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Sample records for nuclear safety element

  1. Elements of a nuclear criticality safety program

    SciTech Connect

    Hopper, C.M.

    1995-07-01

    Nuclear criticality safety programs throughout the United States are quite successful, as compared with other safety disciplines, at protecting life and property, especially when regarded as a developing safety function with no historical perspective for the cause and effect of process nuclear criticality accidents before 1943. The programs evolved through self-imposed and regulatory-imposed incentives. They are the products of conscientious individuals, supportive corporations, obliged regulators, and intervenors (political, public, and private). The maturing of nuclear criticality safety programs throughout the United States has been spasmodic, with stability provided by the volunteer standards efforts within the American Nuclear Society. This presentation provides the status, relative to current needs, for nuclear criticality safety program elements that address organization of and assignments for nuclear criticality safety program responsibilities; personnel qualifications; and analytical capabilities for the technical definition of critical, subcritical, safety and operating limits, and program quality assurance.

  2. Nuclear safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buden, D.

    1991-01-01

    Topics dealing with nuclear safety are addressed which include the following: general safety requirements; safety design requirements; terrestrial safety; SP-100 Flight System key safety requirements; potential mission accidents and hazards; key safety features; ground operations; launch operations; flight operations; disposal; safety concerns; licensing; the nuclear engine for rocket vehicle application (NERVA) design philosophy; the NERVA flight safety program; and the NERVA safety plan.

  3. Revitalizing Nuclear Safety Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC.

    This report covers the general issues involved in nuclear safety research and points out the areas needing detailed consideration. Topics included are: (1) "Principles of Nuclear Safety Research" (examining who should fund, who should conduct, and who should set the agenda for nuclear safety research); (2) "Elements of a Future…

  4. Revitalizing Nuclear Safety Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC.

    This report covers the general issues involved in nuclear safety research and points out the areas needing detailed consideration. Topics included are: (1) "Principles of Nuclear Safety Research" (examining who should fund, who should conduct, and who should set the agenda for nuclear safety research); (2) "Elements of a Future…

  5. Nuclear Safety

    SciTech Connect

    Silver, E G

    1989-01-01

    This document is a review journal that covers significant developments in the field of nuclear safety. Its scope includes the analysis and control of hazards associated with nuclear energy, operations involving fissionable materials, and the products of nuclear fission and their effects on the environment. Primary emphasis is on safety in reactor design, construction, and operation; however, the safety aspects of the entire fuel cycle, including fuel fabrication, spent-fuel processing, nuclear waste disposal, handling of radioisotopes, and environmental effects of these operations, are also treated.

  6. Nuclear criticality safety guide

    SciTech Connect

    Pruvost, N.L.; Paxton, H.C.

    1996-09-01

    This technical reference document cites information related to nuclear criticality safety principles, experience, and practice. The document also provides general guidance for criticality safety personnel and regulators.

  7. Use of molybdenum as a structural material of fuel elements for improving the safety of nuclear reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shmelev, A. N.; Kozhahmet, B. K.

    2017-01-01

    Main purpose of the study is justifying the use of molybdenum as a structural material of fuel elements for improving the safety of nuclear reactors. Particularity of used molybdenum is that its isotopic composition corresponds to molybdenum, which is obtained as the tailing during operation of the separation cascade for producing a material for medical diagnostics of cancer. When performing the study the neutron-physical properties of isotopes of natural molybdenum (nuclear data library JENDL-4.0) and thermal properties of metallic molybdenum were used. The following results were obtained: 1. A method for reducing the thermal constant of fuel elements for light water and fast reactors by using dispersion fuel in cylindrical fuel rods containing, for example, granules of metallic U-Mo-alloy into Mo-matrix was proposed. 2. The necessity of molybdenum enrichment by weakly absorbing isotopes was shown. 3. Total use of isotopic molybdenum will be more than 50%. A method for reducing the thermal constant of the fuel elements, allowing us to increase the safety of light water and fast nuclear reactors by using dispersion fuel in cylindrical fuel rods containing, for example, granules of metallic U-Mo-alloy into Mo-matrix with enrichment by weakly absorbing isotopes of molybdenum is proposed.

  8. Nuclear fuel element

    DOEpatents

    Meadowcroft, Ronald Ross; Bain, Alastair Stewart

    1977-01-01

    A nuclear fuel element wherein a tubular cladding of zirconium or a zirconium alloy has a fission gas plenum chamber which is held against collapse by the loops of a spacer in the form of a tube which has been deformed inwardly at three equally spaced, circumferential positions to provide three loops. A heat resistant disc of, say, graphite separates nuclear fuel pellets within the cladding from the plenum chamber. The spacer is of zirconium or a zirconium alloy.

  9. Nuclear Reactor Safety

    SciTech Connect

    Bales, J.D.; Boshears, R.

    1996-02-01

    Nuclear Reactor Safety (NRS), published monthly, is a collection of abstracts of worldwide information available on all safety-related aspects of reactors, including accident analysis, safety systems, radiation protection, decommissioning and dismantling, and security measures. This publication contains the abstracts of DOE reports, journal articles, conference papers, patents, theses, and monographs added to the Energy Science and Technology Database during the past month. Also included are other U.S. information obtained through acquisition programs or interagency agreements and international information obtained through the International Energy Agency`s Energy Technology Data Exchange, the International Atomic Energy Agency`s International Nuclear Information System, or government-to-government agreements. The digests in NRS and other citations to information on nuclear reactor safety dating from 1948 are available for online searching and retrieval in the Energy Science and Technology Database and Nuclear Science Abstracts (NSA) database. Current information, added daily to the Energy Science and Technology Database, is available to DOE and its contractors through the DOE Integrated Technical Information System. Customized profiles can be developed to provide current information to meet each user`s needs.

  10. Nuclear fuel element

    DOEpatents

    Armijo, Joseph S.; Coffin, Jr., Louis F.

    1980-04-29

    A nuclear fuel element for use in the core of a nuclear reactor is disclosed and has an improved composite cladding comprised of a moderate purity metal barrier of zirconium metallurgically bonded on the inside surface of a zirconium alloy tube. The metal barrier forms a shield between the alloy tube and a core of nuclear fuel material enclosed in the composite cladding. There is a gap between the cladding and the core. The metal barrier forms about 1 to about 30 percent of the thickness of the composite cladding and has low neutron absorption characteristics. The metal barrier serves as a preferential reaction site for gaseous impurities and fission products and protects the alloy tube from contact and reaction with such impurities and fission products. Methods of manufacturing the composite cladding are also disclosed.

  11. Nuclear fuel element

    DOEpatents

    Armijo, Joseph S.; Coffin, Jr., Louis F.

    1983-01-01

    A nuclear fuel element for use in the core of a nuclear reactor is disclosed and has a composite cladding having a substrate and a metal barrier metallurgically bonded on the inside surface of the substrate so that the metal barrier forms a shield between the substrate and the nuclear fuel material held within the cladding. The metal barrier forms about 1 to about 30 percent of the thickness of the cladding and is comprised of a low neutron absorption metal of substantially pure zirconium. The metal barrier serves as a preferential reaction site for gaseous impurities and fission products and protects the substrate from contact and reaction with such impurities and fission products. The substrate of the composite cladding is selected from conventional cladding materials and preferably is a zirconium alloy. Methods of manufacturing the composite cladding are also disclosed.

  12. Nuclear fuel element

    DOEpatents

    Zocher, Roy W.

    1991-01-01

    A nuclear fuel element and a method of manufacturing the element. The fuel element is comprised of a metal primary container and a fuel pellet which is located inside it and which is often fragmented. The primary container is subjected to elevated pressure and temperature to deform the container such that the container conforms to the fuel pellet, that is, such that the container is in substantial contact with the surface of the pellet. This conformance eliminates clearances which permit rubbing together of fuel pellet fragments and rubbing of fuel pellet fragments against the container, thus reducing the amount of dust inside the fuel container and the amount of dust which may escape in the event of container breach. Also, as a result of the inventive method, fuel pellet fragments tend to adhere to one another to form a coherent non-fragmented mass; this reduces the tendency of a fragment to pierce the container in the event of impact.

  13. Nuclear explosive safety study process

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-01

    Nuclear explosives by their design and intended use require collocation of high explosives and fissile material. The design agencies are responsible for designing safety into the nuclear explosive and processes involving the nuclear explosive. The methodology for ensuring safety consists of independent review processes that include the national laboratories, Operations Offices, Headquarters, and responsible Area Offices and operating contractors with expertise in nuclear explosive safety. A NES Study is an evaluation of the adequacy of positive measures to minimize the possibility of an inadvertent or deliberate unauthorized nuclear detonation, high explosive detonation or deflagration, fire, or fissile material dispersal from the pit. The Nuclear Explosive Safety Study Group (NESSG) evaluates nuclear explosive operations against the Nuclear Explosive Safety Standards specified in DOE O 452.2 using systematic evaluation techniques. These Safety Standards must be satisfied for nuclear explosive operations.

  14. Nuclear reactor fuel element

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Carl E.; Crouthamel, Carl E.

    1980-01-01

    A nuclear reactor fuel element is described which has an outer cladding, a central core of fissionable or mixed fissionable and fertile fuel material and a layer of oxygen gettering material on the inner surface of the cladding. The gettering material reacts with oxygen released by the fissionable material during irradiation of the core thereby preventing the oxygen from reacting with and corroding the cladding. Also described is an improved method for coating the inner surface of the cladding with a layer of gettering material.

  15. Nuclear reactor safety device

    DOEpatents

    Hutter, Ernest

    1986-01-01

    A safety device is disclosed for use in a nuclear reactor for axially repositioning a control rod with respect to the reactor core in the event of an upward thermal excursion. Such safety device comprises a laminated helical ribbon configured as a tube-like helical coil having contiguous helical turns with slidably abutting edges. The helical coil is disclosed as a portion of a drive member connected axially to the control rod. The laminated ribbon is formed of outer and inner laminae. The material of the outer lamina has a greater thermal coefficient of expansion than the material of the inner lamina. In the event of an upward thermal excursion, the laminated helical coil curls inwardly to a smaller diameter. Such inward curling causes the total length of the helical coil to increase by a substantial increment, so that the control rod is axially repositioned by a corresponding amount to reduce the power output of the reactor.

  16. Prospects for nuclear safety research

    SciTech Connect

    Beckjord, E.S.

    1995-04-01

    This document is the text of a paper presented by Eric S. Beckjord (Director, Nuclear Regulatory Research/NRC) at the 22nd Water Reactor Safety Meeting in Bethesda, MD in October 1994. The following topics are briefly reviewed: (1) Reactor vessel research, (2) Probabilistic risk assessment, (3) Direct containment heating, (4) Advanced LWR research, (5) Nuclear energy prospects in the US, and (6) Future nuclear safety research. Subtopics within the last category include economics, waste disposal, and health and safety.

  17. Nuclear reactor safety device

    DOEpatents

    Hutter, E.

    1983-08-15

    A safety device is described for use in a nuclear reactor for axially repositioning a control rod with respect to the reactor core in the event of a thermal excursion. It comprises a laminated strip helically configured to form a tube, said tube being in operative relation to said control rod. The laminated strip is formed of at least two materials having different thermal coefficients of expansion, and is helically configured such that the material forming the outer lamina of the tube has a greater thermal coefficient of expansion than the material forming the inner lamina of said tube. In the event of a thermal excursion the laminated strip will tend to curl inwardly so that said tube will increase in length, whereby as said tube increases in length it exerts a force on said control rod to axially reposition said control rod with respect to said core.

  18. Nuclear Powerplant Safety: Operations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC. Nuclear Energy Office.

    Powerplant systems and procedures that ensure the day-to-day health and safety of people in and around the plant is referred to as operational safety. This safety is the result of careful planning, good engineering and design, strict licensing and regulation, and environmental monitoring. Procedures that assure operational safety at nuclear…

  19. Nuclear power: Siting and safety

    SciTech Connect

    Openshaw, S.

    1986-01-01

    By 2030, half, or even two-thirds, of all electricity may be generated by nuclear power. Major reactor accidents are still expected to be rare occurrences, but nuclear safety is largely a matter of faith. Terrorist attacks, sabotage, and human error could cause a significant accident. Reactor siting can offer an additional, design-independent margin of safety. Remote geographical sites for new plants would minimize health risks, protect the industry from negative changes in public opinion concerning nuclear energy, and improve long-term public acceptance of nuclear power. U.K. siting practices usually do not consider the contribution to safety that could be obtained from remote sites. This book discusses the present trends of siting policies of nuclear power and their design-independent margin of safety.

  20. Vented nuclear fuel element

    DOEpatents

    Grossman, Leonard N.; Kaznoff, Alexis I.

    1979-01-01

    A nuclear fuel cell for use in a thermionic nuclear reactor in which a small conduit extends from the outside surface of the emitter to the center of the fuel mass of the emitter body to permit escape of volatile and gaseous fission products collected in the center thereof by virtue of molecular migration of the gases to the hotter region of the fuel.

  1. NUCLEAR REACTOR FUEL ELEMENT

    DOEpatents

    Wheelock, C.W.; Baumeister, E.B.

    1961-09-01

    A reactor fuel element utilizing fissionable fuel materials in plate form is described. This fuel element consists of bundles of fuel-bearing plates. The bundles are stacked inside of a tube which forms the shell of the fuel element. The plates each have longitudinal fins running parallel to the direction of coolant flow, and interspersed among and parallel to the fins are ribs which position the plates relative to each other and to the fuel element shell. The plate bundles are held together by thin bands or wires. The ex tended surface increases the heat transfer capabilities of a fuel element by a factor of 3 or more over those of a simple flat plate.

  2. NUCLEAR REACTOR FUEL ELEMENT

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, W.F.; Tellefson, D.R.; Shimazaki, T.T.

    1962-04-10

    A plate type fuel element which is particularly useful for organic cooled reactors is described. Generally, the fuel element comprises a plurality of fissionable fuel bearing plates held in spaced relationship by a frame in which the plates are slidably mounted in grooves. Clearance is provided in the grooves to allow the plates to expand laterally. The plates may be rigidly interconnected but are floatingly supported at their ends within the frame to allow for longi-tudinal expansion. Thus, this fuel element is able to withstand large temperature differentials without great structural stresses. (AEC)

  3. FUEL ELEMENT FOR NUCLEAR REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Bassett, C.H.

    1961-05-16

    A fuel element particularly adapted for use in nuclear reactors of high power density is offered. It has fissionable fuel pellet segments mounted in a tubular housing and defining a central passage in the fuel element. A burnable poison element extends through the central passage, which is designed to contain more poison material at the median portion than at the end portions thereby providing a more uniform hurnup and longer reactivity life.

  4. NUCLEAR REACTOR ELEMENT

    DOEpatents

    Sanz, M.C.; Scully, C.N.

    1961-06-27

    The patented fuel element is a hexagonal graphite body having an axial channel therethrough. The graphite is impregnated with uranium which is concentrated near the axial channel. Layers of tantalum nitride and tantalum carbide are disposed on the surface of the body confronting the channel.

  5. FUEL ELEMENTS FOR NUCLEAR REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Blainey, A.; Lloyd, H.

    1961-07-11

    A method of sheathing a tubular fuel element for a nuclear reactor is described. A low melting metal core member is centered in a die, a layer of a powdered sheathing substance is placed on the bottom of the die, the tubular fuel element is inserted in the die, the space between the tubular fuel element and the die walls and core member is filled with the same powdered sheathing substance, a layer of the same substance is placed over the fissile material, and the charge within the die is subjected to pressure in the direction of the axis of the fuel element at the sintering temperature of the protective substance.

  6. NRC - regulator of nuclear safety

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) was formed in 1975 to regulate the various commercial and institutional uses of nuclear energy, including nuclear power plants. The agency succeeded the Atomic Energy Commission, which previously had responsibility for both developing and regulating nuclear activities. Federal research and development work for all energy sources, as well as nuclear weapons production, is now conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy. Under its responsibility to protect public health and safety, the NRC has three principal regulatory functions: (1) establish standards and regulations, (2) issue licenses for nuclear facilities and users of nuclear materials, and (3) inspect facilities and users of nuclear materials to ensure compliance with the requirements. These regulatory functions relate to both nuclear power plants and to other uses of nuclear materials - like nuclear medicine programs at hospitals, academic activities at educational institutions, research work, and such industrial applications as gauges and testing equipment. The NRC places a high priority on keeping the public informed of its work. The agency recognizes the interest of citizens in what it does through such activities as maintaining public document rooms across the country and holding public hearings, public meetings in local areas, and discussions with individuals and organizations.

  7. Nuclear Safety for Space Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Offiong, Etim

    2010-09-01

    It is trite, albeit a truism, to say that nuclear power can provide propulsion thrust needed to launch space vehicles and also, to provide electricity for powering on-board systems, especially for missions to the Moon, Mars and other deep space missions. Nuclear Power Sources(NPSs) are known to provide more capabilities than solar power, fuel cells and conventional chemical means. The worry has always been that of safety. The earliest superpowers(US and former Soviet Union) have designed and launched several nuclear-powered systems, with some failures. Nuclear failures and accidents, however little the number, could be far-reaching geographically, and are catastrophic to humans and the environment. Building on the numerous research works on nuclear power on Earth and in space, this paper seeks to bring to bear, issues relating to safety of space systems - spacecrafts, astronauts, Earth environment and extra terrestrial habitats - in the use and application of nuclear power sources. It also introduces a new formal training course in Space Systems Safety.

  8. NUCLEAR REACTOR FUEL ELEMENT ASSEMBLY

    DOEpatents

    Stengel, F.G.

    1963-12-24

    A method of fabricating nuclear reactor fuel element assemblies having a plurality of longitudinally extending flat fuel elements in spaced parallel relation to each other to form channels is presented. One side of a flat side plate is held contiguous to the ends of the elements and a welding means is passed along the other side of the platertransverse to the direction of the longitudinal extension of the elements. The setting and speed of travel of the welding means is set to cause penetration of the side plate with welds at bridge the gap in each channel between adjacent fuel elements with a weld-through bubble of predetermined size. The fabrication of a high strength, dependable fuel element is provided, and the reduction of distortion and high production costs are facilitated by this method. (AEC)

  9. FUEL ELEMENT FOR NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Carney, K.G. Jr.

    1959-07-14

    A nuclear fuel element comprising a large number og wafers of fissionable material and a protective jacket having compartments holding these wafers is described. The compartments of the jacket aid the removal of heat from the wafers, keep the wafers or fragments thereof from migrating in the jacket, and permit the escape of gaseous fission products.

  10. Autoclave nuclear criticality safety analysis

    SciTech Connect

    D`Aquila, D.M.; Tayloe, R.W. Jr.

    1991-12-31

    Steam-heated autoclaves are used in gaseous diffusion uranium enrichment plants to heat large cylinders of UF{sub 6}. Nuclear criticality safety for these autoclaves is evaluated. To enhance criticality safety, systems are incorporated into the design of autoclaves to limit the amount of water present. These safety systems also increase the likelihood that any UF{sub 6} inadvertently released from a cylinder into an autoclave is not released to the environment. Up to 140 pounds of water can be held up in large autoclaves. This mass of water is sufficient to support a nuclear criticality when optimally combined with 125 pounds of UF{sub 6} enriched to 5 percent U{sup 235}. However, water in autoclaves is widely dispersed as condensed droplets and vapor, and is extremely unlikely to form a critical configuration with released UF{sub 6}.

  11. Nuclear Criticality Safety Data Book

    SciTech Connect

    Hollenbach, D. F.

    2016-11-14

    The objective of this document is to support the revision of criticality safety process studies (CSPSs) for the Uranium Processing Facility (UPF) at the Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12). This design analysis and calculation (DAC) document contains development and justification for generic inputs typically used in Nuclear Criticality Safety (NCS) DACs to model both normal and abnormal conditions of processes at UPF to support CSPSs. This will provide consistency between NCS DACs and efficiency in preparation and review of DACs, as frequently used data are provided in one reference source.

  12. 48 CFR 923.7001 - Nuclear safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Section 923.7001 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS ENVIRONMENT, CONSERVATION, OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY, AND DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE Environmental, Energy and Water Efficiency, Renewable Energy Technologies, and Occupational Safety Programs 923.7001 Nuclear safety. The...

  13. FUEL ELEMENT FOR NUCLEAR REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Bassett, C.H.

    1961-05-01

    A nuclear reactor fuel element comprising high density ceramic fissionable material enclosed in a tubular cladding of corrosion-resistant material is described. The fissionable material is in the form of segments of a tube which have cooperating tapered interfaces which produce outward radial displacement when the segments are urged axially together. A resilient means is provided within the tubular housing to constantly urge the fuel segments axially. This design maintains the fuel material in tight contacting engagement against the inner surface of the outer cladding tube to eliminate any gap therebetween which may be caused by differential thermal expansion between the fuel material and the material of the tube.

  14. Safe use of atomic (Nuclear) power (Nuclear Safety)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidorenko, V. A.

    2013-12-01

    The established concept of ensuring safety for nuclear power sources is presented; the influence of severe accidents on nuclear power development is considered, including the accident at a Japan NPP in 2011, as well as the role of state regulation of nuclear safety.

  15. Nuclear criticality safety: 2-day training course

    SciTech Connect

    Schlesser, J.A.

    1997-02-01

    This compilation of notes is presented as a source reference for the criticality safety course. At the completion of this training course, the attendee will: be able to define terms commonly used in nuclear criticality safety; be able to appreciate the fundamentals of nuclear criticality safety; be able to identify factors which affect nuclear criticality safety; be able to identify examples of criticality controls as used as Los Alamos; be able to identify examples of circumstances present during criticality accidents; have participated in conducting two critical experiments; be asked to complete a critique of the nuclear criticality safety training course.

  16. A philosophy for space nuclear systems safety

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, A.C.

    1992-08-01

    The unique requirements and contraints of space nuclear systems require careful consideration in the development of a safety policy. The Nuclear Safety Policy Working Group (NSPWG) for the Space Exploration Initiative has proposed a hierarchical approach with safety policy at the top of the hierarchy. This policy allows safety requirements to be tailored to specific applications while still providing reassurance to regulators and the general public that the necessary measures have been taken to assure safe application of space nuclear systems. The safety policy used by the NSPWG is recommended for all space nuclear programs and missions.

  17. Radiation Safety in Nuclear Medicine Procedures.

    PubMed

    Cho, Sang-Geon; Kim, Jahae; Song, Ho-Chun

    2017-03-01

    Since the nuclear disaster at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant in 2011, radiation safety has become an important issue in nuclear medicine. Many structured guidelines or recommendations of various academic societies or international campaigns demonstrate important issues of radiation safety in nuclear medicine procedures. There are ongoing efforts to fulfill the basic principles of radiation protection in daily nuclear medicine practice. This article reviews important principles of radiation protection in nuclear medicine procedures. Useful references, important issues, future perspectives of the optimization of nuclear medicine procedures, and diagnostic reference level are also discussed.

  18. Nuclear criticality safety: 5-day training course

    SciTech Connect

    Schlesser, J.A.

    1992-11-01

    This compilation of notes is presented as a source reference for the criticality safety course. It represents the contributions of many people, particularly Tom McLaughlin, the course's primary instructor. At the completion of this training course, the attendee will: be able to define terms commonly used in nuclear criticality safety; be able to appreciate the fundamentals of nuclear criticality safety; be able to identify factors which affect nuclear criticality safety; be able to identify examples of criticality controls as used at Los Alamos; be able to identify examples of circumstances present during criticality accidents; be able to identify examples of computer codes used by the nuclear criticality safety specialist; be able to identify examples of safety consciousness required in nuclear criticality safety.

  19. Nuclear criticality safety: 5-day training course

    SciTech Connect

    Schlesser, J.A.

    1992-11-01

    This compilation of notes is presented as a source reference for the criticality safety course. It represents the contributions of many people, particularly Tom McLaughlin, the course`s primary instructor. At the completion of this training course, the attendee will: be able to define terms commonly used in nuclear criticality safety; be able to appreciate the fundamentals of nuclear criticality safety; be able to identify factors which affect nuclear criticality safety; be able to identify examples of criticality controls as used at Los Alamos; be able to identify examples of circumstances present during criticality accidents; be able to identify examples of computer codes used by the nuclear criticality safety specialist; be able to identify examples of safety consciousness required in nuclear criticality safety.

  20. Seven Basic Elements of a Safety Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliphant, Richard J.

    1979-01-01

    Outlined are the basic elements of a strong utility employee safety program. The components discussed include: management leadership; assignment of responsibility; maintenance; establishment of safety training; accident record system; medical systems; and personal responsibility of employees. (CS)

  1. Safety culture in the nuclear versus non-nuclear organization

    SciTech Connect

    Haber, S.B.; Shurberg, D.A.

    1996-10-01

    The importance of safety culture in the safe and reliable operation of nuclear organizations is not a new concept. The greatest barriers to this area of research are twofold: (1) the definition and criteria of safety culture for a nuclear organization and (2) the measurement of those attributes in an objective and systematic fashion. This paper will discuss a proposed resolution of those barriers as demonstrated by the collection of data across nuclear and non-nuclear facilities over a two year period.

  2. Software Quality Assurance for Nuclear Safety Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sparkman, D R; Lagdon, R

    2004-05-16

    The US Department of Energy has undertaken an initiative to improve the quality of software used to design and operate their nuclear facilities across the United States. One aspect of this initiative is to revise or create new directives and guides associated with quality practices for the safety software in its nuclear facilities. Safety software includes the safety structures, systems, and components software and firmware, support software and design and analysis software used to ensure the safety of the facility. DOE nuclear facilities are unique when compared to commercial nuclear or other industrial activities in terms of the types and quantities of hazards that must be controlled to protect workers, public and the environment. Because of these differences, DOE must develop an approach to software quality assurance that ensures appropriate risk mitigation by developing a framework of requirements that accomplishes the following goals: {sm_bullet} Ensures the software processes developed to address nuclear safety in design, operation, construction and maintenance of its facilities are safe {sm_bullet} Considers the larger system that uses the software and its impacts {sm_bullet} Ensures that the software failures do not create unsafe conditions Software designers for nuclear systems and processes must reduce risks in software applications by incorporating processes that recognize, detect, and mitigate software failure in safety related systems. It must also ensure that fail safe modes and component testing are incorporated into software design. For nuclear facilities, the consideration of risk is not necessarily sufficient to ensure safety. Systematic evaluation, independent verification and system safety analysis must be considered for software design, implementation, and operation. The software industry primarily uses risk analysis to determine the appropriate level of rigor applied to software practices. This risk-based approach distinguishes safety

  3. The history of nuclear weapon safety devices

    SciTech Connect

    Plummer, D.W.; Greenwood, W.H.

    1998-06-01

    The paper presents the history of safety devices used in nuclear weapons from the early days of separables to the latest advancements in MicroElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS). Although the paper focuses on devices, the principles of Enhanced Nuclear Detonation Safety implementation will also be presented.

  4. Nuclear Powerplant Safety: Design and Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC. Nuclear Energy Office.

    The most important concern in the design, construction and operation of nuclear powerplants is safety. Nuclear power is one of the major contributors to the nation's supply of electricity; therefore, it is important to assure its safe use. Each different type of powerplant has special design features and systems to protect health and safety. One…

  5. Nuclear criticality safety: 3-day training course

    SciTech Connect

    Schlesser, J.A.

    1992-11-01

    This compilation of notes is presented as a source reference for the criticality safety course. It represents the contributions of many people, particularly Tom McLaughlin, the course`s primary instructor. At the completion of this training course, the attendee will: (1) be able to define terms commonly used in nuclear criticality safety; (2) be able to appreciate the fundamentals of nuclear criticality safety; (3) be able to identify factors which affect nuclear criticality safety; (4) be able to identify examples of criticality controls as used at Los Alamos; (5) be able to identify examples of circumstances present during criticality accidents; (6) be able to identify examples of safety consciousness required in nuclear criticality safety.

  6. Nuclear criticality safety: 3-day training course

    SciTech Connect

    Schlesser, J.A.

    1992-11-01

    This compilation of notes is presented as a source reference for the criticality safety course. It represents the contributions of many people, particularly Tom McLaughlin, the course's primary instructor. At the completion of this training course, the attendee will: (1) be able to define terms commonly used in nuclear criticality safety; (2) be able to appreciate the fundamentals of nuclear criticality safety; (3) be able to identify factors which affect nuclear criticality safety; (4) be able to identify examples of criticality controls as used at Los Alamos; (5) be able to identify examples of circumstances present during criticality accidents; (6) be able to identify examples of safety consciousness required in nuclear criticality safety.

  7. Advanced research workshop: nuclear materials safety

    SciTech Connect

    Jardine, L J; Moshkov, M M

    1999-01-28

    The Advanced Research Workshop (ARW) on Nuclear Materials Safety held June 8-10, 1998, in St. Petersburg, Russia, was attended by 27 Russian experts from 14 different Russian organizations, seven European experts from six different organizations, and 14 U.S. experts from seven different organizations. The ARW was conducted at the State Education Center (SEC), a former Minatom nuclear training center in St. Petersburg. Thirty-three technical presentations were made using simultaneous translations. These presentations are reprinted in this volume as a formal ARW Proceedings in the NATO Science Series. The representative technical papers contained here cover nuclear material safety topics on the storage and disposition of excess plutonium and high enriched uranium (HEU) fissile materials, including vitrification, mixed oxide (MOX) fuel fabrication, plutonium ceramics, reprocessing, geologic disposal, transportation, and Russian regulatory processes. This ARW completed discussions by experts of the nuclear materials safety topics that were not covered in the previous, companion ARW on Nuclear Materials Safety held in Amarillo, Texas, in March 1997. These two workshops, when viewed together as a set, have addressed most nuclear material aspects of the storage and disposition operations required for excess HEU and plutonium. As a result, specific experts in nuclear materials safety have been identified, know each other from their participation in t he two ARW interactions, and have developed a partial consensus and dialogue on the most urgent nuclear materials safety topics to be addressed in a formal bilateral program on t he subject. A strong basis now exists for maintaining and developing a continuing dialogue between Russian, European, and U.S. experts in nuclear materials safety that will improve the safety of future nuclear materials operations in all the countries involved because of t he positive synergistic effects of focusing these diverse backgrounds of

  8. CONSTRUCTION OF NUCLEAR FUEL ELEMENTS

    DOEpatents

    Weems, S.J.

    1963-09-24

    >A rib arrangement and an end construction for nuclearfuel elements laid end to end in a coolant tube are described. The rib arrangement is such that each fuel element, when separated from other fuel elements, fits loosely in the coolant tube and so can easily be inserted or withdrawn from the tube. The end construction of the fuel elements is such that the fuel elements when assembled end to end are keyed against relative rotation, and the ribs of each fuel element cooperate with the ribs of the adjacent fuel elements to give the assembled fuel elements a tight fit with the coolant tube. (AEC)

  9. Manned space flight nuclear system safety. Volume 5: Nuclear System safety guidelines. Part 1: Space base nuclear safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The design and operations guidelines and requirements developed in the study of space base nuclear system safety are presented. Guidelines and requirements are presented for the space base subsystems, nuclear hardware (reactor, isotope sources, dynamic generator equipment), experiments, interfacing vehicles, ground support systems, range safety and facilities. Cross indices and references are provided which relate guidelines to each other, and to substantiating data in other volumes. The guidelines are intended for the implementation of nuclear safety related design and operational considerations in future space programs.

  10. Nuclear safety policy working group recommendations on nuclear propulsion safety for the space exploration initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, Albert C.; Lee, James H.; Mcculloch, William H.; Sawyer, J. Charles, Jr.; Bari, Robert A.; Cullingford, Hatice S.; Hardy, Alva C.; Niederauer, George F.; Remp, Kerry; Rice, John W.

    1993-01-01

    An interagency Nuclear Safety Working Group (NSPWG) was chartered to recommend nuclear safety policy, requirements, and guidelines for the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) nuclear propulsion program. These recommendations, which are contained in this report, should facilitate the implementation of mission planning and conceptual design studies. The NSPWG has recommended a top-level policy to provide the guiding principles for the development and implementation of the SEI nuclear propulsion safety program. In addition, the NSPWG has reviewed safety issues for nuclear propulsion and recommended top-level safety requirements and guidelines to address these issues. These recommendations should be useful for the development of the program's top-level requirements for safety functions (referred to as Safety Functional Requirements). The safety requirements and guidelines address the following topics: reactor start-up, inadvertent criticality, radiological release and exposure, disposal, entry, safeguards, risk/reliability, operational safety, ground testing, and other considerations.

  11. Spent Nuclear Fuel Project path forward: nuclear safety equivalency to comparable NRC-licensed facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Garvin, L.J.

    1995-11-01

    This document includes the Technical requirements which meet the nuclear safety objectives of the NRC regulations for fuel treatment and storage facilities. These include requirements regarding radiation exposure limits, safety analysis, design and construction. This document also includes administrative requirements which meet the objectives of the major elements of the NRC licensing process. These include formally documented design and safety analysis, independent technical review, and oppportunity for public involvement.

  12. Nuclear Powerplant Safety: Source Terms. Nuclear Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC. Nuclear Energy Office.

    There has been increased public interest in the potential effects of nuclear powerplant accidents since the Soviet reactor accident at Chernobyl. People have begun to look for more information about the amount of radioactivity that might be released into the environment as a result of such an accident. When this issue is discussed by people…

  13. Manned space flight nuclear system safety. Voluem 5: Nuclear system safety guidelines. Part 2: Space shuttle/nuclear payloads safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The design and operations guidelines and requirements developed in the study of space shuttle nuclear system transportation are presented. Guidelines and requirements are presented for the shuttle, nuclear payloads (reactor, isotope-Brayton and small isotope sources), ground support systems and facilities. Cross indices and references are provided which relate guidelines to each other, and to substantiating data in other volumes. The guidelines are intended for the implementation of nuclear safety related design and operational considerations in future space programs.

  14. Nuclear criticality safety department training implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, K.J.; Taylor, R.G.; Worley, C.A.

    1996-09-06

    The Nuclear Criticality Safety Department (NCSD) is committed to developing and maintaining a staff of qualified personnel to meet the current and anticipated needs in Nuclear Criticality Safety (NCS) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. The NCSD Qualification Program is described in Y/DD-694, Qualification Program, Nuclear Criticality Safety Department This document provides a listing of the roles and responsibilities of NCSD personnel with respect to training and details of the Training Management System (TMS) programs, Mentoring Checklists and Checksheets, as well as other documentation utilized to implement the program. This document supersedes Y/DD-696, Revision 2, dated 3/27/96, Training Implementation, Nuclear Criticality Safety Department. There are no backfit requirements associated with revisions to this document.

  15. Comparison of radiation safety and nuclear explosive safety disciplines

    SciTech Connect

    Winstanley, J. L.

    1998-10-10

    In August 1945, U.S. Navy Captain William Parsons served as the weaponeer aboard the Enola Gay for the mission to Hiroshima (Shelton 1988). In view of the fact that four B-29s had crashed and burned on takeoff from Tinian the night before, Captain Parsons made the decision to arm the gun-type weapon after takeoff for safety reasons (15 kilotons of TNT equivalent). Although he had no control over the success of the takeoff, he could prevent the possibility of a nuclear detonation on Tinian by controlling what we now call the nuclear explosive. As head of the Ordnance Division at Los Alamos and a former gunnery officer, Captain Parsons clearly understood the role of safety in his work. The advent of the pre-assembled implosion weapon where the high explosive and nuclear materials are always in an intimate configuration meant that nuclear explosive safety became a reality at a certain point in development and production not just at the time of delivery by the military. This is the only industry where nuclear materials are intentionally put in contact with high explosives. The agency of the U.S. Government responsible for development and production of U.S. nuclear weapons is the Department of Energy (DOE) (and its predecessor agencies). This paper will be limited to nuclear explosive safety as it is currently practiced within the DOE nuclear weapons

  16. US support for nuclear energy safety and cooperation in the Pacific Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Selin, I.

    1994-12-31

    Nuclear power plays an important role in the energy and economic development of Pacific Rim countries. Concurrent with the construction of commercial nuclear power plants, there is a vital need to develop strong nuclear safety infrastructures in all countries choosing to use nuclear energy for electricity production. One of the most important elements in developing a viable nuclear program is a nuclear safety culture, rigorously applied to nuclear plant siting, design, construction, operation and management. International cooperation provides an important mechanism for raising the level of nuclear safety worldwide. The NRC has recently increased its international efforts in the nuclear safety area, with particular emphasis on Central and Eastern Europe and the New Independent States of the former Soviet Union. The NRC will continue, and is prepared to expand, its cooperation with counterpart organizations in Pacific Rim countries to help establish and nurture a safety culture that will respond to the dynamic process of nuclear energy development over the next few years.

  17. Nuclear Thermal Rocket Element Environmental Simulator (NTREES)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoenfeld, Michael

    2009-01-01

    A detailed description of the Nuclear Thermal Rocket Element Environmental Simulator (NTREES) is presented. The contents include: 1) Design Requirements; 2) NTREES Layout; 3) Data Acquisition and Control System Schematics; 4) NTREES System Schematic; and 5) NTREES Setup.

  18. Nuclear Data Activities in Support of the DOE Nuclear Criticality Safety Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westfall, R. M.; McKnight, R. D.

    2005-05-01

    The DOE Nuclear Criticality Safety Program (NCSP) provides the technical infrastructure maintenance for those technologies applied in the evaluation and performance of safe fissionable-material operations in the DOE complex. These technologies include an Analytical Methods element for neutron transport as well as the development of sensitivity/uncertainty methods, the performance of Critical Experiments, evaluation and qualification of experiments as Benchmarks, and a comprehensive Nuclear Data program coordinated by the NCSP Nuclear Data Advisory Group (NDAG). The NDAG gathers and evaluates differential and integral nuclear data, identifies deficiencies, and recommends priorities on meeting DOE criticality safety needs to the NCSP Criticality Safety Support Group (CSSG). Then the NDAG identifies the required resources and unique capabilities for meeting these needs, not only for performing measurements but also for data evaluation with nuclear model codes as well as for data processing for criticality safety applications. The NDAG coordinates effort with the leadership of the National Nuclear Data Center, the Cross Section Evaluation Working Group (CSEWG), and the Working Party on International Evaluation Cooperation (WPEC) of the OECD/NEA Nuclear Science Committee. The overall objective is to expedite the issuance of new data and methods to the DOE criticality safety user. This paper describes these activities in detail, with examples based upon special studies being performed in support of criticality safety for a variety of DOE operations.

  19. Monitoring arrangement for vented nuclear fuel elements

    DOEpatents

    Campana, Robert J.

    1981-01-01

    In a nuclear fuel reactor core, fuel elements are arranged in a closely packed hexagonal configuration, each fuel element having diametrically opposed vents permitting 180.degree. rotation of the fuel elements to counteract bowing. A grid plate engages the fuel elements and forms passages for communicating sets of three, four or six individual vents with respective monitor lines in order to communicate vented radioactive gases from the fuel elements to suitable monitor means in a manner readily permitting detection of leakage in individual fuel elements.

  20. Accurate Fission Data for Nuclear Safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solders, A.; Gorelov, D.; Jokinen, A.; Kolhinen, V. S.; Lantz, M.; Mattera, A.; Penttilä, H.; Pomp, S.; Rakopoulos, V.; Rinta-Antila, S.

    2014-05-01

    The Accurate fission data for nuclear safety (AlFONS) project aims at high precision measurements of fission yields, using the renewed IGISOL mass separator facility in combination with a new high current light ion cyclotron at the University of Jyväskylä. The 30 MeV proton beam will be used to create fast and thermal neutron spectra for the study of neutron induced fission yields. Thanks to a series of mass separating elements, culminating with the JYFLTRAP Penning trap, it is possible to achieve a mass resolving power in the order of a few hundred thousands. In this paper we present the experimental setup and the design of a neutron converter target for IGISOL. The goal is to have a flexible design. For studies of exotic nuclei far from stability a high neutron flux (1012 neutrons/s) at energies 1 - 30 MeV is desired while for reactor applications neutron spectra that resembles those of thermal and fast nuclear reactors are preferred. It is also desirable to be able to produce (semi-)monoenergetic neutrons for benchmarking and to study the energy dependence of fission yields. The scientific program is extensive and is planed to start in 2013 with a measurement of isomeric yield ratios of proton induced fission in uranium. This will be followed by studies of independent yields of thermal and fast neutron induced fission of various actinides.

  1. Nuclear data for criticality safety - current issues

    SciTech Connect

    Leal, L.C.; Jordan, W.C.; Wright, R.Q.

    1995-06-01

    Traditionally, nuclear data evaluations have been performed in support of the analysis and design of thermal and fast reactors. In general, the neutron spectra characteristic of the thermal and fast systems used for data testing are predominantly in the low- and high-energy range with a relatively small influence from the intermediate-energy range. In the area of nuclear criticality safety, nuclear systems arising from applications involving fissionable materials outside reactors can lead to situations very different from those most commonly found in reactor analysis and design. These systems are not limited to thermal or fast and may have significant influence from the intermediate energy range. The extension of the range of applicability of the nuclear data evaluation beyond thermal and fast systems is therefore needed to cover problems found in nuclear criticality safety. Before criticality safety calculations are performed, the bias and uncertainties of the codes and cross sections that are used must be determined. The most common sources of uncertainties, in general, are the calculational methodologies and the uncertainties related to the nuclear data, such as the microscopic cross sections, entering into the calculational procedure. The aim here is to focus on the evaluated nuclear data pertaining to applications in nuclear criticality safety.

  2. FUEL ELEMENT FOR NUCLEAR REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Dickson, J.J.

    1963-09-24

    A method is described whereby fuel tubes or pins are cut, loaded with fuel pellets and a heat transfer medium, sealed at each end with slotted fittings, and assembled into a rectangular tube bundle to form a fuel element. The tubes comprising the fuel element are laterally connected between their ends by clips and tabs to form a linear group of spaced parallel tubes, which receive their vertical support by resting on a grid. The advantages of this method are that it permits elimination of structural material (e.g., fuel-element cans) within the reactor core, and removal of at least one fuel pin from an element and replacement thereof so that a burnable poison may be utilized during the core lifetime. (AEC)

  3. Some views on nuclear reactor safety

    SciTech Connect

    Tanguy, P.Y.

    1995-04-01

    This document is the text of a speech given by Pierre Y. Tanguy (Electricite de France) at the 22nd Water Reactor Safety Meeting held in Bethesda, MD in 1994. He describes the EDF nuclear program in broad terms and proceeds to discuss operational safety results with EDF plants. The speaker also outlines actions to enhance safety planned for the future, and he briefly mentions French cooperation with the Chinese on the Daya Bay project.

  4. NUCLEAR REACTOR FUEL-BREEDER FUEL ELEMENT

    DOEpatents

    Currier, E.L. Jr.; Nicklas, J.H.

    1962-08-14

    A fuel-breeder fuel element was developed for a nuclear reactor wherein discrete particles of fissionable material are dispersed in a matrix of fertile breeder material. The fuel element combines the advantages of a dispersion type and a breeder-type. (AEC)

  5. Damper mechanism for nuclear reactor control elements

    DOEpatents

    Taft, William Elwood

    1976-01-01

    A damper mechanism which provides a nuclear reactor control element decelerating function at the end of the scram stroke. The total damping function is produced by the combination of two assemblies, which operate in sequence. First, a tapered dashram assembly decelerates the control element to a lower velocity, after which a spring hydraulic damper assembly takes over to complete the final damping.

  6. MODERATOR ELEMENTS FOR UNIFORM POWER NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Balent, R.

    1963-03-12

    This patent describes a method of obtaining a flatter flux and more uniform power generation across the core of a nuclear reactor. The method comprises using moderator elements having differing moderating strength. The elements have an increasing amount of the better moderating material as a function of radial and/or axial distance from the reactor core center. (AEC)

  7. Method of monitoring stored nuclear fuel elements

    SciTech Connect

    Borloo, E.; Buergers, W.; Crutzen, S.; Vinche, C.

    1983-05-24

    To monitor a nuclear fuel element or fuel elements located in a store, e.g. a pond in a swimming pool reactor, the store is illuminated ultrasonically using one or more transducers transmitting ultrasonic signals in one or more predetermined directions to obtain an output which, because it depends on the number and relative location of the fuel elements in the store, and the structure of the store itself is distinctive to the fuel elements or elements stored therein. From this distinctive output is derived an identity unique to the stored fuel element or elements and a reference signal indicative of the whole structure when intact, the reference signal and identity being recorded. Subsequent ultrasonic testing of the store and its contents under identical operating conditions produces a signal which is compared to the recorded reference signal and if different therefrom reveals the occurrence of tampering with the store and/or the fuel element or elements.

  8. Nuclear safety for the space exploration initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dix, Terry E.

    1991-01-01

    The results of a study to identify potential hazards arising from nuclear reactor power systems for use on the lunar and Martian surfaces, related safety issues, and resolutions of such issues by system design changes, operating procedures, and other means are presented. All safety aspects of nuclear reactor power systems from prelaunch ground handling to eventual disposal were examined consistent with the level of detail for SP-100 reactor design at the 1988 System Design Review and for launch vehicle and space transport vehicle designs and mission descriptions as defined in the 90-day Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) study. Information from previous aerospace nuclear safety studies was used where appropriate. Safety requirements for the SP-100 space nuclear reactor system were compiled. Mission profiles were defined with emphasis on activities after low earth orbit insertion. Accident scenarios were then qualitatively defined for each mission phase. Safety issues were identified for all mission phases with the aid of simplified event trees. Safety issue resolution approaches of the SP-100 program were compiled. Resolution approaches for those safety issues not covered by the SP-100 program were identified. Additionally, the resolution approaches of the SP-100 program were examined in light of the moon and Mars missions.

  9. Rack for storing spent nuclear fuel elements

    DOEpatents

    Rubinstein, Herbert J.; Clark, Philip M.; Gilcrest, James D.

    1978-06-20

    A rack for storing spent nuclear fuel elements in which a plurality of aligned rows of upright enclosures of generally square cross-sectional areas contain vertically disposed fuel elements. The enclosures are fixed at the lower ends thereof to a base. Pockets are formed between confronting walls of adjacent enclosures for receiving high absorption neutron absorbers, such as Boral, cadmium, borated stainless steel and the like for the closer spacing of spent fuel elements.

  10. FOIL ELEMENT FOR NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Noland, R.A.; Walker, D.E.; Spinrad, B.I.

    1963-07-16

    A method of making a foil-type fuel element is described. A foil of fuel metal is perforated in; regular design and sheets of cladding metal are placed on both sides. The cladding metal sheets are then spot-welded to each other through the perforations, and the edges sealed. (AEC)

  11. FUEL ELEMENT FOR NUCLEAR REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Bassett, C.H.

    1961-11-21

    A fuel element is designed which is particularly adapted for reactors of high power density used to generate steam for the production of electricity. The fuel element consists of inner and outer concentric tubes forming an annular chamber within which is contained fissionable fuel pellet segments, wedge members interposed between the fuel segments, and a spring which, acting with wedge members, urges said fuel pellets radially into contact against the inner surface of the outer tube. The wedge members may be a fertile material convertible into fissionable fuel material by absorbing neutrons emitted from the fissionable fuel pellet segments. The costly grinding of cylindrical fuel pellets to close tolerances for snug engagement is reduced because the need to finish the exact size is eliminated. (AEC)

  12. Nuclear fuel elements having a composite cladding

    DOEpatents

    Gordon, Gerald M.; Cowan, II, Robert L.; Davies, John H.

    1983-09-20

    An improved nuclear fuel element is disclosed for use in the core of nuclear reactors. The improved nuclear fuel element has a composite cladding of an outer portion forming a substrate having on the inside surface a metal layer selected from the group consisting of copper, nickel, iron and alloys of the foregoing with a gap between the composite cladding and the core of nuclear fuel. The nuclear fuel element comprises a container of the elongated composite cladding, a central core of a body of nuclear fuel material disposed in and partially filling the container and forming an internal cavity in the container, an enclosure integrally secured and sealed at each end of said container and a nuclear fuel material retaining means positioned in the cavity. The metal layer of the composite cladding prevents perforations or failures in the cladding substrate from stress corrosion cracking or from fuel pellet-cladding interaction or both. The substrate of the composite cladding is selected from conventional cladding materials and preferably is a zirconium alloy.

  13. Nuclear Criticality Safety Application Guide: Safety Analysis Report Update Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (MMES) is committed to performing and documenting safety analyses for facilities it manages for the Department of Energy (DOE). Safety analyses are performed to identify hazards and potential accidents; to analyze the adequacy of measures taken to eliminate, control, or mitigate hazards; and to evaluate potential accidents and determine associated risks. Safety Analysis Reports (SARs) are prepared to document the safety analysis to ensure facilities can be operated safely and in accordance with regulations. Many of the facilities requiring a SAR process fissionable material creating the potential for a nuclear criticality accident. MMES has long had a nuclear criticality safety program that provides the technical support to fissionable material operations to ensure the safe processing and storage of fissionable materials. The guiding philosophy of the program has always been the application of the double-contingency principle, which states: {open_quotes}process designs shall incorporate sufficient factors of safety to require at least two unlikely, independent, and concurrent changes in process conditions before a criticality accident is possible.{close_quotes} At Energy Systems analyses have generally been maintained to document that no single normal or abnormal operating conditions that could reasonably be expected to occur can cause a nuclear criticality accident. This application guide provides a summary description of the MMES Nuclear Criticality Safety Program and the MMES Criticality Accident Alarm System requirements for inclusion in facility SARs. The guide also suggests a way to incorporate the analyses conducted pursuant to the double-contingency principle into the SAR. The prime objective is to minimize duplicative effort between the NCSA process and the SAR process and yet adequately describe the methodology utilized to prevent a nuclear criticality accident.

  14. Low exchange element for nuclear reactor

    DOEpatents

    Brogli, Rudolf H.; Shamasunder, Bangalore I.; Seth, Shivaji S.

    1985-01-01

    A flow exchange element is presented which lowers temperature gradients in fuel elements and reduces maximum local temperature within high temperature gas-cooled reactors. The flow exchange element is inserted within a column of fuel elements where it serves to redirect coolant flow. Coolant which has been flowing in a hotter region of the column is redirected to a cooler region, and coolant which has been flowing in the cooler region of the column is redirected to the hotter region. The safety, efficiency, and longevity of the high temperature gas-cooled reactor is thereby enhanced.

  15. Neutron nuclear data measurements for criticality safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guber, Klaus; Paradela, Carlos; Heyse, Jan; Kopecky, Stefan; Schillebeeckx, Peter; Siegler, Peter

    2017-09-01

    To support the US Department of Energy Nuclear Criticality Safety Program, neutron-induced cross section experiments were performed at the Geel Electron Linear Accelerator of the Joint Research Center Site Geel, European Union. Neutron capture and transmission measurements were carried out using metallic natural cerium and vanadium samples. Together with existing data, the measured data will be used for a new evaluation and will be submitted with covariances to the ENDF/B nuclear data library.

  16. Management of National Nuclear Power Programs for assured safety

    SciTech Connect

    Connolly, T.J.

    1985-01-01

    Topics discussed in this report include: nuclear utility organization; before the Florida Public Service Commission in re: St. Lucie Unit No. 2 cost recovery; nuclear reliability improvement and safety operations; nuclear utility management; training of nuclear facility personnel; US experience in key areas of nuclear safety; the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission - function and process; regulatory considerations of the risk of nuclear power plants; overview of the processes of reliability and risk management; management significance of risk analysis; international and domestic institutional issues for peaceful nuclear uses; the role of the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO); and nuclear safety activities of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA).

  17. Nuclear safety technology and public acceptance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kienle, F.

    1985-11-01

    In the years 1976 to 1982 officialdom intensified the safety regulations in German nuclear power plants out of all proportion, without actually bringing about a recognizable plus in safety or indeed a greater acceptance by the public of the peaceful use of nuclear energy. Although the risk to employees of nuclear power plants and to the population living in their vicinity is substantially smaller than the dangers of modern civilization, the general public still regards with concern the consequences of radioactive exposure and the hazards to later generations from long-life radionuclides. The task for the coming years must be to maintain the safety standard now attained, while simultaneously reducing those exaggerated individual requirements in order to establish a balance in safety precautions. Additionally, a proposal put forward by Sir Walter Marshall, Chairman of the CEGB, should be pursued, i.e., to put the presumed risks of nuclear energy into their correct perspective in the public eye using comprehensible comparisons such as the risks from active or passive smoking. This cannot be accomplished by quoting abstract statistics.

  18. TOPAZ-2 Nuclear Power System safety assurance

    SciTech Connect

    Nikitin, V.P.; Ogloblin, B.G.; Lutov, Y.I.; Luppov, A.N.; Shalaev, A.I. ); Ponomarev-Stepnoi, N.N.; Usov, V.A.; Nechaev, Y.A. )

    1993-01-15

    TOPAZ-2 Nuclear Power System (NPS) safety philosophy is based on the requirement that the reactor shall not be critical during all kinds of operations prior to its start-up on the safe orbit (except for physical start-up). Potentially dangerous operation were analyzed and both computational and experimental studies were carried out.

  19. A PIP chart for nuclear plant safety

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, Tatsujiro; Yamaoka, Taiji )

    1992-01-01

    While it is known that social and political aspects of nuclear safety issues are important, little study has been done on identifying the breadth of stakeholders whose policies have important influences over nuclear plant safety in a comprehensive way. The objectives of this study are to develop a chart that visually identifies important stakeholders and their policies and illustrates these influences in a hierarchical representation so that the relationship between stakeholders and nuclear safety will be better understood. This study is based on a series of extensive interviews with major stakeholders, such as nuclear plant managers, corporate planning vice presidents, state regulators, news media, and public interest groups, and focuses on one US nuclear power plant. Based on the interview results, the authors developed a conceptual policy influence paths (PIP) chart. The PIP chart illustrates the hierarchy of influence among stakeholders. The PIP chart is also useful in identifying possible stakeholders who can be easily overlooked without the PIP chart. In addition, it shows that influence flow is circular rather than linear in one direction.

  20. NUCLEAR SAFETY DESIGN BASES FOR LICENSE APPLICATION

    SciTech Connect

    R.J. Garrett

    2005-03-08

    The purpose of this report is to identify and document the nuclear safety design requirements that are specific to structures, systems, and components (SSCs) of the repository that are important to safety (ITS) during the preclosure period and to support the preclosure safety analysis and the license application for the high-level radioactive waste (HLW) repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The scope of this report includes the assignment of nuclear safety design requirements to SSCs that are ITS and does not include the assignment of design requirements to SSCs or natural or engineered barriers that are important to waste isolation (ITWI). These requirements are used as input for the design of the SSCs that are ITS such that the preclosure performance objectives of 10 CFR 63.111 [DIRS 156605] are met. The natural or engineered barriers that are important to meeting the postclosure performance objectives of 10 CFR 63.113 [DIRS 156605] are identified as ITWI. Although a structure, system, or component (SSC) that is ITS may also be ITWI, this report is only concerned with providing the nuclear safety requirements for SSCs that are ITS to prevent or mitigate event sequences during the repository preclosure period.

  1. Nuclear Safety Design Base for License Application

    SciTech Connect

    R.J. Garrett

    2005-09-29

    The purpose of this report is to identify and document the nuclear safety design requirements that are specific to structures, systems, and components (SSCs) of the repository that are important to safety (ITS) during the preclosure period and to support the preclosure safety analysis and the license application for the high-level radioactive waste (HLW) repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The scope of this report includes the assignment of nuclear safety design requirements to SSCs that are ITS and does not include the assignment of design requirements to SSCs or natural or engineered barriers that are important to waste isolation (ITWI). These requirements are used as input for the design of the SSCs that are ITS such that the preclosure performance objectives of 10 CFR 63.111(b) [DIRS 173273] are met. The natural or engineered barriers that are important to meeting the postclosure performance objectives of 10 CFR 63.113(b) and (c) [DIRS 173273] are identified as ITWI. Although a structure, system, or component (SSC) that is ITS may also be ITWI, this report is only concerned with providing the nuclear safety requirements for SSCs that are ITS to prevent or mitigate event sequences during the repository preclosure period.

  2. Frontiers of heavy element nuclear and radiochemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, D.C.

    1997-10-01

    The production and half-lives of the heaviest chemical elements, now known through Z = 112, are reviewed. Recent experimental evidence for the stabilization of heavy element isotopes due to proximity to deformed nuclear shells at Z = 108 and N = 162 is compared with the theoretical predictions. The possible existence of isotopes of elements 107--110 with half-lives of seconds or longer, and production reactions and experimental techniques for increasing the overall yields of such isotopes in order to study both their nuclear and chemical properties are discussed. The present status of studies of the chemical properties of Rf, Ha, and Sg is briefly summarized and prospects for extending chemical studies beyond Sg are considered.

  3. Safety system augmentation at Russian nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Scerbo, J.A.; Satpute, S.N.; Donkin, J.Y.; Reister, R.A. |

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes the design and procurement of a Class IE DC power supply system to upgrade plant safety at the Kola Nuclear Power Plant (NPP). Kola NPP is located above the Arctic circle at Polyarnie Zorie, Murmansk, Russia. Kola NPP consists of four units. Units 1 and 2 have VVER-440/230 type reactors: Units 3 and 4 have VVER-440/213 type reactors. The VVER-440 reactor design is similar to the pressurized water reactor design used in the US. This project provided redundant, Class 1E DC station batteries and DC switchboards for Kola NPP, Units 1 and 2. The new DC power supply system was designed and procured in compliance with current nuclear design practices and requirements. Technical issues that needed to be addressed included reconciling the requirements in both US and Russian codes and satisfying the requirements of the Russian nuclear regulatory authority. Close interface with ATOMENERGOPROEKT (AEP), the Russian design organization, KOLA NPP plant personnel, and GOSATOMNADZOR (GAN), the Russian version of US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, was necessary to develop a design that would assure compliance with current Russian design requirements. Hence, this project was expected to serve as an example for plant upgrades at other similar VVER-440 nuclear plants. In addition to technical issues, the project needed to address language barriers and the logistics of shipping equipment to a remote section of the Former Soviet Union (FSU). This project was executed by Burns and Roe under the sponsorship of the US DOE as part of the International Safety Program (INSP). The INSP is a comprehensive effort, in cooperation with partners in other countries, to improve nuclear safety worldwide. A major element within the INSP is the improvement of the safety of Soviet-designed nuclear reactors.

  4. Nuclear safety research collaborations between the U.S. and Russian Federation International Nuclear Safety Centers

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, D. J.; Braun, J. C.; Klickman, A. E.; Bougaenko, S. E.; Kabonov, L. P.; Kraev, A. G.

    2000-05-05

    The Russian Federation Ministry for Atomic Energy (MINATOM) and the US Department of Energy (USDOE) have formed International Nuclear Safety Centers to collaborate on nuclear safety research. USDOE established the US Center (ISINSC) at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) in October 1995. MINATOM established the Russian Center (RINSC) at the Research and Development Institute of Power Engineering (RDIPE) in Moscow in July 1996. In April 1998 the Russian center became a semi-independent, autonomous organization under MINATOM. The goals of the center are to: Cooperate in the development of technologies associated with nuclear safety in nuclear power engineering; Be international centers for the collection of information important for safety and technical improvements in nuclear power engineering; and Maintain a base for fundamental knowledge needed to design nuclear reactors. The strategic approach is being used to accomplish these goals is for the two centers to work together to use the resources and the talents of the scientists associated with the US Center and the Russian Center to do collaborative research to improve the safety of Russian-designed nuclear reactors. The two centers started conducting joint research and development projects in January 1997. Since that time the following ten joint projects have been initiated: INSC databases--web server and computing center; Coupled codes--Neutronic and thermal-hydraulic; Severe accident management for Soviet-designed reactors; Transient management and advanced control; Survey of relevant nuclear safety research facilities in the Russian Federation; Computer code validation for transient analysis of VVER and RBMK reactors; Advanced structural analysis; Development of a nuclear safety research and development plan for MINATOM; Properties and applications of heavy liquid metal coolants; and Material properties measurement and assessment. Currently, there is activity in eight of these projects. Details on each of these

  5. Nuclear Thermal Rocket Element Environmental Simulator (NTREES)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emrich, William J.

    2008-01-01

    To support a potential future development of a nuclear thermal rocket engine, a state-of-the-art non nuclear experimental test setup has been constructed to evaluate the performance characteristics of candidate fuel element materials and geometries in representative environments. The test device simulates the environmental conditions (minus the radiation) to which nuclear rocket fuel components could be subjected during reactor operation. Test articles mounted in the simulator are inductively heated in such a manner as to accurately reproduce the temperatures and heat fluxes normally expected to occur as a result of nuclear fission while at the same time being exposed to flowing hydrogen. This project is referred to as the Nuclear Thermal Rocket Element Environment Simulator or NTREES. The NTREES device is located at the Marshall Space flight Center in a laboratory which has been modified to accommodate the high powers required to heat the test articles to the required temperatures and to handle the gaseous hydrogen flow required for the tests. Other modifications to the laboratory include the installation of a nitrogen gas supply system and a cooling water supply system. During the design and construction of the facility, every effort was made to comply with all pertinent regulations to provide assurance that the facility could be operated in a safe and efficient manner. The NTREES system can currently supply up to 50 kW of inductive heating to the fuel test articles, although the facility has been sized to eventually allow test article heating levels of up to several megawatts.

  6. Nuclear Thermal Rocket Element Environmental Simulator (NTREES)

    SciTech Connect

    Emrich, William J. Jr.

    2008-01-21

    To support a potential future development of a nuclear thermal rocket engine, a state-of-the-art non nuclear experimental test setup has been constructed to evaluate the performance characteristics of candidate fuel element materials and geometries in representative environments. The test device simulates the environmental conditions (minus the radiation) to which nuclear rocket fuel components could be subjected during reactor operation. Test articles mounted in the simulator are inductively heated in such a manner as to accurately reproduce the temperatures and heat fluxes normally expected to occur as a result of nuclear fission while at the same time being exposed to flowing hydrogen. This project is referred to as the Nuclear Thermal Rocket Element Environment Simulator or NTREES. The NTREES device is located at the Marshall Space flight Center in a laboratory which has been modified to accommodate the high powers required to heat the test articles to the required temperatures and to handle the gaseous hydrogen flow required for the tests. Other modifications to the laboratory include the installation of a nitrogen gas supply system and a cooling water supply system. During the design and construction of the facility, every effort was made to comply with all pertinent regulations to provide assurance that the facility could be operated in a safe and efficient manner. The NTREES system can currently supply up to 50 kW of inductive heating to the fuel test articles, although the facility has been sized to eventually allow test article heating levels of up to several megawatts.

  7. Space nuclear safety from a user's viewpoint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, R. W.

    1985-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) launched the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's (JPL) two Voyager spacecraft to Jupiter in 1977, each using three radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs) supplied by the Department of Energy (DOE) for onboard electric power. In 1986 NASA will launch JPL's Galileo spacecraft to Jupiter equipped with two DOE supplied RTGs of an improved design. NASA and JPL are also responsible for obtaining a single RTG of this type from DOE and supplying it to the European Space Agency as part of its participation in the International Solar Polar Mission. As a result of these missions, JPL has been deeply involved in space nuclear safety as a user. This paper will give a brief review of the user contributions by JPL - and NASA in general - to the nuclear safety processes and relate them to the overall nuclear safety program necessary for the launch of an RTG. The two major safety areas requiring user support are the ground operations involving RTGs at the launch site and the failure modes and probabilities associated with launch accidents.

  8. Nuclear Safety Information Center, Its Products and Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchanan, J. R.

    1970-01-01

    The Nuclear Safety Information Center (NSIC) serves as a focal point for the collection, analysis and dissemination of information related to safety problems encountered in the design, analysis, and operation of nuclear facilities. (Author/AB)

  9. Nuclear Safety Information Center, Its Products and Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchanan, J. R.

    1970-01-01

    The Nuclear Safety Information Center (NSIC) serves as a focal point for the collection, analysis and dissemination of information related to safety problems encountered in the design, analysis, and operation of nuclear facilities. (Author/AB)

  10. Safety of Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Batandjieva, B.; Warnecke, E.; Coates, R.

    2008-01-15

    Full text of publication follows: ensuring safety during all stages of facility life cycle is a widely recognised responsibility of the operators, implemented under the supervision of the regulatory body and other competent authorities. As the majority of the facilities worldwide are still in operation or shutdown, there is no substantial experience in decommissioning and evaluation of safety during decommissioning in majority of Member States. The need for cooperation and exchange of experience and good practices on ensuring and evaluating safety of decommissioning was one of the outcomes of the Berlin conference in 2002. On this basis during the last three years IAEA initiated a number of international projects that can assist countries, in particular small countries with limited resources. The main IAEA international projects addressing safety during decommissioning are: (i) DeSa Project on Evaluation and Demonstration of Safety during Decommissioning; (ii) R{sup 2}D{sup 2}P project on Research Reactors Decommissioning Demonstration Project; and (iii) Project on Evaluation and Decommissioning of Former Facilities that used Radioactive Material in Iraq. This paper focuses on the DeSa Project activities on (i) development of a harmonised methodology for safety assessment for decommissioning; (ii) development of a procedure for review of safety assessments; (iii) development of recommendations on application of the graded approach to the performance and review of safety assessments; and (iv) application of the methodology and procedure to the selected real facilities with different complexities and hazard potentials (a nuclear power plant, a research reactor and a nuclear laboratory). The paper also outlines the DeSa Project outcomes and planned follow-up activities. It also summarises the main objectives and activities of the Iraq Project and introduces the R{sup 2}D{sup 2} Project, which is a subject of a complementary paper.

  11. The Interagency Nuclear Safety Review Panel's Galileo safety evaluation report

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, R.C.; Gray, L.B.; Huff, D.A.

    1989-01-01

    The safety evaluation report (SER) for Galileo was prepared by the Interagency Nuclear Safety Review Panel (INSRP) coordinators in accordance with Presidential directive/National Security Council memorandum 25. The INSRP consists of three coordinators appointed by their respective agencies, the Department of Defense, the Department of Energy (DOE), and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). These individuals are independent of the program being evaluated and depend on independent experts drawn from the national technical community to serve on the five INSRP subpanels. The Galileo SER is based on input provided by the NASA Galileo Program Office, review and assessment of the final safety analysis report prepared by the Office of Special Applications of the DOE under a memorandum of understanding between NASA and the DOE, as well as other related data and analyses. The SER was prepared for use by the agencies and the Office of Science and Technology Policy, Executive Office of the Present for use in their launch decision-making process. Although more than 20 nuclear-powered space missions have been previously reviewed via the INSRP process, the Galileo review constituted the first review of a nuclear power source associated with launch aboard the Space Transportation System.

  12. Single cell elemental analysis using nuclear microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, M. Q.; Thong, P. S. P.; Kara, U.; Watt, F.

    1999-04-01

    The use of Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE), Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS) and Scanning Transmission Ion Microscopy (STIM) to provide quantitative elemental analysis of single cells is an area which has high potential, particularly when the trace elements such as Ca, Fe, Zn and Cu can be monitored. We describe the methodology of sample preparation for two cell types, the procedures of cell imaging using STIM, and the quantitative elemental analysis of single cells using RBS and PIXE. Recent work on single cells at the Nuclear Microscopy Research Centre,National University of Singapore has centred around two research areas: (a) Apoptosis (programmed cell death), which has been recently implicated in a wide range of pathological conditions such as cancer, Parkinson's disease etc, and (b) Malaria (infection of red blood cells by the malaria parasite). Firstly we present results on the elemental analysis of human Chang liver cells (ATTCC CCL 13) where vanadium ions were used to trigger apoptosis, and demonstrate that nuclear microscopy has the capability of monitoring vanadium loading within individual cells. Secondly we present the results of elemental changes taking place in individual mouse red blood cells which have been infected with the malaria parasite and treated with the anti-malaria drug Qinghaosu (QHS).

  13. Nuclear fission and the transuranium elements

    SciTech Connect

    Seaborg, G.T.

    1989-02-01

    Many of the transuranium elements are produced and isolated in large quantities through the use of neutrons furnished by nuclear fission reactions: plutonium (atomic number 94) in ton quantities; neptunium (93), americium (95), and curium (96) in kilogram quantities; berkelium (97) in 100 milligram quantities; californium (98) in gram quantities; and einsteinium (99) in milligram quantities. Transuranium isotopes have found many practical applications---as nuclear fuel for the large-scale generation of electricity, as compact, long-lived power sources for use in space exploration, as means for diagnosis and treatment in the medical area, and as tools in numerous industrial processes. Of particular interest is the unusual chemistry and impact of these heaviest elements on the periodic table. This account will feature these aspects. 9 refs., 5 figs.

  14. Nuclear microscopy of sperm cell elemental structure

    SciTech Connect

    Bench, G.S.; Balhorn, R.; Friz, A.M.; Freeman, S.P.H.T.

    1994-09-28

    Theories suggest there is a link between protamine concentrations in individual sperm and male fertility. Previously, biochemical analyses have used pooled samples containing millions of sperm to determine protamine concentrations. These methods have not been able to determine what percentage of morphologically normal sperm are biochemically defective and potentially infertile. Nuclear microscopy has been utilized to measure elemental profiles at the single sperm level. By measuring the amount of phosphorus and sulfur, the total DNA and protamine content in individual sperm from fertile bull and mouse semen have been determined. These values agree with results obtained from other biochemical analyses. Nuclear microscopy shows promise for measuring elemental profiles in the chromatin of individual sperm. The technique may be able to resolve theories regarding the importance of protamines to male fertility and identify biochemical defects responsible for certain types of male infertility.

  15. Nuclear microscopy of sperm cell elemental structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bench, Graham S.; Balhorn, Rod; Friz, Alexander M.

    1995-05-01

    Theories suggest there is a link between protamine concentrations in individual sperm and male fertility. Previously, biochemical analyses have used pooled samples containing millions of sperm to determine protamine concentrations. These methods have not been able to determine what percentage of morphologically normal sperm are biochemically defective and potentially infertile. Nuclear microscopy has been utilized to measure elemental profiles at the single sperm level. By measuring the amount of phosphorus and sulfur, the total DNA and protamine content in individual sperm from fertile bull and mouse semen have been determined. These values agree with results obtained from other biochemical analyses. Nuclear microscopy shows promise for measuring elemental profiles in the chromatin of individual sperm. The technique may be able to resolve theories regarding the importance of protamines to male fertility and identify biochemical defects responsible for certain types of male infertility.

  16. NUCLEAR REACTOR AND THERMIONIC FUEL ELEMENT THEREFOR

    DOEpatents

    Rasor, N.S.; Hirsch, R.L.

    1963-12-01

    The patent relates to the direct conversion of fission heat to electricity by use of thermionic plasma diodes having fissionable material cathodes, said diodes arranged to form a critical mass in a nuclear reactor. The patent describes a fuel element comprising a plurality of diodes each having a fissionable material cathode, an anode around said cathode, and an ionizable gas therebetween. Provision is made for flowing the gas and current serially through the diodes. (AEC)

  17. Nuclear Thermal Rocket Element Environmental Simulator (NTREES)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emrich, William J., Jr.

    2008-01-01

    To support the eventual development of a nuclear thermal rocket engine, a state-of-the-art experimental test setup has been constructed to evaluate the performance characteristics of candidate fuel element materials and geometries in representative environments. The test device simulates the environmental conditions (minus the radiation) to which nuclear rocket fuel components will be subjected during reactor operation. Test articles mounted in the simulator are inductively heated in such a manner as to accurately reproduce the temperatures and heat fluxes normally expected to occur as a result of nuclear fission while at the same time being exposed to flowing hydrogen. This project is referred to as the Nuclear Thermal Rocket Element Environment Simulator or NTREES. The NTREES device is located at the Marshall Space flight Center in a laboratory which has been modified to accommodate the high powers required to heat the test articles to the required temperatures and to handle the gaseous hydrogen flow required for the tests. Other modifications to the laboratory include the installation of a nitrogen gas supply system and a cooling water supply system. During the design and construction of the facility, every effort was made to comply with all pertinent regulations to provide assurance that the facility could be operated in a safe and efficient manner. The NTREES system can currently supply up to 50 kW of inductive heating to the fuel test articles, although the facility has been sized to eventually allow test article heating levels of up to several megawatts.

  18. Nuclear reactions used for superheavy element research

    SciTech Connect

    Stoyer, M A

    2008-02-26

    Some of the most fascinating questions about the limits of nuclear stability are confronted in the heaviest nuclei. How many more new elements can be synthesized? What are the nuclear and chemical properties of these exotic nuclei? Does the 'Island of Stability' exist and can we ever explore the isotopes inhabiting that nuclear region? This paper will focus on the current experimental research on the synthesis and characterization of superheavy nuclei with Z > 112 from the Dubna/Livermore collaboration. Reactions using 48Ca projectiles from the U400 cyclotron and actinide targets ({sup 233,238}U, {sup 237}Np, {sup 242,244}Pu, {sup 243}Am, {sup 245,248}Cm, {sup 249}Cf) have been investigated using the Dubna Gas Filled Recoil Separator in Dubna over the last 8 years. In addition, several experiments have been performed to investigate the chemical properties of some of the observed longer-lived isotopes produced in these reactions. Some comments will be made on nuclear reactions used for the production of the heaviest elements. A summary of the current status of the upper end of the chart of nuclides will be presented.

  19. Nuclear Reactions Used For Superheavy Element Research

    SciTech Connect

    Stoyer, Mark A.

    2008-04-17

    Some of the most fascinating questions about the limits of nuclear stability are confronted in the heaviest nuclei. How many more new elements can be synthesized? What are the nuclear and chemical properties of these exotic nuclei? Does the 'Island of Stability' exist and can we ever explore the isotopes inhabiting that nuclear region? This paper will focus on the current experimental research on the synthesis and characterization of superheavy nuclei with Z>112 from the Dubna/Livermore collaboration. Reactions using {sup 48}Ca projectiles from the U400 cyclotron and actinide targets ({sup 233,238}U, {sup 237}Np, {sup 242,244}Pu, {sup 243}Am, {sup 245,248}Cm, {sup 249}Cf) have been investigated using the Dubna Gas Filled Recoil Separator in Dubna over the last 8 years. In addition, several experiments have been performed to investigate the chemical properties of some of the observed longer-lived isotopes produced in these reactions. Some comments will be made on nuclear reactions used for the production of the heaviest elements. A summary of the current status of the upper end of the chart of nuclides will be presented.

  20. Nuclear fuel elements made from nanophase materials

    DOEpatents

    Heubeck, Norman B.

    1998-01-01

    A nuclear reactor core fuel element is composed of nanophase high temperature materials. An array of the fuel elements in rod form are joined in an open geometry fuel cell that preferably also uses such nanophase materials for the cell structures. The particular high temperature nanophase fuel element material must have the appropriate mechanical characteristics to avoid strain related failure even at high temperatures, in the order of about 3000.degree. F. Preferably, the reactor type is a pressurized or boiling water reactor and the nanophase material is a high temperature ceramic or ceramic composite. Nanophase metals, or nanophase metals with nanophase ceramics in a composite mixture, also have desirable characteristics, although their temperature capability is not as great as with all-ceramic nanophase material. Combinations of conventional or nanophase metals and conventional or nanophase ceramics can be employed as long as there is at least one nanophase material in the composite. The nuclear reactor so constructed has a number of high strength fuel particles, a nanophase structural material for supporting a fuel rod at high temperature, a configuration to allow passive cooling in the event of a primary cooling system failure, an ability to retain a coolable geometry even at high temperatures, an ability to resist generation of hydrogen gas, and a configuration having good nuclear, corrosion, and mechanical characteristics.

  1. Nuclear fuel elements made from nanophase materials

    DOEpatents

    Heubeck, N.B.

    1998-09-08

    A nuclear reactor core fuel element is composed of nanophase high temperature materials. An array of the fuel elements in rod form are joined in an open geometry fuel cell that preferably also uses such nanophase materials for the cell structures. The particular high temperature nanophase fuel element material must have the appropriate mechanical characteristics to avoid strain related failure even at high temperatures, in the order of about 3000 F. Preferably, the reactor type is a pressurized or boiling water reactor and the nanophase material is a high temperature ceramic or ceramic composite. Nanophase metals, or nanophase metals with nanophase ceramics in a composite mixture, also have desirable characteristics, although their temperature capability is not as great as with all-ceramic nanophase material. Combinations of conventional or nanophase metals and conventional or nanophase ceramics can be employed as long as there is at least one nanophase material in the composite. The nuclear reactor so constructed has a number of high strength fuel particles, a nanophase structural material for supporting a fuel rod at high temperature, a configuration to allow passive cooling in the event of a primary cooling system failure, an ability to retain a coolable geometry even at high temperatures, an ability to resist generation of hydrogen gas, and a configuration having good nuclear, corrosion, and mechanical characteristics. 5 figs.

  2. Study Gives Good Odds on Nuclear Reactor Safety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Cristine

    1974-01-01

    Summarized is data from a recent study on nuclear reactor safety completed by Norman C. Rasmussen and others. Non-nuclear events are about 10,000 times more likely to produce large accidents than nuclear plants. (RH)

  3. Study Gives Good Odds on Nuclear Reactor Safety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Cristine

    1974-01-01

    Summarized is data from a recent study on nuclear reactor safety completed by Norman C. Rasmussen and others. Non-nuclear events are about 10,000 times more likely to produce large accidents than nuclear plants. (RH)

  4. Double-clad nuclear fuel safety rod

    DOEpatents

    McCarthy, William H.; Atcheson, Donald B.; Vaidyanathan, Swaminathan

    1984-01-01

    A device for shutting down a nuclear reactor during an undercooling or overpower event, whether or not the reactor's scram system operates properly. This is accomplished by double-clad fuel safety rods positioned at various locations throughout the reactor core, wherein melting of a secondary internal cladding of the rod allows the fuel column therein to shift from the reactor core to place the reactor in a subcritical condition.

  5. New Improved Nuclear Data for Nuclear Criticality and Safety

    SciTech Connect

    Guber, Klaus H; Leal, Luiz C; Lampoudis, C.; Kopecky, S.; Schillebeeckx, P.; Emiliani, F.; Wynants, R.; Siegler, P.

    2011-01-01

    The Geel Electron Linear Accelerator (GELINA) was used to measure neutron total and capture cross sections of {sup 182,183,184,186}W and {sup 63,65}Cu in the energy range from 100 eV to {approx}200 keV using the time-of-flight method. GELINA is the only high-power white neutron source with excellent timing resolution and ideally suited for these experiments. Concerns about the use of existing cross-section data in nuclear criticality calculations using Monte Carlo codes and benchmarks were a prime motivator for the new cross-section measurements. To support the Nuclear Criticality Safety Program, neutron cross-section measurements were initiated using GELINA at the EC-JRC-IRMM. Concerns about data deficiencies in some existing cross-section evaluations from libraries such as ENDF/B, JEFF, or JENDL for nuclear criticality calculations were the prime motivator for new cross-section measurements. Over the past years many troubles with existing nuclear data have emerged, such as problems related to proper normalization, neutron sensitivity backgrounds, poorly characterized samples, and use of improper pulse-height weighting functions. These deficiencies may occur in the resolved- and unresolved-resonance region and may lead to erroneous nuclear criticality calculations. An example is the use of the evaluated neutron cross-section data for tungsten in nuclear criticality safety calculations, which exhibit discrepancies in benchmark calculations and show the need for reliable covariance data. We measured the neutron total and capture cross sections of {sup 182,183,184,186}W and {sup 63,65}Cu in the neutron energy range from 100 eV to several hundred keV. This will help to improve the representation of the cross sections since most of the available evaluated data rely only on old measurements. Usually these measurements were done with poor experimental resolution or only over a very limited energy range, which is insufficient for the current application.

  6. Manned space flight nuclear system safety. Volume 6: Space base nuclear system safety plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    A qualitative identification of the steps required to assure the incorporation of radiological system safety principles and objectives into all phases of a manned space base program are presented. Specific areas of emphasis include: (1) radiological program management, (2) nuclear system safety plan implementation, (3) impact on program, and (4) summary of the key operation and design guidelines and requirements. The plan clearly indicates the necessity of considering and implementing radiological system safety recommendations as early as possible in the development cycle to assure maximum safety and minimize the impact on design and mission plans.

  7. Nuclear Safety. Technical progress journal: Volume 35, No.2

    SciTech Connect

    1994-09-01

    This journal covers significant issues in the field of nuclear safety. Its primary scope is safety in the design, construction, operation, and de commissioning of nuclear power reactors worldwide and the research and analysis activities that promote this goal, but it also encompasses the safety aspects of the entire nuclear fuel cycle, including fuel fabrication, spent-fuel processing and handling, and nuclear waste disposal, the handling of fissionable materials and radioisotopes, and the environmental effects of all these activities.

  8. Nuclear Safety: Technical progress review, January-March 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Silver, E G

    1988-01-01

    This journal covers significant developments in the field of nuclear safety. Its scope includes the analysis and control of hazards associated with nuclear energy, operations involving fissionable materials, and the products of nuclear fission and their effects on the environment. Primary emphasis is on safety in reactor design, construction, and operation; however, the safety aspects of the entire fuel cycle, including fuel fabrication, spent-fuel processing, nuclear waste disposal, handling of radioisotopes, and environmental effects of these operations, are also treated.

  9. Nuclear Safety: Technical progress review, January--March 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Silver, E. G.

    1989-01-01

    This review journal covers significant developments in the field of nuclear safety. Its scope includes the analysis and control of hazards associated with nuclear energy, operations involving fissionable materials, and the products of nuclear fission and their effects on the environment. Primary emphasis is on safety in reactor design, construction, and operation; however, the safety aspects of the entire fuel cycle, including fuel fabrication, spent-fuel processing, nuclear waste disposal, handling of radioisotopes, and environmental effects of these operations, are also treated.

  10. Safety in nuclear power plants in India.

    PubMed

    Deolalikar, R

    2008-12-01

    Safety in nuclear power plants (NPPs) in India is a very important topic and it is necessary to dissipate correct information to all the readers and the public at large. In this article, I have briefly described how the safety in our NPPs is maintained. Safety is accorded overriding priority in all the activities. NPPs in India are not only safe but are also well regulated, have proper radiological protection of workers and the public, regular surveillance, dosimetry, approved standard operating and maintenance procedures, a well-defined waste management methodology, proper well documented and periodically rehearsed emergency preparedness and disaster management plans. The NPPs have occupational health policies covering periodic medical examinations, dosimetry and bioassay and are backed-up by fully equipped Personnel Decontamination Centers manned by doctors qualified in Occupational and Industrial Health. All the operating plants are ISO 14001 and IS 18001 certified plants. The Nuclear Power Corporation of India Limited today has 17 operating plants and five plants under construction, and our scientists and engineers are fully geared to take up many more in order to meet the national requirements.

  11. Safety in nuclear power plants in India

    PubMed Central

    Deolalikar, R.

    2008-01-01

    Safety in nuclear power plants (NPPs) in India is a very important topic and it is necessary to dissipate correct information to all the readers and the public at large. In this article, I have briefly described how the safety in our NPPs is maintained. Safety is accorded overriding priority in all the activities. NPPs in India are not only safe but are also well regulated, have proper radiological protection of workers and the public, regular surveillance, dosimetry, approved standard operating and maintenance procedures, a well-defined waste management methodology, proper well documented and periodically rehearsed emergency preparedness and disaster management plans. The NPPs have occupational health policies covering periodic medical examinations, dosimetry and bioassay and are backed-up by fully equipped Personnel Decontamination Centers manned by doctors qualified in Occupational and Industrial Health. All the operating plants are ISO 14001 and IS 18001 certified plants. The Nuclear Power Corporation of India Limited today has 17 operating plants and five plants under construction, and our scientists and engineers are fully geared to take up many more in order to meet the national requirements. PMID:20040970

  12. Main contributions of the KfK nuclear safety project in the LWR safety area

    SciTech Connect

    Kuczera, B.

    1986-01-01

    The Nuclear Safety Project (PNS) was established at the Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe (KfK) in 1972. At that time, nuclear energy in the Federal Republic of Germany was in a transition phase proceeding from light water reactor (LWR) demonstration plants (300 MW(e)) to commercial size plants of 1200 to 1300 MW(e) which are standard units today. Simultaneously, general questions about LWR safety and reliability as well as questions on risk-oriented features became more pronounced in the public discussion. As a consequence, various already existing LWR safety activities were brought together and combined in the organizational framework of the PNS. The overriding objectives of PNS research and development (R and D) effort were at the quantification of safety margins of reactor systems and components, and the improvement of existing safety systems to avoid accident occurrence and to minimize accident consequences. In close cooperation with governmental authorities, manufacturers, and utilities, an R and D program was developed, comprised of four main areas: 1) dynamic behavior of reactor components; 2) fuel element behavior under accident conditions; 3) core meltdown accident analyses; and 4) retention of radioactive fission products and limitation of severe accident consequences. An overview on the KfK contribution to LWR safety research is given. It deals in a comprehensive matter with results obtained in the areas listed above.

  13. Nuclear Safety: Volume 29, No. 3: Technical progress review

    SciTech Connect

    Silver, E G

    1988-07-01

    Nuclear Safety is a review journal that covers significant development in the field of nuclear safety. Its scope included the analysis and control of hazards associated with nuclear energy, operations involving fissionable materials and the products of nuclear fission and their effects on the environment. Primary emphasis is on safety in reactor design, construction, and operation; however, the safety aspects of the entire fuel cycle, including fuel fabrication, spent-fuel processing, nuclear waste disposal, handling of radioisotopes, and environmental effects of these operations, are also treated. Individual papers have been cataloged separately.

  14. HANFORD NUCLEAR CRITICALITY SAFETY PROGRAM DATABASE

    SciTech Connect

    TOFFER, H.

    2005-05-02

    The Hanford Database is a useful information retrieval tool for a criticality safety practitioner. The database contains nuclear criticality literature screened for parameter studies. The entries, characterized with a value index, are segregated into 16 major and six minor categories. A majority of the screened entries have abstracts and a limited number are connected to the Office of Scientific and Technology Information (OSTI) database of full-size documents. Simple and complex searches of the data can be accomplished very rapidly and the end-product of the searches could be a full-size document. The paper contains a description of the database, user instructions, and a number of examples.

  15. Manned space flight nuclear system safety. Volume 4: Space shuttle nuclear system transportation. Part 1: Space shuttle nuclear safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    An analysis of the nuclear safety aspects (design and operational considerations) in the transport of nuclear payloads to and from earth orbit by the space shuttle is presented. Three representative nuclear payloads used in the study were: (1) the zirconium hydride reactor Brayton power module, (2) the large isotope Brayton power system and (3) small isotopic heat sources which can be a part of an upper stage or part of a logistics module. Reference data on the space shuttle and nuclear payloads are presented in an appendix. Safety oriented design and operational requirements were identified to integrate the nuclear payloads in the shuttle mission. Contingency situations were discussed and operations and design features were recommended to minimize the nuclear hazards. The study indicates the safety, design and operational advantages in the use of a nuclear payload transfer module. The transfer module can provide many of the safety related support functions (blast and fragmentation protection, environmental control, payload ejection) minimizing the direct impact on the shuttle.

  16. Information Services at the Nuclear Safety Analysis Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simard, Ronald

    This paper describes the operations of the Nuclear Safety Analysis Center. Established soon after an accident at the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant near Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, its efforts were initially directed towards a detailed analysis of the accident. Continuing functions include: (1) the analysis of generic nuclear safety issues,…

  17. Information Services at the Nuclear Safety Analysis Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simard, Ronald

    This paper describes the operations of the Nuclear Safety Analysis Center. Established soon after an accident at the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant near Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, its efforts were initially directed towards a detailed analysis of the accident. Continuing functions include: (1) the analysis of generic nuclear safety issues,…

  18. 10 CFR 72.124 - Criteria for nuclear criticality safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Criteria for nuclear criticality safety. 72.124 Section 72... STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED GREATER THAN CLASS C WASTE General Design Criteria § 72.124 Criteria for nuclear criticality safety. (a) Design for...

  19. 10 CFR 72.124 - Criteria for nuclear criticality safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Criteria for nuclear criticality safety. 72.124 Section 72... STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED GREATER THAN CLASS C WASTE General Design Criteria § 72.124 Criteria for nuclear criticality safety. (a) Design for...

  20. 10 CFR 72.124 - Criteria for nuclear criticality safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Criteria for nuclear criticality safety. 72.124 Section 72... STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED GREATER THAN CLASS C WASTE General Design Criteria § 72.124 Criteria for nuclear criticality safety. (a) Design for...

  1. 10 CFR 72.124 - Criteria for nuclear criticality safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Criteria for nuclear criticality safety. 72.124 Section 72... STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED GREATER THAN CLASS C WASTE General Design Criteria § 72.124 Criteria for nuclear criticality safety. (a) Design for...

  2. 10 CFR 72.124 - Criteria for nuclear criticality safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Criteria for nuclear criticality safety. 72.124 Section 72... STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED GREATER THAN CLASS C WASTE General Design Criteria § 72.124 Criteria for nuclear criticality safety. (a) Design for...

  3. Tracing nuclear elements released by Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsujimura, M.; Onda, Y.; Abe, Y.; Hada, M.; Pun, I.

    2011-12-01

    Radioactive contamination has been detected in Fukushima and the neighboring regions due to the nuclear accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) following the earthquake and tsunami occurred on 11th March 2011. The small experimental catchments have been established in Yamakiya district, Kawamata Town, Fukushima Prefecture, located approximately 35 km west from the Fukushima NPP. The tritium (3H) concentration and stable isotopic compositions of deuterium and oxygen-18 have been determined on the water samples of precipitation, soil water at the depths of 10 to 30 cm, groundwater at the depths of 5 m to 50 m, spring water and stream water taken at the watersheds in the recharge and discharge zones from the view point of the groundwater flow system. The tritium concentration of the rain water fell just a few days after the earthquake showed a value of approximately 17 Tritium Unit (T.U.), whereas the average concentration of the tritium in the precipitation was less than 5 T.U. before the Fukushima accident. The spring water in the recharge zone showed a relatively high tritium concentration of approximately 12 T.U., whereas that of the discharge zone showed less than 5 T.U. Thus, the artificial tritium was apparently injected in the groundwater flow system due to the Fukushima NPP accident, whereas that has not reached at the discharge zone yet. The monitoring of the nuclear elements is now on going from the view points of the hydrological cycles and the drinking water security.

  4. Element speciation during nuclear glass alteration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galoisy, L.; Calas, G.; Bergeron, B.; Jollivet, P.; Pelegrin, E.

    2011-12-01

    Assessing the long-term behavior of nuclear glasses implies the prediction of their long-term performance. An important controlling parameter is their evolution during interaction with water under conditions simulating geological repositories. After briefly recalling the major characteristics of the local and medium-range structure of borosilicate glasses of nuclear interest, we will present some structural features of this evolution. Specific structural tools used to determine the local structure of glass surfaces include synchrotron-radiation x-ray absorption spectroscopy with total electron yield detection. The evolution of the structure of glass surface has been determined at the Zr-, Fe-, Si- and Al-K edges and U-LIII edge. During alteration in near- or under-saturated conditions, some elements such as Fe change coordination, as other elements such as Zr only suffer structural modifications in under-saturated conditions. Uranium exhibits a modification of its speciation from an hexa-coordinated U(VI) in the borosilicate glass to an uranyl group in the gel. These structural modifications may explain the chemical dependence of the initial alteration rate and the transition to the residual regime. They also illustrate the molecular-scale origin of the processes at the origin of the glass-to-gel transformation. Eventually, they explain the provisional trapping of U by the alteration gel: the uranium retention factors in the gel depend on the alteration conditions, and thus on the nature of the resulting gel and on the trapping conditions.

  5. Applicability of trends in nuclear safety analysis to space nuclear power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bari, R.A.

    1992-10-01

    A survey is presented of some current trends in nuclear safety analysis that may be relevant to space nuclear power systems. This includes: lessons learned from operating power reactor safety and licensing; approaches to the safety design of advanced and novel reactors and facilities; the roles of risk assessment, extremely unlikely accidents, safety goals/targets; and risk-benefit analysis and communication.

  6. Manned space flight nuclear system safety. Volume 1: base nuclear system safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The mission and terrestrial nuclear safety aspects of future long duration manned space missions in low earth orbit are discussed. Nuclear hazards of a typical low earth orbit Space Base mission (from natural sources and on-board nuclear hardware) have been identified and evaluated. Some of the principal nuclear safety design and procedural considerations involved in launch, orbital, and end of mission operations are presented. Areas of investigation include radiation interactions with the crew, subsystems, facilities, experiments, film, interfacing vehicles, nuclear hardware and the terrestrial populace. Results of the analysis indicate: (1) the natural space environment can be the dominant radiation source in a low earth orbit where reactors are effectively shielded, (2) with implementation of safety guidelines the reactor can present a low risk to the crew, support personnel, the terrestrial populace, flight hardware and the mission, (3) ten year missions are feasible without exceeding integrated radiation limits assigned to flight hardware, and (4) crew stay-times up to one year are feasible without storm shelter provisions.

  7. Status and Value of International Standards for Nuclear Criticality Safety

    SciTech Connect

    Hopper, Calvin Mitchell

    2011-01-01

    This presentation provides an update to the author's standards report provided at the ICNC-2007 meeting. It includes a discussion about the difference between, and the value of participating in, the development of international 'consensus' standards as opposed to nonconsensus standards. Standards are developed for a myriad of reasons. Generally, standards represent an agreed upon, repeatable way of doing something as defined by an individual or group of people. They come in various types. Examples include personal, family, business, industrial, commercial, and regulatory such as military, community, state, federal, and international standards. Typically, national and international 'consensus' standards are developed by individuals and organizations of diverse backgrounds representing the subject matter users and developers of a service or product and other interested parties or organizations. Within the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), Technical Committee 85 (TC85) on nuclear energy, Subcommittee 5 (SC5) on nuclear fuel technology, there is a Working Group 8 (WG8) on standardization of calculations, procedures, and practices related to criticality safety. WG8 has developed, and is developing, ISO standards within the category of nuclear criticality safety of fissionable materials outside of reactors (i.e., nonreactor fissionable material nuclear fuel cycle facilities). Since the presentation of the ICNC-2007 report, WG8 has issued three new finalized international standards and is developing two more new standards. Nearly all elements of the published WG8 ISO standards have been incorporated into IAEA nonconsensus guides and standards. The progression of consensus standards development among international partners in a collegial environment establishes a synergy of different concepts that broadens the perspectives of the members. This breadth of perspectives benefits the working group members in their considerations of consensus standards

  8. Nuclear microscopy of sperm cell elemental structure

    SciTech Connect

    Bench, G.S.

    1994-12-31

    Theories have suggested that there is a link between protamine concentrations in individual sperm and sperm fertility. At present, biochemical analyses have only been performed on bulk populations and existing methods have not been able to determine what percentage of morphologically normal sperm are biochemically defective and potentially infertile. As part of an investigation into male sperm fertility, nuclear microscopy has been utilized to measure elemental profiles at the single sperm level. By measuring the ratio of Phosphorus to Sulfur the authors have been able to determine the amount of protamine 1 and protamine 2 in individual cells from bulk fertile samples of bull and mouse sperm. Preliminary results show that, for each species, the relative amounts of protamine 1 and protamine 2 in morphologically normal sperm agree well with expected values.

  9. Drive of nuclear reactor's control element

    SciTech Connect

    Anikin, A.A.; But, V.G.; Nikolaev, V.P.; Silvanovich, A.A.

    1980-12-09

    According to the invention, the drive of a nuclear reactor's control element comprises an electromotor having a stator and a rotor composed lengthwise of two parts whose total length is equal to that of the active part of the stator. One part of the rotor is a solid cylinder-shaped member. The other part of the rotor comprises at least three double-arm rocking levers, the pivot axes of which are parallel to the axis of a drive screw. One arm of each of said levers is a rotor pole. The other arm of each of said levers carries a roller, the axis of rotation of which is parallel to the axis of the drive screw. Said rollers make up a detachable roller nut which interacts with the drive screw under the action of an electromagnetic field.

  10. Fuel element concept for long life high power nuclear reactors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdonald, G. E.; Rom, F. E.

    1969-01-01

    Nuclear reactor fuel elements have burnups that are an order of magnitude higher than can currently be achieved by conventional design practice. Elements have greater time integrated power producing capacity per unit volume. Element design concept capitalizes on known design principles and observed behavior of nuclear fuel.

  11. Tutorial on nuclear thermal propulsion safety for Mars

    SciTech Connect

    Buden, D.

    1992-01-01

    Safety is the prime design requirement for nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP). It must be built in at the initiation of the design process. An understanding of safety concerns is fundamental to the development of nuclear rockets for manned missions to Mars and many other applications that will be enabled or greatly enhanced by the use of nuclear propulsion. To provide an understanding of the basic issues, a tutorial has been prepared. This tutorial covers a range of topics including safety requirements and approaches to meet these requirements, risk and safety analysis methodology, NERVA reliability and safety approach, and life cycle risk assessments.

  12. Tutorial on nuclear thermal propulsion safety for Mars

    SciTech Connect

    Buden, D.

    1992-08-01

    Safety is the prime design requirement for nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP). It must be built in at the initiation of the design process. An understanding of safety concerns is fundamental to the development of nuclear rockets for manned missions to Mars and many other applications that will be enabled or greatly enhanced by the use of nuclear propulsion. To provide an understanding of the basic issues, a tutorial has been prepared. This tutorial covers a range of topics including safety requirements and approaches to meet these requirements, risk and safety analysis methodology, NERVA reliability and safety approach, and life cycle risk assessments.

  13. 78 FR 47011 - Software Unit Testing for Digital Computer Software Used in Safety Systems of Nuclear Power Plants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-02

    ... COMMISSION Software Unit Testing for Digital Computer Software Used in Safety Systems of Nuclear Power Plants..., ``Software Unit Testing for Digital Computer Software Used in Safety Systems of Nuclear Power Plants.'' This... software elements if those systems include software. This RG is one of six RG revisions addressing computer...

  14. Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (NCPS) Fuel Element Testing in the Nuclear Thermal Rocket Element Environmental Simulator (NTREES)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emrich, William J., Jr.

    2017-01-01

    To support the on-going nuclear thermal propulsion effort, a state-of-the-art non nuclear experimental test setup has been constructed to evaluate the performance characteristics of candidate fuel element materials and geometries in representative environments. The facility to perform this testing is referred to as the Nuclear Thermal Rocket Element Environment Simulator (NTREES). Last year NTREES was successfully used to satisfy a testing milestone for the Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (NCPS) project and met or exceeded all required objectives.

  15. Requesting and granting exemptions to nuclear safety rules

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-02-01

    This standard provides an acceptable process for requesting and granting exemptions to DOE Nuclear Safety rules. The provisions of 10 CFR Part 820.63 allow DOE to determine the procedures to be used to comply with the responsibilities regarding exemption relief from DOE nuclear safety rules. The procedure in this standard defines an acceptable method for meeting these responsibilities.

  16. Status report of the US Department of Energy`s International Nuclear Safety Program

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) implements the US Government`s International Nuclear Safety Program to improve the level of safety at Soviet-designed nuclear power plants in Central and Eastern Europe, Russia, and Unkraine. The program is conducted consistent with guidance and policies established by the US Department of State (DOS) and the Agency for International Development and in close collaboration with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Some of the program elements were initiated in 1990 under a bilateral agreement with the former Soviet Union; however, most activities began after the Lisbon Nuclear Safety Initiative was announced by the DOS in 1992. Within DOE, the program is managed by the International Division of the Office of Nuclear Energy. The overall objective of the International Nuclear Safety Program is to make comprehensive improvements in the physical conditions of the power plants, plant operations, infrastructures, and safety cultures of countries operating Soviet-designed reactors. This status report summarizes the Internatioal Nuclear Safety Program`s activities that have been completed as of September 1994 and discusses those activities currently in progress.

  17. Providing Nuclear Criticality Safety Analysis Education through Benchmark Experiment Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    John D. Bess; J. Blair Briggs; David W. Nigg

    2009-11-01

    One of the challenges that today's new workforce of nuclear criticality safety engineers face is the opportunity to provide assessment of nuclear systems and establish safety guidelines without having received significant experience or hands-on training prior to graduation. Participation in the International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP) and/or the International Reactor Physics Experiment Evaluation Project (IRPhEP) provides students and young professionals the opportunity to gain experience and enhance critical engineering skills.

  18. Nuclear Technology Series. Course 24: Nuclear Systems and Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This technical specialty course is one of thirty-five courses designed for use by two-year postsecondary institutions in five nuclear technician curriculum areas: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and control technician, (3) nuclear materials processing technician, (4) nuclear quality-assurance/quality-control…

  19. Nuclear Technology Series. Course 24: Nuclear Systems and Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This technical specialty course is one of thirty-five courses designed for use by two-year postsecondary institutions in five nuclear technician curriculum areas: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and control technician, (3) nuclear materials processing technician, (4) nuclear quality-assurance/quality-control…

  20. Nuclear Technology Series. Course 8: Reactor Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This technical specialty course is one of thirty-five courses designed for use by two-year postsecondary institutians in five nuclear technician curriculum areas: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and control technician, (3) nuclear materials processing technician, (4) nuclear quality-assurance/quality-control…

  1. Nuclear Technology Series. Course 8: Reactor Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This technical specialty course is one of thirty-five courses designed for use by two-year postsecondary institutians in five nuclear technician curriculum areas: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and control technician, (3) nuclear materials processing technician, (4) nuclear quality-assurance/quality-control…

  2. Manned space flight nuclear system safety. Volume 1: Executive summary. Part 2: Space shuttle nuclear system safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The nuclear safety integration and operational aspects of transporting nuclear payloads to and from an earth orbiting space base by space shuttle are discussed. The representative payloads considered were: (1) zirconium hydride-Brayton power module, (2) isotope-Brayton power module, and (3) small isotope power systems or heat sources. Areas of investigation also include nuclear safety related integration and packaging as well as operational requirements for the shuttle and payload systems for all phases of the mission.

  3. Developing operational safety requirements for non-nuclear facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Mahn, J.A.

    1997-11-01

    Little guidance has been provided by the DOE for developing appropriate Operational Safety Requirements (OSR) for non-nuclear facility safety documents. For a period of time, Chapter 2 of DOE/AL Supplemental Order 5481.lB provided format guidance for non-reactor nuclear facility OSRs when this supplemental order applied to both nuclear and non-nuclear facilities. Thus, DOE Albuquerque Operations Office personnel still want to see non-nuclear facility OSRs in accordance with the supplemental order (i.e., in terms of Safety Limits, Limiting Conditions for Operation, and Administrative Controls). Furthermore, they want to see a clear correlation between the OSRs and the results of a facility safety analysis. This paper demonstrates how OSRs can be rather simply derived from the results of a risk assessment performed using the ``binning`` methodology of SAND95-0320.

  4. An Integrated Safety Assessment Methodology for Generation IV Nuclear Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Timothy J. Leahy

    2010-06-01

    The Generation IV International Forum (GIF) Risk and Safety Working Group (RSWG) was created to develop an effective approach for the safety of Generation IV advanced nuclear energy systems. Early work of the RSWG focused on defining a safety philosophy founded on lessons learned from current and prior generations of nuclear technologies, and on identifying technology characteristics that may help achieve Generation IV safety goals. More recent RSWG work has focused on the definition of an integrated safety assessment methodology for evaluating the safety of Generation IV systems. The methodology, tentatively called ISAM, is an integrated “toolkit” consisting of analytical techniques that are available and matched to appropriate stages of Generation IV system concept development. The integrated methodology is intended to yield safety-related insights that help actively drive the evolving design throughout the technology development cycle, potentially resulting in enhanced safety, reduced costs, and shortened development time.

  5. Process to separate transuranic elements from nuclear waste

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Terry R.; Ackerman, John P.; Tomczuk, Zygmunt; Fischer, Donald F.

    1989-01-01

    A process for removing transuranic elements from a waste chloride electrolytic salt containing transuranic elements in addition to rare earth and other fission product elements so the salt waste may be disposed of more easily and the valuable transuranic elements may be recovered for reuse. The salt is contacted with a cadmium-uranium alloy which selectively extracts the transuranic elements from the salt. The waste salt is generated during the reprocessing of nuclear fuel associated with the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR).

  6. Licensed reactor nuclear safety criteria applicable to DOE reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    This document is a compilation and source list of nuclear safety criteria that the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) applies to licensed reactors; it can be used by DOE and DOE contractors to identify NRC criteria to be evaluated for application to the DOE reactors under their cognizance. The criteria listed are those that are applied to the areas of nuclear safety addressed in the safety analysis report of a licensed reactor. They are derived from federal regulations, USNRC regulatory guides, Standard Review Plan (SRP) branch technical positions and appendices, and industry codes and standards.

  7. Activities of the PNC Nuclear Safety Working Group

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, W.Y.

    1991-12-31

    The Nuclear Safety Working Group of the Pacific Nuclear Council promotes nuclear safety cooperation among its members. Status of safety research, emergency planning, development of lists of technical experts, severe accident prevention and mitigation have been the topics of discussion in the NSWG. This paper reviews and compares the severe accident prevention and mitigation program activities in some of the areas of the Pacific Basin region based on papers presented at a special session organized by the NSWG at an ANS Topical Meeting as well as papers from other sources.

  8. Organizational analysis and safety for utilities with nuclear power plants: perspectives for organizational assessment. Volume 2. [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect

    Osborn, R.N.; Olson, J.; Sommers, P.E.; McLaughlin, S.D.; Jackson, M.S.; Nadel, M.V.; Scott, W.G.; Connor, P.E.; Kerwin, N.; Kennedy, J.K. Jr.

    1983-08-01

    This two-volume report presents the results of initial research on the feasibility of applying organizational factors in nuclear power plant (NPP) safety assessment. Volume 1 of this report contains an overview of the literature, a discussion of available safety indicators, and a series of recommendations for more systematically incorporating organizational analysis into investigations of nuclear power plant safety. The six chapters of this volume discuss the major elements in our general approach to safety in the nuclear industry. The chapters include information on organizational design and safety; organizational governance; utility environment and safety related outcomes; assessments by selected federal agencies; review of data sources in the nuclear power industry; and existing safety indicators.

  9. Characterization and improvement of the nuclear safety culture through self-assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Levin, H.A.; McGehee, R.B.; Cottle, W.T.

    1996-12-31

    Organizational culture has a powerful influence on overall corporate performance. The ability to sustain superior results in ensuring the public`s health and safety is predicated on an organization`s deeply embedded values and behavioral norms and how these affect the ability to change and seek continuous improvement. The nuclear industry is developing increased recognition of the relationship of culture to nuclear safety performance as a critical element of corporate strategy. This paper describes a self-assessment methodology designed to characterize and improve the nuclear safety culture, including processes for addressing employee concerns. This methodology has been successfully applied on more than 30 occasions in the last several years, resulting in measurable improvements in safety performance and quality and employee motivation, productivity, and morale. Benefits and lessons learned are also presented.

  10. Nuclear safety as applied to space power reactor systems

    SciTech Connect

    Cummings, G.E.

    1987-01-01

    Current space nuclear power reactor safety issues are discussed with respect to the unique characteristics of these reactors. An approach to achieving adequate safety and a perception of safety is outlined. This approach calls for a carefully conceived safety program which makes uses of lessons learned from previous terrestrial power reactor development programs. This approach includes use of risk analyses, passive safety design features, and analyses/experiments to understand and control off-design conditions. The point is made that some recent accidents concerning terrestrial power reactors do not imply that space power reactors cannot be operated safety.

  11. Safety in shipping: the human element.

    PubMed

    Hetherington, Catherine; Flin, Rhona; Mearns, Kathryn

    2006-01-01

    There are numerous diverse papers that have addressed issues within maritime safety; to date there has been no comprehensive review of this literature to aggregate the causal factors within accidents in shipping and surmise current knowledge. This paper reviewed the literature on safety in three key areas: common themes of accidents, the influence of human error, and interventions to make shipping safer. The review included 20 studies of seafaring across the following areas: fatigue, stress, health, situation awareness, teamwork, decision-making, communication, automation, and safety culture. The review identifies the relative contributions of individual and organizational factors in shipping accidents, and also presents the methodological issues with previous research. The paper concludes that monitoring and modifying the human factors issues presented in this paper could contribute to maritime safety performance. This review illustrates which human factors issues are prevalent in incidents therefore this gives shipping practitioners a focus for interventions.

  12. Human Factors Research and Nuclear Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moray, Neville P., Ed.; Huey, Beverly M., Ed.

    The Panel on Human Factors Research Needs in Nuclear Regulatory Research was formed by the National Research Council in response to a request from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The NRC asked the research council to conduct an 18-month study of human factors research needs for the safe operation of nuclear power plants. This report…

  13. Licensed reactor nuclear safety criteria applicable to DOE reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-04-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Order DOE 5480.6, Safety of Department of Energy-Owned Nuclear Reactors, establishes reactor safety requirements to assure that reactors are sited, designed, constructed, modified, operated, maintained, and decommissioned in a manner that adequately protects health and safety and is in accordance with uniform standards, guides, and codes which are consistent with those applied to comparable licensed reactors. This document identifies nuclear safety criteria applied to NRC (Nuclear Regulatory Commission) licensed reactors. The titles of the chapters and sections of USNRC Regulatory Guide 1.70, Standard Format and Content of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants, Rev. 3, are used as the format for compiling the NRC criteria applied to the various areas of nuclear safety addressed in a safety analysis report for a nuclear reactor. In each section the criteria are compiled in four groups: (1) Code of Federal Regulations, (2) US NRC Regulatory Guides, SRP Branch Technical Positions and Appendices, (3) Codes and Standards, and (4) Supplemental Information. The degree of application of these criteria to a DOE-owned reactor, consistent with their application to comparable licensed reactors, must be determined by the DOE and DOE contractor.

  14. Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (NCPS) Fuel Element Testing in the Nuclear Thermal Rocket Element Environmental Simulator (NTREES)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emrich, William J., Jr.

    2017-01-01

    To satisfy the Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (NCPS) testing milestone, a graphite composite fuel element using a uranium simulant was received from the Oakridge National Lab and tested in the Nuclear Thermal Rocket Element Environmental Simulator (NTREES) at various operating conditions. The nominal operating conditions required to satisfy the milestone consisted of running the fuel element for a few minutes at a temperature of at least 2000 K with flowing hydrogen. This milestone test was successfully accomplished without incident.

  15. Nuclear Thermal Rocket Element Environmental Simulator (NTREES) Upgrade Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emrich, William J., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    Over the past year the Nuclear Thermal Rocket Element Environmental Simulator (NTREES) has been undergoing a significant upgrade beyond its initial configuration. The NTREES facility is designed to perform realistic non-nuclear testing of nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) fuel elements and fuel materials. Although the NTREES facility cannot mimic the neutron and gamma environment of an operating NTR, it can simulate the thermal hydraulic environment within an NTR fuel element to provide critical information on material performance and compatibility. The first phase of the upgrade activities which was completed in 2012 in part consisted of an extensive modification to the hydrogen system to permit computer controlled operations outside the building through the use of pneumatically operated variable position valves. This setup also allows the hydrogen flow rate to be increased to over 200 g/sec and reduced the operation complexity of the system. The second stage of modifications to NTREES which has just been completed expands the capabilities of the facility significantly. In particular, the previous 50 kW induction power supply has been replaced with a 1.2 MW unit which should allow more prototypical fuel element temperatures to be reached. The water cooling system was also upgraded to so as to be capable of removing 100% of the heat generated during. This new setup required that the NTREES vessel be raised onto a platform along with most of its associated gas and vent lines. In this arrangement, the induction heater and water systems are now located underneath the platform. In this new configuration, the 1.2 MW NTREES induction heater will be capable of testing fuel elements and fuel materials in flowing hydrogen at pressures up to 1000 psi at temperatures up to and beyond 3000 K and at near-prototypic reactor channel power densities. NTREES is also capable of testing potential fuel elements with a variety of propellants, including hydrogen with additives to inhibit

  16. Nuclear safety, Volume 38, Number 1, January--March 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-01

    This journal contains nine articles which fall under the following categories: (1) general safety considerations; (2) control and instrumentation; (3) design features (4) environmental effects; (5) US Nuclear Regulatory Commission information and analyses; and (6) recent developments.

  17. A Safer Nuclear Enterprise - Application to Nuclear Explosive Safety (NES)(U)

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, Tommy J.

    2012-07-05

    Activities and infrastructure that support nuclear weapons are facing significant challenges. Despite an admirable record and firm commitment to make safety a primary criterion in weapons design, production, handling, and deployment - there is growing apprehension about terrorist acquiring weapons or nuclear material. At the NES Workshop in May 2012, Scott Sagan, who is a proponent of the normal accident cycle, presented. Whether a proponent of the normal accident cycle or High Reliability Organizations - we have to be diligent about our safety record. Constant vigilance is necessary to maintain our admirable safety record and commitment to Nuclear Explosive Safety.

  18. Searching for nuclear export elements in hepatitis D virus RNA.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Natália; Cunha, Celso

    2013-08-12

    To search for the presence of cis elements in hepatitis D virus (HDV) genomic and antigenomic RNA capable of promoting nuclear export. We made use of a well characterized chloramphenicol acetyl-transferase reporter system based on plasmid pDM138. Twenty cDNA fragments corresponding to different HDV genomic and antigenomic RNA sequences were inserted in plasmid pDM138, and used in transfection experiments in Huh7 cells. The relative amounts of HDV RNA in nuclear and cytoplasmic fractions were then determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction and Northern blotting. The secondary structure of the RNA sequences that displayed nuclear export ability was further predicted using a web interface. Finally, the sensitivity to leptomycin B was assessed in order to investigate possible cellular pathways involved in HDV RNA nuclear export. Analysis of genomic RNA sequences did not allow identifying an unequivocal nuclear export element. However, two regions were found to promote the export of reporter mRNAs with efficiency higher than the negative controls albeit lower than the positive control. These regions correspond to nucleotides 266-489 and 584-920, respectively. In addition, when analyzing antigenomic RNA sequences a nuclear export element was found in positions 214-417. Export mediated by the nuclear export element of HDV antigenomic RNA is sensitive to leptomycin B suggesting a possible role of CRM1 in this transport pathway. A cis-acting nuclear export element is present in nucleotides 214-417 of HDV antigenomic RNA.

  19. Nuclear energy safety challenges in the former Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    Fifteen nuclear reactors of the type that exploded at Chernobyl in April 1986 are still operating in Russia, Ukraine, and Lithuania. The West, concerned about safety of operations, wants these reactors shut down, but the host nations refuse. The electricity these reactors supply is nuch too important for their economies, so the argument goes. The report defines policy options and procedures to implement those options for the acceptable resolution of the nuclear power safety issues facing the former Soviet Union.

  20. Safety Oversight of Decommissioning Activities at DOE Nuclear Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Zull, Lawrence M.; Yeniscavich, William

    2008-01-15

    The Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (Board) is an independent federal agency established by Congress in 1988 to provide nuclear safety oversight of activities at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) defense nuclear facilities. The activities under the Board's jurisdiction include the design, construction, startup, operation, and decommissioning of defense nuclear facilities at DOE sites. This paper reviews the Board's safety oversight of decommissioning activities at DOE sites, identifies the safety problems observed, and discusses Board initiatives to improve the safety of decommissioning activities at DOE sites. The decommissioning of former defense nuclear facilities has reduced the risk of radioactive material contamination and exposure to the public and site workers. In general, efforts to perform decommissioning work at DOE defense nuclear sites have been successful, and contractors performing decommissioning work have a good safety record. Decommissioning activities have recently been completed at sites identified for closure, including the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, the Fernald Closure Project, and the Miamisburg Closure Project (the Mound site). The Rocky Flats and Fernald sites, which produced plutonium parts and uranium materials for defense needs (respectively), have been turned into wildlife refuges. The Mound site, which performed R and D activities on nuclear materials, has been converted into an industrial and technology park called the Mound Advanced Technology Center. The DOE Office of Legacy Management is responsible for the long term stewardship of these former EM sites. The Board has reviewed many decommissioning activities, and noted that there are valuable lessons learned that can benefit both DOE and the contractor. As part of its ongoing safety oversight responsibilities, the Board and its staff will continue to review the safety of DOE and contractor decommissioning activities at DOE defense nuclear sites.

  1. THE IMPACT OF THE GLOBAL NUCLEAR SAFETY REGIME IN BRAZIL

    SciTech Connect

    Almeida, C.

    2004-10-06

    A turning point of the world nuclear industry with respect to safety occurred due to the accident at Chernobyl, in 1986. A side from the tragic personal losses and the enormous financial damage, the Chernobyl accident has literally demonstrated that ''a nuclear accident anywhere is an accident everywhere''. The impact was felt immediately by the nuclear industry, with plant cancellations (e.g. Austria), elimination of national programs (e.g. Italy) and general construction delays. However, the reaction of the nuclear industry was equally immediate, which led to the proposal and establishment of a Global Nuclear Safety Regime. This regime is composed of biding international safety conventions, globally accepted safety standard, and a voluntary peer review system. In a previous work, the author has presented in detail the components of this Regime, and briefly discussed its impact in the Brazilian nuclear power organizations, including the Regulatory Body. This work, on the opposite, briefly reviews the Global Nuclear Safety Regime, and concentrates in detail in the discussion of its impact in Brazil, showing how it has produced some changes, and where the peer pressure regime has failed to produce real results.

  2. Nuclear Thermal Rocket Element Environmental Simulator (NTREES) Upgrade Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emrich, William J. Jr.; Moran, Robert P.; Pearson, J. Boise

    2012-01-01

    To support the on-going nuclear thermal propulsion effort, a state-of-the-art non nuclear experimental test setup has been constructed to evaluate the performance characteristics of candidate fuel element materials and geometries in representative environments. The facility to perform this testing is referred to as the Nuclear Thermal Rocket Element Environment Simulator (NTREES). This device can simulate the environmental conditions (minus the radiation) to which nuclear rocket fuel components will be subjected during reactor operation. Test articles mounted in the simulator are inductively heated in such a manner so as to accurately reproduce the temperatures and heat fluxes which would normally occur as a result of nuclear fission and would be exposed to flowing hydrogen. Initial testing of a somewhat prototypical fuel element has been successfully performed in NTREES and the facility has now been shutdown to allow for an extensive reconfiguration of the facility which will result in a significant upgrade in its capabilities

  3. Nuclear structure notes on element 115 decay chains

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolph, D. Sarmiento, L. G.; Forsberg, U.

    2015-10-15

    Hitherto collected data on more than hundred α-decay chains stemming from element 115 are combined to probe some aspects of the underlying nuclear structure of the heaviest atomic nuclei yet created in the laboratory.

  4. Power plant of high safety for underground nuclear power station

    SciTech Connect

    Dolgov, V.N.

    1993-12-31

    An ecologically pure, reliable, and economic nuclear power station is based on the use of nuclear power plants with the liquid-metal coolant. This plant with the inherent safety is protected from external influences due to the underground accommodations in geologically stable formations such as granites, cambrian clays, and salt deposits. The design features of this underground plant are described.

  5. Government: Nuclear Safety in Doubt a Year after Accident.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ember, Lois R.

    1980-01-01

    A year after the accident at Three Mile Island (TMI), the signals transmitted to the public are still confused. Industry says that nuclear power is safe and that the aftermath of TMI ushers in a new era of safety. Antinuclear activists say TMI sounded nuclear power's death knell. (Author/RE)

  6. Government: Nuclear Safety in Doubt a Year after Accident.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ember, Lois R.

    1980-01-01

    A year after the accident at Three Mile Island (TMI), the signals transmitted to the public are still confused. Industry says that nuclear power is safe and that the aftermath of TMI ushers in a new era of safety. Antinuclear activists say TMI sounded nuclear power's death knell. (Author/RE)

  7. Martin Marietta Energy Systems Nuclear Criticality Safety Improvement Program

    SciTech Connect

    Speas, I.G.

    1987-04-29

    This report addresses questions raised by criticality safety violation at several DOE plants. Two charts are included that define the severity and reporting requirements for the six levels of accidents. A summary is given of all reported criticality incident at the DOE plants involved. The report concludes with Martin Marietta's Nuclear Criticality Safety Policy Statement. (JDH)

  8. Current state of nuclear fuel cycles in nuclear engineering and trends in their development according to the environmental safety requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vislov, I. S.; Pischulin, V. P.; Kladiev, S. N.; Slobodyan, S. M.

    2016-08-01

    The state and trends in the development of nuclear fuel cycles in nuclear engineering, taking into account the ecological aspects of using nuclear power plants, are considered. An analysis of advantages and disadvantages of nuclear engineering, compared with thermal engineering based on organic fuel types, was carried out. Spent nuclear fuel (SNF) reprocessing is an important task in the nuclear industry, since fuel unloaded from modern reactors of any type contains a large amount of radioactive elements that are harmful to the environment. On the other hand, the newly generated isotopes of uranium and plutonium should be reused to fabricate new nuclear fuel. The spent nuclear fuel also includes other types of fission products. Conditions for SNF handling are determined by ecological and economic factors. When choosing a certain handling method, one should assess these factors at all stages of its implementation. There are two main methods of SNF handling: open nuclear fuel cycle, with spent nuclear fuel assemblies (NFAs) that are held in storage facilities with their consequent disposal, and closed nuclear fuel cycle, with separation of uranium and plutonium, their purification from fission products, and use for producing new fuel batches. The development of effective closed fuel cycles using mixed uranium-plutonium fuel can provide a successful development of the nuclear industry only under the conditions of implementation of novel effective technological treatment processes that meet strict requirements of environmental safety and reliability of process equipment being applied. The diversity of technological processes is determined by different types of NFA devices and construction materials being used, as well as by the composition that depends on nuclear fuel components and operational conditions for assemblies in the nuclear power reactor. This work provides an overview of technological processes of SNF treatment and methods of handling of nuclear fuel

  9. Chem I Supplement: Nuclear Synthesis and Identification of New Elements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seaborg, Glenn T.

    1985-01-01

    As background material for a paper on the transuranium elements (SE 537 837), this article reviews: (1) several descriptive terms; (2) nuclear reactions; (3) radioactive decay modes; (4) chemical background; and (5) experimental methods used in this field of research and more broadly in nuclear chemistry. (Author/JN)

  10. Chem I Supplement: Nuclear Synthesis and Identification of New Elements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seaborg, Glenn T.

    1985-01-01

    As background material for a paper on the transuranium elements (SE 537 837), this article reviews: (1) several descriptive terms; (2) nuclear reactions; (3) radioactive decay modes; (4) chemical background; and (5) experimental methods used in this field of research and more broadly in nuclear chemistry. (Author/JN)

  11. The unique signal concept for detonation safety in nuclear weapons

    SciTech Connect

    Spray, S.D.; Cooper, J.A.

    1993-06-01

    The purpose of a unique signal (UQS) in a nuclear weapon system is to provide an unambiguous communication of intent to detonate from the UQS information input source device to a stronglink safety device in the weapon in a manner that is highly unlikely to be duplicated or simulated in normal environments and in a broad range of ill-defined abnormal environments. This report presents safety considerations for the design and implementation of UQSs in the context of the overall safety system.

  12. Current trends in nuclear safety programs at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Bari, R.A.; Duffey, R.B.; Baron, S.

    1993-12-31

    Brookhaven National Laboratory conducts nuclear safety research and technical assistance programs for the U.S. nuclear regulatory commission and for the Department of Energy. This includes experimental and analytical studies in the following areas: risk assessment associated with low power and shutdown of Pressurized water reactors (PWR`S); development of guidelines for accidental management related to containment and radiological releases; experiments on hydrogen combustion; plant aging and life extension; human reliability and management factors related to safety; reactor safety assessment of advanced reactor concepts; reactor physics analysis; structural analysis; and radiation protection of workers.

  13. Neutrinoless Double Beta Nuclear Matrix Elements Around Mass 80 in the Nuclear Shell Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshinaga, Naotaka; Higashiyama, Koji; Taguchi, Daisuke; Teruya, Eri

    The observation of the neutrinoless double-beta decay can determine whether the neutrino is a Majorana particle or not. In its theoretical nuclear side it is particularly important to estimate three types of nuclear matrix elements, namely, Fermi (F), Gamow-Teller (GT), and tensor (T) types matrix elements. The shell model calculations and also the pair-truncated shell model calculations are carried out to check the model dependence on nuclear matrix elements. In this work the neutrinoless double-beta decay for mass A = 82 nuclei is studied. It is found that the matrix elements are quite sensitive to the ground state wavefunctions.

  14. Aerospace nuclear safety: An introduction and historical overview

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, J.H.; Buden, D.

    1994-04-01

    This paper provides an introduction and overview on the topical area of aerospace nuclear safety. Emphasis is on the history of the use of nuclear power sources in space, operational experience with these nuclear sources, a review of previous accidents associated with both U.S. and Russian launches, and the safety issues associated with the entire life cycle of space reactors. There are several potential missions to include near earth orbit, orbit-raising, lunar bases, and propulsion to such solar system locations as Mars, which are suitable for the use of space reactors. The process by which approval is obtained to launch these nuclear materials to space is also presented as well as the role of nuclear safety policy and requirements in a space program using nuclear power sources. Important differences in safety concerns for the Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) now used, and space reactors are presented. The role and purpose of independent safety evaluation and assessment in ensuring safe launch and operation is also discussed. In summary, this paper provides the requisite framework in this topical area for the remaining papers of this session.

  15. METHOD OF PREPARING A FUEL ELEMENT FOR A NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Roake, W.E.; Evans, E.A.; Brite, D.W.

    1960-06-21

    A method of preparing a fuel element for a nuclear reactor is given in which an internally and externally cooled fuel element consisting of two coaxial tubes having a plurality of integral radial ribs extending between the tubes and containing a powdered fuel material is isostatically pressed to form external coolant channels and compact the powder simultaneously.

  16. Digital Signal Processing Methods for Safety Systems Employed in Nuclear Power Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popescu, George

    Some of the major safety concerns in the nuclear power industry focus on the readiness of nuclear power plant safety systems to respond to an abnormal event, the security of special nuclear materials in used nuclear fuels, and the need for physical security to protect personnel and reactor safety systems from an act of terror. Routine maintenance and tests of all nuclear reactor safety systems are performed on a regular basis to confirm the ability of these systems to operate as expected. However, these tests do not determine the reliability of these safety systems and whether the systems will perform for the duration of an accident and whether they will perform their tasks without failure after being engaged. This research has investigated the progression of spindle asynchronous error motion determined from spindle accelerations to predict bearings failure onset. This method could be applied to coolant pumps that are essential components of emergency core cooling systems at all nuclear power plants. Recent security upgrades mandated by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Department of Homeland Security have resulted in implementation of multiple physical security barriers around all of the commercial and research nuclear reactors in the United States. A second part of this research attempts to address an increased concern about illegal trafficking of Special Nuclear Materials (SNM). This research describes a multi element scintillation detector system designed for non - invasive (passive) gamma ray surveillance for concealed SNM that may be within an area or sealed in a package, vehicle or shipping container. Detection capabilities of the system were greatly enhanced through digital signal processing, which allows the combination of two very powerful techniques: 1) Compton Suppression (CS) and 2) Pulse Shape Discrimination (PSD) with less reliance on complicated analog instrumentation.

  17. NUCLEAR NONPROLIFERATION AND SAFETY: Challenges Facing the International Atomic Energy Agency.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    safeguards), and the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident have focused greater attention on nuclear proliferation and the safety of nuclear power... Chernobyl , IAEA has placed increasing emphasis on assisting member states in improving the safety of nuclear power plants. Despite funding shortfalls...report language, GAO has incorporated their comments where appropriate. 2Nuclear Power Safety: Chernobyl Accident Prompted Worldwide Actions but

  18. Directions for nuclear research in the transplutonium elements

    SciTech Connect

    Wilhelmy, J.B.; Chasman, R.R.; Friedman, A.M.; Ahmad, I.

    1983-01-01

    The study of the heavy nuclides has played a vital role in our understanding of the alpha decay process, nuclear fission, nuclear binding energies and the limits of nuclear stability. This study has led to the understanding of novel shape degrees of freedom, such as the very large quadrupole deformations associated with the fission isomer process, and the very recently discovered octupole deformation. The existence of these unique phenomena in the heavy element region is not accidental. Fission isomerism is due to the delicate balance between nuclear forces holding the nucleus together and Coulomb forces causing nuclear fission. Octupole deformation arises from the increasing strength of matrix elements with increasing oscillator shell. Both illustrate the unique features of the heavy element region. Fission studies have given us information about large collective aspects in nuclei and the importance that nuclear structural effects can play in altering these macro properties. A new class of atomic studies has become possible with the availability of heavy elements. With these isotopes, we are now able to produce electric fields of such magnitude that it becomes possible to spontaneously create positron-electron pairs in the vacuum. We have organized this presentation into three major sections: nuclear structure, fission studies and atomic studies of supercritical systems. In each we will try to emphasize the new directions which can benefit from the continued availability of isotopes supplied by the Trans-plutonium Production Program. 117 references. (WHK)

  19. Manned space flight nuclear system safety. Volume 3: Reactor system preliminary nuclear safety analysis. Part 3: Nuclear Safety Analysis Document (NSAD)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Nuclear safety analysis as applied to a space base mission is presented. The nuclear safety analysis document summarizes the mission and the credible accidents/events which may lead to nuclear hazards to the general public. The radiological effects and associated consequences of the hazards are discussed in detail. The probability of occurrence is combined with the potential number of individuals exposed to or above guideline values to provide a measure of accident and total mission risk. The overall mission risk has been determined to be low with the potential exposure to or above 25 rem limited to less than 4 individuals per every 1000 missions performed. No radiological risk to the general public occurs during the prelaunch phase at KSC. The most significant risks occur from prolonged exposure to reactor debris following land impact generally associated with the disposal phase of the mission where fission product inventories can be high.

  20. 48 CFR 923.7001 - Nuclear safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Section 923.7001 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS ENVIRONMENT, ENERGY AND WATER EFFICIENCY, RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES, OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY, AND DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE Environmental, Energy and Water Efficiency, Renewable Energy Technologies, and Occupational...

  1. 48 CFR 923.7001 - Nuclear safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Section 923.7001 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS ENVIRONMENT, ENERGY AND WATER EFFICIENCY, RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES, OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY, AND DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE Environmental, Energy and Water Efficiency, Renewable Energy Technologies, and Occupational...

  2. 48 CFR 923.7001 - Nuclear safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Section 923.7001 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS ENVIRONMENT, ENERGY AND WATER EFFICIENCY, RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES, OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY, AND DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE Environmental, Energy and Water Efficiency, Renewable Energy Technologies, and Occupational...

  3. 48 CFR 923.7001 - Nuclear safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Section 923.7001 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS ENVIRONMENT, ENERGY AND WATER EFFICIENCY, RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES, OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY, AND DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE Environmental, Energy and Water Efficiency, Renewable Energy Technologies, and Occupational...

  4. Process to separate transuranic elements from nuclear waste

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, T.R.; Ackerman, J.P.; Tomczuk, Z.; Fischer, D.F.

    1988-07-12

    A process for removing transuranic elements from a waste chloride electrolytic salt containing transuranic elements in addition to rare earth and other fission product elements so the salt waste may be disposed of more easily and the valuable transuranic elements may be recovered for reuse. The salt is contacted with a cadmium-uranium alloy which selectively extracts the transuranic elements from the salt. The waste salt is generated during the reprocessing of nuclear fuel associated with the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR). 2 figs.

  5. Process to separate transuranic elements from nuclear waste

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, T.R.; Ackerman, J.P.; Tomczuk, Z.; Fischer, D.F.

    1989-03-21

    A process is described for removing transuranic elements from a waste chloride electrolytic salt containing transuranic elements in addition to rare earth and other fission product elements so the salt waste may be disposed of more easily and the valuable transuranic elements may be recovered for reuse. The salt is contacted with a cadmium-uranium alloy which selectively extracts the transuranic elements from the salt. The waste salt is generated during the reprocessing of nuclear fuel associated with the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR). 2 figs.

  6. Proceedings of the Nuclear Criticality Technology Safety Workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Rene G. Sanchez

    1998-04-01

    This document contains summaries of most of the papers presented at the 1995 Nuclear Criticality Technology Safety Project (NCTSP) meeting, which was held May 16 and 17 at San Diego, Ca. The meeting was broken up into seven sessions, which covered the following topics: (1) Criticality Safety of Project Sapphire; (2) Relevant Experiments For Criticality Safety; (3) Interactions with the Former Soviet Union; (4) Misapplications and Limitations of Monte Carlo Methods Directed Toward Criticality Safety Analyses; (5) Monte Carlo Vulnerabilities of Execution and Interpretation; (6) Monte Carlo Vulnerabilities of Representation; and (7) Benchmark Comparisons.

  7. New reactor technology: safety improvements in nuclear power systems.

    PubMed

    Corradini, M L

    2007-11-01

    Almost 450 nuclear power plants are currently operating throughout the world and supplying about 17% of the world's electricity. These plants perform safely, reliably, and have no free-release of byproducts to the environment. Given the current rate of growth in electricity demand and the ever growing concerns for the environment, nuclear power can only satisfy the need for electricity and other energy-intensive products if it can demonstrate (1) enhanced safety and system reliability, (2) minimal environmental impact via sustainable system designs, and (3) competitive economics. The U.S. Department of Energy with the international community has begun research on the next generation of nuclear energy systems that can be made available to the market by 2030 or earlier, and that can offer significant advances toward these challenging goals; in particular, six candidate reactor system designs have been identified. These future nuclear power systems will require advances in materials, reactor physics, as well as thermal-hydraulics to realize their full potential. However, all of these designs must demonstrate enhanced safety above and beyond current light water reactor systems if the next generation of nuclear power plants is to grow in number far beyond the current population. This paper reviews the advanced Generation-IV reactor systems and the key safety phenomena that must be considered to guarantee that enhanced safety can be assured in future nuclear reactor systems.

  8. Civil defense: nuclear debate's new element

    SciTech Connect

    Sweet, W.

    1982-06-04

    President Reagan's plans to build up US military forces include a seven-year $4.2 billion civil-defense program that will emphasize the removal of residents from urban centers and will match the Soviet capability. In the Soviet Union, cities of 100,000 have shelters for 10 to 20% of the population, but they lack the US transportation system, low-density suburbs, mild climate, and other factors. The House Armed Services Committee approved raising the current $133 million civil-defense budget to $252 million, but the Senate's May 14th vote limited the increase to $144 million. The civil-defense debate offers peace and anti-nuclear activists on opportunity to organize and coordinate their efforts. Peace activists were to demonstrate against the administration's plans during a special June 7-9 United Nations session because they feel the public will now be able to understand the implications of relocation in government planning for nuclear war. 17 references, 2 figures, 31 tables. (DCK)

  9. Web-based nuclear criticality safety bibliographic database

    SciTech Connect

    Koponen, B L; Huang, S T

    2000-06-21

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has prepared a Nuclear Criticality Safety Bibliographic Database that is now available via the Internet. This database is a component of the U.S. DOE Nuclear Criticality Safety Program (NCSP) Web site. This WWW resource was developed as part of the DOE response to the DNFSB Recommendation 97-2, which reflected the need to make criticality safety information available to a wide audience. To the extent possible, the hyperlinks on the Web pages direct the user to original source of the reference material in order to ensure accuracy and access to the latest versions. A master index is in place for simple navigation through the site. A search capability is available to assist in locating the on-line reference materials. Among the features included are: A user-friendly site map for ease of use; A personnel registry; Links to all major laboratories and organizations involved in the many aspects of criticality safety; General help for new criticality safety practitioners, including basic technical references and training modules; A discussion of computational methods; An interactive question and answer forum for the criticality safety community; and Collections of bibliographic references mdvahdation experiments. This paper will focus on the bibliographic database. This database evolved from earlier work done by the DOE's Nuclear Criticality Information System (NCIS) maintained at LLNL during the 1980s. The bibliographic database at the time of the termination of NCIS were composed principally of three parts: (1) A critical experiment bibliography of 1067 citations (reported in UCRL-52769); (2) A compilation of criticality safety papers from Volumes 1 through 41 of the Transactions of the American Nuclear Society (reported in UCRL-53369); and (3) A general criticality bibliography of several thousand citations (unpublished). When the NCIS project was terminated the database was nearly lost but, fortunately, several years later

  10. Space Nuclear Safety Program. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Bronisz, S.E.

    1984-01-01

    This technical monthly report covers studies related to the use of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ in radioisotope power systems carried out for the Office of Special Nuclear Projects of the US Department of Energy by Los Alamos National Laboratory. Most of the studies discussed here are ongoing. Results and conclusions described may change as the work continues.

  11. Safety management of nuclear waste in Spain

    SciTech Connect

    Echavarri, L.E. )

    1991-01-01

    For the past two decades, Spain has been consolidating a nuclear program that in the last 3 years has provided between 35 and 40% of the electricity consumed in that country. This program includes nine operating reactor units, eight of them based on US technology and one from Germany, a total of 7,356 MW(electric). There is also a 480-MW(electric) French gas-cooled reactor whose operation recently ceased and which will be decommissioned in the coming years. Spanish industry has participated significantly in this program, and material produced locally has reached 85% of the total. Once the construction program has been completed and operation is proceeding normally, the capacity factor will be {approximately} 80%. It will be very important to complete the nuclear program with the establishment of conditions for safe management and disposal of the nuclear waste generated during the years in which these reactors are in operation and for subsequent decommissioning. To establish the guidelines for the disposal of nuclear waste, the Spanish government approved in october 1987, with a revision in January 1989, the General Plan of Radioactive Wastes proposed by the Ministry of Industry and Energy and prepared by the national company for radioactive waste management, ENRESA.

  12. Means for supporting fuel elements in a nuclear reactor

    DOEpatents

    Andrews, Harry N.; Keller, Herbert W.

    1980-01-01

    A grid structure for a nuclear reactor fuel assembly comprising a plurality of connecting members forming at least one longitudinally extending opening peripheral and inner fuel element openings through each of which openings at least one nuclear fuel element extends, said connecting members forming wall means surrounding said each peripheral and inner fuel element opening, a pair of rigid projections longitudinally spaced from one another extending from a portion of said wall means into said each peripheral and inner opening for rigidly engaging said each fuel element, respectively, yet permit individual longitudinal slippage thereof, and resilient means formed integrally on and from said wall means and positioned in said each peripheral and inner opening in opposed relationship with said projections and located to engage said fuel element to bias the latter into engagement with said rigid projections, respectively

  13. Fuel Element for a Nuclear Reactor

    DOEpatents

    Duffy, Jr., J. G.

    1961-05-30

    A lattice-type fissionable fuel structure for a nuclear reactor is offered. The fissionable material is formed into a plurality of rod-like bodies each encased in a fluid-tight jacket. A plurality of spaced longitudinal fins are mounted on the exterior of and extend radially from each jacket, and a portion of the fins extends radially beyond the remainder of the fins. A collar of short lengih for each body is mounted on the extended fins for spacing the bodies, and adjacent bodies abut each other through these collars. Should distortion of the bodies take place, collapse of the outer fins is limited by the shorter fins thereby insuring some coolant flow therethrough at all times.

  14. FUEL ELEMENT FOR A NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Duffy, J.G. Jr.

    1961-05-30

    A lattice type fissionable fuel structure for a nuclear reactor is described. The fissionable material is formed into a plurality of rod-llke bodies with each encased in a fluid-tight jacket. A plurality of spaced longitudinal fins are mounted on the exterior and extend radially from each jacket, with a portion of the fins extending radially beyond the remainder of the fins. A collar of short length for each body is mounted on the extended fins for spacing the bodies, and adjacent bodies abut each other through these collars. Should distortion of the bodies take place, coilapse of the outer fins is limited by the shorter flns, thereby insuring some coolant flow at all times. (AEC)

  15. Aging of safety class 1E transformers in safety systems of nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, E.W.; Edson, J.L.; Udy, A.C.

    1996-02-01

    This report discusses aging effects on safety-related power transformers in nuclear power plants. It also evaluates maintenance, testing, and monitoring practices with respect to their effectiveness in detecting and mitigating the effects of aging. The study follows the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s (NRC`s) Nuclear Plant-Aging Research approach. It investigates the materials used in transformer construction, identifies stressors and aging mechanisms, presents operating and testing experience with aging effects, analyzes transformer failure events reported in various databases, and evaluates maintenance practices. Databases maintained by the nuclear industry were analyzed to evaluate the effects of aging on the operation of nuclear power plants.

  16. Guidance for identifying, reporting and tracking nuclear safety noncompliances

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    This document provides Department of Energy (DOE) contractors, subcontractors and suppliers with guidance in the effective use of DOE`s Price-Anderson nuclear safety Noncompliance Tracking System (NTS). Prompt contractor identification, reporting to DOE, and correction of nuclear safety noncompliances provides DOE with a basis to exercise enforcement discretion to mitigate civil penalties, and suspend the issuance of Notices of Violation for certain violations. Use of this reporting methodology is elective by contractors; however, this methodology is intended to reflect DOE`s philosophy on effective identification and reporting of nuclear safety noncompliances. To the extent that these expectations are met for particular noncompliances, DOE intends to appropriately exercise its enforcement discretion in considering whether, and to what extent, to undertake enforcement action.

  17. Nuclear safety. Volume 36, Number 2, July--December 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    The primary scope of the journal is safety in the design, construction, operation, and decommissioning of nuclear power reactors worldwide and the research and analysis activities that promote this goal, but it also encompasses the safety aspects of the entire nuclear fuel cycle, including fuel fabrication, spent-fuel processing and handling, and nuclear waste disposal, the handling of fissionable materials and radioisotopes, and the environmental effects of all these activities. The following subjects are covered here: (1) the Chernobyl accident; (2) general safety considerations; (3) accident analysis; (4) design features; (5) environmental effects; (6) operating experiences; (7) US NRC information and analyses; and (8) recent developments. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  18. Nuclear Criticality Safety Organization qualification program. Revision 4

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, K.J.; Taylor, R.G.; Worley, C.A.

    1997-05-19

    The Nuclear Criticality Safety Organization (NCSO) is committed to developing and maintaining a staff of highly qualified personnel to meet the current and anticipated needs in Nuclear Criticality Safety (NCS) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. This document defines the Qualification Program to address the NCSO technical and managerial qualification as required by the Y-12 Training Implementation Matrix (TIM). It is implemented through a combination of LMES plant-wide training courses and professional nuclear criticality safety training provided within the organization. This Qualification Program is applicable to technical and managerial NCSO personnel, including temporary personnel, sub-contractors and/or LMES employees on loan to the NCSO, who perform the NCS tasks or serve NCS-related positions as defined in sections 5 and 6 of this program.

  19. Superheavy Element Nuclear Chemistry at RIKEN

    SciTech Connect

    Haba, Hiromitsu; Kaji, Daiya; Kasamatsu, Yoshitaka; Kudou, Yuki; Morimoto, Kouji; Morita, Kosuke; Ozeki, Kazutaka; Yoneda, Akira; Kikunaga, Hidetoshi; Komori, Yukiko; Ooe, Kazuhiro; Shinohara, Atsushi; Yoshimura, Takashi; Sato, Nozomi; Toyoshima, Atsushi; Yokoyama, Akihiko

    2010-05-12

    A gas-jet transport system has been coupled to the RIKEN gas-filled recoil ion separator GARIS to startup superheavy element (SHE) chemistry at RIKEN. The performance of the system was appraised using an isotope of element 104, {sup 261}Rf, produced in the {sup 248}Cm({sup 18}O,5n){sup 261}Rf reaction. Alpha-particles of {sup 261}Rf separated with GARIS and extracted to a chemistry laboratory were successfully identified with a rotating wheel apparatus for alpha spectrometry. The setting parameters such as the magnetic field of the separator and the gas-jet conditions were optimized. The present results suggest that the GARIS/gas-jet system is a promising approach for exploring new frontiers in SHE chemistry: (i) the background radioactivities of unwanted reaction products are strongly suppressed, (ii) the intense beam is absent in the gas-jet chamber and hence high gas-jet efficiency is achieved, and (iii) the beam-free condition also allows for investigations of new chemical systems.

  20. Nuclear space power safety and facility guidelines study

    SciTech Connect

    Mehlman, W.F.

    1995-09-11

    This report addresses safety guidelines for space nuclear reactor power missions and was prepared by The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) under a Department of Energy grant, DE-FG01-94NE32180 dated 27 September 1994. This grant was based on a proposal submitted by the JHU/APL in response to an {open_quotes}Invitation for Proposals Designed to Support Federal Agencies and Commercial Interests in Meeting Special Power and Propulsion Needs for Future Space Missions{close_quotes}. The United States has not launched a nuclear reactor since SNAP 10A in April 1965 although many Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) have been launched. An RTG powered system is planned for launch as part of the Cassini mission to Saturn in 1997. Recently the Ballistic Missile Defense Office (BMDO) sponsored the Nuclear Electric Propulsion Space Test Program (NEPSTP) which was to demonstrate and evaluate the Russian-built TOPAZ II nuclear reactor as a power source in space. As of late 1993 the flight portion of this program was canceled but work to investigate the attributes of the reactor were continued but at a reduced level. While the future of space nuclear power systems is uncertain there are potential space missions which would require space nuclear power systems. The differences between space nuclear power systems and RTG devices are sufficient that safety and facility requirements warrant a review in the context of the unique features of a space nuclear reactor power system.

  1. Review of Overall Safety Manual for space nuclear systems. An evaluation of a nuclear safety analysis methodology for plutonium-fueled space nuclear systems

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, J.; Inhaber, H.

    1984-02-01

    As part of its duties in connection with space missions involving nuclear power sources, the Office of Nuclear Safety (ONS) of the Office of Assistant Secretary for Environmental Protection, Safety, and Emergency Preparedness has been assigned the task of reviewing the Overall Safety Manual (OSM) (memo from B.J. Rock to J.R. Maher, December 1, 1982). The OSM, dated July 1981 and in four volumes, was prepared by NUS Corporation, Rockville, Maryland, for the US Department of Energy. The OSM provides many of the technical models and much of the data which are used by (1) space launch contractors in safety analysis reports and (2) the broader Interagency Nuclear Safety Review Panel (INSRP) safety evaluation reports. If fhs interaction between the OSM, contractors, and INSRP is to work effectively, the OSM must be accurate, comprehensive, understandable, and usable.

  2. Hypomethylation of long interspersed nuclear element-1 in hepatocellular carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mi-Jung; White-Cross, Jill A; Shen, Lanlan; Issa, Jean-Pierre J; Rashid, Asif

    2009-03-01

    Recent studies have revealed the epigenetic alterations are involved in hepatocarcinogenesis. However, the function of long interspersed nuclear element-1 hypomethylation in hepatocellular carcinomas, and relationship among other clinicopathologic features, and genetic and epigenetic alterations, including CpG island hypermethylation, have not been studied. We determined long interspersed nuclear element-1 methylation, a marker of global methylation, in 57 tumor and nonneoplastic samples, including 24 from high-risk and 33 from low-risk countries. We compared methylation levels of long interspersed nuclear element-1 with eight CpG islands including p16, cyclooxygenase-2, T-type calcium channel, and estrogen receptor genes, and MINT31, MINT1, MINT2, and MINT27, as well as CpG island methylator phenotype and p53 gene mutation. Most hepatocellular carcinomas samples (88%) showed hypomethylation of long interspersed nuclear element-1, with a mean level of global methylation of 58+/-14 compared to 77+/-6 in nonneoplastic hepatic tissue (P<0.001). Levels of long interspersed nuclear element-1 hypomethylation differed depending on geographic location (P=0.02), status of hepatitis (P=0.01), hypermethylation of p16, estrogen receptor and MINT2 (P=0.01, 0.002, and 0.045, respectively), CpG island methylator phenotype-positive status (P=0.006), and p53 gene mutation (P=0.04). In conclusion, environmental factors such as geographic location and hepatitis status contribute to hepatocarcinogenesis through global hypomethylation. In hepatocellular carcinomas, hypermethylation of CpG islands, and CpG island methylator phenotype status seems to correlate with levels of long interspersed nuclear element-1 hypomethylation.

  3. Direct mapping of nuclear shell effects in the heaviest elements.

    PubMed

    Minaya Ramirez, E; Ackermann, D; Blaum, K; Block, M; Droese, C; Düllmann, Ch E; Dworschak, M; Eibach, M; Eliseev, S; Haettner, E; Herfurth, F; Heßberger, F P; Hofmann, S; Ketelaer, J; Marx, G; Mazzocco, M; Nesterenko, D; Novikov, Yu N; Plaß, W R; Rodríguez, D; Scheidenberger, C; Schweikhard, L; Thirolf, P G; Weber, C

    2012-09-07

    Quantum-mechanical shell effects are expected to strongly enhance nuclear binding on an "island of stability" of superheavy elements. The predicted center at proton number Z = 114, 120, or 126 and neutron number N = 184 has been substantiated by the recent synthesis of new elements up to Z = 118. However, the location of the center and the extension of the island of stability remain vague. High-precision mass spectrometry allows the direct measurement of nuclear binding energies and thus the determination of the strength of shell effects. Here, we present such measurements for nobelium and lawrencium isotopes, which also pin down the deformed shell gap at N = 152.

  4. Perspectives of The Interagency Nuclear Safety Review Panel (INSRP) on future nuclear powered space missions

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, L.B. ); Pyatt, D.W. ); Sholtis, J.A. ); Winchester, R.O. , c/o Directorate of Nuclear Surety, Kirtland AFB, New Mexico 87117 )

    1993-01-10

    The Interagency Nuclear Safety Review Panel (INSRP) has provided reviews of all nuclear powered spacecraft launched by the United States. The two most recent launches were Ulysses in 1990 and Galileo in 1989. One reactor was launched in 1965 (SNAP-10A). All other U.S. space missions have utilized radioisotopic thermoelectric generators (RTGs). There are several missions in the next few years that are to be nuclear powered, including one that would utilize the Topaz II reactor purchased from Russia. INSRP must realign itself to perform parallel safety assessments of a reactor powered space mission, which has not been done in about thirty years, and RTG powered missions.

  5. 78 FR 4477 - Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants, Introduction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-22

    ... COMMISSION Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants, Introduction AGENCY: Nuclear... subsection to NUREG-0800, ``Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power..., Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants:...

  6. Training of nuclear criticality safety engineers

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, R.G.

    1997-06-01

    The site specific analysis of nuclear criticality training needs is very briefly described. Analysis indicated that the four major components required were analysis, surveillance, business practices or administration, and emergency preparedness. The analysis component was further divided into process analysis, accident analysis, and transportation analysis. Ten subject matter areas for the process analysis component were identified as candidates for class development. Training classes developed from the job content analysis have demonstrated that the specialized information can be successfully delivered to new entrants. 1 fig.

  7. Nuclear safety as applied to space power reactor systems

    SciTech Connect

    Cummings, G.E.

    1987-01-01

    To develop a strategy for incorporating and demonstrating safety, it is necessary to enumerate the unique aspects of space power reactor systems from a safety standpoint. These features must be differentiated from terrestrial nuclear power plants so that our experience can be applied properly. Some ideas can then be developed on how safe designs can be achieved so that they are safe and perceived to be safe by the public. These ideas include operating only after achieving a stable orbit, developing an inherently safe design, ''designing'' in safety from the start and managing the system development (design) so that it is perceived safe. These and other ideas are explored further in this paper.

  8. FUEL ELEMENTS FOR THERMAL-FISSION NUCLEAR REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Flint, O.

    1961-01-10

    Fuel elements for thermal-fission nuclear reactors are described. The fuel element is comprised of a core of alumina, a film of a metal of the class consisting of copper, silver, and nickel on the outer face of the core, and a coating of an oxide of a metal isotope of the class consisting of Un/sup 235/, U/ sup 233/, and Pu/sup 239/ on the metal f ilm.

  9. Depth profiling of light elements using a nuclear microprobe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terwagne, G.; Bodart, F.; Demortier, G.

    1999-10-01

    In this paper, we present some examples of depth profiling of light elements with a nuclear microprobe performed at LARN during the last decade. Some new possibilities of ion beam microanalysis of light elements with our 2 MV Tandetron accelerator are also discussed. The first example of application consists of depth profiling of nitrogen and aluminium on a SiAl alloy implanted with nitrogen. The nuclear microprobe was used to determine three-dimensional distribution of aluminium, silicon and nitrogen in a specific grain of the implanted alloy. The nitrogen depth profile was measured using the well known 15N(p,αγ) 12C nuclear resonant reaction at 429 keV. The aluminium depth profile was measured with the resonant nuclear reaction 27Al(p,γ) 28Si at 991.8 keV. Depth profiling of carbon and oxygen is also possible using nuclear reactions induced by 3He particles. Nuclear reactions like 12C( 3He,p i) 14N ( i=0,1,2) or 16O( 3He,α 0) 15O were used to measure local wear tracks on a diamond coating after a fretting test against a Cr steel ball. PIXE microprobe and nuclear reactions induced by deuterons were also used to characterise the gold-silicon alloy formed by the diffusion of silicon into gold foils. The nuclear reaction 28Si(d,p) 29Si in a transmission geometry was used in order to depth profile silicon especially in the grain boundaries of the gold-silicon alloy. Some new perspectives of depth profiling light elements are also presented using our new 2 MV Tandetron accelerator, such as high energy 4He microbeams for depth profiling of carbon or nitrogen.

  10. MOX LTA Fuel Cycle Analyses: Nuclear and Radiation Safety

    SciTech Connect

    Pavlovitchev, A.M.

    2001-09-28

    Tasks of nuclear safety assurance for storage and transport of fresh mixed uranium-plutonium fuel of the VVER-1000 reactor are considered in the view of 3 MOX LTAs introduction into the core. The precise code MCU that realizes the Monte Carlo method is used for calculations.

  11. Automating Nuclear-Safety-Related SQA Procedures with Custom Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Freels, James D.

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear safety-related procedures are rigorous for good reason. Small design mistakes can quickly turn into unwanted failures. Researchers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory worked with COMSOL to define a simulation app that automates the software quality assurance (SQA) verification process and provides results in less than 24 hours.

  12. Automating Nuclear-Safety-Related SQA Procedures with Custom Applications

    DOE PAGES

    Freels, James D.

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear safety-related procedures are rigorous for good reason. Small design mistakes can quickly turn into unwanted failures. Researchers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory worked with COMSOL to define a simulation app that automates the software quality assurance (SQA) verification process and provides results in less than 24 hours.

  13. Information Scanning and Processing at the Nuclear Safety Information Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parks, Celia; Julian, Carol

    This report is a detailed manual of the information specialist's duties at the Nuclear Safety Information Center. Information specialists scan the literature for documents to be reviewed, procure the documents (books, journal articles, reports, etc.), keep the document location records, and return the documents to the plant library or other…

  14. Safety aspects of nuclear waste disposal in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, E. E.; Edgecombe, D. S.; Compton, P. R.

    1981-01-01

    Safety issues involved in the disposal of nuclear wastes in space as a complement to mined geologic repositories are examined as part of an assessment of the feasibility of nuclear waste disposal in space. General safety guidelines for space disposal developed in the areas of radiation exposure and shielding, containment, accident environments, criticality, post-accident recovery, monitoring systems and isolation are presented for a nuclear waste disposal in space mission employing conventional space technology such as the Space Shuttle. The current reference concept under consideration by NASA and DOE is then examined in detail, with attention given to the waste source and mix, the waste form, waste processing and payload fabrication, shipping casks and ground transport vehicles, launch site operations and facilities, Shuttle-derived launch vehicle, orbit transfer vehicle, orbital operations and space destination, and the system safety aspects of the concept are discussed for each component. It is pointed out that future work remains in the development of an improved basis for the safety guidelines and the determination of the possible benefits and costs of the space disposal option for nuclear wastes.

  15. Space Nuclear Safety Program. Progress report, April 1984

    SciTech Connect

    George, T.G.

    1985-10-01

    This technical monthly report covers studies related to the use of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ in radioisotope power systems carried out for the Office of Special Nuclear Projects of the US Department of Energy by Los Alamos National Laboratory. Covered are: general-purpose heat source testing and recovery, and safety technology program (biaxial testing, iridium chemistry).

  16. Proceedings of the Nuclear Criticality Technology and Safety Project Workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez, R.G.

    1994-01-01

    This report is the proceedings of the annual Nuclear Criticality Technology and Safety Project (NCTSP) Workshop held in Monterey, California, on April 16--28, 1993. The NCTSP was sponsored by the Department of Energy and organized by the Los Alamos Critical Experiments Facility. The report is divided into six sections reflecting the sessions outlined on the workshop agenda.

  17. Safety aspects of nuclear waste disposal in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, E. E.; Edgecombe, D. S.; Compton, P. R.

    1981-01-01

    Safety issues involved in the disposal of nuclear wastes in space as a complement to mined geologic repositories are examined as part of an assessment of the feasibility of nuclear waste disposal in space. General safety guidelines for space disposal developed in the areas of radiation exposure and shielding, containment, accident environments, criticality, post-accident recovery, monitoring systems and isolation are presented for a nuclear waste disposal in space mission employing conventional space technology such as the Space Shuttle. The current reference concept under consideration by NASA and DOE is then examined in detail, with attention given to the waste source and mix, the waste form, waste processing and payload fabrication, shipping casks and ground transport vehicles, launch site operations and facilities, Shuttle-derived launch vehicle, orbit transfer vehicle, orbital operations and space destination, and the system safety aspects of the concept are discussed for each component. It is pointed out that future work remains in the development of an improved basis for the safety guidelines and the determination of the possible benefits and costs of the space disposal option for nuclear wastes.

  18. Integrated deterministic and probabilistic safety analysis for safety assessment of nuclear power plants

    DOE PAGES

    Di Maio, Francesco; Zio, Enrico; Smith, Curtis; ...

    2015-07-06

    The present special issue contains an overview of the research in the field of Integrated Deterministic and Probabilistic Safety Assessment (IDPSA) of Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). Traditionally, safety regulation for NPPs design and operation has been based on Deterministic Safety Assessment (DSA) methods to verify criteria that assure plant safety in a number of postulated Design Basis Accident (DBA) scenarios. Referring to such criteria, it is also possible to identify those plant Structures, Systems, and Components (SSCs) and activities that are most important for safety within those postulated scenarios. Then, the design, operation, and maintenance of these “safety-related” SSCs andmore » activities are controlled through regulatory requirements and supported by Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA).« less

  19. Integrated deterministic and probabilistic safety analysis for safety assessment of nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Di Maio, Francesco; Zio, Enrico; Smith, Curtis; Rychkov, Valentin

    2015-07-06

    The present special issue contains an overview of the research in the field of Integrated Deterministic and Probabilistic Safety Assessment (IDPSA) of Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). Traditionally, safety regulation for NPPs design and operation has been based on Deterministic Safety Assessment (DSA) methods to verify criteria that assure plant safety in a number of postulated Design Basis Accident (DBA) scenarios. Referring to such criteria, it is also possible to identify those plant Structures, Systems, and Components (SSCs) and activities that are most important for safety within those postulated scenarios. Then, the design, operation, and maintenance of these “safety-related” SSCs and activities are controlled through regulatory requirements and supported by Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA).

  20. Passive Safety Features in Advanced Nuclear Power Plant Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahir, M.; Chughtai, I. R.; Aslam, M.

    2013-03-01

    For implementation of advance passive safety features in future nuclear power plant design, a passive safety system has been proposed and its response has been observed for Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) in the cold leg of a reactor coolant system. In a transient simulation the performance of proposed system is validated against existing safety injection system for a reference power plant of 325 MWe. The existing safety injection system is a huge system and consists of many active components including pumps, valves, piping and Instrumentation and Control (I&C). A good running of the active components of this system is necessary for its functionality as high head safety injection system under design basis accidents. Using reactor simulation technique, the proposed passive safety injection system and existing safety injection system are simulated and tested for their performance under large break LOCA for the same boundary conditions. Critical thermal hydraulic parameters of both the systems are presented graphically and discussed. The results obtained are approximately the same in both the cases. However, the proposed passive safety injection system is a better choice for such type of reactors due to reduction in components with improved safety.

  1. Safety analysis of irradiated nuclear fuel transportation container

    SciTech Connect

    Uspuras, E.; Rimkevicius, S.

    2007-07-01

    Ignalina NPP comprises two Units with RBMK-1500 reactors. After the Unit 1 of the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant was shut down in 2004, approximately 1000 fuel assemblies from Unit were available for further reuse in Unit 2. The fuel-transportation container, vehicle, protection shaft and other necessary equipment were designed in order to implement the process for on-site transportation of Unit 1 fuel for reuse in the Unit 2. The Safety Analysis Report (SAR) was developed to demonstrate that the proposed set of equipment performs all functions and assures the required level of safety for both normal operation and accident conditions. The purpose of this paper is to introduce the content and main results of SAR, focusing attention on the container used to transport spent fuel assemblies from Unit I on Unit 2. In the SAR, the structural integrity, thermal, radiological and nuclear safety calculations are performed to assess the acceptance of the proposed set of equipment. The safety analysis demonstrated that the proposed nuclear fuel transportation container and other equipment are in compliance with functional, design and regulatory requirements and assure the required safety level. (authors)

  2. Multi-elemental Analysis Of Steel By Combined Nuclear Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Ene, A.; Popescu, I. V.; Badica, T.

    2007-04-23

    In this work the nuclear techniques PIGE (Particle-Induced Gamma-ray Emission), PIXE (Particle-Induced X-ray Emission) and NAA (Neutron Activation Analysis) used for the multi-elemental analysis of steels have been compared in terms of detection limits, advantages and limitations.

  3. METHOD OF PREPARING A FUEL ELEMENT FOR A NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Hauth, J.J.; Anicetti, R.J.

    1962-12-01

    A method is described for preparing a fuel element for a nuclear reactor. According to the patent uranium dioxide is compacted in a metal tabe by directlng intense sound waves at the tabe prior to tamp packing or vibration compaction of the powder. (AEC)

  4. METHOD OF FORMING A FUEL ELEMENT FOR A NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Layer, E.H. Jr.; Peet, C.S.

    1962-01-23

    A method is given for preparing a fuel element for a nuclear reactor. The method includes the steps of sandblasting a body of uranium dioxide to roughen the surface thereof, depositing a thin layer of carbon thereon by thermal decomposition of methane, and cladding the uranium dioxide body with zirconium by gas pressure bonding. (AEC)

  5. Multi-Elemental Nuclear Analysis of soil reference material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metairon, S.; Zamboni, C. B.; Medeiros, I. M. M. Amaral; Menezes, M. À. B. C.

    2011-08-01

    The elements concentration in the soil reference material (IAEA/SOIL-7) was obtained using the parametric Neutron Activation Analysis technique in the IEA-R1 nuclear reactor at IPEN (CNEN-SP). The results obtained were in good agreement with the respective nominal values from this reference material suggesting the viability of using this parametric procedure for environmental investigations.

  6. Nuclear matrix elements for double-β decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barea, J.; Kotila, J.; Iachello, F.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Direct determination of the neutrino mass through double-β decay is at the present time one of the most important areas of experimental and theoretical research in nuclear and particle physics.Purpose: We calculate nuclear matrix elements for the extraction of the average neutrino mass in neutrinoless double-β decay.Methods: The microscopic interacting boson model (IBM-2) is used.Results: Nuclear matrix elements in the closure approximation are calculated for 48Ca, 76Ge, 82Se, 96Zr, 100Mo, 110Pd, 116Cd, 124Sn, 128Te, 130Te, 148Nd, 150Nd, 154Sm, 160Gd, and 198Pt decay.Conclusions: Realistic predictions for the expected half-lives in neutrinoless double-β decay with light and heavy neutrino exchange in terms of neutrino masses are made and limits are set from current experiments.

  7. 77 FR 1748 - Atomic Safety and Licensing Board; Calvert Cliffs 3 Nuclear Project, LLC, and UniStar Nuclear...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-11

    ... COMMISSION Atomic Safety and Licensing Board; Calvert Cliffs 3 Nuclear Project, LLC, and UniStar Nuclear... Calvert Cliffs 3 Nuclear Project, L.L.C., and UniStar Nuclear Operating Services, L.L.C. (Applicants) for... Citizens Alliance for Renewable Energy Solutions; (2) UniStar Nuclear Operating Services, LLC and...

  8. Nuclear safety considerations in the conceptual design of a fast reactor for space electric power and propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsieh, T.-M.; Koenig, D. R.

    1977-01-01

    Some nuclear safety aspects of a 3.2 mWt heat pipe cooled fast reactor with out-of-core thermionic converters are discussed. Safety related characteristics of the design including a thin layer of B4C surrounding the core, the use of heat pipes and BeO reflector assembly, the elimination of fuel element bowing, etc., are highlighted. Potential supercriticality hazards and countermeasures are considered. Impacts of some safety guidelines of space transportation system are also briefly discussed, since the currently developing space shuttle would be used as the primary launch vehicle for the nuclear electric propulsion spacecraft.

  9. An Empirical Analysis of Human Performance and Nuclear Safety Culture

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey Joe; Larry G. Blackwood

    2006-06-01

    The purpose of this analysis, which was conducted for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), was to test whether an empirical connection exists between human performance and nuclear power plant safety culture. This was accomplished through analyzing the relationship between a measure of human performance and a plant’s Safety Conscious Work Environment (SCWE). SCWE is an important component of safety culture the NRC has developed, but it is not synonymous with it. SCWE is an environment in which employees are encouraged to raise safety concerns both to their own management and to the NRC without fear of harassment, intimidation, retaliation, or discrimination. Because the relationship between human performance and allegations is intuitively reciprocal and both relationship directions need exploration, two series of analyses were performed. First, human performance data could be indicative of safety culture, so regression analyses were performed using human performance data to predict SCWE. It also is likely that safety culture contributes to human performance issues at a plant, so a second set of regressions were performed using allegations to predict HFIS results.

  10. Neutrinoless double-β decay and nuclear transition matrix elements

    SciTech Connect

    Rath, P. K.

    2015-10-28

    Within mechanisms involving the light Majorana neutrinos, squark-neutrino, Majorons, sterile neutrinos and heavy Majorana neutrino, nuclear transition matrix elements for the neutrinoless (β{sup −}β{sup −}){sub 0ν} decay of {sup 96}Zr, {sup 100}Mo, {sup 128,130}Te and {sup 150}Nd nuclei are calculated by employing the PHFB approach. Effects due to finite size of nucleons, higher order currents, short range correlations, and deformations of parent as well as daughter nuclei on the calculated matrix elements are estimated. Uncertainties in nuclear transition matrix elements within long-ranged mechanisms but for double Majoron accompanied (β{sup −}β{sup −}ϕϕ){sub 0ν} decay modes are 9%–15%. In the case of short ranged heavy Majorona neutrino exchange mechanism, the maximum uncertainty is about 35%. The maximum systematic error within the mechanism involving the exchange of light Majorana neutrino is about 46%.

  11. Methods for making a porous nuclear fuel element

    DOEpatents

    Youchison, Dennis L; Williams, Brian E; Benander, Robert E

    2014-12-30

    Porous nuclear fuel elements for use in advanced high temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactors (HTGR's), and to processes for fabricating them. Advanced uranium bi-carbide, uranium tri-carbide and uranium carbonitride nuclear fuels can be used. These fuels have high melting temperatures, high thermal conductivity, and high resistance to erosion by hot hydrogen gas. Tri-carbide fuels, such as (U,Zr,Nb)C, can be fabricated using chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) to simultaneously deposit each of the three separate carbides, e.g., UC, ZrC, and NbC in a single CVI step. By using CVI, the nuclear fuel may be deposited inside of a highly porous skeletal structure made of, for example, reticulated vitreous carbon foam.

  12. Validation of the group nuclear safety climate questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Navarro, M Felisa Latorre; Gracia Lerín, Francisco J; Tomás, Inés; Peiró Silla, José María

    2013-09-01

    Group safety climate is a leading indicator of safety performance in high reliability organizations. Zohar and Luria (2005) developed a Group Safety Climate scale (ZGSC) and found it to have a single factor. The ZGSC scale was used as a basis in this study with the researchers rewording almost half of the items on this scale, changing the referents from the leader to the group, and trying to validate a two-factor scale. The sample was composed of 566 employees in 50 groups from a Spanish nuclear power plant. Item analysis, reliability, correlations, aggregation indexes and CFA were performed. Results revealed that the construct was shared by each unit, and our reworded Group Safety Climate (GSC) scale showed a one-factor structure and correlated to organizational safety climate, formalized procedures, safety behavior, and time pressure. This validation of the one-factor structure of the Zohar and Luria (2005) scale could strengthen and spread this scale and measure group safety climate more effectively. Copyright © 2013 National Safety Council and Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Management concepts and safety applications for nuclear fuel facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Eisner, H.; Scotti, R.S.; Delicate, W.S.

    1995-05-01

    This report presents an overview of effectiveness of management control of safety. It reviews several modern management control theories as well as the general functions of management and relates them to safety issues at the corporate and at the process safety management (PSM) program level. Following these discussions, structured technique for assessing management of the safety function is suggested. Seven modern management control theories are summarized, including business process reengineering, the learning organization, capability maturity, total quality management, quality assurance and control, reliability centered maintenance, and industrial process safety. Each of these theories is examined for-its principal characteristics and implications for safety management. The five general management functions of planning, organizing, directing, monitoring, and integrating, which together provide control over all company operations, are discussed. Under the broad categories of Safety Culture, Leadership and Commitment, and Operating Excellence, key corporate safety elements and their subelements are examined. The three categories under which PSM program-level safety issues are described are Technology, Personnel, and Facilities.

  14. Natural Disasters and Safety Risks at Nuclear Power Stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tutnova, T.

    2012-04-01

    In the aftermath of Fukushima natural-technological disaster the global opinion on nuclear energy divided even deeper. While Germany, Italy and the USA are currently reevaluating their previous plans on nuclear growth, many states are committed to expand nuclear energy output. In China and France, where the industry is widely supported by policymakers, there is little talk about abandoning further development of nuclear energy. Moreover, China displays the most remarkable pace of nuclear development in the world: it is responsible for 40% of worldwide reactors under construction, and aims at least to quadruple its nuclear capacity by 2020. In these states the consequences of Fukushima natural-technological accident will probably result in safety checks and advancement of new reactor technologies. Thus, China is buying newer reactor design from the USA which relies on "passive safety systems". It means that emergency power generators, crucial for reactor cooling in case of an accident, won't depend on electricity, so that tsunami won't disable them like it happened in the case of Fukushima. Nuclear energy managed to draw lessons from previous nuclear accidents where technological and human factors played crucial role. But the Fukushima lesson shows that the natural hazards, nevertheless, were undervalued. Though the ongoing technological advancements make it possible to increase the safety of nuclear power plants with consideration of natural risks, it is not just a question of technology improvement. A necessary action that must be taken is the reevaluation of the character and sources of the potential hazards which natural disasters can bring to nuclear industry. One of the examples is a devastating impact of more than one natural disaster happening at the same time. This subject, in fact, was not taken into account before, while it must be a significant point in planning sites for new nuclear power plants. Another important lesson unveiled is that world nuclear

  15. Initial Operation of the Nuclear Thermal Rocket Element Environmental Simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emrich, William J., Jr.; Pearson, J. Boise; Schoenfeld, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    The Nuclear Thermal Rocket Element Environmental Simulator (NTREES) facility is designed to perform realistic non-nuclear testing of nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) fuel elements and fuel materials. Although the NTREES facility cannot mimic the neutron and gamma environment of an operating NTR, it can simulate the thermal hydraulic environment within an NTR fuel element to provide critical information on material performance and compatibility. The NTREES facility has recently been upgraded such that the power capabilities of the facility have been increased significantly. At its present 1.2 MW power level, more prototypical fuel element temperatures nay now be reached. The new 1.2 MW induction heater consists of three physical units consisting of a transformer, rectifier, and inverter. This multiunit arrangement facilitated increasing the flexibility of the induction heater by more easily allowing variable frequency operation. Frequency ranges between 20 and 60 kHz can accommodated in the new induction heater allowing more representative power distributions to be generated within the test elements. The water cooling system was also upgraded to so as to be capable of removing 100% of the heat generated during testing In this new higher power configuration, NTREES will be capable of testing fuel elements and fuel materials at near-prototypic power densities. As checkout testing progressed and as higher power levels were achieved, several design deficiencies were discovered and fixed. Most of these design deficiencies were related to stray RF energy causing various components to encounter unexpected heating. Copper shielding around these components largely eliminated these problems. Other problems encountered involved unexpected movement in the coil due to electromagnetic forces and electrical arcing between the coil and a dummy test article. The coil movement and arcing which were encountered during the checkout testing effectively destroyed the induction coil in use at

  16. Proceedings of the nuclear criticality technology safety project

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez, R.G.

    1997-06-01

    This document contains summaries of the most of the papers presented at the 1994 Nuclear Criticality Technology Safety Project (NCTSP) meeting, which was held May 10 and 11 at Williamsburg, Va. The meeting was broken up into seven sessions, which covered the following topics: (1) Validation and Application of Calculations; (2) Relevant Experiments for Criticality Safety; (3) Experimental Facilities and Capabilities; (4) Rad-Waste and Weapons Disassembly; (5) Criticality Safety Software and Development; (6) Criticality Safety Studies at Universities; and (7) Training. The minutes and list of participants of the Critical Experiment Needs Identification Workgroup meeting, which was held on May 9 at the same venue, has been included as an appendix. A second appendix contains the names and addresses of all NCTSP meeting participants. Separate abstracts have been indexed to the database for contributions to this proceedings.

  17. Software reliability and safety in nuclear reactor protection systems

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence, J.D.

    1993-11-01

    Planning the development, use and regulation of computer systems in nuclear reactor protection systems in such a way as to enhance reliability and safety is a complex issue. This report is one of a series of reports from the Computer Safety and Reliability Group, Lawrence Livermore that investigates different aspects of computer software in reactor National Laboratory, that investigates different aspects of computer software in reactor protection systems. There are two central themes in the report, First, software considerations cannot be fully understood in isolation from computer hardware and application considerations. Second, the process of engineering reliability and safety into a computer system requires activities to be carried out throughout the software life cycle. The report discusses the many activities that can be carried out during the software life cycle to improve the safety and reliability of the resulting product. The viewpoint is primarily that of the assessor, or auditor.

  18. HFE safety reviews of advanced nuclear power plant control rooms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ohara, John

    1994-01-01

    Advanced control rooms (ACR's) will utilize human-system interface (HSI) technologies that may have significant implications for plant safety in that they will affect the operator's overall role and means of interacting with the system. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) reviews the human factors engineering (HFE) aspects of HSI's to ensure that they are designed to good HFE principles and support performance and reliability in order to protect public health and safety. However, the only available NRC guidance was developed more than ten years ago, and does not adequately address the human performance issues and technology changes associated with ACR's. Accordingly, a new approach to ACR safety reviews was developed based upon the concept of 'convergent validity'. This approach to ACR safety reviews is described.

  19. Nuclear fuel elements and method of making same

    DOEpatents

    Schweitzer, Donald G.

    1992-01-01

    A nuclear fuel element for a high temperature gas nuclear reactor that has an average operating temperature in excess of 2000.degree. C., and a method of making such a fuel element. The fuel element is characterized by having fissionable fuel material localized and stabilized within pores of a carbon or graphite member by melting the fissionable material to cause it to chemically react with the carbon walls of the pores. The fissionable fuel material is further stabilized and localized within the pores of the graphite member by providing one or more coatings of pyrolytic carbon or diamond surrounding the porous graphite member so that each layer defines a successive barrier against migration of the fissionable fuel from the pores, and so that the outermost layer of pyrolytic carbon or diamond forms a barrier between the fissionable material and the moderating gases used in an associated high temperature gas reactor. The method of the invention provides for making such new elements either as generally spherically elements, or as flexible filaments, or as other relatively small-sized fuel elements that are particularly suited for use in high temperature gas reactors.

  20. Surrogate Nuclear Reactions and the Origin of the Heavy Elements

    SciTech Connect

    Escher, J; Ahle, L; Bernstein, L; Church, J; Dietrich, F; Forssen, C; Hoffman, R

    2004-07-13

    An innovative method for indirectly determining reaction cross sections via Surrogate Nuclear Reactions is presented. Exploring indirect approaches for obtaining reaction cross sections is important since a large number of nuclear reactions relevant to astrophysics cannot be measured with currently available techniques. A program is outlined for developing a comprehensive framework for planning and interpreting experiments that can yield the cross sections of interest. The applications will focus on reactions involving unstable nuclei that play a key role in the production of the elements between iron and uranium.

  1. The International Safety Framework for nuclear power source applications in outer space-Useful and substantial guidance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Summerer, L.; Wilcox, R. E.; Bechtel, R.; Harbison, S.

    2015-06-01

    In 2009, the International Safety Framework for Nuclear Power Source Applications in Outer Space was adopted, following a multi-year process that involved all major space faring nations under the auspices of a partnership between the UN Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space and the International Atomic Energy Agency. The Safety Framework reflects an international consensus on best practices to achieve safety. Following the 1992 UN Principles Relevant to the Use of Nuclear Power Sources in Outer Space, it is the second attempt by the international community to draft guidance promoting the safety of applications of nuclear power sources in space missions. NPS applications in space have unique safety considerations compared with terrestrial applications. Mission launch and outer space operational requirements impose size, mass and other space environment limitations not present for many terrestrial nuclear facilities. Potential accident conditions could expose nuclear power sources to extreme physical conditions. The Safety Framework is structured to provide guidance for both the programmatic and technical aspects of safety. In addition to sections containing specific guidance for governments and for management, it contains technical guidance pertinent to the design, development and all mission phases of space NPS applications. All sections of the Safety Framework contain elements directly relevant to engineers and space mission designers for missions involving space nuclear power sources. The challenge for organisations and engineers involved in the design and development processes of space nuclear power sources and applications is to implement the guidance provided in the Safety Framework by integrating it into the existing standard space mission infrastructure of design, development and operational requirements, practices and processes. This adds complexity to the standard space mission and launch approval processes. The Safety Framework is deliberately

  2. History of US nuclear weapon safety assessment: The early years

    SciTech Connect

    Spray, S.D.

    1996-06-01

    From the beginnings of the U.S. nuclear weapons program, military and civilian dual- agency judgment has been fundamental to achieving nuclear weapon and weapon system safety. This interaction was initiated by the Atomic Energy Act of 1946, which created the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC). The principle of using dual-agency judgment has been perpetuated in the design and assessment of the weapon and weapon system acceptance process since that time. This fundamental approach is still used today in all phases of the weapon life. In this paper, an overview of the history and philosophy of the approach is described.

  3. The elements of a commercial human spaceflight safety reporting system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, Ian

    2017-10-01

    In its report on the SpaceShipTwo accident the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) included in its recommendations that the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) ;in collaboration with the commercial spaceflight industry, continue work to implement a database of lessons learned from commercial space mishap investigations and encourage commercial space industry members to voluntarily submit lessons learned.; In its official response to the NTSB the FAA supported this recommendation and indicated it has initiated an iterative process to put into place a framework for a cooperative safety data sharing process including the sharing of lessons learned, and trends analysis. Such a framework is an important element of an overall commercial human spaceflight safety system.

  4. Medical safety and community practice: necessary elements and barriers to implement a safety learning system.

    PubMed

    O'Beirne, Maeve; Sterling, Pam D

    2009-01-01

    A safety learning system (SLS) is a system that monitors patient safety incident information and analyzes it to develop and implement improvement strategies to increase patient safety. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the necessary elements of a community-based family medicine practice SLS in Alberta Health Services - Calgary zone, and barriers to, and facilitators of, the implementation of this system. An SLS was developed in the research program Medical Safety in Community Practice. To determine the elements necessary to implement an SLS in community-based family medicine practice, we performed a comprehensive literature review, internal investigator discussions and internal investigator and external stakeholder reviews of key design elements. The system is currently being implemented and tested in community-based family practices as part of the program. Steps identified for implementation: included determining key design elements including creating a website and ascertaining a classification system or taxonomy; developing recruitment strategies; establishing an incident analysis methodology; building a knowledge translation strategy; and pursuing sustainability. These elements produced an SLS that is easily incorporated into community-based family medicine clinics.

  5. Qualification of Safety-Related Software in Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, G L

    2000-06-13

    Digital instrumentation and control systems have the potential of offering significant benefits over traditional analog systems in Nuclear Power Plant safety systems, but there are also significant difficulties in qualifying digital systems to the satisfaction of regulators. Digital systems differ in fundamental ways from analog systems. New methods for safety qualification, which take these differences into account, would ease the regulatory cost and promote use of digital systems. This paper offers a possible method for assisting in the analysis of digital system software, as one step in an improved qualification process.

  6. Safety assessment of a robotic system handling nuclear material

    SciTech Connect

    Atcitty, C.B.; Robinson, D.G.

    1996-02-01

    This paper outlines the use of a Failure Modes and Effects Analysis for the safety assessment of a robotic system being developed at Sandia National Laboratories. The robotic system, The Weigh and Leak Check System, is to replace a manual process at the Department of Energy facility at Pantex by which nuclear material is inspected for weight and leakage. Failure Modes and Effects Analyses were completed for the robotics process to ensure that safety goals for the system had been meet. These analyses showed that the risks to people and the internal and external environment were acceptable.

  7. Reevaluating nuclear safety and security in a post 9/11 era.

    SciTech Connect

    Booker, Paul M.; Brown, Lisa M.

    2005-07-01

    This report has the following topics: (1) Changing perspectives on nuclear safety and security; (2) Evolving needs in a post-9/11 era; (3) Nuclear Weapons--An attractive terrorist target; (4) The case for increased safety; (5) Evolution of current nuclear weapons safety and security; (6) Integrated surety; (7) The role of safety and security in enabling responsiveness; (8) Advances in surety technologies; and (9) Reevaluating safety.

  8. 77 FR 50727 - Configuration Management Plans for Digital Computer Software Used in Safety Systems of Nuclear...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-22

    ... in Safety Systems of Nuclear Power Plants.'' The DG-1206 is proposed Revision 1 of RG 1.169, dated... Digital Computer Software Used in Safety Systems of Nuclear Power Plants'' is temporarily identified by... Plans for Digital Computer Software Used in Safety Systems of Nuclear Power Plants'' dated September...

  9. Developing glovebox robotics to meet the national robot safety standard and nuclear safety criteria

    SciTech Connect

    McMahon, T.T.; Sievers, R.H. )

    1991-09-01

    Development of a glove box based robotic system by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is reported. Safety issues addressed include planning to meet the special constraints of operations within a hazardous material glove box and with hostile environments, compliance with the current and draft national robotic system safety standards, and eventual satisfaction of nuclear material handling requirements. Special attention has been required for the revision to the robot and control system models which antedate adoption of the present national safety standard. A robotic test bed, using non-radioactive surrogates is being activated at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to develop the material handling system and the process interfaces for future special nuclear material processing applications. Part of this effort is to define, test, and revise adequate safety controls to ensure success when the system is eventually deployed at a DOE site. The current system is primarily for demonstration and testing, but will evolve into the baseline configuration from which the production system is to be derived. This results in special hazards associated with research activities which may not be present on a production line. Nuclear safety is of paramount importance and has been successfully addressed for 50 years in the DOE weapons production complex. It carries its particular requirements for robot systems and manual operations, as summarized below: Criticality must be avoided (materials cannot consolidate or accumulate to approach a critical mass). Radioactive materials must be confined. The public and workers must be protected from accountable radiation exposure. Nuclear material must be readily retrievable. Nuclear safety must be conclusively demonstrated through hazards analysis. 7 refs.

  10. FABRICATION OF TUBE TYPE FUEL ELEMENT FOR NUCLEAR REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Loeb, E.; Nicklas, J.H.

    1959-02-01

    A method of fabricating a nuclear reactor fuel element is given. It consists essentially of fixing two tubes in concentric relationship with respect to one another to provide an annulus therebetween, filling the annulus with a fissionablematerial-containing powder, compacting the powder material within the annulus and closing the ends thereof. The powder material is further compacted by swaging the inner surface of the inner tube to increase its diameter while maintaining the original size of the outer tube. This process results in reduced fabrication costs of powdered fissionable material type fuel elements and a substantial reduction in the peak core temperatures while materially enhancing the heat removal characteristics.

  11. Formal Nuclear and Atomic Structure of the Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nduka, Amagh

    2004-05-01

    In the paper "The Space of 4-Operators and the Unification of the Fundamental Interactions" (see APS paper with log number 10016) we discussed the Fundamental Particle Scheme (not the Standard Model). As an application of the theory, we discuss in this paper formal atomic and nuclear structures and (1) deduce the correct periodic table of the elements that accounts for the missing elements of the empirically derived Chancourtois-Newlands-Lothar Meyer-Mendeleev table; and a table of the nuclides, (2) calculate the mass of the electron neutrino, and deduce the missing mass and dark matter of the universe.

  12. Nuclear Safety of RBMK Storage Pool under Seismic Impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedosov, A.

    2017-01-01

    Nuclear safety of RBMK storage pool of spent fuel during of the maximum design earthquake is evaluated. The lower ends of the fuel assemblies are not fixed and they can deviate from the vertical position. The seismic action may be one of the reasons for such deviations. 3D model of fuel assemblies movements caused by seismic impact is used. The simulation of the dynamics of a fuel assemblies group under seismic impacts allows to find the dangerous configuration of closest approach of the fuel assemblies. Three-dimensional neutron program STEPAN calculates the Keff of the most dangerous systems. The maximum design earthquake is the design basis accident. In this case according to the regulatory documents the fuel is considered with zero burn-up. Nuclear safety of RBMK storage pool under considered conditions is provided.

  13. Nuclear Thermal Rocket Element Environmental Simulator (NTREES) Upgrade Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emrich, William

    2013-01-01

    A key technology element in Nuclear Thermal Propulsion is the development of fuel materials and components which can withstand extremely high temperatures while being exposed to flowing hydrogen. NTREES provides a cost effective method for rapidly screening of candidate fuel components with regard to their viability for use in NTR systems. The NTREES is designed to mimic the conditions (minus the radiation) to which nuclear rocket fuel elements and other components would be subjected to during reactor operation. The NTREES consists of a water cooled ASME code stamped pressure vessel and its associated control hardware and instrumentation coupled with inductive heaters to simulate the heat provided by the fission process. The NTREES has been designed to safely allow hydrogen gas to be injected into internal flow passages of an inductively heated test article mounted in the chamber.

  14. Modeling and Simulation of a Nuclear Fuel Element Test Section

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moran, Robert P.; Emrich, William

    2011-01-01

    "The Nuclear Thermal Rocket Element Environmental Simulator" test section closely simulates the internal operating conditions of a thermal nuclear rocket. The purpose of testing is to determine the ideal fuel rod characteristics for optimum thermal heat transfer to their hydrogen cooling/working fluid while still maintaining fuel rod structural integrity. Working fluid exhaust temperatures of up to 5,000 degrees Fahrenheit can be encountered. The exhaust gas is rendered inert and massively reduced in temperature for analysis using a combination of water cooling channels and cool N2 gas injectors in the H2-N2 mixer portion of the test section. An extensive thermal fluid analysis was performed in support of the engineering design of the H2-N2 mixer in order to determine the maximum "mass flow rate"-"operating temperature" curve of the fuel elements hydrogen exhaust gas based on the test facilities available cooling N2 mass flow rate as the limiting factor.

  15. What You Should Know About Pediatric Nuclear Medicine and Radiation Safety

    MedlinePlus

    What You Should Know About Pediatric Nuclear Medicine and Radiation Safety www.imagegently.org What is nuclear medicine? Nuclear medicine uses radioactive isotopes to create pictures of the human body. These pictures ...

  16. 75 FR 50009 - Babcock & Wilcox Nuclear Operations Group, Inc.; Establishment of Atomic Safety and Licensing Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-16

    ... COMMISSION Babcock & Wilcox Nuclear Operations Group, Inc.; Establishment of Atomic Safety and Licensing... & Wilcox Nuclear Operations Group, Inc. (Lynchburg, VA Facility). This proceeding concerns an Order Imposing Civil Monetary Penalty served upon the Licensee, Babcock & Wilcox Nuclear Operations Group,...

  17. Safety provisions for the SP-100 Nuclear Assembly Test article

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Temme, Mark I.; Damon, Dennis R.; Hackford, Norman E.; Ha, Chuong T.; Mapes, Robert L.; Miller, David D.; Smith, Michael A.

    The SP-100 Nuclear Assembly Test (NAT) article is charged with the validation of such a fast-spectrum, liquid metal-cooled reactor's integrated reactor, control, and shield performance characteristics in a spacelike environment. The NAT facility is designed for safe assembly, operation, disassembly, and disposal. Attention is presently given to the selection and classification of postulated accidents, safety design criteria, reactor trip parameters, and the structure of accident analyses.

  18. Double-clad nuclear-fuel safety rod

    DOEpatents

    McCarthy, W.H.; Atcheson, D.B.

    1981-12-30

    A device for shutting down a nuclear reactor during an undercooling or overpower event, whether or not the reactor's scram system operates properly. This is accomplished by double-clad fuel safety rods positioned at various locations throughout the reactor core, wherein melting of a secondary internal cladding of the rod allows the fuel column therein to shift from the reactor core to place the reactor in a subcritical condition.

  19. Space Nuclear Safety Program. Progress report, November 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Bronisz, S.E.

    1984-06-01

    This technical monthly report covers studies related to the use of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ in radioisotope power systems carried out for the Office of Special Nuclear Projects of the US Department of Energy by Los Alamos National Laboratory. Topics discussed include: safety-verification impact tests; explosion test; fragment test; leaking fueled clads; effects of fresh water and seawater or PuO/sub 2/ pellets; and impact tests of 5 watt radioisotope thermoelectric generator.

  20. Merger of Nuclear Data with Criticality Safety Calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Derrien, H.; Larson, N.M.; Leal, L.C.

    1999-09-20

    In this paper we report on current activities related to the merger of differential/integral data (especially in the resolved-resonance region) with nuclear criticality safety computations. Techniques are outlined for closer coupling of many processes � measurement, data reduction, differential-data analysis, integral-data analysis, generating multigroup cross sections, data-testing, criticality computations � which in the past have been treated independently.

  1. Low Cost Nuclear Thermal Rocket Cermet Fuel Element Environment Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradley, D. E.; Mireles, O. R.; Hickman, R. R.

    2011-01-01

    Deep space missions with large payloads require high specific impulse and relatively high thrust to achieve mission goals in reasonable time frames.1,2 Conventional storable propellants produce average specific impulse. Nuclear thermal rockets capable of producing high specific impulse are proposed. Nuclear thermal rockets employ heat produced by fission reaction to heat and therefore accelerate hydrogen, which is then forced through a rocket nozzle providing thrust. Fuel element temperatures are very high (up to 3000 K), and hydrogen is highly reactive with most materials at high temperatures. Data covering the effects of high-temperature hydrogen exposure on fuel elements are limited.3 The primary concern is the mechanical failure of fuel elements that employ high-melting-point metals, ceramics, or a combination (cermet) as a structural matrix into which the nuclear fuel is distributed. The purpose of the testing is to obtain data to assess the properties of the non-nuclear support materials, as-fabricated, and determine their ability to survive and maintain thermal performance in a prototypical NTR reactor environment of exposure to hydrogen at very high temperatures. The fission process of the planned fissile material and the resulting heating performance is well known and does not therefore require that active fissile material be integrated in this testing. A small-scale test bed designed to heat fuel element samples via non-contact radio frequency heating and expose samples to hydrogen is being developed to assist in optimal material and manufacturing process selection without employing fissile material. This paper details the test bed design and results of testing conducted to date.

  2. Communication elements supporting patient safety in psychiatric inpatient care.

    PubMed

    Kanerva, A; Kivinen, T; Lammintakanen, J

    2015-06-01

    Communication is important for safe and quality health care. The study provides needed insight on the communication elements that support patient safety from the psychiatric care view. Fluent information transfer between the health care professionals and care units is important for care planning and maintaining practices. Information should be documented and implemented accordingly. Communication should happen in an open communication culture that enables discussion, the opportunity to have debriefing discussions and the entire staff can feel they are heard. For effective communication, it is also important that staff are active themselves in information collecting about the essential information needed in patient care. In mental health nursing, it is important to pay attention to all elements of communication and to develop processes concerning communication in multidisciplinary teams and across unit boundaries. The study aims to describe which communication elements support patient safety in psychiatric inpatient care from the viewpoint of the nursing staff. Communication is an essential part of care and one of the core competencies of the psychiatric care. It enables safe and quality patient care. Errors in health care are often connected with poor communication. The study brings needed insight from the psychiatric care view to the topic. The data were gathered from semi-structured interviews in which 26 nurses were asked to describe the elements that constitute patient safety in psychiatric inpatient care. The data were analysed inductively from the viewpoint of communication. The descriptions connected with communication formed a main category of communication elements that support patient safety; this main category was made up of three subcategories: fluent information transfer, open communication culture and being active in information collecting. Fluent information transfer consists of the practical implementation of communication; open communication

  3. A comparison of commercial/industry and nuclear weapons safety concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, R.R.; Summers, D.A.

    1996-07-01

    In this paper the authors identify factors which influence the safety philosophy used in the US commercial/industrial sector and compare them against those factors which influence nuclear weapons safety. Commercial/industrial safety is guided by private and public safety standards. Generally, private safety standards tend to emphasize product reliability issues while public (i.e., government) safety standards tend to emphasize human factors issues. Safety in the nuclear weapons arena is driven by federal requirements and memoranda of understanding (MOUs) between the Departments of Defense and Energy. Safety is achieved through passive design features integrated into the nuclear weapon. Though the common strand between commercial/industrial and nuclear weapons safety is the minimization of risk posed to the general population (i.e., public safety), the authors found that each sector tends to employ a different safety approach to view and resolve high-consequence safety issues.

  4. Neutrinoless double beta nuclear matrix elements around mass 80 in the nuclear shell-model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshinaga, N.; Higashiyama, K.; Taguchi, D.; Teruya, E.

    2015-05-01

    The observation of the neutrinoless double-beta decay can determine whether the neutrino is a Majorana particle or not. For theoretical nuclear physics it is particularly important to estimate three types of matrix elements, namely Fermi (F), Gamow-Teller (GT), and tensor (T) matrix elements. In this paper, we carry out shell-model calculations and also pair-truncated shell-model calculations to check the model dependence in the case of mass A=82 nuclei.

  5. Work practices, fatigue, and nuclear power plant safety performance.

    PubMed

    Baker, K; Olson, J; Morisseau, D

    1994-06-01

    This paper focuses on work practices that may contribute to fatigue-induced performance decrements in the commercial nuclear power industry. Specifically, the amount of overtime worked by operations, technical, and maintenance personnel and the 12-h operator shift schedule are studied. Although overtime for all three job categories was fairly high at a number of plants, the analyses detected a clear statistical relationship only between operations overtime and plant safety performance. The results for the 12-h operator shift schedule were ambiguous. Although the 12-h operator shift schedule was correlated with operator error, it was not significantly related to the other five safety indicators. This research suggests that at least one of the existing work practices--the amount of operator overtime worked at some plants--represents a safety concern in this industry; however, further research is required before any definitive conclusions can be drawn.

  6. PRELIMINARY NUCLEAR CRITICALITY NUCLEAR SAFETY EVLAUATION FOR THE CONTAINER SURVEILLANCE AND STORAGE CAPABILITY PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Low, M; Matthew02 Miller, M; Thomas Reilly, T

    2007-04-30

    Washington Safety Management Solutions (WSMS) provides criticality safety services to Washington Savannah River Company (WSRC) at the Savannah River Site. One activity at SRS is the Container Surveillance and Storage Capability (CSSC) Project, which will perform surveillances on 3013 containers (hereafter referred to as 3013s) to verify that they meet the Department of Energy (DOE) Standard (STD) 3013 for plutonium storage. The project will handle quantities of material that are greater than ANS/ANSI-8.1 single parameter mass limits, and thus required a Nuclear Criticality Safety Evaluation (NCSE). The WSMS methodology for conducting an NCSE is outlined in the WSMS methods manual. The WSMS methods manual currently follows the requirements of DOE-O-420.1B, DOE-STD-3007-2007, and the Washington Savannah River Company (WSRC) SCD-3 manual. DOE-STD-3007-2007 describes how a NCSE should be performed, while DOE-O-420.1B outlines the requirements for a Criticality Safety Program (CSP). The WSRC SCD-3 manual implements DOE requirements and ANS standards. NCSEs do not address the Nuclear Criticality Safety (NCS) of non-reactor nuclear facilities that may be affected by overt or covert activities of sabotage, espionage, terrorism or other security malevolence. Events which are beyond the Design Basis Accidents (DBAs) are outside the scope of a double contingency analysis.

  7. Low Cost Nuclear Thermal Rocket Cermet Fuel Element Environment Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradley, David E.; Mireles, Omar R.; Hickman, Robert R.

    2011-01-01

    Deep space missions with large payloads require high specific impulse (Isp) and relatively high thrust in order to achieve mission goals in reasonable time frames. Conventional, storable propellants produce average Isp. Nuclear thermal rockets (NTR) capable of high Isp thrust have been proposed. NTR employs heat produced by fission reaction to heat and therefore accelerate hydrogen which is then forced through a rocket nozzle providing thrust. Fuel element temperatures are very high (up to 3000K) and hydrogen is highly reactive with most materials at high temperatures. Data covering the effects of high temperature hydrogen exposure on fuel elements is limited. The primary concern is the mechanical failure of fuel elements which employ high-melting-point metals, ceramics or a combination (cermet) as a structural matrix into which the nuclear fuel is distributed. It is not necessary to include fissile material in test samples intended to explore high temperature hydrogen exposure of the structural support matrices. A small-scale test bed designed to heat fuel element samples via non-contact RF heating and expose samples to hydrogen is being developed to assist in optimal material and manufacturing process selection without employing fissile material. This paper details the test bed design and results of testing conducted to date.

  8. ANSI/ANS-8.15-1981(R87): Nuclear criticality control of special actinide elements

    SciTech Connect

    Brewer, R.W.; Pruvost, N.L.; Rombough, C.T.

    1996-12-31

    The American National Standard, {open_quotes}Nuclear Criticality Safety in Operations with Fissionable Materials Outside Reactotors{close_quotes} American National Standards Institute/American Nuclear Society (ANSI/ANS)-8.1-1983(R88) provides guidance for the nuclides {sup 233}U, {sup 235}U, and {sup 239}Pu. These three nuclides are of primary interest in out-of-reactor criticality safety since they are the most commonly encountered in the vast majority of operations. However, some operations can involve nuclides other than {sup 233}U, {sup 235}U, and {sup 239}Pu in sufficient quantities that their effect on criticality safety could be of concern. ANSI/ANS-8.15-1981(R87) {open_quotes}Nuclear Criticality Control of Special Actinide Elements,{close_quotes} provides guidance for 15 such nuclides. The standard was approved for use on November 9, 1981. When it received its first 5-yr review, no changes were made, and it was reaffirmed effective October 30, 1987. The standard was again reviewed and reaffirmed without changes in December 1995. The next 5-yr review of the standard is due in December 2000. The affected nuclides are {sup 237}Np, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 240}Pu, {sup 242}Pu, {sup 241}Am, {sup 243}Am, {sup 244}Cm, {sup 239}Pu, {sup 241}Pu, {sup 242m}Am, {sup 243}Cm, {sup 245}Cm, {sup 247}Cm, {sup 249}Cf, and {sup 251}Cf.

  9. ORNL Nuclear Safety Research and Development Program Bimonthly Report for July-August 1968

    SciTech Connect

    Cottrell, W.B.

    2001-08-17

    The accomplishments during the months of July and August in the research and development program under way at ORNL as part of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission's Nuclear Safety Program are summarized, Included in this report are work on various chemical reactions, as well as the release, characterization, and transport of fission products in containment systems under various accident conditions and on problems associated with the removal of these fission products from gas streams. Although most of this work is in general support of water-cooled power reactor technology, including LOFT and CSE programs, the work reflects the current safety problems, such as measurements of the prompt fuel element failure phenomena and the efficacy of containment spray and pool-suppression systems for fission-product removal. Several projects are also conducted in support of the high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR). Other major projects include fuel-transport safety investigations, a series of discussion papers on various aspects of water-reactor technology, antiseismic design of nuclear facilities, and studies of primary piping and steel, pressure-vessel technology. Experimental work relative to pressure-vessel technology includes investigations of the attachment of nozzles to shells and the implementation of joint AEX-PVFX programs on heavy-section steel technology and nuclear piping, pumps, and valves. Several of the projects are directly related to another major undertaking; namely, the AEC's standards program, which entails development of engineering safeguards and the establishment of codes and standards for government-owned or -sponsored reactor facilities. Another task, CHORD-S, is concerned with the establishment of computer programs for the evaluation of reactor design data, The recent activities of the NSIC and the Nuclear Safety journal in behalf of the nuclear community are also discussed.

  10. ORNL Nuclear Safety Research and Development Program Bimonthly Report for September-October 1968

    SciTech Connect

    Cottrell, W.B.

    2001-08-17

    The accomplishments during the months of September and October in the research and development program under way at ORNL as part of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission's Nuclear Safety Program are summarized. Included in this report are work on various chemical reactions, as well as the release, characterization, and transport of fission products in containment systems under various accident conditions and on problems associated with the removal of these fission products from gas streams. Although most of this work is in general support of water-cooled power reactor technology, including LOFT and CSE programs, the work reflects the current safety problems, such as measurements of the prompt fuel element failure phenomena and the efficacy of containment spray and pool-suppression systems for fission-product removal. Several projects are also conducted in support of the high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR). Other major projects include fuel-transport safety investigations, a series cf discussion papers on various aspects of water-reactor technology, antiseismic design of nuclear facilities, and studies of primary piping and steel pressure-vessel technology. Experimental work relative to pressure-vessel technology includes investigations of the attachment of nozzles to shells and the implementation of joint AEC-PVRC programs on heavy-section steel technology and nuclear piping, pumps, and valves. Several of the projects are directly related to another major undertaking; namely, the AEC's standards program, which entails development of engineering safeguards and the establishment of codes and standards for government-owned or -sponsored reactor facilities. Another task, CHORD-S, is concerned with the establishment of computer programs for the evaluation of reactor design data. The recent activities of the NSIC and the Nuclear Safety journal in behalf of the nuclear community are also discussed.

  11. Safety system augmentation at Russian Nuclear Power Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scerbo, J. A.; Satpute, S. N.; Donkin, J. Y.; Reister, R. A.

    1997-06-01

    This paper describes the design and procurement of a Class 1E DC power supply system to upgrade plant safety at the Kola Nuclear Power Plant (NPP). Kola NPP is located above the Arctic circle at Polyanie Zprie, Murmansk, Russia. Kola NPP consists of four units. Units 1 and 2 have VVER-440/230 type reactors: Units 3 and 4 have VVER-440/213 type reactors. The VVER 440 reactor design is similar to the pressurized water reactor design used in the US. This project provided redundant Class 1E DC station batteries and DC switchboards for Kola NPP, Units 1 and 2. The new DC power supply system was designed and procured in compliance with current nuclear design practices and requirements. Technical issues that needed to be addressed included reconciling the requirements in both US and Russian codes and satisfying the requirements of the Russian nuclear regulatory authority. Close interface with ATOMENERGOPROEKT (AEP), the Russian design organization, KOLA NPP plant personnel, and GOSATOMNASZOR (GAN), the Russian Version of US Nuclear Regulatory Commission was necessary to develop a design that would assure compliance with current Russian design requirements. Hence, this project was expected to serve as an example for plant upgrades at other similar VVER-440 nuclear plants. In addition to technical issues, the project needed to address language barriers and the logistics of shipping equipment to a remote section of the Former Soviet Union.

  12. Lessons from Fukushima for Improving the Safety of Nuclear Reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyman, Edwin

    2012-02-01

    The March 2011 accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant has revealed serious vulnerabilities in the design, operation and regulation of nuclear power plants. While some aspects of the accident were plant- and site-specific, others have implications that are broadly applicable to the current generation of nuclear plants in operation around the world. Although many of the details of the accident progression and public health consequences are still unclear, there are a number of lessons that can already be drawn. The accident demonstrated the need at nuclear plants for robust, highly reliable backup power sources capable of functioning for many days in the event of a complete loss of primary off-site and on-site electrical power. It highlighted the importance of detailed planning for severe accident management that realistically evaluates the capabilities of personnel to carry out mitigation operations under extremely hazardous conditions. It showed how emergency plans rooted in the assumption that only one reactor at a multi-unit site would be likely to experience a crisis fail miserably in the event of an accident affecting multiple reactor units simultaneously. It revealed that alternate water injection following a severe accident could be needed for weeks or months, generating large volumes of contaminated water that must be contained. And it reinforced the grim lesson of Chernobyl: that a nuclear reactor accident could lead to widespread radioactive contamination with profound implications for public health, the economy and the environment. While many nations have re-examined their policies regarding nuclear power safety in the months following the accident, it remains to be seen to what extent the world will take the lessons of Fukushima seriously and make meaningful changes in time to avert another, and potentially even worse, nuclear catastrophe.

  13. Nuclear Safety. Technical Progress Journal, October--December 1992: Volume 33, No. 4

    SciTech Connect

    1992-01-01

    This review journal covers significant developments in the field of nuclear safety. Its scope includes the analysis and control of hazards associated with nuclear energy, operations involving fissionable materials, and the products of nuclear fission and their effects on the environment. Primary emphasis is on safety in reactor design, construction, and operation; however, the safety aspects of the entire fuel cycle, including fuel fabrication, spent-fuel processing, nuclear waste disposal, handling of radioisotopes, and environmental effects of these operations, are also treated.

  14. Nuclear Safety. Technical Progress Journal, January--March 1993: Volume 34, No. 1

    SciTech Connect

    1993-01-01

    This review journal covers significant developments in the field of nuclear safety. Its scope includes the analysis and control of hazards associated with nuclear energy, operations involving fissionable materials, and the products of nuclear fission and their effects on the environment. Primary emphasis is on safety in reactor design, construction, and operation; however, the safety aspects of the entire fuel cycle, including fuel fabrication, spent-fuel processing, nuclear waste disposal, handling of radioisotopes, and environmental effects of these operations, are also treated.

  15. Nuclear Safety. Technical progress journal, April--June 1996: Volume 37, No. 2

    SciTech Connect

    Muhlheim, M D

    1996-01-01

    This journal covers significant issues in the field of nuclear safety. Its primary scope is safety in the design, construction, operation, and decommissioning of nuclear power reactors worldwide and the research and analysis activities that promote this goal, but it also encompasses the safety aspects of the entire nuclear fuel cycle, including fuel fabrication, spent-fuel processing and handling, nuclear waste disposal, the handling of fissionable materials and radioisotopes, and the environmental effects of all these activities.

  16. Nuclear Safety. Technical progress journal, April--June 1992: Volume 33, No.2

    SciTech Connect

    Silver, E G

    1992-01-01

    This review journal covers significant developments in the field of nuclear safety. Its scope includes the analysis and control of hazards associated with nuclear energy, operations involving fissionable materials, and the products of nuclear fission and their effects on the environment. Primary emphasis is on safety in reactor design, construction, and operation; however, the safety aspects of the entire fuel cycle, including fuel fabrication, spent-fuel processing, nuclear waste disposal, handling of radioisotopes, and environmental effects of these operations, are also treated.

  17. Nuclear Safety. Technical Progress Journal, January--March 1992: Volume 33, No. 1

    SciTech Connect

    1992-01-01

    This review journal covers significant developments in the field of nuclear safety. Its scope includes the analysis and control of hazards associated with nuclear energy, operations involving fissionable materials, and the products of nuclear fission and their effects on the environment. Primary emphasis is on safety in reactor design, construction, and operation; however, the safety aspects of the entire fuel cycle, including fuel fabrication, spent-fuel processing, nuclear waste disposal, handling of radioisotopes, and environmental effects of these operations, are also treated.

  18. Nuclear Safety. Technical progress journal, January--March 1994: Volume 35, No. 1

    SciTech Connect

    Silver, E G

    1994-01-01

    This is a journal that covers significant issues in the field of nuclear safety. Its primary scope is safety in the design, construction, operation, and decommissioning of nuclear power reactors worldwide and the research and analysis activities that promote this goal, but it also encompasses the safety aspects of the entire nuclear fuel cycle, including fuel fabrication, spent-fuel processing and handling, and nuclear waste disposal, the handling of fissionable materials and radioisotopes, and the environmental effects of all these activities.

  19. NSPWG-recommended safety requirements and guidelines for SEI nuclear propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, Albert C.; Sawyer, J. C., Jr.; Bari, Robert A.; Brown, Neil W.; Cullingford, Hatice S.; Hardy, Alva C.; Lee, James H.; Mcculloch, William H.; Niederauer, George F.; Remp, Kerry

    1992-01-01

    An interagency Nuclear Safety Policy Working Group (NSPWG) was chartered to recommend nuclear safety policy, requirements, and guidelines for the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) nuclear propulsion program to facilitate the implementation of mission planning and conceptual design studies. The NSPWG developed a top-level policy to provide the guiding principles for the development and implementation of the nuclear propulsion safety program and the development of safety functional requirements. In addition, the NSPWG reviewed safety issues for nuclear propulsion and recommended top-level safety requirements and guidelines to address these issues. Safety requirements were developed for reactor start-up, inadvertent criticality, radiological release and exposure, disposal, entry, and safeguards. Guidelines were recommended for risk/reliability, operational safety, flight trajectory and mission abort, space debris and meteoroids, and ground test safety. In this paper the specific requirements and guidelines will be discussed.

  20. Integrated safety program for the Nuclear Electric Propulsion Space Test Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, A. C.; Mehlman, W. F.; Kompanietz, G.

    The Nuclear Electric Propulsion Space Test Program (NEPSTP) is sponsored by the Ballistic Missile Defense Office (BMDO) to demonstrate and evaluate the Russian-built TOPAZ 2 nuclear reactor as a power source for an electric propulsion system in space. From its inception, safety has been a central feature of the NEPSTP program. This paper addresses the work done to define the safety organizational relationships, responsibilities, management, engineering requirements, and documentation to assure an integrated safety program that coordinates the various safety activities in Mission Safety, Range Safety and Nuclear Safety. Because the United States has not launched a nuclear reactor since 1965, much of the focus of the safety program has been directed toward the unique safety considerations of using a nuclear reactor in space. Our preliminary findings indicate that the safe use of the TOPAZ 2 for the NEPSTP space mission is feasible.

  1. Integrated Safety Program for the Nuclear Electric Propulsion Space Test Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Albert C.; Mehlman, William F.; Kompanietz, G.

    1994-07-01

    The Nuclear Electric Propulsion Space Test Program (NEPSTP) is sponsored by the Ballistic Missile Defense Office (BMDO) to demonstrate and evaluate the Russian-built TOPAZ II nuclear reactor as a power source for an electric propulsion system in space. From its inception, safety has been a central feature of the NEPSTP program. This paper addresses the work done to define the safety organizational relationships, responsibilities, management, engineering requirements, and documentation to assure an integrated safety program that coordinates the various safety activities in Mission Safety, Range Safety and Nuclear Safety. Because the United States has not launched a nuclear reactor since 1965, much of the focus of the safety program has been directed toward the unique safety considerations of using a nuclear reactor in space. Our preliminary findings indicate that the safe use of the TOPAZ II for the NEPSTP space mission is feasible.

  2. NSPWG-recommended safety requirements and guidelines for SEI nuclear propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, Albert C.; Sawyer, J. C., Jr.; Bari, Robert A.; Brown, Neil W.; Cullingford, Hatice S.; Hardy, Alva C.; Lee, James H.; Mcculloch, William H.; Niederauer, George F.; Remp, Kerry

    1992-01-01

    An interagency Nuclear Safety Policy Working Group (NSPWG) was chartered to recommend nuclear safety policy, requirements, and guidelines for the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) nuclear propulsion program to facilitate the implementation of mission planning and conceptual design studies. The NSPWG developed a top-level policy to provide the guiding principles for the development and implementation of the nuclear propulsion safety program and the development of safety functional requirements. In addition, the NSPWG reviewed safety issues for nuclear propulsion and recommended top-level safety requirements and guidelines to address these issues. Safety requirements were developed for reactor start-up, inadvertent criticality, radiological release and exposure, disposal, entry, and safeguards. Guidelines were recommended for risk/reliability, operational safety, flight trajectory and mission abort, space debris and meteoroids, and ground test safety. In this paper the specific requirements and guidelines will be discussed.

  3. An interagency space nuclear propulsion safety policy for SEI - Issues and discussion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, A. C.; Sawyer, J. C., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    An interagency Nuclear Safety Policy Working Group (NSPWG) was chartered to recommend nuclear safety policy, requirements, and guidelines for the Space Exploration Initiative nuclear propulsion program to facilitate the implementation of mission planning and conceptual design studies. The NSPWG developed a top level policy to provide the guiding principles for the development and implementation of the nuclear propulsion safety program and the development of Safety Functional Requirements. In addition, the NSPWG reviewed safety issues for nuclear propulsion and recommended top level safety requirements and guidelines to address these issues. Safety topics include reactor start-up, inadvertent criticality, radiological release and exposure, disposal, entry, safeguards, risk/reliability, operational safety, ground testing, and other considerations. In this paper the emphasis is placed on the safety policy and the issues and considerations that are addressed by the NSPWG recommendations.

  4. NSPWG-recommended safety requirements and guidelines for SEI nuclear propulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, A.C.; Lee, J.H.; McCulloch, W.H. ); Sawyer, J.C. Jr. ); Bari, R.A. ); Brown, N.W. ); Cullingford, H.S.; Hardy, A.C. (National Aeronautics and Space Administ

    1992-01-01

    An Interagency Nuclear Safety Policy Working Group (NSPWG) was chartered to recommend nuclear safety policy, requirements, and guidelines for the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) nuclear propulsion program to facilitate the implementation of mission planning and conceptual design studies. The NSPWG developed a top- level policy to provide the guiding principles for the development and implementation of the nuclear propulsion safety program and the development of Safety Functional Requirements. In addition the NSPWG reviewed safety issues for nuclear propulsion and recommended top-level safety requirements and guidelines to address these issues. Safety requirements were developed for reactor start-up, inadvertent criticality, radiological release and exposure, disposal, entry, and safeguards. Guidelines were recommended for risk/reliability, operational safety, flight trajectory and mission abort, space debris and meteoroids, and ground test safety. In this paper the specific requirements and guidelines will be discussed.

  5. NSPWG-recommended safety requirements and guidelines for SEI nuclear propulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, A.C.; Lee, J.H.; McCulloch, W.H.; Sawyer, J.C. Jr.; Bari, R.A.; Brown, N.W.; Cullingford, H.S.; Hardy, A.C.; Niederauer, G.F.; Remp, K.; Rice, J.W.; Sholtis, J.A.

    1992-09-01

    An Interagency Nuclear Safety Policy Working Group (NSPWG) was chartered to recommend nuclear safety policy, requirements, and guidelines for the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) nuclear propulsion program to facilitate the implementation of mission planning and conceptual design studies. The NSPWG developed a top- level policy to provide the guiding principles for the development and implementation of the nuclear propulsion safety program and the development of Safety Functional Requirements. In addition the NSPWG reviewed safety issues for nuclear propulsion and recommended top-level safety requirements and guidelines to address these issues. Safety requirements were developed for reactor start-up, inadvertent criticality, radiological release and exposure, disposal, entry, and safeguards. Guidelines were recommended for risk/reliability, operational safety, flight trajectory and mission abort, space debris and meteoroids, and ground test safety. In this paper the specific requirements and guidelines will be discussed.

  6. NSPWG-recommended safety requirements and guidelines for SEI nuclear propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Albert C.; Sawyer, J. C., Jr.; Bari, Robert A.; Brown, Neil W.; Cullingford, Hatice S.; Hardy, Alva C.; Lee, James H.; McCulloch, William H.; Niederauer, George F.; Remp, Kerry

    1992-07-01

    An interagency Nuclear Safety Policy Working Group (NSPWG) was chartered to recommend nuclear safety policy, requirements, and guidelines for the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) nuclear propulsion program to facilitate the implementation of mission planning and conceptual design studies. The NSPWG developed a top-level policy to provide the guiding principles for the development and implementation of the nuclear propulsion safety program and the development of safety functional requirements. In addition, the NSPWG reviewed safety issues for nuclear propulsion and recommended top-level safety requirements and guidelines to address these issues. Safety requirements were developed for reactor start-up, inadvertent criticality, radiological release and exposure, disposal, entry, and safeguards. Guidelines were recommended for risk/reliability, operational safety, flight trajectory and mission abort, space debris and meteoroids, and ground test safety. In this paper the specific requirements and guidelines will be discussed.

  7. An interagency space nuclear propulsion safety policy for SEI - Issues and discussion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, A. C.; Sawyer, J. C., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    An interagency Nuclear Safety Policy Working Group (NSPWG) was chartered to recommend nuclear safety policy, requirements, and guidelines for the Space Exploration Initiative nuclear propulsion program to facilitate the implementation of mission planning and conceptual design studies. The NSPWG developed a top level policy to provide the guiding principles for the development and implementation of the nuclear propulsion safety program and the development of Safety Functional Requirements. In addition, the NSPWG reviewed safety issues for nuclear propulsion and recommended top level safety requirements and guidelines to address these issues. Safety topics include reactor start-up, inadvertent criticality, radiological release and exposure, disposal, entry, safeguards, risk/reliability, operational safety, ground testing, and other considerations. In this paper the emphasis is placed on the safety policy and the issues and considerations that are addressed by the NSPWG recommendations.

  8. Porous nuclear fuel element with internal skeleton for high-temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactors

    DOEpatents

    Youchison, Dennis L.; Williams, Brian E.; Benander, Robert E.

    2013-09-03

    Porous nuclear fuel elements for use in advanced high temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactors (HTGR's), and to processes for fabricating them. Advanced uranium bi-carbide, uranium tri-carbide and uranium carbonitride nuclear fuels can be used. These fuels have high melting temperatures, high thermal conductivity, and high resistance to erosion by hot hydrogen gas. Tri-carbide fuels, such as (U,Zr,Nb)C, can be fabricated using chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) to simultaneously deposit each of the three separate carbides, e.g., UC, ZrC, and NbC in a single CVI step. By using CVI, the nuclear fuel may be deposited inside of a highly porous skeletal structure made of, for example, reticulated vitreous carbon foam.

  9. Porous nuclear fuel element for high-temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactors

    DOEpatents

    Youchison, Dennis L [Albuquerque, NM; Williams, Brian E [Pacoima, CA; Benander, Robert E [Pacoima, CA

    2011-03-01

    Porous nuclear fuel elements for use in advanced high temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactors (HTGR's), and to processes for fabricating them. Advanced uranium bi-carbide, uranium tri-carbide and uranium carbonitride nuclear fuels can be used. These fuels have high melting temperatures, high thermal conductivity, and high resistance to erosion by hot hydrogen gas. Tri-carbide fuels, such as (U,Zr,Nb)C, can be fabricated using chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) to simultaneously deposit each of the three separate carbides, e.g., UC, ZrC, and NbC in a single CVI step. By using CVI, the nuclear fuel may be deposited inside of a highly porous skeletal structure made of, for example, reticulated vitreous carbon foam.

  10. Methods for manufacturing porous nuclear fuel elements for high-temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactors

    DOEpatents

    Youchison, Dennis L [Albuquerque, NM; Williams, Brian E [Pocoima, CA; Benander, Robert E [Pacoima, CA

    2010-02-23

    Methods for manufacturing porous nuclear fuel elements for use in advanced high temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactors (HTGR's). Advanced uranium bi-carbide, uranium tri-carbide and uranium carbonitride nuclear fuels can be used. These fuels have high melting temperatures, high thermal conductivity, and high resistance to erosion by hot hydrogen gas. Tri-carbide fuels, such as (U,Zr,Nb)C, can be fabricated using chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) to simultaneously deposit each of the three separate carbides, e.g., UC, ZrC, and NbC in a single CVI step. By using CVI, a thin coating of nuclear fuel may be deposited inside of a highly porous skeletal structure made, for example, of reticulated vitreous carbon foam.

  11. Foundational development of an advanced nuclear reactor integrated safety code.

    SciTech Connect

    Clarno, Kevin; Lorber, Alfred Abraham; Pryor, Richard J.; Spotz, William F.; Schmidt, Rodney Cannon; Belcourt, Kenneth; Hooper, Russell Warren; Humphries, Larry LaRon

    2010-02-01

    This report describes the activities and results of a Sandia LDRD project whose objective was to develop and demonstrate foundational aspects of a next-generation nuclear reactor safety code that leverages advanced computational technology. The project scope was directed towards the systems-level modeling and simulation of an advanced, sodium cooled fast reactor, but the approach developed has a more general applicability. The major accomplishments of the LDRD are centered around the following two activities. (1) The development and testing of LIME, a Lightweight Integrating Multi-physics Environment for coupling codes that is designed to enable both 'legacy' and 'new' physics codes to be combined and strongly coupled using advanced nonlinear solution methods. (2) The development and initial demonstration of BRISC, a prototype next-generation nuclear reactor integrated safety code. BRISC leverages LIME to tightly couple the physics models in several different codes (written in a variety of languages) into one integrated package for simulating accident scenarios in a liquid sodium cooled 'burner' nuclear reactor. Other activities and accomplishments of the LDRD include (a) further development, application and demonstration of the 'non-linear elimination' strategy to enable physics codes that do not provide residuals to be incorporated into LIME, (b) significant extensions of the RIO CFD code capabilities, (c) complex 3D solid modeling and meshing of major fast reactor components and regions, and (d) an approach for multi-physics coupling across non-conformal mesh interfaces.

  12. Nuclear reactor fuel element with vanadium getter on cladding

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Carl E.; Carroll, Kenneth G.

    1977-01-01

    A nuclear reactor fuel element is described which has an outer cladding, a central core of fissionable or mixed fissionable and fertile fuel material and a layer of vanadium as an oxygen getter on the inner surface of the cladding. The vanadium reacts with oxygen released by the fissionable material during irradiation of the core to prevent the oxygen from reacting with and corroding the cladding. Also described is a method for coating the inner surface of small diameter tubes of cladding with a layer of vanadium.

  13. (Safety and reliability of nuclear power plant technology)

    SciTech Connect

    Dickson, T.L.

    1990-10-22

    The traveler attended the 16th MPA Seminar on the Safety and Reliability of Plant Technology with Special Emphasis on Nuclear Technology. The objective of the trip was to gather information and data that could prove useful to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) sponsored Heavy-Section Steel Irradiation (HSSI) and Heavy-Section Steel Technology (HSST) Programs and to present a paper entitled, Effects of Irradiation on Initiation and Crack-Arrest Toughness of Two High-Copper Welds and on Stainless Steel Cladding. This paper summarizes results from the 5th, 6th, and 7th Irradiation Series of experiments performed within the HSSI Program by the Metals and Ceramics Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL).

  14. Nuclear reactor safety research since Three Mile Island

    SciTech Connect

    Mynatt, F.R.

    1982-04-09

    The Three Mile Island nuclear power plant accident has resulted in redirection of reactor safety research priorities. The small release to the environment of radioactive iodine-13 to 17 curies in a total radioactivity release of 2.4 million to 13 million curies-has led to a new emphasis on the physical chemistry of fission product behavior in accidents; the fact that the nuclear core was severely damaged but did not melt down has opened a new accident regime-that of the degraded core; the role of the operators in the progression and severity of the accident has shifted emphasis from equipment reliability to human reliability. As research progresses in these areas, the technical base for regulation and risk analysis will change substantially.

  15. Nuclear reactor safety research since three mile island.

    PubMed

    Mynatt, F R

    1982-04-09

    The Three Mile Island nuclear power plant accident has resulted in redirection of reactor safety research priorities. The small release to the environment of radioactive iodine-13 to 17 curies in a total radioactivity release of 2.4 million to 13 million curies-has led to a new emphasis on the physical chemistry of fission product behavior in accidents; the fact that the nuclear core was severely damaged but did not melt down has opened a new accident regime-that of the degraded core; the role of the operators in the progression and severity of the accident has shifted emphasis from equipment reliability to human reliability. As research progresses in these areas, the technical base for regulation and risk analysis will change substantially.

  16. Nuclear criticality safety for drums at Babcock and Wilcox

    SciTech Connect

    Alcorn, F.M.

    1997-12-01

    The Babcock and Wilcox Company (B&W) operates a nuclear fuel facility in Lynchburg, Virginia, processing uranium over the full range of possible enrichments (depleted to 97.65 wt% {sup 235}U). Nuclear fuel is produced for defense programs and for various research and test reactors worldwide. The facility has a uranium recovery operation that handles scrap produced at B&W as well as scrap from other U.S. Department of Energy sites. B&W also has a down-blending operation that is currently completing the down-blending of the fully enriched Project Sapphire Uranium to commercial-grade fuel (4 Wt% {sup 235}U). The facility generates approximately two hundred 55-gal drums of radioactive waste each month. Just a few years ago the number of waste drums on-site stood at {approximately}5000; however, through an aggressive waste reduction program, this number has been reduced to {approximately}2000. B&W strives to avoid storing uranium scrap in 55-gal drums; however, there are approximately sixty-four 55-gal drums of scrap on-site. Scrap is that material from which the uranium is recovered because of financial, contractual, or regulatory considerations; waste is that material destined for disposal. Whether waste or scrap, nuclear criticality safety is of paramount concern in the handling, processing, and storing of uranium-bearing drums at B&W. Any shipment complies with applicable U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and U.S. Department of Transportation regulations.

  17. Senate examines measures to improve nuclear safety following Japan disaster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-03-01

    One year after Japan suffered a devastating magnitude 9.0 earthquake and the resulting tsunami and nuclear disaster, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has taken a number of measures to try to ensure that nuclear plants in the United States are safe from natural hazards. At a U.S. Senate hearing on 15 March, NRC chair Gregory Jaczko announced that the commission had issued three key orders and several requests for information on 12 March that plant licensees must follow, and that NRC also plans to take additional actions. However, the commission is not moving quickly enough in some areas, such as ensuring that all plants are safe from seismic hazards, including those in areas with low seismic activity, according to Jaczko's testimony before the Senate Committee on Environment and Public Works (EPW) and the Subcommittee on Clean Air and Nuclear Safety. The 12 March orders require licensees to have strategies to maintain or restore core cooling, containment, and spent-fuel pool cooling capabilities "following a beyond-design-basis extreme natural event" and have a reliable indication of the water level in spent-fuel storage pools.

  18. Nuclear safety. Technical progress journal, January--March 1996: Volume 37, No. 1

    SciTech Connect

    Muhlheim, M D

    1996-01-01

    Nuclear Safety is a journal that covers significant issues in the field of nuclear safety. Its primary scope is safety in the design, construction, operation, and decommissioning of nuclear power reactors worldwide and the research and analysis activities that promote this goal, but is also encompasses the safety aspects of the entire nuclear fuel cycle, including fuel fabrication, spent-fuel processing and handling, and nuclear waste disposal, the handling of fissionable materials and radioisotopes, and the environmental effects of all these activities. Individual articles are indexed separately for the data base.

  19. Surveys of organizational culture and safety culture in nuclear power

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Walter S.

    2000-07-30

    The results of a survey of organizational culture at a nuclear power plant are summarized and compared with those of a similar survey which has been described in the literature on ''high-reliability organizations''. A general-purpose cultural inventory showed a profile of organizational style similar to that reported in the literature; the factor structure for the styles was also similar to that of the plant previously described. A specialized scale designed to measure ''safety culture'' did not distinguished among groups within the organization that would be expected to differ.

  20. Nuclear reactor fuel element having improved heat transfer

    DOEpatents

    Garnier, J.E.; Begej, S.; Williford, R.E.; Christensen, J.A.

    1982-03-03

    A nuclear reactor fuel element having improved heat transfer between fuel material and cladding is described. The element consists of an outer cladding tube divided into an upper fuel section containing a central core of fissionable or mixed fissionable and fertile fuel material, slightly smaller in diameter than the inner surface of the cladding tube and a small lower accumulator section, the cladding tube being which is filled with a low molecular weight gas to transfer heat from fuel material to cladding during irradiation. A plurality of essentially vertical grooves in the fuel section extend downward and communicate with the accumulator section. The radial depth of the grooves is sufficient to provide a thermal gradient between the hot fuel surface and the relatively cooler cladding surface to allow thermal segregation to take place between the low molecular weight heat transfer gas and high molecular weight fission product gases produced by the fuel material during irradiation.

  1. Global Survey of the Concepts and Understanding of the Interfaces Between Nuclear Safety, Security, and Safeguards

    SciTech Connect

    Kovacic, Don N.; Stewart, Scott; Erickson, Alexa R.; Ford, Kerrie D.; Mladineo, Stephen V.

    2015-07-15

    There is increasing global discourse on how the elements of nuclear safety, security, and safeguards can be most effectively implemented in nuclear power programs. While each element is separate and unique, they must nevertheless all be addressed in a country’s laws and implemented via regulations and in facility operations. This topic is of particular interest to countries that are currently developing the infrastructure to support nuclear power programs. These countries want to better understand what is required by these elements and how they can manage the interfaces between them and take advantages of any synergies that may exist. They need practical examples and guidance in this area in order to develop better organizational strategies and technical capacities. This could simplify their legal, regulatory, and management structures and avoid inefficient approaches and costly mistakes that may not be apparent to them at this early stage of development. From the perspective of IAEA International Safeguards, supporting Member States in exploring such interfaces and synergies provides a benefit to them because it acknowledges that domestic safeguards in a country do not exist in a vacuum. Instead, it relies on a strong State System of Accounting and Control that is in turn dependent on a capable and independent regulatory body as well as a competent operator and technical staff. These organizations must account for and control nuclear material, communicate effectively, and manage and transmit complete and correct information to the IAEA in a timely manner. This, while in most cases also being responsible for the safety and security of their facilities. Seeking efficiencies in this process benefits international safeguards and nonproliferation. This paper will present the results of a global survey of current and anticipated approaches and practices by countries and organizations with current or future nuclear power programs on how they are implementing, or

  2. 76 FR 17460 - South Texas Project Nuclear Operating Company; Establishment of Atomic Safety and Licensing Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-29

    ... COMMISSION South Texas Project Nuclear Operating Company; Establishment of Atomic Safety and Licensing Board..., 2.318, and 2.321, notice is hereby given that an Atomic Safety and Licensing Board (Board) is being...: Ronald M. Spritzer, Chair, Atomic Safety and Licensing Board Panel, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory...

  3. Worker Safety and Health and Nuclear Safety Quarterly Performance Analysis (January - March 2008)

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, C E

    2009-10-07

    The DOE Office of Enforcement expects LLNL to 'implement comprehensive management and independent assessments that are effective in identifying deficiencies and broader problems in safety and security programs, as well as opportunities for continuous improvement within the organization' and to 'regularly perform assessments to evaluate implementation of the contractor's processes for screening and internal reporting.' LLNL has a self-assessment program, described in ES&H Manual Document 4.1, that includes line, management and independent assessments. LLNL also has in place a process to identify and report deficiencies of nuclear, worker safety and health and security requirements. In addition, the DOE Office of Enforcement expects LLNL to evaluate 'issues management databases to identify adverse trends, dominant problem areas, and potential repetitive events or conditions' (page 14, DOE Enforcement Process Overview, December 2007). LLNL requires that all worker safety and health and nuclear safety noncompliances be tracked as 'deficiencies' in the LLNL Issues Tracking System (ITS). Data from the ITS are analyzed for worker safety and health (WSH) and nuclear safety noncompliances that may meet the threshold for reporting to the DOE Noncompliance Tracking System (NTS). This report meets the expectations defined by the DOE Office of Enforcement to review the assessments conducted by LLNL, analyze the issues and noncompliances found in these assessments, and evaluate the data in the ITS database to identify adverse trends, dominant problem areas, and potential repetitive events or conditions. The report attempts to answer three questions: (1) Is LLNL evaluating its programs and state of compliance? (2) What is LLNL finding? (3) Is LLNL appropriately managing what it finds? The analysis in this report focuses on data from the first quarter of 2008 (January through March). This quarter is analyzed within the context of information identified in previous quarters to

  4. Renovated Korean nuclear safety and security system: A review and suggestions to successful settlement

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, W. S.; Yun, S. W.; Lee, D. S.; Go, D. Y.

    2012-07-01

    Questions of whether past nuclear regulatory body of Korea is not a proper system to monitor and check the country's nuclear energy policy and utilization have been raised. Moreover, a feeling of insecurity regarding nuclear safety after the nuclear accident in Japan has spread across the public. This has stimulated a renovation of the nuclear safety regime in Korea. The Nuclear Safety and Security Commission (NSSC) was launched on October 26, 2011 as a regulatory body directly under the President in charge of strengthening independence and nuclear safety. This was a meaningful event as the NSSC it is a much more independent regulatory system for Korea. However, the NSSC itself does not guarantee an enhanced public acceptance of the nuclear policy and stable use nuclear energy. This study introduces the new NSSC system and its details in terms of organization structure, appropriateness of specialty, budget stability, and management system. (authors)

  5. Trace elemental distributions in induced atherosclerotic lesions using nuclear microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minqin, Ren; Watt, Frank; Tan Kwong Huat, Benny; Halliwell, B.

    2003-09-01

    Nuclear Microscopy, using the combination of scanning transmission ion microscopy, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and proton induced X-ray emission has the ability to map and accurately quantify localised trace element levels in newly formed atherosclerotic lesions. In this study, New Zealand white rabbits fed on a high cholesterol diet were divided into two groups. One test group was treated with an iron chelating agent desferal, and the second group served as a control model. Tissue sections were taken from the aortic arch, flash frozen and air-dried, and scanned using the nuclear microscope of the Research Centre for Nuclear Microscopy, NUS. Results of this experiment, although not definitive ( p=0.07) indicated that during the treatment with desferal, there was a trend for lesion development to be slowed down. However, analysis of atherosclerotic lesions both from the test and control groups showed that iron concentrations within the lesions exhibit a high degree of correlation with the depth of the lesion in the artery wall, whereas zinc is observed to be anti-correlated to the size of the lesion area. This investigation implies that the observed high iron levels, which can lead to increased free radical damage, may cause premature or accelerated arterial damage.

  6. Manned space flight nuclear system safety. Volume 3: Reactor system preliminary nuclear safety analysis. Part 1: Reference Design Document (RDD)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The Reference Design Document, of the Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSAR) - Reactor System provides the basic design and operations data used in the nuclear safety analysis of the Rector Power Module as applied to a Space Base program. A description of the power module systems, facilities, launch vehicle and mission operations, as defined in NASA Phase A Space Base studies is included. Each of two Zirconium Hydride Reactor Brayton power modules provides 50 kWe for the nominal 50 man Space Base. The INT-21 is the prime launch vehicle. Resupply to the 500 km orbit over the ten year mission is provided by the Space Shuttle. At the end of the power module lifetime (nominally five years), a reactor disposal system is deployed for boost into a 990 km high altitude (long decay time) earth orbit.

  7. Engineering thinking in emergency situations: A new nuclear safety concept.

    PubMed

    Guarnieri, Franck; Travadel, Sébastien

    2014-11-01

    The lessons learned from the Fukushima Daiichi accident have focused on preventive measures designed to protect nuclear reactors, and crisis management plans. Although there is still no end in sight to the accident that occurred on March 11, 2011, how engineers have handled the aftermath offers new insight into the capacity of organizations to adapt in situations that far exceed the scope of safety standards based on probabilistic risk assessment and on the comprehensive identification of disaster scenarios. Ongoing crises in which conventional resources are lacking, but societal expectations are high, call for "engineering thinking in emergency situations." This is a new concept that emphasizes adaptability and resilience within organizations-such as the ability to create temporary new organizational structures; to quickly switch from a normal state to an innovative mode; and to integrate a social dimension into engineering activities. In the future, nuclear safety oversight authorities should assess the ability of plant operators to create and implement effective engineering strategies on the fly, and should require that operators demonstrate the capability for resilience in the aftermath of an accident.

  8. Engineering thinking in emergency situations: A new nuclear safety concept

    PubMed Central

    Guarnieri, Franck; Travadel, Sébastien

    2014-01-01

    The lessons learned from the Fukushima Daiichi accident have focused on preventive measures designed to protect nuclear reactors, and crisis management plans. Although there is still no end in sight to the accident that occurred on March 11, 2011, how engineers have handled the aftermath offers new insight into the capacity of organizations to adapt in situations that far exceed the scope of safety standards based on probabilistic risk assessment and on the comprehensive identification of disaster scenarios. Ongoing crises in which conventional resources are lacking, but societal expectations are high, call for “engineering thinking in emergency situations.” This is a new concept that emphasizes adaptability and resilience within organizations—such as the ability to create temporary new organizational structures; to quickly switch from a normal state to an innovative mode; and to integrate a social dimension into engineering activities. In the future, nuclear safety oversight authorities should assess the ability of plant operators to create and implement effective engineering strategies on the fly, and should require that operators demonstrate the capability for resilience in the aftermath of an accident. PMID:25419015

  9. Impact of nuclear data uncertainty on safety calculations for spent nuclear fuel geological disposal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrero, J. J.; Rochman, D.; Leray, O.; Vasiliev, A.; Pecchia, M.; Ferroukhi, H.; Caruso, S.

    2017-09-01

    In the design of a spent nuclear fuel disposal system, one necessary condition is to show that the configuration remains subcritical at time of emplacement but also during long periods covering up to 1,000,000 years. In the context of criticality safety applying burn-up credit, k-eff eigenvalue calculations are affected by nuclear data uncertainty mainly in the burnup calculations simulating reactor operation and in the criticality calculation for the disposal canister loaded with the spent fuel assemblies. The impact of nuclear data uncertainty should be included in the k-eff value estimation to enforce safety. Estimations of the uncertainty in the discharge compositions from the CASMO5 burn-up calculation phase are employed in the final MCNP6 criticality computations for the intact canister configuration; in between, SERPENT2 is employed to get the spent fuel composition along the decay periods. In this paper, nuclear data uncertainty was propagated by Monte Carlo sampling in the burn-up, decay and criticality calculation phases and representative values for fuel operated in a Swiss PWR plant will be presented as an estimation of its impact.

  10. The elemental move characteristic of nickel-based alloy in molten salt corrosion by using nuclear microprobe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Qiantao; Liu, Ke; Gao, Jie; Li, Xiaolin; Shen, Hao; Li, Yan

    2017-08-01

    Nickel-based alloys as candidate materials for Thorium Molten Salt Reactor (TMSR), need to be used under high temperature in molten salt environment. In order to ensure the safety of the reactor running, it is necessary to study the elemental move characteristic of nickel-based alloys in the high temperature molten salts. In this work, the scanning nuclear microprobe at Fudan University was applied to study the elemental move. The Nickel-based alloy samples were corroded by molten salt at different temperatures. The element concentrations in the Nickel-based alloys samples were determined by the scanning nuclear microprobe. Micro-PIXE results showed that the element concentrations changed from the interior to the exterior of the alloy samples after the corrosion.

  11. Sensitivity-Uncertainty Based Nuclear Criticality Safety Validation

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Forrest B.

    2016-09-20

    These are slides from a seminar given to the University of Mexico Nuclear Engineering Department. Whisper is a statistical analysis package developed to support nuclear criticality safety validation. It uses the sensitivity profile data for an application as computed by MCNP6 along with covariance files for the nuclear data to determine a baseline upper-subcritical-limit for the application. Whisper and its associated benchmark files are developed and maintained as part of MCNP6, and will be distributed with all future releases of MCNP6. Although sensitivity-uncertainty methods for NCS validation have been under development for 20 years, continuous-energy Monte Carlo codes such as MCNP could not determine the required adjoint-weighted tallies for sensitivity profiles. The recent introduction of the iterated fission probability method into MCNP led to the rapid development of sensitivity analysis capabilities for MCNP6 and the development of Whisper. Sensitivity-uncertainty based methods represent the future for NCS validation – making full use of today’s computer power to codify past approaches based largely on expert judgment. Validation results are defensible, auditable, and repeatable as needed with different assumptions and process models. The new methods can supplement, support, and extend traditional validation approaches.

  12. Safety and Nuclear Power Sources for Space Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segalas, Corinne C.; Schmidt, George R.

    2010-09-01

    Nuclear power sources have been used in space applications for decades. They have been used extensively for electrical power production, and their future potential for propulsion has been recognized since the dawn of the spaceflight era. Nuclear power sources offer many advantages in terms of long duration operation and high power densities independent of distance and orientation with respect to the Sun. However, it is also broadly known that use of radioactive materials do carry more risk that must be addressed to ensure safe operation during all phases of the mission, particularly before and during launch into orbit. Almost all of the nuclear-powered missions to date have been flown by the United States and former Soviet Union, but other space-faring nations have recognized its importance for their future missions. Consequently, many in the space community have advocated the development of a broad set of principles that could be applied on an international basis. This paper examines the current guidelines by the major space-faring nations, and suggests a framework primarily based on the U.S. methodology for ensuring reduction of risk, mitigating environmental impact and promoting launch safety.

  13. Applications of Nuclear Data Covariances to Criticality Safety and Spent Fuel Characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, M. L.; Ilas, G.; Marshall, W. J.; Rearden, B. T.

    2014-04-01

    Covariance data computational methods and data used for sensitivity and uncertainty analysis within the SCALE nuclear analysis code system are presented. Applications in criticality safety calculations and used nuclear fuel analysis are discussed.

  14. Applications of nuclear data covariances to criticality safety and spent fuel characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Mark L; Ilas, Germina; Marshall, William BJ J; Rearden, Bradley T

    2014-01-01

    Covariance data computational methods and data used for sensitivity and uncertainty analysis within the SCALE nuclear analysis code system are presented. Applications in criticality safety calculations and used nuclear fuel analysis are discussed.

  15. 10 CFR 1.42 - Office of Nuclear Material Safety and Safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... and secure production of nuclear fuel used in commercial nuclear reactors; the safe storage... nuclear materials, including certification of transport containers and reactor spent fuel storage; and... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Office of Nuclear Material Safety and Safeguards....

  16. 10 CFR 1.42 - Office of Nuclear Material Safety and Safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... and secure production of nuclear fuel used in commercial nuclear reactors; the safe storage... nuclear materials, including certification of transport containers and reactor spent fuel storage; and... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Office of Nuclear Material Safety and Safeguards....

  17. 10 CFR 1.42 - Office of Nuclear Material Safety and Safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... and secure production of nuclear fuel used in commercial nuclear reactors; the safe storage... nuclear materials, including certification of transport containers and reactor spent fuel storage; and... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Office of Nuclear Material Safety and Safeguards....

  18. 10 CFR 73.58 - Safety/security interface requirements for nuclear power reactors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Safety/security interface requirements for nuclear power reactors. 73.58 Section 73.58 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF... requirements for nuclear power reactors. (a) Each operating nuclear power reactor licensee with a license...

  19. 10 CFR 73.58 - Safety/security interface requirements for nuclear power reactors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Safety/security interface requirements for nuclear power reactors. 73.58 Section 73.58 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF... requirements for nuclear power reactors. (a) Each operating nuclear power reactor licensee with a license...

  20. 10 CFR 73.58 - Safety/security interface requirements for nuclear power reactors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Safety/security interface requirements for nuclear power reactors. 73.58 Section 73.58 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF... requirements for nuclear power reactors. (a) Each operating nuclear power reactor licensee with a license...

  1. 10 CFR 73.58 - Safety/security interface requirements for nuclear power reactors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Safety/security interface requirements for nuclear power reactors. 73.58 Section 73.58 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF... requirements for nuclear power reactors. (a) Each operating nuclear power reactor licensee with a license...

  2. 10 CFR 73.58 - Safety/security interface requirements for nuclear power reactors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Safety/security interface requirements for nuclear power reactors. 73.58 Section 73.58 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF... requirements for nuclear power reactors. (a) Each operating nuclear power reactor licensee with a license...

  3. 78 FR 33449 - FirstEnergy Nuclear Operating Company; Establishment of Atomic Safety and Licensing Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-04

    ... COMMISSION FirstEnergy Nuclear Operating Company; Establishment of Atomic Safety and Licensing Board Pursuant...: FirstEnergy Nuclear Operating Company This proceeding involves a license amendment request from FirstEnergy Nuclear Operating Company for Davis-Besse Nuclear Power Station, Unit 1, which is located...

  4. 76 FR 3678 - FirstEnergy Nuclear Operating Company; Establishment of Atomic Safety and Licensing Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-20

    ... COMMISSION FirstEnergy Nuclear Operating Company; Establishment of Atomic Safety and Licensing Board Pursuant... established to preside over the following proceeding: FirstEnergy Nuclear Operating Company (Davis-Besse Nuclear Power Station, Unit 1) This proceeding involves an application by FirstEnergy Nuclear...

  5. 78 FR 25488 - Qualification Tests for Safety-Related Actuators in Nuclear Power Plants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-01

    ...The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is issuing for public comment draft regulatory guide (DG), DG-1235, ``Qualification Tests for Safety-Related Actuators in Nuclear Power Plants.'' DG-1235 is proposed Revision 1 of RG 1.73, dated January 1974. This revision endorses, with clarifications, the enhanced consensus practices for qualifying safety-related actuators, and actuator components, in Nuclear Power Generating Stations in order to demonstrate their ability to perform their intended safety functions under all required conditions as described in the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) standard 382-2006, ``Standard for Qualification of Safety-Related Actuators for Nuclear Power Generating Stations.''

  6. Proceedings of the 1984 DOE nuclear reactor and facility safety conference. Volume II

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    This report is a collection of papers on reactor safety. The report takes the form of proceedings from the 1984 DOE Nuclear Reactor and Facility Safety Conference, Volume II of two. These proceedings cover Safety, Accidents, Training, Task/Job Analysis, Robotics and the Engineering Aspects of Man/Safety interfaces.

  7. Nuclear criticality safety evaluation of Spray Booth Operations in X-705, Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Sheaffer, M.K.; Keeton, S.C.

    1993-09-20

    This report evaluates nuclear criticality safety for Spray Booth Operations in the Decontamination and Recovery Facility, X-705, at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. A general description of current procedures and related hardware/equipment is presented. Control parameters relevant to nuclear criticality safety are explained, and a consolidated listing of administrative controls and safety systems is developed. Based on compliance with DOE Orders and MMES practices, the overall operation is evaluated, and recommendations for enhanced safety are suggested.

  8. American National Standard ANSI/ANS-8.15-1983: Nuclear criticality control of special actinide elements

    SciTech Connect

    Brewer, R.W.; Pruvost, N.L.; Rombough, C.T.

    1996-12-31

    The American National Standard, `Nuclear Criticality Safety in Operations with Fissionable Materials Outside Reactors` ANSI/ANS-8.1- 1983 provides guidance for the nuclides [sup 233]U, [sup 235]U, and [sup 239]Pu These three nuclides are of primary interest in out-of-reactor criticality safety since they are the most commonly encountered in the vast majority of operations. However, some operations can involve nuclides other than `U, `U, and `Pu in sufficient quantities that their effect on criticality safety could be of concern. The American National Standard, `Nuclear Criticality Control of Special Actinide Elements` ANSI/ANS-8.`15-1983 (Ref 2), provides guidance for fifteen such nuclides.

  9. Thermo-Elastic Finite Element Analyses of Annular Nuclear Fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Y. D.; Kwon, S. B.; Rho, K. T.; Kim, M. S.; Song, H. J.

    In this study, we tried to examine the pros and cons of the annular type of fuel concerning mainly with the temperatures and stresses of pellet and cladding. The inner and outer gaps between pellet and cladding may play an important role on the temperature distribution and stress distribution of fuel system. Thus, we tested several inner and outer gap cases, and we evaluated the effect of gaps on fuel systems. We conducted thermo-elastic-plastic-creep analyses using an in-house thermo-elastic-plastic-creep finite element program that adopted the 'effective-stress-function' algorithm. Most analyses were conducted until the gaps disappeared; however, certain analyses lasted for 1582 days, after which the fuels were replaced. Further study on the optimal gaps sizes for annular nuclear fuel systems is still required.

  10. A Study on Urban Road Traffic Safety Based on Matter Element Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Qizhou; Zhou, Zhuping; Sun, Xu

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines a new evaluation of urban road traffic safety based on a matter element analysis, avoiding the difficulties found in other traffic safety evaluations. The issue of urban road traffic safety has been investigated through the matter element analysis theory. The chief aim of the present work is to investigate the features of urban road traffic safety. Emphasis was placed on the construction of a criterion function by which traffic safety achieved a hierarchical system of objectives to be evaluated. The matter element analysis theory was used to create the comprehensive appraisal model of urban road traffic safety. The technique was used to employ a newly developed and versatile matter element analysis algorithm. The matter element matrix solves the uncertainty and incompatibility of the evaluated factors used to assess urban road traffic safety. The application results showed the superiority of the evaluation model and a didactic example was included to illustrate the computational procedure. PMID:25587267

  11. TFIIIC Bound DNA Elements in Nuclear Organization and Insulation

    PubMed Central

    Kirkland, Jacob G.; Raab, Jesse R.

    2012-01-01

    tRNA genes (tDNAs) have been known to have barrier insulator function in budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, for over a decade. tDNAs also play a role in genome organization by clustering at sites in the nucleus and both of these functions are dependent on the transcription factor TFIIIC. More recently TFIIIC bound sites devoid of pol III, termed Extra-TFIIIC sites (ETC) have been identified in budding yeast and these sites also function as insulators and affect genome organization. Subsequent studies in Schizosaccharomyces pombe showed that TFIIIC bound sites were insulators and also functioned as Chromosome Organization Clamps (COC); tethering the sites to the nuclear periphery. Very recently studies have moved to mammalian systems where pol III genes and their associated factors have been investigated in both mouse and human cells. Short Interspersed Nuclear Elements (SINEs) that bind TFIIIC, function as insulator elements and tDNAs can also function as both enhancer -blocking and barrier insulators in these organisms. It was also recently shown that tDNAs cluster with other tDNAs and with ETCs but not with pol II transcribed genes. Intriguingly, TFIIIC is often found near pol II transcription start sites and it remains unclear what the consequences of TFIIIC based genomic organization are and what influence pol III factors have on pol II transcribed genes and vise versa. In this review we provide a comprehensive overview of the known data on pol III factors in insulation and genome organization and identify the many open questions that require further investigation. \\ PMID:23000638

  12. TFIIIC bound DNA elements in nuclear organization and insulation.

    PubMed

    Kirkland, Jacob G; Raab, Jesse R; Kamakaka, Rohinton T

    2013-01-01

    tRNA genes (tDNAs) have been known to have barrier insulator function in budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, for over a decade. tDNAs also play a role in genome organization by clustering at sites in the nucleus and both of these functions are dependent on the transcription factor TFIIIC. More recently TFIIIC bound sites devoid of pol III, termed Extra-TFIIIC sites (ETC) have been identified in budding yeast and these sites also function as insulators and affect genome organization. Subsequent studies in Schizosaccharomyces pombe showed that TFIIIC bound sites were insulators and also functioned as Chromosome Organization Clamps (COC); tethering the sites to the nuclear periphery. Very recently studies have moved to mammalian systems where pol III genes and their associated factors have been investigated in both mouse and human cells. Short interspersed nuclear elements (SINEs) that bind TFIIIC, function as insulator elements and tDNAs can also function as both enhancer - blocking and barrier insulators in these organisms. It was also recently shown that tDNAs cluster with other tDNAs and with ETCs but not with pol II transcribed genes. Intriguingly, TFIIIC is often found near pol II transcription start sites and it remains unclear what the consequences of TFIIIC based genomic organization are and what influence pol III factors have on pol II transcribed genes and vice versa. In this review we provide a comprehensive overview of the known data on pol III factors in insulation and genome organization and identify the many open questions that require further investigation. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Transcription by Odd Pols. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Implementing 10 CFR 830 at the FEMP Silos: Nuclear Health and Safety Plans as Documented Safety Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Fisk, Patricia; Rutherford, Lavon

    2003-06-01

    The objective of the Silos Project at the Fernald Closure Project (FCP) is to safely remediate high-grade uranium ore residues (Silos 1 and 2) and metal oxide residues (Silo 3). The evolution of Documented Safety Analyses (DSAs) for these facilities has reflected the changes in remediation processes. The final stage in silos DSAs is an interpretation of 10 CFR 830 Safe Harbor Requirements that combines a Health and Safety Plan with nuclear safety requirements. This paper will address the development of a Nuclear Health and Safety Plan, or N-HASP.

  14. Very high temperature measurements: Application to nuclear reactor safety tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parga, Clemente Jose

    This PhD dissertation focuses on the improvement of very high temperature thermometry (1100ºC to 2480ºC), with special emphasis on the application to the field of nuclear reactor safety and severe accident research. Two main projects were undertaken to achieve this objective: -The development, testing and transposition of high-temperature fixed point (HTFP) metal-carbon eutectic cells, from metrology laboratory precision (+/-0.001ºC) to applied research with a reasonable degradation of uncertainties (+/-3-5ºC). -The corrosion study and metallurgical characterization of Type-C thermocouple (service temp. 2300ºC) prospective sheath material was undertaken to extend the survivability of TCs used for molten metallic/oxide corium thermometry (below 2000ºC).

  15. A probabilistic safety analysis of incidents in nuclear research reactors.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Valdir Maciel; Agostinho Angelo Sordi, Gian Maria; Moralles, Mauricio; Filho, Tufic Madi

    2012-06-01

    This work aims to evaluate the potential risks of incidents in nuclear research reactors. For its development, two databases of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) were used: the Research Reactor Data Base (RRDB) and the Incident Report System for Research Reactor (IRSRR). For this study, the probabilistic safety analysis (PSA) was used. To obtain the result of the probability calculations for PSA, the theory and equations in the paper IAEA TECDOC-636 were used. A specific program to analyse the probabilities was developed within the main program, Scilab 5.1.1. for two distributions, Fischer and chi-square, both with the confidence level of 90 %. Using Sordi equations, the maximum admissible doses to compare with the risk limits established by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) were obtained. All results achieved with this probability analysis led to the conclusion that the incidents which occurred had radiation doses within the stochastic effects reference interval established by the ICRP-64.

  16. Safety Education--An Essential Element of Technical Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glazener, Everett R.; Comstock, Thomas W.

    1978-01-01

    After tracing the background of the safety movement, provisions of recent safety legislation, and the ecological and environmental impact of industrial processes, the author stresses the need for safety education in technical education programs to prepare future employees for industrial safety requirements. (MF)

  17. Improved nuclear power plant operations and safety through performance-based safety regulation.

    PubMed

    Golay, M W

    2000-01-07

    This paper illustrates some of the promise and needed future work for risk-informed, performance-based regulation (RIPBR). RIPBR is an evolving alternative to the current prescriptive method of nuclear safety regulation. Prescriptive regulation effectively constitutes a long, fragmented checklist of requirements that safety-related systems in a plant must satisfy. RIPBR, instead, concentrates upon satisfying negotiated performance goals and incentives for judging and rewarding licensee behavior to improve safety and reduce costs. In a project reported here, a case study was conducted concerning a pressurized water reactor (PWR) emergency diesel generator (EDG). Overall, this work has shown that the methods of RIPBR are feasible to use, and capable of justifying simultaneous safety and economic nuclear power improvements. However, it also reveals several areas where the framework of RIPBR should be strengthened. First, researchers need better data and understanding regarding individual component-failure modes that may cause components to fail. Not only are more data needed on failure rates, but more data and understanding are needed to enable analysts to evaluate whether these failures become more likely as the interval between tests is increased. This is because the current state of failure data is not sufficiently finely detailed to define the failure rates of individual component failure modes; such knowledge is needed when changing component-specific regulatory requirements. Second, the role of component testing, given that a component has failed, needs to be strengthened within the context of RIPBR. This includes formulating requirements for updating the prior probability distribution of a component failure rate and conducting additional or more frequent testing. Finally, as a means of compensating for unavoidable uncertainty as an obstacle to regulatory decision-making, limits to knowledge must be treated explicitly and formally. This treatment includes the

  18. Enforcement handbook: Enforcement of DOE nuclear safety requirements

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    This Handbook provides detailed guidance and procedures to implement the General Statement of DOE Enforcement Policy (Enforcement Policy or Policy). A copy of this Enforcement Policy is included for ready reference in Appendix D. The guidance provided in this Handbook is qualified, however, by the admonishment to exercise discretion in determining the proper disposition of each potential enforcement action. As discussed in subsequent chapters, the Enforcement and Investigation Staff will apply a number of factors in assessing each potential enforcement situation. Enforcement sanctions are imposed in accordance with the Enforcement Policy for the purpose of promoting public and worker health and safety in the performance of activities at DOE facilities by DOE contractors (and their subcontractors and suppliers) who are indemnified under the Price-Anderson Amendments Act. These indemnified contractors, and their suppliers and subcontractors, will be referred to in this Handbook collectively as DOE contractors. It should be remembered that the purpose of the Department`s enforcement policy is to improve nuclear safety for the workers and the public, and this goal should be the prime consideration in exercising enforcement discretion.

  19. Reviewing real-time performance of nuclear reactor safety systems

    SciTech Connect

    Preckshot, G.G.

    1993-08-01

    The purpose of this paper is to recommend regulatory guidance for reviewers examining real-time performance of computer-based safety systems used in nuclear power plants. Three areas of guidance are covered in this report. The first area covers how to determine if, when, and what prototypes should be required of developers to make a convincing demonstration that specific problems have been solved or that performance goals have been met. The second area has recommendations for timing analyses that will prove that the real-time system will meet its safety-imposed deadlines. The third area has description of means for assessing expected or actual real-time performance before, during, and after development is completed. To ensure that the delivered real-time software product meets performance goals, the paper recommends certain types of code-execution and communications scheduling. Technical background is provided in the appendix on methods of timing analysis, scheduling real-time computations, prototyping, real-time software development approaches, modeling and measurement, and real-time operating systems.

  20. Importance of bladder radioactivity for radiation safety in nuclear medicine.

    PubMed

    Gültekin, Salih Sinan; Sahmaran, Turan

    2013-12-01

    Most of the radiopharmaceuticals used in nuclear medicine are excreted via the urinary system. This study evaluated the importance of a reduction in bladder radioactivity for radiation safety. The study group of 135 patients underwent several organ scintigraphies [40/135; thyroid scintigraphy (TS), 30/135; whole body bone scintigraphy (WBS), 35/135; myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS) and 30/135; renal scintigraphy (RS)] by a technologist within 1 month. In full and empty conditions, static bladder images and external dose rate measurements at 0.25, 0.50, 1, 1.5 and 2 m distances were obtained and decline ratios were calculated from these two data sets. External radiation dose rates were highest in patients undergoing MPS. External dose rates at 0.25 m distance for TS, TKS, MPS and BS were measured to be 56, 106, 191 and 72 μSv h-1 for full bladder and 29, 55, 103 and 37 μSv h-1 for empty bladder, respectively. For TS, WBS, MPS and RS, respectively, average decline ratios were calculated to be 52%, 55%, 53% and 54% in the scintigraphic assessment and 49%, 51%, 49%, 50% and 50% in the assessment with Geiger counter. Decline in bladder radioactivity is important in terms of radiation safety. Patients should be encouraged for micturition after each scintigraphic test. Spending time together with radioactive patients at distances less than 1 m should be kept to a minimum where possible. None declared.

  1. Nuclear Safety Analysis for the Mars Exploration Rover 2003 Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firstenberg, Henry; Rutger, Lyle L.; Mukunda, Meera; Bartram, Bart W.

    2004-02-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Mars Exploration Rover (MER) 2003 project is designed to place two mobile laboratories (Rovers) on Mars to remotely characterize a diversity of rocks and soils. Milestones accomplished so far include two successful launches of identical spacecraft (the MER-A and MER-B missions) from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Florida on June 10 and July 7, 2003. Each Rover uses eight Light Weight Radioisotope Heater Units (LWRHUs) fueled with plutonium-238 dioxide to provide local heating of Rover components. The LWRHUs are provided by the U.S. Department of Energy. In addition, small quantities of radioactive materials in sealed sources are used in scientific instrumentation on the Rover. Due to the radioactive nature of these materials and the potential for accidents, a formal Launch Approval Process requires the preparation of a Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) for submittal to and independent review by an Interagency Nuclear Safety Review Panel. This paper presents a summary of the FSAR in terms of potential accident scenarios, probabilities, source terms, radiological consequences, mission risks, and uncertainties in the reported results.

  2. Safety apparatus for nuclear reactor to prevent structural damage from overheating by core debris

    DOEpatents

    Gabor, J.D.; Cassulo, J.C.; Pedersen, D.R.; Baker, L. Jr.

    The invention teaches safety apparatus that can be included in a nuclear reactor, either when newly fabricated or as a retrofit add-on, that will minimize proliferation of structural damage to the reactor in the event the reactor is experiencing an overheating malfunction whereby radioactive nuclear debris might break away from and can be discharged from the reactor core. The invention provides a porous bed of sublayer on the lower surface of the reactor containment vessel so that the debris falls on and piles up on the bed. Vapor release elements upstand from the bed in some laterally spaced array. Thus should the high heat flux of the debris interior vaporize the coolant at that location, the vaporized coolant can be vented downwardly to and laterally through the bed to the vapor release elements and in turn via the release elements upwardly through the debris. This minimizes the pressure buildup in the debris and allows for continuing infiltration of the liquid coolant into the debris interior.

  3. Safety apparatus for nuclear reactor to prevent structural damage from overheating by core debris

    DOEpatents

    Gabor, John D.; Cassulo, John C.; Pedersen, Dean R.; Baker Jr., Louis

    1986-07-01

    The invention teaches safety apparatus that can be included in a nuclear reactor, either when newly fabricated or as a retrofit add-on, that will minimize proliferation of structural damage to the reactor in the event the reactor is experiencing an overheating malfunction whereby radioactive nuclear debris might break away from and be discharged from the reactor core. The invention provides a porous bed or sublayer on the lower surface of the reactor containment vessel so that the debris falls on and piles up on the bed. Vapor release elements upstand from the bed in some laterally spaced array. Thus should the high heat flux of the debris interior vaporize the coolant at that location, the vaporized coolant can be vented downwardly to and laterally through the bed to the vapor release elements and in turn via the release elements upwardly through the debris. This minimizes the pressure buildup in the debris and allows for continuing infiltration of the liquid coolant into the debris interior.

  4. Safety apparatus for nuclear reactor to prevent structural damage from overheating by core debris

    DOEpatents

    Gabor, John D.; Cassulo, John C.; Pedersen, Dean R.; Baker, Jr., Louis

    1986-01-01

    The invention teaches safety apparatus that can be included in a nuclear reactor, either when newly fabricated or as a retrofit add-on, that will minimize proliferation of structural damage to the reactor in the event the reactor is experiencing an overheating malfunction whereby radioactive nuclear debris might break away from and be discharged from the reactor core. The invention provides a porous bed or sublayer on the lower surface of the reactor containment vessel so that the debris falls on and piles up on the bed. Vapor release elements upstand from the bed in some laterally spaced array. Thus should the high heat flux of the debris interior vaporize the coolant at that location, the vaporized coolant can be vented downwardly to and laterally through the bed to the vapor release elements and in turn via the release elements upwardly through the debris. This minimizes the pressure buildup in the debris and allows for continuing infiltration of the liquid coolant into the debris interior.

  5. The effect of leader communication style on safety-conscious work environments at domestic nuclear power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldberg, Edward Michael

    Public risk from unsafe nuclear power plant operations increases when plant workers are reluctant to raise issues and concerns. The effect of leader communication style on the safety-conscious work environment (SCWE) at domestic nuclear power plants was evaluated using a descriptive quantitative research study. A sample of 379 plant employees was surveyed to determine leader communication style elements that foster SCWE. The results reveal that leader communication style significantly affects a safety-conscious work environment. Specific attributes such as wit, articulation, self-disclosure, and social composure, confirmation, and experience, were proven to directly affect worker's likelihood to raise issues and concerns. The direct effect of leader, communication style on safe plant operations and the communication actions leaders can take to improve the safety of those operations is discussed.

  6. Fuzzy-logic-based safety verification framework for nuclear power plants.

    PubMed

    Rastogi, Achint; Gabbar, Hossam A

    2013-06-01

    This article presents a practical implementation of a safety verification framework for nuclear power plants (NPPs) based on fuzzy logic where hazard scenarios are identified in view of safety and control limits in different plant process values. Risk is estimated quantitatively and compared with safety limits in real time so that safety verification can be achieved. Fuzzy logic is used to define safety rules that map hazard condition with required safety protection in view of risk estimate. Case studies are analyzed from NPP to realize the proposed real-time safety verification framework. An automated system is developed to demonstrate the safety limit for different hazard scenarios. © 2012 Society for Risk Analysis.

  7. Assessment of the safety of US nuclear weapons and related nuclear test requirements: A post-Bush Initiative update

    SciTech Connect

    Kidder, R.E.

    1991-12-10

    The Nuclear Weapons Reduction Initiative announced by President Bush on September 27, 1991, is described herein as set forth in Defense Secretary Cheney`s Nuclear Arsenal Reduction Order issued September 28, 1991. The implications of the Bush Initiative for improved nuclear weapons safety are assessed in response to a request by US Senators Harkin, Kennedy, and Wirth to the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory that the author prepare such an assessment. The author provides an estimate of the number of nuclear tests needed to accomplish a variety of specified warhead safety upgrades, then uses the results of this estimate to answer three questions posed by the Senators. These questions concern pit reuse and the number of nuclear tests needed for specified safety upgrades of those ballistic missiles not scheduled for retirement, namely the Minuteman III, C4, and D5 missiles.

  8. Manned space flight nuclear system safety. Volume 3: Reactor system preliminary nuclear safety analysis. Part 2: Accident Model Document (AMD)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The Accident Model Document is one of three documents of the Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSAR) - Reactor System as applied to a Space Base Program. Potential terrestrial nuclear hazards involving the zirconium hydride reactor-Brayton power module are identified for all phases of the Space Base program. The accidents/events that give rise to the hazards are defined and abort sequence trees are developed to determine the sequence of events leading to the hazard and the associated probabilities of occurence. Source terms are calculated to determine the magnitude of the hazards. The above data is used in the mission accident analysis to determine the most probable and significant accidents/events in each mission phase. The only significant hazards during the prelaunch and launch ascent phases of the mission are those which arise form criticality accidents. Fission product inventories during this time period were found to be very low due to very limited low power acceptance testing.

  9. 33 CFR 165.115 - Safety and Security Zones; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Plant, Plymouth, Massachusetts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Safety and Security Zones; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Plant, Plymouth, Massachusetts. 165.115 Section 165.115 Navigation and Navigable... Coast Guard District § 165.115 Safety and Security Zones; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Plant, Plymouth...

  10. 33 CFR 165.115 - Safety and Security Zones; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Plant, Plymouth, Massachusetts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Safety and Security Zones; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Plant, Plymouth, Massachusetts. 165.115 Section 165.115 Navigation and Navigable... Coast Guard District § 165.115 Safety and Security Zones; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Plant, Plymouth...

  11. 33 CFR 165.115 - Safety and Security Zones; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Plant, Plymouth, Massachusetts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety and Security Zones; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Plant, Plymouth, Massachusetts. 165.115 Section 165.115 Navigation and Navigable... Coast Guard District § 165.115 Safety and Security Zones; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Plant, Plymouth...

  12. 33 CFR 165.115 - Safety and Security Zones; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Plant, Plymouth, Massachusetts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Safety and Security Zones; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Plant, Plymouth, Massachusetts. 165.115 Section 165.115 Navigation and Navigable... Coast Guard District § 165.115 Safety and Security Zones; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Plant, Plymouth...

  13. 33 CFR 165.115 - Safety and Security Zones; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Plant, Plymouth, Massachusetts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Safety and Security Zones; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Plant, Plymouth, Massachusetts. 165.115 Section 165.115 Navigation and Navigable... Coast Guard District § 165.115 Safety and Security Zones; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Plant, Plymouth...

  14. SRTC criticality safety technical review: Nuclear Criticality Safety Evaluation 93-04 enriched uranium receipt

    SciTech Connect

    Rathbun, R.

    1993-10-13

    Review of NMP-NCS-930087, {open_quotes}Nuclear Criticality Safety Evaluation 93-04 Enriched Uranium Receipt (U), July 30, 1993, {close_quotes} was requested of SRTC (Savannah River Technology Center) Applied Physics Group. The NCSE is a criticality assessment to determine the mass limit for Engineered Low Level Trench (ELLT) waste uranium burial. The intent is to bury uranium in pits that would be separated by a specified amount of undisturbed soil. The scope of the technical review, documented in this report, consisted of (1) an independent check of the methods and models employed, (2) independent HRXN/KENO-V.a calculations of alternate configurations, (3) application of ANSI/ANS 8.1, and (4) verification of WSRC Nuclear Criticality Safety Manual procedures. The NCSE under review concludes that a 500 gram limit per burial position is acceptable to ensure the burial site remains in a critically safe configuration for all normal and single credible abnormal conditions. This reviewer agrees with that conclusion.

  15. Nuclear physics and heavy element research at LLNL

    SciTech Connect

    Stoyer, M A; Ahle, L E; Becker, J A; Bernstein, L A; Bleuel, D L; Burke, J T; Dashdorj, D; Henderson, R A; Hurst, A M; Kenneally, J M; Lesher, S R; Moody, K J; Nelson, S L; Norman, E B; Pedretti, M; Scielzo, N D; Shaughnessy, D A; Sheets, S A; Stoeffl, W; Stoyer, N J; Wiedeking, M; Wilk, P A; Wu, C Y

    2009-05-11

    This paper highlights some of the current basic nuclear physics research at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The work at LLNL concentrates on investigating nuclei at the extremes. The Experimental Nuclear Physics Group performs research to improve our understanding of nuclei, nuclear reactions, nuclear decay processes and nuclear astrophysics; an expertise utilized for important laboratory national security programs and for world-class peer-reviewed basic research.

  16. Style, content and format guide for writing safety analysis documents. Volume 1, Safety analysis reports for DOE nuclear facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    The purpose of Volume 1 of this 4-volume style guide is to furnish guidelines on writing and publishing Safety Analysis Reports (SARs) for DOE nuclear facilities at Sandia National Laboratories. The scope of Volume 1 encompasses not only the general guidelines for writing and publishing, but also the prescribed topics/appendices contents along with examples from typical SARs for DOE nuclear facilities.

  17. Nuclear Safety. Technical Progress Journal, April--June 1993: Volume 34, No. 2

    SciTech Connect

    Silver, E G

    1993-01-01

    This review journal that covers significant developments in the field of Nuclear Safety. Its scope includes the analysis and control of hazards associated with nuclear energy, operations involving fissionable materials, and the products of nuclear fission and their effects on the environment. Primary emphasis is on safety in reactor design construction, and operation; however, the safety aspects of the entire fuel cycle, including fuel fabrication, spent-fuel processing, nuclear waste disposal, handling of radioisotopes, and environmental effects of these operations are also treated.

  18. Nuclear Safety. Technical Progress Journal, October--December 1991: Volume 32, No. 4

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This document is a review journal that covers significant developments in the field of nuclear safety. Its scope includes the analysis and control of hazards associated with nuclear energy, operations involving fissionable materials, and the products of nuclear fission and their effects on the environment. Primary emphasis is on safety in reactor design, construction, and operation; however, the safety aspects of the entire fuel cycle, including fuel fabrication, spent-fuel processing, nuclear waste disposal, handling of radioisotopes, and environmental effects of these operations, are also treated.

  19. Nuclear Safety Technical Progress Journal, January--June 1995. Volume 36, No. 1

    SciTech Connect

    Silver, E G

    1995-01-01

    This journal covers significant issues in the field of nuclear safety. Its primary scope is safety in the design, construction, operation, and decommissioning of nuclear power reactors worldwide and the research and analysis activities that promote this goal, but it also encompasses the safety aspects of the entire nuclear fuel cycle, including fuel fabrication, spent-fuel processing and handling, and nuclear waste disposal, the handling of fissionable materials and radioisotopes, and the environmental effects of all these activities. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  20. Nuclear Safety. Technical Progress Journal, July--September 1992: Volume 33, No. 3

    SciTech Connect

    1992-01-01

    This review journal that covers significant developments in the field of nuclear safety. Its scope includes the analysis and control of hazards associated with nuclear energy, operations involving fissionable materials, and the products of nuclear fission and their effects on the environment. Primary emphasis is on safety in reactor design, construction, and operation; however, the safety aspects of the entire fuel cycle, including fuel fabrication, spent-fuel processing, nuclear waste disposal, handling of radioisotopes, and environmental effects of these operations, are also treated.

  1. 76 FR 42686 - DOE Response to Recommendation 2011-1 of the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board, Safety...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-19

    ... workers, the public, and the environment. DOE line management is both responsible and accountable for.... We hold our contractors to the same standard. A strong nuclear safety and quality culture is the... Environmental Management (EM) requested that HSS conduct a comprehensive analysis of the safety culture at...

  2. Optimization of a Dry, Mixed Nuclear Fuel Storage Array for Nuclear Criticality Safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranko, Benjamin T.

    A dry storage array of used nuclear fuel at the Idaho National Laboratory contains a mixture of more than twenty different research and test reactor fuel types in up to 636 fuel storage canisters. New analysis demonstrates that the current arrangement of the different fuel-type canisters does not minimize the system neutron multiplication factor (keff), and that the entire facility storage capacity cannot be utilized without exceeding the subcritical limit (ksafe) for ensuring nuclear criticality safety. This work determines a more optimal arrangement of the stored fuels with a goal to minimize the system keff, but with a minimum of potential fuel canister relocation movements. The solution to this multiple-objective optimization problem will allow for both an improvement in the facility utilization while also offering an enhancement in the safety margin. The solution method applies stochastic approximation and a Tabu search metaheuristic to an empirical model developed from supporting MCNP calculations. The results establish an optimal relocation of between four to sixty canisters, which will allow the current thirty-one empty canisters to be used for storage while reducing the array keff by up to 0.018 +/- 0.003 relative to the current arrangement.

  3. Organizational Culture for Safety, Security, and Safeguards in New Nuclear Power Countries

    SciTech Connect

    Kovacic, Donald N

    2015-01-01

    This chapter will contain the following sections: Existing international norms and standards for developing the infrastructure to support new nuclear power programs The role of organizational culture and how it supports the safe, secure, and peaceful application of nuclear power Identifying effective and efficient strategies for implementing safety, security and safeguards in nuclear operations Challenges identified in the implementation of safety, security and safeguards Potential areas for future collaboration between countries in order to support nonproliferation culture

  4. Proceedings of the international meeting on thermal nuclear reactor safety. Vol. 1

    SciTech Connect

    1983-02-01

    Separate abstracts are included for each of the papers presented concerning current issues in nuclear power plant safety; national programs in nuclear power plant safety; radiological source terms; probabilistic risk assessment methods and techniques; non LOCA and small-break-LOCA transients; safety goals; pressurized thermal shocks; applications of reliability and risk methods to probabilistic risk assessment; human factors and man-machine interface; and data bases and special applications.

  5. Nuclear Safety Functions of ITER Gas Injection System Instrumentation and Control and the Concept Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yu; Maruyama, S.; Fossen, A.; Villers, F.; Kiss, G.; Zhang, Bo; Li, Bo; Jiang, Tao; Huang, Xiangmei

    2016-08-01

    The ITER Gas Injection System (GIS) plays an important role on fueling, wall conditioning and distribution for plasma operation. Besides that, to support the safety function of ITER, GIS needs to implement three nuclear safety Instrumentation and Control (I&C) functions. In this paper, these three functions are introduced with the emphasis on their latest safety classifications. The nuclear I&C design concept is briefly discussed at the end.

  6. Real-time graphic display utility for nuclear safety applications

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, S.; Huang, X.; Taylor, J.; Stevens, J.; Gerardis, T.; Hsu, A.; McCreary, T.

    2006-07-01

    With the increasing interests in the nuclear energy, new nuclear power plants will be constructed and licensed, and older generation ones will be upgraded for assuring continuing operation. The tendency of adopting the latest proven technology and the fact of older parts becoming obsolete have made the upgrades imperative. One of the areas for upgrades is the older CRT display being replaced by the latest graphics displays running under modern real time operating system (RTOS) with safety graded modern computer. HFC has developed a graphic display utility (GDU) under the QNX RTOS. A standard off-the-shelf software with a long history of performance in industrial applications, QNX RTOS used for safety applications has been examined via a commercial dedication process that is consistent with the regulatory guidelines. Through a commercial survey, a design life cycle and an operating history evaluation, and necessary tests dictated by the dedication plan, it is reasonably confirmed that the QNX RTOS was essentially equivalent to what would be expected in the nuclear industry. The developed GDU operates and communicates with the existing equipment through a dedicated serial channel of a flat panel controller (FPC) module. The FPC module drives a flat panel display (FPD) monitor. A touch screen mounted on the FPD serves as the normal operator interface with the FPC/FPD monitor system. The GDU can be used not only for replacing older CRTs but also in new applications. The replacement of the older CRT does not disturb the function of the existing equipment. It not only provides modern proven technology upgrade but also improves human ergonomics. The FPC, which can be used as a standalone controller running with the GDU, is an integrated hardware and software module. It operates as a single board computer within a control system, and applies primarily to the graphics display, targeting, keyboard and mouse. During normal system operation, the GDU has two sources of data

  7. The Gulf Nuclear Energy Infrastructure Institute : an integrated approach to safety, security & safeguards.

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Adam David

    2010-04-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and the Nuclear Security Science and Policy Institute (NSSPI) at Texas A&M University are working with Middle East regional partners to set up a nuclear energy safety, safeguards, and security educational institute in the Gulf region. SNL and NSSPI, partnered with the Khalifa University of Science, Technology, and Research (KUSTAR), with suppot from its key nuclear stakeholders, the Emirates Nuclear Energy Corporation (ENEC), and the Federal Authority for Nuclear Regulation (FANR), plan to jointly establish the institute in Abu Dhabi. The Gulf Nuclear Energy Infrastructure Institute (GNEII) will be a KUSTAR-associated, credit-granting regional education program providing both classroom instruction and hands-on experience. The ultimate objective is for GNEII to be autonomous - regionally funded and staffed with personnel capable of teaching all GNEII courses five years after its inauguration. This is a strategic effort to indigenize a responsible nuclear energy culture - a culture shaped by an integrated understanding of nuclear safety, safeguards and security - in regional nuclear energy programs. GNEII also promotes international interests in developing a nuclear energy security and safety culture, increases collaboration between the nuclear energy security and safety communities, and helps to enhance global standards for nuclear energy technology in the Middle East.

  8. The Gulf Nuclear Energy Infrastructure Institute : an integrated approach to safety, security and safeguards.

    SciTech Connect

    Beeley, Phillip A.; Boyle, David R.; Williams, Adam David; Mohagheghi, Amir Hossein

    2010-04-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and the Nuclear Security Science and Policy Institute (NSSPI) at Texas A&M University are working with Middle East regional partners to set up a nuclear energy safety, safeguards, and security educational institute in the Gulf region. SNL and NSSPI, partnered with the Khalifa University of Science, Technology, and Research (KUSTAR), with suppot from its key nuclear stakeholders, the Emirates Nuclear Energy Corporation (ENEC), and the Federal Authority for Nuclear Regulation (FANR), plan to jointly establish the institute in Abu Dhabi. The Gulf Nuclear Energy Infrastructure Institute (GNEII) will be a KUSTAR-associated, credit-granting regional education program providing both classroom instruction and hands-on experience. The ultimate objective is for GNEII to be autonomous - regionally funded and staffed with personnel capable of teaching all GNEII courses five years after its inauguration. This is a strategic effort to indigenize a responsible nuclear energy culture - a culture shaped by an integrated understanding of nuclear safety, safeguards and security - in regional nuclear energy programs. GNEII also promotes international interests in developing a nuclear energy security and safety culture, increases collaboration between the nuclear energy security and safety communities, and helps to enhance global standards for nuclear energy technology in the Middle East.

  9. Extreme Storm Event Assessments for Nuclear Facilities and Dam Safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    England, J. F.; Nicholson, T. J.; Prasad, R.

    2008-12-01

    Extreme storm events over the last 35 years are being assessed to evaluate flood estimates for safety assessments of dams, nuclear power plants, and other high-hazard structures in the U.S. The current storm rainfall design standard for evaluating the flood potential at dams and non-coastal nuclear power plants is the Probable Maximum Precipitation (PMP). PMP methods and estimates are published in the National Weather Service generalized hydrometeorological reports (HMRs). A new Federal Interagency cooperative effort is reviewing hydrometeorologic data from large storms which have occurred in the last 20 to 40 years and were not included in the database used in the development of many of the HMRs. Extreme storm data, such as the January 1996 storm in Pennsylvania, June 2008 Iowa storms, and Hurricanes Andrew (1992), Floyd (1999), Isabel (2003), Katrina (2005), need to be systematically assembled and analyzed for use in these regional extreme storm studies. Storm maximization, transposition, envelopment, and depth-area duration procedures will incorporate recent advances in hydrometeorology, including radar precipitation data and stochastic storm techniques. We describe new cooperative efforts to develop a database of extreme storms and to examine the potential impacts of recent extreme storms on PMP estimates. These efforts will be coordinated with Federal agencies, universities, and the private sector through an Extreme Storm Events Work Group under the Federal Subcommittee on Hydrology. This work group is chartered to coordinate studies and develop databases for reviewing and improving methodologies and data collection techniques used to estimate design precipitation up to and including the PMP. The initial effort focuses on collecting and reviewing extreme storm event data in the Southeastern U.S. that have occurred since Tropical Storm Agnes (1972). Uncertainties and exceedance probability estimates of PMP are being explored. Potential effects of climate

  10. Modelling oxidation behaviour in operating defective nuclear reactor fuel elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higgs, Jamie D.

    CANDU nuclear reactors are powered by ceramic uranium dioxide (UO 2) fuel pellets encased in a zirconium-alloy sheath. Occasionally, holes develop in the sheath, allowing steam ingress into the fuel-to-sheath gap, thus exposing the fuel to an oxidizing environment. Oxidation of UO2 fuel may lead to a reduction of fuel thermal conductivity and melting point, both reducing the margin to prevent fuel centre-line melting during transient or even normal operating conditions. Along with increasing fuel temperature, fuel oxidation also enhances the release of radioactive fission products into the reactor coolant. For the first time, a mechanistic treatment has been considered to predict fuel oxidation behaviour in operating defective fuel elements by coupling fuel oxidation kinetics, interstitial oxygen diffusion and heat transfer with sheath oxidation and hydriding rates and gas phase transport in both the fuel-to-sheath gap and within the fuel cracks. The three highly non-linear phenomena (solid-state oxygen diffusion, gas-phase transport and heat transfer) coupled in this treatment were modelled using a finite element technique. The result is a numerical tool that can provide predictions of both the temperature and oxygen-to-uranium (O/U) ratio profile both radially and axially along the fuel element length. The two-dimensional (azimuthally-symmetric) model has been compared to oxygen profile measurements from commercial reactor defective fuel with operating linear power ratings ranging from 26 to 51 kW m-1. Model predictions agree well with experimental observations. Defect size, linear power rating and post-defect residence time (PDRT) appear to be the factors that most influence the extent and rate of fuel oxidation. Thermodynamic modelling of hyperstoichiometric fuel provided the boundary conditions for the fuel oxidation kinetics model. A refined thermodynamic treatment for hyperstoichiometric UO2 has been established. Neutron diffraction experiments at Los Alamos

  11. Importance of Bladder Radioactivity for Radiation Safety in Nuclear Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Gültekin, Salih Sinan; Şahmaran, Turan

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Most of the radiopharmaceuticals used in nuclear medicine are excreted via the urinary system. This study evaluated the importance of a reduction in bladder radioactivity for radiation safety. Methods: The study group of 135 patients underwent several organ scintigraphies [40/135; thyroid scintigraphy (TS), 30/135; whole body bone scintigraphy (WBS), 35/135; myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS) and 30/135; renal scintigraphy (RS)] by a technologist within 1 month. In full and empty conditions, static bladder images and external dose rate measurements at 0.25, 0.50, 1, 1.5 and 2 m distances were obtained and decline ratios were calculated from these two data sets. Results: External radiation dose rates were highest in patients undergoing MPS. External dose rates at 0.25 m distance for TS, TKS, MPS and BS were measured to be 56, 106, 191 and 72 μSv h-1 for full bladder and 29, 55, 103 and 37 μSv h-1 for empty bladder, respectively. For TS, WBS, MPS and RS, respectively, average decline ratios were calculated to be 52%, 55%, 53% and 54% in the scintigraphic assessment and 49%, 51%, 49%, 50% and 50% in the assessment with Geiger counter. Conclusion: Decline in bladder radioactivity is important in terms of radiation safety. Patients should be encouraged for micturition after each scintigraphic test. Spending time together with radioactive patients at distances less than 1 m should be kept to a minimum where possible. Conflict of interest:None declared. PMID:24416625

  12. Guidelines for preparing criticality safety evaluations at Department of Energy non-reactor nuclear facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    This document contains guidelines that should be followed when preparing Criticality Safety Evaluations that will be used to demonstrate the safety of operations performed at DOE non-reactor nuclear facilities. Adherence to these guidelines will provide consistency and uniformity in criticality safety evaluations (CSEs) across the complex and will document compliance with the requirements of DOE Order 5480.24.

  13. Conditions for the successful integration of Human and Organizational Factors (HOF) in the nuclear safety analysis.

    PubMed

    Tosello, Michèle; Lévêque, Françoise; Dutillieu, Stéphanie; Hernandez, Guillaume; Vautier, Jean-François

    2012-01-01

    This communication presents some elements which come from the experience feedback at CEA about the conditions for the successful integration of HOF in the nuclear safety analysis. To point out some of these conditions, one of the concepts proposed by Edgar Morin to describe the functioning of "complex" systems: the dialogical principle has been used. The idea is to look for some dialogical pairs. The elements of this kind of pair are both complementary and antagonist to one another. Three dialogical pairs are presented in this communication. The first two pairs are related to the organization of the HOF network and the last one is related to the methods which are used to analyse the working situations. The three pairs are: specialist - non-specialist actors of the network, centralized - distributed human resources in the network and microscopic - macroscopic levels of HOF methods to analyse the working situations. To continuously improve these three dialogical pairs, it is important to keep the differences which exist between the two elements of a pair and to find and maintain a balance between the two elements of the pairs.

  14. 78 FR 47180 - Basic Program Elements for Federal Employee Occupational Safety and Health Programs and Related...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-05

    ... Occupational Safety and Health Administration 29 CFR Part 1960 Basic Program Elements for Federal Employee Occupational Safety and Health Programs and Related Matters; Subpart I for Recordkeeping and Reporting Requirements AGENCY: Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Labor. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY...

  15. Contributions to nuclear safety and radiation technologies in Ukraine by the Science and Technology Center in Ukraine (STCU)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taranenko, L.; Janouch, F.; Owsiacki, L.

    2001-06-01

    This paper presents Science and Technology Center in Ukraine (STCU) activities devoted to furthering nuclear and radiation safety, which is a prioritized STCU area. The STCU, an intergovernmental organization with the principle objective of non-proliferation, administers financial support from the USA, Canada, and the EU to Ukrainian projects in various scientific and technological areas; coordinates projects; and promotes the integration of Ukrainian scientists into the international scientific community, including involving western collaborators. The paper focuses on STCU's largest project to date "Program Supporting Y2K Readiness at Ukrainian NPPs" initiated in April 1999 and designed to address possible Y2K readiness problems at 14 Ukrainian nuclear reactors. Other presented projects demonstrate a wide diversity of supported directions in the fields of nuclear and radiation safety, including reactor material improvement ("Improved Zirconium-Based Elements for Nuclear Reactors"), information technologies for nuclear industries ("Ukrainian Nuclear Data Bank in Slavutich"), and radiation health science ("Diagnostics and Treatment of Radiation-Induced Injuries of Human Biopolymers").

  16. Nuclear criticality safety modeling of an LEU deposit

    SciTech Connect

    Haire, M.J.; Elam, K.R.; Jordan, W.C.; Dahl, T.L.

    1996-11-01

    The construction of the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (now known as the K-25 Site) began during World War H and eventually consisted of five major process buildings: K-25, K-27, K-29, K-31, and K-33. The plant took natural (0.711% {sup 231}U) uranium as feed and processed it into both low-enriched uranium (LEU) and high-enriched uranium (HEU) with concentrations up to {approximately}93% {sup 231}U. The K-25 and K-27 buildings were shut down in 1964, but the rest of the plant produced LEU until 1985. During operation, inleakage of humid air into process piping and equipment caused reactions with gaseous uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) that produced nonvolatile uranyl fluoride (UO{sub 2}F{sub 2}) deposits. As part of shutdown, most of the uranium was evacuated as volatile UF{sub 6}. The UO{sub 2}F{sub 2} deposits remained. The U.S. Department of Energy has mitiated a program to unprove nuclear criticality safety by removing the larger enriched uranium deposits.

  17. Nuclear criticality safety program for environmental restoration projects

    SciTech Connect

    Marble, R.C.; Brown, T.D.

    1994-05-01

    The Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP), formerly known as the Feed Materials Production Center (FMPC), is located on a 1050 acre site approximately twenty miles northwest of Cincinnati, Ohio. The production area of the site covers approximately 136 acres in the central portion of the site. Surrounding the core production area is a buffer consisting of leased grazing land, reforested land, and unused areas. The uranium processing facility was designed and constructed in the early 1950s. During the period from 1952 to 1989 the site produced uranium feed material and uranium products used in the United States weapons complex. Production at the site ended in 1989, when the site was shut down for what was expected to be a short period of time. However, the FUTC was permanently shut down in 1991, and the site`s mission was changed from production to environmental restoration. The objective of this paper is to give an update on activities at the Fernald Site and to describe the Nuclear Criticality Safety issues that are currently being addressed.

  18. Exploration of High-Dimensional Scalar Function for Nuclear Reactor Safety Analysis and Visualization

    SciTech Connect

    Dan Maljovec; Bei Wang; Valerio Pascucci; Peer-Timo Bremer; Michael Pernice; Robert Nourgaliev

    2013-05-01

    The next generation of methodologies for nuclear reactor Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) explicitly accounts for the time element in modeling the probabilistic system evolution and uses numerical simulation tools to account for possible dependencies between failure events. The Monte-Carlo (MC) and the Dynamic Event Tree (DET) approaches belong to this new class of dynamic PRA methodologies. A challenge of dynamic PRA algorithms is the large amount of data they produce which may be difficult to visualize and analyze in order to extract useful information. We present a software tool that is designed to address these goals. We model a large-scale nuclear simulation dataset as a high-dimensional scalar function defined over a discrete sample of the domain. First, we provide structural analysis of such a function at multiple scales and provide insight into the relationship between the input parameters and the output. Second, we enable exploratory analysis for users, where we help the users to differentiate features from noise through multi-scale analysis on an interactive platform, based on domain knowledge and data characterization. Our analysis is performed by exploiting the topological and geometric properties of the domain, building statistical models based on its topological segmentations and providing interactive visual interfaces to facilitate such explorations. We provide a user’s guide to our software tool by highlighting its analysis and visualization capabilities, along with a use case involving dataset from a nuclear reactor safety simulation.

  19. 3D laser inspection of fuel assembly grid spacers for nuclear reactors based on diffractive optical elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finogenov, L. V.; Lemeshko, Yu A.; Zav'yalov, P. S.; Chugui, Yu V.

    2007-06-01

    Ensuring the safety and high operation reliability of nuclear reactors takes 100% inspection of geometrical parameters of fuel assemblies, which include the grid spacers performed as a cellular structure with fuel elements. The required grid spacer geometry of assembly in the transverse and longitudinal cross sections is extremely important for maintaining the necessary heat regime. A universal method for 3D grid spacer inspection using a diffractive optical element (DOE), which generates as the structural illumination a multiple-ring pattern on the inner surface of a grid spacer cell, is investigated. Using some DOEs one can inspect the nomenclature of all produced grids. A special objective has been developed for forming the inner surface cell image. The problems of diffractive elements synthesis, projecting optics calculation, adjusting methods as well as calibration of the experimental measuring system are considered. The algorithms for image processing for different constructive elements of grids (cell, channel hole, outer grid spacer rim) and the experimental results are presented.

  20. Linking empowering leadership to safety participation in nuclear power plants: a structural equation model.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Córcoles, Mario; Schöbel, Markus; Gracia, Francisco J; Tomás, Inés; Peiró, José M

    2012-07-01

    Safety participation is of paramount importance in guaranteeing the safe running of nuclear power plants. The present study examined the effects of empowering leadership on safety participation. Based on a sample of 495 employees from two Spanish nuclear power plants, structural equation modeling showed that empowering leadership has a significant relationship with safety participation, which is mediated by collaborative team learning. In addition, the results revealed that the relationship between empowering leadership and collaborative learning is partially mediated by the promotion of dialogue and open communication. The implications of these findings for safety research and their practical applications are outlined. An empowering leadership style enhances workers' safety performance, particularly safety participation behaviors. Safety participation is recommended to detect possible rule inconsistencies or misunderstood procedures and make workers aware of critical safety information and issues. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Numerical analysis of a nuclear fuel element for nuclear thermal propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Ten-See; Schutzenhofer, Luke

    1991-01-01

    A computational fluid dynamics model with porosity and permeability formulations in the transport equations has been developed to study the concept of nuclear thermal propulsion through the analysis of a pulsed irradiation of a particle bed element (PIPE). The numerical model is a time-accurate pressure-based formulation. An adaptive upwind scheme is employed for spatial discretization. The upwind scheme is based on second- and fourth-order central differencing with adaptive artificial dissipation. Multiblocked porosity regions have been formulated to model the cold frit, particle bed, and hot frit. Multiblocked permeability regions have been formulated to describe the flow shaping effect from the thickness-varying cold frit. Computational results for several zero-power density PIPEs and an elevated-particle-temperature PIPE are presented. The implications of the computational results are discussed.

  2. Numerical analysis of a nuclear fuel element for nuclear thermal propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Ten-See; Schutzenhofer, Luke

    1991-01-01

    A computational fluid dynamics model with porosity and permeability formulations in the transport equations has been developed to study the concept of nuclear thermal propulsion through the analysis of a pulsed irradiation of a particle bed element (PIPE). The numerical model is a time-accurate pressure-based formulation. An adaptive upwind scheme is employed for spatial discretization. The upwind scheme is based on second- and fourth-order central differencing with adaptive artificial dissipation. Multiblocked porosity regions have been formulated to model the cold frit, particle bed, and hot frit. Multiblocked permeability regions have been formulated to describe the flow shaping effect from the thickness-varying cold frit. Computational results for several zero-power density PIPEs and an elevated-particle-temperature PIPE are presented. The implications of the computational results are discussed.

  3. Chemical and nuclear properties of lawrencium (element 103) and hahnium (element 105)

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, R.A.

    1990-09-10

    The chemical and nuclear properties of Lr and Ha have been studied, using 3-minute {sup 260}Lr and 35-second {sup 262}Ha. The crystal ionic radius of Lr{sup 3+} was determined by comparing its elution position from a cation-exchange resin column with those of lanthanide elements having known ionic radii. Comparisons are made to the ionic radii of the heavy actinides, Am{sup 3+} through Es{sup 3+}, obtained by x-ray diffraction methods, and to Md{sup 3+} and Fm{sup 3+} which were determined in the same manner as Lr{sup 3+}. The hydration enthalpy of {minus}3622 kJ/mol was calculated from the crystal ionic radius using an empirical form of the Born equation. Comparisons to the spacings between the ionic radii of the heaviest members of the lanthanide series show that the 2Z spacing between Lr{sup 3+} and Md{sup 3+} is anomalously small, as the ionic radius of Lr{sup 3+} of 0.0886 nm is significantly smaller than had been expected. The chemical properties of Ha were determined relative to the lighter homologs in group 5, Nb and Ta. Group 4 and group 5 tracer activities, as well as Ha, were absorbed onto glass surfaces as a first step toward the determination of the chemical properties of Ha. Ha was found to adsorb on surfaces, a chemical property unique to the group 5 elements, and as such demonstrates that Ha has the chemical properties of a group 5 element. A solvent extraction procedure was adapted for use as a micro-scale chemical procedure to examine whether or not Ha displays eka-Ta-like chemical under conditions where Ta will be extracted into the organic phase and Nb will not. Under the conditions of this experiment Ha did not extract, and does not show eka-Ta-like chemical properties.

  4. Safety of evolutionary and innovative nuclear reactors: IAEA activities and world efforts

    SciTech Connect

    Saito, T.; Gasparini, M.

    2004-07-01

    'Defence in Depth' approach constitutes the basis of the IAEA safety standards for nuclear power plants. Lessons learned from the current generation of reactors suggest that, for the next generation of reactor designs, the Defence in Depth philosophy should be retained, and that its implementation should be guided by the probabilistic insights. Recent developments in the area of general safety requirements based on Defence in Depth approach are examined and summarized. Global efforts to harmonize safety requirements for evolutionary nuclear power plants have involved many countries and organizations such as IAEA, US EPRI and European Utility EUR Organization. In recent years, developments of innovative nuclear power plants are also being discussed. The IAEA is currently developing a safety approach specifically for innovative nuclear reactors. This approach will eventually lead to a proposal of safety requirements for innovative reactors. Such activities related to safety requirements of evolutionary and innovative reactors are introduced. Various evolutionary and innovative reactor designs are reported in the world. The safety design features of evolutionary large LWRs, innovative LWRs, Modular High Temperature Gas Reactors and Small Liquid Metal Cooled LMRs are also introduced. Enhanced safety features proposed in such reactors are discussed and summarized according to the levels of Defence in Depth. For future nuclear plants, international cooperation and harmonization, especially in the area of safety, appear to be inevitable. Based on the past experience with many member states, the IAEA believes itself to be the uniquely positioned international organization to play this key role. (authors)

  5. Training and qualification program for nuclear criticality safety technical staff. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, R.G.; Worley, C.A.

    1997-03-05

    A training and qualification program for nuclear criticality safety technical staff personnel has been developed and implemented. All personnel who are to perform nuclear criticality safety technical work are required to participate in the program. The program includes both general nuclear criticality safety and plant specific knowledge components. Advantage can be taken of previous experience for that knowledge which is portable such as performance of computer calculations. Candidates step through a structured process which exposes them to basic background information, general plant information, and plant specific information which they need to safely and competently perform their jobs. Extensive documentation is generated to demonstrate that candidates have met the standards established for qualification.

  6. Border safety: quality control at the nuclear envelope

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Brant M.; Lusk, C. Patrick

    2015-01-01

    The unique biochemical identity of the nuclear envelope confers its capacity to establish a barrier that protects the nuclear compartment and directly contributes to nuclear function. Recent work uncovered quality control mechanisms employing the ESCRT machinery and a new arm of ERAD to counteract the unfolding, damage or misassembly of nuclear envelope proteins and ensure the integrity of the nuclear envelope membranes. Moreover, cells have the capacity to recognize and triage defective nuclear pore complexes in order to prevent their inheritance and preserve the longevity of progeny. These mechanisms serve to highlight the diverse strategies used by cells to maintain nuclear compartmentalization; we suggest they mitigate the progression and severity of diseases associated with nuclear envelope malfunction like the laminopathies. PMID:26437591

  7. Structural Safety Analysis Based on Seismic Service Conditions for Butterfly Valves in a Nuclear Power Plant

    PubMed Central

    Han, Sang-Uk; Ahn, Dae-Gyun; Lee, Myeong-Gon

    2014-01-01

    The structural integrity of valves that are used to control cooling waters in the primary coolant loop that prevents boiling within the reactor in a nuclear power plant must be capable of withstanding earthquakes or other dangerous situations. In this study, numerical analyses using a finite element method, that is, static and dynamic analyses according to the rigid or flexible characteristics of the dynamic properties of a 200A butterfly valve, were performed according to the KEPIC MFA. An experimental vibration test was also carried out in order to verify the results from the modal analysis, in which a validated finite element model was obtained via a model-updating method that considers changes in the in situ experimental data. By using a validated finite element model, the equivalent static load under SSE conditions stipulated by the KEPIC MFA gave a stress of 135 MPa that occurred at the connections of the stem and body. A larger stress of 183 MPa was induced when we used a CQC method with a design response spectrum that uses 2% damping ratio. These values were lower than the allowable strength of the materials used for manufacturing the butterfly valve, and, therefore, its structural safety met the KEPIC MFA requirements. PMID:24955416

  8. Structural safety analysis based on seismic service conditions for butterfly valves in a nuclear power plant.

    PubMed

    Han, Sang-Uk; Ahn, Dae-Gyun; Lee, Myeong-Gon; Lee, Kwon-Hee; Han, Seung-Ho

    2014-01-01

    The structural integrity of valves that are used to control cooling waters in the primary coolant loop that prevents boiling within the reactor in a nuclear power plant must be capable of withstanding earthquakes or other dangerous situations. In this study, numerical analyses using a finite element method, that is, static and dynamic analyses according to the rigid or flexible characteristics of the dynamic properties of a 200A butterfly valve, were performed according to the KEPIC MFA. An experimental vibration test was also carried out in order to verify the results from the modal analysis, in which a validated finite element model was obtained via a model-updating method that considers changes in the in situ experimental data. By using a validated finite element model, the equivalent static load under SSE conditions stipulated by the KEPIC MFA gave a stress of 135 MPa that occurred at the connections of the stem and body. A larger stress of 183 MPa was induced when we used a CQC method with a design response spectrum that uses 2% damping ratio. These values were lower than the allowable strength of the materials used for manufacturing the butterfly valve, and, therefore, its structural safety met the KEPIC MFA requirements.

  9. Nuclear criticality safety aspects of gaseous uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) in the diffusion cascade

    SciTech Connect

    Huffer, J.E.

    1997-04-01

    This paper determines the nuclear safety of gaseous UF{sub 6} in the current Gaseous Diffusion Cascade and auxiliary systems. The actual plant safety system settings for pressure trip points are used to determine the maximum amount of HF moderation in the process gas, as well as the corresponding atomic number densities. These inputs are used in KENO V.a criticality safety models which are sized to the actual plant equipment. The ENO V.a calculation results confirm nuclear safety of gaseous UF{sub 6} in plant operations..

  10. Nuclear criticality safety calculational analysis for small-diameter containers

    SciTech Connect

    LeTellier, M.S.; Smallwood, D.J.; Henkel, J.A.

    1995-11-01

    This report documents calculations performed to establish a technical basis for the nuclear criticality safety of favorable geometry containers, sometimes referred to as 5-inch containers, in use at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. A list of containers currently used in the plant is shown in Table 1.0-1. These containers are currently used throughout the plant with no mass limits. The use of containers with geometries or material types other than those addressed in this evaluation must be bounded by this analysis or have an additional analysis performed. The following five basic container geometries were modeled and bound all container geometries in Table 1.0-1: (1) 4.32-inch-diameter by 50-inch-high polyethylene bottle; (2) 5.0-inch-diameter by 24-inch-high polyethylene bottle; (3) 5.25-inch-diameter by 24-inch-high steel can ({open_quotes}F-can{close_quotes}); (4) 5.25-inch-diameter by 15-inch-high steel can ({open_quotes}Z-can{close_quotes}); and (5) 5.0-inch-diameter by 9-inch-high polybottle ({open_quotes}CO-4{close_quotes}). Each container type is evaluated using five basic reflection and interaction models that include single containers and multiple containers in normal and in credible abnormal conditions. The uranium materials evaluated are UO{sub 2}F{sub 2}+H{sub 2}O and UF{sub 4}+oil materials at 100% and 10% enrichments and U{sub 3}O{sub 8}, and H{sub 2}O at 100% enrichment. The design basis safe criticality limit for the Portsmouth facility is k{sub eff} + 2{sigma} < 0.95. The KENO study results may be used as the basis for evaluating general use of these containers in the plant.

  11. Initial Operation and Shakedown of the Nuclear Thermal Rocket Element Environmental Simulator (NTREES)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emrich, William J., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    To support the on-going nuclear thermal propulsion effort, a state-of-the-art non nuclear experimental test setup has been constructed to evaluate the performance characteristics of candidate fuel element materials and geometries in representative environments. The facility to perform this testing is referred to as the Nuclear Thermal Rocket Element Environment Simulator (NTREES). This device can simulate the environmental conditions (minus the radiation) to which nuclear rocket fuel components will be subjected during reactor operation. Prototypical fuel elements mounted in the simulator are inductively heated in such a manner so as to accurately reproduce the temperatures and heat fluxes which would normally occur as a result of nuclear fission in addition to being exposed to flowing hydrogen. Recent upgrades to NTREES now allow power levels 24 times greater than those achievable in the previous facility configuration. This higher power operation will allow near prototypical power densities and flows to finally be achieved in most prototypical fuel elements.

  12. NUCLEAR CHEMISTRY: Element 107 Leaves the Table Unturned.

    PubMed

    Service, R F

    2000-08-25

    This week, an international team of chemists reported on the first successful analysis of the chemical properties of bohrium, element 107. The results matched predictions, postponing scientists' hopes of seeing interesting deviations from theory among ultraheavy elements.

  13. Safety and environmental analyses for space nuclear programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcconnell, D. J.

    1990-01-01

    The tools and procedures for analyzing environmental quality and safety are reviewed. The process of preparing an environmental impact statement is outlined and the data sources for a safety analysis are discussed. The environmental safety analysis process is demonstrated, using examples from the Galileo, Ulysses, and Venus-earth-earth-gravity-assist programs.

  14. Nuclear energy with inherent safety: Change of outdated paradigm, criteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamov, E. O.; Orlov, V. V.; Rachkov, V. I.; Slessarev, I. S.; Khomyakov, Yu. S.

    2015-12-01

    Modern nuclear power technology still has significant sources of risk, and, weak links, such as, a threat of severe accidents with catastrophic unpredictable consequences and damage to the population, proliferation of nuclear weapon-usable materials, risks of long-term storage of toxic radioactive waste, risks of loss of major investments in nuclear facilities and their construction, lack of fuel resources for the ambitious role of nuclear power in the competitive balance of energy. Each of these risks is important and almost independent, though the elimination of some of them does not significantly alter the overall assessment of nuclear power.

  15. Preparation, review, and approval of implementation plans for nuclear safety requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    This standard describes an acceptable method to prepare, review, and approve implementation plans for DOE Nuclear Safety requirements. DOE requirements are identified in DOE Rules, Orders, Notices, Immediate Action Directives, and Manuals.

  16. Manual of functions, assignments, and responsibilities for nuclear safety: Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-10-15

    The FAR Manual is a convenient easy-to-use collection of the functions, assignments, and responsibilities (FARs) of DOE nuclear safety personnel. Current DOE directives, including Orders, Secretary of Energy Notices, and other assorted policy memoranda, are the source of this information and form the basis of the FAR Manual. Today, the majority of FARs for DOE personnel are contained in DOE`s nuclear safety Orders. As these Orders are converted to rules in the Code of Federal Regulations, the FAR Manual will become the sole source for information relating to the functions, assignments, responsibilities of DOE nuclear safety personnel. The FAR Manual identifies DOE directives that relate to nuclear safety and the specific DOE personnel who are responsible for implementing them. The manual includes only FARs that have been extracted from active directives that have been approved in accordance with the procedures contained in DOE Order 1321.1B.

  17. Status and future of nuclear matrix elements for neutrinoless double-beta decay: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engel, Jonathan; Menéndez, Javier

    2017-04-01

    The nuclear matrix elements that govern the rate of neutrinoless double beta decay must be accurately calculated if experiments are to reach their full potential. Theorists have been working on the problem for a long time but have recently stepped up their efforts as ton-scale experiments have begun to look feasible. Here we review past and recent work on the matrix elements in a wide variety of nuclear models and discuss work that will be done in the near future. Ab initio nuclear-structure theory, which is developing rapidly, holds out hope of more accurate matrix elements with quantifiable error bars.

  18. Status and future of nuclear matrix elements for neutrinoless double-beta decay: a review.

    PubMed

    Engel, Jonathan; Menéndez, Javier

    2017-04-01

    The nuclear matrix elements that govern the rate of neutrinoless double beta decay must be accurately calculated if experiments are to reach their full potential. Theorists have been working on the problem for a long time but have recently stepped up their efforts as ton-scale experiments have begun to look feasible. Here we review past and recent work on the matrix elements in a wide variety of nuclear models and discuss work that will be done in the near future. Ab initio nuclear-structure theory, which is developing rapidly, holds out hope of more accurate matrix elements with quantifiable error bars.

  19. Nuclear nonproliferation and safety: Challenges facing the International Atomic Energy Agency

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    The Chairman of the Senate Committee on Govermental Affairs asked the United States General Accounting Office (GAO) to review the safeguards and nuclear power plant safety programs of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). This report examines (1) the effectiveness of IAEA`s safeguards program and the adequacy of program funding, (2) the management of U.S. technical assistance to the IAEA`s safeguards program, and (3) the effectiveness of IAEA`s program for advising United Nations (UN) member states about nuclear power plant safety and the adequacy of program funding. Under its statute and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, IAEA is mandated to administer safeguards to detect diversions of significant quantities of nuclear material from peaceful uses. Because of limits on budget growth and unpaid contributions, IAEA has had difficulty funding the safeguards program. IAEA also conducts inspections of facilities or locations containing declared nuclear material, and manages a program for reviewing the operational safety of designated nuclear power plants. The U.S. technical assistance program for IAEA safeguards, overseen by an interagency coordinating committee, has enhanced the agency`s inspection capabilities, however, some weaknesses still exist. Despite financial limitations, IAEA is meeting its basic safety advisory responsibilities for advising UN member states on nuclear safety and providing requested safety services. However, IAEA`s program for reviewing the operational safety of nuclear power plants has not been fully effective because the program is voluntary and UN member states have not requested IAEA`s review of all nuclear reactors with serious problems. GAO believes that IAEA should have more discretion in selecting reactors for review.

  20. Nuclear microscopy in trace-element biology — from cellular studies to the clinic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindh, Ulf

    1993-05-01

    The concentration and distribution of trace and major elements in cells are of great interest in cell biology. PIXE can provide elemental concentrations in the bulk of cells or organelles as other bulk techniques such as atomic absorption spectrophotometry and nuclear activation analysis. Supplementary information, perhaps more exciting, on the intracellular distributions of trace elements can be provided using nuclear microscopy. Intracellular distributions of trace elements in normal and malignant cells are presented. The toxicity of mercury and cadmium can be prevented by supplementation of the essential trace element selenium. Some results from an experimental animal model are discussed. The intercellular distribution of major and trace elements in isolated blood cells, as revealed by nuclear microscopy, provides useful clinical information. Examples are given concerning inflammatory connective-tissue diseases and the chronic fatigue syndrome.

  1. NASA safety program activities in support of the Space Exploration Initiatives Nuclear Propulsion program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sawyer, J. C., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The activities of the joint NASA/DOE/DOD Nuclear Propulsion Program Technical Panels have been used as the basis for the current development of safety policies and requirements for the Space Exploration Initiatives (SEI) Nuclear Propulsion Technology development program. The Safety Division of the NASA Office of Safety and Mission Quality has initiated efforts to develop policies for the safe use of nuclear propulsion in space through involvement in the joint agency Nuclear Safety Policy Working Group (NSPWG), encouraged expansion of the initial policy development into proposed programmatic requirements, and suggested further expansion into the overall risk assessment and risk management process for the NASA Exploration Program. Similar efforts are underway within the Department of Energy to ensure the safe development and testing of nuclear propulsion systems on Earth. This paper describes the NASA safety policy related to requirements for the design of systems that may operate where Earth re-entry is a possibility. The expected plan of action is to support and oversee activities related to the technology development of nuclear propulsion in space, and support the overall safety and risk management program being developed for the NASA Exploration Program.

  2. NASA safety program activities in support of the Space Exploration Initiatives Nuclear Propulsion program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sawyer, J. C., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The activities of the joint NASA/DOE/DOD Nuclear Propulsion Program Technical Panels have been used as the basis for the current development of safety policies and requirements for the Space Exploration Initiatives (SEI) Nuclear Propulsion Technology development program. The Safety Division of the NASA Office of Safety and Mission Quality has initiated efforts to develop policies for the safe use of nuclear propulsion in space through involvement in the joint agency Nuclear Safety Policy Working Group (NSPWG), encouraged expansion of the initial policy development into proposed programmatic requirements, and suggested further expansion into the overall risk assessment and risk management process for the NASA Exploration Program. Similar efforts are underway within the Department of Energy to ensure the safe development and testing of nuclear propulsion systems on Earth. This paper describes the NASA safety policy related to requirements for the design of systems that may operate where Earth re-entry is a possibility. The expected plan of action is to support and oversee activities related to the technology development of nuclear propulsion in space, and support the overall safety and risk management program being developed for the NASA Exploration Program.

  3. Nuclear matrix elements for double-β decay

    SciTech Connect

    Engel, Jonathan

    2015-07-15

    Recent progress in nuclear-structure theory has been dramatic. I describe applications in progress of ab inito calculations to double-beta decay, and discuss the recent and future application of generator-coordinate methods to the same problem. I also discuss the old and vexing problem of the renormalization of the weak nuclear axial-vector coupling constant “in medium” and plans to resolve it.

  4. Integrated Response Time Evaluation Methodology for the Nuclear Safety Instrumentation System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Chang Jae; Yun, Jae Hee

    2017-06-01

    Safety analysis for a nuclear power plant establishes not only an analytical limit (AL) in terms of a measured or calculated variable but also an analytical response time (ART) required to complete protective action after the AL is reached. If the two constraints are met, the safety limit selected to maintain the integrity of physical barriers used for preventing uncontrolled radioactivity release will not be exceeded during anticipated operational occurrences and postulated accidents. Setpoint determination methodologies have actively been developed to ensure that the protective action is initiated before the process conditions reach the AL. However, regarding the ART for a nuclear safety instrumentation system, an integrated evaluation methodology considering the whole design process has not been systematically studied. In order to assure the safety of nuclear power plants, this paper proposes a systematic and integrated response time evaluation methodology that covers safety analyses, system designs, response time analyses, and response time tests. This methodology is applied to safety instrumentation systems for the advanced power reactor 1400 and the optimized power reactor 1000 nuclear power plants in South Korea. The quantitative evaluation results are provided herein. The evaluation results using the proposed methodology demonstrate that the nuclear safety instrumentation systems fully satisfy corresponding requirements of the ART.

  5. Safety and Nonsafety Communications and Interactions in International Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Kisner, Roger A; Mullens, James Allen; Wilson, Thomas L; Wood, Richard Thomas; Korsah, Kofi; Qualls, A L; Muhlheim, Michael David; Holcomb, David Eugene; Loebl, Andy

    2007-08-01

    Current industry and NRC guidance documents such as IEEE 7-4.3.2, Reg. Guide 1.152, and IEEE 603 do not sufficiently define a level of detail for evaluating interdivisional communications independence. The NRC seeks to establish criteria for safety systems communications that can be uniformly applied in evaluation of a variety of safety system designs. This report focuses strictly on communication issues related to data sent between safety systems and between safety and nonsafety systems. Further, the report does not provide design guidance for communication systems nor present detailed failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) results for existing designs. This letter report describes communications between safety and nonsafety systems in nuclear power plants outside the United States. A limited study of international nuclear power plants was conducted to ascertain important communication implementations that might have bearing on systems proposed for licensing in the United States. This report provides that following information: 1.communications types and structures used in a representative set of international nuclear power reactors, and 2.communications issues derived from standards and other source documents relevant to safety and nonsafety communications. Topics that are discussed include the following: communication among redundant safety divisions, communications between safety divisions and nonsafety systems, control of safety equipment from a nonsafety workstation, and connection of nonsafety programming, maintenance, and test equipment to redundant safety divisions during operation. Information for this report was obtained through publicly available sources such as published papers and presentations. No proprietary information is represented.

  6. Regulatory aspects of nuclear criticality safety in Germany

    SciTech Connect

    Schweer, H.H.

    1996-12-31

    The Atomic Energy Act on the peaceful use of nuclear energy and of the protection against its hazards was Passed in the German parliament in 1959. One of the purposes of this act is {open_quotes}to promote the research, development and utilization of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes.{close_quotes} This act defines fissile nuclear material (Kernbrennstoffe) and lays down the conditions and responsibilities for licensing transportation, storage, and other nuclear facilities including reactors. Based on the Atomic Energy Act, the ordinance for radiation protection was passed in October 1976. This ordinance contains requirements concerning the handling and transport of radioactive materials and basic principles for radiation protection.

  7. Assessment of modular construction for safety-related structures at advanced nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Braverman, J.; Morante, R.; Hofmayer, C.

    1997-03-01

    Modular construction techniques have been successfully used in a number of industries, both domestically and internationally. Recently, the use of structural modules has been proposed for advanced nuclear power plants. The objective in utilizing modular construction is to reduce the construction schedule, reduce construction costs, and improve the quality of construction. This report documents the results of a program which evaluated the proposed use of modular construction for safety-related structures in advanced nuclear power plant designs. The program included review of current modular construction technology, development of licensing review criteria for modular construction, and initial validation of currently available analytical techniques applied to concrete-filled steel structural modules. The program was conducted in three phases. The objective of the first phase was to identify the technical issues and the need for further study in order to support NRC licensing review activities. The two key findings were the need for supplementary review criteria to augment the Standard Review Plan and the need for verified design/analysis methodology for unique types of modules, such as the concrete-filled steel module. In the second phase of this program, Modular Construction Review Criteria were developed to provide guidance for licensing reviews. In the third phase, an analysis effort was conducted to determine if currently available finite element analysis techniques can be used to predict the response of concrete-filled steel modules.

  8. 75 FR 53985 - Southern Nuclear Operating Company Establishment of Atomic Safety And Licensing Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-02

    ... a Sustainable Coast, and Georgia Women's Action for New Directions for Clean Energy.\\1\\ \\1\\ On May... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Southern Nuclear Operating Company Establishment of Atomic Safety And Licensing Board Pursuant to...

  9. ASME Nuclear Crane Standards for Enhanced Crane Safety and Increased Profit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parkhurst, Stephen N.

    2000-01-01

    The ASME NOG-1 standard, 'Rules for Construction of Overhead and Gantry Cranes', covers top running cranes for nuclear facilities; with the ASME NUM-1 standard, 'Rules for Construction of Cranes, Monorails, and Hoists', covering the single girder, underhung, wall and jib cranes, as well as the monorails and hoists. These two ASME nuclear crane standards provide criteria for designing, inspecting and testing overhead handling equipment with enhanced safety to meet the 'defense-in-depth' approach of the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) documents NUREG 0554 and NUREG 0612. In addition to providing designs for enhanced safety, the ASME nuclear crane standards provide a basis for purchasing overhead handling equipment with standard safety features, based upon accepted engineering principles, and including performance and environmental parameters specific to nuclear facilities. The ASME NOG-1 and ASME NUM-1 standards not only provide enhanced safety for handling a critical load, but also increase profit by minimizing the possibility of load drops, by reducing cumbersome operating restrictions, and by providing the foundation for a sound licensing position. The ASME nuclear crane standards can also increase profit by providing the designs and information to help ensure that the right standard equipment is purchased. Additionally, the ASME nuclear crane standards can increase profit by providing designs and information to help address current issues, such as the qualification of nuclear plant cranes for making 'planned engineered lifts' for steam generator replacement and decommissioning.

  10. Potential safety-related incidents with possible applicability to a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant

    SciTech Connect

    Durant, W.S.; Perkins, W.C.; Lee, R.; Stoddard, D.H.

    1982-05-20

    The Safety Technology Group is developing methodology that can be used to assess the risk of operating a plant to reprocess spent nuclear fuel. As an early step in the methodology, a preliminary hazards analysis identifies safety-related incidents. In the absence of appropriate safety features, these incidents could lead to significant consequences and risk to onsite personnel or to the public. This report is a compilation of potential safety-related incidents that have been identified in studies at SRL and in safety analyses of various commercially designed reprocessing plants. It is an expanded revision of the version originally published as DP-1558, Published December 1980.

  11. IMPLEMENTATION OF DEFENSE NUCLEAR FACILITY SAFETY BOARD RECOMMENDATION 2000-2 AT WIPP

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, K.; Wu, C.

    2002-02-26

    The Defense Nuclear Safeties Board (DNFSB) issued Recommendation 2000-2 on March 8, 2000, concerning the degrading conditions of vital safety systems, or systems important to nuclear safety, at DOE sites across the nation. The Board recommended that the DOE take action to assess the condition of its nuclear systems to ensure continued operational readiness of vital safety systems that are important for safely accomplishing the DOE's mission. To verify the readiness of vital safety systems, a two-phased approach was established. Phase I consisted of a qualitative assessment to approved criteria of the defined vital safety systems by operating contractor personnel, overseen by Federal field office personnel. Based on Phase I Assessment results, vital safety systems with significant deficiencies would be further assessed in Phase II, a more extensive quantitative assessment, by a contractor and Federal team, using a second set of criteria. In addition, Defense Nuclear Facility Safety Board Recommendation 2000-2 concluded that the degradation of confinement ventilation systems was of major concern, and issued a separate set of criteria to perform a Phase II Assessment on confinement ventilation systems.

  12. 78 FR 47014 - Configuration Management Plans for Digital Computer Software Used in Safety Systems of Nuclear...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-02

    ... COMMISSION Configuration Management Plans for Digital Computer Software Used in Safety Systems of Nuclear... 1 of RG 1.169, ``Configuration Management Plans for Digital Computer Software Used in Safety Systems... those systems include software. This RG is one of six RG revisions addressing computer software...

  13. Passive and inherent safety technologies for light-water nuclear reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Forsberg, C.W.

    1990-07-01

    Passive/inherent safety implies a technical revolution in our approach to nuclear power safety. This direction is discussed herein for light-water reactors (LWRs) -- the predominant type of power reactor used in the world today. At Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) the approach to the development of passive/inherent safety for LWRs consists of four steps: identify and quantify safety requirements and goals; identify and quantify the technical functional requirements needed for safety; identify, invent, develop, and quantify technical options that meet both of the above requirements; and integrate safety systems into designs of economic and reliable nuclear power plants. Significant progress has been achieved in the first three steps of this program. The last step involves primarily the reactor vendors. These activities, as well as related activities worldwide, are described here. 27 refs., 7 tabs.

  14. Implementation plan for the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board Recommendation 90-7. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Borsheim, G.L.; Cash, R.J.; Dukelow, G.T.

    1992-12-01

    This document revises the original plan submitted in March 1991 for implementing the recommendations made by the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board in their Recommendation 90-7 to the US Department of Energy. Recommendation 90-7 addresses safety issues of concern for 24 single-shell, high-level radioactive waste tanks containing ferrocyanide compounds at the Hanford Site. The waste in these tanks is a potential safety concern because, under certain conditions involving elevated temperatures and low concentrations of nonparticipating diluents, ferrocyanide compounds in the presence of oxidizing materials can undergo a runaway (propagating) chemical reaction. This document describes those activities underway by the Hanford Site contractor responsible for waste tank safety that address each of the six parts of Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board Recommendation 90-7. This document also identifies the progress made on these activities since the beginning of the ferrocyanide safety program in September 1990. Revised schedules for planned activities are also included.

  15. The Role of Nuclear Physics in Understanding the Cosmos and the Origin of Elements

    SciTech Connect

    Balantekin, A. B.

    2011-05-06

    This popular lecture, given in the conference celebrating contributions of Akito Arima to physics on the occasion of his 80th anniversary, outlines the role of nuclear physics in understanding the origin of elements.

  16. FUEL-BREEDER FUEL ELEMENT FOR NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Abbott, W.E.; Balent, R.

    1958-09-16

    A fuel element design to facilitate breeding reactor fuel is described. The fuel element is comprised of a coatainer, a central core of fertile material in the container, a first bonding material surrounding the core, a sheet of fissionable material immediately surrounding the first bonding material, and a second bonding material surrounding the fissionable material and being in coniact with said container.

  17. Nuclear breeder reactor fuel element with silicon carbide getter

    DOEpatents

    Christiansen, David W.; Karnesky, Richard A.

    1987-01-01

    An improved cesium getter 28 is provided in a breeder reactor fuel element or pin in the form of an extended surface area, low density element formed in one embodiment as a helically wound foil 30 located with silicon carbide, and located at the upper end of the fertile material upper blanket 20.

  18. PROCESS OF DISSOLVING FUEL ELEMENTS OF NUCLEAR REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Wall, E.M.V.; Bauer, D.T.; Hahn, H.T.

    1963-09-01

    A process is described for dissolving stainless-steelor zirconium-clad uranium dioxide fuel elements by immersing the elements in molten lead chloride, adding copper, cuprous chloride, or cupric chloride as a catalyst and passing chlorine through the salt mixture. (AEC)

  19. A work observation study of nuclear medicine technologists: interruptions, resilience and implications for patient safety

    PubMed Central

    Larcos, George; Prgomet, Mirela; Georgiou, Andrew; Westbrook, Johanna

    2017-01-01

    Background Errors by nuclear medicine technologists during the preparation of radiopharmaceuticals or at other times can cause patient harm and may reflect the impact of interruptions, busy work environments and deficient systems or processes. We aimed to: (a) characterise the rate and nature of interruptions technologists experience and (b) identify strategies that support safety. Methods We performed 100 hours of observation of 11 technologists at a major public hospital and measured the proportions of time spent in eight categories of work tasks, location of task, interruption rate and type and multitasking (tasks conducted in parallel). We catalogued specific safety-oriented strategies used by technologists. Results Technologists completed 5227 tasks and experienced 569 interruptions (mean, 4.5 times per hour; 95% CI 4.1 to 4.9). The highest interruption rate occurred when technologists were in transit between rooms (10.3 per hour (95% CI 8.3 to 12.5)). Interruptions during radiopharmaceutical preparation occurred a mean of 4.4 times per hour (95% CI 3.3 to 5.6). Most (n=426) tasks were interrupted once only and all tasks were resumed after interruption. Multitasking occurred 16.6% of the time. At least some interruptions were initiated by other technologists to convey important information and/or to render assistance. Technologists employed a variety of verbal and non-verbal strategies in all work areas (notably in the hot-lab) to minimise the impact of interruptions and optimise the safe conduct of procedures. Although most were due to individual choices, some strategies reflected overt or subliminal departmental policy. Conclusions Some interruptions appear beneficial. Technologists' self-initiated strategies to support safe work practices appear to be an important element in supporting a resilient work environment in nuclear medicine. PMID:27707869

  20. Guidelines for preparing criticality safety evaluations at Department of Energy non-reactor nuclear facilities

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-01

    This Department of Energy (DOE) is approved for use by all components of DOE. It contains guidelines that should be followed when preparing Criticality Safety Evaluations that will be used to demonstrate the safety of operations performed at DOE Non-Reactor Nuclear Facilities. Adherence with these guidelines will provide consistency and uniformity in Criticality Safety Evaluations (CSEs) across the complex and will document compliance with DOE Order 5480.24 requirements as they pertain to CSEs.

  1. Improving the regulation of safety at DOE nuclear facilities. Final report: Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    The report strongly recommends that, with the end of the Cold War, safety and health at DOE facilities should be regulated by outside agencies rather than by any regulatory scheme, DOE must maintain a strong internal safety management system; essentially all aspects of safety at DOE`s nuclear facilities should be externally regulated; and existing agencies rather than a new one should be responsible for external regulation.

  2. Improving the regulation of safety at DOE nuclear facilities. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    The report strongly recommends that, with the end of the Cold War, safety and health at DOE facilities should be regulated by outside agencies rather than by DOE itself. The three major recommendations are: under any regulatory scheme, DOE must maintain a strong internal safety management system; essentially all aspects of safety at DOE`s nuclear facilities should be externally regulated; and existing agencies rather than a new one should be responsible for external regulation.

  3. Nuclear Reactor Safety--The APS Submits its Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Physics Today, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Presents the summary section of the American Physical Society (APS) report on the safety features of the light-water reactor, reviews the design, construction, and operation of a reactor and outlines the primary engineered safety features. Summarizes the major recommendations of the study group. (GS)

  4. Safety analysis of the nuclear chemistry Building 151

    SciTech Connect

    Kvam, D.

    1984-06-29

    This report summarizes the results of a safety analysis that was done on Building 151. The report outlines the methodology, the analysis, and the findings that led to the low hazard classification. No further safety evaluation is indicated at this time. 5 tables.

  5. Nuclear Reactor Safety--The APS Submits its Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Physics Today, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Presents the summary section of the American Physical Society (APS) report on the safety features of the light-water reactor, reviews the design, construction, and operation of a reactor and outlines the primary engineered safety features. Summarizes the major recommendations of the study group. (GS)

  6. WASTE PROCESSING ANNUAL NUCLEAR SAFETY RELATED R AND D REPORT FOR CY2008

    SciTech Connect

    Fellinger, A.

    2009-10-15

    The Engineering and Technology Office of Waste Processing identifies and reduces engineering and technical risks associated with key waste processing project decisions. The risks, and actions taken to mitigate those risks, are determined through technology readiness assessments, program reviews, technology information exchanges, external technical reviews, technical assistance, and targeted technology development and deployment (TDD). The Office of Waste Processing TDD program prioritizes and approves research and development scopes of work that address nuclear safety related to processing of highly radioactive nuclear wastes. Thirteen of the thirty-five R&D approved work scopes in FY2009 relate directly to nuclear safety, and are presented in this report.

  7. Nuclear Hexadecapole Deformation Effects on the Production of Super-Heavy Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Nan; Dou, Liang; Zhao, En-Guang; Werner, Scheid

    2010-06-01

    We investigate the effects of the nuclear hexadecapole deformations on the interaction potentials between nuclei, the driving potentials and the fusion probabilities for some cold fusion reactions leading to super-heavy elements. It is found that nuclear hexadecapole deformations change significantly the structure of the driving potentials and the fusion probabilities for some reaction channels.

  8. Nuclear criticality safety evaluation of large cylinder cleaning operations in X-705, Portsmouth Gaseous diffusion Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Sheaffer, M.K.; Keeton, S.C.; Lutz, H.F.

    1995-06-01

    This report evaluates nuclear criticality safety for large cylinder cleaning operations in the Decontamination and Recovery Facility, X-705, at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. A general description of current cleaning procedures and required hardware/equipment is presented, and documentation for large cylinder cleaning operations is identified and described. Control parameters, design features, administrative controls, and safety systems relevant to nuclear criticality are discussed individually, followed by an overall assessment based on the Double Contingency Principle. Recommendations for enhanced safety are suggested, and issues for increased efficiency are presented.

  9. Advanced Ceramics for Use as Fuel Element Materials in Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valentine, Peter G.; Allen, Lee R.; Shapiro, Alan P.

    2012-01-01

    With the recent start (October 2011) of the joint National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and Department of Energy (DOE) Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (NCPS) Program, there is renewed interest in developing advanced ceramics for use as fuel element materials in nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) systems. Three classes of fuel element materials are being considered under the NCPS Program: (a) graphite composites - consisting of coated graphite elements containing uranium carbide (or mixed carbide), (b) cermets (ceramic/metallic composites) - consisting of refractory metal elements containing uranium oxide, and (c) advanced carbides consisting of ceramic elements fabricated from uranium carbide and one or more refractory metal carbides [1]. The current development effort aims to advance the technology originally developed and demonstrated under Project Rover (1955-1973) for the NERVA (Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Application) [2].

  10. Cultural safety: a vital element for nursing ethics.

    PubMed

    Harding, Thomas

    2013-03-01

    This paper argues that the globalisation of nursing and the internationalisation of nursing education have lead to Western values being embedded into nursing curricula in nations where the cultural values and beliefs may be based in quite different philosophies. It argues for critical examination of assumptions underpinning ethics education in nursing and proposes that the principles of cultural safety need to be incorporated into ethics education to create a culturally safe ethic for both nurses and patients in a multicultural healthcare environment.

  11. Technology Status of Thermionic Fuel Elements for Space Nuclear Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holland, J. W.; Yang, L.

    1984-01-01

    Thermionic reactor power systems are discussed with respect to their suitability for space missions. The technology status of thermionic emitters and sheath insulator assemblies is described along with testing of the thermionic fuel elements.

  12. NUCLEAR REACTOR FUEL ELEMENT AND METHOD OF MANUFACTURE

    DOEpatents

    Brooks, H.

    1960-04-26

    A description is given for a fuel element comprising a body of uranium metal or an uranium compound dispersed in a matrix material made from magnesium, calcium, or barium and a stainless steel jacket enclosing the body.

  13. Prototype Input and Output Data Elements for the Occupational Health and Safety Information System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whyte, A. A.

    1980-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration plans to implement a NASA-wide computerized information system for occupational health and safety. The system is necessary to administer the occupational health and safety programs and to meet the legal and regulatory reporting, recordkeeping, and surveillance requirements. Some of the potential data elements that NASA will require as input and output for the new occupational health and safety information system are illustrated. The data elements are shown on sample forms that have been compiled from various sources, including NASA Centers and industry.

  14. Dynamic SPR monitoring of yeast nuclear protein binding to a cis-regulatory element

    SciTech Connect

    Mao, Grace; Brody, James P.

    2007-11-09

    Gene expression is controlled by protein complexes binding to short specific sequences of DNA, called cis-regulatory elements. Expression of most eukaryotic genes is controlled by dozens of these elements. Comprehensive identification and monitoring of these elements is a major goal of genomics. In pursuit of this goal, we are developing a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) based assay to identify and monitor cis-regulatory elements. To test whether we could reliably monitor protein binding to a regulatory element, we immobilized a 16 bp region of Saccharomyces cerevisiae chromosome 5 onto a gold surface. This 16 bp region of DNA is known to bind several proteins and thought to control expression of the gene RNR1, which varies through the cell cycle. We synchronized yeast cell cultures, and then sampled these cultures at a regular interval. These samples were processed to purify nuclear lysate, which was then exposed to the sensor. We found that nuclear protein binds this particular element of DNA at a significantly higher rate (as compared to unsynchronized cells) during G1 phase. Other time points show levels of DNA-nuclear protein binding similar to the unsynchronized control. We also measured the apparent association complex of the binding to be 0.014 s{sup -1}. We conclude that (1) SPR-based assays can monitor DNA-nuclear protein binding and that (2) for this particular cis-regulatory element, maximum DNA-nuclear protein binding occurs during G1 phase.

  15. NUCLEAR REACTOR FUEL ELEMENTS AND METHOD OF PREPARATION

    DOEpatents

    Kingston, W.E.; Kopelman, B.; Hausner, H.H.

    1963-07-01

    A fuel element consisting of uranium nitride and uranium carbide in the form of discrete particles in a solid coherent matrix of a metal such as steel, beryllium, uranium, or zirconium and clad with a metal such as steel, aluminum, zirconium, or beryllium is described. The element is made by mixing powdered uranium nitride and uranium carbide with powdered matrix metal, then compacting and sintering the mixture. (AEC)

  16. Uncertainty Quantification for Safety Verification Applications in Nuclear Power Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boafo, Emmanuel

    There is an increasing interest in computational reactor safety analysis to systematically replace the conservative calculations by best estimate calculations augmented by quantitative uncertainty analysis methods. This has been necessitated by recent regulatory requirements that have permitted the use of such methods in reactor safety analysis. Stochastic uncertainty quantification methods have shown great promise, as they are better suited to capture the complexities in real engineering problems. This study proposes a framework for performing uncertainty quantification based on the stochastic approach, which can be applied to enhance safety analysis. (Abstract shortened by ProQuest.).

  17. 77 FR 50722 - Software Unit Testing for Digital Computer Software Used in Safety Systems of Nuclear Power Plants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-22

    ... COMMISSION Software Unit Testing for Digital Computer Software Used in Safety Systems of Nuclear Power Plants... entitled ``Software Unit Testing for Digital Computer Software Used in Safety Systems of Nuclear Power... systems of nuclear power plants. In particular, the methods are consistent with part 50 of Title 10 of the...

  18. Radiation safety audit of a high volume Nuclear Medicine Department.

    PubMed

    Jha, Ashish Kumar; Singh, Abhijith Mohan; Shetye, Bhakti; Shah, Sneha; Agrawal, Archi; Purandare, Nilendu Chandrakant; Monteiro, Priya; Rangarajan, Venkatesh

    2014-10-01

    Professional radiation exposure cannot be avoided in nuclear medicine practices. It can only be minimized up to some extent by implementing good work practices. The aim of our study was to audit the professional radiation exposure and exposure rate of radiation worker working in and around Department of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging, Tata Memorial Hospital. We calculated the total number of nuclear medicine and positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) procedures performed in our department and the radiation exposure to the radiation professionals from year 2009 to 2012. We performed an average of 6478 PET/CT scans and 3856 nuclear medicine scans/year from January 2009 to December 2012. The average annual whole body radiation exposure to nuclear medicine physician, technologist and nursing staff are 1.74 mSv, 2.93 mSv and 4.03 mSv respectively. Efficient management and deployment of personnel is of utmost importance to optimize radiation exposure in a high volume nuclear medicine setup in order to work without anxiety of high radiation exposure.

  19. Radiation safety audit of a high volume Nuclear Medicine Department

    PubMed Central

    Jha, Ashish Kumar; Singh, Abhijith Mohan; Shetye, Bhakti; Shah, Sneha; Agrawal, Archi; Purandare, Nilendu Chandrakant; Monteiro, Priya; Rangarajan, Venkatesh

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Professional radiation exposure cannot be avoided in nuclear medicine practices. It can only be minimized up to some extent by implementing good work practices. Aim and Objectives: The aim of our study was to audit the professional radiation exposure and exposure rate of radiation worker working in and around Department of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging, Tata Memorial Hospital. Materials and Methods: We calculated the total number of nuclear medicine and positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) procedures performed in our department and the radiation exposure to the radiation professionals from year 2009 to 2012. Results: We performed an average of 6478 PET/CT scans and 3856 nuclear medicine scans/year from January 2009 to December 2012. The average annual whole body radiation exposure to nuclear medicine physician, technologist and nursing staff are 1.74 mSv, 2.93 mSv and 4.03 mSv respectively. Conclusion: Efficient management and deployment of personnel is of utmost importance to optimize radiation exposure in a high volume nuclear medicine setup in order to work without anxiety of high radiation exposure. PMID:25400361

  20. Applications of a global nuclear-structure model to studies of the heaviest elements

    SciTech Connect

    Moeller, P.; Nix, J.R.

    1993-10-01

    We present some new results on heavy-element nuclear-structure properties calculated on the basis of the finite-range droplet model and folded-Yukawa single-particle potential. Specifically, we discuss calculations of nuclear ground-state masses and microscopic corrections, {alpha}-decay properties, {beta}-decay properties, fission potential-energy surfaces, and spontaneous-fission half-lives. These results, obtained in a global nuclear-structure approach, are particularly reliable for describing the stability properties of the heaviest elements.

  1. Evaluating software for safety systems in nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence, J.D.; Persons, W.L.; Preckshot, G.G.; Gallagher, J.

    1994-01-11

    In 1991, LLNL was asked by the NRC to provide technical assistance in various aspects of computer technology that apply to computer-based reactor protection systems. This has involved the review of safety aspects of new reactor designs and the provision of technical advice on the use of computer technology in systems important to reactor safety. The latter includes determining and documenting state-of-the-art subjects that require regulatory involvement by the NRC because of their importance in the development and implementation of digital computer safety systems. These subjects include data communications, formal methods, testing, software hazards analysis, verification and validation, computer security, performance, software complexity and others. One topic software reliability and safety is the subject of this paper.

  2. Criticality safety evaluation for the Advanced Test Reactor enhanced low enriched uranium fuel elements

    SciTech Connect

    Montierth, Leland M.

    2016-07-19

    The Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) convert program is developing a high uranium density fuel based on a low enriched uranium (LEU) uranium-molybdenum alloy. Testing of prototypic GTRI fuel elements is necessary to demonstrate integrated fuel performance behavior and scale-up of fabrication techniques. GTRI Enhanced LEU Fuel (ELF) elements based on the ATR-Standard Size elements (all plates fueled) are to be fabricated for testing in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). While a specific ELF element design will eventually be provided for detailed analyses and in-core testing, this criticality safety evaluation (CSE) is intended to evaluate a hypothetical ELF element design for criticality safety purposes. Existing criticality analyses have analyzed Standard (HEU) ATR elements from which controls have been derived. This CSE documents analysis that determines the reactivity of the hypothetical ELF fuel elements relative to HEU ATR elements and whether the existing HEU ATR element controls bound the ELF element. The initial calculations presented in this CSE analyzed the original ELF design, now referred to as Mod 0.1. In addition, as part of a fuel meat thickness optimization effort for reactor performance, other designs have been evaluated. As of early 2014 the most current conceptual designs are Mk1A and Mk1B, that were previously referred to as conceptual designs Mod 0.10 and Mod 0.11, respectively. Revision 1 evaluates the reactivity of the ATR HEU Mark IV elements for a comparison with the Mark VII elements.

  3. Framework for Integrating Safety, Operations, Security, and Safeguards in the Design and Operation of Nuclear Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Darby, John L.; Horak, Karl Emanuel; LaChance, Jeffrey L.; Tolk, Keith Michael; Whitehead, Donnie Wayne

    2007-10-01

    The US is currently on the brink of a nuclear renaissance that will result in near-term construction of new nuclear power plants. In addition, the Department of Energy’s (DOE) ambitious new Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) program includes facilities for reprocessing spent nuclear fuel and reactors for transmuting safeguards material. The use of nuclear power and material has inherent safety, security, and safeguards (SSS) concerns that can impact the operation of the facilities. Recent concern over terrorist attacks and nuclear proliferation led to an increased emphasis on security and safeguard issues as well as the more traditional safety emphasis. To meet both domestic and international requirements, nuclear facilities include specific SSS measures that are identified and evaluated through the use of detailed analysis techniques. In the past, these individual assessments have not been integrated, which led to inefficient and costly design and operational requirements. This report provides a framework for a new paradigm where safety, operations, security, and safeguards (SOSS) are integrated into the design and operation of a new facility to decrease cost and increase effectiveness. Although the focus of this framework is on new nuclear facilities, most of the concepts could be applied to any new, high-risk facility.

  4. Molten tin reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel elements

    DOEpatents

    Heckman, Richard A.

    1983-01-01

    A method and apparatus for reprocessing spent nuclear fuel is described. Within a containment vessel, a solid plug of tin and nitride precipitates supports a circulating bath of liquid tin therein. Spent nuclear fuel is immersed in the liquid tin under an atmosphere of nitrogen, resulting in the formation of nitride precipitates. The layer of liquid tin and nitride precipitates which interfaces the plug is solidified and integrated with the plug. Part of the plug is melted, removing nitride precipitates from the containment vessel, while a portion of the plug remains solidified to support the liquid tin and nitride precipitates remaining in the containment vessel. The process is practiced numerous times until substantially all of the precipitated nitrides are removed from the containment vessel.

  5. Trace element measurement for assessment of dog food safety.

    PubMed

    De Nadai Fernandes, Elisabete A; Elias, Camila; Bacchi, Márcio Arruda; Bode, Peter

    2017-02-12

    The quality of dog diets depends on adequate ingredients capable of providing optimal nutrition and free of contaminants, for promoting long-term health. Trace elements in 95 samples of dry food for dog puppies (n = 32) and adults (n = 63) of various brands were measured using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The mass fractions of most elements were within the permissible limits for dogs. Aluminum, antimony, and uranium presented fairly high levels in some samples, which may imply health risks. Aluminum mass fractions ranged from <21 to 11,900 mg/kg, in same brand, super-premium dog food. Antimony mass fractions ranged up to 5.14 mg/kg, with the highest values measured in six samples of dog food from the same producer. The mass fractions of uranium was found up to 4 mg/kg in commercial brands from five different producers.

  6. Support grid for fuel elements in a nuclear reactor

    DOEpatents

    Finch, Lester M.

    1977-01-01

    A support grid is provided for holding nuclear fuel rods in a rectangular array. Intersecting sheet metal strips are interconnected using opposing slots in the strips to form a rectangular cellular grid structure for engaging the sides of a multiplicity of fuel rods. Spring and dimple supports for engaging fuel and guide rods extending through each cell in the support grid are formed in the metal strips with the springs thus formed being characterized by nonlinear spring rates.

  7. Survey of systems safety analysis methods and their application to nuclear waste management systems

    SciTech Connect

    Pelto, P.J.; Winegardner, W.K.; Gallucci, R.H.V.

    1981-11-01

    This report reviews system safety analysis methods and examines their application to nuclear waste management systems. The safety analysis methods examined include expert opinion, maximum credible accident approach, design basis accidents approach, hazard indices, preliminary hazards analysis, failure modes and effects analysis, fault trees, event trees, cause-consequence diagrams, G0 methodology, Markov modeling, and a general category of consequence analysis models. Previous and ongoing studies on the safety of waste management systems are discussed along with their limitations and potential improvements. The major safety methods and waste management safety related studies are surveyed. This survey provides information on what safety methods are available, what waste management safety areas have been analyzed, and what are potential areas for future study.

  8. Conceptual Software Reliability Prediction Models for Nuclear Power Plant Safety Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, G.; Lawrence, D.; Yu, H.

    2000-04-03

    The objective of this project is to develop a method to predict the potential reliability of software to be used in a digital system instrumentation and control system. The reliability prediction is to make use of existing measures of software reliability such as those described in IEEE Std 982 and 982.2. This prediction must be of sufficient accuracy to provide a value for uncertainty that could be used in a nuclear power plant probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). For the purposes of the project, reliability was defined to be the probability that the digital system will successfully perform its intended safety function (for the distribution of conditions under which it is expected to respond) upon demand with no unintended functions that might affect system safety. The ultimate objective is to use the identified measures to develop a method for predicting the potential quantitative reliability of a digital system. The reliability prediction models proposed in this report are conceptual in nature. That is, possible prediction techniques are proposed and trial models are built, but in order to become a useful tool for predicting reliability, the models must be tested, modified according to the results, and validated. Using methods outlined by this project, models could be constructed to develop reliability estimates for elements of software systems. This would require careful review and refinement of the models, development of model parameters from actual experience data or expert elicitation, and careful validation. By combining these reliability estimates (generated from the validated models for the constituent parts) in structural software models, the reliability of the software system could then be predicted. Modeling digital system reliability will also require that methods be developed for combining reliability estimates for hardware and software. System structural models must also be developed in order to predict system reliability based upon the reliability

  9. The Search for Transuranium Elements and the Discovery of Nuclear Fission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sime, Ruth Lewin

    The synthesis of new, artificial elements beyond uranium was at the cutting-edge of physical research in the 1930s, and nearly half a dozen transuranium elements were reported between 1934 and 1938. Nuclear physicists and radiochemists collaborated closely, but each field introduced fundamental assumptions that proved to be false: that nuclear changes would always be small, and that transuranium elements would resemble transition elements chemically. With its surprise ending in the discovery of nuclear fission, the misguided transuranium project can be viewed as an example of the illogical progress of scientific discovery. It is also an example of an interdisciplinary collaboration that was flawed yet crucial, for although chemists and physicists both contributed to the delay in discovering fission, their collaboration was essential in leading them to it in the end.

  10. Environmental safety aspects of the new spent nuclear fuel management and storage system at Ignalina NPP

    SciTech Connect

    Poskas, P.; Ragaisis, V.; Adomaitis, J. E.

    2007-07-01

    In the framework of the preparation for the decommissioning of the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant (INPP) a new Interim Spent Nuclear Fuel Storage Facility (ISFSF) will be built in the existing sanitary protection zone (SPZ) of INPP. In addition to the ISFSF, the new spent nuclear fuel management activity will include all necessary spent nuclear fuel retrieval and packaging operations at the Reactor Units, transfer of storage casks to the ISFSF, and other activities appropriate to the chosen design solution and required for the safe removal of the existing spent nuclear fuel from storage pools and insertion into the new ISFSF. The Republic of Lithuania regulations require that the average annual dose to the critical group members of population due to operation of nuclear facility shall not exceed dose constraint. If several nuclear facilities are located in the same SPZ, the same dose constraint shall envelope radiological impacts from all operating and planned nuclear facilities. The paper discusses radiological safety assessment aspects as relevant for the new nuclear activity to be implemented in the SPZ of INPP considering specificity of Lithuanian regulatory requirements. The safety assessment methodology aspects, results and conclusions as concern public exposure are outlined and discussed. (authors)

  11. Recovery of transplutonium elements from nuclear reactor waste

    DOEpatents

    Campbell, David O.; Buxton, Samuel R.

    1977-05-24

    A method of separating actinide values from nitric acid waste solutions resulting from reprocessing of irradiated nuclear fuels comprises oxalate precipitation of the major portion of actinide and lanthanide values to provide a trivalent fraction suitable for subsequent actinide/lanthanide partition, exchange of actinide and lanthanide values in the supernate onto a suitable cation exchange resin to provide an intermediate-lived raffinate waste stream substantially free of actinides, and elution of the actinide values from the exchange resin. The eluate is then used to dissolve the trivalent oxalate fraction prior to actinide/lanthanide partition or may be combined with the reprocessing waste stream and recycled.

  12. Nuclear fuel element, and method of forming same

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, I.N. Jr.; Magee, P.M.

    1990-11-20

    This patent describes improvement to the method of inhibiting an interaction between a metal alloy fissionable fuel for a nuclear reactor and a stainless steel container for the fuel which results in low temperature melting eutectic reaction products of components from the metal alloy fuel and stainless steel. The improvement comprises providing an expandable body of at least one alloying metal for the metal alloy fissionable fuel selected from the group consisting of zirconium, titanium, niobium and molybdenum at least about 2 mils thick interposed into a space between a metal alloy fuel. The fuel consists of metallic uranium and plutonium and the stainless steel container housing the metal alloy fuel therein.

  13. Nuclear criticality safety staff training and qualifications at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Monahan, S.P.; McLaughlin, T.P.

    1997-05-01

    Operations involving significant quantities of fissile material have been conducted at Los Alamos National Laboratory continuously since 1943. Until the advent of the Laboratory`s Nuclear Criticality Safety Committee (NCSC) in 1957, line management had sole responsibility for controlling criticality risks. From 1957 until 1961, the NCSC was the Laboratory body which promulgated policy guidance as well as some technical guidance for specific operations. In 1961 the Laboratory created the position of Nuclear Criticality Safety Office (in addition to the NCSC). In 1980, Laboratory management moved the Criticality Safety Officer (and one other LACEF staff member who, by that time, was also working nearly full-time on criticality safety issues) into the Health Division office. Later that same year the Criticality Safety Group, H-6 (at that time) was created within H-Division, and staffed by these two individuals. The training and education of these individuals in the art of criticality safety was almost entirely self-regulated, depending heavily on technical interactions between each other, as well as NCSC, LACEF, operations, other facility, and broader criticality safety community personnel. Although the Los Alamos criticality safety group has grown both in size and formality of operations since 1980, the basic philosophy that a criticality specialist must be developed through mentoring and self motivation remains the same. Formally, this philosophy has been captured in an internal policy, document ``Conduct of Business in the Nuclear Criticality Safety Group.`` There are no short cuts or substitutes in the development of a criticality safety specialist. A person must have a self-motivated personality, excellent communications skills, a thorough understanding of the principals of neutron physics, a safety-conscious and helpful attitude, a good perspective of real risk, as well as a detailed understanding of process operations and credible upsets.

  14. Results of operation and current safety performance of nuclear facilities located in the Russian Federation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, V. M.; Khvostova, M. S.

    2016-12-01

    After the NPP radiation accidents in Russia and Japan, a safety statu of Russian nuclear power plants causes concern. A repeated life time extension of power unit reactor plants, designed at the dawn of the nuclear power engineering in the Soviet Union, power augmentation of the plants to 104-109%, operation of power units in a daily power mode in the range of 100-70-100%, the use of untypical for NPP remixed nuclear fuel without a careful study of the results of its application (at least after two operating periods of the research nuclear installations), the aging of operating personnel, and many other management actions of the State Corporation "Rosatom", should attract the attention of the Federal Service for Ecological, Technical and Atomic Supervision (RosTekhNadzor), but this doesn't happen. The paper considers safety issues of nuclear power plants operating in the Russian Federation. The authors collected statistical information on violations in NPP operation over the past 25 years, which shows that even after repeated relaxation over this period of time of safety regulation requirements in nuclear industry and highly expensive NPP modernization, the latter have not become more safe, and the statistics confirms this. At a lower utilization factor high-power pressure-tube reactors RBMK-1000, compared to light water reactors VVER-440 and 1000, have a greater number of violations and that after annual overhauls. A number of direct and root causes of NPP mulfunctions is still high and remains stable for decades. The paper reveals bottlenecks in ensuring nuclear and radiation safety of nuclear facilities. Main outstanding issues on the storage of spent nuclear fuel are defined. Information on emissions and discharges of radioactive substances, as well as fullness of storages of solid and liquid radioactive waste, located at the NPP sites are presented. Russian NPPs stress test results are submitted, as well as data on the coming removal from operation of NPP

  15. Safety Software Guide Perspectives for the Design of New Nuclear Facilities (U)

    SciTech Connect

    VINCENT, Andrew

    2005-07-14

    In June of this year, the Department of Energy (DOE) issued directives DOE O 414.1C and DOE G 414.1-4 to improve quality assurance programs, processes, and procedures among its safety contractors. Specifically, guidance entitled, ''Safety Software Guide for use with 10 CFR 830 Subpart A, Quality Assurance Requirements, and DOE O 414.1C, Quality Assurance, DOE G 414.1-4'', provides information and acceptable methods to comply with safety software quality assurance (SQA) requirements. The guidance provides a roadmap for meeting DOE O 414.1C, ''Quality Assurance'', and the quality assurance program (QAP) requirements of Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 830, Subpart A, Quality Assurance, for DOE nuclear facilities and software application activities. [1, 2] The order and guide are part of a comprehensive implementation plan that addresses issues and concerns documented in Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) Recommendation 2002-1. [3] Safety SQA requirements for DOE as well as National Nuclear Security Administration contractors are necessary to implement effective quality assurance (QA) processes and achieve safe nuclear facility operations. DOE G 414.1-4 was developed to provide guidance on establishing and implementing effective QA processes tied specifically to nuclear facility safety software applications. The Guide includes software application practices covered by appropriate national and international consensus standards and various processes currently in use at DOE facilities. While the safety software guidance is considered to be of sufficient rigor and depth to ensure acceptable reliability of safety software at all DOE nuclear facilities, new nuclear facilities are well suited to take advantage of the guide to ensure compliant programs and processes are implemented. Attributes such as the facility life-cycle stage and the hazardous nature of each facility operations are considered, along with the category and level of importance of the

  16. Preliminary nuclear safety assessment of the NEPST (Topaz 2) space reactor program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, A. C.

    The United States (US) Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO) decided to investigate the possibility of launching a Russian Topaz 2 space nuclear power system. A preliminary nuclear safety assessment was conducted to determine whether or not a space mission could be conducted safely and within budget constraints. As part of this assessment, a safety policy and safety functional requirements were developed to guide both the safety assessment and future Topaz 2 activities. A review of the Russian flight safety program was conducted and documented. Our preliminary nuclear safety assessment included a number of deterministic analyses, such as the following: neutronic analysis of normal and accident configurations, an evaluation of temperature coefficients of reactivity, a reentry and disposal analysis, an analysis of postulated launch abort impact accidents, and an analysis of postulated propellant fire and explosion accidents. Based on the assessment to date, it appears that it will be possible to safely launch the Topaz 2 system in the US with a modification to preclude water flooded criticality. A full scale safety program is now underway.

  17. Preliminary nuclear safety assessment of the NEPST (Topaz II) space reactor program

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, A.C.

    1993-01-01

    The United States (US) Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO) decided to investigate the possibility of launching a Russian Topaz II space nuclear power system. A preliminary nuclear safety assessment was conducted to determine whether or not a space mission could be conducted safely and within budget constraints. As part of this assessment, a safety policy and safety functional requirements were developed to guide both the safety assessment and future Topaz II activities. A review of the Russian flight safety program was conducted and documented. Our preliminary nuclear safety assessment included a number of deterministic analyses, such as; neutronic analysis of normal and accident configurations, an evaluation of temperature coefficients of reactivity, a reentry and disposal analysis, an analysis of postulated launch abort impact accidents, and an analysis of postulated propellant fire and explosion accidents. Based on the assessment to date, it appears that it will be possible to safely launch the Topaz II system in the US with a modification to preclude water flooded criticality. A full scale safety program is now underway.

  18. Space nuclear safety program: Progress report, July--September 1987

    SciTech Connect

    George, T.G.

    1989-02-01

    This quarterly report describes studies related to the use of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ in radioisotope power systems, carried out for the Office of Special Nuclear Projects of the US Department of Energy by Los Alamos National Laboratory. The studies discussed are ongoing; the results and conclusions described may change as the work progresses. 20 figs., 4 tabs.

  19. Space nuclear safety program. Progress report, January 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Bronisz, S.E.

    1984-07-01

    This technical monthly report covers studies related to the use of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ in radioisotope power systems carried out for the Office of Special Nuclear Projects of the US Department of Energy by Los Alamos National Laboratory. Most of the studies discussed here are ongoing. Results and conclusions described may change as the work continues.

  20. Space Nuclear Safety Program: Progress report, January-March 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Lewin, R.; George, T.G.

    1988-07-01

    This quarterly report describes studies related to the use of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ in radioisotope power systems, which were carried out for the Office of Special Nuclear Projects of the US Department of Energy by Los Alamos National Laboratory. Most of the studies discussed are ongoing; the results and conclusions described may change as the work progresses.

  1. Space Nuclear-Safety Program progress report, February 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Bronisz, S.E.

    1983-08-01

    This technical monthly report covers studies related to the use of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ in radioisotope power systems carried out for the Office of Special Nuclear Projects of the US Department of Energy by Los Alamos National Laboratory. Most of the studies discussed here are ongoing. Results and conclusions may change as the work continues.

  2. Space nuclear-safety program. Progress report, October 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Bronisz, S.E.

    1983-03-01

    This technical monthly report covers studies related to the use of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ in radioisotope power systems carried out for the Office of Special Nuclear Projects of the US Department of Energy by Los Alamos National Laboratory. Most of the studies discussed here are ongoing. Results and conclusions described may change as the work continues.

  3. Space nuclear safety program. Progress report, December 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Bronisz, S.E.

    1983-06-01

    This technical monthly report covers studies related to the use of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ in radioisotope power systems carried out for the Office of Special Nuclear Projects of the US Department of Energy by Los Alamos National Laboratory. Most of the studies discussed here are ongoing. Results and conclusions described may change as the work continues.

  4. Space nuclear safety program. Progress report, October 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Bronisz, S.E.

    1984-03-01

    This technical monthly report covers studies related to the use of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ in radioisotope power systems carried out for the Office of Special Nuclear Projects of the US Department of Energy by Los Alamos National Laboratory.

  5. Space nuclear safety program. Progress report, August 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Bronisz, S.E.

    1984-01-01

    This technical monthly report covers studies related to the use of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ in radioisotope power systems carried out for the Office of Special Nuclear Projects of the US Department of Energy by Los Alamos National Laboratory. Most of the studies discussed here are ongoing. Results and conclusions described may change as the work continues.

  6. Space nuclear-safety program, November 1982. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Bronisz, S.E.

    1983-05-01

    This technical monthly report covers studies related to the use of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ in radioisotope power systems carried out for the Office of Special Nuclear Projects of the US Department of Energy by Los Alamos National Laboratory. Most of the studies discussed here are ongoing. Results and conclusions described may change as the work continues.

  7. Space Nuclear Safety Program. Progress report, June 1984

    SciTech Connect

    George, T.G.

    1985-11-01

    This technical monthly report covers studies related to the use of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ in radioisotope power systems carried out for the Office of Special Nuclear Projects of the US Department of Energy by Los Alamos National Laboratory. Most of the studies discussed are ongoing; the results and conclusions described may change as the work continues. 36 figs.

  8. Space Nuclear Safety Program. Progress report, August 1984

    SciTech Connect

    George, T.G.

    1985-11-01

    This technical monthly report covers studies related to the use of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ in radioisotope power systems carried out for the Office of Special Nuclear Projects of the US Department of Energy by Los Alamos National Laboratory. Most of the studies discussed are ongoing; the results and conclusions described may change as the work progresses. 41 figs.

  9. Space nuclear safety program. Progress report, October-December 1984

    SciTech Connect

    George, T.G.

    1986-05-01

    This quarterly report covers studies related to the use of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ in radioisotope power systems carried out for the Office of Special Nuclear Projects of the US Department of Energy by Los Alamos National Laboratory. Most of the studies discussed are ongoing; the results and conclusions described may change as the work progresses.

  10. Space nuclear safety program. Progress report, July 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Bronisz, S.E.

    1983-11-01

    This technical monthly report covers studies related to the use of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ in radioisotope power systems carried out for the Office of Special Nuclear Projects of the US Department of Energy by Los Alamos National Laboratory. Most of the studies discussed here are ongoing. Results and conclusions described may change as the work continues.

  11. Space Nuclear Safety Program. Progress report, May 1984

    SciTech Connect

    George, T.G.

    1985-09-01

    This technical monthly report covers studies related to the use of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ in radioisotope power systems carried out for the Office of Special Nuclear Projects of the US Department of Energy by Los Alamos National Laboratory. Covered are: general-purpose heat source testing, light-weight radioisotope heater unit, and iridium biaxial testing.

  12. METHOD OF PREPARING A FUEL ELEMENT FOR A NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Handwerk, J.H.; BAch, R.A.

    1959-08-18

    A method is described for preparing a reactor fuel element by forming a mixture of thorium dioxide and an oxide of uranium, the uranium being present. In an oxidation state at least as high as it is in U/sub 3/O/sub 8/, into a desired shape and firing in air at a temperature siifficiently high to reduce the higher uranium oxide to uranium dioxide.

  13. FUEL ELEMENTS FOR NUCLEAR REACTORS AND PROCESS OF MAKING

    DOEpatents

    Roake, W.E.

    1958-08-19

    A process is described for producing uranium metal granules for use in reactor fuel elements. The granules are made by suspending powdered uramiunn metal or uranium hydride in a viscous, non-reactive liquid, such as paraffin oil, aad pouring the resulting suspension in droplet, on to a bed of powdered absorbent. In this manner the liquid vehicle is taken up by the sorbent and spherical pellets of uranium metal are obtained. The

  14. 10 CFR 50.49 - Environmental qualification of electric equipment important to safety for nuclear power plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... important to safety for nuclear power plants. 50.49 Section 50.49 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION... nuclear power plants. (a) Each holder of or an applicant for an operating license issued under this part... nuclear power plant for which the certifications required under § 50.82(a)(1) or § 52.110(a)(1) of...

  15. 10 CFR 50.49 - Environmental qualification of electric equipment important to safety for nuclear power plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... important to safety for nuclear power plants. 50.49 Section 50.49 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION... nuclear power plants. (a) Each holder of or an applicant for an operating license issued under this part... nuclear power plant for which the certifications required under § 50.82(a)(1) or § 52.110(a)(1) of this...

  16. 10 CFR 50.49 - Environmental qualification of electric equipment important to safety for nuclear power plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... important to safety for nuclear power plants. 50.49 Section 50.49 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION... nuclear power plants. (a) Each holder of or an applicant for an operating license issued under this part... nuclear power plant for which the certifications required under § 50.82(a)(1) or § 52.110(a)(1) of this...

  17. 10 CFR 50.49 - Environmental qualification of electric equipment important to safety for nuclear power plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... important to safety for nuclear power plants. 50.49 Section 50.49 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION... nuclear power plants. (a) Each holder of or an applicant for an operating license issued under this part... nuclear power plant for which the certifications required under § 50.82(a)(1) or § 52.110(a)(1) of this...

  18. 10 CFR 50.49 - Environmental qualification of electric equipment important to safety for nuclear power plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... important to safety for nuclear power plants. 50.49 Section 50.49 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION... nuclear power plants. (a) Each holder of or an applicant for an operating license issued under this part... nuclear power plant for which the certifications required under § 50.82(a)(1) or § 52.110(a)(1) of this...

  19. Space nuclear safety program, May 1983. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Bronisz, S.E.

    1983-10-01

    The studies related to the use of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ in radioisotope power systems, pertained to the General-Purpose Heat Source (compatibility and safety verification) and to the Light-Weight Radioisotope Heater units (overpressure and impact tests).

  20. Lessons in Nuclear Safety, Panel on Integration of People and Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Pinkston, David

    2015-02-24

    Four slides present a historical perspective on the evolution of nuclear safety, a description of systemic misalignment (available resources do not match expectations, demographic cliff developing, promulgation of increased expectations and new requirements proceeds unabated), and needs facing nuclear safety (financial stability, operational stability, and succession planning). The following conclusions are stated under the heading "Nuclear Safety - 'The System'": the current universe of requirements is too large for the resource pool available; the current universe of requirements has too many different sources of interpretation; there are so many indicators that it’s hard to know what is leading (or important); and the net result can come to defy integrated comprehension at the worker level.

  1. Assessment of radiation safety awareness among nuclear medicine nurses: a pilot study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yunus, N. A.; Abdullah, M. H. R. O.; Said, M. A.; Ch'ng, P. E.

    2014-11-01

    All nuclear medicine nurses need to have some knowledge and awareness on radiation safety. At present, there is no study to address this issue in Malaysia. The aims of this study were (1) to determine the level of knowledge and awareness on radiation safety among nuclear medicine nurses at Putrajaya Hospital in Malaysia and (2) to assess the effectiveness of a training program provided by the hospital to increase the knowledge and awareness of the nuclear medicine nurses. A total of 27 respondents attending a training program on radiation safety were asked to complete a questionnaire. The questionnaire consists 16 items and were categorized into two main areas, namely general radiation knowledge and radiation safety. Survey data were collected before and after the training and were analyzed using descriptive statistics and paired sample t-test. Respondents were scored out of a total of 16 marks with 8 marks for each area. The findings showed that the range of total scores obtained by the nuclear medicine nurses before and after the training were 6-14 (with a mean score of 11.19) and 13-16 marks (with a mean score of 14.85), respectively. Findings also revealed that the mean score for the area of general radiation knowledge (7.59) was higher than that of the radiation safety (7.26). Currently, the knowledge and awareness on radiation safety among the nuclear medicine nurses are at the moderate level. It is recommended that a national study be conducted to assess and increase the level of knowledge and awareness among all nuclear medicine nurses in Malaysia.

  2. Nuclear criticality safety experiments, calculations, and analyses: 1958 to 1982. Volume 1. Lookup tables

    SciTech Connect

    Koponen, B.L.; Hampel, V.E.

    1982-10-21

    This compilation contains 688 complete summaries of papers on nuclear criticality safety as presented at meetings of the American Nuclear Society (ANS). The selected papers contain criticality parameters for fissile materials derived from experiments and calculations, as well as criticality safety analyses for fissile material processing, transport, and storage. The compilation was developed as a component of the Nuclear Criticality Information System (NCIS) now under development at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The compilation is presented in two volumes: Volume 1 contains a directory to the ANS Transaction volume and page number where each summary was originally published, the author concordance, and the subject concordance derived from the keyphrases in titles. Volume 2 contains - in chronological order - the full-text summaries, reproduced here by permission of the American Nuclear Society from their Transactions, volumes 1-41.

  3. Multi-Element CZT Array for Nuclear Safeguards Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwak, S.-W.; Lee, A.-R.; Shin, J.-K.; Park, U.-R.; Park, S.; Kim, Y.; Chung, H.

    2016-12-01

    Due to its electronic properties, a cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) detector has been used as a hand-held portable nuclear measurement instrument. However, a CZT detector has low detection efficiency because of a limitation of its single crystal growth. To address its low efficiency, we have constructed a portable four-CZT array based gamma-ray spectrometer consisting of a CZT array, electronics for signal processing and software. Its performance has been characterized in terms of energy resolution and detection efficiency using radioactive sources and nuclear materials. Experimental results showed that the detection efficiency of the four-CZT array based gamma-ray spectrometer was much higher than that of a single CZT detector in the array. The FWHMs of the CZT array were 9, 18, and 21 keV at 185.7, 662, and 1,332 keV, respectively. Some gamma-rays in a range of 100 keV to 200 keV were not clear in a single crystal detector while those from the CZT array system were observed to be clear. The energy resolution of the CZT array system was only slightely worse than those of the single CZT detectors. By combining several single crystals and summing signals from each single detector at a digital electronic circuit, the detection efficiency of a CZT array system increased without degradation of its energy resolution. The technique outlined in this paper shows a very promising method for designing a CZT-based gamma-ray spectroscopy that overcomes the fundamental limitations of a small volume CZT detector.

  4. Strengthening safety compliance in nuclear power operations: a role-based approach.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Córcoles, Mario; Gracia, Francisco J; Tomás, Inés; Peiró, José M

    2014-07-01

    Safety compliance is of paramount importance in guaranteeing the safe running of nuclear power plants. However, it depends mostly on procedures that do not always involve the safest outcomes. This article introduces an empirical model based on the organizational role theory to analyze the influence of legitimate sources of expectations (procedures formalization and leadership) on workers' compliance behaviors. The sample was composed of 495 employees from two Spanish nuclear power plants. Structural equation analysis showed that, in spite of some problematic effects of proceduralization (such as role conflict and role ambiguity), procedure formalization along with an empowering leadership style lead to safety compliance by clarifying a worker's role in safety. Implications of these findings for safety research are outlined, as well as their practical implications. © 2014 Society for Risk Analysis.

  5. Technology status of Thermionic Fuel Elements for space nuclear power

    SciTech Connect

    Holland, J.W.; Yang, L.

    1984-08-01

    Over a half-million thermionic test hours were accumulated in the earlier thermionic fuel element (TFE) development program. When the program was terminated in early 1973, TFEs had operated 12,500 h with projected three-year lifetimes, and individual laboratory converters operated more than five years with stable performance. Primary life-limiting factors were thermionic emitter dimensional increases due to interactions with the fuel and electrical insulator structural damage from fast neutrons. Multiple options for extending TFE lifetimes to seven years or longer are available.

  6. Safety, Security, and Stability: The Role of Nuclear Control Regimes in a Proliferated World

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-05-01

    Harper Collins College, 1993), 107. 6Lewis A. Dunn and Herman Kahn, Trends in Nuclear Proliferation: 1975-1995, Projections, Problems, and Policy...America’s Foreign Policy in a Changing World (New York: Harper Collins College Publishers, 1994), 288. 47 Richard Nixon, The Memoirs of Richard Nixon...Nuclear Weapons Safety, 101st Cong, 2nd Session, No. 15 (Washington: GPO,1990), 9. 136 Ibid, 10. 137 Shaun Gregory, The Hidden Cost of Deterrence

  7. The role of PRA in the safety assessment of VVER Nuclear Power Plants in Ukraine.

    SciTech Connect

    Kot, C.

    1999-05-10

    Ukraine operates thirteen (13) Soviet-designed pressurized water reactors, VVERS. All Ukrainian plants are currently operating with annually renewable permits until they update their safety analysis reports (SARs), in accordance with new SAR content requirements issued in September 1995, by the Nuclear Regulatory Authority and the Government Nuclear Power Coordinating Committee of Ukraine. The requirements are in three major areas: design basis accident (DBA) analysis, probabilistic risk assessment (PRA), and beyond design-basis accident (BDBA) analysis. The last two requirements, on PRA and BDBA, are new, and the DBA requirements are an expanded version of the older SAR requirements. The US Department of Energy (USDOE), as part of its Soviet-Designed Reactor Safety activities, is providing assistance and technology transfer to Ukraine to support their nuclear power plants (NPPs) in developing a Western-type technical basis for the new SARs. USDOE sponsored In-Depth Safety Assessments (ISAs) are in progress at three pilot nuclear reactor units in Ukraine, South Ukraine Unit 1, Zaporizhzhya Unit 5, and Rivne Unit 1, and a follow-on study has been initiated at Khmenytskyy Unit 1. The ISA projects encompass most areas of plant safety evaluation, but the initial emphasis is on performing a detailed, plant-specific Level 1 Internal Events PRA. This allows the early definition of the plant risk profile, the identification of risk significant accident sequences and plant vulnerabilities and provides guidance for the remainder of the safety assessments.

  8. Safety issues in robotic handling of nuclear weapon parts

    SciTech Connect

    Drotning, W.; Wapman, W.; Fahrenholtz, J.

    1993-12-31

    Robotic systems are being developed by the Intelligent Systems and Robotics Center at Sandia National Laboratories to perform automated handling tasks with radioactive weapon parts. These systems will reduce the occupational radiation exposure to workers by automating operations that are currently performed manually. The robotic systems at Sandia incorporate several levels of mechanical, electrical, and software safety for handling hazardous materials. For example, tooling used by the robot to handle radioactive parts has been designed with mechanical features that allow the robot to release its payload only at designated locations in the robotic workspace. In addition, software processes check for expected and unexpected situations throughout the operations. Incorporation of features such as these provides multiple levels of safety for handling hazardous or valuable payloads with automated intelligent systems.

  9. Macro elemental analysis of food samples by nuclear analytical technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syahfitri, W. Y. N.; Kurniawati, S.; Adventini, N.; Damastuti, E.; Lestiani, D. D.

    2017-06-01

    Energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometry is a non-destructive, rapid, multi elemental, accurate, and environment friendly analysis compared with other detection methods. Thus, EDXRF spectrometry is applicable for food inspection. The macro elements calcium and potassium constitute important nutrients required by the human body for optimal physiological functions. Therefore, the determination of Ca and K content in various foods needs to be done. The aim of this work is to demonstrate the applicability of EDXRF for food analysis. The analytical performance of non-destructive EDXRF was compared with other analytical techniques; neutron activation analysis and atomic absorption spectrometry. Comparison of methods performed as cross checking results of the analysis and to overcome the limitations of the three methods. Analysis results showed that Ca found in food using EDXRF and AAS were not significantly different with p-value 0.9687, whereas p-value of K between EDXRF and NAA is 0.6575. The correlation between those results was also examined. The Pearson correlations for Ca and K were 0.9871 and 0.9558, respectively. Method validation using SRM NIST 1548a Typical Diet was also applied. The results showed good agreement between methods; therefore EDXRF method can be used as an alternative method for the determination of Ca and K in food samples.

  10. Technology, safety, and costs of decommissioning reference nuclear research and test reactors. Main report

    SciTech Connect

    Konzek, G.J.; Ludwick, J.D.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Smith, R.I.

    1982-03-01

    Safety and Cost Information is developed for the conceptual decommissioning of two representative licensed nuclear research and test reactors. Three decommissioning alternatives are studied to obtain comparisons between costs (in 1981 dollars), occupational radiation doses, potential radiation dose to the public, and other safety impacts. The alternatives considered are: DECON (immediate decontamination), SAFSTOR (safe storage followed by deferred decontamination), and ENTOMB (entombment). The study results are presented in two volumes. Volume 1 (Main Report) contains the results in summary form.

  11. Manned space flight nuclear system safety. Volume 7: Literature review. Part 1: Literature search and evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    A review of the literature used in conducting the manned space flight nuclear system safety study is presented. The objectives of the presentation are to identify and evaluate for potential application to study the existing related literature and to provide the information required to include the related literature in the NASA Aerospace Safety Research and Data Institute. More than 15,000 documents were evaluated and identification forms were prepared for 850 reports.

  12. Preliminary study of nuclear fuel element testing based on coded source neutron imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Sheng Wang; Hang Li; Chao Cao; Yang Wu; Heyong Huo; Bin Tang

    2015-07-01

    Neutron radiography (NR) is one of the most important nondestructive testing methods, which is sensitive to low density materials. Especially, Neutron transfer imaging method could be used to test radioactivity materials refraining from γ effect, but it is difficult to realize tomography. Coded source neutron imaging (CSNI) is a newly NR method developed fast in the last several years. The distance between object and detector is much longer than traditional NR, which could be used to test radioactivity materials. With pre-reconstruction process from fold-cover projections, CSNI could easily realize tomography. This thesis carries out preliminary study on the nuclear fuel element testing by coded source neutron imaging. We calculate different enrichment, flaws and activity in nuclear fuel elements tested by CSNI with Monte-Carlo simulation. The results show that CSNI could be a useful testing method for nuclear fuel element testing. (authors)

  13. Chemical and nuclear properties of Rutherfordium (Element 104)

    SciTech Connect

    Kacher, Christian D.

    1995-10-30

    The chemical-properties of rutherfordium (Rf) and its group 4 homologs were studied by sorption on glass support surfaces coated with cobalt(II)ferrocyanide and by solvent extraction with tributylphosphate (TBP) and triisooctylamine (TIOA). The surface studies showed that the hydrolysis trend in the group 4 elements and the pseudogroup 4 element, lb, decreases in the order Rf>Zr≈Hf>Th. This trend was attributed to relativistic effects which predicted that Rf would be more prone to having a coordination number of 6 than 8 in most aqueous solutions due to a destabilization of the 6d5/2 shell and a stabilization of the 7pI/2 shell. This hydrolysis trend was confirmed in the TBP/HBr solvent extraction studies which showed that the extraction trend decreased in the order Zr>Hf>Rf?Ti for HBr, showing that Rf and Ti did not extract as well because they hydrolyzed more easily than Zr and Hf. The TIOA/HF solvent extraction studies showed that the extraction trend for the group 4 elements decreased in the order Ti>Zr≈Hf>Rf, in inverse order from the trend of ionic radii Rf>Zr≈Hf>Ti. An attempt was made to produce 263Rf (a) via the 248Cm(22Ne, α3n) reaction employing thenoyltrifluoroacetone (TTA) solvent extraction chemistry and (b) via the 249Bk(18O,4n) reaction employing the Automated Rapid Chemistry Apparatus (ARCA). In the TTA studies, 16 fissions were observed but were all attributed to 256Fm. No alpha events were observed in the Rf chemical fraction. A 0.2 nb upper limit production cross section for the 248Cm(22Ne, α3n)263Rf reaction was calculated assuming the 500-sec half-life reported previously by Czerwinski et al. [CZE92A].

  14. Criticality Safety Evaluation for the Advanced Test Reactor U-Mo Demonstration Elements

    SciTech Connect

    Leland M. Montierth

    2010-12-01

    The Reduced Enrichment Research Test Reactors (RERTR) fuel development program is developing a high uranium density fuel based on a (LEU) uranium-molybdenum alloy. Testing of prototypic RERTR fuel elements is necessary to demonstrate integrated fuel performance behavior and scale-up of fabrication techniques. Two RERTR-Full Size Demonstration fuel elements based on the ATR-Reduced YA elements (all but one plate fueled) are to be fabricated for testing in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). The two fuel elements will be irradiated in alternating cycles such that only one element is loaded in the reactor at a time. Existing criticality analyses have analyzed Standard (HEU) ATR elements (all plates fueled) from which controls have been derived. This criticality safety evaluation (CSE) documents analysis that determines the reactivity of the Demonstration fuel elements relative to HEU ATR elements and shows that the Demonstration elements are bound by the Standard HEU ATR elements and existing HEU ATR element controls are applicable to the Demonstration elements.

  15. Isotopically engineered silicon/silicon-germanium nanostructures as basic elements for a nuclear spin quantum computer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shlimak, I.; Safarov, V. I.; Vagner, I. D.

    2001-07-01

    The idea of quantum computation is the most promising recent development in the high-tech domain, while experimental realization of a quantum computer poses a formidable challenge. Among the proposed models especially attractive are semiconductor based nuclear spin quantum computers (S-NSQCs), where nuclear spins are used as quantum bistable elements, `qubits', coupled to the electron spin and orbital dynamics. We propose here a scheme for implementation of basic elements for S-NSQCs which are realizable within achievements of the modern nanotechnology. These elements are expected to be based on a nuclear-spin-controlled isotopically engineered Si/SiGe heterojunction, because in these semiconductors one can vary the abundance of nuclear spins by engineering the isotopic composition. A specific device is suggested, which allows one to model the processes of recording, reading and information transfer on a quantum level using the technique of electrical detection of the magnetic state of nuclear spins. Improvement of this technique for a semiconductor system with a relatively small number of nuclei might be applied to the manipulation of nuclear spin `qubits' in the future S-NSQCs.

  16. Nuclear Thermal Rocket Element Environmental Simulator (NTREES) Phase II Upgrade Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emrich, William J.; Moran, Robert P.; Pearson, J. Bose

    2013-01-01

    To support the on-going nuclear thermal propulsion effort, a state-of-the-art non nuclear experimental test setup has been constructed to evaluate the performance characteristics of candidate fuel element materials and geometries in representative environments. The facility to perform this testing is referred to as the Nuclear Thermal Rocket Element Environment Simulator (NTREES). This device can simulate the environmental conditions (minus the radiation) to which nuclear rocket fuel components will be subjected during reactor operation. Test articles mounted in the simulator are inductively heated in such a manner so as to accurately reproduce the temperatures and heat fluxes which would normally occur as a result of nuclear fission and would be exposed to flowing hydrogen. Initial testing of a somewhat prototypical fuel element has been successfully performed in NTREES and the facility has now been shutdown to allow for an extensive reconfiguration of the facility which will result in a significant upgrade in its capabilities. Keywords: Nuclear Thermal Propulsion, Simulator

  17. Nuclear Health and Safety: Efforts to Strengthen DOE’s Health and Epidemiology Programs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-02-01

    persons poten- tially exposed to radiation, and (4) persons exposed to potential hazards resulting from non- nuclear energy production. The health...Workers Could Be Better Protected at Ohio Defense Plants (QAO/RCED-86.61, Dec. 13, 1985) and Nuclear Health and Safty . Summary o Major Problems at DOE’s...of Energy (March 1990). Page 13 GAO/RCED-91-67 Nuclear Health and Safety Appendix I Reviews of DOE’s Health Programs DOE’S epidemiology activities

  18. Evaluating the safety of aging nuclear reactor pressure vessels

    SciTech Connect

    Pennell, W.E.

    1996-05-01

    Regulatory requirements limit the permissible accumulation of irradiation damage in RPV material such that adequate fracture prevention margins are maintained throughout the licensed operating period of a nuclear plant. Experience with application of those requirements has identified a number of areas where they could be further refined to eliminate excess conservatism. Research is ongoin to provide the data required to support refinement of the regulatory requirements. Research programs are investigating theeffects of local brittle zones, shallow flaws, biaxial loading, and stainless steel cladding. Preliminary results from this research indicate a potential for beneficial changes in the P-T curve and PTS analysis rules.

  19. Passive cooling safety system for liquid metal cooled nuclear reactors

    DOEpatents

    Hunsbedt, Anstein; Boardman, Charles E.; Hui, Marvin M.; Berglund, Robert C.

    1991-01-01

    A liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor having a passive cooling system for removing residual heat resulting from fuel decay during reactor shutdown. The passive cooling system comprises a plurality of partitions surrounding the reactor vessel in spaced apart relation forming intermediate areas for circulating heat transferring fluid which remove and carry away heat from the reactor vessel. The passive cooling system includes a closed primary fluid circuit through the partitions surrounding the reactor vessel and a partially adjoining secondary open fluid circuit for carrying transferred heat out into the atmosphere.

  20. LDRD Final Report: Surrogate Nuclear Reactions and the Origin of the Heavy Elements (04-ERD-057)

    SciTech Connect

    Escher, J E; Bernstein, L A; Bleuel, D; Burke, J; Church, J A; Dietrich, F S; Forssen, C; Gueorguiev, V; Hoffman, R D

    2007-02-23

    Research carried out in the framework of the LDRD project ''Surrogate Nuclear Reactions and the Origin of the Heavy Elements'' (04-ERD-057) is summarized. The project was designed to address the challenge of determining cross sections for nuclear reactions involving unstable targets, with a particular emphasis on reactions that play a key role in the production of the elements between Iron and Uranium. This report reviews the motivation for the research, introduces the approach employed to address the problem, and summarizes the resulting scientific insights, technical findings, and related accomplishments.