formation and maintenance of the double-strand/single-strand DNA junction at the upstream edge of the -10 element where bubble formation initiates. The results also reveal RNAP interactions with duplex DNA just upstreammore » of the -10 element and potential protein/DNA interactions that direct the DNA template strand into the RNAP active site. Additionally a RNA primer to yield a 4 base-pair post-translocated RNA:DNA hybrid mimics an initially transcribing complex at the point where steric clash initiates abortive initiation and σA dissociation.« less

  5. Structure of a bacterial RNA polymerase holoenzyme open promoter complex

    SciTech Connect

    Bae, Brian; Feklistov, Andrey; Lass-Napiorkowska, Agnieszka; Landick, Robert; Darst, Seth A.

    2015-09-08

    Initiation of transcription is a primary means for controlling gene expression. In bacteria, the RNA polymerase (RNAP) holoenzyme binds and unwinds promoter DNA, forming the transcription bubble of the open promoter complex (RPo). We have determined crystal structures, refined to 4.14 Å-resolution, of RPo containing Thermus aquaticus RNAP holoenzyme and promoter DNA that includes the full transcription bubble. The structures, combined with biochemical analyses, reveal key features supporting the formation and maintenance of the double-strand/single-strand DNA junction at the upstream edge of the -10 element where bubble formation initiates. The results also reveal RNAP interactions with duplex DNA just upstream of the -10 element and potential protein/DNA interactions that direct the DNA template strand into the RNAP active site. Additionally a RNA primer to yield a 4 base-pair post-translocated RNA:DNA hybrid mimics an initially transcribing complex at the point where steric clash initiates abortive initiation and σA dissociation.

  6. Direct observation of base-pair stepping by RNA polymerase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbondanzieri, Elio A.; Greenleaf, William J.; Shaevitz, Joshua W.; Landick, Robert; Block, Steven M.

    2005-11-01

    During transcription, RNA polymerase (RNAP) moves processively along a DNA template, creating a complementary RNA. Here we present the development of an ultra-stable optical trapping system with ångström-level resolution, which we used to monitor transcriptional elongation by single molecules of Escherichia coli RNAP. Records showed discrete steps averaging 3.7 +/- 0.6Å, a distance equivalent to the mean rise per base found in B-DNA. By combining our results with quantitative gel analysis, we conclude that RNAP advances along DNA by a single base pair per nucleotide addition to the nascent RNA. We also determined the force-velocity relationship for transcription at both saturating and sub-saturating nucleotide concentrations; fits to these data returned a characteristic distance parameter equivalent to one base pair. Global fits were inconsistent with a model for movement incorporating a power stroke tightly coupled to pyrophosphate release, but consistent with a brownian ratchet model incorporating a secondary NTP binding site.

  7. Direct observation of base-pair stepping by RNA polymerase.

    PubMed

    Abbondanzieri, Elio A; Greenleaf, William J; Shaevitz, Joshua W; Landick, Robert; Block, Steven M

    2005-11-24

    During transcription, RNA polymerase (RNAP) moves processively along a DNA template, creating a complementary RNA. Here we present the development of an ultra-stable optical trapping system with ångström-level resolution, which we used to monitor transcriptional elongation by single molecules of Escherichia coli RNAP. Records showed discrete steps averaging 3.7 +/- 0.6 A, a distance equivalent to the mean rise per base found in B-DNA. By combining our results with quantitative gel analysis, we conclude that RNAP advances along DNA by a single base pair per nucleotide addition to the nascent RNA. We also determined the force-velocity relationship for transcription at both saturating and sub-saturating nucleotide concentrations; fits to these data returned a characteristic distance parameter equivalent to one base pair. Global fits were inconsistent with a model for movement incorporating a power stroke tightly coupled to pyrophosphate release, but consistent with a brownian ratchet model incorporating a secondary NTP binding site.

  8. Retrotransposon profiling of RNA polymerase III initiation sites

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Xiaojie; Daily, Kenneth; Nguyen, Kim; Wang, Haoyi; Mayhew, David; Rigor, Paul; Forouzan, Sholeh; Johnston, Mark; Mitra, Robi David; Baldi, Pierre; Sandmeyer, Suzanne

    2012-01-01

    Although retroviruses are relatively promiscuous in choice of integration sites, retrotransposons can display marked integration specificity. In yeast and slime mold, some retrotransposons are associated with tRNA genes (tDNAs). In the Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome, the long terminal repeat retrotransposon Ty3 is found at RNA polymerase III (Pol III) transcription start sites of tDNAs. Ty1, 2, and 4 elements also cluster in the upstream regions of these genes. To determine the extent to which other Pol III–transcribed genes serve as genomic targets for Ty3, a set of 10,000 Ty3 genomic retrotranspositions were mapped using high-throughput DNA sequencing. Integrations occurred at all known tDNAs, two tDNA relics (iYGR033c and ZOD1), and six non-tDNA, Pol III–transcribed types of genes (RDN5, SNR6, SNR52, RPR1, RNA170, and SCR1). Previous work in vitro demonstrated that the Pol III transcription factor (TF) IIIB is important for Ty3 targeting. However, seven loci that bind the TFIIIB loader, TFIIIC, were not targeted, underscoring the unexplained absence of TFIIIB at those sites. Ty3 integrations also occurred in two open reading frames not previously associated with Pol III transcription, suggesting the existence of a small number of additional sites in the yeast genome that interact with Pol III transcription complexes. PMID:22287102

  9. Retrotransposon profiling of RNA polymerase III initiation sites.

    PubMed

    Qi, Xiaojie; Daily, Kenneth; Nguyen, Kim; Wang, Haoyi; Mayhew, David; Rigor, Paul; Forouzan, Sholeh; Johnston, Mark; Mitra, Robi David; Baldi, Pierre; Sandmeyer, Suzanne

    2012-04-01

    Although retroviruses are relatively promiscuous in choice of integration sites, retrotransposons can display marked integration specificity. In yeast and slime mold, some retrotransposons are associated with tRNA genes (tDNAs). In the Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome, the long terminal repeat retrotransposon Ty3 is found at RNA polymerase III (Pol III) transcription start sites of tDNAs. Ty1, 2, and 4 elements also cluster in the upstream regions of these genes. To determine the extent to which other Pol III-transcribed genes serve as genomic targets for Ty3, a set of 10,000 Ty3 genomic retrotranspositions were mapped using high-throughput DNA sequencing. Integrations occurred at all known tDNAs, two tDNA relics (iYGR033c and ZOD1), and six non-tDNA, Pol III-transcribed types of genes (RDN5, SNR6, SNR52, RPR1, RNA170, and SCR1). Previous work in vitro demonstrated that the Pol III transcription factor (TF) IIIB is important for Ty3 targeting. However, seven loci that bind the TFIIIB loader, TFIIIC, were not targeted, underscoring the unexplained absence of TFIIIB at those sites. Ty3 integrations also occurred in two open reading frames not previously associated with Pol III transcription, suggesting the existence of a small number of additional sites in the yeast genome that interact with Pol III transcription complexes. PMID:22287102

  10. Defining the status of RNA polymerase at promoters.

    PubMed

    Core, Leighton J; Waterfall, Joshua J; Gilchrist, Daniel A; Fargo, David C; Kwak, Hojoong; Adelman, Karen; Lis, John T

    2012-10-25

    Recent genome-wide studies in metazoans have shown that RNA polymerase II (Pol II) accumulates to high densities on many promoters at a rate-limited step in transcription. However, the status of this Pol II remains an area of debate. Here, we compare quantitative outputs of a global run-on sequencing assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing assays and demonstrate that the majority of the Pol II on Drosophila promoters is transcriptionally engaged; very little exists in a preinitiation or arrested complex. These promoter-proximal polymerases are inhibited from further elongation by detergent-sensitive factors, and knockdown of negative elongation factor, NELF, reduces their levels. These results not only solidify the notion that pausing occurs at most promoters, but demonstrate that it is the major rate-limiting step in early transcription at these promoters. Finally, the divergent elongation complexes seen at mammalian promoters are far less prevalent in Drosophila, and this specificity in orientation correlates with directional core promoter elements, which are abundant in Drosophila. PMID:23062713

  11. Defining the status of RNA polymerase at promoters.

    PubMed

    Core, Leighton J; Waterfall, Joshua J; Gilchrist, Daniel A; Fargo, David C; Kwak, Hojoong; Adelman, Karen; Lis, John T

    2012-10-25

    Recent genome-wide studies in metazoans have shown that RNA polymerase II (Pol II) accumulates to high densities on many promoters at a rate-limited step in transcription. However, the status of this Pol II remains an area of debate. Here, we compare quantitative outputs of a global run-on sequencing assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing assays and demonstrate that the majority of the Pol II on Drosophila promoters is transcriptionally engaged; very little exists in a preinitiation or arrested complex. These promoter-proximal polymerases are inhibited from further elongation by detergent-sensitive factors, and knockdown of negative elongation factor, NELF, reduces their levels. These results not only solidify the notion that pausing occurs at most promoters, but demonstrate that it is the major rate-limiting step in early transcription at these promoters. Finally, the divergent elongation complexes seen at mammalian promoters are far less prevalent in Drosophila, and this specificity in orientation correlates with directional core promoter elements, which are abundant in Drosophila.

  12. Is actin a transcription initiation factor for RNA polymerase B?

    PubMed Central

    Egly, J M; Miyamoto, N G; Moncollin, V; Chambon, P

    1984-01-01

    We have previously reported that two fractions derived from HeLa cell S100 extracts, the heparin flow-through and the heparin 0.6 M KCl eluate are required in vitro for efficient and accurate transcription by RNA polymerase class B (II). We have further purified a factor present in the heparin flow-through fraction, which markedly stimulates specific transcription catalyzed by the heparin 0.6 M KCl eluate. We report here that some of the properties of the stimulatory factor present in our most purified fractions are strikingly similar to those of actin. We demonstrate also that this factor acts at the pre-initiation level of the transcription reaction. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. Fig. 10. Fig. 11. Fig. 12. Fig. 13. PMID:6499833

  13. ELL facilitates RNA polymerase II pause site entry and release.

    PubMed

    Byun, Jung S; Fufa, Temesgen D; Wakano, Clay; Fernandez, Alfonso; Haggerty, Cynthia M; Sung, Myong-Hee; Gardner, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    Transcription is a multi-stage process that coordinates several steps within the transcription cycle including chromatin reorganization, RNA polymerase II recruitment, initiation, promoter clearance and elongation. Recent advances have identified the super elongation complex, containing the eleven-nineteen lysine-rich leukaemia (ELL) protein, as a key regulator of transcriptional elongation. Here we show that ELL has a diverse and kinetically distinct role before its assembly into the super elongation complex by stabilizing Pol II recruitment/initiation and entry into the pause site. Loss of ELL destabilizes the pre-initiation complexes and results in disruption of early elongation and promoter proximal chromatin structure before recruitment of AFF4 and other super elongation complex components. These changes result in significantly reduced transcriptional activation of rapidly induced genes. Thus, ELL has an early and essential role during rapid high-amplitude gene expression that is required for both Pol II pause site entry and release. PMID:22252557

  14. Cloning and expression of the gene for bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase

    DOEpatents

    Studier, F.W.; Davanloo, P.; Rosenberg, A.H.

    1984-03-30

    This application describes a means to clone a functional gene for bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase. Active T7 RNA polymerase is produced from the cloned gene, and a plasmid has been constructed that can produce the active enzyme in large amounts. T7 RNA polymerase transcribes DNA very efficiently and is highly selective for a relatively long promoter sequence. This enzyme is useful for synthesizing large amounts of RNA in vivo or in vitro, and is capable of producing a single RNA selectively from a complex mixture of DNAs. The procedure used to obtain a clone of the T7 RNA polymerase gene can be applied to other T7-like phages to obtain clones that produce RNA polymerases having different promoter specificities, different bacterial hosts, or other desirable properties.

  15. RNA-dependent RNA polymerase 1 in potato (Solanum tuberosum) and its relationship to other plant RNA-dependent RNA polymerases.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Lydia J R; Brockington, Samuel F; Murphy, Alex M; Pate, Adrienne E; Gruden, Kristina; MacFarlane, Stuart A; Palukaitis, Peter; Carr, John P

    2016-01-01

    Cellular RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RDRs) catalyze synthesis of double-stranded RNAs that can serve to initiate or amplify RNA silencing. Arabidopsis thaliana has six RDR genes; RDRs 1, 2 and 6 have roles in anti-viral RNA silencing. RDR6 is constitutively expressed but RDR1 expression is elevated following plant treatment with defensive phytohormones. RDR1 also contributes to basal virus resistance. RDR1 has been studied in several species including A. thaliana, tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), N. benthamiana, N. attenuata and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) but not to our knowledge in potato (S. tuberosum). StRDR1 was identified and shown to be salicylic acid-responsive. StRDR1 transcript accumulation decreased in transgenic potato plants constitutively expressing a hairpin construct and these plants were challenged with three viruses: potato virus Y, potato virus X, and tobacco mosaic virus. Suppression of StRDR1 gene expression did not increase the susceptibility of potato to these viruses. Phylogenetic analysis of RDR genes present in potato and in a range of other plant species identified a new RDR gene family, not present in potato and found only in Rosids (but apparently lost in the Rosid A. thaliana) for which we propose the name RDR7. PMID:26979928

  16. RNA-dependent RNA polymerase 1 in potato (Solanum tuberosum) and its relationship to other plant RNA-dependent RNA polymerases.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Lydia J R; Brockington, Samuel F; Murphy, Alex M; Pate, Adrienne E; Gruden, Kristina; MacFarlane, Stuart A; Palukaitis, Peter; Carr, John P

    2016-03-16

    Cellular RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RDRs) catalyze synthesis of double-stranded RNAs that can serve to initiate or amplify RNA silencing. Arabidopsis thaliana has six RDR genes; RDRs 1, 2 and 6 have roles in anti-viral RNA silencing. RDR6 is constitutively expressed but RDR1 expression is elevated following plant treatment with defensive phytohormones. RDR1 also contributes to basal virus resistance. RDR1 has been studied in several species including A. thaliana, tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), N. benthamiana, N. attenuata and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) but not to our knowledge in potato (S. tuberosum). StRDR1 was identified and shown to be salicylic acid-responsive. StRDR1 transcript accumulation decreased in transgenic potato plants constitutively expressing a hairpin construct and these plants were challenged with three viruses: potato virus Y, potato virus X, and tobacco mosaic virus. Suppression of StRDR1 gene expression did not increase the susceptibility of potato to these viruses. Phylogenetic analysis of RDR genes present in potato and in a range of other plant species identified a new RDR gene family, not present in potato and found only in Rosids (but apparently lost in the Rosid A. thaliana) for which we propose the name RDR7.

  17. RNA-dependent RNA polymerase 1 in potato (Solanum tuberosum) and its relationship to other plant RNA-dependent RNA polymerases

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Lydia J. R.; Brockington, Samuel F.; Murphy, Alex M.; Pate, Adrienne E.; Gruden, Kristina; MacFarlane, Stuart A.; Palukaitis, Peter; Carr, John P.

    2016-01-01

    Cellular RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RDRs) catalyze synthesis of double-stranded RNAs that can serve to initiate or amplify RNA silencing. Arabidopsis thaliana has six RDR genes; RDRs 1, 2 and 6 have roles in anti-viral RNA silencing. RDR6 is constitutively expressed but RDR1 expression is elevated following plant treatment with defensive phytohormones. RDR1 also contributes to basal virus resistance. RDR1 has been studied in several species including A. thaliana, tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), N. benthamiana, N. attenuata and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) but not to our knowledge in potato (S. tuberosum). StRDR1 was identified and shown to be salicylic acid-responsive. StRDR1 transcript accumulation decreased in transgenic potato plants constitutively expressing a hairpin construct and these plants were challenged with three viruses: potato virus Y, potato virus X, and tobacco mosaic virus. Suppression of StRDR1 gene expression did not increase the susceptibility of potato to these viruses. Phylogenetic analysis of RDR genes present in potato and in a range of other plant species identified a new RDR gene family, not present in potato and found only in Rosids (but apparently lost in the Rosid A. thaliana) for which we propose the name RDR7. PMID:26979928

  18. The Crystal Structure of a Cardiovirus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase Reveals an Unusual Conformation of the Polymerase Active Site

    PubMed Central

    Vives-Adrian, Laia; Lujan, Celia; Oliva, Baldo; van der Linden, Lonneke; Selisko, Barbara; Coutard, Bruno; Canard, Bruno; van Kuppeveld, Frank J. M.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) is a member of the Cardiovirus genus within the large Picornaviridae family, which includes a number of important human and animal pathogens. The RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) 3Dpol is a key enzyme for viral genome replication. In this study, we report the X-ray structures of two different crystal forms of the EMCV RdRp determined at 2.8- and 2.15-Å resolution. The in vitro elongation and VPg uridylylation activities of the purified enzyme have also been demonstrated. Although the overall structure of EMCV 3Dpol is shown to be similar to that of the known RdRps of other members of the Picornaviridae family, structural comparisons show a large reorganization of the active-site cavity in one of the crystal forms. The rearrangement affects mainly motif A, where the conserved residue Asp240, involved in ribonucleoside triphosphate (rNTP) selection, and its neighbor residue, Phe239, move about 10 Å from their expected positions within the ribose binding pocket toward the entrance of the rNTP tunnel. This altered conformation of motif A is stabilized by a cation-π interaction established between the aromatic ring of Phe239 and the side chain of Lys56 within the finger domain. Other contacts, involving Phe239 and different residues of motif F, are also observed. The movement of motif A is connected with important conformational changes in the finger region flanked by residues 54 to 63, harboring Lys56, and in the polymerase N terminus. The structures determined in this work provide essential information for studies on the cardiovirus RNA replication process and may have important implications for the development of new antivirals targeting the altered conformation of motif A. IMPORTANCE The Picornaviridae family is one of the largest virus families known, including many important human and animal pathogens. The RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) 3Dpol is a key enzyme for picornavirus genome replication and a validated

  19. Transcription by single molecules of RNA polymerase observed by light microscopy.

    PubMed

    Schafer, D A; Gelles, J; Sheetz, M P; Landick, R

    1991-08-01

    The kinetics of transcription by Escherichia coli RNA polymerase relate directly to the regulation of transcription and to the properties of processive enzymes in general, but analysis of RNA polymerase movement along the DNA template has so far been limited to the study of populations of enzyme molecules. The ability to view nanometre-sized particles with the light microscope suggested a method of monitoring transcription by individual RNA polymerase molecules. We describe here the behaviour of 40-nm-diameter particles of colloidal gold attached to the ends of DNA molecules being transcribed by RNA polymerase immobilized on a glass surface. The tethered gold particles are released from the surface at times after addition of nucleoside triphosphates that are consistent with the kinetics of transcription by RNA polymerase in solution. Analysis of the brownian motion of the gold particles enabled us to measure the movement along the template DNA of individual polymerase molecules.

  20. The influenza A virus PB2 polymerase subunit is required for the replication of viral RNA.

    PubMed Central

    Perales, B; Ortín, J

    1997-01-01

    The transcription and replication of influenza virus RNA (vRNA) were reconstituted in vivo. The experimental approach involved the transfection of plasmids encoding the viral subunits of the polymerase and the nucleoprotein into cells infected with a vaccinia virus recombinant virus expressing the T7 RNA polymerase. As templates, one of two model RNAs was transfected: vNSZ or cNSZ RNA. The RNAs were 240 nucleotides in length, contained the terminal sequences of the NS viral segment, and were of negative or positive polarity, respectively. The accumulation of cRNA and mRNA in cells transfected with vNSZ RNA and the accumulation of vRNA and mRNA in cells transfected with cNSZ RNA were determined by RNase protection assays with labeled vNSZ-L or cNSZ-L probes. The patterns of protected bands obtained indicated that both cRNA replication intermediate and mRNA accumulated when the system was reconstituted with vNSZ RNA. Likewise, both vRNA and mRNA accumulated after reconstitution with cNSZ RNA. The reconstitution of incomplete systems in which any of the subunits of the polymerase or the model RNA were omitted was completely negative for the accumulation of cRNA or vRNA, indicating that the presence of the PB2 subunit in the polymerase is required for replication of vRNA. PMID:8995663

  1. Defining the RNA polymerase III transcriptome: Genome-wide localization of the RNA polymerase III transcription machinery in human cells

    PubMed Central

    Canella, Donatella; Praz, Viviane; Reina, Jaime H.; Cousin, Pascal; Hernandez, Nouria

    2010-01-01

    Our view of the RNA polymerase III (Pol III) transcription machinery in mammalian cells arises mostly from studies of the RN5S (5S) gene, the Ad2 VAI gene, and the RNU6 (U6) gene, as paradigms for genes with type 1, 2, and 3 promoters. Recruitment of Pol III onto these genes requires prior binding of well-characterized transcription factors. Technical limitations in dealing with repeated genomic units, typically found at mammalian Pol III genes, have so far hampered genome-wide studies of the Pol III transcription machinery and transcriptome. We have localized, genome-wide, Pol III and some of its transcription factors. Our results reveal broad usage of the known Pol III transcription machinery and define a minimal Pol III transcriptome in dividing IMR90hTert fibroblasts. This transcriptome consists of some 500 actively transcribed genes including a few dozen candidate novel genes, of which we confirmed nine as Pol III transcription units by additional methods. It does not contain any of the microRNA genes previously described as transcribed by Pol III, but reveals two other microRNA genes, MIR886 (hsa-mir-886) and MIR1975 (RNY5, hY5, hsa-mir-1975), which are genuine Pol III transcription units. PMID:20413673

  2. Subgenomic promoter recognition by the norovirus RNA-dependent RNA polymerases

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Xiaoyan; Thorne, Lucy; Jin, Zhinan; Hammad, Loubna A.; Li, Serena; Deval, Jerome; Goodfellow, Ian G.; Kao, C. Cheng

    2015-01-01

    The replication enzyme of RNA viruses must preferentially recognize their RNAs in an environment that contains an abundance of cellular RNAs. The factors responsible for specific RNA recognition are not well understood, in part because viral RNA synthesis takes place within enzyme complexes associated with modified cellular membrane compartments. Recombinant RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RdRps) from the human norovirus and the murine norovirus (MNV) were found to preferentially recognize RNA segments that contain the promoter and a short template sequence for subgenomic RNA synthesis. Both the promoter and template sequence contribute to stable RdRp binding, accurate initiation of the subgenomic RNAs and efficient RNA synthesis. Using a method that combines RNA crosslinking and mass spectrometry, residues near the template channel of the MNV RdRp were found to contact the hairpin RNA motif. Mutations in the hairpin contact site in the MNV RdRp reduced MNV replication and virus production in cells. This work demonstrates that the specific recognition of the norovirus subgenomic promoter is through binding by the viral RdRp. PMID:25520198

  3. Initiation of RNA Polymerization and Polymerase Encapsidation by a Small dsRNA Virus

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yusong R.; Toh, Yukimatsu; Poranen, Minna M.; Tao, Yizhi J.

    2016-01-01

    During the replication cycle of double-stranded (ds) RNA viruses, the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP) replicates and transcribes the viral genome from within the viral capsid. How the RdRP molecules are packaged within the virion and how they function within the confines of an intact capsid are intriguing questions with answers that most likely vary across the different dsRNA virus families. In this study, we have determined a 2.4 Å resolution structure of an RdRP from the human picobirnavirus (hPBV). In addition to the conserved polymerase fold, the hPBV RdRP possesses a highly flexible 24 amino acid loop structure located near the C-terminus of the protein that is inserted into its active site. In vitro RNA polymerization assays and site-directed mutagenesis showed that: (1) the hPBV RdRP is fully active using both ssRNA and dsRNA templates; (2) the insertion loop likely functions as an assembly platform for the priming nucleotide to allow de novo initiation; (3) RNA transcription by the hPBV RdRP proceeds in a semi-conservative manner; and (4) the preference of virus-specific RNA during transcription is dictated by the lower melting temperature associated with the terminal sequences. Co-expression of the hPBV RdRP and the capsid protein (CP) indicated that, under the conditions used, the RdRP could not be incorporated into the recombinant capsids in the absence of the viral genome. Additionally, the hPBV RdRP exhibited higher affinity towards the conserved 5’-terminal sequence of the viral RNA, suggesting that the RdRP molecules may be encapsidated through their specific binding to the viral RNAs during assembly. PMID:27078841

  4. Multifunctionality of a Picornavirus Polymerase Domain: Nuclear Localization Signal and Nucleotide Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Ferrer-Orta, Cristina; de la Higuera, Ignacio; Caridi, Flavia; Sánchez-Aparicio, María Teresa; Moreno, Elena; Perales, Celia; Singh, Kamalendra; Sarafianos, Stefan G.; Sobrino, Francisco; Domingo, Esteban

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The N-terminal region of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) 3D polymerase contains the sequence MRKTKLAPT (residues 16 to 24) that acts as a nuclear localization signal. A previous study showed that substitutions K18E and K20E diminished the transport to the nucleus of 3D and 3CD and severely impaired virus infectivity. These residues have also been implicated in template binding, as seen in the crystal structures of different 3D-RNA elongation complexes. Here, we report the biochemical and structural characterization of different mutant polymerases harboring substitutions at residues 18 and 20, in particular, K18E, K18A, K20E, K20A, and the double mutant K18A K20A (KAKA). All mutant enzymes exhibit low RNA binding activity, low processivity, and alterations in nucleotide recognition, including increased incorporation of ribavirin monophosphate (RMP) relative to the incorporation of cognate nucleotides compared with the wild-type enzyme. The structural analysis shows an unprecedented flexibility of the 3D mutant polymerases, including both global rearrangements of the closed-hand architecture and local conformational changes at loop β9-α11 (within the polymerase motif B) and at the template-binding channel. Specifically, in 3D bound to RNA, both K18E and K20E induced the opening of new pockets in the template channel where the downstream templating nucleotide at position +2 binds. The comparisons of free and RNA-bound enzymes suggest that the structural rearrangements may occur in a concerted mode to regulate RNA replication, processivity, and fidelity. Thus, the N-terminal region of FMDV 3D that acts as a nuclear localization signal (NLS) and in template binding is also involved in nucleotide recognition and can affect the incorporation of nucleotide analogues. IMPORTANCE The study documents multifunctionality of a nuclear localization signal (NLS) located at the N-terminal region of the foot-and-mouth disease viral polymerase (3D). Amino acid

  5. Functional Evolution in Orthologous Cell-encoded RNA-dependent RNA Polymerases*

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Xinlei; Hamid, Fursham M.; El Sahili, Abbas; Darwis, Dina Amallia; Wong, Yee Hwa; Bhushan, Shashi; Makeyev, Eugene V.; Lescar, Julien

    2016-01-01

    Many eukaryotic organisms encode more than one RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP) that probably emerged as a result of gene duplication. Such RdRP paralogs often participate in distinct RNA silencing pathways and show characteristic repertoires of enzymatic activities in vitro. However, to what extent members of individual paralogous groups can undergo functional changes during speciation remains an open question. We show that orthologs of QDE-1, an RdRP component of the quelling pathway in Neurospora crassa, have rapidly diverged in evolution at the amino acid sequence level. Analyses of purified QDE-1 polymerases from N. crassa (QDE-1Ncr) and related fungi, Thielavia terrestris (QDE-1Tte) and Myceliophthora thermophila (QDE-1Mth), show that all three enzymes can synthesize RNA, but the precise modes of their action differ considerably. Unlike their QDE-1Ncr counterpart favoring processive RNA synthesis, QDE-1Tte and QDE-1Mth produce predominantly short RNA copies via primer-independent initiation. Surprisingly, a 3.19 Å resolution crystal structure of QDE-1Tte reveals a quasisymmetric dimer similar to QDE-1Ncr. Further electron microscopy analyses confirm that QDE-1Tte occurs as a dimer in solution and retains this status upon interaction with a template. We conclude that divergence of orthologous RdRPs can result in functional innovation while retaining overall protein fold and quaternary structure. PMID:26907693

  6. Bacterial RNA polymerase can retain σ70 throughout transcription

    PubMed Central

    Harden, Timothy T.; Wells, Christopher D.; Friedman, Larry J.; Landick, Robert; Hochschild, Ann; Kondev, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Production of a messenger RNA proceeds through sequential stages of transcription initiation and transcript elongation and termination. During each of these stages, RNA polymerase (RNAP) function is regulated by RNAP-associated protein factors. In bacteria, RNAP-associated σ factors are strictly required for promoter recognition and have historically been regarded as dedicated initiation factors. However, the primary σ factor in Escherichia coli, σ70, can remain associated with RNAP during the transition from initiation to elongation, influencing events that occur after initiation. Quantitative studies on the extent of σ70 retention have been limited to complexes halted during early elongation. Here, we used multiwavelength single-molecule fluorescence-colocalization microscopy to observe the σ70–RNAP complex during initiation from the λ PR′ promoter and throughout the elongation of a long (>2,000-nt) transcript. Our results provide direct measurements of the fraction of actively transcribing complexes with bound σ70 and the kinetics of σ70 release from actively transcribing complexes. σ70 release from mature elongation complexes was slow (0.0038 s−1); a substantial subpopulation of elongation complexes retained σ70 throughout transcript elongation, and this fraction depended on the sequence of the initially transcribed region. We also show that elongation complexes containing σ70 manifest enhanced recognition of a promoter-like pause element positioned hundreds of nucleotides downstream of the promoter. Together, the results provide a quantitative framework for understanding the postinitiation roles of σ70 during transcription. PMID:26733675

  7. RNA polymerase II ternary transcription complexes generated in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Ackerman, S; Bunick, D; Zandomeni, R; Weinmann, R

    1983-01-01

    Ternary transcription complexes have been formed with a HeLa cell extract, a specific DNA template, and nucleoside triphosphates. The assay depends on the formation of sarkosyl-resistant initiation complexes which contain RNA polymerase II, template DNA, and radioactive nucleoside triphosphates. Separation from the other elements in the in vitro reaction is achieved by electrophoresis in agarose - 0.25% sarkosyl gels. The mobility of the ternary complexes in this system cannot be distinguished from naked DNA. Formation of this complex is dependent on all parameters necessary for faithful in vitro transcription. Complexes are formed with both the plasmid vector and the specific adenovirus DNA insert containing a eucaryotic promoter. The formation of the complex on the eucaryotic DNA is sequence-dependent. An undecaribonucleotide predicted from the template DNA sequence remains associated with the DNA in the ternary complex and can be isolated if the chain terminator 3'-0-methyl GTP is used, or after T1 ribonuclease treatment of the RNA, or if exogenous GTP is omitted from the in vitro reaction. This oligonucleotide is not detected in association with the plasmid vector. Phosphocellulose fractionation of the extract indicates that at least one of the column fractions required for faithful runoff transcription is required for complex formation. A large molar excess of abortive initiation events was detected relative to the level of productive transcription events, indicating a 40-fold higher efficiency of transcription initiation vs. elongation. Images PMID:6193489

  8. Crystal structure of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase from influenza C virus.

    PubMed

    Hengrung, Narin; El Omari, Kamel; Serna Martin, Itziar; Vreede, Frank T; Cusack, Stephen; Rambo, Robert P; Vonrhein, Clemens; Bricogne, Gérard; Stuart, David I; Grimes, Jonathan M; Fodor, Ervin

    2015-11-01

    Negative-sense RNA viruses, such as influenza, encode large, multidomain RNA-dependent RNA polymerases that can both transcribe and replicate the viral RNA genome. In influenza virus, the polymerase (FluPol) is composed of three polypeptides: PB1, PB2 and PA/P3. PB1 houses the polymerase active site, whereas PB2 and PA/P3 contain, respectively, cap-binding and endonuclease domains required for transcription initiation by cap-snatching. Replication occurs through de novo initiation and involves a complementary RNA intermediate. Currently available structures of the influenza A and B virus polymerases include promoter RNA (the 5' and 3' termini of viral genome segments), showing FluPol in transcription pre-initiation states. Here we report the structure of apo-FluPol from an influenza C virus, solved by X-ray crystallography to 3.9 Å, revealing a new 'closed' conformation. The apo-FluPol forms a compact particle with PB1 at its centre, capped on one face by PB2 and clamped between the two globular domains of P3. Notably, this structure is radically different from those of promoter-bound FluPols. The endonuclease domain of P3 and the domains within the carboxy-terminal two-thirds of PB2 are completely rearranged. The cap-binding site is occluded by PB2, resulting in a conformation that is incompatible with transcription initiation. Thus, our structure captures FluPol in a closed, transcription pre-activation state. This reveals the conformation of newly made apo-FluPol in an infected cell, but may also apply to FluPol in the context of a non-transcribing ribonucleoprotein complex. Comparison of the apo-FluPol structure with those of promoter-bound FluPols allows us to propose a mechanism for FluPol activation. Our study demonstrates the remarkable flexibility of influenza virus RNA polymerase, and aids our understanding of the mechanisms controlling transcription and genome replication.

  9. Crystal structure of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase from influenza C virus

    PubMed Central

    Hengrung, Narin; El Omari, Kamel; Martin, Itziar Serna; Vreede, Frank T.; Cusack, Stephen; Rambo, Robert P.; Vonrhein, Clemens; Bricogne, Gérard; Stuart, David I.; Grimes, Jonathan M.; Fodor, Ervin

    2016-01-01

    Negative-sense RNA viruses, such as influenza, encode large, multidomain RNA-dependent RNA polymerases that can both transcribe and replicate the viral RNA genome1. In influenza virus, the polymerase (FluPol) is composed of three polypeptides: PB1, PB2 and PA/P3. PB1 houses the polymerase active site, whereas PB2 and PA/P3 contain, respectively, cap-binding and endonuclease domains required for transcription initiation by cap-snatching2. Replication occurs through de novo initiation and involves a complementary RNA intermediate. Currently available structures of the influenza A and B virus polymerases include promoter RNA (the 5′ and 3′ termini of viral genome segments), showing FluPol in transcription pre-initiation states3,4. Here we report the structure of apo-FluPol from an influenza C virus, solved by X-ray crystallography to 3.9 Å, revealing a new ‘closed’ conformation. The apo-FluPol forms a compact particle with PB1 at its centre, capped on one face by PB2 and clamped between the two globular domains of P3. Notably, this structure is radically different from those of promoter-bound FluPols3,4. The endonuclease domain of P3 and the domains within the carboxy-terminal two-thirds of PB2 are completely rearranged. The cap-binding site is occluded by PB2, resulting in a conformation that is incompatible with transcription initiation. Thus, our structure captures FluPol in a closed, transcription pre-activation state. This reveals the conformation of newly made apo-FluPol in an infected cell, but may also apply to FluPol in the context of a non-transcribing ribonucleoprotein complex. Comparison of the apo-FluPol structure with those of promoter-bound FluPols allows us to propose a mechanism for FluPol activation. Our study demonstrates the remarkable flexibility of influenza virus RNA polymerase, and aids our understanding of the mechanisms controlling transcription and genome replication. PMID:26503046

  10. Splicing Factors Associate with Hyperphosphorylated RNA Polymerase II in the Absence of Pre-mRNA

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Euikyung; Du, Lei; Bregman, David B.; Warren, Stephen L.

    1997-01-01

    The carboxy-terminal domain (CTD) of the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II (Pol II) contains multiple tandem copies of the consensus heptapeptide, TyrSerProThrSerProSer. Concomitant with transcription initiation the CTD is phosphorylated. Elongating polymerase has a hyperphosphorylated CTD, but the role of this modification is poorly understood. A recent study revealed that some hyperphosphorylated polymerase molecules (Pol IIo) are nonchromosomal, and hence transcriptionally unengaged (Bregman, D.B., L. Du, S. van der Zee, S.L. Warren. 1995. J. Cell Biol. 129: 287–298). Pol IIo was concentrated in discrete splicing factor domains, suggesting a possible relationship between CTD phosphorylation and splicing factors, but no evidence beyond immunolocalization data was provided to support this idea. Here, we show that Pol IIo co-immunoprecipitates with members of two classes of splicing factors, the Sm snRNPs and non-snRNP SerArg (SR) family proteins. Significantly, Pol IIo's association with splicing factors is maintained in the absence of pre-mRNA, and the polymerase need not be transcriptionally engaged. We also provide definitive evidence that hyperphosphorylation of Pol II's CTD is poorly correlated with its transcriptional activity. Using monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) H5 and H14, which are shown here to recognize phosphoepitopes on Pol II's CTD, we have quantitated the level of Pol IIo at different stages of the cell cycle. The level of Pol IIo is similar in interphase and mitotic cells, which are transcriptionally active and inactive, respectively. Finally, complexes containing Pol IIo and splicing factors can be prepared from mitotic as well as interphase cells. The experiments reported here establish that hyperphosphorylation of the CTD is a good indicator of polymerase's association with snRNP and SR splicing factors, but not of its transcriptional activity. Most importantly, the present study suggests that splicing factors may associate with the

  11. Remodeling of Bacterial RNA Polymerase Supramolecular Complex in Response to Environmental Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Verma, Seema; Xiong, Yijia; Mayer, M. Uljana; Squier, Thomas C.

    2007-03-20

    Directed binding of RNA polymerase to distinct promoter elements controls transcription and promotes adaptive responses to changing environmental conditions. To identify proteins that modulate transcription, we have expressed a tagged alpha-subunit of RNA polymerase in Shewanella oneidensis under controlled growth conditions, isolated the protein complex using newly developed multiuse affinity probes, and used LC-MS/MS to identify proteins in the complex. Complementary fluorescence correlation spectroscopy measurements were used to determine the average size of the RNA polymerase complex in cellular lysates. We find that RNA polymerase exists as a large supramolecular complex with an apparent mass in excess of 1.4 MDa, whose protein composition substantially changes in response to growth conditions. Enzymes that copurify with RNA polymerase include those associated with tRNA processing, nucleotide metabolism, and energy biosynthesis, which we propose to be necessary for optimal transcriptional rates.

  12. Structural basis of viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase catalysis and translocation.

    PubMed

    Shu, Bo; Gong, Peng

    2016-07-12

    Viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RdRPs) play essential roles in viral genome replication and transcription. We previously reported several structural states of the poliovirus RdRP nucleotide addition cycle (NAC) that revealed a unique palm domain-based active site closure mechanism and proposed a six-state NAC model including a hypothetical state representing translocation intermediates. Using the RdRP from another human enterovirus, enterovirus 71, here we report seven RdRP elongation complex structures derived from a crystal lattice that allows three NAC events. These structures suggested a key order of events in initial NTP binding and NTP-induced active site closure and revealed a bona fide translocation intermediate featuring asymmetric movement of the template-product duplex. Our work provides essential missing links in understanding NTP recognition and translocation mechanisms in viral RdRPs and emphasizes the uniqueness of the viral RdRPs compared with other processive polymerases. PMID:27339134

  13. Inhibitors of the Hepatitis C Virus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase NS5B

    PubMed Central

    Powdrill, Megan H.; Bernatchez, Jean A.; Götte, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    More than 20 years after the identification of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) as a novel human pathogen, the only approved treatment remains a combination of pegylated interferon-α and ribavirin. This rather non-specific therapy is associated with severe side effects and by far not everyone benefits from treatment. Recently, progress has been made in the development of specifically targeted antiviral therapy for HCV (STAT-C). A major target for such direct acting antivirals (DAAs) is the HCV RNA-dependent RNA polymerase or non-structural protein 5B (NS5B), which is essential for viral replication. This review will examine the current state of development of inhibitors targeting the polymerase and issues such as the emergence of antiviral resistance during treatment, as well as strategies to address this problem. PMID:21994615

  14. Initiation of (-)-strand RNA synthesis catalyzed by the BMV RNA-dependent RNA polymerase: synthesis of oligonucleotides.

    PubMed

    Sun, J H; Adkins, S; Faurote, G; Kao, C C

    1996-12-01

    RNA replication, a process of fundamental importance for pathogenesis by many viruses, remains poorly understood at the mechanistic level because relatively few of the responsible enzymes have been purified and characterized biochemically. Partially purified RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) from brome mosaic virus (BMV)-infected barley leaves is able to synthesize (-)-strand RNAs from input (+)-strand templates. In resolving RdRp products generated during (-)-strand BMV RNA synthesis, we found that an RNA of eight nucleotides was generated at approximately 10-fold molar excess to the full-length (-)-strand RNA. Production of the 8-mer was dependent upon and specific to BMV RNA templates. Furthermore, inhibitors of full-length (-)-strand RNA synthesis by RdRp also affected the production of the 8-mer. Analysis of the sequence of the 8-mer suggests that it is initiated at the authentic initiation site on the BMV RNA template, consistent with the possibility that the 8-mer is an abortive initiation product of RNA synthesis by RdRp in vitro. Addition of heparin or Mn2+ differentially affected production of the 8-mer and full-length (-)-strand RNA, as did some nucleotide changes near the site of RNA initiation. These studies further define the initiation process of (-)-strand RNA synthesis.

  15. RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerases of Picornaviruses: From the Structure to Regulatory Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Ferrer-Orta, Cristina; Ferrero, Diego; Verdaguer, Núria

    2015-01-01

    RNA viruses typically encode their own RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP) to ensure genome replication within the infected cells. RdRP function is critical not only for the virus life cycle but also for its adaptive potential. The combination of low fidelity of replication and the absence of proofreading and excision activities within the RdRPs result in high mutation frequencies that allow these viruses a rapid adaptation to changing environments. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge about structural and functional aspects on RdRP catalytic complexes, focused mainly in the Picornaviridae family. The structural data currently available from these viruses provided high-resolution snapshots for a range of conformational states associated to RNA template-primer binding, rNTP recognition, catalysis and chain translocation. As these enzymes are major targets for the development of antiviral compounds, such structural information is essential for the design of new therapies. PMID:26258787

  16. RNA Polymerase II cluster dynamics predict mRNA output in living cells

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Won-Ki; Jayanth, Namrata; English, Brian P; Inoue, Takuma; Andrews, J Owen; Conway, William; Grimm, Jonathan B; Spille, Jan-Hendrik; Lavis, Luke D; Lionnet, Timothée; Cisse, Ibrahim I

    2016-01-01

    Protein clustering is a hallmark of genome regulation in mammalian cells. However, the dynamic molecular processes involved make it difficult to correlate clustering with functional consequences in vivo. We developed a live-cell super-resolution approach to uncover the correlation between mRNA synthesis and the dynamics of RNA Polymerase II (Pol II) clusters at a gene locus. For endogenous β-actin genes in mouse embryonic fibroblasts, we observe that short-lived (~8 s) Pol II clusters correlate with basal mRNA output. During serum stimulation, a stereotyped increase in Pol II cluster lifetime correlates with a proportionate increase in the number of mRNAs synthesized. Our findings suggest that transient clustering of Pol II may constitute a pre-transcriptional regulatory event that predictably modulates nascent mRNA output. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.13617.001 PMID:27138339

  17. Gliotoxin: inhibitor of poliovirus RNA synthesis that blocks the viral RNA polymerase 3Dpol.

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, P L; Carrasco, L

    1992-01-01

    The mode of action of gliotoxin against poliovirus has been analyzed in detail. This fungal metabolite inhibits the appearance of poliovirus proteins when present from the beginning of infection but has no effect on viral translation when added at late times. In agreement with previous findings, this toxin potently inhibited the incorporation of [3H]uridine into poliovirus RNA soon after its addition to the culture medium. Analysis of the synthesis of poliovirus plus- or minus-stranded RNA in the presence of gliotoxin suggests that this compound effectively hampered both processes. This result contrasts with the mode of action of other inhibitors of poliovirus RNA synthesis, such as guanidine or flavones, that selectively block plus-stranded RNA synthesis and suggests that the target of gliotoxin differs from the target of guanidine, i.e., poliovirus protein 2C. Indeed, gliotoxin was found to be a potent inhibitor of poliovirus RNA synthesis in cell-free systems, using membranous crude replication complexes, a reaction that is not blocked by guanidine or Ro 09-0179. Moreover, in vitro activity of the purified poliovirus polymerase 3Dpol was efficiently inhibited by gliotoxin. These results indicate that this toxin acts on the poliovirus polymerase 3Dpol, providing the first description of an inhibitor of this viral enzyme. Images PMID:1372367

  18. Transcriptional interference by RNA polymerase pausing and dislodgement of transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Adam C; Egan, J Barry; Shearwin, Keith E

    2011-01-01

    Transcriptional interference is the in cis suppression of one transcriptional process by another. Mathematical modeling shows that promoter occlusion by elongating RNA polymerases cannot produce strong interference. Interference may instead be generated by (1) dislodgement of slow-to-assemble pre-initiation complexes and transcription factors and (2) prolonged occlusion by paused RNA polymerases.

  19. Structure and sequence of the gene for the largest subunit of trypanosomal RNA polymerase III.

    PubMed Central

    Köck, J; Evers, R; Cornelissen, A W

    1988-01-01

    As the first step in the analysis of the transcription process in the African trypanosome, Trypanosoma brucei, we have started to characterise the trypanosomal RNA polymerases. We have previously described the gene encoding the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II and found that two almost identical RNA polymerase II genes are encoded within the genome of T. brucei. Here we present the identification, cloning and sequence analysis of the gene encoding the largest subunit of RNA polymerase III. This gene contains a single open reading frame encoding a polypeptide with a Mr of 170 kD. In total, eight encoding a polypeptide with a Mr of 170 kD. In total, eight highly conserved regions with significant homology to those previously reported in other eukaryotic RNA polymerase largest subunits were identified. Some of these domains contain functional sites, which are conserved among all eukaryotic largest subunit genes analysed thus far. Since these domains make up a large part of each polypeptide, independent of the RNA polymerase class, these data strongly support the hypothesis that these domains provide a major part of the transcription machinery of the RNA polymerase complex. The additional domains which are uniquely present in the largest subunit of RNA polymerase I and II, respectively, two large hydrophylic insertions and a C-terminal extension, might be a determining factor in specific transcription of the gene classes. Images PMID:3174432

  20. MYC Regulation of Cell Growth through Control of Transcription by RNA Polymerases I and III

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Kirsteen J.; White, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    MYC’s tumorigenic potential involves increased ribosome biogenesis and translational capacity, which supply the cell with protein required for enhanced cell growth and subsequent cell division. In addition to activation of protein-encoding genes transcribed by RNA polymerase II, MYC must stimulate transcription by RNA polymerase I and RNA polymerase III to meet this synthetic demand. In the past decade our knowledge of the mechanisms and importance of MYC regulation of RNA polymerases I and III has flourished. Here we discuss MYC’s influence on transcription by these “odd” RNA polymerases and the physiological impact of this regulation is evaluated with relevance to cancer development and treatment. PMID:24789877

  1. RNA-dependent RNA polymerase 6 delays accumulation and precludes meristem invasion of a viroid that replicates in the nucleus.

    PubMed

    Di Serio, Francesco; Martínez de Alba, Angel-Emilio; Navarro, Beatriz; Gisel, Andreas; Flores, Ricardo

    2010-03-01

    The detection of viroid-derived small RNAs (vd-sRNAs) similar to the small interfering RNAs (siRNAs, 21 to 24 nucleotides [nt]) in plants infected by nuclear-replicating members of the family Pospiviroidae (type species, Potato spindle tuber viroid [PSTVd]) indicates that they are inducers and targets of the RNA-silencing machinery of their hosts. RNA-dependent RNA polymerase 6 (RDR6) catalyzes an amplification circuit producing the double-stranded precursors of secondary siRNAs. Recently, the role of RDR6 in restricting systemic spread of certain RNA viruses and precluding their invasion of the apical growing tip has been documented using RDR6-silenced Nicotiana benthamiana (NbRDR6i) plants. Here we show that RDR6 is also engaged in regulating PSTVd levels: accumulation of PSTVd genomic RNA was increased in NbRDR6i plants with respect to the wild-type controls (Nbwt) early in infection, whereas this difference decreased or disappeared in later infection stages. Moreover, in situ hybridization revealed that RDR6 is involved in restricting PSTVd access in floral and vegetative meristems, thus providing firm genetic evidence for an antiviroid RNA silencing mechanism. RNA gel blot hybridization and deep sequencing showed in wt and RDR6i backgrounds that PSTVd sRNAs (i) accumulate to levels paralleling their genomic RNA, (ii) display similar patterns with prevailing 22- or 21-nt plus-strand species, and (iii) adopt strand-specific hot spot profiles along the genomic RNA. Therefore, the surveillance mechanism restraining entry of some RNA viruses into meristems likely also controls PSTVd access in N. benthamiana. Unexpectedly, deep sequencing also disclosed in NbRDR6i plants a profile of RDR6-derived siRNA dominated by 21-nt plus-strand species mapping within a narrow window of the hairpin RNA stem expressed transgenically for silencing RDR6, indicating that minus-strand siRNAs silencing the NbRDR6 mRNA represent a minor fraction of the total siRNA population.

  2. Rational Attenuation of a Morbillivirus by Modulating the Activity of the RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase

    PubMed Central

    Brown, David D.; Rima, Bertus K.; Allen, Ingrid V.; Baron, Michael D.; Banyard, Ashley C.; Barrett, Thomas; Duprex, W. Paul

    2005-01-01

    Negative-strand RNA viruses encode a single RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) which transcribes and replicates the genome. The open reading frame encoding the RdRp from a virulent wild-type strain of rinderpest virus (RPV) was inserted into an expression plasmid. Sequences encoding enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) were inserted into a variable hinge of the RdRp. The resulting polymerase was autofluorescent, and its activity in the replication/transcription of a synthetic minigenome was reduced. We investigated the potential of using this approach to rationally attenuate a virus by inserting the DNA sequences encoding the modified RdRp into a full-length anti-genome plasmid from which a virulent virus (rRPVKO) can be rescued. A recombinant virus, rRPVKOL-RRegfpR, which grew at an indistinguishable rate and to an identical titer as rRPVKO in vitro, was rescued. Fluorescently tagged polymerase was visible in large cytoplasmic inclusions and beneath the cell membrane. Subcutaneous injection of 104 TCID50 of the rRPVKO parental recombinant virus into cattle leads to severe disease symptoms (leukopenia/diarrhea and pyrexia) and death by 9 days postinfection. Animals infected with rRPVKOL-RRegfpR exhibited transient leukopenia and mild pyrexia, and the only noticeable clinical signs were moderate reddening of one eye and a slight ocular-nasal discharge. Viruses that expressed the modified polymerase were isolated from peripheral blood lymphocytes and eye swabs. This demonstrates that a virulent morbillivirus can be attenuated in a single step solely by modulating RdRp activity and that there is not necessarily a correlation between virus growth in vitro and in vivo. PMID:16254367

  3. Rational attenuation of a morbillivirus by modulating the activity of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase.

    PubMed

    Brown, David D; Rima, Bertus K; Allen, Ingrid V; Baron, Michael D; Banyard, Ashley C; Barrett, Thomas; Duprex, W Paul

    2005-11-01

    Negative-strand RNA viruses encode a single RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) which transcribes and replicates the genome. The open reading frame encoding the RdRp from a virulent wild-type strain of rinderpest virus (RPV) was inserted into an expression plasmid. Sequences encoding enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) were inserted into a variable hinge of the RdRp. The resulting polymerase was autofluorescent, and its activity in the replication/transcription of a synthetic minigenome was reduced. We investigated the potential of using this approach to rationally attenuate a virus by inserting the DNA sequences encoding the modified RdRp into a full-length anti-genome plasmid from which a virulent virus (rRPV(KO)) can be rescued. A recombinant virus, rRPV(KO)L-RRegfpR, which grew at an indistinguishable rate and to an identical titer as rRPV(KO) in vitro, was rescued. Fluorescently tagged polymerase was visible in large cytoplasmic inclusions and beneath the cell membrane. Subcutaneous injection of 10(4) TCID(50) of the rRPV(KO) parental recombinant virus into cattle leads to severe disease symptoms (leukopenia/diarrhea and pyrexia) and death by 9 days postinfection. Animals infected with rRPV(KO)L-RRegfpR exhibited transient leukopenia and mild pyrexia, and the only noticeable clinical signs were moderate reddening of one eye and a slight ocular-nasal discharge. Viruses that expressed the modified polymerase were isolated from peripheral blood lymphocytes and eye swabs. This demonstrates that a virulent morbillivirus can be attenuated in a single step solely by modulating RdRp activity and that there is not necessarily a correlation between virus growth in vitro and in vivo.

  4. Rotavirus RNA polymerase requires the core shell protein to synthesize the double-stranded RNA genome.

    PubMed

    Patton, J T; Jones, M T; Kalbach, A N; He, Y W; Xiaobo, J

    1997-12-01

    Rotavirus cores contain the double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) genome, RNA polymerase VP1, and guanylyltransferase VP3 and are enclosed within a lattice formed by the RNA-binding protein VP2. Analysis of baculovirus-expressed core-like particles (CLPs) has shown that VP1 and VP2 assemble into the simplest core-like structures with replicase activity and that VP1, but not VP3, is essential for replicase activity. To further define the role of VP1 and VP2 in the synthesis of dsRNA from viral mRNA, recombinant baculoviruses containing gene 1 (rBVg1) and gene 2 (rBVg2) of SA11 rotavirus were generated and used to express recombinant VP1 (rVP1) and rVP2, respectively. After purification, the proteins were assayed individually and together for the ability to catalyze the synthesis of dsRNA in a cell-free replication system. The results showed that dsRNA was synthesized only in assays containing rVP1 and rVP2, thus establishing that both proteins are essential for replicase activity. Even in assays containing a primer-linked mRNA template, neither rVP1 nor rVP2 alone directed RNA synthesis. Characterization of the cis-acting replication signals in mRNA recognized by the replicase of rVP1 and rVP2 showed that they were the same as those recognized by the replicase of virion-derived cores, thus excluding a role for VP3 in recognition of the mRNA template by the replicase. Analysis of RNA-protein interactions indicated that the mRNA template binds strongly to VP2 in replicase assays but that the majority of the dsRNA product neither is packaged nor stably associates with VP2. The results of replicase assays performed with mutant VP2 containing a deletion in its RNA-binding domain suggests that the essential role for VP2 in replication is linked to the protein's ability to bind the mRNA template for minus-strand synthesis.

  5. RNA polymerase supply and flux through the lac operon in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Sendy, Bandar; Lee, David J; Busby, Stephen J W; Bryant, Jack A

    2016-11-01

    Chromatin immunoprecipitation, followed by quantification of immunoprecipitated DNA, can be used to measure RNA polymerase binding to any DNA segment in Escherichia coli By calibrating measurements against the signal from a single RNA polymerase bound at a single promoter, we can calculate both promoter occupancy levels and the flux of transcribing RNA polymerase through transcription units. Here, we have applied the methodology to the E. coli lactose operon promoter. We confirm that promoter occupancy is limited by recruitment and that the supply of RNA polymerase to the lactose operon promoter depends on its location in the E. coli chromosome. Measurements of RNA polymerase binding to DNA segments within the lactose operon show that flux of RNA polymerase through the operon is low, with, on average, over 18 s elapsing between the passage of transcribing polymerases. Similar low levels of flux were found when semi-synthetic promoters were used to drive transcript initiation, even when the promoter elements were changed to ensure full occupancy of the promoter by RNA polymerase.This article is part of the themed issue 'The new bacteriology'. PMID:27672157

  6. RNA polymerase supply and flux through the lac operon in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Sendy, Bandar; Lee, David J.; Bryant, Jack A.

    2016-01-01

    Chromatin immunoprecipitation, followed by quantification of immunoprecipitated DNA, can be used to measure RNA polymerase binding to any DNA segment in Escherichia coli. By calibrating measurements against the signal from a single RNA polymerase bound at a single promoter, we can calculate both promoter occupancy levels and the flux of transcribing RNA polymerase through transcription units. Here, we have applied the methodology to the E. coli lactose operon promoter. We confirm that promoter occupancy is limited by recruitment and that the supply of RNA polymerase to the lactose operon promoter depends on its location in the E. coli chromosome. Measurements of RNA polymerase binding to DNA segments within the lactose operon show that flux of RNA polymerase through the operon is low, with, on average, over 18 s elapsing between the passage of transcribing polymerases. Similar low levels of flux were found when semi-synthetic promoters were used to drive transcript initiation, even when the promoter elements were changed to ensure full occupancy of the promoter by RNA polymerase. This article is part of the themed issue ‘The new bacteriology’. PMID:27672157

  7. RNA polymerase supply and flux through the lac operon in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Sendy, Bandar; Lee, David J; Busby, Stephen J W; Bryant, Jack A

    2016-11-01

    Chromatin immunoprecipitation, followed by quantification of immunoprecipitated DNA, can be used to measure RNA polymerase binding to any DNA segment in Escherichia coli By calibrating measurements against the signal from a single RNA polymerase bound at a single promoter, we can calculate both promoter occupancy levels and the flux of transcribing RNA polymerase through transcription units. Here, we have applied the methodology to the E. coli lactose operon promoter. We confirm that promoter occupancy is limited by recruitment and that the supply of RNA polymerase to the lactose operon promoter depends on its location in the E. coli chromosome. Measurements of RNA polymerase binding to DNA segments within the lactose operon show that flux of RNA polymerase through the operon is low, with, on average, over 18 s elapsing between the passage of transcribing polymerases. Similar low levels of flux were found when semi-synthetic promoters were used to drive transcript initiation, even when the promoter elements were changed to ensure full occupancy of the promoter by RNA polymerase.This article is part of the themed issue 'The new bacteriology'.

  8. Contributions of in vitro transcription to the understanding of human RNA polymerase III transcription.

    PubMed

    Dumay-Odelot, Hélène; Durrieu-Gaillard, Stéphanie; El Ayoubi, Leyla; Parrot, Camila; Teichmann, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Human RNA polymerase III transcribes small untranslated RNAs that contribute to the regulation of essential cellular processes, including transcription, RNA processing and translation. Analysis of this transcription system by in vitro transcription techniques has largely contributed to the discovery of its transcription factors and to the understanding of the regulation of human RNA polymerase III transcription. Here we review some of the key steps that led to the identification of transcription factors and to the definition of minimal promoter sequences for human RNA polymerase III transcription. PMID:24406346

  9. Contributions of in vitro transcription to the understanding of human RNA polymerase III transcription

    PubMed Central

    Dumay-Odelot, Hélène; Durrieu-Gaillard, Stéphanie; El Ayoubi, Leyla; Parrot, Camila; Teichmann, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Human RNA polymerase III transcribes small untranslated RNAs that contribute to the regulation of essential cellular processes, including transcription, RNA processing and translation. Analysis of this transcription system by in vitro transcription techniques has largely contributed to the discovery of its transcription factors and to the understanding of the regulation of human RNA polymerase III transcription. Here we review some of the key steps that led to the identification of transcription factors and to the definition of minimal promoter sequences for human RNA polymerase III transcription. PMID:25764111

  10. Contributions of in vitro transcription to the understanding of human RNA polymerase III transcription.

    PubMed

    Dumay-Odelot, Hélène; Durrieu-Gaillard, Stéphanie; El Ayoubi, Leyla; Parrot, Camila; Teichmann, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Human RNA polymerase III transcribes small untranslated RNAs that contribute to the regulation of essential cellular processes, including transcription, RNA processing and translation. Analysis of this transcription system by in vitro transcription techniques has largely contributed to the discovery of its transcription factors and to the understanding of the regulation of human RNA polymerase III transcription. Here we review some of the key steps that led to the identification of transcription factors and to the definition of minimal promoter sequences for human RNA polymerase III transcription. PMID:25764111

  11. Contributions of in vitro transcription to the understanding of human RNA polymerase III transcription.

    PubMed

    Dumay-Odelot, Hélène; Durrieu-Gaillard, Stéphanie; El Ayoubi, Leyla; Parrot, Camila; Teichmann, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Human RNA polymerase III transcribes small untranslated RNAs that contribute to the regulation of essential cellular processes, including transcription, RNA processing and translation. Analysis of this transcription system by in vitro transcription techniques has largely contributed to the discovery of its transcription factors and to the understanding of the regulation of human RNA polymerase III transcription. Here we review some of the key steps that led to the identification of transcription factors and to the definition of minimal promoter sequences for human RNA polymerase III transcription.

  12. Genome-Wide Mapping of Yeast RNA Polymerase II Termination

    PubMed Central

    Schaughency, Paul; Merran, Jonathan; Corden, Jeffry L.

    2014-01-01

    Yeast RNA polymerase II (Pol II) terminates transcription of coding transcripts through the polyadenylation (pA) pathway and non-coding transcripts through the non-polyadenylation (non-pA) pathway. We have used PAR-CLIP to map the position of Pol II genome-wide in living yeast cells after depletion of components of either the pA or non-pA termination complexes. We show here that Ysh1, responsible for cleavage at the pA site, is required for efficient removal of Pol II from the template. Depletion of Ysh1 from the nucleus does not, however, lead to readthrough transcription. In contrast, depletion of the termination factor Nrd1 leads to widespread runaway elongation of non-pA transcripts. Depletion of Sen1 also leads to readthrough at non-pA terminators, but in contrast to Nrd1, this readthrough is less processive, or more susceptible to pausing. The data presented here provide delineation of in vivo Pol II termination regions and highlight differences in the sequences that signal termination of different classes of non-pA transcripts. PMID:25299594

  13. Recombinant Thermus aquaticus RNA Polymerase for Structural Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Juznedelov,K.; Lamour, V.; Patikoglou, G.; Chlenov, M.; Darst, S.; Severinov, K.

    2006-01-01

    Advances in the structural biology of bacterial transcription have come from studies of RNA polymerases (RNAPs) from the thermophilic eubacteria Thermus aquaticus (Taq) and Thermus thermophilus (Tth). These structural studies have been limited by the fact that only endogenous Taq or Tth RNAP, laboriously purified from large quantities of Taq or Tth cell paste and offering few options for genetic modification, is suitable for structural studies. Recombinant systems for the preparation of Taq RNAP by co-overexpression and assembly in the heterologous host, Escherichia coli, have been described, but these did not yield enzyme suitable for crystallographic studies. Here we describe recombinant systems for the preparation of Taq RNAP harboring full or partial deletions of the Taq {beta}' non-conserved domain (NCD), yielding enzyme suitable for crystallographic studies. This opens the way for structural studies of genetically manipulated enzymes, allowing the preparation of more crystallizable enzymes and facilitating detailed structure/function analysis. Characterization of the Taq{beta}'NCD deletion mutants generated in this study showed that the {beta}'NCD is important for the efficient binding of the s subunit, confirming previous hypotheses. Finally, preliminary structural analysis (at 4.1 Angstroms resolution) of one of the recombinant mutants revealed a previously unobserved conformation of the {beta}-flap, further defining the range of conformations accessible to this flexible structural element.

  14. Bacterial control of host gene expression through RNA polymerase II

    PubMed Central

    Lutay, Nataliya; Ambite, Ines; Hernandez, Jenny Grönberg; Rydström, Gustav; Ragnarsdóttir, Bryndís; Puthia, Manoj; Nadeem, Aftab; Zhang, Jingyao; Storm, Petter; Dobrindt, Ulrich; Wullt, Björn; Svanborg, Catharina

    2013-01-01

    The normal flora furnishes the host with ecological barriers that prevent pathogen attack while maintaining tissue homeostasis. Urinary tract infections (UTIs) constitute a highly relevant model of microbial adaptation in which some patients infected with Escherichia coli develop acute pyelonephritis, while other patients with bacteriuria exhibit an asymptomatic carrier state similar to bacterial commensalism. It remains unclear if the lack of destructive inflammation merely reflects low virulence or if carrier strains actively inhibit disease-associated responses in the host. Here, we identify a new mechanism of bacterial adaptation through broad suppression of RNA polymerase II–dependent (Pol II–dependent) host gene expression. Over 60% of all genes were suppressed 24 hours after human inoculation with the prototype asymptomatic bacteriuria (ABU) strain E. coli 83972, and inhibition was verified by infection of human cells. Specific repressors and activators of Pol II–dependent transcription were modified, Pol II phosphorylation was inhibited, and pathogen-specific signaling was suppressed in cell lines and inoculated patients. An increased frequency of strains inhibiting Pol II was epidemiologically verified in ABU and fecal strains compared with acute pyelonephritis, and a Pol II antagonist suppressed the disease-associated host response. These results suggest that by manipulating host gene expression, ABU strains promote tissue integrity while inhibiting pathology. Such bacterial modulation of host gene expression may be essential to sustain asymptomatic bacterial carriage by ensuring that potentially destructive immune activation will not occur. PMID:23728172

  15. Stable RNA-DNA-RNA polymerase complexes can accompany formation of a single phosphodiester bond.

    PubMed

    Sylvester, J E; Cashel, M

    1980-03-18

    Incubation of RNA polymerase with poly[d(A-T)n] template results in a binary enzyme-DNA complex. Further addition of the dinucleotide UpA and [alpha-32P]UTP results in catalytic formation of the labeled trinucleotide UpApU until substrate exhaustion. In contrast, incubation of binary enzyme-DNA complexes with ApU and [alpha-32P]ATP results in labeled ApUpA formation to an extent that is stoichiometric with the amount of enzyme present despite an excess of substrates. The occurrence of ApUpA in a stable DNA-enzyme-RNA ternary complex is shown by gel exclusion chromatography, Millipore filtration, and the ability of ternary complexes to support subsequent RNA chain elongation. Radioactivity is not bound to Millipore filters when purified, labeled ApUpA is added to enzyme-DNA binary complexes. Hence, phosphodiester bond formation is required for stable ternary complex formation. The absence of the delta subunit of RNA polymerase or the addition of rifampicin to the reaction before ribonucleotide substrates results in catalytic ApUpA formation instead of stable ternary complexes.

  16. VP1 of infectious bursal disease virus is an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase.

    PubMed

    von Einem, Ursula I; Gorbalenya, Alexander E; Schirrmeier, Horst; Behrens, Sven-Erik; Letzel, Tobias; Mundt, Egbert

    2004-08-01

    Segment B of the bisegmented, double-stranded RNA genome of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) encodes the viral protein VP1. This has been presumed to represent the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) as it contains motifs that are typical for the RdRp of plus-strand RNA viruses. Here it is demonstrated that baculovirus-expressed wild-type but not motif A mutated VP1 acts as an RdRp on IBDV-specific RNA templates. Thus, on a plus-strand IBDV segment A cRNA template, minus-strand synthesis occurred in such a way that a covalently linked double-stranded RNA product was generated (by a 'copy-back' mechanism). Importantly, enzyme activity was observed only with templates that comprised the 3' non-coding region of plus-strand RNAs transcribed from IBDV segments A and B, indicating template specificity. RdRp activity was shown to have a temperature optimum of 37 degrees C and required magnesium ions for enzyme activity. Thus, it has been demonstrated unequivocally that VP1 represents the RdRp of IBDV.

  17. Cell cycle-dependent regulation of RNA polymerase II basal transcription activity.

    PubMed Central

    Yonaha, M; Chibazakura, T; Kitajima, S; Yasukochi, Y

    1995-01-01

    Regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II (pol II) in eukaryotic cells requires both basal and regulatory transcription factors. In this report we have investigated in vitro pol II basal transcription activity during the cell cycle by using nuclear extracts from synchronized HeLa cells. It is shown that pol II basal transcription activity is low in the S and G2 phases and high in early G1 phase and TFIID is the rate limiting component of pol II basal transcription activity during the cell cycle. Further analyses reveal that TFIID exists as a less active form in the S and G2 phases and nuclear extracts from S and G2 phase cells contain a heat-sensitive repressor(s) of TATA box binding protein (TBP). These results suggest that pol II basal transcription activity is regulated by a qualitative change in the TFIID complex, which could involve repression of TBP, during the cell cycle. Images PMID:7479063

  18. Splicing of Nascent RNA Coincides with Intron Exit from RNA Polymerase II.

    PubMed

    Carrillo Oesterreich, Fernando; Herzel, Lydia; Straube, Korinna; Hujer, Katja; Howard, Jonathon; Neugebauer, Karla M

    2016-04-01

    Protein-coding genes in eukaryotes are transcribed by RNA polymerase II (Pol II) and introns are removed from pre-mRNA by the spliceosome. Understanding the time lag between Pol II progression and splicing could provide mechanistic insights into the regulation of gene expression. Here, we present two single-molecule nascent RNA sequencing methods that directly determine the progress of splicing catalysis as a function of Pol II position. Endogenous genes were analyzed on a global scale in budding yeast. We show that splicing is 50% complete when Pol II is only 45 nt downstream of introns, with the first spliced products observed as introns emerge from Pol II. Perturbations that slow the rate of spliceosome assembly or speed up the rate of transcription caused splicing delays, showing that regulation of both processes determines in vivo splicing profiles. We propose that matched rates streamline the gene expression pathway, while allowing regulation through kinetic competition.

  19. RNA polymerase pausing regulates translation initiation by providing additional time for TRAP-RNA interaction.

    PubMed

    Yakhnin, Alexander V; Yakhnin, Helen; Babitzke, Paul

    2006-11-17

    RNA polymerase (RNAP) pause sites have been identified in several prokaryotic genes. Although the presumed biological function of RNAP pausing is to allow synchronization of RNAP position with regulatory factor binding and/or RNA folding, a direct causal link between pausing and changes in gene expression has been difficult to establish. RNAP pauses at two sites in the Bacillus subtilis trpEDCFBA operon leader. Pausing at U107 and U144 participates in transcription attenuation and trpE translation control mechanisms, respectively. Substitution of U144 caused a substantial pausing defect in vitro and in vivo. These mutations led to increased trp operon expression that was suppressed by overproduction of TRAP, indicating that pausing at U144 provides additional time for TRAP to bind to the nascent transcript and promote formation of an RNA structure that blocks translation of trpE. These results establish that pausing is capable of playing a role in regulating translation in bacteria. PMID:17114058

  20. Termination and pausing of RNA polymerase II downstream of yeast polyadenylation sites.

    PubMed Central

    Hyman, L E; Moore, C L

    1993-01-01

    Little is known about the transcriptional events which occur downstream of polyadenylation sites. Although the polyadenylation site of a gene can be easily identified, it has been difficult to determine the site of transcription termination in vivo because of the rapid processing of pre-mRNAs. Using an in vitro approach, we have shown that sequences from the 3' ends of two different Saccharomyces cerevisiae genes, ADH2 and GAL7, direct transcription termination and/or polymerase pausing in yeast nuclear extracts. In the case of the ADH2 sequence, the RNA synthesized in vitro ends approximately 50 to 150 nucleotides downstream of the poly(A) site. This RNA is not polyadenylated and may represent the primary transcript. A similarly sized nonpolyadenylated [poly(A)-] transcript can be detected in vivo from the same transcriptional template. A GAL7 template also directs the in vitro synthesis of an RNA which extends a short distance past the poly(A) site. However, a significant amount of the GAL7 RNA is polyadenylated at or close to the in vivo poly(A) site. Mutations of GAL7 or ADH2 poly(A) signals prevent polyadenylation but do not affect the in vitro synthesis of the extended poly(A)- transcript. Since transcription of the mutant template continues through this region in vivo, it is likely that a strong RNA polymerase II pause site lies within the 3'-end sequences. Our data support the hypothesis that the coupling of this pause site to a functional polyadenylation signal results in transcription termination. Images PMID:8355675

  1. Structural Analysis of Monomeric RNA-Dependent Polymerases: Evolutionary and Therapeutic Implications.

    PubMed

    Jácome, Rodrigo; Becerra, Arturo; Ponce de León, Samuel; Lazcano, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The crystal structures of monomeric RNA-dependent RNA polymerases and reverse transcriptases of more than 20 different viruses are available in the Protein Data Bank. They all share the characteristic right-hand shape of DNA- and RNA polymerases formed by the fingers, palm and thumb subdomains, and, in many cases, "fingertips" that extend from the fingers towards the thumb subdomain, giving the viral enzyme a closed right-hand appearance. Six conserved structural motifs that contain key residues for the proper functioning of the enzyme have been identified in all these RNA-dependent polymerases. These enzymes share a two divalent metal-ion mechanism of polymerization in which two conserved aspartate residues coordinate the interactions with the metal ions to catalyze the nucleotidyl transfer reaction. The recent availability of crystal structures of polymerases of the Orthomyxoviridae and Bunyaviridae families allowed us to make pairwise comparisons of the tertiary structures of polymerases belonging to the four main RNA viral groups, which has led to a phylogenetic tree in which single-stranded negative RNA viral polymerases have been included for the first time. This has also allowed us to use a homology-based structural prediction approach to develop a general three-dimensional model of the Ebola virus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. Our model includes several of the conserved structural motifs and residues described in other viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerases that define the catalytic and highly conserved palm subdomain, as well as portions of the fingers and thumb subdomains. The results presented here help to understand the current use and apparent success of antivirals, i.e. Brincidofovir, Lamivudine and Favipiravir, originally aimed at other types of polymerases, to counteract the Ebola virus infection.

  2. Structural Analysis of Monomeric RNA-Dependent Polymerases: Evolutionary and Therapeutic Implications

    PubMed Central

    Jácome, Rodrigo; Becerra, Arturo; Ponce de León, Samuel; Lazcano, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The crystal structures of monomeric RNA-dependent RNA polymerases and reverse transcriptases of more than 20 different viruses are available in the Protein Data Bank. They all share the characteristic right-hand shape of DNA- and RNA polymerases formed by the fingers, palm and thumb subdomains, and, in many cases, “fingertips” that extend from the fingers towards the thumb subdomain, giving the viral enzyme a closed right-hand appearance. Six conserved structural motifs that contain key residues for the proper functioning of the enzyme have been identified in all these RNA-dependent polymerases. These enzymes share a two divalent metal-ion mechanism of polymerization in which two conserved aspartate residues coordinate the interactions with the metal ions to catalyze the nucleotidyl transfer reaction. The recent availability of crystal structures of polymerases of the Orthomyxoviridae and Bunyaviridae families allowed us to make pairwise comparisons of the tertiary structures of polymerases belonging to the four main RNA viral groups, which has led to a phylogenetic tree in which single-stranded negative RNA viral polymerases have been included for the first time. This has also allowed us to use a homology-based structural prediction approach to develop a general three-dimensional model of the Ebola virus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. Our model includes several of the conserved structural motifs and residues described in other viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerases that define the catalytic and highly conserved palm subdomain, as well as portions of the fingers and thumb subdomains. The results presented here help to understand the current use and apparent success of antivirals, i.e. Brincidofovir, Lamivudine and Favipiravir, originally aimed at other types of polymerases, to counteract the Ebola virus infection. PMID:26397100

  3. Episodic adaptive diversification of classical swine fever virus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase NS5B.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Yang, Zexiao

    2015-12-01

    Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) is the pathogen that causes a highly infectious disease of pigs and has led to disastrous losses to pig farms and related industries. The RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) NS5B is a central component of the replicase complex (RC) in some single-stranded RNA viruses, including CSFV. On the basis of genetic variation, the CSFV RdRps could be clearly divided into 2 major groups and a minor group, which is consistent with the phylogenetic relationships and virulence diversification of the CSFV isolates. However, the adaptive signature underlying such an evolutionary profile of the polymerase and the virus is still an interesting open question. We analyzed the evolutionary trajectory of the CSFV RdRps over different timescales to evaluate the potential adaptation. We found that adaptive selection has driven the diversification of the RdRps between, but not within, CSFV major groups. Further, the major adaptive divergence-related sites are located in the surfaces relevant to the interaction with other component(s) of RC and the entrance and exit of the template-binding channel. These results might shed some light on the nature of the RdRp in virulence diversification of CSFV groups.

  4. Episodic adaptive diversification of classical swine fever virus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase NS5B.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Yang, Zexiao

    2015-12-01

    Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) is the pathogen that causes a highly infectious disease of pigs and has led to disastrous losses to pig farms and related industries. The RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) NS5B is a central component of the replicase complex (RC) in some single-stranded RNA viruses, including CSFV. On the basis of genetic variation, the CSFV RdRps could be clearly divided into 2 major groups and a minor group, which is consistent with the phylogenetic relationships and virulence diversification of the CSFV isolates. However, the adaptive signature underlying such an evolutionary profile of the polymerase and the virus is still an interesting open question. We analyzed the evolutionary trajectory of the CSFV RdRps over different timescales to evaluate the potential adaptation. We found that adaptive selection has driven the diversification of the RdRps between, but not within, CSFV major groups. Further, the major adaptive divergence-related sites are located in the surfaces relevant to the interaction with other component(s) of RC and the entrance and exit of the template-binding channel. These results might shed some light on the nature of the RdRp in virulence diversification of CSFV groups. PMID:26485449

  5. RNA-directed DNA polymerase from particles released by normal goose cells.

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, G; Temin, H M

    1979-01-01

    Cells from a goose embryo were shown to release particle-associated RNA-directed DNA polymerase and RNase H activities that required the presence of Nonidet P-40 for detection. The particles were not infectious and did not have endogenous DNA synthesis. The goose particle DNA polymerase was related to the DNA polymerase of spleen necrosis virus with respect to size and was inhibited by immunoglobulin G to spleen necrosis virus DNA polymerase. However, goose cells producing DNA polymerase-containing particles did not contain reticuloendotheliosis virus-related nucleotide sequences in their DNA. PMID:87517

  6. Optimization of recombinant Mycobacterium tuberculosis RNA polymerase expression and purification.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Rajdeep; Rudra, Paulami; Prajapati, Ranjit Kumar; Sengupta, Shreya; Mukhopadhyay, Jayanta

    2014-07-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the human pathogen that causes tuberculosis, warrants enormous attention due to the emergence of multi drug resistant and extremely drug resistant strains. RNA polymerase (RNAP), the key enzyme in gene regulation, is an attractive target for anti-TB drugs. Understanding the structure-function relationship of M. tuberculosis RNAP and the mechanism of gene regulation by RNAP in conjunction with different σ factors and transcriptional regulators would provide significant information for anti-tuberculosis drug development targeting RNAP. Studies with M. tuberculosis RNAP remain tedious because of the extremely slow-growing nature of the bacteria and requirement of special laboratory facility. Here, we have developed and optimized recombinant methods to prepare M. tuberculosis RNAP core and RNAP holo enzymes assembled in vivo in Escherichia coli. These methods yield high amounts of transcriptionally active enzymes, free of E. coli RNAP contamination. The recombinant M. tuberculosis RNAP is used to develop a highly sensitive fluorescence based in vitro transcription assay that could be easily adopted in a high-throughput format to screen RNAP inhibitors. These recombinant methods would be useful to set a platform for M. tuberculosis RNAP targeted anti TB drug development, to analyse the structure/function of M. tuberculosis RNAP and to analyse the interactions among promoter DNA, RNAP, σ factors, and transcription regulators of M. tuberculosis in vitro, avoiding the hazard of handling of pathogenic bacteria.

  7. Transcription inactivation through local refolding of the RNA polymerase structure

    SciTech Connect

    Belogurov, Georgiy A.; Vassylyeva, Marina N.; Sevostyanova, Anastasiya; Appleman, James R.; Xiang, Alan X.; Lira, Ricardo; Webber, Stephen E.; Klyuyev, Sergiy; Nudler, Evgeny; Artsimovitch, Irina; Vassylyev, Dmitry G.

    2009-02-12

    Structural studies of antibiotics not only provide a shortcut to medicine allowing for rational structure-based drug design, but may also capture snapshots of dynamic intermediates that become 'frozen' after inhibitor binding. Myxopyronin inhibits bacterial RNA polymerase (RNAP) by an unknown mechanism. Here we report the structure of dMyx - a desmethyl derivative of myxopyronin B - complexed with a Thermus thermophilus RNAP holoenzyme. The antibiotic binds to a pocket deep inside the RNAP clamp head domain, which interacts with the DNA template in the transcription bubble. Notably, binding of dMyx stabilizes refolding of the {beta}'-subunit switch-2 segment, resulting in a configuration that might indirectly compromise binding to, or directly clash with, the melted template DNA strand. Consistently, footprinting data show that the antibiotic binding does not prevent nucleation of the promoter DNA melting but instead blocks its propagation towards the active site. Myxopyronins are thus, to our knowledge, a first structurally characterized class of antibiotics that target formation of the pre-catalytic transcription initiation complex - the decisive step in gene expression control. Notably, mutations designed in switch-2 mimic the dMyx effects on promoter complexes in the absence of antibiotic. Overall, our results indicate a plausible mechanism of the dMyx action and a stepwise pathway of open complex formation in which core enzyme mediates the final stage of DNA melting near the transcription start site, and that switch-2 might act as a molecular checkpoint for DNA loading in response to regulatory signals or antibiotics. The universally conserved switch-2 may have the same role in all multisubunit RNAPs.

  8. Structure-based inhibition of Norovirus RNA-dependent RNA polymerases.

    PubMed

    Mastrangelo, Eloise; Pezzullo, Margherita; Tarantino, Delia; Petazzi, Roberto; Germani, Francesca; Kramer, Dorothea; Robel, Ivonne; Rohayem, Jacques; Bolognesi, Martino; Milani, Mario

    2012-06-01

    Caliciviridae are RNA viruses with a single-stranded, positively oriented polyadenylated genome, responsible for a broad spectrum of diseases such as acute gastroenteritis in humans. Recently, analyses on the structures and functionalities of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) from several Caliciviruses have been reported. The RdRp is predicted to play a key role in genome replication, as well as in synthesis and amplification of additional subgenomic RNA. Starting from the crystal structures of human Norovirus (hNV) RdRp, we performed an in silico docking search to identify synthetic compounds with predicted high affinity for the enzyme active site. The best-ranked candidates were tested in vitro on murine Norovirus (MNV) and hNV RdRps to assay their inhibition of RNA polymerization. The results of such combined computational and experimental screening approach led to the identification of two high-potency inhibitors: Suramin and NF023, both symmetric divalent molecules hosting two naphthalene-trisulfonic acid heads. We report here the crystal structure of MNV RdRp alone and in the presence of the two identified inhibitors. Both inhibitory molecules occupy the same RdRp site, between the fingers and thumb domains, with one inhibitor head close to residue 42 and to the protein active site. To further validate the structural results, we mutated Trp42 to Ala in MNV RdRp and the corresponding residue (i.e., Tyr41 to Ala) in hNV RdRp. Both NF023 and Suramin displayed reduced inhibitory potency versus the mutated hNV RdRp, thus hinting at a conserved inhibitor binding mode in the two polymerases.

  9. Recessive mutations in POLR1C cause a leukodystrophy by impairing biogenesis of RNA polymerase III

    PubMed Central

    Thiffault, Isabelle; Wolf, Nicole I.; Forget, Diane; Guerrero, Kether; Tran, Luan T.; Choquet, Karine; Lavallée-Adam, Mathieu; Poitras, Christian; Brais, Bernard; Yoon, Grace; Sztriha, Laszlo; Webster, Richard I.; Timmann, Dagmar; van de Warrenburg, Bart P.; Seeger, Jürgen; Zimmermann, Alíz; Máté, Adrienn; Goizet, Cyril; Fung, Eva; van der Knaap, Marjo S.; Fribourg, Sébastien; Vanderver, Adeline; Simons, Cas; Taft, Ryan J.; Yates III, John R.; Coulombe, Benoit; Bernard, Geneviève

    2015-01-01

    A small proportion of 4H (Hypomyelination, Hypodontia and Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism) or RNA polymerase III (POLR3)-related leukodystrophy cases are negative for mutations in the previously identified causative genes POLR3A and POLR3B. Here we report eight of these cases carrying recessive mutations in POLR1C, a gene encoding a shared POLR1 and POLR3 subunit, also mutated in some Treacher Collins syndrome (TCS) cases. Using shotgun proteomics and ChIP sequencing, we demonstrate that leukodystrophy-causative mutations, but not TCS mutations, in POLR1C impair assembly and nuclear import of POLR3, but not POLR1, leading to decreased binding to POLR3 target genes. This study is the first to show that distinct mutations in a gene coding for a shared subunit of two RNA polymerases lead to selective modification of the enzymes' availability leading to two different clinical conditions and to shed some light on the pathophysiological mechanism of one of the most common hypomyelinating leukodystrophies, POLR3-related leukodystrophy. PMID:26151409

  10. Transient-State Kinetic Analysis of the RNA Polymerase I Nucleotide Incorporation Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Appling, Francis D; Lucius, Aaron L; Schneider, David A

    2015-12-01

    Eukaryotes express three or more multisubunit nuclear RNA polymerases (Pols) referred to as Pols I, II, and III, each of which synthesizes a specific subset of RNAs. Consistent with the diversity of their target genes, eukaryotic cells have evolved divergent cohorts of transcription factors and enzymatic properties for each RNA polymerase system. Over the years, many trans-acting factors that orchestrate transcription by the individual Pols have been described; however, little effort has been devoted to characterizing the molecular mechanisms of Pol I activity. To begin to address this gap in our understanding of eukaryotic gene expression, here we establish transient-state kinetic approaches to characterize the nucleotide incorporation mechanism of Pol I. We collected time courses for single turnover nucleotide incorporation reactions over a range of substrate ATP concentrations that provide information on both Pol I's nucleotide addition and nuclease activities. The data were analyzed by model-independent and model-dependent approaches, resulting in, to our knowledge, the first minimal model for the nucleotide addition pathway for Pol I. Using a grid searching approach we provide rigorous bounds on estimated values of the individual elementary rate constants within the proposed model. This work reports the most detailed analysis of Pol I mechanism to date. Furthermore, in addition to their use in transient state kinetic analyses, the computational approaches applied here are broadly applicable to global optimization problems. PMID:26636949

  11. Preparation of fluorinated RNA nucleotide analogs potentially stable to enzymatic hydrolysis in RNA and DNA polymerase assays

    PubMed Central

    Shakhmin, Anton; Jones, John-Paul; Bychinskaya, Inessa; Zibinsky, Mikhail; Oertell, Keriann; Goodman, Myron F.; Prakash, G.K. Surya

    2015-01-01

    Analogs of ribonucleotides (RNA) stable to enzymatic hydrolysis were prepared and characterized. Computational investigations revealed that this class of compounds with a modified triphosphate exhibits the correct polarity and minimal steric effects compared to the natural molecule. Non-hydrolysable properties as well as the ability of the modified nucleotide to be recognized by enzymes were probed by performing single-turnover gap filling assays with T7 RNA polymerase and DNA polymerase β. PMID:26279588

  12. Acetylation of RNA Polymerase II Regulates Growth-Factor-Induced Gene Transcription in Mammalian Cells

    PubMed Central

    Schröder, Sebastian; Herker, Eva; Itzen, Friederike; He, Daniel; Thomas, Sean; Gilchrist, Daniel A.; Kaehlcke, Katrin; Cho, Sungyoo; Pollard, Katherine S.; Capra, John A.; Schnölzer, Martina; Cole, Philip A.; Geyer, Matthias; Bruneau, Benoit G.; Adelman, Karen; Ott, Melanie

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Lysine acetylation regulates transcription by targeting histones and nonhistone proteins. Here we report that the central regulator of transcription, RNA polymerase II, is subject to acetylation in mammalian cells. Acetylation occurs at eight lysines within the C-terminal domain (CTD) of the largest polymerase subunit and is mediated by p300/KAT3B. CTD acetylation is specifically enriched downstream of the transcription start sites of polymerase-occupied genes genome-wide, indicating a role in early stages of transcription initiation or elongation. Mutation of lysines or p300 inhibitor treatment causes the loss of epidermal growth-factor-induced expression of c-Fos and Egr2, immediate-early genes with promoter-proximally paused polymerases, but does not affect expression or polymerase occupancy at housekeeping genes. Our studies identify acetylation as a new modification of the mammalian RNA polymerase II required for the induction of growth factor response genes. PMID:24207025

  13. Purification and lipid-layer crystallization of yeast RNA polymerase II.

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, A M; Darst, S A; Feaver, W J; Thompson, N E; Burgess, R R; Kornberg, R D

    1990-01-01

    Yeast RNA polymerase II was purified to homogeneity by a rapid procedure involving immunoaffinity chromatography. The purified enzyme contained 10 subunits, as reported for conventional preparations, but with no detectable proteolysis of the largest subunit. In assays of initiation of transcription at the yeast CYC1 promoter, the enzyme complemented the deficiency of an extract from a strain that produces a temperature-sensitive polymerase II. Mammalian RNA polymerase II was inactive in this initiation assay. The purified yeast enzyme formed two-dimensional crystals on positively charged lipid layers, as previously found for Escherichia coli RNA polymerase holoenzyme. Image analysis of electron micrographs of crystals in negative stain, which diffracted to about 30-A resolution, showed protein densities of dimensions consistent with those of single polymerase molecules. Images PMID:2179949

  14. The RNA polymerase II of an alpha-amanitin-resistant Chinese hamster ovary cell line.

    PubMed

    Lobban, P E; Siminovitch, L; Ingles, C J

    1976-05-01

    Amal, an alpha-amanitin-resistant mutant of the Chinese hamster ovary cell line, contains an RNA polymerase activity which elutes from DEAE-Sephadex at a salt concentration characteristic of an RNA polymerase II, but which is not sensitive to alpha-amanitin at levels where the polymerase II of wild-type cells is strongly inhibited. This result suggests that Amal owes its amanitin-resistant phenotype to a mutation affecting one of its genes for RNA polymerase II. To test this hypothesis, we purified the enzyme from Amal and then compared its properties with those of the wild-type enzyme. The mutant enzyme is indeed a polymerase II, and is over 600 times less sensitive to alpha-amanitin and more thermolabile than the wild-type enzyme. PMID:954093

  15. Highly transcribed RNA polymerase II genes are impediments to replication fork progression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Azvolinsky, Anna; Giresi, Paul G.; Lieb, Jason D.; Zakian, Virginia A.

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY Replication forks face multiple obstacles that slow their progression. By two-dimensional gel analysis, yeast forks pause at stable DNA protein complexes, and this pausing is greatly increased in the absence of the Rrm3 helicase. We used a genome wide approach to identify 96 sites of very high DNA polymerase binding in wild type cells. Most of these binding sites were not previously identified pause sites. Rather, the most highly represented genomic category among high DNA polymerase binding sites was the open reading frames (ORFs) of highly transcribed RNA polymerase II genes. Twice as many pause sites were identified in rrm3 compared to wild type cells as pausing in this strain occurred at both highly transcribed RNA polymerase II genes and the previously identified protein DNA complexes. ORFs of highly transcribed RNA polymerase II genes are the first class of natural pause sites that are not exacerbated in rrm3 cells. PMID:19560424

  16. RNA as an RNA Polymerase: Net Elongation of an RNA Primer Catalyzed by the Tetrahymena Ribozyme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Been, Michael D.; Cech, Thomas R.

    1988-03-01

    A catalytic RNA (ribozyme) derived from an intervening sequence (IVS) RNA of Tetrahymena thermophila will catalyze an RNA polymerization reaction in which pentacytidylic acid (C5) is extended by the successive addition of mononucleotides derived from a guanylyl-(3', 5')-nucleotide (GpN). Cytidines or uridines are added to C5 to generate chain lengths of 10 to 11 nucleotides, with longer products being generated at greatly reduced efficiency. The reaction is analogous to that catalyzed by a replicase with C5 acting as the primer, GpNs as the nucleoside triphosphates, and a sequence in the ribozyme providing a template. The demonstration that an RNA enzyme can catalyze net elongation of an RNA primer supports theories of prebiotic RNA self-replication.

  17. Looking for inhibitors of the dengue virus NS5 RNA-dependent RNA-polymerase using a molecular docking approach

    PubMed Central

    Galiano, Vicente; Garcia-Valtanen, Pablo; Micol, Vicente; Encinar, José Antonio

    2016-01-01

    The dengue virus (DENV) nonstructural protein 5 (NS5) contains both an N-terminal methyltransferase domain and a C-terminal RNA-dependent RNA polymerase domain. Polymerase activity is responsible for viral RNA synthesis by a de novo initiation mechanism and represents an attractive target for antiviral therapy. The incidence of DENV has grown rapidly and it is now estimated that half of the human population is at risk of becoming infected with this virus. Despite this, there are no effective drugs to treat DENV infections. The present in silico study aimed at finding new inhibitors of the NS5 RNA-dependent RNA polymerase of the four serotypes of DENV. We used a chemical library comprising 372,792 nonnucleotide compounds (around 325,319 natural compounds) to perform molecular docking experiments against a binding site of the RNA template tunnel of the virus polymerase. Compounds with high negative free energy variation (ΔG <−10.5 kcal/mol) were selected as putative inhibitors. Additional filters for favorable druggability and good absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and toxicity were applied. Finally, after the screening process was completed, we identified 39 compounds as lead DENV polymerase inhibitor candidates. Potentially, these compounds could act as efficient DENV polymerase inhibitors in vitro and in vivo. PMID:27784988

  18. Relationships among the positive strand and double-strand RNA viruses as viewed through their RNA-dependent RNA polymerases.

    PubMed

    Bruenn, J A

    1991-01-25

    The sequences of 50 RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RDRPs) from 43 positive strand and 7 double strand RNA (dsRNA) viruses have been compared. The alignment permitted calculation of distances among the 50 viruses and a resultant dendrogram based on every amino acid, rather than just those amino acids in the conserved motifs. Remarkably, a large subgroup of these viruses, including vertebrate, plant, and insect viruses, forms a single cluster whose only common characteristic is exploitation of insect hosts or vectors. This similarity may be due to molecular constraints associated with a present and/or past ability to infect insects and/or to common descent from insect viruses. If common descent is important, as it appears to be, all the positive strand RNA viruses of eucaryotes except for the picornaviruses may have evolved from an ancestral dsRNA virus. Viral RDRPs appear to be inherited as modules rather than as portions of single RNA segments, implying that RNA recombination has played an important role in their dissemination.

  19. Nuclear DNA polymerase beta from Leishmania infantum. Cloning, molecular analysis and developmental regulation

    PubMed Central

    Taladriz, Soraya; Hanke, Tobias; Ramiro, María J.; García-Díaz, Miguel; Lacoba, Mario García de; Blanco, Luis; Larraga, Vicente

    2001-01-01

    We have identified a novel polymerase beta (Pol β)-like enzyme from Leishmania infantum, a parasite protozoon causing disease in humans. This protein, named Li Pol β, shows a nuclear localization that contrasts with the mitochondrial localization of Pol β from Crithidia fasciculata, a closely related parasite, the only polymerase β described so far in Trypanosomatidae. Li Pol β, that belongs to the DNA polymerase X family, displays an evolutionarily conserved Pol β-type DNA polymerase core, in which most of the key residues involved in DNA binding, nucleotide binding, dRPase and polymerization catalysis are conserved. In agreement with this, Li Pol β, overproduced in Escherichia coli, displayed intrinsic DNA polymerase activity. Cell synchronization experiments showed a correlation between both Li Pol β mRNA and protein levels along the parasite cell cycle. Analysis of these parameters at the different growth phases of the parasite, from the proliferative (non-infective) logarithmic phase to the non-dividing (highly infectious) stationary phase, showed high levels of Li Pol β at the infective phase of the parasite. The data suggest a role of Li Pol β in base excision repair in L.infantum, a parasite usually affected by oxygen stress environments into the macrophage host cells. PMID:11557814

  20. Identification of distinct biological functions for four 3'-5' RNA polymerases.

    PubMed

    Long, Yicheng; Abad, Maria G; Olson, Erik D; Carrillo, Elisabeth Y; Jackman, Jane E

    2016-09-30

    The superfamily of 3'-5' polymerases synthesize RNA in the opposite direction to all other DNA/RNA polymerases, and its members include eukaryotic tRNA(His) guanylyltransferase (Thg1), as well as Thg1-like proteins (TLPs) of unknown function that are broadly distributed, with family members in all three domains of life. Dictyostelium discoideum encodes one Thg1 and three TLPs (DdiTLP2, DdiTLP3 and DdiTLP4). Here, we demonstrate that depletion of each of the genes results in a significant growth defect, and that each protein catalyzes a unique biological reaction, taking advantage of specialized biochemical properties. DdiTLP2 catalyzes a mitochondria-specific tRNA(His) maturation reaction, which is distinct from the tRNA(His) maturation reaction typically catalyzed by Thg1 enzymes on cytosolic tRNA. DdiTLP3 catalyzes tRNA repair during mitochondrial tRNA 5'-editing in vivo and in vitro, establishing template-dependent 3'-5' polymerase activity of TLPs as a bona fide biological activity for the first time since its unexpected discovery more than a decade ago. DdiTLP4 is cytosolic and, surprisingly, catalyzes robust 3'-5' polymerase activity on non-tRNA substrates, strongly implying further roles for TLP 3'-5' polymerases in eukaryotes.

  1. Hypoxic stress suppresses RNA polymerase III recruitment and tRNA gene transcription in cardiomyocytes

    PubMed Central

    Ernens, Isabelle; Goodfellow, Sarah J.; Innes, Fiona; Kenneth, Niall S.; Derblay, Louise E.; White, Robert J.; Scott, Pamela H.

    2006-01-01

    RNA polymerase (pol) III transcription decreases when primary cultures of rat neonatal cardiomyocytes are exposed to low oxygen tension. Previous studies in fibroblasts have shown that the pol III-specific transcription factor IIIB (TFIIIB) is bound and regulated by the proto-oncogene product c-Myc, the mitogen-activated protein kinase ERK and the retinoblastoma tumour suppressor protein, RB. The principal function of TFIIIB is to recruit pol III to its cognate gene template, an activity that is known to be inhibited by RB and stimulated by ERK. We demonstrate by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) that c-Myc also stimulates pol III recruitment by TFIIIB. However, hypoxic conditions cause TFIIIB dissociation from c-Myc and ERK, at the same time as increasing its interaction with RB. Consistent with this, ChIP assays indicate that the occupancy of tRNA genes by pol III is significantly reduced, whereas promoter binding by TFIIIB is undiminished. The data suggest that hypoxia can inhibit pol III transcription by altering the interactions between TFIIIB and its regulators and thus compromising its ability to recruit the polymerase. These effects are independent of cell cycle changes. PMID:16407335

  2. RNA-Free and Ribonucleoprotein-Associated Influenza Virus Polymerases Directly Bind the Serine-5-Phosphorylated Carboxyl-Terminal Domain of Host RNA Polymerase II

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Alonso, Mónica; Hengrung, Narin

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Influenza viruses subvert the transcriptional machinery of their hosts to synthesize their own viral mRNA. Ongoing transcription by cellular RNA polymerase II (Pol II) is required for viral mRNA synthesis. By a process known as cap snatching, the virus steals short 5′ capped RNA fragments from host capped RNAs and uses them to prime viral transcription. An interaction between the influenza A virus RNA polymerase and the C-terminal domain (CTD) of the large subunit of Pol II has been established, but the molecular details of this interaction remain unknown. We show here that the influenza virus ribonucleoprotein (vRNP) complex binds to the CTD of transcriptionally engaged Pol II. Furthermore, we provide evidence that the viral polymerase binds directly to the serine-5-phosphorylated form of the Pol II CTD, both in the presence and in the absence of viral RNA, and show that this interaction is conserved in evolutionarily distant influenza viruses. We propose a model in which direct binding of the viral RNA polymerase in the context of vRNPs to Pol II early in infection facilitates cap snatching, while we suggest that binding of free viral polymerase to Pol II late in infection may trigger Pol II degradation. IMPORTANCE Influenza viruses cause yearly epidemics and occasional pandemics that pose a threat to human health, as well as represent a large economic burden to health care systems globally. Existing vaccines are not always effective, as they may not exactly match the circulating viruses. Furthermore, there are a limited number of antivirals available, and development of resistance to these is a concern. New measures to combat influenza are needed, but before they can be developed, it is necessary to better understand the molecular interactions between influenza viruses and their host cells. By providing further insights into the molecular details of how influenza viruses hijack the host transcriptional machinery, we aim to uncover novel targets for

  3. A Functional Interaction between the Carboxy-Terminal Domain of RNA Polymerase II and Pre-mRNA Splicing

    PubMed Central

    Du, Lei; Warren, Stephen L.

    1997-01-01

    In the preceding study we found that Sm snRNPs and SerArg (SR) family proteins co-immunoprecipitate with Pol II molecules containing a hyperphosphorylated CTD (Kim et al., 1997). The association between Pol IIo and splicing factors is maintained in the absence of pre-mRNA, and the polymerase need not be transcriptionally engaged (Kim et al., 1997). The latter findings led us to hypothesize that a phosphorylated form of the CTD interacts with pre-mRNA splicing components in vivo. To test this idea, a nested set of CTD-derived proteins was assayed for the ability to alter the nuclear distribution of splicing factors, and to interfere with splicing in vivo. Proteins containing heptapeptides 1-52 (CTD52), 1-32 (CTD32), 1-26 (CTD26), 1-13 (CTD13), 1-6 (CTD6), 1-3 (CTD3), or 1 (CTD1) were expressed in mammalian cells. The CTD-derived proteins become phosphorylated in vivo, and accumulate in the nucleus even though they lack a conventional nuclear localization signal. CTD52 induces a selective reorganization of splicing factors from discrete nuclear domains to the diffuse nucleoplasm, and significantly, it blocks the accumulation of spliced, but not unspliced, human β-globin transcripts. The extent of splicing factor disruption, and the degree of inhibition of splicing, are proportional to the number of heptapeptides added to the protein. The above results indicate a functional interaction between Pol II's CTD and pre-mRNA splicing. PMID:9008699

  4. Molecular structure of yeast RNA polymerase III: demonstration of the tripartite transcriptive system in lower eukaryotes.

    PubMed Central

    Valenzuela, P; Hager, G L; Weinberg, F; Rutter, W J

    1976-01-01

    Homogeneous RNA polymerase III (RNA nucleotidyltransferase III) has been obtained from yeast. The subunit composition of the enzyme was examined by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate. The enzyme is composed of 12 putative subunits with molecular weights 160,000, 128,000, 82,000, 41,000, 40,500, 37,000, 34,000, 28,000, 24,000, 20,000, 14,500, and 11,000. The high-molecular-weight subunits and several of the smaller subunits of yeast RNA polymerase III are clearly different from those of enzymes I and II, indicating a distinct molecular structure. However, the molecular weights of some of the small subunits (41,000, 28,000, 24,000, and 14,500) appear to be identical to those of polymerases I and II. Thus, it is possible that the three classes of enzymes in yeast have some common subunits. As in other eukaryotes, yeast polymerase II is inhibited by relatively low concentrations of alpha-amanitin; however, contrary to what has been found in higher eukaryotes, yeast polymerase III is resistant (up to 2 mg/ml) to alpha-amanitin, while yeast polymerase I is sensitive to high concentrations of the drug (50% inhibition at 0.3 mg/ml). These results establish the existence of RNA polymerase III in yeast and provide a structural basis for the discrimination of the three functional polymerases in eukaryotes. Images PMID:772675

  5. Use of DNA, RNA, and Chimeric Templates by a Viral RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase: Evolutionary Implications for the Transition from the RNA to the DNA World

    PubMed Central

    Siegel, Robert W.; Bellon, Laurent; Beigelman, Leonid; Kao, C. Cheng

    1999-01-01

    All polynucleotide polymerases have a similar structure and mechanism of catalysis, consistent with their evolution from one progenitor polymerase. Viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RdRp) are expected to have properties comparable to those from this progenitor and therefore may offer insight into the commonalities of all classes of polymerases. We examined RNA synthesis by the brome mosaic virus RdRp on DNA, RNA, and hybrid templates and found that precise initiation of RNA synthesis can take place from all of these templates. Furthermore, initiation can take place from either internal or penultimate initiation sites. Using a template competition assay, we found that the BMV RdRp interacts with DNA only three- to fourfold less well than it interacts with RNA. Moreover, a DNA molecule with a ribonucleotide at position −11 relative to the initiation nucleotide was able to interact with RdRp at levels comparable to that observed with RNA. These results suggest that relatively few conditions were needed for an ancestral RdRp to replicate DNA genomes. PMID:10400735

  6. Substitution of Ribonucleotides in the T7 RNA Polymerase Promoter Element

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGinness, Kathleen E.; Joyce, Gerald F.

    2001-01-01

    A systematic analysis was carried out to examine the effects of ribonucleotide substitution at various locations within the promoter element for T7 RNA polymerase. Ribonucleotides could be introduced at most positions without significantly decreasing transcription efficiency. A critical window of residues that were intolerant of RNA substitution was defined for both the non-template and template strands of the promoter. These residues are involved in important contacts with the AT-rich recognition loop, specificity loop, and P-intercalating hairpin of the polymerase. These results highlight the malleability of T7 RNA polymerase in recognizing its promoter element and suggest that promoters with altered backbone conformations may be used in molecular biology applications that employ T7 RNA polymerase for in vitro transcription.

  7. Physical isolation of nascent RNA chains transcribed by RNA polymerase II: evidence for cotranscriptional splicing.

    PubMed Central

    Wuarin, J; Schibler, U

    1994-01-01

    In order to examine whether splicing can occur cotranscriptionally in mammalian nuclei, we mapped exon-intron boundaries on nascent RNA chains transcribed by RNA polymerase II. A procedure that allows fractionation of nuclei into a chromatin pellet containing DNA, histones, and ternary transcription complexes and a supernatant containing the bulk of the nonhistone proteins and RNAs that are released from their DNA templates was developed. The transcripts of the genes encoding DBP, a transcriptional activator protein, and HMG coenzyme A reductase recovered from the chromatin pellet and the supernatant were analyzed by S1 nuclease mapping. The large majority of the RNA molecules from the pellet appeared to be nascent transcripts, since, in contrast to the transcripts present in the supernatant, they were not cleaved at the polyadenylation site but rather contained heterogeneous 3' termini encompassing this site. Splicing intermediates could be detected among nascent and released transcripts, suggesting that splicing occurs both cotranscriptionally and posttranscriptionally. Our results also indicate that polyadenylation is not required for the splicing of the last DBP intron. In addition to allowing detailed structural analysis of nascent RNA chains, the physical isolation of nascent transcripts also yields reliable measurements of relative transcription rates. Images PMID:7523861

  8. Inositol pyrophosphates regulate RNA polymerase I-mediated rRNA transcription in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Thota, Swarna Gowri; Unnikannan, C P; Thampatty, Sitalakshmi R; Manorama, R; Bhandari, Rashna

    2015-02-15

    Ribosome biogenesis is an essential cellular process regulated by the metabolic state of a cell. We examined whether inositol pyrophosphates, energy-rich derivatives of inositol that act as metabolic messengers, play a role in ribosome synthesis in the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Yeast strains lacking the inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6) kinase Kcs1, which is required for the synthesis of inositol pyrophosphates, display increased sensitivity to translation inhibitors and decreased protein synthesis. These phenotypes are reversed on expression of enzymatically active Kcs1, but not on expression of the inactive form. The kcs1Δ yeast cells exhibit reduced levels of ribosome subunits, suggesting that they are defective in ribosome biogenesis. The rate of rRNA synthesis, the first step of ribosome biogenesis, is decreased in kcs1Δ yeast strains, suggesting that RNA polymerase I (Pol I) activity may be reduced in these cells. We determined that the Pol I subunits, A190, A43 and A34.5, can accept a β-phosphate moiety from inositol pyrophosphates to undergo serine pyrophosphorylation. Although there is impaired rRNA synthesis in kcs1Δ yeast cells, we did not find any defect in recruitment of Pol I on rDNA, but observed that the rate of transcription elongation was compromised. Taken together, our findings highlight inositol pyrophosphates as novel regulators of rRNA transcription.

  9. RNA polymerase II subunit RPB3 is an essential component of the mRNA transcription apparatus.

    PubMed Central

    Kolodziej, P; Young, R A

    1989-01-01

    To improve our understanding of RNA polymerase II, the gene that encodes its third-largest subunit, RPB3, was isolated from a lambda gt11 DNA library by using antibody probes. The RPB3 DNA sequence predicts a 318-amino-acid protein whose sequence was confirmed, in part, by microsequence analysis of the gel-purified RNA polymerase II subunit. RPB3 was found to be an essential single-copy gene that is tightly linked to HIS6 on chromosome IX. An RPB3 temperature-sensitive mutant that arrested growth after three to four generations at the restrictive temperature was isolated. When the mutant was shifted to the restrictive temperature, RNA polymerase II could no longer assemble, previously assembled functional enzyme was depleted, and mRNA levels were consequently reduced. These results demonstrate that RPB3 is an essential component of the mRNA transcription apparatus. Finally, the RPB3 protein is similar in sequence and length to RPC5, a subunit common to RNA polymerases I and III, suggesting that these subunits may play similar roles in RNA polymerases I, II, and III. Images PMID:2685562

  10. Functional substitution of an essential yeast RNA polymerase subunit by a highly conserved mammalian counterpart.

    PubMed Central

    McKune, K; Woychik, N A

    1994-01-01

    We isolated the cDNA encoding the homolog of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae nuclear RNA polymerase common subunit RPB6 from hamster CHO cells. Alignment of yeast RPB6 with its mammalian counterpart revealed that the subunits have nearly identical carboxy-terminal halves and a short acidic region at the amino terminus. Remarkably, the length and amino acid sequence of the hamster RPB6 are identical to those of the human RPB6 subunit. The conservation in sequence from lower to higher eukaryotes also reflects conservation of function in vivo, since hamster RPB6 supports normal wild-type yeast cell growth in the absence of the essential gene encoding RPB6. Images PMID:8196653

  11. A multistep process gave rise to RNA polymerase IV of land plants.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jie; Hall, Benjamin D

    2007-01-01

    Since their discovery in Metazoa, the three nuclear RNA polymerases (RNAPs) have been found in fungi, plants, and diverse protists. In all eukaryotes studied to date, RNAPs I, II, and III collectively transcribe all major RNAs made in the nucleus. We have found genes for the largest subunit (RPD1/RPE1) of a new DNA-dependent RNAP, RNAP IV, in all major land plant taxa and in closely related green algae. Genes for the second-largest subunit (RPD2) of this enzyme were found in all land plants. Phylogenetic study indicates that RNAP IV genes are sister to the corresponding RNAP II genes. Our results show the genesis of RNAP IV to be a multistep process in which the largest and second-largest subunit genes evolved by independent duplication events in the ancestors of Charales and land plants. These findings provide insights into evolutionary mechanisms that can explain the origin of multiple RNAPs in the eukaryotic nucleus.

  12. Using the Hepatitis C Virus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase as a Model to Understand Viral Polymerase Structure, Function and Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Sesmero, Ester; Thorpe, Ian F.

    2015-01-01

    Viral polymerases replicate and transcribe the genomes of several viruses of global health concern such as Hepatitis C virus (HCV), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and Ebola virus. For this reason they are key targets for therapies to treat viral infections. Although there is little sequence similarity across the different types of viral polymerases, all of them present a right-hand shape and certain structural motifs that are highly conserved. These features allow their functional properties to be compared, with the goal of broadly applying the knowledge acquired from studying specific viral polymerases to other viral polymerases about which less is known. Here we review the structural and functional properties of the HCV RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (NS5B) in order to understand the fundamental processes underlying the replication of viral genomes. We discuss recent insights into the process by which RNA replication occurs in NS5B as well as the role that conformational changes play in this process. PMID:26193306

  13. RNase H and RNA-directed DNA polymerase: associated enzymatic activities of murine mammary tumor virus.

    PubMed Central

    Dion, A S; Williams, C J; Moore, D H

    1977-01-01

    The RNA-directed DNA polymerase of murine mammary tumor virus, a type B RNA tumor virus, was purified sequentially through DEAE-cellulose, phosphocellulose (step gradient), and phosphocellulose (linear salt gradient) chromatography followed by glycerol sedimentation centrifugation. During all stages of purification, coincident peaks of RNA-directed DNA polymerase activity, templated by polyribocytidylate-oligodeoxyguanidylate, and RNase H digestion of [3H]polyriboadenylate-polydeoxythymidylate were observed, and both enzymatic activities displayed a cation preference for magnesium. Under conditions that removed adventitiously associated nucleases, RNase H activity was found to co-purify with polymerase. The specificity of this nuclease was assayed with various prepared substrates, which indicated that the polymerase-associated RNase H activity was directed only against the RNA strand of an RNA-DNA hybrid. It is highly probable that RNase H (RNA-DNA hybrid: ribonucleotide-hydrolase, EC 3.1.4..34) and RNA-directed DNA polymerase of type B viruses are associated enzymatic activities analogous to those observed for avian and mammalian type C RNA tumor viruses. Images PMID:67221

  14. Metabolism and expression of RNA polymerase II transcripts in Influenza virus-infected cells

    SciTech Connect

    Katze, M.G.; Krug, R.M.

    1984-10-01

    Influenza virus infection has adverse effects on the metabolism of two representative RNA polymerase II transcripts in chicken embryo fibroblasts, those coding for BETA-actin and for avian leukosis virus (ALV) proteins. Proviral ALV DNA was integrated into host cell DNA by prior infection with ALV. By S1 endonuclease assay, it was confirmed that nuclear ALV transcripts disappeared very early after infection, already decreasing ca. 80% by 1 h postinfection. A plausible explanation for this nuclear degradation is that the viral cap-dependent endonuclease in the nucleas cleaves the 5' ends of new polymerase II transcripts, rendering the resulting decapped RNAs susceptible to hydrolysis by cellular nucleases. Similar stability of cytoplasmic host cell mRNAs was observed in infected HeLa cells, in which the levels of actin mRNA and two HeLa cell mRNAs (pHe 7 and pHe 28) remained at undiminished levels for 3 h of infection and decreased only slightly by 4.5 h postinfection. The cytoplamic actin and pHe 7 mRNAs isolated from infected HeLa cells were shown to be translated in reticulocyte extracts in biro, indicating that host mRNAs were not inactivated by a virus-induced modification. Despite the continued presence of high levels of functional host cell mRNAs, host cell protein synthesis was effectively shut off by about 3 h postinfection in both chicken embryo fibroblasts and HeLa cells. These results are consistent with the establishment of an influenza virus-specific translational system that selectively translates viral and not host mRNAs.

  15. Picornavirus RNA polyadenylation by 3Dpol, the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase

    PubMed Central

    Kempf, Brian J; Barton, David J.

    2016-01-01

    Poly(A) tails are functionally important features of all picornavirus RNA genomes. Some viruses have genomes with relatively short poly(A) tails (encephalomyocarditis virus) whereas others have genomes with longer poly(A) tails (polioviruses and rhinoviruses). Here we review the polyadenylation of picornavirus RNA as it relates to the structure and function of 3Dpol. Poliovirus 3Dpol uses template-dependent reiterative transcription mechanisms as it replicates the poly(A) tails of viral RNA (Steil et al., 2010). These mechanisms are analogous to those involved in the polyadenylation of vesicular stomatitis virus and influenza virus mRNAs. 3Dpol residues intimately associated with viral RNA templates and products regulate the size of poly(A) tails in viral RNA (Kempf et al., 2013). Consistent with their ancient evolutionary origins, picornavirus 3Dpol and telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) share structural and functional features. Structurally, both 3Dpol and TERT assume a “right-hand” conformation with thumb, palm and fingers domains encircling templates and products. Functionally, both 3Dpol and TERT use template-dependent reiterative transcription mechanisms to synthesize repetitive sequences: poly(A) tails in the case of picornavirus RNA genomes and DNA telomeres in the case of eukaryotic chromosomes. Thus, picornaviruses and their eukaryotic hosts (humans & animals) maintain the 3’ ends of their respective genomes via evolutionarily related mechanisms. PMID:25559071

  16. Rbs1, a new protein implicated in RNA polymerase III biogenesis in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Cieśla, Małgorzata; Makała, Ewa; Płonka, Marta; Bazan, Rafał; Gewartowski, Kamil; Dziembowski, Andrzej; Boguta, Magdalena

    2015-04-01

    Little is known about the RNA polymerase III (Pol III) complex assembly and its transport to the nucleus. We demonstrate that a missense cold-sensitive mutation, rpc128-1007, in the sequence encoding the C-terminal part of the second largest Pol III subunit, C128, affects the assembly and stability of the enzyme. The cellular levels and nuclear concentration of selected Pol III subunits were decreased in rpc128-1007 cells, and the association between Pol III subunits as evaluated by coimmunoprecipitation was also reduced. To identify the proteins involved in Pol III assembly, we performed a genetic screen for suppressors of the rpc128-1007 mutation and selected the Rbs1 gene, whose overexpression enhanced de novo tRNA transcription in rpc128-1007 cells, which correlated with increased stability, nuclear concentration, and interaction of Pol III subunits. The rpc128-1007 rbs1Δ double mutant shows a synthetic growth defect, indicating that rpc128-1007 and rbs1Δ function in parallel ways to negatively regulate Pol III assembly. Rbs1 physically interacts with a subset of Pol III subunits, AC19, AC40, and ABC27/Rpb5. Additionally, Rbs1 interacts with the Crm1 exportin and shuttles between the cytoplasm and nucleus. We postulate that Rbs1 binds to the Pol III complex or subcomplex and facilitates its translocation to the nucleus.

  17. Genetic Transformation of Citrus Paradisi with Antisense and untranslatable RNA-dependent RNA Polymerase Genes of Citrus Tristeza Closterovirus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Expression of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) was studied in vivo and in vitro using a polyclonal antiserum raised against the recombinant CTV-RdRp protein. Although 56 kDa CTV-RdRp is thought to be expressed by a +1 translational frameshift at the carboxyl te...

  18. Rapid Enhancement of Chick Intestinal DNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase II Activity by 1α,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3, In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Zerwekh, Joseph E.; Haussler, Mark R.; Lindell, Thomas J.

    1974-01-01

    1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 was examined for its ability to affect the DNA-dependent RNA polymerases (nucleosidetriphosphate:RNA nucleotidyltransferase, EC 2.7.7.6) of rachitic chick intestinal cell nuclei in vivo. Nucleoplasmic (form II) RNA polymerase activity was stimulated 2-fold (P < 0.05) within 2-3 hr after an oral dose of 0.27 μg (0.65 nmol) of 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 to rachitic chicks. The form II polymerase activity returned to control values by 5-9 hr after dosing with the sterol. In contrast, the nucleolar (form I) RNA polymerase was not increased within this period. Solubilization of nuclear protein and resolution of the two RNA polymerases on DEAE-Sephadex also revealed that there was an increase in polymerase II activity when assayed on exogenous DNA template. This evidence suggests that 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 acts at the level of the enzymology of intestinal cell transcription and that increased mRNA synthesis after administration of this hormone cannot be due solely to a change in chromatin template activity. PMID:4526209

  19. Effect of DNA-interacting drugs on phage T7 RNA polymerase.

    PubMed

    Piestrzeniewicz, M; Studzian, K; Wilmańska, D; Płucienniczak, G; Gniazdowski, M

    1998-01-01

    9-Aminoacridine carboxamide derivatives studied here form with DNA intercalative complexes which differ in the kinetics of dissociation. Inhibition of total RNA synthesis catalyzed by phage T7 and Escherichia coli DNA-dependent RNA polymerases correlates with the formation of slowly dissociating acridine-DNA complex of time constant of 0.4-2.3 s. Their effect on RNA synthesis is compared with other ligands which form with DNA stable complexes of different steric properties. T7 RNA polymerase is more sensitive to distamycin A and netropsin than the E. coli enzyme while less sensitive to actinomycin D. Actinomycin induces terminations in the transcript synthesized by T7 RNA polymerase. Despite low dissociation rates of DNA complexes with acridines and pyrrole antibiotics no drug dependent terminations are observed with these ligands. PMID:9701505

  20. Significance of the C-terminal amino acid residue in mengovirus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase.

    PubMed

    Dmitrieva, Tatiana M; Alexeevski, Andrei V; Shatskaya, Galina S; Tolskaya, Elena A; Gmyl, Anatoly P; Khitrina, Elena V; Agol, Vadim I

    2007-08-15

    Replication of picornavirus genomes is accomplished by the virally encoded RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP). Although the primary structure of this enzyme exhibits a high level of conservation, there are several significant differences among different picornavirus genera. In particular, a comparative alignment indicates that the C-terminal sequences of cardiovirus RdRP (known also as 3D(pol)), are 1-amino-acid residue (arginine or tryptophan) longer than that of the enterovirus or rhinovirus enzymes. Here, it is shown that alterations of the last codon of the RdRP-encoding sequence of mengovirus RNA leading to deletion of the C-terminal Trp460 or its replacement by Ala or Phe dramatically impaired viral RNA replication and, in the former case, resulted in a quasi-infectious phenotype (i.e., the mutant RNA might generate a low yield of pseudorevertants acquiring a Tyr residue in place of the deleted Trp460). The replacement of Trp460 by His or Tyr did not appreciably alter the viral growth potential. Homology modeling of three-dimensional structure of mengovirus RdRP suggested that Trp460 may be involved in interaction between the thumb and palm domains of the enzyme. Specifically, Trp460 of the thumb may form a hydrogen bond with Thr219 and hydrophobically interact with Val216 of the palm. The proposed interactions were consistent with the results of in vivo SELEX experiment, which demonstrated that infectious virus could contain Ser or Thr at position 219 and hydrophobic Val, Leu, Ile, as well as Arg (whose side chain has a nonpolar part) at position 216. A similar thumb-palm domain interaction may be a general feature of several RdRPs and its possible functional significance is discussed. PMID:17467026

  1. Long non-coding RNA produced by RNA polymerase V determines boundaries of heterochromatin

    PubMed Central

    Böhmdorfer, Gudrun; Sethuraman, Shriya; Rowley, M Jordan; Krzyszton, Michal; Rothi, M Hafiz; Bouzit, Lilia; Wierzbicki, Andrzej T

    2016-01-01

    RNA-mediated transcriptional gene silencing is a conserved process where small RNAs target transposons and other sequences for repression by establishing chromatin modifications. A central element of this process are long non-coding RNAs (lncRNA), which in Arabidopsis thaliana are produced by a specialized RNA polymerase known as Pol V. Here we show that non-coding transcription by Pol V is controlled by preexisting chromatin modifications located within the transcribed regions. Most Pol V transcripts are associated with AGO4 but are not sliced by AGO4. Pol V-dependent DNA methylation is established on both strands of DNA and is tightly restricted to Pol V-transcribed regions. This indicates that chromatin modifications are established in close proximity to Pol V. Finally, Pol V transcription is preferentially enriched on edges of silenced transposable elements, where Pol V transcribes into TEs. We propose that Pol V may play an important role in the determination of heterochromatin boundaries. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.19092.001 PMID:27779094

  2. Structural bases of norovirus RNA dependent RNA polymerase inhibition by novel suramin-related compounds.

    PubMed

    Croci, Romina; Pezzullo, Margherita; Tarantino, Delia; Milani, Mario; Tsay, Shwu-Chen; Sureshbabu, Radhakrishnan; Tsai, Yi-Jin; Mastrangelo, Eloise; Rohayem, Jacques; Bolognesi, Martino; Hwu, Jih Ru

    2014-01-01

    Noroviruses (NV) are +ssRNA viruses responsible for severe gastroenteritis; no effective vaccines/antivirals are currently available. We previously identified Suramin (9) as a potent inhibitor of NV-RNA dependent RNA polymerase (NV-RdRp). Despite significant in vitro activities versus several pharmacological targets, Suramin clinical use is hampered by pharmacokinetics/toxicity problems. To improve Suramin access to NV-RdRp in vivo, a Suramin-derivative, 8, devoid of two sulphonate groups, was synthesized, achieving significant anti-human-NV-RdRp activity (IC50 = 28 nM); the compound inhibits also murine NV (mNV) RdRp. The synthesis process led to the isolation/characterization of lower molecular weight intermediates (3-7) hosting only one sulphonate head. The crystal structures of both hNV/mNV-RdRps in complex with 6, were analyzed, providing new knowledge on the interactions that a small fragment can establish with NV-RdRps, and establishing a platform for structure-guided optimization of potency, selectivity and drugability.

  3. Structural Bases of Norovirus RNA Dependent RNA Polymerase Inhibition by Novel Suramin-Related Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Tarantino, Delia; Milani, Mario; Tsay, Shwu-Chen; Sureshbabu, Radhakrishnan; Tsai, Yi-Jin; Mastrangelo, Eloise; Rohayem, Jacques; Bolognesi, Martino; Hwu, Jih Ru

    2014-01-01

    Noroviruses (NV) are +ssRNA viruses responsible for severe gastroenteritis; no effective vaccines/antivirals are currently available. We previously identified Suramin (9) as a potent inhibitor of NV-RNA dependent RNA polymerase (NV-RdRp). Despite significant in vitro activities versus several pharmacological targets, Suramin clinical use is hampered by pharmacokinetics/toxicity problems. To improve Suramin access to NV-RdRp in vivo, a Suramin-derivative, 8, devoid of two sulphonate groups, was synthesized, achieving significant anti-human-NV-RdRp activity (IC50 = 28 nM); the compound inhibits also murine NV (mNV) RdRp. The synthesis process led to the isolation/characterization of lower molecular weight intermediates (3–7) hosting only one sulphonate head. The crystal structures of both hNV/mNV-RdRps in complex with 6, were analyzed, providing new knowledge on the interactions that a small fragment can establish with NV-RdRps, and establishing a platform for structure-guided optimization of potency, selectivity and drugability. PMID:24622391

  4. Comparative analysis of RNA silencing suppression activities between viral suppressors and an endogenous plant RNA-dependent RNA polymerase.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Ju-Yeon; Han, Kyoung-Sik; Park, Han-Yong; Choi, Seung-Kook

    2012-06-01

    RNA silencing is an evolutionarily conserved system that functions as an antiviral mechanism in eukaryotes, including higher plants. To counteract this, several plant viruses express silencing suppressors that inhibit RNA silencing in host plants. Here, we show that both 2b protein from peanut stunt virus (PSV) and a hairpin construct (designated hp-RDR6) that silences endogenous RNA-dependent RNA polymerase 6 (RDR6) strongly suppress RNA silencing. The Agrobacterium infiltration system was used to demonstrate that both PSV 2b and hp-RDR6 suppressed local RNA silencing as strongly as helper component (HC-Pro) from potato virus Y (PVY) and P19 from tomato bush stunt virus (TBSV). The 2b protein from PSV eliminated the small-interfering RNAs (siRNAs) associated with RNA silencing and prevented systemic silencing, similar to 2b protein from cucumber mosaic virus (CMV). On the other hand, hp-RDR6 suppressed RNA silencing by inhibiting the generation of secondary siRNAs. The small coat protein (SCP) of squash mosaic virus (SqMV) also displayed weak suppression activity of RNA silencing. Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer was used to investigate whether viral silencing suppressors or hp-RDR6 enhanced accumulations of green fluorescence protein (GFP) and β-glucuronidase (GUS) as markers of expression in leaf tissues of Nicotina benthamiana. Expression of both GFP and GUS was significantly enhanced in the presence of PSV 2b or CMV 2b, compared to no suppression or the weak SqMV SCP suppressor. Co-expression with hp-RDR6 also significantly increased the expression of GFP and GUS to levels similar to those induced by PVY HC-Pro and TBSV P19.

  5. The Structure of the RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase of a Permutotetravirus Suggests a Link between Primer-Dependent and Primer-Independent Polymerases.

    PubMed

    Ferrero, Diego S; Buxaderas, Mònica; Rodríguez, José F; Verdaguer, Núria

    2015-12-01

    Thosea asigna virus (TaV), an insect virus belonging to the Permutatetraviridae family, has a positive-sense single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) genome with two overlapping open reading frames, encoding for the replicase and capsid proteins. The particular TaV replicase includes a structurally unique RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP) with a sequence permutation in the palm sub-domain, where the active site is anchored. This non-canonical arrangement of the RdRP palm is also found in double-stranded RNA viruses of the Birnaviridae family. Both virus families also share a conserved VPg sequence motif at the polymerase N-terminus which in birnaviruses appears to be used to covalently link a fraction of the replicase molecules to the 5'-end of the genomic segments. Birnavirus VPgs are presumed to be used as primers for replication initiation. Here we have solved the crystal structure of the TaV RdRP, the first non-canonical RdRP of a ssRNA virus, in its apo- form and bound to different substrates. The enzyme arranges as a stable dimer maintained by mutual interactions between the active site cleft of one molecule and the flexible N-terminal tail of the symmetrically related RdRP. The latter, partially mimicking the RNA template backbone, is involved in regulating the polymerization activity. As expected from previous sequence-based bioinformatics predictions, the overall architecture of the TaV enzyme shows important resemblances with birnavirus polymerases. In addition, structural comparisons and biochemical analyses reveal unexpected similarities between the TaV RdRP and those of Flaviviruses. In particular, a long loop protruding from the thumb domain towards the central enzyme cavity appears to act as a platform for de novo initiation of RNA replication. Our findings strongly suggest an unexpected evolutionary relationship between the RdRPs encoded by these distant ssRNA virus groups. PMID:26625123

  6. Nonnucleoside Inhibitor of Measles Virus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase Complex Activity▿ †

    PubMed Central

    White, Laura K.; Yoon, Jeong-Joong; Lee, Jin K.; Sun, Aiming; Du, Yuhong; Fu, Haian; Snyder, James P.; Plemper, Richard K.

    2007-01-01

    Paramyxoviruses comprise several major human pathogens. Although a live-attenuated vaccine protects against measles virus (MV), a member of the paramyxovirus family, the virus remains a principal cause of worldwide mortality and accounts for approximately 21 million cases and 300,000 to 400,000 deaths annually. The development of novel antivirals that allow improved case management of severe measles and silence viral outbreaks is thus highly desirable. We have previously described the development of novel MV fusion inhibitors. The potential for preexisting or emerging resistance in the field constitutes the rationale for the identification of additional MV inhibitors with a diverse target spectrum. Here, we report the development and implementation of a cell-based assay for high-throughput screening of MV antivirals, which has yielded several hit candidates. Following confirmation by secondary assays and chemical synthesis, the most potent hit was found to act as a target-specific inhibitor of MV replication with desirable drug-like properties. The compound proved highly active against multiple primary isolates of diverse MV genotypes currently circulating worldwide, showing active concentrations of 35 to 145 nM. Significantly, it does not interfere with viral entry and lacks cross-resistance with the MV fusion inhibitor class. Mechanistic characterization on a subinfection level revealed that the compound represents a first-in-class nonnucleoside inhibitor of MV RNA-dependent RNA polymerase complex activity. Singly or in combination with the fusion inhibitors, this novel compound class has high developmental potential as a potent therapeutic against MV and will likely further the mechanistic characterization of the viral polymerase complex. PMID:17470652

  7. Definition of the minimal viral components required for the initiation of unprimed RNA synthesis by influenza virus RNA polymerase.

    PubMed

    Lee, M T Michael; Bishop, Konrad; Medcalf, Liz; Elton, Debra; Digard, Paul; Tiley, Laurence

    2002-01-15

    The first 11 nt at the 5' end of influenza virus genomic RNA were shown to be both necessary and sufficient for specific binding by the influenza virus polymerase. A novel in vitro transcription assay, in which the polymerase was bound to paramagnetic beads via a biotinylated 5'-vRNA oligonucleotide, was used to study the activities of different forms of the polymerase. Complexes composed of co-expressed PB1/PB2/PA proteins and a sub-complex composed of PB1/PA bound to the 5'-vRNA oligonucleotide, whereas PB1 expressed alone did not. The enriched 5'-vRNA/PB1/PB2/PA complex was highly active for ApG and globin mRNA primed transcription on a model 3'-vRNA template. RNA synthesis in the absence of added primers produced products with 5'-terminal tri- or diphosphate groups, indicating that genuine unprimed initiation of transcription also occurred. No transcriptase activity was detected for the PB1/PA complex. These results demonstrate a role for PA in the enhancement of 5' end binding activity of PB1, a role for PB2 in the assembly of a polymerase complex able to perform both cap-dependent and -independent synthesis and that NP is not required for the initiation of replicative transcription.

  8. RNA Polymerase III Output Is Functionally Linked to tRNA Dimethyl-G26 Modification.

    PubMed

    Arimbasseri, Aneeshkumar G; Blewett, Nathan H; Iben, James R; Lamichhane, Tek N; Cherkasova, Vera; Hafner, Markus; Maraia, Richard J

    2015-12-01

    Control of the differential abundance or activity of tRNAs can be important determinants of gene regulation. RNA polymerase (RNAP) III synthesizes all tRNAs in eukaryotes and it derepression is associated with cancer. Maf1 is a conserved general repressor of RNAP III under the control of the target of rapamycin (TOR) that acts to integrate transcriptional output and protein synthetic demand toward metabolic economy. Studies in budding yeast have indicated that the global tRNA gene activation that occurs with derepression of RNAP III via maf1-deletion is accompanied by a paradoxical loss of tRNA-mediated nonsense suppressor activity, manifested as an antisuppression phenotype, by an unknown mechanism. We show that maf1-antisuppression also occurs in the fission yeast S. pombe amidst general activation of RNAP III. We used tRNA-HydroSeq to document that little changes occurred in the relative levels of different tRNAs in maf1Δ cells. By contrast, the efficiency of N2,N2-dimethyl G26 (m(2)2G26) modification on certain tRNAs was decreased in response to maf1-deletion and associated with antisuppression, and was validated by other methods. Over-expression of Trm1, which produces m(2)2G26, reversed maf1-antisuppression. A model that emerges is that competition by increased tRNA levels in maf1Δ cells leads to m(2)2G26 hypomodification due to limiting Trm1, reducing the activity of suppressor-tRNASerUCA and accounting for antisuppression. Consistent with this, we show that RNAP III mutations associated with hypomyelinating leukodystrophy decrease tRNA transcription, increase m(2)2G26 efficiency and reverse antisuppression. Extending this more broadly, we show that a decrease in tRNA synthesis by treatment with rapamycin leads to increased m(2)2G26 modification and that this response is conserved among highly divergent yeasts and human cells. PMID:26720005

  9. RNA Polymerase III Output Is Functionally Linked to tRNA Dimethyl-G26 Modification

    PubMed Central

    Arimbasseri, Aneeshkumar G.; Blewett, Nathan H.; Iben, James R.; Lamichhane, Tek N.; Cherkasova, Vera; Hafner, Markus; Maraia, Richard J.

    2015-01-01

    Control of the differential abundance or activity of tRNAs can be important determinants of gene regulation. RNA polymerase (RNAP) III synthesizes all tRNAs in eukaryotes and it derepression is associated with cancer. Maf1 is a conserved general repressor of RNAP III under the control of the target of rapamycin (TOR) that acts to integrate transcriptional output and protein synthetic demand toward metabolic economy. Studies in budding yeast have indicated that the global tRNA gene activation that occurs with derepression of RNAP III via maf1-deletion is accompanied by a paradoxical loss of tRNA-mediated nonsense suppressor activity, manifested as an antisuppression phenotype, by an unknown mechanism. We show that maf1-antisuppression also occurs in the fission yeast S. pombe amidst general activation of RNAP III. We used tRNA-HydroSeq to document that little changes occurred in the relative levels of different tRNAs in maf1Δ cells. By contrast, the efficiency of N2,N2-dimethyl G26 (m2 2G26) modification on certain tRNAs was decreased in response to maf1-deletion and associated with antisuppression, and was validated by other methods. Over-expression of Trm1, which produces m2 2G26, reversed maf1-antisuppression. A model that emerges is that competition by increased tRNA levels in maf1Δ cells leads to m2 2G26 hypomodification due to limiting Trm1, reducing the activity of suppressor-tRNASerUCA and accounting for antisuppression. Consistent with this, we show that RNAP III mutations associated with hypomyelinating leukodystrophy decrease tRNA transcription, increase m2 2G26 efficiency and reverse antisuppression. Extending this more broadly, we show that a decrease in tRNA synthesis by treatment with rapamycin leads to increased m2 2G26 modification and that this response is conserved among highly divergent yeasts and human cells. PMID:26720005

  10. Heat shock 70 protein interaction with Turnip mosaic virus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase within virus-induced membrane vesicles

    SciTech Connect

    Dufresne, Philippe J.; Thivierge, Karine; Cotton, Sophie; Beauchemin, Chantal; Ide, Christine; Ubalijoro, Eliane; Laliberte, Jean-Francois Fortin, Marc G.

    2008-04-25

    Tandem affinity purification was used in Arabidopsis thaliana to identify cellular interactors of Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp). The heat shock cognate 70-3 (Hsc70-3) and poly(A)-binding (PABP) host proteins were recovered and shown to interact with the RdRp in vitro. As previously shown for PABP, Hsc70-3 was redistributed to nuclear and membranous fractions in infected plants and both RdRp interactors were co-immunoprecipitated from a membrane-enriched extract using RdRp-specific antibodies. Fluorescently tagged RdRp and Hsc70-3 localized to the cytoplasm and the nucleus when expressed alone or in combination in Nicotiana benthamiana. However, they were redistributed to large perinuclear ER-derived vesicles when co-expressed with the membrane binding 6K-VPg-Pro protein of TuMV. The association of Hsc70-3 with the RdRp could possibly take place in membrane-derived replication complexes. Thus, Hsc70-3 and PABP2 are potentially integral components of the replicase complex and could have important roles to play in the regulation of potyviral RdRp functions.

  11. New insights into the promoterless transcription of DNA coligo templates by RNA polymerase III.

    PubMed

    Lama, Lodoe; Seidl, Christine I; Ryan, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Chemically synthesized DNA can carry small RNA sequence information but converting that information into small RNA is generally thought to require large double-stranded promoters in the context of plasmids, viruses and genes. We previously found evidence that circularized oligodeoxynucleotides (coligos) containing certain sequences and secondary structures can template the synthesis of small RNA by RNA polymerase III in vitro and in human cells. By using immunoprecipitated RNA polymerase III we now report corroborating evidence that this enzyme is the sole polymerase responsible for coligo transcription. The immobilized polymerase enabled experiments showing that coligo transcripts can be formed through transcription termination without subsequent 3' end trimming. To better define the determinants of productive transcription, a structure-activity relationship study was performed using over 20 new coligos. The results show that unpaired nucleotides in the coligo stem facilitate circumtranscription, but also that internal loops and bulges should be kept small to avoid secondary transcription initiation sites. A polymerase termination sequence embedded in the double-stranded region of a hairpin-encoding coligo stem can antagonize transcription. Using lessons learned from new and old coligos, we demonstrate how to convert poorly transcribed coligos into productive templates. Our findings support the possibility that coligos may prove useful as chemically synthesized vectors for the ectopic expression of small RNA in human cells.

  12. Identification of distinct biological functions for four 3′-5′ RNA polymerases

    PubMed Central

    Long, Yicheng; Abad, Maria G.; Olson, Erik D.; Carrillo, Elisabeth Y.; Jackman, Jane E.

    2016-01-01

    The superfamily of 3′-5′ polymerases synthesize RNA in the opposite direction to all other DNA/RNA polymerases, and its members include eukaryotic tRNAHis guanylyltransferase (Thg1), as well as Thg1-like proteins (TLPs) of unknown function that are broadly distributed, with family members in all three domains of life. Dictyostelium discoideum encodes one Thg1 and three TLPs (DdiTLP2, DdiTLP3 and DdiTLP4). Here, we demonstrate that depletion of each of the genes results in a significant growth defect, and that each protein catalyzes a unique biological reaction, taking advantage of specialized biochemical properties. DdiTLP2 catalyzes a mitochondria-specific tRNAHis maturation reaction, which is distinct from the tRNAHis maturation reaction typically catalyzed by Thg1 enzymes on cytosolic tRNA. DdiTLP3 catalyzes tRNA repair during mitochondrial tRNA 5′-editing in vivo and in vitro, establishing template-dependent 3′-5′ polymerase activity of TLPs as a bona fide biological activity for the first time since its unexpected discovery more than a decade ago. DdiTLP4 is cytosolic and, surprisingly, catalyzes robust 3′-5′ polymerase activity on non-tRNA substrates, strongly implying further roles for TLP 3′-5′ polymerases in eukaryotes. PMID:27484477

  13. Primer-Dependent and Primer-Independent Initiation of Double Stranded RNA Synthesis by Purified Arabidopsis RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerases RDR2 and RDR6

    PubMed Central

    Devert, Anthony; Fabre, Nicolas; Floris, Maïna; Canard, Bruno; Robaglia, Christophe; Crété, Patrice

    2015-01-01

    Cellular RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RDRs) are fundamental components of RNA silencing in plants and many other eukaryotes. In Arabidopsis thaliana genetic studies have demonstrated that RDR2 and RDR6 are involved in the synthesis of double stranded RNA (dsRNA) from single stranded RNA (ssRNA) targeted by RNA silencing. The dsRNA is subsequently cleaved by the ribonuclease DICER-like into secondary small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) that reinforce and/or maintain the silenced state of the target RNA. Models of RNA silencing propose that RDRs could use primer-independent and primer-dependent initiation to generate dsRNA from a transcript targeted by primary siRNA or microRNA (miRNA). However, the biochemical activities of RDR proteins are still partly understood. Here, we obtained active recombinant RDR2 and RDR6 in a purified form. We demonstrate that RDR2 and RDR6 have primer-independent and primer-dependent RNA polymerase activities with different efficiencies. We further show that RDR2 and RDR6 can initiate dsRNA synthesis either by elongation of 21- to 24- nucleotides RNAs hybridized to complementary RNA template or by elongation of self-primed RNA template. These findings provide new insights into our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of RNA silencing in plants. PMID:25793874

  14. Primer-dependent and primer-independent initiation of double stranded RNA synthesis by purified Arabidopsis RNA-dependent RNA polymerases RDR2 and RDR6.

    PubMed

    Devert, Anthony; Fabre, Nicolas; Floris, Maïna; Canard, Bruno; Robaglia, Christophe; Crété, Patrice

    2015-01-01

    Cellular RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RDRs) are fundamental components of RNA silencing in plants and many other eukaryotes. In Arabidopsis thaliana genetic studies have demonstrated that RDR2 and RDR6 are involved in the synthesis of double stranded RNA (dsRNA) from single stranded RNA (ssRNA) targeted by RNA silencing. The dsRNA is subsequently cleaved by the ribonuclease DICER-like into secondary small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) that reinforce and/or maintain the silenced state of the target RNA. Models of RNA silencing propose that RDRs could use primer-independent and primer-dependent initiation to generate dsRNA from a transcript targeted by primary siRNA or microRNA (miRNA). However, the biochemical activities of RDR proteins are still partly understood. Here, we obtained active recombinant RDR2 and RDR6 in a purified form. We demonstrate that RDR2 and RDR6 have primer-independent and primer-dependent RNA polymerase activities with different efficiencies. We further show that RDR2 and RDR6 can initiate dsRNA synthesis either by elongation of 21- to 24- nucleotides RNAs hybridized to complementary RNA template or by elongation of self-primed RNA template. These findings provide new insights into our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of RNA silencing in plants. PMID:25793874

  15. In Vitro Synthesis of Rous Sarcoma Virus-Specific RNA is Catalyzed by a DNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase

    PubMed Central

    Rymo, L.; Parsons, J. T.; Coffin, J. M.; Weissmann, C.

    1974-01-01

    Synthesis of Rous sarcoma virus RNA was examined in vitro with a new assay for radioactive virus-specific RNA. Nuclei from infected and uninfected cells were incubated with ribonucleoside [α-32P]triphosphates, Mn++, Mg++ and (NH4)2SO4. Incorporation into total and viral RNA proceeded with similar kinetics for up to 25 min at 37°. About 0.5% of the RNA synthesized by the infected system was scored as virus-specific, compared to 0.03% of the RNA from the uninfected system and 0.005% of the RNA synthesized by monkey kidney cell nuclei. Preincubation with DNase or actinomycin D completely suppressed total and virus-specific RNA synthesis. α-Amanitin, a specific inhibitor of eukaryotic RNA polymerase II, completely inhibited virus-specific RNA synthesis, while reducing total RNA synthesis by only 50%. We conclude that tumor virus-specific RNA is synthesized on a DNA template, most probably by the host's RNA polymerase II. PMID:4368801

  16. Degradation of DNA RNA Hybrids by Ribonuclease H and DNA Polymerases of Cellular and Viral Origin

    PubMed Central

    Keller, Walter; Crouch, Robert

    1972-01-01

    Ribonuclease H from human KB cells, chick embryos, calf thymus, avian myeloblastosis virus, and Rous associated virus specifically degrades the RNA of DNA·RNA hybrids, producing mono- and oligoribonucleotides terminated in 5′-phosphates. The cellular RNase H is an endonuclease, whereas the viral enzyme appears to be an exonuclease. Viral DNA polymerase and RNase H copurify through all separation steps. Therefore, RNase H activity is an intrinsic part of the viral DNA polymerase. DNA·RNA hybrids are also degraded by nucleases associated with cellular DNA polymerases and by exonuclease III. However, these nucleases differ from RNase H in their ability to degrade both strands of DNA·RNA hybrids. Images PMID:4343966

  17. Cytoplasmic Viral RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase Disrupts the Intracellular Splicing Machinery by Entering the Nucleus and Interfering with Prp8

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yen-Chin; Kuo, Rei-Lin; Lin, Jing-Yi; Huang, Peng-Nien; Huang, Yi; Liu, Hsuan; Arnold, Jamine J.; Chen, Shu-Jen; Wang, Robert Yung-Liang; Cameron, Craig E.; Shih, Shin-Ru

    2014-01-01

    The primary role of cytoplasmic viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) is viral genome replication in the cellular cytoplasm. However, picornaviral RdRp denoted 3D polymerase (3Dpol) also enters the host nucleus, where its function remains unclear. In this study, we describe a novel mechanism of viral attack in which 3Dpol enters the nucleus through the nuclear localization signal (NLS) and targets the pre-mRNA processing factor 8 (Prp8) to block pre-mRNA splicing and mRNA synthesis. The fingers domain of 3Dpol associates with the C-terminal region of Prp8, which contains the Jab1/MPN domain, and interferes in the second catalytic step, resulting in the accumulation of the lariat form of the splicing intermediate. Endogenous pre-mRNAs trapped by the Prp8-3Dpol complex in enterovirus-infected cells were identified and classed into groups associated with cell growth, proliferation, and differentiation. Our results suggest that picornaviral RdRp disrupts pre-mRNA splicing processes, that differs from viral protease shutting off cellular transcription and translation which contributes to the pathogenesis of viral infection. PMID:24968230

  18. Biochemical properties of full-length hepatitis C virus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase expressed in insect cells.

    PubMed

    Choi, Han-Byul; Kim, Yeon-Gu; Oh, Jong-Won

    2003-12-31

    The hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, NS5B protein, is the key viral enzyme responsible for replication of the HCV viral RNA genome. Although several full-length and truncated forms of the HCV NS5B proteins have been expressed previously in insect cells, contamination of host terminal transferase (TNTase) has hampered analysis of the RNA synthesis initiation mechanism using natural HCV RNA templates. We have expressed the HCV NS5B protein in insect cells using a recombinant baculovirus and purified it to near homogeneity without contaminated TNTase. The highly purified recombinant HCV NS5B was capable of copying 9.6-kb full-length HCV RNA template, and mini-HCV RNA carrying both 5'- and 3'-untranslated regions (UTRs) of the HCV genome. In the absence of a primer, and other cellular and viral factors, the NS5B could elongate over HCV RNA templates, but the synthesized products were primarily in the double stranded form, indicating that no cyclic replication occurred with NS5B alone. RNA synthesis using RNA templates representing the 3'-end region of HCV minus-strand RNA and the X-RNA at the 3'-end of HCV RNA genome was also initiated de novo. No formation of dimer-size self-primed RNA products resulting from extension of the 3'-end hydroxyl group was observed. Despite the internal de novo initiation from the X-RNA, the NS5B could not initiate RNA synthesis from the internal region of oligouridylic acid (U)(20), suggesting that HCV RNA polymerase initiates RNA synthesis from the selected region in the 3'-UTR of HCV genome.

  19. Transcription of ribosomal RNA: the role of antitermination of RNA polymerase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klumpp, Stefan; Hwa, Terry

    2007-03-01

    The genes encoding ribosomal RNA are transcribed at high rates of 1-2 transcripts per second. These high transcription rates are crucial to maintain the large concentration of ribosomes necessary in fast growing bacteria. To understand how transcription is regulated under these conditions, we developed a model for the traffic of transcribing RNA polymerases (RNAP). Our simulations show that the transcription rate is limited by the elongation stage of transcription rather than by transcript initiation. The maximal transcription rate is severly impaired by RNAP pausing with pause durations in the second range which is ubiquitous under single-molecule conditions. We propose that ribosomal antitermination reduces pauses and thereby increases the transcription rate. This idea is in quantitative agreement with the observed increase of the elongation rate due to antitermination and predicts a two-fold increase of the transcription rate. Antitermination must be highly efficient, since incomplete antitermination with only a few percent of non-antiterminated, i.e. slow, RNAPs completely abolishes its effect. This result suggests that rho-dependent termination may selectively terminate slow RNAPs.

  20. Nucleobase but not Sugar Fidelity is Maintained in the Sabin I RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xinran; Musser, Derek M.; Lee, Cheri A.; Yang, Xiaorong; Arnold, Jamie J.; Cameron, Craig E.; Boehr, David D.

    2015-01-01

    The Sabin I poliovirus live, attenuated vaccine strain encodes for four amino acid changes (i.e., D53N, Y73H, K250E, and T362I) in the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp). We have previously shown that the T362I substitution leads to a lower fidelity RdRp, and viruses encoding this variant are attenuated in a mouse model of poliovirus. Given these results, it was surprising that the nucleotide incorporation rate and nucleobase fidelity of the Sabin I RdRp is similar to that of wild-type enzyme, although the Sabin I RdRp is less selective against nucleotides with modified sugar groups. We suggest that the other Sabin amino acid changes (i.e., D53N, Y73H, K250E) help to re-establish nucleotide incorporation rates and nucleotide discrimination near wild-type levels, which may be a requirement for the propagation of the virus and its efficacy as a vaccine strain. These results also suggest that the nucleobase fidelity of the Sabin I RdRp likely does not contribute to viral attenuation. PMID:26516899

  1. An RNA-dependent RNA polymerase gene in bat genomes derived from an ancient negative-strand RNA virus.

    PubMed

    Horie, Masayuki; Kobayashi, Yuki; Honda, Tomoyuki; Fujino, Kan; Akasaka, Takumi; Kohl, Claudia; Wibbelt, Gudrun; Mühldorfer, Kristin; Kurth, Andreas; Müller, Marcel A; Corman, Victor M; Gillich, Nadine; Suzuki, Yoshiyuki; Schwemmle, Martin; Tomonaga, Keizo

    2016-01-01

    Endogenous bornavirus-like L (EBLL) elements are inheritable sequences derived from ancient bornavirus L genes that encode a viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) in many eukaryotic genomes. Here, we demonstrate that bats of the genus Eptesicus have preserved for more than 11.8 million years an EBLL element named eEBLL-1, which has an intact open reading frame of 1,718 codons. The eEBLL-1 coding sequence revealed that functional motifs essential for mononegaviral RdRp activity are well conserved in the EBLL-1 genes. Genetic analyses showed that natural selection operated on eEBLL-1 during the evolution of Eptesicus. Notably, we detected efficient transcription of eEBLL-1 in tissues from Eptesicus bats. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first report showing that the eukaryotic genome has gained a riboviral polymerase gene from an ancient virus that has the potential to encode a functional RdRp. PMID:27174689

  2. An RNA-dependent RNA polymerase gene in bat genomes derived from an ancient negative-strand RNA virus

    PubMed Central

    Horie, Masayuki; Kobayashi, Yuki; Honda, Tomoyuki; Fujino, Kan; Akasaka, Takumi; Kohl, Claudia; Wibbelt, Gudrun; Mühldorfer, Kristin; Kurth, Andreas; Müller, Marcel A.; Corman, Victor M.; Gillich, Nadine; Suzuki, Yoshiyuki; Schwemmle, Martin; Tomonaga, Keizo

    2016-01-01

    Endogenous bornavirus-like L (EBLL) elements are inheritable sequences derived from ancient bornavirus L genes that encode a viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) in many eukaryotic genomes. Here, we demonstrate that bats of the genus Eptesicus have preserved for more than 11.8 million years an EBLL element named eEBLL-1, which has an intact open reading frame of 1,718 codons. The eEBLL-1 coding sequence revealed that functional motifs essential for mononegaviral RdRp activity are well conserved in the EBLL-1 genes. Genetic analyses showed that natural selection operated on eEBLL-1 during the evolution of Eptesicus. Notably, we detected efficient transcription of eEBLL-1 in tissues from Eptesicus bats. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first report showing that the eukaryotic genome has gained a riboviral polymerase gene from an ancient virus that has the potential to encode a functional RdRp. PMID:27174689

  3. Human Nopp140, Which Interacts with RNA Polymerase I: Implications for rRNA Gene Transcription and Nucleolar Structural Organization

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hung-Kai; Pai, Chi-Yun; Huang, Jing-Yi; Yeh, Ning-Hsing

    1999-01-01

    Nopp140 is thought to shuttle between nucleolus and cytoplasm. However, the predominant nucleolar localization of Nopp140 homologues from different species suggests that Nopp140 is also involved in events occurring within the nucleolus. In this study, we demonstrated that the largest subunit of RNA polymerase I, RPA194, was coimmunoprecipitated with the human Nopp140 (hNopp140). Such an interaction is mediated through amino acids 204 to 382 of hNopp140. By double immunofluorescence, hNopp140 was colocalized with RNA polymerase I at the rDNA (rRNA genes) transcription active foci in the nucleolus. These results suggest that Nopp140 can interact with RNA polymerase I in vivo. Transfected cells expressing the amino-terminal half of hNopp140, hNopp140N382 (amino acids 1 to 382), displayed altered nucleoli with crescent-shaped structures. This phenotype is reminiscent of the segregated nucleoli induced by actinomycin D treatment, which is known to inhibit rRNA synthesis. Consistently, the hNopp140N382 protein mislocalized the endogenous RNA polymerase I and shut off cellular rRNA gene transcription as revealed by an in situ run-on assay. These dominant negative effects of the mutant hNopp140N382 suggest that Nopp140 plays an essential role in rDNA transcription. Interestingly, ectopic expression of hNopp140 to a very high level caused the formation of a transcriptionally inactive spherical structure occupying the entire nucleolar area which trapped the RNA polymerase I, fibrillarin, and hNopp140 but excluded the nucleolin. The mislocalizations of these nucleolar proteins after hNopp140 overexpression imply that Nopp140 may also play roles in maintenance of nucleolar integrity. PMID:10567578

  4. Flock house virus RNA polymerase initiates RNA synthesis de novo and possesses a terminal nucleotidyl transferase activity.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wenzhe; Wang, Zhaowei; Xia, Hongjie; Liu, Yongxiang; Qiu, Yang; Liu, Yujie; Hu, Yuanyang; Zhou, Xi

    2014-01-01

    Flock House virus (FHV) is a positive-stranded RNA virus with a bipartite genome of RNAs, RNA1 and RNA2, and belongs to the family Nodaviridae. As the most extensively studied nodavirus, FHV has become a well-recognized model for studying various aspects of RNA virology, particularly viral RNA replication and antiviral innate immunity. FHV RNA1 encodes protein A, which is an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP) and functions as the sole viral replicase protein responsible for RNA replication. Although the RNA replication of FHV has been studied in considerable detail, the mechanism employed by FHV protein A to initiate RNA synthesis has not been determined. In this study, we characterized the RdRP activity of FHV protein A in detail and revealed that it can initiate RNA synthesis via a de novo (primer-independent) mechanism. Moreover, we found that FHV protein A also possesses a terminal nucleotidyl transferase (TNTase) activity, which was able to restore the nucleotide loss at the 3'-end initiation site of RNA template to rescue RNA synthesis initiation in vitro, and may function as a rescue and protection mechanism to protect the 3' initiation site, and ensure the efficiency and accuracy of viral RNA synthesis. Altogether, our study establishes the de novo initiation mechanism of RdRP and the terminal rescue mechanism of TNTase for FHV protein A, and represents an important advance toward understanding FHV RNA replication. PMID:24466277

  5. One severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus protein complex integrates processive RNA polymerase and exonuclease activities.

    PubMed

    Subissi, Lorenzo; Posthuma, Clara C; Collet, Axelle; Zevenhoven-Dobbe, Jessika C; Gorbalenya, Alexander E; Decroly, Etienne; Snijder, Eric J; Canard, Bruno; Imbert, Isabelle

    2014-09-16

    In addition to members causing milder human infections, the Coronaviridae family includes potentially lethal zoonotic agents causing severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and the recently emerged Middle East respiratory syndrome. The ∼30-kb positive-stranded RNA genome of coronaviruses encodes a replication/transcription machinery that is unusually complex and composed of 16 nonstructural proteins (nsps). SARS-CoV nsp12, the canonical RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), exhibits poorly processive RNA synthesis in vitro, at odds with the efficient replication of a very large RNA genome in vivo. Here, we report that SARS-CoV nsp7 and nsp8 activate and confer processivity to the RNA-synthesizing activity of nsp12. Using biochemical assays and reverse genetics, the importance of conserved nsp7 and nsp8 residues was probed. Whereas several nsp7 mutations affected virus replication to a limited extent, the replacement of two nsp8 residues (P183 and R190) essential for interaction with nsp12 and a third (K58) critical for the interaction of the polymerase complex with RNA were all lethal to the virus. Without a loss of processivity, the nsp7/nsp8/nsp12 complex can associate with nsp14, a bifunctional enzyme bearing 3'-5' exoribonuclease and RNA cap N7-guanine methyltransferase activities involved in replication fidelity and 5'-RNA capping, respectively. The identification of this tripartite polymerase complex that in turn associates with the nsp14 proofreading enzyme sheds light on how coronaviruses assemble an RNA-synthesizing machinery to replicate the largest known RNA genomes. This protein complex is a fascinating example of the functional integration of RNA polymerase, capping, and proofreading activities. PMID:25197083

  6. One severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus protein complex integrates processive RNA polymerase and exonuclease activities

    PubMed Central

    Subissi, Lorenzo; Posthuma, Clara C.; Collet, Axelle; Zevenhoven-Dobbe, Jessika C.; Gorbalenya, Alexander E.; Decroly, Etienne; Snijder, Eric J.; Canard, Bruno; Imbert, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    In addition to members causing milder human infections, the Coronaviridae family includes potentially lethal zoonotic agents causing severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and the recently emerged Middle East respiratory syndrome. The ∼30-kb positive-stranded RNA genome of coronaviruses encodes a replication/transcription machinery that is unusually complex and composed of 16 nonstructural proteins (nsps). SARS-CoV nsp12, the canonical RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), exhibits poorly processive RNA synthesis in vitro, at odds with the efficient replication of a very large RNA genome in vivo. Here, we report that SARS-CoV nsp7 and nsp8 activate and confer processivity to the RNA-synthesizing activity of nsp12. Using biochemical assays and reverse genetics, the importance of conserved nsp7 and nsp8 residues was probed. Whereas several nsp7 mutations affected virus replication to a limited extent, the replacement of two nsp8 residues (P183 and R190) essential for interaction with nsp12 and a third (K58) critical for the interaction of the polymerase complex with RNA were all lethal to the virus. Without a loss of processivity, the nsp7/nsp8/nsp12 complex can associate with nsp14, a bifunctional enzyme bearing 3′-5′ exoribonuclease and RNA cap N7-guanine methyltransferase activities involved in replication fidelity and 5′-RNA capping, respectively. The identification of this tripartite polymerase complex that in turn associates with the nsp14 proofreading enzyme sheds light on how coronaviruses assemble an RNA-synthesizing machinery to replicate the largest known RNA genomes. This protein complex is a fascinating example of the functional integration of RNA polymerase, capping, and proofreading activities. PMID:25197083

  7. Rifampicin-resistance, rpoB polymorphism and RNA polymerase genetic engineering.

    PubMed

    Alifano, Pietro; Palumbo, Carla; Pasanisi, Daniela; Talà, Adelfia

    2015-05-20

    Following its introduction in 1967, rifampicin has become a mainstay of therapy in the treatment of tuberculosis, leprosy and many other widespread diseases. Its potent antibacterial activity is due to specific inhibition of bacterial RNA polymerase. However, resistance to rifampicin was reported shortly after its introduction in the medical practice. Studies in the model organism Escherichia coli helped to define the molecular mechanism of rifampicin-resistance demonstrating that resistance is mostly due to chromosomal mutations in rpoB gene encoding the RNA polymerase β chain. These studies also revealed the amazing potential of the molecular genetics to elucidate the structure-function relationships in bacterial RNA polymerase. The scope of this paper is to illustrate how rifampicin-resistance has been recently exploited to better understand the regulatory mechanisms that control bacterial cell physiology and virulence, and how this information has been used to maneuver, on a global scale, gene expression in bacteria of industrial interest. In particular, we reviewed recent literature regarding: (i) the effects of rpoB mutations conferring rifampicin-resistance on transcription dynamics, bacterial fitness, physiology, metabolism and virulence; (ii) the occurrence in nature of "mutant-type" or duplicated rifampicin-resistant RNA polymerases; and (iii) the RNA polymerase genetic engineering method for strain improvement and drug discovery.

  8. Inhibition of RNA polymerase by captan at both DNA and substrate binding sites.

    PubMed

    Luo, G; Lewis, R A

    1992-12-01

    RNA synthesis carried out in vitro by Escherichia coli RNA polymerase was inhibited irreversibly by captan when T7 DNA was used as template. An earlier report and this one show that captan blocks the DNA binding site on the enzyme. Herein, it is also revealed that captan acts at the nucleoside triphosphate (NTP) binding site, and kinetic relationships of the action of captan at the two sites are detailed. The inhibition by captan via the DNA binding site of the enzyme was confirmed by kinetic studies and it was further shown that [14C]captan bound to the beta' subunit of RNA polymerase. This subunit contains the DNA binding site. Competitive-like inhibition by captan versus UTP led to the conclusion that captan also blocked the NTP binding site. In support of this conclusion, [14C]captan was observed to bind to the beta subunit which contains the NTP binding site. Whereas, preincubation of RNA polymerase with both DNA and NTPs prevented captan inhibition, preincubation with either DNA or NTPs alone was insufficient to protect the enzyme from the action of captan. Furthermore, the interaction of [14C]captan with the beta and beta' subunits was not prevented by a similar preincubation. Captan also bound, to a lesser extent, to the alpha and sigma subunits. Therefore, captan binding appears to involve interaction with RNA polymerase at sites in addition to those for DNA and NTP; however, this action does not inhibit the polymerase activity.

  9. Potent Host-Directed Small-Molecule Inhibitors of Myxovirus RNA-Dependent RNA-Polymerases

    PubMed Central

    Krumm, Stefanie A.; Ndungu, J. Maina; Yoon, Jeong-Joong; Dochow, Melanie; Sun, Aiming; Natchus, Michael; Snyder, James P.; Plemper, Richard K.

    2011-01-01

    Therapeutic targeting of host cell factors required for virus replication rather than of pathogen components opens new perspectives to counteract virus infections. Anticipated advantages of this approach include a heightened barrier against the development of viral resistance and a broadened pathogen target spectrum. Myxoviruses are predominantly associated with acute disease and thus are particularly attractive for this approach since treatment time can be kept limited. To identify inhibitor candidates, we have analyzed hit compounds that emerged from a large-scale high-throughput screen for their ability to block replication of members of both the orthomyxovirus and paramyxovirus families. This has returned a compound class with broad anti-viral activity including potent inhibition of different influenza virus and paramyxovirus strains. After hit-to-lead chemistry, inhibitory concentrations are in the nanomolar range in the context of immortalized cell lines and human PBMCs. The compound shows high metabolic stability when exposed to human S-9 hepatocyte subcellular fractions. Antiviral activity is host-cell species specific and most pronounced in cells of higher mammalian origin, supporting a host-cell target. While the compound induces a temporary cell cycle arrest, host mRNA and protein biosynthesis are largely unaffected and treated cells maintain full metabolic activity. Viral replication is blocked at a post-entry step and resembles the inhibition profile of a known inhibitor of viral RNA-dependent RNA-polymerase (RdRp) activity. Direct assessment of RdRp activity in the presence of the reagent reveals strong inhibition both in the context of viral infection and in reporter-based minireplicon assays. In toto, we have identified a compound class with broad viral target range that blocks host factors required for viral RdRp activity. Viral adaptation attempts did not induce resistance after prolonged exposure, in contrast to rapid adaptation to a pathogen

  10. Determination of RNA polymerase binding surfaces of transcription factors by NMR spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Drögemüller, Johanna; Strauß, Martin; Schweimer, Kristian; Jurk, Marcel; Rösch, Paul; Knauer, Stefan H.

    2015-01-01

    In bacteria, RNA polymerase (RNAP), the central enzyme of transcription, is regulated by N-utilization substance (Nus) transcription factors. Several of these factors interact directly, and only transiently, with RNAP to modulate its function. As details of these interactions are largely unknown, we probed the RNAP binding surfaces of Escherichia coli (E. coli) Nus factors by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Perdeuterated factors with [1H,13C]-labeled methyl groups of Val, Leu, and Ile residues were titrated with protonated RNAP. After verification of this approach with the N-terminal domain (NTD) of NusG and RNAP we determined the RNAP binding site of NusE. It overlaps with the NusE interaction surface for the NusG C-terminal domain, indicating that RNAP and NusG compete for NusE and suggesting possible roles for the NusE:RNAP interaction, e.g. in antitermination and direct transcription:translation coupling. We solved the solution structure of NusA-NTD by NMR spectroscopy, identified its RNAP binding site with the same approach we used for NusG-NTD, and here present a detailed model of the NusA-NTD:RNAP:RNA complex. PMID:26560741

  11. RNA polymerase III in Cajal bodies and lampbrush chromosomes of the Xenopus oocyte nucleus.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Christine; Wang, Zhengxin; Roeder, Robert G; Gall, Joseph G

    2002-10-01

    We used immunofluorescence to study the distribution and targeting of RNA polymerase (pol) III subunits and pol III transcription factors in the Xenopus laevis oocyte nucleus. Antibodies against several of these proteins stained Cajal bodies and approximately 90 specific sites on the lampbrush chromosomes. Some of the chromosomal sites had been identified previously by in situ hybridization as the genes for 5S rRNA. The remaining sites presumably encode tRNAs and other pol III transcripts. Pol III sites were often resolvable as loops similar to the much more abundant pol II loops, but without a matrix detectable by phase contrast or differential interference contrast. This morphology is consistent with the transcription of short repeated sequences. Hemagglutinin-tagged transcripts encoding core subunits and transcription factors were injected into the oocyte cytoplasm, and the distribution of newly translated proteins inside the nucleus was monitored by immunostaining. Cajal bodies were preferentially targeted by these proteins, and in some cases the chromosomal sites were also weakly stained. The existence of pol III subunits and pol III transcription factors in Cajal bodies and their targeting to these organelles are consistent with a model of Cajal bodies as sites for preassembly of the nuclear transcription machinery. PMID:12388750

  12. Novel application of Phi29 DNA polymerase: RNA detection and analysis in vitro and in situ by target RNA-primed RCA

    PubMed Central

    Lagunavicius, Arunas; Merkiene, Egle; Kiveryte, Zivile; Savaneviciute, Agne; Zimbaite-Ruskuliene, Vilma; Radzvilavicius, Tomas; Janulaitis, Arvydas

    2009-01-01

    We present a novel Phi29 DNA polymerase application in RCA-based target RNA detection and analysis. The 3′→5′ RNase activity of Phi29 DNA polymerase converts target RNA into a primer and the polymerase uses this newly generated primer for RCA initiation. Therefore, using target RNA-primed RCA, padlock probes may be targeted to inner RNA sequences and their peculiarities can be analyzed directly. We demonstrate that the exoribonucleolytic activity of Phi29 DNA polymerase can be successfully applied in vitro and in situ. These findings expand the potential for detection and analysis of RNA sequences distanced from 3′-end. PMID:19244362

  13. Interactions between the Influenza A Virus RNA Polymerase Components and Retinoic Acid-Inducible Gene I

    PubMed Central

    Li, Weizhong; Chen, Hongjun; Sutton, Troy; Obadan, Adebimpe

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The influenza A virus genome possesses eight negative-strand RNA segments in the form of viral ribonucleoprotein particles (vRNPs) in association with the three viral RNA polymerase subunits (PB2, PB1, and PA) and the nucleoprotein (NP). Through interactions with multiple host factors, the RNP subunits play vital roles in replication, host adaptation, interspecies transmission, and pathogenicity. In order to gain insight into the potential roles of RNP subunits in the modulation of the host's innate immune response, the interactions of each RNP subunit with retinoic acid-inducible gene I protein (RIG-I) from mammalian and avian species were investigated. Studies using coimmunoprecipitation (co-IP), bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFc), and colocalization using confocal microscopy provided direct evidence for the RNA-independent binding of PB2, PB1, and PA with RIG-I from various hosts (human, swine, mouse, and duck). In contrast, the binding of NP with RIG-I was found to be RNA dependent. Expression of the viral NS1 protein, which interacts with RIG-I, did not interfere with the association of RNA polymerase subunits with RIG-I. The association of each individual virus polymerase component with RIG-I failed to significantly affect the interferon (IFN) induction elicited by RIG-I and 5′ triphosphate (5′ppp) RNA in reporter assays, quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR), and IRF3 phosphorylation tests. Taken together, these findings indicate that viral RNA polymerase components PB2, PB1, and PA directly target RIG-I, but the exact biological significance of these interactions in the replication and pathogenicity of influenza A virus needs to be further clarified. IMPORTANCE RIG-I is an important RNA sensor to elicit the innate immune response in mammals and some bird species (such as duck) upon influenza A virus infection. Although the 5′-triphosphate double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) panhandle structure at the end of viral genome RNA is

  14. DIS3 shapes the RNA polymerase II transcriptome in humans by degrading a variety of unwanted transcripts.

    PubMed

    Szczepińska, Teresa; Kalisiak, Katarzyna; Tomecki, Rafal; Labno, Anna; Borowski, Lukasz S; Kulinski, Tomasz M; Adamska, Dorota; Kosinska, Joanna; Dziembowski, Andrzej

    2015-11-01

    Human DIS3, the nuclear catalytic subunit of the exosome complex, contains exonucleolytic and endonucleolytic active domains. To identify DIS3 targets genome-wide, we combined comprehensive transcriptomic analyses of engineered HEK293 cells that expressed mutant DIS3, with Photoactivatable Ribonucleoside-Enhanced Cross-Linking and Immunoprecipitation (PAR-CLIP) experiments. In cells expressing DIS3 with both catalytic sites mutated, RNAs originating from unannotated genomic regions increased ∼2.5-fold, covering ∼70% of the genome and allowing for thousands of novel transcripts to be discovered. Previously described pervasive transcription products, such as Promoter Upstream Transcripts (PROMPTs), accumulated robustly upon DIS3 dysfunction, representing a significant fraction of PAR-CLIP reads. We have also detected relatively long putative premature RNA polymerase II termination products of protein-coding genes whose levels in DIS3 mutant cells can exceed the mature mRNAs, indicating that production of such truncated RNA is a common phenomenon. In addition, we found DIS3 to be involved in controlling the formation of paraspeckles, nuclear bodies that are organized around NEAT1 lncRNA, whose short form was overexpressed in cells with mutated DIS3. Moreover, the DIS3 mutations resulted in misregulation of expression of ∼50% of transcribed protein-coding genes, probably as a secondary effect of accumulation of various noncoding RNA species. Finally, cells expressing mutant DIS3 accumulated snoRNA precursors, which correlated with a strong PAR-CLIP signal, indicating that DIS3 is the main snoRNA-processing enzyme. EXOSC10 (RRP6) instead controls the levels of the mature snoRNAs. Overall, we show that DIS3 has a major nucleoplasmic function in shaping the human RNA polymerase II transcriptome.

  15. DIS3 shapes the RNA polymerase II transcriptome in humans by degrading a variety of unwanted transcripts

    PubMed Central

    Szczepińska, Teresa; Kalisiak, Katarzyna; Tomecki, Rafal; Labno, Anna; Borowski, Lukasz S.; Kulinski, Tomasz M.; Adamska, Dorota; Kosinska, Joanna; Dziembowski, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Human DIS3, the nuclear catalytic subunit of the exosome complex, contains exonucleolytic and endonucleolytic active domains. To identify DIS3 targets genome-wide, we combined comprehensive transcriptomic analyses of engineered HEK293 cells that expressed mutant DIS3, with Photoactivatable Ribonucleoside-Enhanced Cross-Linking and Immunoprecipitation (PAR-CLIP) experiments. In cells expressing DIS3 with both catalytic sites mutated, RNAs originating from unannotated genomic regions increased ∼2.5-fold, covering ∼70% of the genome and allowing for thousands of novel transcripts to be discovered. Previously described pervasive transcription products, such as Promoter Upstream Transcripts (PROMPTs), accumulated robustly upon DIS3 dysfunction, representing a significant fraction of PAR-CLIP reads. We have also detected relatively long putative premature RNA polymerase II termination products of protein-coding genes whose levels in DIS3 mutant cells can exceed the mature mRNAs, indicating that production of such truncated RNA is a common phenomenon. In addition, we found DIS3 to be involved in controlling the formation of paraspeckles, nuclear bodies that are organized around NEAT1 lncRNA, whose short form was overexpressed in cells with mutated DIS3. Moreover, the DIS3 mutations resulted in misregulation of expression of ∼50% of transcribed protein-coding genes, probably as a secondary effect of accumulation of various noncoding RNA species. Finally, cells expressing mutant DIS3 accumulated snoRNA precursors, which correlated with a strong PAR-CLIP signal, indicating that DIS3 is the main snoRNA-processing enzyme. EXOSC10 (RRP6) instead controls the levels of the mature snoRNAs. Overall, we show that DIS3 has a major nucleoplasmic function in shaping the human RNA polymerase II transcriptome. PMID:26294688

  16. Transcription elongation. Heterogeneous tracking of RNA polymerase and its biological implications.

    PubMed

    Imashimizu, Masahiko; Shimamoto, Nobuo; Oshima, Taku; Kashlev, Mikhail

    2014-01-01

    Regulation of transcription elongation via pausing of RNA polymerase has multiple physiological roles. The pausing mechanism depends on the sequence heterogeneity of the DNA being transcribed, as well as on certain interactions of polymerase with specific DNA sequences. In order to describe the mechanism of regulation, we introduce the concept of heterogeneity into the previously proposed alternative models of elongation, power stroke and Brownian ratchet. We also discuss molecular origins and physiological significances of the heterogeneity.

  17. Characterization of a nuclear localization signal in the foot-and-mouth disease virus polymerase

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez-Aparicio, Maria Teresa; Rosas, Maria Flora; Sobrino, Francisco

    2013-09-15

    We have experimentally tested whether the MRKTKLAPT sequence in FMDV 3D protein (residues 16 to 24) can act as a nuclear localization signal (NLS). Mutants with substitutions in two basic residues within this sequence, K18E and K20E, were generated. A decreased nuclear localization was observed in transiently expressed 3D and its precursor 3CD, suggesting a role of K18 and K20 in nuclear targeting. Fusion of MRKTKLAPT to the green fluorescence protein (GFP) increased the nuclear localization of GFP, which was not observed when GFP was fused to the 3D mutated sequences. These results indicate that the sequence MRKTKLAPT can be functionally considered as a NLS. When introduced in a FMDV full length RNA replacements K18E and K20E led to production of revertant viruses that replaced the acidic residues introduced (E) by K, suggesting that the presence of lysins at positions 18 and 20 of 3D is essential for virus multiplication. - Highlights: • The FMDV 3D polymerase contains a nuclear localization signal. • Replacements K18E and K20E decrease nuclear localization of 3D and its precursor 3CD. • Fusion of the MRKTKLAPT 3D motif to GFP increases the nuclear localization of GFP. • Replacements K18E and K20E abolish the ability of MRKTKLAPT to relocate GFP. • RNAs harboring replacements K18E and K20E lead to recovery of revertant FMDVs.

  18. [Role of RNA-polymerase in gene activity regulation of E. coli RNA-polymerase mutants with a pleiotropic effect. I. Physiological and biochemical studies].

    PubMed

    Kamzolova, S G; Arutiunian, A V; Ozolin', O N; Oganesian, M G

    1979-01-01

    Four Rifr-mutants of E. coli B/r (rpo B401, rpo B402, rpo B403, rpo B409) which differ from the wild strain in one or more phenotypic properties besides rifampicin resistance were obtained. Transfer of the mutant Rifr-alleles into the parent strain gives the latter all the properties of the mutant. This indicates that the new properties are due to the pleiotropic effect of Rifr-mutations. Biochemical studies of the properties of RNA-polymerases from the mutants and the parent showed that some new properties of the mutants could not be explained by the appearance of analogous properties in the mutant RNA-polymerase itself. They seem to be caused by alteration in functional activity of the mutant enzyme, particulary, alteration of its control properties during transcription. The function of the beta-subunit in genetic transcription is discussed.

  19. The C-terminal domain revealed in the structure of RNA polymerase II.

    PubMed

    Meredith, G D; Chang, W H; Li, Y; Bushnell, D A; Darst, S A; Kornberg, R D

    1996-05-10

    The location of the CTD in the structure of RNA polymerase II has been determined by electron crystallography at 16 A resolution. Difference maps between wild-type enzyme and that lacking the CTD, or with an antibody fragment bound in place of the CTD, disclose the site of attachment of the CTD to the polymerase. Appropriate display of the polymerase structure reveals the CTD as an element projecting from this site of attachment into solution. A low relative density and large volume of this element identify the CTD as a conformationally mobile region.

  20. A protein kinase from wheat germ that phosphorylates the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II.

    PubMed Central

    Guilfoyle, T J

    1989-01-01

    A protein kinase from wheat germ that phosphorylates the largest subunit of RNA polymerase IIA has been partially purified and characterized. The kinase has a native molecular weight of about 200 kilodaltons. This kinase utilizes Mg2+ and ATP and transfers about 20 phosphates to the heptapeptide repeats Pro-Thr-Ser-Pro-Ser-Tyr-Ser in the carboxyl-terminal domain of the 220-kilodalton subunit of soybean RNA polymerase II. This phosphorylation results in a mobility shift of the 220-kilodalton subunits of a variety of eukaryotic RNA polymerases to polypeptides ranging in size from greater than 220 kilodaltons to 240 kilodaltons on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels. The phosphorylation is highly specific to the heptapeptide repeats since a degraded subunit polypeptide of 180 kilodaltons that lacks the heptapeptide repeats is poorly phosphorylated. Synthetic heptapeptide repeat multimers inhibit the phosphorylation of the 220-kilodalton subunit. PMID:2535525

  1. Active site labeling of the RNA polymerases A, B, and C from yeast.

    PubMed

    Riva, M; Schäffner, A R; Sentenac, A; Hartmann, G R; Mustaev, A A; Zaychikov, E F; Grachev, M A

    1987-10-25

    RNA polymerases A, B, and C from yeast were modified by reaction with 4-formylphenyl-gamma-ester of ATP as priming nucleotide followed by reduction with NaBH4. Upon phosphodiester bond formation with [alpha-32P]UTP, only the second largest subunit, A135, B150, or C128, was labeled in a template-dependent reaction. This indicates that these polypeptide chains are functionally homologous. The product covalently bound to B150 subunit was found to consist of a mixture of ApU and a trinucleotide. Enzyme labeling exhibited the characteristic alpha-amanitin sensitivity reported for A and B RNA polymerases. Labeling of both large subunits of enzyme A and B but not of any of the smaller subunits was observed when the reduction step stabilizing the binding of the priming nucleotide was carried out after limited chain elongation. These results illustrate the conservative evolution of the active site of eukaryotic RNA polymerases.

  2. Mapping of Protein-Protein Interactions of E. coli RNA Polymerase with Microfluidic Mechanical Trapping

    PubMed Central

    Bates, Steven R.; Quake, Stephen R.

    2014-01-01

    The biophysical details of how transcription factors and other proteins interact with RNA polymerase are of great interest as they represent the nexus of how structure and function interact to regulate gene expression in the cell. We used an in vitro microfluidic approach to map interactions between a set of ninety proteins, over a third of which are transcription factors, and each of the four subunits of E. coli RNA polymerase, and we compared our results to those of previous large-scale studies. We detected interactions between RNA polymerase and transcription factors that earlier high-throughput screens missed; our results suggest that such interactions can occur without DNA mediation more commonly than previously appreciated. PMID:24643045

  3. Disruption of the 5' stem-loop of yeast U6 RNA induces trimethylguanosine capping of this RNA polymerase III transcript in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Kwan, S; Gerlach, V L; Brow, D A

    2000-01-01

    Primary transcripts made by RNA polymerase II (Pol II), but not Pol I or Pol III, are modified by addition of a 7-methylguanosine (m7G) residue to the triphosphate 5' end shortly after it emerges from the polymerase. The m7G "caps" of small nuclear and small nucleolar RNAs, but not messenger RNAs, are subsequently hypermethylated to a 2,2,7-trimethylguanosine (TMG) residue. U6 RNA, the only small nuclear RNA synthesized by Pol III in most eukaryotes, does not receive a methylguanosine cap. However, human U6 RNA is O-methylated on the 5'-terminal (gamma) phosphate by an enzyme that recognizes the 5' stem-loop of U6. Here we show that variant yeast U6 RNAs truncated or substituted within the 5' stem-loop are TMG capped in vivo. Accumulation of the most efficiently TMG-capped U6 RNA variant is strongly inhibited by a conditional mutation in the largest subunit of Pol III, confirming that it is indeed synthesized by Pol III. Thus, methylguanosine capping and cap hypermethylation are not exclusive to Pol II transcripts in yeast. We propose that TMG capping of variant U6 RNAs occurs posttranscriptionally due to exposure of the 5' triphosphate by disruption of protein binding and/or gamma-methyl phosphate capping. 5' truncation and TMG capping of U6 RNA does not appear to affect its normal function in splicing, suggesting that assembly and action of the spliceosome is not very sensitive to the 5' end structure of U6 RNA. PMID:11142384

  4. An HDAC inhibitor enhances cancer therapeutic efficiency of RNA polymerase III promoter-driven IDO shRNA.

    PubMed

    Yen, M-C; Weng, T-Y; Chen, Y-L; Lin, C-C; Chen, C-Y; Wang, C-Y; Chao, H-L; Chen, C-S; Lai, M-D

    2013-06-01

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are used in treating certain human malignancies. Our laboratories demonstrated their capability in enhancing antitumor effect of DNA vaccine driven by an RNA polymerase II (RNA pol II) promoter. However, it is unknown whether HDAC inhibitors enhance the therapeutic short hairpin RNA (shRNA) expressed by an RNA polymerase III (RNA pol III) promoter. We investigated whether HDAC inhibitors augmented antitumor effect of indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase (IDO) shRNA. HDAC inhibitor OSU-HDAC42 and suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid enhanced RNA pol III-driven U6 and H1 promoter activity in three different cell types in vitro: 293, NIH3T3 and dendritic cell line DC2.4. Subcutaneous injection of OSU-HDAC42 enhanced U6 and H1 promoter activity on abdominal skin of mice in vivo. Combination of IDO shRNA and OSU-HDAC42 increased antitumor effect of IDO shRNA in MBT-2 murine bladder tumor model. IDO shRNA induced tumor-infiltrating CD8⁺ and CD4⁺ T cells, whereas OSU-HDAC42 treatment induced tumor-infiltrating CD4⁺ T cells. Combination of OSU-HDAC42 and IDO shRNA further induced tumor-infiltrating natural killer cells and enhanced interferon-γ in lymphocytes, but suppressed interleukin (IL)-4 expression of lymphocytes. In addition, OSU-HDAC42 treatment did not alter mRNA expression of IL-12 and tumor necrosis factor-α. In conclusion, HDAC inhibitor OSU-HDAC42 may serve as adjuvant of the therapeutic shRNA expressed by an RNA pol III promoter.

  5. Structure of Hepatitis C Virus Polymerase in Complex with Primer-Template RNA

    SciTech Connect

    Mosley, Ralph T.; Edwards, Thomas E.; Murakami, Eisuke; Lam, Angela M.; Grice, Rena L.; Du, Jinfa; Sofia, Michael J.; Furman, Philip A.; Otto, Michael J.

    2012-08-01

    The replication of the hepatitis C viral (HCV) genome is accomplished by the NS5B RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), for which mechanistic understanding and structure-guided drug design efforts have been hampered by its propensity to crystallize in a closed, polymerization-incompetent state. The removal of an autoinhibitory {beta}-hairpin loop from genotype 2a HCV NS5B increases de novo RNA synthesis by >100-fold, promotes RNA binding, and facilitated the determination of the first crystallographic structures of HCV polymerase in complex with RNA primer-template pairs. These crystal structures demonstrate the structural realignment required for primer-template recognition and elongation, provide new insights into HCV RNA synthesis at the molecular level, and may prove useful in the structure-based design of novel antiviral compounds. Additionally, our approach for obtaining the RNA primer-template-bound structure of HCV polymerase may be generally applicable to solving RNA-bound complexes for other viral RdRps that contain similar regulatory {beta}-hairpin loops, including bovine viral diarrhea virus, dengue virus, and West Nile virus.

  6. CarD: a new RNA polymerase modulator in mycobacteria.

    PubMed

    Stallings, Christina L; Glickman, Michael S

    2011-01-01

    Mycobacteria CarD is an essential RNAP binding protein that regulates many transcripts including rRNA. This article will review our present state of knowledge regarding CarD and compare the known functions of CarD with other RNAP binding proteins in E. coli, emphasizing how this information can guide future investigations.

  7. Structure and Function of the N-Terminal Domain of the Vesicular Stomatitis Virus RNA Polymerase

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Shihong; Ogino, Minako; Luo, Ming

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Viruses have various mechanisms to duplicate their genomes and produce virus-specific mRNAs. Negative-strand RNA viruses encode their own polymerases to perform each of these processes. For the nonsegmented negative-strand RNA viruses, the polymerase is comprised of the large polymerase subunit (L) and the phosphoprotein (P). L proteins from members of the Rhabdoviridae, Paramyxoviridae, and Filoviridae share sequence and predicted secondary structure homology. Here, we present the structure of the N-terminal domain (conserved region I) of the L protein from a rhabdovirus, vesicular stomatitis virus, at 1.8-Å resolution. The strictly and strongly conserved residues in this domain cluster in a single area of the protein. Serial mutation of these residues shows that many of the amino acids are essential for viral transcription but not for mRNA capping. Three-dimensional alignments show that this domain shares structural homology with polymerases from other viral families, including segmented negative-strand RNA and double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) viruses. IMPORTANCE Negative-strand RNA viruses include a diverse set of viral families that infect animals and plants, causing serious illness and economic impact. The members of this group of viruses share a set of functionally conserved proteins that are essential to their replication cycle. Among this set of proteins is the viral polymerase, which performs a unique set of reactions to produce genome- and subgenome-length RNA transcripts. In this article, we study the polymerase of vesicular stomatitis virus, a member of the rhabdoviruses, which has served in the past as a model to study negative-strand RNA virus replication. We have identified a site in the N-terminal domain of the polymerase that is essential to viral transcription and that shares sequence homology with members of the paramyxoviruses and the filoviruses. Newly identified sites such as that described here could prove to be useful targets in the

  8. High-throughput identification of compounds targeting influenza RNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity

    PubMed Central

    Su, Ching-Yao; Cheng, Ting-Jen R.; Lin, Meng-I.; Wang, Shi-Yun; Huang, Wen-I.; Lin-Chu, Shao-Ying; Chen, Yu-Hou; Wu, Chung-Yi; Lai, Michael M. C.; Cheng, Wei-Chieh; Wu, Ying-Ta; Tsai, Ming-Daw; Cheng, Yih-Shyun E.; Wong, Chi-Huey

    2010-01-01

    As influenza viruses have developed resistance towards current drugs, new inhibitors that prevent viral replication through different inhibitory mechanisms are useful. In this study, we developed a screening procedure to search for new antiinfluenza inhibitors from 1,200,000 compounds and identified previously reported as well as new antiinfluenza compounds. Several antiinfluenza compounds were inhibitory to the influenza RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP), including nucleozin and its analogs. The most potent nucleozin analog, 3061 (FA-2), inhibited the replication of the influenza A/WSN/33 (H1N1) virus in MDCK cells at submicromolar concentrations and protected the lethal H1N1 infection of mice. Influenza variants resistant to 3061 (FA-2) were isolated and shown to have the mutation on nucleoprotein (NP) that is distinct from the recently reported resistant mutation of Y289H [Kao R, et al. (2010) Nat Biotechnol 28:600]. Recombinant influenza carrying the Y52H NP is also resistant to 3061 (FA-2), and NP aggregation induced by 3061 (FA-2) was identified as the most likely cause for inhibition. In addition, we identified another antiinfluenza RdRP inhibitor 367 which targets PB1 protein but not NP. A mutant resistant to 367 has H456P mutation at the PB1 protein and both the recombinant influenza and the RdRP expressing the PB1 H456P mutation have elevated resistance to 367. Our high-throughput screening (HTS) campaign thus resulted in the identification of antiinfluenza compounds targeting RdRP activity. PMID:20974907

  9. Conditional mutations occur predominantly in highly conserved residues of RNA polymerase II subunits.

    PubMed Central

    Scafe, C; Martin, C; Nonet, M; Podos, S; Okamura, S; Young, R A

    1990-01-01

    Conditional mutations in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae RNA polymerase II large subunit, RPB1, were obtained by introducing a mutagenized RPB1 plasmid into yeast cells, selecting for loss of the wild-type RPB1 gene, and screening the cells for heat or cold sensitivity. Sequence analysis of 10 conditional RPB1 mutations and 10 conditional RPB2 mutations revealed that the amino acid residues altered by these distinct mutations are nearly always invariant among eucaryotic RPB1 and RPB2 homologs. These results suggest that RNA polymerase mutants might be obtained in other eucaryotic organisms by alteration of these invariant residues. Images PMID:2406567

  10. The RNA-dependent-RNA polymerase, an emerging antiviral drug target for the Hendra virus.

    PubMed

    Velkov, Tony; Carbone, Vincenzo; Akter, Jesmin; Sivanesan, Sivashangarie; Li, Jian; Beddoe, Travis; Marsh, Glenn A

    2014-01-01

    Australia is facing a major national medical challenge with the emergence of the Hendra virus (HeV) as a medically and economically important pathogen of humans and animals. Clinical symptoms of human HeV infection can include fever, hypotension, dizziness, encephalitis, respiratory haemorrhage and edema. The window of opportunity for successful patient treatment remains unknown, but is likely to be very narrow. Currently, very few effective therapeutic options are available for the case management of severe HeV infections or the rapid silencing of local outbreaks. This underscores the need for more activity in the drug discovery arena to develop much needed therapeutics that specifically targets this deadly disease. The structural analysis of HeV is very much in its infancy, which leaves many gaps in our understanding of the biology of HeV and makes structure-guided drug design difficult. Structural studies of the viral RNAdependent- RNA polymerase (RdRp), which is the heart of the viral replication machinery, will set the stage for rational drug design and fill a major gap in our understanding of the HeV replication machinery. This review examines the current knowledge based on the multi-domain architecture of the Hendra RdRp and highlights which essential domain functions represent tangible targets for drug development against this deadly disease.

  11. The RNA-dependent-RNA polymerase, an emerging antiviral drug target for the Hendra virus.

    PubMed

    Velkov, Tony; Carbone, Vincenzo; Akter, Jesmin; Sivanesan, Sivashangarie; Li, Jian; Beddoe, Travis; Marsh, Glenn A

    2014-01-01

    Australia is facing a major national medical challenge with the emergence of the Hendra virus (HeV) as a medically and economically important pathogen of humans and animals. Clinical symptoms of human HeV infection can include fever, hypotension, dizziness, encephalitis, respiratory haemorrhage and edema. The window of opportunity for successful patient treatment remains unknown, but is likely to be very narrow. Currently, very few effective therapeutic options are available for the case management of severe HeV infections or the rapid silencing of local outbreaks. This underscores the need for more activity in the drug discovery arena to develop much needed therapeutics that specifically targets this deadly disease. The structural analysis of HeV is very much in its infancy, which leaves many gaps in our understanding of the biology of HeV and makes structure-guided drug design difficult. Structural studies of the viral RNAdependent- RNA polymerase (RdRp), which is the heart of the viral replication machinery, will set the stage for rational drug design and fill a major gap in our understanding of the HeV replication machinery. This review examines the current knowledge based on the multi-domain architecture of the Hendra RdRp and highlights which essential domain functions represent tangible targets for drug development against this deadly disease. PMID:24102407

  12. Enzymatic activity of poliovirus RNA polymerase mutants with single amino acid changes in the conserved YGDD amino acid motif.

    PubMed

    Jablonski, S A; Luo, M; Morrow, C D

    1991-09-01

    RNA-dependent RNA polymerases contain a highly conserved region of amino acids with a core segment composed of the amino acids YGDD which have been hypothesized to be at or near the catalytic active site of the molecule. Six mutations in this conserved YGDD region of the poliovirus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase were made by using oligonucleotide site-directed DNA mutagenesis of the poliovirus cDNA to substitute A, C, M, P, S, or V for the amino acid G. The mutant polymerase genes were expressed in Escherichia coli, and the purified RNA polymerases were tested for in vitro enzyme activity. Two of the mutant RNA polymerases (those in which the glycine residue was replaced with alanine or serine) exhibited in vitro enzymatic activity ranging from 5 to 20% of wild-type activity, while the remaining mutant RNA polymerases were inactive. Alterations in the in vitro reaction conditions by modification of temperature, metal ion concentration, or pH resulted in no significant differences in the activities of the mutant RNA polymerases relative to that of the wild-type enzyme. An antipeptide antibody directed against the wild-type core amino acid segment containing the YGDD region of the poliovirus polymerase reacted with the wild-type recombinant RNA polymerase and to a limited extent with the two enzymatically active mutant polymerases; the antipeptide antibody did not react with the mutant RNA polymerases which did not have in vitro enzyme activity. These results are discussed in the context of secondary-structure predictions for the core segment containing the conserved YGDD amino acids in the poliovirus RNA polymerase. PMID:1651402

  13. The Structure of the RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase of a Permutotetravirus Suggests a Link between Primer-Dependent and Primer-Independent Polymerases

    PubMed Central

    Ferrero, Diego S.; Buxaderas, Mònica; Rodríguez, José F.; Verdaguer, Núria

    2015-01-01

    Thosea asigna virus (TaV), an insect virus belonging to the Permutatetraviridae family, has a positive-sense single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) genome with two overlapping open reading frames, encoding for the replicase and capsid proteins. The particular TaV replicase includes a structurally unique RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP) with a sequence permutation in the palm sub-domain, where the active site is anchored. This non-canonical arrangement of the RdRP palm is also found in double-stranded RNA viruses of the Birnaviridae family. Both virus families also share a conserved VPg sequence motif at the polymerase N-terminus which in birnaviruses appears to be used to covalently link a fraction of the replicase molecules to the 5’-end of the genomic segments. Birnavirus VPgs are presumed to be used as primers for replication initiation. Here we have solved the crystal structure of the TaV RdRP, the first non-canonical RdRP of a ssRNA virus, in its apo- form and bound to different substrates. The enzyme arranges as a stable dimer maintained by mutual interactions between the active site cleft of one molecule and the flexible N-terminal tail of the symmetrically related RdRP. The latter, partially mimicking the RNA template backbone, is involved in regulating the polymerization activity. As expected from previous sequence-based bioinformatics predictions, the overall architecture of the TaV enzyme shows important resemblances with birnavirus polymerases. In addition, structural comparisons and biochemical analyses reveal unexpected similarities between the TaV RdRP and those of Flaviviruses. In particular, a long loop protruding from the thumb domain towards the central enzyme cavity appears to act as a platform for de novo initiation of RNA replication. Our findings strongly suggest an unexpected evolutionary relationship between the RdRPs encoded by these distant ssRNA virus groups. PMID:26625123

  14. RNAs nonspecifically inhibit RNA polymerase II by preventing binding to the DNA template.

    PubMed

    Pai, Dave A; Kaplan, Craig D; Kweon, Hye Kyong; Murakami, Kenji; Andrews, Philip C; Engelke, David R

    2014-05-01

    Many RNAs are known to act as regulators of transcription in eukaryotes, including certain small RNAs that directly inhibit RNA polymerases both in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. We have examined the potential for a variety of RNAs to directly inhibit transcription by yeast RNA polymerase II (Pol II) and find that unstructured RNAs are potent inhibitors of purified yeast Pol II. Inhibition by RNA is achieved by blocking binding of the DNA template and requires binding of the RNA to Pol II prior to open complex formation. RNA is not able to displace a DNA template that is already stably bound to Pol II, nor can RNA inhibit elongating Pol II. Unstructured RNAs are more potent inhibitors than highly structured RNAs and can also block specific transcription initiation in the presence of basal transcription factors. Crosslinking studies with ultraviolet light show that unstructured RNA is most closely associated with the two large subunits of Pol II that comprise the template binding cleft, but the RNA has contacts in a basic residue channel behind the back wall of the active site. These results are distinct from previous observations of specific inhibition by small, structured RNAs in that they demonstrate a sensitivity of the holoenzyme to inhibition by unstructured RNA products that bind to a surface outside the DNA cleft. These results are discussed in terms of the need to prevent inhibition by RNAs, either though sequestration of nascent RNA or preemptive interaction of Pol II with the DNA template.

  15. The juxtamembrane sequence of the Hepatitis C virus polymerase can affect RNA synthesis and inhibition by allosteric polymerase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Wen, Y; Lin, X; Fan, B; Ranjith-Kumar, C T; Kao, C C

    2015-08-01

    The Hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), nonstructural protein 5B (NS5B), is anchored in the membrane through a C-terminal helix. A sequence of ca. 12 residues that connects the catalytically competent portion of the RdRp and the C-terminal helix, the juxtamembrane sequence (JMS), has a poorly defined role in RdRp function in a large part since it is translated from a cis-acting RNA element (CRE) that is essential for HCV replication. Using a HCV replicon that transposed a second copy of CRE to the 3' UTR of the HCV replicon, we demonstrate that amino acid substitutions in the JMS were detrimental for HCV replicon replication. Substitutions in the JMS also resulted in a defect in de novo-initiated RNAs synthesis in vitro and in a cell-based reporter assay. A nonnucleoside inhibitor of the NS5B that binds to the catalytic pocket was less potent in inhibiting NS5B in the presence of JMS mutations. The JMS mutants exhibit reduced stability in thermodenaturation assays, suggesting that the JMS helps confer a more stable conformation to NS5B that could impact RNA synthesis. PMID:25895103

  16. In vitro analysis of a transcription termination site for RNA polymerase II.

    PubMed Central

    Wiest, D K; Hawley, D K

    1990-01-01

    Transcription from the adenovirus major late (ML) promoter has previously been shown to pause or terminate prematurely in vivo and in vitro at a site within the first intron of the major late transcription unit. We are studying the mechanism of elongation arrest at this site in vitro to define the DNA sequences and proteins that determine the elongation behavior of RNA polymerase II. Our assay system consists of a nuclear extract prepared from cultured human cells. With standard reaction conditions, termination is not observed downstream of the ML promoter. However, in the presence of Sarkosyl, up to 80% of the transcripts terminate 186 nucleotides downstream of the start site. Using this assay, we showed that the DNA sequences required to promote maximal levels of termination downstream of the ML promoter reside within a 65-base-pair region and function in an orientation-dependent manner. To test whether elongation complexes from the ML promoter were functionally homogeneous, we determined the termination efficiency at each of two termination sites placed in tandem. We found that the behavior of the elongation complexes was different at these sites, with termination being greater at the downstream site over a wide range of Sarkosyl concentrations. This result ruled out a model in which the polymerases that read through the first site were stably modified to antiterminate. We also demonstrated that the ability of the elongation complexes to respond to the ML termination site was promoter specific, as the site did not function efficiently downstream of a heterologous promoter. Taken together, the results presented here are not consistent with the simplest class of models that have been proposed previously for the mechanism of Sarkosyl-induced termination. Images PMID:2233718

  17. The human interferon-regulated ISG95 protein interacts with RNA polymerase II and shows methyltransferase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Haline-Vaz, Thais; Lima Silva, Tereza Cristina; Zanchin, Nilson I.T.

    2008-08-08

    A major mechanism of cellular resistance to viral invasion involves genes from the interferon signaling pathway, called ISGs (interferon stimulated genes). Global transcriptional profiling studies have linked increased expression of ISG95 (KIAA0082) to response to interferon treatment and viral infection, suggesting that it may be part of the cellular defense against viral replication. In this work, we show that the ISG95 promoter can drive interferon-induced transcription of a reporter gene in Vero cells. Recombinant ISG95 shows RNA- and S-adenosyl-methionine binding and protein methyltransferase activity in vitro. ISG95 interacts with the C-terminal domain of RNA polymerase II, which is consistent with its nuclear localization and with the predicted function of the WW domain found in the C-terminal region of ISG95. The results presented in this work indicate that ISG95 is part of the interferon response pathway and functions in the pre-mRNA processing events mediated by the C-terminal domain of the RNA polymerase II.

  18. Production of RNA by a polymerase protein encapsulated within phospholipid vesicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chakrabarti, A. C.; Breaker, R. R.; Joyce, G. F.; Deamer, D. W.

    1994-01-01

    Catalyzed polymerization reactions represent a primary anabolic activity of all cells. It can be assumed that early cells carried out such reactions, in which macromolecular catalysts were encapsulated within some type of boundary membrane. In the experiments described here, we show that a template-independent RNA polymerase (polynucleotide phosphorylase) can be encapsulated in dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine vesicles without substrate. When the substrate adenosine diphosphate (ADP) was provided externally, long-chain RNA polymers were synthesized within the vesicles. Substrate flux was maximized by maintaining the vesicles at the phase transition temperature of the component lipid. A protease was introduced externally as an additional control. Free enzyme was inactivated under identical conditions. RNA products were visualized in situ by ethidium bromide fluorescence. The products were harvested from the liposomes, radiolabeled, and analyzed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Encapsulated catalysts represent a model for primitive cellular systems in which an RNA polymerase was entrapped within a protected microenvironment.

  19. RNA polymerase B from Drosophila melanogaster larvae. Purification and partial characterization.

    PubMed

    Greenleaf, A L; Bautz, E K

    1975-12-01

    A purification procedure is described by which we obtained DNA-dependent RNA polymerase B (or II) from third-instar larvae of Drosophila melanogaster in essentially pure form. The enzyme is similar to the analogous polymerases from other eukaryotes in its enzymic and structural properties. It preferentially transcribes DNAs containing single-stranded regions, and it is inhibited by low amounts of the toxin alpha-amanitin; 50% inhibition occurs at an alpha-amanitin concentration of 0.03 mug/ml. Dodecylsulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis resolves the purified Drosophila polymerase B into ten polypeptides with molecular weights as follows: 1 (174000), 2 (137000), 3 (34000), 4 (22000), 5 (18000), 6 and 7 (16000), 8 (15000), and 9 and 10 (less than 15000). The relative amounts of polypeptides 1-4 were constant at molar ratios of approximately 1:1:1:2 in different preparations of the enzyme, while the amounts of polypeptides 5-10 showed more variation. An antiserum directed against the Drosophila RNA polymerase B inhibited the activity in vitro of the B enzymes from Drosophila, yeast, and calf thymus. However, only the Drosophila enzyme gave a precipitin reaction with the antiserum. When the antiserum was added to Drosophila RNA polymerase B at different stages of the purification, the resulting precipitates were found to contain nearly constant proportions of seven of the ten polypeptides present in the purified enzyme. PMID:812697

  20. Unique double-stranded RNAs associated with the Trichomonas vaginalis virus are synthesized by viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase.

    PubMed Central

    Khoshnan, A; Provenzano, D; Alderete, J F

    1994-01-01

    Most Trichomonas vaginalis isolates are carriers of the multisegmented double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) virus. In vitro polymerase assays were performed to demonstrate the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RDRP) activity of purified particles. Transcripts which comigrated with the dsRNAs of the virus were readily detected as synthesized products, indicating viral RDRP activity. In addition, smaller-sized dsRNA species, possibly two of approximately 700 bp (s1) and one of 500 bp (s2), were synthesized by purified virus particles of the CsCl gradient surrounding the virus peak. No cross-hybridization with either s1 or s2 and the dsRNA segments occurred, suggesting that s1 and s2 were synthesized from different templates. An RNase A protection assay revealed that the synthesized s1 and s2 polymerase products were double stranded. Furthermore, hybridization of products with strand-specific RNA of s1 generated from cDNA indicated that only one strand was synthesized in vitro. s1 and s2 were not visualized in ethidium bromide-stained agarose gels of dsRNA of infected trichomonads grown in batch cultures. However, dsRNA profiles of the same infected organisms cultivated under defined continuous-flow conditions contained readily detectable levels of s1 and s2, indicating that amplification of s1 and s2 occurred under specific environmental conditions. These newly discovered dsRNAs were not detected in all of the virus-carrying isolates. Finally, it is noteworthy that the s1 and s2 dsRNAs and the RDRP activity were not detected in trichomonal isolates without virus or in virus-negative progeny derived from virus-positive parental isolates. These data indicate the possibility of variations in the number of dsRNAs and/or of the presence of satellites in trichomonads infected with the multisegmented virus. Images PMID:7933092

  1. Photobleaching reveals complex effects of inhibitors on transcribing RNA polymerase II in living cells

    SciTech Connect

    Fromaget, Maud; Cook, Peter R. . E-mail: peter.cook@path.ox.ac.uk

    2007-08-15

    RNA polymerase II transcribes most eukaryotic genes. Photobleaching studies have revealed that living Chinese hamster ovary cells expressing the catalytic subunit of the polymerase tagged with the green fluorescent protein contain a large rapidly exchanging pool of enzyme, plus a smaller engaged fraction; genetic complementation shows this tagged polymerase to be fully functional. We investigated how transcriptional inhibitors - some of which are used therapeutically - affect the engaged fraction in living cells using fluorescence loss in photobleaching; all were used at concentrations that have reversible effects. Various kinase inhibitors (roscovitine, DRB, KM05283, alsterpaullone, isoquinolinesulfonamide derivatives H-7, H-8, H-89, H-9), proteasomal inhibitors (lactacystin, MG132), and an anti-tumour agent (cisplatin) all reduced the engaged fraction; an intercalator (actinomycin D), two histone deacetylase inhibitors (trichostatin A, sodium butyrate), and irradiation with ultra-violet light all increased it. The polymerase proves to be both a sensitive sensor and effector of the response to these inhibitors.

  2. Unravelling the mechanism of RNA-polymerase forward motion by using mechanical force.

    PubMed

    Thomen, Philippe; Lopez, Pascal J; Heslot, François

    2005-04-01

    Polymerases form a class of enzymes that act as molecular motors as they move along their nucleic acid substrate during catalysis, incorporating nucleotide triphosphates at the end of the growing chain and consuming chemical energy. A debated issue is how the enzyme converts chemical energy into motion [J. Gelles and R. Landick, Cell 93, 13 (1998)]. In a single molecule assay, we studied how an opposing mechanical force affects the translocation rate of T7 RNA polymerase. Our measurements show that force acts as a competitive inhibitor of nucleotide binding. This result is interpreted in the context of possible models, and with respect to published crystal structures of T7 RNA polymerase. The transcribing complex appears to utilize only a small fraction of the energy of hydrolysis to perform mechanical work, with the remainder being converted to heat.

  3. A synthetic growth switch based on controlled expression of RNA polymerase.

    PubMed

    Izard, Jérôme; Gomez Balderas, Cindy D C; Ropers, Delphine; Lacour, Stephan; Song, Xiaohu; Yang, Yifan; Lindner, Ariel B; Geiselmann, Johannes; de Jong, Hidde

    2015-11-23

    The ability to control growth is essential for fundamental studies of bacterial physiology and biotechnological applications. We have engineered an Escherichia coli strain in which the transcription of a key component of the gene expression machinery, RNA polymerase, is under the control of an inducible promoter. By changing the inducer concentration in the medium, we can adjust the RNA polymerase concentration and thereby switch bacterial growth between zero and the maximal growth rate supported by the medium. We show that our synthetic growth switch functions in a medium-independent and reversible way, and we provide evidence that the switching phenotype arises from the ultrasensitive response of the growth rate to the concentration of RNA polymerase. We present an application of the growth switch in which both the wild-type E. coli strain and our modified strain are endowed with the capacity to produce glycerol when growing on glucose. Cells in which growth has been switched off continue to be metabolically active and harness the energy gain to produce glycerol at a twofold higher yield than in cells with natural control of RNA polymerase expression. Remarkably, without any further optimization, the improved yield is close to the theoretical maximum computed from a flux balance model of E. coli metabolism. The proposed synthetic growth switch is a promising tool for gaining a better understanding of bacterial physiology and for applications in synthetic biology and biotechnology.

  4. Mutations in the three largest subunits of yeast RNA polymerase II that affect enzyme assembly.

    PubMed Central

    Kolodziej, P A; Young, R A

    1991-01-01

    Mutations in the three largest subunits of yeast RNA polymerase II (RPB1, RPB2, and RPB3) were investigated for their effects on RNA polymerase II structure and assembly. Among 23 temperature-sensitive mutations, 6 mutations affected enzyme assembly, as assayed by immunoprecipitation of epitope-tagged subunits. In all six assembly mutants, RNA polymerase II subunits synthesized at the permissive temperature were incorporated into stably assembled, immunoprecipitable enzyme and remained stably associated when cells were shifted to the nonpermissive temperature, whereas subunits synthesized at the nonpermissive temperature were not incorporated into a completely assembled enzyme. The observation that subunit subcomplexes accumulated in assembly-mutant cells at the nonpermissive temperature led us to investigate whether these subcomplexes were assembly intermediates or merely byproducts of mutant enzyme instability. The time course of assembly of RPB1, RPB2, and RPB3 was investigated in wild-type cells and subsequently in mutant cells. Glycerol gradient fractionation of extracts of cells pulse-labeled for various times revealed that a subcomplex of RPB2 and RPB3 appears soon after subunit synthesis and can be chased into fully assembled enzyme. The RPB2-plus-RPB3 subcomplexes accumulated in all RPB1 assembly mutants at the nonpermissive temperature but not in an RPB2 or RPB3 assembly mutant. These data indicate that RPB2 and RPB3 form a complex that subsequently interacts with RPB1 during the assembly of RNA polymerase II. Images PMID:1715023

  5. Falling for the dark side of transcription: Nab2 fosters RNA polymerase III transcription

    PubMed Central

    Reuter, L. Maximilian; Sträßer, Katja

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT RNA polymerase III (RNAPIII) synthesizes diverse, small, non-coding RNAs with many important roles in the cellular metabolism. One of the open questions of RNAPIII transcription is whether and how additional factors are involved. Recently, Nab2 was identified as the first messenger ribonucleoprotein particle (mRNP) biogenesis factor with a function in RNAPIII transcription. PMID:27049816

  6. A synthetic growth switch based on controlled expression of RNA polymerase.

    PubMed

    Izard, Jérôme; Gomez Balderas, Cindy D C; Ropers, Delphine; Lacour, Stephan; Song, Xiaohu; Yang, Yifan; Lindner, Ariel B; Geiselmann, Johannes; de Jong, Hidde

    2015-11-01

    The ability to control growth is essential for fundamental studies of bacterial physiology and biotechnological applications. We have engineered an Escherichia coli strain in which the transcription of a key component of the gene expression machinery, RNA polymerase, is under the control of an inducible promoter. By changing the inducer concentration in the medium, we can adjust the RNA polymerase concentration and thereby switch bacterial growth between zero and the maximal growth rate supported by the medium. We show that our synthetic growth switch functions in a medium-independent and reversible way, and we provide evidence that the switching phenotype arises from the ultrasensitive response of the growth rate to the concentration of RNA polymerase. We present an application of the growth switch in which both the wild-type E. coli strain and our modified strain are endowed with the capacity to produce glycerol when growing on glucose. Cells in which growth has been switched off continue to be metabolically active and harness the energy gain to produce glycerol at a twofold higher yield than in cells with natural control of RNA polymerase expression. Remarkably, without any further optimization, the improved yield is close to the theoretical maximum computed from a flux balance model of E. coli metabolism. The proposed synthetic growth switch is a promising tool for gaining a better understanding of bacterial physiology and for applications in synthetic biology and biotechnology. PMID:26596932

  7. Transcriptional termination in mammals: Stopping the RNA polymerase II juggernaut.

    PubMed

    Proudfoot, Nick J

    2016-06-10

    Terminating transcription is a highly intricate process for mammalian protein-coding genes. First, the chromatin template slows down transcription at the gene end. Then, the transcript is cleaved at the poly(A) signal to release the messenger RNA. The remaining transcript is selectively unraveled and degraded. This induces critical conformational changes in the heart of the enzyme that trigger termination. Termination can also occur at variable positions along the gene and so prevent aberrant transcript formation or intentionally make different transcripts. These may form multiple messenger RNAs with altered regulatory properties or encode different proteins. Finally, termination can be perturbed to achieve particular cellular needs or blocked in cancer or virally infected cells. In such cases, failure to terminate transcription can spell disaster for the cell. PMID:27284201

  8. DNA slip-outs cause RNA polymerase II arrest in vitro: potential implications for genetic instability

    PubMed Central

    Salinas-Rios, Viviana; Belotserkovskii, Boris P.; Hanawalt, Philip C.

    2011-01-01

    The abnormal number of repeats found in triplet repeat diseases arises from ‘repeat instability’, in which the repetitive section of DNA is subject to a change in copy number. Recent studies implicate transcription in a mechanism for repeat instability proposed to involve RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) arrest caused by a CTG slip-out, triggering transcription-coupled repair (TCR), futile cycles of which may lead to repeat expansion or contraction. In the present study, we use defined DNA constructs to directly test whether the structures formed by CAG and CTG repeat slip-outs can cause transcription arrest in vitro. We found that a slip-out of (CAG)20 or (CTG)20 repeats on either strand causes RNAPII arrest in HeLa cell nuclear extracts. Perfect hairpins and loops on either strand also cause RNAPII arrest. These findings are consistent with a transcription-induced repeat instability model in which transcription arrest in mammalian cells may initiate a ‘gratuitous’ TCR event leading to a change in repeat copy number. An understanding of the underlying mechanism of repeat instability could lead to intervention to slow down expansion and delay the onset of many neurodegenerative diseases in which triplet repeat expansion is implicated. PMID:21666257

  9. Study of RNA Polymerase II Clustering inside Live-Cell Nuclei Using Bayesian Nanoscopy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xuanze; Wei, Mian; Zheng, M Mocarlo; Zhao, Jiaxi; Hao, Huiwen; Chang, Lei; Xi, Peng; Sun, Yujie

    2016-02-23

    Nanoscale spatiotemporal clustering of RNA polymerase II (Pol II) plays an important role in transcription regulation. However, dynamics of individual Pol II clusters in live-cell nuclei has not been measured directly, prohibiting in-depth understanding of their working mechanisms. In this work, we studied the dynamics of Pol II clustering using Bayesian nanoscopy in live mammalian cell nuclei. With 50 nm spatial resolution and 4 s temporal resolution, Bayesian nanoscopy allows direct observation of the assembly and disassembly dynamics of individual Pol II clusters. The results not only provide quantifications of Pol II clusters but also shed light on the understanding of cluster formation and regulation. Our study suggests that transcription factories form on-demand and recruit Pol II molecules in their pre-elongation phase. The assembly and disassembly of individual Pol II clusters take place asynchronously. Overall, the methods developed herein are also applicable to studying a wide realm of real-time nanometer-scale nuclear processes in live cells.

  10. Higher-level phylogeny of Foraminifera inferred from the RNA polymerase II (RPB1) gene.

    PubMed

    Longet, David; Pawlowski, Jan

    2007-08-01

    Macroevolutionary relations among main lineages of Foraminifera have traditionally been inferred from the small subunit ribosomal genes (SSU rDNA). However, important discrepancies in the rates of SSU rDNA evolution between major lineages led to difficulties in accurate interpretation of SSU-based phylogenetic reconstructions. Recently, actin and beta-tubulin sequences have been used as alternative markers of foraminiferal phylogeny and their analyses globally confirm results obtained with SSU rDNA. In order to test new protein markers, we sequenced a fragment of the largest subunit of the RNA polymerase II (RPB1), a nuclear encoded single copy gene, for 8 foraminiferal species representing major orders of Foraminifera. Analyses of our data robustly confirm previous SSU rDNA and actin phylogenies and show (i) the paraphyly and ancestral position of monothalamid Foraminifera; (ii) the independent origin of miliolids; (iii) the monophyly of rotaliids, including buliminids and globigerinids; and (iv) the polyphyly of planktonic families Globigerinidae and Candeinidae. Additionally, the RPB1 phylogeny suggests Allogromiidae as the most ancestral foraminiferal lineage. In the light of our study, RPB1 appears as a valuable phylogenetic marker, particularly useful for groups of protists showing extreme variations of evolutionary rates in ribosomal genes.

  11. Transcription of potato spindle tuber viroid by RNA polymerase II starts in the left terminal loop

    SciTech Connect

    Kolonko, Nadine; Bannach, Oliver; Aschermann, Katja; Hu, Kang-Hong; Moors, Michaela; Schmitz, Michael; Steger, Gerhard; Riesner, Detlev . E-mail: riesner@biophys.uni-duesseldorf.de

    2006-04-10

    Viroids are single-stranded, circular RNAs of 250 to 400 bases, that replicate autonomously in their host plants but do not code for a protein. Viroids of the family Pospiviroidae, of which potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd) is the type strain, are replicated by the host's DNA-dependent RNA polymerase II in the nucleus. To analyze the initiation site of transcription from the (+)-stranded circles into (-)-stranded replication intermediates, we used a nuclear extract from a non-infected cell culture of the host plant S. tuberosum. The (-)-strands, which were de novo-synthesized in the extract upon addition of circular (+)-PSTVd, were purified by affinity chromatography. This purification avoided contamination by host nucleic acids that had resulted in a misassignment of the start site in an earlier study. Primer-extension analysis of the de novo-synthesized (-)-strands revealed a single start site located in the hairpin loop of the left terminal region in circular PSTVd's secondary structure. This start site is supported further by analysis of the infectivity and replication behavior of site-directed mutants in planta.

  12. Specific binding of tryptophan transfer RNA to avian myeloblastosis virus RNA-dependent DNA polymerase (reverse transcriptase).

    PubMed Central

    Panet, A; Haseltine, W A; Baltimore, D; Peters, G; Harada, F; Dahlberg, J E

    1975-01-01

    The ability of tryptophan tRNA (tRNATrp) to initiate reverse transcription of the 70S RNA of avian RNA tumor viruses suggested that the reverse transcriptase (RNA-dependent DNA polymerase; deoxynucleosidetriphosphate: DNA deoxynucleotidyltransferase; EC 2.7.7.7) might have a specific binding site for the tRNA. A complex of tRNATrp and the avian myeloblastosis virus reverse transcriptase has been demonstrated using chromatography on Sephadex G-100 columns. Of all the chicken tRNAs, only tRNATrp and a tRNA4Met bind to the enzyme with high enough affinity to be selected from a mixture of the chicken cell tRNAs. The ability of tRNATrp to change the sedimentation rate of the enzyme indicates that tRNATrp is not binding to a contaminant in the enzyme preparation. Treatment of the enzyme with monospecific antibody to reverse transcriptase prevented binding of tRNA as well as inhibited the DNA polymerase activity of the enzyme. The ability of reverse transcriptase to utilize tRNATrp aa a primer for DNA synthesis, therefore, appears to involve a highly specific site on the enzyme. Images PMID:52156

  13. In situ structures of the segmented genome and RNA polymerase complex inside a dsRNA virus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xing; Ding, Ke; Yu, Xuekui; Chang, Winston; Sun, Jingchen; Hong Zhou, Z.

    2015-11-01

    Viruses in the Reoviridae, like the triple-shelled human rotavirus and the single-shelled insect cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus (CPV), all package a genome of segmented double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs) inside the viral capsid and carry out endogenous messenger RNA synthesis through a transcriptional enzyme complex (TEC). By direct electron-counting cryoelectron microscopy and asymmetric reconstruction, we have determined the organization of the dsRNA genome inside quiescent CPV (q-CPV) and the in situ atomic structures of TEC within CPV in both quiescent and transcribing (t-CPV) states. We show that the ten segmented dsRNAs in CPV are organized with ten TECs in a specific, non-symmetric manner, with each dsRNA segment attached directly to a TEC. The TEC consists of two extensively interacting subunits: an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP) and an NTPase VP4. We find that the bracelet domain of RdRP undergoes marked conformational change when q-CPV is converted to t-CPV, leading to formation of the RNA template entry channel and access to the polymerase active site. An amino-terminal helix from each of two subunits of the capsid shell protein (CSP) interacts with VP4 and RdRP. These findings establish the link between sensing of environmental cues by the external proteins and activation of endogenous RNA transcription by the TEC inside the virus.

  14. A multiplicity of factors contributes to selective RNA polymerase III occupancy of a subset of RNA polymerase III genes in mouse liver.

    PubMed

    Canella, Donatella; Bernasconi, David; Gilardi, Federica; LeMartelot, Gwendal; Migliavacca, Eugenia; Praz, Viviane; Cousin, Pascal; Delorenzi, Mauro; Hernandez, Nouria

    2012-04-01

    The genomic loci occupied by RNA polymerase (RNAP) III have been characterized in human culture cells by genome-wide chromatin immunoprecipitations, followed by deep sequencing (ChIP-seq). These studies have shown that only ∼40% of the annotated 622 human tRNA genes and pseudogenes are occupied by RNAP-III, and that these genes are often in open chromatin regions rich in active RNAP-II transcription units. We have used ChIP-seq to characterize RNAP-III-occupied loci in a differentiated tissue, the mouse liver. Our studies define the mouse liver RNAP-III-occupied loci including a conserved mammalian interspersed repeat (MIR) as a potential regulator of an RNAP-III subunit-encoding gene. They reveal that synteny relationships can be established between a number of human and mouse RNAP-III genes, and that the expression levels of these genes are significantly linked. They establish that variations within the A and B promoter boxes, as well as the strength of the terminator sequence, can strongly affect RNAP-III occupancy of tRNA genes. They reveal correlations with various genomic features that explain the observed variation of 81% of tRNA scores. In mouse liver, loci represented in the NCBI37/mm9 genome assembly that are clearly occupied by RNAP-III comprise 50 Rn5s (5S RNA) genes, 14 known non-tRNA RNAP-III genes, nine Rn4.5s (4.5S RNA) genes, and 29 SINEs. Moreover, out of the 433 annotated tRNA genes, half are occupied by RNAP-III. Transfer RNA gene expression levels reflect both an underlying genomic organization conserved in dividing human culture cells and resting mouse liver cells, and the particular promoter and terminator strengths of individual genes.

  15. The Choice of Alternative 5' Splice Sites in Influenza Virus M1 mRNA is Regulated by the Viral Polymerase Complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shih, Shin-Ru; Nemeroff, Martin E.; Krug, Robert M.

    1995-07-01

    The influenza virus M1 mRNA has two alternative 5' splice sites: a distal 5' splice site producing mRNA_3 that has the coding potential for 9 amino acids and a proximal 5' splice site producing M2 mRNA encoding the essential M2 ion-channel protein. Only mRNA_3 was made in uninfected cells transfected with DNA expressing M1 mRNA. Similarly, using nuclear extracts from uninfected cells, in vitro splicing of M1 mRNA yielded only mRNA_3. Only when the mRNA_3 5' splice site was inactivated by mutation was M2 mRNA made in uninfected cells and in uninfected cell extracts. In influenza virus-infected cells, M2 mRNA was made, but only after a delay, suggesting that newly synthesized viral gene product(s) were needed to activate the M2 5' splice site. We present strong evidence that these gene products are the complex of the three polymerase proteins, the same complex that functions in the transcription and replication of the viral genome. Gel shift experiments showed that the viral polymerase complex bound to the 5' end of the viral M1 mRNA in a sequence-specific and cap-dependent manner. During in vitro splicing catalyzed by uninfected cell extracts, the binding of the viral polymerase complex blocked the mRNA_3 5' splice site, resulting in the switch to the M2 mRNA 5' splice site and the production of M2 mRNA.

  16. A suppressor of an RNA polymerase II mutation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae encodes a subunit common to RNA polymerases I, II, and III.

    PubMed Central

    Archambault, J; Schappert, K T; Friesen, J D

    1990-01-01

    RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) is a complex multisubunit enzyme responsible for the synthesis of pre-mRNA in eucaryotes. The enzyme is made of two large subunits associated with at least eight smaller polypeptides, some of which are common to all three RNA polymerase species. We have initiated a genetic analysis of RNAPII by introducing mutations in RPO21, the gene encoding the largest subunit of RNAPII in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We have used a yeast genomic library to isolate plasmids that can suppress a temperature-sensitive mutation in RPO21 (rpo21-4), with the goal of identifying gene products that interact with the largest subunit of RNAPII. We found that increased expression of wild-type RPO26, a single-copy, essential gene encoding a 155-amino-acid subunit common to RNAPI, RNAPII, and RNAPIII, suppressed the rpo21-4 temperature-sensitive mutation. Mutations were constructed in vitro that resulted in single amino acid changes in the carboxy-terminal portion of the RPO26 gene product. One temperature-sensitive mutation, as well as some mutations that did not by themselves generate a phenotype, were lethal in combination with rpo21-4. These results support the idea that the RPO26 and RPO21 gene products interact. Images PMID:2247052

  17. Mechanism for Coordinated RNA Packaging and Genome Replication by Rotavirus Polymerase VP1

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Xiaohui; McDonald, Sarah M.; Tortorici, M. Alejandra; Tao, Yizhi Jane; Vasquez-Del Carpio, Rodrigo; Nibert, Max L.; Patton, John T.; Harrison, Stephen C.

    2009-04-08

    Rotavirus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase VP1 catalyzes RNA synthesis within a subviral particle. This activity depends on core shell protein VP2. A conserved sequence at the 3' end of plus-strand RNA templates is important for polymerase association and genome replication. We have determined the structure of VP1 at 2.9 {angstrom} resolution, as apoenzyme and in complex with RNA. The cage-like enzyme is similar to reovirus {lambda}3, with four tunnels leading to or from a central, catalytic cavity. A distinguishing characteristic of VP1 is specific recognition, by conserved features of the template-entry channel, of four bases, UGUG, in the conserved 3' sequence. Well-defined interactions with these bases position the RNA so that its 3' end overshoots the initiating register, producing a stable but catalytically inactive complex. We propose that specific 3' end recognition selects rotavirus RNA for packaging and that VP2 activates the autoinhibited VP1/RNA complex to coordinate packaging and genome replication.

  18. Extent of Transcription of Mouse Sarcoma-Leukemia Virus by RNA-Directed DNA Polymerase

    PubMed Central

    Tavitian, A.; Hamelin, R.; Tchen, P.; Olofsson, B.; Boiron, M.

    1974-01-01

    The DNA product obtained from the endogenous RNA-directed DNA polymerase (deoxynucleosidetriphosphate:DNA deoxynucleotidyltransferase, EC 2.7.7.7) reaction of the Moloney sarcoma:leukemia viruses produced by the 78 A-1 cell line was analyzed and characterized. The extent of transcription of viral 70S RNA was measured by RNA·DNA hybridization (32P-viral RNA-3H product DNA). No double-stranded DNA was obtained. The product consisted of 95-99% single-stranded DNA with an average length of 200 nucleotides. In contrast to the results reported with avian and other RNA oncogenic viruses, it was found that the entire 70S viral RNA genome was transcribed into DNA pieces and that a small excess of the product DNA was sufficient to anneal the 70S RNA and render it totally resistant to single-stranded-specific enzyme digestion. PMID:4132533

  19. Mutations in a conserved region of RNA polymerase II influence the accuracy of mRNA start site selection.

    PubMed Central

    Hekmatpanah, D S; Young, R A

    1991-01-01

    A sensitive phenotypic assay has been used to identify mutations affecting transcription initiation in the genes encoding the two large subunits of Saccharomyces cerevisiae RNA polymerase II (RPB1 and RPB2). The rpb1 and rpb2 mutations alter the ratio of transcripts initiated at two adjacent start sites of a delta-insertion promoter. Of a large number of rpb1 and rpb2 mutations screened, only a few affect transcription initiation patterns at delta-insertion promoters, and these mutations are in close proximity to each other within both RPB1 and RPB2. The two rpb1 mutations alter amino acid residues within homology block G, a region conserved in the large subunits of all RNA polymerases. The three strong rpb2 mutations alter adjacent amino acids. At a wild-type promoter, the rpb1 mutations affect the accuracy of mRNA start site selection by producing a small but detectable increase in the 5'-end heterogeneity of transcripts. These RNA polymerase II mutations implicate specific portions of the enzyme in aspects of transcription initiation. Images PMID:1922077

  20. Selective Degradation of Host RNA Polymerase II Transcripts by Influenza A Virus PA-X Host Shutoff Protein.

    PubMed

    Khaperskyy, Denys A; Schmaling, Summer; Larkins-Ford, Jonah; McCormick, Craig; Gaglia, Marta M

    2016-02-01

    Influenza A viruses (IAVs) inhibit host gene expression by a process known as host shutoff. Host shutoff limits host innate immune responses and may also redirect the translation apparatus to the production of viral proteins. Multiple IAV proteins regulate host shutoff, including PA-X, a ribonuclease that remains incompletely characterized. We report that PA-X selectively targets host RNA polymerase II (Pol II) transcribed mRNAs, while sparing products of Pol I and Pol III. Interestingly, we show that PA-X can also target Pol II-transcribed RNAs in the nucleus, including non-coding RNAs that are not destined to be translated, and reporter transcripts with RNA hairpin structures that block ribosome loading. Transcript degradation likely occurs in the nucleus, as PA-X is enriched in the nucleus and its nuclear localization correlates with reduction in target RNA levels. Complete degradation of host mRNAs following PA-X-mediated endonucleolytic cleavage is dependent on the host 5'->3'-exonuclease Xrn1. IAV mRNAs are structurally similar to host mRNAs, but are synthesized and modified at the 3' end by the action of the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase complex. Infection of cells with wild-type IAV or a recombinant PA-X-deficient virus revealed that IAV mRNAs resist PA-X-mediated degradation during infection. At the same time, loss of PA-X resulted in changes in the synthesis of select viral mRNAs and a decrease in viral protein accumulation. Collectively, these results significantly advance our understanding of IAV host shutoff, and suggest that the PA-X causes selective degradation of host mRNAs by discriminating some aspect of Pol II-dependent RNA biogenesis in the nucleus.

  1. Selective Degradation of Host RNA Polymerase II Transcripts by Influenza A Virus PA-X Host Shutoff Protein

    PubMed Central

    Larkins-Ford, Jonah; McCormick, Craig; Gaglia, Marta M.

    2016-01-01

    Influenza A viruses (IAVs) inhibit host gene expression by a process known as host shutoff. Host shutoff limits host innate immune responses and may also redirect the translation apparatus to the production of viral proteins. Multiple IAV proteins regulate host shutoff, including PA-X, a ribonuclease that remains incompletely characterized. We report that PA-X selectively targets host RNA polymerase II (Pol II) transcribed mRNAs, while sparing products of Pol I and Pol III. Interestingly, we show that PA-X can also target Pol II-transcribed RNAs in the nucleus, including non-coding RNAs that are not destined to be translated, and reporter transcripts with RNA hairpin structures that block ribosome loading. Transcript degradation likely occurs in the nucleus, as PA-X is enriched in the nucleus and its nuclear localization correlates with reduction in target RNA levels. Complete degradation of host mRNAs following PA-X-mediated endonucleolytic cleavage is dependent on the host 5’->3’-exonuclease Xrn1. IAV mRNAs are structurally similar to host mRNAs, but are synthesized and modified at the 3’ end by the action of the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase complex. Infection of cells with wild-type IAV or a recombinant PA-X-deficient virus revealed that IAV mRNAs resist PA-X-mediated degradation during infection. At the same time, loss of PA-X resulted in changes in the synthesis of select viral mRNAs and a decrease in viral protein accumulation. Collectively, these results significantly advance our understanding of IAV host shutoff, and suggest that the PA-X causes selective degradation of host mRNAs by discriminating some aspect of Pol II-dependent RNA biogenesis in the nucleus. PMID:26849127

  2. Fidelity of RNA polymerase II transcription controlled by elongation factor TFIIS

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, ChoonJu; Agarwal, Kan

    1996-01-01

    Fidelity of DNA and protein synthesis is regulated by a proofreading mechanism but function of a similar mechanism during RNA synthesis has not been demonstrated. Analysis of transcriptional fidelity and its control has been hampered by the necessity to employ complex DNA templates requiring either a promoter and initiation factors or 3′-extended templates. To circumvent this difficulty, we have created an RNA–DNA dumbbell template that can be recognized as a template-primer and extended by RNA polymerase II. By employing this system, we demonstrate that RNA polymerase II can misincorporate a nucleotide and carry out template-dependent elongation at the mispaired end. The transcripts containing misincorporated residues can be cleaved by the very slow 3′ → 5′ ribonuclease activity of the RNA polymerase II, but enhancement of this activity by the elongation factor TFIIS generates RNA with a high degree of fidelity. This enhanced preferential cleavage of misincorporated transcripts suggests an important role for TFIIS in maintaining transcriptional fidelity. PMID:8942993

  3. UV light-induced DNA lesions cause dissociation of yeast RNA polymerases-I and establishment of a specialized chromatin structure at rRNA genes

    PubMed Central

    Tremblay, Maxime; Charton, Romain; Wittner, Manuel; Levasseur, Geneviève; Griesenbeck, Joachim; Conconi, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    The cytotoxicity of UV light-induced DNA lesions results from their interference with transcription and replication. DNA lesions arrest elongating RNA polymerases, an event that triggers transcription-coupled nucleotide excision repair. Since arrested RNA polymerases reduce the accessibility of repair factors to DNA lesions, they might be displaced. The fate of arrested RNA polymerases-II at DNA lesions has been extensively studied, yielding partially contradictory results. Considerably less is known about RNA polymerases-I that transcribe nucleosomes-depleted rRNA genes at very high rate. To investigate the fate of arrested RNA polymerases-I at DNA lesions, chromatin-immunoprecipitation, electron microscopy, transcription run-on, psoralen-cross-linking and chromatin-endogenous cleavage were employed. We found that RNA polymerases-I density increased at the 5′-end of the gene, likely due to continued transcription initiation followed by elongation and pausing/release at the first DNA lesion. Most RNA polymerases-I dissociated downstream of the first DNA lesion, concomitant with chromatin closing that resulted from deposition of nucleosomes. Although nucleosomes were deposited, the high mobility group-box Hmo1 (component of actively transcribed rRNA genes) remained associated. After repair of DNA lesions, Hmo1 containing chromatin might help to restore transcription elongation and reopening of rRNA genes chromatin. PMID:24097442

  4. RNA polymerase II transcriptional fidelity control and its functional interplay with DNA modifications

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Liang; Wang, Wei; Chong, Jenny; Shin, Ji Hyun; Xu, Jun; Wang, Dong

    2016-01-01

    Accurate genetic information transfer is essential for life. As a key enzyme involved in the first step of gene expression, RNA polymerase II (Pol II) must maintain high transcriptional fidelity while it reads along DNA template and synthesizes RNA transcript in a stepwise manner during transcription elongation. DNA lesions or modifications may lead to significant changes in transcriptional fidelity or transcription elongation dynamics. In this review, we will summarize recent progress towards understanding the molecular basis of RNA Pol II transcriptional fidelity control and impacts of DNA lesions and modifications on Pol II transcription elongation. PMID:26392149

  5. New Insights into the Functions of Transcription Factors that Bind the RNA Polymerase Secondary Channel.

    PubMed

    Zenkin, Nikolay; Yuzenkova, Yulia

    2015-06-25

    Transcription elongation is regulated at several different levels, including control by various accessory transcription elongation factors. A distinct group of these factors interacts with the RNA polymerase secondary channel, an opening at the enzyme surface that leads to its active center. Despite investigation for several years, the activities and in vivo roles of some of these factors remain obscure. Here, we review the recent progress in understanding the functions of the secondary channel binding factors in bacteria. In particular, we highlight the surprising role of global regulator DksA in fidelity of RNA synthesis and the resolution of RNA polymerase traffic jams by the Gre factor. These findings indicate a potential link between transcription fidelity and collisions of the transcription and replication machineries.

  6. New Insights into the Functions of Transcription Factors that Bind the RNA Polymerase Secondary Channel

    PubMed Central

    Zenkin, Nikolay; Yuzenkova, Yulia

    2015-01-01

    Transcription elongation is regulated at several different levels, including control by various accessory transcription elongation factors. A distinct group of these factors interacts with the RNA polymerase secondary channel, an opening at the enzyme surface that leads to its active center. Despite investigation for several years, the activities and in vivo roles of some of these factors remain obscure. Here, we review the recent progress in understanding the functions of the secondary channel binding factors in bacteria. In particular, we highlight the surprising role of global regulator DksA in fidelity of RNA synthesis and the resolution of RNA polymerase traffic jams by the Gre factor. These findings indicate a potential link between transcription fidelity and collisions of the transcription and replication machineries. PMID:26120903

  7. The active site of RNA polymerase II participates in transcript cleavage within arrested ternary complexes.

    PubMed Central

    Rudd, M D; Izban, M G; Luse, D S

    1994-01-01

    RNA polymerase II may become arrested during transcript elongation, in which case the ternary complex remains intact but further RNA synthesis is blocked. To relieve arrest, the nascent transcript must be cleaved from the 3' end. RNAs of 7-17 nt are liberated and transcription continues from the newly exposed 3' end. Factor SII increases elongation efficiency by strongly stimulating the transcript cleavage reaction. We show here that arrest relief can also occur by the addition of pyrophosphate. This generates the same set of cleavage products as factor SII, but the fragments produced with pyrophosphate have 5'-triphosphate termini. Thus, the active site of RNA polymerase II, in the presence of pyrophosphate, appears to be capable of cleaving phosphodiester linkages as far as 17 nt upstream of the original site of polymerization, leaving the ternary complex intact and transcriptionally active. Images PMID:8058756

  8. Stimulation of RNA polymerase I and II activities by 17 beta -estradiol receptor on chick liver chromatin.

    PubMed Central

    Dierks-Ventling, C; Bieri-Bonniot, F

    1977-01-01

    The endogenous transcriptional capacity (RNA polymerase I and II activity) of liver chromatin from chicks treated with 17 beta-estradiol for 24 h (E 24) was double that of the controls. E 24 chromatin contained estradiol receptor activity while control chromatin did not. Its presence suggested an implication in the enhanced activities of RNA polymerases of E 24 chromatin. When semi-purified estradiol receptor was added to control chromatin, the endogenous transcriptional capacity of this chromatin was greatly increased. Studies with alpha-amanitin showed that both RNA polymerase I and II were stimulated by the estradiol receptor. This stimulation was observed as long as homology of the system was maintained. Solubilized homologous RNA polymerases were stimulated much less by the hormone complex in the presence of heterologous DNA than with homologous chromatin. Prokaryotic RNA polymerase could not be stimulated by chick liver estradiol receptor in the presence of heterologous DNA. PMID:840645

  9. RNA polymerase II is aberrantly phosphorylated and localized to viral replication compartments following herpes simplex virus infection.

    PubMed Central

    Rice, S A; Long, M C; Lam, V; Spencer, C A

    1994-01-01

    During lytic infection, herpes simplex virus subverts the host cell RNA polymerase II transcription machinery to efficiently express its own genome while repressing the expression of most cellular genes. The mechanism by which RNA polymerase II is directed to the viral delayed-early and late genes is still unresolved. We report here that RNA polymerase II is preferentially localized to viral replication compartments early after infection with herpes simplex virus type 1. Concurrent with recruitment of RNA polymerase II into viral compartments is a rapid and aberrant phosphorylation of the large subunit carboxy-terminal domain (CTD). Aberrant phosphorylation of the CTD requires early viral gene expression but is not dependent on viral DNA replication or on the formation of viral replication compartments. Localization of RNA polymerase II and modifications to the CTD may be instrumental in favoring transcription of viral genes and repressing specific transcription of cellular genes. Images PMID:8289400

  10. Correlative super-resolution imaging of RNA polymerase distribution and dynamics, bacterial membrane and chromosomal structure in Escherichia coli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spahn, Christoph; Cella-Zannacchi, Francesca; Endesfelder, Ulrike; Heilemann, Mike

    2015-03-01

    We demonstrate correlative super-resolution PALM, PAINT and dSTORM imaging of RNA polymerase, membrane and chromosomal DNA in fixed E. coli. This protocol allows the combination of precise structural information of the nucleoid (dSTORM) with quantitative super-resolution imaging (PALM) of interacting proteins. The spatial distribution and organization of RNA polymerase and DNA are visualized in bacterial cells grown at doubling times of 25 or 44 min. We observe that RNA polymerase is concentrated at the edge of the highly structured nucleoid during fast growth, whereas it is found more evenly distributed during medium-fast growth. In both conditions, the nucleoid shows densely packed areas which appear to be inaccessible to RNA polymerase. This finding is confirmed by live-cell tracking of RNA polymerase and subsequent imaging of the respective nucleoids using a protocol for fast fixation on-the-slide.

  11. Discovery of alpha,gamma-diketo acids as potent selective and reversible inhibitors of hepatitis C virus NS5b RNA-dependent RNA polymerase.

    PubMed

    Summa, Vincenzo; Petrocchi, Alessia; Pace, Paola; Matassa, Victor G; De Francesco, Raffaele; Altamura, Sergio; Tomei, Licia; Koch, Uwe; Neuner, Philippe

    2004-01-01

    alpha,gamma-Diketo acids (DKA) were discovered from screening as selective and reversible inhibitors of hepatitis C virus NS5b RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. The diketo acid moiety proved essential for activity, while substitution on the gamma position was necessary for selectivity and potency. Optimization led to the identification of a DKA inhibitor of NS5b polymerase with IC(50) = 45 nM, one of the most potent HCV NS5b polymerase inhibitors reported.

  12. Structure of a Complete Mediator-RNA Polymerase II Pre-Initiation Complex.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Philip J; Trnka, Michael J; Bushnell, David A; Davis, Ralph E; Mattei, Pierre-Jean; Burlingame, Alma L; Kornberg, Roger D

    2016-09-01

    A complete, 52-protein, 2.5 million dalton, Mediator-RNA polymerase II pre-initiation complex (Med-PIC) was assembled and analyzed by cryo-electron microscopy and by chemical cross-linking and mass spectrometry. The resulting complete Med-PIC structure reveals two components of functional significance, absent from previous structures, a protein kinase complex and the Mediator-activator interaction region. It thereby shows how the kinase and its target, the C-terminal domain of the polymerase, control Med-PIC interaction and transcription. PMID:27610567

  13. Structural and Biochemical Investigation of Bacteriophage N4-Encoded RNA Polymerases

    PubMed Central

    Lenneman, Bryan R.; Rothman-Denes, Lucia B.

    2015-01-01

    Bacteriophage N4 regulates the temporal expression of its genome through the activity of three distinct RNA polymerases (RNAP). Expression of the early genes is carried out by a phage-encoded, virion-encapsidated RNAP (vRNAP) that is injected into the host at the onset of infection and transcribes the early genes. These encode the components of new transcriptional machinery (N4 RNAPII and cofactors) responsible for the synthesis of middle RNAs. Both N4 RNAPs belong to the T7-like “single-subunit” family of polymerases. Herein, we describe their mechanisms of promoter recognition, regulation, and roles in the phage life cycle. PMID:25924224

  14. Comparative modeling of DNA and RNA polymerases from Moniliophthora perniciosa mitochondrial plasmid

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, Bruno S; Taranto, Alex G; Góes-Neto, Aristóteles; Duarte, Angelo A

    2009-01-01

    Background The filamentous fungus Moniliophthora perniciosa (Stahel) Aime & Phillips-Mora is a hemibiotrophic Basidiomycota that causes witches' broom disease of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.). This disease has resulted in a severe decrease in Brazilian cocoa production, which changed the position of Brazil in the market from the second largest cocoa exporter to a cocoa importer. Fungal mitochondrial plasmids are usually invertrons encoding DNA and RNA polymerases. Plasmid insertions into host mitochondrial genomes are probably associated with modifications in host generation time, which can be involved in fungal aging. This association suggests activity of polymerases, and these can be used as new targets for drugs against mitochondrial activity of fungi, more specifically against witches' broom disease. Sequencing and modeling: DNA and RNA polymerases of M. perniciosa mitochondrial plasmid were completely sequenced and their models were carried out by Comparative Homology approach. The sequences of DNA and RNA polymerase showed 25% of identity to 1XHX and 1ARO (pdb code) using BLASTp, which were used as templates. The models were constructed using Swiss PDB-Viewer and refined with a set of Molecular Mechanics (MM) and Molecular Dynamics (MD) in water carried out with AMBER 8.0, both working under the ff99 force fields, respectively. Ramachandran plots were generated by Procheck 3.0 and exhibited models with 97% and 98% for DNA and RNA polymerases, respectively. MD simulations in water showed models with thermodynamic stability after 2000 ps and 300 K of simulation. Conclusion This work contributes to the development of new alternatives for controlling the fungal agent of witches' broom disease. PMID:19744344

  15. RNA polymerase II pauses and associates with pre-mRNA processing factors at both ends of genes

    PubMed Central

    Glover-Cutter, Kira; Kim, Soojin; Espinosa, Joaquin; Bentley, David L.

    2010-01-01

    We investigated co-transcriptional recruitment of pre-mRNA processing factors to human genes. Capping factors associate with paused RNA pol II at the 5′ ends of quiescent genes. They also track throughout actively transcribed genes, and accumulate with paused polymerase in the 3′ flanking region. 3′ processing factors CstF and CPSF are maximally recruited 0.5-1.5 kb downstream of poly(A) sites where they coincide with capping factors, Spt5, and Ser2 hyperphosphorylated, paused pol II. 3′ end processing factors also localize at transcription start sites, and this early recruitment is enhanced after polymerase arrest with DRB. These results suggest that promoters may help specify recruitment of 3′ end processing factors. We propose a dual pausing model where elongation arrests near the transcription start site and in the 3′ flank to allow co-transcriptional processing by factors recruited to the pol II ternary complex. PMID:18157150

  16. Nuclear Localization of Flavivirus RNA Synthesis in Infected Cells

    PubMed Central

    Uchil, Pradeep Devappa; Kumar, Anil V. A.; Satchidanandam, Vijaya

    2006-01-01

    Flaviviral replication is believed to be exclusively cytoplasmic, occurring within virus-induced membrane-bound replication complexes in the host cytoplasm. Here we show that a significant proportion (20%) of the total RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) activity from cells infected with West Nile virus, Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), and dengue virus is resident within the nucleus. Consistent with this, the major replicase proteins NS3 and NS5 of JEV also localized within the nucleus. NS5 was found distributed throughout the nucleoplasm, but NS3 was present at sites of active flaviviral RNA synthesis, colocalizing with NS5, and visible as distinct foci along the inner periphery of the nucleus by confocal and immunoelectron microscopy. Both these viral replicase proteins were also present in the nuclear matrix, colocalizing with the peripheral lamina, and revealed a well-entrenched nuclear location for the viral replication complex. In keeping with this observation, antibodies to either NS3 or NS5 coimmunoprecipitated the other protein from isolated nuclei along with newly synthesized viral RNA. Taken together these data suggest an absolute requirement for both of the replicase proteins for nucleus-localized synthesis of flavivirus RNA. Thus, we conclusively demonstrate for the first time that the host cell nucleus functions as an additional site for the presence of functionally active flaviviral replicase complex. PMID:16699025

  17. Synthesis and RNA polymerase incorporation of the degenerate ribonucleotide analogue rPTP.

    PubMed Central

    Moriyama, K; Negishi, K; Briggs, M S; Smith, C L; Hill, F; Churcher, M J; Brown, D M; Loakes, D

    1998-01-01

    The synthesis and enzymatic incorporation into RNA of the hydrogen bond degenerate nucleoside analogue 6-(beta-d-ribofuranosyl)-3, 4-dihydro-8H-pyrimido[4,5-c]-[1,2]oxazin-7-one (P) is described. The 5'-triphosphate of this analogue is readily incorporated by T3, T7 and SP6 RNA polymerases into RNA transcripts, being best incorporated in place of UTP, but also in place of CTP. When all the uridine residues in an HIV-1 TAR RNA transcript are replaced by P the transcript has similar characteristics to the wild-type TAR RNA, as demonstrated by similar melting temperatures and CD spectra. The P-substituted TAR transcript binds to the Tat peptide ADP-1 with only 4-fold lowered efficiency compared with wild-type TAR. PMID:9547267

  18. A Comparative Study of RNA Polymerase II Transcription Machinery in Yeasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Nimisha; Mehta, Surbhi

    The control of gene expression, predominantly at the level of transcription, plays a fundamental role in biological processes determining the phenotypic changes in cells and organisms. The eukaryotes have evolved a complex and sophisticated transcription machinery to transcribe DNA into RNA. RNA polymerase II enzyme lies at the centre of the transcription apparatus that comprises nearly 60 polypeptides and is responsible for the expression and regulation of proteinencoding genes. Much of our present understanding and knowledge of the RNA polymerase II transcription apparatus in eukaryotes has been derived from studies in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. More recently, Schizosaccharomyces pombe has emerged as a better model system to study transcription because the transcription mechanism in this yeast is closer to that in higher eukaryotes. Also, studies on components of the basal transcription machinery have revealed a number of properties that are common with other eukaryotes, but have also highlighted some features unique to S. pombe. In fact, the fungal transcription associated protein families show greater species specificity and only 15% of these proteins contain homologues shared between both S. cerevisiae and S. pombe. In this chapter, we compare the RNA polymerase II transcription apparatus in different yeasts.

  19. Nuclear mRNA accumulation causes nucleolar fragmentation in yeast mtr2 mutant.

    PubMed Central

    Kadowaki, T; Hitomi, M; Chen, S; Tartakoff, A M

    1994-01-01

    We have identified a set of genes that affect mRNA transport (mtr) from the nucleus to the cytoplasm of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. One of these genes, MTR2, has been cloned and shown to encode a novel 21-kDa nuclear protein that is essential for vegetative growth. MTR2 shows limited homology to a protein implicated in plasmid DNA transfer in Escherichia coli. PolyA+RNA accumulates within the nucleus of mtr2-1 in two to three foci at 37 degrees C. mRNA, tRNA, and rRNA synthesis continue as do pre-mRNA splicing, tRNA processing, and rRNA export at 37 degrees C. Under these conditions the polyA tail length increases, and protein synthesis is progressively inhibited. Nucleolar antigens also redistribute to two to three nuclear foci at 37 degrees C, and this redistribution depends on ongoing transcription by RNA polymerase II. Surprisingly, these foci coincide with the sites of polyA+RNA accumulation. Comparable colocalization and dependance on RNA polymerase II transcription is seen for the mtr1-1 mutant. The disorganization of the nucleolus thus depends on mRNA accumulation in these mutants. We discuss the possible functions of MTR2 and the yeast nucleolus in mRNA export. Images PMID:7865887

  20. Zinc deficiency and the Euglena gracilis chromatin: formation of an alpha-amanitin-resistant RNA polymerase II.

    PubMed

    Falchuk, K H; Mazus, B; Ber, E; Ulpino-Lobb, L; Vallee, B L

    1985-05-01

    Both the single DNA-dependent RNA polymerase found in zinc-deficient (-Zn) Euglena gracilis and the RNA polymerase III from zinc-sufficient (+Zn) cells have been isolated by methods previously used to purify polymerases I and II [Falchuk, K. H., Mazus, B., Ulpino, L., & Vallee, B. L. (1976) Biochemistry 15, 4468; Falchuk, K. H., Mazus, B., Ulpino, L., & Vallee, B. L. (1977) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 74, 1206]. Like class II polymerases, the enzyme from -Zn organisms elutes from DNA-cellulose and phosphocellulose with 0.6 M NaCl and 0.35 M NH4Cl, respectively. It is inhibited by 8-hydroxyquinoline, 8-hydroxyquinoline-5-sulfonic acid, alpha,alpha'-bipyridyl, dipicolinic acid, and 1,10-phenanthroline (OP); 4,7-phenanthroline, the nonchelating analogue, does not inhibit. The pKI(OP) of this enzyme is identical with that of polymerase II but distinct from those of polymerases I and III. Elemental analysis confirms that zinc is the functional metal while copper, manganese, iron, and magnesium are absent. However, the -Zn enzyme is at least 4 orders of magnitude more resistant to alpha-amanitin (alpha-A) than the class II polymerase. Further, its response to alpha-A is unlike that of either polymerase I or polymerase III. Thus, -Zn cells contain a single, alpha-amanitin-resistant (alpha-Ar) RNA polymerase, whose behavior otherwise resembles that of the alpha-amanitin-sensitive polymerase II.

  1. ECHO-liveFISH: in vivo RNA labeling reveals dynamic regulation of nuclear RNA foci in living tissues

    PubMed Central

    Oomoto, Ikumi; Suzuki-Hirano, Asuka; Umeshima, Hiroki; Han, Yong-Woon; Yanagisawa, Hiroyuki; Carlton, Peter; Harada, Yoshie; Kengaku, Mineko; Okamoto, Akimitsu; Shimogori, Tomomi; Wang, Dan Ohtan

    2015-01-01

    Elucidating the dynamic organization of nuclear RNA foci is important for understanding and manipulating these functional sites of gene expression in both physiological and pathological states. However, such studies have been difficult to establish in vivo as a result of the absence of suitable RNA imaging methods. Here, we describe a high-resolution fluorescence RNA imaging method, ECHO-liveFISH, to label endogenous nuclear RNA in living mice and chicks. Upon in vivo electroporation, exciton-controlled sequence-specific oligonucleotide probes revealed focally concentrated endogenous 28S rRNA and U3 snoRNA at nucleoli and poly(A) RNA at nuclear speckles. Time-lapse imaging reveals steady-state stability of these RNA foci and dynamic dissipation of 28S rRNA concentrations upon polymerase I inhibition in native brain tissue. Confirming the validity of this technique in a physiological context, the in vivo RNA labeling did not interfere with the function of target RNA nor cause noticeable cytotoxicity or perturbation of cellular behavior. PMID:26101260

  2. A Mechanistic Model for Cooperative Behavior of Co-transcribing RNA Polymerases

    PubMed Central

    Heberling, Tamra; Davis, Lisa; Gedeon, Jakub; Morgan, Charles; Gedeon, Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    In fast-transcribing prokaryotic genes, such as an rrn gene in Escherichia coli, many RNA polymerases (RNAPs) transcribe the DNA simultaneously. Active elongation of RNAPs is often interrupted by pauses, which has been observed to cause RNAP traffic jams; yet some studies indicate that elongation seems to be faster in the presence of multiple RNAPs than elongation by a single RNAP. We propose that an interaction between RNAPs via the torque produced by RNAP motion on helically twisted DNA can explain this apparent paradox. We have incorporated the torque mechanism into a stochastic model and simulated transcription both with and without torque. Simulation results illustrate that the torque causes shorter pause durations and fewer collisions between polymerases. Our results suggest that the torsional interaction of RNAPs is an important mechanism in maintaining fast transcription times, and that transcription should be viewed as a cooperative group effort by multiple polymerases. PMID:27517607

  3. A Mechanistic Model for Cooperative Behavior of Co-transcribing RNA Polymerases.

    PubMed

    Heberling, Tamra; Davis, Lisa; Gedeon, Jakub; Morgan, Charles; Gedeon, Tomáš

    2016-08-01

    In fast-transcribing prokaryotic genes, such as an rrn gene in Escherichia coli, many RNA polymerases (RNAPs) transcribe the DNA simultaneously. Active elongation of RNAPs is often interrupted by pauses, which has been observed to cause RNAP traffic jams; yet some studies indicate that elongation seems to be faster in the presence of multiple RNAPs than elongation by a single RNAP. We propose that an interaction between RNAPs via the torque produced by RNAP motion on helically twisted DNA can explain this apparent paradox. We have incorporated the torque mechanism into a stochastic model and simulated transcription both with and without torque. Simulation results illustrate that the torque causes shorter pause durations and fewer collisions between polymerases. Our results suggest that the torsional interaction of RNAPs is an important mechanism in maintaining fast transcription times, and that transcription should be viewed as a cooperative group effort by multiple polymerases.

  4. Comparison of RNA isolation and associated methods for extracellular RNA detection by high-throughput quantitative polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Tanriverdi, Kahraman; Kucukural, Alper; Mikhalev, Ekaterina; Tanriverdi, Selim E; Lee, Rosalind; Ambros, Victor R; Freedman, Jane E

    2016-05-15

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNA molecules that function in RNA silencing and posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression. miRNAs in biofluids are being used for clinical diagnosis as well as disease prediction. Efficient and reproducible isolation methods are crucial for extracellular RNA detection. To determine the best methodologies for miRNA detection from plasma, the performance of four RNA extraction kits, including an in-house kit, were determined with miScript miRNA assay technology; all were measured using a high-throughput quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) platform (BioMark System) with 90 human miRNA assays. In addition, the performances of complementary DNA (cDNA) and preamplification kits for TaqMan miRNA assays and miScript miRNA assays were compared using the same 90 miRNAs on the BioMark System. There were significant quantification cycle (Cq) value differences for the detection of miRNA targets between isolation kits. cDNA, preamplification, and qPCR performances were also varied. In summary, this study demonstrates differences among RNA isolation methods as measured by reverse transcription (RT)-qPCR. Importantly, differences were also noted in cDNA and preamplification performance using TaqMan and miScript. The in-house kit performed better than the other three kits. These findings demonstrate significant variability between isolation and detection methods for low-abundant miRNA detection from biofluids. PMID:26969789

  5. Subcellular distribution of small interfering RNA: directed delivery through RNA polymerase III expression cassettes and localization by in situ hybridization.

    PubMed

    Paul, Cynthia P

    2005-01-01

    Reduction in the expression of specific genes through small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) is dependent on the colocalization of siRNAs with other components of the RNA interference (RNAi) pathways within the cell. The expression of siRNAs within cells from cassettes that are derived from genes transcribed by RNA polymerase III (pol III) and provide for selective subcellular distribution of their products can be used to direct siRNAs to the cellular pathways. Expression from the human U6 promoter, resulting in siRNA accumulation in the nucleus, is effective in reducing gene expression, whereas cytoplasmic and nucleolar localization of the siRNA when expressed from the 5S or 7 SL promoters is not effective. The distribution of siRNA within the cell is determined by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Although the long uninterrupted duplex of siRNA makes it difficult to detect with DNA oligonucleotide probes, labeled oligonucleotide probes with 2'-O-methyl RNA backbones provide the stability needed for a strong signal. These methods contribute to studies of the interconnected cellular RNAi pathways and are useful in adapting RNAi as a tool to determine gene function and develop RNA-based therapeutics. PMID:15644179

  6. The mRNA capping enzyme of Saccharomyces cerevisiae has dual specificity to interact with CTD of RNA Polymerase II

    PubMed Central

    Bharati, Akhilendra Pratap; Singh, Neha; Kumar, Vikash; Kashif, Md.; Singh, Amit Kumar; Singh, Priyanka; Singh, Sudhir Kumar; Siddiqi, Mohammad Imran; Tripathi, Timir; Akhtar, Md. Sohail

    2016-01-01

    RNA Polymerase II (RNAPII) uniquely possesses an extended carboxy terminal domain (CTD) on its largest subunit, Rpb1, comprising a repetitive Tyr1Ser2Pro3Thr4 Ser5Pro6Ser7 motif with potential phosphorylation sites. The phosphorylation of the CTD serves as a signal for the binding of various transcription regulators for mRNA biogenesis including the mRNA capping complex. In eukaryotes, the 5 prime capping of the nascent transcript is the first detectable mRNA processing event, and is crucial for the productive transcript elongation. The binding of capping enzyme, RNA guanylyltransferases to the transcribing RNAPII is known to be primarily facilitated by the CTD, phosphorylated at Ser5 (Ser5P). Here we report that the Saccharomyces cerevesiae RNA guanylyltransferase (Ceg1) has dual specificity and interacts not only with Ser5P but also with Ser7P of the CTD. The Ser7 of CTD is essential for the unconditional growth and efficient priming of the mRNA capping complex. The Arg159 and Arg185 of Ceg1 are the key residues that interact with the Ser5P, while the Lys175 with Ser7P of CTD. These interactions appear to be in a specific pattern of Ser5PSer7PSer5P in a tri-heptad CTD (YSPTSPPS YSPTSPSP YSPTSPPS) and provide molecular insights into the Ceg1-CTD interaction for mRNA transcription. PMID:27503426

  7. Cell-Free Transcription of Mammalian Chromatin: Transcription of Globin Messenger RNA Sequences from Bone-Marrow Chromatin with Mammalian RNA Polymerase

    PubMed Central

    Steggles, A. W.; Wilson, G. N.; Kantor, J. A.; Picciano, D. J.; Falvey, A. K.; Anderson, W. F.

    1974-01-01

    A mammalian cell-free transcriptional system was developed in which mammalian RNA polymerase synthesizes globin messenger RNA sequences from bone-marrow chromatin. The messenger RNA sequences are detected by measurement of the ability of the transcribed RNA to hybridize with globin complementary DNA. The globin complementary DNA is synthesized by the enzyme from avian myeloblastosis virus, RNA-directed DNA polymerase, with purified globin messenger RNA as template. The specificity of the globin complementary DNA in annealing reactions was verified by preparing DNA complementary to liver messenger RNA and showing that the globin and liver complementary DNAs are specific for their own messenger RNAs. Both DNA-dependent RNA polymerase II from sheep liver and RNA polymerase from Escherichia coli can transcribe globin messenger RNA sequences from rabbit bone-marrow chromatin; however, the mammalian enzyme appears to be more specific in that globin gene sequences represent a higher proportion of the RNA synthesized. Neither polymerase can transcribe globin messenger RNA sequences from rabbit-liver chromatin. This cell-free assay system should be useful in searching for mammalian transcriptional regulatory factors. PMID:4364529

  8. Molecular Structures of DNA-Dependent RNA Polymerases (II) from Calf Thymus and Rat Liver

    PubMed Central

    Weaver, R. F.; Blatti, S. P.; Rutter, W. J.

    1971-01-01

    DNA-dependent RNA polymerase II has been purified to high specific activity and apparent homogeneity from both calf thymus and rat liver. Two form II enzymes are present in rat-liver preparations, one with the molecular structure [(190,000)1(150,000)1(35,000)1(25,000)1], the other with a molecular structure of [(170,000)1(150,000)1(35,000)1(25,000)1] (molecular weights are within ±5% but the absolute values are approximate). Inclusion of a proteolytic inhibitor during the isolation procedure decreases the proportion of the molecule containing the 170,000 subunit. Calf-thymus RNA polymerase preparations typically exhibit four components on polyacrylamide gels that contain sodium dodecyl sulfate, with an apparent molecular structure of [(190,000)1(150,000)1(35,000)1(25,000)1]. In addition, some calf-thymus polymerase II preparations contain small quantities of the [(170,000)1(150,000)1(35,000)1(25,000)1] species; the quantity of this species may also be increased from less than 5% in the normal preparation to at least 40% in an “aged” preparation. Thus, the 170,000 subunit may be derived from the 190,000 subunit in both tissues. Until unequivocal evidence is obtained on this point, however, the possibility that the large subunits are unique species should not be eliminated. The general structural similarity of the eukaryotic RNA polymerase II with that of the prokaryotic polymerase suggests that the modes of action and regulation may be analogous. Images PMID:5289245

  9. Divergent contributions of conserved active site residues to transcription by eukaryotic RNA polymerases I and II.

    PubMed

    Viktorovskaya, Olga V; Engel, Krysta L; French, Sarah L; Cui, Ping; Vandeventer, Paul J; Pavlovic, Emily M; Beyer, Ann L; Kaplan, Craig D; Schneider, David A

    2013-09-12

    Multisubunit RNA polymerases (msRNAPs) exhibit high sequence and structural homology, especially within their active sites, which is generally thought to result in msRNAP functional conservation. However, we show that mutations in the trigger loop (TL) in the largest subunit of RNA polymerase I (Pol I) yield phenotypes unexpected from studies of Pol II. For example, a well-characterized gain-of-function mutation in Pol II results in loss of function in Pol I (Pol II: rpb1- E1103G; Pol I: rpa190-E1224G). Studies of chimeric Pol II enzymes hosting Pol I or Pol III TLs suggest that consequences of mutations that alter TL dynamics are dictated by the greater enzymatic context and not solely the TL sequence. Although the rpa190-E1224G mutation diminishes polymerase activity, when combined with mutations that perturb Pol I catalysis, it enhances polymerase function, similar to the analogous Pol II mutation. These results suggest that Pol I and Pol II have different rate-limiting steps.

  10. Purification of Crystallization-Grade RNA Polymerase I from S. cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Engel, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Purification of RNA polymerase (Pol) I is essential for functional as well as for structural studies. The product needs to be extremely pure in order to exclude secondary effects, e.g., caused by copurified nucleic acids in subsequent experiments. For this purpose, the method presented here was originally introduced nearly a decade ago but underwent constant optimization [1]. The polymerase is extracted from its endogenous source, since no overexpression system for the entire 590 kDa, 14-subunit complex is available thus far. Following yeast cultivation, a number of standard protein purification techniques are applied and combined to a robust but elaborate procedure that takes 3 days. In brief, a yeast strain with histidine-tagged RNA polymerase I is fermented, cells are broken by bead beating, and cell debris is removed by a two-step centrifugation. The lysate is then dialyzed, the Pol-I-containing pellet resuspended, and polymerase I enriched by a His-trap affinity step, followed by sequential purification via anion and cation exchange and a final size exclusion chromatography. PMID:27576712

  11. Divergent contributions of conserved active site residues to transcription by eukaryotic RNA polymerases I and II

    PubMed Central

    Viktorovskaya, Olga V.; Engel, Krysta L.; French, Sarah L.; Cui, Ping; Vandeventer, Paul J.; Pavlovic, Emily M.; Beyer, Ann L.; Kaplan, Craig D.; Schneider, David A.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Multisubunit RNA polymerases (msRNAPs) exhibit high sequence and structural homology, especially within their active sites, which is generally thought to result in msRNAP functional conservation. However, we show that mutations in the trigger loop (TL) in the largest subunit of RNA polymerase I (Pol I) yield phenotypes unexpected from studies of Pol II. For example, a well-characterized gain-of-function mutation in Pol II results in loss-of-function in Pol I [Pol II: rpb1- E1103G; Pol I: rpa190-E1224G]. Studies of chimeric Pol II enzymes hosting Pol I or Pol III TLs suggest that consequences of mutations that alter TL dynamics are dictated by the greater enzymatic context and not solely the TL sequence. Although the rpa190-E1224G mutation diminishes polymerase function, when combined with mutations that perturb Pol I catalysis, it enhances polymerase function, similar to the analogous Pol II mutation. These results suggest that Pol I and Pol II have different rate-limiting steps. PMID:23994471

  12. Aire unleashes stalled RNA polymerase to induce ectopic gene expression in thymic epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Giraud, Matthieu; Yoshida, Hideyuki; Abramson, Jakub; Rahl, Peter B; Young, Richard A; Mathis, Diane; Benoist, Christophe

    2012-01-10

    Aire is a transcriptional regulator that induces expression of peripheral tissue antigens (PTA) in thymic medullary epithelial cells (MECs), driving immunological self-tolerance in differentiating T cells. To elucidate its mechanistic pathways, we examined its transcriptional impact in MECs in vivo by microarray analysis with mRNA-spanning probes. This analysis revealed initiation of Aire-activated genes to be comparable in Aire-deficient and wild-type MECs, but with a block to elongation after 50-100 bp in the absence of Aire, suggesting activation by release of stalled polymerases by Aire. In contrast, patterns of activation by transcription factors such as Klf4 were consistent with regulation of initiation. Mapping of Aire and RNA polymerase-II (Pol-II) by ChIP and high-throughput sequencing (ChIP-seq) revealed that Aire bound all Pol-II-rich transcriptional start sites (TSS), irrespective of its eventual effect. However, the genes it preferentially activated were characterized by a relative surfeit of stalled polymerases at the TSS, which resolved once Aire was introduced into cells. Thus, transcript mapping and ChIP-seq data indicate that Aire activates ectopic transcription not through specific recognition of PTA gene promoters but by releasing stalled polymerases.

  13. RIG-I and MDA-5 Detection of Viral RNA-dependent RNA Polymerase Activity Restricts Positive-Strand RNA Virus Replication

    PubMed Central

    Nikonov, Andrei; Mölder, Tarmo; Sikut, Rein; Kiiver, Kaja; Männik, Andres; Toots, Urve; Lulla, Aleksei; Lulla, Valeria; Utt, Age; Merits, Andres; Ustav, Mart

    2013-01-01

    Type I interferons (IFN) are important for antiviral responses. Melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA-5) and retinoic acid-induced gene I (RIG-I) proteins detect cytosolic double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) or 5′-triphosphate (5′-ppp) RNA and mediate IFN production. Cytosolic 5′-ppp RNA and dsRNA are generated during viral RNA replication and transcription by viral RNA replicases [RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RdRp)]. Here, we show that the Semliki Forest virus (SFV) RNA replicase can induce IFN-β independently of viral RNA replication and transcription. The SFV replicase converts host cell RNA into 5′-ppp dsRNA and induces IFN-β through the RIG-I and MDA-5 pathways. Inactivation of the SFV replicase RdRp activity prevents IFN-β induction. These IFN-inducing modified host cell RNAs are abundantly produced during both wild-type SFV and its non-pathogenic mutant infection. Furthermore, in contrast to the wild-type SFV replicase a non-pathogenic mutant replicase triggers increased IFN-β production, which leads to a shutdown of virus replication. These results suggest that host cells can restrict RNA virus replication by detecting the products of unspecific viral replicase RdRp activity. PMID:24039580

  14. Specific Inhibitors of the Three RNA Polymerases from the Aquatic Fungus Blastocladiella emersonii

    PubMed Central

    Horgen, Paul A.; Griffin, David H.

    1971-01-01

    Specific inhibitors of each of the three RNA polymerases of Blastocladiella emersonii have been found. Cycloheximide specifically inhibited the in vitro activity of the DEAE-fraction I enzyme, alpha-amanitin specifically inhibited the DEAE-fraction II enzyme, and rifampicin specifically inhibited the fraction III enzyme. DNA stimulation and dependency on the four riboside triphosphates were shown to be characteristic of each of the three fractions. Optimum concentrations of magnesium ions required were shown to differ among the three fractions and to be somewhat higher than optimum concentrations of manganese ions. The effect of pH on activity was essentially identical for each of the three fractions. Kinetic experiments and nuclease assays indicated the presence of some interfering substances in the partially purified RNA polymerase fractions. PMID:5277081

  15. A dynamic model for PC4 coactivator function in RNA polymerase II transcription

    PubMed Central

    Malik, Sohail; Guermah, Mohamed; Roeder, Robert G.

    1998-01-01

    Human positive cofactor (PC4) acts as a general coactivator for activator-dependent transcription by RNA polymerase II. Here we show that PC4 coactivator function, in contrast to basal (activator-independent) transcription, is dependent both on TATA binding protein (TBP)-associated factors (TAFs) in TFIID and on TFIIH. Surprisingly, PC4 strongly represses transcription initiation by minimal preinitiation complexes in the absence of TAFs and TFIIH, while simultaneously promoting the formation of these complexes. Furthermore, TFIIH and TAFII250, the largest subunit of TFIID, can both phosphorylate PC4. These results provide evidence for an inactive, PC4-induced intermediate in preinitiation complex assembly and point to TFIIH and TAF requirements for its progression into a functional preinitiation complex. Thus PC4 coactivator activity is realized in a stepwise series of events reminiscent of prokaryotic activation pathways involving conversion of inactive RNA polymerase-promoter complexes to an initiation-competent state. PMID:9482861

  16. RNA polymerase I-Rrn3 complex at 4.8 Å resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engel, Christoph; Plitzko, Jürgen; Cramer, Patrick

    2016-07-01

    Transcription of ribosomal DNA by RNA polymerase I (Pol I) requires the initiation factor Rrn3. Here we report the cryo-EM structure of the Pol I-Rrn3 complex at 4.8 Å resolution. The structure reveals how Rrn3 binding converts an inactive Pol I dimer into an initiation-competent monomeric complex and provides insights into the mechanisms of Pol I-specific initiation and regulation.

  17. RNA polymerase I–Rrn3 complex at 4.8 Å resolution

    PubMed Central

    Engel, Christoph; Plitzko, Jürgen; Cramer, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Transcription of ribosomal DNA by RNA polymerase I (Pol I) requires the initiation factor Rrn3. Here we report the cryo-EM structure of the Pol I–Rrn3 complex at 4.8 Å resolution. The structure reveals how Rrn3 binding converts an inactive Pol I dimer into an initiation-competent monomeric complex and provides insights into the mechanisms of Pol I-specific initiation and regulation. PMID:27418309

  18. Bacteriophage λ N protein inhibits transcription slippage by Escherichia coli RNA polymerase.

    PubMed

    Parks, Adam R; Court, Carolyn; Lubkowska, Lucyna; Jin, Ding J; Kashlev, Mikhail; Court, Donald L

    2014-05-01

    Transcriptional slippage is a class of error in which ribonucleic acid (RNA) polymerase incorporates nucleotides out of register, with respect to the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) template. This phenomenon is involved in gene regulation mechanisms and in the development of diverse diseases. The bacteriophage λ N protein reduces transcriptional slippage within actively growing cells and in vitro. N appears to stabilize the RNA/DNA hybrid, particularly at the 5' end, preventing loss of register between transcript and template. This report provides the first evidence of a protein that directly influences transcriptional slippage, and provides a clue about the molecular mechanism of transcription termination and N-mediated antitermination.

  19. Bacteriophage λ N protein inhibits transcription slippage by Escherichia coli RNA polymerase.

    PubMed

    Parks, Adam R; Court, Carolyn; Lubkowska, Lucyna; Jin, Ding J; Kashlev, Mikhail; Court, Donald L

    2014-05-01

    Transcriptional slippage is a class of error in which ribonucleic acid (RNA) polymerase incorporates nucleotides out of register, with respect to the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) template. This phenomenon is involved in gene regulation mechanisms and in the development of diverse diseases. The bacteriophage λ N protein reduces transcriptional slippage within actively growing cells and in vitro. N appears to stabilize the RNA/DNA hybrid, particularly at the 5' end, preventing loss of register between transcript and template. This report provides the first evidence of a protein that directly influences transcriptional slippage, and provides a clue about the molecular mechanism of transcription termination and N-mediated antitermination. PMID:24711367

  20. RNA polymerase II subunit RPB4 is essential for high- and low-temperature yeast cell growth.

    PubMed Central

    Woychik, N A; Young, R A

    1989-01-01

    RPB4 encodes the fourth-largest RNA polymerase II subunit in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The RPB4 gene was cloned and sequenced, and its identity was confirmed by amino acid sequence analysis of tryptic peptides from the purified subunit. The RPB4 DNA sequence predicted a protein of 221 amino acids with a molecular mass of 25,414 daltons. The central 100 amino acids of the RPB4 protein were found to be similar to a segment of the major sigma subunit in Escherichia coli RNA polymerase. Deletion of RPB4 produced cells that were heat and cold sensitive but could grow, albeit slowly, at intermediate temperatures. RNA polymerase II lacking the RPB4 subunit exhibited markedly reduced activity in crude extracts in vitro. The RPB4 subunit, although not essential for mRNA synthesis or enzyme assembly, was essential for normal levels of RNA polymerase II activity and indispensable for cell viability over a wide temperature range. Images PMID:2674672

  1. Interactions between Escherichia coli RNA polymerase and lambda repressor. Mutations in PRM affect repression of PR.

    PubMed

    Hwang, J J; Gussin, G N

    1988-04-20

    The rightward operator, OR, of bacteriophage lambda is part of a complex regulatory region that includes PRM, the promoter for repressor synthesis by a prophage, the rightward early promoter PR, and three repressor-binding sites, OR1, OR2 and OR3. By binding to OR2, repressor blocks transcription from PR and simultaneously stimulates the formation of open complexes between RNA polymerase and PRM. In this letter, we describe a test of the hypothesis that the interaction between RNA polymerase bound at PRM and repressor bound at OR2 increases the apparent affinity of repressor for OR. One implication of this hypothesis is that the amount of repressor required for repression of PR should be inversely correlated with PRM promoter strength. This is indeed the case. The amount of repressor required for 50% repression of PR is decreased by prmup-1, an "up" mutation of PRM, and is increased by prm- mutations. An unexpected finding is that in addition to their effect on the apparent affinity of repressor for OR, mutations in the -35 region of PRM alter the shape of repressor-titration curves. We propose that these mutations alter the interaction between RNA polymerase bound at PRM and repressor bound at OR2 in such a way that cooperativity in the binding of repressor to OR1 and OR2 is also disrupted.

  2. Synthesis of reinitiated transcripts by mammalian RNA polymerase II is controlled by elongation factor SII.

    PubMed Central

    Szentirmay, M N; Sawadogo, M

    1993-01-01

    Previous studies have revealed that the in vitro synthesis of reinitiated transcripts by RNA polymerase II requires an additional activity, designated reinitiation transcription factor (RTF), which is distinct from all of the general class II initiation factors. While further characterizing this activity, it was found that RTF displays properties indistinguishable from those of the RNA polymerase II elongation factor SII. In addition, Western blot analysis using SII-specific antibodies revealed that human SII is a major component in purified RTF preparations. The functional equivalence of the two proteins was established using recombinant SII, which proved fully capable of substituting for RTF in the reinitiation assay. In these reconstituted reactions, transcription complexes resulting from reinitiation events required SII to proceed through a 400 bp G-free cassette, while complexes resulting from the first round of initiations were SII-independent. Reinitiations can take place in the absence of SII; however, addition of the elongation factor is essential for full extension of the reinitiated transcripts. These results suggest that events taking place at the promoter (e.g. first-round initiations versus reinitiations) can create marked differences in the properties of RNA polymerase II elongation complexes. Images PMID:8223477

  3. The SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex influences transcription by RNA polymerase I in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yinfeng; Anderson, Susan J; French, Sarah L; Sikes, Martha L; Viktorovskaya, Olga V; Huband, Jacalyn; Holcomb, Katherine; Hartman, John L; Beyer, Ann L; Schneider, David A

    2013-01-01

    SWI/SNF is a chromatin remodeling complex that affects transcription initiation and elongation by RNA polymerase II. Here we report that SWI/SNF also plays a role in transcription by RNA polymerase I (Pol I) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Deletion of the genes encoding the Snf6p or Snf5p subunits of SWI/SNF was lethal in combination with mutations that impair Pol I transcription initiation and elongation. SWI/SNF physically associated with ribosomal DNA (rDNA) within the coding region, with an apparent peak near the 5' end of the gene. In snf6Δ cells there was a ∼2.5-fold reduction in rRNA synthesis rate compared to WT, but there was no change in average polymerase occupancy per gene, the number of rDNA gene repeats, or the percentage of transcriptionally active rDNA genes. However, both ChIP and EM analyses showed a small but reproducible increase in Pol I density in a region near the 5' end of the gene. Based on these data, we conclude that SWI/SNF plays a positive role in Pol I transcription, potentially by modifying chromatin structure in the rDNA repeats. Our findings demonstrate that SWI/SNF influences the most robust transcription machinery in proliferating cells.

  4. A split intein T7 RNA polymerase for transcriptional AND-logic.

    PubMed

    Schaerli, Yolanda; Gili, Magüi; Isalan, Mark

    2014-10-29

    Synthetic biology has developed numerous parts for building synthetic gene circuits. However, few parts have been described for prokaryotes to integrate two signals at a promoter in an AND fashion, i.e. the promoter is only activated in the presence of both signals. Here we present a new part for this function: a split intein T7 RNA polymerase. We divide T7 RNA polymerase into two expression domains and fuse each to a split intein. Only when both domains are expressed does the split intein mediate protein trans-splicing, yielding a full-length T7 RNA polymerase that can transcribe genes via a T7 promoter. We demonstrate an AND gate with the new part: the signal-to-background ratio is very high, resulting in an almost digital signal. This has utility for more complex circuits and so we construct a band-pass filter in Escherichia coli. The split intein approach should be widely applicable for engineering artificial gene circuit parts. PMID:25262348

  5. Preparation of Chromatin Templates to Study RNA Polymerase I Transcription In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Längst, Gernot

    2016-01-01

    Cellular DNA is packaged into chromatin, which is the substrate of all DNA-dependent processes in eukaryotes. The regulation of chromatin requires specialized enzyme activities to allow the access of sequence-specific binding proteins and RNA polymerases. In order to dissect chromatin-dependent features of transcription regulation in detail, in vitro systems to generate defined chromatin templates for transcription are required. I present a protocol that allows the assembly of nucleosomes on ribosomal RNA (rRNA) minigenes by salt gradient dialysis and subsequent sucrose gradient centrifugation. This procedure yields high nucleosome occupancy and high dynamic response in subsequent transcriptional analysis. It provides an invaluable tool to study rRNA gene transcription, as transcription on free DNA is clearly different from the more in vivo-like transcription on reconstituted chromatin templates. PMID:27576714

  6. Real-time quantification of RNA polymerase activity using a "broken beacon".

    PubMed

    Blair, Rebecca H; Rosenblum, Eric S; Dawson, Erica D; Kuchta, Robert D; Kuck, Laura R; Rowlen, Kathy L

    2007-03-15

    A novel assay using a hybridization-based method was developed for real-time monitoring of RNA synthesis. In this work, a "broken beacon" in which the fluor and quencher were located on separate but complementary oligonucleotides was used to quantify the amount of RNA production by T7 polymerase. The relative lengths of the fluor-oligo and quencher-oligo, and their relative concentrations were optimized. The experimentally determined limit-of-detection was approximately 45 nM. The new assay was compared to the "gold-standard" radiolabel ([(32)P]NTP incorporation) assay for RNA quantification. While the broken beacon assay exhibited a higher limit of detection, it provided an accurate measure of RNA production rates. However, the broken beacon assay provided the significant analytical advantages of (i) a real-time and continuous measurement, (ii) no requirement for the use of radiolabels or gel-based analysis, and (iii) substantial time and labor savings.

  7. Functional Consequences of Subunit Diversity in RNA Polymerases II and V

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, Ek Han; Blevins, Todd; Ream, Thomas S.; Pikaard, Craig S.

    2012-03-01

    Multisubunit RNA polymerases IV and V (Pol IV and Pol V) evolved as specialized forms of Pol II that mediate RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM) and transcriptional silencing of transposons, viruses, and endogenous repeats in plants. Among the subunits common to Arabidopsis thaliana Pols II, IV, and V are 93% identical alternative ninth subunits, NRP(B/D/E)9a and NRP(B/D/E)9b. The 9a and 9b subunit variants are incompletely redundant with respect to Pol II; whereas double mutants are embryo lethal, single mutants are viable, yet phenotypically distinct. Likewise, 9a or 9b can associate with Pols IV or V but RNA-directed DNA methylation is impaired only in 9b mutants. Based on genetic and molecular tests, we attribute the defect in RdDM to impaired Pol V function. Collectively, our results reveal a role for the ninth subunit in RNA silencing and demonstrate that subunit diversity generates functionally distinct subtypes of RNA polymerases II and V.

  8. Stress Induces Changes in the Phosphorylation of Trypanosoma cruzi RNA Polymerase II, Affecting Its Association with Chromatin and RNA Processing

    PubMed Central

    Rocha, Antônio Augusto; Moretti, Nilmar Silvio

    2014-01-01

    The phosphorylation of the carboxy-terminal heptapeptide repeats of the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II (Pol II) controls several transcription-related events in eukaryotes. Trypanosomatids lack these typical repeats and display an unusual transcription control. RNA Pol II associates with the transcription site of the spliced leader (SL) RNA, which is used in the trans-splicing of all mRNAs transcribed on long polycistronic units. We found that Trypanosoma cruzi RNA Pol II associated with chromatin is highly phosphorylated. When transcription is inhibited by actinomycin D, the enzyme runs off from SL genes, remaining hyperphosphorylated and associated with polycistronic transcription units. Upon heat shock, the enzyme is dephosphorylated and remains associated with the chromatin. Transcription is partially inhibited with the accumulation of housekeeping precursor mRNAs, except for heat shock genes. DNA damage caused dephosphorylation and transcription arrest, with RNA Pol II dissociating from chromatin although staying at the SL. In the presence of calyculin A, the hyperphosphorylated form detached from chromatin, including the SL loci. These results indicate that in trypanosomes, the unusual RNA Pol II is phosphorylated during the transcription of SL and polycistronic operons. Different types of stresses modify its phosphorylation state, affecting pre-RNA processing. PMID:24813189

  9. Analysis of minimal promoter sequences for plus-strand synthesis by the Cucumber necrosis virus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase.

    PubMed

    Panavas, T; Pogany, J; Nagy, P D

    2002-05-10

    Tombusviruses are small, plus-sense, single-stranded RNA viruses of plants. A partially purified RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) preparation of Cucumber necrosis virus (CNV), which is capable of de novo initiation of complementary RNA synthesis from either plus-strand or minus-strand templates, was used to dissect minimal promoter sequences for tombusviruses and their defective interfering (DI) RNAs. In vitro RdRp assay revealed that the core plus-strand initiation promoter included only the 3'-terminal 11 nucleotides. A hypothetical promoter-like sequence, which has been termed consensus sequence by Wu and White (1998, J. Virol. 72, 9897-9905), is recognized less efficiently by the CNV RdRp than the core plus-strand initiation promoter. The CNV RdRp can efficiently recognize the core plus-strand initiation promoter for a satellite RNA associated with the distantly related Turnip crinkle virus, while artificial AU- or GC-rich 3'-terminal sequences make poor templates in the in vitro assays. Comparison of the "strength" of minimal plus-strand and minus-strand initiation promoters reveals that the latter is almost twice as efficient in promoting complementary RNA synthesis. Template competition experiments, however, suggest that the minimal plus-strand initiation promoter makes an RNA template more competitive than the minimal minus-strand initiation promoter. Taken together, these results demonstrate that promoter recognition by the tombusvirus RdRp requires only short sequences present at the 3' end of templates.

  10. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase from Thosea asigna virus.

    PubMed

    Ferrero, Diego; Buxaderas, Mònica; Rodriguez, José F; Verdaguer, Núria

    2012-10-01

    Thosea asigna virus (TaV) is a positive-sense, single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) virus that belongs to the Permutotetravirus genera within the recently created Permutotetraviridae family. The genome of TaV consists of an RNA segment of about 5.700 nucleotides with two open reading frames, encoding for the replicase and capsid protein. The particular TaV replicase does not contain N7-methyl transferase and helicase domains but includes a structurally unique RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) with a sequence permutation in the domain where the active site is anchored. This architecture is also found in double-stranded RNA viruses of the Birnaviridae family. Here we report the purification and preliminary crystallographic studies TaV RdRp. The enzyme was crystallized by the sitting-drop vapour diffusion method using PEG 8K and lithium sulfate as precipitants. Two different crystal forms were obtained: native RdRp crystallized in space group P2(1)2(1)2 and diffracts up to 2.1 Å and the RdRp-Lu(3+) derivative co-crystals belong to the C222(1) space group, diffracting to 3.0 Å resolution. The structure of TaV RdRp represents the first structure of a non-canonical RdRp from ssRNA viruses. PMID:23027763

  11. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase from Thosea asigna virus

    PubMed Central

    Ferrero, Diego; Buxaderas, Mònica; Rodriguez, José F.; Verdaguer, Núria

    2012-01-01

    Thosea asigna virus (TaV) is a positive-sense, single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) virus that belongs to the Permutotetravirus genera within the recently created Permutotetraviridae family. The genome of TaV consists of an RNA segment of about 5.700 nucleotides with two open reading frames, encoding for the replicase and capsid protein. The particular TaV replicase does not contain N7-methyl transferase and helicase domains but includes a structurally unique RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) with a sequence permutation in the domain where the active site is anchored. This architecture is also found in double-stranded RNA viruses of the Birnaviridae family. Here we report the purification and preliminary crystallographic studies TaV RdRp. The enzyme was crystallized by the sitting-drop vapour diffusion method using PEG 8K and lithium sulfate as precipitants. Two different crystal forms were obtained: native RdRp crystallized in space group P21212 and diffracts up to 2.1 Å and the RdRp-Lu3+ derivative co-crystals belong to the C2221 space group, diffracting to 3.0 Å resolution. The structure of TaV RdRp represents the first structure of a non-canonical RdRp from ssRNA viruses. PMID:23027763

  12. Interacting RNA polymerase motors on a DNA track: effects of traffic congestion and intrinsic noise on RNA synthesis.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Tripti; Chowdhury, Debashish

    2008-01-01

    RNA polymerase (RNAP) is an enzyme that synthesizes a messenger RNA (mRNA) strand which is complementary to a single-stranded DNA template. From the perspective of physicists, an RNAP is a molecular motor that utilizes chemical energy input to move along the track formed by DNA. In many circumstances, which are described in this paper, a large number of RNAPs move simultaneously along the same track; we refer to such collective movements of the RNAPs as RNAP traffic. Here we develop a theoretical model for RNAP traffic by incorporating the steric interactions between RNAPs as well as the mechanochemical cycle of individual RNAPs during the elongation of the mRNA. By a combination of analytical and numerical techniques, we calculate the rates of mRNA synthesis and the average density profile of the RNAPs on the DNA track. We also introduce, and compute, two different measures of fluctuations in the synthesis of RNA. Analyzing these fluctuations, we show how the level of intrinsic noise in mRNA synthesis depends on the concentrations of the RNAPs as well as on those of some of the reactants and the products of the enzymatic reactions catalyzed by RNAP. We suggest appropriate experimental systems and techniques for testing our theoretical predictions. PMID:18351890

  13. Mechanism of RNA recombination in carmo- and tombusviruses: evidence for template switching by the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase in vitro.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Chi-Ping; Nagy, Peter D

    2003-11-01

    RNA recombination occurs frequently during replication of tombusviruses and carmoviruses, which are related small plus-sense RNA viruses of plants. The most common recombinants generated by these viruses are either defective interfering (DI) RNAs or chimeric satellite RNAs, which are thought to be generated by template switching of the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) during the viral replication process. To test if RNA recombination is mediated by the viral RdRp, we used either a purified recombinant RdRp of Turnip crinkle carmovirus or a partially purified RdRp preparation of Cucumber necrosis tombusvirus. We demonstrated that these RdRp preparations generated RNA recombinants in vitro. The RdRp-driven template switching events occurred between either identical templates or two different RNA templates. The template containing a replication enhancer recombined more efficiently than templates containing artificial sequences. We also observed that AU-rich sequences promote recombination more efficiently than GC-rich sequences. Cloning and sequencing of the generated recombinants revealed that the junction sites were located frequently at the ends of the templates (end-to-end template switching). We also found several recombinants that were generated by template switching involving internal positions in the RNA templates. In contrast, RNA ligation-based RNA recombination was not detected in vitro. Demonstration of the ability of carmo- and tombusvirus RdRps to switch RNA templates in vitro supports the copy-choice models of RNA recombination and DI RNA formation for these viruses.

  14. Transcription elongation factor SII interacts with a domain of the large subunit of human RNA polymerase II

    SciTech Connect

    Rappaport, J.; Cho, K.; Saltzman, A.; Prenger, J.; Golomb, M.; Weinmann, R.

    1988-08-01

    Genomic sequences for the large subunit of human RNA polymerase II corresponding to a part of the fifth exon were inserted into an expression vector at the carboxy-terminal end of the ..beta..-galactosidase gene. The in-frame construct produced a 125-kilodalton fusion protein, containing approximately 10 kilodaltons of the large subunit of RNA polymerase II and 116 kilodaltons of ..beta..-galactosidase. The purified bacterially produced fusion protein inhibited specific transcription from the adenovirus type 2 major late promoter, while ..beta..-galactosidase had no effect. The effect of the fusion protein was during RNA elongation, not at the level of initiation, resembling the faithfully initiated but incomplete transcripts produced with purified factors in the absence of SII. Similarly, monoclonal antibody 2-7B, which reacts with the RNA polymerase II region represented in the fusion protein, inhibited specific transcription at the level of elongation in a whole-cell extract. Both monoclonal antibody 2-7B and the fusion protein, although unable to inhibit purified RNA polymerase II in a nonspecific transcription assay, selectively blocked the stimulation elicited by transcription elongation factor SII on the activity of the purified enzyme in vitro. This suggests that the fusion protein traps the SII in nonstimulatory interactions and that anitibody 2-7B inhibits SII binding to RNA polymerase II. Thus, this suggests that an SII-binding contact required for specific RNA elongation resides within the fifth exon region of the largest RNA polymerase II subunit.

  15. The methyltransferase domain of dengue virus protein NS5 ensures efficient RNA synthesis initiation and elongation by the polymerase domain.

    PubMed

    Potisopon, Supanee; Priet, Stéphane; Collet, Axelle; Decroly, Etienne; Canard, Bruno; Selisko, Barbara

    2014-10-01

    Viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RdRps) responsible for the replication of single-strand RNA virus genomes exert their function in the context of complex replication machineries. Within these replication complexes the polymerase activity is often highly regulated by RNA elements, proteins or other domains of multi-domain polymerases. Here, we present data of the influence of the methyltransferase domain (NS5-MTase) of dengue virus (DENV) protein NS5 on the RdRp activity of the polymerase domain (NS5-Pol). The steady-state polymerase activities of DENV-2 recombinant NS5 and NS5-Pol are compared using different biochemical assays allowing the dissection of the de novo initiation, transition and elongation steps of RNA synthesis. We show that NS5-MTase ensures efficient RdRp activity by stimulating the de novo initiation and the elongation phase. This stimulation is related to a higher affinity of NS5 toward the single-strand RNA template indicating NS5-MTase either completes a high-affinity RNA binding site and/or promotes the correct formation of the template tunnel. Furthermore, the NS5-MTase increases the affinity of the priming nucleotide ATP upon de novo initiation and causes a higher catalytic efficiency of the polymerase upon elongation. The complex stimulation pattern is discussed under the perspective that NS5 adopts several conformations during RNA synthesis. PMID:25209234

  16. The methyltransferase domain of dengue virus protein NS5 ensures efficient RNA synthesis initiation and elongation by the polymerase domain

    PubMed Central

    Potisopon, Supanee; Priet, Stéphane; Collet, Axelle; Decroly, Etienne; Canard, Bruno; Selisko, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RdRps) responsible for the replication of single-strand RNA virus genomes exert their function in the context of complex replication machineries. Within these replication complexes the polymerase activity is often highly regulated by RNA elements, proteins or other domains of multi-domain polymerases. Here, we present data of the influence of the methyltransferase domain (NS5-MTase) of dengue virus (DENV) protein NS5 on the RdRp activity of the polymerase domain (NS5-Pol). The steady-state polymerase activities of DENV-2 recombinant NS5 and NS5-Pol are compared using different biochemical assays allowing the dissection of the de novo initiation, transition and elongation steps of RNA synthesis. We show that NS5-MTase ensures efficient RdRp activity by stimulating the de novo initiation and the elongation phase. This stimulation is related to a higher affinity of NS5 toward the single-strand RNA template indicating NS5-MTase either completes a high-affinity RNA binding site and/or promotes the correct formation of the template tunnel. Furthermore, the NS5-MTase increases the affinity of the priming nucleotide ATP upon de novo initiation and causes a higher catalytic efficiency of the polymerase upon elongation. The complex stimulation pattern is discussed under the perspective that NS5 adopts several conformations during RNA synthesis. PMID:25209234

  17. New genera of RNA viruses in subtropical seawater, inferred from polymerase gene sequences.

    PubMed

    Culley, Alexander I; Steward, Grieg F

    2007-09-01

    Viruses are an integral component of the marine food web, contributing to the disease and mortality of essentially every type of marine life, yet the diversity of viruses in the sea, especially those with RNA genomes, remains very poorly characterized. Isolates of RNA-containing viruses that infect marine plankton are still rare, and the only cultivation-independent surveys of RNA viral diversity reported so far were conducted for temperate coastal waters of British Columbia. Here, we report on our improvements to a previously used protocol to investigate the diversity of marine picorna-like viruses and our results from applying this protocol in subtropical waters. The original protocol was simplified by using direct filtration, rather than tangential flow filtration, to harvest viruses from seawater, and new degenerate primers were designed to amplify a fragment of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase gene by reverse transcription-PCR from RNA extracted from the filters. Whereas the original protocol was unsuccessful in a preliminary test, the new protocol resulted in amplification of picorna-like virus sequences in every sample of subtropical and temperate coastal seawater assayed. These polymerase sequences formed a diverse, but monophyletic cluster along with other sequences amplified previously from seawater and sequences from isolates infecting marine protists. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that our sequences represent at least five new genera and 24 new species of RNA viruses. These results contribute to our understanding of RNA virus diversity and suggest that picorna-like viruses are a source of mortality for a wide variety of marine protists.

  18. Characterization of purified Sindbis virus nsP4 RNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Rubach, Jon K.; Wasik, Brian R.; Rupp, Jonathan C.; Kuhn, Richard J.; Hardy, Richard W.; Smith, Janet L.

    2009-02-05

    The Sindbis virus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (nsP4) is responsible for the replication of the viral RNA genome. In infected cells, nsP4 is localized in a replication complex along with the other viral non-structural proteins. nsP4 has been difficult to homogenously purify from infected cells due to its interactions with the other replication proteins and the fact that its N-terminal residue, a tyrosine, causes the protein to be rapidly turned over in cells. We report the successful expression and purification of Sindbis nsP4 in a bacterial system, in which nsP4 is expressed as an N-terminal SUMO fusion protein. After purification the SUMO tag is removed, resulting in the isolation of full-length nsP4 possessing the authentic N-terminal tyrosine. This purified enzyme is able to produce minus-strand RNA de novo from plus-strand templates, as well as terminally add adenosine residues to the 3' end of an RNA substrate. In the presence of the partially processed viral replicase polyprotein, P123, purified nsP4 is able to synthesize discrete template length minus-strand RNA products. Mutations in the 3' CSE or poly(A) tail of viral template RNA prevent RNA synthesis by the replicase complex containing purified nsP4, consistent with previously reported template requirements for minus-strand RNA synthesis. Optimal reaction conditions were determined by investigating the effects of time, pH, and the concentrations of nsP4, P123 and magnesium on the synthesis of RNA.

  19. X-ray Crystal Structure of the Polymerase Domain of the Bacteriophage N4 Virion RNA Polymerase

    SciTech Connect

    Murakami,K.; Davydova, E.; Rothman-Denes, L.

    2008-01-01

    Coliphage N4 virion RNA polymerase (vRNAP), which is injected into the host upon infection, transcribes the phage early genes from promoters that have a 5-bp stem-3 nt loop hairpin structure. Here, we describe the 2.0- Angstroms resolution x-ray crystal structure of N4 mini-vRNAP, a member of the T7-like, single-unit RNAP family and the minimal component having all RNAP functions of the full-length vRNAP. The structure resembles a 'fisted right hand' with Fingers, Palm and Thumb subdomains connected to an N-terminal domain. We established that the specificity loop extending from the Fingers along with W129 of the N-terminal domain play critical roles in hairpin-promoter recognition. A comparison with the structure of the T7 RNAP initiation complex reveals that the pathway of the DNA to the active site is blocked in the apo-form vRNAP, indicating that vRNAP must undergo a large-scale conformational change upon promoter DNA binding and explaining the highly restricted promoter specificity of vRNAP that is essential for phage early transcription.

  20. Spectroscopic analysis of the interaction of Escherichia coli DNA-dependent RNA polymerase with T7 DNA and synthetic polynucleotides.

    PubMed

    Reisbig, R R; Woody, A Y; Woody, R W

    1979-11-25

    We have studied the circular dichroism and ultraviolet difference spectra of T7 bacteriophage DNA and various synthetic polynucleotides upon addition of Escherichia coli RNA polymerase. When RNA polymerase binds nonspecifically to T7 DNA, the CD spectrum shows a decrease in the maximum at 272 but no detectable changes in other regions of the spectrum. This CD change can be compared with those associated with known conformational changes in DNA. Nonspecific binding to RNA polymerase leads to an increase in the winding angle, theta, in T7 DNA. The CD and UV difference spectra for poly[d(A-T)] at 4 degrees C show similar effects. At 25 degrees C, binding of RNA polymerase to poly[d(A-T)] leads to hyperchromicity at 263 nm and to significant changes in CD. These effects are consistent with an opening of the double helix, i.e. melting of a short region of the DNA. The hyperchromicity observed at 263 nm for poly[d(A-T)] is used to determine the number of base pairs disrupted in the binding of RNA polymerase holoenzyme. The melting effect involves about 10 base pairs/RNA polymerase molecule. Changes in the CD of poly(dT) and poly(dA) on binding to RNA polymerase suggest an unstacking of the bases with a change in the backbone conformation. This is further confirmed by the UV difference spectra. We also show direct evidence for differences in the template binding site between holo- and core enzyme, presumably induced by the sigma subunit. By titration of the enzyme with poly(dT) the physical site size of RNA polymerase on single-stranded DNA is approximately equal to 30 bases for both holo- and core enzyme. Titration of poly[d(A-T)] with polymerase places the figure at approximately equal to 28 base pairs for double-stranded DNA.

  1. RNA synthesis by the brome mosaic virus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase in human cells reveals requirements for de novo initiation and protein-protein interaction.

    PubMed

    Subba-Reddy, Chennareddy V; Tragesser, Brady; Xu, Zhili; Stein, Barry; Ranjith-Kumar, C T; Kao, C Cheng

    2012-04-01

    Brome mosaic virus (BMV) is a model positive-strand RNA virus whose replication has been studied in a number of surrogate hosts. In transiently transfected human cells, the BMV polymerase 2a activated signaling by the innate immune receptor RIG-I, which recognizes de novo-initiated non-self-RNAs. Active-site mutations in 2a abolished RIG-I activation, and coexpression of the BMV 1a protein stimulated 2a activity. Mutations previously shown to abolish 1a and 2a interaction prevented the 1a-dependent enhancement of 2a activity. New insights into 1a-2a interaction include the findings that helicase active site of 1a is required to enhance 2a polymerase activity and that negatively charged amino acid residues between positions 110 and 120 of 2a contribute to interaction with the 1a helicase-like domain but not to the intrinsic polymerase activity. Confocal fluorescence microscopy revealed that the BMV 1a and 2a colocalized to perinuclear region in human cells. However, no perinuclear spherule-like structures were detected in human cells by immunoelectron microscopy. Sequencing of the RNAs coimmunoprecipitated with RIG-I revealed that the 2a-synthesized short RNAs are derived from the message used to translate 2a. That is, 2a exhibits a strong cis preference for BMV RNA2. Strikingly, the 2a RNA products had initiation sequences (5'-GUAAA-3') identical to those from the 5' sequence of the BMV genomic RNA2 and RNA3. These results show that the BMV 2a polymerase does not require other BMV proteins to initiate RNA synthesis but that the 1a helicase domain, and likely helicase activity, can affect RNA synthesis by 2a.

  2. Virus-induced gene silencing of RPC5-like subunit of RNA polymerase III caused pleiotropic effects in Nicotiana benthamiana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In eukaryotic cells, RNA polymerase III is highly conserved, contains 17 subunits and transcribes housekeeping genes such as ribosomal 50S rRNA, tRNA and other small RNAs. Functional roles of the RPC5 are poorly characterized in the literature. In this work, we report that virus-induced gene silenci...

  3. Structure and function of the polymerase core of TRAMP, a RNA surveillance complex

    SciTech Connect

    Hamill, Stephanie; Wolin, Sandra L.; Reinisch, Karin M.

    2010-09-03

    The Trf4p/Air2p/Mtr4p polyadenylation (TRAMP) complex recognizes aberrant RNAs in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and targets them for degradation. A TRAMP subcomplex consisting of a noncanonical poly(A) RNA polymerase in the Pol {beta} superfamily of nucleotidyl transferases, Trf4p, and a zinc knuckle protein, Air2p, mediates initial substrate recognition. Trf4p and related eukaryotic poly(A) and poly(U) polymerases differ from other characterized enzymes in the Pol {beta} superfamily both in sequence and in the lack of recognizable nucleic acid binding motifs. Here we report, at 2.7-{angstrom} resolution, the structure of Trf4p in complex with a fragment of Air2p comprising two zinc knuckle motifs. Trf4p consists of a catalytic and central domain similar in fold to those of other noncanonical Pol {beta} RNA polymerases, and the two zinc knuckle motifs of Air2p interact with the Trf4p central domain. The interaction surface on Trf4p is highly conserved across eukaryotes, providing evidence that the Trf4p/Air2p complex is conserved in higher eukaryotes as well as in yeast and that the TRAMP complex may also function in RNA surveillance in higher eukaryotes. We show that Air2p, and in particular sequences encompassing a zinc knuckle motif near its N terminus, modulate Trf4p activity, and we present data supporting a role for this zinc knuckle in RNA binding. Finally, we show that the RNA 3{prime} end plays a role in substrate recognition.

  4. Cell penetrable humanized-VH/V(H)H that inhibit RNA dependent RNA polymerase (NS5B) of HCV.

    PubMed

    Thueng-in, Kanyarat; Thanongsaksrikul, Jeeraphong; Srimanote, Potjanee; Bangphoomi, Kunan; Poungpair, Ornnuthchar; Maneewatch, Santi; Choowongkomon, Kiattawee; Chaicumpa, Wanpen

    2012-01-01

    NS5B is pivotal RNA dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) of HCV and NS5B function interfering halts the virus infective cycle. This work aimed to produce cell penetrable humanized single domain antibodies (SdAb; VH/V(H)H) that interfere with the RdRp activity. Recombinant NS5BΔ55 of genotype 3a HCV with de novo RNA synthetic activity was produced and used in phage biopanning for selecting phage clones that displayed NS5BΔ55 bound VH/V(H)H from a humanized-camel VH/V(H)H display library. VH/V(H)H from E. coli transfected with four selected phage clones inhibited RdRp activity when tested by ELISA inhibition using 3'di-cytidylate 25 nucleotide directed in vitro RNA synthesis. Deduced amino acid sequences of two clones showed V(H)H hallmark and were designated V(H)H6 and V(H)H24; other clones were conventional VH, designated VH9 and VH13. All VH/V(H)H were linked molecularly to a cell penetrating peptide, penetratin. The cell penetrable VH9, VH13, V(H)H6 and V(H)H24 added to culture of Huh7 cells transfected with JHF-1 RNA of genotype 2a HCV reduced the amounts of RNA intracellularly and in culture medium implying that they inhibited the virus replication. VH/V(H)H mimotopes matched with residues scattered on the polymerase fingers, palm and thumb which were likely juxtaposed to form conformational epitopes. Molecular docking revealed that the antibodies covered the RdRp catalytic groove. The transbodies await further studies for in vivo role in inhibiting HCV replication.

  5. Histone H3 Variant Regulates RNA Polymerase II Transcription Termination and Dual Strand Transcription of siRNA Loci in Trypanosoma brucei

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, David; Hofmeister, Brigitte T.; Cliffe, Laura; Alabady, Magdy; Siegel, T. Nicolai; Schmitz, Robert J.; Sabatini, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Base J, β-D-glucosyl-hydroxymethyluracil, is a chromatin modification of thymine in the nuclear DNA of flagellated protozoa of the order Kinetoplastida. In Trypanosoma brucei, J is enriched, along with histone H3 variant (H3.V), at sites involved in RNA Polymerase (RNAP) II termination and telomeric sites involved in regulating variant surface glycoprotein gene (VSG) transcription by RNAP I. Reduction of J in T. brucei indicated a role of J in the regulation of RNAP II termination, where the loss of J at specific sites within polycistronic gene clusters led to read-through transcription and increased expression of downstream genes. We now demonstrate that the loss of H3.V leads to similar defects in RNAP II termination within gene clusters and increased expression of downstream genes. Gene derepression is intensified upon the subsequent loss of J in the H3.V knockout. mRNA-seq indicates gene derepression includes VSG genes within the silent RNAP I transcribed telomeric gene clusters, suggesting an important role for H3.V in telomeric gene repression and antigenic variation. Furthermore, the loss of H3.V at regions of overlapping transcription at the end of convergent gene clusters leads to increased nascent RNA and siRNA production. Our results suggest base J and H3.V can act independently as well as synergistically to regulate transcription termination and expression of coding and non-coding RNAs in T. brucei, depending on chromatin context (and transcribing polymerase). As such these studies provide the first direct evidence for histone H3.V negatively influencing transcription elongation to promote termination. PMID:26796527

  6. Defective histone supply causes changes in RNA polymerase II elongation rate and cotranscriptional pre-mRNA splicing

    PubMed Central

    Jimeno-González, Silvia; Payán-Bravo, Laura; Muñoz-Cabello, Ana M.; Guijo, Macarena; Gutierrez, Gabriel; Prado, Félix; Reyes, José C.

    2015-01-01

    RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) transcription elongation is a highly regulated process that greatly influences mRNA levels as well as pre-mRNA splicing. Despite many studies in vitro, how chromatin modulates RNAPII elongation in vivo is still unclear. Here, we show that a decrease in the level of available canonical histones leads to more accessible chromatin with decreased levels of canonical histones and variants H2A.X and H2A.Z and increased levels of H3.3. With this altered chromatin structure, the RNAPII elongation rate increases, and the kinetics of pre-mRNA splicing is delayed with respect to RNAPII elongation. Consistent with the kinetic model of cotranscriptional splicing, the rapid RNAPII elongation induced by histone depletion promotes the skipping of variable exons in the CD44 gene. Indeed, a slowly elongating mutant of RNAPII was able to rescue this defect, indicating that the defective splicing induced by histone depletion is a direct consequence of the increased elongation rate. In addition, genome-wide analysis evidenced that histone reduction promotes widespread alterations in pre-mRNA processing, including intron retention and changes in alternative splicing. Our data demonstrate that pre-mRNA splicing may be regulated by chromatin structure through the modulation of the RNAPII elongation rate. PMID:26578803

  7. Depletion of REF/Aly alters gene expression and reduces RNA polymerase II occupancy

    PubMed Central

    Stubbs, Sarah H.; Conrad, Nicholas K.

    2015-01-01

    Pre-mRNA processing is mechanistically linked to transcription with RNA pol II serving as a platform to recruit RNA processing factors to nascent transcripts. The TREX complex member, REF/Aly, has been suggested to play roles in transcription and nuclear RNA stability in addition to its more broadly characterized role in mRNA export. We employed RNA-seq to identify a subset of transcripts with decreased expression in both nuclear and cytoplasmic fractions upon REF/Aly knockdown, which implies that REF/Aly affects their expression upstream of its role in mRNA export. Transcription inhibition experiments and metabolic labeling assays argue that REF/Aly does not affect stability of selected candidate transcripts. Instead, ChIP assays and nuclear run-on analysis reveal that REF/Aly depletion diminishes the transcription of these candidate genes. Furthermore, we determined that REF/Aly binds directly to candidate transcripts, supporting a direct effect of REF/Aly on candidate gene transcription. Taken together, our data suggest that the importance of REF/Aly is not limited to RNA export, but that REF/Aly is also critical for gene expression at the level of transcription. Our data are consistent with the model that REF/Aly is involved in linking splicing with transcription efficiency. PMID:25477387

  8. Depletion of REF/Aly alters gene expression and reduces RNA polymerase II occupancy.

    PubMed

    Stubbs, Sarah H; Conrad, Nicholas K

    2015-01-01

    Pre-mRNA processing is mechanistically linked to transcription with RNA pol II serving as a platform to recruit RNA processing factors to nascent transcripts. The TREX complex member, REF/Aly, has been suggested to play roles in transcription and nuclear RNA stability in addition to its more broadly characterized role in mRNA export. We employed RNA-seq to identify a subset of transcripts with decreased expression in both nuclear and cytoplasmic fractions upon REF/Aly knockdown, which implies that REF/Aly affects their expression upstream of its role in mRNA export. Transcription inhibition experiments and metabolic labeling assays argue that REF/Aly does not affect stability of selected candidate transcripts. Instead, ChIP assays and nuclear run-on analysis reveal that REF/Aly depletion diminishes the transcription of these candidate genes. Furthermore, we determined that REF/Aly binds directly to candidate transcripts, supporting a direct effect of REF/Aly on candidate gene transcription. Taken together, our data suggest that the importance of REF/Aly is not limited to RNA export, but that REF/Aly is also critical for gene expression at the level of transcription. Our data are consistent with the model that REF/Aly is involved in linking splicing with transcription efficiency.

  9. The thumb subdomain of yeast mitochondrial RNA polymerase is involved in processivity, transcript fidelity and mitochondrial transcription factor binding.

    PubMed

    Velazquez, Gilberto; Sousa, Rui; Brieba, Luis G

    2015-01-01

    Single subunit RNA polymerases have evolved 2 mechanisms to synthesize long transcripts without falling off a DNA template: binding of nascent RNA and interactions with an RNA:DNA hybrid. Mitochondrial RNA polymerases share a common ancestor with T-odd bacteriophage single subunit RNA polymerases. Herein we characterized the role of the thumb subdomain of the yeast mtRNA polymerase gene (RPO41) in complex stability, processivity, and fidelity. We found that deletion and point mutants of the thumb subdomain of yeast mtRNA polymerase increase the synthesis of abortive transcripts and the probability that the polymerase will disengage from the template during the formation of the late initial transcription and elongation complexes. Mutations in the thumb subdomain increase the amount of slippage products from a homopolymeric template and, unexpectedly, thumb subdomain deletions decrease the binding affinity for mitochondrial transcription factor (Mtf1). The latter suggests that the thumb subdomain is part of an extended binding surface area involved in binding Mtf1.

  10. DksA Guards Elongating RNA Polymerase Against Ribosome-Stalling-Induced Arrest

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yan; Mooney, Rachel A.; Grass, Jeffrey A.; Sivaramakrishnan, Priya; Herman, Christophe; Landick, Robert; Wang, Jue D.

    2014-01-01

    Summary In bacteria, translation-transcription coupling inhibits RNA polymerase (RNAP) stalling. We present evidence suggesting that, upon amino acid starvation, inactive ribosomes promote rather than inhibit RNAP stalling. We developed an algorithm to evaluate genome-wide polymerase progression independently of local noise, and used it to reveal that the transcription factor DksA inhibits promoter-proximal pausing and increases RNAP elongation when uncoupled from translation by depletion of charged tRNAs. DksA has minimal effect on RNAP elongation in vitro and on untranslated RNAs in vivo. In these cases, transcripts can form RNA structures that prevent backtracking. Thus, the effect of DksA on transcript elongation may occur primarily upon ribosome slowing/stalling or at promoter-proximal locations that limit the potential for RNA structure. We propose that inactive ribosomes prevent formation of backtrack-blocking mRNA structures and that, in this circumstance, DksA acts as a transcription elongation factor in vivo. PMID:24606919

  11. SMN and symmetric arginine dimethylation of RNA polymerase II C-terminal domain control termination.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Dorothy Yanling; Gish, Gerald; Braunschweig, Ulrich; Li, Yue; Ni, Zuyao; Schmitges, Frank W; Zhong, Guoqing; Liu, Ke; Li, Weiguo; Moffat, Jason; Vedadi, Masoud; Min, Jinrong; Pawson, Tony J; Blencowe, Benjamin J; Greenblatt, Jack F

    2016-01-01

    The carboxy-terminal domain (CTD) of the RNA polymerase II (RNAP II) subunit POLR2A is a platform for modifications specifying the recruitment of factors that regulate transcription, mRNA processing, and chromatin remodelling. Here we show that a CTD arginine residue (R1810 in human) that is conserved across vertebrates is symmetrically dimethylated (me2s). This R1810me2s modification requires protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5) and recruits the Tudor domain of the survival of motor neuron (SMN, also known as GEMIN1) protein, which is mutated in spinal muscular atrophy. SMN interacts with senataxin, which is sometimes mutated in ataxia oculomotor apraxia type 2 and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Because POLR2A R1810me2s and SMN, like senataxin, are required for resolving RNA-DNA hybrids created by RNA polymerase II that form R-loops in transcription termination regions, we propose that R1810me2s, SMN, and senataxin are components of an R-loop resolution pathway. Defects in this pathway can influence transcription termination and may contribute to neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:26700805

  12. T7 RNA polymerase studied by force measurements varying cofactor concentration.

    PubMed

    Thomen, P; Lopez, P J; Bockelmann, U; Guillerez, J; Dreyfus, M; Heslot, F

    2008-09-01

    RNA polymerases carry out the synthesis of an RNA copy from a DNA template. They move along DNA, incorporate nucleotide triphosphate (NTP) at the end of the growing RNA chain, and consume chemical energy. In a single-molecule assay using the T7 RNA polymerase, we study how a mechanical force opposing the forward motion of the enzyme along DNA affects the translocation rate. We also study the influence of nucleotide and magnesium concentration on this process. The experiment shows that the opposing mechanical force is a competitive inhibitor of nucleotide binding. Also, the single-molecule data suggest that magnesium ions are involved in a step that does not depend on the external load force. These kinetic results associated with known biochemical and mutagenic data, along with the static information obtained from crystallographic structures, shape a very coherent view of the catalytic cycle of the enzyme: translocation does not take place upon NTP binding nor upon NTP cleavage, but rather occurs after PPi release and before the next nucleotide binding event. Furthermore, the energetic bias associated with the forward motion of the enzyme is close to kT and represents only a small fraction of the free energy of nucleotide incorporation and pyrophosphate hydrolysis.

  13. A simple RNA probe system for analysis of Listeria monocytogenes polymerase chain reaction products.

    PubMed Central

    Blais, B W; Phillippe, L M

    1993-01-01

    The synthesis of an RNA probe specific for the hlyA gene of Listeria monocytogenes by in vitro transcription from a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-generated template incorporating bacteriophage T7 promoter sequences is described. This simple method produced a high yield of RNA which hybridized specifically with hlyA PCR products on a membrane, resulting in RNA-DNA hybrids which were detected by an immunoenzymatic assay with an anti-RNA-DNA hybrid antibody. The RNA probe hybridization system was more sensitive in the analysis of the PCR products than was the conventional agarose gel electrophoresis method. When applied to the analysis of PCR samples from cultures of various Listeria and non-Listeria organisms, the RNA probe was reactive in the assay of 62 different L. monocytogenes isolates but not other Listeria species. Among the non-Listeria organisms tested, only Enterococcus faecalis gave a weak positive reaction with more than 10(9) cells per ml. This reactivity disappeared at lower cell densities. This strategy for the synthesis and application of RNA probes should facilitate the analysis of PCR products in the detection of L. monocytogenes and possibly other food pathogens. Images PMID:8215354

  14. Nucleolin provides a link between RNA polymerase I transcription and pre-ribosome assembly.

    PubMed

    Roger, Benoit; Moisand, André; Amalric, François; Bouvet, Philippe

    2003-03-01

    Despite the identification of numerous factors involved in ribosomal RNA synthesis and maturation, the molecular mechanisms of ribosome biogenesis, and in particular the relationship between the different steps, are still largely unknown. We have investigated the consequences of an increased amount of a major nucleolar non-ribosomal protein, nucleolin, in Xenopus laevisstage VI oocytes on the production of ribosomal subunits. We show that a threefold increase in nucleolin leads to the complete absence of pre-rRNA maturation in addition to significant repression of RNA polymerase I transcription. Observation of "Christmas trees" by electron microscopy and analysis of the sedimentation properties of 40S pre-ribosomal particles suggest that an increased amount of nucleolin leads to incorrect packaging of the 40S particle. Interestingly, nucleolin affects the maturation of the 40S particle only when it is present at the time of transcription. These results indicate that nucleolin participates in the co-transcriptional packaging of the pre-rRNA, and that the quality of this packaging will determine whether the 40S precursor undergoes maturation or is degraded. The interaction of nucleolin with nascent pre-rRNA could help the co-transcriptional assembly on pre-rRNA of factors necessary for the subsequent maturation of the pre-ribosomal particle containing the 40S pre-rRNA.

  15. Molecular characterization of genome segment 2 encoding RNA dependent RNA polymerase of Antheraea mylitta cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus

    SciTech Connect

    Ghorai, Suvankar; Chakrabarti, Mrinmay; Roy, Sobhan; Chavali, Venkata Ramana Murthy; Bagchi, Abhisek; Ghosh, Ananta Kumar

    2010-08-15

    Genome segment 2 (S2) from Antheraea mylitta cypovirus (AmCPV) was converted into cDNA, cloned and sequenced. S2 consisted of 3798 nucleotides with a long ORF encoding a 1116 amino acid long protein (123 kDa). BLAST and phylogenetic analysis showed 29% sequence identity and close relatedness of AmCPV S2 with RNA dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) of other insect cypoviruses, suggesting a common origin of all insect cypoviruses. The ORF of S2 was expressed as 123 kDa soluble His-tagged fusion protein in insect cells via baculovirus recombinants which exhibited RdRp activity in an in vitro RNA polymerase assay without any intrinsic terminal transferase activity. Maximum activity was observed at 37 deg. C at pH 6.0 in the presence of 3 mM MgCl{sub 2.} Site directed mutagenesis confirmed the importance of the conserved GDD motif. This is the first report of functional characterization of a cypoviral RdRp which may lead to the development of anti-viral agents.

  16. Bacterial Transcription Inhibitor of RNA Polymerase Holoenzyme Formation by Structure-Based Drug Design: From in Silico Screening to Validation.

    PubMed

    Ma, Cong; Yang, Xiao; Lewis, Peter J

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial transcription is a proven target for antibacterial research. However, most of the known inhibitors targeting transcription are from natural extracts or are hits from screens where the binding site remains unidentified. Using an RNA polymerase holoenzyme homology structure from the model Gram-positive organism Bacillus subtilis, we created a pharmacophore model and used it for in silico screening of a publicly available library for compounds able to inhibit holoenzyme formation. The hits demonstrated specific affinity to bacterial RNA polymerase and excellent activity using in vitro assays and showed no binding to the equivalent structure from human RNA polymerase II. The target specificity in live cells and antibacterial activity was demonstrated in microscopy and growth inhibition experiments. This is the first example of targeted inhibitor development for a bacterial RNA polymerase, outlining a complete discovery process from virtual screening to biochemical validation. This approach could serve as an appropriate platform for the future identification of inhibitors of bacterial transcription. PMID:27622946

  17. Class II ribonuclease H comigrates with, but is distinct from, the third largest subunit of calf thymus RNA polymerase I.

    PubMed

    Vonwirth, H; Frank, P; Kedinger, C; Büsen, W

    1990-09-10

    It has been reported (Iborra et al. (1979) J. Biol. Chem. 254, 10920-10924) that the third and the fifth largest subunit of yeast RNA polymerase I exhibit ribonuclease H activity. The authors suggested that the third largest subunit is identical with the chromatin-associated ribonuclease H49, the putative yeast equivalent of bovine ribonuclease H IIb. Although the third largest subunit of calf thymus RNA polymerase I and ribonuclease H IIb display nearly identical molecular masses under denaturing conditions, serological analysis reveals that, in contrast to their counterparts in yeast, these mammalian proteins are distinct entities. Interestingly, sera from some patients with mixed connective tissue disease which contain antibodies directed against RNA polymerase I, also react with ribonuclease H IIb epitopes. This observation suggests that a protein displaying ribonuclease H IIb antigenicity could be associated with RNA polymerase I. Additional indications supporting this conclusion are discussed.

  18. Structure of an RNA Polymerase II-TFIIB Complex and the Transcription Initiation Mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Xin; Bushnell, David A; Wang, Dong; Calero, Guillermo; Kornberg, Roger D

    2010-01-14

    Previous x-ray crystal structures have given insight into the mechanism of transcription and the role of general transcription factors in the initiation of the process. A structure of an RNA polymerase II-general transcription factor TFIIB complex at 4.5 angstrom resolution revealed the amino-terminal region of TFIIB, including a loop termed the 'B finger,' reaching into the active center of the polymerase where it may interact with both DNA and RNA, but this structure showed little of the carboxyl-terminal region. A new crystal structure of the same complex at 3.8 angstrom resolution obtained under different solution conditions is complementary with the previous one, revealing the carboxyl-terminal region of TFIIB, located above the polymerase active center cleft, but showing none of the B finger. In the new structure, the linker between the amino- and carboxyl-terminal regions can also be seen, snaking down from above the cleft toward the active center. The two structures, taken together with others previously obtained, dispel long-standing mysteries of the transcription initiation process.

  19. Biochemical Effect of Resistance Mutations against Synergistic Inhibitors of RSV RNA Polymerase

    PubMed Central

    Fung, Amy; Stevens, Sarah K.; Jordan, Paul C.; Gromova, Tatiana; Taylor, Joshua S.; Hong, Jin; Meng, Jia; Wang, Guangyi; Dyatkina, Natalia; Prhavc, Marija; Symons, Julian A.; Beigelman, Leo

    2016-01-01

    ALS-8112 is the parent molecule of ALS-8176, a first-in-class nucleoside analog prodrug effective in the clinic against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection. The antiviral activity of ALS-8112 is mediated by its 5'-triphosphate metabolite (ALS-8112-TP, or 2'F-4'ClCH2-cytidine triphosphate) inhibiting the RNA polymerase activity of the RSV L-P protein complex through RNA chain termination. Four amino acid mutations in the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) domain of L (QUAD: M628L, A789V, L795I, and I796V) confer in vitro resistance to ALS-8112-TP by increasing its discrimination relative to natural CTP. In this study, we show that the QUAD mutations specifically recognize the ClCH2 group of ALS-8112-TP. Among the four mutations, A789V conferred the greatest resistance phenotype, which was consistent with its putative position in the active site of the RdRp domain. AZ-27, a non-nucleoside inhibitor of RSV, also inhibited the RdRp activity, with decreased inhibition potency in the presence of the Y1631H mutation. The QUAD mutations had no effect on the antiviral activity of AZ-27, and the Y1631H mutation did not significantly increase the discrimination of ALS-8112-TP. Combining ALS-8112 with AZ-27 in vitro resulted in significant synergistic inhibition of RSV replication. Overall, this is the first mechanistic study showing a lack of cross-resistance between mutations selected by different classes of RSV polymerase inhibitors acting in synergy, opening the door to future potential combination therapies targeting different regions of the L protein. PMID:27163448

  20. Association of the influenza virus RNA polymerase subunit PB2 with the host chaperonin CCT.

    PubMed

    Fislová, Tatiana; Thomas, Benjamin; Graef, Katy M; Fodor, Ervin

    2010-09-01

    The RNA polymerase of influenza A virus is a host range determinant and virulence factor. In particular, the PB2 subunit of the RNA polymerase has been implicated as a crucial factor that affects cell tropism as well as virulence in animal models. These findings suggest that host factors associating with the PB2 protein may play an important role during viral replication. In order to identify host factors that associate with the PB2 protein, we purified recombinant PB2 from transiently transfected mammalian cells and identified copurifying host proteins by mass spectrometry. We found that the PB2 protein associates with the cytosolic chaperonin containing TCP-1 (CCT), stress-induced phosphoprotein 1 (STIP1), FK506 binding protein 5 (FKBP5), alpha- and beta-tubulin, Hsp60, and mitochondrial protein p32. Some of these binding partners associate with each other, suggesting that PB2 might interact with these proteins in multimeric complexes. More detailed analysis of the interaction of the PB2 protein with CCT revealed that PB2 associates with CCT as a monomer and that the CCT binding site is located in a central region of the PB2 protein. PB2 proteins from various influenza virus subtypes and origins can associate with CCT. Silencing of CCT resulted in reduced viral replication and reduced PB2 protein and viral RNA accumulation in a ribonucleoprotein reconstitution assay, suggesting an important function for CCT during the influenza virus life cycle. We propose that CCT might be acting as a chaperone for PB2 to aid its folding and possibly its incorporation into the trimeric RNA polymerase complex.

  1. Biochemical Effect of Resistance Mutations against Synergistic Inhibitors of RSV RNA Polymerase.

    PubMed

    Deval, Jerome; Fung, Amy; Stevens, Sarah K; Jordan, Paul C; Gromova, Tatiana; Taylor, Joshua S; Hong, Jin; Meng, Jia; Wang, Guangyi; Dyatkina, Natalia; Prhavc, Marija; Symons, Julian A; Beigelman, Leo

    2016-01-01

    ALS-8112 is the parent molecule of ALS-8176, a first-in-class nucleoside analog prodrug effective in the clinic against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection. The antiviral activity of ALS-8112 is mediated by its 5'-triphosphate metabolite (ALS-8112-TP, or 2'F-4'ClCH2-cytidine triphosphate) inhibiting the RNA polymerase activity of the RSV L-P protein complex through RNA chain termination. Four amino acid mutations in the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) domain of L (QUAD: M628L, A789V, L795I, and I796V) confer in vitro resistance to ALS-8112-TP by increasing its discrimination relative to natural CTP. In this study, we show that the QUAD mutations specifically recognize the ClCH2 group of ALS-8112-TP. Among the four mutations, A789V conferred the greatest resistance phenotype, which was consistent with its putative position in the active site of the RdRp domain. AZ-27, a non-nucleoside inhibitor of RSV, also inhibited the RdRp activity, with decreased inhibition potency in the presence of the Y1631H mutation. The QUAD mutations had no effect on the antiviral activity of AZ-27, and the Y1631H mutation did not significantly increase the discrimination of ALS-8112-TP. Combining ALS-8112 with AZ-27 in vitro resulted in significant synergistic inhibition of RSV replication. Overall, this is the first mechanistic study showing a lack of cross-resistance between mutations selected by different classes of RSV polymerase inhibitors acting in synergy, opening the door to future potential combination therapies targeting different regions of the L protein. PMID:27163448

  2. Enzymatic amplification of platelet-specific messenger RNA using the polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed Central

    Newman, P J; Gorski, J; White, G C; Gidwitz, S; Cretney, C J; Aster, R H

    1988-01-01

    Human platelets are derived from megakaryocytes as anucleate cells, and thus contain only vestigial amounts of RNA capable of being transcribed into protein. This has greatly hampered efforts to study directly platelet-specific gene products and their associated polymorphisms. In this report, we describe direct amplification, using the polymerase chain reaction, of platelet-derived mRNA in amounts sufficient to permit detailed analysis, such as restriction mapping and nucleotide sequencing. The ability to generate large amounts of cDNA from platelet-specific mRNA sequences should make possible direct molecular characterization of normal platelet proteins, and facilitate the investigation of a wide variety of inherited platelet disorders. Images PMID:3403726

  3. Bridge helix bending promotes RNA polymerase II backtracking through a critical and conserved threonine residue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da, Lin-Tai; Pardo-Avila, Fátima; Xu, Liang; Silva, Daniel-Adriano; Zhang, Lu; Gao, Xin; Wang, Dong; Huang, Xuhui

    2016-04-01

    The dynamics of the RNA polymerase II (Pol II) backtracking process is poorly understood. We built a Markov State Model from extensive molecular dynamics simulations to identify metastable intermediate states and the dynamics of backtracking at atomistic detail. Our results reveal that Pol II backtracking occurs in a stepwise mode where two intermediate states are involved. We find that the continuous bending motion of the Bridge helix (BH) serves as a critical checkpoint, using the highly conserved BH residue T831 as a sensing probe for the 3'-terminal base paring of RNA:DNA hybrid. If the base pair is mismatched, BH bending can promote the RNA 3'-end nucleotide into a frayed state that further leads to the backtracked state. These computational observations are validated by site-directed mutagenesis and transcript cleavage assays, and provide insights into the key factors that regulate the preferences of the backward translocation.

  4. Bridge helix bending promotes RNA polymerase II backtracking through a critical and conserved threonine residue.

    PubMed

    Da, Lin-Tai; Pardo-Avila, Fátima; Xu, Liang; Silva, Daniel-Adriano; Zhang, Lu; Gao, Xin; Wang, Dong; Huang, Xuhui

    2016-04-19

    The dynamics of the RNA polymerase II (Pol II) backtracking process is poorly understood. We built a Markov State Model from extensive molecular dynamics simulations to identify metastable intermediate states and the dynamics of backtracking at atomistic detail. Our results reveal that Pol II backtracking occurs in a stepwise mode where two intermediate states are involved. We find that the continuous bending motion of the Bridge helix (BH) serves as a critical checkpoint, using the highly conserved BH residue T831 as a sensing probe for the 3'-terminal base paring of RNA:DNA hybrid. If the base pair is mismatched, BH bending can promote the RNA 3'-end nucleotide into a frayed state that further leads to the backtracked state. These computational observations are validated by site-directed mutagenesis and transcript cleavage assays, and provide insights into the key factors that regulate the preferences of the backward translocation.

  5. TRRAP and GCN5 are used by c-Myc to activate RNA polymerase III transcription.

    PubMed

    Kenneth, Niall S; Ramsbottom, Ben A; Gomez-Roman, Natividad; Marshall, Lynne; Cole, Philip A; White, Robert J

    2007-09-18

    Activation of RNA polymerase (pol) II transcription by c-Myc generally involves recruitment of histone acetyltransferases and acetylation of histones H3 and H4. Here, we describe the mechanism used by c-Myc to activate pol III transcription of tRNA and 5S rRNA genes. Within 2 h of its induction, c-Myc appears at these genes along with the histone acetyltransferase GCN5 and the cofactor TRRAP. At the same time, occupancy of the pol III-specific factor TFIIIB increases and histone H3 becomes hyperacetylated, but increased histone H4 acetylation is not detected at these genes. The rapid acetylation of histone H3 and promoter assembly of TFIIIB, c-Myc, GCN5, and TRRAP are followed by recruitment of pol III and transcriptional induction. The selective acetylation of histone H3 distinguishes pol III activation by c-Myc from mechanisms observed in other systems.

  6. Bridge helix bending promotes RNA polymerase II backtracking through a critical and conserved threonine residue

    PubMed Central

    Da, Lin-Tai; Pardo-Avila, Fátima; Xu, Liang; Silva, Daniel-Adriano; Zhang, Lu; Gao, Xin; Wang, Dong; Huang, Xuhui

    2016-01-01

    The dynamics of the RNA polymerase II (Pol II) backtracking process is poorly understood. We built a Markov State Model from extensive molecular dynamics simulations to identify metastable intermediate states and the dynamics of backtracking at atomistic detail. Our results reveal that Pol II backtracking occurs in a stepwise mode where two intermediate states are involved. We find that the continuous bending motion of the Bridge helix (BH) serves as a critical checkpoint, using the highly conserved BH residue T831 as a sensing probe for the 3′-terminal base paring of RNA:DNA hybrid. If the base pair is mismatched, BH bending can promote the RNA 3′-end nucleotide into a frayed state that further leads to the backtracked state. These computational observations are validated by site-directed mutagenesis and transcript cleavage assays, and provide insights into the key factors that regulate the preferences of the backward translocation. PMID:27091704

  7. KEX2 mutations suppress RNA polymerase II mutants and alter the temperature range of yeast cell growth.

    PubMed Central

    Martin, C; Young, R A

    1989-01-01

    Suppressors of a temperature-sensitive RNA polymerase II mutation were isolated to identify proteins that interact with RNA polymerase II in yeast cells. Ten independently isolated extragenic mutations that suppressed the temperature-sensitive mutation rpb1-1 and produced a cold-sensitive phenotype were all found to be alleles of a single gene, SRB1. An SRB1 partial deletion mutant was further investigated and found to exhibit several pleiotropic phenotypes. These included suppression of numerous temperature-sensitive RNA polymerase II mutations, alteration of the temperature growth range of cells containing wild-type RNA polymerase, and sterility of cells of alpha mating type. The ability of SRB1 mutations to suppress the temperature-sensitive phenotype of RNA polymerase II mutants did not extend to other temperature-sensitive mutants investigated. Isolation of the SRB1 gene revealed that SRB1 is KEX2. These results indicate that the KEX2 protease, whose only known substrates are hormone precursors, can have an important influence on RNA polymerase II and the temperature-dependent growth properties of yeast cells. Images PMID:2668732

  8. RNA polymerase II interacts with the promoter region of the noninduced hsp70 gene in Drosophila melanogaster cells

    SciTech Connect

    Gilmour, D.S.; Lis, J.T.

    1986-11-01

    By using a protein-DNA cross-linking method, we examined the in vivo distribution of RNA polymerase II on the hsp70 heat shock gene in Drosophila melanogaster Schneider line 2 cells. In heat shock-induced cells, a high level of RNA polymerase II was detected on the entire gene, while in noninduced cells, the RNA polymerase II was confined to the 5' end of the hsp70 gene, predominantly between nucleotides -12 and +65 relative to the start of transcription. This association of RNA polymerase II was apparent whether the cross-linking was performed by a 10-min UV irradiation of chilled cells with mercury vapor lamps or by a 40-microsecond irradiation of cells with a high-energy xenon flash lamp. We hypothesize that RNA polymerase II has access to, and a high affinity for, the promoter region of this gene before induction, and this poised RNA polymerase II may be critical in the mechanism of transcription activation.

  9. The interaction between bacterial transcription factors and RNA polymerase during the transition from initiation to elongation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiao; Lewis, Peter J

    2010-01-01

    There are three stages of transcription: initiation, elongation and termination, and traditionally there has been a clear distinction between the stages. The specificity factor sigma is completely released from bacterial RNA polymerase after initiation, and then recycled for another round of transcription. Elongation factors then associate with the polymerase followed by termination factors (where necessary). These factors dissociate prior to initiation of a new round of transcription. However, there is growing evidence suggesting that sigma factors can be retained in the elongation complex. The structure of bacterial RNAP in complex with an essential elongation factor NusA has recently been published, which suggested rather than competing for the major σ binding site, NusA binds to a discrete region on RNAP. A model was proposed to help explain the way in which both factors could be associated with RNAP during the transition from transcription initiation to elongation.

  10. SRSF1 regulates the assembly of pre-mRNA processing factors in nuclear speckles.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Vidisha; Song, David Y; Zong, Xinying; Shevtsov, Sergey P; Hearn, Stephen; Fu, Xiang-Dong; Dundr, Miroslav; Prasanth, Kannanganattu V

    2012-09-01

    The mammalian cell nucleus is compartmentalized into nonmembranous subnuclear domains that regulate key nuclear functions. Nuclear speckles are subnuclear domains that contain pre-mRNA processing factors and noncoding RNAs. Many of the nuclear speckle constituents work in concert to coordinate multiple steps of gene expression, including transcription, pre-mRNA processing and mRNA transport. The mechanism that regulates the formation and maintenance of nuclear speckles in the interphase nucleus is poorly understood. In the present study, we provide evidence for the involvement of nuclear speckle resident proteins and RNA components in the organization of nuclear speckles. SR-family splicing factors and their binding partner, long noncoding metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 RNA, can nucleate the assembly of nuclear speckles in the interphase nucleus. Depletion of SRSF1 in human cells compromises the association of splicing factors to nuclear speckles and influences the levels and activity of other SR proteins. Furthermore, on a stably integrated reporter gene locus, we demonstrate the role of SRSF1 in RNA polymerase II-mediated transcription. Our results suggest that SR proteins mediate the assembly of nuclear speckles and regulate gene expression by influencing both transcriptional and posttranscriptional activities within the cell nucleus.

  11. Mutations in the CRE pocket of bacterial RNA polymerase affect multiple steps of transcription.

    PubMed

    Petushkov, Ivan; Pupov, Danil; Bass, Irina; Kulbachinskiy, Andrey

    2015-07-13

    During transcription, the catalytic core of RNA polymerase (RNAP) must interact with the DNA template with low-sequence specificity to ensure efficient enzyme translocation and RNA extension. Unexpectedly, recent structural studies of bacterial promoter complexes revealed specific interactions between the nontemplate DNA strand at the downstream edge of the transcription bubble (CRE, core recognition element) and a protein pocket formed by core RNAP (CRE pocket). We investigated the roles of these interactions in transcription by analyzing point amino acid substitutions and deletions in Escherichia coli RNAP. The mutations affected multiple steps of transcription, including promoter recognition, RNA elongation and termination. In particular, we showed that interactions of the CRE pocket with a nontemplate guanine immediately downstream of the active center stimulate RNA-hairpin-dependent transcription pausing but not other types of pausing. Thus, conformational changes of the elongation complex induced by nascent RNA can modulate CRE effects on transcription. The results highlight the roles of specific core RNAP-DNA interactions at different steps of RNA synthesis and suggest their importance for transcription regulation in various organisms.

  12. Mutations in the CRE pocket of bacterial RNA polymerase affect multiple steps of transcription

    PubMed Central

    Petushkov, Ivan; Pupov, Danil; Bass, Irina; Kulbachinskiy, Andrey

    2015-01-01

    During transcription, the catalytic core of RNA polymerase (RNAP) must interact with the DNA template with low-sequence specificity to ensure efficient enzyme translocation and RNA extension. Unexpectedly, recent structural studies of bacterial promoter complexes revealed specific interactions between the nontemplate DNA strand at the downstream edge of the transcription bubble (CRE, core recognition element) and a protein pocket formed by core RNAP (CRE pocket). We investigated the roles of these interactions in transcription by analyzing point amino acid substitutions and deletions in Escherichia coli RNAP. The mutations affected multiple steps of transcription, including promoter recognition, RNA elongation and termination. In particular, we showed that interactions of the CRE pocket with a nontemplate guanine immediately downstream of the active center stimulate RNA-hairpin-dependent transcription pausing but not other types of pausing. Thus, conformational changes of the elongation complex induced by nascent RNA can modulate CRE effects on transcription. The results highlight the roles of specific core RNAP–DNA interactions at different steps of RNA synthesis and suggest their importance for transcription regulation in various organisms. PMID:25990734

  13. Tethered particle motion method for studying transcript elongation by a single RNA polymerase molecule.

    PubMed

    Yin, H; Landick, R; Gelles, J

    1994-12-01

    Schafer et al. (Nature 352:444-448 (1991)) devised the tethered particle motion (TPM) method to detect directly the movement of single, isolated molecules of a processive nucleic acid polymerase along a template DNA molecule. In TPM studies, the polymerase molecule is immobilized on a glass surface, and a particle (e.g., a 0.23 microns diameter polystyrene bead) is attached to one end of the enzyme-bound DNA molecule. Time-resolved measurements of the DNA contour length between the particle and the immobilized enzyme (the "tether length") are made by determining the magnitude of the Brownian motion of the DNA-tethered particle using light microscopy and digital image processing. We report here improved sample preparation methods that permit TPM data collection on transcript elongation by the Escherichia coli RNA polymerase at rates (approximately 10(2)-fold higher than those previously obtained) sufficient for practical use of microscopic kinetics techniques to analyze polymerase reaction mechanisms. In earlier TPM experiments, calculation of tether length from the observed Brownian motion was based on an untested numerical simulation of tethered bead Brownian motion. Using the improved methods, we have now empirically validated the TPM technique for tether lengths of 308-1915 base pairs (bp) using calibration specimens containing particles tethered by individual DNA molecules of known lengths. TPM analysis of such specimens yielded a linear calibration curve relating observed Brownian motion to tether length and allowed determination of the accuracy of the technique and measurement of how temporal bandwidth, tether length, and other experimental variables affect measurement precision. Under a standard set of experimental conditions (0.23 microns diameter bead, 0.23 Hz bandwidth, 23 degrees), accuracy is 108 and 258 bp r.m.s. at tether lengths of 308 and 1915 bp, respectively. Precision improves linearly with decreasing tether length to an extrapolated

  14. Sub1 associates with Spt5 and influences RNA polymerase II transcription elongation rate.

    PubMed

    García, Alicia; Collin, Alejandro; Calvo, Olga

    2012-11-01

    The transcriptional coactivator Sub1 has been implicated in several steps of mRNA metabolism in yeast, such as the activation of transcription, termination, and 3'-end formation. In addition, Sub1 globally regulates RNA polymerase II phosphorylation, and most recently it has been shown that it is a functional component of the preinitiation complex. Here we present evidence that Sub1 plays a significant role in transcription elongation by RNA polymerase II (RNAPII). We show that SUB1 genetically interacts with the gene encoding the elongation factor Spt5, that Sub1 influences Spt5 phosphorylation of the carboxy-terminal domain of RNAPII largest subunit by the kinase Bur1, and that both Sub1 and Spt5 copurify in the same complex, likely during early transcription elongation. Indeed, our data indicate that Sub1 influences Spt5-Rpb1 interaction. In addition, biochemical and molecular data show that Sub1 influences transcription elongation of constitutive and inducible genes and associates with coding regions in a transcription-dependent manner. Taken together, our results indicate that Sub1 associates with Spt5 and influences Spt5-Rpb1 complex levels and consequently transcription elongation rate.

  15. Sub1 associates with Spt5 and influences RNA polymerase II transcription elongation rate

    PubMed Central

    García, Alicia; Collin, Alejandro; Calvo, Olga

    2012-01-01

    The transcriptional coactivator Sub1 has been implicated in several steps of mRNA metabolism in yeast, such as the activation of transcription, termination, and 3′-end formation. In addition, Sub1 globally regulates RNA polymerase II phosphorylation, and most recently it has been shown that it is a functional component of the preinitiation complex. Here we present evidence that Sub1 plays a significant role in transcription elongation by RNA polymerase II (RNAPII). We show that SUB1 genetically interacts with the gene encoding the elongation factor Spt5, that Sub1 influences Spt5 phosphorylation of the carboxy-terminal domain of RNAPII largest subunit by the kinase Bur1, and that both Sub1 and Spt5 copurify in the same complex, likely during early transcription elongation. Indeed, our data indicate that Sub1 influences Spt5–Rpb1 interaction. In addition, biochemical and molecular data show that Sub1 influences transcription elongation of constitutive and inducible genes and associates with coding regions in a transcription-dependent manner. Taken together, our results indicate that Sub1 associates with Spt5 and influences Spt5–Rpb1 complex levels and consequently transcription elongation rate. PMID:22973055

  16. Cracking the control of RNA polymerase II elongation by 7SK snRNP and P-TEFb

    PubMed Central

    C. Quaresma, Alexandre J.; Bugai, Andrii; Barboric, Matjaz

    2016-01-01

    Release of RNA polymerase II (Pol II) from promoter-proximal pausing has emerged as a critical step regulating gene expression in multicellular organisms. The transition of Pol II into productive elongation requires the kinase activity of positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb), which is itself under a stringent control by the inhibitory 7SK small nuclear ribonucleoprotein (7SK snRNP) complex. Here, we provide an overview on stimulating Pol II pause release by P-TEFb and on sequestering P-TEFb into 7SK snRNP. Furthermore, we highlight mechanisms that govern anchoring of 7SK snRNP to chromatin as well as means that release P-TEFb from the inhibitory complex, and propose a unifying model of P-TEFb activation on chromatin. Collectively, these studies shine a spotlight on the central role of RNA binding proteins (RBPs) in directing the inhibition and activation of P-TEFb, providing a compelling paradigm for controlling Pol II transcription with a non-coding RNA. PMID:27369380

  17. BRF1, a subunit of RNA polymerase III transcription factor TFIIIB, is essential for cell growth of Trypanosoma brucei.

    PubMed

    Vélez-Ramírez, D E; Florencio-Martínez, L E; Romero-Meza, G; Rojas-Sánchez, S; Moreno-Campos, R; Arroyo, R; Ortega-López, J; Manning-Cela, R; Martínez-Calvillo, S

    2015-11-01

    RNA polymerase III (Pol III) synthesizes small RNA molecules that are essential for cell viability. Accurate initiation of transcription by Pol III requires general transcription factor TFIIIB, which is composed of three subunits: TFIIB-related factor BRF1, TATA-binding protein and BDP1. Here we report the molecular characterization of BRF1 in Trypanosoma brucei (TbBRF1), a parasitic protozoa that shows distinctive transcription characteristics. In silico analysis allowed the detection in TbBRF1 of the three conserved domains located in the N-terminal region of all BRF1 orthologues, namely a zinc ribbon motif and two cyclin repeats. Homology modelling suggested that, similarly to other BRF1 and TFIIB proteins, the TbBRF1 cyclin repeats show the characteristic structure of five α-helices per repeat, connected by a short random-coiled linker. As expected for a transcription factor, TbBRF1 was localized in the nucleus. Knock-down of TbBRF1 by RNA interference (RNAi) showed that this protein is essential for the viability of procyclic forms of T. brucei, since ablation of TbBRF1 led to growth arrest of the parasites. Nuclear run-on and quantitative real-time PCR analyses demonstrated that transcription of all the Pol III-dependent genes analysed was reduced, at different levels, after RNAi induction.

  18. Cockayne syndrome protein A is a transcription factor of RNA polymerase I and stimulates ribosomal biogenesis and growth.

    PubMed

    Koch, Sylvia; Garcia Gonzalez, Omar; Assfalg, Robin; Schelling, Adrian; Schäfer, Patrick; Scharffetter-Kochanek, Karin; Iben, Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    Mutations in the Cockayne syndrome A (CSA) protein account for 20% of Cockayne syndrome (CS) cases, a childhood disorder of premature aging and early death. Hitherto, CSA has exclusively been described as DNA repair factor of the transcription-coupled branch of nucleotide excision repair. Here we show a novel function of CSA as transcription factor of RNA polymerase I in the nucleolus. Knockdown of CSA reduces pre-rRNA synthesis by RNA polymerase I. CSA associates with RNA polymerase I and the active fraction of the rDNA and stimulates re-initiation of rDNA transcription by recruiting the Cockayne syndrome proteins TFIIH and CSB. Moreover, compared with CSA deficient parental CS cells, CSA transfected CS cells reveal significantly more rRNA with induced growth and enhanced global translation. A previously unknown global dysregulation of ribosomal biogenesis most likely contributes to the reduced growth and premature aging of CS patients.

  19. Cockayne syndrome protein A is a transcription factor of RNA polymerase I and stimulates ribosomal biogenesis and growth

    PubMed Central

    Koch, Sylvia; Garcia Gonzalez, Omar; Assfalg, Robin; Schelling, Adrian; Schäfer, Patrick; Scharffetter-Kochanek, Karin; Iben, Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    Mutations in the Cockayne syndrome A (CSA) protein account for 20% of Cockayne syndrome (CS) cases, a childhood disorder of premature aging and early death. Hitherto, CSA has exclusively been described as DNA repair factor of the transcription-coupled branch of nucleotide excision repair. Here we show a novel function of CSA as transcription factor of RNA polymerase I in the nucleolus. Knockdown of CSA reduces pre-rRNA synthesis by RNA polymerase I. CSA associates with RNA polymerase I and the active fraction of the rDNA and stimulates re-initiation of rDNA transcription by recruiting the Cockayne syndrome proteins TFIIH and CSB. Moreover, compared with CSA deficient parental CS cells, CSA transfected CS cells reveal significantly more rRNA with induced growth and enhanced global translation. A previously unknown global dysregulation of ribosomal biogenesis most likely contributes to the reduced growth and premature aging of CS patients. PMID:24781187

  20. Structural Dynamics as a Contributor to Error-prone Replication by an RNA-dependent RNA Polymerase*

    PubMed Central

    Moustafa, Ibrahim M.; Korboukh, Victoria K.; Arnold, Jamie J.; Smidansky, Eric D.; Marcotte, Laura L.; Gohara, David W.; Yang, Xiaorong; Sánchez-Farrán, María Antonieta; Filman, David; Maranas, Janna K.; Boehr, David D.; Hogle, James M.; Colina, Coray M.; Cameron, Craig E.

    2014-01-01

    RNA viruses encoding high- or low-fidelity RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RdRp) are attenuated. The ability to predict residues of the RdRp required for faithful incorporation of nucleotides represents an essential step in any pipeline intended to exploit perturbed fidelity as the basis for rational design of vaccine candidates. We used x-ray crystallography, molecular dynamics simulations, NMR spectroscopy, and pre-steady-state kinetics to compare a mutator (H273R) RdRp from poliovirus to the wild-type (WT) enzyme. We show that the nucleotide-binding site toggles between the nucleotide binding-occluded and nucleotide binding-competent states. The conformational dynamics between these states were enhanced by binding to primed template RNA. For the WT, the occluded conformation was favored; for H273R, the competent conformation was favored. The resonance for Met-187 in our NMR spectra reported on the ability of the enzyme to check the correctness of the bound nucleotide. Kinetic experiments were consistent with the conformational dynamics contributing to the established pre-incorporation conformational change and fidelity checkpoint. For H273R, residues comprising the active site spent more time in the catalytically competent conformation and were more positively correlated than the WT. We propose that by linking the equilibrium between the binding-occluded and binding-competent conformations of the nucleotide-binding pocket and other active-site dynamics to the correctness of the bound nucleotide, faithful nucleotide incorporation is achieved. These studies underscore the need to apply multiple biophysical and biochemical approaches to the elucidation of the physical basis for polymerase fidelity. PMID:25378410

  1. Active Center Control of Termination by RNA Polymerase III and tRNA Gene Transcription Levels In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Rijal, Keshab; Maraia, Richard J.

    2016-01-01

    The ability of RNA polymerase (RNAP) III to efficiently recycle from termination to reinitiation is critical for abundant tRNA production during cellular proliferation, development and cancer. Yet understanding of the unique termination mechanisms used by RNAP III is incomplete, as is its link to high transcription output. We used two tRNA-mediated suppression systems to screen for Rpc1 mutants with gain- and loss- of termination phenotypes in S. pombe. 122 point mutation mutants were mapped to a recently solved 3.9 Å structure of yeast RNAP III elongation complex (EC); they cluster in the active center bridge helix and trigger loop, as well as the pore and funnel, the latter of which indicate involvement of the RNA cleavage domain of the C11 subunit in termination. Purified RNAP III from a readthrough (RT) mutant exhibits increased elongation rate. The data strongly support a kinetic coupling model in which elongation rate is inversely related to termination efficiency. The mutants exhibit good correlations of terminator RT in vitro and in vivo, and surprisingly, amounts of transcription in vivo. Because assessing in vivo transcription can be confounded by various parameters, we used a tRNA reporter with a processing defect and a strong terminator. By ruling out differences in RNA decay rates, the data indicate that mutants with the RT phenotype synthesize more RNA than wild type cells, and than can be accounted for by their increased elongation rate. Finally, increased activity by the mutants appears unrelated to the RNAP III repressor, Maf1. The results show that the mobile elements of the RNAP III active center, including C11, are key determinants of termination, and that some of the mutations activate RNAP III for overall transcription. Similar mutations in spontaneous cancer suggest this as an unforeseen mechanism of RNAP III activation in disease. PMID:27518095

  2. Disruption of largest subunit RNA polymerase II genes in Trypanosoma brucei.

    PubMed Central

    Chung, H M; Lee, M G; Dietrich, P; Huang, J; Van der Ploeg, L H

    1993-01-01

    Two types of largest subunit RNA polymerase II (pol II) genes (pol IIA and pol IIB), differing in 3 amino acid substitutions, are encoded in the Trypanosoma brucei (stock 427-60) genome. As a result, the alpha-amanitin-resistant transcription of the procyclic acidic repetitive protein (PARP) and variant surface glycoprotein (VSG) genes was proposed to involve a modified, alpha-amanitin-resistant form of the largest subunit of pol II. Alternatively, pol I could transcribe the PARP and VSG genes. To discriminate between these two models, we deleted the N-terminal domain (about one-third of the polypeptide), which encodes the amino acid substitutions which discriminated the pol IIA and pol IIB genes, at both pol IIB alleles. The pol IIB- trypanosomes still transcribe the PARP genes and the VSG gene promoter region in insect-form trypanosomes by alpha-amanitin-resistant RNA polymerases, while control housekeeping genes are transcribed in an alpha-amanitin-sensitive manner, presumably by pol IIA. We conclude that the alpha-amanitin-resistant transcription of protein coding genes in T. brucei is not mediated by a diverged form of the largest subunit of pol II and that the presence of both the pol IIA and pol IIB genes is not essential for trypanosome viability. This conclusion was further supported by the finding that individual trypanosome variants exhibited allelic heterogeneity for the previously identified amino acid substitutions and that various permutations of the polymorphic amino acids generate at least four different types of largest subunit pol II genes. The expression of the PARP genes and the VSG gene promoter region by alpha-amanitin-resistant RNA polymerases in the pol IIB- trypanosomes provides evidence for transcription of these genes by pol I. Images PMID:8497277

  3. Activation of dormant bacterial genes by Nonomuraea sp. strain ATCC 39727 mutant-type RNA polymerase.

    PubMed

    Talà, Adelfia; Wang, Guojun; Zemanova, Martina; Okamoto, Susumu; Ochi, Kozo; Alifano, Pietro

    2009-02-01

    There is accumulating evidence that the ability of actinomycetes to produce antibiotics and other bioactive secondary metabolites has been underestimated due to the presence of cryptic gene clusters. The activation of dormant genes is therefore one of the most important areas of experimental research for the discovery of drugs in these organisms. The recent observation that several actinomycetes possess two RNA polymerase beta-chain genes (rpoB) has opened up the possibility, explored in this study, of developing a new strategy to activate dormant gene expression in bacteria. Two rpoB paralogs, rpoB(S) and rpoB(R), provide Nonomuraea sp. strain ATCC 39727 with two functionally distinct and developmentally regulated RNA polymerases. The product of rpoB(R), the expression of which increases after transition to stationary phase, is characterized by five amino acid substitutions located within or close to the so-called rifampin resistance clusters that play a key role in fundamental activities of RNA polymerase. Here, we report that rpoB(R) markedly activated antibiotic biosynthesis in the wild-type Streptomyces lividans strain 1326 and also in strain KO-421, a relaxed (rel) mutant unable to produce ppGpp. Site-directed mutagenesis demonstrated that the rpoB(R)-specific missense H426N mutation was essential for the activation of secondary metabolism. Our observations also indicated that mutant-type or duplicated, rpoB often exists in nature among rare actinomycetes and will thus provide a basis for further basic and applied research.

  4. Role of Mitochondrial RNA Polymerase in the Toxicity of Nucleotide Inhibitors of Hepatitis C Virus

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yili; Barauskas, Ona; Perry, Jason K.; Ahmadyar, Shekeba; Stepan, George; Yu, Helen; Babusis, Darius; Park, Yeojin; McCutcheon, Krista; Perron, Michel; Schultz, Brian E.; Sakowicz, Roman; Ray, Adrian S.

    2015-01-01

    Toxicity has emerged during the clinical development of many but not all nucleotide inhibitors (NI) of hepatitis C virus (HCV). To better understand the mechanism for adverse events, clinically relevant HCV NI were characterized in biochemical and cellular assays, including assays of decreased viability in multiple cell lines and primary cells, interaction with human DNA and RNA polymerases, and inhibition of mitochondrial protein synthesis and respiration. NI that were incorporated by the mitochondrial RNA polymerase (PolRMT) inhibited mitochondrial protein synthesis and showed a corresponding decrease in mitochondrial oxygen consumption in cells. The nucleoside released by the prodrug balapiravir (R1626), 4′-azido cytidine, was a highly selective inhibitor of mitochondrial RNA transcription. The nucleotide prodrug of 2′-C-methyl guanosine, BMS-986094, showed a primary effect on mitochondrial function at submicromolar concentrations, followed by general cytotoxicity. In contrast, NI containing multiple ribose modifications, including the active forms of mericitabine and sofosbuvir, were poor substrates for PolRMT and did not show mitochondrial toxicity in cells. In general, these studies identified the prostate cell line PC-3 as more than an order of magnitude more sensitive to mitochondrial toxicity than the commonly used HepG2 cells. In conclusion, analogous to the role of mitochondrial DNA polymerase gamma in toxicity caused by some 2′-deoxynucleotide analogs, there is an association between HCV NI that interact with PolRMT and the observation of adverse events. More broadly applied, the sensitive methods for detecting mitochondrial toxicity described here may help in the identification of mitochondrial toxicity prior to clinical testing. PMID:26596942

  5. Photoaffinity labeling of DNA-dependent RNA polymerase from Escherichia coli with 8-azidoadenosine 5'-triphosphate.

    PubMed

    Woody, A Y; Vader, C R; Woody, R W; Haley, B E

    1984-06-19

    A photoaffinity analogue of adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP), 8-azidoadenosine 5'-triphosphate (8-N3ATP), has been used to elucidate the role of the various subunits involved in forming the active site of Escherichia coli DNA-dependent RNA polymerase. 8-N3ATP was found to be a competitive inhibitor of the enzyme with respect to the incorporation of ATP with Ki = 42 microM, while uridine 5'-triphosphate (UTP) incorporation was not affected. UV irradiation of the reaction mixture containing RNA polymerase and [gamma-32P]-8-N3ATP induced covalent incorporation of radioactive label into the enzyme. Analysis by gel filtration and nitrocellulose filter binding indicated specific binding. Subunit analysis by sodium dodecyl sulfate and sodium tetradecyl sulfate gel electrophoresis and autoradiography of the labeled enzyme showed that the major incorporation of radioactive label was in beta' and sigma, with minor incorporation in beta and alpha. The same pattern was observed in both the presence and absence of poly[d(A-T)] and poly[d(A-T)] plus ApU. Incorporation of radioactive label in all bands was significantly reduced by 100-150 microM ATP, while 100-200 microM UTP did not show a noticeable effect. Our results indicate major involvement of the beta' and sigma subunits in the active site of RNA polymerase. The observation of a small extent of labeling of the beta and alpha subunits, which was prevented by saturating levels of ATP, suggests that these subunits are in close proximity to the catalytic site.

  6. Ancient Origin and Recent Innovations of RNA Polymerase IV and V

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yi; Kendall, Timmy; Forsythe, Evan S.; Dorantes-Acosta, Ana; Li, Shaofang; Caballero-Pérez, Juan; Chen, Xuemei; Arteaga-Vázquez, Mario; Beilstein, Mark A.; Mosher, Rebecca A.

    2015-01-01

    Small RNA-mediated chromatin modification is a conserved feature of eukaryotes. In flowering plants, the short interfering (si)RNAs that direct transcriptional silencing are abundant and subfunctionalization has led to specialized machinery responsible for synthesis and action of these small RNAs. In particular, plants possess polymerase (Pol) IV and Pol V, multi-subunit homologs of the canonical DNA-dependent RNA Pol II, as well as specialized members of the RNA-dependent RNA Polymerase (RDR), Dicer-like (DCL), and Argonaute (AGO) families. Together these enzymes are required for production and activity of Pol IV-dependent (p4-)siRNAs, which trigger RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM) at homologous sequences. p4-siRNAs accumulate highly in developing endosperm, a specialized tissue found only in flowering plants, and are rare in nonflowering plants, suggesting that the evolution of flowers might coincide with the emergence of specialized RdDM machinery. Through comprehensive identification of RdDM genes from species representing the breadth of the land plant phylogeny, we describe the ancient origin of Pol IV and Pol V, suggesting that a nearly complete and functional RdDM pathway could have existed in the earliest land plants. We also uncover innovations in these enzymes that are coincident with the emergence of seed plants and flowering plants, and recent duplications that might indicate additional subfunctionalization. Phylogenetic analysis reveals rapid evolution of Pol IV and Pol V subunits relative to their Pol II counterparts and suggests that duplicates were retained and subfunctionalized through Escape from Adaptive Conflict. Evolution within the carboxy-terminal domain of the Pol V largest subunit is particularly striking, where illegitimate recombination facilitated extreme sequence divergence. PMID:25767205

  7. Purification and Biochemical Characterisation of Rabbit Calicivirus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerases and Identification of Non-Nucleoside Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Urakova, Nadya; Netzler, Natalie; Kelly, Andrew G.; Frese, Michael; White, Peter A.; Strive, Tanja

    2016-01-01

    Rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) is a calicivirus that causes acute infections in both domestic and wild European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus). The virus causes significant economic losses in rabbit farming and reduces wild rabbit populations. The recent emergence of RHDV variants capable of overcoming immunity to other strains emphasises the need to develop universally effective antivirals to enable quick responses during outbreaks until new vaccines become available. The RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) is a primary target for the development of such antiviral drugs. In this study, we used cell-free in vitro assays to examine the biochemical characteristics of two rabbit calicivirus RdRps and the effects of several antivirals that were previously identified as human norovirus RdRp inhibitors. The non-nucleoside inhibitor NIC02 was identified as a potential scaffold for further drug development against rabbit caliciviruses. Our experiments revealed an unusually high temperature optimum (between 40 and 45 °C) for RdRps derived from both a pathogenic and a non-pathogenic rabbit calicivirus, possibly demonstrating an adaptation to a host with a physiological body temperature of more than 38 °C. Interestingly, the in vitro polymerase activity of the non-pathogenic calicivirus RdRp was at least two times higher than that of the RdRp of the highly virulent RHDV. PMID:27089358

  8. Purification and Biochemical Characterisation of Rabbit Calicivirus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerases and Identification of Non-Nucleoside Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Urakova, Nadya; Netzler, Natalie; Kelly, Andrew G; Frese, Michael; White, Peter A; Strive, Tanja

    2016-04-01

    Rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) is a calicivirus that causes acute infections in both domestic and wild European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus). The virus causes significant economic losses in rabbit farming and reduces wild rabbit populations. The recent emergence of RHDV variants capable of overcoming immunity to other strains emphasises the need to develop universally effective antivirals to enable quick responses during outbreaks until new vaccines become available. The RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) is a primary target for the development of such antiviral drugs. In this study, we used cell-free in vitro assays to examine the biochemical characteristics of two rabbit calicivirus RdRps and the effects of several antivirals that were previously identified as human norovirus RdRp inhibitors. The non-nucleoside inhibitor NIC02 was identified as a potential scaffold for further drug development against rabbit caliciviruses. Our experiments revealed an unusually high temperature optimum (between 40 and 45 °C) for RdRps derived from both a pathogenic and a non-pathogenic rabbit calicivirus, possibly demonstrating an adaptation to a host with a physiological body temperature of more than 38 °C. Interestingly, the in vitro polymerase activity of the non-pathogenic calicivirus RdRp was at least two times higher than that of the RdRp of the highly virulent RHDV. PMID:27089358

  9. Pol II-directed short RNAs suppress the nuclear export of mRNA.

    PubMed

    Komarova, Tatiana V; Schwartz, Anton M; Frolova, Olga Y; Zvereva, Anna S; Gleba, Yuri Y; Citovsky, Vitaly; Dorokhov, Yuri L

    2010-12-01

    The synthesis and subsequent nuclear export of non-coding RNA (ncRNA) directed by RNA polymerase (Pol) II is very sensitive to abiotic and biotic external stimuli including pathogen challenges. To assess whether stress-induced ncRNAs may suppress the nuclear export of mRNA, we exploited the ability of Agrobacterium tumefaciens to co-deliver Pol I, II and III promoter-based vectors for the transcription of short (s) ncRNAs, GFP mRNA or genomic RNA of plant viruses (Tobacco mosaic virus, TMV; or Potato virus X, PVX) into the nucleus of Nicotiana benthamiana cells. We showed that, in contrast to Pol I- and Pol III-derived sncRNAs, all tested Pol II-derived sncRNAs (U6 RNA, tRNA or artificial RNAs) resulted in decreased expression of GFP and host mRNA. The level of this inhibitory effect depended on the non-coding transcript length and promoter strength. Short coding RNA (scRNA) can also compete with mRNA for nuclear export. We showed that scRNA, an artificial 117-nt short sequence encoding Elastin-Like peptide element tandems with FLAG sequence (ELF) and the 318-nt N. benthamiana antimicrobial peptide thionin (defensin) gene efficiently decreased GFP expression. The stress-induced export of Pol II-derived sncRNA and scRNA into the cytoplasm via the mRNA export pathway may block nucleocytoplasmic traffic including the export of mRNA responsible for antivirus protection. Consistent with this model, we observed that Pol II-derived sncRNAs as well as scRNA, thionin and ELF strongly enhanced the cytoplasmic reproduction of TMV and PVX RNA. PMID:20953971

  10. Molecular basis of RNA polymerase promoter specificity switch revealed through studies of Thermus bacteriophage transcription regulator

    PubMed Central

    Severinov, Konstantin; Minakhin, Leonid; Sekine, Shun-ichi; Lopatina, Anna; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki

    2014-01-01

    Transcription initiation is the central point of gene expression regulation. Understanding of molecular mechanism of transcription regulation requires, ultimately, the structural understanding of consequences of transcription factors binding to DNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RNAP), the enzyme of transcription. We recently determined a structure of a complex between transcription factor gp39 encoded by a Thermus bacteriophage and Thermus RNAP holoenzyme. In this addendum to the original publication, we highlight structural insights that explain the ability of gp39 to act as an RNAP specificity switch which inhibits transcription initiation from a major class of bacterial promoters, while allowing transcription from a minor promoter class to continue. PMID:25105059

  11. The purification and properties of hen oviduct form B DNA-dependent RNA polymerase

    PubMed Central

    Houghton, Michael; Cox, Ronald F.

    1974-01-01

    Hen oviduct form B DNA-dependent RNA polymerase has been extensively purified and its properties analysed. It seems likely to consist of a mixture of two forms of the type observed in tissues from other species. Furthermore using S1 nuclease to digest single-stranded DNA, we show that although form B can transcribe double-stranded DNA template it has a very strong preference for single-stranded regions. Also the rate of elongation on native DNA in vitro was measured and is an order of magnitude slower than that reported to be operative in vivo. Images PMID:4472377

  12. Fragment-based discovery of hepatitis C virus NS5b RNA polymerase inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Antonysamy, Stephen S.; Aubol, Brandon; Blaney, Jeff; Browner, Michelle F.; Giannetti, Anthony M.; Harris, Seth F.; Hébert, Normand; Hendle, Jörg; Hopkins, Stephanie; Jefferson, Elizabeth; Kissinger, Charles; Leveque, Vincent; Marciano, David; McGee, Ethel; Nájera, Isabel; Nolan, Brian; Tomimoto, Masaki; Torres, Eduardo; Wright, Tobi

    2009-07-22

    Non-nucleoside inhibitors of HCV NS5b RNA polymerase were discovered by a fragment-based lead discovery approach, beginning with crystallographic fragment screening. The NS5b binding affinity and biochemical activity of fragment hits and inhibitors was determined by surface plasmon resonance (Biacore) and an enzyme inhibition assay, respectively. Crystallographic fragment screening hits with {approx}1-10 mM binding affinity (K{sub D}) were iteratively optimized to give leads with {approx}200 nM biochemical activity and low {micro}M cellular activity in a Replicon assay.

  13. Highly selective affinity labelling of RNA polymerase B (II) from wheat germ.

    PubMed

    Grachev, M A; Hartmann, G R; Maximova, T G; Mustaev, A A; Schäffner, A R; Sieber, H; Zaychikov, E F

    1986-05-12

    DNA-dependent RNA polymerase B (II) from wheat germ was modified by incubation with 4-[N-(beta-hydroxyethyl)-N-methyl]benzaldehyde esters of AMP, ADP or ATP, followed by reduction with NaBH4. Reaction of the modified enzyme with [alpha-32P]UTP in the presence of various DNA templates led to a highly selective affinity labelling of the subunit with Mr 140 000 by covalently linked ApU. Labelling was inhibited by 1 microgram/ml alpha-amanitin.

  14. The phylogeny of archaebacteria, including novel anaerobic thermoacidophiles in the light of RNA polymerase structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zillig, Wolfram; Schnabel, Ralf; Tu, Jenn; Stetter, Karl Otto

    1982-05-01

    DNA-dependent RNA polymerases of archaebacteria are distinct from those of eubacteria both in structure and in function. They show similarities to those of the eukaryotic cytoplasm. Extremely thermophilic anaerobic sulfur-respiring archaebacteria isolated from solfataric waters represent four different families, the Thermoproteaceae, the “stiff filaments”, the Desulfurococcaceae and the Thermococcaceae, of a novel order, Thermoproteales. Together with the Sulfolobales, they form the second branch of the urkingdom of the archaebacteria besides that of the methanogens and extreme halophiles. Thermoplasma appears isolated.

  15. Catching RNA Polymerase in the act of Binding: Intermediates in Transcription Illuminated by Synchrotron Footprinting

    SciTech Connect

    Brenowitz,M.; Erie, D.; Chance, M.

    2005-01-01

    The article by Sclavi et al. in this issue of PNAS addresses 'initiation, ' the first step in transcription. Gene transcription is catalyzed in cells by large multisubunit proteins called RNA polymerases (RNAP). The eubacteria holoenzyme of RNAP is composed of five core subunits ({alpha}, {alpha}2, {beta}, {beta}', and {omega}) that contain the amino acid residues required for the enzyme's catalytic activity. A sixth subunit ({sigma}) guides RNAP to specific sequences on the genomic DNA (promoters) that mark the beginning of a gene or group of genes.

  16. Truncated yet functional viral protein produced via RNA polymerase slippage implies underestimated coding capacity of RNA viruses.

    PubMed

    Hagiwara-Komoda, Yuka; Choi, Sun Hee; Sato, Masanao; Atsumi, Go; Abe, Junya; Fukuda, Junya; Honjo, Mie N; Nagano, Atsushi J; Komoda, Keisuke; Nakahara, Kenji S; Uyeda, Ichiro; Naito, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    RNA viruses use various strategies to condense their genetic information into small genomes. Potyviruses not only use the polyprotein strategy, but also embed an open reading frame, pipo, in the P3 cistron in the -1 reading frame. PIPO is expressed as a fusion protein with the N-terminal half of P3 (P3N-PIPO) via transcriptional slippage of viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp). We herein show that clover yellow vein virus (ClYVV) produces a previously unidentified factor, P3N-ALT, in the +1 reading frame via transcriptional slippage at a conserved G(1-2)A(6-7) motif, as is the case for P3N-PIPO. The translation of P3N-ALT terminates soon, and it is considered to be a C-terminal truncated form of P3. In planta experiments indicate that P3N-ALT functions in cell-to-cell movement along with P3N-PIPO. Hence, all three reading frames are used to produce functional proteins. Deep sequencing of ClYVV RNA from infected plants endorses the slippage by viral RdRp. Our findings unveil a virus strategy that optimizes the coding capacity. PMID:26898356

  17. Truncated yet functional viral protein produced via RNA polymerase slippage implies underestimated coding capacity of RNA viruses

    PubMed Central

    Hagiwara-Komoda, Yuka; Choi, Sun Hee; Sato, Masanao; Atsumi, Go; Abe, Junya; Fukuda, Junya; Honjo, Mie N.; Nagano, Atsushi J.; Komoda, Keisuke; Nakahara, Kenji S.; Uyeda, Ichiro; Naito, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    RNA viruses use various strategies to condense their genetic information into small genomes. Potyviruses not only use the polyprotein strategy, but also embed an open reading frame, pipo, in the P3 cistron in the –1 reading frame. PIPO is expressed as a fusion protein with the N-terminal half of P3 (P3N-PIPO) via transcriptional slippage of viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp). We herein show that clover yellow vein virus (ClYVV) produces a previously unidentified factor, P3N-ALT, in the +1 reading frame via transcriptional slippage at a conserved G1–2A6–7 motif, as is the case for P3N-PIPO. The translation of P3N-ALT terminates soon, and it is considered to be a C-terminal truncated form of P3. In planta experiments indicate that P3N-ALT functions in cell-to-cell movement along with P3N-PIPO. Hence, all three reading frames are used to produce functional proteins. Deep sequencing of ClYVV RNA from infected plants endorses the slippage by viral RdRp. Our findings unveil a virus strategy that optimizes the coding capacity. PMID:26898356

  18. Mechanism of action of T-705 ribosyl triphosphate against influenza virus RNA polymerase.

    PubMed

    Sangawa, Hidehiro; Komeno, Takashi; Nishikawa, Hiroshi; Yoshida, Atsushi; Takahashi, Kazumi; Nomura, Nobuhiko; Furuta, Yousuke

    2013-11-01

    T-705 (favipiravir; 6-fluoro-3-hydroxy-2-pyrazinecarboxamide) selectively and strongly inhibits replication of the influenza virus in vitro and in vivo. T-705 has been shown to be converted to T-705-4-ribofuranosyl-5-triphosphate (T-705RTP) by intracellular enzymes and then functions as a nucleotide analog to selectively inhibit RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) of the influenza virus. To elucidate these inhibitory mechanisms, we analyzed the enzyme kinetics of inhibition using Lineweaver-Burk plots of four natural nucleoside triphosphates and conducted polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the primer extension products initiated from (32)P-radiolabeled 5'Cap1 RNA. Enzyme kinetic analysis demonstrated that T-705RTP inhibited the incorporation of ATP and GTP in a competitive manner, which suggests that T-705RTP is recognized as a purine nucleotide by influenza virus RdRp and inhibited the incorporation of UTP and CTP in noncompetitive and mixed-type manners, respectively. Primer extension analysis demonstrated that a single molecule of T-705RTP was incorporated into the nascent RNA strand of the influenza virus and inhibited the subsequent incorporation of nucleotides. These results suggest that a single molecule of T-705RTP is incorporated into the nascent RNA strand as a purine nucleotide analog and inhibits strand extension, even though the natural ribose of T-705RTP has a 3'-OH group, which is essential for forming a covalent bond with the phosphate group.

  19. Intrinsic translocation barrier as an initial step in pausing by RNA polymerase II.

    PubMed

    Imashimizu, Masahiko; Kireeva, Maria L; Lubkowska, Lucyna; Gotte, Deanna; Parks, Adam R; Strathern, Jeffrey N; Kashlev, Mikhail

    2013-02-22

    Pausing of RNA polymerase II (RNAP II) by backtracking on DNA is a major regulatory mechanism in control of eukaryotic transcription. Backtracking occurs by extrusion of the 3' end of the RNA from the active center after bond formation and before translocation of RNAP II on DNA. In several documented cases, backtracking requires a special signal such as A/T-rich sequences forming an unstable RNA-DNA hybrid in the elongation complex. However, other sequence-dependent backtracking signals and conformations of RNAP II leading to backtracking remain unknown. Here, we demonstrate with S. cerevisiae RNAP II that a cleavage-deficient elongation factor TFIIS (TFIIS(AA)) enhances backtracked pauses during regular transcription. This is due to increased efficiency of formation of an intermediate that leads to backtracking. This intermediate may involve misalignment at the 3' end of the nascent RNA in the active center of the yeast RNAP II, and TFIIS(AA) promotes formation of this intermediate at the DNA sequences, presenting a high-energy barrier to translocation. We proposed a three-step mechanism for RNAP II pausing in which a prolonged dwell time in the pre-translocated state increases the likelihood of the 3' RNA end misalignment facilitating a backtrack pausing. These results demonstrate an important role of the intrinsic blocks to forward translocation in pausing by RNAP II.

  20. The Ess1 prolyl isomerase: Traffic cop of the RNA polymerase II transcription

    PubMed Central

    Hanes, Steven D.

    2014-01-01

    Ess1 is a prolyl isomerase that regulates the structure and function of eukaryotic RNA polymerase II. Ess1 works by catalyzing the cis/trans conversion of pSer5–Pro6 bonds, and to a lesser extent pSer2–Pro3 bonds, within the carboxy-terminal domain (CTD) of Rpb1, the largest subunit of RNA pol II. Ess1 is conserved in organisms ranging from yeast to humans. In budding yeast, Ess1 is essential for growth and is required for efficient transcription initiation and termination, RNA processing, and suppression of cryptic transcription. In mammals, Ess1 (called Pin1) functions in a variety of pathways, including transcription, but it is not essential. Recent work has shown that Ess1 coordinates the binding and release of CTD-binding proteins that function as co-factors in the RNA pol II complex. In this way, Ess1 plays an integral role in writing (and reading) the so-called CTD code to promote production of mature RNA pol II transcripts including non-coding RNAs and mRNAs. PMID:24530645

  1. Structure of the initiation-competent RNA polymerase I and its implication for transcription

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilsl, Michael; Crucifix, Corinne; Papai, Gabor; Krupp, Ferdinand; Steinbauer, Robert; Griesenbeck, Joachim; Milkereit, Philipp; Tschochner, Herbert; Schultz, Patrick

    2016-07-01

    Eukaryotic RNA polymerase I (Pol I) is specialized in rRNA gene transcription synthesizing up to 60% of cellular RNA. High level rRNA production relies on efficient binding of initiation factors to the rRNA gene promoter and recruitment of Pol I complexes containing initiation factor Rrn3. Here, we determine the cryo-EM structure of the Pol I-Rrn3 complex at 7.5 Å resolution, and compare it with Rrn3-free monomeric and dimeric Pol I. We observe that Rrn3 contacts the Pol I A43/A14 stalk and subunits A190 and AC40, that association re-organizes the Rrn3 interaction interface, thereby preventing Pol I dimerization; and Rrn3-bound and monomeric Pol I differ from the dimeric enzyme in cleft opening, and localization of the A12.2 C-terminus in the active centre. Our findings thus support a dual role for Rrn3 in transcription initiation to stabilize a monomeric initiation competent Pol I and to drive pre-initiation complex formation.

  2. Structure of the initiation-competent RNA polymerase I and its implication for transcription.

    PubMed

    Pilsl, Michael; Crucifix, Corinne; Papai, Gabor; Krupp, Ferdinand; Steinbauer, Robert; Griesenbeck, Joachim; Milkereit, Philipp; Tschochner, Herbert; Schultz, Patrick

    2016-07-15

    Eukaryotic RNA polymerase I (Pol I) is specialized in rRNA gene transcription synthesizing up to 60% of cellular RNA. High level rRNA production relies on efficient binding of initiation factors to the rRNA gene promoter and recruitment of Pol I complexes containing initiation factor Rrn3. Here, we determine the cryo-EM structure of the Pol I-Rrn3 complex at 7.5 Å resolution, and compare it with Rrn3-free monomeric and dimeric Pol I. We observe that Rrn3 contacts the Pol I A43/A14 stalk and subunits A190 and AC40, that association re-organizes the Rrn3 interaction interface, thereby preventing Pol I dimerization; and Rrn3-bound and monomeric Pol I differ from the dimeric enzyme in cleft opening, and localization of the A12.2 C-terminus in the active centre. Our findings thus support a dual role for Rrn3 in transcription initiation to stabilize a monomeric initiation competent Pol I and to drive pre-initiation complex formation.

  3. Structure of the initiation-competent RNA polymerase I and its implication for transcription

    PubMed Central

    Pilsl, Michael; Crucifix, Corinne; Papai, Gabor; Krupp, Ferdinand; Steinbauer, Robert; Griesenbeck, Joachim; Milkereit, Philipp; Tschochner, Herbert; Schultz, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Eukaryotic RNA polymerase I (Pol I) is specialized in rRNA gene transcription synthesizing up to 60% of cellular RNA. High level rRNA production relies on efficient binding of initiation factors to the rRNA gene promoter and recruitment of Pol I complexes containing initiation factor Rrn3. Here, we determine the cryo-EM structure of the Pol I-Rrn3 complex at 7.5 Å resolution, and compare it with Rrn3-free monomeric and dimeric Pol I. We observe that Rrn3 contacts the Pol I A43/A14 stalk and subunits A190 and AC40, that association re-organizes the Rrn3 interaction interface, thereby preventing Pol I dimerization; and Rrn3-bound and monomeric Pol I differ from the dimeric enzyme in cleft opening, and localization of the A12.2 C-terminus in the active centre. Our findings thus support a dual role for Rrn3 in transcription initiation to stabilize a monomeric initiation competent Pol I and to drive pre-initiation complex formation. PMID:27418187

  4. Binding of rabies virus polymerase cofactor to recombinant circular nucleoprotein-RNA complexes.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Euripedes de Almeida; Leyrat, Cédric; Gérard, Francine C A; Albertini, Aurélie A V; Falk, Caroline; Ruigrok, Rob W H; Jamin, Marc

    2009-12-01

    In rabies virus, the attachment of the L polymerase (L) to the viral nucleocapsids (NCs)-a nucleoprotein (N)-RNA complex that serves as template for RNA transcription and replication-is mediated by the polymerase cofactor, the phosphoprotein (P). P forms dimers (P(2)) that bind through their C-terminal domains (P(CTD)) to the C-terminal region of the N. Recombinant circular N(m)-RNA complexes containing 9 to 12 protomers of N (hereafter, the subscript m denotes the number of N protomers) served here as model systems for studying the binding of P to NC-like N(m)-RNA complexes. Titration experiments show that there are only two equivalent and independent binding sites for P dimers on the N(m)-RNA rings and that each P dimer binds through a single P(CTD). A dissociation constant in the nanomolar range (160+/-20 nM) was measured by surface plasmon resonance, indicating a strong interaction between the two partners. Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) data and small-angle neutron scattering data showed that binding of two P(CTD) had almost no effect on the size and shape of the N(m)-RNA rings, whereas binding of two P(2) significantly increased the size of the complexes. SAXS data and molecular modeling were used to add flexible loops (N(NTD) loop, amino acids 105-118; N(CTD) loop, amino acids 376-397) missing in the recently solved crystal structure of the circular N(11)-RNA complex and to build a model for the N(10)-RNA complex. Structural models for the N(m)-RNA-(P(CTD))(2) complexes were then built by docking the known P(CTD) structure onto the completed structures of the circular N(10)-RNA and N(11)-RNA complexes. A multiple-stage flexible docking procedure was used to generate decoys, and SAXS and biochemical data were used for filtering the models. In the refined model, the P(CTD) is bound to the C-terminal top of one N protomer (N(i)), with the C-terminal helix (alpha(6)) of P(CTD) lying on helix alpha(14) of N(i). By an induced-fit mechanism, the N(CTD) loop of

  5. Translocation by T7 RNA polymerase: a sensitively poised Brownian ratchet.

    PubMed

    Guo, Qing; Sousa, Rui

    2006-04-21

    Studies of halted T7 RNA polymerase (T7RNAP) elongation complexes (ECs) or of T7RNAP transcription against roadblocks due to DNA-bound proteins indicate that T7RNAP translocates via a passive Brownian ratchet mechanism. Crystal structures of T7RNAP ECs suggest that translocation involves an active power-stroke. However, neither solution studies of halted or slowed T7RNAP ECs, nor crystal structures of static complexes, are necessarily relevant to how T7RNAP translocates during rapid elongation. A recent single molecule study of actively elongating T7RNAPs provides support for the Brownian ratchet mechanism. Here, we obtain additional evidence for the existence of a Brownian ratchet during active T7RNAP elongation by showing that both rapidly elongating and halted complexes are equally sensitive to pyrophosphate. Using chemical nucleases tethered to the polymerase we achieve sub-ångström resolution in measuring the average position of halted T7RNAP ECs and find that the positional equilibrium of the EC is sensitively poised between pre-translocated and post-translocated states. This may be important in maximizing the sensitivity of the polymerase to sequences that cause pausing or termination. We also confirm that a crystallographically observed disorder to order transition in a loop formed by residues 589-612 also occurs in solution and is coupled to pyrophosphate or NTP release. This transition allows the loop to make interactions with the DNA that help stabilize the laterally mobile, ligand-free EC against dissociation.

  6. Unusual diversity in alpha-amanitin sensitivity of RNA polymerases in trichomonads.

    PubMed

    Vanácová, S; Tachezy, J; Ullu, E; Tschudi, C

    2001-07-01

    Previous studies in the parasitic protist Trichomonas vaginalis have revealed that protein coding genes are transcribed by an alpha-amanitin-resistant RNA polymerase (RNAP) II. To investigate whether this unusual property is a general characteristic of trichomonads, we addressed the physiology of RNA synthesis in lysolecithin-permeabilized cells. Unlike in T. vaginalis, RNAP II in Tritrichomonas foetus was highly sensitive to the inhibitor alpha-amanitin. On the other hand, RNAP III, identified by its sensitivity to the specific inhibitor tagetitoxin, was found to be resistant to alpha-amanitin in Tritrichomonas foetus, but showed a typical intermediate sensitivity in T. vaginalis. Extension of this study to an additional seven trichomonad species confirmed this genera specific pattern of alpha-amanitin sensitivity and highlighted an unusual diversity in RNAPs among trichomonads, a closely related group of unicellular eukaryotes. PMID:11420110

  7. Analyses of in vivo interactions between transcription factors and the archaeal RNA polymerase.

    PubMed

    Walker, Julie E; Santangelo, Thomas J

    2015-09-15

    Transcription factors regulate the activities of RNA polymerase (RNAP) at each stage of the transcription cycle. Many basal transcription factors with common ancestry are employed in eukaryotic and archaeal systems that directly bind to RNAP and influence intramolecular movements of RNAP and modulate DNA or RNA interactions. We describe and employ a flexible methodology to directly probe and quantify the binding of transcription factors to RNAP in vivo. We demonstrate that binding of the conserved and essential archaeal transcription factor TFE to the archaeal RNAP is directed, in part, by interactions with the RpoE subunit of RNAP. As the surfaces involved are conserved in many eukaryotic and archaeal systems, the identified TFE-RNAP interactions are likely conserved in archaeal-eukaryal systems and represent an important point of contact that can influence the efficiency of transcription initiation.

  8. Iron inactivates the RNA polymerase NS5B and suppresses subgenomic replication of hepatitis C Virus.

    PubMed

    Fillebeen, Carine; Rivas-Estilla, Ana Maria; Bisaillon, Martin; Ponka, Prem; Muckenthaler, Martina; Hentze, Matthias W; Koromilas, Antonis E; Pantopoulos, Kostas

    2005-03-11

    Clinical data suggest that iron is a negative factor in chronic hepatitis C; however, the molecular mechanisms by which iron modulates the infectious cycle of hepatitis C virus (HCV) remain elusive. To explore this, we utilized cells expressing a HCV replicon as a well-established model for viral replication. We demonstrate that iron administration dramatically inhibits the expression of viral proteins and RNA, without significantly affecting its translation or stability. Experiments with purified recombinant HCV RNA polymerase (NS5B) revealed that iron binds specifically and with high affinity (apparent Kd: 6 and 60 microM for Fe2+ and Fe3+, respectively) to the protein's Mg2+-binding pocket, thereby inhibiting its enzymatic activity. We propose that iron impairs HCV replication by inactivating NS5B and that its negative effects in chronic hepatitis C may be primarily due to attenuation of antiviral immune responses. Our data provide a direct molecular link between iron and HCV replication.

  9. Identification of proteins associated with RNA polymerase III using a modified tandem chromatin affinity purification.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Ngoc-Thuy-Trinh; Saguez, Cyril; Conesa, Christine; Lefebvre, Olivier; Acker, Joël

    2015-02-01

    To identify the proteins associated with the RNA polymerase III (Pol III) machinery in exponentially growing yeast cells, we developed our own tandem chromatin affinity purification procedure (TChAP) after in vivo cross-link, allowing a reproducible and good recovery of the protein bait and its associated partners. In contrast to TFIIIA that could only be purified as a free protein, this protocol allows us to capture free Pol III together with Pol III bound on its target genes. Transcription factors, elongation factors, RNA-associated proteins and proteins involved in Pol III biogenesis were identified by mass spectrometry. Interestingly, the presence of all the TFIIIB subunits found associated with Pol III together with the absence of TFIIIC and chromatin factors including histones suggest that DNA-bound Pol III purified using TChAP is mainly engaged in transcription reinitiation.

  10. DNA polymerase-α regulates type I interferon activation through cytosolic RNA:DNA synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Starokadomskyy, Petro; Gemelli, Terry; Rios, Jonathan J.; Xing, Chao; Wang, Richard C.; Li, Haiying; Pokatayev, Vladislav; Dozmorov, Igor; Khan, Shaheen; Miyata, Naoteru; Fraile, Guadalupe; Raj, Prithvi; Xu, Zhe; Xu, Zigang; Ma, Lin; Lin, Zhimiao; Wang, Huijun; Yang, Yong; Ben-Amitai, Dan; Orenstein, Naama; Mussaffi, Huda; Baselga, Eulalia; Tadini, Gianluca; Grunebaum, Eyal; Sarajlija, Adrijan; Krzewski, Konrad; Wakeland, Edward K.; Yan, Nan; de la Morena, Maria Teresa; Zinn, Andrew R.; Burstein, Ezra

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant nucleic acids generated during viral replication are the main trigger for antiviral immunity, and mutations disrupting nucleic acid metabolism can lead to autoinflammatory disorders. Here we investigated the etiology of X-linked reticulate pigmentary disorder (XLPDR), a primary immunodeficiency with autoinflammatory features. We discovered that XLPDR is caused by an intronic mutation that disrupts expression of POLA1, the gene encoding the catalytic subunit of DNA polymerase-α. Unexpectedly, POLA1 deficiency results in increased type I interferon production. This enzyme is necessary for RNA:DNA primer synthesis during DNA replication and strikingly, POLA1 is also required for the synthesis of cytosolic RNA:DNA, which directly modulates interferon activation. Altogether, this work identified POLA1 as a critical regulator of the type I interferon response. PMID:27019227

  11. Tissue extraction of DNA and RNA and analysis by the polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Jackson, D P; Lewis, F A; Taylor, G R; Boylston, A W; Quirke, P

    1990-06-01

    Several DNA extraction techniques were quantitatively and qualitatively compared using both fresh and paraffin wax embedded tissue and their suitability investigated for providing DNA and RNA for the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A one hour incubation with proteinase K was the most efficient DNA extraction procedure for fresh tissue. For paraffin wax embedded tissue a five day incubation with proteinase K was required to produce good yields of DNA. Incubation with sodium dodecyl sulphate produced very poor yields, while boiling produced 20% as much DNA as long enzyme digestion. DNA extracted by these methods was suitable for the PCR amplification of a single copy gene. Proteinase K digestion also produced considerable amounts of RNA which has previously been shown to be suitable for PCR analysis. A delay before fixation had no effect on the amount of DNA obtained while fixation in Carnoy's reagent results in a much better preservation of DNA than formalin fixation, allowing greater yields to be extracted.

  12. Inhibition of RNA Polymerase II Transcription in Human Cells by Synthetic DNA-Binding Ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickinson, Liliane A.; Gulizia, Richard J.; Trauger, John W.; Baird, Eldon E.; Mosier, Donald E.; Gottesfeld, Joel M.; Dervan, Peter B.

    1998-10-01

    Sequence-specific DNA-binding small molecules that can permeate human cells potentially could regulate transcription of specific genes. Multiple cellular DNA-binding transcription factors are required by HIV type 1 for RNA synthesis. Two pyrrole--imidazole polyamides were designed to bind DNA sequences immediately adjacent to binding sites for the transcription factors Ets-1, lymphoid-enhancer binding factor 1, and TATA-box binding protein. These synthetic ligands specifically inhibit DNA-binding of each transcription factor and HIV type 1 transcription in cell-free assays. When used in combination, the polyamides inhibit virus replication by >99% in isolated human peripheral blood lymphocytes, with no detectable cell toxicity. The ability of small molecules to target predetermined DNA sequences located with RNA polymerase II promoters suggests a general approach for regulation of gene expression, as well as a mechanism for the inhibition of viral replication.

  13. Purification of Xenopus laevis mitochondrial RNA polymerase and identification of a dissociable factor required for specific transcription.

    PubMed Central

    Bogenhagen, D F; Insdorf, N F

    1988-01-01

    The Xenopus laevis mitochondrial RNA (mtRNA) polymerase was purified to near homogeneity with an overall yield approaching 50%. The major polypeptides in the final fraction were a doublet of proteins of approximately 140 kilodaltons that copurified with the mtRNA polymerase activity. It appeared likely that the smaller polypeptide is a breakdown product of the larger one. The highly purified polymerase was active in nonspecific transcription but required a dissociable factor for specific transcription of X. laevis mtDNA. The factor could be resolved from mtRNA polymerase by hydrophobic chromatography and had a sedimentation coefficient of 3.0 S. The transcription factor eluted from both the hydrophobic column and a Mono Q anion-exchange column as a single symmetrical peak. The mtRNA polymerase and this factor together are necessary and sufficient for active transcription from four promoters located in a noncoding region of the mtDNA genome between the gene for tRNA(Phe) and the displacement loop. Images PMID:2457154

  14. Stabilization of the primary sigma factor of Staphylococcus aureus by core RNA polymerase.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Rajkrishna; Ganguly, Tridib; Chanda, Palas K; Bandhu, Amitava; Jana, Biswanath; Sau, Keya; Lee, Chia Y; Sau, Subrata

    2010-03-01

    The primary sigma factor (sigma(A)) of Staphylococcus aureus, a potential drug target, was little investigated at the structural level. Using an N-terminal histidine-tagged sigma(A) (His-sigma(A)), here we have demonstrated that it exits as a monomer in solution, possesses multiple domains, harbors primarily alpha-helix and efficiently binds to a S. aureus promoter DNA in the presence of core RNA polymerase. While both N- and C-terminal ends of His- sigma(A) are flexible in nature, two Trp residues in its DNA binding region are buried. Upon increasing the incubation temperature from 25 degrees to 40 degrees C, 60% of the input His-sigma(A) was cleaved by thermolysin. Aggregation of His-sigma(A) was also initiated rapidly at 45( degrees )C. From the equilibrium unfolding experiment, the Gibbs free energy of stabilization of His-sigma(A) was estimated to be +0.70 kcal mol(-1). The data together suggest that primary sigma factor of S. aureus is an unstable protein. Core RNA polymerase however stabilized sigma(A) appreciably.

  15. Distinguishing Core and Holoenzyme Mechanisms of Transcription Termination by RNA Polymerase III

    PubMed Central

    Arimbasseri, Aneeshkumar G.

    2013-01-01

    Transcription termination by RNA polymerase (Pol) III serves multiple purposes; it delimits interference with downstream genes, forms 3′ oligo(U) binding sites for the posttranscriptional processing factor, La protein, and resets the polymerase complex for reinitiation. Although an interplay of several Pol III subunits is known to collectively control these activities, how they affect molecular function of the active center during termination is incompletely understood. We have approached this using immobilized Pol III-nucleic acid scaffolds to examine the two major components of termination, transcription pausing and RNA release. This allowed us to distinguish two mechanisms of termination by isolated Saccharomyces cerevisiae Pol III. A core mechanism can operate in the absence of C53/37 and C11 subunits but requires synthesis of 8 or more 3′ U nucleotides, apparently reflecting inherent sensitivity to an oligo(rU·dA) hybrid that is the termination signal proper. The holoenzyme mechanism requires fewer U nucleotides but uses C53/37 and C11 to slow elongation and prevent terminator arrest. N-terminal truncation of C53 or point mutations that disable the cleavage activity of C11 impair their antiarrest activities. The data are consistent with a model in which C53, C37, and C11 activities are functionally integrated with the active center of Pol III during termination. PMID:23401852

  16. Live-cell superresolution microscopy reveals the organization of RNA polymerase in the bacterial nucleoid

    PubMed Central

    Stracy, Mathew; Lesterlin, Christian; Garza de Leon, Federico; Uphoff, Stephan; Zawadzki, Pawel; Kapanidis, Achillefs N.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the fundamental importance of transcription, a comprehensive analysis of RNA polymerase (RNAP) behavior and its role in the nucleoid organization in vivo is lacking. Here, we used superresolution microscopy to study the localization and dynamics of the transcription machinery and DNA in live bacterial cells, at both the single-molecule and the population level. We used photoactivated single-molecule tracking to discriminate between mobile RNAPs and RNAPs specifically bound to DNA, either on promoters or transcribed genes. Mobile RNAPs can explore the whole nucleoid while searching for promoters, and spend 85% of their search time in nonspecific interactions with DNA. On the other hand, the distribution of specifically bound RNAPs shows that low levels of transcription can occur throughout the nucleoid. Further, clustering analysis and 3D structured illumination microscopy (SIM) show that dense clusters of transcribing RNAPs form almost exclusively at the nucleoid periphery. Treatment with rifampicin shows that active transcription is necessary for maintaining this spatial organization. In faster growth conditions, the fraction of transcribing RNAPs increases, as well as their clustering. Under these conditions, we observed dramatic phase separation between the densest clusters of RNAPs and the densest regions of the nucleoid. These findings show that transcription can cause spatial reorganization of the nucleoid, with movement of gene loci out of the bulk of DNA as levels of transcription increase. This work provides a global view of the organization of RNA polymerase and transcription in living cells. PMID:26224838

  17. Structural Basis for DNA-Hairpin Promoter Recognition by the Bacteriophage N4 Virion RNA Polymerase

    SciTech Connect

    Gleghorn, M.; Davydova, E; Rothman-Denes, L; Murakami, K

    2008-01-01

    Coliphage N4 virion-encapsidated RNA polymerase (vRNAP) is a member of the phage T7-like single-subunit RNA polymerase (RNAP) family. Its central domain (mini-vRNAP) contains all RNAP functions of the full-length vRNAP, which recognizes a 5 to 7 base pair stem and 3 nucleotide loop hairpin DNA promoter. Here, we report the X-ray crystal structures of mini-vRNAP bound to promoters. Mini-vRNAP uses four structural motifs to recognize DNA sequences at the hairpin loop and stem and to unwind DNA. Despite their low sequence similarity, three out of four motifs are shared with T7 RNAP that recognizes a double-stranded DNA promoter. The binary complex structure and results of engineered disulfide linkage experiments reveal that the plug and motif B loop, which block the access of template DNA to the active site in the apo-form mini-vRNAP, undergo a large-scale conformational change upon promoter binding, explaining the restricted promoter specificity that is critical for N4 phage early transcription.

  18. Sub-plastidial localization of two different phage-type RNA polymerases in spinach chloroplasts

    PubMed Central

    Azevedo, Jacinthe; Courtois, Florence; Lerbs-Mache, Silva

    2006-01-01

    Plant plastids contain a circular genome of ∼150 kb organized into ∼35 transcription units. The plastid genome is organized into nucleoids and attached to plastid membranes. This relatively small genome is transcribed by at least two different RNA polymerases, one being of the prokaryotic type and plastid-encoded (PEP), the other one being of the phage-type and nucleus-encoded (NEP). The presumed localization of a second phage-type RNA polymerase in plastids is still questionable. There is strong evidence for a sequential action of NEP and PEP enzymes during plant development attributing a prevailing role of NEP during early plant and plastid development, although NEP is present in mature chloroplasts. In the present paper, we have analysed two different NEP enzymes from spinach with respect to subcellular and intra-plastidial localization in mature chloroplasts with the help of specific antibodies. Results show the presence of the two different NEP enzymes in mature chloroplasts. Both enzymes are entirely membrane bound but, unlike previously thought, this membrane binding is not mediated via DNA. This finding indicates that NEP enzymes are not found as elongating transcription complexes on the template DNA in mature chloroplasts and raises the question of their function in mature chloroplasts. PMID:16421271

  19. Single molecule microscopy reveals mechanistic insight into RNA polymerase II preinitiation complex assembly and transcriptional activity

    PubMed Central

    Horn, Abigail E.; Kugel, Jennifer F.; Goodrich, James A.

    2016-01-01

    Transcription by RNA polymerase II (Pol II) is a complex process that requires general transcription factors and Pol II to assemble on DNA into preinitiation complexes that can begin RNA synthesis upon binding of NTPs (nucleoside triphosphate). The pathways by which preinitiation complexes form, and how this impacts transcriptional activity are not completely clear. To address these issues, we developed a single molecule system using TIRF (total internal reflection fluorescence) microscopy and purified human transcription factors, which allows us to visualize transcriptional activity at individual template molecules. We see that stable interactions between polymerase II (Pol II) and a heteroduplex DNA template do not depend on general transcription factors; however, transcriptional activity is highly dependent upon TATA-binding protein, TFIIB and TFIIF. We also found that subsets of general transcription factors and Pol II can form stable complexes that are precursors for functional transcription complexes upon addition of the remaining factors and DNA. Ultimately we found that Pol II, TATA-binding protein, TFIIB and TFIIF can form a quaternary complex in the absence of promoter DNA, indicating that a stable network of interactions exists between these proteins independent of promoter DNA. Single molecule studies can be used to learn how different modes of preinitiation complex assembly impact transcriptional activity. PMID:27112574

  20. The RNA polymerase II 15-kilodalton subunit is essential for viability in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, D A; Mortin, M A; Corces, V G

    1992-01-01

    A small, divergently transcribed gene is located 500 bp upstream of the suppressor of Hairy-wing locus of Drosophila melanogaster. Sequencing of a full-length cDNA clone of the predominant 850-nucleotide transcript reveals that this gene encodes a 15,100-Da protein with high homology to a subunit of RNA polymerase II. The RpII15 protein is 46% identical to the RPB9 protein of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, one of the smallest subunits of RNA polymerase II from that species. Among those identical residues are four pairs of cysteines whose spacing is suggestive of two metal-binding "finger" domains. The gene is expressed at all developmental stages and in all tissues. Two deletions within the RpII15 gene are multiphasic lethal deletions, with accumulation of dead animals commencing at the second larval instar. Ovary transplantation experiments indicate that survival of mutant animals to this stage is due to the persistence of maternal gene product throughout embryogenesis and early larval development. The RpII15 gene product is thus necessary for viability of D. melanogaster. Images PMID:1545824

  1. RNA polymerase II mutants defective in transcription of a subset of genes.

    PubMed Central

    Scafe, C; Nonet, M; Young, R A

    1990-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae RNA polymerase II conditional mutants that selectively disrupt the synthesis of specific mRNAs were isolated. At the permissive temperature, several of the mutants were inositol auxotrophs as a result of inadequate induction of INO1 transcription. The transcriptional defects exhibited by one of these Ino- mutants (rpb2-2) were further investigated. The induction of GAL10 and HIS4 transcription in rpb2-2 strains was similar to that of wild-type strains, in contrast to the lack of induction of INO1 transcription. When shifted to the nonpermissive temperature, cells containing rpb2-2 continued to accumulate some mRNAs but not others. Together, these results indicate that transcription of specific genes can be disrupted by RNA polymerase II mutations. The rpb2-2 allele alters an amino acid residue that occurs in a highly conserved segment of the RPB2 protein and that is shared by homologous subunits in other species. Images PMID:2406558

  2. Structure of the Escherichia coli RNA polymerase α subunit C-terminal domain

    SciTech Connect

    Lara-González, Samuel; Birktoft, Jens J.; Lawson, Catherine L.

    2010-07-01

    The crystal structure of the dimethyllysine derivative of the E. coli RNA polymerase α subunit C-terminal domain is reported at 2.0 Å resolution. The α subunit C-terminal domain (αCTD) of RNA polymerase (RNAP) is a key element in transcription activation in Escherichia coli, possessing determinants responsible for the interaction of RNAP with DNA and with transcription factors. Here, the crystal structure of E. coli αCTD (α subunit residues 245–329) determined to 2.0 Å resolution is reported. Crystals were obtained after reductive methylation of the recombinantly expressed domain. The crystals belonged to space group P2{sub 1} and possessed both pseudo-translational symmetry and pseudo-merohedral twinning. The refined coordinate model (R factor = 0.193, R{sub free} = 0.236) has improved geometry compared with prior lower resolution determinations of the αCTD structure [Jeon et al. (1995 ▶), Science, 270, 1495–1497; Benoff et al. (2002 ▶), Science, 297, 1562–1566]. An extensive dimerization interface formed primarily by N- and C-terminal residues is also observed. The new coordinates will facilitate the improved modeling of αCTD-containing multi-component complexes visualized at lower resolution using X-ray crystallography and electron-microscopy reconstruction.

  3. Ccr4-Not Regulates RNA Polymerase I Transcription and Couples Nutrient Signaling to the Control of Ribosomal RNA Biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Laribee, R. Nicholas; Hosni-Ahmed, Amira; Workman, Jason J.; Chen, Hongfeng

    2015-01-01

    Ribosomal RNA synthesis is controlled by nutrient signaling through the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) pathway. mTORC1 regulates ribosomal RNA expression by affecting RNA Polymerase I (Pol I)-dependent transcription of the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) but the mechanisms involved remain obscure. This study provides evidence that the Ccr4-Not complex, which regulates RNA Polymerase II (Pol II) transcription, also functions downstream of mTORC1 to control Pol I activity. Ccr4-Not localizes to the rDNA and physically associates with the Pol I holoenzyme while Ccr4-Not disruption perturbs rDNA binding of multiple Pol I transcriptional regulators including core factor, the high mobility group protein Hmo1, and the SSU processome. Under nutrient rich conditions, Ccr4-Not suppresses Pol I initiation by regulating interactions with the essential transcription factor Rrn3. Additionally, Ccr4-Not disruption prevents reduced Pol I transcription when mTORC1 is inhibited suggesting Ccr4-Not bridges mTORC1 signaling with Pol I regulation. Analysis of the non-essential Pol I subunits demonstrated that the A34.5 subunit promotes, while the A12.2 and A14 subunits repress, Ccr4-Not interactions with Pol I. Furthermore, ccr4Δ is synthetically sick when paired with rpa12Δ and the double mutant has enhanced sensitivity to transcription elongation inhibition suggesting that Ccr4-Not functions to promote Pol I elongation. Intriguingly, while low concentrations of mTORC1 inhibitors completely inhibit growth of ccr4Δ, a ccr4Δ rpa12Δ rescues this growth defect suggesting that the sensitivity of Ccr4-Not mutants to mTORC1 inhibition is at least partially due to Pol I deregulation. Collectively, these data demonstrate a novel role for Ccr4-Not in Pol I transcriptional regulation that is requ