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Sample records for nuclear screening

  1. Molecular screening in nuclear reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cvetinovic, A.; Lipoglavsek, M.; Markelj, S.; Vesic, J.

    2015-12-01

    The dependence of electron screening in nuclear reactions on projectile or target atomic number has been studied by bombarding different hydrogen-containing targets with beams of 7Li , 11B , and 19F . The largest electron screening potentials were obtained in a graphite target containing hydrogen as an impurity. Some measured potentials are almost two orders of magnitude above the theoretical predictions. To explain the measurements, a new concept of electron screening is introduced.

  2. The electron screening puzzle and nuclear clustering

    SciTech Connect

    Spitaleri, C.; Bertulani, C. A.; Fortunato, L.; Vitturi, A.

    2016-02-12

    Accurate measurements of nuclear reactions of astrophysical interest within, or close to, the Gamow peak show evidence of an unexpected effect attributed to the presence of atomic electrons in the target. The experiments need to include an effective "screening" potential to explain the enhancement of the cross sections at the lowest measurable energies. Despite various theoretical studies conducted over the past 20 years and numerous experimental measurements, a theory has not yet been found that can explain the cause of the exceedingly high values of the screening potential needed to explain the data. Furthermore, in this letter we show that instead of an atomic physics solution of the "electron screening puzzle", the reason for the large screening potential values is in fact due to clusterization effects in nuclear reactions, in particular for reaction involving light nuclei.

  3. The electron screening puzzle and nuclear clustering

    DOE PAGES

    Spitaleri, C.; Bertulani, C. A.; Fortunato, L.; ...

    2016-02-12

    Accurate measurements of nuclear reactions of astrophysical interest within, or close to, the Gamow peak show evidence of an unexpected effect attributed to the presence of atomic electrons in the target. The experiments need to include an effective "screening" potential to explain the enhancement of the cross sections at the lowest measurable energies. Despite various theoretical studies conducted over the past 20 years and numerous experimental measurements, a theory has not yet been found that can explain the cause of the exceedingly high values of the screening potential needed to explain the data. Furthermore, in this letter we show thatmore » instead of an atomic physics solution of the "electron screening puzzle", the reason for the large screening potential values is in fact due to clusterization effects in nuclear reactions, in particular for reaction involving light nuclei.« less

  4. Remote nuclear screening system for hostile environments

    SciTech Connect

    Addleman, R.S.; Beck, M.A.; Blewett, G.R.; Selle, E.R.; McClellan, C.S.; Dodd, D.A.; Troyer, G.L.; Keele, B.D.

    1996-02-27

    A remote measurement system has been constructed for in situ gamma and beta isotopic characterization of highly radioactive nuclear material in hostile environments. A small collimated, planar CdZnTe detector is used for gamma-ray spectroscopy. Spectral resolution of 2% full width at half maximum at 662 kiloelectronvolts has been obtained remotely using rise time compensation and limited pulse shape discrimination, Isotopc measurement of high-energy beta emitters was accomplished with a ruggedized, deeply depleted, surface barrier silicon dictator. The primary function of the remote nuclear screening system is to provide fast qualitative and quantitative isotopic assessment of high-level radioactive material.

  5. Screening for aberrant behavior in the nuclear industry

    SciTech Connect

    Borofsky, G.L.

    1987-01-01

    This paper attempts to promote a fuller understanding of how psychological assessment procedures can be used to reduce the threat from aberrant behavior in the nuclear industry. It begins with a discussion of the scientifically based methods that are used by psychologists in constructing, scoring, and interpreting these procedures. This discussion includes an emphasis on the concepts of validity and reliability and their central importance when one is choosing specific psychological screening tools. Criteria for selecting and using psychological assessment procedures when screening for aberrant behavior are also provided. Some commonly used assessment procedures that satisfy these criteria are discussed. A number a psychological assessment procedures specifically recommended for use in screening for aberrant behavior in the nuclear industry are described.

  6. Screening of nuclear targeting proteins in Acinetobacter baumannii based on nuclear localization signals.

    PubMed

    Moon, Dong Chan; Gurung, Mamata; Lee, Jung Hwa; Lee, Yong Seok; Choi, Chi Won; Kim, Seung Il; Lee, Je Chul

    2012-05-01

    Nuclear targeting of bacterial proteins is an emerging pathogenic mechanism in bacteria. However, due to the absence of an appropriate screening system for nuclear targeting proteins, systematic approaches to nuclear targeting of bacterial proteins and subsequent host cell pathology are limited. In this study, we developed a screening system for nuclear targeting proteins in Acinetobacter baumannii using a combination of bioinformatic analysis based on nuclear localization signal (NLS) and the Gateway(®) recombinational cloning system. Among 3367 open reading frames of A. baumannii ATCC 17978, 34 functional or hypothetical proteins were predicted to carry the putative NLS sequences. Of the 29 clones generated by the Gateway(®) recombinational cloning system, 14 proteins tagged with green fluorescent protein (GFP) were targeted to nuclei of host cells. Among the 14 nuclear targeting proteins, S21, L20, and L32 ribosomal proteins and transposase carried putative nuclear export signal (NES) sequences, but only transposase harbored the functional NES. After translocation to nuclei of host cells, four A. baumannii proteins induced cytotoxicity. In conclusion, we have developed a screening system for nuclear targeting proteins in A. baumannii. This system may open the way to a new field of bacterial pathogenesis.

  7. Screening of potential sites for undeclared nuclear facilities in environmental monitoring for nuclear proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Swindle, David W.; Pearson, Ralph L.; Wogman, Ned A.; Krey, Philip W.

    2001-06-01

    The sensitivity of environmental sampling and analysis for the estimated atmospheric concentrations of radionuclides in effluents from clandestine nuclear facilities may require many sampling sites and exorbitant costs to monitor such large areas. The screening methodology and techniques are described and examples given.

  8. Screening in Low Energy Nuclear Reactions of Importance to Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miley, George H.; Hora, Heinz; Luo, Nie

    2004-05-01

    Recent experiments in the LUNAR (Laboratory for Underground Nuclear Astrophysics) project have shown anonymously high electron screening may occur during acceleration driven low energy (<400 kV) ion bombardment of solid targets [1]. These effects become particularly important for E/ Ue < 100 (here E= ion energy and Ue = electron-screening potential energy). Thus these effects become significant for the understanding of reactions involved in nucleosynthesis of the elements and the interpretation of astrophysical data [1]. Another example of the behavior is the surprising threshold behavior near 18 keV for deuterons stopping in 3He gas at energies below the Bragg peak [2]. As pointed out in ref [1], the theoretical explanation for these effects is still under debate. Several researchers have proposed variations of the Trojan Horse Method (THM) to explain these effects [3]. In this paper, we propose an alternate mechanism associated with electron charge accumulation around the target atoms arising from the solid-state structure of the host. This concept will be explained in terms of density functional calculations of charge density profiles in a target undergoing ion dynamic effects [4]. REFERENCES [1] F. Strieder, et al., Naturwissenschaften (2000)88:461-467 [2] A. Formicola, et al., (2000) Eur Phys J. A 8:443-446 [3] S. Typel and H H Wolter, (2000) Few-Body System 29:75-93 [4] G. Miley and H. Hora, (2000) Nuclear Reactions in Solids, APS mtg. Lansing, MI [5] G. Miley, A. Lipson, N. Luo, and H. Hora, (2003) IEEE NSS/MIC Conf., Portland, OR

  9. Whole-genome screening identifies proteins localized to distinct nuclear bodies.

    PubMed

    Fong, Ka-Wing; Li, Yujing; Wang, Wenqi; Ma, Wenbin; Li, Kunpeng; Qi, Robert Z; Liu, Dan; Songyang, Zhou; Chen, Junjie

    2013-10-14

    The nucleus is a unique organelle that contains essential genetic materials in chromosome territories. The interchromatin space is composed of nuclear subcompartments, which are defined by several distinctive nuclear bodies believed to be factories of DNA or RNA processing and sites of transcriptional and/or posttranscriptional regulation. In this paper, we performed a genome-wide microscopy-based screening for proteins that form nuclear foci and characterized their localizations using markers of known nuclear bodies. In total, we identified 325 proteins localized to distinct nuclear bodies, including nucleoli (148), promyelocytic leukemia nuclear bodies (38), nuclear speckles (27), paraspeckles (24), Cajal bodies (17), Sam68 nuclear bodies (5), Polycomb bodies (2), and uncharacterized nuclear bodies (64). Functional validation revealed several proteins potentially involved in the assembly of Cajal bodies and paraspeckles. Together, these data establish the first atlas of human proteins in different nuclear bodies and provide key information for research on nuclear bodies.

  10. Fraunhofer diffraction of coherent and incoherent nuclear matter waves by complementary screens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silveira, R.; Leclercq-Willain, Ch.

    2013-06-01

    The analogy between Fraunhofer diffraction effects observed in nuclear and subnuclear collisions and those observed with light diffracted by complementary screens is revisited. Emphasis will be put on the collision mechanisms playing a role analogous to that of an aperture in light diffraction. These analogies are illustrated with examples involving coherent and incoherent nuclear matter waves.

  11. Anti-nuclear antibody screening using HEp-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Buchner, Carol; Bryant, Cassandra; Eslami, Anna; Lakos, Gabriella

    2014-06-23

    The American College of Rheumatology position statement on ANA testing stipulates the use of IIF as the gold standard method for ANA screening(1). Although IIF is an excellent screening test in expert hands, the technical difficulties of processing and reading IIF slides--such as the labor intensive slide processing, manual reading, the need for experienced, trained technologists and the use of dark room--make the IIF method difficult to fit in the workflow of modern, automated laboratories. The first and crucial step towards high quality ANA screening is careful slide processing. This procedure is labor intensive, and requires full understanding of the process, as well as attention to details and experience. Slide reading is performed by fluorescent microscopy in dark rooms, and is done by trained technologists who are familiar with the various patterns, in the context of cell cycle and the morphology of interphase and dividing cells. Provided that IIF is the first line screening tool for SARD, understanding the steps to correctly perform this technique is critical. Recently, digital imaging systems have been developed for the automated reading of IIF slides. These systems, such as the NOVA View Automated Fluorescent Microscope, are designed to streamline the routine IIF workflow. NOVA View acquires and stores high resolution digital images of the wells, thereby separating image acquisition from interpretation; images are viewed an interpreted on high resolution computer monitors. It stores images for future reference and supports the operator's interpretation by providing fluorescent light intensity data on the images. It also preliminarily categorizes results as positive or negative, and provides pattern recognition for positive samples. In summary, it eliminates the need for darkroom, and automates and streamlines the IIF reading/interpretation workflow. Most importantly, it increases consistency between readers and readings. Moreover, with the use of barcoded

  12. Nuclear Material Monitoring System (NMMS) for security screens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyun Kim, Kwang; Hong Chang, Ji; Hyun Jung, Young

    2011-08-01

    As a Nuclear Material Monitoring System (NMMS), two large-volume plastic detectors and a NaI detector for gamma-ray sources and two He-3 tubes for neutron sources were integrated in a mobile box that can be mounted on a vehicle. Custom-made preamplifiers, shapers, and a MCA (Multi-Channel Analyzer) for each detector were conceived of and built on a compact circuit board to collect and integrate different types of data from each detector. The collected data, counts rates and spectra of the detected radiation, were continually monitored and plotted on several user-friendly display windows on a laptop computer. The system performance in the vehicle-mounted condition was tested for Co-60, Cs-137, and Cf-252 sources at various distances and speeds.

  13. Screening of Potential Sites for Undeclared Nuclear Facilities in Environmental Monitoring for Nuclear Proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Swindle, David W.; Pearson, Ralph L.; Wogman, Ned A.; Krey, Philip W.

    2001-06-01

    The sensitivity of environmental sampling and analysis for the estimated atmospheric concentrations of radionuclides in effluents from clandestine nuclear facilities may require many sampling sites and exorbitant costs to monitor such large areas.

  14. Screening Nuclear Field Fluctuations in Quantum Dots for Indistinguishable Photon Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malein, R. N. E.; Santana, T. S.; Zajac, J. M.; Dada, A. C.; Gauger, E. M.; Petroff, P. M.; Lim, J. Y.; Song, J. D.; Gerardot, B. D.

    2016-06-01

    A semiconductor quantum dot can generate highly coherent and indistinguishable single photons. However, intrinsic semiconductor dephasing mechanisms can reduce the visibility of two-photon interference. For an electron in a quantum dot, a fundamental dephasing process is the hyperfine interaction with the nuclear spin bath. Here, we directly probe the consequence of the fluctuating nuclear spins on the elastic and inelastic scattered photon spectra from a resident electron in a single dot. We find the in-plane component of the nuclear Overhauser field leads to detuned Raman scattered photons, broadened over experimental time scales by field fluctuations, which are distinguishable from both the elastic and incoherent components of the resonance fluorescence. This significantly reduces two-photon interference visibility. However, we demonstrate successful screening of the nuclear spin noise, which enables the generation of coherent single photons that exhibit high visibility two-photon interference.

  15. Screening Nuclear Field Fluctuations in Quantum Dots for Indistinguishable Photon Generation.

    PubMed

    Malein, R N E; Santana, T S; Zajac, J M; Dada, A C; Gauger, E M; Petroff, P M; Lim, J Y; Song, J D; Gerardot, B D

    2016-06-24

    A semiconductor quantum dot can generate highly coherent and indistinguishable single photons. However, intrinsic semiconductor dephasing mechanisms can reduce the visibility of two-photon interference. For an electron in a quantum dot, a fundamental dephasing process is the hyperfine interaction with the nuclear spin bath. Here, we directly probe the consequence of the fluctuating nuclear spins on the elastic and inelastic scattered photon spectra from a resident electron in a single dot. We find the in-plane component of the nuclear Overhauser field leads to detuned Raman scattered photons, broadened over experimental time scales by field fluctuations, which are distinguishable from both the elastic and incoherent components of the resonance fluorescence. This significantly reduces two-photon interference visibility. However, we demonstrate successful screening of the nuclear spin noise, which enables the generation of coherent single photons that exhibit high visibility two-photon interference.

  16. Enhancement of Nuclear Reactions due to Screening Effects of Core Electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, N.; Shrestha, P. J.; Miley, G. H.; Violante, V.

    2005-12-01

    Recent progress in understanding the screening effects of core level atomic electrons is summarized in this paper. Some preliminary results on core electron screening were reported before.1 The studies focus on two types of nuclear reactions in some metal lattices: fusion between deuterons and also proton capture by medium and heavy lattice nuclei. In both reactions the energy of the light nuclear species, proton or deuteron, is on the keV (1000 eV) scale, while that of heavy nuclei is essentially zero. A standard atomic code is used to obtain the core electron charge density and the potential profile in the metal atom. This Hartree-Fock-Slater type code was originally written by Herman and Skillman2 and later modified by others and available online.3 For the D-D reaction, the charge density obtained then gives an estimate on the screening length. The corresponding enhancement in Coulomb barrier tunneling can be obtained from this data. For the proton capture reaction, an ion dynamic code4 written to simulate the motion of keV protons in Pd/Ni lattice, CLAIRE, was modified to take into account the realistic atomic potential, including core electron contributions. In both cases, our result shows a significant nuclear reaction enhancement. The reaction rate calculated roughly matches the scale of excess heat observed in some metal hydride/deuteride5 experiments.

  17. Verification of screening level for decontamination implemented after Fukushima nuclear accident

    PubMed Central

    Ogino, Haruyuki; Ichiji, Takeshi; Hattori, Takatoshi

    2012-01-01

    The screening level for decontamination that has been applied for the surface of the human body and contaminated handled objects after the Fukushima nuclear accident was verified by assessing the doses that arise from external irradiation, ingestion, inhalation and skin contamination. The result shows that the annual effective dose that arises from handled objects contaminated with the screening level for decontamination (i.e. 100 000 counts per minute) is <1 mSv y−1, which can be considered as the intervention exemption level in accordance with the International Commission on Radiological Protection recommendations. Furthermore, the screening level is also found to protect the skin from the incidence of a deterministic effect because the absorbed dose of the skin that arises from direct deposition on the surface of the human body is calculated to be lower than the threshold of the deterministic effect assuming a practical exposure duration. PMID:22228683

  18. IDENTIFICATION OF VDR ANTAGONISTS AMONG NUCLEAR RECEPTOR LIGANDS USING VIRTUAL SCREENING

    PubMed Central

    Teske, Kelly; Nandhikonda, Premchendar; Bogart, Jonathan W.; Feleke, Belaynesh; Sidhu, Preetpal; Yuan, Nina; Preston, Joshua; Goy, Robin; Han, Lanlan; Silvaggi, Nicholas R; Singh, Rakesh K.; Bikle, Daniel D.; Cook, James M.; Arnold, Leggy A.

    2014-01-01

    Herein, we described the development of two virtual screens to identify new vitamin D receptor (VDR) antagonists among nuclear receptor (NR) ligands. Therefore, a database of 14330 nuclear receptor ligands and their NR affinities was assembled using the online available “Binding Database”. Two different virtual screens were carried out in conjunction with a reported VDR crystal structure applying a stringent and less stringent pharmacophore model to filter docked NR ligand conformations. The pharmacophore models were based on the spatial orientation of the hydroxyl functionalities of VDR’s natural ligands 1,25(OH2)D3 and 25(OH2)D3. The first virtual screen identified 32 NR ligands with a calculate free energy of VDR binding of more than −6.0 kJ/mol. All but nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) are VDR ligands, which inhibited the interaction between VDR and coactivator peptide SRC2-3 with an IC50 value of 15.8 µM. The second screen identified 162 NR ligands with a calculate free energy of VDR binding of more than −6.0 kJ/mol. More than half of these ligands were developed to bind VDR followed by ERα/β ligands (26%), TRα/β ligands (7%) and LxRα/β ligands (7%). The binding between VDR and ERα ligand H6036 as well as TRα/β ligand triiodothyronine and a homoserine analog thereof was confirmed by fluorescence polarization. PMID:25419525

  19. Development of consensus statements for pregnancy screening in diagnostic nuclear medicine: a Delphi study.

    PubMed

    James, Daphne J; Warren-Forward, Helen M

    2015-03-01

    Current radiation protection recommendations do not provide clear guidelines or advice on pregnancy screening strategies for diagnostic nuclear medicine procedures. Previous studies have reported on variations in current practice for pregnancy screening before diagnostic nuclear medicine procedures. The development of consensus statements aims to provide a consistent approach and assist nuclear medicine personnel to confidently question patients about their pregnancy status. The Delphi technique was chosen for the research design. A panel consisting of 10 experienced nuclear medicine personnel from Australia and New Zealand was recruited. Panel members were provided with a summary of existing research. Consensus agreement was predefined as 80%. Questionnaires were developed and distributed to the panel members, with iterative analysis and feedback between survey rounds. Three survey rounds were conducted online using SurveyMonkey between December 2013 and June 2014. The round 1 questionnaire was developed from the results of a previous survey. It consisted of 30 questions designed to gather the opinions of the expert panel. After analysis of the round 1 responses, consensus statements were developed for round 2 and revised in round 3. Consensus was achieved for 16 statements. The statements recommend using verbal questioning with patient signature, defining the age range for questioning as 12-55 y, providing advice on the use of pregnancy testing, and questioning potentially difficult groups such as teenagers. A flowchart was included for comment in round 3. This was the first Australian study to develop consensus statements and a flowchart to assist nuclear medicine personnel in consistently and confidently questioning patients about their pregnancy status before diagnostic procedures. Implementation of these statements into clinical practice guidelines should reduce the possibility of inadvertent fetal irradiation. © 2015 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and

  20. High-content screening of natural products reveals novel nuclear export inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Cautain, Bastien; de Pedro, Nuria; Murillo Garzón, Virginia; Muñoz de Escalona, María; González Menéndez, Victor; Tormo, José R; Martin, Jesús; El Aouad, Noureddine; Reyes, Fernando; Asensio, Francisco; Genilloud, Olga; Vicente, Francisca; Link, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Natural products are considered an extremely valuable source for the discovery of new drugs against diverse pathologies. As yet, we have only explored a fraction of the diversity of bioactive compounds, and opportunities for discovering new natural products leading to new drugs are huge. In the present study, U2nesRELOC, a previously established cell-based imaging assay, was employed to screen a collection of extracts of microbial origin for nuclear export inhibition activity. The fluorescent signal of untreated U2nesRELOC cells localizes predominantly to the cytoplasm. Upon treatment with the nuclear export inhibitor leptomycin B, the fluorescent-tagged reporter proteins appear as speckles in the nucleus. A proprietary collection of extracts from fungi, actinomycetes, and unicellular bacteria that covers an uncommonly broad chemical space was used to interrogate this nuclear export assay system. A two-step image-based analysis allowed us to identify 12 extracts with biological activities that are not associated with previously known active metabolites. The fractionation and structural elucidation of active compounds revealed several chemical structures with nuclear export inhibition activity. Here we show that substrates of the nuclear export receptor CRM1, such as Rev, FOXO3a and NF-κB, accumulate in the nucleus in the presence of the fungal metabolite MDN-0105 with an IC50 value of 3.4 µM. Many important processes in tumor formation and progression, as well as in many viral infections, critically depend on the nucleocytoplasmic trafficking of proteins and RNA molecules. Therefore, the disruption of nuclear export is emerging as a novel therapeutic approach with enormous clinical potential. Our work highlights the potential of applying high-throughput phenotypic imaging on natural product extracts to identify novel nuclear export inhibitors.

  1. Improved docking, screening and selectivity prediction for small molecule nuclear receptor modulators using conformational ensembles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, So-Jung; Kufareva, Irina; Abagyan, Ruben

    2010-05-01

    Nuclear receptors (NRs) are ligand dependent transcriptional factors and play a key role in reproduction, development, and homeostasis of organism. NRs are potential targets for treatment of cancer and other diseases such as inflammatory diseases, and diabetes. In this study, we present a comprehensive library of pocket conformational ensembles of thirteen human nuclear receptors (NRs), and test the ability of these ensembles to recognize their ligands in virtual screening, as well as predict their binding geometry, functional type, and relative binding affinity. 157 known NR modulators and 66 structures were used as a benchmark. Our pocket ensemble library correctly predicted the ligand binding poses in 94% of the cases. The models were also highly selective for the active ligands in virtual screening, with the areas under the ROC curves ranging from 82 to a remarkable 99%. Using the computationally determined receptor-specific binding energy offsets, we showed that the ensembles can be used for predicting selectivity profiles of NR ligands. Our results evaluate and demonstrate the advantages of using receptor ensembles for compound docking, screening, and profiling.

  2. Phenotypic screening of hepatocyte nuclear factor (HNF) 4-{gamma} receptor knockout mice

    SciTech Connect

    Gerdin, Anna Karin; Surve, Vikas V.; Joensson, Marie; Bjursell, Mikael; Edenro, Anne; Schuelke, Meint; Saad, Alaa; Bjurstroem, Sivert; Lundgren, Elisabeth Jensen; Snaith, Michael; Fransson-Steen, Ronny; Toernell, Jan; Bohlooly-Y, Mohammad . E-mail: mohammad.bohlooly@astrazeneca.com

    2006-10-20

    Using the mouse as a model organism in pharmaceutical research presents unique advantages as its physiology in many ways resembles the human physiology, it also has a relatively short generation time, low breeding and maintenance costs, and is available in a wide variety of inbred strains. The ability to genetically modify mouse embryonic stem cells to generate mouse models that better mimic human disease is another advantage. In the present study, a comprehensive phenotypic screening protocol is applied to elucidate the phenotype of a novel mouse knockout model of hepatocyte nuclear factor (HNF) 4-{gamma}. HNF4-{gamma} is expressed in the kidneys, gut, pancreas, and testis. First level of the screen is aimed at general health, morphologic appearance, normal cage behaviour, and gross neurological functions. The second level of the screen looks at metabolic characteristics and lung function. The third level of the screen investigates behaviour more in-depth and the fourth level consists of a thorough pathological characterisation, blood chemistry, haematology, and bone marrow analysis. When compared with littermate wild-type mice (HNF4-{gamma}{sup +/+}), the HNF4-{gamma} knockout (HNF4-{gamma}{sup -/-}) mice had lowered energy expenditure and locomotor activity during night time that resulted in a higher body weight despite having reduced intake of food and water. HNF4-{gamma}{sup -/-} mice were less inclined to build nest and were found to spend more time in a passive state during the forced swim test.

  3. Drosophila screen connects nuclear transport genes to DPR pathology in c9ALS/FTD.

    PubMed

    Boeynaems, Steven; Bogaert, Elke; Michiels, Emiel; Gijselinck, Ilse; Sieben, Anne; Jovičić, Ana; De Baets, Greet; Scheveneels, Wendy; Steyaert, Jolien; Cuijt, Ivy; Verstrepen, Kevin J; Callaerts, Patrick; Rousseau, Frederic; Schymkowitz, Joost; Cruts, Marc; Van Broeckhoven, Christine; Van Damme, Philip; Gitler, Aaron D; Robberecht, Wim; Van Den Bosch, Ludo

    2016-02-12

    Hexanucleotide repeat expansions in C9orf72 are the most common cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal degeneration (FTD) (c9ALS/FTD). Unconventional translation of these repeats produces dipeptide repeat proteins (DPRs) that may cause neurodegeneration. We performed a modifier screen in Drosophila and discovered a critical role for importins and exportins, Ran-GTP cycle regulators, nuclear pore components, and arginine methylases in mediating DPR toxicity. These findings provide evidence for an important role for nucleocytoplasmic transport in the pathogenic mechanism of c9ALS/FTD.

  4. Screening for beryllium disease among construction trade workers at Department of Energy nuclear sites.

    PubMed

    Welch, Laura; Ringen, Knut; Bingham, Eula; Dement, John; Takaro, Tim; McGowan, William; Chen, Anna; Quinn, Patricia

    2004-09-01

    To determine whether current and former construction workers are at significant risk for occupational illnesses from work at the Department of Energy's (DOE) nuclear weapons facilities, screening programs were undertaken at the Hanford Nuclear Reservation, Oak Ridge Reservation, and the Savannah River Site. Medical examination for beryllium disease used a medical history and a beryllium blood lymphocyte proliferation test (BeLPT). Stratified and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to explore the risk of disease by age, race, sex, trade, duration of DOE employment, reported work in buildings where beryllium was used, and time since last DOE site employment. Of the 3,842 workers included in this study, 34% reported exposure to beryllium. Overall, 2.2% of workers had at least one abnormal BeLPT test, and 1.4% were also abnormal on a second test. Regression analyses demonstrated increased risk of having at least one abnormal BeLPT to be associated with ever working in a site building where beryllium activities had taken place. The prevalence of beryllium sensitivity and chronic beryllium disease (CBD) in construction workers is described and the positive predictive value of the BeLPT in a population with less intense exposure to beryllium than other populations that have been screened is discussed. The BeLPT findings and finding of cases of CBD demonstrate that some of these workers had significant exposure, most likely, during maintenance, repair, renovation, or demolition in facilities where beryllium was used.

  5. Routine screening for the presence of adulteration in raw materials using automated nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Meriage, David; Rogers, Gary; Phillips, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    In an effort to increase the security of the supply chain for raw materials used in the manufacture of human therapeutics, a routine screen to detect the presence of adulteration using fully automated nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy has been developed and qualified for use in quality control laboratories. The method involves the collection of one-dimensional (1)H and (13)C spectra, which are subsequently processed to identify and quantitate raw material constituents by comparison to a spectral database. The resulting method is an easy-to-use limit test that can automatically determine the integrity of incoming raw materials. The method is intended to be used in good manufacturing practice production facilities and is suitable for excipients and aqueous soluble raw materials used in biopharmaceutical processes. In an effort to increase the security of the supply chain for raw materials used in the manufacture of human therapeutics, a routine screen to detect the presence of adulteration using fully automated nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy has been developed and qualified for use in quality control laboratories. The method involves the collection of NMR spectra, which are subsequently processed to identify and quantitate raw material constituents by comparison to a spectral database. The resulting method is an easy-to-use limit test that can automatically determine the integrity of incoming raw materials. The method is intended to be used in good manufacturing practice production facilities and is suitable for excipients and aqueous soluble raw materials used in biopharmaceutical processes.

  6. Pregnancy screening strategies for diagnostic nuclear medicine: survey results from Australia and New Zealand.

    PubMed

    James, Daphne J; Cardew, Paul; Warren-Forward, Helen M

    2013-09-01

    The ionizing radiation used in diagnostic nuclear medicine procedures has the potential to cause biologic harm to a fetus. Although the risks are relatively small, it is recommended that all female patients of childbearing age be questioned regarding their pregnancy status before administration of the radiopharmaceutical. This can be a sensitive situation especially for certain types of patients, such as teenagers. Currently, there are no guidelines that detail how to question the patient. Previous studies have revealed the lack of a consistent approach in this area. The aim of this study was to investigate current practice for pregnancy screening before diagnostic nuclear medicine procedures in Australia and New Zealand and to determine whether a standardized practice guideline is required. An online survey was administered via SurveyMonkey from October to December 2011. Members of the Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine were invited to participate. The survey consisted of 30 questions divided into 4 sections: demographics, policy and regulations, current practice, and open-ended clinical scenarios. Three hundred thirty-five responses were recorded from participants in all states and territories of Australia and New Zealand; 90% were nuclear medicine technologists. Participants reported a low awareness of radiation policy and regulations but demonstrated good knowledge of the relative risk to the fetus from commonly performed procedures. The most common minimum and maximum age to question patients was 12 y (32%) and 55 y (42%), respectively, although the range was from 10 to 60 y. Verbal questioning (44%) was the most commonly used approach. Pregnancy testing was used by 72%, usually if the patient indicated she was unsure of her pregnancy status. Responses to clinical scenarios were varied, and these will be discussed in a subsequent paper. The survey revealed a lack of awareness of government regulations and departmental policy regarding

  7. A high-throughput screening system targeting the nuclear export pathway via the third nuclear export signal of influenza A virus nucleoprotein.

    PubMed

    Kakisaka, Michinori; Mano, Takafumi; Aida, Yoko

    2016-06-02

    Two classes of antiviral drugs, M2 channel inhibitors and neuraminidase (NA) inhibitors, are currently approved for the treatment of influenza; however, the development of resistance against these agents limits their efficacy. Therefore, the identification of new targets and the development of new antiviral drugs against influenza are urgently needed. The third nuclear export signal (NES3) of nucleoprotein (NP) is the most important for viral replication among seven NESs encoded by four viral proteins, NP, M1, NS1, and NS2. NP-NES3 is critical for the nuclear export of NP, and targeting NP-NES3 is therefore a promising strategy that may lead to the development of antiviral drugs. However, a high-throughput screening (HTS) system to identify inhibitors of NP nuclear export has not been established. Here, we developed a novel HTS system to evaluate the inhibitory effects of compounds on the nuclear export pathway mediated by NP-NES3 using a MDCK cell line stably expressing NP-NES3 fused to a green fluorescent protein from aequorea coerulescens (AcGFP-NP-NES3) and a cell imaging analyzer. This HTS system was used to screen a 9600-compound library, leading to the identification of several hit compounds with inhibitory activity against the nuclear export of AcGFP-NP-NES3. The present HTS system provides a useful strategy for the identification of inhibitors targeting the nuclear export of NP via its NES3 sequence.

  8. Screening level dose assessment of aquatic biota downstream of the Marcoule nuclear complex in southern France

    SciTech Connect

    St-Pierre, S.; Chambers, D.B.; Lowe, L.M.; Bontoux, J.G.

    1999-09-01

    Aquatic biota in the Rhone River downstream of the Marcoule nuclear complex in France are exposed to natural sources of radiation and to radioactivity released from the Marcoule complex. A simple conservative screening level model was used to estimate the range of concentrations in aquatic media of both artificial and natural radionuclides and the consequent absorbed dose rates for aquatic organisms. Five categories of aquatic organisms were studied, namely, submerged aquatic plants (phanerogam), non-bottom-feeding fish, bottom-feeding fish, mollusca, and fish-eating birds. The analysis was based on the radionuclide concentrations reported in four consecutive annual radioecological monitoring reports published by French agencies with nuclear regulatory responsibilities. The results of this assessment were used to determine, qualitatively, the magnitude of any potential health impacts on each of the five categories of aquatic organisms studied. The range of dose rate estimates ranged over three orders of magnitude, with maximum dose rates estimated to be in the order of 1 to 10 {micro}Gy h{sup {minus}1}. These maximum dose rates are a factor 40 or more below the international guideline intended to ensure the protection of aquatic populations, and a factor ten or more below the level which may trigger the need for a more detailed evaluation of potential ecological consequences to the exposed populations.

  9. Differential nuclear staining assay for high-throughput screening to identify cytotoxic compounds.

    PubMed

    Lema, Carolina; Varela-Ramirez, Armando; Aguilera, Renato J

    As large quantities of novel synthetic molecules continue to be generated there is a challenge to identify therapeutic agents with cytotoxic activity. Here we introduce a Differential Nuclear Staining (DNS) assay adapted to live-cell imaging for high throughput screening (HTS) that utilizes two fluorescent DNA intercalators, Hoechst 33342 and Propidium iodide (PI). Since Hoechst can readily cross cell membranes to stain DNA of living and dead cells, it was used to label the total number of cells. In contrast, PI only enters cells with compromised plasma membranes, thus selectively labeling dead cells. The DNS assay was successfully validated by utilizing well known cytotoxic agents with fast or slow cytotoxic activities. The assay was found to be suitable for HTS with Z' factors ranging from 0.86 to 0.60 for 96 and 384-well formats, respectively. Furthermore, besides plate-to-plate reproducibility, assay quality performance was evaluated by determining ratios of signal-to-noise and signal-to-background, as well as coefficient of variation, which resulted in adequate values and validated the assay for HTS initiatives. As proof of concept, eighty structurally diverse compounds from a small molecule library were screened in a 96-well plate format using the DNS assay. Using this DNS assay, six hits with cytotoxic properties were identified and all of them were also successfully identified by using the commercially available MTS assay (CellTiter 96® Cell Proliferation Assay). In addition, the DNS and a flow cytometry assay were used to validate the activity of the cytotoxic compounds. The DNS assay was also used to generate dose-response curves and to obtain CC50 values. The results indicate that the DNS assay is reliable and robust and suitable for primary and secondary screens of compounds with potential cytotoxic activity.

  10. Differential nuclear staining assay for high-throughput screening to identify cytotoxic compounds

    PubMed Central

    LEMA, Carolina; VARELA-RAMIREZ, Armando; AGUILERA, Renato J.

    2016-01-01

    As large quantities of novel synthetic molecules continue to be generated there is a challenge to identify therapeutic agents with cytotoxic activity. Here we introduce a Differential Nuclear Staining (DNS) assay adapted to live-cell imaging for high throughput screening (HTS) that utilizes two fluorescent DNA intercalators, Hoechst 33342 and Propidium iodide (PI). Since Hoechst can readily cross cell membranes to stain DNA of living and dead cells, it was used to label the total number of cells. In contrast, PI only enters cells with compromised plasma membranes, thus selectively labeling dead cells. The DNS assay was successfully validated by utilizing well known cytotoxic agents with fast or slow cytotoxic activities. The assay was found to be suitable for HTS with Z′ factors ranging from 0.86 to 0.60 for 96 and 384-well formats, respectively. Furthermore, besides plate-to-plate reproducibility, assay quality performance was evaluated by determining ratios of signal-to-noise and signal-to-background, as well as coefficient of variation, which resulted in adequate values and validated the assay for HTS initiatives. As proof of concept, eighty structurally diverse compounds from a small molecule library were screened in a 96-well plate format using the DNS assay. Using this DNS assay, six hits with cytotoxic properties were identified and all of them were also successfully identified by using the commercially available MTS assay (CellTiter 96® Cell Proliferation Assay). In addition, the DNS and a flow cytometry assay were used to validate the activity of the cytotoxic compounds. The DNS assay was also used to generate dose-response curves and to obtain CC50 values. The results indicate that the DNS assay is reliable and robust and suitable for primary and secondary screens of compounds with potential cytotoxic activity. PMID:27042697

  11. Radiation risks in lung cancer screening programs: a comparison with nuclear industry workers and atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    McCunney, Robert J; Li, Jessica

    2014-03-01

    The National Lung Cancer Screening Trial (NLST) demonstrated that screening with low-dose CT (LDCT) scan reduced lung cancer and overall mortality by 20% and 7%, respectively. The LDCT scanning involves an approximate 2-mSv dose, whereas full-chest CT scanning, the major diagnostic study used to follow up nodules, may involve a dose of 8 mSv. Radiation associated with CT scanning and other diagnostic studies to follow up nodules may present an independent risk of lung cancer. On the basis of the NLST, we estimated the incidence and prevalence of nodules detected in screening programs. We followed the Fleischner guidelines for follow-up of nodules to assess cumulative radiation exposure over 20- and 30-year periods. We then evaluated nuclear worker cohort studies and atomic bomb survivor studies to assess the risk of lung cancer from radiation associated with long-term lung cancer screening programs. The findings indicate that a 55-year-old lung screening participant may experience a cumulative radiation exposure of up to 280 mSv over a 20-year period and 420 mSv over 30 years. These exposures exceed those of nuclear workers and atomic bomb survivors. This assessment suggests that long-term (20-30 years) LDCT screening programs are associated with nontrivial cumulative radiation doses. Current lung cancer screening protocols, if conducted over 20- to 30-year periods, can independently increase the risk of lung cancer beyond cigarette smoking as a result of cumulative radiation exposure. Radiation exposures from LDCT screening and follow-up diagnostic procedures exceed lifetime radiation exposures among nuclear power workers and atomic bomb survivors.

  12. Random Screening for Dominant-Negative Mutants of the Cytomegalovirus Nuclear Egress Protein M50▿

    PubMed Central

    Rupp, Brigitte; Ruzsics, Zsolt; Buser, Christopher; Adler, Barbara; Walther, Paul; Koszinowski, Ulrich H.

    2007-01-01

    Inactivation of gene products by dominant-negative (DN) mutants is a powerful tool to assign functions to proteins. Here, we present a two-step procedure to establish a random screen for DN alleles, using the essential murine cytomegalovirus gene M50 as an example. First, loss-of-function mutants from a linker-scanning library were tested for inhibition of virus reconstitution with the help of FLP-mediated ectopic insertion of the mutants into the viral genome. Second, DN candidates were confirmed by conditional expression of the inhibitory proteins in the virus context. This allowed the quantification of the inhibitory effect, the identification of the morphogenesis block, and the construction of DN mutants with improved activity. Based on these observations a DN mutant of the homologous gene (UL50) in human cytomegalovirus was predicted and constructed. Our data suggest that a proline-rich sequence motif in the variable region of M50/UL50 represents a new functional site which is essential for nuclear egress of cytomegalovirus capsids. PMID:17376929

  13. Random screening for dominant-negative mutants of the cytomegalovirus nuclear egress protein M50.

    PubMed

    Rupp, Brigitte; Ruzsics, Zsolt; Buser, Christopher; Adler, Barbara; Walther, Paul; Koszinowski, Ulrich H

    2007-06-01

    Inactivation of gene products by dominant-negative (DN) mutants is a powerful tool to assign functions to proteins. Here, we present a two-step procedure to establish a random screen for DN alleles, using the essential murine cytomegalovirus gene M50 as an example. First, loss-of-function mutants from a linker-scanning library were tested for inhibition of virus reconstitution with the help of FLP-mediated ectopic insertion of the mutants into the viral genome. Second, DN candidates were confirmed by conditional expression of the inhibitory proteins in the virus context. This allowed the quantification of the inhibitory effect, the identification of the morphogenesis block, and the construction of DN mutants with improved activity. Based on these observations a DN mutant of the homologous gene (UL50) in human cytomegalovirus was predicted and constructed. Our data suggest that a proline-rich sequence motif in the variable region of M50/UL50 represents a new functional site which is essential for nuclear egress of cytomegalovirus capsids.

  14. Screening and identification of radical scavengers from Neo-Taraxacum siphonanthum by online rapid screening method and nuclear magnetic resonance experiments.

    PubMed

    Shi, Shu Yun; Zhang, Yu Ping; Zhou, Hong Hao; Huang, Ke Long; Jiang, Xin Yu

    2010-01-01

    An online rapid screening method, the high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-diode array detector (DAD)-radical scavenging detection (RSD)-electrospray ionization (ESI)-mass spectroscopy (MS)/MS system, was developed for the screening and identification of radical scavengers from Neo-Taraxacum siphonanthum, a new species found in China in 1989. For further characterization, the target compounds were isolated by silica column chromatography, preparative high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), HSCCC, and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography and elucidated on the basis of ultraviolet (UV), ESI-MS/MS, and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, as well as the chemical analysis. Eighteen antioxidative polyphenols (5 caffeic acid derivatives and 13 flavonoid derivatives) were characterized from Neo-T. siphonanthum. The distribution of all compounds was discussed in a chemosystematic context, which suggested that the genera Neo-Taraxacum and Taraxacum might relate chemosystematically.

  15. Advantages of cell-based high-volume screening assays to assess nuclear receptor activation during drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Pinne, Marija; Raucy, Judy L

    2014-06-01

    Adverse drug effects and drug-drug interactions (DDIs) can be elicited by the activation of several nuclear receptors (NRs). Of the NRs that regulate expression of drug metabolizing enzymes and transporters and alter cellular processes, the most important are pregnane X receptor, constitutive androstane receptor and aryl hydrocarbon receptor. Screening for the activation of these receptors can be achieved during drug discovery by using various high-throughput analyses including ligand binding and transactivation assays. This review focuses on the importance of screening for NR activation during drug discovery and includes a discussion of the various assays to evaluate activation of NRs by xenobiotics. It also describes screening for species-specific NR activation to attenuate the use of animals in toxicology studies and to identify complications associated with drug metabolism and clearance that may occur during pharmacokinetic analyses. Given the potential for adverse drug effects and DDIs during all phases of drug elimination, NR screening should occur early in drug discovery. Such screening could be used in structure-activity relationship studies to guide chemists in altering compound structures to eliminate the NR-binding and activation properties on priority compounds. Early screening can also reduce the risk of adverse drug effects, identify novel therapeutic agents and decrease the number of animals used in drug development. Overall, performing these types of assays described here could decrease drug development costs, alleviate the liability associated with drugs that activate NR and prevent unsafe drugs from entering the marketplace.

  16. US screening of international travelers for radioactive contamination after the Japanese nuclear plant disaster in March 2011.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Todd; Chang, Arthur; Berro, Andre; Still, Aaron; Brown, Clive; Demma, Andrew; Nemhauser, Jeffrey; Martin, Colleen; Salame-Alfie, Adela; Fisher-Tyler, Frieda; Smith, Lee; Grady-Erickson, Onalee; Alvarado-Ramy, Francisco; Brunette, Gary; Ansari, Armin; McAdam, David; Marano, Nina

    2012-10-01

    On March 11, 2011, a magnitude 9.0 earthquake and subsequent tsunami damaged nuclear reactors at the Fukushima Daiichi complex in Japan, resulting in radionuclide release. In response, US officials augmented existing radiological screening at its ports of entry (POEs) to detect and decontaminate travelers contaminated with radioactive materials. During March 12 to 16, radiation screening protocols detected 3 travelers from Japan with external radioactive material contamination at 2 air POEs. Beginning March 23, federal officials collaborated with state and local public health and radiation control authorities to enhance screening and decontamination protocols at POEs. Approximately 543 000 (99%) travelers arriving directly from Japan at 25 US airports were screened for radiation contamination from March 17 to April 30, and no traveler was detected with contamination sufficient to require a large-scale public health response. The response highlighted synergistic collaboration across government levels and leveraged screening methods already in place at POEs, leading to rapid protocol implementation. Policy development, planning, training, and exercising response protocols and the establishment of federal authority to compel decontamination of travelers are needed for future radiological responses. Comparison of resource-intensive screening costs with the public health yield should guide policy decisions, given the historically low frequency of contaminated travelers arriving during radiological disasters.

  17. Pyrrolamide DNA Gyrase Inhibitors: Fragment-Based Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Screening To Identify Antibacterial Agents

    PubMed Central

    Green, Oluyinka; Hales, Neil; Walkup, Grant K.; Bist, Shanta; Singh, Alok; Mullen, George; Bryant, Joanna; Embrey, Kevin; Gao, Ning; Breeze, Alex; Timms, Dave; Andrews, Beth; Uria-Nickelsen, Maria; Demeritt, Julie; Loch, James T.; Hull, Ken; Blodgett, April; Illingworth, Ruth N.; Prince, Bryan; Boriack-Sjodin, P. Ann; Hauck, Sheila; MacPherson, Lawrence J.; Ni, Haihong; Sherer, Brian

    2012-01-01

    DNA gyrase is an essential enzyme in bacteria, and its inhibition results in the disruption of DNA synthesis and, subsequently, cell death. The pyrrolamides are a novel class of antibacterial agents targeting DNA gyrase. These compounds were identified by a fragment-based lead generation (FBLG) approach using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) screening to identify low-molecular-weight compounds that bind to the ATP pocket of DNA gyrase. A pyrrole hit with a binding constant of 1 mM formed the basis of the design and synthesis of a focused library of compounds that resulted in the rapid identification of a lead compound that inhibited DNA gyrase with a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 3 μM. The potency of the lead compound was further optimized by utilizing iterative X-ray crystallography to yield DNA gyrase inhibitors that also displayed antibacterial activity. Spontaneous mutants were isolated in Staphylococcus aureus by plating on agar plates containing pyrrolamide 4 at the MIC. The resistant variants displayed 4- to 8-fold-increased MIC values relative to the parent strain. DNA sequencing revealed two independent point mutations in the pyrrolamide binding region of the gyrB genes from these variants, supporting the hypothesis that the mode of action of these compounds was inhibition of DNA gyrase. Efficacy of a representative pyrrolamide was demonstrated against Streptococcus pneumoniae in a mouse lung infection model. These data demonstrate that the pyrrolamides are a novel class of DNA gyrase inhibitors with the potential to deliver future antibacterial agents targeting multiple clinical indications. PMID:22183167

  18. Pyrrolamide DNA gyrase inhibitors: fragment-based nuclear magnetic resonance screening to identify antibacterial agents.

    PubMed

    Eakin, Ann E; Green, Oluyinka; Hales, Neil; Walkup, Grant K; Bist, Shanta; Singh, Alok; Mullen, George; Bryant, Joanna; Embrey, Kevin; Gao, Ning; Breeze, Alex; Timms, Dave; Andrews, Beth; Uria-Nickelsen, Maria; Demeritt, Julie; Loch, James T; Hull, Ken; Blodgett, April; Illingworth, Ruth N; Prince, Bryan; Boriack-Sjodin, P Ann; Hauck, Sheila; MacPherson, Lawrence J; Ni, Haihong; Sherer, Brian

    2012-03-01

    DNA gyrase is an essential enzyme in bacteria, and its inhibition results in the disruption of DNA synthesis and, subsequently, cell death. The pyrrolamides are a novel class of antibacterial agents targeting DNA gyrase. These compounds were identified by a fragment-based lead generation (FBLG) approach using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) screening to identify low-molecular-weight compounds that bind to the ATP pocket of DNA gyrase. A pyrrole hit with a binding constant of 1 mM formed the basis of the design and synthesis of a focused library of compounds that resulted in the rapid identification of a lead compound that inhibited DNA gyrase with a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) of 3 μM. The potency of the lead compound was further optimized by utilizing iterative X-ray crystallography to yield DNA gyrase inhibitors that also displayed antibacterial activity. Spontaneous mutants were isolated in Staphylococcus aureus by plating on agar plates containing pyrrolamide 4 at the MIC. The resistant variants displayed 4- to 8-fold-increased MIC values relative to the parent strain. DNA sequencing revealed two independent point mutations in the pyrrolamide binding region of the gyrB genes from these variants, supporting the hypothesis that the mode of action of these compounds was inhibition of DNA gyrase. Efficacy of a representative pyrrolamide was demonstrated against Streptococcus pneumoniae in a mouse lung infection model. These data demonstrate that the pyrrolamides are a novel class of DNA gyrase inhibitors with the potential to deliver future antibacterial agents targeting multiple clinical indications.

  19. Digital I&C Systems in Nuclear Power Plants. Risk-Screening of Environmental Stressors and a Comparison of Hardware Unavailability With an Existing Analog System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-01-01

    NUREG /CR-6579 BNL- NUREG -52536 Digital I&C Systems in Nuclear Power Plants Risk-Screening of Environmental Stressors and a Comparison of Hardware...13.2.3 NUREG /CR-6579 BNL- NUREG -52536 Digital I&C Systems in Nuclear Power Plants Risk-Screening of Environmental Stressors and a Comparison of...licensee documents and correspondence. The following documents in the NUREG series are available for purchase from the Government Printing Office: formal

  20. High-throughput screening by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (HTS by NMR) for the identification of PPIs antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Bainan; Barile, Elisa; De, Surya K.; Wei, Jun; Purves, Angela; Pellecchia, Maurizio

    2015-01-01

    In recent years the ever so complex field of drug discovery has embraced novel design strategies based on biophysical fragment screening (fragment-based drug design; FBDD) using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) and/or structure-guided approaches, most often using X-ray crystallography and computer modeling. Experience from recent years unveiled that these methods are more effective and less prone to artifacts compared to biochemical high-throughput screening (HTS) of large collection of compounds in designing protein inhibitors. Hence these strategies are increasingly becoming the most utilized in the modern pharmaceutical industry. Nonetheless, there is still an impending need to develop innovative and effective strategies to tackle other more challenging targets such as those involving protein-protein interactions (PPIs). While HTS strategies notoriously fail to identify viable hits against such targets, few successful examples of PPIs antagonists derived by FBDD strategies exist. Recently, we reported on a new strategy that combines some of the basic principles of fragment-based screening with combinatorial chemistry and NMR-based screening. The approach, termed HTS by NMR, combines the advantages of combinatorial chemistry and NMR-based screening to rapidly and unambiguously identify bona fide inhibitors of PPIs. This review will reiterate the critical aspects of the approach with examples of possible applications. PMID:25986689

  1. LASSO-ing Potential Nuclear Receptor Agonists and Antagonists: A New Computational Method for Database Screening

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nuclear receptors (NRs) are important biological macromolecular transcription factors that are implicated in multiple biological pathways and may interact with other xenobiotics that are endocrine disruptors present in the environment. Examples of important NRs include the androg...

  2. LASSO-ing Potential Nuclear Receptor Agonists and Antagonists: A New Computational Method for Database Screening

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nuclear receptors (NRs) are important biological macromolecular transcription factors that are implicated in multiple biological pathways and may interact with other xenobiotics that are endocrine disruptors present in the environment. Examples of important NRs include the androg...

  3. Stably transfected human cell lines as fluorescent screening assay for nuclear factor KB activation dependent gene expression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellweg, Christine E.; Baumstark-Khan, Christa; Horneck, Gerda

    2004-06-01

    Activation of the Nuclear Factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) pathway as a possible antiapoptotic route represents one important cellular stress response. For identifying conditions which are capable to modify this pathway, a screening assay for detection of NF-kappaB-dependent gene activation using the reporter proteins Enhanced Green Fluorescent Protein (EGFP) and its destabilized variant (d2EGFP) has been developed. Human Embryonic Kidney (HEK/293) cells were stably transfected with a vector carrying EGFP or d2EGFP under control of a synthetic promoter containing four copies of the NF-kappaB response element. Treatment with tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) gave rise to substantial EGFP / d2EGFP expression in up to 90 % of the cells and was therefore used to screen different stably transfected clones for induction of NF-kappaB dependent gene expression. The time course of d2EGFP expression after treatment with TNF-alpha or phorbol ester was measured using flow cytometry. Cellular response to TNF-alpha was faster than to phorbol ester. Treatment of cells with TNF-alpha and DMSO revealed antagonistic interactions of these substances in the activation NF-kappaB dependent gene expression. The detection of d2EGFP expression required FACS analysis or fluorescence microscopy, while EGFP could also be measured in the microplate reader, rendering the assay useful for high-throughput screening.

  4. Digital mammography screening: association between detection rate and nuclear grade of ductal carcinoma in situ.

    PubMed

    Weigel, Stefanie; Heindel, Walter; Heidinger, Oliver; Berkemeyer, Shoma; Hense, Hans Werner

    2014-04-01

    To determine the relationship between overall detection rates of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and the specific detection rates of low-, intermediate-, and high-grade DCIS at the start of a digital mammography screening program. The study was approved by the local ethics board and did not require informed consent. Data were included of the first round of digital mammography examinations, performed in 17 screening units in women aged 50-69 years from 2005 to 2008. Grading was provided by the cancer registry for 1018 DCIS cases. The association between the overall cancer detection rate (cases per 100 women screened) and the separate cancer detection rate for invasive cancers and for DCIS was assessed. Likewise, the total DCIS cancer detection rate was separated into rates for low, intermediate, and high grades. Spearman rank correlations were used for analysis. The overall cancer detection rate correlated with both the cancer detection rate of invasive cancers and the cancer detection rate of DCIS (r = 0.96 and r = 0.88, respectively; P < .001 for both). The cancer detection rate of total DCIS with grading varied among screening units (range, 0.05-0.25), it was borderline not significantly correlated with the cancer detection rate of low-grade DCIS (range, 0.004-0.05; r = 0.49; P = .052), and it showed significant correlations with higher cancer detection rate of intermediate-grade DCIS (range, 0.02-0.12; r = 0.89; P < .001) and of high-grade DCIS (range, 0.03-0.11; r = 0.88; P < .001). This study demonstrates that high overall cancer detection rates in digital mammography screening are related to high detection rates of invasive cancers, as well as DCIS. Increases in the detection rates of DCIS were not driven by disproportionate increments of the slowly progressive low-grade subtype but rather by increased rates of intermediate- and high-grade subtypes that carry a higher risk of transition to invasive cancers. RSNA, 2013

  5. Medical screening reference manual for security force personnel at fuel cycle facilities possessing formula quantities of special nuclear materials

    SciTech Connect

    Arzino, P.A.; Brown, C.H. . Foundation)

    1991-09-01

    The recommendations contained throughout this NUREG were provided to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) as medical screening information that could be used by physicians who are evaluating the parameters of the safe participation of guards, Tactical Response Team members (TRTs), and all other armed response personnel in physical fitness training and in physical performance standards testing. The information provided in this NUREG will help licensees to determine if guards, TRTs, and other armed response personnel can effectively perform their normal and emergency duties without undue hazard to themselves, to fellow employees, to the plant site, and to the general public. The medical recommendations in this NUREG are similar in content to the medical standards contained in 10 CFR Part 1046 which, in part, specifies medical standards for the protective force personnel regulated by the Department of Energy. The guidelines contained in this NUREG are not requirements, and compliance is not required. 3 refs.

  6. Screening nucleotide binding to amino acid-coated supports by surface plasmon resonance and nuclear magnetic resonance.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Carla; Cabrita, Eurico J; Queiroz, João A

    2011-08-01

    Here, we describe a rapid and efficient screening method using surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and saturation transfer difference-nuclear magnetic resonance (STD-NMR) spectroscopy to yield information regarding the residues involved in nucleotide binding to amino acid-coated supports. The aim of this work was to explore the use of these spectroscopic techniques to study amino acid-nucleotide interactions in order to improve the binding specificity of the amino acid ligands used to purify plasmid DNA. For SPR, we present a strategy that immobilizes arginine and lysine on a surface as model supports, and we analyze binding responses when synthetic homo-deoxyoligonucleotides are injected over the amino acid surface. The binding responses are detectable and reproducible despite the small size of the immobilized amino acids. Using STD-NMR, we performed epitope mapping of homo-deoxyoligonucleotides bound to L-arginine-bisoxyran-Sepharose and L-lysine-Sepharose supports. Polynucleotide binding preferences differed; for example, polyC interacted preferentially through its backbone with the two supports, whereas polyT bound the supports through its thymine moiety. STD-NMR combined with SPR measurements was successfully used to screen amino acid-nucleotide interactions and determine the binding affinities of the complexes.

  7. Screening Brazilian commercial gasoline quality by hydrogen nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic fingerprintings and pattern-recognition multivariate chemometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Flumignan, Danilo Luiz; Boralle, Nivaldo; de Oliveira, José Eduardo

    2010-06-30

    The identification of gasoline adulteration by organic solvents is not an easy task, because compounds that constitute the solvents are already in gasoline composition. In this work, the combination of Hydrogen Nuclear Magnetic Resonance ((1)H NMR) spectroscopic fingerprintings with pattern-recognition multivariate Soft Independent Modeling of Class Analogy (SIMCA) chemometric analysis provides an original and alternative approach to screening Brazilian commercial gasoline quality in a Monitoring Program for Quality Control of Automotive Fuels. SIMCA was performed on spectroscopic fingerprints to classify the quality of representative commercial gasoline samples selected by Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA) and collected over a 6-month period from different gas stations in the São Paulo state, Brazil. Following optimized the (1)H NMR-SIMCA algorithm, it was possible to correctly classify 92.0% of commercial gasoline samples, which is considered acceptable. The chemometric method is recommended for routine applications in Quality-Control Monitoring Programs, since its measurements are fast and can be easily automated. Also, police laboratories could employ this method for rapid screening analysis to discourage adulteration practices. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Massachusetts Beryllium Screening Program for Former Workers of Wyman-Gordon, Norton Abrasives, and MIT/Nuclear Metals

    SciTech Connect

    Pepper, L. D.

    2008-05-21

    The overall objective of this project was to provide medical screening to former workers of Wyman-Gordon Company, Norton Abrasives, and MIT/Nuclear Metals (NMI) in order to prevent and minimize the health impact of diseases caused by site related workplace exposures to beryllium. The program was developed in response to a request by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) that had been authorized by Congress in Section 3162 of the 1993 Defense Authorization Act, urging the DOE to carry out a program for the identification and ongoing evaluation of current and former DOE employees who are subjected to significant health risks during such employment." This program, funded by the DOE, was an amendment to the medical surveillance program for former DOE workers at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). This program's scope included workers who had worked for organizations that provided beryllium products or materials to the DOE as part of their nuclear weapons program. These organizations have been identified as Beryllium Vendors.

  9. Rational quantitative structure-activity relationship (RQSAR) screen for PXR and CAR isoform-specific nuclear receptor ligands.

    PubMed

    Dring, Ann M; Anderson, Linnea E; Qamar, Saima; Stoner, Matthew A

    2010-12-05

    Constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) and pregnane X receptor (PXR) are closely related orphan nuclear receptor proteins that share several ligands and target overlapping sets of genes involved in homeostasis and all phases of drug metabolism. CAR and PXR are involved in the development of certain diseases, including diabetes, metabolic syndrome and obesity. Ligand screens for these receptors so far have typically focused on steroid hormone analogs with pharmacophore-based approaches, only to find relatively few new hits. Multiple CAR isoforms have been detected in human liver, with the most abundant being the constitutively active reference, CAR1, and the ligand-dependent isoform CAR3. It has been assumed that any compound that binds CAR1 should also activate CAR3, and so CAR3 can be used as a ligand-activated surrogate for CAR1 studies. The possibility of CAR3-specific ligands has not, so far, been addressed. To investigate the differences between CAR1, CAR3 and PXR, and to look for more CAR ligands that may be of use in quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) studies, we performed a luciferase transactivation assay screen of 60 mostly non-steroid compounds. Known active compounds with different core chemistries were chosen as starting points and structural variants were rationally selected for screening. Distinct differences in agonist versus inverse agonist/antagonist effects were seen in 49 compounds that had some ligand effect on at least one receptor and 18 that had effects on all three receptors; eight were CAR1 ligands only, three were CAR3 only ligands and four affected PXR only. This work provides evidence for new CAR ligands, some of which have CAR3-specific effects, and provides observational data on CAR and PXR ligands with which to inform in silico strategies. Compounds that demonstrated unique activity on any one receptor are potentially valuable diagnostic tools for the investigation of in vivo molecular targets. Copyright © 2010

  10. Rational Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship (RQSAR) Screen for PXR and CAR Isoform-Specific Nuclear Receptor Ligands

    PubMed Central

    Dring, Ann M.; Anderson, Linnea E.; Qamar, Saima; Stoner, Matthew A.

    2010-01-01

    Constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) and pregnane X receptor (PXR) are closely related orphan nuclear receptor proteins that share several ligands and target overlapping sets of genes involved in homeostasis and all phases of drug metabolism. CAR and PXR are involved in the development of certain diseases, including diabetes, metabolic syndrome and obesity. Ligand screens for these receptors so far have typically focused on steroid hormone analogs with pharmacophore-based approaches, only to find relatively few new hits. Multiple CAR isoforms have been detected in human liver, with the most abundant being the constitutively active reference, CAR1, and the ligand-dependent isoform CAR3. It has been assumed that any compound that binds CAR1 should also activate CAR3, and so CAR3 can be used as a ligand-activated surrogate for CAR1 studies. The possibility of CAR3-specific ligands has not, so far, been addressed. To investigate the differences between CAR1, CAR3 and PXR, and to look for more CAR ligands that may be of use in quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) studies, we performed a luciferase transactivation assay screen of 60 mostly non-steroid compounds. Known active compounds with different core chemistries were chosen as starting points and structural variants were rationally selected for screening. Distinct differences in agonist versus inverse agonist/antagonist effects were seen in 49 compounds that had some ligand effect on at least one receptor and 18 that had effects on all three receptors; eight were CAR1 ligands only, three were CAR3 only ligands and four affected PXR only. This work provides evidence for new CAR ligands, some of which have CAR3-specific effects, and provides observational data on CAR and PXR ligands with which to inform in silico strategies. Compounds that demonstrated unique activity on any one receptor are potentially valuable diagnostic tools for the investigation of in vivo molecular targets. PMID:20869355

  11. Virtual screening and experimental validation identify novel modulators of nuclear receptor RXRα from Drugbank database.

    PubMed

    Xu, Dan; Cai, Lijun; Guo, Shangjie; Xie, Lei; Yin, Meimei; Chen, Ziwen; Zhou, Hu; Su, Ying; Zeng, Zhiping; Zhang, Xiaokun

    2017-02-15

    Retinoid X receptor alpha (RXRα), an important ligand-dependent transcription factor, plays a critical role in the development of various cancers and metabolic and neurodegenerative diseases. Therefore, RXRα represents one of the most important targets in modern drug discovery. In this study, Drugbank 2.0 with 1280 old drugs were virtually screened by Glide according to the crystal structure of ligand-binding domain (LBP) of RXRα. 15 compounds selected were tested for their binding and transcriptional activity toward RXRα by Biacore and reporter gene assay, respectively. The identified new scafford ligand of RXRα, Pitavastatin (1), was chemically optimized. Our results demonstrated that statin compounds Pitavastatin (1) and Fluvastatin (4) could bind to the LBP of RXRα (KD=13.30μM and 11.04μM, respectively) and serve as transcriptional antagonists of RXRα. On the contrary, compound (12) (domperidone) and (13) (rosiglitazone maleate) could bind to the LBP of RXRα (KD=8.80μM and 15.01μM, respectively) but serve as transcriptional agonists of RXRα.

  12. A Live Zebrafish-Based Screening System for Human Nuclear Receptor Ligand and Cofactor Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Tiefenbach, Jens; Moll, Pamela R.; Nelson, Meryl R.; Hu, Chun; Baev, Lilia; Kislinger, Thomas; Krause, Henry M.

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear receptors (NRs) belong to a superfamily of transcription factors that regulate numerous homeostatic, metabolic and reproductive processes. Taken together with their modulation by small lipophilic molecules, they also represent an important and successful class of drug targets. Although many NRs have been targeted successfully, the majority have not, and one third are still orphans. Here we report the development of an in vivo GFP-based reporter system suitable for monitoring NR activities in all cells and tissues using live zebrafish (Danio rerio). The human NR fusion proteins used also contain a new affinity tag cassette allowing the purification of receptors with bound molecules from responsive tissues. We show that these constructs 1) respond as expected to endogenous zebrafish hormones and cofactors, 2) facilitate efficient receptor and cofactor purification, 3) respond robustly to NR hormones and drugs and 4) yield readily quantifiable signals. Transgenic lines representing the majority of human NRs have been established and are available for the investigation of tissue- and isoform-specific ligands and cofactors. PMID:20339547

  13. Identification of Novel Small Molecule Activators of Nuclear Factor-κB With Neuroprotective Action Via High-Throughput Screening

    PubMed Central

    Manuvakhova, Marina S.; Johnson, Guyla G.; White, Misti C.; Ananthan, Subramaniam; Sosa, Melinda; Maddox, Clinton; McKellip, Sara; Rasmussen, Lynn; Wennerberg, Krister; Hobrath, Judith V.; White, E. Lucile; Maddry, Joseph A.; Grimaldi, Maurizio

    2012-01-01

    Neuronal noncytokine-dependent p50/p65 nuclear factor-κB (the primary NF-κB complex in the brain) activation has been shown to exert neuroprotective actions. Thus neuronal activation of NF-κB could represent a viable neuroprotective target. We have developed a cell-based assay able to detect NF-κB expression enhancement, and through its use we have identified small molecules able to up-regulate NF-κB expression and hence trigger its activation in neurons. We have successfully screened approximately 300,000 compounds and identified 1,647 active compounds. Cluster analysis of the structures within the hit population yielded 14 enriched chemical scaffolds. One high-potency and chemically attractive representative of each of these 14 scaffolds and four singleton structures were selected for follow-up. The experiments described here highlighted that seven compounds caused noncanonical long-lasting NF-κB activation in primary astrocytes. Molecular NF-κB docking experiments indicate that compounds could be modulating NF-κB-induced NF-κB expression via enhancement of NF-κB binding to its own promoter. Prototype compounds increased p65 expression in neurons and caused its nuclear translocation without affecting the inhibitor of NF-κB (I-κB). One of the prototypical compounds caused a large reduction of glutamate-induced neuronal death. In conclusion, we have provided evidence that we can use small molecules to activate p65 NF-κB expression in neurons in a cytokine receptor-independent manner, which results in both long-lasting p65 NF-κB translocation/activation and decreased glutamate neurotoxicity. PMID:21046675

  14. High-throughput high-volume nuclear imaging for preclinical in vivo compound screening(§).

    PubMed

    Macholl, Sven; Finucane, Ciara M; Hesterman, Jacob; Mather, Stephen J; Pauplis, Rachel; Scully, Deirdre; Sosabowski, Jane K; Jouannot, Erwan

    2017-12-01

    automation provide confidence in the data set. Additional ex vivo data were useful as a control but could be omitted from future studies in the same centre. For even larger compound libraries, radiolabelling could be expedited and the number of imaging time points adapted to increase weekly throughput. Multi-atlas segmentation could be expanded via SPECT/MRI; however, this would require an MRI-compatible mouse hotel. Finally, analysis of nuclear images of radiopharmaceuticals in clinical trials may benefit from the automated analysis procedures developed.

  15. Identification of a small molecule inhibitor of importin beta mediated nuclear import by confocal on-bead screening of tagged one-bead one-compound libraries

    PubMed Central

    Hintersteiner, Martin; Ambrus, Géza; Bednenko, Janna; Schmied, Mario; Knox, Andrew J.S.; Gstach, Hubert; Seifert, Jan-Marcus; Singer, Eric L.; Gerace, Larry; Auer, Manfred

    2010-01-01

    In eukaryotic cells, proteins and RNA are transported between the nucleus and the cytoplasm by nuclear import and export receptors. Over the past decade, small molecules that inhibit the nuclear export receptor CRM1 have been identified, most notably leptomycin B. However, up to now no small molecule inhibitors of nuclear import have been described. Here we have used our automated Confocal Nanoscanning and bead picking method (CONA) for on-bead screening of a one bead/one compound library to identify the first such import inhibitor, karyostatin 1A. Karyostatin 1A binds importin β with high nanomolar affinity and specifically inhibits importin α/β mediated nuclear import at low micromolar concentrations in vitro and in living cells, without perturbing transportin mediated nuclear import or CRM1 mediated nuclear export. Surface plasmon resonance binding experiments suggest that karyostatin 1A acts by disrupting the interaction between importin β and the GTPase Ran. As a selective inhibitor of the importin α/β import pathway, karyostatin 1A will provide a valuable tool for future studies of nucleocytoplasmic trafficking. PMID:20677820

  16. Nuclear domain 'knock-in' screen for the evaluation and identification of small molecule enhancers of CRISPR-based genome editing.

    PubMed

    Pinder, Jordan; Salsman, Jayme; Dellaire, Graham

    2015-10-30

    CRISPR is a genome-editing platform that makes use of the bacterially-derived endonuclease Cas9 to introduce DNA double-strand breaks at precise locations in the genome using complementary guide RNAs. We developed a nuclear domain knock-in screen, whereby the insertion of a gene encoding the green fluorescent protein variant Clover is inserted by Cas9-mediated homology directed repair (HDR) within the first exon of genes that are required for the structural integrity of subnuclear domains such as the nuclear lamina and promyelocytic leukemia nuclear bodies (PML NBs). Using this approach, we compared strategies for enhancing CRISPR-mediated HDR, focusing on known genes and small molecules that impact non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) and homologous recombination (HR). Ultimately, we identified the small molecule RS-1 as a potent enhancer of CRISPR-based genome editing, enhancing HDR 3- to 6-fold depending on the locus and transfection method. We also characterized U2OS human osteosarcoma cells expressing Clover-tagged PML and demonstrate that this strategy generates cell lines with PML NBs that are structurally and functionally similar to bodies in the parental cell line. Thus, the nuclear domain knock-in screen that we describe provides a simple means of rapidly evaluating methods and small molecules that have the potential to enhance Cas9-mediated HDR.

  17. Nuclear domain ‘knock-in’ screen for the evaluation and identification of small molecule enhancers of CRISPR-based genome editing

    PubMed Central

    Pinder, Jordan; Salsman, Jayme; Dellaire, Graham

    2015-01-01

    CRISPR is a genome-editing platform that makes use of the bacterially-derived endonuclease Cas9 to introduce DNA double-strand breaks at precise locations in the genome using complementary guide RNAs. We developed a nuclear domain knock-in screen, whereby the insertion of a gene encoding the green fluorescent protein variant Clover is inserted by Cas9-mediated homology directed repair (HDR) within the first exon of genes that are required for the structural integrity of subnuclear domains such as the nuclear lamina and promyelocytic leukemia nuclear bodies (PML NBs). Using this approach, we compared strategies for enhancing CRISPR-mediated HDR, focusing on known genes and small molecules that impact non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) and homologous recombination (HR). Ultimately, we identified the small molecule RS-1 as a potent enhancer of CRISPR-based genome editing, enhancing HDR 3- to 6-fold depending on the locus and transfection method. We also characterized U2OS human osteosarcoma cells expressing Clover-tagged PML and demonstrate that this strategy generates cell lines with PML NBs that are structurally and functionally similar to bodies in the parental cell line. Thus, the nuclear domain knock-in screen that we describe provides a simple means of rapidly evaluating methods and small molecules that have the potential to enhance Cas9-mediated HDR. PMID:26429972

  18. A flow cytometry-based screen of nuclear envelope transmembrane proteins identifies NET4/Tmem53 as involved in stress-dependent cell cycle withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Korfali, Nadia; Srsen, Vlastimil; Waterfall, Martin; Batrakou, Dzmitry G; Pekovic, Vanja; Hutchison, Christopher J; Schirmer, Eric C

    2011-04-14

    Disruption of cell cycle regulation is one mechanism proposed for how nuclear envelope protein mutation can cause disease. Thus far only a few nuclear envelope proteins have been tested/found to affect cell cycle progression: to identify others, 39 novel nuclear envelope transmembrane proteins were screened for their ability to alter flow cytometry cell cycle/DNA content profiles when exogenously expressed. Eight had notable effects with seven increasing and one decreasing the 4N:2N ratio. We subsequently focused on NET4/Tmem53 that lost its effects in p53(-/-) cells and retinoblastoma protein-deficient cells. NET4/TMEM53 knockdown by siRNA altered flow cytometry cell cycle/DNA content profiles in a similar way as overexpression. NET4/TMEM53 knockdown did not affect total retinoblastoma protein levels, unlike nuclear envelope-associated proteins Lamin A and LAP2α. However, a decrease in phosphorylated retinoblastoma protein was observed along with a doubling of p53 levels and a 7-fold increase in p21. Consequently cells withdrew from the cell cycle, which was confirmed in MRC5 cells by a drop in the percentage of cells expressing Ki-67 antigen and an increase in the number of cells stained for ß-galactosidase. The ß-galactosidase upregulation suggests that cells become prematurely senescent. Finally, the changes in retinoblastoma protein, p53, and p21 resulting from loss of NET4/Tmem53 were dependent upon active p38 MAP kinase. The finding that roughly a fifth of nuclear envelope transmembrane proteins screened yielded alterations in flow cytometry cell cycle/DNA content profiles suggests a much greater influence of the nuclear envelope on the cell cycle than is widely held.

  19. A Flow Cytometry-Based Screen of Nuclear Envelope Transmembrane Proteins Identifies NET4/Tmem53 as Involved in Stress-Dependent Cell Cycle Withdrawal

    PubMed Central

    Waterfall, Martin; Batrakou, Dzmitry G.; Pekovic, Vanja; Hutchison, Christopher J.; Schirmer, Eric C.

    2011-01-01

    Disruption of cell cycle regulation is one mechanism proposed for how nuclear envelope protein mutation can cause disease. Thus far only a few nuclear envelope proteins have been tested/found to affect cell cycle progression: to identify others, 39 novel nuclear envelope transmembrane proteins were screened for their ability to alter flow cytometry cell cycle/DNA content profiles when exogenously expressed. Eight had notable effects with seven increasing and one decreasing the 4N∶2N ratio. We subsequently focused on NET4/Tmem53 that lost its effects in p53−/− cells and retinoblastoma protein-deficient cells. NET4/TMEM53 knockdown by siRNA altered flow cytometry cell cycle/DNA content profiles in a similar way as overexpression. NET4/TMEM53 knockdown did not affect total retinoblastoma protein levels, unlike nuclear envelope-associated proteins Lamin A and LAP2α. However, a decrease in phosphorylated retinoblastoma protein was observed along with a doubling of p53 levels and a 7-fold increase in p21. Consequently cells withdrew from the cell cycle, which was confirmed in MRC5 cells by a drop in the percentage of cells expressing Ki-67 antigen and an increase in the number of cells stained for ß-galactosidase. The ß-galactosidase upregulation suggests that cells become prematurely senescent. Finally, the changes in retinoblastoma protein, p53, and p21 resulting from loss of NET4/Tmem53 were dependent upon active p38 MAP kinase. The finding that roughly a fifth of nuclear envelope transmembrane proteins screened yielded alterations in flow cytometry cell cycle/DNA content profiles suggests a much greater influence of the nuclear envelope on the cell cycle than is widely held. PMID:21533191

  20. PBC screen: an IgG/IgA dual isotype ELISA detecting multiple mitochondrial and nuclear autoantibodies specific for primary biliary cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Haiying; Norman, Gary L; Shums, Zakera; Worman, Howard J; Krawitt, Edward L; Bizzaro, Nicola; Vergani, Diego; Bogdanos, Dimitrios P; Dalekos, George N; Milkiewicz, Piotr; Czaja, Albert J; Heathcote, E Jenny; Hirschfield, Gideon M; Tan, Eng M; Miyachi, Kiyomitsu; Bignotto, Monica; Battezzati, Pier Maria; Lleo, Ana; Leung, Patrick S; Podda, Mauro; Gershwin, M Eric; Invernizzi, Pietro

    2010-12-01

    A dual isotype (IgG, IgA) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) designed to provide enhanced detection of primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC)-specific autoantibodies against both major mitochondrial and nuclear antigens has been developed and recently become commercially available. The assay (PBC Screen) simultaneously detects IgG and IgA autoantibodies to the immunodominant portions of the 3 major mitochondrial (MIT3) and nuclear (gp210, and sp100) antigens. The aim of this study was to compare the performance of the PBC Screen to the combined performance obtained with individual IgG ELISAs to MIT3, gp210, and sp100 on a large group of selected patients from multiple centers. A total of 1175 patients with PBC and 1232 subjects without PBC were evaluated. Non-PBC groups included healthy controls (624) as well as individuals with autoimmune hepatitis (281), primary sclerosing cholangitis (77), viral hepatitis (91 hepatitis B and 98 hepatitis C), other liver diseases (31), and other infectious or autoimmune diseases (30). The PBC Screen at the receiver operator characteristic optimized cutoff of 27.8 units, had an overall sensitivity of 83.8%, specificity of 94.7% and area under curve of 0.9212. This was similar to the specificity of 96.1% obtained by the combined results of individual MIT3, sp100, and gp210 IgG ELISAs (kappa index at 0.898). Of the 253 PBC patients without AMA detectable by immunofluorescence, 113 (44.7%) were interpreted as positive for PBC-specific autoantibodies. In conclusion, the PBC Screen is an appropriate first-line test for the diagnosis of PBC, including for patients negative for markers assessed using conventional methods. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Identification of UV-protective activators of nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) by combining a chemical library screen with computer-based virtual screening.

    PubMed

    Lieder, Franziska; Reisen, Felix; Geppert, Tim; Sollberger, Gabriel; Beer, Hans-Dietmar; auf dem Keller, Ulrich; Schäfer, Matthias; Detmar, Michael; Schneider, Gisbert; Werner, Sabine

    2012-09-21

    Nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a master regulator of cellular antioxidant defense systems, and activation of this transcription factor is a promising strategy for protection of skin and other organs from environmental insults. To identify efficient Nrf2 activators in keratinocytes, we combined a chemical library screen with computer-based virtual screening. Among 14 novel Nrf2 activators, the most potent compound, a nitrophenyl derivative of 2-chloro-5-nitro-N-phenyl-benzamide, was characterized with regard to its molecular mechanism of action. This compound induced the expression of cytoprotective genes in keratinocytes isolated from wild-type but not from Nrf2-deficient mice. Most importantly, it showed low toxicity and protected primary human keratinocytes from UVB-induced cell death. Therefore, it represents a potential lead compound for the development of drugs for skin protection under stress conditions. Our study demonstrates that chemical library screening combined with advanced computational similarity searching is a powerful strategy for identification of bioactive compounds, and it points toward an innovative therapeutic approach against UVB-induced skin damage.

  2. Screening evaluation of radionuclide groundwater concentrations for the end state basement fill model Zion Nuclear Power Station decommissioning project

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan T.

    2014-06-09

    ZionSolutions is in the process of decommissioning the Zion Nuclear Power Plant. The site contains two reactor Containment Buildings, a Fuel Building, an Auxiliary Building, and a Turbine Building that may be contaminated. The current decommissioning plan involves removing all above grade structures to a depth of 3 feet below grade. The remaining underground structures will be backfilled with clean material. The final selection of fill material has not been made.

  3. Application of linear discriminant analysis in performance evaluation of extractable nuclear antigen immunoassay systems in the screening and diagnosis of systemic autoimmune rheumatic diseases.

    PubMed

    Pi, David; de Badyn, Monika Hudoba; Nimmo, Mike; White, Rick; Pal, Jason; Wong, Patrick; Phoon, Carmen; O'Connor, Deidre; Pi, Steven; Shojania, Kam

    2012-10-01

    This study applied a linear discriminant analysis model to evaluate the performance of 2 types of commercially available extractable nuclear antigen (ENA) immunoassays for the screening and diagnosis of systemic autoimmune rheumatic diseases (SARDs) in a large tertiary hospital reference laboratory: (1) an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and (2) a multiplex bead-based immunoassay (MPBI). The results of the study showed both ENA immunoassays had comparable sensitivity for the detection of SARDs compared with the antinuclear antigen immunofluorescence (ANA-IF) method (ANA-IF: 85.6%, ENA-ELISA: 91.5%, ENA-MPBI: 83.1%, pairwise comparisons with ANA-IF: P > .05). However, both ENA immunoassays offered improved specificity compared with the ANA-IF (ANA-IF: 24.2%; ENA-ELISA: 39.8%; ENA-MPBI: 53.1%; pairwise comparison with ANA-IF: P < .001). The use of a more specific screening immunoassay with comparable sensitivity to ANA-IF is important in a tertiary hospital with high prevalence of non-SARD immune diseases. Diagnostic performance of the ENA/dsDNA components by the MPBI and ELISA methods did not differ significantly (area under the curve [AUC], 81.0% vs 83.0%, respectively, P > .05), but the key ENA/dsDNA variables contributing to the discriminating power of the assays for the diagnosis of specific SARDs were reagent/method dependent.

  4. Digital I&C systems in nuclear power plants. Risk-screening of environmental stressors and a comparison of hardware unavailability with an existing analog system

    SciTech Connect

    Hassan, M.; Vesely, W.E.

    1998-01-01

    In this report, we present a screening study to identify environmental stressors for digital instrumentation and control (I&C) systems in a nuclear power plant (NPP) which can be potentially risk-significant, and compare the hardware unavailability of such a system with that of its existing analog counterpart. The stressors evaluated are temperature, humidity, vibration, radiation, electro-magnetic interference (EMI), and smoke. The results of risk-screening for an example plant, subject to some bounding assumptions and based on relative changes in plant risk (core damage frequency impacts of the stressors), indicate that humidity, EMI from lightning, and smoke can be potentially risk-significant. Risk from other sources of EMI could not be evaluated for a lack of data. Risk from temperature appears to be insignificant as that from the assumed levels of vibrations. A comparison of the hardware unavailability of the existing analog Safety Injection Actuation System (SIAS) in the example plant with that of an assumed digital upgrade of the system indicates that system unavailability may be more sensitive to the level of redundancy in elements of the digital system than to the environmental and operational variations involved. The findings of this study can be used to focus activities relating to the regulatory basis for digital I&C upgrades in NPPs, including identification of dominant stressors, data-gathering, equipment qualification, and requirements to limit the effects of environmental stressors. 30 refs., 8 figs., 26 tabs.

  5. Assay Development and High-Throughput Screening for Inhibitors of Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus N-Terminal Latency-Associated Nuclear Antigen Binding to Nucleosomes.

    PubMed

    Beauchemin, Chantal; Moerke, Nathan J; Faloon, Patrick; Kaye, Kenneth M

    2014-07-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) has a causative role in several human malignancies, especially in immunocompromised hosts. KSHV latently infects tumor cells and persists as an extrachromosomal episome (plasmid). KSHV latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA) mediates KSHV episome persistence. LANA binds specific KSHV sequence to replicate viral DNA. In addition, LANA tethers KSHV genomes to mitotic chromosomes to efficiently segregate episomes to daughter nuclei after mitosis. N-terminal LANA (N-LANA) binds histones H2A and H2B to attach to chromosomes. Currently, there are no specific inhibitors of KSHV latent infection. To enable high-throughput screening (HTS) of inhibitors of N-LANA binding to nucleosomes, here we develop, miniaturize, and validate a fluorescence polarization (FP) assay that detects fluorophore-labeled N-LANA peptide binding to nucleosomes. We also miniaturize a counterscreen to identify DNA intercalators that nonspecifically inhibit N-LANA binding to nucleosomes, and also develop an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to assess N-LANA binding to nucleosomes in the absence of fluorescence. HTS of libraries containing more than 350,000 compounds identified multiple compounds that inhibited N-LANA binding to nucleosomes. No compounds survived all counterscreens, however. More complex small-molecule libraries will likely be necessary to identify specific inhibitors of N-LANA binding to histones H2A and H2B; these assays should prove useful for future screens.

  6. Screening nuclear field fluctuations to generate highly indistinguishable photons from negatively charged self-assembled InGaAs quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malein, Ralph; Santana, Ted; Zajac, Joanna; Petroff, Pierre; Gerardot, Brian

    2015-03-01

    Quantum dots (QDs) can generate highly coherent and indistinguishable single photons. However, a ground-state electron spin interacts with a QD's nuclear spins to create an effective Overhauser field (δBn) of ~30mT. We probe this interaction using resonance fluorescence. We observe the effect of δBn in high resolution (27 MHz) spectroscopy of the elastic and inelastic scattered photons, and characterize the effect of δBn on photon indistinguishability by monitoring the visibility of two-photon interference. With no external magnetic field (Bz = 0), δBn effectively splits the ground state, and at low Rabi frequencies we observe two broad (Γ = 200 MHz) peaks equally spaced by ~100MHz from the central elastic peak. The ratio of elastic to inelastic photons in the spectra gives a dephasing time T2 = 0 . 52T1 = 406 ps, far from the transform limit. With an external field Bz > δBn , we can successfully screen the fluctuating nuclear field. For Bz = 300 mT, nearly all photons in the spectrum are elastically scattered and we extract T2 = 1 . 94T1 = 1512 ps. This transform limited linewidth enables us to demonstrate very high visibility two-photon interference. These results point towards robust generation of indistinguishable photons.

  7. Cell-based screen for altered nuclear phenotypes reveals senescence progression in polyploid cells after Aurora kinase B inhibition.

    PubMed

    Sadaie, Mahito; Dillon, Christian; Narita, Masako; Narita, Masashi; Young, Andrew R J; Cairney, Claire J; Godwin, Lauren S; Torrance, Christopher J; Bennett, Dorothy C; Keith, W Nicol; Narita, Masashi

    2015-09-01

    Cellular senescence is a widespread stress response and is widely considered to be an alternative cancer therapeutic goal. Unlike apoptosis, senescence is composed of a diverse set of subphenotypes, depending on which of its associated effector programs are engaged. Here we establish a simple and sensitive cell-based prosenescence screen with detailed validation assays. We characterize the screen using a focused tool compound kinase inhibitor library. We identify a series of compounds that induce different types of senescence, including a unique phenotype associated with irregularly shaped nuclei and the progressive accumulation of G1 tetraploidy in human diploid fibroblasts. Downstream analyses show that all of the compounds that induce tetraploid senescence inhibit Aurora kinase B (AURKB). AURKB is the catalytic component of the chromosome passenger complex, which is involved in correct chromosome alignment and segregation, the spindle assembly checkpoint, and cytokinesis. Although aberrant mitosis and senescence have been linked, a specific characterization of AURKB in the context of senescence is still required. This proof-of-principle study suggests that our protocol is capable of amplifying tetraploid senescence, which can be observed in only a small population of oncogenic RAS-induced senescence, and provides additional justification for AURKB as a cancer therapeutic target.

  8. Probing the specificity of binding to the major nuclear localization sequence-binding site of importin-alpha using oriented peptide library screening.

    PubMed

    Yang, Sundy N Y; Takeda, Agnes A S; Fontes, Marcos R M; Harris, Jonathan M; Jans, David A; Kobe, Bostjan

    2010-06-25

    Importin-alpha is the nuclear import receptor that recognizes the classic monopartite and bipartite nuclear localization sequences (cNLSs), which contain one or two clusters of basic amino acids, respectively. Different importin-alpha paralogs in a single organism are specific for distinct repertoires of cargos. Structural studies revealed that monopartite cNLSs and the C-terminal basic clusters of the bipartite cNLSs bind to the same site on importin-alpha, termed the major cNLS-binding site. We used an oriented peptide library approach with five degenerate positions to probe the specificity of the major cNLS-binding site in importin-alpha. We identified the sequences KKKRR, KKKRK, and KKRKK as the optimal sequences for binding to this site for mouse importin-alpha2, human importin-alpha1, and human importin-alpha5, respectively. The crystal structure of mouse importin-alpha2 with its optimal peptide confirmed the expected binding mode resembling the binding of simian virus 40 large tumor-antigen cNLS. Binding assays confirmed that the peptides containing these sequences bound to the corresponding proteins with low nanomolar affinities. Nuclear import assays showed that the sequences acted as functional cNLSs, with specificity for particular importin-alphas. This is the first time that structural information has been linked to an oriented peptide library screening approach for importin-alpha; the results will contribute to understanding of the sequence determinants of cNLSs, and may help identify as yet unidentified cNLSs in novel proteins.

  9. Functional Genomic Screen Identifies Klebsiella pneumoniae Factors Implicated in Blocking Nuclear Factor κB (NF-κB) Signaling.

    PubMed

    Tomás, Anna; Lery, Leticia; Regueiro, Verónica; Pérez-Gutiérrez, Camino; Martínez, Verónica; Moranta, David; Llobet, Enrique; González-Nicolau, Mar; Insua, Jose L; Tomas, Juan M; Sansonetti, Philippe J; Tournebize, Régis; Bengoechea, José A

    2015-07-03

    Klebsiella pneumoniae is an etiologic agent of community-acquired and nosocomial pneumonia. It has been shown that K. pneumoniae infections are characterized by reduced early inflammatory response. Recently our group has shown that K. pneumoniae dampens the activation of inflammatory responses by antagonizing the activation of the NF-κB canonical pathway. Our results revealed that K. pneumoniae capsule polysaccharide (CPS) was necessary but not sufficient to attenuate inflammation. To identify additional Klebsiella factors required to dampen inflammation, we standardized and applied a high-throughput gain-of-function screen to examine a Klebsiella transposon mutant library. We identified 114 mutants that triggered the activation of NF-κB. Two gene ontology categories accounted for half of the loci identified in the screening: metabolism and transport genes (32% of the mutants) and envelope-related genes (17%). Characterization of the mutants revealed that the lack of the enterobactin siderophore was linked to a reduced CPS expression, which in turn underlined the NF-κB activation induced by the mutant. The lipopolysaccharide (LPS) O-polysaccharide and the pullulanase (PulA) type 2 secretion system (T2SS) are required for full effectiveness of the immune evasion. Importantly, these factors do not play a redundant role. The fact that LPS O-polysaccharide and T2SS mutant-induced responses were dependent on TLR2-TLR4-MyD88 activation suggested that LPS O-polysaccharide and PulA perturbed Toll-like receptor (TLR)-dependent recognition of K. pneumoniae. Finally, we demonstrate that LPS O-polysaccharide and pulA mutants are attenuated in the pneumonia mouse model. We propose that LPS O-polysaccharide and PulA T2SS could be new targets for the design of new antimicrobials. Increasing TLR-governed defense responses might provide also selective alternatives for the management of K. pneumoniae pneumonia.

  10. Functional Genomic Screen Identifies Klebsiella pneumoniae Factors Implicated in Blocking Nuclear Factor κB (NF-κB) Signaling*

    PubMed Central

    Tomás, Anna; Lery, Leticia; Regueiro, Verónica; Pérez-Gutiérrez, Camino; Martínez, Verónica; Moranta, David; Llobet, Enrique; González-Nicolau, Mar; Insua, Jose L.; Tomas, Juan M.; Sansonetti, Philippe J.; Tournebize, Régis; Bengoechea, José A.

    2015-01-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae is an etiologic agent of community-acquired and nosocomial pneumonia. It has been shown that K. pneumoniae infections are characterized by reduced early inflammatory response. Recently our group has shown that K. pneumoniae dampens the activation of inflammatory responses by antagonizing the activation of the NF-κB canonical pathway. Our results revealed that K. pneumoniae capsule polysaccharide (CPS) was necessary but not sufficient to attenuate inflammation. To identify additional Klebsiella factors required to dampen inflammation, we standardized and applied a high-throughput gain-of-function screen to examine a Klebsiella transposon mutant library. We identified 114 mutants that triggered the activation of NF-κB. Two gene ontology categories accounted for half of the loci identified in the screening: metabolism and transport genes (32% of the mutants) and envelope-related genes (17%). Characterization of the mutants revealed that the lack of the enterobactin siderophore was linked to a reduced CPS expression, which in turn underlined the NF-κB activation induced by the mutant. The lipopolysaccharide (LPS) O-polysaccharide and the pullulanase (PulA) type 2 secretion system (T2SS) are required for full effectiveness of the immune evasion. Importantly, these factors do not play a redundant role. The fact that LPS O-polysaccharide and T2SS mutant-induced responses were dependent on TLR2-TLR4-MyD88 activation suggested that LPS O-polysaccharide and PulA perturbed Toll-like receptor (TLR)-dependent recognition of K. pneumoniae. Finally, we demonstrate that LPS O-polysaccharide and pulA mutants are attenuated in the pneumonia mouse model. We propose that LPS O-polysaccharide and PulA T2SS could be new targets for the design of new antimicrobials. Increasing TLR-governed defense responses might provide also selective alternatives for the management of K. pneumoniae pneumonia. PMID:25971969

  11. Complementary serum test of antibodies to Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen-1 and early antigen: a possible alternative for primary screening of nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Chang, Kai-Ping; Hsu, Cheng-Lung; Chang, Yu-Liang; Tsang, Ngan-Ming; Chen, Chin-Kuo; Lee, Ta-Jen; Tsao, Kuo-Chien; Huang, Chung-Guei; Chang, Yu-Sun; Yu, Jau-Song; Hao, Sheng-Po

    2008-08-01

    This hospital-based cohort study evaluated the efficacy of three Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) - associated assays for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) primary screening and monitoring treatment outcome. Five hundred and seventeen consecutive subjects, including 156 NPC patients, 264 healthy volunteers and 97 patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) were enrolled. The sensitivity and specificity of EBV IgAs to viral capsid antigen (VCA), complementary EBV IgAs to early antigen and nuclear antigen-1 (EA+EBNA-1), and EBV DNA load were examined by immunofluorescent assays, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, and quantitative real-time PCR, respectively. After constructing the receiver operating characteristics to demonstrate screening efficacy, EBV EA+EBNA-1 IgA (AUC: 0.952; 95% CI, 0.930-0.974) was proved superior to EBV VCA IgA (AUC: 0.888; 95% CI, 0.854-0.922) or EBV DNA load (AUC: 0.893; 95% CI, 0.854-0.932) in differentiating NPC patients from controls. Comparison of screening efficacy between NPC patients and HNSCC patients revealed EBV EA+EBNA-1 IgA (AUC: 0.964; 95% CI, 0.943-0.985) still outperformed EBV VCA IgA (AUC: 0.884; 95% CI, 0.845-0.923). In subjects with higher serum titer or level equal to or above 1:80 and 6 EU/ml for EBV VCA IgA and EA+EBNA-1 IgA, the specificity reached as high as 99.2% and 95.1%, respectively, in the control groups. However, correlation of these three assays with clinicopathological manifestations of NPC, revealed only EBV DNA load significantly associated with N stage and overall stage in NPC patients. Additionally, EBV DNA load could be used to further raise the specificity of EBV EA+EBNA-1 IgA assays and was also the only assay to be consistently predictive of tumor relapse in post-treatment patients according to serial test results by time frame. Consequently, an EBV EA+EBNA-1 IgA-based protocol is recommended for mass screening, but EBV DNA load should be used solely for post-treatment monitoring for NPC in

  12. Fast nuclear staining of head hair roots as a screening method for successful STR analysis in forensics.

    PubMed

    Lepez, Trees; Vandewoestyne, Mado; Van Hoofstat, David; Deforce, Dieter

    2014-11-01

    The success rate of STR profiling of hairs found at a crime scene is quite low and negative results of hair analysis are frequently reported. To increase the success rate of DNA analysis of hairs in forensics, nuclei in hair roots can be counted after staining the hair root with DAPI. Two staining methods were tested: a longer method with two 1h incubations in respectively a DAPI- and a wash-solution, and a fast, direct staining of the hair root on microscope slides. The two staining methods were not significantly different. The results of the STR analysis for both procedures showed that 20 nuclei are necessary to obtain at least partial STR profiles. When more than 50 nuclei were counted, full STR profiles were always obtained. In 96% of the cases where no nuclei were detected, no STR profile could be obtained. However, 4% of the DAPI-negative hair roots resulted in at least partial STR profiles. Therefore, each forensic case has to be evaluated separately in function of the importance of the evidential value of the found hair. The fast staining method was applied in 36 forensic cases on 279 hairs in total. A fast screening method using DAPI can be used to increase the success rate of hair analysis in forensics.

  13. Kinome-Wide Functional Genomics Screen Reveals a Novel Mechanism of TNFα-Induced Nuclear Accumulation of the HIF-1α Transcription Factor in Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Schoolmeesters, Angela; Brown, Daniel D.; Fedorov, Yuriy

    2012-01-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) and its most important subunit, HIF-1α, plays a central role in tumor progression by regulating genes involved in cancer cell survival, proliferation and metastasis. HIF-1α activity is associated with nuclear accumulation of the transcription factor and regulated by several mechanisms including modulation of protein stability and degradation. Among recent advances are the discoveries that inflammation-induced cytokines and growth factors affect protein accumulation of HIF-1α under normoxia conditions. TNFα, a major pro-inflammatory cytokine that promotes tumorigenesis is known as a stimulator of HIF-1α activity. To improve our understanding of TNFα-mediated regulation of HIF-1α nuclear accumulation we screened a kinase-specific siRNA library using a cell imaging–based HIF-1α-eGFP chimera reporter assay. Interestingly, this systematic analysis determined that depletion of kinases involved in conventional TNFα signaling (IKK/NFκB and JNK pathways) has no detrimental effect on HIF-1α accumulation. On the other hand, depletion of PRKAR2B, ADCK2, TRPM7, and TRIB2 significantly decreases the effect of TNFα on HIF-1α stability in osteosarcoma and prostate cancer cell lines. These newly discovered regulators conveyed their activity through a non-conventional RELB-depended NFκB signaling pathway and regulation of superoxide activity. Taken together our data allow us to conclude that TNFα uses a distinct and complex signaling mechanism to induce accumulation of HIF-1α in cancer cells. In summary, our results illuminate a novel mechanism through which cancer initiation and progression may be promoted by inflammatory cytokines, highlighting new potential avenues for fighting this disease. PMID:22355351

  14. Utilization of human nuclear receptors as an early counter screen for off-target activity: a case study with a compendium of 615 known drugs.

    PubMed

    Fan, Fan; Hu, Rong; Munzli, Anke; Chen, Yuan; Dunn, Robert T; Weikl, Kerstin; Strauch, Simone; Schwandner, Ralf; Afshari, Cynthia A; Hamadeh, Hisham; Nioi, Paul

    2015-06-01

    Off-target effects of drugs on nuclear hormone receptors (NHRs) may result in adverse effects in multiple organs/physiological processes. Reliable assessments of the NHR activities for drug candidates are therefore crucial for drug development. However, the highly permissive structures of NHRs for vastly different ligands make it challenging to predict interactions by examining the chemical structures of the ligands. Here, we report a detailed investigation on the agonistic and antagonistic activities of 615 known drugs or drug candidates against a panel of 6 NHRs: androgen, progesterone, estrogen α/β, and thyroid hormone α/β receptors. Our study revealed that 4.7 and 12.4% compounds have agonistic and antagonistic activities, respectively, against this panel of NHRs. Nonetheless, potent, unintended NHR hits are relatively rare among the known drugs, indicating that such interactions are perhaps not tolerated during drug development. However, we uncovered examples of compounds that unintentionally agonize or antagonize NHRs. In addition, a number of compounds showed multi-NHR activities, suggesting that the cross-talk between multiple NHRs co-operate to elicit in vivo effects. These data highlight the merits of counter screening drug candidate against NHRs during drug discovery/development.

  15. Accuracy of Whole-Body DWI for Metastases Screening in a Diverse Group of Malignancies: Comparison With Conventional Cross-Sectional Imaging and Nuclear Scintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Paruthikunnan, Samir Mustaffa; Kadavigere, Rajagopal; Karegowda, Lakshmikanth Halegubbi

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the role of whole-body (WB) DWI as a screening modality for the detection of metastases and to compare it to conventional cross-sectional imaging modalities or nuclear scintigraphy in a population with various histopathologic malignancies. WB DWI and conventional imaging (CT, MRI, or scintigraphy) were performed for patients with known malignancies for metastatic workup, and these patients were followed up for a period of 1 year. Two radiologists assessed WB DW images separately, and conventional images were assessed by the senior radiologist. The metastatic lesions were classified into four regions: liver, lung, skeletal system, and lymph nodes. The reference standard was considered on the basis of histopathologic confirmation or clinical follow-up of the metastatic lesions. WB DWI was slightly inferior to conventional imaging modalities for the detection of hepatic metastases (sensitivity, 86.6% vs 93.3%; specificity, 91.6% vs 95.8%; and accuracy, 89.7% vs 94.8%) and skeletal metastases (sensitivity, 81.8% vs 89.4%; specificity, 86.4% vs 94.3%; and accuracy, 85.2% vs 93.0%); however, the differences were not statistically significant (p = 0.625 for hepatic metastases and p = 0.0953 for skeletal metastases, McNemar test). WB DWI was statistically significantly inferior to conventional imaging for the detection of lymph node metastases (sensitivity, 74.0% vs 81.5%; specificity, 87.9% vs 90.1%; accuracy, 81.4% vs 86.0%; p = 0.0389). WB DWI was statistically significantly inferior to conventional imaging for the detection of pulmonary metastases (sensitivity, 33.3% vs 100.0%; specificity, 90.9% vs 100.0%; accuracy, 60.8% vs 100.0%; p = 0.045). WB DWI can be used for screening hepatic and skeletal metastases, but its reliability as the sole imaging sequence for the detection of lymph nodal and pulmonary metastases is poor and, at present, it cannot replace conventional imaging modalities.

  16. Depression Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... Depression Screening Substance Abuse Screening Alcohol Use Screening Depression Screening (PHQ-9) - Instructions The following questions are ... this tool, there is also text-only version . Depression Screening - Manual Instructions The following questions are a ...

  17. Newborn Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... Laboratory Sciences Office of Public Health Genomics Publications & Articles Newborn Screening Lab Bulletin Laboratory Partners Multimedia Tools Newborn Screening Program – Role of Laboratories Meet the Scientist Newborn Screening: Family Stories Newborn Screening: Public Health ...

  18. A high-resolution peak fractionation approach for streamlined screening of nuclear-factor-E2-related factor-2 activators in Salvia miltiorrhiza.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui; Luo, Li-Ping; Song, Hui-Peng; Hao, Hai-Ping; Zhou, Ping; Qi, Lian-Wen; Li, Ping; Chen, Jun

    2014-01-24

    Generation of a high-purity fraction library for efficiently screening active compounds from natural products is challenging because of their chemical diversity and complex matrices. In this work, a strategy combining high-resolution peak fractionation (HRPF) with a cell-based assay was proposed for target screening of bioactive constituents from natural products. In this approach, peak fractionation was conducted under chromatographic conditions optimized for high-resolution separation of the natural product extract. The HRPF approach was automatically performed according to the predefinition of certain peaks based on their retention times from a reference chromatographic profile. The corresponding HRPF database was collected with a parallel mass spectrometer to ensure purity and characterize the structures of compounds in the various fractions. Using this approach, a set of 75 peak fractions on the microgram scale was generated from 4mg of the extract of Salvia miltiorrhiza. After screening by an ARE-luciferase reporter gene assay, 20 diterpene quinones were selected and identified, and 16 of these compounds were reported to possess novel Nrf2 activation activity. Compared with conventional fixed-time interval fractionation, the HRPF approach could significantly improve the efficiency of bioactive compound discovery and facilitate the uncovering of minor active components. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Photoionization study of Ne-like K9+, Ca10+, Sc11+, Ti12+, V13+, Cr14+, Mn15+, and Fe16+ ions using the screening constant by unit nuclear charge method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goyal, Arun; Khatri, Indu; Sow, Malick; Sakho, Ibrahima; Aggarwal, Sunny; Singh, A. K.; Mohan, Man

    2016-08-01

    Photoionization of the 2s22p6 (1S0) ground state of the Ne-like (Z=19-29) ions is presented in this paper. Resonance energies and total natural width of the 2s2p6np 1P series of the Ne-like K9+, Ca10+, Sc11+, Ti12+, V13+, Cr14+, Mn15+, and Fe16+are reported. All the calculations are made using the Screening constant by unit nuclear charge (SCUNC) formalism. New data for Ne-like K9+, Sc11+, Ti12+, V13+, Cr14+, and Mn15+ions are tabulated. Good agreements are found with available literature data.

  20. Efficiency gains in tracer identification for nuclear imaging: can in vivo LC-MS/MS evaluation of small molecules screen for successful PET tracers?

    PubMed

    Joshi, Elizabeth M; Need, Anne; Schaus, John; Chen, Zhaogen; Benesh, Dana; Mitch, Charles; Morton, Stuart; Raub, Thomas J; Phebus, Lee; Barth, Vanessa

    2014-12-17

    Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging has become a useful noninvasive technique to explore molecular biology within living systems; however, the utility of this method is limited by the availability of suitable radiotracers to probe specific targets and disease biology. Methods to identify potential areas of improvement in the ability to predict small molecule performance as tracers prior to radiolabeling would speed the discovery of novel tracers. In this retrospective analysis, we characterized the brain penetration or peak SUV (standardized uptake value), binding potential (BP), and brain exposure kinetics across a series of known, nonradiolabeled PET ligands using in vivo LC-MS/MS (liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry) and correlated these parameters with the reported PET ligand performance in nonhuman primates and humans available in the literature. The PET tracers studied included those reported to label G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), intracellular enzymes, and transporters. Additionally, data for each tracer was obtained from a mouse brain uptake assay (MBUA), previously published, where blood-brain barrier (BBB) penetration and clearance parameters were assessed and compared against similar data collected on a broad compound set of central nervous system (CNS) therapeutic compounds. The BP and SUV identified via nonradiolabeled LC-MS/MS, while different from the published values observed in the literature PET tracer data, allowed for an identification of initial criteria values we sought to facilitate increased potential for success from our early discovery screening paradigm. Our analysis showed that successful, as well as novel, clinical PET tracers exhibited BP of greater than 1.5 and peak SUVs greater than approximately 150% at 5 min post dose in rodents. The brain kinetics appeared similar between both techniques despite differences in tracer dose, suggesting linearity across these dose ranges. The assessment of tracers in a

  1. Comparison of x-ray films and low-dose computed tomographic scans: demonstration of asbestos-related changes in 2760 nuclear weapons workers screened for lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Miller, Albert; Widman, Shannon A; Miller, Jeffrey A; Manowitz, Amy; Markowitz, Steven B

    2013-07-01

    Increased availability and technical improvements of computed tomographic (CT) scanning encourages its use for detecting asbestos-related disease. We compared low-dose scans and x-ray films in 2760 workers potentially exposed to asbestos, to assess their ability to detect interstitial lung disease (ILD) and pleural thickening (PT). A total of 2760 nuclear workers received radiography and CT scanning (2006 to 2009). X-ray films were read by a B reader for ILD and PT and CT scans by a thoracic radiologist, using a protocol for nodules, ILD, and PT. Of the 2760 workers, 271 showed circumscribed PT on CT scans, and 73 on x-ray films, 54 (74%) of which were confirmed on CT scans; 76 showed ILD on CT scans, and 15 on x-ray film, 10 (67%) of which were confirmed on CT scans. Radiographic readings of PT and ILD were generally confirmed on CT scans. Computed tomographic scans detected three to five times more cases; the majority were minor.

  2. Screening of agonistic activities against four nuclear receptors in wastewater treatment plants in Japan using a yeast two-hybrid assay.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Daisuke; Nakama, Koki; Sawada, Kazuko; Watanabe, Taro; Matsui, Hisae; Sei, Kazunari; Nakanishi, Tsuyoshi; Ike, Michihiko

    2011-01-01

    To assess the potential endocrine disruptive effects through multiple nuclear receptors (NRs), especially non-steroidal NRs, in municipal wastewater, we examined the agonistic activities on four NRs (estrogen receptor alpha, thyroid hormone receptor alpha, retinoic acid receptor alpha and retinoid X receptor alpha) of untreated and treated wastewater from municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Japan using a yeast two-hybrid assay. Investigation of the influent and effluent of seven WWTPs revealed that agonistic activities against steroidal and non-steroidal NRs were always detected in the influents and partially remained in the effluents. Further investigation of four WWTPs employing conventional activated sludge, pseudo-anoxic-oxic, anoxic-oxic and anaerobic-anoxic-oxic processes revealed that the ability to reduce the agonistic activity against each of the four NRs varies depending on the treatment process. These results indicated that municipal wastewater in Japan commonly contains endocrine disrupting chemicals that exert agonistic activities on steroidal and non-steroidal NRs, and that some of these chemicals are released into the natural aquatic environment. Although the results obtained in yeast assays suggested that measured levels of non-steroidal NR agonists in the effluent of WWTPs were not likely to cause any biological effect, further study is required to assess their possible risks in detail.

  3. Nuclear power and nuclear weapons

    SciTech Connect

    Vaughen, V.C.A.

    1983-01-01

    The proliferation of nuclear weapons and the expanded use of nuclear energy for the production of electricity and other peaceful uses are compared. The difference in technologies associated with nuclear weapons and nuclear power plants are described.

  4. Nuclear rights - nuclear wrongs

    SciTech Connect

    Paul, E.F.; Miller, F.D.; Paul, J.; Ahrens, J.

    1986-01-01

    This book contains 11 selections. The titles are: Three Ways to Kill Innocent Bystanders: Some Conundrums Concerning the Morality of War; The International Defense of Liberty; Two Concepts of Deterrence; Nuclear Deterrence and Arms Control; Ethical Issues for the 1980s; The Moral Status of Nuclear Deterrent Threats; Optimal Deterrence; Morality and Paradoxical Deterrence; Immoral Risks: A Deontological Critique of Nuclear Deterrence; No War Without Dictatorship, No Peace Without Democracy: Foreign Policy as Domestic Politics; Marxism-Leninism and its Strategic Implications for the United States; Tocqueveille War.

  5. Screening constant by unit nuclear charge calculations of resonance energies and widths of the 3pns 1,3P° and 3pnd 1P° Rydberg series of Mg-like (Z=13-26) ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khatri, Indu; Goyal, Arun; Diouldé Ba, Mamadou; Faye, Maurice; Sow, Malick; Sakho, Ibrahima; Singh, A. K.; Mohan, Man; Wagué, Ahmadou

    2017-01-01

    Resonance energies and total natural width of the 3pns 1P° and 3pnd 1P° Rydberg series of Mg-like (Z=13-26) ions are reported. Resonance energies of the Mg-like Al+ belonging to the 3pns 3P°→ 2 p63 p 1/2 0 2P and 3pns 3P°→ 2 p63 p3/2 0 3P transitions are also tabulated. The calculations are made in the framework of the Screening constant by unit nuclear charge (SCUNC) formalism. Excellent agreements between experiments at ALS and R-matrix calculations are obtained for both 3pns 1,3P° and 3pnd 1P° Rydberg series of the Mg-like Al+ ions. The present results for Mg-like Si2+, S4+, Cl5+, and Ar6+, compared with the only existing R-matrix calculations indicate lack of accuracy in the Mg-like Si2+ data obtained from noniterative formulation of the eigenchannel R-matrix method. New precise data for Mg-like P3+, K7+, Ca8+, Sc9+, Ti10+, V11+, Cr12+, Mn13+, and Fe14+ ions are presented as useful guidelines for investigators focusing their challenge on the Photoionization of Mg-like heavy charged ions in connection with their application in laboratory, astrophysics, and plasma physics.

  6. Comparison of automated multiplexed bead-based ANA screening assay with ELISA for detecting five common anti-extractable nuclear antigens and anti-dsDNA in systemic rheumatic diseases.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yoonjung; Park, Yongjung; Lee, Eun Young; Kim, Hyon-Suk

    2012-01-18

    A newly developed and totally automated Luminex-based assay, the BioPlex™ 2200 system, is able to detect various autoantibodies simultaneously from a single sample. We compared the BioPlex™ 2200 system with ELISA for the detection of six autoantibodies. A total of 127 serum samples from the patients with systemic rheumatic diseases were collected and assayed with the BioPlex™ 2200 system (Bio-Rad, USA) and conventional ELISA (INOVA Diagnostics, USA) for 5 anti-extractable nuclear antigens. Additionally, relative sensitivity of the BioPlex™ 2200 system for detecting anti-dsDNA was evaluated with 79 specimens from SLE patients, which were positive for anti-dsDNA by ELISA. The concordance rates between ELISA and the BioPlex ranged from 88.1% for anti-RNP to 95.2% for anti-Scl-70, and the kappa coefficients between the results by the two assays were from 0.48 to 0.67. Among the 79 anti-dsDNA positive specimens by ELISA, seventy-eight (98.7%) showed positive results for anti-dsDNA by the BioPlex. The BioPlex™ 2200 system showed comparable results with those by conventional ELISA for detecting autoantibodies, and this automated assay could measure multifarious autoantibodies concurrently in a single sample. It could be effectively used in clinical laboratories for screening autoimmune diseases. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Double screening

    SciTech Connect

    Gratia, Pierre; Hu, Wayne; Joyce, Austin; Ribeiro, Raquel H.

    2016-06-15

    Attempts to modify gravity in the infrared typically require a screening mechanism to ensure consistency with local tests of gravity. These screening mechanisms fit into three broad classes; we investigate theories which are capable of exhibiting more than one type of screening. Specifically, we focus on a simple model which exhibits both Vainshtein and kinetic screening. We point out that due to the two characteristic length scales in the problem, the type of screening that dominates depends on the mass of the sourcing object, allowing for different phenomenology at different scales. We consider embedding this double screening phenomenology in a broader cosmological scenario and show that the simplest examples that exhibit double screening are radiatively stable.

  8. Colon cancer screening

    MedlinePlus

    Screening for colon cancer; Colonoscopy - screening; Sigmoidoscopy - screening; Virtual colonoscopy - screening; Fecal immunochemical test; Stool DNA test; sDNA test; Colorectal cancer - screening; Rectal ...

  9. Genetic Screening

    PubMed Central

    Burke, Wylie; Tarini, Beth; Press, Nancy A.; Evans, James P.

    2011-01-01

    Current approaches to genetic screening include newborn screening to identify infants who would benefit from early treatment, reproductive genetic screening to assist reproductive decision making, and family history assessment to identify individuals who would benefit from additional prevention measures. Although the traditional goal of screening is to identify early disease or risk in order to implement preventive therapy, genetic screening has always included an atypical element—information relevant to reproductive decisions. New technologies offer increasingly comprehensive identification of genetic conditions and susceptibilities. Tests based on these technologies are generating a different approach to screening that seeks to inform individuals about all of their genetic traits and susceptibilities for purposes that incorporate rapid diagnosis, family planning, and expediting of research, as well as the traditional screening goal of improving prevention. Use of these tests in population screening will increase the challenges already encountered in genetic screening programs, including false-positive and ambiguous test results, overdiagnosis, and incidental findings. Whether this approach is desirable requires further empiric research, but it also requires careful deliberation on the part of all concerned, including genomic researchers, clinicians, public health officials, health care payers, and especially those who will be the recipients of this novel screening approach. PMID:21709145

  10. Nuclear Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badawi, Ramsey D.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the use of nuclear medicine techniques in diagnosis and therapy. Describes instrumentation in diagnostic nuclear medicine and predicts future trends in nuclear medicine imaging technology. (Author/MM)

  11. Nuclear ventriculography

    MedlinePlus

    ... ventriculography (RNV); Multiple gate acquisition scan (MUGA); Nuclear cardiology; Cardiomyopathy - nuclear ventriculography ... 56. Udelson JE, Dilsizian V, Bonow RO. Nuclear cardiology. In: Bonow RO, Mann DL, Zipes DP, Libby ...

  12. Nuclear Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badawi, Ramsey D.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the use of nuclear medicine techniques in diagnosis and therapy. Describes instrumentation in diagnostic nuclear medicine and predicts future trends in nuclear medicine imaging technology. (Author/MM)

  13. Nuclear data for nuclear transmutation

    SciTech Connect

    Harada, Hideo

    2009-05-04

    Current status on nuclear data for the study of nuclear transmutation of radioactive wastes is reviewed, mainly focusing on neutron capture reactions. It is stressed that the highest-precision frontier research in nuclear data measurements should be a key to satisfy the target accuracies on the nuclear data requested for realizing the nuclear transmutation.

  14. Nuclear data for nuclear transmutation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harada, Hideo

    2009-05-01

    Current status on nuclear data for the study of nuclear transmutation of radioactive wastes is reviewed, mainly focusing on neutron capture reactions. It is stressed that the highest-precision frontier research in nuclear data measurements should be a key to satisfy the target accuracies on the nuclear data requested for realizing the nuclear transmutation.

  15. Expression of VCA (viral capsid antigen) and EBNA1 (Epstein-Barr-virus-encoded nuclear antigen 1) genes of Epstein-Barr virus in Pichia pastoris and application of the products in a screening test for patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Hu, Bo; Hong, Guoqiang; Li, Zhaoxia; Xu, Jue; Zhu, Zhenyu; Li, Lin

    2007-05-01

    EBV (Epstein-Barr virus) serological tests have been used for many years as accessory diagnostic predictors of NPC (nasopharyngeal carcinoma). To date, IF (indirect immunofluorescence) assays still serve as the 'gold standard' for EBV serodiagnosis. However, IF assays are time-consuming, unsuitable for automatic handling and difficult to standardize. This makes their application in mass screening of populations inconvenient. Some of the technical difficulties associated with IF have been overcome by the development of specific ELISAs, but, at present, high sensitivity and specificity cannot be achieved simultaneously by using recombinant protein-based ELISAs, as the diagnostic value of different fragments of EBV in NPC is different. In an attempt to determine a suitable recombinant EBV protein for diagnostic purposes, fragments of EBV VCA (viral capsid antigen) and EBNA1 (Epstein-Barr-virus-encoded nuclear antigen 1) genes were expressed in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris, and a novel ELISA was established using P. pastoris-expressed VCA-BALF4 [aa (amino acids) 287-623; the BALF4 gene encodes the EBV glycoprotein gp125], EBNA1 (aa 390-641) and VCA-BFRF3 (the gene BFRF3 encodes a viral structural capsid protein or tegument protein VCA p18) proteins. Serum samples were collected from patients with NPC and healthy controls and were tested using this ELISA. The sensitivity of VCA-BFRF3, VCA-BALF4 and EBNA1 tests in the NPC sera were 65.0 (195/300), 76.3 (229/300) and 81.4% (244/300) respectively, whereas the specificity of normal individuals were 92 (460/500), 96 (480/500) and 95.8% (479/500). The optimum combination is VCA-BALF4 plus EBNA1, which identified 90.3% (271/300) of the NPC patients and had a specificity of 92.8% (464/500) for normal individuals. The results obtained from the evaluation of three antibodies to EBV as markers for detecting NPC suggests that a combination of EBNA1 (aa 390-641) and VCA-BALF4 (aa 287-623) assays would give better results

  16. Nuclear "waffles"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, A. S.; Berry, D. K.; Briggs, C. M.; Caplan, M. E.; Horowitz, C. J.

    2014-11-01

    Background: The dense neutron-rich matter found in supernovae and inside neutron stars is expected to form complex nonuniform phases, often referred to as nuclear pasta. The pasta shapes depend on density, temperature and proton fraction and determine many transport properties in supernovae and neutron star crusts. Purpose: To characterize the topology and compute two observables, the radial distribution function (RDF) g (r ) and the structure factor S (q ) , for systems with proton fractions Yp=0.10 ,0.20 ,0.30 , and 0.40 at about one-third of nuclear saturation density, n =0.050 fm-3 , and temperatures near k T =1 MeV . Methods: We use two recently developed hybrid CPU/GPU codes to perform large scale molecular dynamics (MD) simulations with 51 200 and 409 600 nucleons. From the output of the MD simulations we obtain the two desired observables. Results: We compute and discuss the differences in topology and observables for each simulation. We observe that the two lowest proton fraction systems simulated, Yp=0.10 and 0.20 , equilibrate quickly and form liquidlike structures. Meanwhile, the two higher proton fraction systems, Yp=0.30 and 0.40 , take a longer time to equilibrate and organize themselves in solidlike periodic structures. Furthermore, the Yp=0.40 system is made up of slabs, lasagna phase, interconnected by defects while the Yp=0.30 systems consist of a stack of perforated plates, the nuclear waffle phase. Conclusions: The periodic configurations observed in our MD simulations for proton fractions Yp≥0.30 have important consequences for the structure factors S (q ) of protons and neutrons, which relate to many transport properties of supernovae and neutron star crust. A detailed study of the waffle phase and how its structure depends on temperature, size of the simulation, and the screening length showed that finite-size effects appear to be under control and, also, that the plates in the waffle phase merge at temperatures slightly above 1.0 MeV and

  17. Genetic screening

    PubMed Central

    Andermann, Anne; Blancquaert, Ingeborg

    2010-01-01

    Abstract OBJECTIVE To provide a primer for primary care professionals who are increasingly called upon to discuss the growing number of genetic screening services available and to help patients make informed decisions about whether to participate in genetic screening, how to interpret results, and which interventions are most appropriate. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE As part of a larger research program, a wide literature relating to genetic screening was reviewed. PubMed and Internet searches were conducted using broad search terms. Effort was also made to identify the gray literature. MAIN MESSAGE Genetic screening is a type of public health program that is systematically offered to a specified population of asymptomatic individuals with the aim of providing those identified as high risk with prevention, early treatment, or reproductive options. Ensuring an added benefit from screening, as compared with standard clinical care, and preventing unintended harms, such as undue anxiety or stigmatization, depends on the design and implementation of screening programs, including the recruitment methods, education and counseling provided, timing of screening, predictive value of tests, interventions available, and presence of oversight mechanisms and safeguards. There is therefore growing apprehension that economic interests might lead to a market-driven approach to introducing and expanding screening before program effectiveness, acceptability, and feasibility have been demonstrated. As with any medical intervention, there is a moral imperative for genetic screening to do more good than harm, not only from the perspective of individuals and families, but also for the target population and society as a whole. CONCLUSION Primary care professionals have an important role to play in helping their patients navigate the rapidly changing terrain of genetic screening services by informing them about the benefits and risks of new genetic and genomic technologies and empowering them to

  18. MRSA Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... identify S. aureus and the mecA gene that confers resistance to methicillin, oxacillin, nafcillin, dicloxacillin, and other similar antibiotics. Molecular MRSA screening is becoming more widespread. Some ...

  19. Hypertension screening

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foulke, J. M.

    1975-01-01

    An attempt was made to measure the response to an announcement of hypertension screening at the Goddard Space Center, to compare the results to those of previous statistics. Education and patient awareness of the problem were stressed.

  20. Get Screened

    MedlinePlus

    ... health. Depending on your age, sex, and medical history, you may need to be screened for things like: Certain types of cancer High blood pressure or high cholesterol Diabetes Osteoporosis (weak bones) ...

  1. Developmental Screening

    MedlinePlus

    Learn More about Your Child’s Development: Developmental Monitoring and Screening Taking a first step, waving “bye-bye,” and pointing to something interesting are all developmental milestones, ...

  2. Airport Screening

    MedlinePlus

    Health Physics Society Specialists in Radiation Safety Airport Screening Fact Sheet Adopted: May 2011 Photo courtesy of Dan Paluska/ ... safe level. An American National Standards Institute/Health Physics Society industry standard states that the maxi- mum ...

  3. Carrier Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... available for a limited number of diseases, including cystic fibrosis , fragile X syndrome , sickle cell disease , and Tay– ... are already pregnant are offered carrier screening for cystic fibrosis, hemoglobinopathies , and spinal muscular atrophy . You can have ...

  4. Hypertension screening

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foulke, J. M.

    1975-01-01

    An attempt was made to measure the response to an announcement of hypertension screening at the Goddard Space Center, to compare the results to those of previous statistics. Education and patient awareness of the problem were stressed.

  5. [HCC screening].

    PubMed

    Albrecht, T

    2008-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most frequently diagnosed tumour diseases throughout the world. In the vast majority of cases those affected are high-risk patients with chronic viral hepatitis and/or liver cirrhosis, which means there is a clearly identifiable target group for HCC screening. With resection, transplantation, and interventional procedures for local ablation, following early diagnosis curative treatment options are available with which 5-year survival rates of over 60% can be reached. Such early diagnosis is a reality only in a minority of patients, however, and in the majority of cases the disease is already in an advanced stage at diagnosis. One of the objects of HCC screening is diagnosis in an early stage when curative treatment is still possible. Precisely this is achieved by screening, so that the proportion of patients treated with curative intent is decisively higher. There is not yet any clear evidence as to whether this leads to a lowering of the mortality of HCC. As lower mortality is the decisive indicator of success for a screening programme the benefit of HCC screening has so far been neither documented nor refuted. Nonetheless, in large regions of the world it is the practice for high-risk patients to undergo HCC screening in the form of twice-yearly ultrasound examination and determination of AFP.

  6. Robust and Comprehensive Analysis of 20 Osteoporosis Candidate Genes by Very High-Density Single-Nucleotide Polymorphism Screen Among 405 White Nuclear Families Identified Significant Association and Gene–Gene Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Dong-Hai; Shen, Hui; Zhao, Lan-Juan; Xiao, Peng; Yang, Tie-Lin; Guo, Yan; Wang, Wei; Guo, Yan-Fang; Liu, Yong-Jun; Recker, Robert R; Deng, Hong-Wen

    2007-01-01

    Many “novel” osteoporosis candidate genes have been proposed in recent years. To advance our knowledge of their roles in osteoporosis, we screened 20 such genes using a set of high-density SNPs in a large family-based study. Our efforts led to the prioritization of those osteoporosis genes and the detection of gene–gene interactions. Introduction We performed large-scale family-based association analyses of 20 novel osteoporosis candidate genes using 277 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for the quantitative trait BMD variation and the qualitative trait osteoporosis (OP) at three clinically important skeletal sites: spine, hip, and ultradistal radius (UD). Materials and Methods One thousand eight hundred seventy-three subjects from 405 white nuclear families were genotyped and analyzed with an average density of one SNP per 4 kb across the 20 genes. We conducted association analyses by SNP- and haplotype-based family-based association test (FBAT) and performed gene–gene interaction analyses using multianalytic approaches such as multifactor-dimensionality reduction (MDR) and conditional logistic regression. Results and Conclusions We detected four genes (DBP, LRP5, CYP17, and RANK) that showed highly suggestive associations (10,000-permutation derived empirical global p ≤ 0.01) with spine BMD/OP; four genes (CYP19, RANK, RANKL, and CYP17) highly suggestive for hip BMD/OP; and four genes (CYP19, BMP2, RANK, and TNFR2) highly suggestive for UD BMD/OP. The associations between BMP2 with UD BMD and those between RANK with OP at the spine, hip, and UD also met the experiment-wide stringent criterion (empirical global p ≤ 0.0007). Sex-stratified analyses further showed that some of the significant associations in the total sample were driven by either male or female subjects. In addition, we identified and validated a two-locus gene–gene interaction model involving GCR and ESR2, for which prior biological evidence exists. Our results suggested the

  7. Nuclear Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Provides a brief review of the latest developments in nuclear chemistry. Nuclear research today is directed toward increased activity in radiopharmaceuticals and formation of new isotopes by high-energy, heavy-ion collisions. (Author/BB)

  8. Nuclear Scans

    MedlinePlus

    Nuclear scans use radioactive substances to see structures and functions inside your body. They use a special ... images. Most scans take 20 to 45 minutes. Nuclear scans can help doctors diagnose many conditions, including ...

  9. Nuclear Winter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrlich, Anne

    1984-01-01

    "Nuclear Winter" was recently coined to describe the climatic and biological effects of a nuclear war. These effects are discussed based on models, simulations, scenarios, and projections. Effects on human populations are also considered. (JN)

  10. Nuclear Medicine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home » Science Education » Science Topics » Nuclear Medicine SCIENCE EDUCATION SCIENCE EDUCATION Science Topics Resource Links for General Public Resource ... Related Documents: Nuclear Medicine Fact Sheet.pdf SCIENCE EDUCATION Science Topics Resource Links for General Public Resource ...

  11. Nuclear Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Provides a brief review of the latest developments in nuclear chemistry. Nuclear research today is directed toward increased activity in radiopharmaceuticals and formation of new isotopes by high-energy, heavy-ion collisions. (Author/BB)

  12. Nuclear Winter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrlich, Anne

    1984-01-01

    "Nuclear Winter" was recently coined to describe the climatic and biological effects of a nuclear war. These effects are discussed based on models, simulations, scenarios, and projections. Effects on human populations are also considered. (JN)

  13. Nuclear weapons, nuclear effects, nuclear war

    SciTech Connect

    Bing, G.F.

    1991-08-20

    This paper provides a brief and mostly non-technical description of the militarily important features of nuclear weapons, of the physical phenomena associated with individual explosions, and of the expected or possible results of the use of many weapons in a nuclear war. Most emphasis is on the effects of so-called ``strategic exchanges.``

  14. Nuclear Fuels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nash, J. Thomas

    1983-01-01

    Trends in and factors related to the nuclear industry and nuclear fuel production are discussed. Topics addressed include nuclear reactors, survival of the U.S. uranium industry, production costs, budget cuts by the Department of Energy and U.S. Geological survey for resource studies, mining, and research/development activities. (JN)

  15. Nuclear Fuels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nash, J. Thomas

    1983-01-01

    Trends in and factors related to the nuclear industry and nuclear fuel production are discussed. Topics addressed include nuclear reactors, survival of the U.S. uranium industry, production costs, budget cuts by the Department of Energy and U.S. Geological survey for resource studies, mining, and research/development activities. (JN)

  16. Nuclear Pasta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva Schneider, Andre; Horowitz, Charles; Berry, Don; Briggs, Christian

    2014-03-01

    For decades it has been theorized that just below nuclear saturation density matter undergoes a series of phase transitions. These phases, which are expected to exist in core-collapse supernovae and neutron stars, involve a range of exotic nuclear shapes collectively known as nuclear pasta. Recently, Jose Pons and collaborators suggested that ``the maximum period of isolated X-ray pulsars may be the first observational evidence for an amorphous inner crust, ..., possibly owing to the existence of a nuclear pasta phase.'' In this talk we present results of semi-classical molecular dynamics simulations of nuclear pasta and discuss how each phase might contribute to neutron star crust properties.

  17. Nuclear orientation and nuclear structure

    SciTech Connect

    Krane, K.S.

    1988-01-01

    The present generation of on-line nuclear orientation facilities promises to revolutionize the gathering of nuclear structure information, especially for the hitherto poorly known and understood nuclei far from stability. Following a brief review of the technological developments that have facilitated these experiments, the nuclear spectroscopic information that can be obtained is summarized. Applications to understanding nuclear structure are reviewed, and challenges for future studies are discussed. 14 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Nuclear networking.

    PubMed

    Xie, Wei; Burke, Brian

    2017-07-04

    Nuclear lamins are intermediate filament proteins that represent important structural components of metazoan nuclear envelopes (NEs). By combining proteomics and superresolution microscopy, we recently reported that both A- and B-type nuclear lamins form spatially distinct filament networks at the nuclear periphery of mouse fibroblasts. In particular, A-type lamins exhibit differential association with nuclear pore complexes (NPCs). Our studies reveal that the nuclear lamina network in mammalian somatic cells is less ordered and more complex than that of amphibian oocytes, the only other system in which the lamina has been visualized at high resolution. In addition, the NPC component Tpr likely links NPCs to the A-type lamin network, an association that appears to be regulated by C-terminal modification of various A-type lamin isoforms. Many questions remain, however, concerning the structure and assembly of lamin filaments, as well as with their mode of association with other nuclear components such as peripheral chromatin.

  19. Carotid Artery Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Carotid Artery Screening What is carotid artery screening? Who should ... information about carotid artery screening? What is carotid artery screening? Screening examinations are tests performed to find ...

  20. Screening for cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, A.B.

    1985-01-01

    This book contains three sections: Fundamentals of Screening, Screening Tests, and Screening for Specific Cancer Sites. Each section consists of several chapters. Some of the chapter titles are: Principles of Screening and of the Evaluation of Screening Programs; Economic Aspects of Screening; Cervical Cytology; Screening Tests for Bladder Cancer; Fecal Occult Blood Testing; Screening for Cancer of the Cervix; Screening for Gastric Cancer; and Screening for Oral Cancer.

  1. Hearing Screening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson-Curiskis, Nanette

    2012-01-01

    Hearing levels are threatened by modern life--headsets for music, rock concerts, traffic noises, etc. It is crucial we know our hearing levels so that we can draw attention to potential problems. This exercise requires that students receive a hearing screening for their benefit as well as for making the connection of hearing to listening.

  2. Hearing Screening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson-Curiskis, Nanette

    2012-01-01

    Hearing levels are threatened by modern life--headsets for music, rock concerts, traffic noises, etc. It is crucial we know our hearing levels so that we can draw attention to potential problems. This exercise requires that students receive a hearing screening for their benefit as well as for making the connection of hearing to listening.

  3. Nuclear Halos

    SciTech Connect

    Vogt, Erich

    2010-07-27

    We show that extreme nuclear halos are caused only by pairs of s-wave neutrons (or single s-wave neutrons) and that such states occur much more frequently in the periodic table than previously believed. Besides lingering long near zero neutron separation energy such extreme halos have very remarkable properties: they can contribute significantly to the nuclear density at more than twice the normal nuclear radius and their spreading width can be very narrow. The properties of these states are primarily determined by the ''thickness'' of the nuclear surface in the mean-free nuclear potential and thus their importance increases greatly as we approach the neutron drip line. We discuss what such extreme halos are, where they occur, what their properties are and some of their impact on nuclear observations.

  4. CLAD DEGRADATION - FEPS SCREENING ARGUMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    R. Schreiner

    2004-10-21

    The purpose of this report is to evaluate and document the screening of the clad degradation features, events, and processes (FEPs) with respect to modeling used to support the Total System Performance Assessment-License Application (TSPA-LA). This report also addresses the effect of certain FEPs on both the cladding and the commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF), DOE-owned spent nuclear fuel (DSNF), and defense high-level waste (DHLW) waste forms, as appropriate to address the effects on multiple materials and both components (FEPs 2.1.09.09.0A, 2.1.09.11.0A, 2.1.11.05.0A, 2.1.12.02.0A, and 2.1.12.03.0A). These FEPs are expected to affect the repository performance during the postclosure regulatory period of 10,000 years after permanent closure. Table 1-1 provides the list of cladding FEPs, including their screening decisions (include or exclude). The primary purpose of this report is to identify and document the analysis, screening decision, and TSPA-LA disposition (for included FEPs) or screening argument (for excluded FEPs) for these FEPs related to clad degradation. In some cases, where a FEP covers multiple technical areas and is shared with other FEP reports, this report may provide only a partial technical basis for the screening of the FEP. The full technical basis for shared FEPs is addressed collectively by the sharing FEP reports. The screening decisions and associated TSPA-LA dispositions or screening arguments from all of the FEP reports are cataloged in a project-specific FEPs database.

  5. Nuclear astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Haxton, W.C.

    1992-01-01

    The problem of core-collapse supernovae is used to illustrate the many connections between nuclear astrophysics and the problems nuclear physicists study in terrestrial laboratories. Efforts to better understand the collapse and mantle ejection are also motivated by a variety of interdisciplinary issues in nuclear, particle, and astrophysics, including galactic chemical evolution, neutrino masses and mixing, and stellar cooling by the emission of new particles. The current status of theory and observations is summarized.

  6. Nuclear astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Haxton, W.C.

    1992-12-31

    The problem of core-collapse supernovae is used to illustrate the many connections between nuclear astrophysics and the problems nuclear physicists study in terrestrial laboratories. Efforts to better understand the collapse and mantle ejection are also motivated by a variety of interdisciplinary issues in nuclear, particle, and astrophysics, including galactic chemical evolution, neutrino masses and mixing, and stellar cooling by the emission of new particles. The current status of theory and observations is summarized.

  7. Nuclear Fission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denschlag, J. O.

    This chapter first gives a survey on the history of the discovery of nuclear fission. It briefly presents the liquid-drop and shell models and their application to the fission process. The most important quantities accessible to experimental determination such as mass yields, nuclear charge distribution, prompt neutron emission, kinetic energy distribution, ternary fragment yields, angular distributions, and properties of fission isomers are presented as well as the instrumentation and techniques used for their measurement. The contribution concentrates on the fundamental aspects of nuclear fission. The practical aspects of nuclear fission are discussed in http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4419-0720-2_57 of Vol. 6.

  8. Nuclear Safety

    SciTech Connect

    Silver, E G

    1989-01-01

    This document is a review journal that covers significant developments in the field of nuclear safety. Its scope includes the analysis and control of hazards associated with nuclear energy, operations involving fissionable materials, and the products of nuclear fission and their effects on the environment. Primary emphasis is on safety in reactor design, construction, and operation; however, the safety aspects of the entire fuel cycle, including fuel fabrication, spent-fuel processing, nuclear waste disposal, handling of radioisotopes, and environmental effects of these operations, are also treated.

  9. Vision Screening

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The Visi Screen OSS-C, marketed by Vision Research Corporation, incorporates image processing technology originally developed by Marshall Space Flight Center. Its advantage in eye screening is speed. Because it requires no response from a subject, it can be used to detect eye problems in very young children. An electronic flash from a 35 millimeter camera sends light into a child's eyes, which is reflected back to the camera lens. The photorefractor then analyzes the retinal reflexes generated and produces an image of the child's eyes, which enables a trained observer to identify any defects. The device is used by pediatricians, day care centers and civic organizations that concentrate on children with special needs.

  10. Transparent screens.

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, R J

    1988-01-01

    There is a kind of transitional phenomenon found among certain borderline patients which is quite distinct from Winnicott's transitional object. These are patients who are preoccupied with maintaining proper physical distance from their objects, in order to regulate anxieties about isolation on the one hand, and identity-annihilating closeness on the other. Since they believe the activity of looking to be intrusive and devouring, hence dangerous, transparent screens are interposed between self and other, and serve as protective barriers. These screens function intrapsychically as well, to split off or hide those aspects of the self felt to be unacceptable. The analyst may witness the failure of the screen in several ways: it may create too great a distance, isolating the individual and keeping him from life; it may become contaminated by projections and turn into a persecutor, or trap the individual, a state of intolerable claustrophobia; most dramatically, it may suddenly shatter. The latter is associated with psychosis and death, and its appearance may be a harbinger of suicide.

  11. Nuclear safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buden, D.

    1991-01-01

    Topics dealing with nuclear safety are addressed which include the following: general safety requirements; safety design requirements; terrestrial safety; SP-100 Flight System key safety requirements; potential mission accidents and hazards; key safety features; ground operations; launch operations; flight operations; disposal; safety concerns; licensing; the nuclear engine for rocket vehicle application (NERVA) design philosophy; the NERVA flight safety program; and the NERVA safety plan.

  12. Nuclear privatization

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffs, E.

    1995-11-01

    The United Kingdom government announced in May 1995 plans to privatize the country`s two nuclear generating companies, Nuclear Electric and Scottish Nuclear. Under the plan, the two companies will become operating divisions of a unified holding company, to be called British Electric, with headquarters in Scotland. Britain`s nuclear plants were left out of the initial privatization in 1989 because the government believed the financial community would be unwilling to accept the open-ended liability of decommissioning the original nine stations based on the Magnox gas-cooled reactor. Six years later, the government has found a way around this by retaining these power stations in state ownership, leaving the new nuclear company with the eight Advanced Gas-cooled Reactor (AGR) stations and the recently completed Sizewell B PWR stations. The operating Magnox stations are to be transferred to BNFL, which operates two Magnox stations of their own at Calder Hall and Chapelcross.

  13. Nuclear materials

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-08-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) processes plutonium for use in nuclear weapons. This fact sheet responds to your September 6, 1991, request, that we describe the methods and facilities for DOE's plutonium processing. Plutonium, which is used to make nuclear weapons, does not exist in nature and has to be produced. However, DOE no longer produces plutonium for use in nuclear weapons. Instead, DOE processes and recycles the plutonium from retired nuclear weapons and the plutonium that remains as scrap or residue from plutonium processing. This paper reports that DOE recovers plutonium through two basic processes-aqueous and pyrochemical-at four processing sites-Rocky Flats, Savannah River, Hanford, and Los Alamos. However, because of environmental and safety concerns and reductions in nuclear weapons, DOE has closed or may close most of the processing facilities. Only Los Alamos' processing facilities are currently operating.

  14. Breast cancer screening

    MedlinePlus

    Mammogram - breast cancer screening; Breast exam - breast cancer screening; MRI - breast cancer screening ... is performed to screen women to detect early breast cancer when it is more likely to be cured. ...

  15. Nuclear Speckles

    PubMed Central

    Spector, David L.; Lamond, Angus I.

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear speckles, also known as interchromatin granule clusters, are nuclear domains enriched in pre-mRNA splicing factors, located in the interchromatin regions of the nucleoplasm of mammalian cells. When observed by immunofluorescence microscopy, they usually appear as 20–50 irregularly shaped structures that vary in size. Speckles are dynamic structures, and their constituents can exchange continuously with the nucleoplasm and other nuclear locations, including active transcription sites. Studies on the composition, structure, and dynamics of speckles have provided an important paradigm for understanding the functional organization of the nucleus and the dynamics of the gene expression machinery. PMID:20926517

  16. Nuclear reprogramming.

    PubMed

    Halley-Stott, Richard P; Pasque, Vincent; Gurdon, J B

    2013-06-01

    There is currently particular interest in the field of nuclear reprogramming, a process by which the identity of specialised cells may be changed, typically to an embryonic-like state. Reprogramming procedures provide insight into many mechanisms of fundamental cell biology and have several promising applications, most notably in healthcare through the development of human disease models and patient-specific tissue-replacement therapies. Here, we introduce the field of nuclear reprogramming and briefly discuss six of the procedures by which reprogramming may be experimentally performed: nuclear transfer to eggs or oocytes, cell fusion, extract treatment, direct reprogramming to pluripotency and transdifferentiation.

  17. (Nuclear theory). [Research in nuclear physics

    SciTech Connect

    Haxton, W.

    1990-01-01

    This report discusses research in nuclear physics. Topics covered in this paper are: symmetry principles; nuclear astrophysics; nuclear structure; quark-gluon plasma; quantum chromodynamics; symmetry breaking; nuclear deformation; and cold fusion. (LSP)

  18. Nuclear battlefields

    SciTech Connect

    Arkin, W.M.; Fieldhouse, R.W.

    1985-01-01

    This book provides complete data on the nuclear operations and research facilities in the U.S.A., the U.S.S.R., France, China and the U.K. It describes detailed estimates on the U.S.S.R.'s nuclear stockpile for over 500 locations. It shows how non-nuclear countries cooperate with the world-wide war machine. And it maps the U.S. nuclear facilities from Little America, WY, and Charleston, SC, to the battleships patroling the world's oceans and subs stalking under the sea. The data were gathered from unclassified sources through the Freedom of Information Act, from data supplied to military installations, and from weapons source books. It provides guidance for policymakers, government and corporate officials.

  19. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Sherman, J.; Sharbaugh, J.E.; Fauth, W.L. Jr.; Palladino, N.J.; DeHuff, P.G.

    1962-10-23

    A nuclear reactor incorporating seed and blanket assemblies is designed. Means are provided for obtaining samples of the coolant from the blanket assemblies and for varying the flow of coolant through the blanket assemblies. (AEC)

  20. Nuclear Disarmament.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Christopher

    1982-01-01

    Material about nuclear disarmament and the arms race should be included in secondary school curricula. Teachers can present this technical, controversial, and frightening material in a balanced and comprehensible way. Resources for instructional materials are listed. (PP)

  1. Nuclear Nonproliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Atkins-Duffin, C E

    2008-12-10

    With an explosion equivalent of about 20kT of TNT, the Trinity test was the first demonstration of a nuclear weapon. Conducted on July 16, 1945 in Alamogordo, NM this site is now a Registered National Historic Landmark. The concept and applicability of nuclear power was demonstrated on December 20, 1951 with the Experimental Breeder Reactor Number One (EBR-1) lit four light bulbs. This reactor is now a Registered National Historic Landmark, located near Arco, ID. From that moment forward it had been clearly demonstrated that nuclear energy has both peaceful and military applications and that the civilian and military fuel cycles can overlap. For the more than fifty years since the Atoms for Peace program, a key objective of nuclear policy has been to enable the wider peaceful use of nuclear energy while preventing the spread of nuclear weapons. Volumes have been written on the impact of these two actions on the world by advocates and critics; pundits and practioners; politicians and technologists. The nations of the world have woven together a delicate balance of treaties, agreements, frameworks and handshakes that are representative of the timeframe in which they were constructed and how they have evolved in time. Collectively these vehicles attempt to keep political will, nuclear materials and technology in check. This paper captures only the briefest abstract of the more significant aspects on the Nonproliferation Regime. Of particular relevance to this discussion is the special nonproliferation sensitivity associated with the uranium isotope separation and spent fuel reprocessing aspects of the nuclear fuel cycle.

  2. Nuclear Data

    SciTech Connect

    White, Morgan C.

    2014-01-23

    PowerPoint presentation targeted for educational use. Nuclear data comes from a variety of sources and in many flavors. Understanding where the data you use comes from and what flavor it is can be essential to understand and interpret your results. This talk will discuss the nuclear data pipeline with particular emphasis on providing links to additional resources that can be used to explore the issues you will encounter.

  3. Nuclear cardiac

    SciTech Connect

    Slutsky, R.; Ashburn, W.L.

    1982-01-01

    The relationship between nuclear medicine and cardiology has continued to produce a surfeit of interesting, illuminating, and important reports involving the analysis of cardiac function, perfusion, and metabolism. To simplify the presentation, this review is broken down into three major subheadings: analysis of myocardial perfusion; imaging of the recent myocardial infarction; and the evaluation of myocardial function. There appears to be an increasingly important relationship between cardiology, particularly cardiac physiology, and nuclear imaging techniques. (KRM)

  4. Nuclear accidents

    SciTech Connect

    Mobley, J.A.

    1982-05-01

    A nuclear accident with radioactive contamination can happen anywhere in the world. Because expert nuclear emergency teams may take several hours to arrive at the scene, local authorities must have a plan of action for the hours immediately following an accident. The site should be left untouched except to remove casualties. Treatment of victims includes decontamination and meticulous wound debridement. Acute radiation syndrome may be an overwhelming sequela.

  5. Nuclear telemedicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrison, R. T.; Szasz, I. J.

    1990-06-01

    Diagnostic nuclear medicine patient images have been transniitted for 8 years from a regional conununity hospital to a university teaching hospital 700 kiloinetres away employing slow scan TV and telephone. Transruission and interpretation were done at the end of each working day or as circumstances required in cases of emergencies. Referring physicians received the nuclear medicine procedure report at the end of the completion day or within few minutes of completion in case of emergency procedures. To date more than 25 patient studies have been transmitted for interpretation. Blinded reinterpretation of the original hard copy data of 350 patient studies resulted in 100 agreement with the interpretation of transmitted data. This technique provides high quality diagnostic and therapeutic nuclear medicine services in remote hospitals where the services of an on-site nuclear physician is not available. 2. HISTORY Eight years ago when the nuclear medicine physician at Trail Regional Hospital left the Trail area and an other could not be recruited we examined the feasibility of image transmission by phone for interpretation since closing the department would have imposed unacceptable physical and financial hardship and medical constraints on the patient population the nearest nuclear medicine facility was at some 8 hours drive away. In hospital patients would have to be treated either based purely on physical findings or flown to Vancouver at considerable cost to the health care system (estimated cost $1500.

  6. Debye screening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brydges, David C.; Federbush, Paul

    1980-10-01

    The existence and exponential clustering of correlation functions for a classical coulomb system at low density or high temperature are proven using methods from constructive quantum field theory, the sine gordon transformation and the Glimm, Jaffe, Spencer expansion about mean field theory. This is a vindication of a belief of long standing among physicists, known as Debye screening. That is, because of special properties of the coulomb potential, the configurations of significant probability are those in which the long range parts of r -1 are mostly cancelled, leaving an effective exponentially decaying potential acting between charge clouds. This paper generalizes a previous paper of one of the authors in which these results were obtained for a special lattice system. The present treatment covers the continuous mechanics situation, with essentially arbitrary short range forces and charge species. Charge symmetry is not assumed.

  7. Nuclear risk

    SciTech Connect

    Levenson, M.

    1989-01-01

    The title of our session, Nuclear Risk Versus Other Power Options, is provocative. It is also a title with different meanings to different people. To the utility chief executive officer, nuclear power is a high-risk financial undertaking because of political and economic barriers to cost recovery. To the utility dispatcher, it is a high-risk future power source since plant completion and start-up dates can be delayed for very long times due to uncertain legal and political issues. To the environmentalist, concerned about global effects such as greenhouse and acid rain, nuclear power is a relatively low risk energy source. To the financial people, nuclear power is a cash cow turned sour because of uncertainties as to what new plants will cost and whether they will even be allowed to operate. The statistics on risk are known and the results of probability risk assessment calculations of risks are known. The challenge is not to make nuclear power safer, it is already one of the safest, if not the safest, source of power currently available. The challenge is to find a way to communicate this to the public.

  8. Modeling nuclear fusion in dense plasmas using a cryogenic non-neutral plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Dubin, Daniel H. E.

    2008-05-15

    An analogy between the nuclear reaction rate in a dense neutral plasma and the energy equipartition rate in a strongly magnetized non-neutral plasma is discussed. This analogy allows the first detailed measurements of plasma screening enhancements in the strong screening and pycnonuclear regimes. In strong magnetic fields and at low temperatures, cyclotron energy, like nuclear energy, is released only through rare close collisions between charges. The probability of such collisions is enhanced by plasma screening, just as for nuclear reactions. Rate enhancements of up to 10{sup 10} are measured in simulations of equipartition, and are compared to theories of screened nuclear reactions.

  9. Condensed Matter Nuclear Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biberian, Jean-Paul

    2006-02-01

    1. General. A tribute to gene Mallove - the "Genie" reactor / K. Wallace and R. Stringham. An update of LENR for ICCF-11 (short course, 10/31/04) / E. Storms. New physical effects in metal deuterides / P. L. Hagelstein ... [et al.]. Reproducibility, controllability, and optimization of LENR experiments / D. J. Nagel -- 2. Experiments. Electrochemistry. Evidence of electromagnetic radiation from Ni-H systems / S. Focardi ... [et al.]. Superwave reality / I. Dardik. Excess heat in electrolysis experiments at energetics technologies / I. Dardik ... [et al.]. "Excess heat" during electrolysis in platinum/K[symbol]CO[symbol]/nickel light water system / J. Tian ... [et al.]. Innovative procedure for the, in situ, measurement of the resistive thermal coefficient of H(D)/Pd during electrolysis; cross-comparison of new elements detected in the Th-Hg-Pd-D(H) electrolytic cells / F. Celani ... [et al.]. Emergence of a high-temperature superconductivity in hydrogen cycled Pd compounds as an evidence for superstoihiometric H/D sites / A. Lipson ... [et al.]. Plasma electrolysis. Calorimetry of energy-efficient glow discharge - apparatus design and calibration / T. B. Benson and T. O. Passell. Generation of heat and products during plasma electrolysis / T. Mizuno ... [et al.]. Glow discharge. Excess heat production in Pd/D during periodic pulse discharge current in various conditions / A. B. Karabut. Beam experiments. Accelerator experiments and theoretical models for the electron screening effect in metallic environments / A. Huke, K. Czerski, and P. Heide. Evidence for a target-material dependence of the neutron-proton branching ratio in d+d reactions for deuteron energies below 20keV / A. Huke ... [et al.]. Experiments on condensed matter nuclear events in Kobe University / T. Minari ... [et al.]. Electron screening constraints for the cold fusion / K. Czerski, P. Heide, and A. Huke. Cavitation. Low mass 1.6 MHz sonofusion reactor / R. Stringham. Particle detection. Research

  10. Nuclear scales

    SciTech Connect

    Friar, J.L.

    1998-12-01

    Nuclear scales are discussed from the nuclear physics viewpoint. The conventional nuclear potential is characterized as a black box that interpolates nucleon-nucleon (NN) data, while being constrained by the best possible theoretical input. The latter consists of the longer-range parts of the NN force (e.g., OPEP, TPEP, the {pi}-{gamma} force), which can be calculated using chiral perturbation theory and gauged using modern phase-shift analyses. The shorter-range parts of the force are effectively parameterized by moments of the interaction that are independent of the details of the force model, in analogy to chiral perturbation theory. Results of GFMC calculations in light nuclei are interpreted in terms of fundamental scales, which are in good agreement with expectations from chiral effective field theories. Problems with spin-orbit-type observables are noted.

  11. Nuclear astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Penionzhkevich, Yu. E.

    2010-08-15

    The International Year of Astronomy 2009 (IYA2009) was declared by the 62nd General Assembly of the United Nations and was also endorsed by UNESCO. Investigations in the realms of particle and nuclear physicsmake a large contribution in the development of our ideas of the properties of the Universe. The present article discusses some problems of the evolution of the Universe, nucleosyntheses, and cosmochronology from the point of view of nuclear and particle physics. Processes occurring in the Universe are compared with the mechanisms of the production and decay of nuclei, as well as with the mechanisms of their interaction at high energies. Examples that demonstrate the potential of nuclearphysics methods for studying cosmic objects and the properties of the Universe are given. The results that come from investigations into nuclear reactions induced by beams of radioactive nuclei and which make it possible to take a fresh look at the nucleosynthesis scenario in the range at light nuclei are presented.

  12. Nuclear waste

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-05-01

    This paper discusses how, as part of the Department of Energy's implementation of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, DOE is required to investigate a site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada and, if it determines that the site is suitable, recommend to the President its selection for a nuclear waste repository. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission, in considering development of the plan, issued five objections, one of which is DOE's failure to recognize the range of alternative conceptual models of the Yucca Mountain site that can be supported by the limited existing technical data. At the end of the quarter DOE directed its project offices in Washington and Texas to begin orderly phase-out of all site-specific repository activities. Costs for this phase-out are $53 million for the Deaf Smith site and $85 million for the Hanford site.

  13. Nuclear Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fossión, Rubén

    2010-09-01

    The atomic nucleus is a typical example of a many-body problem. On the one hand, the number of nucleons (protons and neutrons) that constitute the nucleus is too large to allow for exact calculations. On the other hand, the number of constituent particles is too small for the individual nuclear excitation states to be explained by statistical methods. Another problem, particular for the atomic nucleus, is that the nucleon-nucleon (n-n) interaction is not one of the fundamental forces of Nature, and is hard to put in a single closed equation. The nucleon-nucleon interaction also behaves differently between two free nucleons (bare interaction) and between two nucleons in the nuclear medium (dressed interaction). Because of the above reasons, specific nuclear many-body models have been devised of which each one sheds light on some selected aspects of nuclear structure. Only combining the viewpoints of different models, a global insight of the atomic nucleus can be gained. In this chapter, we revise the the Nuclear Shell Model as an example of the microscopic approach, and the Collective Model as an example of the geometric approach. Finally, we study the statistical properties of nuclear spectra, basing on symmetry principles, to find out whether there is quantum chaos in the atomic nucleus. All three major approaches have been rewarded with the Nobel Prize of Physics. In the text, we will stress how each approach introduces its own series of approximations to reduce the prohibitingly large number of degrees of freedom of the full many-body problem to a smaller manageable number of effective degrees of freedom.

  14. Nuclear Models

    SciTech Connect

    Fossion, Ruben

    2010-09-10

    The atomic nucleus is a typical example of a many-body problem. On the one hand, the number of nucleons (protons and neutrons) that constitute the nucleus is too large to allow for exact calculations. On the other hand, the number of constituent particles is too small for the individual nuclear excitation states to be explained by statistical methods. Another problem, particular for the atomic nucleus, is that the nucleon-nucleon (n-n) interaction is not one of the fundamental forces of Nature, and is hard to put in a single closed equation. The nucleon-nucleon interaction also behaves differently between two free nucleons (bare interaction) and between two nucleons in the nuclear medium (dressed interaction).Because of the above reasons, specific nuclear many-body models have been devised of which each one sheds light on some selected aspects of nuclear structure. Only combining the viewpoints of different models, a global insight of the atomic nucleus can be gained. In this chapter, we revise the the Nuclear Shell Model as an example of the microscopic approach, and the Collective Model as an example of the geometric approach. Finally, we study the statistical properties of nuclear spectra, basing on symmetry principles, to find out whether there is quantum chaos in the atomic nucleus. All three major approaches have been rewarded with the Nobel Prize of Physics. In the text, we will stress how each approach introduces its own series of approximations to reduce the prohibitingly large number of degrees of freedom of the full many-body problem to a smaller manageable number of effective degrees of freedom.

  15. Nuclear pursuits

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    This table lists quantities of warheads (in stockpile, peak number per year, total number built, number of known test explosions), weapon development milestones (developers of the atomic bomb and hydrogen bomb, date of first operational ICBM, first nuclear-powered naval SSN in service, first MIRVed missile deployed), and testing milestones (first fission test, type of boosted fission weapon, multistage thermonuclear test, number of months from fission bomb to multistage thermonuclear bomb, etc.), and nuclear infrastructure (assembly plants, plutonium production reactors, uranium enrichment plants, etc.). Countries included in the tally are the United States, Soviet Union, Britain, France, and China.

  16. Strong plasma screening in thermonuclear reactions: Electron drop model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kravchuk, P. A.; Yakovlev, D. G.

    2014-01-01

    We analyze enhancement of thermonuclear fusion reactions due to strong plasma screening in dense matter using a simple electron drop model. In the model we assume fusion in a potential that is screened by an effective electron cloud around colliding nuclei (extended Salpeter ion-sphere model). We calculate the mean-field screened Coulomb potentials for atomic nuclei with equal and nonequal charges, appropriate astrophysical S factors, and enhancement factors of reaction rates. As a byproduct, we study the analytic behavior of the screening potential at small separations between the reactants. In this model, astrophysical S factors depend not only on nuclear physics but on plasma screening as well. The enhancement factors are in good agreement with calculations by other methods. This allows us to formulate a combined, pure analytic model of strong plasma screening in thermonuclear reactions. The results can be useful for simulating nuclear burning in white dwarfs and neutron stars.

  17. Nuclear winter or nuclear fall?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, André

    Climate is universal. If a major modern nuclear war (i.e., with a large number of small-yield weapons) were to happen, it is not even necessary to have a specific part of the world directly involved for there to be cause to worry about the consequences for its inhabitants and their future. Indeed, smoke from fires ignited by the nuclear explosions would be transported by winds all over the world, causing dark and cold. According to the first study, by Turco et al. [1983], air surface temperature over continental areas of the northern mid-latitudes (assumed to be the nuclear war theatre) would fall to winter levels even in summer (hence the term “nuclear winter”) and induce drastic climatic conditions for several months at least. The devastating effects of a nuclear war would thus last much longer than was assumed initially. Discussing to what extent these estimations of long-term impacts on climate are reliable is the purpose of this article.

  18. Cervical Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... cervical cancer screening? • If I have had a hysterectomy, do I still need cervical cancer screening? • Are ... past 5 years. If I have had a hysterectomy, do I still need cervical cancer screening? If ...

  19. Prostate Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... Genetics of Prostate Cancer Prostate Cancer Screening Research Prostate Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Go ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Prostate Cancer Key Points Prostate cancer is a disease in ...

  20. Alcohol Use Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... Centers Mental Health Medical Library Alcohol Use Screening (AUDIT-C) - Instructions The following questions are a screening ... is also text-only version . Alcohol Use Screening (AUDIT-C) - Manual Instructions The following questions are a ...

  1. Health Screenings and Immunizations

    MedlinePlus

    ... your primary doctor. Blood Tests – A Common Screening Method (Source: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute) Click ... tests, see What Are Blood Tests? Other Screening Methods Doctors can't screen for all diseases and ...

  2. Mental Health Screening Center

    MedlinePlus

    ... to help us make DBSAlliance.org better! Go! Mental Health Screening Center These online screening tools are not ... you have any concerns, see your doctor or mental health professional. Depression This screening form was developed from ...

  3. Lung Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatment Lung Cancer Prevention Lung Cancer Screening Research Lung Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Lung Cancer Key Points Lung cancer is a disease ...

  4. Lung Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    Lung cancer screening Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff Lung cancer screening is a process that's used to detect the presence ... with a high risk of lung cancer. Lung cancer screening is recommended for older adults who are longtime ...

  5. Prostate cancer screening

    MedlinePlus

    Prostate cancer screening - PSA; Prostate cancer screening - digital rectal exam; Prostate cancer screening - DRE ... level of PSA could mean you have prostate cancer. But other conditions can also cause a high ...

  6. Nuclear Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania State Dept. of Education, Harrisburg. Bureau of Curriculum Services.

    This document is a report on a course in nuclear science for the high school curriculum. The course is designed to provide a basic but comprehensive understanding of the atom in the light of modern knowledge, and to show how people attempt to harness the tremendous energy liberated through fission and fusion reactions. The course crosses what are…

  7. Nuclear Terrorism.

    SciTech Connect

    Hecker, Siegfried S.

    2001-01-01

    As pointed out by several speakers, the level of violence and destruction in terrorist attacks has increased significantly during the past decade. Fortunately, few have involved weapons of mass destruction, and none have achieved mass casualties. The Aum Shinrikyo release of lethal nerve agent, sarin, in the Tokyo subway on March 20, 1995 clearly broke new ground by crossing the threshold in attempting mass casualties with chemical weapons. However, of all weapons of mass destruction, nuclear weapons still represent the most frightening threat to humankind. Nuclear weapons possess an enormous destructive force. The immediacy and scale of destruction are unmatched. In addition to destruction, terrorism also aims to create fear among the public and governments. Here also, nuclear weapons are unmatched. The public's fear of nuclear weapons or, for that matter, of all radioactivity is intense. To some extent, this fear arises from a sense of unlimited vulnerability. That is, radioactivity is seen as unbounded in three dimensions - distance, it is viewed as having unlimited reach; quantity, it is viewed as having deadly consequences in the smallest doses (the public is often told - incorrectly, of course - that one atom of plutonium will kill); and time, if it does not kill you immediately, then it will cause cancer decades hence.

  8. Nuclear medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, H.N. Jr.

    1986-10-17

    In 1985 and 1986 nuclear medicine became more and more oriented toward in vov chemistry, chiefly as a result of advances in positron emission tomography (PET). The most important trend was the extension of PET technology into the care of patients with brain tumors, epilepsy, and heart disease. A second trend was the increasing use of single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT).

  9. Nuclear Misinformation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Daniel F.; Kendall, Henry W.

    1975-01-01

    Many scientists feel that research into nuclear safety has been diverted or distorted, and the results of the research concealed or inaccurately reported on a large number of occasions. Of particular concern have been the emergency cooling systems which have not, as yet, been adequately tested. (Author/MA)

  10. Nuclear Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania State Dept. of Education, Harrisburg. Bureau of Curriculum Services.

    This document is a report on a course in nuclear science for the high school curriculum. The course is designed to provide a basic but comprehensive understanding of the atom in the light of modern knowledge, and to show how people attempt to harness the tremendous energy liberated through fission and fusion reactions. The course crosses what are…

  11. Nuclear orbiting

    SciTech Connect

    Shapira, D.

    1988-01-01

    Nuclear orbiting following collisions between sd and p shell nuclei is discussed. The dependence of this process on the real and imaginary parts of the nucleus-nucleus potential is discussed, as well as the evolution of the dinucleus toward a fully equilibrated fused system. 26 refs., 15 figs.

  12. Nuclear Misinformation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Daniel F.; Kendall, Henry W.

    1975-01-01

    Many scientists feel that research into nuclear safety has been diverted or distorted, and the results of the research concealed or inaccurately reported on a large number of occasions. Of particular concern have been the emergency cooling systems which have not, as yet, been adequately tested. (Author/MA)

  13. Nuclear energy.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Peter D

    2010-01-01

    The technical principles and practices of the civil nuclear industry are described with particular reference to fission and its products, natural and artificial radioactivity elements principally concerned and their relationships, main types of reactor, safety issues, the fuel cycle, waste management, issues related to weapon proliferation, environmental considerations and possible future developments.

  14. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Treshow, M.

    1961-09-01

    A boiling-water nuclear reactor is described wherein control is effected by varying the moderator-to-fuel ratio in the reactor core. This is accomplished by providing control tubes containing a liquid control moderator in the reactor core and providing means for varying the amount of control moderatcr within the control tubes.

  15. Screening Doses for Induction of Cancers Calculated with the Interactive RadioEpidemiological Program (IREP)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    ABSTRACT This report presents tabulations of equivalent doses of ionizing radiation, referred to as screening doses , that correspond to an estimated ...cancer by veterans of military services. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Nuclear Test Personnel Review, NTPR, Veteran, Atmospheric Nuclear Testing, Hiroshima Nagasaki ...report presents tabulations of equivalent doses of ionizing radiation, referred to as screening doses , that correspond to an estimated probability of

  16. Putting the Screen in Screening

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Sion Kim; Knight, John R.

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol is strongly linked to the leading causes of adolescent and adult mortality and health problems, making medical settings such as primary care and emergency departments important venues for addressing alcohol use. Extensive research evidence supports the effectiveness of alcohol screening and brief interventions (SBIs) in medical settings, but this valuable strategy remains underused, with medical staff citing lack of time and training as major implementation barriers. Technology-based tools may offer a way to improve efficiency and quality of SBI delivery in such settings. This review describes the latest research examining the feasibility and efficacy of computer- or other technology-based alcohol SBI tools in medical settings, as they relate to the following three patient populations: adults (18 years or older); pregnant women; and adolescents (17 years or younger). The small but growing evidence base generally shows strong feasibility and acceptability of technology-based SBI in medical settings. However, evidence for effectiveness in changing alcohol use is limited in this young field. PMID:26259001

  17. Clad Degradation - FEPs Screening Arguments

    SciTech Connect

    E. Siegmann

    2004-03-17

    The purpose of this report is to document the screening of the cladding degradation features, events, and processes (FEPs) for commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF). This report also addresses the effect of some FEPs on both the cladding and the CSNF, DSNF, and HLW waste forms where it was considered appropriate to address the effects on both materials together. This report summarizes the work of others to screen clad degradation FEPs in a manner consistent with, and used in, the Total System Performance Assessment-License Application (TSPA-LA). This document was prepared according to ''Technical Work Plan for Waste Form Degradation Modeling, Testing, and Analyses in Support of LA'' (BSC 2004a [DIRS 167796]).

  18. Nuclear Fusion by Lattice Confinement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prados-Estévez, Francisco M.; Subashiev, Arsen V.; Nee, Han H.

    2017-07-01

    The experimental data for the screening potential in metals shows evidence of huge enhancements in the nuclear fusion cross section at energies ≤10 keV. These enhancements could imply the possibility of nuclear fusion in local high density clusters in solids. High concentration of Hydrogen isotopes can be found in monovacancies and divacancies in face-centered cubic (fcc) metals such as Ni with densities of ˜6 × 1023 and ˜9 × 1023 atom/cm3, respectively. These monovacancies and divacancies can be excellent candidates for these clusters due to the high density which is an essential parameter in the nuclear fusion reaction rates. This paper discusses the enhancement of cross sections and reactivities for D(t,n)4He and D(d,p)3H reactions, considering the experimental screening potential measured in molecular D2, Ni, Pd, and PdO, and the possibility to use monovacancies and divacancies as possible locations where nuclear fusion reactions could be enhanced.

  19. What Is Carrier Screening?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Primary care providers Specialists Getting covered Research Basic science research Research in people ... screening Diagnostic testing Direct-to-consumer genetic testing Newborn screening Pharmacogenomic testing ...

  20. Comparison of nuclear electric resonance and nuclear magnetic resonance in integer and fractional quantum Hall states

    SciTech Connect

    Tomimatsu, Toru Shirai, Shota; Hashimoto, Katsushi Sato, Ken; Hirayama, Yoshiro

    2015-08-15

    Electric-field-induced nuclear resonance (NER: nuclear electric resonance) involving quantum Hall states (QHSs) was studied at various filling factors by exploiting changes in nuclear spins polarized at quantum Hall breakdown. Distinct from the magnetic dipole interaction in nuclear magnetic resonance, the interaction of the electric-field gradient with the electric quadrupole moment plays the dominant role in the NER mechanism. The magnitude of the NER signal strongly depends on whether electronic states are localized or extended. This indicates that NER is sensitive to the screening capability of the electric field associated with QHSs.

  1. Non-Nuclear Testing of Fission Technologies at NASA MSFC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, Robert G.; Pearson, J. Boise; Aschenbrenner, Kenneth C.; Bradley, David E.; Dickens, Ricky E.; Emrich, William J.; Garber, Anne E.; Godfroy, Thomas J.; Harper, Roger T.; Martin, Jim J.; Polzin, Kurt A.; Schoenfeld, Michael P.; Webster, Kenneth L.

    2011-01-01

    Highly realistic non-nuclear testing can be used to investigate and resolve potential issues with space nuclear power and propulsion systems. Non-nuclear testing is particularly useful for systems designed with fuels and materials operating within their demonstrated nuclear performance envelope. Non-nuclear testing also provides an excellent way for screening potential advanced fuels and materials prior to nuclear testing, and for investigating innovative geometries and operating regimes. Non-nuclear testing allows thermal hydraulic, heat transfer, structural, integration, safety, operational, performance, and other potential issues to be investigated and resolved with a greater degree of flexibility and at reduced cost and schedule compared to nuclear testing. The primary limit of non-nuclear testing is that nuclear characteristics and potential nuclear issues cannot be directly investigated. However, non-nuclear testing can be used to augment the potential benefit from any nuclear testing that may be required for space nuclear system design and development. This paper describes previous and ongoing non-nuclear testing related to space nuclear systems at NASA s Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC).

  2. Nuclear Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Streek, Penny Vande; Carretta, Robert; Weiland, Frederick L.

    1994-01-01

    The Council on Scientific Affairs of the California Medical Association presents the following epitomes of progress in nuclear medicine. Each item, in the judgment of a panel of knowledgeable physicians, has recently become reasonably firmly established, both as to scientific fact and clinical importance. The items are presented in simple epitome, and an authoritative reference, both to the item itself and to the subject as a whole, is generally given for those who may be unfamiliar with a particular item. The purpose is to assist busy practitioners, students, researchers, and scholars to stay abreast of progress in medicine, whether in their own field of special interest or another. The epitomes included here were selected by the Advisory Panel to the Section on Nuclear Medicine of the California Medical Association, and the summaries were prepared under the direction of Dr Lyons and the panel. PMID:7529452

  3. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, C.R.

    1962-07-24

    A fluidized bed nuclear reactor and a method of operating such a reactor are described. In the design means are provided for flowing a liquid moderator upwardly through the center of a bed of pellets of a nentron-fissionable material at such a rate as to obtain particulate fluidization while constraining the lower pontion of the bed into a conical shape. A smooth circulation of particles rising in the center and falling at the outside of the bed is thereby established. (AEC)

  4. NUCLEAR REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Long, E.; Ashby, J.W.

    1958-09-16

    ABS>A graphite moderator structure is presented for a nuclear reactor compriscd of an assembly of similarly orientated prismatic graphite blocks arranged on spaced longitudinal axes lying in common planes wherein the planes of the walls of the blocks are positioned so as to be twisted reintive to the planes of said axes so thatthe unlmpeded dtrect paths in direction wholly across the walls of the blocks are limited to the width of the blocks plus spacing between the blocks.

  5. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Grebe, J.J.

    1959-07-14

    High temperature reactors which are uniquely adapted to serve as the heat source for nuclear pcwered rockets are described. The reactor is comprised essentially of an outer tubular heat resistant casing which provides the main coolant passageway to and away from the reactor core within the casing and in which the working fluid is preferably hydrogen or helium gas which is permitted to vaporize from a liquid storage tank. The reactor core has a generally spherical shape formed entirely of an active material comprised of fissile material and a moderator material which serves as a diluent. The active material is fabricated as a gas permeable porous material and is interlaced in a random manner with very small inter-connecting bores or capillary tubes through which the coolant gas may flow. The entire reactor is divided into successive sections along the direction of the temperature gradient or coolant flow, each section utilizing materials of construction which are most advantageous from a nuclear standpoint and which at the same time can withstand the operating temperature of that particular zone. This design results in a nuclear reactor characterized simultaneously by a minimum critiral size and mass and by the ability to heat a working fluid to an extremely high temperature.

  6. Nuclear waste

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    Radioactive waste is mounting at U.S. nuclear power plants at a rate of more than 2,000 metric tons a year. Pursuant to statute and anticipating that a geologic repository would be available in 1998, the Department of Energy (DOE) entered into disposal contracts with nuclear utilities. Now, however, DOE does not expect the repository to be ready before 2010. For this reason, DOE does not want to develop a facility for monitored retrievable storage (MRS) by 1998. This book is concerned about how best to store the waste until a repository is available, congressional requesters asked GAO to review the alternatives of continued storage at utilities' reactor sites or transferring waste to an MRS facility, GAO assessed the likelihood of an MRSA facility operating by 1998, legal implications if DOE is not able to take delivery of wastes in 1998, propriety of using the Nuclear Waste Fund-from which DOE's waste program costs are paid-to pay utilities for on-site storage capacity added after 1998, ability of utilities to store their waste on-site until a repository is operating, and relative costs and safety of the two storage alternatives.

  7. Nuclear photonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habs, D.; Günther, M. M.; Jentschel, M.; Thirolf, P. G.

    2012-07-01

    With the planned new γ-beam facilities like MEGa-ray at LLNL (USA) or ELI-NP at Bucharest (Romania) with 1013 γ/s and a band width of ΔEγ/Eγ≈10-3, a new era of γ beams with energies up to 20MeV comes into operation, compared to the present world-leading HIγS facility at Duke University (USA) with 108 γ/s and ΔEγ/Eγ≈3ṡ10-2. In the long run even a seeded quantum FEL for γ beams may become possible, with much higher brilliance and spectral flux. At the same time new exciting possibilities open up for focused γ beams. Here we describe a new experiment at the γ beam of the ILL reactor (Grenoble, France), where we observed for the first time that the index of refraction for γ beams is determined by virtual pair creation. Using a combination of refractive and reflective optics, efficient monochromators for γ beams are being developed. Thus, we have to optimize the total system: the γ-beam facility, the γ-beam optics and γ detectors. We can trade γ intensity for band width, going down to ΔEγ/Eγ≈10-6 and address individual nuclear levels. The term "nuclear photonics" stresses the importance of nuclear applications. We can address with γ-beams individual nuclear isotopes and not just elements like with X-ray beams. Compared to X rays, γ beams can penetrate much deeper into big samples like radioactive waste barrels, motors or batteries. We can perform tomography and microscopy studies by focusing down to μm resolution using Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence (NRF) for detection with eV resolution and high spatial resolution at the same time. We discuss the dominating M1 and E1 excitations like the scissors mode, two-phonon quadrupole octupole excitations, pygmy dipole excitations or giant dipole excitations under the new facet of applications. We find many new applications in biomedicine, green energy, radioactive waste management or homeland security. Also more brilliant secondary beams of neutrons and positrons can be produced.

  8. Nuclear photonics

    SciTech Connect

    Habs, D.; Guenther, M. M.; Jentschel, M.; Thirolf, P. G.

    2012-07-09

    With the planned new {gamma}-beam facilities like MEGa-ray at LLNL (USA) or ELI-NP at Bucharest (Romania) with 10{sup 13}{gamma}/s and a band width of {Delta}E{gamma}/E{gamma} Almost-Equal-To 10{sup -3}, a new era of {gamma} beams with energies up to 20MeV comes into operation, compared to the present world-leading HI{gamma}S facility at Duke University (USA) with 10{sup 8}{gamma}/s and {Delta}E{gamma}/E{gamma} Almost-Equal-To 3 Dot-Operator 10{sup -2}. In the long run even a seeded quantum FEL for {gamma} beams may become possible, with much higher brilliance and spectral flux. At the same time new exciting possibilities open up for focused {gamma} beams. Here we describe a new experiment at the {gamma} beam of the ILL reactor (Grenoble, France), where we observed for the first time that the index of refraction for {gamma} beams is determined by virtual pair creation. Using a combination of refractive and reflective optics, efficient monochromators for {gamma} beams are being developed. Thus, we have to optimize the total system: the {gamma}-beam facility, the {gamma}-beam optics and {gamma} detectors. We can trade {gamma} intensity for band width, going down to {Delta}E{gamma}/E{gamma} Almost-Equal-To 10{sup -6} and address individual nuclear levels. The term 'nuclear photonics' stresses the importance of nuclear applications. We can address with {gamma}-beams individual nuclear isotopes and not just elements like with X-ray beams. Compared to X rays, {gamma} beams can penetrate much deeper into big samples like radioactive waste barrels, motors or batteries. We can perform tomography and microscopy studies by focusing down to {mu}m resolution using Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence (NRF) for detection with eV resolution and high spatial resolution at the same time. We discuss the dominating M1 and E1 excitations like the scissors mode, two-phonon quadrupole octupole excitations, pygmy dipole excitations or giant dipole excitations under the new facet of

  9. RBC Antibody Screen

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cell Antibody Screen Related tests: Direct Antiglobulin Test ; Blood Typing ; RBC Antibody Identification ; Type and Screen; Crossmatch All content on Lab Tests Online has been reviewed and approved by our Editorial Review Board . At a ... screen is used to screen an individual's blood for antibodies directed against red blood cell (RBC) ...

  10. Screening Substitute Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kakkuri, Mark

    2000-01-01

    The screening process a school district uses in hiring substitute teachers is critical to striking a balance between required qualifications and immediate need. Typically, screening involves at least one of the following: pre-screening, paper and pencil screening, interviews, and background checks, each of which is used to different degrees…

  11. Defining responsibility for screening.

    PubMed

    Sifri, R; Wender, R

    1999-10-01

    Patients commonly receive medical care from multiple providers and confusion as to who is responsible for cancer screening undoubtedly contributes to inadequate recommendations. Effective screening requires successful implementation of a series of steps that begin with the initial discussion of a screening test and proceed through obtaining results and instituting appropriate follow-up. Clear definition of generalist and specialist physician roles are necessary to optimally screen the public. This article explores the differences in how generalists and specialists approach screening, describes models of care that facilitate shared responsibility for screening, and suggests strategies on how to improve communication between physicians to maximize screening performance.

  12. 10 CFR 960.3-2-1 - Site screening for potentially acceptable sites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Site screening for potentially acceptable sites. 960.3-2-1 Section 960.3-2-1 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-2-1 Site screening...

  13. Plasma Screen Floating Mount

    DOEpatents

    Eakle, Robert F.; Pak, Donald J.

    2004-10-26

    A mounting system for a flat display screen, particularly a plasma display screen, suspends the screen separately in each of the x-, y- and z-directions. A series of frames located by linear bearings and isolated by springs and dampers allows separate controlled movement in each axis. The system enables the use of relatively larger display screens in vehicles in which plasma screen are subject to damage from vibration.

  14. Nuclear transfer: progress and quandaries.

    PubMed

    Li, Xuemei; Li, Ziyi; Jouneau, Alice; Zhou, Qi; Renard, Jean-Paul

    2003-11-07

    Cloning mammals by nuclear transfer is a powerful technique that is quickly advancing the development of genetically defined animal models. However, the overall efficiency of nuclear transfer is still very low and several hurdles remain before the power of this technique will be fully harnessed. Among these hurdles include an incomplete understanding of biologic processes that control epigenetic reprogramming of the donor genome following nuclear transfer. Incomplete epigenetic reprogramming is considered the major cause of the developmental failure of cloned embryos and is frequently associated with the disregulation of specific genes. At present, little is known about the developmental mechanism of reconstructed embryos. Therefore, screening strategies to design nuclear transfer protocols that will mimic the epigenetic remodeling occurring in normal embryos and identifying molecular parameters that can assess the developmental potential of pre-implantation embryos are becoming increasingly important. A crucial need at present is to understand the molecular events required for efficient reprogramming of donor genomes after nuclear transfer. This knowledge will help to identify the molecular basis of developmental defects seen in cloned embryos and provide methods for circumventing such problems associated with cloning the future application of this technology.

  15. Psychological effects of nuclear and radiological warfare.

    PubMed

    Salter, C A

    2001-12-01

    Not since 1945 has the world experienced nuclear warfare, although there has been the threat of nuclear terrorism and a large number of nuclear/radiological accidents. Most people fear a nuclear/radiological threat even more than a conventional explosion due both to their inability to perceive the presence of radiation with the ordinary human senses and to concerns about perceived long-lasting radiation effects. Studies of radiological accidents have found that for every actually contaminated casualty, there may be as many as 500 people who are concerned, eager to be screened for contamination, sometimes panicked, and showing psychosomatic reactions mimicking actual radiation effects. Data from the Hiroshima and Nagasaki attacks revealed widespread acute reactions such as psychic numbing, severe anxiety, and disorganized behavior, and there were later chronic effects such as survivor guilt and psychosomatic reactions. Such responses would likely be common in any future nuclear/radiological accident, terrorist attack, or warfare.

  16. Risks of Breast Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Go ... cancer screening: Cancer Screening Overview General Information About Breast Cancer Key Points Breast cancer is a disease in ...

  17. The Nuclear Power/Nuclear Weapons Connection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Totten, Sam; Totten, Martha Wescoat

    1985-01-01

    Once they have nuclear power, most countries will divert nuclear materials from commercial to military programs. In excerpts from the book "Facing the Danger" (by Totten, S. and M. W., Crossing Press, 1984), five anti-nuclear activists explain how and why they have been addressing the nuclear connection. (RM)

  18. The Nuclear Power and Nuclear Weapons Connection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leventhal, Paul

    1990-01-01

    Explains problems enforcing the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) of 1968. Provides factual charts and details concerning the production of nuclear energy and arms, the processing and disposal of waste products, and outlines the nuclear fuel cycle. Discusses safeguards, the risk of nuclear terrorism, and ways to deal with these problems. (NL)

  19. The Nuclear Power and Nuclear Weapons Connection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leventhal, Paul

    1990-01-01

    Explains problems enforcing the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) of 1968. Provides factual charts and details concerning the production of nuclear energy and arms, the processing and disposal of waste products, and outlines the nuclear fuel cycle. Discusses safeguards, the risk of nuclear terrorism, and ways to deal with these problems. (NL)

  20. The Nuclear Power/Nuclear Weapons Connection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Totten, Sam; Totten, Martha Wescoat

    1985-01-01

    Once they have nuclear power, most countries will divert nuclear materials from commercial to military programs. In excerpts from the book "Facing the Danger" (by Totten, S. and M. W., Crossing Press, 1984), five anti-nuclear activists explain how and why they have been addressing the nuclear connection. (RM)

  1. NUCLEAR REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Long, E.; Ashley, J.W.

    1958-12-16

    A graphite moderator structure is described for a gas-cooled nuclear reactor having a vertical orlentation wherein the structure is physically stable with regard to dlmensional changes due to Wigner growth properties of the graphite, and leakage of coolant gas along spaces in the structure is reduced. The structure is comprised of stacks of unlform right prismatic graphite blocks positioned in layers extending in the direction of the lengths of the blocks, the adjacent end faces of the blocks being separated by pairs of tiles. The blocks and tiles have central bores which are in alignment when assembled and are provided with cooperatlng keys and keyways for physical stability.

  2. Nuclear energy.

    PubMed

    Grandin, Karl; Jagers, Peter; Kullander, Sven

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear energy can play a role in carbon free production of electrical energy, thus making it interesting for tomorrow's energy mix. However, several issues have to be addressed. In fission technology, the design of so-called fourth generation reactors show great promise, in particular in addressing materials efficiency and safety issues. If successfully developed, such reactors may have an important and sustainable part in future energy production. Working fusion reactors may be even more materials efficient and environmental friendly, but also need more development and research. The roadmap for development of fourth generation fission and fusion reactors, therefore, asks for attention and research in these fields must be strengthened.

  3. Nuclear security

    SciTech Connect

    Dingell, J.D.

    1991-02-01

    The Department of Energy's (DOE) Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, located in Livermore, California, generates and controls large numbers of classified documents associated with the research and testing of nuclear weapons. Concern has been raised about the potential for espionage at the laboratory and the national security implications of classified documents being stolen. This paper determines the extent of missing classified documents at the laboratory and assesses the adequacy of accountability over classified documents in the laboratory's custody. Audit coverage was limited to the approximately 600,000 secret documents in the laboratory's custody. The adequacy of DOE's oversight of the laboratory's secret document control program was also assessed.

  4. Nuclear dualism.

    PubMed

    Karrer, Kathleen M

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear dualism is a characteristic feature of the ciliated protozoa. Tetrahymena have two different nuclei in each cell. The larger, polyploid, somatic macronucleus (MAC) is the site of transcriptional activity in the vegetatively growing cell. The smaller, diploid micronucleus (MIC) is transcriptionally inactive in vegetative cells, but is transcriptionally active in mating cells and responsible for the genetic continuity during sexual reproduction. Although the MICs and MACs develop from mitotic products of a common progenitor and reside in a common cytoplasm, they are different from one another in almost every respect. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Screening somatic cell nuclear transfer parameters for generation of transgenic cloned cattle with intragenomic integration of additional gene copies that encode bovine adipocyte-type fatty acid-binding protein (A-FABP).

    PubMed

    Guo, Yong; Li, Hejuan; Wang, Ying; Yan, Xingrong; Sheng, Xihui; Chang, Di; Qi, Xiaolong; Wang, Xiangguo; Liu, Yunhai; Li, Junya; Ni, Hemin

    2017-02-01

    Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is frequently used to produce transgenic cloned livestock, but it is still associated with low success rates. To our knowledge, we are the first to report successful production of transgenic cattle that overexpress bovine adipocyte-type fatty acid binding proteins (A-FABPs) with the aid of SCNT. Intragenomic integration of additional A-FABP gene copies has been found to be positively correlated with the intramuscular fat content in different farm livestock species. First, we optimized the cloning parameters to produce bovine embryos integrated with A-FABP by SCNT, such as applied voltage field strength and pulse duration for electrofusion, morphology and size of donor cells, and number of donor cells passages. Then, bovine fibroblast cells from Qinchuan cattle were transfected with A-FABP and used as donor cells for SCNT. Hybrids of Simmental and Luxi local cattle were selected as the recipient females for A-FABP transgenic SCNT-derived embryos. The results showed that a field strength of 2.5 kV/cm with two 10-μs duration electrical pulses was ideal for electrofusion, and 4-6th generation circular smooth type donor cells with diameters of 15-25 μm were optimal for producing transgenic bovine embryos by SCNT, and resulted in higher fusion (80%), cleavage (73%), and blastocyst (27%) rates. In addition, we obtained two transgenic cloned calves that expressed additional bovine A-FABP gene copies, as detected by PCR-amplified cDNA sequencing. We proposed a set of optimal protocols to produce transgenic SCNT-derived cattle with intragenomic integration of ectopic A-FABP-inherited exon sequences.

  6. [Lung cancer screening].

    PubMed

    Sánchez González, M

    2014-01-01

    Lung cancer is a very important disease, curable in early stages. There have been trials trying to show the utility of chest x-ray or computed tomography in Lung Cancer Screening for decades. In 2011, National Lung Screening Trial results were published, showing a 20% reduction in lung cancer mortality in patients with low dose computed tomography screened for three years. These results are very promising and several scientific societies have included lung cancer screening in their guidelines. Nevertheless we have to be aware of lung cancer screening risks, such as: overdiagnosis, radiation and false positive results. Moreover, there are many issues to be solved, including choosing the appropriate group to be screened, the duration of the screening program, intervals between screening and its cost-effectiveness. Ongoing trials will probably answer some of these questions. This article reviews the current evidence on lung cancer screening.

  7. Applications of nuclear physics

    DOE PAGES

    Hayes-Sterbenz, Anna Catherine

    2017-01-10

    Today the applications of nuclear physics span a very broad range of topics and fields. This review discusses a number of aspects of these applications, including selected topics and concepts in nuclear reactor physics, nuclear fusion, nuclear non-proliferation, nuclear-geophysics, and nuclear medicine. The review begins with a historic summary of the early years in applied nuclear physics, with an emphasis on the huge developments that took place around the time of World War II, and that underlie the physics involved in designs of nuclear explosions, controlled nuclear energy, and nuclear fusion. The review then moves to focus on modern applicationsmore » of these concepts, including the basic concepts and diagnostics developed for the forensics of nuclear explosions, the nuclear diagnostics at the National Ignition Facility, nuclear reactor safeguards, and the detection of nuclear material production and trafficking. The review also summarizes recent developments in nuclear geophysics and nuclear medicine. The nuclear geophysics areas discussed include geo-chronology, nuclear logging for industry, the Oklo reactor, and geo-neutrinos. The section on nuclear medicine summarizes the critical advances in nuclear imaging, including PET and SPECT imaging, targeted radionuclide therapy, and the nuclear physics of medical isotope production. Lastly, each subfield discussed requires a review article unto itself, which is not the intention of the current review; rather, the current review is intended for readers who wish to get a broad understanding of applied nuclear physics.« less

  8. Applications of nuclear physics.

    PubMed

    Hayes, A C

    2017-02-01

    Today the applications of nuclear physics span a very broad range of topics and fields. This review discusses a number of aspects of these applications, including selected topics and concepts in nuclear reactor physics, nuclear fusion, nuclear non-proliferation, nuclear-geophysics, and nuclear medicine. The review begins with a historic summary of the early years in applied nuclear physics, with an emphasis on the huge developments that took place around the time of World War II, and that underlie the physics involved in designs of nuclear explosions, controlled nuclear energy, and nuclear fusion. The review then moves to focus on modern applications of these concepts, including the basic concepts and diagnostics developed for the forensics of nuclear explosions, the nuclear diagnostics at the National Ignition Facility, nuclear reactor safeguards, and the detection of nuclear material production and trafficking. The review also summarizes recent developments in nuclear geophysics and nuclear medicine. The nuclear geophysics areas discussed include geo-chronology, nuclear logging for industry, the Oklo reactor, and geo-neutrinos. The section on nuclear medicine summarizes the critical advances in nuclear imaging, including PET and SPECT imaging, targeted radionuclide therapy, and the nuclear physics of medical isotope production. Each subfield discussed requires a review article unto itself, which is not the intention of the current review; rather, the current review is intended for readers who wish to get a broad understanding of applied nuclear physics.

  9. Applications of nuclear physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayes, A. C.

    2017-02-01

    Today the applications of nuclear physics span a very broad range of topics and fields. This review discusses a number of aspects of these applications, including selected topics and concepts in nuclear reactor physics, nuclear fusion, nuclear non-proliferation, nuclear-geophysics, and nuclear medicine. The review begins with a historic summary of the early years in applied nuclear physics, with an emphasis on the huge developments that took place around the time of World War II, and that underlie the physics involved in designs of nuclear explosions, controlled nuclear energy, and nuclear fusion. The review then moves to focus on modern applications of these concepts, including the basic concepts and diagnostics developed for the forensics of nuclear explosions, the nuclear diagnostics at the National Ignition Facility, nuclear reactor safeguards, and the detection of nuclear material production and trafficking. The review also summarizes recent developments in nuclear geophysics and nuclear medicine. The nuclear geophysics areas discussed include geo-chronology, nuclear logging for industry, the Oklo reactor, and geo-neutrinos. The section on nuclear medicine summarizes the critical advances in nuclear imaging, including PET and SPECT imaging, targeted radionuclide therapy, and the nuclear physics of medical isotope production. Each subfield discussed requires a review article unto itself, which is not the intention of the current review; rather, the current review is intended for readers who wish to get a broad understanding of applied nuclear physics.

  10. Technologies for detection of nuclear materials

    SciTech Connect

    DeVolpi, A.

    1996-03-30

    Detection of smuggled nuclear materials at transit points requires monitoring unknown samples in large closed packages. This review contends that high-confidence nuclear-material detection requires induced fission as the primary mechanism, with passive radiation screening in a complementary role. With the right equipment, even small quantities of nuclear materials are detectable with a high probability at transit points. The equipment could also be linked synergistically with detectors of other contrabond. For screening postal mail and packages, passive monitors are probably more cost-effective. When a suspicious item is detected, a single active probe could then be used. Until active systems become mass produced, this two-stage screening/interrogation role for active/passive equipment is more economic for cargo at border crossings. For widespread monitoring of nuclear smuggling, it will probably be necessary to develop a system for simultaneously detecting most categories of contraband, including explosives and illicit drugs. With control of nuclear materials at known storage sites being the first line of defense, detection capabilities at international borders could establish a viable second line of defense against smuggling.

  11. Medium polarization and pairing in asymmetric nuclear matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, J. M.; Lombardo, U.; Zhang, H. F.; Zuo, W.

    2017-01-01

    The many-body theory of asymmetric nuclear matter is developed beyond the Brueckner-Hartree-Fock approximation to incorporate the medium polarization effects. The extension is performed within the Babu-Brown induced interaction theory. After deriving the particle-hole interaction in the form of Landau-Migdal parameters, the effects of the induced component on the symmetry energy are investigated along with the screening of 1 S 0 proton-proton and 3 PF 2 neutron-neutron pairing, which are relevant for the neutron-star cooling. The crossover from repulsive (screening) to attractive (anti-screening) interaction going from pure neutron matter to symmetric nuclear matter is discussed.

  12. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Grebe, J.J.

    1959-12-15

    A reactor which is particularly adapted tu serve as a heat source for a nuclear powered alrcraft or rocket is described. The core of this reactor consists of a porous refractory modera;or body which is impregnated with fissionable nuclei. The core is designed so that its surface forms tapered inlet and outlet ducts which are separated by the porous moderator body. In operation a gaseous working fluid is circulated through the inlet ducts to the surface of the moderator, enters and passes through the porous body, and is heated therein. The hot gas emerges into the outlet ducts and is available to provide thrust. The principle advantage is that tremendous quantities of gas can be quickly heated without suffering an excessive pressure drop.

  13. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Christy, R.F.

    1958-07-15

    A nuclear reactor of the homogeneous liquid fuel type is described wherein the fissionable isotope is suspended or dissolved in a liquid moderator such as water. The reactor core is comprised essentially of a spherical vessel for containing the reactive composition surrounded by a reflector, preferably of beryllium oxide. The reactive composition may be an ordinary water solution of a soluble salt of uranium, the quantity of fissionable isotope in solution being sufficient to provide a critical mass in the vessel. The liquid fuel is stored in a tank of non-crtttcal geometry below the reactor vessel and outside of the reflector and is passed from the tank to the vessel through a pipe connecting the two by air pressure means. Neutron absorbing control and safety rods are operated within slots in the reflector adjacent to the vessel.

  14. Nuclear reactor

    DOEpatents

    Wade, Elman E.

    1979-01-01

    A nuclear reactor including two rotatable plugs and a positive top core holddown structure. The top core holddown structure is divided into two parts: a small core cover, and a large core cover. The small core cover, and the upper internals associated therewith, are attached to the small rotating plug, and the large core cover, with its associated upper internals, is attached to the large rotating plug. By so splitting the core holddown structures, under-the-plug refueling is accomplished without the necessity of enlarging the reactor pressure vessel to provide a storage space for the core holddown structure during refueling. Additionally, the small and large rotating plugs, and their associated core covers, are arranged such that the separation of the two core covers to permit rotation is accomplished without the installation of complex lifting mechanisms.

  15. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Miller, H.I.; Smith, R.C.

    1958-01-21

    This patent relates to nuclear reactors of the type which use a liquid fuel, such as a solution of uranyl sulfate in ordinary water which acts as the moderator. The reactor is comprised of a spherical vessel having a diameter of about 12 inches substantially surrounded by a reflector of beryllium oxide. Conventionnl control rods and safety rods are operated in slots in the reflector outside the vessel to control the operation of the reactor. An additional means for increasing the safety factor of the reactor by raising the ratio of delayed neutrons to prompt neutrons, is provided and consists of a soluble sulfate salt of beryllium dissolved in the liquid fuel in the proper proportion to obtain the result desired.

  16. Nuclear exoticism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penionzhkevich, Yu. E.

    2016-07-01

    Extreme states of nuclearmatter (such that feature high spins, large deformations, high density and temperature, or a large excess of neutrons and protons) play an important role in studying fundamental properties of nuclei and are helpful in solving the problem of constructing the equation of state for nuclear matter. The synthesis of neutron-rich nuclei near the nucleon drip lines and investigation of their properties permit drawing conclusions about the positions of these boundaries and deducing information about unusual states of such nuclei and about their decays. At the present time, experimental investigations along these lines can only be performed via the cooperation of leading research centers that possess powerful heavy-ion accelerators, such as the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN and the heavy-ion cyclotrons at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR, Dubna), where respective experiments are being conducted by physicists from about 20 JINR member countries. The present article gives a survey of the most recent results in the realms of super neutron-rich nuclei. Implications of the change in the structure of such nuclei near the nucleon drip lines are discussed. Information about the results obtained by measuring the masses (binding energies) of exotic nuclei, the nucleon-distribution radii (neutron halo) and momentum distributions in them, and their deformations and quantum properties is presented. It is shown that the properties of nuclei lying near the stability boundaries differ strongly from the properties of other nuclei. The problem of the stability of nuclei that is associated with the magic numbers of 20 and 28 is discussed along with the effect of new magic numbers.

  17. Nuclear exoticism

    SciTech Connect

    Penionzhkevich, Yu. E.

    2016-07-15

    Extreme states of nuclearmatter (such that feature high spins, large deformations, high density and temperature, or a large excess of neutrons and protons) play an important role in studying fundamental properties of nuclei and are helpful in solving the problem of constructing the equation of state for nuclear matter. The synthesis of neutron-rich nuclei near the nucleon drip lines and investigation of their properties permit drawing conclusions about the positions of these boundaries and deducing information about unusual states of such nuclei and about their decays. At the present time, experimental investigations along these lines can only be performed via the cooperation of leading research centers that possess powerful heavy-ion accelerators, such as the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN and the heavy-ion cyclotrons at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR, Dubna), where respective experiments are being conducted by physicists from about 20 JINR member countries. The present article gives a survey of the most recent results in the realms of super neutron-rich nuclei. Implications of the change in the structure of such nuclei near the nucleon drip lines are discussed. Information about the results obtained by measuring the masses (binding energies) of exotic nuclei, the nucleon-distribution radii (neutron halo) and momentum distributions in them, and their deformations and quantum properties is presented. It is shown that the properties of nuclei lying near the stability boundaries differ strongly from the properties of other nuclei. The problem of the stability of nuclei that is associated with the magic numbers of 20 and 28 is discussed along with the effect of new magic numbers.

  18. Video Screen Capture Basics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunbar, Laura

    2014-01-01

    This article is an introduction to video screen capture. Basic information of two software programs, QuickTime for Mac and BlueBerry Flashback Express for PC, are also discussed. Practical applications for video screen capture are given.

  19. Video Screen Capture Basics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunbar, Laura

    2014-01-01

    This article is an introduction to video screen capture. Basic information of two software programs, QuickTime for Mac and BlueBerry Flashback Express for PC, are also discussed. Practical applications for video screen capture are given.

  20. Screening for Prostate Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Understanding Task Force Recommendations Screening for Prostate Cancer The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (Task Force) has issued a final recommendation on Screening for Prostate Cancer . This recommendation is for ...

  1. Standard Printing Screen System.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    area pattern screens. It also describes the creation of a 100-step continuous growth halftone scale for the purpose of specifying quality control tolerances of screen tints for the printed product. (Author)

  2. Screening for VHL

    MedlinePlus

    ... reduce the most harmful consequences of this gene mutation. It is important to diagnose and begin screening ... to determine if a child has a VHL mutation and needs to follow the recommended screening. The ...

  3. Endometrial Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... Transvaginal ultrasound Endometrial sampling Tests are used to screen for different types of cancer. Some screening tests ... endometrium by inserting a brush, curette , or thin, flexible tube through the cervix and into the uterus. ...

  4. Stretching Screens and Imaginations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douthwaite, Shelaugh

    1983-01-01

    Secondary students utilize a simplified technique to make silk screen prints, which can be printed onto T-shirts. The only materials needed from art suppliers are a few squeegees and a few yards of polyester screen mesh. (RM)

  5. Screening Tests and Vaccines

    MedlinePlus

    ... Contact Us Text size | Print | Screening Tests and Vaccines This information in Spanish ( en español ) Getting important screening tests and vaccines can save your life. Check this section of ...

  6. Hypertensive Screening Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longenecker, Douglas P.; Gillen, John C.

    1977-01-01

    Data derived from a health screening program conducted at Wright State University indicates that hypertensive screening is a justifiable procedure and one which can be carried out with minimum effort and expense. (MB)

  7. Lung cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Tanoue, Lynn T; Tanner, Nichole T; Gould, Michael K; Silvestri, Gerard A

    2015-01-01

    The United States Preventive Services Task Force recommends lung cancer screening with low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) in adults of age 55 to 80 years who have a 30 pack-year smoking history and are currently smoking or have quit within the past 15 years. This recommendation is largely based on the findings of the National Lung Screening Trial. Both policy-level and clinical decision-making about LDCT screening must consider the potential benefits of screening (reduced mortality from lung cancer) and possible harms. Effective screening requires an appreciation that screening should be limited to individuals at high risk of death from lung cancer, and that the risk of harm related to false positive findings, overdiagnosis, and unnecessary invasive testing is real. A comprehensive understanding of these aspects of screening will inform appropriate implementation, with the objective that an evidence-based and systematic approach to screening will help to reduce the enormous mortality burden of lung cancer.

  8. Newborn Screening Tests Approved

    MedlinePlus

    ... The screens are used to detect four rare metabolic disorders To use the sharing features on this page, ... of screening tests designed to detect four rare metabolic disorders in newborns has been approved by the U.S. ...

  9. Screening-Constant-by-Unit-Nuclear-Charge method investigations of high lying ({sup 1}D{sub 2},{sup 1}S{sub 0}) ns, nd Rydberg series in the photoionization spectra of the halogen-like ion Kr{sup +}

    SciTech Connect

    Sakho, I.

    2014-01-15

    Energy positions and quantum defects of the 4s{sup 2}4p{sup 4} ({sup 1}D{sub 2},{sup 1}S{sub 0}) ns, nd Rydberg series originating from the 4s{sup 2}4p{sup 52}P{sub 3/2}{sup ∘} ground state and from the 4s{sup 2}4p{sup 52}P{sub 1/2}{sup ∘} metastable state of Kr{sup +} are reported. Calculations are performed using the Screening Constant by Unit Nuclear Charge (SCUNC) method. The results obtained are in suitable agreement with recent experimental data from the combined ASTRID merged-beam set up and Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance device (Bizau et al., 2011), ALS measurements (Hinojosa et al., 2012), and multi-channel R-matrix eigenphase derivative calculations (McLaughlin and Balance, 2012). In addition, analysis of the 4s{sup 2}4p{sup 4}({sup 1}D{sub 2})nd and the 4s{sup 2}4p{sup 4}({sup 1}S{sub 0})nd resonances is given via the SCUNC procedure. The excellent results obtained from our work point out that the SCUNC formalism may be used to confirm the results of the analysis from the standard quantum-defect expansion formulas. Eventual errors occurring in the analysis can then be automatically detected and corrected via the SCUNC procedure.

  10. Nuclear Education Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winter, Metta L.

    1986-01-01

    Addresses the controversial issue of nuclear education in public schools. Highlights include resolutions passed by the National Congress of Parent Teacher Associations, what nuclear education is, distinction between nuclear education and education in the nuclear age, educational materials, a review of teaching materials, nuclear literacy, and…

  11. Nuclear Education Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winter, Metta L.

    1986-01-01

    Addresses the controversial issue of nuclear education in public schools. Highlights include resolutions passed by the National Congress of Parent Teacher Associations, what nuclear education is, distinction between nuclear education and education in the nuclear age, educational materials, a review of teaching materials, nuclear literacy, and…

  12. Scientific Analysis Cover Sheet for Radionuclide Screening

    SciTech Connect

    G. Ragan

    2002-08-09

    The waste forms under consideration for disposal in the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain contain scores of radionuclides (Attachments V and VI). It would be impractical and highly inefficient to model all of these radionuclides in a total system performance assessment (TSPA). Thus, the purpose of this radionuclide screening analysis is to remove from further consideration (screen out) radionuclides that are unlikely to significantly contribute to radiation dose to the public from the proposed nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. The remaining nuclides (those screened in) are recommended for consideration in TSPA modeling for license application. This analysis also covers radionuclides that are not screened in based on dose, but need to be included in TSPA modeling for other reasons. For example, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations require consideration of the combined activity of Ra-226 and Ra-228 in groundwater (40 CFR 197.30, 10 CFR 63.331). Also, Cm-245, Pu-241, and U-235 decay indirectly to potentially important radionuclides, and are not identified by the screening analysis as important. The radionuclide screening analysis separately considers two different postclosure time periods: the 10,000-y regulatory period for the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain and the period after 10,000 y up to 1 million y after emplacement. The incremental effect of extending the screening for the regulatory period to 20,000 y is also addressed. Four release scenarios are considered: (1) the nominal scenario, which entails long-term degradation of disposal containers and waste forms, (2) a human-intrusion scenario, (3) an intrusive igneous event, and (4) an eruptive igneous event. Because the first three scenarios require groundwater transport, they are called groundwater scenarios below. The screening analysis considers the following waste forms: spent boiling water reactor (BWR) fuel, spent

  13. Screening for Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Mazzone, Peter J.; Naidich, David P.; Bach, Peter B.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Lung cancer is by far the major cause of cancer deaths largely because in the majority of patients it is at an advanced stage at the time it is discovered, when curative treatment is no longer feasible. This article examines the data regarding the ability of screening to decrease the number of lung cancer deaths. Methods: A systematic review was conducted of controlled studies that address the effectiveness of methods of screening for lung cancer. Results: Several large randomized controlled trials (RCTs), including a recent one, have demonstrated that screening for lung cancer using a chest radiograph does not reduce the number of deaths from lung cancer. One large RCT involving low-dose CT (LDCT) screening demonstrated a significant reduction in lung cancer deaths, with few harms to individuals at elevated risk when done in the context of a structured program of selection, screening, evaluation, and management of the relatively high number of benign abnormalities. Whether other RCTs involving LDCT screening are consistent is unclear because data are limited or not yet mature. Conclusions: Screening is a complex interplay of selection (a population with sufficient risk and few serious comorbidities), the value of the screening test, the interval between screening tests, the availability of effective treatment, the risk of complications or harms as a result of screening, and the degree with which the screened individuals comply with screening and treatment recommendations. Screening with LDCT of appropriate individuals in the context of a structured process is associated with a significant reduction in the number of lung cancer deaths in the screened population. Given the complex interplay of factors inherent in screening, many questions remain on how to effectively implement screening on a broader scale. PMID:23649455

  14. Nutritional screening and assessment.

    PubMed

    McMahon, K; Brown, J K

    2000-05-01

    To review the components of nutritional screening, screening measures and tools, and the nurses' role in nutritional assessment. Research studies, review articles, and book chapters. Timely and appropriate nutritional interventions require the adoption of routine initial nutritional screening, referral for comprehensive nutritional assessments as needed, and continued re-screening. Oncology nurses should be prepared to contribute to a comprehensive nutritional assessment in their role as patient advocate and expert clinician.

  15. Screen time and children

    MedlinePlus

    ... obesity ) Screen time increases your child's risk of obesity because: Sitting and watching a screen is time that is not spent being physically active. TV commercials and other screen ads can lead to unhealthy food choices . Most of the time, the foods in ads ...

  16. Principles of Cancer Screening

    PubMed Central

    Pinsky, Paul F.

    2015-01-01

    Synopsis Cancer screening has long been an important component of the struggle to reduce the burden of morbidity and mortality from cancer. Notwithstanding this history, many aspect of cancer screening remain poorly understood. This article presents a summary of basic principles of cancer screening that are relevant for researchers, clinicians and public health officials alike. PMID:26315516

  17. Principles of Cancer Screening.

    PubMed

    Pinsky, Paul F

    2015-10-01

    Cancer screening has long been an important component of the struggle to reduce the burden of morbidity and mortality from cancer. Notwithstanding this history, many aspects of cancer screening remain poorly understood. This article presents a summary of basic principles of cancer screening that are relevant for researchers, clinicians, and public health officials alike.

  18. Breast awareness and screening.

    PubMed

    Harmer, Victoria

    Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in the UK. Breast awareness and screening, along with better treatment, can significantly improve outcomes, and more women than ever are now surviving the disease. This article discusses breast awareness and screening, symptoms and risk factors for breast cancer, and how nurses can raise breast awareness and screening uptake.

  19. Medicare Preventive and Screening Services

    MedlinePlus

    ... B (Medical Insurance) covers: Abdominal aortic aneurysm screening Alcohol misuse screenings & counseling Bone mass measurements (bone density) Cardiovascular disease screenings Cardiovascular disease (behavioral therapy) Cervical & ...

  20. Neonatal cystic fibrosis screening test

    MedlinePlus

    Cystic fibrosis screening - neonatal; Immunoreactive trypsinogen; IRT test; CF - screening ... better nutrition, growth, and lung function. This screening test helps doctors identify children with CF before they ...

  1. The medical implications of nuclear war

    SciTech Connect

    Solomon, F.; Marston, R.Q.

    1986-01-01

    This volume is divided into five parts. The first provides an overview of the physical and environmental effects of nuclear war, setting the stage for later sections that address the medical impact of various types of nuclear attack. Part III reviews the demand for medical resources after a nuclear attack and estimates the actual supply likely to be available. If a single one-megaton bomb were exploded over the city of Detroit, for example, it is calculated that survivors would need about forty times the number of burn beds currently available throughout the entire United States. Contributors to Part IV address the nuclear arms race from a psychosocial point of view: How does the threat of nuclear war affect the attitudes and behavior of adults and children. Studies provide evidence that many young children are worried about the possibility of nuclear war; most learn about nuclear war from television or the media and rarely discuss it with their parents. Finally in this section is a call for improving the screening system used to select nuclear weapons handlers.

  2. Electron screening and its effects on big-bang nucleosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Biao; Bertulani, C. A.; Balantekin, A. B.

    2011-01-15

    We study the effects of electron screening on nuclear reaction rates occurring during the big-bang nucleosynthesis epoch. The sensitivity of the predicted elemental abundances on electron screening is studied in detail. It is shown that electron screening does not produce noticeable results in the abundances unless the traditional Debye-Hueckel model for the treatment of electron screening in stellar environments is enhanced by several orders of magnitude. This work rules out electron screening as a relevant ingredient to big-bang nucleosynthesis, confirming a previous study [see Itoh et al., Astrophys. J. 488, 507 (1997)] and ruling out exotic possibilities for the treatment of screening beyond the mean-field theoretical approach.

  3. Nuclear analytical chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Brune, D.; Forkman, B.; Persson, B.

    1984-01-01

    This book covers the general theories and techniques of nuclear chemical analysis, directed at applications in analytical chemistry, nuclear medicine, radiophysics, agriculture, environmental sciences, geological exploration, industrial process control, etc. The main principles of nuclear physics and nuclear detection on which the analysis is based are briefly outlined. An attempt is made to emphasise the fundamentals of activation analysis, detection and activation methods, as well as their applications. The book provides guidance in analytical chemistry, agriculture, environmental and biomedical sciences, etc. The contents include: the nuclear periodic system; nuclear decay; nuclear reactions; nuclear radiation sources; interaction of radiation with matter; principles of radiation detectors; nuclear electronics; statistical methods and spectral analysis; methods of radiation detection; neutron activation analysis; charged particle activation analysis; photon activation analysis; sample preparation and chemical separation; nuclear chemical analysis in biological and medical research; the use of nuclear chemical analysis in the field of criminology; nuclear chemical analysis in environmental sciences, geology and mineral exploration; and radiation protection.

  4. Nuclear war: Opposing viewpoints

    SciTech Connect

    Szumski, B.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents opposing viewpoints on nuclear war. Topics discussed include: how nuclear would begin; would humanity survive; would civil defense work; will an arms agreement work; and can space weapons reduce the risk of nuclear war.

  5. Nuclear Quadrupole Moments and Nuclear Shell Structure

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Townes, C. H.; Foley, H. M.; Low, W.

    1950-06-23

    Describes a simple model, based on nuclear shell considerations, which leads to the proper behavior of known nuclear quadrupole moments, although predictions of the magnitudes of some quadrupole moments are seriously in error.

  6. Nuclear thermal/nuclear electric hybrids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, B. D.

    1991-01-01

    A description is given of the nuclear thermal and nuclear electric hybrid. The specifications are described along with its mission performance. Next, the technical status, development requirements, and some cost estimates are provided.

  7. Cancer Screening: How Do Screening Tests Become Standard Tests?

    MedlinePlus

    ... cancer symptoms. There are different kinds of screening tests. Screening tests include the following: Physical exam and ... are linked to some types of cancer. Screening tests have risks. Not all screening tests are helpful ...

  8. Newborn screening: current status.

    PubMed

    Arn, Pamela H

    2007-01-01

    Newborn screening, which represents one of the major advances in child health of the past century, has been carried out in all fifty U.S. states since the 1970s. Newborn screening programs are state-run, and decisions are left to the individual states regarding the conditions to be screened for, the mechanism for confirmatory testing, follow-up care, and financing of the programs. Laboratory advances in tandem mass spectrometry make it possible to screen newborns for many rare inborn errors of metabolism. This raises many policy issues including screening's cost-effectiveness, ethics, quality, and oversight.

  9. Liquid environmental stress screening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, J. L.

    1992-05-01

    This report describes a method of performing Environmental Stress Screening in an inert fluid. Because the liquid has a high dielectric strength, the items being screened can be energized and operational while submerged. Transmitting vibrations through the liquid to the item being screened permits screening without the use of fixtures, and the liquid's high heat capacity allows very rapid temperature changes, either by pumping hot or cold liquid from remote reservoirs or by moving the device from a hot tank to a cold tank. A prototype screening system has been built at NRaD, and faults induced in a small (47 pieces) lot of printed wiring boards have been detected.

  10. Nuclear Fuel Cycle & Vulnerabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Boyer, Brian D.

    2012-06-18

    The objective of safeguards is the timely detection of diversion of significant quantities of nuclear material from peaceful nuclear activities to the manufacture of nuclear weapons or of other nuclear explosive devices or for purposes unknown, and deterrence of such diversion by the risk of early detection. The safeguards system should be designed to provide credible assurances that there has been no diversion of declared nuclear material and no undeclared nuclear material and activities.

  11. Nuclear South Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    inseparable from the history of nuclear developments in both India and Pakistan. The timing of India’s tests was determined by the pronuclear stance of the...Rawalpindi, 2001), 17-18. 53 3Robert Boardman, The Politics of Fading Dreams: Britain and the Nuclear Export Business, Nuclear Exports and World Politics (New...disasters of nuclear arms race. 61 BIBLIOGRAPHY Books Boardman, Robert. The Politics of Fading Dreams: Britain and the Nuclear Export Business, Nuclear

  12. Hollow nuclear matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yong, Gao-Chan

    2016-01-01

    It is generally considered that an atomic nucleus is always compact. Based on the isospin-dependent Boltzmann nuclear transport model, here I show that large block nuclear matter or excited nuclear matter may both be hollow. The size of the inner bubble in these matter is affected by the charge number of nuclear matter. The existence of hollow nuclear matter may have many implications in nuclear or atomic physics or astrophysics as well as some practical applications.

  13. Nuclear reactor

    DOEpatents

    Thomson, Wallace B.

    2004-03-16

    A nuclear reactor comprising a cylindrical pressure vessel, an elongated annular core centrally disposed within and spaced from the pressure vessel, and a plurality of ducts disposed longitudinally of the pressure vessel about the periphery thereof, said core comprising an annular active portion, an annular reflector just inside the active portion, and an annular reflector just outside the active a portion, said annular active portion comprising rectangular slab, porous fuel elements radially disposed around the inner reflector and extending the length of the active portion, wedge-shaped, porous moderator elements disposed adjacent one face of each fuel element and extending the length of the fuel element, the fuel and moderator elements being oriented so that the fuel elements face each other and the moderator elements do likewise, adjacent moderator elements being spaced to provide air inlet channels, and adjacent fuel elements being spaced to provide air outlet channels which communicate with the interior of the peripheral ducts, and means for introducing air into the air inlet channels which passes through the porous moderator elements and porous fuel elements to the outlet channel.

  14. Nuclear Proliferation: A Global Nuclear Strategy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-30

    thinking about nuclear weapons as a “ Wild Card ” in this case. Finally, just as North Korea is using nuclear weapons as a “bargaining chip,” we...definite disadvantage for non-nuclear nations not to have a nuclear” Wild Card ”. So some misguided Japanese politicians are attracted to the “ Wild Card ” advantage

  15. Nuclear weapons modernizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kristensen, Hans M.

    2014-05-01

    This article reviews the nuclear weapons modernization programs underway in the world's nine nuclear weapons states. It concludes that despite significant reductions in overall weapons inventories since the end of the Cold War, the pace of reductions is slowing - four of the nuclear weapons states are even increasing their arsenals, and all the nuclear weapons states are busy modernizing their remaining arsenals in what appears to be a dynamic and counterproductive nuclear competition. The author questions whether perpetual modernization combined with no specific plan for the elimination of nuclear weapons is consistent with the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and concludes that new limits on nuclear modernizations are needed.

  16. General Nuclear Medicine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Radioactive Iodine (I-131) Therapy Biopsies - Overview Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) Alzheimer's Disease X-ray, Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine ...

  17. Focused technology: Nuclear propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Thomas J.

    1993-01-01

    Five viewgraphs are presented that outline the objectives and elements of the Nuclear Propulsion Program, mission considerations, propulsion technologies, and the logic flow path for nuclear propulsion development.

  18. Nuclear weapons modernizations

    SciTech Connect

    Kristensen, Hans M.

    2014-05-09

    This article reviews the nuclear weapons modernization programs underway in the world's nine nuclear weapons states. It concludes that despite significant reductions in overall weapons inventories since the end of the Cold War, the pace of reductions is slowing - four of the nuclear weapons states are even increasing their arsenals, and all the nuclear weapons states are busy modernizing their remaining arsenals in what appears to be a dynamic and counterproductive nuclear competition. The author questions whether perpetual modernization combined with no specific plan for the elimination of nuclear weapons is consistent with the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and concludes that new limits on nuclear modernizations are needed.

  19. Screening the Hanford tanks for trapped gas

    SciTech Connect

    Whitney, P.

    1995-10-01

    The Hanford Site is home to 177 large, underground nuclear waste storage tanks. Hydrogen gas is generated within the waste in these tanks. This document presents the results of a screening of Hanford`s nuclear waste storage tanks for the presence of gas trapped in the waste. The method used for the screening is to look for an inverse correlation between waste level measurements and ambient atmospheric pressure. If the waste level in a tank decreases with an increase in ambient atmospheric pressure, then the compressibility may be attributed to gas trapped within the waste. In this report, this methodology is not used to estimate the volume of gas trapped in the waste. The waste level measurements used in this study were made primarily to monitor the tanks for leaks and intrusions. Four measurement devices are widely used in these tanks. Three of these measure the level of the waste surface. The remaining device measures from within a well embedded in the waste, thereby monitoring the liquid level even if the liquid level is below a dry waste crust. In the past, a steady rise in waste level has been taken as an indicator of trapped gas. This indicator is not part of the screening calculation described in this report; however, a possible explanation for the rise is given by the mathematical relation between atmospheric pressure and waste level used to support the screening calculation. The screening was applied to data from each measurement device in each tank. If any of these data for a single tank indicated trapped gas, that tank was flagged by this screening process. A total of 58 of the 177 Hanford tanks were flagged as containing trapped gas, including 21 of the 25 tanks currently on the flammable gas watch list.

  20. Derivation of the New Pressurized Thermal Shock Screening Criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Dickson, Terry L; Yin, Shengjun; Kirk, Mark; Chou, Hsuing-Wei

    2011-01-01

    As a result of a multi-year, multi-disciplinary effort on the part of the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC), its contractors, and the nuclear industry, a technical basis has been established to support a risk-informed revision to pressurized thermal shock (PTS) regulations originally promulgated in the mid-1980s. The revised regulations provide alternative (optional) reference-temperature (RT)-based screening criteria, which is codified in 10 CFR 50.61(a). How the revised screening criteria were determined from the results of the probabilistic fracture mechanics (PFM) analyses will be discussed in this paper.

  1. Nuclear reactor

    DOEpatents

    Yant, Howard W.; Stinebiser, Karl W.; Anzur, Gregory C.

    1977-01-01

    A nuclear reactor, particularly a liquid-metal breeder reactor, whose upper internals include outlet modules for channeling the liquid-metal coolant from selected areas of the outlet of the core vertically to the outlet plenum. The modules are composed of a highly-refractory, high corrosion-resistant alloy, for example, INCONEL-718. Each module is disposed to confine and channel generally vertically the coolant emitted from a subplurality of core-component assemblies. Each module has a grid with openings, each opening disposed to receive the coolant from an assembly of the subplurality. The grid in addition serves as a holdown for the assemblies of the corresponding subplurality preventing their excessive ejection upwardly from the core. In the region directly over the core the outlet modules are of such peripheral form that they nest forming a continuum over the core-component assemblies whose outlet coolant they confine. Each subassembly includes a chimney which confines the coolant emitted by its corresponding subassemblies to generally vertical flow between the outlet of the core and the outlet plenum. Each subplurality of assemblies whose emitted coolant is confined by an outlet module includes assemblies which emit lower-temperature coolant, for example, a control-rod assembly, or fertile assemblies, and assemblies which emit coolant of substantially higher temperature, for example, fuel-rod assemblies. The coolants of different temperatures are mixed in the chimneys reducing the effect of stripping (hot-cold temperature fluctuations) on the remainder of the upper internals which are composed typically of AISI-304 or AISI-316 stainless steel.

  2. Nuclear reactor

    DOEpatents

    Pennell, William E.; Rowan, William J.

    1977-01-01

    A nuclear reactor in which the core components, including fuel-rod assemblies, control-rod assemblies, fertile rod-assemblies, and removable shielding assemblies, are supported by a plurality of separate inlet modular units. These units are referred to as inlet module units to distinguish them from the modules of the upper internals of the reactor. The modular units are supported, each removable independently of the others, in liners in the supporting structure for the lower internals of the reactor. The core assemblies are removably supported in integral receptacles or sockets of the modular units. The liners, units, sockets and assmblies have inlet openings for entry of the fluid. The modular units are each removably mounted in the liners with fluid seals interposed between the opening in the liner and inlet module into which the fluid enters and the upper and lower portion of the liner. Each assembly is similarly mounted in a corresponding receptacle with fluid seals interposed between the openings where the fluid enters and the lower portion of the receptacle or fitting closely in these regions. As fluid flows along each core assembly a pressure drop is produced along the fluid so that the fluid which emerges from each core assembly is at a lower pressure than the fluid which enters the core assembly. However because of the seals interposed in the mountings of the units and assemblies the pressures above and below the units and assemblies are balanced and the units are held in the liners and the assemblies are held in the receptacles by their weights as they have a higher specific gravity than the fluid. The low-pressure spaces between each module and its liner and between each core assembly and its module is vented to the low-pressure regions of the vessel to assure that fluid which leaks through the seals does not accumulate and destroy the hydraulic balance.

  3. Nuclear Power in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yun

    2012-02-01

    In response to the Fukushima accident, China is strengthening its nuclear safety at reactors in operation, under construction and in preparation, including efforts to improve nuclear safety regulations and guidelines based on lessons learned from the accident. Although China is one of the major contributors in the global nuclear expansion, China's nuclear power industry is relatively young. Its nuclear safety regulators are less experienced compared to those in other major nuclear power countries. To realize China's resolute commitment to rapid growth of safe nuclear energy, detailed analyses of its nuclear safety regulatory system are required. This talk explains China's nuclear energy program and policy at first. It also explores China's governmental activities and future nuclear development after Fukushima accidents. At last, an overview of China's nuclear safety regulations and practices are provided. Issues and challenges are also identified for police makers, regulators, and industry professionals.

  4. Cervical cancer screening.

    PubMed Central

    Katz, A.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review the role of family physicians in screening for cancer of the cervix, to review the evidence for screening, in particular, frequency and technique for screening, and to review the reasons cervical cancer has not been prevented and the role of family physicians in addressing these failures. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: The value of screening has been established with level II evidence. Many of the unresolved issues are not supported either way by good evidence; level II and III evidence predominates. MAIN FINDINGS: In Canada, 1350 women were predicted to be diagnosed with cancer of the cervix in 1996. Most of these women had not been screened. Minority, rural, low-income, and older women face important barriers to screening. Family physicians have a role in reaching out to these women to provide effective health care, including cancer screening. When cancer screening is performed, it should conform to recommended techniques with appropriate follow up of abnormal test results. CONCLUSIONS: Family physicians have an important role in preventing cancer of the cervix. Efforts should be concentrated on encouraging a greater proportion of eligible women to be screened. Criteria are suggested for effective screening. PMID:9721422

  5. Lung Cancer Screening Update.

    PubMed

    Ruchalski, Kathleen L; Brown, Kathleen

    2016-07-01

    Since the release of the US Preventive Services Task Force and Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services recommendations for lung cancer screening, low-dose chest computed tomography screening has moved from the research arena to clinical practice. Lung cancer screening programs must reach beyond image acquisition and interpretation and engage in a multidisciplinary effort of clinical shared decision-making, standardization of imaging and nodule management, smoking cessation, and patient follow-up. Standardization of radiologic reports and nodule management will systematize patient care, provide quality assurance, further reduce harm, and contain health care costs. Although the National Lung Screening Trial results and eligibility criteria of a heavy smoking history are the foundation for the standard guidelines for low-dose chest computed tomography screening in the United States, currently only 27% of patients diagnosed with lung cancer would meet US lung cancer screening recommendations. Current and future efforts must be directed to better delineate those patients who would most benefit from screening and to ensure that the benefits of screening reach all socioeconomic strata and racial and ethnic minorities. Further optimization of lung cancer screening program design and patient eligibility will assure that lung cancer screening benefits will outweigh the potential risks to our patients.

  6. Automated Groundwater Screening

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, Glenn A.; Collard, Leonard, B.

    2005-10-31

    The Automated Intruder Analysis has been extended to include an Automated Ground Water Screening option. This option screens 825 radionuclides while rigorously applying the National Council on Radiation Protection (NCRP) methodology. An extension to that methodology is presented to give a more realistic screening factor for those radionuclides which have significant daughters. The extension has the promise of reducing the number of radionuclides which must be tracked by the customer. By combining the Automated Intruder Analysis with the Automated Groundwater Screening a consistent set of assumptions and databases is used. A method is proposed to eliminate trigger values by performing rigorous calculation of the screening factor thereby reducing the number of radionuclides sent to further analysis. Using the same problem definitions as in previous groundwater screenings, the automated groundwater screening found one additional nuclide, Ge-68, which failed the screening. It also found that 18 of the 57 radionuclides contained in NCRP Table 3.1 failed the screening. This report describes the automated groundwater screening computer application.

  7. Screening in liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Poggio, Paolo Del; Mazzoleni, Marzio

    2006-01-01

    A disease is suitable for screening if it is common, if the target population can be identified and reached and if both a good screening test and an effective therapy are available. Of the most common liver diseases only viral hepatitis and genetic hemochromatosis partially satisfy these conditions. Hepatitis C is common, the screening test is good and the therapy eliminates the virus in half of the cases, but problems arise in the definition of the target population. In fact generalized population screening is not endorsed by international guidelines, although some recommend screening immigrants from high prevalence countries. Opportunistic screening (case finding) of individuals with classic risk factors, such as transfusion before 1992 and drug addiction, is the most frequently used strategy, but there is disagreement whether prison inmates, individuals with a history of promiscuous or traumatic sex and health care workers should be screened. In a real practice setting the performance of opportunistic screening by general practitioners is low but can be ameliorated by training programs. Screening targeted to segments of the population or mass campaigns are expensive and therefore interventions should be aimed to improve opportunistic screening and the detection skills of general practitioners. Regarding genetic hemochromatosis there is insufficient evidence for population screening, but individual physicians can decide to screen racial groups with a high prevalence of the disease, such as people in early middle age and of northern European origin. In the other cases opportunistic screening of high risk individuals should be performed, with a high level of suspicion in case of unexplained liver disease, diabetes, juvenile artropathy, sexual dysfunction and skin pigmentation. PMID:16981254

  8. Turbulent flow through screens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, R. D.

    1984-01-01

    A detailed experimental investigation has been carried out on the effects of different types of screens on turbulent flow, in particular turbulent boundary layers. The effect of a screen on a turbulent boundary layer is to give it a 'new lease of life'. The boundary layer turbulence is reorganized and the thickness reduced, thus making it less susceptible to separation. The aerodynamic properties of plastic screens are found to differ significantly from those of the conventional metal screens, evidently because of differences in the weaving properties. The 'overshoot' in mean velocity profile near the boudnary layer edge is shown to be a result of the effect of screen inclination on pressure drop coefficient. A more accurate formulation for the deflection coefficient of a screen is also proposed.

  9. HANFORD NUCLEAR CRITICALITY SAFETY PROGRAM DATABASE

    SciTech Connect

    TOFFER, H.

    2005-05-02

    The Hanford Database is a useful information retrieval tool for a criticality safety practitioner. The database contains nuclear criticality literature screened for parameter studies. The entries, characterized with a value index, are segregated into 16 major and six minor categories. A majority of the screened entries have abstracts and a limited number are connected to the Office of Scientific and Technology Information (OSTI) database of full-size documents. Simple and complex searches of the data can be accomplished very rapidly and the end-product of the searches could be a full-size document. The paper contains a description of the database, user instructions, and a number of examples.

  10. The Trojan Horse Method in nuclear astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Spitaleri, C.; Mukhamedzhanov, A. M.; Blokhintsev, L. D.; Cognata, M. La; Pizzone, R. G.; Tumino, A.

    2011-12-15

    The study of energy production and nucleosynthesis in stars requires an increasingly precise knowledge of the nuclear reaction rates at the energies of interest. To overcome the experimental difficulties arising from the small cross sections at those energies and from the presence of the electron screening, the Trojan Horse Method has been introduced. The method provides a valid alternative path to measure unscreened low-energy cross sections of reactions between charged particles, and to retrieve information on the electron screening potential when ultra-low energy direct measurements are available.

  11. The Trojan Horse Method in nuclear astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spitaleri, C.; Mukhamedzhanov, A. M.; Blokhintsev, L. D.; Cognata, M. La; Pizzone, R. G.; Tumino, A.

    2011-12-01

    The study of energy production and nucleosynthesis in stars requires an increasingly precise knowledge of the nuclear reaction rates at the energies of interest. To overcome the experimental difficulties arising from the small cross sections at those energies and from the presence of the electron screening, the Trojan Horse Method has been introduced. The method provides a valid alternative path to measure unscreened low-energy cross sections of reactions between charged particles, and to retrieve information on the electron screening potential when ultra-low energy direct measurements are available.

  12. Terrorists and Nuclear Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krieger, David

    1975-01-01

    This essay explores the ways terrorist groups may gain possession of nuclear materials; the way in which they may use nuclear weapons and other nuclear technologies to their benefit; and various courses of action designed to minimize the possibilities of terrorists utilizing nuclear technology to their benefit and society's detriment. (BT)

  13. Terrorists and Nuclear Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krieger, David

    1975-01-01

    This essay explores the ways terrorist groups may gain possession of nuclear materials; the way in which they may use nuclear weapons and other nuclear technologies to their benefit; and various courses of action designed to minimize the possibilities of terrorists utilizing nuclear technology to their benefit and society's detriment. (BT)

  14. Nuclear medicine annual, 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, L.M.; Weissmann, H.S.

    1984-01-01

    The following topics are reviewed in this work: nuclear physicians role in planning for and handling radiation accidents; the role of nuclear medicine in evaluating the hypertensive patient; studies of the heart with radionuclides; role of radionuclide imaging in the patient undergoing chemotherapy; hematologic nuclear medicine; the role of nuclear medicine in sports related injuries; radionuclide evaluation of hepatic function with emphasis on cholestatis.

  15. Frontiers of Nuclear Structure

    SciTech Connect

    Nazarewicz, Witold

    1997-12-31

    Current developments in nuclear structure at the `limits` are discussed. The studies of nuclear behavior at extreme conditions provide us with invaluable information about the nature of the nuclear interaction and nucleonic correlations at various energy-distance scales. In this talk frontiers of nuclear structure are briefly reviewed from a theoretical perspective, mainly concentrating on medium-mass and heavy nuclei.

  16. The New Nuclear Nations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spector, Leonard S.

    1990-01-01

    Explores the issue of nuclear proliferation, noting that the countries with nuclear capability now include Israel, South Africa, India, and Pakistan. Describes the role and problems of the United States in halting nuclearization. Supplies charts, maps, and information concerning the state of nuclear capability in each country. (NL)

  17. Nuclear energy and security

    SciTech Connect

    BLEJWAS,THOMAS E.; SANDERS,THOMAS L.; EAGAN,ROBERT J.; BAKER,ARNOLD B.

    2000-01-01

    Nuclear power is an important and, the authors believe, essential component of a secure nuclear future. Although nuclear fuel cycles create materials that have some potential for use in nuclear weapons, with appropriate fuel cycles, nuclear power could reduce rather than increase real proliferation risk worldwide. Future fuel cycles could be designed to avoid plutonium production, generate minimal amounts of plutonium in proliferation-resistant amounts or configurations, and/or transparently and efficiently consume plutonium already created. Furthermore, a strong and viable US nuclear infrastructure, of which nuclear power is a large element, is essential if the US is to maintain a leadership or even participatory role in defining the global nuclear infrastructure and controlling the proliferation of nuclear weapons. By focusing on new fuel cycles and new reactor technologies, it is possible to advantageously burn and reduce nuclear materials that could be used for nuclear weapons rather than increase and/or dispose of these materials. Thus, the authors suggest that planners for a secure nuclear future use technology to design an ideal future. In this future, nuclear power creates large amounts of virtually atmospherically clean energy while significantly lowering the threat of proliferation through the thoughtful use, physical security, and agreed-upon transparency of nuclear materials. The authors must develop options for policy makers that bring them as close as practical to this ideal. Just as Atoms for Peace became the ideal for the first nuclear century, they see a potential nuclear future that contributes significantly to power for peace and prosperity.

  18. Nuclear air cushion vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, J. L.

    1973-01-01

    The state-of-the-art of the still-conceptual nuclear air cushion vehicle, particularly the nuclear powerplant is identified. Using mission studies and cost estimates, some of the advantages of nuclear power for large air cushion vehicles are described. The technology studies on mobile nuclear powerplants and conceptual ACV systems/missions studies are summarized.

  19. Detection for Nuclear Nonproliferation

    DOE PAGES

    Pozzi, Sara A.; Hamel, Michael C.; Polack, J. Kyle; ...

    2016-11-13

    The detection and characterization of special nuclear materials is a high priority area for applications in nuclear safeguards and nonproliferation. We are developing new instruments based on organic scintillators to detect and characterize the emissions from special nuclear materials. This paper describes some of the gaps and challenges in nuclear safeguards and proposed approaches.

  20. The New Nuclear Nations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spector, Leonard S.

    1990-01-01

    Explores the issue of nuclear proliferation, noting that the countries with nuclear capability now include Israel, South Africa, India, and Pakistan. Describes the role and problems of the United States in halting nuclearization. Supplies charts, maps, and information concerning the state of nuclear capability in each country. (NL)

  1. Composite scintillator screen

    DOEpatents

    Zeman, Herbert D.

    1994-01-01

    A scintillator screen for an X-ray system includes a substrate of low-Z material and bodies of a high-Z material embedded within the substrate. By preselecting the size of the bodies embedded within the substrate, the spacial separation of the bodies and the thickness of the screen, the sensitivity of the screen to X-rays within a predetermined energy range can be predicted.

  2. [Chilean nuclear policy].

    PubMed

    Bobadilla, E

    1996-06-01

    This official document is statement of the President of the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission, Dr. Eduardo Bobadilla, about the nuclear policy of the Chilean State, Thanks to the international policy adopted by presidents Aylwin (1990-1994) and his successor Frei Ruiz Tagle (1994-), a nuclear development plan, protected by the Chilean entrance to the nuclear weapons non proliferation treaty and Tlatelolco Denuclearization treaty, has started. Chile will be able to develop without interference, an autonomous nuclear electrical system and other pacific uses of nuclear energy. Chile also supports a new international treaty to ban nuclear weapon tests.

  3. The Texas-Indiana Virtual STAR Center: Zebrafish Models for Developmental Toxicity Screening

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Texas-Indiana Virtual STAR Center: Zebrafish Models for Developmental Toxicity Screening (Presented by Maria Bondesson Bolin, Ph.D, University of Houston, Center for Nuclear Receptors and Cell Signaling) (3/22/2012)

  4. Colorectal cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Chan, Pak Wo Webber; Ngu, Jing Hieng; Poh, Zhongxian; Soetikno, Roy

    2017-01-01

    Colorectal cancer, which is the leading cancer in Singapore, can be prevented by increased use of screening and polypectomy. A range of screening strategies such as stool-based tests, flexible sigmoidoscopy, colonoscopy and computed tomography colonography are available, each with different strengths and limitations. Primary care physicians should discuss appropriate screening modalities with their patients, tailored to their individual needs. Physicians, patients and the government should work in partnership to improve uptake of colorectal cancer screening to reduce the morbidity and mortality from colorectal cancer. Copyright: © Singapore Medical Association.

  5. Colorectal cancer screening

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Pak Wo Webber; Ngu, Jing Hieng; Poh, Zhongxian; Soetikno, Roy

    2017-01-01

    Colorectal cancer, which is the leading cancer in Singapore, can be prevented by increased use of screening and polypectomy. A range of screening strategies such as stool-based tests, flexible sigmoidoscopy, colonoscopy and computed tomography colonography are available, each with different strengths and limitations. Primary care physicians should discuss appropriate screening modalities with their patients, tailored to their individual needs. Physicians, patients and the government should work in partnership to improve uptake of colorectal cancer screening to reduce the morbidity and mortality from colorectal cancer. PMID:28111691

  6. Testicular Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... Laboratory for Cancer Research Partners & Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & Early Detection Treatment Cancer & Public Health ...

  7. Screening for colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Mandel, Jack S

    2008-03-01

    Although there are several methods available for colon cancer screening, none is optimal. This article reviews methods for screening, including fecal occult blood tests, flexible sigmoidoscopy, colonoscopy, CT colonography, capsule endoscopy, and double contrast barium enema. A simple, inexpensive, noninvasive, and relatively sensitive screening test is needed to identify people at risk for developing advanced adenomas or colorectal cancer who would benefit from colonoscopy. It is hoped that new markers will be identified that perform better. Until then we fortunately have a variety of screening strategies that do work.

  8. [Overdiagnosis in cancer screening].

    PubMed

    Cervera Deval, J; Sentís Crivillé, M; Zulueta, J J

    2015-01-01

    In screening programs, overdiagnosis is defined as the detection of a disease that would have gone undetected without screening when that disease would not have resulted in morbimortality and was treated unnecessarily. Overdiagnosis is a bias inherent in screening and an undesired effect of secondary prevention and improved sensitivity of diagnostic techniques. It is difficult to discriminate a priori between clinically relevant diagnoses and those in which treatment is unnecessary. To minimize the effects of overdiagnosis, screening should be done in patients at risk.

  9. The nuclear freeze controversy

    SciTech Connect

    Payne, K.B.; Gray, C.S.

    1984-01-01

    This book presents papers on nuclear arms control. Topics considered include the background and rationale behind the nuclear freeze proposal, nuclear deterrence, national defense, arms races, arms buildup, warfare, the moral aspects of nuclear deterrence, treaty verification, the federal budget, the economy, a historical perspective on Soviet policy toward the freeze, the other side of the Soviet peace offensive, and making sense of the nuclear freeze debate.

  10. 75 FR 3497 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., Entergy Nuclear Indian Point 2, LLC, Entergy Nuclear Indian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-21

    ..., ``Hybrid Hearing Procedures for Expansion of Spent Fuel Storage Capacity at Civilian Nuclear Power Reactors... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., Entergy Nuclear Indian Point 2, LLC, Entergy Nuclear...

  11. Nuclear Astrophysics with the Trojan Horse Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spitaleri, Claudio

    2015-04-01

    In stars nuclear reactions take place at physical conditions that make very hard their measurements in terrestrial laboratories. Indeed in astrophysical environments nuclear reactions between charged nuclei occur at energies much lower than the Coulomb barrier and the corresponding cross section values lie in the nano or picobarn regime, that makes their experimental determination extremely difficult. This is due to the very small barrier Coulomb penetration factor, which produces an exponential fall off of the cross section as a function of energy. Additionally, the presence of the electron screening needs to be properly taken into account when dealing with cross section measurements at low-energies. The Trojan Horse Method (THM) represents an independent experimental technique, allowing one to measure astrophysical S(E)-factor bared from both Coulomb penetration and electron screening effects. The main advantages and the most recent results are here shown and discussed.

  12. Quantum nuclear pasta and nuclear symmetry energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fattoyev, F. J.; Horowitz, C. J.; Schuetrumpf, B.

    2017-05-01

    Complex and exotic nuclear geometries, collectively referred to as "nuclear pasta," are expected to appear naturally in dense nuclear matter found in the crusts of neutron stars and supernovae environments. The pasta geometries depend on the average baryon density, proton fraction, and temperature and are critically important in the determination of many transport properties of matter in supernovae and the crusts of neutron stars. Using a set of self-consistent microscopic nuclear energy density functionals, we present the first results of large scale quantum simulations of pasta phases at baryon densities 0.03 ≤ρ ≤0.10 fm-3 , proton fractions 0.05 ≤Yp≤0.40 , and zero temperature. The full quantum simulations, in particular, allow us to thoroughly investigate the role and impact of the nuclear symmetry energy on pasta configurations. We use the Sky3D code that solves the Skyrme Hartree-Fock equations on a three-dimensional Cartesian grid. For the nuclear interaction we use the state-of-the-art UNEDF1 parametrization, which was introduced to study largely deformed nuclei, hence is suitable for studies of the nuclear pasta. Density dependence of the nuclear symmetry energy is simulated by tuning two purely isovector observables that are insensitive to the current available experimental data. We find that a minimum total number of nucleons A =2000 is necessary to prevent the results from containing spurious shell effects and to minimize finite size effects. We find that a variety of nuclear pasta geometries are present in the neutron star crust, and the result strongly depends on the nuclear symmetry energy. The impact of the nuclear symmetry energy is less pronounced as the proton fractions increase. Quantum nuclear pasta calculations at T =0 MeV are shown to get easily trapped in metastable states, and possible remedies to avoid metastable solutions are discussed.

  13. Ocular Screening System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The NASA imaging processing technology, an advanced computer technique to enhance images sent to Earth in digital form by distant spacecraft, helped develop a new vision screening process. The Ocular Vision Screening system, an important step in preventing vision impairment, is a portable device designed especially to detect eye problems in children through the analysis of retinal reflexes.

  14. Screening: the legal view.

    PubMed

    Eaden, J; Mayberry, M K; Sherr, A; Mayberry, J F

    2001-05-01

    Screening has become central to the effective prevention of several diseases, but implementation suffers from difficulties with targeting and rates of compliance. Such issues are also complicated by the need to consider legal provisions regarding confidentiality of patients and other human rights issues. Screening has been an inexact science in relation to, e.g., faecal occult blood testing for colorectal cancer, false positive and false negative tests for HIV, and there have been inadequate quality controls in breast cancer screening programmes. The public need to be made aware of what the screening programmes really offer, balanced against the expectations they may have. There needs to be a clearer understanding of the nature of the contractual and other legal rights of patients/consumers as against providers. A positive screening test may carry adverse consequences as well as benefits. It could alert an insurance company to a risk and lead to additional weighting or even outright rejection for life insurance policies. Job prospects may also be affected for employees. The method of informing patients in relation to screening and screening failure has already been considered by the courts. Realistic information about both screening and treatment efficiency needs to be offered to patients so that they can have a real understanding of what can and cannot be achieved by current science. The development of understanding of the human genome makes the need for clearer legislation in this are more urgent.

  15. Ocular Screening System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    An ocular screening system designed for safe, convenient screening of large groups was developed at Marshall Space Flight Center, leading to the formation of Medical Sciences Corporation. The system identifies visual defects accurately and inexpensively, and includes a photorefractor telephoto lens and an electronic flash. Medical Sciences Corporation is using the device to test at schools, industrial plants, etc.

  16. Behavioral Screening for Toxicology

    EPA Science Inventory

    Screening for behavioral toxicity, or neurotoxicity, has been in use for decades; however, only in the past 20 years has this become a standard practice in toxicology. Current screening batteries, such as the functional observational battery (FOB), are derived from protocols use...

  17. Scoliosis Screening in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Div. of Pupil Personnel Services.

    The booklet outlines New York state school policy and procedures for screening students for scoliosis, lateral curvature of the spine. It is explained that screening is designed to discover spinal deformities early enough to prevent surgery. Planning aspects, including organizing a planning team for the school district, are discussed. Among…

  18. Newborn Screening in Slovenia

    PubMed Central

    ŠMON, Andraž; GROŠELJ, Urh; ŽERJAV TANŠEK, Mojca; BIČEK, Ajda; OBLAK, Adrijana; ZUPANČIČ, Mirjana; KRŽIŠNIK, Ciril; REPIČ LAMPR ET, Barbka; MURKO, Simona; HOJKER, Sergej; BATTELINO, Tadej

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Newborn screening in whole Slovenia started in 1979 with screening for phenylketonuria (PKU). Congenital hypothyroidism (CH) was added into the programme in 1981. The aim of this study was to analyse the data of neonatal screening in Slovenia from 1993 to 2012 for PKU, and from 1991 to 2012 for CH. Methods Blood samples were collected from the heels of newborns between the third and the fifth day after birth. Fluorometric method was used for screening for PKU, CH screening was done by dissociation-enhanced lanthanide fluorescent immunoassay (DELFIA). Results From 1993 to 2012, from 385,831 newborns 57 were identified with PKU. 184 newborns out of 427,396 screened from 1991 to 2012, were confirmed for CH. Incidences of PKU and CH in the periods stated are 1:6769 and 1:2323, respectively. Conclusions Successful implementation of newborn screening for PKU and CH has helped in preventing serious disabilities of the affected children. Adding screening for new metabolic diseases in the future would be beneficial. PMID:27646913

  19. Newborn screening fact sheets.

    PubMed

    Kaye, Celia I; Accurso, Frank; La Franchi, Stephen; Lane, Peter A; Hope, Northrup; Sonya, Pang; G Bradley, Schaefer; Michele A, Lloyd-Puryear

    2006-09-01

    Newborn screening fact sheets were last revised in 1996 by the American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Genetics. This revision was prompted by advances in the field since 1996, including technologic innovations, as well as greater appreciation of ethical issues such as those surrounding informed consent. The following disorders are discussed in this revision of the newborn screening fact sheets: biotinidase deficiency, congenital adrenal hyperplasia, congenital hearing loss, congenital hypothyroidism, cystic fibrosis, galactosemia, homocystinuria, maple syrup urine disease, medium-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase deficiency, phenylketonuria, sickle cell disease and other hemoglobinopathies, and tyrosinemia. A series of topics related to newborn screening is discussed in a companion publication to this electronic publication of the fact sheets (available at: www.pediatrics.org/cgi/content/full/118/3/1304). These topics are newborn screening as a public health system; factors contributing to the need for review of the newborn screening system; informed consent; tandem mass spectrometry; DNA analysis in newborn screening; status of newborn screening in the United States; and the effect of sample timing, preterm birth, diet, transfusion, and total parenteral nutrition on newborn screening results.

  20. Behavioral Screening for Toxicology

    EPA Science Inventory

    Screening for behavioral toxicity, or neurotoxicity, has been in use for decades; however, only in the past 20 years has this become a standard practice in toxicology. Current screening batteries, such as the functional observational battery (FOB), are derived from protocols use...

  1. Scoliosis Screening in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Div. of Pupil Personnel Services.

    The booklet outlines New York state school policy and procedures for screening students for scoliosis, lateral curvature of the spine. It is explained that screening is designed to discover spinal deformities early enough to prevent surgery. Planning aspects, including organizing a planning team for the school district, are discussed. Among…

  2. The Trojan Horse Method in Nuclear Astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Spitaleri, C.

    2010-11-24

    The Trojan Horse Method allows for the measurements of cross section in nuclear reaction between charged particles at astrophysical energies. The basic features of the method are discussed in the non resonant reactions case. A review of applications aimed to extract the bare nucleus astrophysical S{sub b}(E) factor for two body processes are presented. The information on electron screening potential U{sub e} were obtained from comparison with direct experiments of fusion reactions.

  3. Psychological screening program overview.

    PubMed

    Wright, Kathleen M; Huffman, Ann H; Adler, Amy B; Castro, Carl A

    2002-10-01

    This article reviews the literature on health surveillance conducted during military deployments, focusing on models for assessing the impact of operational deployments on peacekeepers. A discussion of the stressors and potential mental health consequences of peacekeeping operations follows with relevant examples of findings from U.S. and international military forces. Psychological screening in different peacekeeping operations conducted in U.S. Army-Europe is reviewed. The review begins with the redeployment screening of military personnel deployed to Bosnia mandated under the Joint Medical Surveillance Program, and continues through the present screening of units deployed to Kosovo. The detailed description of the screening program includes a discussion of procedures and measures and demonstrates the evolution of the program. A summary of key findings from the screening program and a discussion of future research directions are provided.

  4. [Colorectal cancer screening].

    PubMed

    Castells, Antoni

    2015-09-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of malignancies showing the greatest benefit from preventive measures, especially screening or secondary prevention. Several screening strategies are available with demonstrated efficacy and efficiency. The most widely used are the faecal occult blood test in countries with population-based screening programmes, and colonoscopy in those conducting opportunistic screening. The present article reviews the most important presentations on colorectal cancer screening at the annual congress of the American Gastroenterological Association held in Washington in 2015, with special emphasis on the medium-term results of faecal occult blood testing strategies and determining factors and on strategies to reduce the development of interval cancer after colonoscopy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. High-throughput fragment screening by affinity LC-MS.

    PubMed

    Duong-Thi, Minh-Dao; Bergström, Maria; Fex, Tomas; Isaksson, Roland; Ohlson, Sten

    2013-02-01

    Fragment screening, an emerging approach for hit finding in drug discovery, has recently been proven effective by its first approved drug, vemurafenib, for cancer treatment. Techniques such as nuclear magnetic resonance, surface plasmon resonance, and isothemal titration calorimetry, with their own pros and cons, have been employed for screening fragment libraries. As an alternative approach, screening based on high-performance liquid chromatography separation has been developed. In this work, we present weak affinity LC/MS as a method to screen fragments under high-throughput conditions. Affinity-based capillary columns with immobilized thrombin were used to screen a collection of 590 compounds from a fragment library. The collection was divided into 11 mixtures (each containing 35 to 65 fragments) and screened by MS detection. The primary screening was performed in <4 h (corresponding to >3500 fragments per day). Thirty hits were defined, which subsequently entered a secondary screening using an active site-blocked thrombin column for confirmation of specificity. One hit showed selective binding to thrombin with an estimated dissociation constant (K (D)) in the 0.1 mM range. This study shows that affinity LC/MS is characterized by high throughput, ease of operation, and low consumption of target and fragments, and therefore it promises to be a valuable method for fragment screening.

  6. Screening for antinuclear antibodies by enzyme immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Jaskowski, T D; Schroder, C; Martins, T B; Mouritsen, C L; Litwin, C M; Hill, H R

    1996-04-01

    Indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) ia most widely used method in clin clinical laboratories to screen for autoantibodies against a wide variety of nuclear antigens. Recently, a number of antinuclear antibody (ANA) enzyme immunoassay (EIA) screens have become commercially available and claim to be an alternative method to screen for ANAs. Given the subjectivity of technical interpretation of IFA and the high number of ANA negative samples, a suitable EIA method for ANA screening would be beneficial to clinical laboratories with large samples volumes. Five ANA EIA screens were compared (Elias, Helix, Sanofi, TheraTest and Zeus) to IFA using a human epithelial cell line (HEp-2). Sera from 601 patients submitted to our reference laboratory for autoimmune testing, and from 202 normal healthy blood donors, were included in this study. Samples with discordant results between IFA and EIA were further analyzed using single antigen EIAs for SSA, SSB, Sm, RNP, Scl-70, histones, dsDNA, and ssDNA. Analyses were based on clinically significant IFA titers of > or equal to 1:160 as positive and <1:40 as negative. When compared to IFA, agreement, sensitivity and specificity for each ANA EIA screen were as follows: Elias: 87.0%, 69.5% and 97.9%; Helix: 94.6%, 90.2%, and 97.3%; Sanofi: 95.0%, 93.7%, and 95.9%; TheraTest: 95.3%, 97.7%, and 93.5%; Zeus: 87.1%, 96.2%, and 81.4%, respectively. In conclusion, screening for ANAs by EIA using several commercial assays was both sensitive and specific when compared to IFA. Moreover, the EIA is objective and much less labor intensive when screening a large number of clinical specimens. None of the EIAs were 100% sensitive and, thus, may fail to detect a few of the nonspecific ANAs that demonstrate atypical as well as classical IFA patterns. The advantages of employing these nonsubjective assays to screen out the vast majority of ANA negative sera is clear. The authors still recommend confirming titers and patterns of sera with positive EIA

  7. Nuclear Waste Disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Gee, Glendon W.; Meyer, Philip D.; Ward, Andy L.

    2005-01-12

    Nuclear wastes are by-products of nuclear weapons production and nuclear power generation, plus residuals of radioactive materials used by industry, medicine, agriculture, and academia. Their distinctive nature and potential hazard make nuclear wastes not only the most dangerous waste ever created by mankind, but also one of the most controversial and regulated with respect to disposal. Nuclear waste issues, related to uncertainties in geologic disposal and long-term protection, combined with potential misuse by terrorist groups, have created uneasiness and fear in the general public and remain stumbling blocks for further development of a nuclear industry in a world that may soon be facing a global energy crisis.

  8. Barriers to cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Womeodu, R J; Bailey, J E

    1996-01-01

    Many barriers to cancer screening have been summarized and discussed. Barriers have been documented in all patient populations, but some groups such as ethnic minorities and the elderly face unique barriers. The barriers to cancer screening, are multifactorial, but much of the responsibility for change must lie with health care providers and the health care delivery industry. This is not to free the patient of all responsibility, but some significant barriers are beyond their direct control. Take, for example, socioeconomic status, disease knowledge, and culturally related perceptions and myths about cancer detection and treatment. The health care industry must do a better job identifying and overcoming these barriers. The significant effects of provider counseling and advice must not be underestimated. Patients must first be advised, and then further actions must be taken if they reject the screening advice. Did they refuse adherence to recommendations because they do not view themselves as susceptible, because of overwhelming personal barriers, or because of a fatalistic attitude toward cancer detection and treatment? If that is the case, physicians and health care institutions must attempt to change perceptions, educate, and personalize the message so that patients accept their disease susceptibility [table: see text]. Multiple patient and provider risk factors have been identified that can be used to target patients particularly at high risk for inadequate cancer screening and providers at high risk for performing inadequate screening. Research has clearly demonstrated the effectiveness of interventions to improve tracking of patient and physician compliance with screening recommendations. Further research is needed to show the impact of managed-care penetration and payer status on screening efforts, and incentive schemes need to be tested that reward institutions and third-party payers who develop uniform standards and procedures for cancer screening. The

  9. 10 CFR 26.131 - Cutoff levels for validity screening and initial validity tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cutoff levels for validity screening and initial validity tests. 26.131 Section 26.131 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Licensee Testing Facilities § 26.131 Cutoff levels for validity screening and initial validity tests. (a) Each...

  10. 10 CFR 26.131 - Cutoff levels for validity screening and initial validity tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cutoff levels for validity screening and initial validity tests. 26.131 Section 26.131 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Licensee Testing Facilities § 26.131 Cutoff levels for validity screening and initial validity tests. (a) Each...

  11. 10 CFR 26.131 - Cutoff levels for validity screening and initial validity tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cutoff levels for validity screening and initial validity tests. 26.131 Section 26.131 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Licensee Testing Facilities § 26.131 Cutoff levels for validity screening and initial validity tests. (a) Each...

  12. 10 CFR 26.131 - Cutoff levels for validity screening and initial validity tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cutoff levels for validity screening and initial validity tests. 26.131 Section 26.131 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Licensee Testing Facilities § 26.131 Cutoff levels for validity screening and initial validity tests. (a)...

  13. 10 CFR 26.131 - Cutoff levels for validity screening and initial validity tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cutoff levels for validity screening and initial validity tests. 26.131 Section 26.131 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Licensee Testing Facilities § 26.131 Cutoff levels for validity screening and initial validity tests. (a)...

  14. Spent Nuclear Fuel Disposition

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, John C.

    2016-05-22

    One interdisciplinary field devoted to achieving the end-state of used nuclear fuel (UNF) through reuse and/or permanent disposal. The reuse option aims to make use of the remaining energy content in UNF and reduce the amount of long-lived radioactive materials that require permanent disposal. The planned approach in the U.S., as well as in many other countries worldwide, is direct permanent disposal in a deep geologic repository. Used nuclear fuel is fuel that has been irradiated in a nuclear reactor to the point where it is no longer capable of sustaining operational objectives. The vast majority (by mass) of UNF is from electricity generation in commercial nuclear power reactors. Furthermore, the other main source of UNF in the U.S. is the Department of Energy’s (DOE) and other federal agencies’ operation of reactors in support of federal government missions, such as materials production, nuclear propulsion, research, testing, and training. Upon discharge from a reactor, UNF emits considerable heat from radioactive decay. Some period of active on-site cooling (e.g., 2 or more years) is typically required to facilitate efficient packaging and transportation to a disposition facility. Hence, the field of UNF disposition broadly includes storage, transportation and ultimate disposition. See also: Nuclear Fission (content/nuclear-fission/458400), Nuclear Fuels (/content/nuclear-fuels/458600), Nuclear Fuel Cycle (/content/nuclear-fuel-cycle/458500), Nuclear Fuels Reprocessing (/content/nuclear-fuels-reprocessing/458700), Nuclear Power (/content/nuclear-power/459600), Nuclear Reactor (/content/nuclear-reactor/460100), Radiation (/content/radiation/566300), and Radioactive Waste Management (/content/radioactive-waste-management/568900).

  15. Spent Nuclear Fuel Disposition

    DOE PAGES

    Wagner, John C.

    2016-05-22

    One interdisciplinary field devoted to achieving the end-state of used nuclear fuel (UNF) through reuse and/or permanent disposal. The reuse option aims to make use of the remaining energy content in UNF and reduce the amount of long-lived radioactive materials that require permanent disposal. The planned approach in the U.S., as well as in many other countries worldwide, is direct permanent disposal in a deep geologic repository. Used nuclear fuel is fuel that has been irradiated in a nuclear reactor to the point where it is no longer capable of sustaining operational objectives. The vast majority (by mass) of UNFmore » is from electricity generation in commercial nuclear power reactors. Furthermore, the other main source of UNF in the U.S. is the Department of Energy’s (DOE) and other federal agencies’ operation of reactors in support of federal government missions, such as materials production, nuclear propulsion, research, testing, and training. Upon discharge from a reactor, UNF emits considerable heat from radioactive decay. Some period of active on-site cooling (e.g., 2 or more years) is typically required to facilitate efficient packaging and transportation to a disposition facility. Hence, the field of UNF disposition broadly includes storage, transportation and ultimate disposition. See also: Nuclear Fission (content/nuclear-fission/458400), Nuclear Fuels (/content/nuclear-fuels/458600), Nuclear Fuel Cycle (/content/nuclear-fuel-cycle/458500), Nuclear Fuels Reprocessing (/content/nuclear-fuels-reprocessing/458700), Nuclear Power (/content/nuclear-power/459600), Nuclear Reactor (/content/nuclear-reactor/460100), Radiation (/content/radiation/566300), and Radioactive Waste Management (/content/radioactive-waste-management/568900).« less

  16. Nuclear Security for Floating Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Skiba, James M.; Scherer, Carolynn P.

    2015-10-13

    Recently there has been a lot of interest in small modular reactors. A specific type of these small modular reactors (SMR,) are marine based power plants called floating nuclear power plants (FNPP). These FNPPs are typically built by countries with extensive knowledge of nuclear energy, such as Russia, France, China and the US. These FNPPs are built in one country and then sent to countries in need of power and/or seawater desalination. Fifteen countries have expressed interest in acquiring such power stations. Some designs for such power stations are briefly summarized. Several different avenues for cooperation in FNPP technology are proposed, including IAEA nuclear security (i.e. safeguards), multilateral or bilateral agreements, and working with Russian design that incorporates nuclear safeguards for IAEA inspections in non-nuclear weapons states

  17. Preimplantation genetic screening.

    PubMed

    Harper, Joyce C

    2017-01-01

    Preimplantation genetic diagnosis was first successfully performed in 1989 as an alternative to prenatal diagnosis for couples at risk of transmitting a genetic or chromosomal abnormality, such as cystic fibrosis, to their child. From embryos generated in vitro, biopsied cells are genetically tested. From the mid-1990s, this technology has been employed as an embryo selection tool for patients undergoing in vitro fertilisation, screening as many chromosomes as possible, in the hope that selecting chromosomally normal embryos will lead to higher implantation and decreased miscarriage rates. This procedure, preimplantation genetic screening, was initially performed using fluorescent in situ hybridisation, but 11 randomised controlled trials of screening using this technique showed no improvement in in vitro fertilisation delivery rates. Progress in genetic testing has led to the introduction of array comparative genomic hybridisation, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and next generation sequencing for preimplantation genetic screening, and three small randomised controlled trials of preimplantation genetic screening using these new techniques indicate a modest benefit. Other trials are still in progress but, regardless of their results, preimplantation genetic screening is now being offered globally. In the near future, it is likely that sequencing will be used to screen the full genetic code of the embryo.

  18. Preschool vision screening.

    PubMed Central

    Jarvis, S N; Tamhne, R C; Thompson, L; Francis, P M; Anderson, J; Colver, A F

    1991-01-01

    Although a good case for preschool screening for vision defects can be made there is very little evidence that existing programmes are effective in practice. A comparative trial of three different methods of preschool vision screening is described. Some 7000 children initially aged 5 months (younger cohorts) and 30 months (older cohorts) in three matched areas entered the trial during 1987. During 18 months of follow up new visual and ocular defects among these children were ascertained through ophthalmology outpatients and from optician records. Screening at 35 months by an orthoptist based in the community is superior to conventional health visitor surveillance at 30 months and to an agreed programme of primary care screening for squint at 30-36 months as judged by screening sensitivity (100% v 50% v 50%) and the incidence of treated target conditions (17 v 3 v 5 per 1000 person years). A notable feature in the area served by the orthoptist is that 13 children received treatment for straight eyed visual acuity loss from among 1000 children whereas there were no such cases among 2500 in the comparison areas. In the younger cohorts (that is, screening at age 5-9 months) all three programmes showed equally poor results, only one of the eight treated target conditions arising from all 3500 younger children being screen detected. PMID:2025002

  19. Colorectal cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Bretthauer, M

    2011-08-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cause of cancer death worldwide and a major health problem. In this review, the different approaches for CRC screening will be outlined with emphasis on evidence-based medicine. Evidence from randomized trials on the effectiveness of CRC screening is summarized. Several screening tools for CRC are available. They can be categorized according to their mode of action: early detection tools such as the faecal occult blood test (FOBT) and cancer prevention tools such as flexible sigmoidoscopy and colonoscopy. Meta-analyses of randomized trials show that FOBT screening reduces CRC mortality by 16% (risk ratio 0.84; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.78-0.9) compared with 30% (risk ratio 0.7; 95% CI 0.6-0.81) for flexible sigmoidoscopy screening. FOBT screening is cheap and noninvasive, but results in large numbers of false-positive tests and needs to be repeated frequently. Flexible sigmoidoscopy is more invasive, but is effective for once-only screening. Although colonoscopy screening is used in some countries, no randomized trials have been conducted to estimate its benefit, and therefore, it should not be recommended at the present time. Faecal occult blood test and flexible sigmoidoscopy are the two CRC screening tools that can be recommended as they have been proven to reduce CRC mortality. Colonoscopy has the potential to be superior to FOBT and flexible sigmoidoscopy, but needs to be evaluated in randomized trials before any recommendation can be provided. © 2011 The Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine.

  20. RBC nuclear scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003835.htm RBC nuclear scan To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. An RBC nuclear scan uses small amounts of radioactive material to ...

  1. Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    NASA's history with nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) technology goes back to the earliest days of the Agency. The Manned Lunar Rover Vehicle and the Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Applications p...

  2. Teaching "The Nuclear Predicament."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carman, Philip; Kneeshaw, Stephen

    1987-01-01

    Contends that courses on nuclear war must help students examine the political, social, religious, philosophical, economic, and moral assumptions which characterized the dilemma of nuclear armament/disarmament. Describes the upper level undergraduate course taught by the authors. (JDH)

  3. Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This report contains brief papers that discusses the following topics: Fundamental Symmetries in the Nucleus; Internucleon Interactions; Dynamics of Very Light Nuclei; Facets of the Nuclear Many-Body Problem; and Nuclear Instruments and Methods.

  4. Teaching "The Nuclear Predicament."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carman, Philip; Kneeshaw, Stephen

    1987-01-01

    Contends that courses on nuclear war must help students examine the political, social, religious, philosophical, economic, and moral assumptions which characterized the dilemma of nuclear armament/disarmament. Describes the upper level undergraduate course taught by the authors. (JDH)

  5. Nuclear fear revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crease, Robert P.

    2010-10-01

    In 1988 the science historian Spencer Weart published a groundbreaking book called Nuclear Fear: A History of Images, which examined visions of radiation damage and nuclear disaster in newspapers, television, film, literature, advertisements and popular culture.

  6. Nuclear disarmament verification

    SciTech Connect

    DeVolpi, A.

    1993-12-31

    Arms control treaties, unilateral actions, and cooperative activities -- reflecting the defusing of East-West tensions -- are causing nuclear weapons to be disarmed and dismantled worldwide. In order to provide for future reductions and to build confidence in the permanency of this disarmament, verification procedures and technologies would play an important role. This paper outlines arms-control objectives, treaty organization, and actions that could be undertaken. For the purposes of this Workshop on Verification, nuclear disarmament has been divided into five topical subareas: Converting nuclear-weapons production complexes, Eliminating and monitoring nuclear-weapons delivery systems, Disabling and destroying nuclear warheads, Demilitarizing or non-military utilization of special nuclear materials, and Inhibiting nuclear arms in non-nuclear-weapons states. This paper concludes with an overview of potential methods for verification.

  7. Nuclear radiation actuated valve

    DOEpatents

    Christiansen, David W.; Schively, Dixon P.

    1985-01-01

    A nuclear radiation actuated valve for a nuclear reactor. The valve has a valve first part (such as a valve rod with piston) and a valve second part (such as a valve tube surrounding the valve rod, with the valve tube having side slots surrounding the piston). Both valve parts have known nuclear radiation swelling characteristics. The valve's first part is positioned to receive nuclear radiation from the nuclear reactor's fuel region. The valve's second part is positioned so that its nuclear radiation induced swelling is different from that of the valve's first part. The valve's second part also is positioned so that the valve's first and second parts create a valve orifice which changes in size due to the different nuclear radiation caused swelling of the valve's first part compared to the valve's second part. The valve may be used in a nuclear reactor's core coolant system.

  8. Screening for Developmental Disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Carol; Duran-Flores, Deborah; Dumars, Kenneth W.; Stills, Stanley

    1985-01-01

    Developmental disabilities are responsible for a combination of severe physical, mental, psychological and social deficits. They develop before age 22 years and involve a little more than 1% of the population. Screening for developmental disabilities is the first step in their prevention. Various screening instruments are available for use throughout the developmental years that are designed to detect the wide variety of developmental problems that interfere with a developing person's optimal adaptation to his or her environment. The screening instruments must be inexpensive, reproducible, widely available and cost effective to the child, family and society. PMID:2413633

  9. Screening for Pancreatic Cancer.

    PubMed

    Ngamruengphong, Saowanee; Canto, Marcia Irene

    2016-12-01

    Pancreatic cancer (PC) is a highly fatal disease that can only be cured by complete surgical resection. However, most patients with PC have unresectable disease at the time of diagnosis, highlighting the need to detect PC and its precursor lesions earlier in asymptomatic patients. Screening is not cost-effective for population-based screening of PC. Individuals with genetic risk factors for PC based on family history or known PC-associated genetic syndromes, however, can be a potential target for PC screening programs. This article provides an overview of the epidemiology and genetic background of familial PC and discusses diagnostic and management approaches.

  10. Lung Cancer Screening.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Richard M; Sanchez, Rolando

    2017-07-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in the United States. More than 80% of these deaths are attributed to tobacco use, and primary prevention can effectively reduce the cancer burden. The National Lung Screening Trial showed that low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) screening could reduce lung cancer mortality in high-risk patients by 20% compared with chest radiography. The US Preventive Services Task Force recommends annual LDCT screening for persons aged 55 to 80 years with a 30-pack-year smoking history, either currently smoking or having quit within 15 years. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Risks of Prostate Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... Genetics of Prostate Cancer Prostate Cancer Screening Research Prostate Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Go ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Prostate Cancer Key Points Prostate cancer is a disease in ...

  12. A History of Vision Screening.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appelboom, Tina M.

    1985-01-01

    The vision screening program has a long and interesting history involving educators, pediatricians, optometrists, and ophthamologists. This historical review of vision screening in the schools includes a discussion of amblyopia and screening of preschool students. (Author/CB)

  13. A History of Vision Screening.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appelboom, Tina M.

    1985-01-01

    The vision screening program has a long and interesting history involving educators, pediatricians, optometrists, and ophthamologists. This historical review of vision screening in the schools includes a discussion of amblyopia and screening of preschool students. (Author/CB)

  14. Linking International Cancer Screening Efforts

    Cancer.gov

    Drs. Sudha Sivaram and Steve Taplin speak at the International Cancer Screening Network (ICSN) Meeting, which brings together individuals involved in cancer screening research and cancer screening programs from the ICSN’s member countries.

  15. Risks of Lung Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatment Lung Cancer Prevention Lung Cancer Screening Research Lung Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Lung Cancer Key Points Lung cancer is a disease ...

  16. Cold nuclear fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsyganov, E. N.; Bavizhev, M. D.; Buryakov, M. G.; Dabagov, S. B.; Golovatyuk, V. M.; Lobastov, S. P.

    2015-07-01

    If target deuterium atoms were implanted in a metal crystal in accelerator experiments, a sharp increase in the probability of DD-fusion reaction was clearly observed when compared with the reaction's theoretical value. The electronic screening potential, which for a collision of free deuterium atoms is about 27 eV, reached 300-700 eV in the case of the DD-fusion in metallic crystals. These data leads to the conclusion that a ban must exist for deuterium atoms to be in the ground state 1s in a niche filled with free conduction electrons. At the same time, the state 2p whose energy level is only 10 eV above that of state 1s is allowed in these conditions. With anisotropy of 2p, 3p or above orbitals, their spatial positions are strictly determined in the lattice coordinate system. When filling out the same potential niches with two deuterium atoms in the states 2p, 3p or higher, the nuclei of these atoms can be permanently positioned without creating much Coulomb repulsion at a very short distance from each other. In this case, the transparency of the potential barrier increases dramatically compared to the ground state 1s for these atoms. The probability of the deuterium nuclei penetrating the Coulomb barrier by zero quantum vibration of the DD-system also increases dramatically. The so-called cold nuclear DD-fusion for a number of years was registered in many experiments, however, was still rejected by mainstream science for allegedly having no consistent scientific explanation. Finally, it received the validation. Below, we outline the concept of this explanation and give the necessary calculations. This paper also considers the further destiny of the formed intermediate state of 4He∗.

  17. Nuclear power browning out

    SciTech Connect

    Flavin, C.; Lenssen, N.

    1996-05-01

    When the sad history of nuclear power is written, April 26, 1986, will be recorded as the day the dream died. The explosion at the Chernobyl plant was a terrible human tragedy- and it delivered a stark verdict on the hope that nuclear power will one day replace fossil fuel-based energy systems. Nuclear advocates may soldier on, but a decade after Chernobyl it is clear that nuclear power is no longer a viable energy option for the twenty-first century.

  18. JPRS Report Nuclear Developments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    release; Distribution Unlimited | -—fb 40 Nuclear Developments JPRS-TND-88-016 CONTENTS 2 SEPTEMBER 1988 CHINA Nuclear Power Chief Seeks...Foreign Cooperation [Yuan Zhou; CHINA DAILY (BUSINESS WEEKLY) 1 Aug 88] 1 Nuclear Fusion Study Reaches Advanced Level [Xiao Longlian; Beijing...Government ’Welcomes’ Group [Beijing XINHUA 12 Aug 88] 4 No Decision on Disposal of Daya Nuclear Waste [Andy Ho; Hong Kong SOUTH CHINA MORNING POST

  19. Nuclear air cushion vehicles.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, J. L.

    1973-01-01

    This paper serves several functions. It identifies the 'state-of-the-art' of the still-conceptual nuclear air cushion vehicle, particularly the nuclear powerplant. Using mission studies and cost estimates, the report describes some of the advantages of nuclear power for large air cushion vehicles. The paper also summarizes the technology studies on mobile nuclear powerplants and conceptual ACV systems/missions studies that have been performed at NASA Lewis Research Center.

  20. Teaching Nuclear History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holl, Jack M.; Convis, Sheila C.

    1991-01-01

    Presents results of a survey of the teaching about nuclear history at U.S. colleges and universities. Reports the existence of a well-established and extensive literature, a focus on nuclear weapons or warfare, and a concentration on nuclear citizenship, therapy, or eschatology for courses outside of history departments. Discusses individual…

  1. NUCLEAR REACTOR CONTROL SYSTEM

    DOEpatents

    Epler, E.P.; Hanauer, S.H.; Oakes, L.C.

    1959-11-01

    A control system is described for a nuclear reactor using enriched uranium fuel of the type of the swimming pool and other heterogeneous nuclear reactors. Circuits are included for automatically removing and inserting the control rods during the course of normal operation. Appropriate safety circuits close down the nuclear reactor in the event of emergency.

  2. Effects of Nuclear Weapons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sartori, Leo

    1983-01-01

    Fundamental principles governing nuclear explosions and their effects are discussed, including three components of a nuclear explosion (thermal radiation, shock wave, nuclear radiation). Describes how effects of these components depend on the weapon's yield, its height of burst, and distance of detonation point. Includes effects of three…

  3. Basic Nuclear Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Naval Personnel, Washington, DC.

    Basic concepts of nuclear structures, radiation, nuclear reactions, and health physics are presented in this text, prepared for naval officers. Applications to the area of nuclear power are described in connection with pressurized water reactors, experimental boiling water reactors, homogeneous reactor experiments, and experimental breeder…

  4. Effects of Nuclear Weapons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sartori, Leo

    1983-01-01

    Fundamental principles governing nuclear explosions and their effects are discussed, including three components of a nuclear explosion (thermal radiation, shock wave, nuclear radiation). Describes how effects of these components depend on the weapon's yield, its height of burst, and distance of detonation point. Includes effects of three…

  5. Nuclear energy technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buden, David

    1992-01-01

    An overview of space nuclear energy technologies is presented. The development and characteristics of radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTG's) and space nuclear power reactors are discussed. In addition, the policy and issues related to public safety and the use of nuclear power sources in space are addressed.

  6. Nuclear fact book

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, O. F.; Platt, A. M.; Robinson, J. V.

    1983-05-01

    This reference provides significant highlights and summary facts in the following areas: general energy; nuclear energy; nuclear fuel cycle; uranium supply and enrichment; nuclear reactors; spent fuel and advanced repacking concepts; reprocessing; high-level waste; gaseous waste; transuranic waste; low-level waste; remedial action; transportation; disposal; radiation information; environment; legislation; socio-political aspects; conversion factors; and a glossary. (GHT)

  7. Teaching Nuclear History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holl, Jack M.; Convis, Sheila C.

    1991-01-01

    Presents results of a survey of the teaching about nuclear history at U.S. colleges and universities. Reports the existence of a well-established and extensive literature, a focus on nuclear weapons or warfare, and a concentration on nuclear citizenship, therapy, or eschatology for courses outside of history departments. Discusses individual…

  8. JPRS Report, Nuclear Developments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-24

    TURKEY Joint Argentine Firm To Sell Nuclear Reactors [ANATOLIA] ....................................................... 34 Civil Defense Against Iraqi... Reactor and Nuclear Materials Control Law, the Radiation Hazard Prevention Law and the Law on THAILAND the Promotion of Development and Peaceful Applica...and carried without nuclear fuel in the reactor and only with generating unit 5 in particular are obviously passing the help of expensive equipment

  9. Nuclear systems 1

    SciTech Connect

    Todreas, N.E.; Kazami, M.J. )

    1990-01-01

    The book covers thermal hydraulic design fundamentals and analysis of the core of a nuclear reactor. Other components of the nuclear power plant, such as the pressurizer, the containment and the entire primary coolant system are addressed. The book reflects the importance of such considerations in thermal engineering of a modern nuclear power plant.

  10. Revitalizing Nuclear Safety Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC.

    This report covers the general issues involved in nuclear safety research and points out the areas needing detailed consideration. Topics included are: (1) "Principles of Nuclear Safety Research" (examining who should fund, who should conduct, and who should set the agenda for nuclear safety research); (2) "Elements of a Future…

  11. Revitalizing Nuclear Safety Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC.

    This report covers the general issues involved in nuclear safety research and points out the areas needing detailed consideration. Topics included are: (1) "Principles of Nuclear Safety Research" (examining who should fund, who should conduct, and who should set the agenda for nuclear safety research); (2) "Elements of a Future…

  12. Barriers to screening mammography.

    PubMed

    Sarma, Elizabeth A

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer (BRCA) is the second most commonly diagnosed cancer among women in the USA, and mammography is an effective means for the early detection of BRCA. Identifying the barriers to screening mammography can inform research, policy and practice aiming to increase mammography adherence. A literature review was conducted to determine common barriers to screening mammography adherence. PsycINFO and PubMed databases were searched to identify studies published between 2000 and 2012 that examined barriers associated with reduced mammography adherence. Three thematic groups of barriers, based on social ecology, were identified from the literature: healthcare system-level, social and individual-level barriers. Researchers must consider screening behaviour in context and, therefore, should simultaneously consider each level of barriers when attempting to understand screening behaviour and create interventions to increase mammography adherence.

  13. Newborn screening tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... at least 26 disorders on an expanded and standardized uniform panel. The most thorough screening panel checks ... diagnose illnesses. They show which babies need more testing to confirm or rule out illnesses. If follow- ...

  14. TMIST Breast Screening Study

    Cancer.gov

    TMIST is a randomized breast screening trial that compares two Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved types of digital mammography, standard digital mammography (2-D) with a newer technology called tomosynthesis mammography (3-D).

  15. Early School Screening Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maitland, Suzanne; And Others

    1974-01-01

    To ascertain the prevalence of early school screening practices, the specific tests employed, and the use made of the test results, a survey was conducted of a representative sample of 980 school districts in the United States. (Author)

  16. Screening for ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Menon, Usha; Jacobs, Ian

    2002-08-01

    There has been considerable interest in the prospect of early detection of ovarian cancer through screening asymptomatic women, in both the general and 'high-risk' populations. Over the last decade screening strategies using the serum marker CA126 and transvaginal ultrasound have been refined and encouraging data have emerged on the impact of screening on ovarian cancer survival rates. Two randomized controlled trials are now underway in the general population to establish the impact of screening on ovarian cancer mortality while comprehensively tackling the issues of compliance, health economics and physical and psychological morbidity. In addition, trials in the high-risk population aimed at optimizing the current strategy have commenced in both the USA and the UK.

  17. Environmental Stress Screening 2000

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibbel, Mark

    1997-01-01

    The following identifies the authors of this report and the organizations that sponsored the effort conducted under the National Center for Manufacturing Sciences (NCMS) Environmental Stress Screening (ESS) 2000 Project.

  18. Early School Screening Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maitland, Suzanne; And Others

    1974-01-01

    To ascertain the prevalence of early school screening practices, the specific tests employed, and the use made of the test results, a survey was conducted of a representative sample of 980 school districts in the United States. (Author)

  19. Serum phenylalanine screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... test to look for signs of the disease phenylketonuria (PKU). The test detects abnormally high levels of ... A.M. Editorial team. Newborn Screening Read more Phenylketonuria Read more Latest Health News Read more A. ...

  20. Urine drug screen

    MedlinePlus

    Drug screen -- urine ... detect the presence of illegal and some prescription drugs in your urine. Their presence indicates that you recently used these drugs. Some drugs may remain in your system for ...

  1. Regional Screening Levels (RSLs)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Regional Screening Level RSL Home Page introduces risk assessors to Chemical Risk Assessment preliminary remediation goals PRG risk based concentration RBC and risk calculations for the assessment of human Health.

  2. Screening for Cervical Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... a combination of cytology and HPV testing every 5 years . Grade A 2 The USPSTF recommends against screening ... Pap test and an HPV test together every 5 years has similar benefits and harms to getting a ...

  3. RAS - Screens & Assays

    Cancer.gov

    A primary goal of the RAS Initiative is to develop assays for RAS activity, localization, and signaling and adapt those assays so they can be used for finding new drug candidates. Explore the work leading to highly validated screening protocols.

  4. Lung cancer screening update

    PubMed Central

    Dhillon, Samjot Singh; Loewen, Gregory; Jayaprakash, Vijayvel; Reid, Mary E.

    2013-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality globally and the American cancer society estimates approximately 226,160 new cases and 160,340 deaths from lung cancer in the USA in the year 2012. The majority of lung cancers are diagnosed in the later stages which impacts the overall survival. The 5-year survival rate for pathological st age IA lung cancer is 73% but drops to only 13% for stage IV. Thus, early detection through screening and prevention are the keys to reduce the global burden of lung cancer. This article discusses the current state of lung cancer screening, including the results of the National Lung Cancer Screening Trial, the consideration of implementing computed tomography screening, and a brief overview of the role of bronchoscopy in early detection and potential biomarkers that may aid in the early diagnosis of lung cancer. PMID:23599684

  5. Screening for Depression

    MedlinePlus

    Depression and Bipolar Support Alliance Crisis Hotline Information Coping with a Crisis Suicide Prevention Information Psychiatric Hospitalization ... sign-up Education info, training, events Mood Disorders Depression Bipolar Disorder Anxiety Screening Center Co-occurring Illnesses/ ...

  6. Virtual screening against obesity.

    PubMed

    Markt, P; Herdlinger, S; Schuster, D

    2011-01-01

    The development of novel drugs against obesity is one of the top priorities of worldwide drug research. In recent years, it has been facilitated by the application of virtual screening methods. In this review, we give a short introduction into obesity-related protein targets and computer-aided drug design techniques. Furthermore, we highlight the most successful virtual screening studies, outline their results, and provide suggestions for future anti-obesity drug development.

  7. [Prostate cancer screening].

    PubMed

    Villers, Arnauld; Rébillard, Xavier; Soulié, Michel; Davin, Jean-Louis; Coloby, Patrick; Moreau, Jean-Luc; Mejean, Arnaud; Irani, Jacques; Coulange, Christian; Mangin, Philippe

    2003-04-01

    Prostate cancer has become the most frequent cancer and the second cause of cancer mortality in men. This public health problem is becoming increasingly important due to the increasing life expectancy. At the present time, prostate cancer will be discovered in one in every eight men during their lifetime. Prostate cancer represents 25% of all new cases of male cancers. Prostate cancer screening is designed to detect early stage, asymptomatic prostate cancer, as the patient's chances of cure are higher when the cancer is diagnosed at an early stage. The conclusions of the ANAES evaluation in 1998 did not recommend mass screening for prostate cancer. Several international prospective randomized studies based on serum PSA assay, sometimes associated with digital rectal examination, are currently underway. France is participating in the European ERSPC study (European Randomized Study of Screening for Cancer Prostate) and is organizing a national study on high-risk populations. While waiting for the final results of these studies, a recommendation needs to be proposed to inform general practitioners and specialists about optimal use of the currently available tests. Based on the conclusions of its oncology committee (composed of urologists, medical oncologists, radiotherapists, pathologists and radiologists), the Association Française d'Urologie proposes a recommendation concerning prostate cancer screening and defines its modalities, especially concerning the target population, screening tests and the information given to men before screening. The Association Française d'Urologie recommends prostate cancer screening by PSA assay (prostate specific antigen) and digital rectal examination annually between the ages of 50 and 75 years, and from the age of 45 years in men with a family or ethnic risk. If total PSA is above the normal value of the test or if digital rectal examination is abnormal, referral to a urologist is recommended. Information concerning the limits

  8. Pancreatic Cancer Screening.

    PubMed

    Das, Koushik K; Early, Dayna

    2017-09-06

    This review describes the rationale for pancreatic cancer screening, outlines groups that are at elevated risk for pancreatic cancer, and summarizes the relative risk in each setting. We also review the methods available for performing pancreatic cancer screening and the recommended screening intervals. Several genetic mutations have been identified that increase the risk for pancreatic cancer. Most are rare, however, and at-risk individuals are most often those with a strong family history of pancreatic cancer (with multiple family members affected) but no identifiable genetic mutation. Known genetic syndromes that increase the risk for pancreatic cancer include hereditary pancreatitis, familial atypical mole and multiple melanoma, Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, Lynch syndrome, BRCA mutations, and Li-Fraumeni syndrome. Genetic testing should be performed in conjunction with genetic counseling, and testing of an affected family member is preferred if possible.The goal of pancreatic cancer screening is to identify pancreatic cancer at an early, curable stage or, ideally, to identify precancerous lesions that can be resected to prevent the development of cancer. Imaging can be performed with either endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) or magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP). These techniques are generally considered to be complementary, although an advantage of EUS is that cysts or solid lesions can be sampled at the time of the procedure. Published results of small cohorts of high-risk patients in pancreatic cancer screening programs have demonstrated a high prevalence of small cystic lesions identified on EUS or MRCP, which often represent side-branch intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMN). Knowledge of conditions and syndromes that increase pancreatic cancer risk allows one to identify those patients that may benefit from pancreatic cancer screening. As we gather evidence from large, international, multicenter cohorts of patients at high-risk for pancreatic

  9. Delivery of Cancer Screening

    PubMed Central

    Fenton, Joshua J.; Cai, Yong; Weiss, Noel S.; Elmore, Joann G.; Pardee, Roy E.; Reid, Robert J.; Baldwin, Laura-Mae

    2012-01-01

    Background Patients and physicians strongly endorse the importance of preventive or periodic health examinations (PHEs). However, the extent to which PHEs contribute to the delivery of cancer screening is uncertain. Methods In a retrospective cohort study, we determined the association between receipt of a PHE and cancer testing in a population-based sample of enrollees in a Washington State health plan who were aged 52 to 78 years and eligible for colorectal, breast, or prostate cancer screening in 2002–2003 (N = 64 288). Outcomes included completion of any colorectal cancer testing (fecal occult blood testing, sigmoidoscopy, colonoscopy, or barium enema), screening mammography, and prostate-specific antigen testing. Results More than half (52.4%) of the enrollees received a PHE during the study period. After adjusting for demographics, comorbidity, number of outpatient visits, and historical preventive service use before January 1, 2002, receipt of a PHE was significantly associated with completion of colorectal cancer testing (incidence difference, 40.4% [95% confidence interval (CI), 39.4%–41.3%]; relative incidence, 3.47 [95% CI, 3.34–3.59]), screening mammography [incidence difference, 14.2% [95% CI, 12.7%–15.7%]; relative incidence, 1.23 [95% CI, 1.20–1.25]), and prostate-specific antigen testing (incidence difference, 39.4% [95% CI, 38.3%–40.5%]; relative incidence, 3.06 [95% CI, 2.95–3.18]). Conclusions Among managed care enrollees eligible for cancer screening, PHE receipt is associated with completion of colorectal, breast, and prostate cancer testing. In similar populations, the PHE may serve as a clinically important forum for the promotion of evidence-based colorectal cancer and breast cancer screening and of screening with relatively less empirical support, such as prostate cancer screening. PMID:17389289

  10. Aircrew Screening Instruments Review

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-01

    available tools . Several vendors indicated that they will have new selection instruments available within a few months. These are not listed. As noted...AFCAPS-FR-2011-0012 AIRCREW SCREENING INSTRUMENTS REVIEW Diane L. Damos Damos Aviation Services, Inc...June 2007 – August 2007 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Aircrew Screening Instruments Review 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA3089-06-F-0385 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c

  11. Living with Nuclear Weapons - Avoiding Nuclear War

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-06-01

    00 LIVING ’V1I4. NUCL EAR WEAPONS -AVOIDING NUCLEAR W~AR C. Pr~ston Niblack ..une -8 P-75-7 The RAND ",rporation Papers are issued by The RAND...necessarily shared by RAND or its research sponsors. The RAND Corporation. 1700 Main Street, P ) Bix 213t8, Santa Monica, CA 90406- � LIVING WITH NUCLEAR...is p"etty impressive. Still, nuclear weapons exist . and that alone is very womsome to many people. including to all of us here, because as long as they

  12. Newborn screening for homocystinuria.

    PubMed

    Walter, John H; Jahnke, Nikki; Remmington, Tracey

    2013-08-01

    Homocystinuria is a rare inherited disorder due to a deficiency in cystathionine beta synthase. Individuals with this condition appear normal at birth but develop serious complications in childhood. Diagnosis and treatment started sufficiently early in life can effectively prevent or reduce the severity of these complications. To determine if newborn population screening for the diagnosis of homocystinuria due to cystathionine beta synthase deficiency leads to clinical benefit compared to later clinical diagnosis. We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group's Inborn Errors of Metabolism Trials Register.Date of the most recent search of the Inborn Errors of Metabolism Register: 15 May 2013. Randomised controlled trials and controlled clinical trials assessing the use of any neonatal screening test to diagnose infants with homocystinuria before the condition becomes clinically evident. Eligible studies compare a screened population versus a non-screened population. No studies were identified for inclusion in the review. No studies were identified for inclusion in the review. We were unable to identify eligible studies for inclusion in this review and hence it is not possible to draw any conclusions based on controlled studies; however, we are aware of uncontrolled case-series which support the efficacy of newborn screening for homocystinuria and its early treatment. Any future randomised controlled trial would need to be both multicentre and long term in order to provide robust evidence for or against screening and to allow a cost effectiveness analysis to be undertaken.

  13. Newborn screening for homocystinuria.

    PubMed

    Walter, John H; Jahnke, Nikki; Remmington, Tracey

    2015-10-01

    Homocystinuria is a rare inherited disorder due to a deficiency in cystathionine beta synthase. Individuals with this condition appear normal at birth but develop serious complications in childhood. Diagnosis and treatment started sufficiently early in life can effectively prevent or reduce the severity of these complications. This is an update of a previously published review. To determine if newborn population screening for the diagnosis of homocystinuria due to cystathionine beta synthase deficiency leads to clinical benefit compared to later clinical diagnosis. We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group's Inborn Errors of Metabolism Trials Register.Date of the most recent search of the Inborn Errors of Metabolism Register: 08 June 2015. Randomised controlled trials and controlled clinical trials assessing the use of any neonatal screening test to diagnose infants with homocystinuria before the condition becomes clinically evident. Eligible studies compare a screened population versus a non-screened population. No studies were identified for inclusion in the review. No studies were identified for inclusion in the review. We were unable to identify eligible studies for inclusion in this review and hence it is not possible to draw any conclusions based on controlled studies; however, we are aware of uncontrolled case-series which support the efficacy of newborn screening for homocystinuria and its early treatment. Any future randomised controlled trial would need to be both multicentre and long term in order to provide robust evidence for or against screening and to allow a cost effectiveness analysis to be undertaken.

  14. Screening of solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Appelbaum, J.; Chait, A.; Thompson, D. A.

    1993-01-01

    Because solar cells in a production batch are not identical, screening is performed to obtain similar cells for aggregation into arrays. A common technique for screening is based on a single operating point of the I-V characteristic of the cell, usually the maximum power point. As a result, inferior cell matching may occur at the actual operating points. Screening solar cells based on the entire I-V characteristic will inherently result in more similar cells in the array. An array consisting of more similar cells is likely to have better overall characteristics and more predictable performance. Solar cell screening methods and cell ranking are discussed. The concept of a mean cell is defined as a cell 'best' representing all the cells in the production batch. The screening and ranking of all cells are performed with respect to the mean cell. The comparative results of different screening methods are illustrated on a batch of 50 silicon cells of the Space Station Freedom.

  15. Improved Screened Hydrogenic Model

    SciTech Connect

    Nishikawa, T.

    1996-05-01

    Screened Hydrogenic Model is widely used for energy level calculation in hydrodynamic code of inertial confinement fusion because Screened Hydrogenic Model is simple algebraic calculation. More{close_quote}s Screened Hydrogenic Model and his screening constants are usually used to calculate opacity and equation of state. By the use of his model, energy level can be consistently calculated with ion{close_quote}s total energy. But his model take into account the principal quantum number dependence only and cannot reproduce hydrogenic energy levels. As the precise experiment about opacity measurement is performed, it becomes clear that his model is not enough to use for opacity calculation. In this paper, his model is improved in the framework of Screened Hydrogenic Model. The improved model can reproduce the hydrogenic energy levels and include azimuthal quantum number dependence and the effect from another quantum state (a kind of inner quantum number). Screening constants are fitted by spectroscopic data and sophisticate calculations. By the use of improved model, energy levels are calculated more accurately for low-{ital z} ions. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  16. 8. DETAIL OF COMPUTER SCREEN AND CONTROL BOARDS: LEFT SCREEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. DETAIL OF COMPUTER SCREEN AND CONTROL BOARDS: LEFT SCREEN TRACKS RESIDUAL CHLORINE; INDICATES AMOUNT OF SUNLIGHT WHICH ENABLES OPERATOR TO ESTIMATE NEEDED CHLORINE; CENTER SCREEN SHOWS TURNOUT STRUCTURES; RIGHT SCREEN SHOWS INDICATORS OF ALUMINUM SULFATE TANK FARM. - F. E. Weymouth Filtration Plant, 700 North Moreno Avenue, La Verne, Los Angeles County, CA

  17. Students' Compulsion To Screen: Research on Kenneth Burke's Terministic Screens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strasma, Kip

    Kenneth Burke suggests that language operates from ultimate motives centered around "god-terms" through terministic screens. God-terms represent the strongest terministic screens in any culture: they screen attention to selected realities while screening or deflecting away others. A model of composition can be constructed from these…

  18. The nuclear symmetry energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldo, M.; Burgio, G. F.

    2016-11-01

    The nuclear symmetry energy characterizes the variation of the binding energy as the neutron to proton ratio of a nuclear system is varied. This is one of the most important features of nuclear physics in general, since it is just related to the two component nature of the nuclear systems. As such it is one of the most relevant physical parameters that affect the physics of many phenomena and nuclear processes. This review paper presents a survey of the role and relevance of the nuclear symmetry energy in different fields of research and of the accuracy of its determination from the phenomenology and from the microscopic many-body theory. In recent years, a great interest was devoted not only to the Nuclear Matter symmetry energy at saturation density but also to its whole density dependence, which is an essential ingredient for our understanding of many phenomena. We analyze the nuclear symmetry energy in different realms of nuclear physics and astrophysics. In particular we consider the nuclear symmetry energy in relation to nuclear structure, astrophysics of Neutron Stars and supernovae, and heavy ion collision experiments, trying to elucidate the connections of these different fields on the basis of the symmetry energy peculiarities. The interplay between experimental and observational data and theoretical developments is stressed. The expected future developments and improvements are schematically addressed, together with most demanded experimental and theoretical advances for the next few years.

  19. History of Nuclear India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaturvedi, Ram

    2000-04-01

    India emerged as a free and democratic country in 1947, and entered into the nuclear age in 1948 by establishing the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), with Homi Bhabha as the chairman. Later on the Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) was created under the Office of the Prime Minister Jawahar Lal Nehru. Initially the AEC and DAE received international cooperation, and by 1963 India had two research reactors and four nuclear power reactors. In spite of the humiliating defeat in the border war by China in 1962 and China's nuclear testing in 1964, India continued to adhere to the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. On May 18, 1974 India performed a 15 kt Peaceful Nuclear Explosion (PNE). The western powers considered it nuclear weapons proliferation and cut off all financial and technical help, even for the production of nuclear power. However, India used existing infrastructure to build nuclear power reactors and exploded both fission and fusion devices on May 11 and 13, 1998. The international community viewed the later activity as a serious road block for the Non-Proliferation Treaty and the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty; both deemed essential to stop the spread of nuclear weapons. India considers these treaties favoring nuclear states and is prepared to sign if genuine nuclear disarmament is included as an integral part of these treaties.

  20. Commercial nuclear power 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-28

    This report presents the status at the end of 1989 and the outlook for commercial nuclear capacity and generation for all countries in the world with free market economies (FME). The report provides documentation of the US nuclear capacity and generation projections through 2030. The long-term projections of US nuclear capacity and generation are provided to the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) for use in estimating nuclear waste fund revenues and to aid in planning the disposal of nuclear waste. These projections also support the Energy Information Administration's annual report, Domestic Uranium Mining and Milling Industry: Viability Assessment, and are provided to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. The foreign nuclear capacity projections are used by the DOE uranium enrichment program in assessing potential markets for future enrichment contracts. The two major sections of this report discuss US and foreign commercial nuclear power. The US section (Chapters 2 and 3) deals with (1) the status of nuclear power as of the end of 1989; (2) projections of nuclear capacity and generation at 5-year intervals from 1990 through 2030; and (3) a discussion of institutional and technical issues that affect nuclear power. The nuclear capacity projections are discussed in terms of two projection periods: the intermediate term through 2010 and the long term through 2030. A No New Orders case is presented for each of the projection periods, as well as Lower Reference and Upper Reference cases. 5 figs., 30 tabs.

  1. Evaluation of Waste Arising from Future Nuclear Fuel Cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Jubin, Robert Thomas; Taiwo, Temitope; Wigeland, Roald

    2015-01-01

    A comprehensive study was recently completed at the request of the US Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) to evaluate and screen nuclear fuel cycles. The final report was issued in October 2014. Uranium- and thorium-based fuel cycles were evaluated using both fast and thermal spectrum reactors. Once-through, limited-recycle, and continuous-recycle cases were considered. This study used nine evaluation criteria to identify promising fuel cycles. Nuclear waste management was one of the nine evaluation criteria. The waste generation criterion from this study is discussed herein.

  2. [Organized breast cancer screening].

    PubMed

    Rouëssé, Jacques; Sancho-Garnier, Hélèn

    2014-02-01

    Breast screening programs are increasingly controversial, especially regarding two points: the number of breast cancer deaths they avoid, and the problem of over-diagnosis and over-treatment. The French national breast cancer screening program was extended to cover the whole country in 2004. Ten years later it is time to examine the risk/benefit ratio of this program and to discuss the need for change. Like all forms of cancer management, screening must be regularly updated, taking into account the state of the art, new evidence, and uncertainties. All screening providers should keep themselves informed of the latest findings. In the French program, women aged 50-74 with no major individual or familial risk factors for breast cancer are offered screening mammography and clinical breast examination every two years. Images considered non suspicious of malignancy by a first reader are re-examined by a second reader. The devices and procedures are subjected to quality controls. Participating radiologists (both public and private) are required to read at least 500 mammographies per year. The program's national participation rate was 52.7 % in 2012. When individual screening outside of the national program is taken into account (nearly 15 % of women), coverage appears close to the European recommendation of 65 %. Breast cancer mortality has been falling in France by 0.6 % per year for over 30 years, starting before mass screening was implemented, and by 1.5 % since 2005. This decline can be attributed in part to earlier diagnosis and better treatment, so that the specific impact of screening cannot easily be measured. Over-treatment, defined as the detection and treatment of low-malignancy tumors that would otherwise not have been detected in a person's lifetime, is a major negative effect of screening, but its frequency is not precisely known (reported to range from 1 % to 30 %). In view of these uncertainties, it would be advisable to modify the program in order to

  3. The plant nuclear envelope.

    PubMed

    Rose, Annkatrin; Patel, Shalaka; Meier, Iris

    2004-01-01

    This review summarizes our present knowledge about the composition and function of the plant nuclear envelope. Compared with animals or yeast, our molecular understanding of the nuclear envelope in higher plants is in its infancy. However, fundamental differences in the structure and function of the plant and animal nuclear envelope have already been found. Here, we compare and contrast these differences with respect to nuclear pore complexes, targeting of Ran signaling to the nuclear envelope, inner nuclear envelope proteins, and the role and fate of the nuclear envelope during mitosis. Further investigation of the emerging fundamental differences as well as the similarities between kingdoms might illuminate why there appears to be more than one blueprint for building a nucleus.

  4. Thermodynamics of nuclear transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ching-Hao; Mehta, Pankaj; Elbaum, Michael

    Molecular transport across the nuclear envelope is important for eukaryotes for gene expression and signaling. Experimental studies have revealed that nuclear transport is inherently a nonequilibrium process and actively consumes energy. In this work we present a thermodynamics theory of nuclear transport for a major class of nuclear transporters that are mediated by the small GTPase Ran. We identify the molecular elements responsible for powering nuclear transport, which we term the ``Ran battery'' and find that the efficiency of transport, measured by the cargo nuclear localization ratio, is limited by competition between cargo molecules and RanGTP to bind transport receptors, as well as the amount of NTF2 (i.e. RanGDP carrier) available to circulate the energy flow. This picture complements our current understanding of nuclear transport by providing a comprehensive thermodynamics framework to decipher the underlying biochemical machinery. Pm and CHW were supported by a Simons Investigator in the Mathematical Modeling in Living Systems grant (to PM).

  5. Physics in Screening Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Certik, Ondrej

    In the current study, we investigated atoms in screening environments like plasmas. It is common practice to extract physical data, such as temperature and electron densities, from plasma experiments. We present results that address inherent computational difficulties that arise when the screening approach is extended to include the interaction between the atomic electrons. We show that there may arise an ambiguity in the interpretation of physical properties, such as temperature and charge density, from experimental data due to the opposing effects of electron-nucleus screening and electron-electron screening. The focus of the work, however, is on the resolution of inherent computational challenges that appear in the computation of two-particle matrix elements. Those enter already at the Hartree-Fock level. Furthermore, as examples of post Hartree-Fock calculations, we show second-order Green's function results and many body perturbation theory results of second order. A self-contained derivation of all necessary equations has been included. The accuracy of the implementation of the method is established by comparing standard unscreened results for various atoms and molecules against literature for Hartree-Fock as well as Green's function and many body perturbation theory. The main results of the thesis are presented in the chapter called Screened Results, where the behavior of several atomic systems depending on electron-electron and electron-nucleus Debye screening was studied. The computer code that we have developed has been made available for anybody to use. Finally, we present and discuss results obtained for screened interactions. We also examine thoroughly the computational details of the calculations and particular implementations of the method.

  6. 75 FR 30078 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Entergy Nuclear Vermont Yankee, LLC; Vermont Yankee Nuclear...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-28

    ... Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation (NRR). By letter dated May 20, 2010, the Director denied the... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Entergy Nuclear Vermont Yankee, LLC; Vermont Yankee...

  7. Evaluation of insulation materials and composites for use in a nuclear radiation environment, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westerheide, D. E.; Carter, H. G.; Erickson, R. C.; Kerlin, E. E.

    1972-01-01

    The nuclear heating of the propellant in all of the four baseline RNS configurations studied was much lower than that of the nuclear flight module configuration with the 5000-MW NERVA analyzed previously. Although the nuclear heating has been reduced, the effect of nuclear heating on the propellant as well as the effect of nuclear heating on internal structures such as antivortex baffles, screens, and sump components cannot be neglected. In addition, it was found that the present analytical precedures were not able to predict boundary layer initiation and breakoff points with the accuracy necessary to predict propellant thermodynamic nonequilibrium (stratification) and/or mixing.

  8. Foot screening for diabetics.

    PubMed

    Nather, Aziz; Chionh, Siok Bee; Tay, Patricia L M; Aziz, Zameer; Teng, Janelle W H; Rajeswari, K; Erasmus, Adriaan; Nambiar, Ajay

    2010-06-01

    This study aims to evaluate the results of foot screening performed in a study population of 2137 diabetics (3926 feet) screened from 2006 to 2008 by the National University Hospital (NUH) multi-disciplinary team for diabetic foot problems. A standardised protocol was designed. Foot screening consisted of detailed history taking and clinical examination including assessment for sensory neuropathy by Semmes Weinstein monofilament (SWMF) and neurothesiometer and assessment of vasculopathy by ankle-brachial index (ABI) and total body irradiation (TBI). The foot screening was performed by a trained staff nurse. All patients were classified according to King's College Classification. Majority of the patients were in the fifth (27.9%) and sixth (30.0%) decades of life. Two thousand sixty-four had type II diabetes, and only 73 had type I diabetes. Neuropathy was found in 1307 (33.3%) feet based on 5.07 SWMF. Vasculopathy was recorded in 510 (13.0%) and 546 (13.9%) feet based on ABI <0.8 and TBI <0.7. According to King's Classification, 1069 (50.0%) were Stage 1: Normal and 615 (28.8%) were Stage 2: At-Risk. Foot screening should be performed as early as possible to detect "At-Risk" feet and prevent the development of diabetic foot complications, thereby further reducing the risk of major amputations.

  9. Newborn screening in India.

    PubMed

    Rama Devi, A Radha; Naushad, S M

    2004-02-01

    Expanded newborn screening (NBS) is aimed for early detection and intervention of treatable inborn errors of metabolism and also to establish incidence of these disorders in this part of the globe. The first expanded NBS programme initiated in the capital city of Andhra Pradesh to screen all the newborns born in four major Government Maternity Hospitals in Hyderabad by heel prick capillary blood collected on S&S 903 filter paper. Chromatographic (TLC and HPLC), electrophoretic (cellulose acetate and agarose) and ELISA based assays have been employed for screening of common inborn errors of metabolism. This study has shown a high prevalence of treatable Inborn errors of metabolism. Congenital hypothyroidsm is the most common disorder (1 in 1700) followed by congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (1 in 2575) and Hyperhomocystenemia (1 in 100). Interestingly, a very high prevalence of inborn errors of metabolism to the extent of 1 in every thousand newborns was observed. The study reveals the importance of screening in India, necessitating nation wide large-scale screening.

  10. Screening for Pancreatic Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Brand, Randall E.

    2007-01-01

    Despite improvements in the clinical and surgical management of pancreatic cancer, limited strides have been made in the early detection of this highly lethal malignancy. The majority of localized pancreatic tumors are asymptomatic, and the recognized presenting symptoms of pancreatic adenocarcinoma are often vague and heterogeneous in nature. These factors, coupled with the lack of a sensitive and noninvasive screening method, have made population-based screening for pancreatic cancer impossible. Nevertheless, at least two large institutions have performed multimodality-screening protocols for individuals with high risk of pancreatic cancer based on genetic predisposition and strong family history. Abnormalities noted during these screening protocols prompted further investigation or surgery that resulted in the discovery of benign, potentially malignant, and malignant pancreatic lesions. In addition to ductal epithelial pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia, greater sensitivity has recently been achieved in the identification and characterization of precancerous mucinous pancreatic tumors. Advancements in proteomics and DNA microarray technology may confirm serum-based biomarkers that could be incorporated into future screening algorithms for pancreatic cancer. PMID:21960811

  11. Score test variable screening

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Sihai Dave; Li, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Variable screening has emerged as a crucial first step in the analysis of high-throughput data, but existing procedures can be computationally cumbersome, difficult to justify theoretically, or inapplicable to certain types of analyses. Motivated by a high-dimensional censored quantile regression problem in multiple myeloma genomics, this paper makes three contributions. First, we establish a score test-based screening framework, which is widely applicable, extremely computationally efficient, and relatively simple to justify. Secondly, we propose a resampling-based procedure for selecting the number of variables to retain after screening according to the principle of reproducibility. Finally, we propose a new iterative score test screening method which is closely related to sparse regression. In simulations we apply our methods to four different regression models and show that they can outperform existing procedures. We also apply score test screening to an analysis of gene expression data from multiple myeloma patients using a censored quantile regression model to identify high-risk genes. PMID:25124197

  12. Cancer Screening in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Ashley H; Magnuson, Allison; Westcott, Amy M

    2016-09-01

    When screening for cancer in older adults, it is important to consider the risks of screening, how long it takes to benefit from screening, and the patient's comorbidities and life expectancy. Delivering high-value care requires the consideration of evidence-based screening guidelines and careful selection of patients. This article considers the impact of cancer. It explores perspectives on the costs of common cancer screening tests, illustrates how using life expectancy can help clinicians determine who will benefit most from screening, and provides tools to help clinicians discuss with their older patients when it may be appropriate to stop screening for cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. British nuclear policymaking

    SciTech Connect

    Bowie, C.J.; Platt, A.

    1984-01-01

    This study analyzes the domestic political, economic, and bureaucratic factors that affect the nuclear policymaking process in Great Britain. Its major conclusion is that, although there have been changes in that process in recent years (notably the current involvement of a segment of the British public in the debate about the deployment of intermediate-range nuclear forces), future British nuclear policymaking will remain much what it has been in the past. Three ideas are central to understanding British thinking on the subject: (1) Britain's long-standing resolve to have her own national nuclear force is largely traceable to her desire to maintain first-rank standing among the nations of the world in spite of loss of empire. (2) Financial considerations have always been important--so much so that they have usually dominated issues of nuclear policy. (3) The executive branch of government dominates the nuclear policymaking process but does not always present a united front. The United States heavily influences British nuclear policy through having supplied Britain since the late 1950s with nuclear data and components of nuclear weapon systems such as Polaris and Trident. The relationship works both ways since the U.S. depends on Britain as a base for deployment of both conventional and nuclear systems.

  14. [Colorectal cancer screening].

    PubMed

    Castells, Antoni

    2013-10-01

    Colorectal cancer is the paradigm of tumoral growth that is susceptible to preventive measures, especially screening. Various screening strategies with demonstrated efficacy and efficiency are currently available, notable examples being the fecal occult blood test and endoscopic tests. In addition, new modalities have appeared in the last few years that could become viable alternatives in the near future. The present article reviews the most important presentations on colorectal screening at the annual congress of the American Gastroenterological Association held in Orlando in May 2013, with special emphasis on the medium- and long-term results of strategies using the fecal occult blood test and flexible sigmoidoscopy, as well as initial experiences with the use of new biomarkers.

  15. Opportunistic Osteoporosis Screening

    PubMed Central

    Ziemlewicz, Timothy J.; Binkley, Neil; Lubner, Meghan G.; Pickhardt, Perry J.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose For patients undergoing CT colonography, an opportunity exists for concurrent osteoporosis screening without additional radiation exposure or patient time using proximal femur quantitative CT (QCT) “CTXA”. Materials and Methods This cohort included 129 female and 112 male adults (mean age, 60.1±8.2 years; range, 50–95 years) who underwent CT colonography between March 2013 and September 2014. Areal BMD in g/cm2 and resultant left femoral neck T-score was prospectively measured on the supine CT series using QCT Pro Version 5.1 (Mindways Software, Austin, TX). QCT results were reported with the CT colonography. Chart review evaluated if the patients were eligible for BMD screening according to the United States Preventative Service Task Force (USPSTF) and National Osteoporosis Foundation (NOF) guidelines, had undergone prior BMD testing, and to assess if QCT results changed patient management. Results Overall, 68.0% (164/241) of patients from this cohort had not previously undergone BMD screening. According to the NOF guidelines, 44.0% (106/241) of patients were eligible for screening. T-scores within the osteopenic and osteoporotic range were detected in 32.3% (78/241) and 5.0% (12/241) of patients respectively. Of these patients with low bone mineral density, 66.7% (60/90) had not previously undergone screening or were eligible for BMD testing. Reporting of CTXA T-scores altered management in 9 patients (3.7%) with low bone mineral density. Conclusion Maximizing the pre-existing value from imaging studies is crucial in the current era of healthcare reform. We demonstrate the ability to combine colorectal and osteoporosis screening at CT, adding clinical and likely economic value. PMID:26435117

  16. Colorectal cancer screening in an expanding panorama of screening programmes.

    PubMed

    Hoff, Geir

    2010-08-01

    Cervical and breast cancer screening programmes have been introduced in times when both the professional requirements for evidence based medicine and public demand for quantification of benefits may have been less explicit. The World Health Organisation has recommended cancer screening only for cervix, breast and colorectal cancer (CRC) - the latter leaving health authorities with a choice between a multitude of screening methods of which the efficacy has been proven only for fecal occult blood testing (FOBT). Although we are far from seeing the perfect screening method and screening programme, cost effectiveness for CRC screening has been estimated at least as cost-effective as established programmes for cervix and breast cancer screening. Established and imminent screening programmes should be considered as natural platforms for randomised trial with commitment and responsibility to continuously improve the quality and effectiveness of the screening service provided. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Economics of nuclear power.

    PubMed

    Rossin, A D; Rieck, T A

    1978-08-18

    With 12 percent of U.S. electricity now being supplied by nuclear power, Commonwealth Edison has found nuclear plants to be good investments relative to other base load energy sources. The country's largest user of nuclear power, Commonwealth Edison, estimates that its commitment to nuclear saved its customers about 10 percent on their electric bills in 1977, compared to the cost with the next best alternative, coal. This advantage is seen as continuing, contrary to criticisms of the economics and reliability of nuclear power and claims that it has hidden subsidies. It is concluded that there is a need for both nuclear and coal and that government policy precluding or restricting either would be unwise.

  18. Nuclear Science References Database

    SciTech Connect

    Pritychenko, B.; Běták, E.; Singh, B.; Totans, J.

    2014-06-15

    The Nuclear Science References (NSR) database together with its associated Web interface, is the world's only comprehensive source of easily accessible low- and intermediate-energy nuclear physics bibliographic information for more than 210,000 articles since the beginning of nuclear science. The weekly-updated NSR database provides essential support for nuclear data evaluation, compilation and research activities. The principles of the database and Web application development and maintenance are described. Examples of nuclear structure, reaction and decay applications are specifically included. The complete NSR database is freely available at the websites of the National Nuclear Data Center (http://www.nndc.bnl.gov/nsr) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (http://www-nds.iaea.org/nsr)

  19. Neonatal screening: ethical aspects.

    PubMed

    Hermerén, G

    1999-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to give an overview of the ethical issues raised by neonatal screening for cystic fibrosis and to propose a structure for the ethical analysis of these issues. The structure is based on an analysis of some of the most common shortcomings of ethical analyses. The structure needs to be supplemented by facts about the present state of the art concerning effects and costs of the various screening and treatment alternatives. Such information is provided by other contributions to these proceedings.

  20. Ball valve safety screen

    SciTech Connect

    Bolding, B.H.

    1981-09-01

    A device for preventing unwanted objects from entering the ball assembly of a float collar or float shoe and otherwise damaging or plugging the valve mechanism therein is disclosed. The device comprises a screen constructed of expanded metal and rigidly affixed to the interior of the float collar or float shoe above the ball valve assembly. The screen portion is either mounted to the interior surface of the float collar sleeve by an annular structural member or mounted to a structural band which is partially embedded in the concrete portion of the float collar or casing guide shoe.

  1. Scanning of vehicles for nuclear materials

    SciTech Connect

    Katz, J. I.

    2014-05-09

    Might a nuclear-armed terrorist group or state use ordinary commerce to deliver a nuclear weapon by smuggling it in a cargo container or vehicle? This delivery method would be the only one available to a sub-state actor, and it might enable a state to make an unattributed attack. Detection of a weapon or fissile material smuggled in this manner is difficult because of the large volume and mass available for shielding. Here I review methods for screening cargo containers to detect the possible presence of nuclear threats. Because of the large volume of innocent international commerce, and the cost and disruption of secondary screening by opening and inspection, it is essential that the method be rapid and have a low false-positive rate. Shielding can prevent the detection of neutrons emitted spontaneously or by induced fission. The two promising methods are muon tomography and high energy X-radiography. If they do not detect a shielded threat object they can detect the shield itself.

  2. Scanning of vehicles for nuclear materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katz, J. I.

    2014-05-01

    Might a nuclear-armed terrorist group or state use ordinary commerce to deliver a nuclear weapon by smuggling it in a cargo container or vehicle? This delivery method would be the only one available to a sub-state actor, and it might enable a state to make an unattributed attack. Detection of a weapon or fissile material smuggled in this manner is difficult because of the large volume and mass available for shielding. Here I review methods for screening cargo containers to detect the possible presence of nuclear threats. Because of the large volume of innocent international commerce, and the cost and disruption of secondary screening by opening and inspection, it is essential that the method be rapid and have a low false-positive rate. Shielding can prevent the detection of neutrons emitted spontaneously or by induced fission. The two promising methods are muon tomography and high energy X-radiography. If they do not detect a shielded threat object they can detect the shield itself.

  3. Absolute nuclear material assay

    DOEpatents

    Prasad, Manoj K [Pleasanton, CA; Snyderman, Neal J [Berkeley, CA; Rowland, Mark S [Alamo, CA

    2012-05-15

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  4. Absolute nuclear material assay

    DOEpatents

    Prasad, Manoj K.; Snyderman, Neal J.; Rowland, Mark S.

    2010-07-13

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  5. Nuclear Proliferation Challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Professor William Potter

    2005-11-28

    William C. Potter, Director of the Center for Non Proliferation Studies and the Center for Russian and Eurasian Studies at the Monterey Institute of International Studies, will present nuclear proliferation challenges following the 2005 Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) Review Conference. In addition to elucidating reasons for, and implications of, the conference’s failure, Dr. Potter will discuss common ground between nuclear proliferation and terrorism issues and whether corrective action can be taken.

  6. Nonstrategic Nuclear Weapons

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-03

    William Potter , and Nikolai Sokov, Reducing and Regulating Tactical (Nonstrategic) Nuclear Weapons in Europe, The James Martin Center For...See William C. Potter and Nikolai Sokov, “Nuclear Weapons that People Forget,” International Herald Tribune, May 31, 2000. 87 Sam Nunn, Igor...their security.97 94 Kent Harris , “NATO Allies Want U.S. Nuclear Weapons out of Europe

  7. Nuclear imaging in pediatrics

    SciTech Connect

    Siddiqui, A.R.

    1985-01-01

    The author's intent is to familiarize practicing radiologists with the technical aspects and interpretation of nuclear medicine procedures in children and to illustrate the indications for nuclear medicine procedures in pediatric problems. Pediatric doses, dosimetry, sedation, and injection techniques, organ systems, oncology and infection, testicular scanning and nuclear crystography, pediatric endocrine and skeletal systems, ventilation and perfusion imaging of both congenital and acquired pediatric disorders, cardiovascular problems, gastrointestinal, hepatobiliary, reticuloendothelial studies, and central nervous system are all topics which are included and discussed.

  8. Nuclear Terms: a glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Freiwald, David A.

    1981-05-31

    This booklet is a revision of Nuclear Terms: A Glossary, published in 1967 by the United States Atomic Energy Commission. New fields, such as laser fusion and laser isotope separation, are included and nuclear weapons terms are deleted. Thus, it is a glossary for nuclear fission and fusion science and for commercial applications. David A. Freiwald, Frank C. DiLuzio, and Leslie M. Redman prepared this revised glossary. Contributions were made by other members of the Los Alamos National Laboratory staff.

  9. Nuclear Fabrication Consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Levesque, Stephen

    2013-04-05

    This report summarizes the activities undertaken by EWI while under contract from the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy (NE) for the management and operation of the Nuclear Fabrication Consortium (NFC). The NFC was established by EWI to independently develop, evaluate, and deploy fabrication approaches and data that support the re-establishment of the U.S. nuclear industry: ensuring that the supply chain will be competitive on a global stage, enabling more cost-effective and reliable nuclear power in a carbon constrained environment. The NFC provided a forum for member original equipment manufactures (OEM), fabricators, manufacturers, and materials suppliers to effectively engage with each other and rebuild the capacity of this supply chain by : Identifying and removing impediments to the implementation of new construction and fabrication techniques and approaches for nuclear equipment, including system components and nuclear plants. Providing and facilitating detailed scientific-based studies on new approaches and technologies that will have positive impacts on the cost of building of nuclear plants. Analyzing and disseminating information about future nuclear fabrication technologies and how they could impact the North American and the International Nuclear Marketplace. Facilitating dialog and initiate alignment among fabricators, owners, trade associations, and government agencies. Supporting industry in helping to create a larger qualified nuclear supplier network. Acting as an unbiased technology resource to evaluate, develop, and demonstrate new manufacturing technologies. Creating welder and inspector training programs to help enable the necessary workforce for the upcoming construction work. Serving as a focal point for technology, policy, and politically interested parties to share ideas and concepts associated with fabrication across the nuclear industry. The report the objectives and summaries of the Nuclear Fabrication Consortium

  10. Ongoing Space Nuclear Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, Michael G.

    2007-01-01

    Most ongoing US activities related to space nuclear power and propulsion are sponsored by NASA. NASA-spons0red space nuclear work is currently focused on evaluating potential fission surface power (FSP) systems and on radioisotope power systems (RPS). In addition, significant efforts related to nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) systems have been completed and will provide a starting point for potential future NTP work.

  11. Nuclear Politics in Iran

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-01

    system. States with prestige are recognized by other actors as having a high 21 Nuclear Politics in Iran standing either generally or with regard to...Nuclear Politics in Iran Edited by Judith S. Yaphe MIDDLE EAST STRATEGIC PERSPECTIVES 1 Center for Strategic Research Institute for National...OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE MAY 2010 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2010 to 00-00-2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Nuclear Politics in

  12. Nuclear Energy Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-07-12

    Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) by June 30, 2008. The opening of the repository is now scheduled for 2017 . This report will be updated as events...repository licensing process, according to DOE, nuclear waste shipments to Yucca Mountain could begin by 2017 . NRC issued the first nuclear reactor Early Site...contaminated with high levels of radioactive iodine , which concentrates in the thyroid. Although the Chernobyl Forum found only 15 deaths from those

  13. Lunar Dust Mitigation Screens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knutson, Shawn; Holloway, Nancy

    With plans for the United States to return to the moon, and establish a sustainable human presence on the lunar surface many issues must be successfully overcome. Lunar dust is one of a number of issues with the potential to create a myriad of problems if not adequately addressed. Samples of dust brought back from Apollo missions show it to be soft, yet sharp and abrasive. The dust consists of a variety of morphologies including spherical, angular blocks, shards, and a number of irregular shapes. One of the main issues with lunar dust is its attraction to stick to anything it comes in contact with (i.e. astronauts, equipment, habitats, etc.). Ionized radiation from the sun strikes the moon's surface and creates an electrostatic charge on the dust. Further, the dust harbors van der Waals forces making it especially difficult to separate once it sticks to a surface. During the Apollo missions, it was discovered that trying to brush the lunar dust from spacesuits was not effective, and rubbing it caused degradation of the suit material. Further, when entering the lunar module after moonwalks, the astronauts noted that the dust was so prolific inside the cabin that they inhaled and ingested it, causing at least one of them, Harrison "Jack" Schmidt, to report irritation of the throat and lungs. It is speculated that the dust could also harm an astronaut's nervous and cardiovascular systems, especially during an extended stay. In addition to health issues, the dust can also cause problems by scouring reflective coatings off of thermal blankets, and roughening surfaces of windows and optics. Further, panels on solar cells and photovoltaics can also be compromised due to dust sticking on the surfaces. Lunar dust has the capacity to penetrate seals, interfere with connectors, as well as mechanisms on digging machines, all of which can lead to problems and failure. To address lunar dust issues, development of electrostatic screens to mitigate dust on sur-faces is currently

  14. Nuclear reactor apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Wade, Elman E.

    1978-01-01

    A lifting, rotating and sealing apparatus for nuclear reactors utilizing rotating plugs above the nuclear reactor core. This apparatus permits rotation of the plugs to provide under the plug refueling of a nuclear core. It also provides a means by which positive top core holddown can be utilized. Both of these operations are accomplished by means of the apparatus lifting the top core holddown structure off the nuclear core while stationary, and maintaining this structure in its elevated position during plug rotation. During both of these operations, the interface between the rotating member and its supporting member is sealingly maintained.

  15. Technologists for Nuclear Medicine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Huey D.

    1974-01-01

    Physicians need support personnel for work with radioisotopes in diagnosing dangerous diseases. The Nuclear Medicine Technology (NMT) Program at Hillsborough Community College in Tampa, Florida, is described. (MW)

  16. Technologists for Nuclear Medicine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Huey D.

    1974-01-01

    Physicians need support personnel for work with radioisotopes in diagnosing dangerous diseases. The Nuclear Medicine Technology (NMT) Program at Hillsborough Community College in Tampa, Florida, is described. (MW)

  17. Comprehensive Nuclear Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Konings, Dr. Rudy J. M.; Allen, Todd R.; Stoller, Roger E; Yamanaka, Prof. Shinsuke

    2012-01-01

    This book encompasses a rich seam of current information on the vast and multidisciplinary field of nuclear materials employed in fission and prototype fusion systems. Discussion includes both historical and contemporary international research in nuclear materials, from Actinides to Zirconium alloys, from the worlds leading scientists and engineers. Synthesizes pertinent current science to support the selection, assessment, validation and engineering of materials in extreme nuclear environments. The work discusses the major classes of materials suitable for usage in nuclear fission, fusion reactors and high power accelerators, and for diverse functions in fuels, cladding, moderator and control materials, structural, functional, and waste materials.

  18. Nuclear criticality safety guide

    SciTech Connect

    Pruvost, N.L.; Paxton, H.C.

    1996-09-01

    This technical reference document cites information related to nuclear criticality safety principles, experience, and practice. The document also provides general guidance for criticality safety personnel and regulators.

  19. [Nuclear families in Turkey].

    PubMed

    Unalan, T

    1988-01-01

    This study examines the household or family types in Turkey in 1983, especially nuclear families. Nuclear families constitute 61.6% of all households in Turkey, and the majority of them are in the West and the Central regions. The highest % of nuclear families was found in the Mediterranean regions, and the lowest in the Black Sea region. Among all nuclear families, 87% of them consist of husband, wife and children, whereas 13% of them have only husband and wife. Nuclear families without children are common in urban areas and in the West while nuclear families with children are mostly found in rural areas and in the East and the Black Sea regions. Nuclear families with 3 or more children constitute 32% of all nuclear households in the West. On the other hand, the corresponding % is 73 for the Eastern region. As a result, it is concluded that nuclear families have significant regional and residential differentiations and households with the same formation in a developed and a less developed region should have different social, economic, and cultural characteristics.

  20. Approaches to virtual screening and screening library selection.

    PubMed

    Wildman, Scott A

    2013-01-01

    The ease of access to virtual screening (VS) software in recent years has resulted in a large increase in literature reports. Over 300 publications in the last year report the use of virtual screening techniques to identify new chemical matter or present the development of new virtual screening techniques. The increased use is accompanied by a corresponding increase in misuse and misinterpretation of virtual screening results. This review aims to identify many of the common difficulties associated with virtual screening and allow researchers to better assess the reliability of their virtual screening effort.

  1. Screening for Intimate Partner Violence.

    PubMed

    Paterno, Mary T; Draughon, Jessica E

    2016-05-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a serious concern for women that is associated with significant adverse health effects. Routine screening for IPV is recommended, but there are many barriers to screening that have been identified by providers, including discomfort, lack of training, and not knowing how to respond to a positive screen. This article reviews IPV screening and appropriate techniques for responding to a positive screen. IPV screening best practices include using a systematic protocol, developing a screening script, using a validated screening tool, and considerations for privacy and mandatory reporting. Responding to a positive screen should include acknowledging the experience, asking if the woman desires help, offering support and referrals, encouraging safety planning, and completing additional assessments to determine level of danger and to identify any comorbidities. Using these techniques along with therapeutic communication may increase IPV identification and create an environment in which women feel empowered to get help. © 2016 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.

  2. Screening for fetal aneuploidy.

    PubMed

    Rink, Britton D; Norton, Mary E

    2016-02-01

    Screening is currently recommended in pregnancy for a number of genetic disorders, chromosomal aneuploidy, and structural birth defects in the fetus regardless of maternal age or family history. There is an overwhelming array of sonographic and maternal serum-based options available for carrying out aneuploidy risk assessment in the first and/or second trimester. As with any screening test, the patient should be made aware that a "negative" test or "normal" ultrasound does not guarantee a healthy baby and a "positive" test does not mean the fetus has the condition. The woman should have both pre- and post-test counseling to discuss the benefits, limitations, and options for additional testing. Rapid advancements of genetic technologies have made it possible to screen for the common aneuploidies traditionally associated with advanced maternal age with improved levels of accuracy beyond serum and ultrasound based testing. Prenatal screening for fetal genetic disorders with cell-free DNA has transformed prenatal care with yet unanswered questions related to the financial, ethical, and appropriate application in the provision of prenatal risk assessment.

  3. Visual Screening: A Procedure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Robert T.

    Vision is a complex process involving three phases: physical (acuity), physiological (integrative), and psychological (perceptual). Although these phases cannot be considered discrete, they provide the basis for the visual screening procedure used by the Reading Services of Colorado State University and described in this document. Ten tests are…

  4. Early Dementia Screening

    PubMed Central

    Panegyres, Peter K.; Berry, Renee; Burchell, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    As the population of the world increases, there will be larger numbers of people with dementia and an emerging need for prompt diagnosis and treatment. Early dementia screening is the process by which a patient who might be in the prodromal phases of a dementing illness is determined as having, or not having, the hallmarks of a neurodegenerative condition. The concepts of mild cognitive impairment, or mild neurocognitive disorder, are useful in analyzing the patient in the prodromal phase of a dementing disease; however, the transformation to dementia may be as low as 10% per annum. The search for early dementia requires a comprehensive clinical evaluation, cognitive assessment, determination of functional status, corroborative history and imaging (including MRI, FDG-PET and maybe amyloid PET), cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examination assaying Aβ1–42, T-τ and P-τ might also be helpful. Primary care physicians are fundamental in the screening process and are vital in initiating specialist investigation and treatment. Early dementia screening is especially important in an age where there is a search for disease modifying therapies, where there is mounting evidence that treatment, if given early, might influence the natural history—hence the need for cost-effective screening measures for early dementia. PMID:26838803

  5. Pediatric Eye Screening Instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ying-Ling; Lewis, J. W. L.

    2001-11-01

    Computational evaluations are presented for binocular eye screening using the off-axis digital retinascope. The retinascope, such as the iScreen digital screening system, has been employed to perform pediatric binocular screening using a flash lamp and single-shot camera recording. The digital images are transferred electronically to a reading center for analysis. The method has been shown to detect refractive error, amblyopia, anisocoria, and ptosis. This computational work improves the performance of the system and forms the basis for automated data analysis. For this purpose, variouis published eye models are evaluated with simulated retinascope images. Two to ten million rays are traced in each image calculation. The poster will present the simulation results for a range of eye conditions of refractive error of -20 to +20 diopters with 0.5- to-1 diopter resolution, pupil size of 3 to 8 mm diameter (1-mm increment), and staring angle of 2 to 12 degree (2-degree increment). The variation of the results with the system conditions such as the off-axis distance of light source and the shutter size of camera are also evaluated. The quantitative analysis for each eye’s and system’s condition is then performed to obtain parameters for automatic reading. The summary of the system performance is given and performance-enhancement design modifications are presented.

  6. Screens and Displays.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edstrom, Malin

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the characteristics of different computer screen technologies including the possible harmful effects on health of cathode ray tube (CRT) terminals. CRT's are compared to other technologies including liquid crystal displays, plasma displays, electroluminiscence displays, and light emitting diodes. A chart comparing the different…

  7. Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... finding cancer before it causes symptoms ) decreases a person's chance of dying from the disease. For some types of cancer, ... Studies showed that screening a large number of people for stomach cancer using these tests did not decrease the risk of dying from stomach cancer. More studies are needed to ...

  8. Early Dementia Screening.

    PubMed

    Panegyres, Peter K; Berry, Renee; Burchell, Jennifer

    2016-01-21

    As the population of the world increases, there will be larger numbers of people with dementia and an emerging need for prompt diagnosis and treatment. Early dementia screening is the process by which a patient who might be in the prodromal phases of a dementing illness is determined as having, or not having, the hallmarks of a neurodegenerative condition. The concepts of mild cognitive impairment, or mild neurocognitive disorder, are useful in analyzing the patient in the prodromal phase of a dementing disease; however, the transformation to dementia may be as low as 10% per annum. The search for early dementia requires a comprehensive clinical evaluation, cognitive assessment, determination of functional status, corroborative history and imaging (including MRI, FDG-PET and maybe amyloid PET), cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examination assaying Aβ1-42, T-τ and P-τ might also be helpful. Primary care physicians are fundamental in the screening process and are vital in initiating specialist investigation and treatment. Early dementia screening is especially important in an age where there is a search for disease modifying therapies, where there is mounting evidence that treatment, if given early, might influence the natural history-hence the need for cost-effective screening measures for early dementia.

  9. Screens and Displays.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edstrom, Malin

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the characteristics of different computer screen technologies including the possible harmful effects on health of cathode ray tube (CRT) terminals. CRT's are compared to other technologies including liquid crystal displays, plasma displays, electroluminiscence displays, and light emitting diodes. A chart comparing the different…

  10. 21-Day Content Screen

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under PRIA, EPA has 21 days after it receives the pesticide application and the fee to conduct an initial screen of the application’s contents for completeness and for the applicant to make necessary corrections. This page provides the checklists we use.

  11. Colorectal cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Bessa Caserras, Xavier

    2016-09-01

    In the latest meeting of the American Gastroenterological Association, several clinical studies were presented that aimed to evaluate the various colorectal cancer screening strategies, although most assessed the various aspects of faecal immunochemical testing (FIT) and colonoscopy. Data were presented from consecutive FIT-based screening rounds, confirming the importance of adherence to consecutive screening rounds, achieving a similar or superior diagnostic yield to endoscopic studies. There was confirmation of the importance of not delaying endoscopic study after a positive result. Participants with a negative FIT (score of 0) had a low risk for colorectal cancer. Several studies seemed to confirm the importance of high-quality colonoscopy in colorectal cancer screening programmes. The implementation of high-quality colonoscopies has reduced mortality from proximal lesions and reduced interval cancers in various studies. Finally, participants with a normal colonoscopy result or with a small adenoma are at low risk for developing advanced neoplasms during follow-up. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Ecological Soil Screening Level

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Eco-SSL derivation process is used to derive a set of risk-based ecological soil screening levels (Eco-SSLs) for many of the soil contaminants that are frequently of ecological concern for plants and animals at hazardous waste sites.

  13. Seismic on screen

    SciTech Connect

    Coffeen, J.A.

    1990-01-01

    This book discusses methods for interpreting seismic data on computer screens and highlights various functions and the several ways they can be performed, as well as the types of hardware that can performed these functions. Vital information for the geophysicist, petroleum engineer and geologist. Also an authoritative college text.

  14. A screening cascade to identify ERβ ligands

    PubMed Central

    Filgueira, Carly S.; Benod, Cindy; Lou, Xiaohua; Gunamalai, Prem S.; Villagomez, Rosa A.; Strom, Anders; Gustafsson, Jan-Åke; Berkenstam, Anders L.; Webb, Paul

    2014-01-01

    The establishment of effective high throughput screening cascades to identify nuclear receptor (NR) ligands that will trigger defined, therapeutically useful sets of NR activities is of considerable importance. Repositioning of existing approved drugs with known side effect profiles can provide advantages because de novo drug design suffers from high developmental failure rates and undesirable side effects which have dramatically increased costs. Ligands that target estrogen receptor β (ERβ) could be useful in a variety of diseases ranging from cancer to neurological to cardiovascular disorders. In this context, it is important to minimize cross-reactivity with ERα, which has been shown to trigger increased rates of several types of cancer. Because of high sequence similarities between the ligand binding domains of ERα and ERβ, preferentially targeting one subtype can prove challenging. Here, we describe a sequential ligand screening approach comprised of complementary in-house assays to identify small molecules that are selective for ERβ. Methods include differential scanning fluorimetry, fluorescence polarization and a GAL4 transactivation assay. We used this strategy to screen several commercially-available chemical libraries, identifying thirty ERβ binders that were examined for their selectivity for ERβ versus ERα, and tested the effects of selected ligands in a prostate cancer cell proliferation assay. We suggest that this approach could be used to rapidly identify candidates for drug repurposing. PMID:25422593

  15. PERFORMANCE DEMONSTRATIONS OF ALTERNATIVE SCREEN RECLAMATION PRODUCTS FOR SCREEN PRINTING

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project evaluated environmentally-preferable products for the screen reclamation process In screen printing during month-long demonstrations at 23 printing facilities nationwide. hrough the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Design for the Environment Printing Project, pr...

  16. PERFORMANCE DEMONSTRATIONS OF ALTERNATIVE SCREEN RECLAMATION PRODUCTS FOR SCREEN PRINTING

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project evaluated environmentally-preferable products for the screen reclamation process In screen printing during month-long demonstrations at 23 printing facilities nationwide. hrough the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Design for the Environment Printing Project, pr...

  17. Gordon Conference on Nuclear Research

    SciTech Connect

    Austin, S.M.

    1983-09-01

    Session topics were: quarks and nuclear physics; anomalons and anti-protons; the independent particle structure of nuclei; relativistic descriptions of nuclear structure and scattering; nuclear structure at high excitation; advances in nuclear astrophysics; properties of nuclear material; the earliest moments of the universe; and pions and spin excitations in nuclei.

  18. Nuclear Energy and the Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria).

    "Nuclear Energy and the Environment" is a pocket folder of removable leaflets concerned with two major topics: Nuclear energy and Nuclear Techniques. Under Nuclear Energy, leaflets concerning the topics of "Radiation--A Fact of Life,""The Impact of a Fact: 1963 Test Ban Treaty,""Energy Needs and Nuclear Power,""Power Reactor Safety,""Transport,"…

  19. Nuclear fuel cycle information workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    This overview of the nuclear fuel cycle is divided into three parts. First, is a brief discussion of the basic principles of how nuclear reactors work; second, is a look at the major types of nuclear reactors being used and world-wide nuclear capacity; and third, is an overview of the nuclear fuel cycle and the present industrial capability in the US.

  20. Vertical nuclear proliferation.

    PubMed

    Sidel, Victor W

    2007-01-01

    All the nuclear-weapon states are working to develop new nuclear-weapon systems and upgrade their existing ones. Although the US Congress has recently blocked further development of small nuclear weapons and earth-penetrating nuclear weapons, the United States is planning a range of new warheads under the Reliable Replacement Warhead programme, and renewing its nuclear weapons infrastructure. The United Kingdom is spending 1 billion pounds sterling on updating the Atomic Weapons Establishment at Aldermaston, and about 20 billion pounds sterling on replacing its Vanguard submarines and maintaining its Trident warhead stockpile. The US has withdrawn from the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty and plans to install missile defence systems in Poland and the Czech Republic; Russia threatens to upgrade its nuclear countermeasures. The nuclear-weapon states should comply with their obligations under Article VI of the Non-Proliferation Treaty, as summarised in the 13-point plan agreed at the 2000 NPT Review Conference, and they should negotiate a Nuclear Weapons Convention.

  1. Nuclear Weapons and Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howie, David I.

    1984-01-01

    The growing debate on nuclear weapons in recent years has begun to make inroads into school curricula. Elementary and secondary school teachers now face the important task of educating their students on issues relating to nuclear war without indoctrinating them to a particular point of view. (JBM)

  2. High energy nuclear structures

    SciTech Connect

    Boguta, J.; Kunz, J.

    1984-03-09

    In conventional nuclear physics the nucleus is described as a non-relativistic many-body system, which is governed by the Schroedinger equation. Nucleons interact in this framework via static two-body potentials, mesonic degrees of freedom are neglected. An alternative description of nuclear physics in terms of a relativistic field theory has been developed by Walecka. The model Lagrangian containing baryons, sigma-mesons and ..omega..-mesons was subsequently extended to include also ..pi..-mesons and rho-mesons. An essential feature of such a nuclear Lagrangian is its renormalizability. In addition to the description of known nuclear structure the field theoretical approach may reveal entirely new nuclear phenomena, based on the explicit treatment of mesonic degrees of freedom. The existence of such abnormal nuclear states was proposed by Lee and Wick employing the sigma-model Lagrangian. There the non-linearity of the meson field equations allows for soliton solutions in the presence of nucleons, in particular the sigma-field may exhibit a kink. Different types of soliton solutions occur in gauge theories with hidden symmetries. In the phenomenological Lagrangian the rho-meson is described by a non-abelian gauge field, that acquires its mass spontaneously due to the non-vanishing vacuum expectation value of a Higgs field. A general ansatz for soliton solutions of such a gauge theory was given by Dashen et al. A specific solution and its possible implications for nuclear physics like anomalous nuclear states were discussed by Boguta.

  3. Vented nuclear fuel element

    DOEpatents

    Grossman, Leonard N.; Kaznoff, Alexis I.

    1979-01-01

    A nuclear fuel cell for use in a thermionic nuclear reactor in which a small conduit extends from the outside surface of the emitter to the center of the fuel mass of the emitter body to permit escape of volatile and gaseous fission products collected in the center thereof by virtue of molecular migration of the gases to the hotter region of the fuel.

  4. Nuclear Power Plants. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyerly, Ray L.; Mitchell, Walter, III

    This publication is one of a series of information booklets for the general public published by the United States Atomic Energy Commission. Among the topics discussed are: Why Use Nuclear Power?; From Atoms to Electricity; Reactor Types; Typical Plant Design Features; The Cost of Nuclear Power; Plants in the United States; Developments in Foreign…

  5. TRAINING NUCLEAR TECHNICIANS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KOVNER, EDGAR A.

    PROBLEMS CONFRONTED BY PLANNERS OF NUCLEAR PROGRAMS AT THE TECHNICIAN LEVEL INCLUDE (1) LACK OF PRECEDENT IN CURRICULUM, COURSE OUTLINES, AND GRADUATE PLACEMENT, (2) DIFFICULTY IN DETERMINING COSTS OF LABORATORY CONSTRUCTION, EQUIPMENT, AND OPERATION, AND (3) REQUIREMENT OF ATOMIC ENERGY COMMISSION LICENSES IN NUCLEAR OCCUPATIONS. A 92-SEMESTER…

  6. Nuclear physics and cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Coc, Alain

    2014-05-09

    There are important aspects of Cosmology, the scientific study of the large scale properties of the universe as a whole, for which nuclear physics can provide insights. Here, we will focus on Standard Big-Bang Nucleosynthesis and we refer to the previous edition of the School [1] for the aspects concerning the variations of constants in nuclear cosmo-physics.

  7. Nuclear Weapon A Necessity?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-04-01

    the weapon systems available. The nuclear changing strategies, from "massive retaliation, flexible response, counter force, counter value , mutual...technological advancement, communication, transportation and manpower resources. Last but not the least, the maintenance of national morale and motivation...crisis. This meant continuos control of nuclear weapons. The organizations designed to control such weapons have no doubt checks and balances and many 12

  8. Clinical Nuclear Pharmacy Clerkship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunson, George L.; Christopherson, William J., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    The School of Pharmacy, University of the Pacific, and the Pharmacy Service, Letterman Army Medical Center, initiated a 15-week clinical nuclear pharmacy clerkship in 1975. It includes basic nuclear medical science, technical competency, professional competency, and special interest emphasis. (LBH)

  9. Talk About Nuclear Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tremlett, Lewis

    1976-01-01

    Presents an overview of the relation of nuclear power to human health and the environment, and discusses the advantages and disadvantages of nuclear power as an energy source urging technical educators to inculcate an awareness of the problems associated with the production of energy. Describes the fission reaction process, the hazards of…

  10. Nuclear Power Plant Technician

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randall, George A.

    1975-01-01

    The author recognizes a body of basic knowledge in nuclear power plant technoogy that can be taught in school programs, and lists the various courses, aiming to fill the anticipated need for nuclear-trained manpower--persons holding an associate degree in engineering technology. (Author/BP)

  11. Under the Nuclear Umbrella.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Leon F.

    1987-01-01

    Entertains the thesis that social work has a stake in the technological-humanistic debate and should greet the recent and spectacular technological failures with protest and alarm. Discusses relationship of nuclear issue and social work, effects of nuclear issue on children, and Chernobyl. Advocates pacifism, activism, and a coherent conception of…

  12. Advanced nuclear propulsion concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Howe, S.D.

    1994-12-31

    A preliminary analysis has been carried out for two potential advanced nuclear propulsion systems: a contained pulsed nuclear propulsion engine and an antiproton initiated ICF system. The results of these studies indicate that both concepts have a high potential to help enable manned planetary exploration but require substantial development.

  13. Nuclear Weapons and Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howie, David I.

    1984-01-01

    The growing debate on nuclear weapons in recent years has begun to make inroads into school curricula. Elementary and secondary school teachers now face the important task of educating their students on issues relating to nuclear war without indoctrinating them to a particular point of view. (JBM)

  14. Nuclear Taskforce Summation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1979

    At the end of 1978, there were approximately 230 nuclear-fueled electric generating plants around the world; 72 of these were in the United States. Each plant requires an operations-and-maintenance workforce of 92 people, and attrition occurs at a rate of 8% per year. Requirements for a nuclear taskforce and job training, in view of current…

  15. The nuclear pore complex

    PubMed Central

    Adam, Stephen A

    2001-01-01

    Nuclear pore complexes, the conduits for information exchange between the nucleus and cytoplasm, appear broadly similar in eukaryotes from yeast to human. Precisely how nuclear pore complexes regulate macromolecular and ionic traffic remains unknown, but recent advances in the identification and characterization of components of the complex by proteomics and genomics have provided new insights. PMID:11574060

  16. Clinical Nuclear Pharmacy Clerkship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunson, George L.; Christopherson, William J., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    The School of Pharmacy, University of the Pacific, and the Pharmacy Service, Letterman Army Medical Center, initiated a 15-week clinical nuclear pharmacy clerkship in 1975. It includes basic nuclear medical science, technical competency, professional competency, and special interest emphasis. (LBH)

  17. Nuclear-Powered Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arce, Gary

    1992-01-01

    Describes an exercise to develop interest and understanding about nuclear energy in which students make presentations regarding a proposal to build a hypothetical nuclear power plant. Students spend two weeks researching the topic; give testimony before a "Senate Energy Committee"; and vote on the proposal. Background information is…

  18. Nuclear Shuttle Logistics Configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    This 1971 artist's concept shows the Nuclear Shuttle in both its lunar logistics configuraton and geosynchronous station configuration. As envisioned by Marshall Space Flight Center Program Development persornel, the Nuclear Shuttle would deliver payloads to lunar orbits or other destinations then return to Earth orbit for refueling and additional missions.

  19. Nuclear Age Education Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem.

    The primary goal of the Oregon nuclear age education curriculum is to develop in students the knowledge and skills needed to meet the challenges of living in a nuclear age. This curriculum is developed around five general themes, each corresponding to a specific unit. The general goals for the units are: (Unit 1) to increase students' exposure to…

  20. Nuclear Taskforce Summation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1979

    At the end of 1978, there were approximately 230 nuclear-fueled electric generating plants around the world; 72 of these were in the United States. Each plant requires an operations-and-maintenance workforce of 92 people, and attrition occurs at a rate of 8% per year. Requirements for a nuclear taskforce and job training, in view of current…

  1. Nuclear-Powered Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arce, Gary

    1992-01-01

    Describes an exercise to develop interest and understanding about nuclear energy in which students make presentations regarding a proposal to build a hypothetical nuclear power plant. Students spend two weeks researching the topic; give testimony before a "Senate Energy Committee"; and vote on the proposal. Background information is…

  2. Talk About Nuclear Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tremlett, Lewis

    1976-01-01

    Presents an overview of the relation of nuclear power to human health and the environment, and discusses the advantages and disadvantages of nuclear power as an energy source urging technical educators to inculcate an awareness of the problems associated with the production of energy. Describes the fission reaction process, the hazards of…

  3. Nuclear Nonproliferation Issues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-20

    nuclear weapon, or the materials to craft one. For many, this nuclear nightmare was tempered by disbelief that terrorist organizations would be...three European countries, Britain, France, and Germany, led to an agreement by Iran in November 2004 to “continue and extend its suspension of all

  4. Nuclear effects at HERA

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, S.J.

    1996-07-01

    The development of a nuclear beam facility at HERA would allow the study of fundamental features of quark and gluon interactions in QCD. I briefly review the physics underlying nuclear shadowing and anti-shadowing as well as other diffractive and jet fragmentation processes that can be studies in high energy electron-nucleus collisions.

  5. Nuclear Power Plant Technician

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randall, George A.

    1975-01-01

    The author recognizes a body of basic knowledge in nuclear power plant technoogy that can be taught in school programs, and lists the various courses, aiming to fill the anticipated need for nuclear-trained manpower--persons holding an associate degree in engineering technology. (Author/BP)

  6. Under the Nuclear Umbrella.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Leon F.

    1987-01-01

    Entertains the thesis that social work has a stake in the technological-humanistic debate and should greet the recent and spectacular technological failures with protest and alarm. Discusses relationship of nuclear issue and social work, effects of nuclear issue on children, and Chernobyl. Advocates pacifism, activism, and a coherent conception of…

  7. Nuclear energy related research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rintamaa, R.

    1992-05-01

    The annual Research Program Plan describes publicly funded nuclear energy related research to be carried out mainly at the Technical Research Center of Finland (VTT) in 1992. The research is financed primarily by the Ministry of Trade and Industry (KTM), the Finnish Center for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK), and VTT itself. Other research institutes, utilities, and industry also contribute to many projects.

  8. Latest nuclear emulsion technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rokujo, Hiroki; Kawahara, Hiroaki; Komatani, Ryosuke; Morishita, Misaki; Nakano, Toshiyuki; Otsuka, Naoto; Yoshimoto, Masahiro

    2017-06-01

    Nuclear emulsion is a extremely high-resolution 3D tracking detector. Since the discovery of the pion by C.F. Powell et al. in 1946, experiments with nuclear emulsions have contributed to the development of particle physics. (e.g. the OPERA collaboration reported the discovery of νμ * ντ oscillations in appearance mode in 2015) The technology of nuclear emulsion still keeps making progress. Since 2010, we have introduced a system of nuclear emulsion gel production to our laboratory in Nagoya University, and have started self-development of the new gel, instead of from the photographic film companies. Moreover, a faster automated emulsion scanning system is developed. Its scanning speed reaches 4000 cm2/h, and the load for analyzing becomes more and more lighter. In this presentation, we report the status of nuclear emulsion technologies for cosmic ray experiments.

  9. World nuclear outlook 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-01

    As part of the EIA program to provide energy information, this analysis report presents the current status and projections through 2010 of nuclear capacity, generation, and fuel cycle requirements for all countries in the world using nuclear power to generate electricity for commercial use. It also contains information and forecasts of developments in the uranium market. Long-term projections of US nuclear capacity, generation, and spent fuel discharges for three different scenarios through 2040 are developed for the Department of Energy`s Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM). In turn, the OCRWM provides partial funding for preparation of this report. The projections of uranium requirements are provided to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) for preparation of the Nuclear Energy Agency/OECD report, Summary of Nuclear Power and Fuel Cycle Data in OECD Member Countries.

  10. Nuclear transfer in rodents.

    PubMed

    Mullins, Linda J; Wilmut, Ian; Mullins, John J

    2004-01-01

    Cloning is the asexual reproduction of an individual, such that the offspring have an essentially identical nuclear genome. Nuclear transfer and cloning have been achieved in a number of species, namely sheep, cows, goats, rabbits, cats and mice, but have been largely unsuccessful, so far, in dogs, primates and rats. Clearly, contributory factors which affect the outcome of successful cloning experiments are not universally applicable to all species. One theme common to all cloning experiments, however, is the overall inefficiency of the process, typically 0-4%. A number of factors contribute to nuclear transfer inefficiency, and we will review mouse cloning experiments, which address these problems, highlighting the importance of donor nucleus choice (somatic or ES cell, fetal or adult, quiescent or actively dividing). Finally, we will summarize the emerging principles which appear to govern nuclear reprogramming and production of clones, and will consider the application of nuclear transfer to the rat.

  11. Nuclear transfer in rodents

    PubMed Central

    Mullins, Linda J; Wilmut, Ian; Mullins, John J

    2004-01-01

    Cloning is the asexual reproduction of an individual, such that the offspring have an essentially identical nuclear genome. Nuclear transfer and cloning have been achieved in a number of species, namely sheep, cows, goats, rabbits, cats and mice, but have been largely unsuccessful, so far, in dogs, primates and rats. Clearly, contributory factors which affect the outcome of successful cloning experiments are not universally applicable to all species. One theme common to all cloning experiments, however, is the overall inefficiency of the process, typically 0–4%. A number of factors contribute to nuclear transfer inefficiency, and we will review mouse cloning experiments, which address these problems, highlighting the importance of donor nucleus choice (somatic or ES cell, fetal or adult, quiescent or actively dividing). Finally, we will summarize the emerging principles which appear to govern nuclear reprogramming and production of clones, and will consider the application of nuclear transfer to the rat. PMID:14678485

  12. World nuclear outlook 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-29

    As part of the EIA program to provide energy information, this analysis report presents the current status and projections through 2015 of nuclear capacity, generation, and fuel cycle requirements for all countries in the world using nuclear power to generate electricity for commercial use. It also contains information and forecasts of developments in the uranium market. Long-term projections of US nuclear capacity, generation, and spent fuel discharges for two different scenarios through 2040 are developed for the Department of Energy`s Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM). In turn, the OCRWM provides partial funding for preparation of this report. The projections of uranium requirements are provided to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) for preparation of the Nuclear Energy Agency/OECD report, Summary of Nuclear Power and Fuel Cycle Data in OECD Member Countries.

  13. Nuclear physics: Macroscopic aspects

    SciTech Connect

    Swiatecki, W.J.

    1993-12-01

    A systematic macroscopic, leptodermous approach to nuclear statics and dynamics is described, based formally on the assumptions {h_bar} {yields} 0 and b/R << 1, where b is the surface diffuseness and R the nuclear radius. The resulting static model of shell-corrected nuclear binding energies and deformabilities is accurate to better than 1 part in a thousand and yields a firm determination of the principal properties of the nuclear fluid. As regards dynamics, the above approach suggests that nuclear shape evolutions will often be dominated by dissipation, but quantitative comparisons with experimental data are more difficult than in the case of statics. In its simplest liquid drop version the model exhibits interesting formal connections to the classic astronomical problem of rotating gravitating masses.

  14. Nuclear excitation and precompound nuclear reactions

    SciTech Connect

    De, A.; Ray, S.; Ghosh, S.K.

    1988-06-01

    The angular distribution of nucleons emitted in nucleon-induced precompound nuclear reactions are calculated taking into account the effect of excitation on the kinematics of nucleon-nucleon scattering inside the target-plus-projectile system. The results are compared with quantum mechanical calculations and those of reaction models based on a pure nucleon-nucleon collision picture.

  15. Nuclear Powerplant Safety: Source Terms. Nuclear Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC. Nuclear Energy Office.

    There has been increased public interest in the potential effects of nuclear powerplant accidents since the Soviet reactor accident at Chernobyl. People have begun to look for more information about the amount of radioactivity that might be released into the environment as a result of such an accident. When this issue is discussed by people…

  16. Nuclear war, nuclear proliferation, and their consequences

    SciTech Connect

    Sanruddin, A.K.

    1986-01-01

    The proceedings of a colloquium convened by the Groupe de Bellerive offers the contributions of Carl Sagan, Gabriel Garcia Marquez, Kenneth Galbraith, Pierre Trudeau, Edward Kennedy, and other eminent scientists, politicians, and strategists on the subject of the proliferation of nuclear weaponry and its potential ramifications.

  17. Region-to-area screening methodology for the Crystalline Repository Project

    SciTech Connect

    1985-04-01

    The purpose of this document is to describe the Crystalline Repository Project's (CRP) process for region-to-area screening of exposed and near-surface crystalline rock bodies in the three regions of the conterminous United States where crystalline rock is being evaluated as a potential host for the second nuclear waste repository (i.e., in the North Central, Northeastern, and Southeastern Regions). This document indicates how the US Department of Energy's (DOE) General Guidelines for the Recommendation of Sites for Nuclear Waste Repositories (10 CFR 960) were used to select and apply factors and variables for the region-to-area screening, explains how these factors and variable are to be applied in the region-to-area screening, and indicates how this methodology relates to the decision process leading to the selection of candidate areas. A brief general discussion of the screening process from the national survey through area screening and site recommendation is presented. This discussion sets the scene for detailed discussions which follow concerning the region-to-area screening process, the guidance provided by the DOE Siting Guidelines for establishing disqualifying factors and variables for screening, and application of the disqualifying factors and variables in the screening process. This document is complementary to the regional geologic and environmental characterization reports to be issued in the summer of 1985 as final documents. These reports will contain the geologic and environmental data base that will be used in conjunction with the methodology to conduct region-to-area screening.

  18. An Alternative to Impedance Screening: Unoccluded Frontal Bone Conduction Screening.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Square, Regina; And Others

    1985-01-01

    A bone conduction hearing screening test using frontal bone oscillator placement was compared with pure-tone air-conduction screening and impedance audiometry with 114 preschoolers. Unoccluded frontal bone conduction testing produced screening results not significantly different from results obtained by impedance audiometry. (CL)!

  19. An Alternative to Impedance Screening: Unoccluded Frontal Bone Conduction Screening.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Square, Regina; And Others

    1985-01-01

    A bone conduction hearing screening test using frontal bone oscillator placement was compared with pure-tone air-conduction screening and impedance audiometry with 114 preschoolers. Unoccluded frontal bone conduction testing produced screening results not significantly different from results obtained by impedance audiometry. (CL)!

  20. 77 FR 76541 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-28

    ... Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION... Nuclear Operations, Inc. (the licensee), for operation of the Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station (Pilgrim... Renewal of Nuclear Plants Regarding Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station, Final Report- Appendices,'' published...

  1. US nuclear weapons policy

    SciTech Connect

    May, M.

    1990-12-05

    We are closing chapter one'' of the nuclear age. Whatever happens to the Soviet Union and to Europe, some of the major determinants of nuclear policy will not be what they have been for the last forty-five years. Part of the task for US nuclear weapons policy is to adapt its nuclear forces and the oganizations managing them to the present, highly uncertain, but not urgently competitive situation between the US and the Soviet Union. Containment is no longer the appropriate watchword. Stabilization in the face of uncertainty, a more complicated and politically less readily communicable goal, may come closer. A second and more difficult part of the task is to deal with what may be the greatest potential source of danger to come out of the end of the cold war: the breakup of some of the cooperative institutions that managed the nuclear threat and were created by the cold war. These cooperative institutions, principally the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), the Warsaw Pact, the US-Japan alliance, were not created specifically to manage the nuclear threat, but manage it they did. A third task for nuclear weapons policy is that of dealing with nuclear proliferation under modern conditions when the technologies needed to field effective nuclear weapons systems and their command and control apparatus are ever more widely available, and the leverage over some potential proliferators, which stemmed from superpower military support, is likely to be on the wane. This paper will make some suggestions regarding these tasks, bearing in mind that the unsettled nature of that part of the world most likely to become involved in nuclear weapons decisions today must make any suggestions tentative and the allowance for surprise more than usually important.

  2. A novel family of plant nuclear envelope-associated proteins.

    PubMed

    Pawar, Vidya; Poulet, Axel; Détourné, Gwénaëlle; Tatout, Christophe; Vanrobays, Emmanuel; Evans, David E; Graumann, Katja

    2016-10-01

    This paper describes the characterisation of a new family of higher plant nuclear envelope-associated proteins (NEAPs) that interact with other proteins of the nuclear envelope. In the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, the family consists of three genes expressed ubiquitously (AtNEAP1-3) and a pseudogene (AtNEAP4). NEAPs consist of extensive coiled-coil domains, followed by a nuclear localisation signal and a C-terminal predicted transmembrane domain. Domain deletion mutants confirm the presence of a functional nuclear localisation signal and transmembrane domain. AtNEAP proteins localise to the nuclear periphery as part of stable protein complexes, are able to form homo- and heteromers, and interact with the SUN domain proteins AtSUN1 and AtSUN2, involved in the linker of nucleoskeleton and cytoskeleton (LINC) complex. An A. thaliana cDNA library screen identified a putative transcription factor called AtbZIP18 as a novel interactor of AtNEAP1, which suggest a connection between NEAP and chromatin. An Atneap1 Atneap3 double-knockout mutant showed reduced root growth, and altered nuclear morphology and chromatin structure. Thus AtNEAPs are suggested as inner nuclear membrane-anchored coiled-coil proteins with roles in maintaining nuclear morphology and chromatin structure.

  3. Probabilistic analysis of fires in nuclear plants

    SciTech Connect

    Unione, A.; Teichmann, T.

    1985-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe a multilevel (i.e., staged) probabilistic analysis of fire risks in nuclear plants (as part of a general PRA) which maximizes the benefits of the FRA (fire risk assessment) in a cost effective way. The approach uses several stages of screening, physical modeling of clearly dominant risk contributors, searches for direct (e.g., equipment dependences) and secondary (e.g., fire induced internal flooding) interactions, and relies on lessons learned and available data from and surrogate FRAs. The general methodology is outlined. 6 figs., 10 tabs.

  4. Recommended Screenings for Men 50+

    MedlinePlus

    ... page and continue reading about other screenings. Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm If you are between the ages of 65 ... health care team about being screened for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). AAA is a bulging in your abdominal ...

  5. Genetic Screening for Employment Purposes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olian, Judy D.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses genetic screening in the employment context, which involves identification of individuals hypersusceptible to toxins in the work environment. Examines the status of genetic screening devices against standard testing and legal criteria. (LLL)

  6. What Screening Tests Are There?

    MedlinePlus

    ... for developing the disease because of their smoking history and age. If you are thinking about getting screened, talk to your doctor. If lung cancer screening is right for you, your doctor can refer you to ...

  7. Risks of Endometrial Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... Transvaginal ultrasound Endometrial sampling Tests are used to screen for different types of cancer. Some screening tests ... endometrium by inserting a brush, curette , or thin, flexible tube through the cervix and into the uterus. ...

  8. Glucose screening tests during pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    Oral glucose tolerance test - pregnancy; OGTT - pregnancy; Glucose challenge test - pregnancy; Gestational diabetes - glucose screening ... screening test between 24 and 28 weeks of pregnancy. The test may be done earlier if you ...

  9. Screening for Carotid Artery Stenosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Task Force learned about the potential benefits and harms of screening for carotid artery stenosis: Health professionals ... blood flow through the arteries. Potential Benefits and Harms of Carotid Artery Stenosis Screening and Treatment The ...

  10. National Lung Screening Trial (NLST)

    Cancer.gov

    The National Lung Screening Trial (NLST), a research study sponsored by the National Cancer Institute that used low-dose helical CT scans or chest X-ray to screen men and women at risk for lung cancer.

  11. The nuclear dynamo; Can a nuclear tornado annihilate nations

    SciTech Connect

    McNally, J.R. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the development of the hypothesis of a nuclear dynamo for a controlled nuclear fusion reactor. This dynamo hypothesis suggests properties for a nuclear tornado that could annihilate nations if accidentally triggered by a single high yield to weight nuclear weapon detonation. The formerly classified reports on ignition of the atmosphere, the properties of a nuclear dynamo, methods to achieve a nuclear dynamo in the laboratory, and the analogy of a nuclear dynamo to a nuclear tornado are discussed. An unclassified international study of this question is urged.

  12. 76 FR 15001 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc,. Entergy Nuclear Vermont Yankee, LLC, Vermont Yankee Nuclear...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc,. Entergy Nuclear Vermont Yankee, LLC, Vermont Yankee Nuclear... Regulations (10 CFR) 2.206, ``Requests for Action under this Subpart,'' the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory...

  13. 77 FR 70847 - Entergy Nuclear Indian Point 2, LLC; Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., Indian Point Nuclear...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-27

    ... COMMISSION Entergy Nuclear Indian Point 2, LLC; Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., Indian Point Nuclear Generating Unit No. 2, Request for Action AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Request for Action... that the NRC take action with regard to Indian Point Nuclear Generating Unit No. 2. The petitioner's...

  14. 76 FR 19148 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., Entergy Nuclear Vermont Yankee, LLC, Vermont Yankee Nuclear...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-06

    ... Commission (NRC) take action with regard to the Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Station (VY). Mr. Saporito... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., Entergy Nuclear Vermont Yankee, LLC, Vermont Yankee Nuclear...

  15. 75 FR 39057 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Entergy Nuclear Vermont Yankee, LLC; Vermont Yankee Nuclear...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-07

    ... Commission (NRC) take action with regard to the Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Station. Mr. Mulligan requested... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Entergy Nuclear Vermont Yankee, LLC; Vermont Yankee Nuclear...

  16. Automated macromolecular crystallization screening

    DOEpatents

    Segelke, Brent W.; Rupp, Bernhard; Krupka, Heike I.

    2005-03-01

    An automated macromolecular crystallization screening system wherein a multiplicity of reagent mixes are produced. A multiplicity of analysis plates is produced utilizing the reagent mixes combined with a sample. The analysis plates are incubated to promote growth of crystals. Images of the crystals are made. The images are analyzed with regard to suitability of the crystals for analysis by x-ray crystallography. A design of reagent mixes is produced based upon the expected suitability of the crystals for analysis by x-ray crystallography. A second multiplicity of mixes of the reagent components is produced utilizing the design and a second multiplicity of reagent mixes is used for a second round of automated macromolecular crystallization screening. In one embodiment the multiplicity of reagent mixes are produced by a random selection of reagent components.

  17. [Primary cervical cancer screening].

    PubMed

    Vargas-Hernández, Víctor Manuel; Vargas-Aguilar, Víctor Manuel; Tovar-Rodríguez, José María

    2015-01-01

    Cervico-uterine cancer screening with cytology decrease incidence by more than 50%. The cause of this cancer is the human papilloma virus high risk, and requires a sensitive test to provide sufficient sensitivity and specificity for early detection and greater interval period when the results are negative. The test of the human papilloma virus high risk, is effective and safe because of its excellent sensitivity, negative predictive value and optimal reproducibility, especially when combined with liquid-based cytology or biomarkers with viral load, with higher sensitivity and specificity, by reducing false positives for the detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or greater injury, with excellent clinical benefits to cervical cancer screening and related infection of human papilloma virus diseases, is currently the best test for early detection infection of human papillomavirus and the risk of carcinogenesis.

  18. Rapid, Optimized Interactomic Screening

    PubMed Central

    Hakhverdyan, Zhanna; Domanski, Michal; Hough, Loren; Oroskar, Asha A.; Oroskar, Anil R.; Keegan, Sarah; Dilworth, David J.; Molloy, Kelly R.; Sherman, Vadim; Aitchison, John D.; Fenyö, David; Chait, Brian T.; Jensen, Torben Heick; Rout, Michael P.; LaCava, John

    2015-01-01

    We must reliably map the interactomes of cellular macromolecular complexes in order to fully explore and understand biological systems. However, there are no methods to accurately predict how to capture a given macromolecular complex with its physiological binding partners. Here, we present a screen that comprehensively explores the parameters affecting the stability of interactions in affinity-captured complexes, enabling the discovery of physiological binding partners and the elucidation of their functional interactions in unparalleled detail. We have implemented this screen on several macromolecular complexes from a variety of organisms, revealing novel profiles even for well-studied proteins. Our approach is robust, economical and automatable, providing an inroad to the rigorous, systematic dissection of cellular interactomes. PMID:25938370

  19. Supporting Our Nation's Nuclear Industry

    ScienceCinema

    Lyons, Peter

    2016-07-12

    On the 60th anniversary of the world's first nuclear power plant to produce electricity, Assistant Secretary for Nuclear Energy Peter Lyons discusses the Energy Department's and the Administration's commitment to promoting a nuclear renaissance in the United States.

  20. Supporting Our Nation's Nuclear Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Lyons, Peter

    2011-01-01

    On the 60th anniversary of the world's first nuclear power plant to produce electricity, Assistant Secretary for Nuclear Energy Peter Lyons discusses the Energy Department's and the Administration's commitment to promoting a nuclear renaissance in the United States.