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Sample records for nuclear safety working

  1. Nuclear safety policy working group recommendations on nuclear propulsion safety for the space exploration initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, Albert C.; Lee, James H.; Mcculloch, William H.; Sawyer, J. Charles, Jr.; Bari, Robert A.; Cullingford, Hatice S.; Hardy, Alva C.; Niederauer, George F.; Remp, Kerry; Rice, John W.

    1993-01-01

    An interagency Nuclear Safety Working Group (NSPWG) was chartered to recommend nuclear safety policy, requirements, and guidelines for the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) nuclear propulsion program. These recommendations, which are contained in this report, should facilitate the implementation of mission planning and conceptual design studies. The NSPWG has recommended a top-level policy to provide the guiding principles for the development and implementation of the SEI nuclear propulsion safety program. In addition, the NSPWG has reviewed safety issues for nuclear propulsion and recommended top-level safety requirements and guidelines to address these issues. These recommendations should be useful for the development of the program's top-level requirements for safety functions (referred to as Safety Functional Requirements). The safety requirements and guidelines address the following topics: reactor start-up, inadvertent criticality, radiological release and exposure, disposal, entry, safeguards, risk/reliability, operational safety, ground testing, and other considerations.

  2. Nuclear criticality safety basics for personnel working with nuclear fissionable materials. Phase I

    SciTech Connect

    Vausher, A.L.

    1984-10-01

    DOE order 5480.1A, Chapter V, ''Safety of Nuclear Facilities,'' establishes safety procedures and requirements for DOE nuclear facilities. The ''Nuclear Criticality Safety Basic Program - Phase I'' is documented in this report. The revised program has been developed to clearly illustrate the concept of nuclear safety and to help the individual employee incorporate safe behavior in his daily work performance. Because of this, the subject of safety has been approached through its three fundamentals: scientific basis, engineering criteria, and administrative controls. Only basics of these three elements were presented. 5 refs.

  3. Nuclear safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buden, D.

    1991-01-01

    Topics dealing with nuclear safety are addressed which include the following: general safety requirements; safety design requirements; terrestrial safety; SP-100 Flight System key safety requirements; potential mission accidents and hazards; key safety features; ground operations; launch operations; flight operations; disposal; safety concerns; licensing; the nuclear engine for rocket vehicle application (NERVA) design philosophy; the NERVA flight safety program; and the NERVA safety plan.

  4. Revitalizing Nuclear Safety Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC.

    This report covers the general issues involved in nuclear safety research and points out the areas needing detailed consideration. Topics included are: (1) "Principles of Nuclear Safety Research" (examining who should fund, who should conduct, and who should set the agenda for nuclear safety research); (2) "Elements of a Future Agenda for Nuclear…

  5. The effect of leader communication style on safety-conscious work environments at domestic nuclear power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldberg, Edward Michael

    Public risk from unsafe nuclear power plant operations increases when plant workers are reluctant to raise issues and concerns. The effect of leader communication style on the safety-conscious work environment (SCWE) at domestic nuclear power plants was evaluated using a descriptive quantitative research study. A sample of 379 plant employees was surveyed to determine leader communication style elements that foster SCWE. The results reveal that leader communication style significantly affects a safety-conscious work environment. Specific attributes such as wit, articulation, self-disclosure, and social composure, confirmation, and experience, were proven to directly affect worker's likelihood to raise issues and concerns. The direct effect of leader, communication style on safe plant operations and the communication actions leaders can take to improve the safety of those operations is discussed.

  6. OECD/NEA working party on nuclear criticality safety: Challenge of new realities

    SciTech Connect

    Nomura, Y.; Brady, M.C.; Briggs, J.B.; Sartori, E.

    1998-03-01

    New issues in criticality safety continue to emerge as spent fuel storage facilities reach the saturation point, fuel enrichments and burn-ups increase and new types of plutonium-carrying fuels are being developed. The new challenges related to the manipulation, transportation and storage of fuel demand further work to improve models predicting behavior through new experiments, especially where there is a lack of data in the present databases. This article summarizes the activities of the OECD/NEA working groups that coordinate and carry out work in the domain of criticality safety. Particular attention is devoted to establishing sound databases required in this area and to addressing issues of high relevance such as burn-up credit. This is aimed toward improving safety and identifying economic solutions to issues concerning the back end of the fuel cycle.

  7. Nuclear regulation and safety

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrie, J.M.

    1982-01-01

    Nuclear regulation and safety are discussed from the standpoint of a hypothetical country that is in the process of introducing a nuclear power industry and setting up a regulatory system. The national policy is assumed to be in favor of nuclear power. The regulators will have responsibility for economic, reliable electric production as well as for safety. Reactor safety is divided into three parts: shut it down, keep it covered, take out the afterheat. Emergency plans also have to be provided. Ways of keeping the core covered with water are discussed. (DLC)

  8. Review of nuclear power plant safety cable aging studies with recommendations for improved approaches and for future work.

    SciTech Connect

    Gillen, Kenneth Todd; Bernstein, Robert

    2010-11-01

    Many U. S. nuclear power plants are approaching 40 years of age and there is a desire to extend their life for up to 100 total years. Safety-related cables were originally qualified for nuclear power plant applications based on IEEE Standards that were published in 1974. The qualifications involved procedures to simulate 40 years of life under ambient power plant aging conditions followed by simulated loss of coolant accident (LOCA). Over the past 35 years or so, substantial efforts were devoted to determining whether the aging assumptions allowed by the original IEEE Standards could be improved upon. These studies led to better accelerated aging methods so that more confident 40-year lifetime predictions became available. Since there is now a desire to potentially extend the life of nuclear power plants way beyond the original 40 year life, there is an interest in reviewing and critiquing the current state-of-the-art in simulating cable aging. These are two of the goals of this report where the discussion is concentrated on the progress made over the past 15 years or so and highlights the most thorough and careful published studies. An additional goal of the report is to suggest work that might prove helpful in answering some of the questions and dealing with some of the issues that still remain with respect to simulating the aging and predicting the lifetimes of safety-related cable materials.

  9. NRC - regulator of nuclear safety

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) was formed in 1975 to regulate the various commercial and institutional uses of nuclear energy, including nuclear power plants. The agency succeeded the Atomic Energy Commission, which previously had responsibility for both developing and regulating nuclear activities. Federal research and development work for all energy sources, as well as nuclear weapons production, is now conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy. Under its responsibility to protect public health and safety, the NRC has three principal regulatory functions: (1) establish standards and regulations, (2) issue licenses for nuclear facilities and users of nuclear materials, and (3) inspect facilities and users of nuclear materials to ensure compliance with the requirements. These regulatory functions relate to both nuclear power plants and to other uses of nuclear materials - like nuclear medicine programs at hospitals, academic activities at educational institutions, research work, and such industrial applications as gauges and testing equipment. The NRC places a high priority on keeping the public informed of its work. The agency recognizes the interest of citizens in what it does through such activities as maintaining public document rooms across the country and holding public hearings, public meetings in local areas, and discussions with individuals and organizations.

  10. Nuclear Safety for Space Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Offiong, Etim

    2010-09-01

    It is trite, albeit a truism, to say that nuclear power can provide propulsion thrust needed to launch space vehicles and also, to provide electricity for powering on-board systems, especially for missions to the Moon, Mars and other deep space missions. Nuclear Power Sources(NPSs) are known to provide more capabilities than solar power, fuel cells and conventional chemical means. The worry has always been that of safety. The earliest superpowers(US and former Soviet Union) have designed and launched several nuclear-powered systems, with some failures. Nuclear failures and accidents, however little the number, could be far-reaching geographically, and are catastrophic to humans and the environment. Building on the numerous research works on nuclear power on Earth and in space, this paper seeks to bring to bear, issues relating to safety of space systems - spacecrafts, astronauts, Earth environment and extra terrestrial habitats - in the use and application of nuclear power sources. It also introduces a new formal training course in Space Systems Safety.

  11. Nuclear explosive safety study process

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-01

    Nuclear explosives by their design and intended use require collocation of high explosives and fissile material. The design agencies are responsible for designing safety into the nuclear explosive and processes involving the nuclear explosive. The methodology for ensuring safety consists of independent review processes that include the national laboratories, Operations Offices, Headquarters, and responsible Area Offices and operating contractors with expertise in nuclear explosive safety. A NES Study is an evaluation of the adequacy of positive measures to minimize the possibility of an inadvertent or deliberate unauthorized nuclear detonation, high explosive detonation or deflagration, fire, or fissile material dispersal from the pit. The Nuclear Explosive Safety Study Group (NESSG) evaluates nuclear explosive operations against the Nuclear Explosive Safety Standards specified in DOE O 452.2 using systematic evaluation techniques. These Safety Standards must be satisfied for nuclear explosive operations.

  12. Nuclear reactor safety device

    DOEpatents

    Hutter, Ernest

    1986-01-01

    A safety device is disclosed for use in a nuclear reactor for axially repositioning a control rod with respect to the reactor core in the event of an upward thermal excursion. Such safety device comprises a laminated helical ribbon configured as a tube-like helical coil having contiguous helical turns with slidably abutting edges. The helical coil is disclosed as a portion of a drive member connected axially to the control rod. The laminated ribbon is formed of outer and inner laminae. The material of the outer lamina has a greater thermal coefficient of expansion than the material of the inner lamina. In the event of an upward thermal excursion, the laminated helical coil curls inwardly to a smaller diameter. Such inward curling causes the total length of the helical coil to increase by a substantial increment, so that the control rod is axially repositioned by a corresponding amount to reduce the power output of the reactor.

  13. Prospects for nuclear safety research

    SciTech Connect

    Beckjord, E.S.

    1995-04-01

    This document is the text of a paper presented by Eric S. Beckjord (Director, Nuclear Regulatory Research/NRC) at the 22nd Water Reactor Safety Meeting in Bethesda, MD in October 1994. The following topics are briefly reviewed: (1) Reactor vessel research, (2) Probabilistic risk assessment, (3) Direct containment heating, (4) Advanced LWR research, (5) Nuclear energy prospects in the US, and (6) Future nuclear safety research. Subtopics within the last category include economics, waste disposal, and health and safety.

  14. Nuclear reactor safety device

    DOEpatents

    Hutter, E.

    1983-08-15

    A safety device is described for use in a nuclear reactor for axially repositioning a control rod with respect to the reactor core in the event of a thermal excursion. It comprises a laminated strip helically configured to form a tube, said tube being in operative relation to said control rod. The laminated strip is formed of at least two materials having different thermal coefficients of expansion, and is helically configured such that the material forming the outer lamina of the tube has a greater thermal coefficient of expansion than the material forming the inner lamina of said tube. In the event of a thermal excursion the laminated strip will tend to curl inwardly so that said tube will increase in length, whereby as said tube increases in length it exerts a force on said control rod to axially reposition said control rod with respect to said core.

  15. Nuclear Powerplant Safety: Operations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC. Nuclear Energy Office.

    Powerplant systems and procedures that ensure the day-to-day health and safety of people in and around the plant is referred to as operational safety. This safety is the result of careful planning, good engineering and design, strict licensing and regulation, and environmental monitoring. Procedures that assure operational safety at nuclear…

  16. Comparison of radiation safety and nuclear explosive safety disciplines

    SciTech Connect

    Winstanley, J. L.

    1998-10-10

    In August 1945, U.S. Navy Captain William Parsons served as the weaponeer aboard the Enola Gay for the mission to Hiroshima (Shelton 1988). In view of the fact that four B-29s had crashed and burned on takeoff from Tinian the night before, Captain Parsons made the decision to arm the gun-type weapon after takeoff for safety reasons (15 kilotons of TNT equivalent). Although he had no control over the success of the takeoff, he could prevent the possibility of a nuclear detonation on Tinian by controlling what we now call the nuclear explosive. As head of the Ordnance Division at Los Alamos and a former gunnery officer, Captain Parsons clearly understood the role of safety in his work. The advent of the pre-assembled implosion weapon where the high explosive and nuclear materials are always in an intimate configuration meant that nuclear explosive safety became a reality at a certain point in development and production not just at the time of delivery by the military. This is the only industry where nuclear materials are intentionally put in contact with high explosives. The agency of the U.S. Government responsible for development and production of U.S. nuclear weapons is the Department of Energy (DOE) (and its predecessor agencies). This paper will be limited to nuclear explosive safety as it is currently practiced within the DOE nuclear weapons

  17. 48 CFR 923.7001 - Nuclear safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nuclear safety. 923.7001... Efficiency, Renewable Energy Technologies, and Occupational Safety Programs 923.7001 Nuclear safety. The DOE regulates the nuclear safety of its major facilities under its own statutory authority derived from...

  18. Spent Fuel Working Group report on inventory and storage of the Department`s spent nuclear fuel and other reactor irradiated nuclear materials and their environmental, safety and health vulnerabilities. Volume 2, Working Group Assessment Team reports; Vulnerability development forms; Working group documents

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    The Secretary of Energy`s memorandum of August 19, 1993, established an initiative for a Department-wide assessment of the vulnerabilities of stored spent nuclear fuel and other reactor irradiated nuclear materials. A Project Plan to accomplish this study was issued on September 20, 1993 by US Department of Energy, Office of Environment, Health and Safety (EH) which established responsibilities for personnel essential to the study. The DOE Spent Fuel Working Group, which was formed for this purpose and produced the Project Plan, will manage the assessment and produce a report for the Secretary by November 20, 1993. This report was prepared by the Working Group Assessment Team assigned to the Hanford Site facilities. Results contained in this report will be reviewed, along with similar reports from all other selected DOE storage sites, by a working group review panel which will assemble the final summary report to the Secretary on spent nuclear fuel storage inventory and vulnerability.

  19. Autoclave nuclear criticality safety analysis

    SciTech Connect

    D`Aquila, D.M.; Tayloe, R.W. Jr.

    1991-12-31

    Steam-heated autoclaves are used in gaseous diffusion uranium enrichment plants to heat large cylinders of UF{sub 6}. Nuclear criticality safety for these autoclaves is evaluated. To enhance criticality safety, systems are incorporated into the design of autoclaves to limit the amount of water present. These safety systems also increase the likelihood that any UF{sub 6} inadvertently released from a cylinder into an autoclave is not released to the environment. Up to 140 pounds of water can be held up in large autoclaves. This mass of water is sufficient to support a nuclear criticality when optimally combined with 125 pounds of UF{sub 6} enriched to 5 percent U{sup 235}. However, water in autoclaves is widely dispersed as condensed droplets and vapor, and is extremely unlikely to form a critical configuration with released UF{sub 6}.

  20. Nuclear safety research collaborations between the U.S. and Russian Federation International Nuclear Safety Centers

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, D. J.; Braun, J. C.; Klickman, A. E.; Bougaenko, S. E.; Kabonov, L. P.; Kraev, A. G.

    2000-05-05

    The Russian Federation Ministry for Atomic Energy (MINATOM) and the US Department of Energy (USDOE) have formed International Nuclear Safety Centers to collaborate on nuclear safety research. USDOE established the US Center (ISINSC) at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) in October 1995. MINATOM established the Russian Center (RINSC) at the Research and Development Institute of Power Engineering (RDIPE) in Moscow in July 1996. In April 1998 the Russian center became a semi-independent, autonomous organization under MINATOM. The goals of the center are to: Cooperate in the development of technologies associated with nuclear safety in nuclear power engineering; Be international centers for the collection of information important for safety and technical improvements in nuclear power engineering; and Maintain a base for fundamental knowledge needed to design nuclear reactors. The strategic approach is being used to accomplish these goals is for the two centers to work together to use the resources and the talents of the scientists associated with the US Center and the Russian Center to do collaborative research to improve the safety of Russian-designed nuclear reactors. The two centers started conducting joint research and development projects in January 1997. Since that time the following ten joint projects have been initiated: INSC databases--web server and computing center; Coupled codes--Neutronic and thermal-hydraulic; Severe accident management for Soviet-designed reactors; Transient management and advanced control; Survey of relevant nuclear safety research facilities in the Russian Federation; Computer code validation for transient analysis of VVER and RBMK reactors; Advanced structural analysis; Development of a nuclear safety research and development plan for MINATOM; Properties and applications of heavy liquid metal coolants; and Material properties measurement and assessment. Currently, there is activity in eight of these projects. Details on each of these

  1. 48 CFR 923.7001 - Nuclear safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Nuclear safety. 923.7001 Section 923.7001 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS... Programs 923.7001 Nuclear safety. The DOE regulates the nuclear safety of its major facilities under...

  2. 48 CFR 923.7001 - Nuclear safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Nuclear safety. 923.7001 Section 923.7001 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS... Programs 923.7001 Nuclear safety. The DOE regulates the nuclear safety of its major facilities under...

  3. 48 CFR 923.7001 - Nuclear safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Nuclear safety. 923.7001 Section 923.7001 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS... Programs 923.7001 Nuclear safety. The DOE regulates the nuclear safety of its major facilities under...

  4. 48 CFR 923.7001 - Nuclear safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Nuclear safety. 923.7001 Section 923.7001 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS... Programs 923.7001 Nuclear safety. The DOE regulates the nuclear safety of its major facilities under...

  5. Nuclear Reactor Safety: a current awareness bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Cunningham, D.C.

    1985-01-15

    Nuclear Reactor Safety announces on a semimonthly basis the current worldwide information available on all safety-related aspects of fission reactors, including: accident analysis, safety systems, radiation protection, decommissioning and dismantling, and security measures.

  6. Shift work, safety, and aging.

    PubMed

    Folkard, Simon

    2008-04-01

    It has long been recognized that older shift workers may have shorter and more disturbed day sleeps between successive night shifts than their younger colleagues. This has given rise to considerable concern over the safety of aging shift workers because of the increasing age of the work force and increases in retirement age. Because there have been no direct studies of the combined effects of shift work and age on safety, the present paper begins by reviewing the literature relating safety to features of shift systems. It then considers the general effect of age on occupational injury rates before examining existing evidence of the combined effects of shift work and age on performance capabilities. The results of the literature review indicate that when the a priori risk is constant, there is reasonably clear evidence that injury rates are higher at night, and that they increase over successive night shifts more rapidly than over successive day shifts. Further, although occupational injuries are less frequent in older workers, those that do occur tend to be more serious. Finally, there is some suggestive evidence from studies of objectively measured performance capabilities that older workers may be less able to both maintain their performance over the course of a night shift and cope with longer spans of successive night shifts. It is concluded that it seems possible, even though unproven as yet, that older workers may be at greater risk both to injury and accident on the night shift. There is a strong need for future epidemiological studies of the combined effects of shift work and age on injuries and accidents, and that these should attempt to separate the effects of age per se from those of generation. PMID:18484360

  7. An Integrated Safety Assessment Methodology for Generation IV Nuclear Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Timothy J. Leahy

    2010-06-01

    The Generation IV International Forum (GIF) Risk and Safety Working Group (RSWG) was created to develop an effective approach for the safety of Generation IV advanced nuclear energy systems. Early work of the RSWG focused on defining a safety philosophy founded on lessons learned from current and prior generations of nuclear technologies, and on identifying technology characteristics that may help achieve Generation IV safety goals. More recent RSWG work has focused on the definition of an integrated safety assessment methodology for evaluating the safety of Generation IV systems. The methodology, tentatively called ISAM, is an integrated “toolkit” consisting of analytical techniques that are available and matched to appropriate stages of Generation IV system concept development. The integrated methodology is intended to yield safety-related insights that help actively drive the evolving design throughout the technology development cycle, potentially resulting in enhanced safety, reduced costs, and shortened development time.

  8. Nuclear criticality safety: 2-day training course

    SciTech Connect

    Schlesser, J.A.

    1997-02-01

    This compilation of notes is presented as a source reference for the criticality safety course. At the completion of this training course, the attendee will: be able to define terms commonly used in nuclear criticality safety; be able to appreciate the fundamentals of nuclear criticality safety; be able to identify factors which affect nuclear criticality safety; be able to identify examples of criticality controls as used as Los Alamos; be able to identify examples of circumstances present during criticality accidents; have participated in conducting two critical experiments; be asked to complete a critique of the nuclear criticality safety training course.

  9. Chemical Safety Vulnerability Working Group Report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    This report marks the culmination of a 4-month review conducted to identify chemical safety vulnerabilities existing at DOE facilities. This review is an integral part of DOE's efforts to raise its commitment to chemical safety to the same level as that for nuclear safety.

  10. Nuclear Plant/Hydrogen Plant Safety: Issues and Approaches

    SciTech Connect

    Steven R. Sherman

    2007-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy, through its agents the Next Generation Nuclear Plant Project and the Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative, is working on developing the technologies to enable the large scale production of hydrogen using nuclear power. A very important consideration in the design of a co-located and connected nuclear plant/hydrogen plant facility is safety. This study provides an overview of the safety issues associated with a combined plant and discusses approaches for categorizing, quantifying, and addressing the safety risks.

  11. Nuclear criticality safety: 5-day training course

    SciTech Connect

    Schlesser, J.A.

    1992-11-01

    This compilation of notes is presented as a source reference for the criticality safety course. It represents the contributions of many people, particularly Tom McLaughlin, the course`s primary instructor. At the completion of this training course, the attendee will: be able to define terms commonly used in nuclear criticality safety; be able to appreciate the fundamentals of nuclear criticality safety; be able to identify factors which affect nuclear criticality safety; be able to identify examples of criticality controls as used at Los Alamos; be able to identify examples of circumstances present during criticality accidents; be able to identify examples of computer codes used by the nuclear criticality safety specialist; be able to identify examples of safety consciousness required in nuclear criticality safety.

  12. Nuclear criticality safety: 5-day training course

    SciTech Connect

    Schlesser, J.A.

    1992-11-01

    This compilation of notes is presented as a source reference for the criticality safety course. It represents the contributions of many people, particularly Tom McLaughlin, the course's primary instructor. At the completion of this training course, the attendee will: be able to define terms commonly used in nuclear criticality safety; be able to appreciate the fundamentals of nuclear criticality safety; be able to identify factors which affect nuclear criticality safety; be able to identify examples of criticality controls as used at Los Alamos; be able to identify examples of circumstances present during criticality accidents; be able to identify examples of computer codes used by the nuclear criticality safety specialist; be able to identify examples of safety consciousness required in nuclear criticality safety.

  13. Pantex: safety in nuclear weapons processing.

    PubMed

    Johannesen, R E; Farrell, L M

    2000-11-01

    The Pantex Plant, located in the Texas panhandle near Amarillo, is a major Department of Energy (DOE) participant in maintaining the safety of the nation's nuclear weapons resources and protecting the employees, public, and environment. With more than 168,000 person-years of operations involving nuclear materials, explosives, and hazardous chemicals, Pantex has maintained a notable safety record. This article overviews the nuclear weapon activities at Pantex and describes their safety culture.

  14. Safety culture in the nuclear versus non-nuclear organization

    SciTech Connect

    Haber, S.B.; Shurberg, D.A.

    1996-10-01

    The importance of safety culture in the safe and reliable operation of nuclear organizations is not a new concept. The greatest barriers to this area of research are twofold: (1) the definition and criteria of safety culture for a nuclear organization and (2) the measurement of those attributes in an objective and systematic fashion. This paper will discuss a proposed resolution of those barriers as demonstrated by the collection of data across nuclear and non-nuclear facilities over a two year period.

  15. Women's Safety and Health Issues at Work

    MedlinePlus

    ... NIOSH NIOSH Women's Safety and Health Issues at Work Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir America's work ... while also balancing the traditional parenting responsibilities. 1 Work-related health challenges facing women Women face different ...

  16. The history of nuclear weapon safety devices

    SciTech Connect

    Plummer, D.W.; Greenwood, W.H.

    1998-06-01

    The paper presents the history of safety devices used in nuclear weapons from the early days of separables to the latest advancements in MicroElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS). Although the paper focuses on devices, the principles of Enhanced Nuclear Detonation Safety implementation will also be presented.

  17. Nuclear Powerplant Safety: Design and Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC. Nuclear Energy Office.

    The most important concern in the design, construction and operation of nuclear powerplants is safety. Nuclear power is one of the major contributors to the nation's supply of electricity; therefore, it is important to assure its safe use. Each different type of powerplant has special design features and systems to protect health and safety. One…

  18. Organizational factors and nuclear power plant safety

    SciTech Connect

    Haber, S.B.

    1995-12-31

    There are many organizations in our society that depend on human performance to avoid incidents involving significant adverse consequences. As our culture and technology have become more sophisticated, the management of risk on a broad basis has become more and more critical. The safe operation of military facilities, chemical plants, airlines, and mass transit, to name a few, are substantially dependent on the performance of the organizations that operate those facilities. The nuclear power industry has, within the past 15 years, increased the attention given to the influence of human performance in the safe operation of nuclear power plants (NPP). While NPPs have been designed through engineering disciplines to intercept and mitigate events that could cause adverse consequences, it has been clear from various safety-related incidents that human performance also plays a dominant role in preventing accidents. Initial efforts following the 1979 Three Mile Island incident focused primarily on ergonomic factors (e.g., the best design of control rooms for maximum performance). Greater attention was subsequently directed towards cognitive processes involved in the use of NPP decision support systems and decision making in general, personnel functions such as selection systems, and the influence of work scheduling and planning on employees` performance. Although each of these approaches has contributed to increasing the safety of NPPS, during the last few years, there has been a growing awareness that particular attention must be paid to how organizational processes affect NPP personnel performance, and thus, plant safety. The direct importance of organizational factors on safety performance in the NPP has been well-documented in the reports on the Three Mile Island and Chernobyl accidents as well as numerous other events, especially as evaluated by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC).

  19. Nuclear criticality safety: 3-day training course

    SciTech Connect

    Schlesser, J.A.

    1992-11-01

    This compilation of notes is presented as a source reference for the criticality safety course. It represents the contributions of many people, particularly Tom McLaughlin, the course's primary instructor. At the completion of this training course, the attendee will: (1) be able to define terms commonly used in nuclear criticality safety; (2) be able to appreciate the fundamentals of nuclear criticality safety; (3) be able to identify factors which affect nuclear criticality safety; (4) be able to identify examples of criticality controls as used at Los Alamos; (5) be able to identify examples of circumstances present during criticality accidents; (6) be able to identify examples of safety consciousness required in nuclear criticality safety.

  20. Nuclear criticality safety: 3-day training course

    SciTech Connect

    Schlesser, J.A.

    1992-11-01

    This compilation of notes is presented as a source reference for the criticality safety course. It represents the contributions of many people, particularly Tom McLaughlin, the course`s primary instructor. At the completion of this training course, the attendee will: (1) be able to define terms commonly used in nuclear criticality safety; (2) be able to appreciate the fundamentals of nuclear criticality safety; (3) be able to identify factors which affect nuclear criticality safety; (4) be able to identify examples of criticality controls as used at Los Alamos; (5) be able to identify examples of circumstances present during criticality accidents; (6) be able to identify examples of safety consciousness required in nuclear criticality safety.

  1. Advanced research workshop: nuclear materials safety

    SciTech Connect

    Jardine, L J; Moshkov, M M

    1999-01-28

    The Advanced Research Workshop (ARW) on Nuclear Materials Safety held June 8-10, 1998, in St. Petersburg, Russia, was attended by 27 Russian experts from 14 different Russian organizations, seven European experts from six different organizations, and 14 U.S. experts from seven different organizations. The ARW was conducted at the State Education Center (SEC), a former Minatom nuclear training center in St. Petersburg. Thirty-three technical presentations were made using simultaneous translations. These presentations are reprinted in this volume as a formal ARW Proceedings in the NATO Science Series. The representative technical papers contained here cover nuclear material safety topics on the storage and disposition of excess plutonium and high enriched uranium (HEU) fissile materials, including vitrification, mixed oxide (MOX) fuel fabrication, plutonium ceramics, reprocessing, geologic disposal, transportation, and Russian regulatory processes. This ARW completed discussions by experts of the nuclear materials safety topics that were not covered in the previous, companion ARW on Nuclear Materials Safety held in Amarillo, Texas, in March 1997. These two workshops, when viewed together as a set, have addressed most nuclear material aspects of the storage and disposition operations required for excess HEU and plutonium. As a result, specific experts in nuclear materials safety have been identified, know each other from their participation in t he two ARW interactions, and have developed a partial consensus and dialogue on the most urgent nuclear materials safety topics to be addressed in a formal bilateral program on t he subject. A strong basis now exists for maintaining and developing a continuing dialogue between Russian, European, and U.S. experts in nuclear materials safety that will improve the safety of future nuclear materials operations in all the countries involved because of t he positive synergistic effects of focusing these diverse backgrounds of

  2. Nuclear data needs for application in nuclear criticality safety programs

    SciTech Connect

    Leal, L.C.; Westfall, R.M.; Jordan, W.C.; Wright, R.Q.

    1995-09-01

    In nuclear criticality safety applications, a number of important uncertainties have to be addressed to establish the required criticality safety margin of a nuclear system. One source of these uncertainties is the basic nuclear data used to calculate the effective multiplication factor of the system. Before criticality safety calculations are performed, the bias and uncertainties of the codes and cross sections that are used must be determined. Cross-section data are measured, evaluated, and tested prior to their inclusion in nuclear data libraries. Traditionally, nuclear data evaluations are performed to support the analysis and design of thermal and fast reactors. The neutron spectra characteristic of the thermal and fast systems used for data testing are predominantly in the low- and high-energy ranges, with a relatively minor influence from the intermediate-energy range. In the area of nuclear criticality safety, nuclear systems involving spent fuel elements from reactors can lead to situations very different from those most commonly found in reactor analysis and design. These systems are not limited to thermal or fast neutron spectra and may have their most significant influence from the intermediate energy range. This requires extending the range of applicability of the nuclear data evaluation beyond thermal and fast systems. The aim here is to focus on the evaluated nuclear data pertaining to applications in nuclear criticality safety.

  3. THE IMPACT OF THE GLOBAL NUCLEAR SAFETY REGIME IN BRAZIL

    SciTech Connect

    Almeida, C.

    2004-10-06

    A turning point of the world nuclear industry with respect to safety occurred due to the accident at Chernobyl, in 1986. A side from the tragic personal losses and the enormous financial damage, the Chernobyl accident has literally demonstrated that ''a nuclear accident anywhere is an accident everywhere''. The impact was felt immediately by the nuclear industry, with plant cancellations (e.g. Austria), elimination of national programs (e.g. Italy) and general construction delays. However, the reaction of the nuclear industry was equally immediate, which led to the proposal and establishment of a Global Nuclear Safety Regime. This regime is composed of biding international safety conventions, globally accepted safety standard, and a voluntary peer review system. In a previous work, the author has presented in detail the components of this Regime, and briefly discussed its impact in the Brazilian nuclear power organizations, including the Regulatory Body. This work, on the opposite, briefly reviews the Global Nuclear Safety Regime, and concentrates in detail in the discussion of its impact in Brazil, showing how it has produced some changes, and where the peer pressure regime has failed to produce real results.

  4. Safety Oversight of Decommissioning Activities at DOE Nuclear Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Zull, Lawrence M.; Yeniscavich, William

    2008-01-15

    The Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (Board) is an independent federal agency established by Congress in 1988 to provide nuclear safety oversight of activities at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) defense nuclear facilities. The activities under the Board's jurisdiction include the design, construction, startup, operation, and decommissioning of defense nuclear facilities at DOE sites. This paper reviews the Board's safety oversight of decommissioning activities at DOE sites, identifies the safety problems observed, and discusses Board initiatives to improve the safety of decommissioning activities at DOE sites. The decommissioning of former defense nuclear facilities has reduced the risk of radioactive material contamination and exposure to the public and site workers. In general, efforts to perform decommissioning work at DOE defense nuclear sites have been successful, and contractors performing decommissioning work have a good safety record. Decommissioning activities have recently been completed at sites identified for closure, including the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, the Fernald Closure Project, and the Miamisburg Closure Project (the Mound site). The Rocky Flats and Fernald sites, which produced plutonium parts and uranium materials for defense needs (respectively), have been turned into wildlife refuges. The Mound site, which performed R and D activities on nuclear materials, has been converted into an industrial and technology park called the Mound Advanced Technology Center. The DOE Office of Legacy Management is responsible for the long term stewardship of these former EM sites. The Board has reviewed many decommissioning activities, and noted that there are valuable lessons learned that can benefit both DOE and the contractor. As part of its ongoing safety oversight responsibilities, the Board and its staff will continue to review the safety of DOE and contractor decommissioning activities at DOE defense nuclear sites.

  5. IDNS: The Illinois Nuclear Safety Agency

    SciTech Connect

    Gallina, C.O.

    1993-09-01

    The Illinois Department of Nuclear Safety (IDNS) is one of only two cabinet-level state agencies in the United States devoted exclusively to nuclear and radiation safety. It was established in 1980 by then Gov. James Thompson in response to the 1979 accident at Three Mile Island-2, so the state would be prepared in case of a similar accident at an Illinois nuclear power facility. There are 13 commercial nuclear reactors at seven sites in Illinois, more than in any other state. If Illinois were a country, it would be seventh in the world in the amount of nuclear-generated electricity, and second in the percentage of electricity produced by nuclear power. The state also has several major nonreactor nuclear facilities. 9 refs.

  6. Nuclear criticality safety department training implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, K.J.; Taylor, R.G.; Worley, C.A.

    1996-09-06

    The Nuclear Criticality Safety Department (NCSD) is committed to developing and maintaining a staff of qualified personnel to meet the current and anticipated needs in Nuclear Criticality Safety (NCS) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. The NCSD Qualification Program is described in Y/DD-694, Qualification Program, Nuclear Criticality Safety Department This document provides a listing of the roles and responsibilities of NCSD personnel with respect to training and details of the Training Management System (TMS) programs, Mentoring Checklists and Checksheets, as well as other documentation utilized to implement the program. This document supersedes Y/DD-696, Revision 2, dated 3/27/96, Training Implementation, Nuclear Criticality Safety Department. There are no backfit requirements associated with revisions to this document.

  7. Some views on nuclear reactor safety

    SciTech Connect

    Tanguy, P.Y.

    1995-04-01

    This document is the text of a speech given by Pierre Y. Tanguy (Electricite de France) at the 22nd Water Reactor Safety Meeting held in Bethesda, MD in 1994. He describes the EDF nuclear program in broad terms and proceeds to discuss operational safety results with EDF plants. The speaker also outlines actions to enhance safety planned for the future, and he briefly mentions French cooperation with the Chinese on the Daya Bay project.

  8. Report of the tunnel safety working group

    SciTech Connect

    Gannon, J.

    1991-04-01

    On 18 February 1991 the Project Manager formed a working group to address the safety guidelines and requirements for the underground facilities during the period of accelerator construction, installation, and commissioning. The following report summarizes the research and discussions conducted by the group and the recommended guidelines for safety during this phase of the project.

  9. Nuclear data for criticality safety - current issues

    SciTech Connect

    Leal, L.C.; Jordan, W.C.; Wright, R.Q.

    1995-06-01

    Traditionally, nuclear data evaluations have been performed in support of the analysis and design of thermal and fast reactors. In general, the neutron spectra characteristic of the thermal and fast systems used for data testing are predominantly in the low- and high-energy range with a relatively small influence from the intermediate-energy range. In the area of nuclear criticality safety, nuclear systems arising from applications involving fissionable materials outside reactors can lead to situations very different from those most commonly found in reactor analysis and design. These systems are not limited to thermal or fast and may have significant influence from the intermediate energy range. The extension of the range of applicability of the nuclear data evaluation beyond thermal and fast systems is therefore needed to cover problems found in nuclear criticality safety. Before criticality safety calculations are performed, the bias and uncertainties of the codes and cross sections that are used must be determined. The most common sources of uncertainties, in general, are the calculational methodologies and the uncertainties related to the nuclear data, such as the microscopic cross sections, entering into the calculational procedure. The aim here is to focus on the evaluated nuclear data pertaining to applications in nuclear criticality safety.

  10. Nuclear Powerplant Safety: Source Terms. Nuclear Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC. Nuclear Energy Office.

    There has been increased public interest in the potential effects of nuclear powerplant accidents since the Soviet reactor accident at Chernobyl. People have begun to look for more information about the amount of radioactivity that might be released into the environment as a result of such an accident. When this issue is discussed by people…

  11. Nuclear safety for the space exploration initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dix, Terry E.

    1991-01-01

    The results of a study to identify potential hazards arising from nuclear reactor power systems for use on the lunar and Martian surfaces, related safety issues, and resolutions of such issues by system design changes, operating procedures, and other means are presented. All safety aspects of nuclear reactor power systems from prelaunch ground handling to eventual disposal were examined consistent with the level of detail for SP-100 reactor design at the 1988 System Design Review and for launch vehicle and space transport vehicle designs and mission descriptions as defined in the 90-day Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) study. Information from previous aerospace nuclear safety studies was used where appropriate. Safety requirements for the SP-100 space nuclear reactor system were compiled. Mission profiles were defined with emphasis on activities after low earth orbit insertion. Accident scenarios were then qualitatively defined for each mission phase. Safety issues were identified for all mission phases with the aid of simplified event trees. Safety issue resolution approaches of the SP-100 program were compiled. Resolution approaches for those safety issues not covered by the SP-100 program were identified. Additionally, the resolution approaches of the SP-100 program were examined in light of the moon and Mars missions.

  12. Nuclear power-plant safety functions

    SciTech Connect

    Corcoran, W.R.; Finnicum, D.J.; Hubbard, F.R. III; Musick, C.R.; Walzer, P.F.

    1981-03-01

    The concept of safety functions is discussed. Ten critical safety functions and the multiple success paths available for accomplishing them are described. Use of the safety function concept in the development of emergency procedures, operator training, and control-room displays provides a systematic approach and a hierarchy of protection that an operator can use to mitigate the consequences of an event. The safety function concept can also be applied to the design and analysis of nuclear plant systems and to the evaluation of past expierience.

  13. Review of Overall Safety Manual for space nuclear systems. An evaluation of a nuclear safety analysis methodology for plutonium-fueled space nuclear systems

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, J.; Inhaber, H.

    1984-02-01

    As part of its duties in connection with space missions involving nuclear power sources, the Office of Nuclear Safety (ONS) of the Office of Assistant Secretary for Environmental Protection, Safety, and Emergency Preparedness has been assigned the task of reviewing the Overall Safety Manual (OSM) (memo from B.J. Rock to J.R. Maher, December 1, 1982). The OSM, dated July 1981 and in four volumes, was prepared by NUS Corporation, Rockville, Maryland, for the US Department of Energy. The OSM provides many of the technical models and much of the data which are used by (1) space launch contractors in safety analysis reports and (2) the broader Interagency Nuclear Safety Review Panel (INSRP) safety evaluation reports. If fhs interaction between the OSM, contractors, and INSRP is to work effectively, the OSM must be accurate, comprehensive, understandable, and usable.

  14. Automating Nuclear-Safety-Related SQA Procedures with Custom Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Freels, James D.

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear safety-related procedures are rigorous for good reason. Small design mistakes can quickly turn into unwanted failures. Researchers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory worked with COMSOL to define a simulation app that automates the software quality assurance (SQA) verification process and provides results in less than 24 hours.

  15. An interagency space nuclear propulsion safety policy for SEI - Issues and discussion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, A. C.; Sawyer, J. C., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    An interagency Nuclear Safety Policy Working Group (NSPWG) was chartered to recommend nuclear safety policy, requirements, and guidelines for the Space Exploration Initiative nuclear propulsion program to facilitate the implementation of mission planning and conceptual design studies. The NSPWG developed a top level policy to provide the guiding principles for the development and implementation of the nuclear propulsion safety program and the development of Safety Functional Requirements. In addition, the NSPWG reviewed safety issues for nuclear propulsion and recommended top level safety requirements and guidelines to address these issues. Safety topics include reactor start-up, inadvertent criticality, radiological release and exposure, disposal, entry, safeguards, risk/reliability, operational safety, ground testing, and other considerations. In this paper the emphasis is placed on the safety policy and the issues and considerations that are addressed by the NSPWG recommendations.

  16. 76 FR 58049 - Atomic Safety and Licensing Board; Honeywell International, Inc.; Metropolis Works Uranium...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Atomic Safety and Licensing Board; Honeywell International, Inc.; Metropolis Works Uranium... assurance for its Metropolis Works uranium conversion facility in Metropolis, Illinois. \\1\\ LBP-11-19,...

  17. TOPAZ-2 Nuclear Power System safety assurance

    SciTech Connect

    Nikitin, V.P.; Ogloblin, B.G.; Lutov, Y.I.; Luppov, A.N.; Shalaev, A.I. ); Ponomarev-Stepnoi, N.N.; Usov, V.A.; Nechaev, Y.A. )

    1993-01-15

    TOPAZ-2 Nuclear Power System (NPS) safety philosophy is based on the requirement that the reactor shall not be critical during all kinds of operations prior to its start-up on the safe orbit (except for physical start-up). Potentially dangerous operation were analyzed and both computational and experimental studies were carried out.

  18. Nuclear Safety Design Base for License Application

    SciTech Connect

    R.J. Garrett

    2005-09-29

    The purpose of this report is to identify and document the nuclear safety design requirements that are specific to structures, systems, and components (SSCs) of the repository that are important to safety (ITS) during the preclosure period and to support the preclosure safety analysis and the license application for the high-level radioactive waste (HLW) repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The scope of this report includes the assignment of nuclear safety design requirements to SSCs that are ITS and does not include the assignment of design requirements to SSCs or natural or engineered barriers that are important to waste isolation (ITWI). These requirements are used as input for the design of the SSCs that are ITS such that the preclosure performance objectives of 10 CFR 63.111(b) [DIRS 173273] are met. The natural or engineered barriers that are important to meeting the postclosure performance objectives of 10 CFR 63.113(b) and (c) [DIRS 173273] are identified as ITWI. Although a structure, system, or component (SSC) that is ITS may also be ITWI, this report is only concerned with providing the nuclear safety requirements for SSCs that are ITS to prevent or mitigate event sequences during the repository preclosure period.

  19. NUCLEAR SAFETY DESIGN BASES FOR LICENSE APPLICATION

    SciTech Connect

    R.J. Garrett

    2005-03-08

    The purpose of this report is to identify and document the nuclear safety design requirements that are specific to structures, systems, and components (SSCs) of the repository that are important to safety (ITS) during the preclosure period and to support the preclosure safety analysis and the license application for the high-level radioactive waste (HLW) repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The scope of this report includes the assignment of nuclear safety design requirements to SSCs that are ITS and does not include the assignment of design requirements to SSCs or natural or engineered barriers that are important to waste isolation (ITWI). These requirements are used as input for the design of the SSCs that are ITS such that the preclosure performance objectives of 10 CFR 63.111 [DIRS 156605] are met. The natural or engineered barriers that are important to meeting the postclosure performance objectives of 10 CFR 63.113 [DIRS 156605] are identified as ITWI. Although a structure, system, or component (SSC) that is ITS may also be ITWI, this report is only concerned with providing the nuclear safety requirements for SSCs that are ITS to prevent or mitigate event sequences during the repository preclosure period.

  20. Work, obesity, and occupational safety and health.

    PubMed

    Schulte, Paul A; Wagner, Gregory R; Ostry, Aleck; Blanciforti, Laura A; Cutlip, Robert G; Krajnak, Kristine M; Luster, Michael; Munson, Albert E; O'Callaghan, James P; Parks, Christine G; Simeonova, Petia P; Miller, Diane B

    2007-03-01

    There is increasing evidence that obesity and overweight may be related, in part, to adverse work conditions. In particular, the risk of obesity may increase in high-demand, low-control work environments, and for those who work long hours. In addition, obesity may modify the risk for vibration-induced injury and certain occupational musculoskeletal disorders. We hypothesized that obesity may also be a co-risk factor for the development of occupational asthma and cardiovascular disease that and it may modify the worker's response to occupational stress, immune response to chemical exposures, and risk of disease from occupational neurotoxins. We developed 5 conceptual models of the interrelationship of work, obesity, and occupational safety and health and highlighted the ethical, legal, and social issues related to fuller consideration of obesity's role in occupational health and safety.

  1. Management of National Nuclear Power Programs for assured safety

    SciTech Connect

    Connolly, T.J.

    1985-01-01

    Topics discussed in this report include: nuclear utility organization; before the Florida Public Service Commission in re: St. Lucie Unit No. 2 cost recovery; nuclear reliability improvement and safety operations; nuclear utility management; training of nuclear facility personnel; US experience in key areas of nuclear safety; the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission - function and process; regulatory considerations of the risk of nuclear power plants; overview of the processes of reliability and risk management; management significance of risk analysis; international and domestic institutional issues for peaceful nuclear uses; the role of the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO); and nuclear safety activities of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA).

  2. The Interagency Nuclear Safety Review Panel's Galileo safety evaluation report

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, R.C.; Gray, L.B.; Huff, D.A.

    1989-01-01

    The safety evaluation report (SER) for Galileo was prepared by the Interagency Nuclear Safety Review Panel (INSRP) coordinators in accordance with Presidential directive/National Security Council memorandum 25. The INSRP consists of three coordinators appointed by their respective agencies, the Department of Defense, the Department of Energy (DOE), and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). These individuals are independent of the program being evaluated and depend on independent experts drawn from the national technical community to serve on the five INSRP subpanels. The Galileo SER is based on input provided by the NASA Galileo Program Office, review and assessment of the final safety analysis report prepared by the Office of Special Applications of the DOE under a memorandum of understanding between NASA and the DOE, as well as other related data and analyses. The SER was prepared for use by the agencies and the Office of Science and Technology Policy, Executive Office of the Present for use in their launch decision-making process. Although more than 20 nuclear-powered space missions have been previously reviewed via the INSRP process, the Galileo review constituted the first review of a nuclear power source associated with launch aboard the Space Transportation System.

  3. Web-based nuclear criticality safety bibliographic database

    SciTech Connect

    Koponen, B L; Huang, S T

    2000-06-21

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has prepared a Nuclear Criticality Safety Bibliographic Database that is now available via the Internet. This database is a component of the U.S. DOE Nuclear Criticality Safety Program (NCSP) Web site. This WWW resource was developed as part of the DOE response to the DNFSB Recommendation 97-2, which reflected the need to make criticality safety information available to a wide audience. To the extent possible, the hyperlinks on the Web pages direct the user to original source of the reference material in order to ensure accuracy and access to the latest versions. A master index is in place for simple navigation through the site. A search capability is available to assist in locating the on-line reference materials. Among the features included are: A user-friendly site map for ease of use; A personnel registry; Links to all major laboratories and organizations involved in the many aspects of criticality safety; General help for new criticality safety practitioners, including basic technical references and training modules; A discussion of computational methods; An interactive question and answer forum for the criticality safety community; and Collections of bibliographic references mdvahdation experiments. This paper will focus on the bibliographic database. This database evolved from earlier work done by the DOE's Nuclear Criticality Information System (NCIS) maintained at LLNL during the 1980s. The bibliographic database at the time of the termination of NCIS were composed principally of three parts: (1) A critical experiment bibliography of 1067 citations (reported in UCRL-52769); (2) A compilation of criticality safety papers from Volumes 1 through 41 of the Transactions of the American Nuclear Society (reported in UCRL-53369); and (3) A general criticality bibliography of several thousand citations (unpublished). When the NCIS project was terminated the database was nearly lost but, fortunately, several years later

  4. Safety of Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Batandjieva, B.; Warnecke, E.; Coates, R.

    2008-01-15

    Full text of publication follows: ensuring safety during all stages of facility life cycle is a widely recognised responsibility of the operators, implemented under the supervision of the regulatory body and other competent authorities. As the majority of the facilities worldwide are still in operation or shutdown, there is no substantial experience in decommissioning and evaluation of safety during decommissioning in majority of Member States. The need for cooperation and exchange of experience and good practices on ensuring and evaluating safety of decommissioning was one of the outcomes of the Berlin conference in 2002. On this basis during the last three years IAEA initiated a number of international projects that can assist countries, in particular small countries with limited resources. The main IAEA international projects addressing safety during decommissioning are: (i) DeSa Project on Evaluation and Demonstration of Safety during Decommissioning; (ii) R{sup 2}D{sup 2}P project on Research Reactors Decommissioning Demonstration Project; and (iii) Project on Evaluation and Decommissioning of Former Facilities that used Radioactive Material in Iraq. This paper focuses on the DeSa Project activities on (i) development of a harmonised methodology for safety assessment for decommissioning; (ii) development of a procedure for review of safety assessments; (iii) development of recommendations on application of the graded approach to the performance and review of safety assessments; and (iv) application of the methodology and procedure to the selected real facilities with different complexities and hazard potentials (a nuclear power plant, a research reactor and a nuclear laboratory). The paper also outlines the DeSa Project outcomes and planned follow-up activities. It also summarises the main objectives and activities of the Iraq Project and introduces the R{sup 2}D{sup 2} Project, which is a subject of a complementary paper.

  5. Space nuclear safety from a user's viewpoint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, R. W.

    1985-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) launched the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's (JPL) two Voyager spacecraft to Jupiter in 1977, each using three radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs) supplied by the Department of Energy (DOE) for onboard electric power. In 1986 NASA will launch JPL's Galileo spacecraft to Jupiter equipped with two DOE supplied RTGs of an improved design. NASA and JPL are also responsible for obtaining a single RTG of this type from DOE and supplying it to the European Space Agency as part of its participation in the International Solar Polar Mission. As a result of these missions, JPL has been deeply involved in space nuclear safety as a user. This paper will give a brief review of the user contributions by JPL - and NASA in general - to the nuclear safety processes and relate them to the overall nuclear safety program necessary for the launch of an RTG. The two major safety areas requiring user support are the ground operations involving RTGs at the launch site and the failure modes and probabilities associated with launch accidents.

  6. Nuclear Safety Information Center, Its Products and Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchanan, J. R.

    1970-01-01

    The Nuclear Safety Information Center (NSIC) serves as a focal point for the collection, analysis and dissemination of information related to safety problems encountered in the design, analysis, and operation of nuclear facilities. (Author/AB)

  7. Nuclear space power safety and facility guidelines study

    SciTech Connect

    Mehlman, W.F.

    1995-09-11

    This report addresses safety guidelines for space nuclear reactor power missions and was prepared by The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) under a Department of Energy grant, DE-FG01-94NE32180 dated 27 September 1994. This grant was based on a proposal submitted by the JHU/APL in response to an {open_quotes}Invitation for Proposals Designed to Support Federal Agencies and Commercial Interests in Meeting Special Power and Propulsion Needs for Future Space Missions{close_quotes}. The United States has not launched a nuclear reactor since SNAP 10A in April 1965 although many Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) have been launched. An RTG powered system is planned for launch as part of the Cassini mission to Saturn in 1997. Recently the Ballistic Missile Defense Office (BMDO) sponsored the Nuclear Electric Propulsion Space Test Program (NEPSTP) which was to demonstrate and evaluate the Russian-built TOPAZ II nuclear reactor as a power source in space. As of late 1993 the flight portion of this program was canceled but work to investigate the attributes of the reactor were continued but at a reduced level. While the future of space nuclear power systems is uncertain there are potential space missions which would require space nuclear power systems. The differences between space nuclear power systems and RTG devices are sufficient that safety and facility requirements warrant a review in the context of the unique features of a space nuclear reactor power system.

  8. Double-clad nuclear fuel safety rod

    DOEpatents

    McCarthy, William H.; Atcheson, Donald B.; Vaidyanathan, Swaminathan

    1984-01-01

    A device for shutting down a nuclear reactor during an undercooling or overpower event, whether or not the reactor's scram system operates properly. This is accomplished by double-clad fuel safety rods positioned at various locations throughout the reactor core, wherein melting of a secondary internal cladding of the rod allows the fuel column therein to shift from the reactor core to place the reactor in a subcritical condition.

  9. Safety aspects of nuclear waste disposal in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, E. E.; Edgecombe, D. S.; Compton, P. R.

    1981-01-01

    Safety issues involved in the disposal of nuclear wastes in space as a complement to mined geologic repositories are examined as part of an assessment of the feasibility of nuclear waste disposal in space. General safety guidelines for space disposal developed in the areas of radiation exposure and shielding, containment, accident environments, criticality, post-accident recovery, monitoring systems and isolation are presented for a nuclear waste disposal in space mission employing conventional space technology such as the Space Shuttle. The current reference concept under consideration by NASA and DOE is then examined in detail, with attention given to the waste source and mix, the waste form, waste processing and payload fabrication, shipping casks and ground transport vehicles, launch site operations and facilities, Shuttle-derived launch vehicle, orbit transfer vehicle, orbital operations and space destination, and the system safety aspects of the concept are discussed for each component. It is pointed out that future work remains in the development of an improved basis for the safety guidelines and the determination of the possible benefits and costs of the space disposal option for nuclear wastes.

  10. Study Gives Good Odds on Nuclear Reactor Safety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Cristine

    1974-01-01

    Summarized is data from a recent study on nuclear reactor safety completed by Norman C. Rasmussen and others. Non-nuclear events are about 10,000 times more likely to produce large accidents than nuclear plants. (RH)

  11. An Empirical Analysis of Human Performance and Nuclear Safety Culture

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey Joe; Larry G. Blackwood

    2006-06-01

    The purpose of this analysis, which was conducted for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), was to test whether an empirical connection exists between human performance and nuclear power plant safety culture. This was accomplished through analyzing the relationship between a measure of human performance and a plant’s Safety Conscious Work Environment (SCWE). SCWE is an important component of safety culture the NRC has developed, but it is not synonymous with it. SCWE is an environment in which employees are encouraged to raise safety concerns both to their own management and to the NRC without fear of harassment, intimidation, retaliation, or discrimination. Because the relationship between human performance and allegations is intuitively reciprocal and both relationship directions need exploration, two series of analyses were performed. First, human performance data could be indicative of safety culture, so regression analyses were performed using human performance data to predict SCWE. It also is likely that safety culture contributes to human performance issues at a plant, so a second set of regressions were performed using allegations to predict HFIS results.

  12. Spent Fuel Working Group report on inventory and storage of the Department`s spent nuclear fuel and other reactor irradiated nuclear materials and their environmental, safety and health vulnerabilities. Volume 3, Site team reports

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    A self assessment was conducted of those Hanford facilities that are utilized to store Reactor Irradiated Nuclear Material, (RINM). The objective of the assessment is to identify the Hanford inventories of RINM and the ES & H concerns associated with such storage. The assessment was performed as proscribed by the Project Plan issued by the DOE Spent Fuel Working Group. The Project Plan is the plan of execution intended to complete the Secretary`s request for information relevant to the inventories and vulnerabilities of DOE storage of spent nuclear fuel. The Hanford RINM inventory, the facilities involved and the nature of the fuel stored are summarized. This table succinctly reveals the variety of the Hanford facilities involved, the variety of the types of RINM involved, and the wide range of the quantities of material involved in Hanford`s RINM storage circumstances. ES & H concerns are defined as those circumstances that have the potential, now or in the future, to lead to a criticality event, to a worker radiation exposure event, to an environmental release event, or to public announcements of such circumstances and the sensationalized reporting of the inherent risks.

  13. Space Nuclear Safety Program, September 1983

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bronisz, S. E.

    1984-01-01

    This technical monthly report covers studies related to the use of (238) PuO2 in radioisotope power systems carried out for the Office of Special Nuclear Projects of the US Department of Energy by Los Alamos National Laboratory. Most of the studies discussed here are ongoing. Results and conclusions described may change as the work continues.

  14. Space Nuclear Safety Program. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Bronisz, S.E.

    1984-01-01

    This technical monthly report covers studies related to the use of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ in radioisotope power systems carried out for the Office of Special Nuclear Projects of the US Department of Energy by Los Alamos National Laboratory. Most of the studies discussed here are ongoing. Results and conclusions described may change as the work continues.

  15. Information Services at the Nuclear Safety Analysis Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simard, Ronald

    This paper describes the operations of the Nuclear Safety Analysis Center. Established soon after an accident at the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant near Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, its efforts were initially directed towards a detailed analysis of the accident. Continuing functions include: (1) the analysis of generic nuclear safety issues,…

  16. 76 FR 16758 - DOE Response to Recommendation 2010-1 of the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board, Safety...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-25

    ... our nuclear safety requirements to assure they were clear, concise, complete, and current. In March... progress in revising key nuclear safety Directives and the DOE Nuclear Safety Policy. We have not changed... have made significant nuclear safety improvements by upgrading facility safety bases and designs and...

  17. Perceptions of safety at work: a framework for linking safety climate to safety performance, knowledge, and motivation.

    PubMed

    Griffin, M A; Neal, A

    2000-07-01

    Research in the areas of organizational climate and work performance was used to develop a framework for measuring perceptions of safety at work. The framework distinguished perceptions of the work environment from perceptions of performance related to safety. Two studies supported application of the framework to employee perceptions of safety in the workplace. Safety compliance and safety participation were distinguished as separate components of safety-related performance. Perceptions of knowledge about safety and motivation to perform safely influenced individual reports of safety performance and also mediated the link between safety climate and safety performance. Specific dimensions of safety climate were identified and constituted a higher order safety climate factor. The results support conceptualizing safety climate as an antecedent to safety performance in organizations. PMID:10912498

  18. Applicability of trends in nuclear safety analysis to space nuclear power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bari, R.A.

    1992-10-01

    A survey is presented of some current trends in nuclear safety analysis that may be relevant to space nuclear power systems. This includes: lessons learned from operating power reactor safety and licensing; approaches to the safety design of advanced and novel reactors and facilities; the roles of risk assessment, extremely unlikely accidents, safety goals/targets; and risk-benefit analysis and communication.

  19. Natural Disasters and Safety Risks at Nuclear Power Stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tutnova, T.

    2012-04-01

    industry needs advanced mechanisms of international oversight. The natural-technological disaster that happens in a particular country is a matter of concern of the global community. Hence, the urgent necessity is to develop and adopt a joint mechanism for international consultation in case of serious accident at a nuclear power plant. It is also necessary to work out the list of constraining provisions for building and operating nuclear plants in regions where potential risks of natural-technological catastrophes exist. These provisions should include risk estimate for every particular region, as well as the list of preventive measures to secure the safe operation of nuclear plants located at those sites. As it was stated before, the synergy effects of more than one potential hazard must be taken into account. The main goal of my report is to represent possible methods for mitigating nuclear safety risks associated with natural hazards and technological disasters, review the effectiveness of existing standards and oversight mechanisms, encourage a cooperative discussion of these issues.

  20. Tutorial on nuclear thermal propulsion safety for Mars

    SciTech Connect

    Buden, D.

    1992-01-01

    Safety is the prime design requirement for nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP). It must be built in at the initiation of the design process. An understanding of safety concerns is fundamental to the development of nuclear rockets for manned missions to Mars and many other applications that will be enabled or greatly enhanced by the use of nuclear propulsion. To provide an understanding of the basic issues, a tutorial has been prepared. This tutorial covers a range of topics including safety requirements and approaches to meet these requirements, risk and safety analysis methodology, NERVA reliability and safety approach, and life cycle risk assessments.

  1. Tutorial on nuclear thermal propulsion safety for Mars

    SciTech Connect

    Buden, D.

    1992-08-01

    Safety is the prime design requirement for nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP). It must be built in at the initiation of the design process. An understanding of safety concerns is fundamental to the development of nuclear rockets for manned missions to Mars and many other applications that will be enabled or greatly enhanced by the use of nuclear propulsion. To provide an understanding of the basic issues, a tutorial has been prepared. This tutorial covers a range of topics including safety requirements and approaches to meet these requirements, risk and safety analysis methodology, NERVA reliability and safety approach, and life cycle risk assessments.

  2. Aging of nuclear power plant safety cables

    SciTech Connect

    Gillen, K.T.; Salazar, E.A.

    1986-01-01

    Results from an extensive aging program on polymeric materials stripped from unused nuclear reactor safety cables are described. Mechanical damage was monitored after room temperature aging in a Co-60 gamma radiation source at various humidities and radiation dose rates ranging from 1.2 Mrad/h to 2 krad/h. For chloroprene, chlorosulfonated polyethylene, and silicone materials, the mechanical degradation was found to depend only on the total integrated radiation dose, implying that radiation dose rate effects are small. On the other hand, strong evidence for radiation dose rate effects were found for an ethylene propylene rubber material and a cross-linked polyolefin material. Humidity effects were determined to be insignificant for all the materials studied.

  3. Gaseous core nuclear-driven engines featuring a self-shutoff mechanism to provide nuclear safety

    SciTech Connect

    Heidrich, J.; Pettibone, J.; Chow, Tze-Show; Condit, R.; Zimmerman, G.

    1991-11-01

    Nuclear driven engines are described that could be run in either pulsed or steady state modes. In the pulsed mode nuclear energy is released by fissioning of uranium or plutonium in a supercritical assembly of fuel and working gas. In a steady state mode a fuel-gas mixture is injected into a magnetic nozzle where it is compressed into a critical state and produces energy. Engine performance is modeled using a code that calculates hydrodynamics, fission energy production, and neutron transport self-consistently. Results are given demonstrating a large negative temperature coefficient that produces self-shutoff or control of energy production. Reduced fission product inventory and the self-shutoff provide inherent nuclear safety. It is expected that nuclear engine reactor units could be scaled up from about 100 MW{sub e}.

  4. Training and qualification program for nuclear criticality safety technical staff. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, R.G.; Worley, C.A.

    1997-03-05

    A training and qualification program for nuclear criticality safety technical staff personnel has been developed and implemented. All personnel who are to perform nuclear criticality safety technical work are required to participate in the program. The program includes both general nuclear criticality safety and plant specific knowledge components. Advantage can be taken of previous experience for that knowledge which is portable such as performance of computer calculations. Candidates step through a structured process which exposes them to basic background information, general plant information, and plant specific information which they need to safely and competently perform their jobs. Extensive documentation is generated to demonstrate that candidates have met the standards established for qualification.

  5. The Department of Energy Nuclear Criticality Safety Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felty, James R.

    2005-05-01

    This paper broadly covers key events and activities from which the Department of Energy Nuclear Criticality Safety Program (NCSP) evolved. The NCSP maintains fundamental infrastructure that supports operational criticality safety programs. This infrastructure includes continued development and maintenance of key calculational tools, differential and integral data measurements, benchmark compilation, development of training resources, hands-on training, and web-based systems to enhance information preservation and dissemination. The NCSP was initiated in response to Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board Recommendation 97-2, Criticality Safety, and evolved from a predecessor program, the Nuclear Criticality Predictability Program, that was initiated in response to Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board Recommendation 93-2, The Need for Critical Experiment Capability. This paper also discusses the role Dr. Sol Pearlstein played in helping the Department of Energy lay the foundation for a robust and enduring criticality safety infrastructure.

  6. The Gulf Nuclear Energy Infrastructure Institute : an integrated approach to safety, security & safeguards.

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Adam David

    2010-04-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and the Nuclear Security Science and Policy Institute (NSSPI) at Texas A&M University are working with Middle East regional partners to set up a nuclear energy safety, safeguards, and security educational institute in the Gulf region. SNL and NSSPI, partnered with the Khalifa University of Science, Technology, and Research (KUSTAR), with suppot from its key nuclear stakeholders, the Emirates Nuclear Energy Corporation (ENEC), and the Federal Authority for Nuclear Regulation (FANR), plan to jointly establish the institute in Abu Dhabi. The Gulf Nuclear Energy Infrastructure Institute (GNEII) will be a KUSTAR-associated, credit-granting regional education program providing both classroom instruction and hands-on experience. The ultimate objective is for GNEII to be autonomous - regionally funded and staffed with personnel capable of teaching all GNEII courses five years after its inauguration. This is a strategic effort to indigenize a responsible nuclear energy culture - a culture shaped by an integrated understanding of nuclear safety, safeguards and security - in regional nuclear energy programs. GNEII also promotes international interests in developing a nuclear energy security and safety culture, increases collaboration between the nuclear energy security and safety communities, and helps to enhance global standards for nuclear energy technology in the Middle East.

  7. The Gulf Nuclear Energy Infrastructure Institute : an integrated approach to safety, security and safeguards.

    SciTech Connect

    Beeley, Phillip A.; Boyle, David R.; Williams, Adam David; Mohagheghi, Amir Hossein

    2010-04-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and the Nuclear Security Science and Policy Institute (NSSPI) at Texas A&M University are working with Middle East regional partners to set up a nuclear energy safety, safeguards, and security educational institute in the Gulf region. SNL and NSSPI, partnered with the Khalifa University of Science, Technology, and Research (KUSTAR), with suppot from its key nuclear stakeholders, the Emirates Nuclear Energy Corporation (ENEC), and the Federal Authority for Nuclear Regulation (FANR), plan to jointly establish the institute in Abu Dhabi. The Gulf Nuclear Energy Infrastructure Institute (GNEII) will be a KUSTAR-associated, credit-granting regional education program providing both classroom instruction and hands-on experience. The ultimate objective is for GNEII to be autonomous - regionally funded and staffed with personnel capable of teaching all GNEII courses five years after its inauguration. This is a strategic effort to indigenize a responsible nuclear energy culture - a culture shaped by an integrated understanding of nuclear safety, safeguards and security - in regional nuclear energy programs. GNEII also promotes international interests in developing a nuclear energy security and safety culture, increases collaboration between the nuclear energy security and safety communities, and helps to enhance global standards for nuclear energy technology in the Middle East.

  8. Providing Nuclear Criticality Safety Analysis Education through Benchmark Experiment Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    John D. Bess; J. Blair Briggs; David W. Nigg

    2009-11-01

    One of the challenges that today's new workforce of nuclear criticality safety engineers face is the opportunity to provide assessment of nuclear systems and establish safety guidelines without having received significant experience or hands-on training prior to graduation. Participation in the International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP) and/or the International Reactor Physics Experiment Evaluation Project (IRPhEP) provides students and young professionals the opportunity to gain experience and enhance critical engineering skills.

  9. 10 CFR 72.124 - Criteria for nuclear criticality safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Criteria for nuclear criticality safety. 72.124 Section 72.124 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED GREATER THAN CLASS...

  10. 10 CFR 72.124 - Criteria for nuclear criticality safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Criteria for nuclear criticality safety. 72.124 Section 72.124 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED GREATER THAN CLASS...

  11. 10 CFR 72.124 - Criteria for nuclear criticality safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Criteria for nuclear criticality safety. 72.124 Section 72.124 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED GREATER THAN CLASS...

  12. 10 CFR 72.124 - Criteria for nuclear criticality safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Criteria for nuclear criticality safety. 72.124 Section 72.124 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED GREATER THAN CLASS...

  13. 10 CFR 72.124 - Criteria for nuclear criticality safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Criteria for nuclear criticality safety. 72.124 Section 72.124 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED GREATER THAN CLASS...

  14. WASTE PROCESSING ANNUAL NUCLEAR SAFETY RELATED R AND D REPORT FOR CY2008

    SciTech Connect

    Fellinger, A.

    2009-10-15

    The Engineering and Technology Office of Waste Processing identifies and reduces engineering and technical risks associated with key waste processing project decisions. The risks, and actions taken to mitigate those risks, are determined through technology readiness assessments, program reviews, technology information exchanges, external technical reviews, technical assistance, and targeted technology development and deployment (TDD). The Office of Waste Processing TDD program prioritizes and approves research and development scopes of work that address nuclear safety related to processing of highly radioactive nuclear wastes. Thirteen of the thirty-five R&D approved work scopes in FY2009 relate directly to nuclear safety, and are presented in this report.

  15. 75 FR 73946 - Worker Safety and Health Program: Safety Conscious Work Environment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-30

    ... petition for rulemaking, published on October 16, 2009. 74 FR 53190. The vast majority of those comments... Part 851 Worker Safety and Health Program: Safety Conscious Work Environment AGENCY: Office of the... ``Safety-Conscious Work Environment'' guidelines as a model. DOE published this petition and a request...

  16. Developing operational safety requirements for non-nuclear facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Mahn, J.A.

    1997-11-01

    Little guidance has been provided by the DOE for developing appropriate Operational Safety Requirements (OSR) for non-nuclear facility safety documents. For a period of time, Chapter 2 of DOE/AL Supplemental Order 5481.lB provided format guidance for non-reactor nuclear facility OSRs when this supplemental order applied to both nuclear and non-nuclear facilities. Thus, DOE Albuquerque Operations Office personnel still want to see non-nuclear facility OSRs in accordance with the supplemental order (i.e., in terms of Safety Limits, Limiting Conditions for Operation, and Administrative Controls). Furthermore, they want to see a clear correlation between the OSRs and the results of a facility safety analysis. This paper demonstrates how OSRs can be rather simply derived from the results of a risk assessment performed using the ``binning`` methodology of SAND95-0320.

  17. Nuclear Technology Series. Course 8: Reactor Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This technical specialty course is one of thirty-five courses designed for use by two-year postsecondary institutians in five nuclear technician curriculum areas: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and control technician, (3) nuclear materials processing technician, (4) nuclear quality-assurance/quality-control…

  18. Implementation of an Enhanced Measurement Control Program for handling nuclear safety samples at WSRC

    SciTech Connect

    Boler-Melton, C.; Holland, M.K.

    1991-12-31

    In the separation and purification of nuclear material, nuclear criticality safety (NCS) is of primary concern. The primary nuclear criticality safety controls utilized by the Savannah River Site (SRS) Separations Facilities involve administrative and process equipment controls. Additional assurance of NCS is obtained by identifying key process hold points where sampling is used to independently verify the effectiveness of production control. Nuclear safety measurements of samples from these key process locations provide a high degree of assurance that processing conditions are within administrative and procedural nuclear safety controls. An enhanced procedure management system aimed at making improvements in the quality, safety, and conduct of operation was implemented for Nuclear Safety Sample (NSS) receipt, analysis, and reporting. All procedures with nuclear safety implications were reviewed for accuracy and adequate detail to perform the analytical measurements safely, efficiently, and with the utmost quality. Laboratory personnel worked in a ``Deliberate Operating`` mode (a systematic process requiring continuous expert oversight during all phases of training, testing, and implementation) to initiate the upgrades. Thus, the effort to revise and review nuclear safety sample procedures involved a team comprised of a supervisor, chemist, and two technicians for each procedure. Each NSS procedure was upgraded to a ``Use Every Time`` (UET) procedure with sign-off steps to ensure compliance with each step for every nuclear safety sample analyzed. The upgrade program met and exceeded both the long and short term customer needs by improving measurement reliability, providing objective evidence of rigid adherence to program principles and requirements, and enhancing the system for independent verification of representative sampling from designated NCS points.

  19. Implementation of an Enhanced Measurement Control Program for handling nuclear safety samples at WSRC

    SciTech Connect

    Boler-Melton, C.; Holland, M.K.

    1991-01-01

    In the separation and purification of nuclear material, nuclear criticality safety (NCS) is of primary concern. The primary nuclear criticality safety controls utilized by the Savannah River Site (SRS) Separations Facilities involve administrative and process equipment controls. Additional assurance of NCS is obtained by identifying key process hold points where sampling is used to independently verify the effectiveness of production control. Nuclear safety measurements of samples from these key process locations provide a high degree of assurance that processing conditions are within administrative and procedural nuclear safety controls. An enhanced procedure management system aimed at making improvements in the quality, safety, and conduct of operation was implemented for Nuclear Safety Sample (NSS) receipt, analysis, and reporting. All procedures with nuclear safety implications were reviewed for accuracy and adequate detail to perform the analytical measurements safely, efficiently, and with the utmost quality. Laboratory personnel worked in a Deliberate Operating'' mode (a systematic process requiring continuous expert oversight during all phases of training, testing, and implementation) to initiate the upgrades. Thus, the effort to revise and review nuclear safety sample procedures involved a team comprised of a supervisor, chemist, and two technicians for each procedure. Each NSS procedure was upgraded to a Use Every Time'' (UET) procedure with sign-off steps to ensure compliance with each step for every nuclear safety sample analyzed. The upgrade program met and exceeded both the long and short term customer needs by improving measurement reliability, providing objective evidence of rigid adherence to program principles and requirements, and enhancing the system for independent verification of representative sampling from designated NCS points.

  20. Licensed reactor nuclear safety criteria applicable to DOE reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    This document is a compilation and source list of nuclear safety criteria that the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) applies to licensed reactors; it can be used by DOE and DOE contractors to identify NRC criteria to be evaluated for application to the DOE reactors under their cognizance. The criteria listed are those that are applied to the areas of nuclear safety addressed in the safety analysis report of a licensed reactor. They are derived from federal regulations, USNRC regulatory guides, Standard Review Plan (SRP) branch technical positions and appendices, and industry codes and standards.

  1. Improved nuclear power plant operations and safety through performance-based safety regulation.

    PubMed

    Golay, M W

    2000-01-01

    This paper illustrates some of the promise and needed future work for risk-informed, performance-based regulation (RIPBR). RIPBR is an evolving alternative to the current prescriptive method of nuclear safety regulation. Prescriptive regulation effectively constitutes a long, fragmented checklist of requirements that safety-related systems in a plant must satisfy. RIPBR, instead, concentrates upon satisfying negotiated performance goals and incentives for judging and rewarding licensee behavior to improve safety and reduce costs. In a project reported here, a case study was conducted concerning a pressurized water reactor (PWR) emergency diesel generator (EDG). Overall, this work has shown that the methods of RIPBR are feasible to use, and capable of justifying simultaneous safety and economic nuclear power improvements. However, it also reveals several areas where the framework of RIPBR should be strengthened. First, researchers need better data and understanding regarding individual component-failure modes that may cause components to fail. Not only are more data needed on failure rates, but more data and understanding are needed to enable analysts to evaluate whether these failures become more likely as the interval between tests is increased. This is because the current state of failure data is not sufficiently finely detailed to define the failure rates of individual component failure modes; such knowledge is needed when changing component-specific regulatory requirements. Second, the role of component testing, given that a component has failed, needs to be strengthened within the context of RIPBR. This includes formulating requirements for updating the prior probability distribution of a component failure rate and conducting additional or more frequent testing. Finally, as a means of compensating for unavoidable uncertainty as an obstacle to regulatory decision-making, limits to knowledge must be treated explicitly and formally. This treatment includes the

  2. Licensed reactor nuclear safety criteria applicable to DOE reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-04-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Order DOE 5480.6, Safety of Department of Energy-Owned Nuclear Reactors, establishes reactor safety requirements to assure that reactors are sited, designed, constructed, modified, operated, maintained, and decommissioned in a manner that adequately protects health and safety and is in accordance with uniform standards, guides, and codes which are consistent with those applied to comparable licensed reactors. This document identifies nuclear safety criteria applied to NRC (Nuclear Regulatory Commission) licensed reactors. The titles of the chapters and sections of USNRC Regulatory Guide 1.70, Standard Format and Content of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants, Rev. 3, are used as the format for compiling the NRC criteria applied to the various areas of nuclear safety addressed in a safety analysis report for a nuclear reactor. In each section the criteria are compiled in four groups: (1) Code of Federal Regulations, (2) US NRC Regulatory Guides, SRP Branch Technical Positions and Appendices, (3) Codes and Standards, and (4) Supplemental Information. The degree of application of these criteria to a DOE-owned reactor, consistent with their application to comparable licensed reactors, must be determined by the DOE and DOE contractor.

  3. Nuclear Technology Series. Course 24: Nuclear Systems and Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This technical specialty course is one of thirty-five courses designed for use by two-year postsecondary institutions in five nuclear technician curriculum areas: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and control technician, (3) nuclear materials processing technician, (4) nuclear quality-assurance/quality-control…

  4. Engineers call for US nuclear safety fix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwynne, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Seven Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) engineers have called on the commission to force the owners of US nuclear reactors to repair a design flaw that could affect the safe operation of emergency core cooling systems.

  5. Human Factors Research and Nuclear Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moray, Neville P., Ed.; Huey, Beverly M., Ed.

    The Panel on Human Factors Research Needs in Nuclear Regulatory Research was formed by the National Research Council in response to a request from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The NRC asked the research council to conduct an 18-month study of human factors research needs for the safe operation of nuclear power plants. This report…

  6. 76 FR 42686 - DOE Response to Recommendation 2011-1 of the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board, Safety...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-19

    ... Response to Recommendation 2011-1 of the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board, Safety Culture at the..., concerning Safety Culture at the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant, to the Department of Energy. In...) acknowledges receipt of Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (Board) Recommendation 2011-1, Safety...

  7. Request for Naval Reactors Comment on Proposed Prometheus Space Flight Nuclear Reactor High Tier Reactor Safety Requirements and for Naval Reactors Approval to Transmit These Requirements to JPL

    SciTech Connect

    D. Kokkinos

    2005-04-28

    The purpose of this letter is to request Naval Reactors comments on the nuclear reactor high tier requirements for the PROMETHEUS space flight reactor design, pre-launch operations, launch, ascent, operation, and disposal, and to request Naval Reactors approval to transmit these requirements to Jet Propulsion Laboratory to ensure consistency between the reactor safety requirements and the spacecraft safety requirements. The proposed PROMETHEUS nuclear reactor high tier safety requirements are consistent with the long standing safety culture of the Naval Reactors Program and its commitment to protecting the health and safety of the public and the environment. In addition, the philosophy on which these requirements are based is consistent with the Nuclear Safety Policy Working Group recommendations on space nuclear propulsion safety (Reference 1), DOE Nuclear Safety Criteria and Specifications for Space Nuclear Reactors (Reference 2), the Nuclear Space Power Safety and Facility Guidelines Study of the Applied Physics Laboratory.

  8. The unique signal concept for detonation safety in nuclear weapons

    SciTech Connect

    Spray, S.D.; Cooper, J.A.

    1993-06-01

    The purpose of a unique signal (UQS) in a nuclear weapon system is to provide an unambiguous communication of intent to detonate from the UQS information input source device to a stronglink safety device in the weapon in a manner that is highly unlikely to be duplicated or simulated in normal environments and in a broad range of ill-defined abnormal environments. This report presents safety considerations for the design and implementation of UQSs in the context of the overall safety system.

  9. A Safer Nuclear Enterprise - Application to Nuclear Explosive Safety (NES)(U)

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, Tommy J.

    2012-07-05

    Activities and infrastructure that support nuclear weapons are facing significant challenges. Despite an admirable record and firm commitment to make safety a primary criterion in weapons design, production, handling, and deployment - there is growing apprehension about terrorist acquiring weapons or nuclear material. At the NES Workshop in May 2012, Scott Sagan, who is a proponent of the normal accident cycle, presented. Whether a proponent of the normal accident cycle or High Reliability Organizations - we have to be diligent about our safety record. Constant vigilance is necessary to maintain our admirable safety record and commitment to Nuclear Explosive Safety.

  10. NASA safety program activities in support of the Space Exploration Initiatives Nuclear Propulsion program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sawyer, J. C., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The activities of the joint NASA/DOE/DOD Nuclear Propulsion Program Technical Panels have been used as the basis for the current development of safety policies and requirements for the Space Exploration Initiatives (SEI) Nuclear Propulsion Technology development program. The Safety Division of the NASA Office of Safety and Mission Quality has initiated efforts to develop policies for the safe use of nuclear propulsion in space through involvement in the joint agency Nuclear Safety Policy Working Group (NSPWG), encouraged expansion of the initial policy development into proposed programmatic requirements, and suggested further expansion into the overall risk assessment and risk management process for the NASA Exploration Program. Similar efforts are underway within the Department of Energy to ensure the safe development and testing of nuclear propulsion systems on Earth. This paper describes the NASA safety policy related to requirements for the design of systems that may operate where Earth re-entry is a possibility. The expected plan of action is to support and oversee activities related to the technology development of nuclear propulsion in space, and support the overall safety and risk management program being developed for the NASA Exploration Program.

  11. Independent peer review of nuclear safety computer codes

    SciTech Connect

    Boyack, B.E.; Jenks, R.P.

    1993-02-01

    A structured process of independent computer code peer review has been developed to assist the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the US Department of Energy in their nuclear safety missions. This paper focuses on the process that evolved during recent reviews of NRC codes.

  12. Government: Nuclear Safety in Doubt a Year after Accident.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ember, Lois R.

    1980-01-01

    A year after the accident at Three Mile Island (TMI), the signals transmitted to the public are still confused. Industry says that nuclear power is safe and that the aftermath of TMI ushers in a new era of safety. Antinuclear activists say TMI sounded nuclear power's death knell. (Author/RE)

  13. A Web-Based Nuclear Criticality Safety Bibliographic Database

    SciTech Connect

    Koponen, B L; Huang, S

    2007-02-22

    A bibliographic criticality safety database of over 13,000 records is available on the Internet as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Nuclear Criticality Safety Program (NCSP) website. This database is easy to access via the Internet and gets substantial daily usage. This database and other criticality safety resources are available at ncsp.llnl.gov. The web database has evolved from more than thirty years of effort at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), beginning with compilations of critical experiment reports and American Nuclear Society Transactions.

  14. A probabilistic safety analysis of incidents in nuclear research reactors.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Valdir Maciel; Agostinho Angelo Sordi, Gian Maria; Moralles, Mauricio; Filho, Tufic Madi

    2012-06-01

    This work aims to evaluate the potential risks of incidents in nuclear research reactors. For its development, two databases of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) were used: the Research Reactor Data Base (RRDB) and the Incident Report System for Research Reactor (IRSRR). For this study, the probabilistic safety analysis (PSA) was used. To obtain the result of the probability calculations for PSA, the theory and equations in the paper IAEA TECDOC-636 were used. A specific program to analyse the probabilities was developed within the main program, Scilab 5.1.1. for two distributions, Fischer and chi-square, both with the confidence level of 90 %. Using Sordi equations, the maximum admissible doses to compare with the risk limits established by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) were obtained. All results achieved with this probability analysis led to the conclusion that the incidents which occurred had radiation doses within the stochastic effects reference interval established by the ICRP-64.

  15. Make safety programs work efficiently with an effective management plan

    SciTech Connect

    Lyle, D.

    1995-07-01

    Like budgets or any other major projects, safety works better when everyone in the company commits to manage the program effectively. Let someone overspend a budget or miss a projected revenue plan and a company moves quickly to correct the problem. However, there is a tendency to ignore a manager whose department has a poor safety record, as though it`s bad luck.

  16. Aerospace nuclear safety: An introduction and historical overview

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, J.H.; Buden, D.

    1994-04-01

    This paper provides an introduction and overview on the topical area of aerospace nuclear safety. Emphasis is on the history of the use of nuclear power sources in space, operational experience with these nuclear sources, a review of previous accidents associated with both U.S. and Russian launches, and the safety issues associated with the entire life cycle of space reactors. There are several potential missions to include near earth orbit, orbit-raising, lunar bases, and propulsion to such solar system locations as Mars, which are suitable for the use of space reactors. The process by which approval is obtained to launch these nuclear materials to space is also presented as well as the role of nuclear safety policy and requirements in a space program using nuclear power sources. Important differences in safety concerns for the Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) now used, and space reactors are presented. The role and purpose of independent safety evaluation and assessment in ensuring safe launch and operation is also discussed. In summary, this paper provides the requisite framework in this topical area for the remaining papers of this session.

  17. 75 FR 1338 - Online Safety and Technology Working Group Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-11

    ... National Telecommunications and Information Administration Online Safety and Technology Working Group... and Technology Working Group (OSTWG). DATES: The meeting will be held on February 4, 2010, from 8:40 a... and technology, with an emphasis on issues relevant to the work of the subcommittees on data...

  18. Proceedings of the Nuclear Criticality Technology Safety Workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Rene G. Sanchez

    1998-04-01

    This document contains summaries of most of the papers presented at the 1995 Nuclear Criticality Technology Safety Project (NCTSP) meeting, which was held May 16 and 17 at San Diego, Ca. The meeting was broken up into seven sessions, which covered the following topics: (1) Criticality Safety of Project Sapphire; (2) Relevant Experiments For Criticality Safety; (3) Interactions with the Former Soviet Union; (4) Misapplications and Limitations of Monte Carlo Methods Directed Toward Criticality Safety Analyses; (5) Monte Carlo Vulnerabilities of Execution and Interpretation; (6) Monte Carlo Vulnerabilities of Representation; and (7) Benchmark Comparisons.

  19. New reactor technology: safety improvements in nuclear power systems.

    PubMed

    Corradini, M L

    2007-11-01

    Almost 450 nuclear power plants are currently operating throughout the world and supplying about 17% of the world's electricity. These plants perform safely, reliably, and have no free-release of byproducts to the environment. Given the current rate of growth in electricity demand and the ever growing concerns for the environment, nuclear power can only satisfy the need for electricity and other energy-intensive products if it can demonstrate (1) enhanced safety and system reliability, (2) minimal environmental impact via sustainable system designs, and (3) competitive economics. The U.S. Department of Energy with the international community has begun research on the next generation of nuclear energy systems that can be made available to the market by 2030 or earlier, and that can offer significant advances toward these challenging goals; in particular, six candidate reactor system designs have been identified. These future nuclear power systems will require advances in materials, reactor physics, as well as thermal-hydraulics to realize their full potential. However, all of these designs must demonstrate enhanced safety above and beyond current light water reactor systems if the next generation of nuclear power plants is to grow in number far beyond the current population. This paper reviews the advanced Generation-IV reactor systems and the key safety phenomena that must be considered to guarantee that enhanced safety can be assured in future nuclear reactor systems.

  20. New reactor technology: safety improvements in nuclear power systems.

    PubMed

    Corradini, M L

    2007-11-01

    Almost 450 nuclear power plants are currently operating throughout the world and supplying about 17% of the world's electricity. These plants perform safely, reliably, and have no free-release of byproducts to the environment. Given the current rate of growth in electricity demand and the ever growing concerns for the environment, nuclear power can only satisfy the need for electricity and other energy-intensive products if it can demonstrate (1) enhanced safety and system reliability, (2) minimal environmental impact via sustainable system designs, and (3) competitive economics. The U.S. Department of Energy with the international community has begun research on the next generation of nuclear energy systems that can be made available to the market by 2030 or earlier, and that can offer significant advances toward these challenging goals; in particular, six candidate reactor system designs have been identified. These future nuclear power systems will require advances in materials, reactor physics, as well as thermal-hydraulics to realize their full potential. However, all of these designs must demonstrate enhanced safety above and beyond current light water reactor systems if the next generation of nuclear power plants is to grow in number far beyond the current population. This paper reviews the advanced Generation-IV reactor systems and the key safety phenomena that must be considered to guarantee that enhanced safety can be assured in future nuclear reactor systems. PMID:18049233

  1. Nuclear Safeguards Infrastructure Development and Integration with Safety and Security

    SciTech Connect

    Kovacic, Donald N; Raffo-Caiado, Ana Claudia; McClelland-Kerr, John; Van sickle, Matthew; Bissani, Mo

    2009-01-01

    Faced with increasing global energy demands, many developing countries are considering building their first nuclear power plant. As a country embarks upon or expands its nuclear power program, it should consider how it will address the 19 issues laid out in the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) document Milestones in Development of a National Infrastructure for Nuclear Power. One of those issues specifically addresses the international nonproliferation treaties and commitments and the implementation of safeguards to prevent diversion of nuclear material from peaceful purposes to nuclear weapons. Given the many legislative, economic, financial, environmental, operational, and other considerations preoccupying their planners, it is often difficult for countries to focus on developing the core strengths needed for effective safeguards implementation. Typically, these countries either have no nuclear experience or it is limited to the operation of research reactors used for radioisotope development and scientific research. As a result, their capacity to apply safeguards and manage fuel operations for a nuclear power program is limited. This paper argues that to address the safeguards issue effectively, a holistic approach must be taken to integrate safeguards with the other IAEA issues including safety and security - sometimes referred to as the '3S' concept. Taking a holistic approach means that a country must consider safeguards within the context of its entire nuclear power program, including operations best practices, safety, and security as well as integration with its larger nonproliferation commitments. The Department of Energy/National Nuclear Security Administration's International Nuclear Safeguards and Engagement Program (INSEP) has been involved in bilateral technical cooperation programs for over 20 years to promote nonproliferation and the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. INSEP is currently spearheading efforts to promote the development of

  2. Aging of safety class 1E transformers in safety systems of nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, E.W.; Edson, J.L.; Udy, A.C.

    1996-02-01

    This report discusses aging effects on safety-related power transformers in nuclear power plants. It also evaluates maintenance, testing, and monitoring practices with respect to their effectiveness in detecting and mitigating the effects of aging. The study follows the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s (NRC`s) Nuclear Plant-Aging Research approach. It investigates the materials used in transformer construction, identifies stressors and aging mechanisms, presents operating and testing experience with aging effects, analyzes transformer failure events reported in various databases, and evaluates maintenance practices. Databases maintained by the nuclear industry were analyzed to evaluate the effects of aging on the operation of nuclear power plants.

  3. The working hours of hospital staff nurses and patient safety.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Ann E; Hwang, Wei-Ting; Scott, Linda D; Aiken, Linda H; Dinges, David F

    2004-01-01

    The use of extended work shifts and overtime has escalated as hospitals cope with a shortage of registered nurses (RNs). Little is known, however, about the prevalence of these extended work periods and their effects on patient safety. Logbooks completed by 393 hospital staff nurses revealed that participants usually worked longer than scheduled and that approximately 40 percent of the 5,317 work shifts they logged exceeded twelve hours. The risks of making an error were significantly increased when work shifts were longer than twelve hours, when nurses worked overtime, or when they worked more than forty hours per week.

  4. Guidance for identifying, reporting and tracking nuclear safety noncompliances

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    This document provides Department of Energy (DOE) contractors, subcontractors and suppliers with guidance in the effective use of DOE`s Price-Anderson nuclear safety Noncompliance Tracking System (NTS). Prompt contractor identification, reporting to DOE, and correction of nuclear safety noncompliances provides DOE with a basis to exercise enforcement discretion to mitigate civil penalties, and suspend the issuance of Notices of Violation for certain violations. Use of this reporting methodology is elective by contractors; however, this methodology is intended to reflect DOE`s philosophy on effective identification and reporting of nuclear safety noncompliances. To the extent that these expectations are met for particular noncompliances, DOE intends to appropriately exercise its enforcement discretion in considering whether, and to what extent, to undertake enforcement action.

  5. Integrated deterministic and probabilistic safety analysis for safety assessment of nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Di Maio, Francesco; Zio, Enrico; Smith, Curtis; Rychkov, Valentin

    2015-07-06

    The present special issue contains an overview of the research in the field of Integrated Deterministic and Probabilistic Safety Assessment (IDPSA) of Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). Traditionally, safety regulation for NPPs design and operation has been based on Deterministic Safety Assessment (DSA) methods to verify criteria that assure plant safety in a number of postulated Design Basis Accident (DBA) scenarios. Referring to such criteria, it is also possible to identify those plant Structures, Systems, and Components (SSCs) and activities that are most important for safety within those postulated scenarios. Then, the design, operation, and maintenance of these “safety-related” SSCs and activities are controlled through regulatory requirements and supported by Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA).

  6. Integrated deterministic and probabilistic safety analysis for safety assessment of nuclear power plants

    DOE PAGES

    Di Maio, Francesco; Zio, Enrico; Smith, Curtis; Rychkov, Valentin

    2015-07-06

    The present special issue contains an overview of the research in the field of Integrated Deterministic and Probabilistic Safety Assessment (IDPSA) of Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). Traditionally, safety regulation for NPPs design and operation has been based on Deterministic Safety Assessment (DSA) methods to verify criteria that assure plant safety in a number of postulated Design Basis Accident (DBA) scenarios. Referring to such criteria, it is also possible to identify those plant Structures, Systems, and Components (SSCs) and activities that are most important for safety within those postulated scenarios. Then, the design, operation, and maintenance of these “safety-related” SSCs andmore » activities are controlled through regulatory requirements and supported by Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA).« less

  7. Safety management of nuclear waste in Spain

    SciTech Connect

    Echavarri, L.E. )

    1991-01-01

    For the past two decades, Spain has been consolidating a nuclear program that in the last 3 years has provided between 35 and 40% of the electricity consumed in that country. This program includes nine operating reactor units, eight of them based on US technology and one from Germany, a total of 7,356 MW(electric). There is also a 480-MW(electric) French gas-cooled reactor whose operation recently ceased and which will be decommissioned in the coming years. Spanish industry has participated significantly in this program, and material produced locally has reached 85% of the total. Once the construction program has been completed and operation is proceeding normally, the capacity factor will be {approximately} 80%. It will be very important to complete the nuclear program with the establishment of conditions for safe management and disposal of the nuclear waste generated during the years in which these reactors are in operation and for subsequent decommissioning. To establish the guidelines for the disposal of nuclear waste, the Spanish government approved in october 1987, with a revision in January 1989, the General Plan of Radioactive Wastes proposed by the Ministry of Industry and Energy and prepared by the national company for radioactive waste management, ENRESA.

  8. Improved nuclear safety through international standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doctor, S. R.; Moffitt, R. L.; Taylor, T. T.; Trosman, G.

    2000-05-01

    In this shrinking world, what happens in an industry in one country can significantly affect the same industry elsewhere around the globe. In April 1986, a nuclear accident destroyed Unit 4 of Ukraine's Chernobyl nuclear power plant, focusing worldwide attention on the dozens of Soviet-designed reactors still in operation. The Chemobyl accident led to public concerns about all operating nuclear power plants and, in some countries (e.g., Italy and Sweden), to proposals for nationwide plant closures or moratoriums on new construction. However, for most former Soviet Union countries, plant shutdown was and still is not a viable option—the plants produce a significant percentage of each nation's total electricity, and those countries do not have sufficient economic resources to develop alternative power sources. In cooperation with similar programs initiated in Canada, Japan, and western European countries, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting a comprehensive effort to reduce risks at Soviet-designed nuclear power plants until they can be shut down or brought into compliance with international standards. This paper describes DOE-supported initiatives with participating host countries to: • improve reliability and accuracy of nondestructive evaluation equipment used for in-service inspection • transfer technologies and infrastructure to improve in-service inspections • enhance management systems for training and certifying host-country in-service inspection personnel The goal of these initiatives to enhance the use of international standards (ASME, ASNT, European Standards EN, and ISO) in operating and regulatory practices at Soviet-designed nuclear power plants.

  9. Nuclear Criticality Safety Organization training implementation. Revision 4

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, K.J.; Taylor, R.G.; Worley, C.A.

    1997-05-19

    The Nuclear Criticality Safety Organization (NCSO) is committed to developing and maintaining a staff of qualified personnel to meet the current and anticipated needs in Nuclear Criticality Safety (NCS) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. This document provides a listing of the roles and responsibilities of NCSO personnel with respect to training and details of the Training Management System (TMS) programs, Mentoring Checklists and Checksheets, as well as other documentation utilized to implement the program. This Training Implementation document is applicable to all technical and managerial NCSO personnel, including temporary personnel, sub-contractors and/or LMES employees on loan to the NCSO, who are in a qualification program.

  10. Extreme Storm Event Assessments for Nuclear Facilities and Dam Safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    England, J. F.; Nicholson, T. J.; Prasad, R.

    2008-12-01

    Extreme storm events over the last 35 years are being assessed to evaluate flood estimates for safety assessments of dams, nuclear power plants, and other high-hazard structures in the U.S. The current storm rainfall design standard for evaluating the flood potential at dams and non-coastal nuclear power plants is the Probable Maximum Precipitation (PMP). PMP methods and estimates are published in the National Weather Service generalized hydrometeorological reports (HMRs). A new Federal Interagency cooperative effort is reviewing hydrometeorologic data from large storms which have occurred in the last 20 to 40 years and were not included in the database used in the development of many of the HMRs. Extreme storm data, such as the January 1996 storm in Pennsylvania, June 2008 Iowa storms, and Hurricanes Andrew (1992), Floyd (1999), Isabel (2003), Katrina (2005), need to be systematically assembled and analyzed for use in these regional extreme storm studies. Storm maximization, transposition, envelopment, and depth-area duration procedures will incorporate recent advances in hydrometeorology, including radar precipitation data and stochastic storm techniques. We describe new cooperative efforts to develop a database of extreme storms and to examine the potential impacts of recent extreme storms on PMP estimates. These efforts will be coordinated with Federal agencies, universities, and the private sector through an Extreme Storm Events Work Group under the Federal Subcommittee on Hydrology. This work group is chartered to coordinate studies and develop databases for reviewing and improving methodologies and data collection techniques used to estimate design precipitation up to and including the PMP. The initial effort focuses on collecting and reviewing extreme storm event data in the Southeastern U.S. that have occurred since Tropical Storm Agnes (1972). Uncertainties and exceedance probability estimates of PMP are being explored. Potential effects of climate

  11. 78 FR 4477 - Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants, Introduction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-22

    ... COMMISSION Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants, Introduction AGENCY: Nuclear... subsection to NUREG-0800, ``Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power..., Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants:...

  12. Nuclear criticality safety staff training and qualifications at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Monahan, S.P.; McLaughlin, T.P.

    1997-05-01

    Operations involving significant quantities of fissile material have been conducted at Los Alamos National Laboratory continuously since 1943. Until the advent of the Laboratory`s Nuclear Criticality Safety Committee (NCSC) in 1957, line management had sole responsibility for controlling criticality risks. From 1957 until 1961, the NCSC was the Laboratory body which promulgated policy guidance as well as some technical guidance for specific operations. In 1961 the Laboratory created the position of Nuclear Criticality Safety Office (in addition to the NCSC). In 1980, Laboratory management moved the Criticality Safety Officer (and one other LACEF staff member who, by that time, was also working nearly full-time on criticality safety issues) into the Health Division office. Later that same year the Criticality Safety Group, H-6 (at that time) was created within H-Division, and staffed by these two individuals. The training and education of these individuals in the art of criticality safety was almost entirely self-regulated, depending heavily on technical interactions between each other, as well as NCSC, LACEF, operations, other facility, and broader criticality safety community personnel. Although the Los Alamos criticality safety group has grown both in size and formality of operations since 1980, the basic philosophy that a criticality specialist must be developed through mentoring and self motivation remains the same. Formally, this philosophy has been captured in an internal policy, document ``Conduct of Business in the Nuclear Criticality Safety Group.`` There are no short cuts or substitutes in the development of a criticality safety specialist. A person must have a self-motivated personality, excellent communications skills, a thorough understanding of the principals of neutron physics, a safety-conscious and helpful attitude, a good perspective of real risk, as well as a detailed understanding of process operations and credible upsets.

  13. Training of nuclear criticality safety engineers

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, R.G.

    1997-06-01

    The site specific analysis of nuclear criticality training needs is very briefly described. Analysis indicated that the four major components required were analysis, surveillance, business practices or administration, and emergency preparedness. The analysis component was further divided into process analysis, accident analysis, and transportation analysis. Ten subject matter areas for the process analysis component were identified as candidates for class development. Training classes developed from the job content analysis have demonstrated that the specialized information can be successfully delivered to new entrants. 1 fig.

  14. Space Nuclear Safety Program. Progress report, April 1984

    SciTech Connect

    George, T.G.

    1985-10-01

    This technical monthly report covers studies related to the use of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ in radioisotope power systems carried out for the Office of Special Nuclear Projects of the US Department of Energy by Los Alamos National Laboratory. Covered are: general-purpose heat source testing and recovery, and safety technology program (biaxial testing, iridium chemistry).

  15. MOX LTA Fuel Cycle Analyses: Nuclear and Radiation Safety

    SciTech Connect

    Pavlovitchev, A.M.

    2001-09-28

    Tasks of nuclear safety assurance for storage and transport of fresh mixed uranium-plutonium fuel of the VVER-1000 reactor are considered in the view of 3 MOX LTAs introduction into the core. The precise code MCU that realizes the Monte Carlo method is used for calculations.

  16. Proceedings of the Nuclear Criticality Technology and Safety Project Workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez, R.G.

    1994-01-01

    This report is the proceedings of the annual Nuclear Criticality Technology and Safety Project (NCTSP) Workshop held in Monterey, California, on April 16--28, 1993. The NCTSP was sponsored by the Department of Energy and organized by the Los Alamos Critical Experiments Facility. The report is divided into six sections reflecting the sessions outlined on the workshop agenda.

  17. Information Scanning and Processing at the Nuclear Safety Information Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parks, Celia; Julian, Carol

    This report is a detailed manual of the information specialist's duties at the Nuclear Safety Information Center. Information specialists scan the literature for documents to be reviewed, procure the documents (books, journal articles, reports, etc.), keep the document location records, and return the documents to the plant library or other…

  18. 42 CFR 3.204 - Privilege of patient safety work product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Privilege of patient safety work product. 3.204... PROVISIONS PATIENT SAFETY ORGANIZATIONS AND PATIENT SAFETY WORK PRODUCT Confidentiality and Privilege Protections of Patient Safety Work Product § 3.204 Privilege of patient safety work product. (a)...

  19. 42 CFR 3.204 - Privilege of patient safety work product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Privilege of patient safety work product. 3.204... PROVISIONS PATIENT SAFETY ORGANIZATIONS AND PATIENT SAFETY WORK PRODUCT Confidentiality and Privilege Protections of Patient Safety Work Product § 3.204 Privilege of patient safety work product. (a)...

  20. 42 CFR 3.204 - Privilege of patient safety work product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Privilege of patient safety work product. 3.204... PROVISIONS PATIENT SAFETY ORGANIZATIONS AND PATIENT SAFETY WORK PRODUCT Confidentiality and Privilege Protections of Patient Safety Work Product § 3.204 Privilege of patient safety work product. (a)...

  1. 42 CFR 3.204 - Privilege of patient safety work product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Privilege of patient safety work product. 3.204... PROVISIONS PATIENT SAFETY ORGANIZATIONS AND PATIENT SAFETY WORK PRODUCT Confidentiality and Privilege Protections of Patient Safety Work Product § 3.204 Privilege of patient safety work product. (a)...

  2. 42 CFR 3.204 - Privilege of patient safety work product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Privilege of patient safety work product. 3.204... PROVISIONS PATIENT SAFETY ORGANIZATIONS AND PATIENT SAFETY WORK PRODUCT Confidentiality and Privilege Protections of Patient Safety Work Product § 3.204 Privilege of patient safety work product. (a)...

  3. Perspectives of The Interagency Nuclear Safety Review Panel (INSRP) on future nuclear powered space missions

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, L.B. ); Pyatt, D.W. ); Sholtis, J.A. ); Winchester, R.O. , c/o Directorate of Nuclear Surety, Kirtland AFB, New Mexico 87117 )

    1993-01-10

    The Interagency Nuclear Safety Review Panel (INSRP) has provided reviews of all nuclear powered spacecraft launched by the United States. The two most recent launches were Ulysses in 1990 and Galileo in 1989. One reactor was launched in 1965 (SNAP-10A). All other U.S. space missions have utilized radioisotopic thermoelectric generators (RTGs). There are several missions in the next few years that are to be nuclear powered, including one that would utilize the Topaz II reactor purchased from Russia. INSRP must realign itself to perform parallel safety assessments of a reactor powered space mission, which has not been done in about thirty years, and RTG powered missions.

  4. Safety Software Guide Perspectives for the Design of New Nuclear Facilities (U)

    SciTech Connect

    VINCENT, Andrew

    2005-07-14

    software. The discussion provided herein illustrates benefits of applying the Safety Software Guide to work activities dependent on software applications and directed toward the design of new nuclear facilities. In particular, the Guide-based systematic approach with software enables design processes to effectively proceed and reduce the likelihood of rework activities. Several application examples are provided for the new facility.

  5. Assuring nuclear plant safety before and after license renewal

    SciTech Connect

    Berto, D.S. )

    1992-01-01

    It is important in establishing a plant license renewal program that the specific goals of the program be identified at the very start. A detailed program can then be developed to focus on the stated goals, and efforts not related to accomplishing these specific goals can be excluded from the program. The goal of establishing and performing a license renewal evaluation is, of course, to obtain a renewed operating license from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This goal is tied directly to the closely related goal of assuring plant safety during the license renewal term. The goal of assuring plant safety (without unnecessary costs) is the focus of the discussion in this paper. Assuring plant safety during the license renewal term is directly coupled with assuring plant safety during the current license term.

  6. HFE safety reviews of advanced nuclear power plant control rooms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ohara, John

    1994-01-01

    Advanced control rooms (ACR's) will utilize human-system interface (HSI) technologies that may have significant implications for plant safety in that they will affect the operator's overall role and means of interacting with the system. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) reviews the human factors engineering (HFE) aspects of HSI's to ensure that they are designed to good HFE principles and support performance and reliability in order to protect public health and safety. However, the only available NRC guidance was developed more than ten years ago, and does not adequately address the human performance issues and technology changes associated with ACR's. Accordingly, a new approach to ACR safety reviews was developed based upon the concept of 'convergent validity'. This approach to ACR safety reviews is described.

  7. Proceedings of the nuclear criticality technology safety project

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez, R.G.

    1997-06-01

    This document contains summaries of the most of the papers presented at the 1994 Nuclear Criticality Technology Safety Project (NCTSP) meeting, which was held May 10 and 11 at Williamsburg, Va. The meeting was broken up into seven sessions, which covered the following topics: (1) Validation and Application of Calculations; (2) Relevant Experiments for Criticality Safety; (3) Experimental Facilities and Capabilities; (4) Rad-Waste and Weapons Disassembly; (5) Criticality Safety Software and Development; (6) Criticality Safety Studies at Universities; and (7) Training. The minutes and list of participants of the Critical Experiment Needs Identification Workgroup meeting, which was held on May 9 at the same venue, has been included as an appendix. A second appendix contains the names and addresses of all NCTSP meeting participants. Separate abstracts have been indexed to the database for contributions to this proceedings.

  8. Software reliability and safety in nuclear reactor protection systems

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence, J.D.

    1993-11-01

    Planning the development, use and regulation of computer systems in nuclear reactor protection systems in such a way as to enhance reliability and safety is a complex issue. This report is one of a series of reports from the Computer Safety and Reliability Group, Lawrence Livermore that investigates different aspects of computer software in reactor National Laboratory, that investigates different aspects of computer software in reactor protection systems. There are two central themes in the report, First, software considerations cannot be fully understood in isolation from computer hardware and application considerations. Second, the process of engineering reliability and safety into a computer system requires activities to be carried out throughout the software life cycle. The report discusses the many activities that can be carried out during the software life cycle to improve the safety and reliability of the resulting product. The viewpoint is primarily that of the assessor, or auditor.

  9. Current state of nuclear fuel cycles in nuclear engineering and trends in their development according to the environmental safety requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vislov, I. S.; Pischulin, V. P.; Kladiev, S. N.; Slobodyan, S. M.

    2016-08-01

    The state and trends in the development of nuclear fuel cycles in nuclear engineering, taking into account the ecological aspects of using nuclear power plants, are considered. An analysis of advantages and disadvantages of nuclear engineering, compared with thermal engineering based on organic fuel types, was carried out. Spent nuclear fuel (SNF) reprocessing is an important task in the nuclear industry, since fuel unloaded from modern reactors of any type contains a large amount of radioactive elements that are harmful to the environment. On the other hand, the newly generated isotopes of uranium and plutonium should be reused to fabricate new nuclear fuel. The spent nuclear fuel also includes other types of fission products. Conditions for SNF handling are determined by ecological and economic factors. When choosing a certain handling method, one should assess these factors at all stages of its implementation. There are two main methods of SNF handling: open nuclear fuel cycle, with spent nuclear fuel assemblies (NFAs) that are held in storage facilities with their consequent disposal, and closed nuclear fuel cycle, with separation of uranium and plutonium, their purification from fission products, and use for producing new fuel batches. The development of effective closed fuel cycles using mixed uranium-plutonium fuel can provide a successful development of the nuclear industry only under the conditions of implementation of novel effective technological treatment processes that meet strict requirements of environmental safety and reliability of process equipment being applied. The diversity of technological processes is determined by different types of NFA devices and construction materials being used, as well as by the composition that depends on nuclear fuel components and operational conditions for assemblies in the nuclear power reactor. This work provides an overview of technological processes of SNF treatment and methods of handling of nuclear fuel

  10. Summary of ORNL work on NRC-sponsored HTGR safety research, July 1974-September 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Ball, S.J.; Cleveland, J.C.; Conklin, J.C.; Delene, J.G.; Harrington, R.M.; Hatta, M.; Hedrick, R.A.; Johnson, L.G.; Sanders, J.P.

    1982-03-01

    A summary is presented of the major accomplishments of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) research program on High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) safety. This report is intended to help the nuclear Regulatory Commission establish goals for future research by comparing the status of the work here (as well as at other laboratories) with the perceived safety needs of the large HTGR. The ORNL program includes extensive work on dynamics-related safety code development, use of codes for studying postulated accident sequences, and use of experimental data for code verification. Cooperative efforts with other programs are also described. Suggestions for near-term and long-term research are presented.

  11. General-purpose heat source project and space nuclear safety fuels program. Progress report, February 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Maraman, W.J.

    1980-05-01

    This formal monthly report covers the studies related to the use of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ in radioisotopic power systems carried out for the Advanced Nuclear Systems and Projects Division of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. The two programs involved are: General-Purpose Heat Source Development and Space Nuclear Safety and Fuels. Most of the studies discussed here are of a continuing nature. Results and conclusions described may change as the work continues. Published reference to the results cited in this report should not be made without the explicit permission of the person in charge of the work.

  12. Reevaluating nuclear safety and security in a post 9/11 era.

    SciTech Connect

    Booker, Paul M.; Brown, Lisa M.

    2005-07-01

    This report has the following topics: (1) Changing perspectives on nuclear safety and security; (2) Evolving needs in a post-9/11 era; (3) Nuclear Weapons--An attractive terrorist target; (4) The case for increased safety; (5) Evolution of current nuclear weapons safety and security; (6) Integrated surety; (7) The role of safety and security in enabling responsiveness; (8) Advances in surety technologies; and (9) Reevaluating safety.

  13. Safety assessment of a robotic system handling nuclear material

    SciTech Connect

    Atcitty, C.B.; Robinson, D.G.

    1996-02-01

    This paper outlines the use of a Failure Modes and Effects Analysis for the safety assessment of a robotic system being developed at Sandia National Laboratories. The robotic system, The Weigh and Leak Check System, is to replace a manual process at the Department of Energy facility at Pantex by which nuclear material is inspected for weight and leakage. Failure Modes and Effects Analyses were completed for the robotics process to ensure that safety goals for the system had been meet. These analyses showed that the risks to people and the internal and external environment were acceptable.

  14. ORNL Nuclear Safety Research and Development Program Bimonthly Report for July-August 1968

    SciTech Connect

    Cottrell, W.B.

    2001-08-17

    The accomplishments during the months of July and August in the research and development program under way at ORNL as part of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission's Nuclear Safety Program are summarized, Included in this report are work on various chemical reactions, as well as the release, characterization, and transport of fission products in containment systems under various accident conditions and on problems associated with the removal of these fission products from gas streams. Although most of this work is in general support of water-cooled power reactor technology, including LOFT and CSE programs, the work reflects the current safety problems, such as measurements of the prompt fuel element failure phenomena and the efficacy of containment spray and pool-suppression systems for fission-product removal. Several projects are also conducted in support of the high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR). Other major projects include fuel-transport safety investigations, a series of discussion papers on various aspects of water-reactor technology, antiseismic design of nuclear facilities, and studies of primary piping and steel, pressure-vessel technology. Experimental work relative to pressure-vessel technology includes investigations of the attachment of nozzles to shells and the implementation of joint AEX-PVFX programs on heavy-section steel technology and nuclear piping, pumps, and valves. Several of the projects are directly related to another major undertaking; namely, the AEC's standards program, which entails development of engineering safeguards and the establishment of codes and standards for government-owned or -sponsored reactor facilities. Another task, CHORD-S, is concerned with the establishment of computer programs for the evaluation of reactor design data, The recent activities of the NSIC and the Nuclear Safety journal in behalf of the nuclear community are also discussed.

  15. 78 FR 12042 - Public Availability of Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board FY 2011 Service Contract Inventory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEFENSE NUCLEAR FACILITIES SAFETY BOARD Public Availability of Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board FY 2011 Service Contract Inventory Analysis/FY 2012 Service Contract Inventory AGENCY: Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board...

  16. History of US nuclear weapon safety assessment: The early years

    SciTech Connect

    Spray, S.D.

    1996-06-01

    From the beginnings of the U.S. nuclear weapons program, military and civilian dual- agency judgment has been fundamental to achieving nuclear weapon and weapon system safety. This interaction was initiated by the Atomic Energy Act of 1946, which created the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC). The principle of using dual-agency judgment has been perpetuated in the design and assessment of the weapon and weapon system acceptance process since that time. This fundamental approach is still used today in all phases of the weapon life. In this paper, an overview of the history and philosophy of the approach is described.

  17. Nuclear Forensics: Report of the AAAS/APS Working Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tannenbaum, Benn

    2008-04-01

    This report was produced by a Working Group of the American Physical Society's Program on Public Affairs in conjunction with the American Association for the Advancement of Science Center for Science, Technology and Security Policy. The primary purpose of this report is to provide the Congress, U.S. government agencies and other institutions involved in nuclear forensics with a clear unclassified statement of the state of the art of nuclear forensics; an assessment of its potential for preventing and identifying unattributed nuclear attacks; and identification of the policies, resources and human talent to fulfill that potential. In the course of its work, the Working Group observed that nuclear forensics was an essential part of the overall nuclear attribution process, which aims at identifying the origin of unidentified nuclear weapon material and, in the event, an unidentified nuclear explosion. A credible nuclear attribution capability and in particular nuclear forensics capability could deter essential participants in the chain of actors needed to smuggle nuclear weapon material or carry out a nuclear terrorist act and could also encourage states to better secure such materials and weapons. The Working Group also noted that nuclear forensics result would take some time to obtain and that neither internal coordination, nor international arrangements, nor the state of qualified personnel and needed equipment were currently enough to minimize the time needed to reach reliable results in an emergency such as would be caused by a nuclear detonation or the intercept of a weapon-size quantity of material. The Working Group assesses international cooperation to be crucial for forensics to work, since the material would likely come from inadequately documented foreign sources. In addition, international participation, if properly managed, could enhance the credibility of the deterrent effect of attribution. Finally the Working Group notes that the U.S. forensics

  18. A comparison of commercial/industry and nuclear weapons safety concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, R.R.; Summers, D.A.

    1996-07-01

    In this paper the authors identify factors which influence the safety philosophy used in the US commercial/industrial sector and compare them against those factors which influence nuclear weapons safety. Commercial/industrial safety is guided by private and public safety standards. Generally, private safety standards tend to emphasize product reliability issues while public (i.e., government) safety standards tend to emphasize human factors issues. Safety in the nuclear weapons arena is driven by federal requirements and memoranda of understanding (MOUs) between the Departments of Defense and Energy. Safety is achieved through passive design features integrated into the nuclear weapon. Though the common strand between commercial/industrial and nuclear weapons safety is the minimization of risk posed to the general population (i.e., public safety), the authors found that each sector tends to employ a different safety approach to view and resolve high-consequence safety issues.

  19. Agricultural work safety efforts by Wisconsin extension agricultural agents.

    PubMed

    Chapman, L J; Schuler, R T; Skjolaas, C A; Wilkinson, T L

    1995-01-01

    This study investigated the agricultural work-related safety and health programming of county-level cooperative extension agents who work through land grant universities to provide a range of educational programs to agricultural producers. A questionnaire was designed and administered to all 89 Wisconsin agriculture and agribusiness extension county faculty. The questionnaire obtained valid responses from 98.9 percent of the agents. Ninety percent of all agents conducted some occupational safety and health promotion programming in the last year. These activities occupied an average of 4.8 days per agent per year. Most of the reported activities were group programs for the agricultural labor force that involved other extension agents and included the use of videotapes. The greatest barrier to more programming was lack of time on the part of both the agricultural work force and the agents. Most extension agents placed greater emphasis on training in how to work safely around hazards than on how to recognize and permanently correct hazards. For future programs agents requested more short format materials to use in programming, such as fact sheets, videotapes, and farm hazard inspection checklists. Agents are important training delivery resources for controlling farm-related injury and disease. Agents could be more effective with more time, better materials, and with more emphasis on hazard correction in workplace safety programs.

  20. Nuclear Safety: Technical progress review, January-March 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Silver, E.G.

    1987-01-01

    For the Western nuclear community the Chernobyl tragedy is indeed a special issue which presents a whole series of somewhat contradictory aspects, many of them distressing but some of them offering opportunities and new departures. The fact that Chernobyl happened in the USSR lessens its direct impact on our nuclear programs because the reactor design, safety philosophy, and operating practices are so divergent from ours, but this fact broadens immensely the range of reactor parameters and types about which we now have severe accident information. There appears to be very positive international political effects involving greater openness and willingness to share information by the Soviet Union and new international safety initiatives by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The adverse health and economic impacts will affect the Russian population for a long time, but the opportunities for studies on effects of low-level radiation are also tremendous.

  1. Chemical Safety Vulnerability Working Group report. Volume 3

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    The Chemical Safety Vulnerability (CSV) Working Group was established to identify adverse conditions involving hazardous chemicals at DOE facilities that might result in fires or explosions, release of hazardous chemicals to the environment, or exposure of workers or the public to chemicals. A CSV Review was conducted in 148 facilities at 29 sites. Eight generic vulnerabilities were documented related to: abandoned chemicals and chemical residuals; past chemical spills and ground releases; characterization of legacy chemicals and wastes; disposition of legacy chemicals; storage facilities and conditions; condition of facilities and support systems; unanalyzed and unaddressed hazards; and inventory control and tracking. Weaknesses in five programmatic areas were also identified related to: management commitment and planning; chemical safety management programs; aging facilities that continue to operate; nonoperating facilities awaiting deactivation; and resource allocations. Volume 3 consists of eleven appendices containing the following: Field verification reports for Idaho National Engineering Lab., Rocky Flats Plant, Brookhaven National Lab., Los Alamos National Lab., and Sandia National Laboratories (NM); Mini-visits to small DOE sites; Working Group meeting, June 7--8, 1994; Commendable practices; Related chemical safety initiatives at DOE; Regulatory framework and industry initiatives related to chemical safety; and Chemical inventory data from field self-evaluation reports.

  2. Double-clad nuclear-fuel safety rod

    DOEpatents

    McCarthy, W.H.; Atcheson, D.B.

    1981-12-30

    A device for shutting down a nuclear reactor during an undercooling or overpower event, whether or not the reactor's scram system operates properly. This is accomplished by double-clad fuel safety rods positioned at various locations throughout the reactor core, wherein melting of a secondary internal cladding of the rod allows the fuel column therein to shift from the reactor core to place the reactor in a subcritical condition.

  3. Space Nuclear Safety Program. Progress report, November 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Bronisz, S.E.

    1984-06-01

    This technical monthly report covers studies related to the use of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ in radioisotope power systems carried out for the Office of Special Nuclear Projects of the US Department of Energy by Los Alamos National Laboratory. Topics discussed include: safety-verification impact tests; explosion test; fragment test; leaking fueled clads; effects of fresh water and seawater or PuO/sub 2/ pellets; and impact tests of 5 watt radioisotope thermoelectric generator.

  4. Pacific Northwest Laboratory: Annual report for 1986 to the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety and Health: Part 5, Nuclear and operational safety

    SciTech Connect

    Faust, L.G.; Kennedy, W.E.; Steelman, B.L.; Selby, J.M.

    1987-02-01

    Part 5 of the 1986 Annual Report to the Department of Energy's Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety and Health presents Pacific Northwest Laboratory's progress on work performed for the Office of Nuclear Safety, the Office of Operational Safety, and for the Office of Environmental Analysis. For each project, as identified by the Field Task Proposal/Agreement, articles describe progress made during fiscal year 1986. Authors of these articles represent a broad spectrum of capabilities derived from three of the seven research departments of the Laboratory, reflecting the interdisciplinary nature of the work.

  5. Worldwide advanced nuclear power reactors with passive and inherent safety: What, why, how, and who

    SciTech Connect

    Forsberg, C.W.; Reich, W.J.

    1991-09-01

    The political controversy over nuclear power, the accidents at Three Mile Island (TMI) and Chernobyl, international competition, concerns about the carbon dioxide greenhouse effect and technical breakthroughs have resulted in a segment of the nuclear industry examining power reactor concepts with PRIME safety characteristics. PRIME is an acronym for Passive safety, Resilience, Inherent safety, Malevolence resistance, and Extended time after initiation of an accident for external help. The basic ideal of PRIME is to develop power reactors in which operator error, internal sabotage, or external assault do not cause a significant release of radioactivity to the environment. Several PRIME reactor concepts are being considered. In each case, an existing, proven power reactor technology is combined with radical innovations in selected plant components and in the safety philosophy. The Process Inherent Ultimate Safety (PIUS) reactor is a modified pressurized-water reactor, the Modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (MHTGR) is a modified gas-cooled reactor, and the Advanced CANDU Project is a modified heavy-water reactor. In addition to the reactor concepts, there is parallel work on super containments. The objective is the development of a passive box'' that can contain radioactivity in the event of any type of accident. This report briefly examines: why a segment of the nuclear power community is taking this new direction, how it differs from earlier directions, and what technical options are being considered. A more detailed description of which countries and reactor vendors have undertaken activities follows. 41 refs.

  6. Work Done For the Safety and Assurance Directorate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Struhar, Paul T., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    The Safety and Assurance Directorate (SAAD) has a vision. The vision is to be an essential part of NASA Glenn's journey to excellence. SAAD is in charge of leading safety, security, and quality and is important to our customers. When it comes to programmatic and technical decision making and implementation, SAAD provides clear safety, reliability, maintainable, quality assurance and security. I worked on a couple different things during my internship with Sandra Hardy. I did a lot of logistics for meeting and trips. I helped run the budget for the SAAD directorate. I also worked with Rich Miller for one week and we took water samples and ran tests. We also calibrated the different equipment. There is a lot more to meetings than people see. I did one for a retirement party. I had to get work orders and set up the facilities where the event is going to take place. I also set up a trip to Plum Brook Station. I had to order vans and talk with the people up there to see when a good time was. I also had to make invitations and coordinate everything. I also help Sandy run the numbers in the budget. We use excel to do this, which makes it a lot easier. things. He is in the environmental safety office. I learned how to collaborate the equipment using alpha and beta sources. I went out with him and we took water samples and tested them for conductivity and chlorine. I have learned a lot in the short time I've been here. It has been a great experience and I have has the pleasure of meeting and working with great people.

  7. Just in Time DSA the Hanford Nuclear Safety Basis Strategy

    SciTech Connect

    JACKSON, M.W.

    2002-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL) is responsible for 30 hazard category 2 and 3 nuclear facilities that are operated by its prime contractors, Fluor Hanford, Incorporated (FHI), Bechtel Hanford, Incorporated (BHI) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The publication of Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 830, Subpart B, Safely Basis Requirements (the Rule) in January 2001 requires that the Documented Safety Analyses (DSA) for these facilities be reviewed against the requirements of the Rule. Those DSAs that do not meet the requirements must either be upgraded to satisfy the Rule, or an exemption must be obtained. RL and its prime contractors have developed a Nuclear Safety Strategy that provides a comprehensive approach for supporting RL's efforts to meet its long-term objectives for hazard category 2 and 3 facilities while also meeting the requirements of the Rule. This approach will result in a reduction of the total number of safety basis documents that must be developed and maintained to support the remaining mission and closure of the Hanford Site and ensure that the documentation that must be developed will support: Compliance with the Rule; A ''Just-In-Time'' approach to development of Rule-compliant safety bases supported by temporary exemptions; and Consolidation of safety basis documents that support multiple facilities with a common mission (e.g. decontamination, decommissioning and demolition [DD&D], waste management, surveillance and maintenance). This strategy provides a clear path to transition the safety bases for the various Hanford facilities from support of operation and stabilization missions through DD&D to accelerate closure. This ''Just-In-Time'' Strategy can also be tailored for other DOE Sites, creating the potential for large cost savings and schedule reductions throughout the DOE complex.

  8. International Technical Working Group Cooperation to Counter Illicit Nuclear Trafficking

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D K; Niemeyer, S

    2004-09-18

    The Nuclear Smuggling International Technical Working Group (ITWG) is an international body of nuclear forensic experts that cooperate to deter the illicit trafficking of nuclear materials. The objective of the ITWG is to provide a common approach and effective technical solutions to governments who request assistance in nuclear forensics. The ITWG was chartered in 1996 and since that time more than 28 nations and organizations have participated in 9 international meetings and 2 analytical round-robin trials. Soon after its founding the ITWG adopted a general framework to guide nuclear forensics investigations that includes recommendations for nuclear crime scene security and analysis, the best application of radioanalytical methods, the conduct of traditional forensic analysis of contaminated materials, and effective data analysis to interpret the history of seized nuclear materials. This approach has been adopted by many nations as they respond to incidents of illicit nuclear trafficking.

  9. US support for nuclear energy safety and cooperation in the Pacific Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Selin, I.

    1994-12-31

    Nuclear power plays an important role in the energy and economic development of Pacific Rim countries. Concurrent with the construction of commercial nuclear power plants, there is a vital need to develop strong nuclear safety infrastructures in all countries choosing to use nuclear energy for electricity production. One of the most important elements in developing a viable nuclear program is a nuclear safety culture, rigorously applied to nuclear plant siting, design, construction, operation and management. International cooperation provides an important mechanism for raising the level of nuclear safety worldwide. The NRC has recently increased its international efforts in the nuclear safety area, with particular emphasis on Central and Eastern Europe and the New Independent States of the former Soviet Union. The NRC will continue, and is prepared to expand, its cooperation with counterpart organizations in Pacific Rim countries to help establish and nurture a safety culture that will respond to the dynamic process of nuclear energy development over the next few years.

  10. Integration of Nevada Test Site (NTS) Work Control Programs and Incorporating Integrated Safety Management (ISM) into Activity Level Work Planning and Control

    SciTech Connect

    Mike Kinney and Kevin Breen

    2008-08-30

    This session will examine a method developed by Federal and Contractor personnel at the Nevada Site Office (NSO) to improve the planning and execution of work activities utilizing an Activity Level Work Control process in response to Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) Recommendation 2004-1, Oversight of Complex, High-Hazard Nuclear Operations. The process was initially developed during Fiscal Year (FY) 2007, and implementation is commencing during the fourth quarter of FY 2008. This process will significantly enhance the flexibility and the appropriate rigor in the performance of work activities.

  11. Radiation safety audit of a high volume Nuclear Medicine Department

    PubMed Central

    Jha, Ashish Kumar; Singh, Abhijith Mohan; Shetye, Bhakti; Shah, Sneha; Agrawal, Archi; Purandare, Nilendu Chandrakant; Monteiro, Priya; Rangarajan, Venkatesh

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Professional radiation exposure cannot be avoided in nuclear medicine practices. It can only be minimized up to some extent by implementing good work practices. Aim and Objectives: The aim of our study was to audit the professional radiation exposure and exposure rate of radiation worker working in and around Department of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging, Tata Memorial Hospital. Materials and Methods: We calculated the total number of nuclear medicine and positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) procedures performed in our department and the radiation exposure to the radiation professionals from year 2009 to 2012. Results: We performed an average of 6478 PET/CT scans and 3856 nuclear medicine scans/year from January 2009 to December 2012. The average annual whole body radiation exposure to nuclear medicine physician, technologist and nursing staff are 1.74 mSv, 2.93 mSv and 4.03 mSv respectively. Conclusion: Efficient management and deployment of personnel is of utmost importance to optimize radiation exposure in a high volume nuclear medicine setup in order to work without anxiety of high radiation exposure. PMID:25400361

  12. Safety implications of cultural and cognitive issues in nuclear power plant operation.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Paulo V R; Dos Santos, Isaac L; Vidal, Mario C R

    2006-03-01

    This research project was designed to investigate cultural and cognitive issues related to the work of nuclear power plant operators during their time on the job in the control room and during simulator training (emergency situations), in order to show how these issues impact on plant safety. The modeling of the operators work deals with the use of operational procedures, the constant changes in the focus of attention and the dynamics of the conflicting activities. The paper focuses on the relationships between the courses of action of the different operators and the constraints imposed by their working environment. It shows that the safety implications of the control room operators' cognitive and cultural issues go far beyond the formal organizational constructs usually implied. Our findings indicate that the competence required for the operators are concerned with developing the possibility of constructing situation awareness, managing conflicts, gaps and time problems created by ongoing task procedures, and dealing with distractions, developing skills for collaborative work.

  13. 42 CFR 3.210 - Required disclosure of patient safety work product to the Secretary.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Required disclosure of patient safety work product... HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS PATIENT SAFETY ORGANIZATIONS AND PATIENT SAFETY WORK PRODUCT Confidentiality and Privilege Protections of Patient Safety Work Product § 3.210 Required disclosure of...

  14. 42 CFR 3.210 - Required disclosure of patient safety work product to the Secretary.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Required disclosure of patient safety work product... HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS PATIENT SAFETY ORGANIZATIONS AND PATIENT SAFETY WORK PRODUCT Confidentiality and Privilege Protections of Patient Safety Work Product § 3.210 Required disclosure of...

  15. 42 CFR 3.210 - Required disclosure of patient safety work product to the Secretary.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Required disclosure of patient safety work product... HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS PATIENT SAFETY ORGANIZATIONS AND PATIENT SAFETY WORK PRODUCT Confidentiality and Privilege Protections of Patient Safety Work Product § 3.210 Required disclosure of...

  16. 42 CFR 3.210 - Required disclosure of patient safety work product to the Secretary.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Required disclosure of patient safety work product... HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS PATIENT SAFETY ORGANIZATIONS AND PATIENT SAFETY WORK PRODUCT Confidentiality and Privilege Protections of Patient Safety Work Product § 3.210 Required disclosure of...

  17. 42 CFR 3.210 - Required disclosure of patient safety work product to the Secretary.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Required disclosure of patient safety work product... HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS PATIENT SAFETY ORGANIZATIONS AND PATIENT SAFETY WORK PRODUCT Confidentiality and Privilege Protections of Patient Safety Work Product § 3.210 Required disclosure of...

  18. PRELIMINARY NUCLEAR CRITICALITY NUCLEAR SAFETY EVLAUATION FOR THE CONTAINER SURVEILLANCE AND STORAGE CAPABILITY PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Low, M; Matthew02 Miller, M; Thomas Reilly, T

    2007-04-30

    Washington Safety Management Solutions (WSMS) provides criticality safety services to Washington Savannah River Company (WSRC) at the Savannah River Site. One activity at SRS is the Container Surveillance and Storage Capability (CSSC) Project, which will perform surveillances on 3013 containers (hereafter referred to as 3013s) to verify that they meet the Department of Energy (DOE) Standard (STD) 3013 for plutonium storage. The project will handle quantities of material that are greater than ANS/ANSI-8.1 single parameter mass limits, and thus required a Nuclear Criticality Safety Evaluation (NCSE). The WSMS methodology for conducting an NCSE is outlined in the WSMS methods manual. The WSMS methods manual currently follows the requirements of DOE-O-420.1B, DOE-STD-3007-2007, and the Washington Savannah River Company (WSRC) SCD-3 manual. DOE-STD-3007-2007 describes how a NCSE should be performed, while DOE-O-420.1B outlines the requirements for a Criticality Safety Program (CSP). The WSRC SCD-3 manual implements DOE requirements and ANS standards. NCSEs do not address the Nuclear Criticality Safety (NCS) of non-reactor nuclear facilities that may be affected by overt or covert activities of sabotage, espionage, terrorism or other security malevolence. Events which are beyond the Design Basis Accidents (DBAs) are outside the scope of a double contingency analysis.

  19. Chemical Safety Vulnerability Working Group report. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    The Chemical Safety Vulnerability (CSV) Working Group was established to identify adverse conditions involving hazardous chemicals at DOE facilities that might result in fires or explosions, release of hazardous chemicals to the environment, or exposure of workers or the public to chemicals. A CSV Review was conducted in 148 facilities at 29 sites. Eight generic vulnerabilities were documented related to: abandoned chemicals and chemical residuals; past chemical spills and ground releases; characterization of legacy chemicals and wastes; disposition of legacy chemicals; storage facilities and conditions; condition of facilities and support systems; unanalyzed and unaddressed hazards; and inventory control and tracking. Weaknesses in five programmatic areas were also identified related to: management commitment and planning; chemical safety management programs; aging facilities that continue to operate; nonoperating facilities awaiting deactivation; and resource allocations. Volume 1 contains the Executive summary; Introduction; Summary of vulnerabilities; Management systems weaknesses; Commendable practices; Summary of management response plan; Conclusions; and a Glossary of chemical terms.

  20. Working together to ensure safety at hydro projects

    SciTech Connect

    Bartel, J.W. )

    1993-05-01

    Providing for public safety around a hydroelectric facility can be critically important to the welfare of a hydro-power producer. With this in mind, Wisconsin Electric Power Company and Wisconsin Public Service Corporation have worked together to develop consistent safety signage and several for their hydro projects. Although the two utilities sometimes compete for electric customers, they cooperate to ensure the safety to those customers. Both WE and WPS took steps in 1986 to make their operations safer through involvement in the Wisconsin/Michigan Hydro User Group. The organization has 25 members-primarily of electric utilities and paper companies-who operate hydro facilities in the two states. The two areas that the HUG studied in public safety were signs and warning systems. HUG established a sign committee to study how to increase safety of people around hydro plants through signs, explained Ted Handrick, hydro plant superintendent at WPS. The committee's recommendations led to development of a statewide uniform sign system adopted by all HUG members. The committee used Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources' guidelines for warning signs and portages in developing the signage standards. HUG members are converting to these new sign standards as they replace old signs and/or install new signs. Notices describing the new signage system have been placed near each hydro plant, at boat landings, and in campgrounds. The signs are mounted well above ground level so they can be seen and easily read by recreationalists. Warning systems, in accordance with HUG warning standards, were installed at WE and WPS hydro facilities. These systems alert nearby recreational users of rapid increases in water flow when generating units are turned on or when spillway gates are opened. Soon after the authors installed equipment to remotely operate its hydro facilities, the utility experienced a dramatic increase increase in intrusion on dams and other structures at the projects.

  1. Worker Safety and Health and Nuclear Safety Quarterly Performance Analysis (January - March 2008)

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, C E

    2009-10-07

    The DOE Office of Enforcement expects LLNL to 'implement comprehensive management and independent assessments that are effective in identifying deficiencies and broader problems in safety and security programs, as well as opportunities for continuous improvement within the organization' and to 'regularly perform assessments to evaluate implementation of the contractor's processes for screening and internal reporting.' LLNL has a self-assessment program, described in ES&H Manual Document 4.1, that includes line, management and independent assessments. LLNL also has in place a process to identify and report deficiencies of nuclear, worker safety and health and security requirements. In addition, the DOE Office of Enforcement expects LLNL to evaluate 'issues management databases to identify adverse trends, dominant problem areas, and potential repetitive events or conditions' (page 14, DOE Enforcement Process Overview, December 2007). LLNL requires that all worker safety and health and nuclear safety noncompliances be tracked as 'deficiencies' in the LLNL Issues Tracking System (ITS). Data from the ITS are analyzed for worker safety and health (WSH) and nuclear safety noncompliances that may meet the threshold for reporting to the DOE Noncompliance Tracking System (NTS). This report meets the expectations defined by the DOE Office of Enforcement to review the assessments conducted by LLNL, analyze the issues and noncompliances found in these assessments, and evaluate the data in the ITS database to identify adverse trends, dominant problem areas, and potential repetitive events or conditions. The report attempts to answer three questions: (1) Is LLNL evaluating its programs and state of compliance? (2) What is LLNL finding? (3) Is LLNL appropriately managing what it finds? The analysis in this report focuses on data from the first quarter of 2008 (January through March). This quarter is analyzed within the context of information identified in previous quarters to

  2. 77 FR 1748 - Atomic Safety and Licensing Board; Calvert Cliffs 3 Nuclear Project, LLC, and UniStar Nuclear...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-11

    ... Meetings/Hearings, 66 FR 31,719 (June 12, 2001) [hereinafter Meeting Security Guidelines]. All individuals... COMMISSION Atomic Safety and Licensing Board; Calvert Cliffs 3 Nuclear Project, LLC, and UniStar Nuclear... Calvert Cliffs 3 Nuclear Project, L.L.C., and UniStar Nuclear Operating Services, L.L.C. (Applicants)...

  3. Foundational development of an advanced nuclear reactor integrated safety code.

    SciTech Connect

    Clarno, Kevin; Lorber, Alfred Abraham; Pryor, Richard J.; Spotz, William F.; Schmidt, Rodney Cannon; Belcourt, Kenneth; Hooper, Russell Warren; Humphries, Larry LaRon

    2010-02-01

    This report describes the activities and results of a Sandia LDRD project whose objective was to develop and demonstrate foundational aspects of a next-generation nuclear reactor safety code that leverages advanced computational technology. The project scope was directed towards the systems-level modeling and simulation of an advanced, sodium cooled fast reactor, but the approach developed has a more general applicability. The major accomplishments of the LDRD are centered around the following two activities. (1) The development and testing of LIME, a Lightweight Integrating Multi-physics Environment for coupling codes that is designed to enable both 'legacy' and 'new' physics codes to be combined and strongly coupled using advanced nonlinear solution methods. (2) The development and initial demonstration of BRISC, a prototype next-generation nuclear reactor integrated safety code. BRISC leverages LIME to tightly couple the physics models in several different codes (written in a variety of languages) into one integrated package for simulating accident scenarios in a liquid sodium cooled 'burner' nuclear reactor. Other activities and accomplishments of the LDRD include (a) further development, application and demonstration of the 'non-linear elimination' strategy to enable physics codes that do not provide residuals to be incorporated into LIME, (b) significant extensions of the RIO CFD code capabilities, (c) complex 3D solid modeling and meshing of major fast reactor components and regions, and (d) an approach for multi-physics coupling across non-conformal mesh interfaces.

  4. NESST: A nuclear energy safety and security treaty-Separating nuclear energy from nuclear weapons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNamara, Brendan

    2012-06-01

    Fission and Fusion energy is matched by the need to completely separate civilian energy programmes from the production of nuclear weapons. The Nuclear Proliferation Treaty (NPT, 1968) muddles these issues together. The case is presented here for making a new Nuclear Energy Security Treaty (NESST) which is rigorous, enforceable without violence, and separate from the political quagmire of nuclear weapons.

  5. Working Party on International Nuclear Data Evaluation Cooperation (WPEC)

    SciTech Connect

    Dupont, E.; Herman, M.; Dupont, E.; Chadwick, M. B.; Danon, Y.; De Saint Jean, C.; Dunn, M.; Fischer, U.; Forrest, R. A.; Fukahori, T.; Ge, Z.; Harada, H.; Herman, M.; Igashira, M.; Ignatyuk, A.; Ishikawa, M.; Iwamoto, O.; Jacqmin, R.; Kahler, A. C.; Kawano, T.; Koning, A. J.; Leal, L.; Lee, Y. O.; McKnight, R.; McNabb, D.; Mills, R. W.; Palmiotti, G.; Plompen, A.; Salvatores, M.; Schillebeeckx, P.

    2014-06-01

    The OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) organizes cooperation between the major nuclear data evaluation projects in the world. Moreover, the NEA Working Party on International Nuclear Data Evaluation Cooperation (WPEC) was established to promote the exchange of information on nuclear data evaluation, measurement, nuclear model calculation, validation, and related topics, and to provide a framework for cooperative activities between the participating projects. The working party assesses nuclear data improvement needs and addresses these needs by initiating joint activities in the framework of dedicated WPEC subgroups. Studies recently completed comprise a number of works related to nuclear data covariance and associated processing issues, as well as more specific studies related to the resonance parameter representation in the unresolved resonance region, the gamma production from fission product capture reactions, the 235U capture cross section, the EXFOR database, and the improvement of nuclear data for advanced reactor systems. Ongoing activities focus on the evaluation of 239Pu in the resonance region, scattering angular distribution in the fast energy range, and reporting/usage of experimental data for evaluation in the resolved resonance region. New activities include two subgroups on improved fission product yield evaluation methodologies and on modern nuclear database structures. Some future activities under discussion include a pilot project for a Collaborative International Evaluated Library Organization (CIELO) and methods to provide feedback from nuclear and covariance data adjustment for improvement of nuclear data. In addition to the above mentioned short-term task-oriented subgroups, WPEC also hosts a longer-term subgroup charged with reviewing and compiling the most important nuclear data requirements in a high priority request list (HPRL).

  6. Working Party on International Nuclear Data Evaluation Cooperation (WPEC)

    SciTech Connect

    Giuseppe Palmiotti

    2014-06-01

    The OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) is organizing the cooperation between the major nuclear data evaluation projects in the world. The NEA Working Party on International Nuclear Data Evaluation Cooperation (WPEC) was established to promote the exchange of information on nuclear data evaluation, measurement, nuclear model calculation, validation, and related topics, and to provide a framework for cooperative activities between the participating projects. The working party assesses nuclear data improvement needs and addresses these needs by initiating joint activities in the framework of dedicated WPEC subgroups. Studies recently completed comprise a number of works related to nuclear data covariance and associated processing issues, as well as more specific studies related to the resonance parameter representation in the unresolved resonance region, the gamma production from fission-product capture reactions, the U-235 capture cross-section, the EXFOR database, and the improvement of nuclear data for advanced reactor systems. Ongoing activities focus on the evaluation of Pu-239 in the resonance region, scattering angular distribution in the fast energy range, and reporting/usage of experimental data for evaluation in the resolved resonance region. New activities include two new subgroups on improved fission product yield evaluation methodologies and on modern nuclear database structures. Future activities under discussion include a pilot project of a Collaborative International Evaluated Library (CIELO) and methods to provide feedback from nuclear and covariance data adjustment for improvement of nuclear data. In addition to the above mentioned short-term, task-oriented subgroups, the WPEC also hosts a longer-term subgroup charged with reviewing and compiling the most important nuclear data requirements in a high priority request list (HPRL).

  7. Price-Anderson Nuclear Safety Enforcement Program. 1997 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-01-01

    This report summarizes activities in the Department of Energy's Price-Anderson Amendments Act (PAAA) Enforcement Program in calendar year 1997 and highlights improvements planned for 1998. The DOE Enforcement Program involves the Office of Enforcement and Investigation in the DOE Headquarters Office of Environment, Safety and Health, as well as numerous PAAA Coordinators and technical advisors in DOE Field and Program Offices. The DOE Enforcement Program issued 13 Notices of Violation (NOV`s) in 1997 for cases involving significant or potentially significant nuclear safety violations. Six of these included civil penalties totaling $440,000. Highlights of these actions include: (1) Brookhaven National Laboratory Radiological Control Violations / Associated Universities, Inc.; (2) Bioassay Program Violations at Mound / EG and G, Inc.; (3) Savannah River Crane Operator Uptake / Westinghouse Savannah River Company; (4) Waste Calciner Worker Uptake / Lockheed-Martin Idaho Technologies Company; and (5) Reactor Scram and Records Destruction at Sandia / Sandia Corporation (Lockheed-Martin).

  8. Surveys of organizational culture and safety culture in nuclear power

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Walter S.

    2000-07-30

    The results of a survey of organizational culture at a nuclear power plant are summarized and compared with those of a similar survey which has been described in the literature on ''high-reliability organizations''. A general-purpose cultural inventory showed a profile of organizational style similar to that reported in the literature; the factor structure for the styles was also similar to that of the plant previously described. A specialized scale designed to measure ''safety culture'' did not distinguished among groups within the organization that would be expected to differ.

  9. Nuclear reactor safety research since three mile island.

    PubMed

    Mynatt, F R

    1982-04-01

    The Three Mile Island nuclear power plant accident has resulted in redirection of reactor safety research priorities. The small release to the environment of radioactive iodine-13 to 17 curies in a total radioactivity release of 2.4 million to 13 million curies-has led to a new emphasis on the physical chemistry of fission product behavior in accidents; the fact that the nuclear core was severely damaged but did not melt down has opened a new accident regime-that of the degraded core; the role of the operators in the progression and severity of the accident has shifted emphasis from equipment reliability to human reliability. As research progresses in these areas, the technical base for regulation and risk analysis will change substantially. PMID:17736229

  10. Space nuclear safety program. Progress report, September 1984

    SciTech Connect

    George, T.G.

    1986-02-01

    This technical monthly report covers studies related to the use of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ in radioisotope power systems conducted for the Office of Special Nuclear Projects of the US Department of Energy by Los Alamos National Laboratory. Most of the studies discussed are ongoing; the results and conclusions described may change as the work progresses. 15 figs.

  11. Space nuclear safety program. Progress report, August 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Bronisz, S.E.

    1984-01-01

    This technical monthly report covers studies related to the use of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ in radioisotope power systems carried out for the Office of Special Nuclear Projects of the US Department of Energy by Los Alamos National Laboratory. Most of the studies discussed here are ongoing. Results and conclusions described may change as the work continues.

  12. Space nuclear safety program. Progress report, October-December 1984

    SciTech Connect

    George, T.G.

    1986-05-01

    This quarterly report covers studies related to the use of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ in radioisotope power systems carried out for the Office of Special Nuclear Projects of the US Department of Energy by Los Alamos National Laboratory. Most of the studies discussed are ongoing; the results and conclusions described may change as the work progresses.

  13. Space Nuclear Safety Program: Progress report, January-March 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Lewin, R.; George, T.G.

    1988-07-01

    This quarterly report describes studies related to the use of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ in radioisotope power systems, which were carried out for the Office of Special Nuclear Projects of the US Department of Energy by Los Alamos National Laboratory. Most of the studies discussed are ongoing; the results and conclusions described may change as the work progresses.

  14. Space nuclear safety program. Progress report, January 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Bronisz, S.E.

    1984-07-01

    This technical monthly report covers studies related to the use of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ in radioisotope power systems carried out for the Office of Special Nuclear Projects of the US Department of Energy by Los Alamos National Laboratory. Most of the studies discussed here are ongoing. Results and conclusions described may change as the work continues.

  15. Space nuclear safety program: Progress report, July--September 1987

    SciTech Connect

    George, T.G.

    1989-02-01

    This quarterly report describes studies related to the use of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ in radioisotope power systems, carried out for the Office of Special Nuclear Projects of the US Department of Energy by Los Alamos National Laboratory. The studies discussed are ongoing; the results and conclusions described may change as the work progresses. 20 figs., 4 tabs.

  16. Manned remote work station - Safety and rescue considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nathan, C. A.

    1979-01-01

    It is noted that due to restrictions of payload and volume limitations of current and projected launch systems, space construction of ultralarge space structures is essential. The present paper discusses the concepts of a key piece of construction equipment needed to support assembly of such large structures. Attention is given to the manned remote work station (MRWS), a universal crew cabin to be used as a construction cherry picker, space crane turret, work station on a construction base rail system, or a free flyer. Concepts and safety and rescue requirements for this spacecraft are delineated for early applications in support of Shuttle operations, as well as applications in support of a mid to late 1980's space construction base. Finally, applications in support of constructing and maintaining a solar power satellite system are covered.

  17. Renovated Korean nuclear safety and security system: A review and suggestions to successful settlement

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, W. S.; Yun, S. W.; Lee, D. S.; Go, D. Y.

    2012-07-01

    Questions of whether past nuclear regulatory body of Korea is not a proper system to monitor and check the country's nuclear energy policy and utilization have been raised. Moreover, a feeling of insecurity regarding nuclear safety after the nuclear accident in Japan has spread across the public. This has stimulated a renovation of the nuclear safety regime in Korea. The Nuclear Safety and Security Commission (NSSC) was launched on October 26, 2011 as a regulatory body directly under the President in charge of strengthening independence and nuclear safety. This was a meaningful event as the NSSC it is a much more independent regulatory system for Korea. However, the NSSC itself does not guarantee an enhanced public acceptance of the nuclear policy and stable use nuclear energy. This study introduces the new NSSC system and its details in terms of organization structure, appropriateness of specialty, budget stability, and management system. (authors)

  18. 49 CFR 229.103 - Safe working pressure; factor of safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Safety Requirements Steam Generators § 229.103 Safe working pressure; factor of safety. The safe working pressure for each steam generator shall be fixed by the chief mechanical officer of the carrier. The minimum factor of safety...

  19. 49 CFR 229.103 - Safe working pressure; factor of safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Safety Requirements Steam Generators § 229.103 Safe working pressure; factor of safety. The safe working pressure for each steam generator shall be fixed by the chief mechanical officer of the carrier. The minimum factor of safety...

  20. 49 CFR 229.103 - Safe working pressure; factor of safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Safety Requirements Steam Generators § 229.103 Safe working pressure; factor of safety. The safe working pressure for each steam generator shall be fixed by the chief mechanical officer of the carrier. The minimum factor of safety...

  1. Robotic and nuclear safety for an automated/teleoperated glove box system

    SciTech Connect

    Domning, E.E. ); McMahon, T.T.; Sievers, R.H. )

    1991-09-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is developing a fully automated system to handle the processing of special nuclear materials (SNM). This work is performed in response to the new goals at the Department of Energy (DOE) for hazardous waste minimization and radiation dose reduction. This fully automated system, called the automated test bed (ATB), consists of an IBM gantry robot and automated processing equipment sealed within a glove box. While the ATB is a cold system, we are designing it as a prototype of the future hot system. We recognized that identification and application of safety requirements early in the design phase will lead to timely installation and approval of the hot system. This paper identifies these safety issues as well as the general safety requirements necessary for the safe operation of the ATB. 4 refs., 2 figs.

  2. Engineering thinking in emergency situations: A new nuclear safety concept.

    PubMed

    Guarnieri, Franck; Travadel, Sébastien

    2014-11-01

    The lessons learned from the Fukushima Daiichi accident have focused on preventive measures designed to protect nuclear reactors, and crisis management plans. Although there is still no end in sight to the accident that occurred on March 11, 2011, how engineers have handled the aftermath offers new insight into the capacity of organizations to adapt in situations that far exceed the scope of safety standards based on probabilistic risk assessment and on the comprehensive identification of disaster scenarios. Ongoing crises in which conventional resources are lacking, but societal expectations are high, call for "engineering thinking in emergency situations." This is a new concept that emphasizes adaptability and resilience within organizations-such as the ability to create temporary new organizational structures; to quickly switch from a normal state to an innovative mode; and to integrate a social dimension into engineering activities. In the future, nuclear safety oversight authorities should assess the ability of plant operators to create and implement effective engineering strategies on the fly, and should require that operators demonstrate the capability for resilience in the aftermath of an accident.

  3. Development of Safety Assessment Code for Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimada, Taro; Ohshima, Soichiro; Sukegawa, Takenori

    A safety assessment code, DecDose, for decommissioning of nuclear facilities has been developed, based on the experiences of the decommissioning project of Japan Power Demonstration Reactor (JPDR) at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (currently JAEA). DecDose evaluates the annual exposure dose of the public and workers according to the progress of decommissioning, and also evaluates the public dose at accidental situations including fire and explosion. As for the public, both the internal and the external doses are calculated by considering inhalation, ingestion, direct radiation from radioactive aerosols and radioactive depositions, and skyshine radiation from waste containers. For external dose for workers, the dose rate from contaminated components and structures to be dismantled is calculated. Internal dose for workers is calculated by considering dismantling conditions, e.g. cutting speed, cutting length of the components and exhaust velocity. Estimation models for dose rate and staying time were verified by comparison with the actual external dose of workers which were acquired during JPDR decommissioning project. DecDose code is expected to contribute the safety assessment for decommissioning of nuclear facilities.

  4. Engineering thinking in emergency situations: A new nuclear safety concept

    PubMed Central

    Guarnieri, Franck; Travadel, Sébastien

    2014-01-01

    The lessons learned from the Fukushima Daiichi accident have focused on preventive measures designed to protect nuclear reactors, and crisis management plans. Although there is still no end in sight to the accident that occurred on March 11, 2011, how engineers have handled the aftermath offers new insight into the capacity of organizations to adapt in situations that far exceed the scope of safety standards based on probabilistic risk assessment and on the comprehensive identification of disaster scenarios. Ongoing crises in which conventional resources are lacking, but societal expectations are high, call for “engineering thinking in emergency situations.” This is a new concept that emphasizes adaptability and resilience within organizations—such as the ability to create temporary new organizational structures; to quickly switch from a normal state to an innovative mode; and to integrate a social dimension into engineering activities. In the future, nuclear safety oversight authorities should assess the ability of plant operators to create and implement effective engineering strategies on the fly, and should require that operators demonstrate the capability for resilience in the aftermath of an accident. PMID:25419015

  5. Engineering thinking in emergency situations: A new nuclear safety concept.

    PubMed

    Guarnieri, Franck; Travadel, Sébastien

    2014-11-01

    The lessons learned from the Fukushima Daiichi accident have focused on preventive measures designed to protect nuclear reactors, and crisis management plans. Although there is still no end in sight to the accident that occurred on March 11, 2011, how engineers have handled the aftermath offers new insight into the capacity of organizations to adapt in situations that far exceed the scope of safety standards based on probabilistic risk assessment and on the comprehensive identification of disaster scenarios. Ongoing crises in which conventional resources are lacking, but societal expectations are high, call for "engineering thinking in emergency situations." This is a new concept that emphasizes adaptability and resilience within organizations-such as the ability to create temporary new organizational structures; to quickly switch from a normal state to an innovative mode; and to integrate a social dimension into engineering activities. In the future, nuclear safety oversight authorities should assess the ability of plant operators to create and implement effective engineering strategies on the fly, and should require that operators demonstrate the capability for resilience in the aftermath of an accident. PMID:25419015

  6. Impact of Fuel Failure on Criticality Safety of Used Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, William BJ J; Wagner, John C

    2012-01-01

    Commercial used nuclear fuel (UNF) in the United States is expected to remain in storage for considerably longer periods than originally intended (e.g., <40 years). Extended storage (ES) time and irradiation of nuclear fuel to high-burnup values (>45 GWd/t) may increase the potential for fuel failure during normal and accident conditions involving storage and transportation. Fuel failure, depending on the severity, can result in changes to the geometric configuration of the fuel, which has safety and regulatory implications. The likelihood and extent of fuel reconfiguration and its impact on the safety of the UNF is not well understood. The objective of this work is to assess and quantify the impact of fuel reconfiguration due to fuel failure on criticality safety of UNF in storage and transportation casks. This effort is primarily motivated by concerns related to the potential for fuel degradation during ES periods and transportation following ES. The criticality analyses consider representative UNF designs and cask systems and a range of fuel enrichments, burnups, and cooling times. The various failed-fuel configurations considered are designed to bound the anticipated effects of individual rod and general cladding failure, fuel rod deformation, loss of neutron absorber materials, degradation of canister internals, and gross assembly failure. The results quantify the potential impact on criticality safety associated with fuel reconfiguration and may be used to guide future research, design, and regulatory activities. Although it can be concluded that the criticality safety impacts of fuel reconfiguration during transportation subsequent to ES are manageable, the results indicate that certain configurations can result in a large increase in the effective neutron multiplication factor, k{sub eff}. Future work to inform decision making relative to which configurations are credible, and therefore need to be considered in a safety evaluation, is recommended.

  7. 49 CFR 229.103 - Safe working pressure; factor of safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Generators § 229.103 Safe working pressure; factor of safety. The safe working pressure for each steam generator shall be fixed by the chief mechanical officer of the carrier. The minimum factor of safety...

  8. 49 CFR 229.103 - Safe working pressure; factor of safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Generators § 229.103 Safe working pressure; factor of safety. The safe working pressure for each steam generator shall be fixed by the chief mechanical officer of the carrier. The minimum factor of safety...

  9. Proceedings of the 1984 DOE nuclear reactor and facility safety conference. Volume II

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    This report is a collection of papers on reactor safety. The report takes the form of proceedings from the 1984 DOE Nuclear Reactor and Facility Safety Conference, Volume II of two. These proceedings cover Safety, Accidents, Training, Task/Job Analysis, Robotics and the Engineering Aspects of Man/Safety interfaces.

  10. Integration of the advanced transparency framework to advanced nuclear systems : enhancing Safety, Operations, Security and Safeguards (SOSS).

    SciTech Connect

    Mendez, Carmen Margarita; Rochau, Gary Eugene; Cleary, Virginia D.

    2008-08-01

    The advent of the nuclear renaissance gives rise to a concern for the effective design of nuclear fuel cycle systems that are safe, secure, nonproliferating and cost-effective. We propose to integrate the monitoring of the four major factors of nuclear facilities by focusing on the interactions between Safeguards, Operations, Security, and Safety (SOSS). We proposed to develop a framework that monitors process information continuously and can demonstrate the ability to enhance safety, operations, security, and safeguards by measuring and reducing relevant SOSS risks, thus ensuring the safe and legitimate use of the nuclear fuel cycle facility. A real-time comparison between expected and observed operations provides the foundation for the calculation of SOSS risk. The automation of new nuclear facilities requiring minimal manual operation provides an opportunity to utilize the abundance of process information for monitoring SOSS risk. A framework that monitors process information continuously can lead to greater transparency of nuclear fuel cycle activities and can demonstrate the ability to enhance the safety, operations, security and safeguards associated with the functioning of the nuclear fuel cycle facility. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has developed a risk algorithm for safeguards and is in the process of demonstrating the ability to monitor operational signals in real-time though a cooperative research project with the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA). The risk algorithms for safety, operations and security are under development. The next stage of this work will be to integrate the four algorithms into a single framework.

  11. Safety and Nuclear Power Sources for Space Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segalas, Corinne C.; Schmidt, George R.

    2010-09-01

    Nuclear power sources have been used in space applications for decades. They have been used extensively for electrical power production, and their future potential for propulsion has been recognized since the dawn of the spaceflight era. Nuclear power sources offer many advantages in terms of long duration operation and high power densities independent of distance and orientation with respect to the Sun. However, it is also broadly known that use of radioactive materials do carry more risk that must be addressed to ensure safe operation during all phases of the mission, particularly before and during launch into orbit. Almost all of the nuclear-powered missions to date have been flown by the United States and former Soviet Union, but other space-faring nations have recognized its importance for their future missions. Consequently, many in the space community have advocated the development of a broad set of principles that could be applied on an international basis. This paper examines the current guidelines by the major space-faring nations, and suggests a framework primarily based on the U.S. methodology for ensuring reduction of risk, mitigating environmental impact and promoting launch safety.

  12. Chemical Safety Vulnerability Working Group report. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    The Chemical Safety Vulnerability (CSV) Working Group was established to identify adverse conditions involving hazardous chemicals at DOE facilities that might result in fires or explosions, release of hazardous chemicals to the environment, or exposure of workers or the public to chemicals. A CSV Review was conducted in 148 facilities at 29 sites. Eight generic vulnerabilities were documented related to: abandoned chemicals and chemical residuals; past chemical spills and ground releases; characterization of legacy chemicals and wastes; disposition of legacy chemicals; storage facilities and conditions; condition of facilities and support systems; unanalyzed and unaddressed hazards; and inventory control and tracking. Weaknesses in five programmatic areas were also identified related to: management commitment and planning; chemical safety management programs; aging facilities that continue to operate; nonoperating facilities awaiting deactivation; and resource allocations. Volume 2 consists of seven appendices containing the following: Tasking memorandums; Project plan for the CSV Review; Field verification guide for the CSV Review; Field verification report, Lawrence Livermore National Lab.; Field verification report, Oak Ridge Reservation; Field verification report, Savannah River Site; and the Field verification report, Hanford Site.

  13. Nuclear instrumentation, process instrumentation and control, and engineered safety features. Volume nine

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    Volume nine covers nuclear instrumentation (detection of nuclear radiation, gas-filled detectors, measuring neutron population, BWR/PWR nuclear instrumentation), process instrumentation and control (what is process instrumentation, pressure detectors and transducers, temperature detectors and transducers, level detectors and transducers, flow detectors and transducers, mechanical position detectors and transducers, what are the major processes controlled, BWR and PWR process instrumentation and control), engineered safety features (why are engineered safety features provided, the design basis accident, engineered safety feature operation, PWR engineered safety feature systems, BWR engineered safety feature systems).

  14. 23 CFR 630.1006 - Work zone safety and mobility policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Work zone safety and mobility policy. 630.1006 Section 630.1006 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS PRECONSTRUCTION PROCEDURES Work Zone Safety and Mobility § 630.1006 Work zone safety and...

  15. Estimation of Inherent Safety Margins in Loaded Commercial Spent Nuclear Fuel Casks

    DOE PAGES

    Banerjee, Kaushik; Robb, Kevin R.; Radulescu, Georgeta; Scaglione, John M.

    2016-06-15

    We completed a novel assessment to determine the unquantified and uncredited safety margins (i.e., the difference between the licensing basis and as-loaded calculations) available in as-loaded spent nuclear fuel (SNF) casks. This assessment was performed as part of a broader effort to assess issues and uncertainties related to the continued safety of casks during extended storage and transportability following extended storage periods. Detailed analyses crediting the actual as-loaded cask inventory were performed for each of the casks at three decommissioned pressurized water reactor (PWR) sites to determine their characteristics relative to regulatory safety criteria for criticality, thermal, and shielding performance.more » These detailed analyses were performed in an automated fashion by employing a comprehensive and integrated data and analysis tool—Used Nuclear Fuel-Storage, Transportation & Disposal Analysis Resource and Data System (UNF-ST&DARDS). Calculated uncredited criticality margins from 0.07 to almost 0.30 Δkeff were observed; calculated decay heat margins ranged from 4 to almost 22 kW (as of 2014); and significant uncredited transportation dose rate margins were also observed. The results demonstrate that, at least for the casks analyzed here, significant uncredited safety margins are available that could potentially be used to compensate for SNF assembly and canister structural performance related uncertainties associated with long-term storage and subsequent transportation. The results also suggest that these inherent margins associated with how casks are loaded could support future changes in cask licensing to directly or indirectly credit the margins. Work continues to quantify the uncredited safety margins in the SNF casks loaded at other nuclear reactor sites.« less

  16. 10 CFR 73.58 - Safety/security interface requirements for nuclear power reactors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Safety/security interface requirements for nuclear power reactors. 73.58 Section 73.58 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF... requirements for nuclear power reactors. (a) Each operating nuclear power reactor licensee with a...

  17. 10 CFR 73.58 - Safety/security interface requirements for nuclear power reactors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Safety/security interface requirements for nuclear power reactors. 73.58 Section 73.58 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF... requirements for nuclear power reactors. (a) Each operating nuclear power reactor licensee with a...

  18. 10 CFR 73.58 - Safety/security interface requirements for nuclear power reactors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Safety/security interface requirements for nuclear power reactors. 73.58 Section 73.58 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF... requirements for nuclear power reactors. (a) Each operating nuclear power reactor licensee with a...

  19. 10 CFR 73.58 - Safety/security interface requirements for nuclear power reactors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Safety/security interface requirements for nuclear power reactors. 73.58 Section 73.58 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF... requirements for nuclear power reactors. (a) Each operating nuclear power reactor licensee with a...

  20. 10 CFR 73.58 - Safety/security interface requirements for nuclear power reactors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Safety/security interface requirements for nuclear power reactors. 73.58 Section 73.58 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF... requirements for nuclear power reactors. (a) Each operating nuclear power reactor licensee with a...

  1. Fuzzy-logic-based safety verification framework for nuclear power plants.

    PubMed

    Rastogi, Achint; Gabbar, Hossam A

    2013-06-01

    This article presents a practical implementation of a safety verification framework for nuclear power plants (NPPs) based on fuzzy logic where hazard scenarios are identified in view of safety and control limits in different plant process values. Risk is estimated quantitatively and compared with safety limits in real time so that safety verification can be achieved. Fuzzy logic is used to define safety rules that map hazard condition with required safety protection in view of risk estimate. Case studies are analyzed from NPP to realize the proposed real-time safety verification framework. An automated system is developed to demonstrate the safety limit for different hazard scenarios.

  2. Patient Safety Culture in Nephrology Nurse Practice Settings: Results by Primary Work Unit, Organizational Work Setting, and Primary Role.

    PubMed

    Ulrich, Beth; Kear, Tamara

    2015-01-01

    Patient safety culture is critical to the achievement of patient safety. In 2014, a landmark national study was conducted to investigate patient safety culture in nephrology nurse practice settings. In this secondary analysis of data from that study, we report the status of patient safety culture by primary work unit (chronic hemodialysis unit, acute hemodialysis unit, peritoneal dialysis unit) and organizational work setting (for-profit organization, not-for-profit organization), and compare the perceptions of direct care nurses and managers/administrators on components of patient safety culture.

  3. Training and qualification program for nuclear criticality safety technical staff

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, R.G.; Worley, C.A.

    1996-10-22

    A training and qualification program for nuclear criticality safety technical staff personnel has been developed and implemented. The program is compliant with requirements and provides evidence that a systematic approach has been taken to indoctrinate new technical staff. Development involved task analysis to determine activities where training was necessary and the standard which must be attained to qualify. Structured mentoring is used where experienced personnel interact with candidates using checksheets to guide candidates through various steps and to provide evidence that steps have been accomplished. Credit can be taken for the previous experience of personnel by means of evaluation boards which can credit or modify checksheet steps. Considering just the wealth of business practice and site specific information a new person at a facility needs to assimilate, the program has been effective in indoctrinating new technical staff personnel and integrating them into a productive role. The program includes continuing training.

  4. Development of a Method for Quantifying the Reliability of Nuclear Safety-Related Software

    SciTech Connect

    Yi Zhang; Michael W. Golay

    2003-10-01

    The work of our project is intended to help introducing digital technologies into nuclear power into nuclear power plant safety related software applications. In our project we utilize a combination of modern software engineering methods: design process discipline and feedback, formal methods, automated computer aided software engineering tools, automatic code generation, and extensive feasible structure flow path testing to improve software quality. The tactics include ensuring that the software structure is kept simple, permitting routine testing during design development, permitting extensive finished product testing in the input data space of most likely service and using test-based Bayesian updating to estimate the probability that a random software input will encounter an error upon execution. From the results obtained the software reliability can be both improved and its value estimated. Hopefully our success in the project's work can aid the transition of the nuclear enterprise into the modern information world. In our work, we have been using the proprietary sample software, the digital Signal Validation Algorithm (SVA), provided by Westinghouse. Also our work is being done with their collaboration. The SVA software is used for selecting the plant instrumentation signal set which is to be used as the input the digital Plant Protection System (PPS). This is the system that automatically decides whether to trip the reactor. In our work, we are using -001 computer assisted software engineering (CASE) tool of Hamilton Technologies Inc. This tool is capable of stating the syntactic structure of a program reflecting its state requirements, logical functions and data structure.

  5. Reviewing real-time performance of nuclear reactor safety systems

    SciTech Connect

    Preckshot, G.G.

    1993-08-01

    The purpose of this paper is to recommend regulatory guidance for reviewers examining real-time performance of computer-based safety systems used in nuclear power plants. Three areas of guidance are covered in this report. The first area covers how to determine if, when, and what prototypes should be required of developers to make a convincing demonstration that specific problems have been solved or that performance goals have been met. The second area has recommendations for timing analyses that will prove that the real-time system will meet its safety-imposed deadlines. The third area has description of means for assessing expected or actual real-time performance before, during, and after development is completed. To ensure that the delivered real-time software product meets performance goals, the paper recommends certain types of code-execution and communications scheduling. Technical background is provided in the appendix on methods of timing analysis, scheduling real-time computations, prototyping, real-time software development approaches, modeling and measurement, and real-time operating systems.

  6. Nuclear Safety Analysis for the Mars Exploration Rover 2003 Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firstenberg, Henry; Rutger, Lyle L.; Mukunda, Meera; Bartram, Bart W.

    2004-02-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Mars Exploration Rover (MER) 2003 project is designed to place two mobile laboratories (Rovers) on Mars to remotely characterize a diversity of rocks and soils. Milestones accomplished so far include two successful launches of identical spacecraft (the MER-A and MER-B missions) from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Florida on June 10 and July 7, 2003. Each Rover uses eight Light Weight Radioisotope Heater Units (LWRHUs) fueled with plutonium-238 dioxide to provide local heating of Rover components. The LWRHUs are provided by the U.S. Department of Energy. In addition, small quantities of radioactive materials in sealed sources are used in scientific instrumentation on the Rover. Due to the radioactive nature of these materials and the potential for accidents, a formal Launch Approval Process requires the preparation of a Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) for submittal to and independent review by an Interagency Nuclear Safety Review Panel. This paper presents a summary of the FSAR in terms of potential accident scenarios, probabilities, source terms, radiological consequences, mission risks, and uncertainties in the reported results.

  7. Enforcement handbook: Enforcement of DOE nuclear safety requirements

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    This Handbook provides detailed guidance and procedures to implement the General Statement of DOE Enforcement Policy (Enforcement Policy or Policy). A copy of this Enforcement Policy is included for ready reference in Appendix D. The guidance provided in this Handbook is qualified, however, by the admonishment to exercise discretion in determining the proper disposition of each potential enforcement action. As discussed in subsequent chapters, the Enforcement and Investigation Staff will apply a number of factors in assessing each potential enforcement situation. Enforcement sanctions are imposed in accordance with the Enforcement Policy for the purpose of promoting public and worker health and safety in the performance of activities at DOE facilities by DOE contractors (and their subcontractors and suppliers) who are indemnified under the Price-Anderson Amendments Act. These indemnified contractors, and their suppliers and subcontractors, will be referred to in this Handbook collectively as DOE contractors. It should be remembered that the purpose of the Department`s enforcement policy is to improve nuclear safety for the workers and the public, and this goal should be the prime consideration in exercising enforcement discretion.

  8. Risk-Informed Safety Margin Characterization Methods Development Work

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Curtis L; Ma, Zhegang; Tom Riley; Mandelli, Diego; Nielsen, Joseph W; Alfonsi, Andrea; Rabiti, Cristian

    2014-09-01

    This report summarizes the research activity developed during the Fiscal year 2014 within the Risk Informed Safety Margin and Characterization (RISMC) pathway within the Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) campaign. This research activity is complementary to the one presented in the INL/EXT-??? report which shows advances Probabilistic Risk Assessment Analysis using RAVEN and RELAP-7 in conjunction to novel flooding simulation tools. Here we present several analyses that prove the values of the RISMC approach in order to assess risk associated to nuclear power plants (NPPs). We focus on simulation based PRA which, in contrast to classical PRA, heavily employs system simulator codes. Firstly we compare, these two types of analyses, classical and RISMC, for a Boiling water reactor (BWR) station black out (SBO) initiating event. Secondly we present an extended BWR SBO analysis using RAVEN and RELAP-5 which address the comments and suggestions received about he original analysis presented in INL/EXT-???. This time we focus more on the stochastic analysis such probability of core damage and on the determination of the most risk-relevant factors. We also show some preliminary results regarding the comparison between RELAP5-3D and the new code RELAP-7 for a simplified Pressurized Water Reactors system. Lastly we present some conceptual ideas regarding the possibility to extended the RISMC capabilities from an off-line tool (i.e., as PRA analysis tool) to an online-tool. In this new configuration, RISMC capabilities can be used to assist and inform reactor operator during real accident scenarios.

  9. Taking ownership of safety. What are the active ingredients of safety coaching and how do they impact safety outcomes in critical offshore working environments?

    PubMed

    Krauesslar, Victoria; Avery, Rachel E; Passmore, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Safety coaching interventions have become a common feature in the safety critical offshore working environments of the North Sea. Whilst the beneficial impact of coaching as an organizational tool has been evidenced, there remains a question specifically over the use of safety coaching and its impact on behavioural change and producing safe working practices. A series of 24 semi-structured interviews were conducted with three groups of experts in the offshore industry: safety coaches, offshore managers and HSE directors. Using a thematic analysis approach, several significant themes were identified across the three expert groups including connecting with and creating safety ownership in the individual, personal significance and humanisation, ingraining safety and assessing and measuring a safety coach's competence. Results suggest clear utility of safety coaching when applied by safety coaches with appropriate coach training and understanding of safety issues in an offshore environment. The current work has found that the use of safety coaching in the safety critical offshore oil and gas industry is a powerful tool in managing and promoting a culture of safety and care. PMID:26327261

  10. Taking ownership of safety. What are the active ingredients of safety coaching and how do they impact safety outcomes in critical offshore working environments?

    PubMed

    Krauesslar, Victoria; Avery, Rachel E; Passmore, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Safety coaching interventions have become a common feature in the safety critical offshore working environments of the North Sea. Whilst the beneficial impact of coaching as an organizational tool has been evidenced, there remains a question specifically over the use of safety coaching and its impact on behavioural change and producing safe working practices. A series of 24 semi-structured interviews were conducted with three groups of experts in the offshore industry: safety coaches, offshore managers and HSE directors. Using a thematic analysis approach, several significant themes were identified across the three expert groups including connecting with and creating safety ownership in the individual, personal significance and humanisation, ingraining safety and assessing and measuring a safety coach's competence. Results suggest clear utility of safety coaching when applied by safety coaches with appropriate coach training and understanding of safety issues in an offshore environment. The current work has found that the use of safety coaching in the safety critical offshore oil and gas industry is a powerful tool in managing and promoting a culture of safety and care.

  11. Determining a cost/effectiveness/safety tradeoff methodology for strategic nuclear warheads

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, S.A. Jr.; Hall, C.H.

    1992-04-27

    Department of Energy national laboratories are charged with anticipating with a long leadtime which technologies for nuclear warheads should be developed. The Safe Warhead System Study was constituted to provide Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory management with information and suggestions for making such decisions for enhanced safety warheads. The Minuteman III replacement warheads were analyzed as a test case and that information was used to identify and describe the dominant issues, to develop a methodology and to make initial recommendations. The test case work resulted in several insights into how ongoing design and engineering interacts with the technology ranking and on how to cope with the ubiquitous uncertainties relating to our current ICBM force.

  12. The development of regulatory expectations for computer-based safety systems for the UK nuclear programme

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, P. J.; Westwood, R.N; Mark, R. T.; Tapping, K.

    2006-07-01

    The Nuclear Installations Inspectorate (NII) of the UK's Health and Safety Executive (HSE) has completed a review of their Safety Assessment Principles (SAPs) for Nuclear Installations recently. During the period of the SAPs review in 2004-2005 the designers of future UK naval reactor plant were optioneering the control and protection systems that might be implemented. Because there was insufficient regulatory guidance available in the naval sector to support this activity the Defence Nuclear Safety Regulator (DNSR) invited the NII to collaborate with the production of a guidance document that provides clarity of regulatory expectations for the production of safety cases for computer based safety systems. A key part of producing regulatory expectations was identifying the relevant extant standards and sector guidance that reflect good practice. The three principal sources of such good practice were: IAEA Safety Guide NS-G-1.1 (Software for Computer Based Systems Important to Safety in Nuclear Power Plants), European Commission consensus document (Common Position of European Nuclear Regulators for the Licensing of Safety Critical Software for Nuclear Reactors) and IEC nuclear sector standards such as IEC60880. A common understanding has been achieved between the NII and DNSR and regulatory guidance developed which will be used by both NII and DNSR in the assessment of computer-based safety systems and in the further development of more detailed joint technical assessment guidance for both regulatory organisations. (authors)

  13. 77 FR 50727 - Configuration Management Plans for Digital Computer Software Used in Safety Systems of Nuclear...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-22

    ... COMMISSION Configuration Management Plans for Digital Computer Software Used in Safety Systems of Nuclear... draft regulatory guide (DG), DG-1206, ``Configuration Management Plan for Digital Computer Software Used... Digital Computer Software Used in Safety Systems of Nuclear Power Plants'' is temporarily identified...

  14. 78 FR 47012 - Developing Software Life Cycle Processes Used in Safety Systems of Nuclear Power Plants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-02

    ... COMMISSION Developing Software Life Cycle Processes Used in Safety Systems of Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY... Software Life Cycle Processes for Digital Computer Software used in Safety Systems of Nuclear Power Plants..., ``IEEE Standard for Developing a Software Project Life Cycle Process,'' issued 2006, with...

  15. 33 CFR 165.115 - Safety and Security Zones; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Plant, Plymouth, Massachusetts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Safety and Security Zones; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Plant, Plymouth, Massachusetts. 165.115 Section 165.115 Navigation and Navigable... Coast Guard District § 165.115 Safety and Security Zones; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Plant,...

  16. 33 CFR 165.115 - Safety and Security Zones; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Plant, Plymouth, Massachusetts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Safety and Security Zones; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Plant, Plymouth, Massachusetts. 165.115 Section 165.115 Navigation and Navigable... Coast Guard District § 165.115 Safety and Security Zones; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Plant,...

  17. 33 CFR 165.115 - Safety and Security Zones; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Plant, Plymouth, Massachusetts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Safety and Security Zones; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Plant, Plymouth, Massachusetts. 165.115 Section 165.115 Navigation and Navigable... Coast Guard District § 165.115 Safety and Security Zones; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Plant,...

  18. 33 CFR 165.115 - Safety and Security Zones; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Plant, Plymouth, Massachusetts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Safety and Security Zones; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Plant, Plymouth, Massachusetts. 165.115 Section 165.115 Navigation and Navigable... Coast Guard District § 165.115 Safety and Security Zones; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Plant,...

  19. 33 CFR 165.115 - Safety and Security Zones; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Plant, Plymouth, Massachusetts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety and Security Zones; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Plant, Plymouth, Massachusetts. 165.115 Section 165.115 Navigation and Navigable... Coast Guard District § 165.115 Safety and Security Zones; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Plant,...

  20. 42 CFR 3.212 - Nonidentification of patient safety work product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...-identification at 45 CFR 164.514(a) through (c). ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Nonidentification of patient safety work product. 3... PROVISIONS PATIENT SAFETY ORGANIZATIONS AND PATIENT SAFETY WORK PRODUCT Confidentiality and...

  1. 42 CFR 3.212 - Nonidentification of patient safety work product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...-identification at 45 CFR 164.514(a) through (c). ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Nonidentification of patient safety work product. 3... PROVISIONS PATIENT SAFETY ORGANIZATIONS AND PATIENT SAFETY WORK PRODUCT Confidentiality and...

  2. 42 CFR 3.212 - Nonidentification of patient safety work product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...-identification at 45 CFR 164.514(a) through (c). ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Nonidentification of patient safety work product. 3... PROVISIONS PATIENT SAFETY ORGANIZATIONS AND PATIENT SAFETY WORK PRODUCT Confidentiality and...

  3. 42 CFR 3.212 - Nonidentification of patient safety work product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...-identification at 45 CFR 164.514(a) through (c). ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Nonidentification of patient safety work product. 3... PROVISIONS PATIENT SAFETY ORGANIZATIONS AND PATIENT SAFETY WORK PRODUCT Confidentiality and...

  4. 42 CFR 3.212 - Nonidentification of patient safety work product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...-identification at 45 CFR 164.514(a) through (c). ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nonidentification of patient safety work product. 3... PROVISIONS PATIENT SAFETY ORGANIZATIONS AND PATIENT SAFETY WORK PRODUCT Confidentiality and...

  5. A mediation model linking dispatcher leadership and work ownership with safety climate as predictors of truck driver safety performance.

    PubMed

    Zohar, Dov; Huang, Yueng-hsiang; Lee, Jin; Robertson, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    The study was designed to test the effect of safety climate on safety behavior among lone employees whose work environment promotes individual rather than consensual or shared climate perceptions. The paper presents a mediation path model linking psychological (individual-level) safety climate antecedents and consequences as predictors of driving safety of long-haul truck drivers. Climate antecedents included dispatcher (distant) leadership and driver work ownership, two contextual attributes of lone work, whereas its proximal consequence included driving safety. Using a prospective design, safety outcomes, consisting of hard-braking frequency (i.e. traffic near-miss events) were collected six months after survey completion, using GPS-based truck deceleration data. Results supported the hypothesized model, indicating that distant leadership style and work ownership promote psychological safety climate perceptions, with subsequent prediction of hard-braking events mediated by driving safety. Theoretical and practical implications for studying safety climate among lone workers in general and professional drivers in particular are discussed.

  6. Nuclear Safety. Technical Progress Journal, October--December 1991: Volume 32, No. 4

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This document is a review journal that covers significant developments in the field of nuclear safety. Its scope includes the analysis and control of hazards associated with nuclear energy, operations involving fissionable materials, and the products of nuclear fission and their effects on the environment. Primary emphasis is on safety in reactor design, construction, and operation; however, the safety aspects of the entire fuel cycle, including fuel fabrication, spent-fuel processing, nuclear waste disposal, handling of radioisotopes, and environmental effects of these operations, are also treated.

  7. Working group report on hadrons in the nuclear medium

    SciTech Connect

    Ent, R.; Milner, R.G.

    1994-04-01

    This working group focussed on the subject of hadrons in the nuclear medium. It encompassed both the understanding of the nucleus itself in terms of its binding and its structure, and the use of the nucleus as a medium to probe QCD and the structure of hadrons. Both aspects were addressed during the workshop, though the emphasis tended towards the latter. Almost inescapably this working group had some overlap with the other working groups, as the nucleus can also be used as a medium to probe the production and structure of vector mesons. Also, inclusive and semi-inclusive processes can be used as a probe of nuclear effects, for instance in the case of deep-inelastic scattering for x > 1. In this summary report the authors will try to restrict themselves to only those issues where the nuclear medium is important. To increase their understanding of the nucleus in terms of its binding and structure, they would like to know the effect of a dense nuclear medium on a nucleon, to know the non-nucleonic degrees of freedom needed to describe a nuclear system, and to understand the implications of the fact that a bound nucleon is necessarily off its mass-shell. The results of many lepton scattering experiments during the last two decades have raised these questions, but at this moment there are no definitive answers. The hope is that the well-known electron probe, with sufficient energy to probe the short-range properties of nuclei, can provide insight. Especially, the authors would like a conclusive answer to the question if, and to what extent, quark degrees of freedom are necessary to describe a nuclear system.

  8. Probabilistic reliability analysis, quantitative safety goals, and nuclear licensing in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Cannell, W

    1987-09-01

    Although unpublicized, the use of quantitative safety goals and probabilistic reliability analysis for licensing nuclear reactors has become a reality in the United Kingdom. This conclusion results from an examination of the process leading to the licensing of the Sizewell B PWR in England. The licensing process for this reactor has substantial implications for nuclear safety standards in Britain, and is examined in the context of the growing trend towards quantitative safety goals in the United States. PMID:3685540

  9. Proceedings of the international meeting on thermal nuclear reactor safety. Vol. 1

    SciTech Connect

    1983-02-01

    Separate abstracts are included for each of the papers presented concerning current issues in nuclear power plant safety; national programs in nuclear power plant safety; radiological source terms; probabilistic risk assessment methods and techniques; non LOCA and small-break-LOCA transients; safety goals; pressurized thermal shocks; applications of reliability and risk methods to probabilistic risk assessment; human factors and man-machine interface; and data bases and special applications.

  10. Nuclear Safety Functions of ITER Gas Injection System Instrumentation and Control and the Concept Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yu; Maruyama, S.; Fossen, A.; Villers, F.; Kiss, G.; Zhang, Bo; Li, Bo; Jiang, Tao; Huang, Xiangmei

    2016-08-01

    The ITER Gas Injection System (GIS) plays an important role on fueling, wall conditioning and distribution for plasma operation. Besides that, to support the safety function of ITER, GIS needs to implement three nuclear safety Instrumentation and Control (I&C) functions. In this paper, these three functions are introduced with the emphasis on their latest safety classifications. The nuclear I&C design concept is briefly discussed at the end.

  11. Patient safety and interactive medical devices: Realigning work as imagined and work as done

    PubMed Central

    Furniss, Dominic; Vincent, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Medical devices are essential tools for modern healthcare delivery. However, significant issues can arise if medical devices are designed for ‘work as imagined’ when this is misaligned with ‘work as done’. This problem can be compounded as the details of device design, in terms of usability and the way a device supports or changes working practices, often receives limited attention. The ways devices are designed and used affect patient safety and quality of care: inappropriate design can provoke user error, create system vulnerabilities and divert attention from other aspects of patient care. Current regulation involves a series of pre-market checks relating to device usability, but this assumes that devices are always used under the conditions and for the purposes intended (i.e. work as imagined); there are many reasons for devices being used in ways other than those assumed at development time. Greater attention needs to be paid to learning points in actual use and user experience (i.e. work as done). This needs to inform manufacturers’ designs, management procurement decisions and local decisions about how devices are used in practice to achieve co-adaptation; without these, we foster risks and inefficiencies in healthcare. PMID:25866466

  12. Guidelines for preparing criticality safety evaluations at Department of Energy non-reactor nuclear facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    This document contains guidelines that should be followed when preparing Criticality Safety Evaluations that will be used to demonstrate the safety of operations performed at DOE non-reactor nuclear facilities. Adherence to these guidelines will provide consistency and uniformity in criticality safety evaluations (CSEs) across the complex and will document compliance with the requirements of DOE Order 5480.24.

  13. Contribution to the safety assessment of instrumentation and control software for nuclear power plants: Application to SPIN N4

    SciTech Connect

    Soubies, B.; Henry, J.Y.; Le Meur, M.

    1995-04-01

    1300 MWe pressurised water reactors (PWRs), like the 1400 MWe reactors, operate with microprocessor-based safety systems. This is particularly the case for the Digital Integrated Protection System (SPIN), which trips the reactor in an emergency and sets in action the safeguard functions. The softwares used in these systems must therefore be highly dependable in the execution of their functions. In the case of SPIN, three players are working at different levels to achieve this goal: the protection system manufacturer, Merlin Gerin; the designer of the nuclear steam supply system, Framatome; the operator of the nuclear power plants, Electricite de France (EDF), which is also responsible for the safety of its installations. Regulatory licenses are issued by the French safety authority, the Nuclear Installations Safety Directorate (French abbreviation DSIN), subsequent to a successful examination of the technical provisions adopted by the operator. This examination is carried out by the IPSN and the standing group on nuclear reactors. This communication sets out: the methods used by the manufacturer to develop SPIN software for the 1400 MWe PWRs (N4 series); the approach adopted by the IPSN to evaluate the safety software of the protection system for the N4 series of reactors.

  14. Assessment of the safety of US nuclear weapons and related nuclear test requirements: A post-Bush Initiative update

    SciTech Connect

    Kidder, R.E.

    1991-12-10

    The Nuclear Weapons Reduction Initiative announced by President Bush on September 27, 1991, is described herein as set forth in Defense Secretary Cheney`s Nuclear Arsenal Reduction Order issued September 28, 1991. The implications of the Bush Initiative for improved nuclear weapons safety are assessed in response to a request by US Senators Harkin, Kennedy, and Wirth to the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory that the author prepare such an assessment. The author provides an estimate of the number of nuclear tests needed to accomplish a variety of specified warhead safety upgrades, then uses the results of this estimate to answer three questions posed by the Senators. These questions concern pit reuse and the number of nuclear tests needed for specified safety upgrades of those ballistic missiles not scheduled for retirement, namely the Minuteman III, C4, and D5 missiles.

  15. Organizational Culture for Safety, Security, and Safeguards in New Nuclear Power Countries

    SciTech Connect

    Kovacic, Donald N

    2015-01-01

    This chapter will contain the following sections: Existing international norms and standards for developing the infrastructure to support new nuclear power programs The role of organizational culture and how it supports the safe, secure, and peaceful application of nuclear power Identifying effective and efficient strategies for implementing safety, security and safeguards in nuclear operations Challenges identified in the implementation of safety, security and safeguards Potential areas for future collaboration between countries in order to support nonproliferation culture

  16. University Safety Culture: A Work-in-Progress?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Safety management systems in Australian higher education organisations are under-researched. Limited workplace safety information can be found in the various reports on university human resources benchmarking programs, and typically they show only descriptive statistics. With the commencement of new consultation-focused regulations applying to…

  17. Importance of Bladder Radioactivity for Radiation Safety in Nuclear Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Gültekin, Salih Sinan; Şahmaran, Turan

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Most of the radiopharmaceuticals used in nuclear medicine are excreted via the urinary system. This study evaluated the importance of a reduction in bladder radioactivity for radiation safety. Methods: The study group of 135 patients underwent several organ scintigraphies [40/135; thyroid scintigraphy (TS), 30/135; whole body bone scintigraphy (WBS), 35/135; myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS) and 30/135; renal scintigraphy (RS)] by a technologist within 1 month. In full and empty conditions, static bladder images and external dose rate measurements at 0.25, 0.50, 1, 1.5 and 2 m distances were obtained and decline ratios were calculated from these two data sets. Results: External radiation dose rates were highest in patients undergoing MPS. External dose rates at 0.25 m distance for TS, TKS, MPS and BS were measured to be 56, 106, 191 and 72 μSv h-1 for full bladder and 29, 55, 103 and 37 μSv h-1 for empty bladder, respectively. For TS, WBS, MPS and RS, respectively, average decline ratios were calculated to be 52%, 55%, 53% and 54% in the scintigraphic assessment and 49%, 51%, 49%, 50% and 50% in the assessment with Geiger counter. Conclusion: Decline in bladder radioactivity is important in terms of radiation safety. Patients should be encouraged for micturition after each scintigraphic test. Spending time together with radioactive patients at distances less than 1 m should be kept to a minimum where possible. Conflict of interest:None declared. PMID:24416625

  18. Real-time graphic display utility for nuclear safety applications

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, S.; Huang, X.; Taylor, J.; Stevens, J.; Gerardis, T.; Hsu, A.; McCreary, T.

    2006-07-01

    With the increasing interests in the nuclear energy, new nuclear power plants will be constructed and licensed, and older generation ones will be upgraded for assuring continuing operation. The tendency of adopting the latest proven technology and the fact of older parts becoming obsolete have made the upgrades imperative. One of the areas for upgrades is the older CRT display being replaced by the latest graphics displays running under modern real time operating system (RTOS) with safety graded modern computer. HFC has developed a graphic display utility (GDU) under the QNX RTOS. A standard off-the-shelf software with a long history of performance in industrial applications, QNX RTOS used for safety applications has been examined via a commercial dedication process that is consistent with the regulatory guidelines. Through a commercial survey, a design life cycle and an operating history evaluation, and necessary tests dictated by the dedication plan, it is reasonably confirmed that the QNX RTOS was essentially equivalent to what would be expected in the nuclear industry. The developed GDU operates and communicates with the existing equipment through a dedicated serial channel of a flat panel controller (FPC) module. The FPC module drives a flat panel display (FPD) monitor. A touch screen mounted on the FPD serves as the normal operator interface with the FPC/FPD monitor system. The GDU can be used not only for replacing older CRTs but also in new applications. The replacement of the older CRT does not disturb the function of the existing equipment. It not only provides modern proven technology upgrade but also improves human ergonomics. The FPC, which can be used as a standalone controller running with the GDU, is an integrated hardware and software module. It operates as a single board computer within a control system, and applies primarily to the graphics display, targeting, keyboard and mouse. During normal system operation, the GDU has two sources of data

  19. General-purpose heat source project and space nuclear safety and fuels program. Progress reportt, January 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Maraman, W.J.

    1980-04-01

    This formal monthly report covers the studies related to the use of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ in radioisotopic power systems carried out for the Advanced Nuclear Systems and Projects Division of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. The two programs involved are the general-purpose heat source development and space nuclear safety and fuels. Most of the studies discussed here are of a continuing nature. Results and conclusions described may change as the work continues. Published reference to the results cited in this report should not be made without the explicit permission of the person in charge of the work.

  20. Nuclear reactor safety. Progress report, October 1-December 31, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Stevenson, M.G.; Vigil, J.C.

    1981-09-01

    Development of the fast-running Transient Reactor Analysis Code (TRAC) version (PF1) continued during the quarter with numerical improvements and addition of a stratified-flow model. Independent assessment of the detailed version (PD2) continued with several Loss-Of-Fluid Test (LOFT) small-break tests, a PKL reflood test, and five Marviken critical-flow tests. Analysis efforts in the 2D/3D project concentrated on detailed investigations of Cylindrical-Core Test Facility (CCTF) Core I tests and calculated flow oscillations in the primary loops of the German pressurized water reactor (PWR). Investigations were completed of PWR transients involving emergency feed-water unavailability. Other Light-Water Reactor (LWR) safety progress included the use of the three-dimensional version of the SALE code to study hot-leg injection into the upper plenum and the effect of guide tube cross section on momentum flux. Efforts in Liquid-Metal-Cooled Fast-Breeder Reactor safety included studying transition-phase phenomena in an SNR-300-type reactor geometry using SIMMER and performing Upper Structure Dynamics experiments to examine rupture disk performance. In High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR safety, improvements were made to the Composite High-Temperature Gas-Cooled reactor Analysis Program (CHAP) code, and system transients in the Fort St. Vrain reactor were calculated. Other work in this area included thermal stress analyses of core support block response during fire-water cooldown following a loss-of-forced-circulation accident. Tests were run on steel cylinders to determine the effects of the Area Replacement Method on buckling strength as part of the Structural Margins-to-Failure program. In addition, a literature review was completed of models and experiments to determine damping and stiffness of reinforced concrete structures.

  1. Activities of the US-Japan Safety Monitor Joint Working Group

    SciTech Connect

    Richard L. Savercool; Lee C. Cadwallader

    2004-09-01

    This paper documents the activities of the US-Japan exchange in the area of personnel safety at magnetic and laser fusion experiments. A near-miss event with a visiting scientist to the US in 1992 was the impetus for forming the Joint Working Group on Fusion Safety. This exchnge has been under way for over ten years and has provided many safety insights for both US and Japanese facility personnel at national institutes and at universities. The background and activities of the Joint Working Group are described, including the facilities that have been visited for safety walkthroughs, the participants from both countries, and the main safety issues examined during visits. Based on these visits, some operational safety ideas to enhance experiment safety are given. The near-term future plans of the Safety Monitor Joint Working group are also discussed.

  2. Nuclear criticality safety program for environmental restoration projects

    SciTech Connect

    Marble, R.C.; Brown, T.D.

    1994-05-01

    The Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP), formerly known as the Feed Materials Production Center (FMPC), is located on a 1050 acre site approximately twenty miles northwest of Cincinnati, Ohio. The production area of the site covers approximately 136 acres in the central portion of the site. Surrounding the core production area is a buffer consisting of leased grazing land, reforested land, and unused areas. The uranium processing facility was designed and constructed in the early 1950s. During the period from 1952 to 1989 the site produced uranium feed material and uranium products used in the United States weapons complex. Production at the site ended in 1989, when the site was shut down for what was expected to be a short period of time. However, the FUTC was permanently shut down in 1991, and the site`s mission was changed from production to environmental restoration. The objective of this paper is to give an update on activities at the Fernald Site and to describe the Nuclear Criticality Safety issues that are currently being addressed.

  3. 78 FR 4404 - DOE Response to Recommendation 2012-2 of the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board, Hanford...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-22

    ... Response to Recommendation 2012-2 of the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board, Hanford Tank Farms... the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board submitted Recommendation 2012-2, concerning Hanford Tank... Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (Board) Recommendation 2012-2, Hanford Tank Farms Flammable Gas...

  4. 77 FR 43583 - DOE Response to Recommendation 2012-1 of the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board, Savannah...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-25

    ... Response to Recommendation 2012-1 of the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board, Savannah River Site... Nuclear Facilities Safety Board submitted Recommendation 2012-1, concerning Savannah River Site Building... Safety Board (Board) Recommendation 2012-1, Savannah River ] Site Building 235-F Safety, issued on May...

  5. Job characteristics and work safety climate among North Carolina farmworkers with H-2A visas.

    PubMed

    Arcury, Thomas A; Summers, Phillip; Talton, Jennifer W; Nguyen, Ha T; Chen, Haiying; Quandt, Sara A

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Migrant farmworkers are a vulnerable population. Migrant farmworkers with H-2A visas are the only agricultural workers with temporary work permits. Little research has directly focused on the job characteristics and work safety of workers with H-2A visas. This analysis (1) describes their personal and job characteristics, job hazards, and stressors; (2) describes their perceived work safety climate; and (3) examines associations of perceived work safety climate with job characteristics, job hazards, and stressors. Data are from a cross-sectional component of a larger study of farmworker pesticide exposure; in 2012 interviews were conducted with 163 migrant farmworkers with H-2A visas in North Carolina. The sample was limited to men aged 30 to 70 years. Migrant farmworkers with H-2A visas experience the same hazards as do other farmworkers. Their mean score on the Perceived Work Safety Climate Scale 25.5 (SD = 3.7) is similar to that of other farmworkers and other immigrant workers. Perceived work safety climate is associated with hours worked per week (P = .02), precarious employment (P < .001), planting and cultivating (P = .002), topping tobacco (P = .0012), and stress (P = .02). Perceived work safety climate is particularly important for migrant farmworkers with H-2A visas because their labor contracts limit their options to change employers. Additional research on the status of work safety climate among agricultural workers is needed, as well as on the factors that affect work safety climate and on the safety characteristics that are affected by work safety climate. Policy changes that lead to improved work safety climate should be considered.

  6. Job Characteristics and Work Safety Climate among North Carolina Farmworkers with H-2A Visas

    PubMed Central

    Arcury, Thomas A.; Summers, Phillip; Talton, Jennifer W.; Nguyen, Ha T.; Chen, Haiying; Quandt, Sara A.

    2016-01-01

    Migrant farmworkers are a vulnerable population. Migrant farmworkers with H-2A visas are the only agricultural workers with temporary work permits. Little research has directly focused on the job characteristics and work safety of workers with H-2A visas. This analysis (1) describes their personal and job characteristics, job hazards, and stressors; (2) describes their perceived work safety climate; and (3) examines associations of perceived work safety climate with job characteristics, job hazards, and stressors. Data are from a cross-sectional component of a larger study of farmworker pesticide exposure; in 2012 interviews were conducted with 163 migrant farmworkers with H-2A visas in North Carolina. The sample was limited to men aged 30 to 70 years. Migrant farmworkers with H-2A visas experience the same hazards as do other farmworkers. Their mean score on the perceived work safety climate scale 25.5 (SD=3.7) is similar to that of other farmworkers and other immigrant workers. Perceived work safety climate is associated with hours worked per week (p=0.02), precarious employment (p<0.001), planting and cultivating (p=0.002); topping tobacco (p=0.0012), and stress (p=0.02). Perceived work safety climate is particularly important for migrant farmworkers with H-2A visas because their labor contracts limit their options to change employers. Additional research on the status of work safety climate among agricultural workers is needed, as well as on the factors that affect work safety climate and on the safety characteristics that are affected by work safety climate. Policy changes that lead to improved work safety climate should be considered. PMID:25635744

  7. Safety and environmental analyses for space nuclear programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcconnell, D. J.

    1990-01-01

    The tools and procedures for analyzing environmental quality and safety are reviewed. The process of preparing an environmental impact statement is outlined and the data sources for a safety analysis are discussed. The environmental safety analysis process is demonstrated, using examples from the Galileo, Ulysses, and Venus-earth-earth-gravity-assist programs.

  8. Implementing the 2009 Institute of Medicine recommendations on resident physician work hours, supervision, and safety

    PubMed Central

    Blum, Alexander B; Shea, Sandra; Czeisler, Charles A; Landrigan, Christopher P; Leape, Lucian

    2011-01-01

    Long working hours and sleep deprivation have been a facet of physician training in the US since the advent of the modern residency system. However, the scientific evidence linking fatigue with deficits in human performance, accidents and errors in industries from aeronautics to medicine, nuclear power, and transportation has mounted over the last 40 years. This evidence has also spawned regulations to help ensure public safety across safety-sensitive industries, with the notable exception of medicine. In late 2007, at the behest of the US Congress, the Institute of Medicine embarked on a year-long examination of the scientific evidence linking resident physician sleep deprivation with clinical performance deficits and medical errors. The Institute of Medicine’s report, entitled “Resident duty hours: Enhancing sleep, supervision and safety”, published in January 2009, recommended new limits on resident physician work hours and workload, increased supervision, a heightened focus on resident physician safety, training in structured handovers and quality improvement, more rigorous external oversight of work hours and other aspects of residency training, and the identification of expanded funding sources necessary to implement the recommended reforms successfully and protect the public and resident physicians themselves from preventable harm. Given that resident physicians comprise almost a quarter of all physicians who work in hospitals, and that taxpayers, through Medicare and Medicaid, fund graduate medical education, the public has a deep investment in physician training. Patients expect to receive safe, high-quality care in the nation’s teaching hospitals. Because it is their safety that is at issue, their voices should be central in policy decisions affecting patient safety. It is likewise important to integrate the perspectives of resident physicians, policy makers, and other constituencies in designing new policies. However, since its release

  9. CAE - nuclear engineering analysis on work-station computers

    SciTech Connect

    Wessol, D.E.; Liebelt, K.H.; Merrill, B.J.; Nigg, D.W.; Wheeler, F.J.

    1986-01-01

    Emergence of the inexpensive and widely available 32-bit-work-station computer is revolutionizing the scientific and engineering computing environment. These systems reach or exceed threshold for many midscale nuclear applications and bridge the gap between the era of expensive computing: cheap people and the era of cheap computing: expensive people. Experience at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) has demonstrated the efficacy of this new computer technology. For the past 1 1/2 yr, a Hewlett-Packard 9000/540 32-bit multi-user microcomputer has been used to perform many calculations typical of a nuclear design effort. This system is similar with respect to performance and memory to such work stations as the SUN-3, HP-9000/32, or the Apollo DN-3000 that are available for under $20,000 for a fully configured single-user station. The system is being used for code development, model setup and checkout, and a full range of nuclear applications. Various one- and two-dimensional discrete ordinates transport codes are used on a routine basis. These include the well-known ANISN code as well as locally developed transport models. Typical one-dimensional multigroup calculations can be executed in clock times <10 min.

  10. Nuclear criticality safety calculational analysis for small-diameter containers

    SciTech Connect

    LeTellier, M.S.; Smallwood, D.J.; Henkel, J.A.

    1995-11-01

    This report documents calculations performed to establish a technical basis for the nuclear criticality safety of favorable geometry containers, sometimes referred to as 5-inch containers, in use at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. A list of containers currently used in the plant is shown in Table 1.0-1. These containers are currently used throughout the plant with no mass limits. The use of containers with geometries or material types other than those addressed in this evaluation must be bounded by this analysis or have an additional analysis performed. The following five basic container geometries were modeled and bound all container geometries in Table 1.0-1: (1) 4.32-inch-diameter by 50-inch-high polyethylene bottle; (2) 5.0-inch-diameter by 24-inch-high polyethylene bottle; (3) 5.25-inch-diameter by 24-inch-high steel can ({open_quotes}F-can{close_quotes}); (4) 5.25-inch-diameter by 15-inch-high steel can ({open_quotes}Z-can{close_quotes}); and (5) 5.0-inch-diameter by 9-inch-high polybottle ({open_quotes}CO-4{close_quotes}). Each container type is evaluated using five basic reflection and interaction models that include single containers and multiple containers in normal and in credible abnormal conditions. The uranium materials evaluated are UO{sub 2}F{sub 2}+H{sub 2}O and UF{sub 4}+oil materials at 100% and 10% enrichments and U{sub 3}O{sub 8}, and H{sub 2}O at 100% enrichment. The design basis safe criticality limit for the Portsmouth facility is k{sub eff} + 2{sigma} < 0.95. The KENO study results may be used as the basis for evaluating general use of these containers in the plant.

  11. 33 CFR 165.104 - Safety Zone: Vessel Launches, Bath Iron Works, Kennebec River, Bath, Maine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Bath Iron Works dry dock while it is being moved to and from its moored position at the Bath Iron Works... maritime community of periods during which this safety zone will be in effect by providing advance...

  12. Preparation, review, and approval of implementation plans for nuclear safety requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    This standard describes an acceptable method to prepare, review, and approve implementation plans for DOE Nuclear Safety requirements. DOE requirements are identified in DOE Rules, Orders, Notices, Immediate Action Directives, and Manuals.

  13. Manual of functions, assignments, and responsibilities for nuclear safety: Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-10-15

    The FAR Manual is a convenient easy-to-use collection of the functions, assignments, and responsibilities (FARs) of DOE nuclear safety personnel. Current DOE directives, including Orders, Secretary of Energy Notices, and other assorted policy memoranda, are the source of this information and form the basis of the FAR Manual. Today, the majority of FARs for DOE personnel are contained in DOE`s nuclear safety Orders. As these Orders are converted to rules in the Code of Federal Regulations, the FAR Manual will become the sole source for information relating to the functions, assignments, responsibilities of DOE nuclear safety personnel. The FAR Manual identifies DOE directives that relate to nuclear safety and the specific DOE personnel who are responsible for implementing them. The manual includes only FARs that have been extracted from active directives that have been approved in accordance with the procedures contained in DOE Order 1321.1B.

  14. 76 FR 30722 - Meeting of the National Vaccine Advisory Committee; Vaccine Safety Working Group

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Meeting of the National Vaccine Advisory Committee; Vaccine Safety Working Group AGENCY... Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) is hereby giving notice that the Vaccine Safety Working Group (VSWG) of the National Vaccine Advisory Committee (NVAC) will hold a meeting. The meeting is open to...

  15. Safety and Nonsafety Communications and Interactions in International Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Kisner, Roger A; Mullens, James Allen; Wilson, Thomas L; Wood, Richard Thomas; Korsah, Kofi; Qualls, A L; Muhlheim, Michael David; Holcomb, David Eugene; Loebl, Andy

    2007-08-01

    Current industry and NRC guidance documents such as IEEE 7-4.3.2, Reg. Guide 1.152, and IEEE 603 do not sufficiently define a level of detail for evaluating interdivisional communications independence. The NRC seeks to establish criteria for safety systems communications that can be uniformly applied in evaluation of a variety of safety system designs. This report focuses strictly on communication issues related to data sent between safety systems and between safety and nonsafety systems. Further, the report does not provide design guidance for communication systems nor present detailed failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) results for existing designs. This letter report describes communications between safety and nonsafety systems in nuclear power plants outside the United States. A limited study of international nuclear power plants was conducted to ascertain important communication implementations that might have bearing on systems proposed for licensing in the United States. This report provides that following information: 1.communications types and structures used in a representative set of international nuclear power reactors, and 2.communications issues derived from standards and other source documents relevant to safety and nonsafety communications. Topics that are discussed include the following: communication among redundant safety divisions, communications between safety divisions and nonsafety systems, control of safety equipment from a nonsafety workstation, and connection of nonsafety programming, maintenance, and test equipment to redundant safety divisions during operation. Information for this report was obtained through publicly available sources such as published papers and presentations. No proprietary information is represented.

  16. Advanced Outage and Control Center: Strategies for Nuclear Plant Outage Work Status Capabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory Weatherby

    2012-05-01

    The research effort is a part of the Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program. LWRS is a research and development program sponsored by the Department of Energy, performed in close collaboration with industry to provide the technical foundations for licensing and managing the long-term, safe and economical operation of current nuclear power plants. The LWRS Program serves to help the US nuclear industry adopt new technologies and engineering solutions that facilitate the continued safe operation of the plants and extension of the current operating licenses. The Outage Control Center (OCC) Pilot Project was directed at carrying out the applied research for development and pilot of technology designed to enhance safe outage and maintenance operations, improve human performance and reliability, increase overall operational efficiency, and improve plant status control. Plant outage management is a high priority concern for the nuclear industry from cost and safety perspectives. Unfortunately, many of the underlying technologies supporting outage control are the same as those used in the 1980’s. They depend heavily upon large teams of staff, multiple work and coordination locations, and manual administrative actions that require large amounts of paper. Previous work in human reliability analysis suggests that many repetitive tasks, including paper work tasks, may have a failure rate of 1.0E-3 or higher (Gertman, 1996). With between 10,000 and 45,000 subtasks being performed during an outage (Gomes, 1996), the opportunity for human error of some consequence is a realistic concern. Although a number of factors exist that can make these errors recoverable, reducing and effectively coordinating the sheer number of tasks to be performed, particularly those that are error prone, has the potential to enhance outage efficiency and safety. Additionally, outage management requires precise coordination of work groups that do not always share similar objectives. Outage

  17. Nuclear energy with inherent safety: Change of outdated paradigm, criteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamov, E. O.; Orlov, V. V.; Rachkov, V. I.; Slessarev, I. S.; Khomyakov, Yu. S.

    2015-12-01

    Modern nuclear power technology still has significant sources of risk, and, weak links, such as, a threat of severe accidents with catastrophic unpredictable consequences and damage to the population, proliferation of nuclear weapon-usable materials, risks of long-term storage of toxic radioactive waste, risks of loss of major investments in nuclear facilities and their construction, lack of fuel resources for the ambitious role of nuclear power in the competitive balance of energy. Each of these risks is important and almost independent, though the elimination of some of them does not significantly alter the overall assessment of nuclear power.

  18. Potential safety-related incidents with possible applicability to a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant

    SciTech Connect

    Durant, W.S.; Perkins, W.C.; Lee, R.; Stoddard, D.H.

    1982-05-20

    The Safety Technology Group is developing methodology that can be used to assess the risk of operating a plant to reprocess spent nuclear fuel. As an early step in the methodology, a preliminary hazards analysis identifies safety-related incidents. In the absence of appropriate safety features, these incidents could lead to significant consequences and risk to onsite personnel or to the public. This report is a compilation of potential safety-related incidents that have been identified in studies at SRL and in safety analyses of various commercially designed reprocessing plants. It is an expanded revision of the version originally published as DP-1558, Published December 1980.

  19. Nuclear nonproliferation and safety: Challenges facing the International Atomic Energy Agency

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    The Chairman of the Senate Committee on Govermental Affairs asked the United States General Accounting Office (GAO) to review the safeguards and nuclear power plant safety programs of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). This report examines (1) the effectiveness of IAEA`s safeguards program and the adequacy of program funding, (2) the management of U.S. technical assistance to the IAEA`s safeguards program, and (3) the effectiveness of IAEA`s program for advising United Nations (UN) member states about nuclear power plant safety and the adequacy of program funding. Under its statute and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, IAEA is mandated to administer safeguards to detect diversions of significant quantities of nuclear material from peaceful uses. Because of limits on budget growth and unpaid contributions, IAEA has had difficulty funding the safeguards program. IAEA also conducts inspections of facilities or locations containing declared nuclear material, and manages a program for reviewing the operational safety of designated nuclear power plants. The U.S. technical assistance program for IAEA safeguards, overseen by an interagency coordinating committee, has enhanced the agency`s inspection capabilities, however, some weaknesses still exist. Despite financial limitations, IAEA is meeting its basic safety advisory responsibilities for advising UN member states on nuclear safety and providing requested safety services. However, IAEA`s program for reviewing the operational safety of nuclear power plants has not been fully effective because the program is voluntary and UN member states have not requested IAEA`s review of all nuclear reactors with serious problems. GAO believes that IAEA should have more discretion in selecting reactors for review.

  20. Real-time 3D radiation risk assessment supporting simulation of work in nuclear environments.

    PubMed

    Szőke, I; Louka, M N; Bryntesen, T R; Bratteli, J; Edvardsen, S T; RøEitrheim, K K; Bodor, K

    2014-06-01

    This paper describes the latest developments at the Institute for Energy Technology (IFE) in Norway, in the field of real-time 3D (three-dimensional) radiation risk assessment for the support of work simulation in nuclear environments. 3D computer simulation can greatly facilitate efficient work planning, briefing, and training of workers. It can also support communication within and between work teams, and with advisors, regulators, the media and public, at all the stages of a nuclear installation's lifecycle. Furthermore, it is also a beneficial tool for reviewing current work practices in order to identify possible gaps in procedures, as well as to support the updating of international recommendations, dissemination of experience, and education of the current and future generation of workers.IFE has been involved in research and development into the application of 3D computer simulation and virtual reality (VR) technology to support work in radiological environments in the nuclear sector since the mid 1990s. During this process, two significant software tools have been developed, the VRdose system and the Halden Planner, and a number of publications have been produced to contribute to improving the safety culture in the nuclear industry.This paper describes the radiation risk assessment techniques applied in earlier versions of the VRdose system and the Halden Planner, for visualising radiation fields and calculating dose, and presents new developments towards implementing a flexible and up-to-date dosimetric package in these 3D software tools, based on new developments in the field of radiation protection. The latest versions of these 3D tools are capable of more accurate risk estimation, permit more flexibility via a range of user choices, and are applicable to a wider range of irradiation situations than their predecessors. PMID:24727389

  1. Management concepts and safety applications for nuclear fuel facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Eisner, H.; Scotti, R.S.; Delicate, W.S.

    1995-05-01

    This report presents an overview of effectiveness of management control of safety. It reviews several modern management control theories as well as the general functions of management and relates them to safety issues at the corporate and at the process safety management (PSM) program level. Following these discussions, structured technique for assessing management of the safety function is suggested. Seven modern management control theories are summarized, including business process reengineering, the learning organization, capability maturity, total quality management, quality assurance and control, reliability centered maintenance, and industrial process safety. Each of these theories is examined for-its principal characteristics and implications for safety management. The five general management functions of planning, organizing, directing, monitoring, and integrating, which together provide control over all company operations, are discussed. Under the broad categories of Safety Culture, Leadership and Commitment, and Operating Excellence, key corporate safety elements and their subelements are examined. The three categories under which PSM program-level safety issues are described are Technology, Personnel, and Facilities.

  2. Hospital nurses' working conditions in relation to motivation and patient safety.

    PubMed

    Toode, Kristi; Routasalo, Pirkko; Helminen, Mika; Suominen, Tarja

    2015-03-01

    There is a lack of empirical knowledge about nurses' perceptions of their workplace characteristics and conditions, such as level of autonomy and decision authority, work climate, teamwork, skill exploitation and learning opportunities, and their work motivation in relation to practice outputs such as patient safety. Such knowledge is needed particularly in countries, such as Estonia, where hospital systems for preventing errors and improving patient safety are in the early stages of development. This article reports the findings from a cross-sectional survey of hospital nurses in Estonia that was aimed at determining their perceptions of workplace characteristics, working conditions, work motivation and patient safety, and at exploring the relationship between these. Results suggest that perceptions of personal control over their work can affect nurses' motivation, and that perceptions of work satisfaction might be relevant to patient safety improvement work. PMID:25727441

  3. Hospital nurses' working conditions in relation to motivation and patient safety.

    PubMed

    Toode, Kristi; Routasalo, Pirkko; Helminen, Mika; Suominen, Tarja

    2015-03-01

    There is a lack of empirical knowledge about nurses' perceptions of their workplace characteristics and conditions, such as level of autonomy and decision authority, work climate, teamwork, skill exploitation and learning opportunities, and their work motivation in relation to practice outputs such as patient safety. Such knowledge is needed particularly in countries, such as Estonia, where hospital systems for preventing errors and improving patient safety are in the early stages of development. This article reports the findings from a cross-sectional survey of hospital nurses in Estonia that was aimed at determining their perceptions of workplace characteristics, working conditions, work motivation and patient safety, and at exploring the relationship between these. Results suggest that perceptions of personal control over their work can affect nurses' motivation, and that perceptions of work satisfaction might be relevant to patient safety improvement work.

  4. Passive and inherent safety technologies for light-water nuclear reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Forsberg, C.W.

    1990-07-01

    Passive/inherent safety implies a technical revolution in our approach to nuclear power safety. This direction is discussed herein for light-water reactors (LWRs) -- the predominant type of power reactor used in the world today. At Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) the approach to the development of passive/inherent safety for LWRs consists of four steps: identify and quantify safety requirements and goals; identify and quantify the technical functional requirements needed for safety; identify, invent, develop, and quantify technical options that meet both of the above requirements; and integrate safety systems into designs of economic and reliable nuclear power plants. Significant progress has been achieved in the first three steps of this program. The last step involves primarily the reactor vendors. These activities, as well as related activities worldwide, are described here. 27 refs., 7 tabs.

  5. 3D simulation as a tool for improving the safety culture during remediation work at Andreeva Bay.

    PubMed

    Chizhov, K; Sneve, M K; Szőke, I; Mazur, I; Mark, N K; Kudrin, I; Shandala, N; Simakov, A; Smith, G M; Krasnoschekov, A; Kosnikov, A; Kemsky, I; Kryuchkov, V

    2014-12-01

    Andreeva Bay in northwest Russia hosts one of the former coastal technical bases of the Northern Fleet. Currently, this base is designated as the Andreeva Bay branch of Northwest Center for Radioactive Waste Management (SevRAO) and is a site of temporary storage (STS) for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and other radiological waste generated during the operation and decommissioning of nuclear submarines and ships. According to an integrated expert evaluation, this site is the most dangerous nuclear facility in northwest Russia. Environmental rehabilitation of the site is currently in progress and is supported by strong international collaboration. This paper describes how the optimization principle (ALARA) has been adopted during the planning of remediation work at the Andreeva Bay STS and how Russian-Norwegian collaboration greatly contributed to ensuring the development and maintenance of a high level safety culture during this process. More specifically, this paper describes how integration of a system, specifically designed for improving the radiological safety of workers during the remediation work at Andreeva Bay, was developed in Russia. It also outlines the 3D radiological simulation and virtual reality based systems developed in Norway that have greatly facilitated effective implementation of the ALARA principle, through supporting radiological characterisation, work planning and optimization, decision making, communication between teams and with the authorities and training of field operators. PMID:25254659

  6. 3D simulation as a tool for improving the safety culture during remediation work at Andreeva Bay.

    PubMed

    Chizhov, K; Sneve, M K; Szőke, I; Mazur, I; Mark, N K; Kudrin, I; Shandala, N; Simakov, A; Smith, G M; Krasnoschekov, A; Kosnikov, A; Kemsky, I; Kryuchkov, V

    2014-12-01

    Andreeva Bay in northwest Russia hosts one of the former coastal technical bases of the Northern Fleet. Currently, this base is designated as the Andreeva Bay branch of Northwest Center for Radioactive Waste Management (SevRAO) and is a site of temporary storage (STS) for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and other radiological waste generated during the operation and decommissioning of nuclear submarines and ships. According to an integrated expert evaluation, this site is the most dangerous nuclear facility in northwest Russia. Environmental rehabilitation of the site is currently in progress and is supported by strong international collaboration. This paper describes how the optimization principle (ALARA) has been adopted during the planning of remediation work at the Andreeva Bay STS and how Russian-Norwegian collaboration greatly contributed to ensuring the development and maintenance of a high level safety culture during this process. More specifically, this paper describes how integration of a system, specifically designed for improving the radiological safety of workers during the remediation work at Andreeva Bay, was developed in Russia. It also outlines the 3D radiological simulation and virtual reality based systems developed in Norway that have greatly facilitated effective implementation of the ALARA principle, through supporting radiological characterisation, work planning and optimization, decision making, communication between teams and with the authorities and training of field operators.

  7. 78 FR 47014 - Configuration Management Plans for Digital Computer Software Used in Safety Systems of Nuclear...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-02

    ... 22, 2012 (77 FR 50727) for a 60-day public comment period. The public comment period closed on... COMMISSION Configuration Management Plans for Digital Computer Software Used in Safety Systems of Nuclear... 1 of RG 1.169, ``Configuration Management Plans for Digital Computer Software Used in Safety...

  8. Nuclear power plants in China's coastal zone: risk and safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Qingshui; Gao, Zhiqiang; Ning, Jicai; Bi, Xiaoli; Gao, Wei

    2014-10-01

    Nuclear power plants are used as an option to meet the demands for electricity due to the low emission of CO2 and other contaminants. The accident at the Fukushima nuclear power plant in 2011 has forced the Chinese government to adjust its original plans for nuclear power. The construction of inland nuclear power plants was stopped, and construction is currently only permitted in coastal zones. However, one obstacle of those plants is that the elevation of those plants is notably low, ranging from 2 to 9 meters and a number of the nuclear power plants are located in or near geological fault zones. In addition, the population density is very high in the coastal zones of China. To reduce those risks of nuclear power plants, central government should close the nuclear power plants within the fault zones, evaluate the combined effects of storm surges, inland floods and tidal waves on nuclear power plants and build closed dams around nuclear power plants to prevent damage from storm surges and tidal waves. The areas without fault zones and with low elevation should be considered to be possible sites for future nuclear power plants if the elevation can be increased using soil or civil materials.

  9. Improving the regulation of safety at DOE nuclear facilities. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    The report strongly recommends that, with the end of the Cold War, safety and health at DOE facilities should be regulated by outside agencies rather than by DOE itself. The three major recommendations are: under any regulatory scheme, DOE must maintain a strong internal safety management system; essentially all aspects of safety at DOE`s nuclear facilities should be externally regulated; and existing agencies rather than a new one should be responsible for external regulation.

  10. Improving the regulation of safety at DOE nuclear facilities. Final report: Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    The report strongly recommends that, with the end of the Cold War, safety and health at DOE facilities should be regulated by outside agencies rather than by any regulatory scheme, DOE must maintain a strong internal safety management system; essentially all aspects of safety at DOE`s nuclear facilities should be externally regulated; and existing agencies rather than a new one should be responsible for external regulation.

  11. Guidelines for preparing criticality safety evaluations at Department of Energy non-reactor nuclear facilities

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-01

    This Department of Energy (DOE) is approved for use by all components of DOE. It contains guidelines that should be followed when preparing Criticality Safety Evaluations that will be used to demonstrate the safety of operations performed at DOE Non-Reactor Nuclear Facilities. Adherence with these guidelines will provide consistency and uniformity in Criticality Safety Evaluations (CSEs) across the complex and will document compliance with DOE Order 5480.24 requirements as they pertain to CSEs.

  12. Additional Studies of the Criticality Safety of Failed Used Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, William BJ J; Wagner, John C

    2013-01-01

    Commercial used nuclear fuel (UNF) in the United States is expected to remain in storage for periods potentially greater than 40 years. Extended storage (ES) time and irradiation to high-burnup values (>45 GWd/t) may increase the potential for fuel failure during normal and accident conditions involving storage and transportation. Fuel failure, depending on the severity, could result in changes to the geometric configuration of the fuel, which has safety and regulatory implications. The likelihood and extent of fuel reconfiguration and its impact on the safety of the UNF is not well understood. The objective of this work is to assess and quantify the impact of fuel reconfiguration due to fuel failure on criticality safety of UNF in storage and transportation casks. Criticality analyses are conducted considering representative UNF designs covering a range of enrichments and burnups in multiple cask systems. Prior work developed a set of failed fuel configuration categories and specific configurations were evaluated to understand trends and quantify the consequences of worst-case potential reconfiguration progressions. These results will be summarized here and indicate that the potential impacts on subcriticality can be rather significant for certain configurations (e.g., >20% keff). It can be concluded that the consequences of credible fuel failure configurations from ES or transportation following ES are manageable (e.g., <5% keff). The current work expands on these efforts and examines some modified scenarios and modified approaches to investigate the effectiveness of some techniques for reducing the calculated increase in keff. The areas included here are more realistic modeling of some assembly types and the effect of reconfiguration of some assemblies in the storage and transportation canister.

  13. Safety analysis of the nuclear chemistry Building 151

    SciTech Connect

    Kvam, D.

    1984-06-29

    This report summarizes the results of a safety analysis that was done on Building 151. The report outlines the methodology, the analysis, and the findings that led to the low hazard classification. No further safety evaluation is indicated at this time. 5 tables.

  14. Nuclear Reactor Safety--The APS Submits its Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Physics Today, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Presents the summary section of the American Physical Society (APS) report on the safety features of the light-water reactor, reviews the design, construction, and operation of a reactor and outlines the primary engineered safety features. Summarizes the major recommendations of the study group. (GS)

  15. ASME Nuclear Crane Standards for Enhanced Crane Safety and Increased Profit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parkhurst, Stephen N.

    2000-01-01

    The ASME NOG-1 standard, 'Rules for Construction of Overhead and Gantry Cranes', covers top running cranes for nuclear facilities; with the ASME NUM-1 standard, 'Rules for Construction of Cranes, Monorails, and Hoists', covering the single girder, underhung, wall and jib cranes, as well as the monorails and hoists. These two ASME nuclear crane standards provide criteria for designing, inspecting and testing overhead handling equipment with enhanced safety to meet the 'defense-in-depth' approach of the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) documents NUREG 0554 and NUREG 0612. In addition to providing designs for enhanced safety, the ASME nuclear crane standards provide a basis for purchasing overhead handling equipment with standard safety features, based upon accepted engineering principles, and including performance and environmental parameters specific to nuclear facilities. The ASME NOG-1 and ASME NUM-1 standards not only provide enhanced safety for handling a critical load, but also increase profit by minimizing the possibility of load drops, by reducing cumbersome operating restrictions, and by providing the foundation for a sound licensing position. The ASME nuclear crane standards can also increase profit by providing the designs and information to help ensure that the right standard equipment is purchased. Additionally, the ASME nuclear crane standards can increase profit by providing designs and information to help address current issues, such as the qualification of nuclear plant cranes for making 'planned engineered lifts' for steam generator replacement and decommissioning.

  16. 78 FR 67206 - Qualification Tests for Safety-Related Actuators in Nuclear Power Plants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-08

    ... Plants'' on May 1, 2013, (78 FR 25488) for a 60 day public comment period. The public comment period... COMMISSION Qualification Tests for Safety-Related Actuators in Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY: Nuclear... Commission (NRC) is issuing revision 1 to regulatory guide (RG) 1.73, ``Qualification Tests for...

  17. Design and Transient Analysis of Passive Safety Cooling Systems for Advanced Nuclear Reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galvez, Cristhian

    2011-12-01

    The Pebble Bed Advanced High Temperature Reactor (PB-AHTR) is a pebble fueled, liquid salt cooled, high temperature nuclear reactor design that can be used for electricity generation or other applications requiring the availability of heat at elevated temperatures. A stage in the design evolution of this plant requires the analysis of the plant during a variety of potential transients to understand the primary and safety cooling system response. This study focuses on the performance of the passive safety cooling system with a dual purpose, to assess the capacity to maintain the core at safe temperatures and to assist the design process of this system to achieve this objective. The analysis requires the use of complex computational tools for simulation and verification using analytical solutions and comparisons with experimental data. This investigation builds upon previous detailed design work for the PB-AHTR components, including the core, reactivity control mechanisms and the intermediate heat exchanger, developed in 2008. In addition the study of this reference plant design employs a wealth of auxiliary information including thermal-hydraulic physical phenomena correlations for multiple geometries and thermophysical properties for the constituents of the plant. Finally, the set of performance requirements and limitations imposed from physical constrains and safety considerations provide with a criteria and metrics for acceptability of the design. The passive safety cooling system concept is turned into a detailed design as a result from this study. A methodology for the design of air-cooled passive safety systems was developed and a transient analysis of the plant, evaluating a scrammed loss of forced cooling event was performed. Furthermore, a design optimization study of the passive safety system and an approach for the validation and verification of the analysis is presented. This study demonstrates that the resulting point design responds properly to the

  18. Nuclear criticality safety evaluation of large cylinder cleaning operations in X-705, Portsmouth Gaseous diffusion Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Sheaffer, M.K.; Keeton, S.C.; Lutz, H.F.

    1995-06-01

    This report evaluates nuclear criticality safety for large cylinder cleaning operations in the Decontamination and Recovery Facility, X-705, at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. A general description of current cleaning procedures and required hardware/equipment is presented, and documentation for large cylinder cleaning operations is identified and described. Control parameters, design features, administrative controls, and safety systems relevant to nuclear criticality are discussed individually, followed by an overall assessment based on the Double Contingency Principle. Recommendations for enhanced safety are suggested, and issues for increased efficiency are presented.

  19. Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Safety Basis Implementation Strategy

    SciTech Connect

    TRAWINSKI, B.J.

    2000-02-08

    The objective of the Safety Basis Implementation is to ensure that implementation of activities is accomplished in order to support readiness to move spent fuel from K West Basin. Activities may be performed directly by the Safety Basis Implementation Team or they may be performed by other organizations and tracked by the Team. This strategy will focus on five key elements, (1) Administration of Safety Basis Implementation (general items), (2) Implementing documents, (3) Implementing equipment (including verification of operability), (4) Training, (5) SNF Project Technical Requirements (STRS) database system.

  20. Characterization and improvement of the nuclear safety culture through self-assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Levin, H.A.; McGehee, R.B.; Cottle, W.T.

    1996-12-31

    Organizational culture has a powerful influence on overall corporate performance. The ability to sustain superior results in ensuring the public`s health and safety is predicated on an organization`s deeply embedded values and behavioral norms and how these affect the ability to change and seek continuous improvement. The nuclear industry is developing increased recognition of the relationship of culture to nuclear safety performance as a critical element of corporate strategy. This paper describes a self-assessment methodology designed to characterize and improve the nuclear safety culture, including processes for addressing employee concerns. This methodology has been successfully applied on more than 30 occasions in the last several years, resulting in measurable improvements in safety performance and quality and employee motivation, productivity, and morale. Benefits and lessons learned are also presented.

  1. Survey of systems safety analysis methods and their application to nuclear waste management systems

    SciTech Connect

    Pelto, P.J.; Winegardner, W.K.; Gallucci, R.H.V.

    1981-11-01

    This report reviews system safety analysis methods and examines their application to nuclear waste management systems. The safety analysis methods examined include expert opinion, maximum credible accident approach, design basis accidents approach, hazard indices, preliminary hazards analysis, failure modes and effects analysis, fault trees, event trees, cause-consequence diagrams, G0 methodology, Markov modeling, and a general category of consequence analysis models. Previous and ongoing studies on the safety of waste management systems are discussed along with their limitations and potential improvements. The major safety methods and waste management safety related studies are surveyed. This survey provides information on what safety methods are available, what waste management safety areas have been analyzed, and what are potential areas for future study.

  2. The Brighton Collaboration Viral Vector Vaccines Safety Working Group (V3SWG).

    PubMed

    Chen, Robert T; Carbery, Baevin; Mac, Lisa; Berns, Kenneth I; Chapman, Louisa; Condit, Richard C; Excler, Jean-Louis; Gurwith, Marc; Hendry, Michael; Khan, Arifa S; Khuri-Bulos, Najwa; Klug, Bettina; Robertson, James S; Seligman, Stephen J; Sheets, Rebecca; Williamson, Anna-Lise

    2015-01-01

    Recombinant viral vectors provide an effective means for heterologous antigen expression in vivo and thus represent promising platforms for developing novel vaccines against human pathogens from Ebola to tuberculosis. An increasing number of candidate viral vector vaccines are entering human clinical trials. The Brighton Collaboration Viral Vector Vaccines Safety Working Group (V3SWG) was formed to improve our ability to anticipate potential safety issues and meaningfully assess or interpret safety data, thereby facilitating greater public acceptance when licensed.

  3. Intervention effects on safety compliance and citizenship behaviors: Evidence from the Work, Family, and Health Study.

    PubMed

    Hammer, Leslie B; Johnson, Ryan C; Crain, Tori L; Bodner, Todd; Kossek, Ellen Ernst; Davis, Kelly D; Kelly, Erin L; Buxton, Orfeu M; Karuntzos, Georgia; Chosewood, L Casey; Berkman, Lisa

    2016-02-01

    We tested the effects of a work-family intervention on employee reports of safety compliance and organizational citizenship behaviors in 30 health care facilities using a group-randomized trial. Based on conservation of resources theory and the work-home resources model, we hypothesized that implementing a work-family intervention aimed at increasing contextual resources via supervisor support for work and family, and employee control over work time, would lead to improved personal resources and increased employee performance on the job in the form of self-reported safety compliance and organizational citizenship behaviors. Multilevel analyses used survey data from 1,524 employees at baseline and at 6-month and 12-month postintervention follow-ups. Significant intervention effects were observed for safety compliance at the 6-month, and organizational citizenship behaviors at the 12-month, follow-ups. More specifically, results demonstrate that the intervention protected against declines in employee self-reported safety compliance and organizational citizenship behaviors compared with employees in the control facilities. The hypothesized mediators of perceptions of family-supportive supervisor behaviors, control over work time, and work-family conflict (work-to-family conflict, family-to-work conflict) were not significantly improved by the intervention. However, baseline perceptions of family-supportive supervisor behaviors, control over work time, and work-family climate were significant moderators of the intervention effect on the self-reported safety compliance and organizational citizenship behavior outcomes.

  4. The health care work environment and adverse health and safety consequences for nurses.

    PubMed

    Geiger-Brown, Jeanne; Lipscomb, Jane

    2010-01-01

    Nurses' working conditions are inextricably linked to the quality of care that is provided to patients and patients' safety. These same working conditions are associated with health and safety outcomes for nurses and other health care providers. This chapter describes aspects of the nursing work environment that have been linked to hazards and adverse exposures for nurses, as well as the most common health and safety outcomes of nursing work. We include studies from 2000 to the present by nurse researchers, studies of nurses as subjects, and studies of workers under similar working conditions that could translate to nurses' work environment. We explore a number of work organization factors including shift work and extended work hours, safety climate and culture, teamwork, and communication. We also describe environmental hazards, including chemical hazards (e.g., waste anesthetics, hazardous drugs, cleaning compounds) and airborne and bloodborne pathogen exposure. Nurses' health and safety outcomes include physical (e.g., musculoskeletal disorders, gastrointestinal, slips, trips and falls, physical assault) and psychosocial outcomes (e.g., burnout, work-family conflict). Finally, we present recommendations for future research to further protect nurses and all health care workers from a range of hazardous working conditions.

  5. Intervention effects on safety compliance and citizenship behaviors: Evidence from the Work, Family, and Health Study.

    PubMed

    Hammer, Leslie B; Johnson, Ryan C; Crain, Tori L; Bodner, Todd; Kossek, Ellen Ernst; Davis, Kelly D; Kelly, Erin L; Buxton, Orfeu M; Karuntzos, Georgia; Chosewood, L Casey; Berkman, Lisa

    2016-02-01

    We tested the effects of a work-family intervention on employee reports of safety compliance and organizational citizenship behaviors in 30 health care facilities using a group-randomized trial. Based on conservation of resources theory and the work-home resources model, we hypothesized that implementing a work-family intervention aimed at increasing contextual resources via supervisor support for work and family, and employee control over work time, would lead to improved personal resources and increased employee performance on the job in the form of self-reported safety compliance and organizational citizenship behaviors. Multilevel analyses used survey data from 1,524 employees at baseline and at 6-month and 12-month postintervention follow-ups. Significant intervention effects were observed for safety compliance at the 6-month, and organizational citizenship behaviors at the 12-month, follow-ups. More specifically, results demonstrate that the intervention protected against declines in employee self-reported safety compliance and organizational citizenship behaviors compared with employees in the control facilities. The hypothesized mediators of perceptions of family-supportive supervisor behaviors, control over work time, and work-family conflict (work-to-family conflict, family-to-work conflict) were not significantly improved by the intervention. However, baseline perceptions of family-supportive supervisor behaviors, control over work time, and work-family climate were significant moderators of the intervention effect on the self-reported safety compliance and organizational citizenship behavior outcomes. PMID:26348479

  6. Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) project Integrated Safety Management System phase I and II Verification Review Plan

    SciTech Connect

    CARTER, R.P.

    1999-11-19

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) commits to accomplishing its mission safely. To ensure this objective is met, DOE issued DOE P 450.4, Safety Management System Policy, and incorporated safety management into the DOE Acquisition Regulations ([DEAR] 48 CFR 970.5204-2 and 90.5204-78). Integrated Safety Management (ISM) requires contractors to integrate safety into management and work practices at all levels so that missions are achieved while protecting the public, the worker, and the environment. The contractor is required to describe the Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS) to be used to implement the safety performance objective.

  7. Plant Modernization with Digital Reactor Protection System Safety System Upgrades at US Nuclear Power Stations

    SciTech Connect

    Heckle, Wm. Lloyd; Bolian, Tricia W.

    2006-07-01

    As the current fleet of nuclear power plants in the US reaches 25+ years of operation, obsolescence is driving many utilities to implement upgrades to both their safety and non-safety-related Instrumentation and Control (I and C) Systems. Digital technology is the predominant replacement technology for these upgrades. Within the last 15 years, digital control systems have been deployed in non-safety- related control applications at many utilities. In addition, a few utilities have replaced small safety-related systems utilizing digital technology. These systems have shown digital technology to be robust, reliable and simpler to maintain. Based upon this success, acceptance of digital technology has gained momentum with both utilities and regulatory agencies. Today, in an effort to extend the operating lives of their nuclear stations and resolve obsolescence of critical components, utilities are now pursuing digital technology for replacement of their primary safety systems. AREVA is leading this effort in the United States with the first significant digital upgrade of a major safety system. AREVA has previously completed upgrades to safety-related control systems emergency diesel engine controls and governor control systems for a hydro station which serves as the emergency power source for a nuclear station. Currently, AREVA is implementing the replacement of both the Reactor Protection System (RPS) and the Engineered Safety Features Actuation System (ESFAS) on all three units at a US PWR site. (authors)

  8. Analysis of National Major Work Safety Accidents in China, 2003–2012

    PubMed Central

    YE, Yunfeng; ZHANG, Siheng; RAO, Jiaming; WANG, Haiqing; LI, Yang; WANG, Shengyong; DONG, Xiaomei

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study provides a national profile of major work safety accidents in China, which cause more than 10 fatalities per accident, intended to provide scientific basis for prevention measures and strategies to reduce major work safety accidents and deaths. Methods: Data from 2003–2012 Census of major work safety accidents were collected from State Administration of Work Safety System (SAWS). Published literature and statistical yearbook were also included to implement information. We analyzed the frequency of accidents and deaths, trend, geographic distribution and injury types. Additionally, we discussed the severity and urgency of emergency rescue by types of accidents. Results: A total of 877 major work safety accidents were reported, resulting in 16,795 deaths and 9,183 injuries. The numbers of accidents and deaths, mortality rate and incidence of major accidents have declined in recent years. The mortality rate and incidence was 0.71 and 1.20 per 106 populations in 2012, respectively. Transportation and mining contributed to the highest number of major accidents and deaths. Major aviation and railway accidents caused more casualties per incident, while collapse, machinery, electrical shock accidents and tailing dam accidents were the most severe situation that resulted in bigger proportion of death. Conclusion: Ten years’ major work safety accident data indicate that the frequency of accidents and number of eaths was declined and several safety concerns persist in some segments. PMID:27057515

  9. Nuclear criticality safety controls for uranium deposits during D and D at the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Haire, M.J.; Jordan, W.C.; Jollay, L.J. III; Dahl, T.L.

    1997-02-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Deputy Assistant Secretary of Energy for Environmental Management has issued a challenge to complete DOE environmental cleanup within a decade. The response for Oak Ridge facilities is in accordance with the DOE ten-year plan which calls for completion of > 95% of environmental management work by the year 2006. This will result in a 99% risk reduction and in a significant savings in base line costs in waste management (legacy waste); remedial action (groundwater, soil, etc.); and decontamination and decommissioning (D and D). It is assumed that there will be long-term institutional control of cascade equipment, i.e., there will be no walk away from sites, and that there will be firm radioactivity release limits by 1999 for recycle metals. An integral part of these plants is the removal of uranium deposits which pose nuclear criticality safety concerns in the shut down of the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant. DOE has initiated the Nuclear Criticality Stabilization Program to improve nuclear criticality safety by removing the larger uranium deposits from unfavorable geometry equipment. Nondestructive assay (NDA) measurements have identified the location of these deposits. The objective of the K-25 Site Nuclear Criticality Stabilization Program is to remove and place uranium deposits into safe geometry storage containers to meet the double contingency principle. Each step of the removal process results in safer conditions where multiple controls are present. Upon completion of the Program, nuclear criticality risks will be greatly reduced.

  10. 42 CFR 3.206 - Confidentiality of patient safety work product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... patient safety work product for use in a criminal proceeding, but only after a court makes an in-camera...; (3) Telephone numbers; (4) Fax numbers; (5) Electronic mail addresses; (6) Social security numbers or... at 45 CFR 164.514(e)(2) have been removed. (5) Disclosure of nonidentifiable patient safety...

  11. Safety and the Supervisor. A Safe System of Work. Members' Occasional Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corfield, Tony

    In 1981 four supervisors at a chemical company in Great Britain were each fined 100 pounds under the country's 1974 Health and Safety at Work Act after a fifth supervisor was injured because of a faulty interlock guard. The supervisors were convicted because they had all known about but had done nothing to rectify the potential safety hazard. The…

  12. Occupational Safety: Orientation to the World of Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Clarence; Wills, Richard

    The guide is one of a series of 10 units composing an orientation to the world of work course designed especially for disadvantaged and handicapped students in the ninth and tenth grades. It is designed to provide basic and remedial instruction in personal development, math, and language skills while providing information and skills basic or…

  13. Framework for Integrating Safety, Operations, Security, and Safeguards in the Design and Operation of Nuclear Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Darby, John L.; Horak, Karl Emanuel; LaChance, Jeffrey L.; Tolk, Keith Michael; Whitehead, Donnie Wayne

    2007-10-01

    The US is currently on the brink of a nuclear renaissance that will result in near-term construction of new nuclear power plants. In addition, the Department of Energy’s (DOE) ambitious new Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) program includes facilities for reprocessing spent nuclear fuel and reactors for transmuting safeguards material. The use of nuclear power and material has inherent safety, security, and safeguards (SSS) concerns that can impact the operation of the facilities. Recent concern over terrorist attacks and nuclear proliferation led to an increased emphasis on security and safeguard issues as well as the more traditional safety emphasis. To meet both domestic and international requirements, nuclear facilities include specific SSS measures that are identified and evaluated through the use of detailed analysis techniques. In the past, these individual assessments have not been integrated, which led to inefficient and costly design and operational requirements. This report provides a framework for a new paradigm where safety, operations, security, and safeguards (SOSS) are integrated into the design and operation of a new facility to decrease cost and increase effectiveness. Although the focus of this framework is on new nuclear facilities, most of the concepts could be applied to any new, high-risk facility.

  14. 33 CFR 165.104 - Safety Zone: Vessel Launches, Bath Iron Works, Kennebec River, Bath, Maine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., Bath Iron Works, Kennebec River, Bath, Maine. 165.104 Section 165.104 Navigation and Navigable Waters... Guard District § 165.104 Safety Zone: Vessel Launches, Bath Iron Works, Kennebec River, Bath, Maine. (a... Bath Iron Works dry dock while it is being moved to and from its moored position at the Bath Iron...

  15. 33 CFR 165.104 - Safety Zone: Vessel Launches, Bath Iron Works, Kennebec River, Bath, Maine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., Bath Iron Works, Kennebec River, Bath, Maine. 165.104 Section 165.104 Navigation and Navigable Waters... Guard District § 165.104 Safety Zone: Vessel Launches, Bath Iron Works, Kennebec River, Bath, Maine. (a... Bath Iron Works dry dock while it is being moved to and from its moored position at the Bath Iron...

  16. 33 CFR 165.104 - Safety Zone: Vessel Launches, Bath Iron Works, Kennebec River, Bath, Maine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., Bath Iron Works, Kennebec River, Bath, Maine. 165.104 Section 165.104 Navigation and Navigable Waters... Guard District § 165.104 Safety Zone: Vessel Launches, Bath Iron Works, Kennebec River, Bath, Maine. (a... Bath Iron Works dry dock while it is being moved to and from its moored position at the Bath Iron...

  17. 33 CFR 165.104 - Safety Zone: Vessel Launches, Bath Iron Works, Kennebec River, Bath, Maine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., Bath Iron Works, Kennebec River, Bath, Maine. 165.104 Section 165.104 Navigation and Navigable Waters... Guard District § 165.104 Safety Zone: Vessel Launches, Bath Iron Works, Kennebec River, Bath, Maine. (a... Bath Iron Works dry dock while it is being moved to and from its moored position at the Bath Iron...

  18. Preliminary nuclear safety assessment of the NEPST (Topaz II) space reactor program

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, A.C.

    1993-01-01

    The United States (US) Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO) decided to investigate the possibility of launching a Russian Topaz II space nuclear power system. A preliminary nuclear safety assessment was conducted to determine whether or not a space mission could be conducted safely and within budget constraints. As part of this assessment, a safety policy and safety functional requirements were developed to guide both the safety assessment and future Topaz II activities. A review of the Russian flight safety program was conducted and documented. Our preliminary nuclear safety assessment included a number of deterministic analyses, such as; neutronic analysis of normal and accident configurations, an evaluation of temperature coefficients of reactivity, a reentry and disposal analysis, an analysis of postulated launch abort impact accidents, and an analysis of postulated propellant fire and explosion accidents. Based on the assessment to date, it appears that it will be possible to safely launch the Topaz II system in the US with a modification to preclude water flooded criticality. A full scale safety program is now underway.

  19. The role of work habits in the motivation of food safety behaviors.

    PubMed

    Hinsz, Verlin B; Nickell, Gary S; Park, Ernest S

    2007-06-01

    The authors considered work habits within an integrated framework of motivated behavior. A distinction made between automatic and controlled action led to 2 measures of work habits: a habit strength measure reflecting the 4 characteristics of automaticity and a measure of work routines under conscious control. Workers at a turkey processing plant (N = 162) responded to an extensive survey of these work habits measures with regard to food safety. Results indicated that attitudes and subjective norms predicted food safety intentions. These intentions, along with perceived behavior control and work habits, predicted reports of food safety behaviors. A mediation analysis indicated that the work routines measure accounted for the variance in self-reported behavior and mediated any effect of the habit strength measure.

  20. Work and Risk: Perceptions of Nuclear-Power Personnel. a Study in Grounded Theory.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fields, Claire Dewitt

    1992-01-01

    The utility industry has devoted time and money to assure personnel within nuclear power plants are informed about occupational risks. Radiation-protection training programs are designed to present information to employees about occupational radiation and protective procedures. Work -related concerns are known to create stress, affect the morale of the workforce, influence collective bargaining, and increase compensation claims. This study was designed to determine perceptions of risk among employees of nuclear power plants and identify variables that influence these perceptions. Four power plants were included in the study, one in Canada and three in the United States. Data were generated through participant observations and interviews of 350 participants during a period of 3 weeks at each plant. Data were gathered and analyzed following procedures advanced by Grounded Theory, a naturalistic methodology used in this study. Training content, information, and communication materials were additional sources of data. Findings indicated employees believed health and safety risks existed within the work environment. Perceptions of risk were influenced by training quality, the work environment, nuclear myths and images of the general public, and fears of family members. Among the three groups of workers, administration personnel, security personnel, and radiation workers, the latter identified a larger number of risks. Workers perceived radiation risks, shift work, and steam pipe ruptures as high-level concerns. Experiencing stress, making mistakes, and fear of sabotage were concerns shared among all employee groups at various levels of concern. Strategies developed by employees were used to control risk. Strategies included teamwork, humor, monitoring, avoidance, reframing, and activism. When risks were perceived as uncontrollable, the employee left the plant. A coping strategy of transferring concerns about radiological risks to nonradiological risks were uncovered in

  1. Safety against lightning for linemen working on de-energized power lines

    SciTech Connect

    Mousa, A.M.; Srivastava, K.D.

    1986-01-01

    Where the risk of accidental power-frequency energization is concerned, the safety ground has a short-circuit discharge duty determined by the configuration and parameters of the power system. Safety is thus assured by selecting a safety ground having a short-circuit safety rating which matches the duty imposed by the power system. Up to now, a similar matching for lightning currents has not been possible. This paper addresses this problem by: 1. Determining the lightning current rating of typical safety grounds. 2. Calculating the lightning current discharge duty of safety grounds in terms of the insulatuon level of the line and the distance from the location of the thunderstorm. The analysis shows that special precautions are needed when working on power lines of voltage classes above 360 kV.

  2. [The psychodynamics of work with iodine-131 in nuclear medicine].

    PubMed

    da Silveira, Leila Cunha; Guilam, Maria Cristina Rodrigues; de Oliveira, Sergio Ricardo

    2013-11-01

    This paper seeks to demonstrate to what extent alternative forms adopted in the working process of professionals with iodine-131 in nuclear medicine can assist in managing risks of ionizing radiation. The design is based on the main theoretical concepts of the psychodynamics of work in relation to workers' health. In the case study, data were gathered from 15 workers of a public health institution in the city of Rio de Janeiro by means of semi-structured individual interviews and non-systematic direct observation. Bardin's content analysis method was used for the data analysis. When comparing the results obtained with standard prescribed models, it was found that the respondents had changed their approach. They developed individual defense mechanisms, such as denial of risk, and collective defensive strategies, leading them to tackle the greatest danger as a form of defense. The defensive role of ideologies of the profession are manifest. On the contrary, the acquired knowledge derived from prudence proved effective in minimizing the risks of radiation exposure. The authors discuss the limitations of security management that does not consider the workers' subjectivity and inherent knowledge. PMID:24196882

  3. Lessons in Nuclear Safety, Panel on Integration of People and Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Pinkston, David

    2015-02-24

    Four slides present a historical perspective on the evolution of nuclear safety, a description of systemic misalignment (available resources do not match expectations, demographic cliff developing, promulgation of increased expectations and new requirements proceeds unabated), and needs facing nuclear safety (financial stability, operational stability, and succession planning). The following conclusions are stated under the heading "Nuclear Safety - 'The System'": the current universe of requirements is too large for the resource pool available; the current universe of requirements has too many different sources of interpretation; there are so many indicators that it’s hard to know what is leading (or important); and the net result can come to defy integrated comprehension at the worker level.

  4. Strengthening safety compliance in nuclear power operations: a role-based approach.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Córcoles, Mario; Gracia, Francisco J; Tomás, Inés; Peiró, José M

    2014-07-01

    Safety compliance is of paramount importance in guaranteeing the safe running of nuclear power plants. However, it depends mostly on procedures that do not always involve the safest outcomes. This article introduces an empirical model based on the organizational role theory to analyze the influence of legitimate sources of expectations (procedures formalization and leadership) on workers' compliance behaviors. The sample was composed of 495 employees from two Spanish nuclear power plants. Structural equation analysis showed that, in spite of some problematic effects of proceduralization (such as role conflict and role ambiguity), procedure formalization along with an empowering leadership style lead to safety compliance by clarifying a worker's role in safety. Implications of these findings for safety research are outlined, as well as their practical implications.

  5. Assessment of radiation safety awareness among nuclear medicine nurses: a pilot study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yunus, N. A.; Abdullah, M. H. R. O.; Said, M. A.; Ch'ng, P. E.

    2014-11-01

    All nuclear medicine nurses need to have some knowledge and awareness on radiation safety. At present, there is no study to address this issue in Malaysia. The aims of this study were (1) to determine the level of knowledge and awareness on radiation safety among nuclear medicine nurses at Putrajaya Hospital in Malaysia and (2) to assess the effectiveness of a training program provided by the hospital to increase the knowledge and awareness of the nuclear medicine nurses. A total of 27 respondents attending a training program on radiation safety were asked to complete a questionnaire. The questionnaire consists 16 items and were categorized into two main areas, namely general radiation knowledge and radiation safety. Survey data were collected before and after the training and were analyzed using descriptive statistics and paired sample t-test. Respondents were scored out of a total of 16 marks with 8 marks for each area. The findings showed that the range of total scores obtained by the nuclear medicine nurses before and after the training were 6-14 (with a mean score of 11.19) and 13-16 marks (with a mean score of 14.85), respectively. Findings also revealed that the mean score for the area of general radiation knowledge (7.59) was higher than that of the radiation safety (7.26). Currently, the knowledge and awareness on radiation safety among the nuclear medicine nurses are at the moderate level. It is recommended that a national study be conducted to assess and increase the level of knowledge and awareness among all nuclear medicine nurses in Malaysia.

  6. Technology, safety, and costs of decommissioning reference nuclear research and test reactors. Main report

    SciTech Connect

    Konzek, G.J.; Ludwick, J.D.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Smith, R.I.

    1982-03-01

    Safety and Cost Information is developed for the conceptual decommissioning of two representative licensed nuclear research and test reactors. Three decommissioning alternatives are studied to obtain comparisons between costs (in 1981 dollars), occupational radiation doses, potential radiation dose to the public, and other safety impacts. The alternatives considered are: DECON (immediate decontamination), SAFSTOR (safe storage followed by deferred decontamination), and ENTOMB (entombment). The study results are presented in two volumes. Volume 1 (Main Report) contains the results in summary form.

  7. Safety-related issues associated with implementing wireless systems in nuclear facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Kaldenbach, B. J.; Ewing, P. D.; Moore, M. R.; Korsah, K.; Antonescu, C. E.; Govan, T. V.

    2006-07-01

    Currently, wireless technology is not used as an integral element of safety-related systems in nuclear facilities. The most prevalent introductory uses of wireless technology are for in-facility communications among personnel and for supplemental information transmission. However, further system upgrades and implementations at new facilities might introduce wireless communications into safety-significant applications. This paper documents the deployment issues and implementation considerations that can contribute to the technical basis for guidance on wireless systems. (authors)

  8. 10 CFR 50.49 - Environmental qualification of electric equipment important to safety for nuclear power plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... important to safety for nuclear power plants. 50.49 Section 50.49 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION... nuclear power plants. (a) Each holder of or an applicant for an operating license issued under this part... nuclear power plant for which the certifications required under § 50.82(a)(1) or § 52.110(a)(1) of...

  9. 10 CFR 50.49 - Environmental qualification of electric equipment important to safety for nuclear power plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... important to safety for nuclear power plants. 50.49 Section 50.49 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION... nuclear power plants. (a) Each holder of or an applicant for an operating license issued under this part... nuclear power plant for which the certifications required under § 50.82(a)(1) or § 52.110(a)(1) of...

  10. 10 CFR 50.49 - Environmental qualification of electric equipment important to safety for nuclear power plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... important to safety for nuclear power plants. 50.49 Section 50.49 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION... nuclear power plants. (a) Each holder of or an applicant for an operating license issued under this part... nuclear power plant for which the certifications required under § 50.82(a)(1) or § 52.110(a)(1) of...

  11. 10 CFR 50.49 - Environmental qualification of electric equipment important to safety for nuclear power plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... important to safety for nuclear power plants. 50.49 Section 50.49 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION... nuclear power plants. (a) Each holder of or an applicant for an operating license issued under this part... nuclear power plant for which the certifications required under § 50.82(a)(1) or § 52.110(a)(1) of...

  12. 10 CFR 50.49 - Environmental qualification of electric equipment important to safety for nuclear power plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... important to safety for nuclear power plants. 50.49 Section 50.49 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION... nuclear power plants. (a) Each holder of or an applicant for an operating license issued under this part... nuclear power plant for which the certifications required under § 50.82(a)(1) or § 52.110(a)(1) of...

  13. Nuclear criticality safety evaluation of SRS 9971 shipping package

    SciTech Connect

    Vescovi, P.J.

    1993-02-01

    This evaluation is requested to revise the criticality evaluation used to generate Chapter 6 (Criticality Evaluation) of the Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) for shipment Of UO{sub 3} product from the Uranium Solidification Facility (USF) in the SRS 9971 shipping package. The pertinent document requesting this evaluation is included as Attachment I. The results of the evaluation are given in Attachment II which is written as Chapter 6 of a NRC format SARP.

  14. Nuclear criticality safety experiments, calculations, and analyses: 1958 to 1982. Volume 1. Lookup tables

    SciTech Connect

    Koponen, B.L.; Hampel, V.E.

    1982-10-21

    This compilation contains 688 complete summaries of papers on nuclear criticality safety as presented at meetings of the American Nuclear Society (ANS). The selected papers contain criticality parameters for fissile materials derived from experiments and calculations, as well as criticality safety analyses for fissile material processing, transport, and storage. The compilation was developed as a component of the Nuclear Criticality Information System (NCIS) now under development at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The compilation is presented in two volumes: Volume 1 contains a directory to the ANS Transaction volume and page number where each summary was originally published, the author concordance, and the subject concordance derived from the keyphrases in titles. Volume 2 contains - in chronological order - the full-text summaries, reproduced here by permission of the American Nuclear Society from their Transactions, volumes 1-41.

  15. Thermal-work strain in law enforcement personnel during chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear (CBRN) training

    PubMed Central

    Yokota, M; Karis, A J; Tharion, W J

    2014-01-01

    Background: Thermal safety standards for the use of chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear (CBRN) ensembles have been established for various US occupations, but not for law enforcement personnel. Objectives: We examined thermal strain levels of 30 male US law enforcement personnel who participated in CBRN field training in Arizona, Florida, and Massachusetts. Methods: Physiological responses were examined using unobtrusive heart rate (HR) monitors and a simple thermoregulatory model to predict core temperature (Tc) using HR and environment. Results: Thermal strain levels varied by environments, activity levels, and type of CBRN ensemble. Arizona and Florida volunteers working in hot-dry and hot-humid environment indicated high heat strain (predicted max Tc>38.5°C). The cool environment of Massachusetts reduced thermal strain although thermal strains were occasionally moderate. Conclusions: The non-invasive method of using physiological monitoring and thermoregulatory modeling could improve law enforcement mission to reduce the risk of heat illness or injury. PMID:24999847

  16. Effects of extended work shifts on employee fatigue, health, satisfaction, work/family balance, and patient safety.

    PubMed

    Estryn-Béhar, Madeleine; Van der Heijden, Beatrice I J M

    2012-01-01

    12-hour shifts are quickly spreading in Europe. From our multivariate analysis concerning 25,924 European nurses, including twenty explanatory variables simultaneously, we found that work schedule itself is not a major determinant factor. Nurses aim to choose or accept night shifts or 12-hour shift in order to reduce their work/home conflicts, however, at the expense of the patient's safety, as well as their own health and safety. Therefore, it is important to develop measures, such as extended child care, association of nurses to the elaboration of their rota, 9- or 10-hour shifts in the afternoon, allowing naps during night shifts, and reduction of changing shifts with short notice. Work schedules must be organized in order to allow time for shift handover, social support and team building.

  17. Potential safety-related incidents with possible applicability to a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, W.C.; Durant, W.S.; Dexter, A.H.

    1980-12-01

    The occurrence of certain potential events in nuclear fuel reprocessing plants could lead to significant consequences involving risk to operating personnel or to the general public. This document is a compilation of such potential initiating events in nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. Possible general incidents and incidents specific to key operations in fuel reprocessing are considered, including possible causes, consequences, and safety features designed to prevent, detect, or mitigate such incidents.

  18. Organizational analysis and safety for utilities with nuclear power plants: perspectives for organizational assessment. Volume 2. [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect

    Osborn, R.N.; Olson, J.; Sommers, P.E.; McLaughlin, S.D.; Jackson, M.S.; Nadel, M.V.; Scott, W.G.; Connor, P.E.; Kerwin, N.; Kennedy, J.K. Jr.

    1983-08-01

    This two-volume report presents the results of initial research on the feasibility of applying organizational factors in nuclear power plant (NPP) safety assessment. Volume 1 of this report contains an overview of the literature, a discussion of available safety indicators, and a series of recommendations for more systematically incorporating organizational analysis into investigations of nuclear power plant safety. The six chapters of this volume discuss the major elements in our general approach to safety in the nuclear industry. The chapters include information on organizational design and safety; organizational governance; utility environment and safety related outcomes; assessments by selected federal agencies; review of data sources in the nuclear power industry; and existing safety indicators.

  19. Conditions for the successful integration of Human and Organizational Factors (HOF) in the nuclear safety analysis.

    PubMed

    Tosello, Michèle; Lévêque, Françoise; Dutillieu, Stéphanie; Hernandez, Guillaume; Vautier, Jean-François

    2012-01-01

    This communication presents some elements which come from the experience feedback at CEA about the conditions for the successful integration of HOF in the nuclear safety analysis. To point out some of these conditions, one of the concepts proposed by Edgar Morin to describe the functioning of "complex" systems: the dialogical principle has been used. The idea is to look for some dialogical pairs. The elements of this kind of pair are both complementary and antagonist to one another. Three dialogical pairs are presented in this communication. The first two pairs are related to the organization of the HOF network and the last one is related to the methods which are used to analyse the working situations. The three pairs are: specialist - non-specialist actors of the network, centralized - distributed human resources in the network and microscopic - macroscopic levels of HOF methods to analyse the working situations. To continuously improve these three dialogical pairs, it is important to keep the differences which exist between the two elements of a pair and to find and maintain a balance between the two elements of the pairs. PMID:22317122

  20. Conditions for the successful integration of Human and Organizational Factors (HOF) in the nuclear safety analysis.

    PubMed

    Tosello, Michèle; Lévêque, Françoise; Dutillieu, Stéphanie; Hernandez, Guillaume; Vautier, Jean-François

    2012-01-01

    This communication presents some elements which come from the experience feedback at CEA about the conditions for the successful integration of HOF in the nuclear safety analysis. To point out some of these conditions, one of the concepts proposed by Edgar Morin to describe the functioning of "complex" systems: the dialogical principle has been used. The idea is to look for some dialogical pairs. The elements of this kind of pair are both complementary and antagonist to one another. Three dialogical pairs are presented in this communication. The first two pairs are related to the organization of the HOF network and the last one is related to the methods which are used to analyse the working situations. The three pairs are: specialist - non-specialist actors of the network, centralized - distributed human resources in the network and microscopic - macroscopic levels of HOF methods to analyse the working situations. To continuously improve these three dialogical pairs, it is important to keep the differences which exist between the two elements of a pair and to find and maintain a balance between the two elements of the pairs.

  1. 48 CFR 52.222-4 - Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act-Overtime Compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... duplicate those required for construction work by Department of Labor regulations at 29 CFR 5.5(a)(3... CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.222-4 Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act—Overtime... excess of the standard workweek of 40 hours without paying overtime wages required by the Contract...

  2. 49 CFR 214.335 - On-track safety procedures for roadway work groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD WORKPLACE SAFETY Roadway Worker... or permit a roadway worker who is a member of a roadway work group to foul a track unless on-track....331 of this part. (b) No roadway worker who is a member of a roadway work group shall foul a...

  3. Impact of Long Farm Working Hours on Child Safety Practices in Agricultural Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marlenga, Barbara; Pahwa, Punam; Hagel, Louise; Dosman, James; Pickett, William

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To characterize working hours of adult farm owner-operators and their spouses by season, and to examine associations between working hours and farm safety practices affecting children. Methods: We conducted a secondary analysis of cross-sectional survey data collected as part of an existing study of injury and its determinants.…

  4. Tackling the nuclear manpower shortage: industry, educators must work together

    SciTech Connect

    Witzig, W.

    1981-10-01

    A 50% decline in graduate enrollment and an increase to 50% of foreign nationals among the nuclear engineering students since 1973 at Pennsylvania State University is typical of national trends, which have led to the closing of 13 undergraduate programs across the country. Penn State's proximity to Three Mile Island had less effect than its interactions with high schools and utilities in keeping the nuclear program as strong as it is. Penn State operates three separate career programs to interest high school students in a nuclear career. Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) educational assistance reflects industry interest, but more scholarships are needed to broaden student awareness. (DCK)

  5. Effects of extended work shifts and shift work on patient safety, productivity, and employee health.

    PubMed

    Keller, Simone M

    2009-12-01

    It is estimated 1.3 million health care errors occur each year and of those errors 48,000 to 98,000 result in the deaths of patients (Barger et al., 2006). Errors occur for a variety of reasons, including the effects of extended work hours and shift work. The need for around-the-clock staff coverage has resulted in creative ways to maintain quality patient care, keep health care errors or adverse events to a minimum, and still meet the needs of the organization. One way organizations have attempted to alleviate staff shortages is to create extended work shifts. Instead of the standard 8-hour shift, workers are now working 10, 12, 16, or more hours to provide continuous patient care. Although literature does support these staffing patterns, it cannot be denied that shifts beyond the traditional 8 hours increase staff fatigue, health care errors, and adverse events and outcomes and decrease alertness and productivity. This article includes a review of current literature on shift work, the definition of shift work, error rates and adverse outcomes related to shift work, health effects on shift workers, shift work effects on older workers, recommended optimal shift length, positive and negative effects of shift work on the shift worker, hazards associated with driving after extended shifts, and implications for occupational health nurses.

  6. Passive cooling safety system for liquid metal cooled nuclear reactors

    DOEpatents

    Hunsbedt, Anstein; Boardman, Charles E.; Hui, Marvin M.; Berglund, Robert C.

    1991-01-01

    A liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor having a passive cooling system for removing residual heat resulting from fuel decay during reactor shutdown. The passive cooling system comprises a plurality of partitions surrounding the reactor vessel in spaced apart relation forming intermediate areas for circulating heat transferring fluid which remove and carry away heat from the reactor vessel. The passive cooling system includes a closed primary fluid circuit through the partitions surrounding the reactor vessel and a partially adjoining secondary open fluid circuit for carrying transferred heat out into the atmosphere.

  7. Educating Next Generation Nuclear Criticality Safety Engineers at the Idaho National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    J. D. Bess; J. B. Briggs; A. S. Garcia

    2011-09-01

    One of the challenges in educating our next generation of nuclear safety engineers is the limitation of opportunities to receive significant experience or hands-on training prior to graduation. Such training is generally restricted to on-the-job-training before this new engineering workforce can adequately provide assessment of nuclear systems and establish safety guidelines. Participation in the International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP) and the International Reactor Physics Experiment Evaluation Project (IRPhEP) can provide students and young professionals the opportunity to gain experience and enhance critical engineering skills. The ICSBEP and IRPhEP publish annual handbooks that contain evaluations of experiments along with summarized experimental data and peer-reviewed benchmark specifications to support the validation of neutronics codes, nuclear cross-section data, and the validation of reactor designs. Participation in the benchmark process not only benefits those who use these Handbooks within the international community, but provides the individual with opportunities for professional development, networking with an international community of experts, and valuable experience to be used in future employment. Traditionally students have participated in benchmarking activities via internships at national laboratories, universities, or companies involved with the ICSBEP and IRPhEP programs. Additional programs have been developed to facilitate the nuclear education of students while participating in the benchmark projects. These programs include coordination with the Center for Space Nuclear Research (CSNR) Next Degree Program, the Collaboration with the Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office to train nuclear and criticality safety engineers, and student evaluations as the basis for their Master's thesis in nuclear engineering.

  8. Climatic consequences of nuclear war: Working Group No. 1

    SciTech Connect

    Knox, J.B.

    1985-12-01

    Research needs on the climate consequences of nuclear war were discussed. These include: (1) a better definition of the emissions from massive urban fires; (2) the exploration of prescribed forest burns; (3) the dirty cloud problem; (4) microphysical studies of soot; and (5) simulation of the second summer season after nuclear war. (ACR)

  9. Index to Nuclear Safety: a technical progress review by chrology, permuted title, and author, Volume 11(1) through Volume 20(6)

    SciTech Connect

    Cottrell, W.B.; Passiakos, M.

    1980-06-01

    This index to Nuclear Safety, a bimonthly technical progress review, covers articles published in Nuclear Safety, Volume II, No. 1 (January-February 1970), through Volume 20, No. 6 (November-December 1979). It is divided into three sections: a chronological list of articles (including abstracts) followed by a permuted-title (KWIC) index and an author index. Nuclear Safety, a bimonthly technical progress review prepared by the Nuclear Safety Information Center (NSIC), covers all safety aspects of nuclear power reactors and associated facilities. Over 600 technical articles published in Nuclear Safety in the last ten years are listed in this index.

  10. Index to Nuclear Safety: a technical progress review by chronology, permuted title, and author, Volume 18 (1) through Volume 22 (6)

    SciTech Connect

    Cottrell, W.B.; Passiakos, M.

    1982-06-01

    This index to Nuclear Safety covers articles published in Nuclear Safety, Volume 18, Number 1 (January-February 1977) through Volume 22, Number 6 (November-December 1981). The index is divided into three section: a chronological list of articles (including abstracts), a permuted-title (KWIC) index, and an author index. Nuclear Safety, a bimonthly technical progress review prepared by the Nuclear Safety Information Center, covers all safety aspects of nuclear power reactors and associated facilities. Over 300 technical articles published in Nuclear Safety in the last 5 years are listed in this index.

  11. 77 FR 36015 - Atomic Safety and Licensing Board; Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc. (Indian Point Nuclear...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-15

    ... FR 55,834 (Oct. 1, 2007). \\2\\ Establishment of Atomic Safety and Licensing Board, 72 FR 60,394 (Oct... and 3); Notice of Atomic Safety and Licensing Board Reconstitution, 77 FR 22,361 (Apr. 13, 2012). On... Renewal of Facility Operating License Nos. DPR-26 and DPR-64 for an Additional 20-Year Period, 72 FR...

  12. Developing a health and safety plan for hazardous field work in remote areas.

    PubMed

    Gochfeld, Michael; Volz, Conrad D; Burger, Joanna; Jewett, Stephen; Powers, Charles W; Friedlander, Barry

    2006-12-01

    Developing health and safety plans (HASPs) is a common feature of occupational safety and health for many workplaces. Formal HASPs are a requirement for hazardous waste work, requiring the anticipation and identification of hazards and embodying the training, equipping, and evaluation of workers. Aside from OSHA, there are relatively few manuals or examples and virtually no papers that provide practical guidance in what a HASP should cover or how to create and implement one. Moreover, existing guidance refers to spatially circumscribed worksites. This article details development of a HASP to cover field researchers and ship personnel conducting scientific research in a remote area of the world (Amchitka Island in the western Aleutians), hundreds of kilometers from the nearest emergency room. It required characterizing the kinds of work to be performed and anticipating the hazards that could be encountered. It illustrates the meshing of a general HASP with a ship safety plan, a dive safety plan, and specialized topics, including stop-work authority, rock climbing, firearms, vehicle safety, and communication strategy. Remote area operations are a growing challenge facing the profession. An expedition of this sort requires extensive planning and experienced safety personnel and cannot rely on luck to ensure the safe return of participants.

  13. 78 FR 33449 - FirstEnergy Nuclear Operating Company; Establishment of Atomic Safety and Licensing Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-04

    ... Opportunity for a Hearing,'' see 78 FR 16,876, 16,883 (Mar. 19, 2013), a hearing request was filed on May 20... in August 2007. See 72 FR 49,139. Issued at Rockville, Maryland this 28th day of May 2013. E. Roy... COMMISSION FirstEnergy Nuclear Operating Company; Establishment of Atomic Safety and Licensing Board...

  14. 77 FR 30029 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Establishment of Atomic Safety and Licensing Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-21

    ... COMMISSION Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Establishment of Atomic Safety and Licensing Board Pursuant to delegation by the Commission dated December 29, 1972, published in the Federal Register, 37 FR 28,710 (1972... accordance with the NRC E-filing rule, which the NRC promulgated in August 2007 (72 FR 49,139). Issued...

  15. 77 FR 20853 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Establishment of Atomic Safety and Licensing Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-06

    ... COMMISSION Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Establishment of Atomic Safety and Licensing Board Pursuant to delegation by the Commission dated December 29, 1972, published in the Federal Register, 37 FR 28,710 (1972...-filing rule, which the NRC promulgated in August 2007 (72 FR 49,139). The Commission has requested...

  16. 76 FR 5354 - Public Availability of Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board FY 2010 Service Contract Inventory

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-31

    ... Inventory AGENCY: Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (Board). ACTION: Notice of public availability of FY 2010 Service Contract Inventories. SUMMARY: In accordance with Section 743 of Division C of the... public of the availability of the FY 2010 Service Contract inventory. This inventory provides...

  17. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Structures, Systems, and Components Safety Classification White Paper

    SciTech Connect

    Pete Jordan

    2010-09-01

    This white paper outlines the relevant regulatory policy and guidance for a risk-informed approach for establishing the safety classification of Structures, Systems, and Components (SSCs) for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant and sets forth certain facts for review and discussion in order facilitate an effective submittal leading to an NGNP Combined Operating License application under 10 CFR 52.

  18. Safety Aspects of Nuclear Desalination with Innovative Systems; the EURODESAL Project

    SciTech Connect

    Alessandroni, C.; Cinotti, L.; Mini, G.; Nisan, S.

    2002-07-01

    The proposed paper reports the results of a preliminary investigation on safety impact deriving from the coupling of a desalination plant with a 600 MWe Passive Design PWR like the AP600 Nuclear Power Plant. This evaluation was performed in the frame of the EURODESAL Project of the 5. EURATOM Framework Programme. (authors)

  19. Guidelines for Reviewers and the Editor at the Nuclear Safety Information Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whetsel, H. B.

    The main purpose of this report is to help novice reviewers accelerate their apprenticeship at the Nuclear Safety Information Center, a computerized information service sponsored by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. Guidelines for reviewers are presented in Part 1; Part 2 contains guidelines for the novice editor. The goal of the reviewers and…

  20. 78 FR 47011 - Software Unit Testing for Digital Computer Software Used in Safety Systems of Nuclear Power Plants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-02

    ... identification as Draft Regulatory Guide, DG-1208 on August 22, 2012 (77 FR 50722) for a 60-day public comment... COMMISSION Software Unit Testing for Digital Computer Software Used in Safety Systems of Nuclear Power Plants..., ``Software Unit Testing for Digital Computer Software Used in Safety Systems of Nuclear Power Plants.''...

  1. 76 FR 37798 - DOE Response to Recommendation 2010-2 of the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board, Pulse Jet...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-28

    ... Response to Recommendation 2010-2 of the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board, Pulse Jet Mixing at the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant AGENCY: Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: On May 20, 2011, the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board reaffirmed their Recommendation...

  2. Climate considerations in long-term safety assessments for nuclear waste repositories.

    PubMed

    Näslund, Jens-Ove; Brandefelt, Jenny; Liljedahl, Lillemor Claesson

    2013-05-01

    For a deep geological repository for spent nuclear fuel planned in Sweden, the safety assessment covers up to 1 million years. Climate scenarios range from high-end global warming for the coming 100 000 years, through deep permafrost, to large ice sheets during glacial conditions. In contrast, in an existing repository for short-lived waste the activity decays to low levels within a few tens of thousands of years. The shorter assessment period, 100 000 years, requires more focus on climate development over the coming tens of thousands of years, including the earliest possibility for permafrost growth and freezing of the engineered system. The handling of climate and climate change in safety assessments must be tailor-made for each repository concept and waste type. However, due to the uncertain future climate development on these vast time scales, all safety assessments for nuclear waste repositories require a range of possible climate scenarios.

  3. Interagency Nuclear Safety Review Panel Power System Subpanel review for the Ulysses mission

    SciTech Connect

    McCulloch, W.H. )

    1991-01-01

    As part of the Interagency Nuclear Safety Review Panel's assessment of the nuclear safety of NASA's Ulysses Mission to investigate properties of the sun, the Power System Subpanel has reviewed the safety analyses and risk evaluations done for the General Purpose Heat Source-Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator which provides on-board electrical power for the spacecraft. This paper summarizes the activities and results of that review. In general, the approach taken in the primary analysis, executed by the General Electric Company under contract to the Department of Energy, and the resulting conclusions were confirmed by the review. However, the Subpanel took some exceptions and modified the calculations accordingly, producing an independent evaluation of potential releases of radioactive fuel in launch and reentry accidents. Some of the more important of these exceptions are described briefly.

  4. Organizational analysis and safety for utilities with nuclear power plants: an organizational overview. Volume 1. [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect

    Osborn, R.N.; Olson, J.; Sommers, P.E.; McLaughlin, S.D.; Jackson, M.S.; Scott, W.G.; Connor, P.E.

    1983-08-01

    This two-volume report presents the results of initial research on the feasibility of applying organizational factors in nuclear power plant (NPP) safety assessment. A model is introduced for the purposes of organizing the literature review and showing key relationships among identified organizational factors and nuclear power plant safety. Volume I of this report contains an overview of the literature, a discussion of available safety indicators, and a series of recommendations for more systematically incorporating organizational analysis into investigations of nuclear power plant safety.

  5. Current global and Korean issues in radiation safety of nuclear medicine procedures.

    PubMed

    Song, H C

    2016-06-01

    In recent years, the management of patient doses in medical imaging has evolved as concern about radiation exposure has increased. Efforts and techniques to reduce radiation doses are focussed not only on the basis of patient safety, but also on the fundamentals of justification and optimisation in cooperation with international organisations such as the International Commission on Radiological Protection, the International Atomic Energy Agency, and the World Health Organization. The Image Gently campaign in children and Image Wisely campaign in adults to lower radiation doses have been initiated in the USA. The European Association of Nuclear Medicine paediatric dosage card, North American consensus guidelines, and Nuclear Medicine Global Initiative have recommended the activities of radiopharmaceuticals that should be administered in children. Diagnostic reference levels (DRLs), developed predominantly in Europe, may be an important tool to manage patient doses. In Korea, overexposure to radiation, even from the use of medical imaging, has become a public issue, particularly since the accident at the Fukushima nuclear power plant. As a result, the Korean Nuclear Safety and Security Commission revised the technical standards for radiation safety management in medical fields. In parallel, DRLs for nuclear medicine procedures have been collected on a nationwide scale. Notice of total effective dose from positron emission tomography-computed tomography for cancer screening has been mandatory since mid-November 2014. PMID:26960820

  6. Current global and Korean issues in radiation safety of nuclear medicine procedures.

    PubMed

    Song, H C

    2016-06-01

    In recent years, the management of patient doses in medical imaging has evolved as concern about radiation exposure has increased. Efforts and techniques to reduce radiation doses are focussed not only on the basis of patient safety, but also on the fundamentals of justification and optimisation in cooperation with international organisations such as the International Commission on Radiological Protection, the International Atomic Energy Agency, and the World Health Organization. The Image Gently campaign in children and Image Wisely campaign in adults to lower radiation doses have been initiated in the USA. The European Association of Nuclear Medicine paediatric dosage card, North American consensus guidelines, and Nuclear Medicine Global Initiative have recommended the activities of radiopharmaceuticals that should be administered in children. Diagnostic reference levels (DRLs), developed predominantly in Europe, may be an important tool to manage patient doses. In Korea, overexposure to radiation, even from the use of medical imaging, has become a public issue, particularly since the accident at the Fukushima nuclear power plant. As a result, the Korean Nuclear Safety and Security Commission revised the technical standards for radiation safety management in medical fields. In parallel, DRLs for nuclear medicine procedures have been collected on a nationwide scale. Notice of total effective dose from positron emission tomography-computed tomography for cancer screening has been mandatory since mid-November 2014.

  7. SRTC criticality safety technical review: Nuclear criticality safety evaluation 94-02, uranium solidification facility pencil tank module spacing

    SciTech Connect

    Rathbun, R.

    1994-04-26

    Review of NMP-NCS-94-0087, ``Nuclear Criticality Safety Evaluation 94-02: Uranium Solidification Facility Pencil Tank Module Spacing (U), April 18, 1994,`` was requested of the SRTC Applied Physics Group. The NCSE is a criticality assessment to show that the USF process module spacing, as given in Non-Conformance Report SHM-0045, remains safe for operation. The NCSE under review concludes that the module spacing as given in Non-Conformance Report SHM-0045 remains in a critically safe configuration for all normal and single credible abnormal conditions. After a thorough review of the NCSE, this reviewer agrees with that conclusion.

  8. Investigation of criticality safety control infraction data at a nuclear facility

    DOE PAGES

    Cournoyer, Michael E.; Merhege, James F.; Costa, David A.; Art, Blair M.; Gubernatis, David C.

    2014-10-27

    Chemical and metallurgical operations involving plutonium and other nuclear materials account for most activities performed at the LANL's Plutonium Facility (PF-4). The presence of large quantities of fissile materials in numerous forms at PF-4 makes it necessary to maintain an active criticality safety program. The LANL Nuclear Criticality Safety (NCS) Program provides guidance to enable efficient operations while ensuring prevention of criticality accidents in the handling, storing, processing and transportation of fissionable material at PF-4. In order to achieve and sustain lower criticality safety control infraction (CSCI) rates, PF-4 operations are continuously improved, through the use of Lean Manufacturing andmore » Six Sigma (LSS) business practices. Employing LSS, statistically significant variations (trends) can be identified in PF-4 CSCI reports. In this study, trends have been identified in the NCS Program using the NCS Database. An output metric has been developed that measures ADPSM Management progress toward meeting its NCS objectives and goals. Using a Pareto Chart, the primary CSCI attributes have been determined in order of those requiring the most management support. Data generated from analysis of CSCI data help identify and reduce number of corresponding attributes. In-field monitoring of CSCI's contribute to an organization's scientific and technological excellence by providing information that can be used to improve criticality safety operation safety. This increases technical knowledge and augments operational safety.« less

  9. Investigation of criticality safety control infraction data at a nuclear facility

    SciTech Connect

    Cournoyer, Michael E.; Merhege, James F.; Costa, David A.; Art, Blair M.; Gubernatis, David C.

    2014-10-27

    Chemical and metallurgical operations involving plutonium and other nuclear materials account for most activities performed at the LANL's Plutonium Facility (PF-4). The presence of large quantities of fissile materials in numerous forms at PF-4 makes it necessary to maintain an active criticality safety program. The LANL Nuclear Criticality Safety (NCS) Program provides guidance to enable efficient operations while ensuring prevention of criticality accidents in the handling, storing, processing and transportation of fissionable material at PF-4. In order to achieve and sustain lower criticality safety control infraction (CSCI) rates, PF-4 operations are continuously improved, through the use of Lean Manufacturing and Six Sigma (LSS) business practices. Employing LSS, statistically significant variations (trends) can be identified in PF-4 CSCI reports. In this study, trends have been identified in the NCS Program using the NCS Database. An output metric has been developed that measures ADPSM Management progress toward meeting its NCS objectives and goals. Using a Pareto Chart, the primary CSCI attributes have been determined in order of those requiring the most management support. Data generated from analysis of CSCI data help identify and reduce number of corresponding attributes. In-field monitoring of CSCI's contribute to an organization's scientific and technological excellence by providing information that can be used to improve criticality safety operation safety. This increases technical knowledge and augments operational safety.

  10. Space nuclear safety and fuels program. Progress report, February 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Bronisz, S.E.

    1981-05-01

    This formal monthly report covers the studies related to the use of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ in radioisotopic power systems carried out for the Space and Terrestrial Systems Division of the US Department of Energy by the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Most of the studies discussed here are of a continuing nature. Results and conclusions described may change as the work continues. Published reference to the results cited in this report should not be made without the explicit permission of the person in charge of the work.

  11. Space nuclear safety and fuels program. Progress report, July 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Bronisz, S.E.

    1981-07-01

    This technical monthly report covers studies related to the use of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ in radioisotope power systems carried out for the Office of Coordination and Special Projects of the US Department of Energy by Los Alamos National Laboratory. Most of the studies discussed here are ongoing. Results and conclusions described may change as the work continues. Published reference of the results cited in this report should not be made without the explicit permission of the person in charge of the work.

  12. The use software ERGOSHOW in the education of health and safety at work to regardin the safety to children.

    PubMed

    Zanuncio, Sharinna Venturim; Mafra, Simone Caldas Tavares; Rebelo, Francisco; Filgueiras, Ernesto

    2012-01-01

    It is believed that health and safety of workers should be worked with children and early teenagers, the perspective that adults are more aware of these issues by providing them with health and quality of life in their daily lives, this is want the ERGOSHOW. The choice of media means for transmitting content of Ergonomics, Health and Safety (OSH) is justified because of the great popularity of computer games are among the public of the study, thereby providing a greater assimilation of the content worked. Therefore, the aim of this study was to work with OSH issues related to children between 08 and 12 years old, city of, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. To achieve this we used the software ERGOSHOW, quizzes, and lecture. One can see that the use of multimedia tools in the learning, especially when considering the reports of mothers according to the different behavior of children after the development of activities, such as parents in correcting posture in relation to computer use.

  13. Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation Waste Integrated Performance and Safety Codes (NEAMS Waste IPSC).

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, Peter Andrew

    2011-12-01

    The objective of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation Waste Integrated Performance and Safety Codes (NEAMS Waste IPSC) is to provide an integrated suite of computational modeling and simulation (M&S) capabilities to quantitatively assess the long-term performance of waste forms in the engineered and geologic environments of a radioactive-waste storage facility or disposal repository. Achieving the objective of modeling the performance of a disposal scenario requires describing processes involved in waste form degradation and radionuclide release at the subcontinuum scale, beginning with mechanistic descriptions of chemical reactions and chemical kinetics at the atomic scale, and upscaling into effective, validated constitutive models for input to high-fidelity continuum scale codes for coupled multiphysics simulations of release and transport. Verification and validation (V&V) is required throughout the system to establish evidence-based metrics for the level of confidence in M&S codes and capabilities, including at the subcontiunuum scale and the constitutive models they inform or generate. This Report outlines the nature of the V&V challenge at the subcontinuum scale, an approach to incorporate V&V concepts into subcontinuum scale modeling and simulation (M&S), and a plan to incrementally incorporate effective V&V into subcontinuum scale M&S destined for use in the NEAMS Waste IPSC work flow to meet requirements of quantitative confidence in the constitutive models informed by subcontinuum scale phenomena.

  14. New Resolved Resonance Region Evaluation for 63Cu and 65Cu for Nuclear Criticality Safety Program

    SciTech Connect

    Sobes, Vladimir; Leal, Luiz C; Guber, Klaus H; Forget, Benoit; Kopecky, S.; Schillebeeckx, P.; Siegler, P.

    2014-01-01

    A new resolved resonance region evaluation of 63Cu and 65Cu was done in the energy region from 10-5 eV to 99.5 keV. The R-Matrix SAMMY method using the Reich-Moore approximation was used to create a new set of consistent resonance parameters. The new evaluation was based on three experimental transmission data sets; two measured at ORELA and one from MITR, and two radiative capture experimental data sets from GELINA. A total of 141 new resonances were identied for 63Cu and 117 for 65Cu. The corresponding set of external resonances for each isotope was based on the identied resonances above 99.5 keV from the ORELA transmission data. The negative external levels (bound levels) were determined to match the dierential thermal cross section measured at the MITR. Double dierential elastic scattering cross sections were calculated from the new set of resonance parameters. Benchmarking calculations were carried out on a set of ICSBEP benchmarks. This work is in support of the DOE Nuclear Criticality Safety Program.

  15. Computer code for space-time diagnostics of nuclear safety parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Solovyev, D. A.; Semenov, A. A.; Gruzdov, F. V.; Druzhaev, A. A.; Shchukin, N. V.; Dolgenko, S. G.; Solovyeva, I. V.; Ovchinnikova, E. A.

    2012-07-01

    The computer code ECRAN 3D (Experimental and Calculation Reactor Analysis) is designed for continuous monitoring and diagnostics of reactor cores and databases for RBMK-1000 on the basis of analytical methods for the interrelation parameters of nuclear safety. The code algorithms are based on the analysis of deviations between the physically obtained figures and the results of neutron-physical and thermal-hydraulic calculations. Discrepancies between the measured and calculated signals are equivalent to obtaining inadequacy between performance of the physical device and its simulator. The diagnostics system can solve the following problems: identification of facts and time for inconsistent results, localization of failures, identification and quantification of the causes for inconsistencies. These problems can be effectively solved only when the computer code is working in a real-time mode. This leads to increasing requirements for a higher code performance. As false operations can lead to significant economic losses, the diagnostics system must be based on the certified software tools. POLARIS, version 4.2.1 is used for the neutron-physical calculation in the computer code ECRAN 3D. (authors)

  16. Conceptual Software Reliability Prediction Models for Nuclear Power Plant Safety Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, G.; Lawrence, D.; Yu, H.

    2000-04-03

    The objective of this project is to develop a method to predict the potential reliability of software to be used in a digital system instrumentation and control system. The reliability prediction is to make use of existing measures of software reliability such as those described in IEEE Std 982 and 982.2. This prediction must be of sufficient accuracy to provide a value for uncertainty that could be used in a nuclear power plant probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). For the purposes of the project, reliability was defined to be the probability that the digital system will successfully perform its intended safety function (for the distribution of conditions under which it is expected to respond) upon demand with no unintended functions that might affect system safety. The ultimate objective is to use the identified measures to develop a method for predicting the potential quantitative reliability of a digital system. The reliability prediction models proposed in this report are conceptual in nature. That is, possible prediction techniques are proposed and trial models are built, but in order to become a useful tool for predicting reliability, the models must be tested, modified according to the results, and validated. Using methods outlined by this project, models could be constructed to develop reliability estimates for elements of software systems. This would require careful review and refinement of the models, development of model parameters from actual experience data or expert elicitation, and careful validation. By combining these reliability estimates (generated from the validated models for the constituent parts) in structural software models, the reliability of the software system could then be predicted. Modeling digital system reliability will also require that methods be developed for combining reliability estimates for hardware and software. System structural models must also be developed in order to predict system reliability based upon the reliability

  17. Implementing the 2009 Institute of Medicine recommendations on resident physician work hours, supervision, and safety

    PubMed Central

    Blum, Alexander B; Shea, Sandra; Czeisler, Charles A; Landrigan, Christopher P; Leape, Lucian

    2011-01-01

    Long working hours and sleep deprivation have been a facet of physician training in the US since the advent of the modern residency system. However, the scientific evidence linking fatigue with deficits in human performance, accidents and errors in industries from aeronautics to medicine, nuclear power, and transportation has mounted over the last 40 years. This evidence has also spawned regulations to help ensure public safety across safety-sensitive industries, with the notable exception of medicine. In late 2007, at the behest of the US Congress, the Institute of Medicine embarked on a year-long examination of the scientific evidence linking resident physician sleep deprivation with clinical performance deficits and medical errors. The Institute of Medicine’s report, entitled “Resident duty hours: Enhancing sleep, supervision and safety”, published in January 2009, recommended new limits on resident physician work hours and workload, increased supervision, a heightened focus on resident physician safety, training in structured handovers and quality improvement, more rigorous external oversight of work hours and other aspects of residency training, and the identification of expanded funding sources necessary to implement the recommended reforms successfully and protect the public and resident physicians themselves from preventable harm. Given that resident physicians comprise almost a quarter of all physicians who work in hospitals, and that taxpayers, through Medicare and Medicaid, fund graduate medical education, the public has a deep investment in physician training. Patients expect to receive safe, high-quality care in the nation’s teaching hospitals. Because it is their safety that is at issue, their voices should be central in policy decisions affecting patient safety. It is likewise important to integrate the perspectives of resident physicians, policy makers, and other constituencies in designing new policies. However, since its release

  18. Monitoring human factor risk characteristics at nuclear legacy sites in northwest Russia in support of radiation safety regulation.

    PubMed

    Scheblanov, V Y; Sneve, M K; Bobrov, A F

    2012-12-01

    This paper describes research aimed at improving regulatory supervision of radiation safety during work associated with the management of spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste at legacy sites in northwest Russia through timely identification of employees presenting unfavourable human factor risk characteristics. The legacy sites of interest include sites of temporary storage now operated by SevRAO on behalf of Rosatom. The sites were previously operational bases for servicing nuclear powered submarines and are now subject to major remediation activities. These activities include hazardous operations for recovery of spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste from sub-optimal storage conditions. The paper describes the results of analysis of methods, procedures, techniques and informational issues leading to the development of an expert-diagnostic information system for monitoring of workers involved in carrying out the most hazardous operations. The system serves as a tool for human factor and professional reliability risk monitoring and has been tested in practical working environments and implemented as part of regulatory supervision. The work has been carried out by the Burnasyan Federal Medical Biophysical Center, within the framework of the regulatory cooperation programme between the Federal Medical-Biological Agency of Russia and the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority. PMID:23186692

  19. Monitoring human factor risk characteristics at nuclear legacy sites in northwest Russia in support of radiation safety regulation.

    PubMed

    Scheblanov, V Y; Sneve, M K; Bobrov, A F

    2012-12-01

    This paper describes research aimed at improving regulatory supervision of radiation safety during work associated with the management of spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste at legacy sites in northwest Russia through timely identification of employees presenting unfavourable human factor risk characteristics. The legacy sites of interest include sites of temporary storage now operated by SevRAO on behalf of Rosatom. The sites were previously operational bases for servicing nuclear powered submarines and are now subject to major remediation activities. These activities include hazardous operations for recovery of spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste from sub-optimal storage conditions. The paper describes the results of analysis of methods, procedures, techniques and informational issues leading to the development of an expert-diagnostic information system for monitoring of workers involved in carrying out the most hazardous operations. The system serves as a tool for human factor and professional reliability risk monitoring and has been tested in practical working environments and implemented as part of regulatory supervision. The work has been carried out by the Burnasyan Federal Medical Biophysical Center, within the framework of the regulatory cooperation programme between the Federal Medical-Biological Agency of Russia and the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority.

  20. [Influence of work factors on health state in personnel servicing military nuclear technical objects].

    PubMed

    Poluboiarinov, V N; Iusov, I G; Ivanchenko, A V; Turlakov, Iu S

    2014-01-01

    Complex of occupational studies and medical, statistical research helped to reveal climate, geographic and other factors influencing health state of personnel servicing military nuclear technical objects. Considering peculiarities of occupational activities in various specialists, the authors specified measures to improve medical service for nuclear technical military officers directly working with nuclear ammunition. Practical application of the measures helped to gain 1.5-1.7 times improvement in morbidity parameters among nuclear technical military officers. PMID:25069272

  1. Commercial grade item (CGI) dedication of MDR relays for nuclear safety related applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Ranjit K.; Julka, Anil; Modi, Govind

    1994-08-01

    MDR relays manufactured by Potter & Brumfield (P&B) have been used in various safety related applications in commercial nuclear power plants. These include emergency safety features (ESF) actuation systems, emergency core cooling systems (ECCS) actuation, and reactor protection systems. The MDR relays manufactured prior to May 1990 showed signs of generic failure due to corrosion and outgassing of coil varnish. P&B has made design changes to correct these problems in relays manufactured after May 1990. However, P&B does not manufacture the relays under any 10CFR50 Appendix B quality assurance (QA) program. They manufacture the relays under their commercial QA program and supply these as commercial grade items. This necessitates CGI Dedication of these relays for use in nuclear-safety-related applications. This paper presents a CGI dedication program that has been used to dedicate the MDR relays manufactured after been used to dedicate the MDR relays manufactured after May 1990. The program is in compliance with current Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) guidelines and applicable industry standards; it specifies the critical characteristics of the relays, provides the tests and analysis required to verify the critical characteristics, the acceptance criteria for the test results, performs source verification to quality P&B for its control of the critical characteristics, and provides documentation. The program provides reasonable assurance that the new MDR relays will perform their intended safety functions.

  2. Independent Safety Assessment of the TOPAZ-II space nuclear reactor power system (Revised)

    SciTech Connect

    1993-09-01

    The Independent Safety Assessment described in this study report was performed to assess the safety of the design and launch plans anticipated by the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) in 1993 for a Russian-built, U.S.-modified, TOPAZ-II space nuclear reactor power system. Its conclusions, and the bases for them, were intended to provide guidance for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) management in the event that the DOD requested authorization under section 91b. of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended, for possession and use (including ground testing and launch) of a nuclear-fueled, modified TOPAZ-II. The scientists and engineers who were engaged to perform this assessment are nationally-known nuclear safety experts in various disciplines. They met with participants in the TOPAZ-II program during the spring and summer of 1993 and produced a report based on their analysis of the proposed TOPAZ-II mission. Their conclusions were confined to the potential impact on public safety and did not include budgetary, reliability, or risk-benefit analyses.

  3. The Fukushima Dai-ichi Accident and its implications for the safety of nuclear power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barletta, William

    2016-05-01

    Five years ago the dramatic events in Fukushima that followed the massive earthquake and subsequent tsunami that struck Japan on March 11, 2011 sharpened the focus of scientists, engineers and general public on the broad range of technical, environmental and societal issues involved in assuring the safety of the world's nuclear power complex. They also called into question the potential of nuclear power to provide a growing, sustainable resource of CO2-free energy. The issues raised by Fukushima Dai-ichi have provoked urgent concern, not only because of the potential harm that could result from severe accidents or from intentional damage to nuclear reactors or to facilities involved in the nuclear fuel cycle, but also because of the extensive economic impact of those accidents and of the measures taken to avoid them.

  4. 78 FR 77597 - Safety Zone; Allied PRA-Solid Works, San Diego Bay; San Diego, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-24

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Allied PRA-Solid Works, San Diego Bay; San Diego, CA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is... Giacomo Terrizzi, Waterways Management, U.S. Coast Guard Sector San Diego, Coast Guard; telephone...

  5. 42 CFR 3.206 - Confidentiality of patient safety work product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... prints; and (13) Full face photographic images and any comparable images; and (B) With respect to any... at 45 CFR 164.514(e)(2) have been removed. (5) Disclosure of nonidentifiable patient safety work... pursuant to paragraph (b)(6)(i) of this section is by a HIPAA covered entity as defined at 45 CFR...

  6. 42 CFR 3.206 - Confidentiality of patient safety work product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... prints; and (13) Full face photographic images and any comparable images; and (B) With respect to any... at 45 CFR 164.514(e)(2) have been removed. (5) Disclosure of nonidentifiable patient safety work... pursuant to paragraph (b)(6)(i) of this section is by a HIPAA covered entity as defined at 45 CFR...

  7. 42 CFR 3.206 - Confidentiality of patient safety work product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... prints; and (13) Full face photographic images and any comparable images; and (B) With respect to any... at 45 CFR 164.514(e)(2) have been removed. (5) Disclosure of nonidentifiable patient safety work... pursuant to paragraph (b)(6)(i) of this section is by a HIPAA covered entity as defined at 45 CFR...

  8. How Safe Are You at Work? Occupational Health and Safety Issues for School Counsellors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Low, John A.

    Schools are becoming increasingly violent places. This workshop presentation examines ways to improve counselor facilities and to enhance work safety. Client populations for school counselors have changed significantly in recent times as school administrators refer more welfare related problems for help. Although violent attacks on counselors may…

  9. 42 CFR 3.206 - Confidentiality of patient safety work product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... prints; and (13) Full face photographic images and any comparable images; and (B) With respect to any... at 45 CFR 164.514(e)(2) have been removed. (5) Disclosure of nonidentifiable patient safety work... pursuant to paragraph (b)(6)(i) of this section is by a HIPAA covered entity as defined at 45 CFR...

  10. 48 CFR 22.403-3 - Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act. 22.403-3 Section 22.403-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS...

  11. 48 CFR 22.403-3 - Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act. 22.403-3 Section 22.403-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS...

  12. 49 CFR 214.335 - On-track safety procedures for roadway work groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD WORKPLACE SAFETY Roadway Worker... provisions of this part shall require or permit a roadway worker who is a member of a roadway work group to....325, 214.327, 214.329 and 214.331 of this part. (b) No roadway worker who is a member of a...

  13. 78 FR 60222 - Safety Zone; Motion Picture Stunt Work and Filming; Chicago, IL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-01

    ... Picture Production; Chicago, IL in the Federal Register (78 FR 20241). Because this motion picture... motion picture corporation will film scenes for a motion picture on portions of the Chicago River... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Motion Picture Stunt Work and...

  14. Technology, safety, and costs of decommissioning reference nuclear research and test reactors. Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Konzek, G.J.; Ludwick, J.D.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Smith, R.I.

    1982-03-01

    Safety and Cost Information is developed for the conceptual decommissioning of two representative licensed nuclear research and test reactors. Three decommissioning alternatives are studied to obtain comparisons between costs (in 1981 dollars), occupational radiation doses, potential radiation dose to the public, and other safety impacts. The alternatives considered are: DECON (immediate decontamination), SAFSTOR (safe storage followed by deferred decontamination), and EMTOMB (entombment). The study results are presented in two volumes. Volume 2 (Appendices) contains the detailed data that support the results given in Volume 1, including unit-component data.

  15. Vulnerability, safety and response of nuclear power plants to the hydroclimatic hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    János Katona, Tamás; Vilimi, András

    2016-04-01

    The Great Tohoku Earthquake and Tsunami, and the severe accident at Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant 2011 alerted the nuclear industry to danger of extreme rare natural hazards. The subsequent "stress tests" performed by the nuclear industry in Europe and all over the world identifies the nuclear power plant (NPP) vulnerabilities and define the measures for increasing the plant safety. According to the international practice of nuclear safety regulations, the cumulative core damage frequency for NPPs has to be 10-5/a, and the cumulative frequency of early large release has to be 10-6/a. In case of operating plants these annual probabilities can be little higher, but the licensees are obliged to implement all reasonable practicable measures for increasing the plant safety. For achieving the required level of safety, design basis of NPPs for natural hazards has to be defined at the 10-4/a ⎯10-5/a levels of annual exceedance probability. Tornado hazard is some kind of exception, e.g., the design basis annual probability for tornado in the US is equal to 10-7/a. Design of the NPPs shall provide for an adequate margin to protect items ultimately necessary to prevent large or early radioactive releases in the event of levels of natural hazards exceeding those to be considered for design. The plant safety has to be reviewed for accounting the changes of the environmental conditions and natural hazards in case of necessity, but as minimum every ten years in the frame of periodic safety reviews. Long-term forecast of environmental conditions and hazards has to be accounted for in the design basis of the new plants. Changes in hydroclimatic variables, e.g., storms, tornadoes, river floods, flash floods, extreme temperatures, droughts affect the operability and efficiency as well as the safety the NPPs. Low flow rates and high water temperature in the rivers may force to operate at reduced power level or shutdown the plant (Cernavoda NPP, Romania, August 2009). The

  16. Annual Report To Congress. Department of Energy Activities Relating to the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board, Calendar Year 2003

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2004-02-28

    The Department of Energy (Department) submits an Annual Report to Congress each year detailing the Department’s activities relating to the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (Board), which provides advice and recommendations to the Secretary of Energy (Secretary) regarding public health and safety issues at the Department’s defense nuclear facilities. In 2003, the Department continued ongoing activities to resolve issues identified by the Board in formal recommendations and correspondence, staff issue reports pertaining to Department facilities, and public meetings and briefings. Additionally, the Department is implementing several key safety initiatives to address and prevent safety issues: safety culture and review of the Columbia accident investigation; risk reduction through stabilization of excess nuclear materials; the Facility Representative Program; independent oversight and performance assurance; the Federal Technical Capability Program (FTCP); executive safety initiatives; and quality assurance activities. The following summarizes the key activities addressed in this Annual Report.

  17. Just in Time DSA-The Hanford Nuclear Safety Basis Strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Olinger, S. J.; Buhl, A. R.

    2002-02-26

    The U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL) is responsible for 30 hazard category 2 and 3 nuclear facilities that are operated by its prime contractors, Fluor Hanford Incorporated (FHI), Bechtel Hanford, Incorporated (BHI) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The publication of Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 830, Subpart B, Safety Basis Requirements (the Rule) in January 2001 imposed the requirement that the Documented Safety Analyses (DSA) for these facilities be reviewed against the requirements of the Rule. Those DSA that do not meet the requirements must either be upgraded to satisfy the Rule, or an exemption must be obtained. RL and its prime contractors have developed a Nuclear Safety Strategy that provides a comprehensive approach for supporting RL's efforts to meet its long term objectives for hazard category 2 and 3 facilities while also meeting the requirements of the Rule. This approach will result in a reduction of the total number of safety basis documents that must be developed and maintained to support the remaining mission and closure of the Hanford Site and ensure that the documentation that must be developed will support: compliance with the Rule; a ''Just-In-Time'' approach to development of Rule-compliant safety bases supported by temporary exemptions; and consolidation of safety basis documents that support multiple facilities with a common mission (e.g. decontamination, decommissioning and demolition [DD&D], waste management, surveillance and maintenance). This strategy provides a clear path to transition the safety bases for the various Hanford facilities from support of operation and stabilization missions through DD&D to accelerate closure. This ''Just-In-Time'' Strategy can also be tailored for other DOE Sites, creating the potential for large cost savings and schedule reductions throughout the DOE complex.

  18. Development of an Updated Societal-Risk Goal for Nuclear Power Safety

    SciTech Connect

    Vicki Bier; Michael Corradini; Robert Youngblood; Caleb Roh; Shuji Liu

    2014-07-01

    This report briefly summarizes work done in FY 2013 on the subject LDRD. The working hypothesis is that societal disruption should be addressed in a safety goal. This is motivated by the point that the Fukushima disaster resulted in very little public dose, but enormous societal disruption; a goal that addressed societal disruption would fill a perceived gap in the US NRC safety goal structure. This year's work entailed analyzing the consequences of postulated accidents at various reactor sites in the US, specifically with a view to quantifying the number of people relocated and the duration of their relocation, to see whether this makes sense as a measure of societal disruption.

  19. Historical Patterns in the Types of Procedures Performed and Radiation Safety Practices Used in Nuclear Medicine From 1945-2009.

    PubMed

    Van Dyke, Miriam E; Drozdovitch, Vladimir; Doody, Michele M; Lim, Hyeyeun; Bolus, Norman E; Simon, Steven L; Alexander, Bruce H; Kitahara, Cari M

    2016-07-01

    The authors evaluated historical patterns in the types of procedures performed in diagnostic and therapeutic nuclear medicine and the associated radiation safety practices used from 1945-2009 in a sample of U.S. radiologic technologists. In 2013-2014, 4,406 participants from the U.S. Radiologic Technologists (USRT) Study who previously reported working with medical radionuclides completed a detailed survey inquiring about the performance of 23 diagnostic and therapeutic radionuclide procedures and the use of radiation safety practices when performing radionuclide procedure-related tasks during five time periods: 1945-1964, 1965-1979, 1980-1989, 1990-1999, and 2000-2009. An overall increase in the proportion of technologists who performed specific diagnostic or therapeutic procedures was observed across the five time periods. Between 1945-1964 and 2000-2009, the median frequency of diagnostic procedures performed substantially increased (from 5 wk to 30 wk), attributable mainly to an increasing frequency of cardiac and non-brain PET scans, while the median frequency of therapeutic procedures performed modestly decreased (from 4 mo to 3 mo). Also a notable increase was observed in the use of most radiation safety practices from 1945-1964 to 2000-2009 (e.g., use of lead-shielded vials during diagnostic radiopharmaceutical preparation increased from 56 to 96%), although lead apron use dramatically decreased (e.g., during diagnostic imaging procedures, from 81 to 7%). These data describe historical practices in nuclear medicine and can be used to support studies of health risks for nuclear medicine technologists.

  20. Handbook of nuclear power plant seismic fragilities, Seismic Safety Margins Research Program

    SciTech Connect

    Cover, L.E.; Bohn, M.P.; Campbell, R.D.; Wesley, D.A.

    1983-12-01

    The Seismic Safety Margins Research Program (SSMRP) has a gola to develop a complete fully coupled analysis procedure (including methods and computer codes) for estimating the risk of an earthquake-induced radioactive release from a commercial nuclear power plant. As part of this program, calculations of the seismic risk from a typical commercial nuclear reactor were made. These calculations required a knowledge of the probability of failure (fragility) of safety-related components in the reactor system which actively participate in the hypothesized accident scenarios. This report describes the development of the required fragility relations and the data sources and data reduction techniques upon which they are based. Both building and component fragilities are covered. The building fragilities are for the Zion Unit 1 reactor which was the specific plant used for development of methodology in the program. Some of the component fragilities are site-specific also, but most would be usable for other sites as well.

  1. A Logical Approach to Designing Safety Test Plans for Space Nuclear Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, James R

    2004-02-04

    This paper presents a logical approach to designing a safety test plan for a space nuclear system. It is pointed out that two important facts need to underlie the development of a test plan: first, that sequential insults and the accumulation of damage are the rule; and second that the response of the nuclear system is stochastic (i.e., for any given set of conditions a probabilistic range of outcomes will occur regardless of the state of our knowledge). Because of these facts a deterministic approach can only be a starting point. The substance of the approach consists of undertaking and documenting three basic efforts: (1) a description of the analysts view of the problem and how it fits into the safety analysis, (2) a formal documentation of the purpose and requirements of the test plan (or test), and (3) an assessment of the use or usefulness of existing test data.

  2. Migration of nuclear criticality safety software from a mainfram to a workstation environment

    SciTech Connect

    Bowie, L.J.; Robinson, R.C.; Cain, V.R. )

    1993-01-01

    The nuclear criticality safety department (NCSD), Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, has undergone the transition of executing the Martin Marietta Energy Systems Nuclear Criticality Safety Software (NCSS) on IBM mainframes to a Hewlett Packard (HP) 9000/730 workstation (NCSSHP). NCSSHP contains the following configuration-controlled modules and cross-section libraries: BONAMI, CSAS, GEOMCHK, ICE, KENO IV, KENO V.a, MODIFY, NITAWL, SCALE, SUBLIB, XSDRN, UNIXLIB, albedos library, weights library, 16-group HANSEN-ROACH master library, 27-group ENDF/B-IV master library, and standard composition library. This paper discusses the method used to choose the workstation, the hardware setup of the chosen workstation, an overview of Y-12 software quality assurance and configuration control methodology, code validation, difficulties encountered in migrating the codes, and advantages to migrating to a workstation environment.

  3. Migration of nuclear criticality safety software from a mainframe to a workstation environment

    SciTech Connect

    Bowie, L.J.; Robinson, R.C.; Cain, V.R.

    1993-01-01

    The Nuclear Criticality Safety Department (NCSD), Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant has undergone the transition of executing the Martin Marietta Energy Systems Nuclear Criticality Safety Software (NCSS) on IBM mainframes to a Hewlett-Packard (HP) 9000/730 workstation (NCSSHP). NCSSHP contains the following configuration controlled modules and cross-section libraries: BONAMI, CSAS, GEOMCHY, ICE, KENO IV, KENO Va, MODIIFY, NITAWL SCALE, SLTBLIB, XSDRN, UNIXLIB, albedos library, weights library, 16-Group HANSEN-ROACH master library, 27-Group ENDF/B-IV master library, and standard composition library. This paper will discuss the method used to choose the workstation, the hardware setup of the chosen workstation, an overview of Y-12 software quality assurance and configuration control methodology, code validation, difficulties encountered in migrating the codes, and advantages to migrating to a workstation environment.

  4. A new Role of Proficiency Testing in Nuclear Analytical Work

    SciTech Connect

    Heydorn, K.

    2008-08-14

    The most recent definition of measurement result requires a statement of uncertainty whenever results obtained by nuclear or other quantitative methods of analysis are reported. Proficiency testing (PT) therefore must include the ability of laboratories to present not only unbiased quantity values, but reliable estimates of their uncertainty. Hence, a reference value with the smallest possible uncertainty is needed to ascertain the proficiency of laboratories reporting results with lower than average uncertainty. A strategy based on the T-statistic is proposed leading to an accepted reference value that fully reflects the uncertainties reported by participants in a PT-scheme and permits calculation of En numbers to distinguish whether or not measurement results are consistent with the accepted definition of the measurand. The strategy is applied to PT-data from a recent international laboratory intercomparison of uranium isotopic ratios with very low reported uncertainties. In the paper this example is used to present the situation in the nuclear field.

  5. Nuclear Forensics International Technical Working Group (ITWG): a collaboration of scientists, law enforcement officials, and regulators working to combat nuclear terrorism and proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Schwantes, Jon M.

    2013-10-25

    Founded in 1996 upon the initiative of the “Group of 8” governments (G8), the Nuclear Forensics International Technical Working Group (ITWG) is an ad hoc organization of official Nuclear Forensics practitioners (scientists, law enforcement, and regulators) that can be called upon to provide technical assistance to the global community in the event of a seizure of nuclear or radiological materials. The ITWG is supported by and is affiliated with nearly 40 countries and international partner organizations including the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), EURATOM, INTERPOL, EUROPOL, and the United Nations Interregional Crime and Justice Research Institute (UNICRI) (Figure 1). Besides providing a network of nuclear forensics laboratories that are able to assist the global community during a nuclear smuggling event, the ITWG is also committed to the advancement of the science of nuclear forensic analysis, largely through participation in periodic table top and Collaborative Materials Exercises (CMXs). Exercise scenarios use “real world” samples with realistic forensics investigation time constraints and reporting requirements. These exercises are designed to promote best practices in the field and test, evaluate, and improve new technical capabilities, methods and techniques in order to advance the science of nuclear forensics. Past efforts to advance nuclear forensic science have also included scenarios that asked laboratories to adapt conventional forensics methods (e.g. DNA, fingerprints, tool marks, and document comparisons) for collecting and preserving evidence comingled with radioactive materials.

  6. Implementation of external hazards in Probabilistic Safety Assessment for nuclear power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Manorma; Klug, Joakim; Raimond, Emmanuel

    2015-04-01

    The paper will focus on the discussion on implementation of external hazards in the probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) methods for the extreme external hazards mainly focused on Seismic, Flooding, Meteorological Hazards (e.g. Storm, Extreme temperature, snow pack), Biological infestation, Lightening hazards, Accidental Aircraft crash and man- made hazards including natural external fire and external explosion. This will include discussion on identification of some good practices on the implementation of external hazards in Level 1 PSA, with a perspective of development of extended PSA and introduction of relevant modelling for external hazards in an existing Level 1 PSA. This paper is associated to the European project ASAMPSAE (www.asampsa.eu) which gathers more than 30 organizations (industry, research, safety control) from Europe, US and Japan and which aims at identifying some meaningful practices to extend the scope and the quality of the existing probabilistic safety analysis developed for nuclear power plants.

  7. Barriers and solutions in implementing occupational health and safety services at a large nuclear weapons facility.

    PubMed

    Takaro, T K; Ertell, K; Salazar, M K; Beaudet, N; Stover, B; Hagopian, A; Omenn, G; Barnhart, S

    2000-01-01

    The Hanford Nuclear Reservation is one of the U.S. Department of Energy's largest nuclear weapons sites. The enormous changes experienced by Hanford over the last several years, as its mission has shifted from weapons production to cleanup, has profoundly affected its occupational health and safety services. Innovative programs and new initiatives hold promise for a safer workplace for the thousands of workers at Hanford and other DOE sites. However, occupational health and safety professionals continue to face multiple organizational, economic, and cultural challenges. A major problem identified during this review was the lack of coordination of onsite services. Because each health and safety program operates independently (albeit with the guidance of the Richland field operations office), many services are duplicative and the health and safety system is fragmented. The fragmentation is compounded by the lack of centralized data repositories for demographic and exposure data. Innovative measures such as a questionnaire-driven Employee Job Task Analysis linked to medical examinations has allowed the site to move from the inefficient and potentially dangerous administrative medical monitoring assignment to defensible risk-based assignments and could serve as a framework for improving centralized data management and service delivery. PMID:11186038

  8. Nuclear power and probabilistic safety assessment (PSA): past through future applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stamatelatos, M. G.; Moieni, P.; Everline, C. J.

    1995-03-01

    Nuclear power reactor safety in the United States is about to enter a new era -- an era of risk- based management and risk-based regulation. First, there was the age of `prescribed safety assessment,' during which a series of design-basis accidents in eight categories of severity, or classes, were postulated and analyzed. Toward the end of that era, it was recognized that `Class 9,' or `beyond design basis,' accidents would need special attention because of the potentially severe health and financial consequences of these accidents. The accident at Three Mile Island showed that sequences of low-consequence, high-frequency events and human errors can be much more risk dominant than the Class 9 accidents. A different form of safety assessment, PSA, emerged and began to gain ground against the deterministic safety establishment. Eventually, this led to the current regulatory requirements for individual plant examinations (IPEs). The IPEs can serve as a basis for risk-based regulation and management, a concept that may ultimately transform the U.S. regulatory process from its traditional deterministic foundations to a process predicated upon PSA. Beyond the possibility of a regulatory environment predicated upon PSA lies the possibility of using PSA as the foundation for managing daily nuclear power plant operations.

  9. Conduct and results of the Interagency Nuclear Safety Review Panel's evaluation of the Ulysses space mission

    SciTech Connect

    Sholtis, J.A. Jr. ); Gray, L.B. ); Huff, D.A. ); Klug, N.P. ); Winchester, R.O. )

    1991-01-01

    The recent 6 October 1990 launch and deployment of the nuclear-powered Ulysses spacecraft from the Space Shuttle {ital Discovery} culminated an extensive safety review and evaluation effort by the Interagency Nuclear Safety Review Panel (INSRP). After more than a year of detailed independent review, study, and analysis, the INSRP prepared a Safety Evaluation Report (SER) on the Ulysses mission, in accordance with Presidential Directive-National Security Council memorandum 25. The SER, which included a review of the Ulysses Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) and an independent characterization of the mission risks, was used by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in its decision to request launch approval as well as by the Executive Office of the President in arriving at a launch decision based on risk-benefit considerations. This paper provides an overview of the Ulysses mission and the conduct as well as the results of the INSRP evaluation. While the mission risk determined by the INSRP in the SER was higher than that characterized by the Ulysses project in the FSAR, both reports indicated that the radiological risks were relatively small. In the final analysis, the SER proved to be supportive of a positive launch decision. The INSRP evaluation process has demonstrated its effectiveness numerous times since the 1960s. In every case, it has provided the essential ingredients and perspective to permit an informed launch decision at the highest level of our Government.

  10. Barriers and solutions in implementing occupational health and safety services at a large nuclear weapons facility.

    PubMed

    Takaro, T K; Ertell, K; Salazar, M K; Beaudet, N; Stover, B; Hagopian, A; Omenn, G; Barnhart, S

    2000-01-01

    The Hanford Nuclear Reservation is one of the U.S. Department of Energy's largest nuclear weapons sites. The enormous changes experienced by Hanford over the last several years, as its mission has shifted from weapons production to cleanup, has profoundly affected its occupational health and safety services. Innovative programs and new initiatives hold promise for a safer workplace for the thousands of workers at Hanford and other DOE sites. However, occupational health and safety professionals continue to face multiple organizational, economic, and cultural challenges. A major problem identified during this review was the lack of coordination of onsite services. Because each health and safety program operates independently (albeit with the guidance of the Richland field operations office), many services are duplicative and the health and safety system is fragmented. The fragmentation is compounded by the lack of centralized data repositories for demographic and exposure data. Innovative measures such as a questionnaire-driven Employee Job Task Analysis linked to medical examinations has allowed the site to move from the inefficient and potentially dangerous administrative medical monitoring assignment to defensible risk-based assignments and could serve as a framework for improving centralized data management and service delivery.

  11. The International Safety Framework for nuclear power source applications in outer space-Useful and substantial guidance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Summerer, L.; Wilcox, R. E.; Bechtel, R.; Harbison, S.

    2015-06-01

    In 2009, the International Safety Framework for Nuclear Power Source Applications in Outer Space was adopted, following a multi-year process that involved all major space faring nations under the auspices of a partnership between the UN Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space and the International Atomic Energy Agency. The Safety Framework reflects an international consensus on best practices to achieve safety. Following the 1992 UN Principles Relevant to the Use of Nuclear Power Sources in Outer Space, it is the second attempt by the international community to draft guidance promoting the safety of applications of nuclear power sources in space missions. NPS applications in space have unique safety considerations compared with terrestrial applications. Mission launch and outer space operational requirements impose size, mass and other space environment limitations not present for many terrestrial nuclear facilities. Potential accident conditions could expose nuclear power sources to extreme physical conditions. The Safety Framework is structured to provide guidance for both the programmatic and technical aspects of safety. In addition to sections containing specific guidance for governments and for management, it contains technical guidance pertinent to the design, development and all mission phases of space NPS applications. All sections of the Safety Framework contain elements directly relevant to engineers and space mission designers for missions involving space nuclear power sources. The challenge for organisations and engineers involved in the design and development processes of space nuclear power sources and applications is to implement the guidance provided in the Safety Framework by integrating it into the existing standard space mission infrastructure of design, development and operational requirements, practices and processes. This adds complexity to the standard space mission and launch approval processes. The Safety Framework is deliberately

  12. Extraction and use of historical extreme climate databases for nuclear power plants safety assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamdi, Yasser; Bertin, Xavier; Bardet, Lise; Duluc, Claire-Marie; Rebour, Vincent

    2015-04-01

    challenging story). In this work, we suggest a HI based statistical model POTH: Peaks-Over-Threshold method with HI. Two kinds of historical data can be used in the POTH method: classical Historical Maxima (HMax) data, and Over a Threshold Supplementary (OTS) data. In both cases, the data are structured in historical periods and can be used only as complement to the main systematic data. The POTH frequency model is applied with the Renext tool developed by the French Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN). The Renext software was applied to a case study from France, at the La Rochelle site where the storm Xynthia induced an extreme surge (outlier), to illustrate its potentials and to analyze the impact of the use of HI on the extreme surge frequency estimation. The use of historical data, although often imprecise, gave the outlier a better representation in the sample and the characteristic 'outlier' of the Xynthia event has disappeared. The POTH fitting results for extreme surge return levels at the La Rochelle site for high return periods are quite satisfactory.

  13. Nuclear Criticality Safety Evaluation of the 9965, 9968, 9972, 9973, 9974, and 9975 Shipping Casks

    SciTech Connect

    Frost, R.L.

    1999-02-26

    A Nuclear Criticality Safety Evaluation (NCSE) has been performed for the 9965, 9968, 9972, 9973, 9974, and 9975 SRS-designed shipping casks. This was done in support of the recertification effort for the 9965 and 9968, and the certification of the newly designed 9972-9975 series. The analysis supports the use of these packages as Fissile Class I for shipment of fissionable material from the SRS FB-Line, HB-Line, and from Lawrence Livermore national Laboratory. six different types of material were analyzed with varying Isotopic composition, of both oxide and metallic form. The mass limits required to support the fissile Class I rating for each of the envelopes are given in the Table below. These mass limits apply if DOE approves an exception as described in 10 CFR 71.55(c), such that water leakage into the primary containment vessel does not need to be considered in the criticality analysis. If this exception is not granted, the mass limits are lower than those shown below. this issue is discussed in detail in sections 5 and 6 of the report.One finding from this work is important enough to highlight in the abstract. The fire tests performed for this family of shipping casks indicates only minimal charring of the Celotex thermal insulation. Analysis of the casks with no Celotex insulation (assuming it has all burned away), results in values of k-eff that exceed 1.0. Therefore, the Celotex insulation must remain intact in order to guarantee sub criticality of the 9972-9975 family of shipping casks.

  14. Designing out vulnerability, building in respect: violence, safety and sex work policy.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Teela; Campbell, Rosie

    2007-03-01

    One recent finding about the prostitution market is the differences in the extent and nature of violence experienced between women who work on the street and those who work from indoor sex work venues. This paper brings together extensive qualitative fieldwork from two cities in the UK to unpack the intricacies in relation to violence and safety for indoor workers. Firstly, we document the types of violence women experience in indoor venues noting how the vulnerabilities surrounding work-based hazards are dependent on the environment in which sex is sold. Secondly, we highlight the protection strategies that indoor workers and management develop to maintain safety and order in the establishment. Thirdly, we use these empirical findings to suggest that violence should be a high priority on the policy agenda. Here we contend that the organizational and cultural conditions that seem to offer some protection from violence in indoor settings could be useful for informing the management of street sex work. Finally, drawing on the crime prevention literature, we argue that it is possible to go a considerable way to designing out vulnerability in sex work, but not only through physical and organizational change but building in respect for sex workers rights by developing policies that promote the employment/human rights and citizenship for sex workers. This argument is made in light of the Coordinated Prostitution Strategy.

  15. New work on updating and extending the nuclear data standards

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, A.D.; Pronyaev, V.G.; Capote, R.; Hambsch, F.J.; Kaeppeler, F.; Lederer, C.; Mannhart, W.; Mengoni, A.; Nelson, R. O.; Schillebeeckx, P.; Talou, P.; Tagesen, S.; Vonach, H.; Vorobyev, A.; Wallner, A.

    2011-07-01

    An International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Data Development Project was initiated to provide a mechanism for allowing new experimental data and improvements in evaluation procedures to be incorporated into new evaluations of the standards. The work on this project is ongoing. In the past very long periods sometimes occurred between evaluations of the standards. Through the use of this Project, such long periods should not occur. Work on the cross section standards through this Project has included an update of the experimental data to be used in the cross section standards evaluations, a study of the uncertainties obtained in the international standards evaluation, and improvements in the smoothing procedure for capture cross sections. It was decided that this Project should have a broader range of activities than just the cross section standards and thus encompass standards related activities. The following are being investigated: improvements in the gold cross section at energies below where it is considered a standard and work on certain cross sections that are not as well known as the cross section standards but could be very useful as reference cross sections relative to which certain types of cross section measurements can be made. This work includes prompt gamma-ray production in fast neutron-induced reactions, and work on the {sup 252}Cf spontaneous fission neutron spectrum and the {sup 235}U thermal neutron fission spectrum. Most of the data investigated through this Project are used in dosimetry applications. (authors)

  16. 48 CFR 970.5223-1 - Integration of environment, safety, and health into work planning and execution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Integration of environment... Integration of environment, safety, and health into work planning and execution. As prescribed in 970.2303-3(b), insert the following clause: Integration of Environment, Safety, and Health Into Work Planning...

  17. 48 CFR 952.223-71 - Integration of environment, safety, and health into work planning and execution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Integration of environment, safety, and health into work planning and execution. 952.223-71 Section 952.223-71 Federal Acquisition... Provisions and Clauses 952.223-71 Integration of environment, safety, and health into work planning...

  18. 48 CFR 952.223-71 - Integration of environment, safety, and health into work planning and execution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Integration of environment, safety, and health into work planning and execution. 952.223-71 Section 952.223-71 Federal Acquisition... Provisions and Clauses 952.223-71 Integration of environment, safety, and health into work planning...

  19. 48 CFR 970.5223-1 - Integration of environment, safety, and health into work planning and execution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Integration of environment... Integration of environment, safety, and health into work planning and execution. As prescribed in 970.2303-3(b), insert the following clause: Integration of Environment, Safety, and Health Into Work Planning...

  20. 48 CFR 952.223-71 - Integration of environment, safety, and health into work planning and execution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Integration of environment, safety, and health into work planning and execution. 952.223-71 Section 952.223-71 Federal Acquisition... Provisions and Clauses 952.223-71 Integration of environment, safety, and health into work planning...

  1. 48 CFR 970.5223-1 - Integration of environment, safety, and health into work planning and execution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Integration of environment... Integration of environment, safety, and health into work planning and execution. As prescribed in 970.2303-3(b), insert the following clause: Integration of Environment, Safety, and Health Into Work Planning...

  2. 48 CFR 970.5223-1 - Integration of environment, safety, and health into work planning and execution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Integration of environment... Integration of environment, safety, and health into work planning and execution. As prescribed in 970.2303-3(b), insert the following clause: Integration of Environment, Safety, and Health Into Work Planning...

  3. 48 CFR 952.223-71 - Integration of environment, safety, and health into work planning and execution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Integration of environment, safety, and health into work planning and execution. 952.223-71 Section 952.223-71 Federal Acquisition... Provisions and Clauses 952.223-71 Integration of environment, safety, and health into work planning...

  4. 48 CFR 952.223-71 - Integration of environment, safety, and health into work planning and execution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Integration of environment, safety, and health into work planning and execution. 952.223-71 Section 952.223-71 Federal Acquisition... Provisions and Clauses 952.223-71 Integration of environment, safety, and health into work planning...

  5. 48 CFR 970.5223-1 - Integration of environment, safety, and health into work planning and execution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Integration of environment... Integration of environment, safety, and health into work planning and execution. As prescribed in 970.2303-3(b), insert the following clause: Integration of Environment, Safety, and Health Into Work Planning...

  6. Work Domain Analysis and Operational Concepts for Advanced Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Jacques Hugo

    2001-02-01

    The nuclear industry is currently designing and building a new generation of reactors that will differ in important respects from the older generation. Differences in new plants will include different structural, functional, and environmental aspects, all of which are likely to have a significant impact on the way these plants are operated. In order to meet economic and safety objectives, these new reactors will all use advanced technologies to some extent, including new materials and advanced digital instrumentation and control systems. Examples of these advances include distribution of load-following demand among multiple units, different product streams (steam, process heat, or electricity), increased use of passive safety systems, high levels of automation with humans in supervisory roles, integration of computerized procedures for control room and field work, and remote surveillance and on-line monitoring. New technologies will affect not only operational strategies, but will also require a new approach to how functions are allocated to humans or machines to ensure optimal performance. There is still much uncertainty about the effect of large scale changes in plant design on operations and human tasks, such as workload, situation awareness, human reliability, staffing levels, and the appropriate allocation of functions between the crew and various automated plant systems. This uncertainty will remain until sound technical bases are developed for new operational concepts and strategies. Existing human factors and systems engineering design standards and methodologies are not current in terms of human interaction requirements for dynamic automated systems and are no longer suitable for the analysis of evolving operational concepts. Up-to-date models and guidance are required for the development of operational concepts for complex socio-technical systems. Designers need to be able to identify and evaluate specific human factors challenges related to non

  7. 77 FR 50722 - Software Unit Testing for Digital Computer Software Used in Safety Systems of Nuclear Power Plants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-22

    ... COMMISSION Software Unit Testing for Digital Computer Software Used in Safety Systems of Nuclear Power Plants... regulatory guide (DG), DG-1208, ``Software Unit Testing for Digital Computer Software used in Safety Systems... revision endorses, with clarifications, the enhanced consensus practices for testing of computer...

  8. 77 FR 50720 - Test Documentation for Digital Computer Software Used in Safety Systems of Nuclear Power Plants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-22

    ... COMMISSION Test Documentation for Digital Computer Software Used in Safety Systems of Nuclear Power Plants... regulatory guide (DG), DG-1207, ``Test Documentation for Digital Computer Software used in Safety Systems of... software and computer systems as described in the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers...

  9. 75 FR 52046 - Development of U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Safety Culture Policy Statement: Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-24

    ... COMMISSION Development of U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Safety Culture Policy Statement: Public Meeting... solicit comments on the revision of its draft safety culture policy statement, including the revised... public comments submitted in response to the draft policy statement (74 FR 57525, November 6,...

  10. 78 FR 9902 - DOE Response to Recommendation 2012-2 of the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board, Hanford...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-12

    ... the Federal Register of January 22, 2013, in FR Doc. 2013-01132, 78 FR 4404, please make the following... Response to Recommendation 2012-2 of the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board, Hanford Tank Farms..., Hanford Tank Farms Flammable Gas Safety Strategy. This document corrects an error in that notice....

  11. Fatigue in seafarers working in the offshore oil and gas re-supply industry: effects of safety climate, psychosocial work environment and shift arrangement.

    PubMed

    Hystad, Sigurd W; Saus, Evelyn-Rose; Sætrevik, Bjørn; Eid, Jarle

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the influence of safety climate and psychosocial work environment on the reported fatigue of seafarers working in the offshore oil and gas re-supply industry (n = 402). We found that seafarers who reported high psychological demands and perceived the organisational-level safety climate negatively,reported significantly more mental fatigue, physical fatigue, and lack of energy. In addition, seafarers who reported having high levels of job control reported being significantly less mentally fatigued. We also found some combined effects of safety climate and shift arrangement. Organisational-level safety climate did not influence the levels of physical fatigue in seafarers working on the night shift. On the contrary, seafarers working during the days reported to be more physically fatigued when they perceived the organisational-level climate to be negative compared with the positive. The opposite effect was found for group-level safety climate: seafarers working during the nights reported to be more physically fatigued when they perceived the group-level climate to be negative compared with the positive. The results from this study point to the importance of taking into consideration aspects of the psychosocial work environment and safety climate,and their potential impact on fatigue and safety in the maritime organisations.

  12. Fatigue in seafarers working in the offshore oil and gas re-supply industry: effects of safety climate, psychosocial work environment and shift arrangement.

    PubMed

    Hystad, Sigurd W; Saus, Evelyn-Rose; Sætrevik, Bjørn; Eid, Jarle

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the influence of safety climate and psychosocial work environment on the reported fatigue of seafarers working in the offshore oil and gas re-supply industry (n = 402). We found that seafarers who reported high psychological demands and perceived the organisational-level safety climate negatively,reported significantly more mental fatigue, physical fatigue, and lack of energy. In addition, seafarers who reported having high levels of job control reported being significantly less mentally fatigued. We also found some combined effects of safety climate and shift arrangement. Organisational-level safety climate did not influence the levels of physical fatigue in seafarers working on the night shift. On the contrary, seafarers working during the days reported to be more physically fatigued when they perceived the organisational-level climate to be negative compared with the positive. The opposite effect was found for group-level safety climate: seafarers working during the nights reported to be more physically fatigued when they perceived the group-level climate to be negative compared with the positive. The results from this study point to the importance of taking into consideration aspects of the psychosocial work environment and safety climate,and their potential impact on fatigue and safety in the maritime organisations. PMID:23788223

  13. Psychosocial safety climate: a multilevel theory of work stress in the health and community service sector.

    PubMed

    Dollard, M F; McTernan, W

    2011-12-01

    Work stress is widely thought to be a significant problem in the health and community services sector. We reviewed evidence from a range of different data sources that confirms this belief. High levels of psychosocial risk factors, psychological health problems and workers compensation claims for stress are found in the sector. We propose a multilevel theoretical model of work stress to account for the results. Psychosocial safety climate (PSC) refers to a climate for psychological health and safety. It reflects the balance of concern by management about psychological health v. productivity. By extending the health erosion and motivational paths of the Job Demands-Resources model we propose that PSC within work organisations predicts work conditions and in turn psychological health and engagement. Over and above this, however, we expect that the external environment of the sector particularly government policies, driven by economic rationalist ideology, is increasing work pressure and exhaustion. These conditions are likely to lead to a reduced quality of service, errors and mistakes. PMID:22201204

  14. Psychosocial safety climate: a multilevel theory of work stress in the health and community service sector.

    PubMed

    Dollard, M F; McTernan, W

    2011-12-01

    Work stress is widely thought to be a significant problem in the health and community services sector. We reviewed evidence from a range of different data sources that confirms this belief. High levels of psychosocial risk factors, psychological health problems and workers compensation claims for stress are found in the sector. We propose a multilevel theoretical model of work stress to account for the results. Psychosocial safety climate (PSC) refers to a climate for psychological health and safety. It reflects the balance of concern by management about psychological health v. productivity. By extending the health erosion and motivational paths of the Job Demands-Resources model we propose that PSC within work organisations predicts work conditions and in turn psychological health and engagement. Over and above this, however, we expect that the external environment of the sector particularly government policies, driven by economic rationalist ideology, is increasing work pressure and exhaustion. These conditions are likely to lead to a reduced quality of service, errors and mistakes.

  15. Validation of Nuclear Criticality Safety Software and 27 energy group ENDF/B-IV cross sections

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, B.L. Jr.

    1994-08-01

    The validation documented in this report is based on calculations that were executed during June through August 1992, and was completed in June 1993. The statistical analyses in Appendix C and Appendix D were completed in October 1993. This validation gives Portsmouth NCS personnel a basis for performing computerized KENO V.a calculations using the Martin Marietta Nuclear Criticality Safety Software. The first portion of the document outlines basic information in regard to validation of NCSS using ENDF/B-IV 27-group cross sections on the IBM 3090 at ORNL. A basic discussion of the NCSS system is provided, some discussion on the validation database and validation in general. Then follows a detailed description of the statistical analysis which was applied. The results of this validation indicate that the NCSS software may be used with confidence for criticality calculations at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. When the validation results are treated as a single group, there is 95% confidence that 99.9% of future calculations of similar critical systems will have a calculated K{sub eff} > 0.9616. Based on this result the Portsmouth Nuclear Criticality Safety Department has adopted the calculational acceptance criteria that a k{sub eff} + 2{sigma} {le} 0.95 is safety subcritical. The validation of NCSS on the IBM 3090 at ORNL was extended to include NCSS on the IBM 3090 at K-25.

  16. Technical basis for environmental qualification of computer-based safety systems in nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Korsah, K.; Wood, R.T.; Tanaka, T.J.; Antonescu, C.E.

    1997-10-01

    This paper summarizes the results of research sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to provide the technical basis for environmental qualification of computer-based safety equipment in nuclear power plants. This research was conducted by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). ORNL investigated potential failure modes and vulnerabilities of microprocessor-based technologies to environmental stressors, including electromagnetic/radio-frequency interference, temperature, humidity, and smoke exposure. An experimental digital safety channel (EDSC) was constructed for the tests. SNL performed smoke exposure tests on digital components and circuit boards to determine failure mechanisms and the effect of different packaging techniques on smoke susceptibility. These studies are expected to provide recommendations for environmental qualification of digital safety systems by addressing the following: (1) adequacy of the present preferred test methods for qualification of digital I and C systems; (2) preferred standards; (3) recommended stressors to be included in the qualification process during type testing; (4) resolution of need for accelerated aging in qualification testing for equipment that is to be located in mild environments; and (5) determination of an appropriate approach to address smoke in a qualification program.

  17. Continuously improving safety of nuclear installations: An approach to be reinforced after the Fukushima accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Repussard, Jacques; Schwarz, Michel

    2012-05-01

    After the Three Mile Island accident in 1979 and the Chernobyl accident in 1986, the Fukushima accident shows that the probability of a core meltdown accident in an LWR (Light Water Reactor) has been largely underestimated. The consequences of such an accident are unacceptable: except in the case of TMI2 (Three Mile Island 2) large areas around the damaged plants are contaminated for decades and populations have to be relocated for long periods. This article presents the French approach which consists in improving continuously the safety of the Nuclear Power Plants (NPP) on the basis of lessons learned from operating experience and from the progress in R&D (Research and Development). It details the key role played by IRSN (Institut de radioprotection et de sûreté nucléaire), the French TSO (Technical and scientific Safety Organization), and shows how the Fukushima accident contributes to this approach in improving NPP robustness. It concludes on the necessity to keep on networking TSOs, to share knowledge as well as R&D resources, with the ultimate goal of enhancing and harmonizing nuclear safety worldwide.

  18. WTEC monograph on instrumentation, control and safety systems of Canadian nuclear facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uhrig, Robert E.; Carter, Richard J.

    1993-01-01

    This report updates a 1989-90 survey of advanced instrumentation and controls (I&C) technologies and associated human factors issues in the U.S. and Canadian nuclear industries carried out by a team from Oak Ridge National Laboratory (Carter and Uhrig 1990). The authors found that the most advanced I&C systems are in the Canadian CANDU plants, where the newest plant (Darlington) has digital systems in almost 100 percent of its control systems and in over 70 percent of its plant protection system. Increased emphasis on human factors and cognitive science in modern control rooms has resulted in a reduced workload for the operators and the elimination of many human errors. Automation implemented through digital instrumentation and control is effectively changing the role of the operator to that of a systems manager. The hypothesis that properly introducing digital systems increases safety is supported by the Canadian experience. The performance of these digital systems has been achieved using appropriate quality assurance programs for both hardware and software development. Recent regulatory authority review of the development of safety-critical software has resulted in the creation of isolated software modules with well defined interfaces and more formal structure in the software generation. The ability of digital systems to detect impending failures and initiate a fail-safe action is a significant safety issue that should be of special interest to nuclear utilities and regulatory authorities around the world.

  19. Work in progress: nuclear magnetic resonance imaging of the gallbladder

    SciTech Connect

    Hricak, H.; Filly, R.A.; Margulis, A.R.; Moon, K.L.; Crooks, L.E.; Kaufman, L.

    1983-05-01

    A preliminary study of the relation between food intake and intensity of gallbladder bile on nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) images was made. Twelve subjects (seven volunteers, five patients) were imaged following a minimum of 14 hours of fasting. Six of seven volunteers were reimaged one hour after stimulation by either a fatty meal or an alcoholic beverage. An additional seven patients were imaged two hours after a hospital breakfast. It was found that concentrated bile emits a high-intensity spin echo signal (SE), while hepatic bile in the gallbladder produces a low-intensity SE signal. Following ingestion of cholecystogogue, dilute hepatic bile settles on top of the concentrated bile, each emitting SE signals of different intensity. The average T1 value of concentrated bile was 594 msec, while the T1 vaue of dilute hepatic bile was 2,646 msec. The average T2 values were 104 msec for concentrated bile and 126 msec for dilute bile. The most likely cause for the different SE intensities of bile is the higher water content, and therefore longer T1 or T2 relaxation times, of hepatic bile. It is suggested that NMR imaging has the ability to provide physiological information about the gallbladder and that it may prove to be a simple and safe clinical test of gallbladder function.

  20. Technical support for the Ukrainian State Committee for Nuclear Radiation Safety on specific waste issues

    SciTech Connect

    Little, C.A.

    1995-07-01

    The government of Ukraine, a now-independent former member of the Soviet Union, has asked the United States to assist its State Committee for Nuclear and Radiation Safety (SCNRS) in improving its regulatory control in technical fields for which it has responsibility. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is providing this assistance in several areas, including management of radioactive waste and spent fuel. Radioactive wastes resulting from nuclear power plant operation, maintenance, and decommissioning must be stored and ultimately disposed of appropriately. In addition, radioactive residue from radioisotopes used in various industrial and medical applications must be managed. The objective of this program is to provide the Ukrainian SCNRS with the information it needs to establish regulatory control over uranium mining and milling activities in the Zheltye Vody (Yellow Waters) area and radioactive waste disposal in the Pripyat (Chernobyl) area among others. The author of this report, head of the Environmental Technology Section, Health Sciences Research Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory, accompanied NRC staff to Ukraine to meet with SCNRS staff and visit sites in question. The report highlights problems at the sites visited and recommends license conditions that SCNRS can require to enhance safety of handling mining and milling wastes. The author`s responsibility was specifically for the visit to Zheltye Vody and the mining and milling waste sites associated with that facility. An itinerary for the Zheltye Vody portion of the trip is included as Appendix A.

  1. Observing the work of an urban safety-net psychiatric emergency room: managing the unmanageable

    PubMed Central

    Lincoln, Alisa K.; White, Andrew; Aldsworth, Casandra; Johnson, Peggy; Strunin, Lee

    2010-01-01

    Staff in the psychiatric emergency room (PER) have demanding jobs requiring a complex balance between the needs and safety of the individual and the community, systemic resources, and job responsibilities while providing timely, effective care. Little research exists concerning day-to-day work activities of PER staff, their interaction, and their perceptions of their work. This study explored the work of PER staff and the organisational context of the PER work setting. Observations of staff were conducted in the public spaces of a public urban PER using two observational techniques. The first was designed to measure the types of work activities staff engaged in and the time spent in these work activities (work task data). The second technique was the gathering of observational data by a peripheral-member-researcher (participant observation data). Analyses were conducted of both the work task and participant observation data. Results indicate that most PER staff time is spent in administrative and phone tasks, while less than a third is spent on direct clinical work. Four important issues for PER work were identified: a workload that is unmanageable, managing the unmanageable, bogus referrals and dumping and insurance problems. The PER remains the front-line of the medical and social service systems. Work done in these settings is of critical importance; however little attention is paid to the content and nature of the work. Our study demonstrates that staff of the PER face challenges on many levels as they struggle with the task of working with people presenting in psychiatric and social crisis. PMID:20149148

  2. Global Survey of the Concepts and Understanding of the Interfaces Between Nuclear Safety, Security, and Safeguards

    SciTech Connect

    Kovacic, Don N.; Stewart, Scott; Erickson, Alexa R.; Ford, Kerrie D.; Mladineo, Stephen V.

    2015-07-15

    There is increasing global discourse on how the elements of nuclear safety, security, and safeguards can be most effectively implemented in nuclear power programs. While each element is separate and unique, they must nevertheless all be addressed in a country’s laws and implemented via regulations and in facility operations. This topic is of particular interest to countries that are currently developing the infrastructure to support nuclear power programs. These countries want to better understand what is required by these elements and how they can manage the interfaces between them and take advantages of any synergies that may exist. They need practical examples and guidance in this area in order to develop better organizational strategies and technical capacities. This could simplify their legal, regulatory, and management structures and avoid inefficient approaches and costly mistakes that may not be apparent to them at this early stage of development. From the perspective of IAEA International Safeguards, supporting Member States in exploring such interfaces and synergies provides a benefit to them because it acknowledges that domestic safeguards in a country do not exist in a vacuum. Instead, it relies on a strong State System of Accounting and Control that is in turn dependent on a capable and independent regulatory body as well as a competent operator and technical staff. These organizations must account for and control nuclear material, communicate effectively, and manage and transmit complete and correct information to the IAEA in a timely manner. This, while in most cases also being responsible for the safety and security of their facilities. Seeking efficiencies in this process benefits international safeguards and nonproliferation. This paper will present the results of a global survey of current and anticipated approaches and practices by countries and organizations with current or future nuclear power programs on how they are implementing, or

  3. Style, content and format guide for writing safety analysis documents: Volume 2, Safety assessment reports for DOE non-nuclear facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Mahn, J.A.; Silver, R.C.; Balas, Y.; Gilmore, W.

    1995-07-01

    The purpose of Volume 2 of this 4-volume style guide is to furnish guidelines on writing and publishing Safety Assessment Reports (SAs) for DOE non-nuclear facilities at Sandia National Laboratories. The scope of Volume 2 encompasses not only the general guidelines for writing and publishing, but also the prescribed topics/appendices contents along with examples from typical SAs for DOE non-nuclear facilities.

  4. Nuclear safety considerations in the conceptual design of a fast reactor for space electric power and propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsieh, T.-M.; Koenig, D. R.

    1977-01-01

    Some nuclear safety aspects of a 3.2 mWt heat pipe cooled fast reactor with out-of-core thermionic converters are discussed. Safety related characteristics of the design including a thin layer of B4C surrounding the core, the use of heat pipes and BeO reflector assembly, the elimination of fuel element bowing, etc., are highlighted. Potential supercriticality hazards and countermeasures are considered. Impacts of some safety guidelines of space transportation system are also briefly discussed, since the currently developing space shuttle would be used as the primary launch vehicle for the nuclear electric propulsion spacecraft.

  5. Techniques to evaluate the importance of common cause degradation on reliability and safety of nuclear weapons.

    SciTech Connect

    Darby, John L.

    2011-05-01

    As the nuclear weapon stockpile ages, there is increased concern about common degradation ultimately leading to common cause failure of multiple weapons that could significantly impact reliability or safety. Current acceptable limits for the reliability and safety of a weapon are based on upper limits on the probability of failure of an individual item, assuming that failures among items are independent. We expanded the current acceptable limits to apply to situations with common cause failure. Then, we developed a simple screening process to quickly assess the importance of observed common degradation for both reliability and safety to determine if further action is necessary. The screening process conservatively assumes that common degradation is common cause failure. For a population with between 100 and 5000 items we applied the screening process and conclude the following. In general, for a reliability requirement specified in the Military Characteristics (MCs) for a specific weapon system, common degradation is of concern if more than 100(1-x)% of the weapons are susceptible to common degradation, where x is the required reliability expressed as a fraction. Common degradation is of concern for the safety of a weapon subsystem if more than 0.1% of the population is susceptible to common degradation. Common degradation is of concern for the safety of a weapon component or overall weapon system if two or more components/weapons in the population are susceptible to degradation. Finally, we developed a technique for detailed evaluation of common degradation leading to common cause failure for situations that are determined to be of concern using the screening process. The detailed evaluation requires that best estimates of common cause and independent failure probabilities be produced. Using these techniques, observed common degradation can be evaluated for effects on reliability and safety.

  6. Institutional implications of establishing safety goals for nuclear power plants. [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, F.A.; Hooper, R.L.

    1983-07-01

    The purpose of this project is to anticipate and address institutional problems that may arise from the adoption of NRC's proposed Policy Statement on Safety Goals for Nuclear Power Plants. The report emphasizes one particular category of institutional problems: the possible use of safety goals as a basis for legal challenges to NRC actions, and the resolution of such challenges by the courts. Three types of legal issues are identified and analyzed. These are, first, general legal issues such as access to the legal system, burden of proof, and standard of proof. Second is the particular formulation of goals. Involved here are such questions as sustainable rationale, definitions, avoided issues, vagueness of time and space details, and degree of conservatism. Implementation brings up the third set of issues which include interpretation and application, linkage to probabilistic risk assessment, consequences as compared to events, and the use of results.

  7. Real-time software use in nuclear materials handling criticality safety control

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, S.; Lappa, D.; Chiao, T.; Parrish, C.; Carlson, R.; Lewis, J.; Shikany, D.; Woo, H.

    1997-06-01

    This paper addresses the use of real-time software to assist handlers of fissionable nuclear material. We focus specifically on the issue of workstation mass limits, and the need for handlers to be aware of, and check against, those mass limits during material transfers. Here ``mass limits`` generally refer to criticality safety mass limits; however, in some instances, workstation mass limits for some materials may be governed by considerations other than criticality, e.g., fire or release consequence limitation. As a case study, we provide a simplified reliability comparison of the use of a manual two handler system with a software-assisted two handler system. We identify the interface points between software and handlers that are relevant to criticality safety.

  8. Guidelines for nuclear power plant safety issue prioritization information development. Supplement 3

    SciTech Connect

    Andrews, W.B.; Bickford, W.E.; Counts, C.A.; Gallucci, R.H.V.; Heaberlin, S.W.; Powers, T.B.; Weakley, S.A.

    1985-09-01

    This supplemental report is the fourth in a series that document and use methods developed to calculate, for prioritization purposes, the risk, dose and cost impacts of implementing resolutions to reactor safety issues. The initial report in this series was published by Andrews et al. in 1983 as NUREG/CR-2800. This supplement consists of two parts describing separate research efforts: (1) an alternative human factors methodology approach, and (2) a prioritization of the NRC's Human Factors Program Plan. The alternative human factors methodology approach may be used in specific future cases in which the methods identified in the initial report (NUREG/CR-2800) may not adequately assess the proper impact for resolution of new safety issues. The alternative methodology included in this supplement is entitled ''Methodology for Estimating the Public Risk Reduction Affected by Human Factors Improvement.'' The prioritization section of this report is entitled ''Prioritization of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission Human Factors Program Plan.''

  9. Work-family conflict and safety participation of high-speed railway drivers: Job satisfaction as a mediator.

    PubMed

    Wei, Wei; Guo, Ming; Ye, Long; Liao, Ganli; Yang, Zhehan

    2016-10-01

    Despite the large body of work on the work-family interface, hardly any literature has addressed the work-family interface in safety-critical settings. This study draws from social exchange theory to examine the effect of employees' strain-based work-to-family conflict on their supervisors' rating of their safety participation through job satisfaction. The sample consisted of 494 drivers from a major railway company in China. The results of a structural equation model revealed that drivers' strain-based work-to-family conflict negatively influences safety participation, and the relationship was partially mediated by job satisfaction. These findings highlight the importance of reducing employees' work-to-family conflict in safety-critical organizations. PMID:27423429

  10. Work-family conflict and safety participation of high-speed railway drivers: Job satisfaction as a mediator.

    PubMed

    Wei, Wei; Guo, Ming; Ye, Long; Liao, Ganli; Yang, Zhehan

    2016-10-01

    Despite the large body of work on the work-family interface, hardly any literature has addressed the work-family interface in safety-critical settings. This study draws from social exchange theory to examine the effect of employees' strain-based work-to-family conflict on their supervisors' rating of their safety participation through job satisfaction. The sample consisted of 494 drivers from a major railway company in China. The results of a structural equation model revealed that drivers' strain-based work-to-family conflict negatively influences safety participation, and the relationship was partially mediated by job satisfaction. These findings highlight the importance of reducing employees' work-to-family conflict in safety-critical organizations.

  11. Annual report to Congress. Department of Energy activities relating to the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board, calendar year 2000

    SciTech Connect

    2001-03-01

    This Annual Report to the Congress describes the Department of Energy's activities in response to formal recommendations and other interactions with the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board. During 2000, the Department completed its implementation and proposed closure of one Board recommendation and completed all implementation plan milestones associated with two additional Board recommendations. Also in 2000, the Department formally accepted two new Board recommendations and developed implementation plans in response to those recommendations. The Department also made significant progress with a number of broad-based safety initiatives. These include initial implementation of integrated safety management at field sites and within headquarters program offices, issuance of a nuclear safety rule, and continued progress on stabilizing excess nuclear materials to achieve significant risk reduction.

  12. Probabilistic cost-benefit analysis of enhanced safety features for strategic nuclear weapons at a representative location

    SciTech Connect

    Stephens, D.R.; Hall, C.H.; Holman, G.S.; Graham, K.F.; Harvey, T.F.; Serduke, F.J.D.

    1993-10-01

    We carried out a demonstration analysis of the value of developing and implementing enhanced safety features for nuclear weapons in the US stockpile. We modified an approach that the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) developed in response to a congressional directive that NRC assess the ``value-impact`` of regulatory actions for commercial nuclear power plants. Because improving weapon safety shares some basic objectives with NRC regulations, i.e., protecting public health and safety from the effects of accidents involving radioactive materials, we believe the NRC approach to be appropriate for evaluating weapons-safety cost-benefit issues. Impact analysis includes not only direct costs associated with retrofitting the weapon system, but also the expected costs (or economic risks) that are avoided by the action, i.e., the benefits.

  13. Operation Aqueduct: Onsite radiological safety report for announced nuclear tests, October 1989--September 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Hernandez, G.M.; Jacklin, A.K.

    1992-01-01

    Aqueduct was the name assigned to the series of underground nuclear weapons tests conducted at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) from October 1, 1989, through September 30, 1990. This report includes those experiments publicly announced. Remote radiation measurements were taken during and after each nuclear event by a telemetry system. Reynolds Electrical & Engineering Co., Inc. (REECO) Health Protection Department (HPD) Radiation Protection Technicians (RPTS) with portable radiation detection instruments surveyed reentry routes into ground zeros (GZ) before other planned entries were made. Continuous surveillance was provided while personnel were in radiation areas and appropriate precautions were taken to protect persons from unnecessary exposure to radiation and toxic gases. Protective clothing and equipment were issued as needed. Complete radiological safety and industrial hygiene (IH) coverage was provided during drilling and mineback operations. Telemetered and portable radiation detector measurements are listed. Detection instrumentation used is described and specific operational procedures are defined.

  14. Operation Aqueduct: Onsite radiological safety report for announced nuclear tests, October 1989--September 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Hernandez, G.M.; Jacklin, A.K.

    1992-01-01

    Aqueduct was the name assigned to the series of underground nuclear weapons tests conducted at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) from October 1, 1989, through September 30, 1990. This report includes those experiments publicly announced. Remote radiation measurements were taken during and after each nuclear event by a telemetry system. Reynolds Electrical Engineering Co., Inc. (REECO) Health Protection Department (HPD) Radiation Protection Technicians (RPTS) with portable radiation detection instruments surveyed reentry routes into ground zeros (GZ) before other planned entries were made. Continuous surveillance was provided while personnel were in radiation areas and appropriate precautions were taken to protect persons from unnecessary exposure to radiation and toxic gases. Protective clothing and equipment were issued as needed. Complete radiological safety and industrial hygiene (IH) coverage was provided during drilling and mineback operations. Telemetered and portable radiation detector measurements are listed. Detection instrumentation used is described and specific operational procedures are defined.

  15. Optical fiber sensors to improve the safety of nuclear power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferdinand, P.; Magne, S.; Laffont, G.

    2013-09-01

    Safety must always prevail in Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs), as shown at Fukushima-Daiichi. So, innovations are clearly needed to strengthen instrumentations, which went inoperative during this nuclear accident as a consequence of power supply losses. Possible improvements concern materials and structures, which may be remotely monitored thanks to Optical Fiber Sensors (OFS). We detail topics involving OFS helpful for monitoring, in nominal conditions as well as during a severe accident. They include distributed sensing (Rayleigh, Raman, Brillouin) for both temperature sensing and structure monitoring as well as H2 concentration and ionizing radiation monitoring. For future plants, Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) sensors are considered up to high temperature for sodium-cooled fast reactor monitoring. These applications can benefit from fiber advantages: sensor multiplexing, multi-km range, no risk-to-people, no common failure mode with other technologies, remote sensing, and the ability to operate in case of power supply lost in the NPP.

  16. Use of artificial intelligence to enhance the safety of nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Uhrig, R.E.

    1988-01-01

    In the operation of a nuclear power plant, the sheer magnitude of the number of process parameters and systems interactions poses difficulties for the operators, particularly during abnormal or emergency situations. Recovery from an upset situation depends upon the facility with which the available raw data can be converted into and assimilated as meaningful knowledge. Plant personnel are sometimes affected by stress and emotion, which may have varying degrees of influence on their performance. Expert systems can take some of the uncertainty and guesswork out of their decisions by providing expert advice and rapid access to a large information base. Application of artificial intelligence technologies, particularly expert systems, to control room activities in a nuclear power plant has the potential to reduce operator error and improve power plant safety and reliability. 12 refs.

  17. Operation Cornerstone onsite radiological safety report for announced nuclear tests, October 1988--September 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-08-01

    Cornerstone was the name assigned to the series of underground nuclear experiments conducted at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) from October 1, 1988, through September 30, 1989. This report includes those experiments publicly announced. Remote radiation measurements were taken during and after each nuclear experiment by a telemetry system. Radiation Protection Technicians (RPT) with portable radiation detection instruments surveyed reentry routes into ground zeros (GZ) before other planned entries were made. Continuous surveillance was provided while personnel were in radiation areas and appropriate precautions were taken to protect persons from unnecessary exposure to radiation and toxic gases. Protective clothing and equipment were issued as needed. Complete radiological safety and industrial hygiene coverage were provided during drilling and mineback operations. Telemetered and portable radiation detector measurements are listed. Detection instrumentation used is described and specific operational procedures are defined.

  18. Risk-Informing Safety Reviews for Non-Reactor Nuclear Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Mubayi, V.; Azarm, A.; Yue, M.; Mukaddam, W.; Good, G.; Gonzalez, F.; Bari, R.A.

    2011-03-13

    This paper describes a methodology used to model potential accidents in fuel cycle facilities that employ chemical processes to separate and purify nuclear materials. The methodology is illustrated with an example that uses event and fault trees to estimate the frequency of a specific energetic reaction that can occur in nuclear material processing facilities. The methodology used probabilistic risk assessment (PRA)-related tools as well as information about the chemical reaction characteristics, information on plant design and operational features, and generic data about component failure rates and human error rates. The accident frequency estimates for the specific reaction help to risk-inform the safety review process and assess compliance with regulatory requirements.

  19. Historical perspectives on selected health and safety aspects of nuclear weapons testing.

    PubMed

    Black, S C; Potter, G D

    1986-07-01

    This paper presents a general review of public safety standards as adapted by the nuclear weapons testing program in the United States, and the impact of these changing standards on the nuclear testing program itself. The review notes the importance of improvements in diagnostic instrumentation and methodologies from a relatively simple degree of sophistication to their current high level. Use of the improved methodologies uncovered a serious oversight affecting human exposure, namely, that of not recognizing the relative importance of all potential transport/dosimetric pathways for risk assessment. The testing program, from its inception in the Pacific in 1946 to the present time in Nevada, is viewed from the perspective of providing improved radiation protection to the general public.

  20. Working the night shift: a necessary time for training or a risk to health and safety?

    PubMed

    Morrison, I; Flower, D; Hurley, J; McFadyen, R J

    2013-01-01

    The European Working Time Directive (EWTD) limits excessive night shifts and restricts the working week to no more than 48 hours. The underlying rationale is to minimise the health risks to all workers. Here we debate the impact of night rotas for doctors-in-training on patient safety and medical education; when the EWTD was agreed these topics may not have been considered, either systematically or objectively. The impacts of diurnal rhythms on human functions affect all night workers, but the nature of rostered medical and surgical work has little precedent in other industries or even in the contracts of other healthcare staff. For example, rostered night duties need to be distinguished from permanent night shift work. On-call medical night work from training doctors is generally required for short periods and usually involves fewer patients. It is an important time in training, where clinical responsibility and decision-making can be matured in a supervised setting. To comply with the EWTD most hospitals have adopted rota patterns that aim to cover the clinical needs, while ensuring no doctor works for more than 48 hours in an average working week. To monitor this process longterm studies are necessary to evaluate effects on a doctor's health and on patient care generally. The EWTD has also led to a loss of continuity of patient care; does this really matter? PMID:24087803

  1. Safety of interim storage solutions of used nuclear fuel during extended term

    SciTech Connect

    Shelton, C.; Bader, S.; Issard, H.; Arslan, M.

    2013-07-01

    In 2013, the total amount of stored used nuclear fuel (UNF) in the world will reach 225,000 T HM. The UNF inventory in wet storage will take up over 80% of the available total spent fuel pool (SFP) capacity. Interim storage solutions are needed. They give flexibility to the nuclear operators and ensure that nuclear reactors continue to operate. However, we need to keep in mind that they are also an easy way to differ final decision and implementation of a UNF management approach (recycling or final disposal). In term of public perception, they can have a negative impact overtime as it may appear that nuclear industry may have significant issues to resolve. In countries lacking an integrated UNF management approach, the UNF are being discharged from the SFPs to interim storage (mostly to dry storage) at the same rate as UNF is being discharged from reactors, as the SFPs at the reactor sites are becoming full. This is now the case in USA, Taiwan, Switzerland, Spain, South Africa and Germany. For interim storage, AREVA has developed different solutions in order to allow the continued operation of reactors while meeting the current requirements of Safety Authorities: -) Dry storage canisters on pads, -) Dual-purpose casks (dry storage and transportation), -) Vault dry storage, and -) Centralized pool storage.

  2. Health and safety problems associated with long working hours: a review of the current position.

    PubMed Central

    Spurgeon, A; Harrington, J M; Cooper, C L

    1997-01-01

    The European Community Directive on Working Time, which should have been implemented in member states of the European Community by November 1996, contains several requirements related to working hours, including the right of employees to refuse to work more than 48 hours a week. The United Kingdom government attempted to oppose the Directive, arguing that there is no convincing evidence that hours of work should be limited on health and safety grounds. Much of the research in this area has focused on the problems of shiftworking and previous reviews have therefore tended to emphasise this aspect of working hours. However, there is much less information about the effects of overtime work, which is a central element of the terms of the Directive. This paper reviews the current evidence relating to the potential effects on health and performance of extensions to the normal working day. Several gaps in the literature are identified. Research to date has been restricted to a limited range of health outcomes--namely, mental health and cardiovascular disorders. Other potential effects which are normally associated with stress--for example, gastrointestinal disorders, musculoskeletal disorders, and problems associated with depression of the immune system, have received little attention. Also, there have been few systematic investigations of performance effects, and little consideration of the implications for occupational exposure limits of extensions to the working day. Existing data relate largely to situations where working hours exceed 50 a week and there is a lack of information on hours below this level, which is of direct relevance to the European Community proposal. Finally, it is clear from investigations relating to shiftwork that a range of modifying factors are likely to influence the level and nature of health and performance outcomes. These include the attitudes and motivation of the people concerned, the job requirements, and other aspects of the

  3. RECENT ACTIVITIES OF THE NUCLEAR SMUGGLING INTERNATIONAL TECHNICAL WORKING GROUP TO THWART ILLICIT TRAFFICKING

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D K; Biro, T; Chartier, B; Mayer, K; Niemeyer, S; Thompson, P

    2007-10-25

    The Nuclear Smuggling International Technical Working Group (ITWG) is an informal association of nuclear forensic practitioners working in partnership with law enforcement, first responder, and nuclear regulatory professionals that cooperate to deter the illicit trafficking of nuclear materials. The objective of the ITWG is to advance the science of nuclear forensics and to provide a common approach and effective technical solutions to governments who request assistance. the ITWG was chartered in 1996 and since that time 30 nations and organizations have participated in 12 annual meetings and two analytical round-robin trials involving plutonium and highly enriched uranium. A third analytical round-robin as well as several table-top exercises are planned for later in 2007-2008. International interest in the ITWG has grown in over the past five years measured by the number of participants at its annual meetings. This growth has spawned the ITWG Nuclear Forensics Laboratories as a companion technical affiliate focusing exclusively on the scientific aspects of nuclear forensics and nuclear smuggling incident response.

  4. International studies on burnup credit criticality safety by an OECD/NEA working group

    SciTech Connect

    Brady, M.C.; Okuno, H.; DeHart, M.D.; Nouri, A.; Sartori, E.

    1998-11-01

    The results and conclusions from a six-year study by an international benchmarking group in the comparison of computational methods for evaluating burnup credit in criticality safety analyses is presented. Approximately 20 participants from 12 countries have provided results for most problems. Four detailed benchmark problems for pressurized-water-reactor fuel have been completed. Results from work being finalized, addressing burnup credit for boiling-water-reactor fuel, are discussed, as well as planned activities for additional benchmarks, including mixed-oxide fuels, and other activities.

  5. Application of Framework for Integrating Safety, Security and Safeguards (3Ss) into the Design Of Used Nuclear Fuel Storage Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Badwan, Faris M.; Demuth, Scott F

    2015-01-06

    Department of Energy’s Office of Nuclear Energy, Fuel Cycle Research and Development develops options to the current commercial fuel cycle management strategy to enable the safe, secure, economic, and sustainable expansion of nuclear energy while minimizing proliferation risks by conducting research and development focused on used nuclear fuel recycling and waste management to meet U.S. needs. Used nuclear fuel is currently stored onsite in either wet pools or in dry storage systems, with disposal envisioned in interim storage facility and, ultimately, in a deep-mined geologic repository. The safe management and disposition of used nuclear fuel and/or nuclear waste is a fundamental aspect of any nuclear fuel cycle. Integrating safety, security, and safeguards (3Ss) fully in the early stages of the design process for a new nuclear facility has the potential to effectively minimize safety, proliferation, and security risks. The 3Ss integration framework could become the new national and international norm and the standard process for designing future nuclear facilities. The purpose of this report is to develop a framework for integrating the safety, security and safeguards concept into the design of Used Nuclear Fuel Storage Facility (UNFSF). The primary focus is on integration of safeguards and security into the UNFSF based on the existing Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) approach to addressing the safety/security interface (10 CFR 73.58 and Regulatory Guide 5.73) for nuclear power plants. The methodology used for adaptation of the NRC safety/security interface will be used as the basis for development of the safeguards /security interface and later will be used as the basis for development of safety and safeguards interface. Then this will complete the integration cycle of safety, security, and safeguards. The overall methodology for integration of 3Ss will be proposed, but only the integration of safeguards and security will be applied to the design of the

  6. Management response plan for the Chemical Safety Vulnerability Working Group report. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    The Chemical Safety Vulnerability (CSV) Working Group was established to identify adverse conditions involving hazardous chemicals at DOE facilities that might result in fires or explosions, release of hazardous chemicals to the environment, or exposure of workers or the public to chemicals. A CSV Review was conducted in 146 facilities at 29 sites. Eight generic vulnerabilities were documented related to: abandoned chemicals and chemical residuals; past chemical spills and ground releases; characterization of legacy chemicals and wastes; disposition of legacy chemicals; storage facilities and conditions; condition of facilities and support systems; unanalyzed and unaddressed hazards; and inventory control and tracking. Weaknesses in five programmatic areas were also identified related to: management commitment and planning; chemical safety management programs; aging facilities that continue to operate; nonoperating facilities awaiting deactivation; and resource allocations. Volume 1 contains a discussion of the chemical safety improvements planned or already underway at DOE sites to correct facility or site-specific vulnerabilities. The main part of the report is a discussion of each of the programmatic deficiencies; a description of the tasks to be accomplished; the specific actions to be taken; and the organizational responsibilities for implementation.

  7. Cultural safety--what does it mean for our work practice?

    PubMed

    Williams, R

    1999-04-01

    Culturally safe service delivery is critical in enhancing personal empowerment and, as a result, should promote more effective and meaningful pathways to self determination for Indigenous people. Little has been said about encouraging people from Indigenous groups into the health and education discipline(s) to help provide a safe environment which includes cultural safety. This is a phrase originally coined by Maori nurses which means that there is no assault on a person's identity. The people most able or equipped to provide a culturally safe atmosphere are people from the same culture. We need to move on from the 'short term, cost effective, quick fix' approach to Indigenous issues, driven by economic imperatives, the clamouring of industry and conservative, hegemonic practices. To genuinely address the challenges of Indigenous health and education, the issue of cultural safety cannot be avoided. Critical reflection on experiential knowledge and defining or framing a debate on cultural safety is essential. This paper briefly examines some considerations for work practice. PMID:10330743

  8. Updating Human Factors Engineering Guidelines for Conducting Safety Reviews of Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    O, J.M.; Higgins, J.; Stephen Fleger - NRC

    2011-09-19

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) reviews the human factors engineering (HFE) programs of applicants for nuclear power plant construction permits, operating licenses, standard design certifications, and combined operating licenses. The purpose of these safety reviews is to help ensure that personnel performance and reliability are appropriately supported. Detailed design review procedures and guidance for the evaluations is provided in three key documents: the Standard Review Plan (NUREG-0800), the HFE Program Review Model (NUREG-0711), and the Human-System Interface Design Review Guidelines (NUREG-0700). These documents were last revised in 2007, 2004 and 2002, respectively. The NRC is committed to the periodic update and improvement of the guidance to ensure that it remains a state-of-the-art design evaluation tool. To this end, the NRC is updating its guidance to stay current with recent research on human performance, advances in HFE methods and tools, and new technology being employed in plant and control room design. This paper describes the role of HFE guidelines in the safety review process and the content of the key HFE guidelines used. Then we will present the methodology used to develop HFE guidance and update these documents, and describe the current status of the update program.

  9. Evaluation of natural phenomena hazards as part of safety assessments for nuclear facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Kot, C.A.; Hsieh, B.J.; Srinivasan, M.G.; Shin, Y.W.

    1995-02-01

    The continued operation of existing US Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities and laboratories requires a safety reassessment based on current criteria and guidelines. This also includes evaluations for the effects of Natural Phenomena Hazards (NPH), for which these facilities may not have been designed. The NPH evaluations follow the requirements of DOE Order 5480.28, Natural Phenomena Hazards Mitigation (1993) which establishes NPH Performance Categories (PCs) for DOE facilities and associated target probabilistic performance goals. These goals are expressed as the mean annual probability of exceedance of acceptable behavior for structures, systems and components (SSCs) subjected to NPH effects. The assignment of an NPH Performance Category is based on the overall hazard categorization (low, moderate, high) of a facility and on the function of an SSC under evaluation (DOE-STD-1021, 1992). Detailed guidance for the NPH analysis and evaluation criteria are also provided (DOE-STD-1020, 1994). These analyses can be very resource intensive, and may not be necessary for the evaluation of all SSCs in existing facilities, in particular for low hazard category facilities. An approach relying heavily on screening inspections, engineering judgment and use of NPH experience data (S. J. Eder et al., 1993), can minimize the analytical effort, give reasonable estimates of the NPH susceptibilities, and yield adequate information for an overall safety evaluation of the facility. In the following sections this approach is described in more detail and is illustrated by an application to a nuclear laboratory complex.

  10. Nuclear criticality safety experiments, calculations, and analyses - 1958 to 1982. Volume 2. Summaries. Complilation of papers from the Transactions of the American Nuclear Society

    SciTech Connect

    Koponen, B.L.; Hampel, V.E.

    1982-10-21

    This compilation contains 688 complete summaries of papers on nuclear criticality safety as presented at meetings of the American Nuclear Society (ANS). The selected papers contain criticality parameters for fissile materials derived from experiments and calculations, as well as criticality safety analyses for fissile material processing, transport, and storage. The compilation was developed as a component of the Nuclear Criticality Information System (NCIS) now under development at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The compilation is presented in two volumes: Volume 1 contains a directory to the ANS Transaction volume and page number where each summary was originally published, the author concordance, and the subject concordance derived from the keyphrases in titles. Volume 2 contains-in chronological order-the full-text summaries, reproduced here by permission of the American Nuclear Society from their Transactions, volumes 1-41.

  11. Work Placements as Learning Environments for Patient Safety: Finnish and British Preregistration Nursing Students' Important Learning Events

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tella, Susanna; Smith, Nancy-Jane; Partanen, Pirjo; Turunen, Hannele

    2016-01-01

    Learning to ensure patient safety in complex health care environments is an internationally recognised concern. This article explores and compares Finnish (n = 22) and British (n = 32) pre-registration nursing students' important learning events about patient safety from their work placements in health care organisations. Written descriptions were…

  12. 20 CFR 645.260 - What health and safety provisions apply to participants in Welfare-to-Work programs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What health and safety provisions apply to participants in Welfare-to-Work programs? 645.260 Section 645.260 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING... Administrative Requirements § 645.260 What health and safety provisions apply to participants in...

  13. 20 CFR 645.260 - What health and safety provisions apply to participants in Welfare-to-Work programs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What health and safety provisions apply to participants in Welfare-to-Work programs? 645.260 Section 645.260 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING... Administrative Requirements § 645.260 What health and safety provisions apply to participants in...

  14. 20 CFR 667.274 - What health and safety standards apply to the working conditions of participants in activities...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What health and safety standards apply to the...' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS UNDER TITLE... and safety standards apply to the working conditions of participants in activities under title I...

  15. 20 CFR 667.274 - What health and safety standards apply to the working conditions of participants in activities...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What health and safety standards apply to the...' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS UNDER TITLE... and safety standards apply to the working conditions of participants in activities under title I...

  16. 48 CFR 852.222-70 - Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act-nursing home care contract supplement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Safety Standards Act-nursing home care contract supplement. 852.222-70 Section 852.222-70 Federal...—nursing home care contract supplement. As prescribed in 822.305, for nursing home care requirements, insert the following clause: Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act—Nursing Home Care...

  17. 48 CFR 852.222-70 - Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act-nursing home care contract supplement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Safety Standards Act-nursing home care contract supplement. 852.222-70 Section 852.222-70 Federal...—nursing home care contract supplement. As prescribed in 822.305, for nursing home care requirements, insert the following clause: Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act—Nursing Home Care...

  18. 48 CFR 852.222-70 - Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act-nursing home care contract supplement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Safety Standards Act-nursing home care contract supplement. 852.222-70 Section 852.222-70 Federal...—nursing home care contract supplement. As prescribed in 822.305, for nursing home care requirements, insert the following clause: Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act—Nursing Home Care...

  19. 48 CFR 852.222-70 - Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act-nursing home care contract supplement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Safety Standards Act-nursing home care contract supplement. 852.222-70 Section 852.222-70 Federal...—nursing home care contract supplement. As prescribed in 822.305, for nursing home care requirements, insert the following clause: Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act—Nursing Home Care...

  20. 48 CFR 852.222-70 - Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act-nursing home care contract supplement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Safety Standards Act-nursing home care contract supplement. 852.222-70 Section 852.222-70 Federal...—nursing home care contract supplement. As prescribed in 822.305, for nursing home care requirements, insert the following clause: Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act—Nursing Home Care...

  1. Strategies to reduce safety violations for working from heights in construction companies: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Safety measures should be applied to reduce work-related fatal and non-fatal fall injuries. However, according to the labor inspectorate, more than 80% of Dutch construction sites violate safety regulations for working from heights. To increase compliance with safety regulations, employers and workers have to select, implement and monitor safety measures. To facilitate this behavioral change, stimulating knowledge awareness and personalized feedback are frequently advocated behavior change techniques. For this study, two behavior change strategies have been developed in addition to the announcement of safety inspections by the labor inspectorate. These strategies consist of 1) face-to-face contacts with safety consultants and 2) direct mail with access to internet facilities. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of these two strategies on the safety violations for working from heights, the process and the cost measures. Methods/Design This study is a block randomized intervention trial in 27 cities to establish the effects of the face-to-face guidance strategy (N = 9), a direct mailing strategy (N = 9) and a control condition of no guidance (N = 9) on safety violations to record by labor inspectors after three months. A process evaluation for both strategies will be performed to determine program implementation (reach, dose delivered and dose received), satisfaction, knowledge and perceived safety behavior. A cost analysis will be performed to establish the financial costs for both strategies. The present study is in accordance with the CONSORT statement. Discussion This study increases insight into performing practice-based randomized controlled trials. The outcome will help to evaluate the effect of two guidance strategies on safety violations. If these strategies are effective, implementation of these strategies through the national institute of safety and health or labor inspectorate can take place to guide

  2. Management response plan for the Chemical Safety Vulnerability Working Group report. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    The Chemical Safety Vulnerability (CSV) Working Group was established to identify adverse conditions involving hazardous chemicals at DOE facilities that might result in fires or explosions, release of hazardous chemicals to the environment, or exposure of workers or the public to chemicals. A CSV Review was conducted in 146 facilities at 29 sites. Eight generic vulnerabilities were documented related to: abandoned chemicals and chemical residuals; past chemical spills and ground releases; characterization of legacy chemicals and wastes; disposition of legacy chemicals; storage facilities and conditions; condition of facilities and support systems; unanalyzed and unaddressed hazards; and inventory control and tracking. Weaknesses in five programmatic areas were also identified related to: management commitment and planning; chemical safety management programs; aging facilities that continue to operate; nonoperating facilities awaiting deactivation; and resource allocations. To address the facility-specific and site-specific vulnerabilities, responsible DOE and site-contractor line organizations have developed initial site response plans. These plans, presented as Volume 2 of this Management Response Plan, describe the actions needed to mitigate or eliminate the facility- and site-specific vulnerabilities identified by the CSV Working Group field verification teams. Initial site response plans are described for: Brookhaven National Lab., Hanford Site, Idaho National Engineering Lab., Lawrence Livermore National Lab., Los Alamos National Lab., Oak Ridge Reservation, Rocky Flats Plant, Sandia National Laboratories, and Savannah River Site.

  3. Radiological Safety Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Army Ordnance Center and School, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD.

    Written to be used concurrently with the U.S. Army's Radiological Safety Course, this publication discusses the causes, sources, and detection of nuclear radiation. In addition, the transportation and disposal of radioactive materials are covered. The report also deals with the safety precautions to be observed when working with lasers, microwave…

  4. 29 CFR 5.15 - Limitations, variations, tolerances, and exemptions under the Contract Work Hours and Safety...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...; and Johnston Island. (2) Agreements entered into by or on behalf of the Commodity Credit Corporation... deemed to be in violation of section 102 of the Contract Work Hour and Safety Standards Act for...

  5. Technology, Safety and Costs of Decommissioning Nuclear Reactors At Multiple-Reactor Stations

    SciTech Connect

    Wittenbrock, N. G.

    1982-01-01

    Safety and cost information is developed for the conceptual decommissioning of large (1175-MWe) pressurized water reactors (PWRs) and large (1155-MWe) boiling water reactors {BWRs) at multiple-reactor stations. Three decommissioning alternatives are studied: DECON (immediate decontamination), SAFSTOR (safe storage followed by deferred decontamination), and ENTOMB (entombment). Safety and costs of decommissioning are estimated by determining the impact of probable features of multiple-reactor-station operation that are considered to be unavailable at a single-reactor station, and applying these estimated impacts to the decommissioning costs and radiation doses estimated in previous PWR and BWR decommissioning studies. The multiple-reactor-station features analyzed are: the use of interim onsite nuclear waste storage with later removal to an offsite nuclear waste disposal facility, the use of permanent onsite nuclear waste disposal, the dedication of the site to nuclear power generation, and the provision of centralized services. Five scenarios for decommissioning reactors at a multiple-reactor station are investigated. The number of reactors on a site is assumed to be either four or ten; nuclear waste disposal is varied between immediate offsite disposal, interim onsite storage, and immediate onsite disposal. It is assumed that the decommissioned reactors are not replaced in one scenario but are replaced in the other scenarios. Centralized service facilities are provided in two scenarios but are not provided in the other three. Decommissioning of a PWR or a BWR at a multiple-reactor station probably will be less costly and result in lower radiation doses than decommissioning an identical reactor at a single-reactor station. Regardless of whether the light water reactor being decommissioned is at a single- or multiple-reactor station: • the estimated occupational radiation dose for decommissioning an LWR is lowest for SAFSTOR and highest for DECON • the estimated

  6. How to evaluate the risks of work equipment and installations for health and safety? Research and activities of the German Committee for Plant Safety and consequences for regulation.

    PubMed

    Pieper, R

    2012-01-01

    Work equipment and installations with a high risk for health and safety of employees should be paid a special attention. The German Product Safety Act, which is aimed to manufacturers or distributors in order to protect consumers, maintains a conclusive catalogue of these so-called "installations in need of monitoring" fixing the work equipment and installations for which such special inspections can be demanded. This catalogue has remained unchanged for decades and has been transformed nearly unmodified into the Plant Safety Ordinance. Currently, there is a discussion about this catalogue in Germany. A major point of concern is the definition and the significance of "especially" dangerous work equipment and installations. Two recent research projects are dealing with the problem how to define "especially".

  7. Exploration of High-Dimensional Scalar Function for Nuclear Reactor Safety Analysis and Visualization

    SciTech Connect

    Dan Maljovec; Bei Wang; Valerio Pascucci; Peer-Timo Bremer; Michael Pernice; Robert Nourgaliev

    2013-05-01

    The next generation of methodologies for nuclear reactor Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) explicitly accounts for the time element in modeling the probabilistic system evolution and uses numerical simulation tools to account for possible dependencies between failure events. The Monte-Carlo (MC) and the Dynamic Event Tree (DET) approaches belong to this new class of dynamic PRA methodologies. A challenge of dynamic PRA algorithms is the large amount of data they produce which may be difficult to visualize and analyze in order to extract useful information. We present a software tool that is designed to address these goals. We model a large-scale nuclear simulation dataset as a high-dimensional scalar function defined over a discrete sample of the domain. First, we provide structural analysis of such a function at multiple scales and provide insight into the relationship between the input parameters and the output. Second, we enable exploratory analysis for users, where we help the users to differentiate features from noise through multi-scale analysis on an interactive platform, based on domain knowledge and data characterization. Our analysis is performed by exploiting the topological and geometric properties of the domain, building statistical models based on its topological segmentations and providing interactive visual interfaces to facilitate such explorations. We provide a user’s guide to our software tool by highlighting its analysis and visualization capabilities, along with a use case involving dataset from a nuclear reactor safety simulation.

  8. Criticality Safety Analysis Of As-loaded Spent Nuclear Fuel Casks

    SciTech Connect

    Banerjee, Kaushik; Scaglione, John M

    2015-01-01

    The final safety analysis report (FSAR) or the safety analysis report (SAR) for a particular spent nuclear fuel (SNF) cask system documents models and calculations used to demonstrate that a system meets the regulatory requirements under all normal, off-normal, and accident conditions of spent fuel storage, and normal and accident conditions of transportation. FSAR/SAR calculations and approved content specifications are intended to be bounding in nature to certify cask systems for a variety of fuel characteristics with simplified SNF loading requirements. Therefore, in general, loaded cask systems possess excess and uncredited criticality margins (i.e., the difference between the licensing basis and the as-loaded calculations). This uncredited margin could be quantified by employing more detailed cask-specific evaluations that credit the actual as-loaded cask inventory, and taking into account full (actinide and fission product) burnup credit. This uncredited criticality margin could be potentially used to offset (1) uncertainties in the safety basis that needs to account for the effects of system aging during extended dry storage prior to transportation, and (2) increases in SNF system reactivity over a repository performance period (e.g., 10,000 years or more) as the system undergoes degradation and internal geometry changes. This paper summarizes an assessment of cask-specific, as-loaded criticality margins for SNF stored at eight reactor sites (215 loaded casks were analyzed) under fully flooded conditions to assess the margins available during transportation after extended storage. It is observed that the calculated keff margin varies from 0.05 to almost 0.3 Δkeff for the eight selected reactor sites, demonstrating that significant uncredited safety margins are present. In addition, this paper evaluates the sufficiency of this excess margin in applications involving direct disposal of currently loaded SNF casks.

  9. A study of psychiatric nurses' beliefs and attitudes about work safety and assaults in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Bilgin, Hülya; Buzlu, Sevim

    2006-01-01

    In Turkey, the cultural structure effects the gender roles in the society, and women are subject to violence in an intense manner both inside the family and in their workplaces. In nursing, which is still defined as a woman's job in our country, it is possible to encounter many aggressive and threatening behaviours. Knowing no geographical borders, aggression leads to dissatisfaction and alienation with the profession for the nurses working at the psychiatric institutions in Turkey, thus aggression is a significant health risk in physical, psychological and social dimensions. The research was carried out with 162 randomly selected nurses working in the psychiatric institutions in Istanbul using the Attitudes Toward Patient Physical Assault Questionnaire. It has been determined that nurses' rate of exposure to verbal/physical assault by the patients and their relatives is high and that they experience an intense uncertainty and conflict, especially in legal issues, and that the duration of working in the psychiatry clinics effects attitudes toward the assaults. It is concluded that the nurses working at the psychiatry clinics in Turkey are under risk in regards to safety and they need protection and support, both in emotional and in legal terms. PMID:16352517

  10. Appraisal of work hazards and safety in the industrial estate of Jeddah.

    PubMed

    Noweir, M H; Alidrisi, M M; Al-Jiffry, M S

    1993-08-01

    An environmental study for the appraisal of work hazards and safety in Jeddah Industrial Estate (JIE), Saudi Arabia has been conducted. The study is based upon a representative (stratified random) sample of 44 enterprises, including 52 plants and employing 5830 workers.Nearly 2/3 of the workers have heat exposure, orginating from climatic heat and heat dissipated from industrial operations, while exposure to noise is slightly less, and is attributed to noisy operations and machinery and to lack of meticulous maintenance; both exposures are mild in most of the plants and moderate in some. Mild exposures to nonionizing radiations (UV and IR) and to deficient illumination occur in 25% and 19.2% of the plants studied. Respiratory exposure to chemical agents (organic and inorganic dusts, metal fumes, gases and vapours - including asphyxiants, irritants, liver and nervous system offenders and acid and alkali mists) occurs in 75% of the plants, particularly in the medium-size enterprises plants; however, is mainly mild with a few moderate and severe exposures. Skin absorption contributes to absorption of chemical agents in 29% of the plants, and direct skin contact to chemicals (particularly to lubricating oils) occurs in 81% of the plants.Meanwhile, only eight plants, out of the 32 plants where controls for physical hazards are required (51.2%), apply engineering controls, and even in a few of these plants the efficiency of the control measures has been rated 'bad'. A few of them provide personal protective equipment, and even no maintenance to this equipment is provided.The level of safety is better in the large plants than in the small and medium-size plants; the safety score is the best in the recently established plants, while is the worst in the plastic industry, which is relatively old. The appraisal of fire protection is better than that of the safety, due to efficient supervision of the General Directorate of Civil Defense (GDCD). However, most of the safety

  11. Quarterly report on Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board Recommendation 90-7 for the period ending December 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Cash, R.J.; Dukelow, G.T.; Forbes, C.J.

    1993-03-01

    This is the seventh quarterly report on the progress of activities addressing safety issues associated with Hanford Site high-level radioactive waste tanks that contain ferrocyanide compounds. In the presence of oxidizing materials, such as nitrates or nitrites, ferrocyanide can be made to explode in the laboratory by heating it to high temperatures [above 285{degrees}C (545{degrees}F)]. In the mid 1950s approximately 140 metric tons of ferrocyanide were added to 24 underground high-level radioactive waste tanks. An implementation plan (Cash 1991) responding to the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board Recommendation 90-7 (FR 1990) was issued in March 1991 describing the activities that were planned and underway to address each of the six parts of Recommendation 90-7. A revision to the original plan was transmitted to US Department of Energy by Westinghouse Hanford Company in December 1992. Milestones completed this quarter are described in this report. Contents of this report include: Introduction; Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board Implementation Plan Task Activities (Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board Recommendation for enhanced temperature measurement, Recommendation for continuous temperature monitoring, Recommendation for cover gas monitoring, Recommendation for ferrocyanide waste characterization, Recommendation for chemical reaction studies, and Recommendation for emergency response planning); Schedules; and References. All actions recommended by the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board for emergency planning by Hanford Site emergency preparedness organizations have been completed.

  12. Annual report to Congress: Department of Energy activities relating to the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board, calendar year 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1999-02-01

    This is the ninth Annual Report to the Congress describing Department of Energy (Department) activities in response to formal recommendations and other interactions with the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (Board). The Board, an independent executive-branch agency established in 1988, provides advice and recommendations to the Secretary of energy regarding public health and safety issues at the Department`s defense nuclear facilities. The Board also reviews and evaluates the content and implementation of health and safety standards, as well as other requirements, relating to the design, construction, operation, and decommissioning of the Department`s defense nuclear facilities. The locations of the major Department facilities are provided. During 1998, Departmental activities resulted in the proposed closure of one Board recommendation. In addition, the Department has completed all implementation plan milestones associated with four other Board recommendations. Two new Board recommendations were received and accepted by the Department in 1998, and two new implementation plans are being developed to address these recommendations. The Department has also made significant progress with a number of broad-based initiatives to improve safety. These include expanded implementation of integrated safety management at field sites, a renewed effort to increase the technical capabilities of the federal workforce, and a revised plan for stabilizing excess nuclear materials to achieve significant risk reduction.

  13. Characterisation of Liquefaction Effects for Beyond-Design Basis Safety Assessment of Nuclear Power Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bán, Zoltán; Győri, Erzsébet; János Katona, Tamás; Tóth, László

    2015-04-01

    -tree procedure. Earlier studies have shown that the potentially liquefiable layer at Paks Nuclear Power Plant is situated in relatively large depth. Therefore the applicability and adequacy of the methods at high overburden pressure is important. In case of existing facilities, the geotechnical data gained before construction aren't sufficient for the comprehensive liquefaction analysis. Performance of new geotechnical survey is limited. Consequently, the availability of the data has to be accounted while selection the analysis methods. Considerations have to be made for dealing with aleatory uncertainty related to the knowledge of the soil conditions. It is shown in the paper, a careful comparison and analysis of the results obtained by different methodologies provides the basis of the selection of practicable methods for the safety analysis of nuclear power plant for beyond design basis liquefaction hazard.

  14. [Alcohol and work: the role of the company physician in the occupational health and safety management systems].

    PubMed

    Patussi, V; Muran, A

    2010-01-01

    The organization of safety in the working places and the increasing attention to behaviours and life styles of workers that may lead to increasing occupational risks are the pick innovative aspects of the recent changes in our country's legislation about occupational safety. In this organization, the role of the company physician is becoming more and more important and his work of evaluation beginning with the knowledge both of the working places and of the workers's lifestyles, is irreplaceable. His role in organizing the managing standards of occupational safety and health cannot be limited to health supervision but must be an essential element in risk assessment in the prevision of workplaces and of safe working conditions, in workers training and information, in organizing the control system of each business. The present paper examines--referring to the current regulation--the duties and functions of a company physician when facing the problems concerning the working risks tied to alcohol assumption.

  15. Safety research programs sponsored by Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research: Progress report, July 1--September 30, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, A J

    1989-02-01

    This progress report describes current activities and technical progress in the programs at Brookhaven National Laboratory sponsored by the Division of Regulatory Applications, Division of Engineering, Division of Safety Issue Resolution, and Division of Systems of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research following the reorganization in July 1988. The previous reports have covered the period October 1, 1976 through June 30, 1988. 71 figs., 24 tabs.

  16. Safety research programs sponsored by Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research: Progress report, January 1--June 30, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Baum, J W; Boccio, J L; Diamond, D; Fitzpatrick, R; Ginsberg, T; Greene, G A; Guppy, J G; Hall, R E; Higgins, J C; Weiss, A J

    1988-12-01

    This progress report describes current activities and technical progress in the programs at Brookhaven National Laboratory sponsored by the Division of Regulatory Applications, Division of Engineering, Division of Safety Issue Resolution, and Division of Systems Research of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research following the reorganization in July 1988. The previous reports have covered the period October 1, 1976 through December 31, 1987.

  17. Safety research programs sponsored by Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research: Progress report, October 1--December 31, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, A J; Azarm, A; Baum, J W; Boccio, J L; Carew, J; Diamond, D J; Fitzpatrick, R; Ginsberg, T; Greene, G A; Guppy, J G; Haber, S B

    1989-07-01

    This progress report describes current activities and technical progress in the programs at Brookhaven National Laboratory sponsored by the Division of Regulatory Applications, Division of Engineering, Division of Safety Issue Resolution, and Division of Systems Research of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research following the reorganization in July 1988. The previous reports have covered the period October 1, 1976 through September 30, 1988.

  18. Safety research programs sponsored by Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research: Progress report, January 1--March 31, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, A.J.

    1989-08-01

    This progress report describes current activities and technical progress in the programs at Brookhaven National Laboratory sponsored by the Division of Regulatory Applications, Division of Engineering, Division of Safety Issue Resolution, and Division of Systems Research of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research following the reorganization in July 1988. The previous reports have covered the period October 1, 1976 through December 31, 1988.

  19. [Implementing new technology in radiation oncology: The French agency for nuclear safety (ASN) report].

    PubMed

    Lartigau, É-F; Lisbona, A; Isambert, A; Cadot, P; Derreumaux, S; Dupuis, O; Gérard, J-P; Ledu, D; Mahé, M-A; Marchesi, V; Mazurier, J; De Oliveira, A; Phare, O; Aubert, B

    2015-10-01

    In August 2013, the French nuclear safety agency (ASN) requested the permanent group of experts in radiation protection in medicine (GPMED) to propose recommendations on the implementation of new technology and techniques in radiation oncology. These recommendations were finalized in February 2015 by the GPMED. In April 2015, the ASN sent a letter to the French ministry of health (DGS/DGOS), and its national health agencies (ANSM, INCa, HAS). In these letters, ASN proposed that, from the 12 recommendations made by the GPMED, an action plan should be established, whose control could be assigned to the French national cancer institute (INCa), as a pilot of the national committee for radiotherapy and that this proposal has to be considered at the next meeting of the national committee of radiotherapy.

  20. Work improvement and occupational safety and health management systems: common features and research needs.

    PubMed

    Kogi, Kazutaka

    2002-04-01

    There is a growing trend in re-orientating occupational health research towards risk management. Such a trend is accelerated by the increasing attention to occupational safety and health management systems. The trend, also seen in many Asian countries, is offering new opportunities for strengthening primary prevention. Useful examples are provided from recent work improvement projects dealing with technology transfer, small workplaces and rural areas. Common features of both these work improvement projects and accepted occupational risk management principles are reviewed based on recent experiences in Asian countries. Such features seem highly relevant in examining the occupational health research strategies. These experiences clearly show that locally adjusted procedures for risk assessment and control must be developed. There are new research needs concerning (a) the effective ways to encourage voluntary control at the workplace; (b) practical methods for local risk assessment; and (c) the types of participatory steps leading to continual improvements in the varying local context. Criteria of action-oriented research that can contribute to more effective risk control in different settings are discussed. Six relevant criteria may be mentioned: (a) adaptive risk management; (b) work/risk relationships; (c) action-oriented risk assessment; (d) use of collective expertise; (e) participation of local people; and (f) mutual learning. It appears crucial to stimulate research into the practical risk control procedures adjusted to the local situation.